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Title: Manual for Noncommissioned Officers and Privates of Infantry of the Army of the United States, 1917 - To be used by Engineer companies (dismounted) and Coast Artillery companies for Infantry instruction and training
Author: United States War Department
Language: English
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MANUAL FOR NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS AND PRIVATES OF INFANTRY OF
THE ARMY OF THE UNITED STATES

1917

To be used by Engineer companies (dismounted) and Coast Artillery
companies for Infantry instruction and training.


WAR DEPARTMENT Document No. 574 OFFICE OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL



                         WAR DEPARTMENT,
                         WASHINGTON, _April_14,_1917._

The following Manual for Noncommissioned Officers and Privates
of Infantry of the Army of the United States is approved and
herewith published for the information and government of all
concerned.

This manual will also be used by Engineer companies (dismounted)
and Coast Artillery companies in connection with Infantry instruction
and training prescribed by the War Department.

By ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR:

                                     H. L. SCOTT,
                          _Major_General,_Chief_of_Staff._

  OFFICIAL:
    H. P. McCAIN.
      _The_Adjutant_General._



TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I. MILITARY DISCIPLINE AND COURTESY
  Section 1. Oath of enlistment
  Section 2. Obedience
  Section 3. Loyalty
  Section 4. Discipline
  Section 5. Military courtesy
  Section 6. Saluting
  Section 7. Rules governing saluting
  Section 8. Courtesies in conversation
CHAPTER II. ARMS, UNIFORMS, AND EQUIPMENT
  Section 1. The rifle
  Section 2. Care of the rifle
  Section 3. Cleaning the rifle
  Section 4. Uniforms
  Section 5. The service kit
  Section 6. The surplus kit
  Section 7. Assembling Infantry equipment
CHAPTER III. RATIONS AND FORAGE
  Section 1. The ration
  Section 2. Individual cooking
  Section 3. The forage ration
CHAPTER IV. PERSONAL HYGIENE AND CARE OF THE FEET
CHAPTER V. EXTRACTS FROM INFANTRY DRILL REGULATIONS, 1911
  Section l. Definitions
  Section 2. Introduction
  Section 3. Orders, commands, and signals
  Section 4. School of the soldier
  Section 5. School of the squad
  Section 6. School of the company
  Section 7. Company inspection
  Section 8. Manual of tent pitching
  Section 9. Manual of the bayonet
CHAPTER VI. FIELD SERVICE
  Section 1. Principles of Infantry training
  Section 2. Combat
  Section 3. Patrolling
  Section 4. Advance guards
  Section 5. Rear guards
  Section 6. Flank guards
  Section 7. Outposts
  Section 8. Rifle trenches
CHAPTER VII. MARCHING AND CAMPING
  Section 1. Breaking camp and preparation for a march
  Section 2. Marching
  Section 3. Making camp
  Section 4. Camp services and duties
CHAPTER VIII. TARGET PRACTICE
  Section 1. Preliminary training in marksmanship
  Section 2. Sight adjustment
  Section 3. Table of sight corrections
  Section 4. Aiming
  Section 5. Battle sight
  Section 6. Trigger squeeze
  Section 7. Firing positions
  Section 8. Calling the shot
  Section 9. Coordination
  Section 10. Advice to riflemen
  Section 11. The course in small-arms firing
  Section 12. Targets
  Section 13. Pistol and revolver practice
CHAPTER IX. EXTRACTS PROM MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY
  Section 1. Introduction
  Section 2. Classification of interior guilds
  Section 3. Details and rosters
  Section 4. Commander of the guard
  Section 5. Sergeant of the guard
  Section 6. Corporal of the guard
  Section 7. Musicians of the guard
  Section 8. Orderlies and color sentinels
  Section 9. Privates of the guard
  Section 10. Orders for sentinels
  Section 11. Countersigns and paroles
  Section 12. Guard patrols
  Section 13. Watchmen
  Section 14. Compliments from guards
  Section 15. Prisoners
  Section 16. Guarding prisoners
  Section 17. Flags
  Section 18. Reveille and retreat gun
  Section 19. Guard mounting
  Section 20. Formal guard mounting for Infantry
  Section 21. Informal guard mounting for Infantry
  Section 22. Relieving the old guard
CHAPTER X. MAP READING AND SKETCHING
  Section 1. Military map reading
  Section 2. Sketching
CHAPTER XI. MESSAGE BLANKS
CHAPTER XII. SIGNALS AND CODES
CHAPTER XIII. FIRST-AID RULES
CHAPTER XIV. LAWS AND REGULATIONS
  Section 1. General provisions
  Section 2. The Army of the United States
  Section 3. Rank and precedence of officers and noncommissioned
             officers
  Section 4. Insignia of officers and noncommissioned officers
  Section 5. Extracts from the Articles of War
CHAPTER XV. ENGLISH-FRENCH VOCABULARY
APPENDIX. FORM FOR LAST WILL AND TESTAMENT



CHAPTER I.

MILITARY DISCIPLINE AND COURTESY.


SECTION 1. OATH OF ENLISTMENT.

Every soldier on enlisting in the Army takes upon himself the
following obligation:

"I,--------, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will bear true
faith and allegiance to the United States of America; that I will
serve them honestly and faithfully against all their enemies
whomsoever; and that I will obey the orders of the President of
the United States, and the orders of the officers appointed over
me according to the Rules and Articles of War." (109th Article
of War.)


SECTION 2. OBEDIENCE.

The very first paragraph in the Army Regulations reads:

"All persons in the military service are required to obey strictly
and to EXECUTE PROMPTLY the lawful orders of their superiors."

Obedience is the first and last duty of a soldier. It is the
foundation upon which all military efficiency is built. Without
it an army becomes a mob, while with it a mob ceases to be a
mob and becomes possessed of much of the power of an organized
force. It is a quality that is demanded of every person in the
Army, from the highest to the lowest. Each enlisted man binds
himself, by his enlistment oath, to obedience. Each officer, in
accepting his commission, must take upon himself the same solemn
obligation.

Obey strictly and execute promptly the lawful orders of your
superiors. It is enough to know that the person giving the order,
whether he be an officer, a noncommissioned officer, or a private
acting as such, is your lawful superior. You may not like him,
you may not respect him, but you must respect his position and
authority, and reflect honor and credit upon yourself and your
profession by yielding to all superiors that complete and
unhesitating obedience which is the pleasure as well as the duty
of every true soldier.

Orders must be STRICTLY carried out. It is not sufficient to
comply with only that part which suits you or which involves no
work or danger or hardship. Nor is it proper or permissible, when
you are ordered to do a thing in a certain way or to accomplish a
work in a definitely prescribed manner, for you to obtain the
same results by other methods.

Obedience must be PROMPT AND UNQUESTIONING. When any soldier (and
this word includes officers as well as enlisted men) receives
an order, it is not for him to consider whether the order is
a good one or not, whether it would have been better had such
an order never been given, or whether the duty might be better
performed by some one else, or at some other time, or in some
other manner. His duty is, first, to understand just what the
order requires, and, second, to proceed at once to carry out
the order to the best of his ability.

"Officers and men of all ranks and grades are given a certain
independence in the execution of the tasks to which they are
assigned and are expected to show initiative in meeting the different
situations as they arise. Every individual, from the highest
commander to the lowest private, must always remember that inaction
and neglect of opportunities will warrant more severe censure
than an error in the choice of the means." (_Preface,_Field_
_Service_Regulations._)


SECTION 3. LOYALTY.

But even with implicit obedience you may yet fail to measure
up to that high standard of duty which is at once the pride and
glory of every true soldier. Not until you carry out the desires
and wishes of your superiors in a hearty, willing, and cheerful
manner are you meeting all the requirements of your profession.
For an order is but the will of your superior, however it may be
expressed. Loyalty means that you are for your organization and
its officers and noncommissioned officers--not against them; that
you always extend your most earnest and hearty support to those in
authority. No soldier is a loyal soldier who is a knocker or a
grumbler or a shirker. Just one man of this class in a company
breeds discontent and dissatisfaction among many others. You should,
therefore, not only guard against doing such things yourself but
should discourage such actions among any of your comrades.


SECTION 4. DISCIPLINE.

"1. All persons in the military service are required to obey
strictly and to execute promptly the lawful orders of their
superiors.

"2. Military authority will be exercised with firmness, kindness,
and justice. Punishments must conform to law and follow offenses
as promptly as circumstances will permit.

"3. Superiors are forbidden to injure those under their authority
by tyrannical or capricious conduct or by abusive language. While
maintaining discipline and the thorough and prompt performance
of military duty, all officers, in dealing with enlisted men,
will bear in mind the absolute necessity of so treating them as
to preserve their self-respect. Officers will keep in as close
touch as possible with the men under their command and will strive
to build up such relations of confidence and sympathy as will
insure the free approach of their men to them for counsel and
assistance. This relationship may be gained and maintained without
relaxation of the bonds of discipline and with great benefit to
the service as a whole.

"4. Courtesy among military men is indispensable to discipline;
respect to superiors will not be confined to obedience on duty,
but will be extended on all occasions.

"5. Deliberations or discussions among military men conveying
praise or censure, or any mark of approbation, toward others in
the military service, and all publications relating to private
or personal transactions between officers are prohibited. Efforts
to influence legislation affecting the Army or to procure personal
favor or consideration should never be made except through regular
military channels; the adoption of any other method by any officer
or enlisted man will be noted in the military record of those
concerned," (_Army_Regulations_.)

"The discipline which makes the soldier of a free country reliable
in battle is not to be gained by harsh or tyrannical treatment.
On the contrary, such treatment is far more likely to destroy
than to make an army. It is possible to import instruction and
give commands in such manner and in such tone of voice as to
inspire in the soldier no feeling but an intense desire to obey,
while the opposite manner and tone of voice can not fall to excite
strong resentment and a desire to disobey. The one mode or the
other of dealing with subordinates springs from a corresponding
spirit in the breast of the commander. He who feels the respect
which is due to others can not fail to inspire in them regard
for himself, while he who feels, and hence manifests, disrespect
toward others, especially his inferiors, can not fail to inspire
hatred against himself," (_Address_of_Maj._Gen._John_M._Schofield_
_to_the_United_States_Corps_of_Cadets,_Aug,_11,_1879._)

When, by long-continued drill and subordination, you have learned
your duties, and obedience becomes second nature, you have acquired
discipline. It call not be acquired in a day or a month. It is
a growth. It is the habit of obedience. To teach this habit of
obedience is the main object of the close-order drill, and, if
good results are to be expected, the greatest attention must be
paid to even the smallest details. The company or squad must
be formed promptly at the prescribed time--not a minute or even
a second late. All must wear the exact uniform prescribed and
in the exact manner prescribed. When at attention there must
be no gazing about, no raising of hands, no chewing or spitting
in ranks. The manual of arms and all movements must be executed
absolutely as prescribed. A drill of this kind teaches discipline.
A careless, sloppy drill breeds disobedience and insubordination.
In other words, discipline simply means efficiency.


SECTION 5. MILITARY COURTESY.

In all walks of life men who are gentlemanly and of good breeding
are always respectful and courteous to those about them. It helps
to make life move along more smoothly. In civil life this courtesy
is shown by the custom of tipping the hat to ladies, shaking
hands with friends. and greeting persons with a nod or a friendly
"Good morning," etc.

In the Army courtesy is just us necessary, and for the same reasons.
It helps to keep the great machine moving without friction.

"Courtesy among military men is indispensable to discipline;
respect to superiors will not be confined to obedience on duty, but
will be extended on all occasions." (_Par._4,_Army_Regulations,_
_1913._)

One method of extending this courtesy is by saluting. When in
ranks the question of what a private should do is simple--he
obeys any command that is given. It is when out of ranks that
a private must know how and when to salute.


SECTION 6. SALUTING.

In the old days the free men of Europe were all allowed to carry
weapons, and when they met each would hold up his right hand to
show that he had no weapon in it and that they met as friends.
Slaves or serfs, however, were not allowed to carry weapons,
and slunk past the free men without making any sign. In this
way the salute came to be the symbol or sign by which soldiers
(free men) might recognize each other. The lower classes began
to imitate the soldiers in this respect, although in a clumsy,
apologetic way, and thence crept into civil life the custom of
raising the hand or nodding as one passed an acquaintance. The
soldiers, however, kept their individual salute, and purposely
made it intricate and difficult to learn in order that it could be
acquired only by the constant training all real soldiers received.
To this day armies have preserved their salute, and when correctly
done it is at once recognized and never mistaken for that of the
civilian. All soldiers should be careful to execute the salute
exactly as prescribed. The civilian or the imitation soldier
who tries to imitate the military salute invariably makes some
mistake which shows that he is not a real soldier; he gives it
in an apologetic manner, he fails to stand or march at attention,
his coat is unbuttoned or hat on awry, or he falls to look the
person saluted in the eye. There is a wide difference in the
method of rendering and meaning between the civilian salute as
used by friends in passing, or by servants to their employers,
and the MILITARY SALUTE, the symbol and sign of the military
profession.

TO SALUTE WITH THE HAND, first assume the position of a soldier
or march at attention. Look the officer you are to salute straight
in the eye. Then, when the proper distance separates you, raise
the right hand smartly till the tip of the forefinger touches
the lower part of the headdress or forehead above the right eye,
thumb and fingers extended and joined, palm to the left, forearm
inclined at about 45°, hand and wrist straight. Continue to look
the officer you are saluting straight in the Eye and keep your
hand in the position of salute until the officer acknowledges
the salute or until he has passed. Then drop the hand smartly
to the side. The salute is given with the right hand only.

TO SALUTE WITH THE RIFLE, bring the rifle to right shoulder arms
if not already there. Carry the left hand smartly to the small
of the stock, forearm horizontal, palm of the hand down, thumb
and fingers extended and joined, forefinger touching the end of
the cocking piece. Look the officer saluted in the eye. When
the officer has acknowledged the salute or has passed, drop the
left hand smartly to the side and turn the head and eyes to the
front. The rifle salute may also be executed from the order or
trail. See paragraph 94, Infantry Drill Regulations, and paragraph
111, Cavalry Drill Regulations, 1916.

TO SALUTE WITH THE SABER, bring the saber to order saber if not
already there, raise and carry the saber to the front, base of
the hilt as high as the chin and 6 inches in front of the neck,
edge to the left, point 6 inches farther to the front than the
hilt, thumb extended on the left of the grip, all fingers grasping
the grip. Look the officer saluted in the eye. When the officer
has acknowledged the salute or has passed, lower the saber, point
in prolongation of the right foot and near the ground, edge to
the left, hand by the side, thumb on left of grip, arm extended,
and return to the order saber. If mounted, the hand is held behind
the thigh, point a little to the right and front of the stirrup.

(For Cavalry.) TO SALUTE WITH THE SABER, bring the saber to carry
saber if not already there, carry the saber to the front with
arm half extended until the thumb is about 6 inches in front
of the chin, the blade vertical, guard to the left, all four
fingers grasping the grip, the thumb extending along the back
in the groove, the fingers pressing the back of the grip against
the heel of the hand. Look the officer saluted in the eye. When
the officer has acknowledged the salute or has passed, bring
the saber down with the blade against the hollow of the right
shoulder, guard to the front, right hand at the hip, the third
and fourth finger on the back of the grip and the elbow back.

The pistol is not carried in the hand but in the holster, therefore
when armed with the pistol salute with the hand.

Always stand or march at attention before and during the salute.
The hat should be on straight, coat completely buttoned up, and
hands out of the pockets.


SECTION 7. RULES GOVERNING SALUTING.

759. (1) Salutes shall be exchanged between officers and enlisted
men not in a military formation, nor at drill, work, games, or
mess, on every occasion of their meeting, passing near or being
addressed, the officer junior in rank or the enlisted man saluting
first.

(2) When an officer enters a room where there are several enlisted
men the word "attention" is given by some one who perceives him,
when all rise, uncover, and remain standing at attention until
the officer leaves the room or directs otherwise. Enlisted men
at meals stop eating and remain seated at attention.

(3) An enlisted man, if seated, rises on the approach of an officer,
faces toward him, stands at attention, and salutes. Standing, he
faces an officer for the same purpose. If the parties remain
in the same place or on the same ground, such compliments need
not be repeated. Soldiers actually at work do not cease work
to salute an officer unless addressed by him.

(4) Before addressing an officer an enlisted man makes the prescribed
salute with the weapon with which he is armed, or, if unarmed, with
the right hand. He also makes the same salute after receiving a
reply.

(5) In uniform, covered or uncovered, but not in formation, officers
and enlisted men salute military persons as follows: With arms in
hand, the salute prescribed for that arm (sentinels on interior
guard duty excepted); without arms, the right-hand salute.

(6) In civilian dress, covered or uncovered, officers and enlisted
men salute military persons with the right-hand salute.

(7) Officers and enlisted men will render the prescribed salutes
in a military manner, the officer junior in rank or the enlisted
men saluting first. When several officers in company are saluted
all entitled to the salute shall return it.

(8) Except in the field under campaign or simulated campaign
conditions, a mounted officer (or soldier) dismounts before
addressing a superior officer not mounted.

(9) A man in formation shall not salute when directly addressed,
but shall come to attention if at rest or at ease.

(10) Saluting distance is that within which recognition is easy.
In general, it does not exceed 30 paces.

(11) When an officer entitled to the salute passes in rear of a
body of troops, it is brought to attention while he is opposite
the post of the commander.

(12) In public conveyances, such as railway trains and street
cars, and in public places, such as theaters, honors and personal
salutes may be omitted when palpably inappropriate or apt to
disturb or annoy civilians present.

(13) Soldiers at all times and in all situations pay the same
compliments to officers of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and
Volunteers, and to officers of the National Guard as to officers
of their own regiment, corps, or arm of service.

(14) Sentinels on post doing interior guard duty conform to the
foregoing principles, but salute by presenting arms when armed
with the rifle. They will not salute if it interferes with the
proper performance of their duties. Troops under arms will salute
us prescribed in drill regulations.

760. (1) Commanders of detachments or other commands will salute
officers of grades higher than the person commanding the unit,
by first bringing the unit to attention and then saluting as
required by subparagraph (5). paragraph 759. If the person saluted
is of a junior or equal grade, the unit need not be at attention
in the exchange of salutes.

(2) If two detachments or other commands meet, their commanders
will exchange salutes, both commands being at attention.

761. Salutes and honors, as a rule, are not paid by troops actually
engaged in drill, on the march, or in the field under campaign or
simulated campaign condition. Troops on the service of security
pay no compliments whatever.

762. If the command is in line at a halt (not in the field) and
armed with the rifle, or with sabers drawn, it shall be brought
to PRESENT ARMS or PRESENT SABERS before its commander salutes in
the following cases: When the National Anthem is played, or when
TO THE COLOR or TO THE STANDARD is sounded during ceremonies, or
when a person is saluted who is its immediate or higher commander
or a general officer, or when the national or regimental color
is saluted.

763. At parades and other ceremonies, under arms, the command
shall render the prescribed salute and shall remain in the position
of salute while the National Anthem is being played; also at
retreat and during ceremonies when TO THE COLOR is played, if
no band is present. If not under arms, the organizations shall
be brought to attention at the first note of the National Anthem,
TO THE COLOR or TO THE STANDARD, and the salute rendered by the
officer or noncommissioned officer in command as prescribed in
regulations, as amended herein.

764. Whenever the National Anthem is played at any place when
persons belonging to the military service are present, all officers
and enlisted men not in formation shall stand at attention facing
toward the music (except at retreat, when they shall face toward
the flag). If in uniform, covered or uncovered, or in civilian
clothes, uncovered, they shall, salute at the first note of the
anthem, retaining the position of salute until the last note of
the anthem. If not in uniform and covered, they shall uncover
at the first note of the anthem, holding the headdress opposite
the left shoulder and so remain until its close, except that
in inclement weather the headdress may be slightly raised.

The same rules apply when TO THE COLOR or TO THE STANDARD is sounded
as when the National Anthem is played.

When played by an army band, the National Anthem shall be played
through without repetition of any part not required to be repeated
to make it complete.

The same marks of respect prescribed for observance during the
playing of the National Anthem of the United States shall be
shown toward the national anthem of any other country when played
upon official occasions.

765. Officers and enlisted men passing the uncased color will
render honors as follows: If in uniform, they will salute as
required by subparagraph (5), paragraph 759; if in civilian dress
and covered, they will uncover, holding the headdress opposite
the left shoulder with the right hand; if uncovered, they will
salute with the right-hand salute." (_Infantry_Drill_Regulations,_
_1911._)

The national flag belonging to dismounted organizations is called
a color; to mounted organizations, a standard. An uncased color
is one that is not in its waterproof cover.

Privates do not salute noncommissioned officers. Prisoners are
not permitted to salute; they merely come to attention if not
actually at work. The playing of the National Anthem as a part
of a medley is prohibited in the military service.


SECTION 8. COURTESIES IN CONVERSATION.

In speaking to an officer, always stand at attention and use the
word "Sir." Examples:

"Sir, Private Brown, Company B, reports as orderly."

"Sir, the first sergeant directed me to report to the captain."

(Question by an officer:) "To what company do you belong?"

(Answer:) "Company H, sir."

(Question by an officer:) "Has first call for drill sounded?"

(Answer:) "No, sir;" or "Yes; sir.; it sounded about five minutes
ago."

(Question by an officer:) "Can you tell me, please, where Major
Smith's tent is?"

(Answer:) "Yes; sir; I'll take you to it."

Use the third person in speaking to an officer. Examples:

"Does the Lieutenant wish," etc.

"Did the Captain send for me?"

In delivering a message from one officer to another, always use
the form similar to the following: "Lieutenant A presents his
compliments to Captain B and states," etc. This form is not used
when the person sending or receiving the message is an enlisted
man.

In all official conversation refer to other soldiers by their
titles, thus: Sergeant B, Private C.



[Illustration]

CHAPTER II.

ARMS, UNIFORMS, AND EQUIPMENT.


SECTION 1. THE RIFLE.

The rifle now used by the Army of the United States is the United
States magazine rifle, model of 1903, caliber .30.

It is 43.212 inches long and weighs 8.69 pounds.

The bayonet weighs 1 pound and the blade is 16 inches long.

The rifle is sighted for ranges up to 2,850 yards.

The maximum range, when elevated at an angle of 45 degrees, is
4,891 yards (389 yards less than 3 miles).

The smooth bore of the rifle is 0.30 inch in diameter. It is
then rifled 0.004 inch deep, making the diameter from the bottom
of one groove to the bottom of the opposite groove 0.308 inch.
The rifling makes one complete turn in each 10 inches of the
barrel.

The accompanying plate shows the names of the principal parts
of the rifle.

The only parts of a rifle that an enlisted man is permitted to
take apart are the bolt mechanism and the magazine mechanism.
Learn how to do this from your squad leader, for you must know
how in order to keep your rifle clean. Never remove the hand
guard or the trigger guard, nor take the sights apart unless you
have special permission from a commissioned officer.

The cartridge used for the rifle is called the .30-caliber model
1906 cartridge. There are four types of cartridges.

The BALL CARTRIDGE consists of the brass case or shell, the primer,
the charge of smokeless powder, and the bullet. The bullet has
a sharp point, is composed of a lead core and a jacket of cupro
nickel, and weighs 150 grains. The bullet of this cartridge,
when fired from the rifle, starts with an initial velocity at
the muzzle of 2,700 feet per second.

The BLANK CARTRIDGE contains a paper cup instead of a bullet.
It is dangerous up to 100 feet. Firing with blank cartridges at
a represented enemy at ranges less than 100 yards is prohibited.

The GUARD CARTRIDGE has a smaller charge of powder than the ball
cartridge, and five cannelures encircle the body of the shell
at about the middle to distinguish it from the ball cartridge.
It is intended for use on guard or in riot duty, and gives good
results up to 200 yards. The range of 100 yards requires a sight
elevation of 450 yards, and the range of 200 yards requires all
elevation of 650 yards.

The DUMMY CARTRIDGE is tin plated and the shell is provided with
six longitudinal corrugations and three circular holes. The primer
contains no percussion composition. It is intended for drill
purposes to accustom the soldier to the operation of loading the
rifle.

All cartridges are secured five in a clip to enable five cartridges
to be inserted into the magazine at one motion. Sixty ball cartridges
in 12 clips are packed in a cloth bandoleer to facilitate issue
and carrying. When full the bandoleer weighs about 3.88 pounds.
Bandoleers are packed 20 in a box, or 1,200 rounds in all. The
full box weighs 99 pounds.


SECTION 2. CARE OF THE RIFLE.

Every part of the rifle must be kept free from rust, dust, and
dirt, A dirty or rusty rifle is a sure sign that the soldier
does not realize the value of his weapon, and that his training
is incomplete. The rifle you are armed with is the most accurate
in the world. If it gets dirty or rusty it will deteriorate in
its accuracy and working efficiency, and no subsequent care will
restore it to its original condition. The most important part
of the rifle to keep clean is the bore. If, after firing, the
bore is left dirty over night, it will be badly rusted in the
morning, therefore your rifle must be cleaned not later than
the evening of the day on which it was fired. The fouling of
the blank cartridge is as dangerous to the bore as the fouling
of the ball cartridge.

Never attempt to polish any part that is blued. If rust appears,
remove, by rubbing with oil. Never use emery paper, pomade, or
any preparation that cuts or scratches, to clean any part of
the rifle.

To beautify and preserve the stock rub with raw linseed oil. The
use of any other preparation on the stock is strictly forbidden.

Always handle your rifle with care. Don't throw it around as
though it were a club. Don't stand it up against anything so
that it rests against the front sight. Don't leave a stopper
or a rag in the bore: it will cause rust to form at that point.
It may also cause the gun barrel to burst if a shot is fired
before removing it.

Guard the sights and muzzle carefully from any blow that might
injure them. The front sight cover should always be on the rifle
except when rifle is being fired. This is especially necessary to
protect the front sight while rifle is being carried in scabbard
by a mounted man.

In coming to the "order arms," lower the piece gently to the ground.

When there is a cartridge in the chamber the piece is always
carried locked. In this position the safety lock should be kept
turned fully to the right, since if it be turned to the left
nearly to the "ready" position and the trigger be pulled, the
rifle will be discharged when the safety lock is turned to the
"ready" position at any time later on.

Cartridges can not be loaded from the magazine unless the bolt
is drawn fully to the rear. When the bolt is closed, or only
partly open, the cut-off may be turned up or down as desired,
but if the bolt is drawn fully to the rear, the magazine can not
be cut off unless the top cartridge or the follower be pressed
down slightly and the bolt be pushed forward so that the cut-off
may be turned "off."

In the case of a misfire, don't open the bolt immediately, as
it may be a hangfire. Misfires are often due to the fact that
the bolt handle was not fully pressed down. Sometimes in pulling
the trigger the soldier raises the bolt handle without knowing
it.

Unless otherwise ordered, arms will be unloaded before being
taken to quarters or tents, or as soon as the men using them are
relieved from duty.

Keep the working parts oiled.

In every company there should be at least one copy of the Manual
of the Ordnance Department entitled "Description and Rules for
the Management of the U. S, Magazine Rifle." This manual gives
the name and a cut of every part of the rifle, explains its use,
shows how to take the rifle apart and care for the same, and
also gives much other valuable and interesting information.


SECTION 3. CLEANING THE RIFLE.

"Cleaning the rifle,--(a) The proper care of the bore requires
conscientious, careful work, but it pays well in the attainment
of reduced labor of cleaning, prolonged accuracy life of the
barrel, and better results in target practice. Briefly stated,
the care of the bore consists in removing the fouling, resulting
from firing, to obtain a chemically clean surface, and in coating
this surface with a film of oil to prevent rusting. The fouling
which results from firing is of two kinds--one, the products
of combustion of the powder; the other, cupro-nickel scraped
off (under the abrading action of irregularities or grit in the
bore). Powder fouling, because of its acid reaction, is highly
corrosive; that is, it will induce rust and must be removed.
Metal fouling of itself is inactive, but may cover powder fouling
and prevent the action of cleaning agents until removed, and when
accumulated in noticeable quantities it reduces the accuracy of
the rifle.

(b) Powder fouling may be readily removed by scrubbing with hot
soda solution, but this solution has no effect on the metal fouling
of cupro-nickel. It is necessary, therefore, to remove all metal
fouling before assurance can be had that all powder fouling, has
been removed and that the bore may be safely oiled. Normally,
after firing a barrel in good condition the metal fouling is
so slight as to be hardly perceptible. It is merely a smear of
infinitesimal thickness, easily removed by solvents of cupro-nickel.
However, due to pitting, the presence of dust, other abrasives,
or to accumulation, metal fouling may occur in clearly visible
flakes or patches of much greater thickness, much more difficult
to remove.

(c) In cleaning the bore after firing it is well to proceed as
follows: Swab out the bore with soda solution (subparagraph j)
to remove powder fouling. A convenient method is to insert the
muzzle of the rifle into the can containing the soda solution
and, with the cleaning rod inserted from the breech, pump the
barrel full a few times. Remove and dry with a couple of patches.
Examine the bore to see that there are in evidence no patches of
metal fouling which, if present, can be readily detected by the
naked eye, then swab out with the swabbing solution--a dilute
metal-fouling solution (subparagraph j). The amount of swabbing
required with the swabbing solution can be determined only by
experience, assisted by the color of the patches. Swabbing should
be continued, however, as long as the wiping patch is discolored
by a bluish-green stain. Normally a couple of minutes' work is
sufficient. Dry thoroughly and oil.

(d) The proper method of oiling a barrel is as follows: Wipe the
cleaning roll dry; select a clean patch and thoroughly saturate
it with sperm oil or warmed cosmic, being sure that the cosmic
has penetrated the patch; scrub the bore with the patch, finally
drawing the patch smoothly from the muzzle to the breech, allowing
the cleaning rod to turn with the rifling. The bore will be found
now to be smooth and bright so that any subsequent rust and sweating
can be easily detected by inspection.

(e) If patches of metal fouling are seen upon visual inspection
of the bore the standard metal fouling solution prepared as
hereinafter prescribed must be used. After scrubbing out with
the soda solution, plug the bore from the breech with a cork
at the front end of the chamber or where the rifling begins.
Slip a 2-inch section of rubber hose over the muzzle down to the
sight and fill with the standard solution to at least one-half
inch above the muzzle of the barrel. Let it stand for 30 minutes,
pour out the standard solution, remove hose and breech plug,
and swab out thoroughly with soda solution to neutralize and
remove all trace of ammonia and powder fouling. Wipe the barrel
clean, dry, and oil. With few exceptions, one application is
sufficient, but if all fouling is not removed, as determined by
careful visual inspection of the bore and of the wiping patches,
repeat as described above.

(f) After properly cleaning with either the swabbing solution
or the standard solution, as has just been described, the bore
should be clean and safe to oil and put away, but as a measure
of safety a patch should always be run through the bore on the
next day and the bore and wiping patch examined to insure that
cleaning has been properly accomplished. The bore should then
be oiled, as described above.

(g) If the swabbing solution or the standard metal-fouling solution
is not available, the barrel should be scrubbed, as already
described, with the soda solution, dried, and oiled with a light
oil. At the end of 24 hours it should again be cleaned, when it
will usually be found to have "sweated"; that is, rust having
formed under the smear of metal fouling where powder fouling was
present, the surface is puffed up. Usually a second cleaning is
sufficient, but to insure safety it should be again examined at
the end of a few days, before final oiling. The swabbing solution
should always be used, if available, for it must be remembered
that each puff when the bore "sweats" is an incipient rust pit.

(h) A clean dry surface having been obtained, to prevent rust
it is necessary to coat every portion of this surface with a
film of neutral oil. If the protection required is but temporary
and the arm is to be cleaned or fired in a few days, sperm oil
may be used. This is easily applied and easily removed, but has
not sufficient body to hold its surface for more than a few days.
If rifles are to be prepared for storage or shipment, a heavier
oil, such as cosmic, must be used.

(i) In preparing arms for storage or shipment they should be
cleaned with particular care, using the metal-fouling solution
as described above. Care should be taken, insured by careful
inspection on succeeding day or days, that the cleaning is properly
done and all traces of ammonia solution removed. The bore is then
ready to be coated with cosmic. At ordinary temperatures cosmic
is not fluid. In order, therefore, to insure that every part of
the surface is coated with a film of oil the cosmic should be
warmed. Apply the cosmic first with a brush; then, with the breech
plugged, fill the barrel to the muzzle, pour out the surplus,
remove the breechblock, and allow to drain. It is believed that
more rifles are ruined by improper preparation for storage than
from any other cause. If the bore is not clean when oiled--that
is, if powder fouling is present or rust has started--a half
inch of cosmic on the outside will not stop its action, and the
barrel will be ruined. Remember that the surface must be perfectly
cleaned before the heavy oil is applied. If the instructions
as given above are carefully followed, arms may be stored for
years without harm.

(j) Preparation of solutions:

_Soda_solution_--This should be a saturated solution or sal
soda (bicarbonate of soda). A strength of at least 20 per cent
is necessary. The spoon referred to in the following directions
is the model 1910 spoon issued in the mess outfit.

Sal soda, one-fourth pound, or four (4) heaping spoonfuls.

Water, 1 pint or cup, model of 1910, to upper rivets.

The sal soda will dissolve more readily in hot water.

_Swabbing_solution_.--Ammonium persulphate, 60 grains, one-half
spoonful smoothed off.

Ammonia, 28 per cent, 6 ounces, or three-eighths of a pint, or
12 spoonfuls.

Water, 4 ounces, or one-fourth pint, or 8 spoonfuls.

Dissolve the ammonium persulphate in the water and add the ammonia.
Keep in tightly corked bottle; pour out only what is necessary
at the time, and keep the bottle corked.

_Standard_metal_fouling_solution_.--Ammonium persulphate,
1 ounce, or 2 medium heaping spoonfuls.

Ammonium carbonate, 200 grains, or 1 heaping spoonful.

Ammonia, 28 per cent, 6 ounces, or three-eighths pint, or 12
spoonfuls.

Water, 4 ounces, or one-fourth pint, or 8 spoonfuls.

Powder the persulphate and carbonate together, dissolve in the
water and add the ammonia; mix thoroughly and allow to stand
for one hour before using. It should be kept in a strong bottle,
tightly corked. The solution should not be used more than twice,
and used solution should not be mixed with unused solution, but
should be bottled separately, The solution, when mixed, should
be used within 30 days! Care should be exercised in mixing and
using this solution to prevent injury to the rifle. An experienced
noncommissioned officer should mix the solution and superintend
its use.

Neither of these ammonia solutions have any appreciable action
on steel when not exposed to the air, but if allowed to evaporate
on steel they attack it rapidly. Care should, therefore, be taken
that none spills on the mechanism and that the barrel is washed out
promptly with soda solution. The first application of soda solution
removes the greater portion of the powder fouling and permits a
more effective and economical use of the ammonia solution. These
ammonia solutions are expensive and should be used economically.

(k) It is a fact recognized by all that a highly polished steel
surface rusts much less easily than one which is roughened: also
that a barrel which is pitted fouls much more rapidly than one
which is smooth. Every effort, therefore, should be made to prevent
the formation of pits, which are merely enlarged rust spots, and
which not only affect the accuracy of the arm but increase the
labor of cleaning.

(l) The chambers of rifles are frequently neglected because they
are not readily inspected. Care should be taken to see that they
are cleaned as thoroughly as the bore. A roughened chamber delays
greatly the rapidity of fire, and not infrequently causes shells
to stick.

(m) A cleaning rack should be provided for every barrack. Rifles
should always be cleaned from the breach, thus avoiding possible
injury to the rifling at the muzzle, which would affect the shooting
adversely. If the bore for a length of 6 inches at the muzzle
is perfect, a minor injury near the chamber will have little
effect on the accuracy of the rifle. The rifle should be cleaned
as soon as the firing for the day is completed. The fouling is
easier to remove then, and if left longer it will corrode the
barrel.

(n) The principles as outlined above apply equally well for the
care of the barrel of the automatic pistol. Special attention
should be paid to cleaning the chamber of the pistol, using the
soda solution. It has been found that the chamber pits readily if
it is not carefully cleaned, with the result that the operation
of the pistol is made less certain." (_Par._134,_Small_Arms_
_Firing_Manual,_1913._)


SECTION 4. UNIFORMS.

Uniforms and clothing issued to enlisted men must not be sold,
pawned, loaned, given away, lost or damaged through neglect or
carelessness. Any soldier who violates this rule may be tried
by a military court and punished.

All uniforms and articles of clothing issued to enlisted men,
whether or not charged on their clothing allowance, remain the
property of the United States and do not become the property of
the soldier either before or after discharge from the service.
Under the law a soldier honorably discharged from the Army of
the United States is authorized to wear his uniform from the
place of his discharge to his home within three months after the
date of such discharge. To wear the uniform after three months
from the date of such discharge renders such person liable to
fine or imprisonment, or both.

The dress uniform (the blue uniform) consists of the dress cap,
dress coat, dress trousers, and russet-leather shoes. The straight,
standing, military, white linen collar, showing no opening in front,
is always worn with this uniform, with not to exceed one-half
inch showing above the collar of the coat. Turndown, piccadilly,
or roll collars are not authorized.

When under arms, white gloves and the garrison belt (or
russet-leather belt and cartridge box) are worn.

The full-dress uniform is the same as the dress uniform, with
the breast cord added.

The service uniform is either cotton (summer) or woolen (winter)
olive drab.

For duty in the field it consists of the service hat, with cord
sewed on, service coat or sweater, service breeches, olive-drab
flannel shirt, leggings, russet-leather shoes, and identification
tag. In cold weather olive-drab woolen gloves are worn; at other
times, no gloves.

When not in the field, the service cap is worn instead of the
campaign hat. Under arms, white gloves and the garrison belt
(or russet-leather belt and cartridge box) are worn.

Wear the exact uniform prescribed by your commanding officer,
whether you are on duty or off duty.

Never wear a mixed uniform, as, for instance, a part of the service
uniform with the blue uniform.

Never wear any part of the uniform with civilian clothes. It
is very unsoldierly, for example, to wear a civilian overcoat
over the uniform or to wear the uniform overcoat over a civilian
suit.

Keep the uniform clean and neat and in good repair.

Grease spots and dust and dirt should be removed as soon as possible.

Rips and tears should be promptly mended.

Missing buttons and cap and collar ornaments should be promptly
replaced.

There is but one correct and soldierly way to wear the cap. Never
wear it on the back or side of the head.

The service hat should be worn in the regulation shape, peaked,
with four indentations, and with hat cord sewed on. Do not cover
it with pen or pencil mark.

Never appear outside your room or tent with your coat or olive-drab
shirt unbuttoned or collar of coat unhooked. Chevrons, service
stripes, and campaign medals and badges are a part of the uniform
and must be worn as prescribed.

When coats are not worn with the service uniform olive-drab shirts
are prescribed.

Suspenders must never be worn exposed to view.

Never appear in breeches without leggings.

Leather leggings should be kept polished. Canvas leggings should
be scrubbed when dirty.

Russet-leather (tan) shoes should be kept clean and polished.
The overcoat when worn must be buttoned throughout and the collar
hooked. When the belt is worn it will be worn outside the overcoat.


SECTION 5. THE SERVICE KIT.

The service kit is composed of two parts--(a) the field kit,
which includes everything the soldier wears or carries with him
in the field, and (b) the surplus kit.

The field kit consists of--

  (a) The clothing worn on the person.
  (b) Arms and equipment, consisting of--

FOR EACH ENLISTED MAN.[1]

  1 first-aid packet.
  1 pouch for first-aid packet.
  1 canteen.
  1 canteen cover.
  1 can, bacon.
  1 can, condiment.
  1 pack carrier (except individually mounted men).
  1 haversack (except individually mounted men).
  1 meat can.
  1 cup.
  1 knife.
  1 fork.
  1 spoon.
  1 shelter tent half.
  1 shelter tent pole (when issued).
  5 shelter tent pins.
  1 identification tag with tape.

[Footnote 1: New model equipment, 1910. The old model equipment
is the same except omit canteen cover, bacon and condiment cans,
and pack carrier, and add 1 cartridge-belt suspenders, 1 canteen
strap, and 1 blanket-roll straps, set.]

FOR EACH ENLISTED MAN ARMED WITH THE RIFLE.

  1 United States magazine rifle, caliber .30.
  1 bayonet.
  1 bayonet scabbard.
  1 gun sling.
  1 rifle cartridge belt.

FOR EACH EACH ENLISTED MAN ARMED WITH THE PISTOL.

  1 pistol, caliber .45.
  1 pistol holster.
  1 magazine pocket, double, web.
  2 extra magazines.
  1 pistol belt (except for men armed _also_ with the rifle).

FOR EACH ENLISTED MAN, INDIVIDUALLY MOUNTED, IN ADDITION TO THE
ABOVE.

  1 rifle scabbard (if armed with rifle).
  1 spurs, pair.
  1 spur straps, pair.
  1 set of horse equipment.

(c) Extra clothing and articles to be carried on the soldier or
on the packed saddle.

  1 blanket.
  1 comb.
  1 drawers, pair,
  1 poncho (dismounted men),
  1 slicker (mounted men).
  1 soak, cake.
  2 stockings, pair.
  1 toothbrush.
  1 towel.
  1 undershirt.
  1 housewife (for one man of each squad).

(d) Ammunition, consisting of--

  90 rounds ball cartridges, caliber .30 (old model belt).
 100 rounds ball cartridges, caliber .30 (new model belt).

(e) Rations, consisting of--

  1 or 2 reserve rations (bacon, hard bread, coffee, sugar, and
  salt).

(f) Intrenching tools, consisting of--

  2 pick mattocks, per squad.
  1 bolo or hand axe, per squad.
  4 shovels, intrenching, per squad.
  1 wire cutter, per squad.


SECTION 6. THE SURPLUS KIT.

The surplus kit for each man consists of--

  1 breeches, pair.
  1 drawers, pair.
  1 shirt, olive drab.
  1 shoes, russet leather, pair.
  2 stockings, pair.
  1 undershirt.
  1 shoe laces, extra, pair.

Each surplus kit bag contains 1 jointed cleaning rod and case.

Squad leaders are responsible that surplus kit bags are kept in
order and fully packed in the field.[2] Men are allowed access
to them for the purpose of making substitutions.

[Footnote 2: In campaign or simulated campaign, when an organization
is restricted to its prescribed field-train transportation, surplus
kits, overcoats, and sweaters are stored on the line of
communications or other designated place with the permanent camp
equipment of the organization.]

The surplus kits are packed in surplus kit bags, one for each
squad, one for sergeants, and one for cooks and buglers.

The kit of each man will be packed as follows:

Stockings to be rolled tightly, one pair in the toe of each shoe;
shoes placed together, heels at opposite ends, soles outward,
wrapped tightly in underwear, and bundle securely tied around
the middle by the extra pair of the shoe laces, each bundle to
be tagged with the company number of the owner. These individual
kits will be packed in the surplus kit bag in two layers of four
kits each, the breeches and olive drab shirts to be neatly folded
find packed on the top and sides of the layers, the jointed cleaning
rod and case, provided for each squad, being attached by the
thongs on the inside of the bag.

When overcoats or sweaters are not prescribed to be worn on the
person they will be collected into bundles of convenient size
and secured by burlap or other suitable material, or will be
boxed. They will be marked ready for equipment to be forwarded
when required.


SECTION 7. ASSEMBLING INFANTRY EQUIPMENT.[3]

[Footnote 3: Since these instructions were written 1 drawers
and 1 undershirt have been added to the field kit. Place them
in pack when carried, otherwise in haversack.]

TO ASSEMBLE THE FULL EQUIPMENT.

WITH RATIONS.

Place the assembled equipment on the ground, suspender side of
haversack down, pockets of cartridge belt up, haversack spread
put, inside flap and pack carrier extended their full length
to the rear.

Place three cartons of hard bread in the center of the haversack
body, the lower one on the line of attachment of the inside flap;
lay the remaining carton of hard bread, the condiment can and
the bacon can on the top of these, the condiment can and the
bacon can at the bottom, top of the bacon can to the front; the
socks and toilet articles are rolled, towel on the outside, into
a bundle of the same approximate dimensions as a carton of hard
bread, and are placed in front of the two rows thus formed.

The inside flap of the haversack is folded over these articles, the
end of the flap being turned in so that the flap, thus shortened,
extends about 2 inches beyond the top of the upper row; the sides
of the haversack are folded over the sides of the rows; the upper
binding straps are passed through the loops on the outside of the
inside flap, each strap through the loop opposite the point of
its attachment to the haversack body, and fastened by means of
the buckle on the opposite side, the strap being passed through
the opening in the buckle next to its attachment, over the center
bar, and back through the opening of the buckle away from its
attachment; the strap is pulled tight to make the fastening secure;
the outer flap of the haversack is folded over and fastened by
means of the lower haversack binding strap and the buckle on
the inside of the outer flap; the strap is pulled tight, drawing
the outer flap snugly over the filled haversack.

The haversack is now packed and the carrier is ready for the
reception of the pack.

If one reserve ration and one emergency ration are carried in
lieu of two reserve rations, the haversack is packed in the manner
described above, except that two cartons of hard bread and the
bacon can form the bottom layer, the bacon can on the bottom;
the condiment can, the emergency ration, and the toilet articles
form the top layer.

If one emergency ration is carried in addition to the two reserve
rations, it is packed on top of the top layer.

TO MAKE THE PACK: Spread the shelter half on the ground and fold
in the triangular ends, forming an approximate square from the
half, the guy on the inside; fold the poncho once across its
shortest dimension, then twice across its longest dimension,
and lay it in the center of the shelter half; fold the blanket
as described for the poncho and place it on the latter; place
the shelter tent pins in the folds of the blanket, in the center
and across the shortest dimension; fold the edges of the shelter
half snugly over the blanket and poncho and, beginning on either
of the short sides, roll tightly and compactly. This forms the
pack.

TO ASSEMBLE THE PACK: Place the pack in the pack carrier and
grasp the lower suspension rings, one in each hand; place the
right knee against the bottom of the roll; pull the carrier down
and force the pack up close against the bottom of the packed
haversack; without removing the knee, pass the lower carrier
binding strap over the pack and secure it by means of the opposite
buckle; in a similar manner secure the lower haversack binding
strap and then the upper carrier binding strap.

Engage the snap hook on the pack suspenders in the lower suspension
rings.

The equipment is now assembled and packed as prescribed for the
full equipment.

TO ASSEMBLE THE FULL EQUIPMENT.

WITHOUT RATIONS.

Place the assembled equipment on the ground as heretofore described;
fold up the inside flap of the haversack so that its end will
be on a line with the top of the haversack body; fold up the
lower haversack strap in the same manner.

TO MAKE UP THE PACK: Fold the poncho, blanket, and shelter half,
and make up the pack as heretofore prescribed, except that the
condiment and bacon can (the former inside the latter) and the
toilet articles and socks are rolled in the pack. In this case
the pack is rolled, beginning on either of the long sides instead
of the short sides, as heretofore described.

TO ASSEMBLE THE PACK: Place the pack on the haversack and pack
carrier, its upper end on a line with the upper edge of the haversack
body: bind it to the haversack and carrier by means of the haversack
and pack binding straps; fold down the outer flap on the haversack
and secure it by means of the free end of the middle haversack
binding strap and the buckle provided on the underside of the
flap; engage the snap hooks of the park suspenders in the lower
suspension rings.

The equipment is now packed and assembled.

TO ADJUST THE EQUIPMENT TO THE SOLDIER: Put on the equipment,
slipping the arms one at a time through the pack suspenders as
through the sleeves of a coat; by means of the adjusting buckles
on the belt suspenders raise or lower the belt until it rests well
down over the hip bones on the sides and below the pit of the
abdomen in front; raise or lower it in rear until the adjusting
strap lies smoothly across the small of the back; by means of
the adjusting buckles on the pack suspenders, raise or lower the
load on the back until the top of the haversack is on a level
with the top of the shoulders, the pack suspenders, from their
point of attachment to the haversack to the line of tangency
with the shoulder, being horizontal. _The_latter_is_absolutely_
_essential_to_the_proper_adjustment_of_the_load._

The position of the belt is the same whether filled or empty.

TO ASSEMBLE THE FULL EQUIPMENT LESS THE PACK.

WITH RATIONS.

Detach the carrier from the haversack; place the rest of the
equipment on the ground as heretofore described; place the four
cartons of hard bread, the bacon can, the condiment can, and the
toilet articles in one row in the middle of the haversack body,
the toilet articles at the top, the bacon can at the bottom,
top to the front, the row extending from top to bottom of the
haversack; fold the inside flap over the row thus formed; fold
the sides of the haversack up and over; pass the three haversack
binding straps through the loops on the inside flap and secure by
means of the buckles on the opposite side of the haversack; pass
the lower haversack binding strap through the small buttonhole
in the lower edge of the haversack, fold the outer flap of the
haversack over the whole, and secure by means of the buckle on
its underside and the lower haversack binding strap.

Pass the haversack suspension rings through the contiguous
buttonholes in the lower edge of the haversack and engage the
snap hooks on the ends of the pack suspenders.

If one reserve ration and one emergency ration are carried in
lieu of two reserve rations, the haversack is packed in the manner
described above, except that one emergency ration is substituted
for two of the cartons of hard bread.

If one emergency ration is carried in addition to the two reserve
rations, it is packed on top of the layer.

TO ASSEMBLE THE FULL EQUIPMENT LESS THE PACK.

WITHOUT RATIONS.

Detach the carrier from the haversack; place the rest of the
equipment on the ground, as heretofore described; fold up the
inside flap of the haversack until its upper end is on a line with
the top of the haversack body; fold the sides of the haversack
over, pass the three haversack binding straps through the loops
on the inside flap and secure by means of the buckles on the
opposite side of the haversack; pass the lower haversack binding
strap through the small buttonhole in the lower edge of the
haversack; place the condiment and bacon can (the former inside
the latter) and the toilet articles and socks in the bottom of
the pouch thus formed; fold the outer flap of the haversack over
the whole and secure by means of the buckle on its underside
and the lower haversack binding strap.

Pass the haversack suspension rings through the contiguous
buttonholes in the lower edge of the haversack and engage the
snap hooks on the ends of the pack suspenders.

TO ADJUST THE EQUIPMENT TO THE SOLDIER: Put on the equipment
as prescribed for the full equipment. Adjust the cartridge belt
as prescribed for the full equipment. Adjust the pack suspenders
so that the top of the haversack is on a level with the top of
the shoulders.

TO DISCARD THE PACK WITHOUT REMOVING THE EQUIPMENT FROM THE BODY.

Unsnap the pack suspenders from the suspension rings and snap
them into the eyelets on top of the belt and in rear of the real
pockets of the right and left pocket sections; support the bottom
of the pack with the left hand and with the right hand grasp
the coupling strap at its middle and withdraw first one end,
then the other; press down gently on the pack with both hands
and remove it. When the pack has been removed, lace the coupling
strap into the buttonholes along the upper edge of the carrier.
Adjust the pack suspenders.

OLD MODEL EQUIPMENT.

To roll the blanket roll.--_See_ chapter V, section 8, paragraph
747.



CHAPTER III.

RATIONS AND FORAGE.


SECTION 1. THE RATION.

A ration is the allowance of food for one man for one day.

In the field there are three kinds of rations issued, as follows:

The _garrison_ration_ is intended to be issued in kind whenever
possible. The approximate net weight of this ration is 4.5 pounds.

The _reserve_ration_ is the simplest efficient ration, and
constitutes the reserve carried for field service. It consists
of--

                                    Ounces.
  Bacon                              12
  Hard bread                         16
  Coffee, roasted and ground          1.12
  Sugar                               2.4
  Salt                                 .16
                                     -----
  Approximate net weight   pounds     2

The _field_ration_ is the ration prescribed in orders by
the commander of the field forces. It consists of the reserve
ration, in whole or in part, supplemented by articles requisitioned
or purchased locally or shipped from the rear.

In campaign a command carries as a part of its normal equipment
the following rations:

  (a) On each man: At least two days' reserve rations.
  (b) In the ration section of the field train, for each man:
      Two days' field and one day's reserve rations.
  (c) In the supply train: Two days' field rations.

In addition to the foregoing, commanders will require each man
on the march to carry the unconsumed portion of the day's ration
issued the night before for the noonday meal. Reserve rations are
consumed only in case of extreme necessity, when other supplies
are not available. They are not to be consumed or renewed without
an express order from the officer in command of the troops who is
responsible for the provision of supplies, namely, the division
commander or other independent-detachment commander. Every officer
within the limits of his command is held responsible for the
enforcement of this regulation. Reserve rations consumed must
he replaced at the first Opportunity.


SECTION 2. INDIVIDUAL COOKING.

Sometimes rations for several days are issued to the soldier
at one time, and in such cases you should be very careful to
so use the rations that they will last you the entire period.
If you stuff yourself one day, or waste your rations, you will
have to starve later on.

Generally the cooking for the company will be done by the company
cook, but sometimes every soldier will have to prepare his own
meals, using only his field mess kit for the purpose.

The best fire for individual cooking is a small, clear one, or,
better yet, a few brisk coals. To make such a fire, first gather
a number of sticks about 1 inch in diameter. These should be
dry. Dead limbs adhering to a tree are dryer than those picked
up from the ground. Split some of these and shave them up into
kindling. Dig a trench in the ground, laid with the wind, about
a foot long, 4 inches wide, and 6 inches deep. Start the fire in
this trench gradually, piling on the heavier wood as the fire
grows. When the trench is full of burning wood, allow it a few
minutes to burn down to the coals and stop blazing high. Then
rest the meat can and cup over the trench and start cooking.
Either may be supported, if necessary, with green sticks. If you
can not scrape a trench in the soil, build one up out of rocks
or with two parallel logs.

The following recipes have been furnished from the office of the
Quartermaster General, United States Army:

_Coffee_.--Fill the cup two-thirds full of water and bring
to a boil. Add one heaping spoonful of coffee and stir well,
adding one spoonful of sugar if desired. Boil five minutes and
then set it to the side of the fire to simmer for about 10 minutes.
Then, to clear the coffee, throw in a spoonful or two of cold
water. This coffee is of medium strength and is within the limit
of the ration if made but twice a day.

_Cocoa_.--Take two-thirds of a cupful of water, bring to a
boil, add one heaping spoonful of cocoa, and stir until dissolved.
Add one spoonful of sugar, if desired, and boil for five minutes.

_Chocolate_.--Take two-thirds of a cupful of water, bring
to a boil, add a piece of chocolate about the size of a hickory
nut, breaking or cutting it into small pieces and stirring until
dissolved. Add one spoonful of sugar, if desired, and boil for
five minutes.

_Tea_.--Take two-thirds of a cupful of water, bring to a
boll, add one-half of a level spoonful of tea, and then let it
stand or "draw" for three minutes. If allowed to stand longer
the tea will get bitter, unless separated from the ten leaves.

MEATS.

_Bacon_.--Cut slices about five to the inch, three of which
should generally be sufficient for one man for one meal. Place
in a meat can with about one-half inch of cold water. Let come
to a boll and then pour the water off. Fry over a brisk fire,
turning the bacon once and quickly browning it. Remove the bacon
to lid of meat can, leaving the grease for frying potatoes, onions,
rice, flapjacks, etc., according to recipe.

_Fresh_meat_ (to fry).--To fry, a small amount of grease
(one to two spoonfuls) is necessary. Put grease in the meat can
and let come to a smoking temperature, then drop in the steak
and, if about one-half inch thick, let fry for about one minute
before turning, depending upon whether it is desired it shall be
rare, medium, or well done. Then turn and fry briskly as before.
Salt and pepper to taste.

Applies to beef, veal, pork, mutton, venison, etc.

_Fresh_meat_ (to broil).--Cut in slices about one inch thick,
from half as large as the hand to four times that size. Sharpen
a stick or branch of convenient length--say, from two to four
feet long--and weave the point of the stick through the steak
several times, so that it may be readily turned over a few brisk
coals or on the windward side of a small fire. Allow to brown
nicely, turning frequently. Salt and pepper to taste. Meat with
considerable fat is preferred, though any meat may be broiled
in this manner.

_Fresh_meat_ (to stew).--Cut into chunks from one-half inch
to one inch cubes. Fill cup about one-third full of meat and cover
with about one inch of water. Let boil or simmer about one hour,
or until tender. Add such fibrous vegetables as carrots, turnips,
or cabbage, cut into small chunks, soon after the meat is put
on to boil, and potatoes, onions, or other tender vegetables
when the meat is about half done. Amount of vegetables to be
added, about the same as meat, depending upon supply and taste.
Salt and pepper to taste. Applies to ail fresh meats and fowls.
The proportion of meat and vegetables used varies with their
abundance, and fixed quantities can not be adhered to. Fresh fish
can be handled as above, except that it is cooked much quicker,
and potatoes and onions and canned corn are the only vegetables
generally used with it, thus making a chowder. A slice of bacon
would greatly improve the flavor. May be conveniently cooked
in meat can or cup.

VEGETABLES.

_Potatoes_ (fried).--Take two medium-sized potatoes or one
large one (about one-half pound), peel and cut into slices about
one-fourth inch thick and scatter well in the meat can in which
the grease remains after trying the bacon. Add sufficient water to
half cover the potatoes, cover with the lid to keep the moisture
in, and let come to a boil for about 15 to 20 minutes. Remove
the cover and dry as desired. Salt and pepper to taste. During
the cooking the bacon already prepared may be kept on the cover,
which is most conveniently placed bottom side up over the cooking
vegetables.

_Onions_ (fried).--Same as potatoes.

_Potatoes_ (boiled).--Peel two medium-sized potatoes (about
one-half pound) or one large one, and cut in coarse chunks of
about the same size--say 1-1/2 inch cubes. Place in meat can and
three-fourths fill with water. Cover with lid and let boil or
simmer for 15 or 20 minutes. They are done when easily penetrated
with a sharp stick. Pour off the water and let dry out for one
or two minutes over hot ashes or light coals.

_Potatoes_ (baked).--Take two medium-sized potatoes (about,
one-half pound) or one large one cut in half. Lay in a bed of
light coals and cover with same and smother with ashes. Do not
disturb for 30 or 40 minutes, when they should be done.

_Canned_tomatoes_.--One 2-pound can is generally sufficient
for five men.

_Stew_.--Pour into the meat can one man's allowance of tomatoes
and add about two large hardtacks broken into small pieces and
let come to a boil. Add salt and pepper to taste, or add a pinch
of salt and one-fourth spoonful of sugar.

_Or_, having tried the bacon, pour the tomatoes into the
meat can, the grease remaining, and add, if desired, two broken
hardtacks. Set over a brisk fire and let come to a boil.

_Or_, heat the tomatoes just as they come from the can,
adding two pinches of salt and one-half spoonful of sugar, if
desired.

_Or_, especially in hot weather, eaten cold with hard bread,
they are very palatable.

_Rice_.--Take about two-thirds of a cupful of water, bring
to a boll, add four heaping spoonfuls of rice, and boil until the
grains are soft enough to be easily mashed between the fingers
(about 20 minutes). Add two pinches of salt and, after stirring,
pour off the water and empty rice out on meat can. Bacon grease
or sugar may be added.

_Corn_meal,_fine_hominy,_oatmeal_.--Take about one-third
of a cupful of water, bring to a boil, add 4 heaping spoonfuls
of the meal or hominy, and boil about 20 minutes. Then add about
two pinches of salt and stir well.

_Dried_beans_and_peas_.--Put 4 heaping spoonfuls in about
two-thirds of a cupful of water and boil until soft. This generally
takes from three to four hours. Add one pinch of salt. About half
an hour before the beans are done add one slice of bacon.

HOT BREADS.

_Flapjacks_.--Take 6 spoonfuls of flour and one-third spoonful
of baking powder and mix thoroughly (or dry mix in a large pan
before issue, at the rate of 25 pounds of flour and 3 half cans
of baking powder for 100 men). Add sufficient cold water to make
a batter that will drip freely from the spoon, adding a pinch of
salt. Pour into the meat can, which should contain the grease
from fried bacon or a spoonful of butter or fat, and place over
medium hot coals sufficient to bake, so that in from 5 to 7 minutes
the flapjack may be turned by a quick toss of the pan. Fry from
5 to 7 minutes longer, or until by examination it is found to
be done.

_Hoecake_.--Hoecake is made exactly the same as flapjacks
by substituting _corn_meal_ for _flour_.

_Emergency_rations_.--Detailed instructions as to the manner
of preparing the emergency ration are found on the label of each
can. Remember that even a very limited amount of bacon or hard
bread, or both, consumed with the emergency ration makes it far
more palatable, and generally extends the period during which it
can be consumed with relish. For this reason it would be better
to husband the supply of hard bread and bacon for use with the
emergency ration when it becomes evident that the latter must
be consumed rather than to retain the emergency ration to the
last extremity and force its exclusive use for a longer period
than two or three days.


SECTION 3. THE FORAGE RATION.

"_1077,_Army_Regulations_.--The forage ration for a horse
is 14 pounds of hay and 12 pounds of oats, corn, or barley, and
3-1/3 pounds of straw (or hay) for bedding; for a Field Artillery
horse of the heavy-draft type, weighing 1,300 pounds or over,
17 pounds of hay and 14 pounds of oats, corn, or barley, and
3-1/3 pounds of straw (or hay) for bedding; for a mule, 14 pounds
of hay and 9 pounds of oats, corn, or barley, and 3-1/3 pounds
of straw (or hay) for bedding. To each animal 3 pounds of bran
may be issued in lieu of that quantity of grain.

"The commanding officer may, in his discretion, vary the proportions
of the components of the ration (1 pound of grain, 1-1/2 pounds
of hay, and 2 pounds of straw being taken as equivalents), and
in the field may substitute other recognized articles of forage
obtained locally, the variation or the substitution not to exceed
the money value of the components of the ration at the contract
rates in effect at the time of change.

"_1078,_Army_Regulations_.--Where grazing is practicable, or
when little work is required of the animals, commanding officers
will reduce the forage ration. When, on the other hand, conditions
demand it, they are authorized to increase the ration, not in
excess, however, of savings made."

In the field the authorized allowances must often be reduced
and supplemented by grazing and other kinds of food, such as
green forage, beans, peas, rice, palay, wheat, and rye. Wheat
and rye should be crushed and fed sparingly (about one-fourth
of the allowance). For unshelled corn, add about one-quarter
weight.

On the march the grain ration is the only forage carried. It
consists of 12 pounds of grain for each horse and 9 pounds of
grain for each mule. Recourse must be had to grazing if it is
not possible to procure long forage in the country traversed.

In campaign a command carries as a part of its normal equipment
the following forage:

(a) For each draft animal: On each vehicle a _reserve_ of
one day's grain ration for its draft animals.

(b) On animals and vehicles: A portion of their grain ration issued
the night before, for a noonday feed.

(c) In the ration section of the field train, for each animal,
two day's grain rations.

(d) In supply train of an Infantry division two days' grain rations,
and of a Cavalry division one days' grain ration.



CHAPTER IV.

PERSONAL HYGIENE AND CARE OF THE FEET.


PERSONAL HYGIENE.

History shows that in almost every war many more men die of disease
than from wounds received in battle. Much of this disease is
preventable and is due either to the ignorance or carelessness
of the person who has the disease or of other persons about him.
It is a terrible truth that one man who violates any of the great
rules of health may be the means of killing many more of his
comrades than are killed by the bullets of the enemy.

It is therefore most important that every soldier should learn
how to take care of his health when in the field and that he
should also insist that his comrades do not violate any of the
rules prescribed for this purpose.

A great many diseases are due to germs, which are either little
animals or little plants so very small that they can only be
seen by aid of the microscope. All diseases caused by germs are
"catching." All other diseases are not "catching."

There are only five ways of catching disease:

(a) Getting certain germs on the body by touching some one or
something which has them on it. Thus, one may catch venereal
diseases, smallpox, measles, scarlet fever, chicken pox, mumps,
bolls, body lice, ringworm, barber's itch, dhopie itch, and some
other diseases. Wounds are infected in this manner.

(b) Breathing in certain germs which float in the air. In this
way one may catch pneumonia, consumption, influenza, diphtheria,
whooping cough, tonsilitis, spinal meningitis, measles, and certain
other diseases.

(c) Taking certain germs in through the mouth in eating or drinking.
Dysentery, cholera, typhoid fever, diarrhea, and intestinal worms
may be caught in this manner,

(d) Having certain germs injected into the body by the bites
of insects, such as mosquitoes, fleas, and bedbugs. Malaria,
yellow fever, dengue fever, and bubonic plague may be caught in
this way.

(e) Inheriting the germ from one's parents.

Persons may have these germs sometimes without apparently being
sick with any disease. Such persons and persons who are sick
with the diseases are a great source of danger to others about
them. Germs which multiply in such persons are found in their
urine and excretions from the bowels; in discharges from ulcers
and abscesses; in the spit or particles coughed or sneezed into
the air; in the perspiration or scales from the skin; and in
the blood sucked up by biting insects.

Those who have taken care of their health and who have not become
weakened by bad habits, exposure, and fatigue are not only less
liable to catch disease, but are more apt to recover when taken
sick.

Knowing all these things, the soldier can understand the reasons
for the following rules and how important it is that they should
be carried out by each and every person:

Stay away from persons having "catching" diseases.

It you have any disease, don't try to cure it yourself, but go
to the surgeon. Insist that other soldiers do likewise.

Typhoid fever is one of the most dangerous and common camp diseases.
Modern medicine has, however, discovered an effective preventative
for this disease in the typhoid prophylactic, which renders the
person immune from typhoid fever. The treatment consists in injecting
into the arm a preventative serum. The injection is given three
times at 10-day intervals.

Association with lewd women is dangerous. It may result in disabling
you for life. It is the cause of a disease (syphilis) which may be
transmitted by a parent to his children. Soldiers with venereal
diseases should not use basins or toilet articles used by others,
as the germs of these diseases if gotten into the eye very often
cause blindness. Likewise, if they use the same drinking cup used
by others they may give others the disease. They should promptly
report their trouble to the surgeon, that they may receive the
best medical advice and attention.

Should a soldier expose himself to infection by having intercourse
with an unknown woman, he should report as soon as possible
afterwards to the regimental infirmary for prophylactic treatment,
which, if taken within a few hours after intercourse, will prevent
to a large degree the liability of contracting any disease.

Cooked germs are dead and therefore harmless. Water, even when
clear, may be alive with deadly germs. Therefore, when the conditions
are such that the commanding officer orders all drinking water
to be boiled, be careful to live up to this order.

Use the latrines and don't go elsewhere to relieve yourself. In
open latrines cover your deposit with dirt, as it breeds files
and may also be full of germs.

Flies carry germs from one place to another. Therefore see that
your food and mess kit are protected from them.

All slops find scraps of food scattered about camp soon produce
bad odors and draw flies. Therefore do your part toward keeping
the camp free from disease by carefully depositing such refuse
in the pits or cans used for this purpose.

Urinate only in the latrines, or in the cans set out for this
purpose, never on the ground around camp, because it not only
causes bad smells but urine sometimes contains the germs of
"catching" diseases.

Soapy water thrown on the ground soon produces bad odors. Therefore
in camps of several days' duration this water should be thrown
in covered pits or in cans used for this purpose.

As certain mosquitoes can transmit malaria and yellow fever,
use your mosquito bar for this reason as well as for personal
comfort.

Keep your mouth clean by brushing your teeth once or twice a day.
It helps to prevent the teeth from decaying. Decayed teeth cause
toothache. They also lead one to swallow food without properly
chewing it, and this leads to stomach troubles of various kinds.
Food left around and between the teeth is bad for the teeth and
forms good breeding places for germs.

Keep the skin clean. Through the pores of the skin the body gets
rid of much waste and poisonous matter. Therefore remove this
and keep the pores open by bathing once every day, if possible.
If water is scarce, rub the body over with a wet towel. If no
water is at hand, take a dry rub. Wash carefully the armpits,
between the legs, and under the foreskin, as this will prevent
chafing.

The skin protects the sensitive parts underneath from injury
and helps to keep out germs. Therefore when blisters are formed
don't tear off the skin. Insert a needle under the skin a little
distance back from the blister and push it through to the opposite
side. Press out the liquid through the holes thus formed. Heat
the needle red hot first, with a match or candle, to kill the
germs.

When the skin is broken (in cuts and wounds) keep the opening
covered with a bandage to keep out germs and dirt; otherwise
the sore may fester. Pus is always caused by germs.

Keep your hair short. Long hair and a long beard in the field
generally means a dirty head and a dirty face and favors skin
diseases, lice, and dandruff.

Don't let any part of the body become chilled, as this very often
is the direct cause of diarrhea, dysentery, pneumonia, rheumatism,
and other diseases.

Wet clothes may be worn while marching or exercising without bad
results; but there is great danger if one rests in wet clothing,
as the body may become chilled.

Don't sit or lie or sleep directly on damp ground, as this is
sure to chill the body.

When hot or perspiring or when wearing damp clothes, don't remain
where a breeze can strike you. You are sure to become chilled.

Every day, if possible, hang your blanket and clothing out to
air in the sun; shake or beat them with a small stick. Germs
and vermin don't like this treatment, but damp, musty clothing
suits them very well. Wash your shirts, underwear, and socks
frequently. The danger of blood poisoning from a wound is greatly
increased if the bullet passes through dirty clothes.

Ditch your tent as soon as you can, particularly a shelter tent,
even if you camp for one night only. Otherwise a little rain
may ruin a whole night's rest.

Always prepare your bed before dark. Level off the ground and
scrape out a little hollow for your hips. Get some straw or dry
grass if possible. Green grass or branches from trees are better
than nothing. Sleep on your poncho. This keeps the dampness from
coming up from the ground and chilling the body. Every minute
spent in making a good bed means about an hour's good rest later
on.

Avoid the food and drink found for sale in the cheap stands about
camp. The quality is generally bad, and it is often prepared in
filthy places by very dirty persons.

The use of intoxicating liquor is particularly dangerous in the
field. Its excessive use, even at long intervals, breaks down
one's system. Drinking men are more apt to get sick and less
liable to get well than are their more sober comrades. If alcohol
is taken at all, it is best after the work of the day is over. It
should never be taken when the body is exposed to severe cold,
as it diminishes the resistance of the body. Hot tea or coffee
is much preferable under these circumstances.


CARE OF THE FEET.

A soldier can not march with sore feet, and marching is the main
part of an infantryman's daily duty in the field. All soldiers
should be familiar with the proper methods of caring for the
feet. Sore feet are generally due to carelessness, neglect, or
ignorance on the part of the soldier.

The most important factor in the care of the feet and the marching
ability of the soldier is the shoe. Civilian shoes, particularly
light, patent leather, or low shoes, are sure to cause injury and
in time will ruin a man's foot. Only the marching shoe issued by
the Quartermaster Corps should be worn, and they must be properly
fitted to the individual. It will not suffice to order a marching
shoe of the same size as one's ordinary civilian shoes, for it
must be remembered that a soldier may have to march many miles
daily over rough roads and carrying a heavy pack. The pack itself
causes the foot to spread out to a larger size, and the rough
roads give so much exercise to the muscles of the feet that they
swell greatly through the increased blood supply. (For directions
as to measuring the foot for the marching shoe see General Order
No. 26, War Department, 1912, a copy of which should be on hand
in each company.)

Do not start out on a march wearing new shoes. This is a frequent
cause of sore feet. New shoes should be properly broken in before
beginning a march by wearing them for several hours daily for a
week before the march, and they should be adapted to the contours
of the feet by stretching them with shoe stretchers with adjustable
knobs to take the pressure off painful corns and bunions. Such
stretchers are issued by the Quartermaster Corps, and there should
be one or more pair in every company of infantry. Should this
be impracticable, then the following is suggested:

The soldier stands in his new shoes in about 2-1/2 inches of
water for about five minutes until the leather is thoroughly
pliable and moist; he should then walk for about an hour on a
level surface, letting the shoes dry on his feet, to the
irregularities of which the leather is thus molded in the same
way as it was previously molded over the shoe last. On taking
the shoes off a very little neat's-foot oil should be rubbed
into the leather to prevent its hardening and cracking.

If it is desired to waterproof shoes at any time, a considerable
amount of neat's-foot oil should be rubbed into the leather.
Waterproof leather causes the feet of some men to perspire unduly
and keeps them constantly soft.

Light woolen or heavy woolen socks will habitually be worn for
marching. Cotton socks will not be worn unless specifically ordered
by the surgeon. The socks will be large enough to permit free
movement of the toes, but not so loose as to permit of wrinkling.
Darned socks, or socks with holes in them, will not be worn in
marching.

Until the feet have hardened they should be dusted with foot
powder, which can be obtained at the regimental infirmary, before
each day's march. Clean socks should be worn daily.

As soon as possible after reaching camp after a day of marching
the feet should be washed with soap and water, and the soldier
should put on a dry pair of socks and his extra pair of shoes
from his surplus kit. If the skin is tender, or the feet perspire,
wash with warm salt water or alum water, but do not soak the feet
a long time, as this, although very comforting at the time, tends
to keep them soft. Should blister's appear on the feet, prick
and evacuate them by pricking at the lower edge with a pin which
has been passed through the flame of a match and cover them with
zinc oxide plaster applied hot. This plaster can be obtained
on request at the regimental infirmary. If serious abrasions
appear on the feet, or corns, bunions, and ingrowing nails cause
trouble, have your name placed on sick report and apply to the
surgeon for treatment. Cut the toe nails square (fairly close
in the middle, but leaving the sides somewhat longer), as this
prevents ingrowing nails.



CHAPTER V.

EXTRACTS FROM INFANTRY DRILL REGULATIONS.

UNITED STATES ARMY, 1911.

[Corrected to April 15, 1917.]


SECTION 1. DEFINITIONS.

ALIGNMENT: A straight line upon which several elements are formed,
or are to be formed; or the dressing of several elements upon
a straight line.

BASE: The element on which a movement is regulated.

BATTLE SIGHT: The position of the rear sight when the leaf is
laid down.

CENTER: The middle point or element of a command.

COLUMN: A formation in which the elements are placed one behind
another.

DEPLOY: To extend the front. In general to change from column
to line, or from close order to extended order.

DEPTH: The space from head to rear of any formation, including
the leading and rear elements. The depth of a man is assumed
to be 12 inches.

DISTANCE: Space between elements in the direction of depth. Distance
is measured from the bark of the man in front to the breast of
the man in rear. The distance between ranks is 40 inches in both
line and column.

ELEMENT: A file, squad, platoon, company, or larger body, forming
part of a still larger body.

FILE: Two men, the front-rank man and the corresponding man of
the rear rank. The front-rank man is the FILE LEADER. A file
which has no rear-rank man is a BLANK file. The term FILE applies
also to a single man in a single-rank formation.

FILE CLOSERS: Such officers and noncommissioned officers of a
company as are posted in rear of the line. For convenience, all
men posted in the line of file closers.

FLANK: The right or left of a command in line or in column: also
the element on the right or left of the line.

FORMATION: Arrangement of the elements of a command. The placing
of all fractions in their order in line, in column, or for battle.

FRONT: The space, in width, occupied by an element, either in
line or in column. The front of a man is assumed to be 22 inches.
Front also denotes the direction of the enemy.

GUIDE: An officer, noncommissioned officer, or private upon whom
the command or elements thereof regulates its march.

HEAD: The leading element of a column.

INTERVAL: Space between elements of the same line. The interval
between men in ranks is 4 inches, and is measured from elbow to
elbow. Between companies, squads, etc., it is measured from the
left elbow of the left man or guide of the group on the right
to the right elbow of the right man or guide of the group on
the left.

LEFT: The left extremity or element of a body of troops.

LINE: A formation in which the different elements are abreast
of each other.

ORDER, CLOSE: The formation in which the units, in double rank,
are arranged in line or in column with normal intervals and
distances.

ORDER, EXTENDED: The formation in which the units are separated
by intervals greater than in close order.

PACE: Thirty inches; the length of the full step in quick time.

POINT OF REST: The point at which a formation begins. Specifically,
the point toward which units are aligned in successive movements.

RANK: A line of men placed side by side.

RIGHT: The right extremity or element of a body of troops.


PART I.--DRILL.


SECTION 2.--INTRODUCTION.

1.[4] Success in battle is the ultimate object of all military
training; success may be looked for only when the training is
intelligent and thorough.

[Footnote 4: The numbers refer to paragraphs in the Infantry Drill
Regulations, 1911.]

2. Commanding officers are accountable for the proper training
of their respective organizations within the limits prescribed
by regulations and orders.

The excellence of an organization is judged by its field efficiency.
The field efficiency of an organization depends primarily upon
its effectiveness as a whole. Thoroughness and uniformity in
the training of the units of an organization are indispensable
to the efficiency of the whole; it is by such means alone that
the requisite teamwork may be developed.

3. Simple movements and elastic formations are essential to correct
training for battle.

4. The Drill Regulations are furnished as a guide. They provide
the principles for training and for increasing the probability
of success in battle.

In the interpretation of the regulations, the spirit must be
sought. Quibbling over the minutiæ of form is indicative of failure
to grasp the spirit.

5. The principles of combat are considered in Part II of these
regulations. They are treated in the various schools included in
Part I only to the extent necessary to indicate the functions of
the various commanders and the division of responsibility between
them. The amplification necessary to a proper understanding of
their application is to be sought in Part II.

6. The following important distinctions must be observed:

(a) Drills executed AT ATTENTION and the ceremonies are DISCIPLINARY
EXERCISES designed to teach precise and soldierly movement, and
to inculcate that prompt and subconscious obedience which is
essential to proper military control. To this end smartness and
precision should be exacted in the execution of every detail.
Such drills should be frequent, but short.

(b) The purpose of EXTENDED ORDER DRILL is to teach the mechanism
of deployment, of the firings, and, in general, of the employment
of troops in combat. Such drills are in the nature of disciplinary
exercises and should be frequent, thorough, and exact in order
to habituate men to the firm control of their leaders. Extended
order drill is executed at ease. The company is the largest unit
which executes extended order drill.

(c) FIELD EXERCISES are for instruction in the duties incident to
campaign. Assumed situations are employed. Each exercise should
conclude with a discussion, on the ground, of the exercise and
principles involved.

(d) The COMBAT EXERCISE, a form of field exercise of the company,
battalion, and larger units, consists of the APPLICATION OF TACTICAL
PRINCIPLES to assumed situations, employing in the execution
the appropriate formations and movements of close and extended
order.

Combat exercises must simulate, as far as possible, the battle
conditions assumed. In order to familiarize both officers and men
with such conditions, companies and battalions will frequently
be consolidated to provide war-strength organizations. Officers
and noncommissioned officers not required to complete the full
quota of the units participating are assigned as observers or
umpires.

The firing line can rarely be controlled by the voice alone;
thorough training to insure the proper use of prescribed signals
is necessary.

The exercise should be followed by a brief drill at attention
in order to restore smartness and control.

7. In field exercises the enemy is said to be IMAGINARY when
his position and force are merely assumed; OUTLINED when his
position and force are indicated by a few men; REPRESENTED when
a body of troop acts as such.


General Rules for Drills and Formations.

8. When the PREPARATORY commands consists of more than one part
its elements are arranged as follows:

(1) For movements to be executed successively by the subdivisions
or elements of an organization: (a) Description of the movement;
(b) how executed, or on what element executed.

(2) For movements to be executed simultaneously by the subdivisions
of an organization: (a) The designation of the subdivisions; (b)
the movement to be executed.

9. Movements that may be executed toward either flank are explained
as toward but one flank, it being necessary to substitute the word
"left" for "right," and the reverse, to have the explanation of
the corresponding movement toward the other flank. The commands
are given for the execution of the movements toward either flank.
The substitute word of the command is placed within parentheses.

10. Any movement may be executed either from the halt or when
marching, unless otherwise prescribed. If at a halt, the command
for movements involving marching need not be prefaced by forward,
as 1. _Column_right_(left)_, 2. MARCH.

11. Any movement not specially excepted may be executed in double
time.

If at a halt, or if marching in quick time, the command double
time precedes the command of execution.

12. In successive movements executed in double time the leading or
base unit marches in QUICK TIME when not otherwise prescribed; the
other units march in DOUBLE TIME to their places in the formation
ordered and then conform to the gait of the leading or base unit.
If marching in double time, the command DOUBLE TIME is omitted.
The leading or base unit marches in QUICK TIME; the other units
continue at DOUBLE TIME to their places in the formation ordered
and then conform to the gait of the leading or base unit.

13. To hasten the execution of a movement begun in quick time,
the command: 1. _Double_time_, 2. MARCH, is given. The leading
or base unit continues to march in quick time, or remains at a
halt if already halted; the other units complete the execution
of the movement in double time and then conform to the gait of
the leading or base unit.

14. To stay the execution of a movement when marching, for the
correction of errors, the command: 1. _In_place_, 2. HALT, is
given. All halt and stand fast, without changing the position of
the pieces. To resume the movement the command: 1. _Resume_,
2. MARCH, is given.

15. To revoke a preparatory command, or, being at a halt to begin
anew a movement improperly begun, the command, AS YOU WERE, is
given, at which the movement ceases and the former position is
resumed.

16. Unless otherwise announced, the guide of a company or subdivision
of a company in line is right; of a battalion in line or line of
subdivisions or of a deployed line, center; of a rank in column
of squads, toward the side of the guide of the company.

To march with guide other than as prescribed above, or to change
the guide: Guide (right, left, or center).

In successive formations into line, the guide is toward the point
of rest; in platoons or larger subdivisions it is so announced.

The announcement of the guide, when given in connection with a
movement, follows the command of execution for that movement.
Exception: 1. _As_skirmishers,_guide_right_(left_or_center)_,
2. MARCH.

17. The TURN ON THE FIXED PIVOT by subdivisions is used in all
formations from line into column and the reverse.

The TURN ON THE MOVING PIVOT is used by subdivisions of a column
in executing changes of direction.

18. Partial changes of direction may be executed:

By interpolating in the preparatory command the word HALF, as
COLUMN HALF RIGHT (LEFT), or RIGHT (LEFT) HALF TURN. A change
of direction of 45° is executed.

By the command: INCLINE TO THE RIGHT (LEFT). The guide, or guiding
element, moves in the indicated direction and the remainder of
the command conforms. This movement effects slight changes of
direction.

19. The designations LINE OF PLATOON, LINE OF COMPANIES, LINE OF
BATTALIONS, etc., refer to the formations in which the platoons,
companies, battalions, etc., each in column of squads, are in
line.

20. Full distance in column of subdivisions is such that in forming
line to the right or left the subdivisions will have their proper
intervals.

In column of subdivisions the guide of the leading subdivision is
charged with the step and direction; the guides in rear preserve
the trace, step, and distance.

21. In close order, all details, detachments, and other bodies
of troops are habitually formed in double rank.

To insure uniformity of interval between files when falling in,
and in alignments, each man places the palm of the left hand
upon the hip, fingers pointing downward. In the first case the
hand is dropped by the side when the next man on the left has
his interval; in the second case, at the command front.

22. The posts of officers, noncommissioned officers, special
units (such as band or machine-gun company), etc., in the various
formations of the company, battalion, or regiment, are shown in
plates.

In all changes from one formation to another involving a change
of post on the part of any of these, posts are promptly taken
by the most convenient route as soon as practicable after the
command of execution for the movement; officers and noncommissioned
officers who have prescribed duties in connection with the movement
ordered, take their new posts when such duties are completed.

As instructors, officers and noncommissioned officers go wherever
their presence is necessary. As file closers it is their duty
to rectify mistakes and insure steadiness and promptness in the
ranks.

23. Except at ceremonies, the special units have no fixed places.
They take places as directed; in the absence of directions, they
conform as nearly as practicable to the plates, and in subsequent
movements maintain their relative positions with respect to the
flank or end of the command on which they were originally posted.

24. General, field, and staff officers are habitually mounted.
The staff of an officer forms in single rank 3 paces in rear of
him, the right or the rank extending 1 pace to the right of a point
directly in rear of him. Members of the staff are arranged in order
from right to left as follows: General staff officers, adjutant,
aids, other staff officers, arranged in each classification in
order of rank, the senior on the right. The flag of the general
officer and the orderlies are 3 paces in rear of the staff, the
flag on the right. When necessary to reduce the front of the
staff and orderlies, each line executes twos right or fours right,
as explained in the Cavalry Drill Regulations, and follows the
commander.

When not otherwise prescribed, staff officers draw and return
saber with their chief.

25. In making the about, an officer, mounted, habitually turns
to the left.

When the commander faces to give commands, the staff, flag, and
orderlies do not change position.

26. When making or receiving official reports, or on meeting out
of doors all officers will salute.

Military courtesy requires the junior to salute first, but when
the salute is introductory to a report made at a military ceremony
or formation, to the representative of a common superior (as,
for example, to the adjutant, officer of the day, etc.), the
officer making the report, whatever his rank, will salute first.
The officer to whom the report is made will acknowledge by saluting
that he has received and understood the report.

27. For ceremonies, all mounted enlisted men of a regiment or
smaller unit, except those belonging to the machine-gun
organizations, are consolidated into a detachment. The senior
present commands if no officer is in charge. The detachment is
formed as a platoon or squad of Cavalry in line or column of
fours. Noncommissioned staff officers are on the right or in the
leading ranks.

28. For ceremonies, such of the noncommissioned staff officers
as are dismounted are formed 5 paces in rear of the color in
order of rank from right to left. In column of squads they march
as file closers.

29. Other than for ceremonies, noncommissioned stare officers
and orderlies accompany their immediate chiefs unless otherwise
directed. If mounted, the noncommissioned staff officers are
ordinarily posted on the right or at the head of the orderlies.

30. In all formations and movements a noncommissioned officer
commanding a platoon or company carries his piece as the men
do, if he is so armed, and takes the same post as an officer in
like situation. When the command is formed in line for ceremonies
a noncommissioned officer commanding a company takes post on the
right of the right guide after the company has been aligned.


SECTION 3. ORDERS, COMMANDS, AND SIGNALS.

31. COMMANDS only are employed in drill at attention. Otherwise
either a COMMAND, SIGNAL, or ORDER is employed, as best suits
the occasion, or one may he used in conjunction with another.

32. Signals should be freely used in instruction, in order that
officers and men may readily know them. In making firm signals
the saber, rifle, or headdress may be held in the hand.

33. Officers and men fix their attention at the first word of
command, the first note of the bugle or whistle, or the first
motion of the signal. A signal includes both the preparatory
command and the command of execution: the movement commences as
soon as the signal is understood, unless otherwise prescribed.

34. Except in movements executed AT ATTENTION, commanders or
leaders of subdivisions repeat orders, commands, or signals whenever
such repetition is deemed necessary to insure prompt and correct
execution.

Officers, battalion noncommissioned staff officers, platoon leaders,
guides, and musicians are equipped with whistles.

The major and his staff will use a whistle of distinctive tone;
the captain and company musicians a second and distinctive whistle;
the platoon leaders and guides a third distinctive whistle.

35. Prescribed signals are limited to such as are essential as
a substitute for the voice under conditions which render the
voice inadequate.

Before or during an engagement special signals may be agreed
upon to facilitate the solution of such special difficulties
as the particular situation is likely to develop, but it must
be remembered that simplicity and certainty are indispensable
qualities of a signal.


ORDERS.

36. In these regulations an ORDER embraces instructions or directions
given orally or in writing in terms suited to the particular
occasion and not prescribed herein.

ORDERS are employed only when the COMMANDS prescribed herein do
not sufficiently indicate the will of the commander.

ORDERS are more fully described in paragraphs 378 to 383, inclusive.


COMMANDS.

37. In these regulations a command is the will of the commander
expressed in the phraseology prescribed herein.

38. There are two kinds of commands:

The PREPARATORY command, such as _forward_, indicates the
movement that is to be executed.

The command of EXECUTION, such as MARCH, HALT, or ARMS, causes
the execution.

Preparatory commands are distinguished by _italics_, those
of execution by CAPITALS.

Where it is not mentioned in the text who gives the commands
prescribed, they are to be given by the commander of the unit
concerned.

The PREPARATORY command should be given at such an interval of
time before the command of EXECUTION as to admit of being properly
understood; the command of EXECUTION should be given at the instant
the movement is to commence.

The tone of command is animated, distinct, and of a loudness
proportioned to the number of men for whom it is intended.

Each PREPARATORY command is enunciated distinctly, with a rising
inflection at the end, and in such manner that the command of
EXECUTION may he more energetic.

The command of EXECUTION is firm in tone and brief.

39. Majors and commanders of units larger than a battalion repeat
such commands of their superiors as are to be executed by their
units, facing their units for that purpose. The battalion is the
largest unit that executes a movement at the command of execution
of its commander.

40. When giving commands to troops it is usually best to face
toward them.

Indifference in giving commands must be avoided, as it leads
to laxity in execution. Commands should be given with spirit at
all times.


BUGLE SIGNALS.

41. The authorized bugle signals are published in Part V of these
regulations.

The following bugle signals may be used off the battle field,
when not likely to convey information to the enemy:

ATTENTION: Troops are brought to attention.

ATTENTION TO ORDERS: Troops fix their attention.

FORWARD, MARCH: Used also to execute quick time from double time.

DOUBLE TIME, MARCH.

TO THE REAR, MARCH: In close order, execute SQUADS RIGHT ABOUT.

HALT.

ASSEMBLE, MARCH.

The following bugle signals may be used on the battlefield:

FIX BAYONETS.

CHARGE.

ASSEMBLE, MARCH.

These signals are used only when intended for the entire firing
line; hence they can be authorized only by the commander of a unit
(for example, a regiment or brigade) which occupies a distinct
section of the battle field. Exception: FIX BAYONET. (see par.
318.)

The following bugle signals are used in exceptional cases on
the battle field. Their principal uses are in field exercises
and practice firing.

COMMENCE FIRING: Officers charged with fire direction and control
open fire as soon as practicable. When given to a firing line,
the signal is equivalent to fire at will.

CEASE FIRING: All parts of the line execute CEASE FIRING at once.
These signals are not used by units smaller than a regiment, except
when such unit is independent or detached from its regiment.


WHISTLE SIGNALS.

42. ATTENTION TO ORDERS. A SHORT BLAST of the whistle. This signal
is used on the march or in combat when necessary to fix the attention
of troops, or of their commanders or leaders, preparatory to
giving commands, orders, or signals.

When the firing line is firing, each squad leader suspends firing
and fixes his attention at a SHORT BLAST of his platoon leader's
whistle. The platoon leader's subsequent commands or signals are
repeated and enforced by the squad leader. If a squad leader's
attention is attracted by a whistle other than that of his platoon
leader, or if there are no orders or commands to convey to his
squad, he resumes firing at once.

SUSPEND FIRING. A LONG BLAST of the whistle.

All other whistle signals are prohibited.


ARM SIGNALS.

43. The following arm signals are prescribed. In making signals
either arm may be used. Officers who receive signals, on the
firing line "repeat back" at once to prevent misunderstanding.

FORWARD, MARCH. Carry the hand to the shoulder; straighten and
hold the arm horizontally, thrusting it in direction of march.

This signal is also used to execute quick time from double time.

HALT. Carry the hand to the shoulder; thrust the hand upward and
hold the arm vertically.

DOUBLE TIME, MARCH. Carry the hand to the shoulder; rapidly thrust
the hand upward the full extent of the arm several times.

SQUADS RIGHT, MARCH. Raise the arm laterally until horizontal;
carry it to a vertical position above the head and swing it several
times between the vertical and horizontal positions.

SQUADS LEFT, MARCH. Raise the arm laterally until horizontal;
carry it downward to the side and swing it several times between
the downward and horizontal positions.

SQUADS RIGHT ABOUT, MARCH (if in close order) or, TO THE REAR,
MARCH (if in skirmish line). Extend the arm vertically above
the head; carry it laterally downward to the side and swing it
several times between the vertical and downward positions.

CHANGE DIRECTION OR COLUMN RIGHT (LEFT), MARCH. The hand on the
side toward which the change of direction is to be made is carried
across the body to the opposite shoulder, forearm horizontal;
then swing in a horizontal plane, arm extended, pointing in the
new direction.

AS SKIRMISHERS, MARCH. Raise both arms laterally until horizontal.

AS SKIRMISHERS, GUIDE CENTER, MARCH. Raise both arms laterally
until horizontal; swing both simultaneously upward until vertical
and return to the horizontal; repeat several times.

AS SKIRMISHERS, GUIDE RIGHT (LEFT), MARCH. Raise both arms laterally
until horizontal; hold the arm on the side of the guide steadily
in the horizontal position; swing the other upward until vertical
and return it to the horizontal; repeat several times.

ASSEMBLE, MARCH. Raise the arm vertically to its full extent and
describe horizontal circles.

RANGE, or CHANGE ELEVATION. To announce RANGE, extend the arm
toward the leaders or men for whom the signal is intended, fist
closed; by keeping fist closed battle sight is indicated; by
opening and closing the fist, expose thumb and fingers to a number
equal to the hundreds of yards; to add 50 yards describe a short
horizontal line with forefinger. To CHANGE ELEVATION, indicate
the amount of increase or decrease by fingers as above; point
upward to indicate increase and downward to indicate decrease.

WHAT RANGE ARE YOU USING? or WHAT IS THE RANGE? Extend the arms
toward the person addressed, one hand open, palm to the front,
resting on the other hand, fist closed.

ARE YOU READY? or I AM READY. Raise the hand, fingers extended
and joined, palm toward the person addressed.

COMMENCE FIRING. Move the arm extended in full length, hand palm
down, several times through a horizontal arc in front of the
body.

FIRE FASTER. Execute rapidly the signal "Commence firing."

FIRE SLOWER. Execute slowly the signal "Commence firing."

TO SWING THE CONE OF FIRE TO THE RIGHT, OR LEFT. Extend the arm
in full length to the front, palm to the right (left); swing
the arm to right (left), and point in the direction of the new
target.

FIX BAYONET. Simulate the movement of the right hand in "Fix
bayonet" (par. 95).--(_C._I._D._R.,_No._14,_May_18,_1916._)

SUSPEND FIRING. Raise and hold the forearm steadily in a horizontal
position in front of the forehead, palm of the hand to the front.

CEASE FIRING. Raise the forearm as in SUSPEND FIRING and swing
it up and down several times in front of the face.

PLATOON. Extend the arm horizontally toward the platoon leader;
describe small circles with the hand. (See par. 44.)

SQUAD. Extend the arm horizontally toward the platoon leader;
swing the hand up and down from the wrist. (See par. 44.)

RUSH. Same as double time.

44. The signals PLATOON and SQUAD are intended primarily for
communication between the captain and his platoon leaders. The
signal PLATOON or SQUAD indicates that the platoon commander
is to cause the signal which follows to be executed by platoon
or squad.


FLAG SIGNALS.

45. The signal flags described below are carried by the company
musicians in the field.

In a regiment in which it is impracticable to make the permanent
battalion division alphabetically, the flags of a battalion are
as shown; flags are assigned to the companies alphabetically,
within their respective battalions, in the order given below.

First battalion:
    Company A. Red field, white square.
    Company B. Red field, blue square.
    Company C. Red field, white diagonals.
    Company D. Red field, blue diagonals.
Second battalion:
    Company E. White field, red square.
    Company F. White field, blue square.
    Company G. White field, red diagonals.
    Company H. White field, blue diagonals.
Third battalion:
    Company I. Blue field, red square.
    Company K. Blue field, white square.
    Company L. Blue field, red diagonals.
    Company M. Blue field, white diagonals.

46. In addition to their use in visual signaling, these flags
serve to mark the assembly point of the company when disorganized
by combat, and to mark the location of the company in bivouac
and elsewhere, when such use is desirable.

47. (1) For communication between the firing line and the reserve
or commander in the rear, the subjoined signals (Signal Corps
codes) are prescribed and should be memorized. In transmission,
their concealment from the enemy's view should be insured. In
the absence of signal flags, the headdress or other substitute
may be used.

-------------+--------------------------+--------------------------
  Letter of  |If signaled from the rear |  If signaled from the
  alphabet   |   to the firing line.    | firing line to the rear.
-------------+--------------------------+--------------------------
A M          |Ammunition going forward. |Ammunition required.
C C C        |Charge (mandatory at all  |Am about to charge if
             | times).                  | no instructions to the
             |                          | contrary.
C F          |Cease firing.             |Cease firing.
D T          |Double time or "rush".    |Double time or "rush".
F            |Commence firing.          |Commence firing.
F B          |Fix bayonets.             |Fix bayonets.
F L          |Artillery fire is causing |Artillery fire is causing
             | us losses.               | us losses.
G            |Move forward              |Preparing to move forward.
H H H        |Halt.                     |Halt.
K            |Negative                  |Negative.
L T          |Left.                     |Left.
O            |What is the (R. N.,       |What is the (R. N.,
(Ardois and  |  etc.?) Interrogatory.   |  etc.)? Interrogatory.
 Semaphore   |                          |
 only.)      |                          |
O            |     do                   |    Do.
(All methods |                          |
 but ardois &|                          |
 semaphore.) |                          |
P            |Affirmative               |Affirmative.
R            |Acknowledgment.           |Acknowledgment.
R N          |Range.                    |Range.
R T          |Right.                    |Right.
S S S        |Support going forward.    |Support needed.
S U F        |Suspend firing.           |Suspend firing.
T            |Target.                   |Target.
-------------+--------------------------+--------------------------

(2) THE TWO-ARM SEMAPHORE CODE.

(See illustrations in chapter XII.)


SECTION 4. SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER.

48. The instructor explains briefly each movement, first executing
it himself if practicable. He requires the recruits to take the
proper positions unassisted and does not touch them for the purpose
of correcting them, except when they are unable to correct
themselves. He avoids keeping them too long at the same movement,
although each should be understood before passing to another.
He exacts by degrees the desired precision and uniformity.

49. In order that all may advance as rapidly as their abilities
permit, the recruits are grouped according to proficiency as
instruction progresses. Those who lack aptitude and quickness
are separated from the others and placed under experienced drill
masters.


INSTRUCTION WITHOUT ARMS.

50. For preliminary instruction a number of recruits, usually
not exceeding three or four, are formed as a squad in single
rank.


POSITION OF THE SOLDIER, OR ATTENTION.

51. Heels on the same line and as near each other us the conformation
of the man permits.

Feet turned out equally and forming an angle of about 45°.

Knees straight, without stiffness.

Hips level and drawn back slightly; body erect and resting equally
on hips; chest lifted and arched; shoulders square and falling
equally.

Arms and hands hanging naturally, thumb along the seam of the
trousers.

Head erect and squarely to the front, chin drawn in so that the
axis of the head and neck is vertical; eyes straight to the front.

Weight of the body resting equally upon the heels and balls of
the feet.


THE RESTS.

52. Being at a halt, the commands are: FALL OUT; REST; AT EASE;
and, 1. _Parade_, 2. REST.

At the command FALL OUT, the men may leave the ranks, but are
required to remain in the immediate vicinity. They resume their
former places, at attention, at the command FALL IN.

At the command REST each man keeps one foot in place, but is not
required to preserve silence or immobility.

At the command at ease each man keeps one foot in place and is
required to preserve silence but not immobility.

53. 1. _Parade_, 2. REST. Carry the right foot 6 inches
straight to the rear, left knee slightly bent; clasp the hands,
without constraint, in front of the center of the body, fingers
joined, left hand uppermost, left thumb clasped by the thumb and
forefinger of the right hand; preserve silence and steadiness
of position.

54. To resume the attention: 1. _Squad_, 2. ATTENTION.

The men take the position of the soldier.


EYES RIGHT OR LEFT.

55. 1. _Eyes_, 2. RIGHT (LEFT), 3. FRONT.

At the command right, turn the head to the right oblique, eyes
fixed on the line of eye of the men in, or supposed to be in,
the same rank. At the command front, turn the head and eyes to
the front.


FACINGS.

56. To the flank: 1. _Right_(left)_, 2. FACE. Raise
slightly the left heel and right toe; face to the right turning
on the right heel, assisted by a slight pressure on the ball of
the left foot; place the left foot by the side of the right. Left
face is executed on the left heel in the corresponding manner.

Right (left) half face is executed similarly, facing 45°.

"To face in marching" and advance, turn on the ball of either foot
and step off with the other foot in the new line of direction;
to face in marching without gaining ground in the new direction,
turn on the ball of either foot and mark time.

57. To the rear: 1. _About_, 2. FACE.

Carry the toe of the right foot about a half foot-length to the
rear and slightly to the left of the left heel without changing
the position of the left foot; face to the rear, turning to the
right on the left heel and right toe; place the right heel by
the side of the left.


SALUTE WITH THE HAND.

58. 1. _Hand_, 2. SALUTE.

Raise the right hand smartly till the tip of the forefinger touches
the lower part of the headdress or forehead above the right eye,
thumb and fingers extended and joined, palm to the left, forearm
inclined at about 45°, hand and wrist straight; at the same time
look toward the person saluted. (TWO) Drop the arm smartly by
the side.

For rules governing salutes, see "Honors and Salutes," paragraphs
758-765.


STEPS AND MARCHINGS.

59. All steps and marchings executed from a halt, except right
step, begin with the left foot.

60. The length of the full step in quick time is 30 inches, measured
from heel to heel, and the cadence is at the rate of 120 steps
per minute.

The length of the full step in double time is 36 inches; the cadence
is at the rate of 180 steps per minute.

The instructor, when necessary, indicates the cadence of the step
by calling ONE, TWO, THREE, FOUR, or LEFT, RIGHT, the instant
the left and right root, respectively, should be planted.

61. All steps and marchings and movements involving march are
executed in QUICK TIME unless the squad be marching in DOUBLE
TIME, or DOUBLE TIME be added to the command: in the latter case
DOUBLE TIME is added to the preparatory command. Example: 1.
_Squad_right,_double_time_, 2. MARCH (School of the Squad).


QUICK TIME.

62. Being at a halt, to march forward in quick time: 1.
_Forward_, 2. MARCH.

At the command FORWARD, shift the weight of the body to the right
leg, left knee straight.

At the command MARCH, move the left foot smartly straight forward
30 inches from the right, sole near the ground, and plant it
without shock; next, in like manner, advance the right foot and
plant it as above; continue the march. The arms swing naturally.

63. Being at a halt, or in march in quick time, to march in double
time; 1. _Double_time_, 2. MARCH.

If at a halt, at the first command shift the weight of the body
to the right leg. At the command MARCH, raise the forearms, fingers
closed, to a horizontal position along the waist line; take up
an easy run with the step and cadence of double time, allowing
a natural swinging motion to the arms.

If marching in quick time, at the command MARCH, given as either
foot strikes the ground, take one step in quick time, and then
step off in double time.

64. To resume the quick time: 1. _Quick_time_, 2. MARCH.

At the command MARCH, given as either foot strikes the ground,
advance and plant the other foot in double time; resume the quick
time, dropping the hands by the sides.


TO MARK TIME.

65. Being in march; 1. _Mark_time_, 2. MARCH.

At the command MARCH, given as either foot strikes the ground,
advance and plant the other foot; bring up the foot in rear and
continue the cadence by alternately raising each foot about 2
inches and planting it on line with the other.

Being at a halt, at the command MARCH, raise and plant the feet
as described above.


THE HALF STEP.

66. 1. _Half_step_, 2. MARCH.

Take steps of 15 inches in quick time, 18 inches in double time.

67. FORWARD, HALF STEP, HALT, and MARK TIME may be executed one
from the other in quick or double time.

To resume the full step from half step or mark time: 1.
_Forward_, 2. MARCH.


SIDE STEP.

68. Being at a halt or mark time: 1. _Right_(left)_step_,
2. MARCH.

Carry and plant the right foot 15 inches to the right; bring
the left foot beside it and continue the movement in the cadence
of quick time.

The side step is used for short distances only and is not executed
in double time.

If at order arms, the side step is executed AT TRAIL without command.


BACK STEP.

69. Being at a halt or mark time: 1. _Backward_, 2. MARCH.

Take steps of 15 inches straight to the rear.

The back step is used for short distances only and is not executed
in double time.

If at order arms, the back step is executed AT TRAIL without command.


TO HALT.

70. To arrest the march in quick or double time: 1. _Squad_,
2. HALT.

At the command HALT, given as either foot strikes the ground,
plant the other foot as in marching; raise and place the first
foot by the side of the other. If in double time, drop the hands
by the sides.


TO MARCH BY THE FLANK.

71. Being in march: 1. _By_the_right_(left)_flank_, 2. MARCH.

At the command MARCH, given as the right foot strikes the ground,
advance and plant the left foot, then face to the right in marching
and step off in the new direction with the right foot.


TO MARCH TO THE REAR.

72. Being in march: 1. _To_the_rear_, 2. MARCH.

At the command MARCH, given as the right foot strikes the ground,
advance and plant the left foot; turn to the right about on the
balls of both feet and immediately step off with the left foot.

If marching in double time, turn to the right about, taking four
steps in place, keeping the cadence, and then step off with the
left foot.


CHANGE STEP.

73. Being in march: 1. _Change_step_, 2. MARCH.

At the command march, given as the right foot strikes the ground,
advance and plant the left foot; plant the toe of the right foot
near the heel of the left and step off with the left foot.

The charge on the right foot is similarly executed, the command
MARCH being given as the left foot strikes the ground.


MANUAL OF ARMS.

74. As soon as practicable the recruit is taught the use,
nomenclature (Pl. 1), and care of his rifle; when fair progress
has been made in the instruction without arms, he is taught the
manual of arms; instruction without arms and that with arms
alternate.

75. The following rules govern the carrying of the piece:

First. The piece is not carried with cartridges in either the
chamber or the magazine except when specifically ordered. When
so loaded, or supposed to be loaded, it is habitually carried
locked; that is, with the safety lock turned to the "safe."

At all other times it is carried unlocked, with the trigger pulled.

Second. Whenever troops are formed under arms, pieces are immediately
inspected at the commands: 1. _Inspection_, 2. ARMS; 3.
_Order_(Right_shoulder,_port)_, 4. ARMS.

A similar inspection is made immediately before dismissal.

If cartridges are found in the chamber or magazine, they are removed
and placed in the belt.

Third. The cut-off is kept turned "off" except when cartridges
are actually used.

Fourth. The bayonet is not fixed except in bayonet exercise, on
guard, or for combat.

Fifth. Fall in is executed with the piece at the order arms. FALL
OUT, REST, and AT EASE are executed as without arms. On resuming
ATTENTION the position of order arms is taken.

Sixth. If at the order, unless otherwise prescribed, the piece
is brought to the right shoulder at the command MARCH, the three
motions corresponding with the first three steps. Movements may
be executed at the trail by prefacing the preparatory command
with the words AT TRAIL; as, 1. _At_trail,_forward_, 2.
MARCH; the trail is taken at the command march.

When the facings, alignments, open and close ranks, taking interval
or distance, and assemblings are executed from the order, raise
the piece to the trail while in motion and resume the order on
halting.

Seventh. The piece is brought to the order on halting. The execution
of the order begins when the halt is completed.

Eighth. A disengaged hand in double time is held as when without
arms.

76. The following rules govern the execution of the manual of
arms:

First. In all positions of the left hand at the balance (center
of gravity, bayonet unfixed) the thumb clasps the piece; the
sling is included in the grasp of the hand.

Second. In all positions of the piece "diagonally across the
body" the position of the piece, left arm and hand are the same
as in port arms.

Third. In resuming the order from any position in the manual,
the motion next to the last concludes with the butt of the piece
about 3 inches from the ground, barrel to the rear, the left hand
above and near the right, steadying the piece, fingers extended
and joined, forearm and wrist straight and inclining downward,
all fingers of the right hand grasping the piece. To complete
the order, lower the piece gently to the ground with the right
hand, drop the left quickly by the side, and take the position
of order arms.

Allowing the piece to drop through the right hand to the ground,
or other similar abuse of the rifle to produce effect in executing
the manual, is prohibited.

Fourth. The cadence of the motions is that of quick time; the
recruits are first required to give their whole attention to the
details of the motions, the cadence being gradually acquired as
they become accustomed to handling their pieces. The instructor
may require them to count aloud in cadence with the motions.

Fifth. The manual is taught at a halt and the movements are, for
the purpose of instruction, divided into motions and executed
in detail; in this case the command of EXECUTION determines the
prompt execution of the first motion, and the commands, two,
three, four, that of the other motions.

To execute the movements in detail, the instructor first cautions:
BY THE NUMBERS; all movements divided into motions are then executed
as above explained until he cautions: WITHOUT THE NUMBERS; or
commands movements other than those in the manual of arms.

Sixth. Whenever circumstances require, the regular positions of
the manual of arms and the firings may be ordered without regard
to the previous position of the piece.

Under exceptional conditions of weather or fatigue the rifle may
be carried in any manner directed.

77. POSITION OF ORDER ARMS STANDING: The butt rests evenly on
the ground, barrel to the rear, toe of the butt on a line with
toe of, and touching, the right shoe, arms and hands hanging
naturally, right hand holding the piece between the thumb and
fingers.

78. Being at order arms: 1. _Present_, 2. ARMS.

With the right hand carry the piece in front of the center of
the body, barrel to the rear and vertical, grasp it with the
left hand at the balance, forearm horizontal and resting against
the body. (TWO) Grasp the small of the stock with the right hand.

79. Being at order arms: 1. _Port_, 2. ARMS.

With the right hand raise and throw the piece diagonally across
the body. grasp it smartly with both hands; the right palm down,
at the small of the stock; the left palm up, at the balance;
barrel up, sloping to the left and crossing opposite the junction
of the neck with the left shoulder; right forearm horizontal;
left forearm resting against the body; the piece in a vertical
plane parallel to the front.

80. Being at present arms: 1. _Port_, 2. ARMS.

Carry the piece diagonally across the body and take the position
of port arms.

81. Being at port arms: 1. _Present_, 2. ARMS.

Carry the piece to a vertical position in front of the center
of the body and take the position of present arms.

82. Being at present or port arms: 1. _Order_, 2. ARMS.

Let go with the right hand; lower and carry the piece to the
right with the left hand; regrasp it with the right hand just
above the lower band; let go with the left hand, and take the
next to the last position in coming to the order, (TWO) Complete
the order.

83. Being at order arms: 1. _Right_shoulder_, 2. ARMS.

With the right hand raise and throw the piece diagonally across
the body; carry the right hand quickly to the butt, embracing it,
the heel between the first two fingers. (TWO) Without changing the
grasp of the right hand, place the piece on the right shoulder,
barrel up and inclined at an angle of about 45º from the horizontal,
trigger guard in the hollow of the shoulder, right elbow near
the side, the piece in a vertical plane perpendicular to the
front; carry the left hand, thumb and fingers extended and joined,
to the small of the stock, tip of the forefinger touching the
cocking piece, wrist straight and elbow down. (THREE) Drop the
left hand by the side.

84. Being at right shoulder arms: 1. _Order_, 2. ARMS.

Press the butt down quickly and throw the piece diagonally across
the body, the right hand retaining the grasp of the butt. (TWO),
(THREE) Execute order arms us described from port arms.

85. Being at port arms: 1. _Right_shoulder_, 2. ARMS.

Change the right hand to the butt. (TWO), (THREE) As in right
shoulder arms from order arms.

86. Being at right shoulder arms: 1. _Port_, 2. ARMS.

Press the butt down quickly and throw the piece diagonally across
the body, the right hand retaining its grasp of the butt. (TWO)
Change the right hand to the small of the stock.

87. Being at right shoulder arms: 1. _Present_, 2. ARMS.

Execute port arms. (THREE) Execute present arms.

88. Being at present arms: 1. _Right_shoulder_, 2. ARMS.

Execute port arms. (TWO), (THREE), (FOUR) Execute right shoulder
arms as from port arms.

89. Being at port arms: 1. _Left_shoulder_, 2. ARMS.

Carry the piece with the right hand and place it on the left
shoulder, barrel up, trigger guard in the hollow of the shoulder;
at the same time grasp the butt with the left hand, heel between
first and second fingers, thumb and fingers closed on the stock.
(TWO) Drop the right hand by the side.

Being at left shoulder arms: 1. _Port_, 2. ARMS.

Grasp the piece with the right hand at the small of the stock.
(TWO) Carry the piece to the right with the right hand, regrasp
it with the left, and take the position of port arms.

LEFT SHOULDER ARMS may be ordered directly from the order, right
shoulder or present, or the reverse. At the command ARMS execute
PORT ARMS and continue in cadence to the position ordered.

90. Being at order arms: 1. _Parade_, 2. REST.

Carry the right foot 6 inches straight to the rear, left knee
slightly bent; carry the muzzle in front of the center of the
body, barrel to the left; grasp the piece with the left hand
just below the stacking swivel, and with the right hand below
and against the left.

Being at parade rest: 1. _Squad_, 2. ATTENTION.

Resume the order, the left hand quitting the piece opposite the
right hip.

91. Being at order arms: 1. _Trail_, 2. ARMS.

Raise the piece, right arm slightly bent, and incline the muzzle
forward so that the barrel makes an angle of about 30º with the
vertical.

When it can be done without danger or inconvenience to others,
the piece may be grasped at the balance and the muzzle lowered
until the piece is horizontal; a similar position in the left
hand may be used.

92. Being at trail arms: 1. _Order_, 2. ARMS.

Lower the piece with the right hand and resume the order.


RIFLE SALUTE.

93. Being at right shoulder arms: 1. _Rifle_, 2. SALUTE.

Carry the left hand smartly to the small of the stock, forearm
horizontal, palm of hand down, thumb and fingers extended and
joined, forefinger touching end of cocking piece; look toward
the person saluted. (TWO) Drop left hand by the side; turn head
and eves to the front.

94. Being at order or trail arms: 1. _Rifle_, 2. SALUTE.

Carry the left hand smartly to the right side, palm of the hand
down, thumb and fingers extended and joined, forefinger against
piece near the muzzle; look toward the person saluted. (TWO)
Drop the left hand by the side; turn the head and eyes to the
front.

For rules governing salutes, see "Honors and Salutes."


THE BAYONET.

95. Being at order arms: 1. _Fix_, 2. BAYONET.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the belt: Execute parade
rest; grasp the bayonet with the right hand, back of hand toward
the body; draw the bayonet from the scabbard and fix it on the
barrel, glancing at the muzzle; resume the order.

If the bayonet is carried on the haversack: Draw the bayonet with
the left hand and fix it in the most convenient manner.

96. Being at order arms: 1. _Unfix_, 2. BAYONET.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the belt: Execute parade
rest; grasp the handle of the bayonet firmly with the right hand,
pressing the spring with the forefinger of the right hand; raise
the bayonet until the handle is about 12 inches above the muzzle
of the piece; drop the point to the left, back of the hand toward
the body, and, glancing at the scabbard, return the bayonet, the
blade passing between the left arm and the body; regrasp the
piece with the right hand and resume the order.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the haversack: Take the
bayonet from the rifle with the left hand find return it to the
scabbard in the most convenient manner.

If marching or lying down, the bayonet is fixed and unfixed in
the most expeditious and convenient manner and the piece returned
to the original position.

Fix and unfix bayonet are executed, with promptness and regularity
but not in cadence.

97. CHARGE BAYONET. Whether executed at halt or in motion, the
bayonet is held toward the opponent as in the position of guard
in the Manual for Bayonet Exercise.

Exercises for instruction in bayonet combat are prescribed in
the Manual for Bayonet Exercise.


THE INSPECTION.

98. Being at order firms: 1. _Inspection_, 2. ARMS.

At the second command take the position of port arms. (TWO) Seize
the bolt handle with the thumb and forefinger of the right hand,
turn the handle up, draw the bolt back, and glance at the chamber.
Having found the chamber empty, or haying emptied it, raise the
head and eyes to the front.

99. Being at inspection arms: 1. _Order_(Right_shoulder,_port)_,
2. ARMS.

At the preparatory command push the bolt forward, turn the handle
down, pull the trigger, and resume port arms. At the command
arms, complete the movement ordered.


TO DISMISS THE SQUAD.

100. Being at halt: 1. _Inspection_, 2. ARMS, 3. _Port_,
4. ARMS, 5. DISMISSED.


SECTION 5. SCHOOL OF THE SQUAD.

101. Soldiers are grouped into squads for purposes of instruction,
discipline, control, and order.

102. The squad proper consists of a corporal and seven privates.

The movements in the School of the Squad are designed to make the
squad a fixed unit find to facilitate the control and movement
of the company. If the number of men grouped is more than 3 and
less than 12, they are formed as a squad of 4 files, the excess
above 8 being posted as file closers. If the number grouped is
greater than 11, 2 or more squads are formed and the group is
termed a platoon.

For the instruction of recruits, these rules may be modified.

103. The corporal is the squad leader, and when absent is replaced
by a designated private. If no private is designated, the senior
in length of service acts as leader.

The corporal, when in ranks, is posted as the left man in the
front rank of the squad.

When the corporal leaves the ranks to lead his squad, his rear
rank man steps into the front rank, and the file remains blank
until the corporal returns to his place in ranks, when his rear
rank man steps back into the rear rank.

104. In battle officers and sergeants endeavor to preserve the
integrity of squads; they designate new leaders to replace those
disabled, organize new squads when necessary, and see that every
man is placed in a squad.

Men are taught the necessity of remaining with the squad to which
they belong and, in case it be broken up or they become separated
therefrom, to attach themselves to the nearest squad and platoon
leaders, whether these be of their own or of another organization.

105. The squad executes the HALT, REST, FACINGS, STEPS, and MARCHINGS
and the MANUAL OF ARMS as explained in the School of the Soldier.


TO FORM THE SQUAD.

106. To form the squad the instructor places himself 3 paces in
front of where the center is to be and commands: FALL IN.

The men assemble at attention, pieces at the order, and are arranged
by the corporal in double rank, as nearly as practicable in order
of height from right to left, each man dropping his left hand
as soon as the man on his left has his interval. The rear rank
forms with distance of 40 inches.

The instructor then commands: COUNT OFF.

At this command all except the right file execute EYES RIGHT,
and beginning on the right, the men in each rank count one, two,
three, four; each man turns his head and eyes to the front as
he counts.

Pieces are then inspected.


ALIGNMENTS.

107. To align the squad, the base file or files having been
established: 1. _Right_(Left)_, 2. DRESS, 3. FRONT.

At the command DRESS all men place the left hand upon the hip
(whether dressing to the right or left); each man, except the
base file, when on or near the new line executes EYES RIGHT,
and, taking steps of 2 or 3 inches, places himself so that his
right arm rests lightly against the arm of the man on his right,
and so that his eyes and shoulders are in line with those of
the men on his right; the rear rank men cover in file.

The instructor verifies the alignment of both ranks from the
right flank and orders up or back such men as may be in rear,
or in advance, of the line; only the men designated move.

At the command front, given when the ranks are aligned, each
man turns his head and eyes to the front and drops his left hand
by his side.

In the first drills the basis of the alignment is established on,
or parallel to, the front of the squad; afterwards, in oblique
directions.

Whenever the position of the base file or files necessitates a
considerable movement by the squad, such movement will be executed
by marching to the front or oblique, to the flank or backward,
as the case may be, without other command, and at the trail.

108. To preserve the alignment when marching: GUIDE RIGHT (LEFT).

The men preserve their intervals from the side of the guide,
yielding to pressure from that side and resisting pressure from the
opposite direction; they recover intervals, if lost, by gradually
opening out or closing in; they recover alignment by slightly
lengthening or shortening the step; the rear-rank men cover their
file leaders at 40 inches.

In double rank, the front-rank man on the right, or designated
flank, conducts the march; when marching faced to the flank,
the lending man of the front rank is the guide.


TO TAKE INTERVALS AND DISTANCES.

109. Being in line at a halt: 1. Take interval, 2. _To_the_right_
_(left)_, 3. MARCH, 4. _Squad_, 5. HALT.

At the second command the rear-rank men march backward 4 steps
and halt; at the command march all face to the right and the
leading man of each rank steps off; the other men step off in
succession, each following the preceding man at 4 paces, rear-rank
men marching abreast of their file leaders.

At the command halt, given when all have their intervals, all
halt and face to the front.

110. Being at intervals, to assemble the squad: 1. _Assemble,_
_to_the_right_(left)_, 2. MARCH.

The front-rank man on the right stands fast, the rear-rank man on
the right closes to 40 inches. The other men face to the right,
close by the shortest line, and face to the front.

111. Being in line at a halt and having counted off: 1. _Take_
_distance_, 2. MARCH, 3. _Squad_, 4. HALT.

At the command march No. 1 of the front rank moves straight to
the front; Nos. 2, 3, and 4 of the front rank and Nos. 1, 2,
3, and 4 of the rear rank, in the order named, move straight
to the front, each stepping off so as to follow the preceding
man at 4 paces. The command HALT is given when all have their
distances.

In case more than one squad is in line, each squad executes the
movement as above. The guide of each rank of numbers is right.

112. Being at distances, to assemble the squad: 1. _Assemble_,
2. MARCH.

No. 1 of the front rank stands fast; the other numbers move forward
to their proper places in line.


TO STACK AND TAKE ARMS.

113. Being in line at a halt: STACK ARMS.

Each even number of the front rank grasps his piece with the
left hand at the upper band and rests the butt between his feet,
barrel to the front, muzzle inclined slightly to the front and
opposite the center of the interval on his right, the thumb and
forefinger raising the stacking swivel; each even number of the
rear rank then passes his piece, barrel to the rear, to his file
leader, who grasps it between the bands with his right hand and
throws the butt about 2 feet in advance of that of his own piece
and opposite the right of the interval, the right hand-slipping
to the upper band, the thumb and forefinger raising the stacking
swivel, which he engages with that of his own piece; each odd
number of the front rank raises his piece with the right hand,
carries it well forward, barrel to the front; the left hand,
guiding the stacking swivel, engages the lower hook of the swivel
of his own piece with the free hook of that of the even number of
the rear rank; he then turns the barrel outward into the angle
formed by the other two pieces and lowers the butt to the ground,
to the right of and against the toe of his right shoe.

The stacks made, the loose pieces are laid on them by the even,
numbers of the front rank.

When each man has finished handling pieces, he takes the position
of the soldier.

114. Being in line behind the stacks: TAKE ARMS.

The loose pieces are returned by the even numbers of the front
rank; each even number of the front rank grasps his own piece
with the left hand, the piece of his rear-rank man with his right
hand, grasping both between the bands; each odd number of the
front rank grasps his piece in the same way with the right hand,
disengages it by raising the butt from the ground and then, turning
the piece to the right, detaches it from the stack; each even
number of the front rank disengages and detaches his piece by
turning it to the left, and then passes the piece of his rear-rank
man to him, and all resume the order.

115. Should any squad have Nos. 2 and 3 blank files, No. 1 rear
rank takes the place of No. 2 rear rank in making and breaking
the stack; the stacks made or broken, he resumes his post.

Pieces not used in making the stack are termed loose pieces.

Pieces are never stacked with the bayonet fixed.


THE OBLIQUE MARCH.

116. For the instruction of recruits, the squad being in column
or correctly aligned, the instructor causes the squad to face
half right or half left, points out to the men their relative
positions, and explains that these are to be maintained in the
oblique march.

117. 1. _Right_(Left)_oblique_, 2. MARCH.

Each man steps off in a direction 45° to the right of his original
front. He preserves his relative position, keeping his shoulders
parallel to those of the guide (the man on the right front of
the line or column), and so regulates his steps that the ranks
remain parallel to their original front.

At the command halt the men halt faced to the front.

To resume the original direction: 1. _Forward_, 2. MARCH.

The men half face to the left in marching and then move straight
to the front.

If at HALF STEP or MARK TIME while obliquing, the oblique march
is resumed by the commands: 1. _Oblique_, 2. MARCH.


TO TURN ON MOVING PIVOT.

118. Being in line: 1. _Right_(Left)_turn_, 2. MARCH.

The movement is executed by each rank successively and on the
same ground. At the second command, the pivot man of the front
rank faces to the right in marching and takes the half step;
the other men of the rank oblique to the right until opposite
their places in line, then execute a second right oblique and
take the half step on arriving abreast of the pivot man. All
glance toward the marching flank while at half step and take the
full step without command as the last man arrives on the line.

RIGHT (LEFT) HALF TURN is executed in a similar manner. The pivot
man makes a half change of direction to the right and the other
men make quarter changes in obliquing.


TO TURN ON FIXED PIVOT.

119. Being in line, to turn and march: 1. _Squad_right_(left)_,
2. MARCH.

At the second command, the right flank man in the front rank faces
to the right in marching and marks time; the other front-rank
men oblique to the right, place themselves abreast of the pivot,
and mark time. In the rear rank the third man from the right,
followed in column by the second and first, moves straight to the
front until in rear of his front-rank man, when all face to the
right in marching and mark time; the other number of the rear rank
moves straight to the front four paces and places himself abreast
of the man on his right. Men on the new line glance toward the
marching flank while marking time and, as the last man arrives
on the line, both ranks execute FORWARD, MARCH, without command.

120. Being in line, to turn and halt: 1. _Squad_right_(left)_,
2. MARCH, 3. _Squad_, 4. HALT.

The third command is given immediately after the second. The
turn is executed as prescribed in the preceding paragraph except
that all men, on arriving on the new line, mark time until the
fourth command is given, when all halt. The fourth command should
be given as the last man arrives on the line.

121. Being in line, to turn about and march: 1. _Squad_right_
_(left)_about_, 2. MARCH.

At the second command, the front rank twice executes SQUAD RIGHT,
initiating the SECOND SQUAD right when the man on the marching
flank has arrived abreast of the rank. In the rear rank the third
man from the right, followed by the second and first in column,
moves straight to the front until on the prolongation of the line
to be occupied by the rear rank; changes direction to the right;
moves in the new direction until in rear of his front-rank man,
when all face to the right in marching, mark time, and glance
toward the marching flank. The fourth man marches on the left
of the third to his new position; as he arrives on the line,
both ranks execute FORWARD, MARCH, without command.

122. Being in line, to turn about and halt: 1. _Squad_right_
_(left)_about_, 2. MARCH, 3. _Squad_, 4. HALT.

The third command is given immediately after the second. The
turn is executed as prescribed in the preceding paragraph except
that all men, on arriving on the new line, mark time until the
fourth command is given, when all halt. The fourth command should
be given as the last man arrives on the line.


TO FOLLOW THE CORPORAL.

123. Being assembled or deployed, to march the squad without
unnecessary commands, the corporal places himself in front of
it and commands FOLLOW ME.

If in line or skirmish line. No. 2 of the front rank follows
in the trace of the corporal at about 3 paces; the other men
conform to the movements of No. 2. guiding on him and maintaining
their relative positions.

If in column, the head of the column follows the corporal.


TO DEPLOY AS SKIRMISHERS.

124. Being in any formation, assembled: 1. _As_skirmishers_,
2. MARCH.

The corporal places himself in front of the squall, if not already
there. Moving at a run, the men place themselves abreast of the
corporal at half-pace intervals, Nos. 1 and 2 on his right, Nos.
3 and 4 on his left, rear-rank men on the right of their file
leaders, extra men on the left of No.4; all then conform to the
corporal's gait.

When the squad is acting alone, skirmish line is similarly formed
on No. 2 of the front rank, who stands fast or continues the
march, as the case may be; the corporal places himself in front
of the squad when advancing find in rear when halted.

When deployed us skirmishers, the men march at ease, pieces at
the trail unless otherwise ordered.

The corporal is the guide when in the line; otherwise No. 2 front
rank is the guide.

125. The normal interval between skirmishers is one-half pace,
resulting practically in one man per yard of front. The front
of a squad thus deployed as skirmishers is about 10 paces.


TO INCREASE OR DIMINISH INTERVALS.

126. If assembled, and it is desired to deploy at greater than the
normal interval; or if deployed, and it is desired to increase or
decrease the interval: 1. _As_skirmishers,_(so_many)_paces_,
2. MARCH.

Intervals are taken at the indicated number of paces. If already
deployed, the men move by the flank toward or away from the guide.


THE ASSEMBLY.

127. Being deployed: 1. _Assemble_, 2. MARCH.

The men move toward the corporal and form in their proper places.

If the corporal continues to advance, the men move in double time,
form, and follow him.

The assembly while marching to the rear is not executed.


KNEELING AND LYING DOWN.

128. If standing: KNEEL.

Half face to the right; carry the right toe about 1 foot to the
left rear of the left heel; kneel on right knee, sitting as nearly
as possible on the right heel; left forearm across left thigh;
piece remains in position of order arms, right hand grasping
it above the lower band.

129. If standing or kneeling: LIE DOWN.

Kneel, but with right knee against left heel; carry back the
left foot and lie flat on the belly, inclining body about 35°
to the right; piece horizontal, barrel up, muzzle off the ground
and pointed to the front; elbows on the ground; left hand at the
balance, right hand grasping the small of the stock opposite
the neck. This is the position of order arms, lying down.

130. If kneeling or lying down: RISE.

If kneeling, stand up, faced to the front, on the ground marked
by the left heel.

If lying down, raise body on both knees; stand up, faced to the
front, on the ground marked by the knees.

131. If lying down: KNEEL.

Raise the body on both knees; take the position of kneel.

132. In double rank, the positions of kneeling and lying down
are ordinarily used only for the better utilization of cover.

When deployed as skirmishers, a sitting position maybe taken in
lieu of the position kneeling.


LOADINGS AND FIRINGS.

133. The commands for loading and firing are the same whether
standing, kneeling, or lying down. The firings are always executed
at a halt.

When kneeling or lying down in double rank, the rear rank does
not load, aim, or fire.

The instruction in firing will be preceded by a command for loading.

Loadings are executed in line and skirmish line only.

134. Pieces having been ordered loaded are kept loaded without
command until the command UNLOAD, or INSPECTION ARMS, fresh clips
being inserted when the magazine is exhausted.

135. The aiming point or target is carefully pointed out. This
may be done before or after announcing the sight setting. Both
are indicated before giving the command for firing, but may be
omitted when the target appears suddenly and is unmistakable; in
such case battle sight is used if no sight setting is announced.

136. The target or aiming point having been designated and the
sight setting announced, such designation or announcement need
not be repeated until a change of either or both is necessary.

Troops are trained to continue their fire upon the aiming point
or target designated, and at the sight setting announced, until
a change is ordered.

137. If the men are not already in the position of load, that
position is taken at the announcement of the sight setting; if
the announcement is omitted, the position is taken at the first
command for firing.

138. When deployed, the use of the sling as an aid to accurate
firing is discretionary with each man.


TO LOAD.

139. Being in line or skirmish line at halt: 1. _With_dummy_
_(blank_or_ball)_cartridges_, 2. LOAD.

At the command load each front-rank man or skirmisher faces half
right and carries the right foot to the right, about 1 foot, to
such position as will insure the greatest firmness and steadiness
of the body; raises, or lowers, the piece and drops it into the
left hand at the balance, left thumb extended along the stock,
muzzle at the height of the breast, and turns the cut-off up. With
the right hand he turns and draws the bolt back, takes a loaded
clip and inserts the end in the clip slots, places the thumb on
the powder space of the top cartridge, the fingers extending
around the piece and tips resting on the magazine floor plate;
forces the cartridges into the magazine by pressing down with
the thumb; without removing the clip, thrusts the bolt home,
turning down the handle; turns the safety lock to the "safe"
find carries the hand to the small of the stock. Each rear-rank
man moves to the right front, takes a similar position opposite
the interval to the right of his front-rank man, muzzle of the
piece extending beyond the front rank, and loads.

A skirmish line may load while moving, the pieces being held as
nearly as practicable in the position of load.

If kneeling or sitting, the position of the piece is similar; if
kneeling, the left forearm rests on the left thigh; if sitting,
the elbows are supported by the knees. If lying down, the left
hand steadies and supports the piece at the balance, the toe
of the butt resting on the ground, the muzzle off the ground.

For reference, these positions (standing, kneeling, and lying
down) are designated as that of load.

140. For instruction in loading: 1. _Simulate_, 2. LOAD.

Executed as above described, except that the cut-off remains "off"
and the handling of cartridges is simulated.

The recruits are first taught to SIMULATE loading and firing;
after a few lessons dummy cartridges may be used. Later, blank
cartridges may be used.

141. The rifle may be used as a single loader by turning the
magazine "off." The magazine may be filled in whole or in part
while "off" or "on" by pressing cartridges singly down and back
until they are in the proper place. The use of the rifle as a
single loader is, however, to be regarded as exceptional.


TO UNLOAD.

142. UNLOAD.

Take the position of load, turn the safety lock up and move bolt
alternately back and forward until all the cartridges are ejected.
After the last cartridge is ejected the chamber is closed by first
thrusting the bolt slightly forward to free it from the stud
holding it in place when the chamber is open, pressing the follower
down and back to engage it under the bolt and then thrusting
the bolt home; the trigger is pulled. The cartridges are then
picked up, cleaned, and returned to the belt and the piece is
brought to the order.


TO SET THE SIGHT.

143. RANGE, ELEVEN HUNDRED (EIGHT-FIFTY, etc.), or BATTLE SIGHT.

The sight is set at the elevation indicated. The instructor explains
and verities sight settings,


TO FIRE BY VOLLEY.

144. 1. READY, 2. AIM, 3. _Squad_, 4. FIRE.

At the command READY turn the safety lock to the "ready"; at
the command AIM raise the piece with both hands and support the
butt firmly against the hollow of the right shoulder, right thumb
clasping the stock, barrel horizontal, left elbow well under the
piece, right elbow as high as the shoulder; incline the head
slightly forward and a little to the right, cheek against the
stock, left eye closed, right eye looking through the notch of
the rear sight so as to perceive the object aimed at, second
joint of forefinger resting lightly against the front of the
trigger and taking up the slack; top of front sight is carefully
raised into, and held in, the line of sight.

Each rear-rank man aims through the interval to the right of
his file leader and leans slightly forward to advance the muzzle
of his piece beyond the front rank.

In aiming kneeling, the left elbow rests on the left knee, point
of elbow in front of kneecap.

In aiming sitting, the elbows are supported by the knees.

In aiming lying down, raise the piece with both hands; rest on
both elbows and press the butt firmly against the right shoulder.

At the command FIRE press the finger against the trigger; fire
without deranging the aim and without lowering or turning the
piece; lower the piece to the position of LOAD and load.

145. To continue the firing: 1. AIM, 2. _Squad_, 3. FIRE.

Each command is executed as previously explained. LOAD (from
magazine) is executed by drawing back and thrusting home the
bolt with the right hand, leaving the safety lock at the "ready."


TO FIRE AT WILL.

146. FIRE AT WILL.

Each man, independently of the others, comes to the READY, aims
carefully and deliberately ut the aiming point or target, FIRES,
LOADS, and continues the firing until ordered to SUSPEND or CEASE
FIRING.

147. To increase (decrease) the rate of fire in progress the
instructor shouts: FASTER (SLOWER).

Men are trained to fire at the rate of about three shots per minute
at effective ranges and five or six at close ranges, devoting
the minimum of time to loading and the maximum to deliberate
aiming. To illustrate the necessity for deliberation, and to
habituate men to combat conditions, small and comparatively
indistinct targets are designated.


TO FIRE BY CLIP.

148. CLIP FIRE.

Executed in the same manner us FIRE AT WILL, except that each
man, after having exhausted the cartridges then in the piece,
SUSPENDS FIRING.


TO SUSPEND FIRING.

149. The instructor blows a LONG BLAST of the whistle and repeats
same, if necessary, or commands: SUSPEND FIRING.

Firing stops; pieces are held, loaded and locked, in a position of
readiness for instant resumption of firing, rear sights unchanged.
The men continue to observe the target or aiming point, or the
place at which the target disappeared, or at which it is expected
to reappear.

This whistle signal may be used as a preliminary to CEASE FIRING.


TO CEASE FIRING.

150. CEASE FIRING.

Firing stops; pieces not already there are brought to the position
of load; those not loaded are loaded; sights are laid, pieces
are locked and brought to the older.

CEASE FIRING is used for long pauses, to prepare for changes of
position, or to steady the men.

151. Commands for suspending or ceasing fire may be given at
any time after the preparatory command for firing whether the
firing has actually commenced or not.


THE USE OF COVER.

152. The recruit should be given careful instruction in the
individual use of cover.

It should be impressed upon him that, in taking advantage of
natural cover, he must be able to fire easily and effectively
upon the enemy; if advancing on an enemy, he must do so steadily
and as rapidly as possible; he must conceal himself as much as
possible while firing and while advancing. While setting his
sight he should be under cover or lying prone.

153. To teach him to fire easily and effectively, at the same time
concealing himself from the view of the enemy, he is practiced in
simulated firing in the prone, sitting, kneeling, and crouching
positions, from behind hillocks, trees, heaps of earth or rocks,
from depressions, gullies, ditches, doorways, or windows. He is
taught to fire around the right side of his concealment whenever
possible, or, when this is not possible, to rise enough to fire
over the top of his concealment,

When these details are understood, he is required to select cover
with reference to an assumed enemy and to place himself behind
it in proper position for firing.

154. The evil of remaining too long in one place, however good
the concealment, should be explained. He should be taught to
advance from cover to cover, selecting cover in advance before
leaving his concealment.

It should be impressed upon him that a man running rapidly toward
all enemy furnishes a poor target. He should be trained in springing
from a prone position behind concealment, running at top speed to
cover and throwing himself behind it. He should also be practiced
in advancing from cover to cover by crawling, or by lying on the
left side, rifle grasped in the right hand, and pushing himself
forward with the right leg.

155. He should be taught that, when fired on while acting
independently, he should drop to the ground, seek cover, and then
endeavor to locate his enemy.

156. The instruction of the recruit in the use of cover is continued
in the combat exercises of the company, but he must then be taught
that the proper advance of the platoon or company and the
effectiveness of its fire is of greater importance than the question
of cover for individuals. He should also be taught that he may
not move about or shift his position in the firing line except
the better to see the target.


OBSERVATION.

157. The ability to use his eyes accurately is of great importance
to the soldier. The recruit should be trained in observing his
surrounding from positions and when on the march.

He should be practiced in pointing out and naming military features
of the ground; in distinguishing between living beings; in counting
distant groups of objects or beings; in recognizing colors and
forms.

158. In the training of men in the mechanism of the firing line,
they should be practiced in repeating to one another target and
aiming point designations and in quickly locating and pointing
out a designated target. They should be taught to distinguish,
from a prone position, distant objects, particularly troops,
both with the naked eye and with field glasses. Similarly, they
should be trained in estimating distances.


SECTION 6. SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY.

159. The captain is responsible for the theoretical and practical
instruction of his officers and noncommissioned officers, not
only in the duties of their respective grades, but in those of
the next higher grades.

160. The company in line is formed in double rank with the men
arranged, as far as practicable, according to height from right
to left, the tallest on the right.

The original division into squads is effected by the command:
COUNT OFF. The squads, successively from the right, count off
as in the School of the Squad, corporals placing themselves as
Nos. 4 of the front rank. If the left squad contains less than
six men, it is either increased to that number by transfers from
other squads or is broken up and its members assigned to other
squads and posted in the line of file closers. These squad
organizations are maintained, by transfers if necessary, until
the company becomes so reduced in numbers us to necessitate a
new division into squads. No squad will contain less than six
men.

161. The company is further divided into two, three, or four
platoons, each consisting of not less than two nor more than
four squads. In garrison or ceremonies the strength of platoons
may exceed four squads.

162. At the formation of the company the platoons or squads are
numbered consecutively from right to left and these designations
do not change.

For convenience in giving commands and for reference, the
designations, RIGHT, CENTER, LEFT, when in line, and LEADING,
CENTER, REAR, when in column, are applied to platoons or squads.
These designations apply to the actual right, left, center, head,
or rear, in whatever direction the company may be facing. The
CENTER squad is the middle or right middle squad of the company.

The designation "So-and-so's" squad or platoon may also be used.

163. Platoons are assigned to the lieutenants and noncommissioned
officers, in order of rank, as follows: 1. right; 2. left; 3.
center (right center); 4. left center.

The noncommissioned officers next in rank are assigned as guides,
one to each platoon. If sergeants still remain, they are assigned
to platoons as additional guides. When the platoon is deployed,
its guide or guides accompany the platoon leader.

During battle, these assignments are not changed; vacancies are
filled by noncommissioned officers of the platoon or by the nearest
available officers or noncommissioned officers arriving with
reenforcing troops.

[Illustration]

164. The first sergeant is never assigned as a guide. When not
commanding a platoon he is posted as a file closer opposite the
third file from the outer flank of the first platoon; and when
the company is deployed he accompanies the captain.

The quartermaster sergeant, when present, is assigned according
to his rank as a sergeant.

Enlisted men below the grade of sergeant, armed with the rifle,
are in ranks unless serving as guides; when not so armed, they
are posted in the line of file closers.

Musicians, when required to play, are at the head of the column.
When the company is deployed, they accompany the captain.

165. The company executes the HALT, RESTS, FACINGS, STEPS and
MARCHINGS, MANUAL OF ARMS, LOADINGS and FIRINGS, TAKES INTERVALS
and DISTANCES and ASSEMBLES, INCREASES and DIMINISHES INTERVALS,
resumes ATTENTION, OBLIQUES, resumes the direct march, preserves
alignments, KNEELS, LIES DOWN, RISES, STACKS, and TAKES ARMS,
as explained in the Schools of the Soldier and the Squad,
substituting in the commands COMPANY for SQUAD.

The same rule applies to platoons, detachments, details, etc.,
substituting their designation for SQUAD in the commands. In
the same manner these execute the movements prescribed for the
COMPANY, whenever possible, substituting their designation for
COMPANY in the commands.

166. A company so depleted as to make division into platoons
impracticable is led by the captain as a single platoon, but
retains the designation of company. The lieutenants and first
sergeant assist in fire control; the other sergeants place themselves
in the filing line as skirmishers.


CLOSE ORDER.

RULES.

167. The guides of the right and left, or leading and rear, platoons,
are the right and left, or leading and rear, guides, respectively,
of the company when it is in line or in column of squads. Other
guides are in the line of file closers.

In platoon movements the post of the platoon guide is at the
head of the platoon, if the platoon is in column, and on the
guiding flank if in line. When a platoon has two guides their
original assignment to flanks of the platoon does not change.

168. The guides of a column of squads place themselves on the
flank opposite the file closers. To change the guides and file
closers to the other flank, the captain commands: 1. _File_
_closers_on_left_(right)_flank_; 2. MARCH. The file closers
dart through the column; the captain and guides change.

In column of squads, each rank preserves the alignment toward
the side of the guide.

169. Men in the line of file closers do not execute the loadings
or firings.

Guides and enlisted men in the line of file closers execute the
manual of arms during the drill unless specially excused, when
they remain at the order. During ceremonies they execute all
movements.

170. In TAKING INTERVALS AND DISTANCES, unless otherwise directed,
the right and left guides, at the first command, place themselves
in the line of file closers, and, with them, take a distance of
4 paces from the rear rank. In taking intervals, at the command
MARCH, the file closers face to the flank and each steps off with
the file nearest him. In ASSEMBLING the guides and file closers
resume their positions in line.

171. In movements executed simultaneously by platoons (as PLATOONS
RIGHT or PLATOONS, COLUMN RIGHT), platoon leaders repeat the
preparatory command (PLATOON RIGHT, etc.), applicable to their
respective platoons. The command of execution is given by the
captain only.


TO FORM THE COMPANY.

172. At the sounding of the assembly the first sergeant takes
position 6 paces in front of where the center of the company
is to be, faces it, draws saber, and commands: FALL IN.

The right guide of the company places himself, facing to the
front, where the right of the company is to rest, and at such
point that the center of the company will be 6 paces from and
opposite the first sergeant; the squads form in their proper
places on the left of the right guide, superintended by the other
sergeants, who then take their posts.

The first sergeant commands: REPORT. Remaining in position at the
order, the squad leaders, in succession from the right, salute
and report: ALL PRESENT; or PRIVATE(S) ------ ABSENT. The first
sergeant does not return the salutes of the squad leaders; he
then commands: 1. _Inspection_, 2. ARMS, 3. _Order_, 4.
ARMS, faces about, salutes the captain, reports: SIR, ALL PRESENT
OR ACCOUNTED FOR, or the names of the unauthorized absentees,
and without command, takes his post.

If the company can not be formed by squads, the first sergeant
commands: 1. _Inspection_, 2. ARMS, 3. _Right_shoulder_,
4. ARMS, and calls the roll. Each man, as his name is called,
answers here and executes order arms. The sergeant then effects
the division into squads and reports the company as prescribed
above.

The captain places himself 12 paces in front of the center of,
and facing, the company in time to receive the report of the
first sergeant, whose salute he returns, and then draws saber.

The lieutenants take their posts when the first sergeant has
reported and draw saber with the captain. The company, if not
under arms, is formed in like manner omitting reference to arms.

173. For the instruction of platoon leaders and guides, the company,
when small, may be formed in single rank. In this formation close
order movements only are executed. The single rank executes all
movements as explained for the front rank of a company.


TO DISMISS THE COMPANY.

174. Being in line at a halt, the captain directs the first sergeant:
DISMISS THE COMPANY. The officers fallout; the first sergeant
places himself faced to the front, 3 paces to the front and 2
paces from the nearest flank of the company, salutes, faces toward
opposite flank of the company, and commands: 1. _Inspection_.
2. ARMS, 3. _Port_, 4. ARMS, 5. DISMISSED.


ALIGNMENTS.

175. The alignments are executed as prescribed in the School
of the Squad, the guide being established instead of the flank
file. The rear-rank man of the flank file keeps his head and
eyes to the front and covers his file leader.

At each alignment the captain places himself in prolongation
of the line, 2 paces from and facing the flank toward which the
dress is made, verifies the alignment, and commands: FRONT.

Platoon lenders take a like position when requited to verify
alignments.


MOVEMENTS ON THE FIXED PIVOT.

176. Being in line, to tune the company: 1. _Company_right_
_(left)_, 2. MARCH, 3. _Company_, 4. HALT; or, 3.
_Forward_, 4. MARCH.

At the second command the right-flank man in the front rank faces
to the right in marching and marks time; the other front-rank
men oblique to the right, place themselves abreast of the pivot,
and mark time; in the rear rank the third man from the right,
followed in column by the second and first, moves straight to
the front until in rear of his front-rank man, when all face to
the right in marching and mark time; the remaining men of the
rear rank move straight to the front 4 paces, oblique to the
right, place themselves abreast of the third man, cover their
file leaders, and mark time; the right guide steps back, takes
post on the flank, and marks time.

The fourth command is given when the last man is 1 pace in rear
of the new line.

The command HALT may be given at any time after the movement
begins; only those halt who are in the new position. Each of
the others halt upon arriving on the line, aligns himself to the
right, and executes FRONT without command.

177. Being in line, to form column of platoons, or the reverse:
1. _Platoons_right_(left)_, 2. MARCH, 3. _Company_,
4. HALT; or, 3. _Forward_, 4. MARCH.

Executed by each platoon as described for the company.

Before forming line the captain sees that the guides on the flank
toward which the movement is to be executed are covering. This
is effected by previously announcing the guide to that flank.

178. Being in line, to form column of squads, or the reverse;
or, being in line of platoons, to form column of platoons, or
the reverse: 1. _Squads_right_(left)_, 2. MARCH, or, 1.
_Squads_right_(left)_, 2. MARCH, 3. _Company_, 4. HALT.

Executed by each squad as described in the School of the Squad.

If the company or platoons be formed in line toward the side of
the file closers, they dart through the column and take posts
in rear of the company at the second command. If the column of
squads be formed from line, the file closers take posts on the
pivot flank, abreast of and 4 inches from the nearest rank.


MOVEMENTS ON THE MOVING PIVOT.

179. Being in line, to change direction: 1. _Right_(Left)_turn_,
2. MARCH, 3. _Forward_, 4. MARCH.

Executed as described in the School of the Squad, except that
the men do not glance toward the marching flank and that all
take the full step at the fourth command. The right guide is
the pivot of the front rank. Each rear-rank man obliques on the
same ground as his file leader.

180. Being in column of platoons, to change direction: 1. _Column_
_right_(left)_, 2. MARCH.

At the first command the leader of the lending platoon commands:
RIGHT TURN. At the command MARCH the leading platoon turns to the
right on moving pivot; its lender commands: 1. _Forward_,
2. MARCH, on completion of the turn. Rear platoons march squarely
up to the turning point of the leading platoon and turn at command
of their lenders.

181. Being in column of squads, to change direction: 1. _Column_
_right_(left)_, 2. MARCH.

At the second command the front rank of the leading squad turns
to the right on moving pivot, as in the School of the Squad;
the other ranks, without command, turn successively on the same
ground and in a similar manner.

182. Being in column of squads, to form line of platoons or the
reverse: 1. _Platoons,_column_right_(left)_, 2. MARCH.

Executed by each platoon as described for the company.

183. Being in line, to form column of squads and change direction:
1. _Squads_right_(left)_,_column_right_(left)_, 2. MARCH;
or, 1. _Right_(Left)_by_squads_, 2. MARCH.

In the first case the right squad initiates the COLUMN RIGHT as
soon as it has completed the SQUAD RIGHT.

In the second case, at the command march, the right squad marches
FORWARD; the remainder of the company executes SQUADS RIGHT,
COLUMN LEFT, and follows the right squad. The right guide, when
he has posted himself in front of the right squad, takes four
short steps, then resumes the full step; the right squad conforms.

184. Being in line, to form line of platoons: 1. _Squads_right_
_(left),_platoons_column_right_(left)_, 2. MARCH; or, 1.
_Platoons,_right_(left)_by_squads_, 2. MARCH.

Executed by each platoon as described for the company in the
preceding paragraph.


FACING OR MARCHING TO THE REAR.

185. Being in line, line of platoons, or in column of platoons or
squads, to face or march to the rear: 1. _Squads_right_(left)_
_about_, 2. MARCH; or, 1. _Squads_right_(left)_about_,
2. MARCH, 3. _Company_, 4. HALT.

Executed by each squad as described in the School of the Squad.

If the company or platoons be in column of squads, the file closers
turn about toward the column, and take their posts; if in line,
each darts through the nearest interval between squads.

186. To march to the rear for a few paces: 1. _About_, 2.
FACE, 3. _Forward_, 4. MARCH.

If in line, the guides place themselves in the rear rank, now
the front rank; the file closers, on facing about, maintain their
relative positions. No other movement is executed until the line
is faced to the original front.


ON RIGHT (LEFT) INTO LINE.

187. Being in column of platoons or squads, to form line on right
or left: 1. _On_right_(left)_into_line_, 2. MARCH, 3. _Company_,
4. HALT, 5. FRONT.

At the first command the leader of the leading unit commands:
RIGHT TURN. The leaders of the other units command: FORWARD, if
at a halt. At the second command the leading unit turns to the
right on moving pivot. The command HALT is given when the leading
unit has advanced the desired distance in the new direction; it
halts; its leader then commands: RIGHT DRESS.

The units in rear continue to march straight to the front; each,
when opposite the right of its place in line, executes right
turn at the command of its leaner; each is halted on the line
at the command of its leader, who then commands: RIGHT DRESS.
All dress on the first unit in line.

If executed in double time, the lending squad marches in double
time until halted.


FRONT INTO LINE.

188. Being in column of platoons or squads. to form line to the
front: 1. _Right_(Left)_front_into_line_, 2. MARCH, 3. _Company_,
4. HALT, 5. FRONT.

At the first command the leaders of the units in rear of the
leading one command: RIGHT OBLIQUE. If at a halt, the leader
of the leading unit commands: FORWARD. At the second command
the leading unit moves straight forward; the rear units oblique
as indicated. The command HALT is given when the leading unit
has advanced the desired distance; it halts; its leader then
commands: LEFT DRESS. Each of the rear units, when opposite its
place in line, resumes the original direction at the command of
its leader; each is halted on the line at the command of its
leader, who then commands: LEFT DRESS. All dress on the first
unit in line.

189. Being in column of squads to form column of platoons, or
being in line of platoons, to form the company in line: 1.
_Platoons,_right,_(left)_front_into_line_, 2. MARCH. 3.
_Company_, 4. HALT, 5. FRONT.

Executed by each platoon as described for the company. In forming
the company in line, the dress is on the left squad of the left
platoon. If forming column of platoons, platoon leaders verify
the alignment before taking their posts; the captain commands
front when the alignments have been verified.

When FRONT INTO LINE is executed in double time the commands
for halting and aligning are omitted and the guide is toward the
side of the first unit in line.


AT EASE AND ROUTE STEP.

190. The column of squads is the habitual column of route. but
route step and at ease are applicable to any marching formation.

191. To march at route step: 1. _Route_step_, 2. MARCH.

Sabers are carried at will or in the scabbard; the men carry
their pieces at will, keeping the muzzles elevated; they are not
required to preserve silence, nor to keep the step. The ranks
cover and preserve their distance. If halted from route step,
the men stand AT REST.

192. To march at ease: 1. _At_ease_, 2. MARCH.

The company marches as in route step, except that silence is
preserved; when halted, the men remain at ease.

193. Marching at route step or fit ease: 1. _Company_, 2.
ATTENTION.

At the command ATTENTION the pieces are brought to the right shoulder
and the cadenced step in quick time is resumed.


TO DIMINISH THE FRONT OF A COLUMN OF SQUADS.

194. Being in column of squads: 1. _Right_(Left)_by_twos_,
2. MARCH.

At the command MARCH all files except the two right files of the
leading squad execute IN PLACE HALT; the two left files of the
leading squad oblique to the right when disengaged and follow the
right files at the shortest practicable distance. The remaining
squads follow successively in like manner.

195. Being in column of squads or twos: 1. _Right_(Left)_by_
_file_, 2. MARCH.

At the command MARCH, all files execute in place halt except
the right file of the leading two or squad. The left file or
files of the leading two or squad oblique successively to the
right when disengaged and each follows the file on its right at
the shortest practicable distance. The remaining twos or squads
follow successively in like manner.

196. Being in column of files or twos, to form column of squads;
or being in column of files, to form column of twos: 1. _Squads_
_(Twos),_right_(left)_front_into_line_, 2. MARCH.

At the command MARCH, the leading file or files halt. The remainder
of the squad, or two, obliques to the right and halts on line with
the leading file or files. The remaining squads or twos close up
and successively form in rear of the first in like manner.

The movement described in this paragraph will be ordered RIGHT
or LEFT, so as to restore the files to their normal relative
positions in the two or squad.

197. The movements prescribed in the three preceding paragraphs
are difficult of execution at attention and have no value as
disciplinary exercises.

198. Marching by twos or files can not be executed without serious
delay and waste of road space. Every reasonable precaution will
be taken to obviate the necessity for these formations.


EXTENDED ORDER.

RULES FOR DEPLOYMENT.

199. The command GUIDE RIGHT (LEFT or CENTER) indicates the base
squad for the deployment; if in line it designates the actual
RIGHT (LEFT or CENTER) squad; if in column the command GUIDE
RIGHT (LEFT) designates the LEADING squad, and the command GUIDE
CENTER designates the center squad. After the deployment is
completed, the guide is CENTER without command, unless otherwise
ordered.

200. At the preparatory command for forming skirmish line, from
either column of squads or line, each squad leader (except the
leader of the base squad, when his squad does not advance), cautions
his squad, FOLLOW ME or BY THE RIGHT (LEFT) FLANK, as the case
may be; at the command MARCH, he steps in front of his squad
and leads it to its place in line.

201. Having given the command for forming skirmish line, the
captain, if necessary, indicates to the corporal of the base squad
the point on which the squad is to march; the corporal habitually
looks to the captain for such directions.

202. The base squad is deployed as soon as it has sufficient
interval. The other squads are deployed as they arrive on the
general line; each corporal halts in his place in line and commands
or signals, as skirmishers; the squad deploys and halts abreast
of him.

If tactical considerations demand it, the squad is deployed before
arriving on the line.

203. Deployed lines preserve a general alignment toward the guide.
Within their respective fronts, individuals or units march so
as best to secure cover or to facilitate the advance, but the
general and orderly progress of the whole is paramount.

On halting a deployed line faces to the front (direction of the
enemy) in all cases and takes advantage of cover, the men lying
down if necessary.

204. The company in skirmish line ADVANCES, HALTS, MOVES BY THE
FLANK, or TO THE REAR, OBLIQUES, resumes the DIRECT MARCH, passes
from QUICK to DOUBLE TIME and the reverse by the same commands and
in a similar manner as in close order; if at a halt, the movement
BY THE FLANK or TO THE REAR is executed by the same commands as
when marching. COMPANY RIGHT (LEFT, HALF RIGHT, HALF LEFT) is
executed as explained for the front rank, skirmish intervals
being maintained.

205. A platoon or other part of the company is deployed and marched
in the same manner as the company, substituting in the commands,
PLATOON (DETACHMENT, etc.) for COMPANY.


DEPLOYMENTS.

206. Being in line, to form skirmish line to the front: 1. _As_
_skirmishers,_guide_right_(left_or_center)_, 2. MARCH.

If marching, the corporal of the base squad moves straight to
the front; when that squad has advanced the desired distance,
the captain commands: 1. _Company_, 2. HALT. If the guide
be RIGHT (LEFT), the other corporals move to the LEFT (RIGHT)
front, and, in succession from the base, place their squads on
the line; if the guide be center, the other corporals move to
the RIGHT or LEFT front, according as they are on the right or
left of the center squad, and in succession from the center squad
place their squads on the line.

If at a halt, the base squad is deployed without advancing; the
other squads may be conducted to their proper places by the flank;
interior squads may be moved when squads more distant from the
base have gained comfortable marching distance.

207. Being in column of squads, to form skirmish line to the
front: 1. _As_skirmishers,_guide_right_(left_or_center)_,
2. MARCH.

If marching, the corporal of the base squad deploys it and moves
straight to the front; if at a halt, he deploys his squad without
advancing. If the guide be RIGHT (LEFT), the other corporals move
to the LEFT (RIGHT) FRONT, and, in succession from the base, place
their squads on the line; if the guide be CENTER, the corporals
in front of the center squad move to the right (if at a halt,
to the right rear), the corporals in rear of the center squad
move to the left front, and each, in succession from the base,
places his squad on the line.

The column of twos or files is deployed by the same commands and
in like manner.

208. The company in line or in column of squads may be deployed
in an oblique direction by the same commands. The captain points
out the desired direction; the corporal of the base squad moves
in the direction indicated; the other corporals conform.

209. To form skirmish line to the flank or rear the line or the
column of squads is turned by squads to the flank or rear and
then deployed as described.

210. The intervals between men are increased or decreased as
described in the School of the Squad, adding to the preparatory
command, GUIDE RIGHT (LEFT or CENTER) if necessary.


THE ASSEMBLY.

211. The captain takes his post in front of, or designates, the
element on which the company is to assemble and commands: 1.
_Assemble_, 2. MARCH.

If in skirmish line the men move promptly toward the designated
point and the company is re-formed in line. If assembled by platoons,
these are conducted to the designated point by platoon leaders,
and the company is re-formed in line.

Platoons may be assembled by the command: 1. _Platoons,_assemble_,
2. MARCH.

Executed by each platoon as described for the company.

One or more platoons may be assembled by the command:

1. _Such_platoon(s),_assemble_, 2. MARCH,

Executed by the designated platoon or platoons as described for
the company.


THE ADVANCE.

212. The advance of a company into an engagement (whether for
attack or defense) is conducted in close order, preferably column
of squads, until the probability of encountering hostile fire
makes it advisable to deploy. After deployment, and before opening
fire, the advance of the company may be continued in skirmish
line or other suitable formation, depending upon circumstances.
The advance may often be facilitated, or better advantage taken
of cover, or losses reduced by the employment of the PLATOON
or SQUAD COLUMNS or by the use of a SUCCESSION OF THIN LINES.
The selection of the method to be used is made by the captain
or major, the choice depending upon conditions arising during
the progress of the advance. If the deployment is found to be
premature, it will generally be best to assemble the company
and proceed in close order.

Patrols ure used to provide the necessary security against surprise.

213. Being in skirmish line: 1. _Platoon_columns_, 2. MARCH.

The platoon leaders move forward through the center of their
respective platoons; men to the right of the platoon leader march
to the left and follow him in file; those to the left march in
like manner to the right; each platoon leader thus conducts the
march of his platoon in double column of files; platoon guides
follow in rear of their respective platoons to insure prompt
and orderly execution of the advance.

214. Being in skirmish line: 1. _Squad_columns_, 2. MARCH.

Each squad leader moves to the front; the members of each squad
oblique toward and follow their squad leader in single file at
easy marching distances.

215. PLATOON COLUMNS are profitably used where the ground is so
difficult or cover so limited as to make it desirable to take
advantage of the few favorable routes; no two platoons should
march within the area of burst of a single shrapnel.[5] SQUAD
COLUMNS are of value principally in facilitating the advance over
rough or brush-grown ground; they afford no material advantage
in securing cover.

[Footnote 5: Ordinarily about 20 yards wide.]

216. To deploy platoon or squad columns: 1. _As_skirmishers_,
2. MARCH.

Skirmishers move to the right or left front and successively place
themselves in their original positions on the line.

217. Being in platoon or squad columns: 1. _Assemble_, 2.
MARCH.

The platoon or squad leaders signal ASSEMBLE. The men of each
platoon or squad, as the case may be, advance and, moving to
the right and left, take their proper places in line; each unit
assembling on the leading element of the column and re-forming
in line. The platoon or squad leaders conduct their units toward
the element or point indicated by the captain, and to their places
in line; the company is re-formed in line.

218. Being in skirmish line, to advance by a succession of thin
lines: 1. _(Such_numbers),_forward_, 2. MARCH.

The captain points out in advance the selected position in front
of the line occupied. The designated number of each squad moves to
the front; the line thus formed preserves the original intervals
as nearly as practicable; when this line has advanced a suitable
distance (generally from 100 to 250 yards, depending upon the
terrain and the character of the hostile fire), a second is sent
forward by similar commands, and so on at irregular distances,
until the whole line has advanced, Upon arriving at the indicated
position, the first line is halted. Successive lines, upon arriving,
halt on line with the first and the men take their proper places
in the skirmish line.

Ordinarily each line is made up of one man per squad and the
men of a squad are sent forward in order from right to left as
deployed. The first line is led by the platoon leader of the
right platoon, the second by the guide of the right platoon, and
so on in order from right to left.

The advance is conducted in quick time unless conditions demand
a faster gait.

The company having arrived at the indicated position; a further
advance by the same means may be advisable.

219. The advance in a succession of thin lines is used to cross
a wide stretch swept, or likely to be swept, by artillery fire or
heavy, long-range rifle fire which can not profitably be returned.
Its purpose is the building up of a strong skirmish line preparatory
to engaging in a fire tight. This method of advancing results in
serious (though temporary) loss of control over the company. Its
advantage lies in the fact that it offers less definite target,
hence is less likely to draw fire.

220. The above are suggestions. Other and better formations may
be devised to fit particular cases. The best formation is the
one which advances the line farthest with the least loss of men,
time, and control.


THE FIRE ATTACK.

221. The principles governing the advance of the firing line in
attack are considered in the School of the Battalion.

When it becomes impracticable for the company to advance as a
whole by ordinary means, it advances by rushes.

222. Being in skirmish line: 1. _By_platoon_(two_platoons,_squad,_
_four_men,_etc.),_from_the_right_(left)_, 2. RUSH.

The platoon leader on the indicated flank carefully arranges
the details for a prompt and vigorous execution of the rush and
puts it into effect as soon as practicable. If necessary, he
designates the leader for the indicated fraction. When about
to rush, he causes the men of the fraction to cease firing and
to hold themselves flat, but in readiness to spring forward
instantly. The leader of the rush (at the signal of the platoon
leader, if the latter be not the leader of the rush) commands:
FOLLOW ME, and, running at top speed, leads the fraction to the
new line, where be halts it and causes it to open fire. The leader
of the rush selects the new line if it has not been previously
designated.

The first fraction having established itself on the new line,
the next like fraction is sent forward by its platoon leader,
without further command of the captain, and so on, successively,
until the entire company is on the line established by the first
rush.

If more than one platoon is to join in one rush, the junior platoon
leader conforms to the action of the senior.

A part of the line having advanced, the captain may increase
or decrease the size of the fractions to complete the movement.

223. When the company forms a part of the firing line, the rush
of the company as a whole is conducted by the captain, as described
for a platoon in the preceding paragraph. The captain leads the
rush; platoon leaders lead their respective platoons; platoon
guides follow the line to insure prompt and orderly execution
of the advance.

224. When the foregoing method of rushing, by running, becomes
impracticable, any method of advance that BRINGS THE ATTACK CLOSER
TO THE ENEMY, such as crawling, should be employed.

For regulations governing the charge, see paragraphs 318 and 319.


THE COMPANY IN SUPPORT.

225. To enable it to follow or reach the firing line, the support
adopts suitable formations, following the principles explained
in paragraphs 212-218.

The support should be kept assembled as long as practicable.
If after deploying a favorable opportunity arises to hold it
for some time in close formation, it should be reassembled. It
is redeployed when necessary.

226. The movements of the support as a whole and the dispatch
of reenforcements from it to the firing line are controlled by
the major.

A reenforcement of less than one platoon has little influence
and will be avoided whenever practicable.

The captain of a company in support is constantly on the alert
for the major's signals or commands.

227. A reenforcement sent to the firing line joins it deployed
as skirmishers. The leader of the reenforcement places it in an
interval in the line, if one exists: and commands it thereafter
as a unit. If no such suitable interval exists, the reenforcement
is advanced with increased intervals between skirmishers; each
man occupies the nearest interval in the firing line, and each
then obeys the orders of the nearest squad lender and platoon
leader.

228. A reenforcement joins the firing line as quickly as possible
without exhausting the men.

229. The original platoon division of the companies in the firing
line should be maintained and should not be broken up by the
mingling of reenforcements.

Upon joining the firing line, officers and sergeants accompanying
a reenforcement take over the duties of others of like grade
who have been disabled, or distribute themselves so as best to
exercise their normal functions. Conditions with vary and no rules
can be prescribed. It is essential that all assist in mastering
the increasing difficulties of control.


THE COMPANY ACTING ALONE.

230. In general, the company, when acting alone, is employed
according to the principles applicable to the battalion acting
alone; the captain employs platoons as the major employs companies,
making due allowance for the difference in strength.

The support may be smaller in proportion or may be dispensed with.

231. The company must be well protected against surprise. Combat
patrols on the flanks are specially important. Each leader of
a flank platoon details a man to watch for the signals of the
patrol or patrols on his flank.


FIRE.

232. Ordinarily pieces are loaded and extra ammunition is issued
before the company deploys for combat.

In close order the company executes the firings at the command
of the captain, who posts himself in rear of the center of the
company.

Usually the firings, in close order consist of saluting volleys
only.

233. When the company is deployed, the men execute the firings
at the command of their platoon leaders; the latter give such
commands as are necessary to carry out the captain's directions,
and, from time to time, add such further commands as are necessary
to continue, correct, and control the fire ordered.

234. The voice is generally inadequate for giving commands during
fire and must be replaced by signals of such character that proper
fire direction and control is assured. To attract attention,
signals must usually be preceded by the whistle signal (short
blast). A friction of the firing line about to rush should, it
practicable, avoid using the long blast signal as an aid to CEASE
FIRING. Officers and men behind the firing line can not ordinarily
move freely along the line, but must depend on mutual watchfulness
and the proper use of the prescribed signals. All should post
themselves so as to see their immediate superiors and subordinates.

235. The musicians assist the captain by observing the enemy, the
target, and the fire effect by transmitting commands or signals
and by watching for signals.

236. Firing with blank cartridges at an outlined or represented
enemy at distances less than 100 yards is prohibited.

237. The effect of fire and the influence of the ground in relation
thereto, and the individual and collective instruction in
marksmanship, are treated in the Small-Arms Firing Manual.


RANGES.

238. For convenience of reference ranges are classified as follows:

  0 to 600 yards, close range.
  600 to 1,200 yards, effective range.
  1,200 to 2,000 yards, long range.
  2,000 yards and over, distant range.

239. The distance to the target must be determined as accurately
as possible and the sights set accordingly. Aside from training
and morale, this is the most important single factor in securing
effective fire at the longer ranges.

240. Except in a deliberately prepared defensive position, the
most accurate and only practicable method of determining the
range will generally be to take the mean of several estimates.

Five or six officers or men, selected from the most accurate
estimators in the company, are designated as RANGE ESTIMATORS
and are specially trained in estimating distances.

Whenever necessary and practicable, the captain assembles the
range estimators, points out the target to them, and adopts the
mean of their estimates. The range estimators then take their
customary posts.


CLASSES OF FIRING.

241. VOLLEY FIRING has limited application. In defense it may
be used in the early stages of the action if the enemy presents
a large, compact target. It may be used by troops executing FIRE
OF POSITION. When the ground near the target is such that the
strike of bullets can be seen from the firing line, RANGING VOLLEYS
may be used to correct the sight setting.

In combat, volley firing is executed habitually by platoon.

242. FIRE AT WILL is the class of fire normally employed in attack
or defense.

243. CLIP FIRE has limited application. It is principally used:
1. In the early stages of combat, to steady the men by habituating
them to brief pauses in firing. 2. To produce a short burst of
fire.


THE TARGET.

244. Ordinarily the major will assign to the company an objective
in attack or sector in defense; the company's target will lie
within the limits so assigned. In the choice of target, tactical
considerations are paramount; the nearest hostile troops within
the objective or sector will thus be the usual target. This will
ordinarily be the hostile firing line; troops in rear are ordinarily
proper targets for artillery, machine guns, or, at times, infantry
employing fire of position.

Change of targets should not be made without excellent reasons
therefor, such as the sudden appearance of hostile troops under
conditions which make them more to be feared than the troops
comprising the former target.

245. The distribution of fire over the entire target is of special
importance.

The captain allots a part of the target to each platoon, or each
platoon leader takes as his target that part which corresponds
to his position in the company. Men are so instructed that each
fires on that part of the target which is directly opposite him.

246. All parts of the target are equally important. Care must
be exercised that the men do not slight its less visible parts.
A section of the target not covered by fire represents a number
of the enemy permitted to fire cooly and effectively.

247. If the target can not be seen with the naked eye, platoon
leaders select an object in front of or behind it, designate
this as the AIMING TARGET, and direct a sight setting which will
carry the cone of fire into the target.


FIRE DIRECTION.

248. When the company is large enough to be divided into platoons,
it is impracticable for the captain to command it directly in
combat. His efficiency in managing the firing line is measured
by his ability to enforce his will through the platoon leaders.
Having indicated clearly what he desires them to do, he avoids
interfering except to correct serious errors or omissions.

249. The captain directs the fire of the company or of designated
platoons. He designates the target, and, when practicable, allots
a part of the target to each platoon. Before beginning the fire
action he determines the range, announces the sight setting,
and indicates the class of fire to be employed, and the time
to open fire. Thereafter, he observes the fire effect, corrects
material errors in sight setting, prevents exhaustion of the
ammunition supply, and causes the distribution of such extra
ammunition as may be received from the rear.


FIRE CONTROL.

250. In combat the platoon is the fire unit. From 20 to 35 rifles
are as many as one leader can control effectively.

251. Each platoon leader puts into execution the commands or
directions of the captain, having first taken such precautions
to insure correct sight setting and clear description of the
target or aiming target as the situation permits or requires;
thereafter he gives such additional commands or directions as
are necessary to exact compliance with the captain's will. He
corrects the sight setting when necessary. He designates an aiming
target when the target can not be seen with the naked eye.

252. In general, PLATOON LEADERS observe the target and the effect
of their fire and are on the alert for the captain's commands or
signals; they observe and regulate the rate of fire. The PLATOON
GUIDES watch the firing line and check every breach of fire
discipline. SQUAD LEADERS transmit commands and signals when
necessary, observe the conduct of their squads and abate excitement,
assist in enforcing fire discipline and participate in the firing.

253. The best troops are those that submit longest to fire control.
Loss of control is an evil which robs success of its greatest
results. To avoid or delay such loss should be the constant aim
of all.

Fire control implies the ability to stop firing, change the sight
setting and target, and resume a well directed fire.


FIRE DISCIPLINE.

254. "Fire discipline implies, besides a habit of obedience,
a control of the rifle by the soldier, the result of training,
which will enable him in action to make hits instead of misses.
It embraces taking advantage of the ground; care in setting the
sight and delivery of fire; constant attention to the orders of
the leaders, and careful observation of the enemy; an increase
of fire when the target is favorable, and a cessation of fire
when the enemy disappears; economy of ammunition." (Small-arms
Firing Manual.)

In combat, shots which graze the enemy's trench or position and
thus reduce the effectiveness of his fire have the approximate
value of hits; such shots only, or actual hits, contribute toward
fire superiority.

Fire discipline implies that, in a firing line without leaders,
each man retains his presence of mind and directs effective fire
upon the proper target.

255. To create a correct appreciation of the requirements of
fire discipline, men are taught that the rate of fire should be
as rapid as is consistent with accurate aiming; that the rate
will depend upon the visibility, proximity, and size or the target;
and that the proper rate will ordinarily suggest itself to each
trained man, usually rendering cautions or commands unnecessary.

In attack the highest rate of fire is employed at the halt preceding
the assault, and in pursuing fire.

256. In an advance by rushes, leaders of troops in firing positions
are responsible for the delivery of heavy fire to cover the advance
of each rushing fraction. Troops are trained to change slightly
the direction of fire so as not to endanger the flanks of advanced
portions of the firing line.

257. In defense, when the target disappears behind cover, platoon
leaders suspend fire, prepare their platoons to fire upon the
point where it is expected to reappear, and greet its reappearance
instantly with vigorous fire.


SECTION 7. COMPANY INSPECTION.

745. Being in line at a halt: 1. _Open_ranks_, 2. MARCH.

At the command MARCH the front rank executes right dress; the
rear rank and the file closers march backward 4 steps, halt, and
execute right dress; the lieutenants pass around their respective
flanks and take post, facing to the front, 3 paces in front of
the center of their respective platoons. The captain aligns the
front rank, rear rank, and file closers, takes post 8 paces in
front of the right guide, facing to the left, and commands: 1.
FRONT, 2. PREPARE FOR INSPECTION.

At the second command the lieutenants carry saber; the captain
returns saber and inspects them, after which they face about, order
saber, and stand at ease; upon the completion of the inspection
they carry saber, face about, and order saber. The captain may
direct the lieutenants to accompany or assist him, in which case
they return saber and, at the close of the inspection, resume
their posts in front of the company, draw and carry saber.

Having inspected the lieutenants, the captain proceeds to the
right of the company. Each man, as the captain approaches him,
executes INSPECTION ARMS.

The captain takes the piece, grasping it with his right hand just
above the rear sight, the man dropping his hands. The captain
inspects the piece, and, with the hand and piece in the same
position as in receiving it, hands it back to the man, who takes
it with the left hand at the balance and executes ORDER ARMS.

As the captain returns the piece the next man executes INSPECTION
ARMS, and so on through the company.

Should the piece be inspected without handling, each man executes
ORDER ARMS as soon as the captain passes to the next, man.

The inspection is from right to left in front, and from left
to right in rear, of each rank and of the line of file closers.

When approached by the captain the first sergeant executes INSPECTION
SABER. Enlisted men armed with the pistol execute INSPECTION
PISTOL by drawing the pistol from the holster and holding it
diagonally across the body, barrel up, and 6 inches in front
of the neck, muzzle pointing up and to the left. The pistol is
returned to the holster as soon as the captain passes.

Upon completion of the inspection the captain takes post facing
to the left in front of the right guide and on line with the
lieutenants and commands: 1. _Close_ranks_, 2. MARCH.

At the command MARCH the lieutenants resume their posts in line;
the rear rank closes to 40 inches, each man covering his file
leader; the file closers close to 2 paces from the rear rank.

746. If the company is dismissed. rifles are put away. In quarters,
headdress and accouterments are removed and the men stand near
their respective bunks; in camp they stand covered, but without
accourterments, in front of their tents.

If the personal field equipment has not been inspected in ranks
and its inspection in quarters or camp is ordered, each man will
arrange the prescribed articles on his bunk, if in quarters or
permanent camp, or in front of his half of the tent, if in shelter
tent camp, in the same relative order as directed in paragraph
747.

The captain, accompanied by the lieutenants, then inspects the
quarters or camp. The first sergeant precedes the captain and
calls the men to attention on entering each squad room or on
approaching the tents; the men stand at attention but do not salute.
(_C._I._D._R.,_No._16,_Aug._25,_1916_.)

747. (Edition approved Aug. 10, 1911, and edition corrected to
November, 1913.) If the inspection is to include an examination
of the equipment while in ranks, the captain, after closing ranks,
causes the company to stack arms, to march backward until 4 paces
in rear of the stacks and to take intervals. He then commands:
1. UNSLING EQUIPMENT, 2. OPEN PACKS.

At the first command, each man unslings his equipment and places
it on the ground at his feet, haversack to the front end of the
pack 1 foot in front of toes.

At the second command, pack carriers are unstrapped, packs removed
and unrolled, the longer edge of the pack along the lower edge of
the cartridge belt. Each man exposes shelter tent pins, removes
meat can, knife, fork, and spoon from the meat-can pouch, and
places them on the right of the haversack, knife, fork, and spoon
in the open meat can; removes the canteen and cup from the cover
and places them on the left side of the haversack; unstraps and
spreads out haversack so as to expose its contents; folds up the
carrier to uncover the cartridge pockets; opens same; unrolls
toilet articles and places them on the outer flap of the haversack;
places underwear carried in pack on the left half of the open pack,
with round fold parallel with front edge of pack; opens first-aid
pouch and exposes contents to view. Special articles carried
by individual men, such as flag kit, field glasses, compass,
steel tape, notebook, etc., will be arranged on the right half
of the open pack. Each man then resumes the attention. Plate VI
shows the relative position of all articles except underwear
and special articles.

The captain then passes along the ranks and file closers as be,
fore, inspects the equipment, returns to the right, and commands:
CLOSE PACKS.

Each man rolls up his toilet articles and underwear, straps up
his haversack and its contents, replaces the meat can, knife,
fork, and spoon, and the canteen and cup: closes cartridge pockets
and first-aid pouch; restores special articles to their proper
receptacles; rolls up and replaces pack in currier; and, leaving
the equipment in its position on the ground, resumes the attention.

All equipments being packed, the captain commands: SLING EQUIPMENT.

The equipments are slung and belts fastened.

The captain then causes the company to assemble and take arms.
The inspection is completed as already explained.

748. Should the inspector be other than the captain, the latter,
after commanding FRONT, adds REST, and faces to the front. When
the inspector approaches, the captain faces to the left, brings
the company to attention, faces to the front, and salutes. The
salute acknowledged, the captain carries saber, faces to the
left, commands: PREPARE FOR INSPECTION, and again faces to the
front.

The inspection proceeds as before; the captain returns saber
and accompanies the inspector as soon as the latter passes him.

[Illustration: fig 3.]


SECTION 8. MANUAL OF TENT PITCHING.

SHELTER TENTS.

[For Infantry Equipment, model of 1910.][6]

[Footnote 6: For method of pitching shelter tents, with old model
Infantry equipment or old model shelter tent, see paragraph 792,
in 'Method of Folding Pyramidal Tent'.]

792. Being in line or in column of platoons, the captain commands:
FORM FOR SHELTER TENTS.

The officers, first sergeant, and guides fallout; the cooks form
a file on the flank of the company nearest the kitchen, the first
sergeant and right guide fall in, forming the right file of the
company; blank files are filled by the file closers or by men
taken from the front rank; the remaining guide, or guides, and
file closers form on a convenient flank.

Before forming column of platoons, preparatory to pitching tents,
the company may be redivided into two or more platoons, regardless
of the size of each.

793. The captain then causes the company to take intervals as
described in the School of the Squad and commands: PITCH TENTS.

At the command PITCH TENTS, each man steps off obliquely to the
right with the right foot and lays his rifle on the ground, the
butt of the rifle near the toe of the right foot, muzzle to the
front, barrel to the left, and steps back into his place; each
front rank man then draws his bayonet and sticks it in the ground
by the outside of the right heel.

[Illustration: Plate VI.]

Equipments are unslung, packs opened, shelter half and pins removed:
each man then spreads his shelter half, small triangle to the
rear, flat upon the ground the tent is to occupy, the rear rank
man's half on the right. The halves are then buttoned together;
the guy loops at both ends of the lower half are passed through
the buttonholes provided in the lower and upper halves; the whipped
end of the guy rope is then passed through both guy loops and
secured, this at both ends of the tent. Each front rank man inserts
the muzzle of his rifle under the front end of the ridge and
holds the rifle upright, sling to the front, heel of butt on
the ground beside the bayonet. His rear rank man pins down the
front corners of the tent on the line of bayonets, stretching
the tent taut; he then inserts a pin in the eye of the front
guy rope and drives the pin at such a distance in front of the
rifle as to hold the rope taut; both men go to the rear of the
tent, each pins down a corner, stretching the sides and rear
of the tent before securing; the rear rank man then inserts an
intrenching tool, or a bayonet in its scabbard, under the rear
end of the ridge inside the tent, the front rank man pegging
down the end of the rear guy ropes; the rest of the pins are
then driven by both men, the rear rank man working on the right.

NOTE.--The use of the hand ax and the pick mattock in organizations
equipped with the intrenching tool is authorized for the purpose
of driving shelter tent pins. The use of the bayonet for this
purpose is prohibited.

The front flaps of the tent are not fastened down, but thrown
back on the tent.

As soon as the tent is pitched each man arranges his equipment
and the contents of his pack in the tent and stands at attention
in front of his own half on line with the front guy-rope pin.

To have a uniform slope when the tents are pitched, the guy ropes
should all be of the same length.

In shelter-tent camps, in localities where suitable material
is procurable, tent poles may be improvised and used in lieu of
the rifle and bayonet or intrenching tool as supports for the
shelter tent.

794. When the pack is not carried the company is formed for shelter
tents, intervals are taken, arms are laid aside or on the ground,
the men are dismissed and proceed to the wagon, secure their
packs, return to their places, and pitch tents as heretofore
described.

795. Double shelter tents may be pitched by first pitching one
tent as heretofore described, then pitching a second tent against
the opening of the first, using one rifle to support both tents,
and passing the front guy ropes over and down the sides of the
opposite tents. The front corner of one tent is not pegged down,
but is thrown back to permit an opening into the tent.


SINGLE SLEEPING BAG.

796. Spread the poncho on the ground, buttoned end at the feet,
buttoned side to the left; fold the blanket once across its short
dimension and lay it on the poncho, folded side along the right
side of the poncho; tie the blanket together along the left side
by means of the tapes provided; fold the left half of the poncho
over the blanket and button it together along the side and bottom.


DOUBLE SLEEPING BAG.

797. Spread one poncho on-the ground, buttoned end at the feet,
buttoned side to the left; spread the blankets on top of the
poncho; tie the edges of the blankets together with the tapes
provided; spread a second poncho on top of the blankets, buttoned
end at the feet, buttoned side to the right; button the two ponchos
together along both sides and across the end.


TO STRIKE SHELTER TENTS.

798. The men standing in front of their tents: STRIKE TENTS.

Equipments and rifles are removed from the tent; the tents are
lowered, packs made up, and equipments slung, and the men stand
at attention in the places originally occupied after taking
intervals.


TO PITCH ALL TYPES OF ARMY TENTS, EXCEPT SHELTER AND CONICAL WALL
TENTS.

799. To pitch all types of Army tents, except shelter and conical
wall tents: Mark line of tents by driving a wall pin on the spot
to be occupied by the right (or left) corner of each tent. For
pyramidal tents the interval between adjacent pins should be
about 30 feet, which will give a passage of 2 feet between tents.
Spread tripod on the ground where the center of tent is to be,
if tripod is used. Spread the tent on the ground to be occupied,
door to the front, and place the right (or left) front wall loop
over the pin. The door (or doors, if more than one) being fastened
and held together at the bottom, the left (or right) corner wall
loop is carried to the left (or right) as far as it will go and
a wall pin driven through it, the pin being placed in line with
the right (or left) corner pins already driven. At the same time
the rear corner wall loops are pulled to the rear and outward
so that the rear wall of the tent is stretched to complete the
rectangle. Wall pins are then driven through these loops. Each
corner pin should be directly in rear of the corresponding front
corner pin, making a rectangle. Unless the canvas be wet, a small
amount of slack should be allowed before the corner pins are driven.
According to the size of the tent, one or two men, crawling under
the tent if necessary, fit each pole or ridge or upright into
the ring or ridge-pole holes, and such accessories as hood, fly,
and brace ropes are adjusted. If a tripod be used an additional
man will go under the tent to adjust it. The tent, steadied by
the remaining men, one at each corner guy rope, will then be
raised. If the tent is a ward or storage type, corner poles will
now be placed at the four corners. The four corner guy ropes
are then placed over the lower notches of the large pins driven
in prolongation of the diagonals at such distance as to hold
the walls and end of the tent vertical and smooth when the guy
ropes are drawn taut. A wall pin is then driven through each
remaining wall loop and a large pin for each guy rope is driven
in line with the corner guy pins already driven. The guy ropes
of the tent are placed over the lower notches, while the guy
ropes of the fly are placed over the upper notches, and are then
drawn taut. Brace ropes when used, are then secured to stakes
or pins suitably placed.

800. Rescinded.


CONICAL WALL TENT.

801. Drive the door pin and center pin 8 feet 3 inches apart.
Using the hood lines, with center pin as center, describe two
concentric circles with radii 8 feet 3 inches and 11 feet 3 inches.
In the outer circle drive two door guy pins 3 feet apart. At
intervals of about 3 feet drive the other guy pins.

In other respects conical tents are erected practically as in
the case of pyramidal tents.


TO STRIKE COMMON, WALL, PYRAMIDAL, AND CONICAL WALL TENTS.

802. STRIKE TENTS.

The men first remove all pins except those of the four corner
guy ropes, or the four quadrant guy ropes in the case of the
conical wall tent. The pins are neatly piled or placed in their
receptacle.

One man holds each guy, and when the ground is clear the tent
is lowered, folded, or rolled and tied, the poles or tripod and
pole fastened together, and the remaining pins collected.


TO FOLD TENTS.

803. For folding common, wall, hospital, and storage tents: Spread
the tent flat on the ground, folded at the ridge so that bottoms
of side walls are even, ends of tent forming triangles to the
right and left; fold the triangular ends of the tent in toward
the middle, making it rectangular in shape; fold the top over
about 9 inches; fold the tent in two by carrying the top fold
over clear to the foot; fold again in two from the top to the
foot; throw all guys on tent except the second from each end;
fold the ends in so as to cover about two-thirds of the second
cloths; fold the left end over to meet the turned-in edge of
the right end, then fold the right end over the top, completing
the bundle; tie with the two exposed guys.


METHOD OF FOLDING PYRAMIDAL TENT.

The tent is thrown toward the rear and the back wall and roof
canvas pulled out smooth. This may be most easily accomplished
by leaving the rear-corner wall pins in the ground with the wall
loops attached, one man at each rear-corner guy, and one holding
the square iron in a perpendicular position and pulling the canvas
to its limit away from the former front of the tent. This leaves
the three remaining sides of the tent on top of the rear side,
with the door side in the middle.

Now carry the right-front corner over and lay it on the left-rear
corner. Pull all canvas smooth, throw guys toward square iron,
and pull bottom edges even. Then take the right-front corner
and return to the right, covering the right-rear corner. This
folds the right side of the tent on itself, with the crease in
the middle and under the front side of tent.

Next carry the left-front corner to the right and back as described
above; this when completed will leave the front and rear sides
of the tent lying smooth and fiat and the two side walls folded
inward, each on itself.

Place the hood in the square iron which has been folded downward
toward the bottom of the tent, and continue to fold around the
square iron as a core, pressing all folds down flat and smooth and
parallel with the bottom of the tent. If each fold is compactly
made and the canvas kept smooth, the last fold will exactly cover
the lower edge of the canvas. Lay all exposed guys along the
folded canvas except the two on the center width, which should
be pulled out and away from bottom edge to their extreme length
for tying. Now, beginning at one end, fold toward the center
on the first seam (that joining the first and second widths)
and fold again toward the center, so that the already folded
canvas will come to within about 3 inches of the middle width.
Then fold over to the opposite edge of middle width of canvas.
Then begin folding from opposite end, folding the first width
in half, then making a second fold to come within about 4 or
5 inches of that already folded; turn this fold entirely over
that already folded. Take the exposed guys and draw them taut
across each other, turn bundle over on the under guy, cross guys
on top of bundle, drawing tight. Turn bundle over on the crossed
guys and tie lengthwise.

When properly tied and pressed together this will make a package
11 by 23 by 34 inches, requiring about 8,855 cubic inches to
store or pack.

Stencil the organization designation on the lower half of the
middle width of canvas in the back wall.


    WAR DEPARTMENT,
    OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF,
    _Washington,_December_2,_1911._

Paragraphs 747, 792, 793, 794, 795, 796, 797, and 798. Infantry
Drill Regulations, 1911, apply only to troops equipped with the
Infantry Equipment, model 1910. For troops equipped under General
Orders, No. 23, War Department, 1906, and orders amendatory thereof,
the alternative paragraphs published herewith will govern.

By order of the Secretary of War:

    LEONARD WOOD,
    _Major_General,_Chief_of_Staff_.

747. If the inspection is to include an examination of the blanket
rolls the captain, before dismissing the company and after inspecting
the file closers, directs the lieutenants to remain in place, closes
ranks, stacks arms, dresses the company back to four paces from
the stacks, takes intervals, and Commands: 1. _Unsling_,
2. PACKS, 3. _Open_, 4. PACKS.

At the second command each man unslings his roll and places it
on the ground at his feet, rounded end to the front, square end
of shelter half to the right.

At the fourth command the rolls are untied, laid perpendicular
to the front, with the triangular end of the shelter half to the
front, opened, and unrolled to the left; each man prepares the
contents of his roll for inspection and resumes the attention.

The captain then returns saber, passes along the ranks and file
closers as before, inspects the rolls, returns to the right,
draws saber and commands: 1. _Close_, 2. PACKS.

At the second command each man, with his shelter half smoothly
spread on the ground with buttons up and triangular end to the
front, folds his blanket once across its length and places it
upon the shelter half, fold toward the bottom, edge one-half
inch from the square end, the same amount of canvas uncovered
at the top and bottom. He then places the parts of the pole at
the side of the blanket next the square end of shelter half, near
and parallel to the fold, end of pole about 6 inches from the
edge of the blanket; nests the pins similarly near the opposite
edge of the blanket find distributes the other articles carried in
the roll; folds the triangular end and then the exposed portion
of the bottom of the shelter half over the blanket.

The two men in each file roll and fasten first the roll of the
front and then of the rear rank man. The file closers work similarly
two and two, or with the front rank man of a blank file. Each
pair stands on the folded side, rolls the blanket roll closely
and buckles the straps, passing the end of the strap through both
keeper and buckle, back over the buckle and under the keeper.
With the roll so lying on the ground that the edge of the shelter
half can just be seen when looking vertically downward one end is
bent upward and over to meet the other, a clove hitch is taken
with the guy rope first around the end to which it is attached and
then around the other end, adjusting the length of rope between
hitches to suit the wearer.

As soon as a file completes its two rolls each man places his
roll in the position it was in after being unslung find stands
at attention.

All the rolls being completed, the captain commands: 1. _Sling_,
2. PACKS.

At the second command the rolls ure slung, the end containing
the pole to the rear.

The company is assembled, takes arms, and the captain completes
the inspection as before.

792. Being in line or in column of platoons, the captain commands:
FORM FOR SHELTER TENTS.

The officers, first sergeant, and guides fall out; the cooks
form a file on the flank of the company nearest the kitchen, the
first sergeant and right guide fall in, forming the right file
of the company; blank files are filled by the file closers or
by men taken from the front rank; the remaining guide or guides,
and file closers form on a convenient flank. Before forming column
of platoons, preparatory to pitching tents, the company may be
redivided into two or more platoons, regardless of the size of
each.

793. The captain then causes the company to take intervals as
described in the School of the Squad, and commands: PITCH TENTS.

At the command PITCH TENTS, each man steps off obliquely to the
right with the right foot and lays his rifle on the ground, the
butt of the rifle near the toe of the right foot, muzzle to the
front, barrel to the left, and steps back into his place; each
front rank man then draws his bayonet and sticks it in the ground
by the outside of the right heel. All unsling and open the blanket
rolls and take out the shelter half, poles, and pins. Each then
spreads his shelter half, triangle to the rear, flat upon the
ground the tent is to occupy, rear rank man's half on the right.
The halves are then buttoned together. Each front rank man joins
his pole, inserts the top in the eyes of the halves, and holds
the pole upright beside the bayonet placed in the ground; his rear
rank man, using the pins in front, pins down the front corners
of the tent on the line of bayonets, stretching the canvas taut;
he then inserts a pin in the eye of the rope and drives the pin
at such distance in front of the pole as to hold the rope taut.
Both then go to the rear of the tent; the rear rank man adjusts
the pole and the front rank man drives the pins. The rest of
the pins are then driven by both men, the rear-rank man working
on the right.

NOTE.--The use of the hand ax and the pick mattock in organizations
equipped with the intrenching tool is authorized for the purpose
of driving shelter tent pins. The use of the bayonet for that
purpose is prohibited.

As soon as the tent is patched each man arranges the contents
of the blanket roll in the tent and stands at attention in front
of his own half on line with the front guy-rope pin.

The guy ropes, to have a uniform slope when the shelter tents
are pitched, should all be of the same length.

794. When the blanket roll is not carried, intervals are taken
as described above; the position of the front pole is marked with
a bayonet and equipments are laid aside. The men then proceed
to the wagon, secure their rolls, return to their places, and
pitch tents as heretofore described.

795. To pitch double shelter tent, the captain gives the same
commands as before, except TAKE HALF INTERVAL is given instead of
TAKE INTERVAL. In taking interval each man follows the preceding
man at 2 paces. The captain then commands: PITCH DOUBLE TENTS.

The first sergeant places himself on the right of the right guide
and with him pitches a single shelter tent.

Only the odd numbers of the front rank mark the line with the
bayonet.

The tent is formed by buttoning together the square ends of two
single tents. Two complete tents, except one pole, are used.
Two guy ropes are used at each end, the guy pins being placed
in front of the corner pins.

The tents are pitched by numbers 1 and 2, front and rear rank;
and by numbers 3 and 4, front and rear rank; the men falling
in on the left are numbered, counting off if necessary.

All the men spread their shelter halves on the ground the tent is
to occupy. Those of the front rank are placed with the triangular
ends to the front. All four halves are then buttoned together,
first the ridges and then the square ends. The front corners
of the tent are pinned by the front rank men, the odd number
holding the poles, the even number driving the pins. The rear
rank men similarly pin the rear corners.

While the odd numbers steady the poles, each even number of the
front rank takes his pole and enters the tent, where, assisted
by the even number of the rear rank, he adjusts the pole to the
center eyes of the shelter halves in the following order: (1)
The lower half of the front tent; (2) the lower half of the rear
tent; (3) the upper half of the front tent; (4) the upper half
of the rear tent. The guy ropes are then adjusted.

The tents having been pitched, the triangular ends are turned back,
contents of the rolls arranged, and the men stand at attention,
each opposite his own shelter half and facing out from the tent.

796. Omitted.

797. Omitted.

798. Omitted.


SECTION 9. MANUAL OF THE BAYONET.

1. The Infantry soldier relies mainly on fire action to disable the
enemy, but he should know that personal combat is often necessary
to obtain success. Therefore, he must be instructed in the use
of the rifle and bayonet in hand-to-hand encounters.

2. The object of this instruction is to teach the soldier how to
make effect use of the rifle and bayonet in personal combat: to
make him quick and proficient in handling his rifle; to give him
an accurate eye and a steady hand; and to give him confidence in
the bayonet in offense and defense. When skill in these exercises
has been acquired, the rifle will still remain a most formidable
weapon at close quarters should the bayonet be lost or disabled,

3. Efficiency of organizations in bayonet fighting will be judged
by the skill shown by individuals in personal combat. For this
purpose pairs or groups of opponents, selected at random from
among recruits and trained soldiers, should engage in assaults,
using the fencing equipment provided for the purpose.

4. Officers and specially selected and thoroughly instructed
noncommissioned officers will act us instructors.

5. Instruction in bayonet combat should begin as soon as the soldier
is familiar with the handling of his rifle and will progress, as
far as practicable, in the order followed in the text.

6. Instruction is ordinarily given on even ground; but practice
should also be had on uneven ground, especially in the attack
and defense of intrenchments.

7. These exercises will not be used as a calisthenic drill.

8. The principles of the commands are the same as those given in
paragraph 9, 15, and 38, Infantry Drill Regulations. Intervals
and distances will be taken as in paragraphs 109 and 111, Infantry
Drill Regulations, except that, in formations for bayonet exercises,
the men should be at least four paces apart in every direction.

9. Before requiring soldiers to take a position or execute a
movement for the first time, the instructor executes the same
for the purpose of illustration, after which he requires the
soldiers to execute the movement individually. Movements prescribed
in this manual will not be executed in cadence as the attempt to
do so results in incomplete execution and lack of vigor. Each
movement will be executed correctly as quickly as possible by
every man. As soon as the movements are executed accurately,
the commands are given rapidly, as expertness with the bayonet
depends chiefly upon quickness of motion.

10. The exercises will he interrupted at first by short and frequent
rests. The rests will be less frequent as proficiency is attained.
Fatigue and exhaustion will be specially guarded against, as
they prevent proper interest being taken in the exercises and
delay the progress of the instruction. Rests will be given from
the position of order arms in the manner prescribed in Infantry
Drill Regulations.


THE BAYONET.

NOMENCLATURE AND DESCRIPTION.

11. The bayonet is a cutting and thrusting weapon consisting
of three principal parts, viz, the _blade,_guard_, and
_grip_.

12. The blade has the following parts: Edge, false edge, back,
grooves, point, and tang. The length of the blade from guard to
point is 16 inches, the edge 14.5 inches, and the false edge
5.6 inches. Length of the rifle, bayonet fixed, is 59.4 inches.
The weight of the bayonet is 1 pound; weight of rifle without
bayonet is 8.69 pounds. The center of gravity of the rifle, with
bayonet fixed, is just in front of the rear sight.

NOTE.--The use of the hand ax and the pick mattock in organizations
equipped with the intrenching tool is authorized for the purpose
of driving shelter-tent pins. The use of the bayonet for that
purpose is prohibited.


I. INSTRUTION WITHOUT THE RIFLE.

13. The instructor explains the importance of good footwork and
impresses on the men the fact that quickness of foot and suppleness
of body are as important for attack and defense as is the ability
to parry and deliver a strong point or cut.

14. All foot movements should be made from the position of guard.
As far as practicable, they will be made on the balls of the
feet to insure quickness and agility. No hard and fast rule can
be laid down as to the length of the various foot movements;
this depends entirely on the situations occurring in combat.

15. The men having taken intervals or distances, the instructor
commands:

1. _Bayonet_exercise_, 2. GUARD.

At the command GUARD, half face to the right, carry back and
place the right foot about once and a half its length to the
rear and about 3 inches to the right, the feet forming with each
other an angle of about 60°, weight of the body balanced equally
on the balls of the feet, knees slightly bent, palms of hands
on hips, fingers to the front, thumbs to the rear, head erect,
head and eyes straight to the front.

16. To resume the attention. 1. _Squad_, 2. ATTENTION, The
men take the position of the soldier and fix their attention.

17. ADVANCE. Advance the left foot quickly about once its length,
follow immediately with the right foot the same distance.

18. RETIRE. Move the right foot quickly to the rear about once its
length, follow immediately with the left foot the same distance.

19. 1. _Front_, 2. PASS. Place the right foot quickly about
once its length in front of the left, advance the left foot to
its proper position in front of the right.

20. 1. _Rear_ 2. PASS, Place the left foot quickly about
once its length in rear of the right, retire the right foot to
its proper position in rear of the left.

The passes are used to get quickly within striking distance or
to withdraw quickly therefrom.

21. 1. _Right_, 2. STEP. Step to the right with the right
foot about once its length and place the left foot in its proper
relative position.

22. 1. _Left_, 2. STEP. Step to the left with the left foot
about once its length and place the right foot in its proper
relative position.

These steps are used to circle around an enemy, to secure a more
favorable line of attack, or to avoid the opponent's attack.
Better ground or more favorable light may be gained in this way.
In bayonet fencing and in actual combat the foot first moved in
stepping to the right or left is the one which at the moment
bears the least weight.


II. INSTRUCTION WITH THE RIFLE.

23. The commands for and the execution of the foot movements
are the same as already given for movements without the rifle.

24. The men having taken intervals or distances, the instructor
commands:

1. _Bayonet_exercise_, 2. GUARD.

At the second command take the position of guard (see par. 15);
at the same time throw the rifle smartly to the front, grasp
the rifle with the left hand just below the lower band, fingers
between the stock and gun sling, barrel turned slightly to the
left, the right hand grasping the small of the stock about 6 inches
in front of the right hip, elbows free from the body, bayonet
point at the height of the chin.

25. 1. _Order_, 2. ARMS.

Bring the right foot up to the left and the rifle to the position
of order arms, at the same time resuming the position of attention.

26. During the preliminary instruction, attacks and defenses
will he executed from guard until proficiency is attained, after
which they may be executed from any position in which the rifle
is held.


ATTACKS.

27. 1. THRUST.

Thrust the rifle quickly forward to the full length of the left
arm, turning the barrel to the left, and direct the point of the
bayonet at the point to be attacked, butt covering the right
fore-arm. At the same time straighten the right leg vigorously
and throw the weight of the body forward and on the left leg,
the ball of the right foot always on the ground. Guard is resumed
immediately without command.

The force of the thrust is delivered principally with the right
arm, the left being used to direct the bayonet. The points at
which the attack should be directed are, in order of their
importance, stomach, chest, head, neck, and limbs.

28. 1. LUNGE.

Executed in the same manner as the thrust, except that the left
foot is carried forward about twice its length. The left heel must
always be in rear of the left knee. Guard is resumed immediately
without command. Guard may also be resumed by advancing the right
foot if for any reason it is desired to hold the ground gained
in lunging. In the latter case the preparatory command FORWARD
will be given. Each method should be practiced.

29. 1. _Butt_, 2. STRIKE.

Straighten right arm and right leg vigorously and swing butt of
rifle against point of attack, pivoting the rifle in the left hand
at about the height of the left shoulder, allowing the bayonet to
pass to the rear on the left side of the head, Guard is resumed
without command.

[Illustration: Par. 27.]

[Illustration: Par. 24.]

The points of attack in their order of importance are head, neck,
stomach, and crotch.

30. 1. _Cut_, 2. DOWN.

Execute a quick downward stroke, edge of bayonet directed at point
of attack. Guard is resumed without command.

31. 1. _Cut_, 2. RIGHT (LEFT).

With a quick extension of the arms execute a cut to the right
(left), directing the edge toward the point attacked. Guard is
resumed without command.

The cuts are especially useful against the head, neck, and hands
of an enemy. In executing left cut it should be remembered that
the false, or back edge, is only 5.6 inches long. The cuts can be
executed continuation of strokes, thrusts, lunges, and parries.

[Illustration: Par. 28.]

32. To direct an attack to the right, left, or rear the soldier
will change front as quickly as possible in the most convenient
manner, for example: 1. _To_the_right_rear_, 2. _Cut_,
3. DOWN; 1. _To_the_right_, 2. LUNGE; 1. _To_the_left_,
2. THRUST, etc.

Whenever possible the impetus gained by the turning movement
of the body should be thrown into the attack. In general this
will be best accomplished by turning on the ball of the right
foot.

These movements constitute a change of front in which the position
of guard is resumed at the completion of the movement.

[Illustration: Par. 29.]

33. Good judgment of distance is essential. Accuracy in thrusting
and lunging is best attained by practicing these attacks against
rings or other convenient openings, about 3 inches in diameter,
suitably suspended at desired heights.

34. The thrust and lunges at rings should first be practiced by
endeavoring to hit the opening looked at. This should be followed
by directing the attack against one opening while looking at
another.

35. The soldier should also experience the effect of actual
resistance offered to the bayonet and the butt of the rifle in
attacks. This will be taught by practicing attacks against a
dummy.

36. Dummies should be constructed in such a manner as to permit
the execution of attacks without injury to the point or edge of
the bayonet or to the barrel or stock of the rifle. A suitable
dummy can be made from pieces of rope about 5 feet in length plaited
closely together into a cable between 6 and 12 in diameter. Old
rope is preferable. Bags weighted and stuffed with hay, straw,
shavings, etc. are also suitable.

[Illustration: Par. 36.]

[Illustration: Par. 33.]


DEFENSES.

37. In the preliminary drills in the defenses the position of
guard is resumed, by command, after each parry. When the men have
become proficient the instructor will cause them to resume the
position of guard instantly without command after the execution
of each parry.

38. 1. _Parry_, 2. RIGHT.

Keeping the right hand in the guard position, move the rifle
sharply to the right with the left arm, so that the bayonet point
is about 6 inches to the right.

39. 1. _Parry_, 2. LEFT.

Move the rifle sharply to the left front with both hands so as
to cover the point attacked.

40. 1. _Parry_, 2. HIGH.

Raise the rifle with both hands high enough to clear the line
of vision, barrel downward, point of the bayonet to the left
front.

[Illustration: Par. 40.]

[Illustration: Par. 41.]

When necessary to raise the rifle well above the head, it may
be supported between the thumb and forefinger of the left hand.
This position will be necessary against attacks from higher
elevations, such as men mounted or on top of parapets.

41. 1. _Low_parry_, 2. RIGHT (LEFT).

Carry the point of the bayonet down until it is at the height
of the knee, moving the point of the bayonet sufficiently to the
right (left) to keep the opponent's attacks clear of the point
threatened.

These parries and rarely used, as an attack below the waist leaves
the head and body exposed.

[Illustration: Par. 41.]

[Illustration: Par. 44.]

42. Parries must not be too wide or sweeping, but sharp, short
motions, finished with a jerk or quick catch. The hands should,
as far as possible, be kept in the line of attack. Parries against
BUTT STRIKE are made by quickly moving the guard so as to cover
the point attacked.

43. To provide against attack from the right, left, or rear the
soldier will change front as quickly as possible in the most
convenient maimer: for example: 1. To the left rear, 2. _Parry_,
3. HIGH; 1. To the right, 2. _Parry_, 3. RIGHT, etc.

These movements constitute a change of front in which the position
of guard is resumed at the completion of the movement.

In changing front for the purpose of attack or defense, if there
is danger of wounding a comrade, the rifle should first be brought
to a vertical position.


III. INSTRUCTION WITHOUT THE BAYONET.

44. 1. _Club_rifle_, 2. SWING.

[Illustration: Par. 44.]

Being at order arms, at the preparatory command quickly raise and
turn the rifle, regrasping it with both hands between the rear
sight and muzzle, barrel down, thumbs around the stock and toward
the butt; at the same time raise the rifle above the shoulder
farthest from the opponent, butt elevated and to the rear, elbows
slightly bent and knees straight. Each individual takes such
position of the feet, shoulders, and hands as best accords with
his natural dexterity. SWING. Tighten the grasp of the hands
and swing the rifle to the front and downward, directing it at
the head of the opponent, and immediately return to the position
of club rifle by completing the swing of the rifle downward and
to the rear. Repeat by the command, SWING.

The rifle should be swung with sufficient force to break through
any guard or parry that may be interposed.

Being at CLUB RIFLE, order arms is resumed by command.

The use of this attack against dummies or in fencing is prohibited.

45. The position of CLUB RIFLE may be taken from any position of
the rifle prescribed in the Manual of Arms. It will not be taken
in personal combat unless the emergency is such as to preclude
the use of the bayonet.


IV. COMBINED MOVEMENT.

46. The purpose of combined movements is to develop more vigorous
attacks and more effective defenses than are obtained by the
single movements; to develop skill in passing from attack to
defense and the reverse. Every movement to the front should be
accompanied by an attack, which is increased in effectiveness
by the forward movement of the body. Every movement to the rear
should ordinarily be accompanied by a parry and should always
be followed by an attack. Movements to the right or left may
be accompanied by attacks or defense.

47. Not more than three movements will be used in any combination.
The instructor should first indicate the number of movements
that are to be combined as TWO MOVEMENTS or THREE MOVEMENTS.
The execution is determined by one command of execution, and
the position of guard is taken upon the completion of the last
movement only.


EXAMPLES.

Front pass and LUNGE.

Right step and THRUST.

Left step and low parry RIGHT.

Rear pass, parry left and LUNGE.

Lunge and cut RIGHT.

Parry right and parry HIGH.

Butt strike and cut DOWN.

Thrust and parry HIGH.

Parry high and LUNGE.

Advance, thrust and cut RIGHT.

Right step, parry left and cut DOWN.

To the left, butt strike and cut DOWN.

To the right rear, cut down and butt STRIKE.

48. Attacks against dummies will be practiced. The approach will
be made against the dummies both in quick time and double time.


V. PRACTICAL BAYONET COMBAT.

49. The principles of practical bayonet combat should be taught
as far as possible during the progress of instruction in bayonet
exercise.

50. The soldier must be continually impressed with the extreme
importance of the offensive due to its moral effect. Should an
attack fail, it should be followed immediately by another attack
before the opponent has an opportunity to assume the offensive.
Keep the opponent on the defensive. If, due to circumstances,
it is necessary to take the defensive, constantly watch for an
opportunity to assume the offensive and take immediate advantage
of it.

51. Observe the ground with a view to obtaining the best footing.
Time for this will generally be too limited to permit more than
a single hasty glance.

52. In personal combat watch the opponent's eyes if they can
be plainly seen, and do not fix the eyes on his weapon nor upon
the point of your attack. If his eyes can not be plainly seen,
as in night attacks, watch the movements of his weapon and of
his body.

53. Keep the body well covered and deliver attacks vigorously. The
point of the bayonet should always be kept as nearly as possible in
the line of attack. The less the rifle is moved upward, downward,
to the right, or to the left, the better prepared the soldier is
for attack or defense.

54. Constantly watch for a chance to attack the opponent's left
hand. His position of guard will not differ materially from that
described in paragraph 24. If his bayonet is without a cutting
edge, he will be at a great disadvantage.

55. The butt is used for close and sudden attacks. It is particularly
useful in riot duty. From the position of port arms a sentry can
strike a severe blow with the butt of the rifle.

56. Against a man on foot, armed with a sword, be careful that the
muzzle of the rifle is not grasped. All the swordsman's energies
will be directed toward getting past the bayonet. Attack him with
short, stabbing thrusts, and keep him beyond striking distance
of his weapon.

57. The adversary may attempt a greater extension in the thrust
and lunge by quitting the grasp of his piece with the left hand
and advancing the right as far as possible. When this is done, a
sharp parry may cause him to lose control of his rifle, leaving
him exposed to a counter attack, which should follow promptly.

58. Against odds a small number of men can fight to best advantage
by grouping themselves so as to prevent their being attacked
from behind.

59. In fighting a mounted man armed with a saber every effort
must be made to get on his near or left side, because here his
reach is much shorter and his parries much weaker. If not possible
to disable such an enemy, attack his horse and then, renew the
attack on the horseman.

60. In receiving night attacks the assailant's movements can
be best observed from the kneeling or prone position, as his
approach generally brings him against the sky line. When he arrives
within attacking distance rise quickly and lunge well forward
at the middle of his body.


VI. FENCING EXERCISES.

61. Fencing exercises in two lines consist of combinations of
thrusts, parries, and foot movements executed at command or at
will, the opponent replying with suitable parries and returns.

62. The instructor will inspect the entire fencing equipment
before the exercise begins and fissure himself that everything
is in such condition as will prevent accidents.

63. The men equip themselves and form in two lines at the order,
facing each other, with intervals of about 4 paces between files and
a distance of about 2 paces between lines. One line is designated
as number 1; the other, number 2. Also as attack and defense.

64. The opponents being at the order facing each other, the
instructor commands: SALUTE.

Each man, with eyes on his opponent, carries the left hand smartly
to the right side, palm of the hand down, thumb and fingers extended
and joined, forearm horizontal, forefinger touching the bayonet.
(Two.) Drop the arm smartly by the side.

This salute is the fencing salute.

All fencing exercises and all fencing at will between individuals
will begin and terminate with the formal courtesy of the fencing
salute.

65. After the fencing salute has been rendered the instructor
commands: 1. _Fencing_exercise_, 2. GUARD.

At the command GUARD each man comes to the position of guard,
heretofore defined, bayonets crossed, each man's bayonet bearing
lightly to the right against the corresponding portion of the
opponent's bayonet. This position is known as the ENGAGE or ENGAGE
RIGHT.

66. Being at the ENGAGE RIGHT: ENGAGE LEFT.

The attack drops the point of his bayonet quickly until clear of
his opponent's rifle and describes a semicircle with it upward
and to the right; bayonets are crossed similarly as in the engaged
position, each man's bayonet bearing lightly to the left against
the corresponding portion of the opponent's bayonet.

67. Being at ENGAGE LEFT: ENGAGE RIGHT.

The attack quickly drops the point of his bayonet until clear of
his opponent's rifle and describes a semicircle with it upward
and to the left and engages.

68. Being engaged: ENGAGE LEFT AND RIGHT.

The attack ENGAGE LEFT and then immediately ENGAGES RIGHT.

69. Being engaged left: ENGAGE RIGHT AND LEFT.

The attack ENGAGES RIGHT and then immediately ENGAGES LEFT.

70. 1. Number one, ENGAGE RIGHT (LEFT); 2. Number two, COUNTER.

Number one executes the movement ordered, as above; number two
quickly drops the point of his bayonet and circles it upward
to the original position.

71. In all fencing while maintaining the pressure in the engage
a certain freedom of motion of the rifle is allowable, consisting
of the play, or up-and-down motion, of one bayonet against the
other. This is necessary to prevent the opponent from divining
the intended attack. It also prevents his using the point of
contact as a pivot for his assaults. In charging from one engage
to the other the movement is controlled by the left hand, the
right remaining stationary.

72. After some exercise in ENGAGE, ENGAGE LEFT, and COUNTER,
exercises will be given in the assaults.


ASSAULTS.

73. The part of the body to be attacked will be designated by
name, as head, neck, chest, stomach, legs. No attacks will be
made below the knees. The commands are given and the movements
for each line are first explained thoroughly by the instructor;
the execution begins at the command ASSAULT. Number one executes
the attack, and number two parries; conversely, at command, number
two attacks and number one parries.

74. For convenience in instruction ASSAULTS are divided into
SIMPLE ATTACKS, COUNTER ATTACKS, ATTACKS ON THE RIFLE, and FEINTS.


SIMPLE ATTACKS.

75. Success in these attacks depends on quickness of movement.
There are three simple attacks--the STRAIGHT, the DISENGAGEMENT,
and the COUNTER DISENGAGEMENT. They are not preceded by a feint.

76. In the STRAIGHT the bayonet is directed straight at an opening
from the engaged position. Contact with the opponent's rifle
may or may not be abandoned while making it. If the opening be
high or low, contact with the rifle will usually be abandoned
on commencing the attack. If the opening be near his guard, the
light pressure used in the engage may be continued in the attack.

Example: Being at the ENGAGE RIGHT, 1. Number one, at neck (head,
chest, right leg, etc.), thrust; 2. Number two, parry right; 3.
ASSAULT.

77. In the DISENGAGEMENT contact with the opponent's rifle is
abandoned and the point of the bayonet is circled under or over
his bayonet or rifle and directed into the opening attacked.
This attack is delivered by one continuous spiral movement of
the bayonet from the moment contact is abandoned.

Example: Being at the ENGAGE RIGHT, 1. Number one, at stomach
(left chest. left leg, etc.), thrust; 2. Number two, parry left
(etc.); 3. ASSAULT.

78. In the COUNTER DISENGAGEMENT a swift attack is made into
the opening disclosed while the opponent is attempting to change
the engagement of his rifle. It is delivered by one continuous
spiral movement of the bayonet into the opening.

Example: Being at the ENGAGE RIGHT, 1. Number two, engage left;
2. Number one, at chest, thrust; 3. Number two, parry left; 4.
ASSAULT.

Number two initiates the movement, number one thrusts as soon
as the opening is made, and number two then attempts to parry.

79. A COUNTER ATTACK or RETURN is one made instantly after or
in continuation of a parry. The parry should be as narrow as
possible. This makes it more difficult for the opponent to recover
and counter parry. The counter attack should also be made at
or just before the full extension of the opponent's attack, as
when it is so made a simple extension of the arms will generally
be sufficient to reach the opponent's body.

Example: Being at ENGAGE, 1. Number two, at chest, lunge; 2.
Number one, parry right and at stomach (chest, head, etc.), thrust;
3. ASSAULT.


ATTACKS ON THE RIFLE.

80. These movements are made for the purpose of forcing or disclosing
an opening into which an attack can be made. They are the PRESS,
the BEAT, and the TWIST.

81. In the PRESS the attack quickly presses against the opponent's
bayonet or rifle with his own and continues the pressure as the
attack is delivered.

Example: Being at the ENGAGE, 1. Number one, press, and at chest,
thrust; 2. Number two, parry right; 3. ASSAULT.

82. The attack by DISENGAGEMENT is particularly effective following
the PRESS.

Example: Being at the ENGAGE, 1. Number one, press, and at stomach,
thrust; 2. Number two, low parry left; 3. ASSAULT.

83. The BEAT is an attack in which a sharp blow is struck against
the opponent's rifle for the purpose of forcing him to expose
an opening into which an attack immediately follows. It is used
when there is but slight opposition or no contact of rifles.

Example: Being at the ENGAGE, 1. Number one, beat, and at stomach
(chest, etc.), thrust; 2. Number two, parry left; 3. ASSAULT.

84. In the twist the rifle is crossed over the opponent's rifle
or bayonet and his bayonet forced downward with a circular motion
and a straight attack made into the opening. It requires superior
strength on the part of the attack.

Example: Being at the ENGAGE, 1. Number one, twist, and at stomach,
thrust; 2. Number two, low parry left; 3. ASSAULT.


FEINTS.

85. Feints are movements which threaten or simulate attacks and
are made with a view to inducing an opening or parry that exposes
the desired point of attack. They are either single or double,
according to the number of such movements made by the attack.

86. In order that the attack may be changed quickly, as little
force as possible is put into a feint.

Example: Being at the ENGAGE, 1. Number one, feint head thrust;
at stomach, lunge; 2. Number two, parry right and low parry right;
3. ASSAULT.

Number one executes the feint and then the attack. Number two
executes both parries.

87. In double feints first one part of the body and then another
is threatened and a third attacked.

Example: Being at the ENGAGE, 1. Number one, feint straight thrust
at chest; disengagement at chest; at stomach, lunge; 2. Number
two, parry right, parry left, and low parry left; 3. ASSAULT.

88. An opening may be offered or procured by opposition, as in
the PRESS or BEAT.

89. In fencing exercises every FEINT should at first be parried.
When the defense is able to judge or divine the character of the
attack the feint is not necessarily parried, but may be nullified
by a counter feint.

90. A COUNTER FEINT is a feint following the opponent's feint or
following a PARRY of his attack and generally occurs in combined
movements.


COMBINED MOVEMENTS.

91. When the men have become thoroughly familiar with the various
foot movements, parries, guards, attacks, feints, etc., the
instructor combines several of them and gives the commands in
quick succession, increasing the rapidity and number of movements
as the men become more skillful. Opponents will be changed
frequently.

1. Example: Being at the ENGAGE. 1. Number one, by disengagement
at chest, thrust; 2. Number two, parry left, right step (left
foot first), and lunge; 3. ASSAULT.

2. Example: Being at ENGAGE LEFT, 1. Number one, press and lunge;
2. Number two, parry right, left step, and thrust; 3. ASSAULT.

3. Example: Being at the ENGAGE, 1. Number one, by disengagement
at chest, thrust; 2. Number two, parry left, front pass, and
at head butt strike; 3. Number one, right step; 4. ASSAULT.

92. Examples 1 and 2 are typical of movements known as CROSS
COUNTERS, and example No. 3 of movements known as CLOSE COUNTERS.

93. A CHANCERY is an attack by means of which the opponent is
disarmed, which causes him to lose control of his rifle, or which
disables his weapon.

94. When the different combinations are executed with sufficient
skill the instructor will devise series of movements to be memorized
and executed at the command ASSAULT. The accuracy and celerity
of the movements will be carefully watched by the instructor,
with a view to the correction of faulty execution.

95. It is not intended to restrict the number of movements, but
to leave to the discretion of company commanders and the ingenuity
of instructors the selection of such other exercises as accord
with the object of the drill.


VII. FENCING AT WILL.

96. As satisfactory progress is made the instructor will proceed
to the exercises at will, by which is meant assaults between
two men, each endeavoring to hit the other and to avoid being
hit himself. Fencing at will should not be allowed to degenerate
into random attacks and defenses.

97. The instructor can supervise but one pair of combatants at
a time. Frequent changes should be made so that the men may earn
different methods of attack and defense from each other.

98. The contest should begin with simple, careful movements, with
a view to forming a correct opinion of the adversary; afterwards
everything will depend on coolness, rapid and correct execution of
the movements, and quick perception of the adversary's intentions.

99. Continual retreat from the adversary's attack and frequent
dodging to escape attacks should be avoided. The offensive should
he continually encouraged.

100. In fencing at will, when no commands are given, opponents
facing each other at the position of order arms, salute. They
then immediately and simultaneously assume the position of guard
rifles engaged. Neither man may take the position of guard before
his opponent has completed his salute. The choice of position
is decided before the salute.

101. The opponents being about two paces apart and the fencing
salute having been rendered, the instructor commands 1. _At_
_will_, 2. ASSAULT, after which either party has the right
to attack. To interrupt the contest the instructor will command
HALT, at which the combatants will immediately come to the order.
To terminate the contest, the instructor will command, 1.
_Halt_, 2 SALUTE, at which the combatants will immediately
come to the order, salute, and remove their masks.

102. When men have acquired confidence in fencing at will, one
opponent should be required to advance upon the other in quick
time at CHARGE BAYONET, from a distance not to exceed 10 yards,
and deliver an attack. As soon as a hit is made by either opponent
the instructor commands, HALT, and the assault terminates. Opponents
alternate in assaulting. The assailant is likewise required to
advance at double time from a distance not exceeding 20 yards
and at a run from a distance not exceeding 30 yards.

103. The instructor will closely observe the contest and decide
doubtful points. He will at once stop the contest upon the slightest
indication of temper. After conclusion of the combat he will
comment on the action of both parties, point out errors and
deficiencies and explain how they may be avoided in the future.

104. As additional instruction, the men may be permitted to wield
the rifle left handed, that is on the left side of the body,
left hand at the small of the stock. Many men will be able to
use this method to advantage. It is also of value in case the
left band is wounded.

[Illustration: Par. 104.]

105. After men have fenced in pairs, practice should be given
in fencing between groups, equally and unequally divided. When
practicable, intrenchments will be used in fencing of this character.

In group fencing it will be necessary to have a sufficient number
of umpires to decide hits. An individual receiving a hit is withdrawn
at once from the bout, which is decided in favor of the group
having the numerical superiority at the end. The fencing salute
is not required in group fencing.


RULES FOR FENCING AT WILL.

106. 1. Hits on the legs below the knees will not be counted.
No hit counts unless, in the opinion of the instructor, it has
sufficient force to disable.

2. Upon receiving a hit, call out "hit."

3. After receiving a fair hit a counter attack is not permitted.
A position of engage is taken.

4. A second or third hit in a combined attack will be counted
only when the first hit was not called.

5. When it is necessary to stop the contest--for example, because
of breaking of weapons or displacement of means of protection--take
the position of the order.

6. When it is necessary to suspend the assault for any cause, it
will not be resumed until the adversary is ready and in condition
to defend himself.

7. Attacks directed at the crotch are prohibited in fencing.

8. Stepping out of bounds, when established, counts as a hit.


SUGGESTIONS FOR FENCING AT WILL.

107. When engaging in an assault, first study the adversary's
position and proceed by false attacks, executed with speed, to
discover, if possible, his instinctive parries. In order to draw
the adversary out and induce him to expose that part of the body
at which the attack is to be made, it is advisable to simulate
an attack by a feint and then make the real attack.

108. Return attacks should be frequently practiced, as they are
difficult to parry, and the opponent is within easier reach and
more exposed. The return can be made a continuation of the parry,
as there is no previous warning of its delivery, although it
should always be expected. Returns are made without lunging if
the adversary can be reached by thrusts or cuts.

109. Endeavor to overcome the tendency to make a return without
knowing where it will hit. Making returns blindly is a bad habit
and leads to instinctive returns--that is, habitual returns with
certain attacks from certain parries--a fault which the skilled
opponent will soon discover.

110. Do not draw the rifle back preparatory to thrusting and lunging.

111. The purpose of fencing at will is to teach the soldier as
many forms of simple, effective attacks and defenses as possible.
Complicated and intricate movements should not be attempted.


HINTS FOR INSTRUCTORS.

112. The influence of the instructor is great. He must be master
of his weapon, not only to show the various movements, but also
to lead in the exercises at will. He should stimulate the zeal of
the men and arouse pleasure in the work. Officers should qualify
themselves as instructors by fencing with each other.

113. The character of each man, his bodily conformation, and
his degree of skill must always be taken into account. When the
instructor is demonstrating the combinations, feints, returns,
and parries the rapidity of his attack should be regulated by
the skill of the pupil and no more force than is necessary should
be used. If the pupil exposes himself too much in the feints
and parries, the instructor will, by an attack, convince him of
his error; but if these returns be too swiftly or too strongly
made the pupil will become overcautious and the precision of
his attack will be impaired. The object is to teach the pupil,
not to give exhibitions of superior skill.

114. Occasionally the instructor should leave himself uncovered
and fail to parry, in order to teach the pupil to take quick
advantage of such opportunities.


SUGGESTIONS.

Instruction in bayonet exercise and bayonet fencing should be
conducted with a view to teaching the aggressive use of the bayonet.
Unless troops are so thoroughly trained with the bayonet that
they believe that with it they are superior to their opponents
it will be difficult or impossible to develop that morale which
is necessary for a successful assault. Men should be impressed
with the importance of acting always on the offensive in bayonet
combat, of pushing their attack with all their might. Troops which
are successful in their first few bayonet encounters will seldom
thereafter be called upon to use the bayonet--their opponents
will not await the assault.



CHAPTER VI.

FIELD SERVICE.


SECTION 1. PRINCIPLES OF INFANTRY TRAINING.

Inaction gives every advantage to the enemy.

The offensive alone gives decisive results.

A quick and energetic offensive minimizes losses.

An advance against the enemy's position once entered upon must
be continued. To go back under fire is to die.

The best way to hold down the fire of the enemy and to diminish
his power to inflict losses is to bring the position he occupies
under well conducted and continued fire.

Present as small a target as possible to the enemy by utilizing
every bit of cover the ground affords.

Individual skill in marksmanship is an advantage in battle only
when united with fire discipline and control.

Constant movement to the front lessens the effect of the enemy's
fire. Modern battles fought in the open show that the heaviest
losses are in the mid and long ranges. When close range is reached
the losses diminish rapidly.

The best protection against artillery fire is a constant but
irregular movement to the front. When close to the enemy's position
his fire is least effective.

A knowledge of how to use the bayonet and the will to use it must
often be the deciding factors in battle.

Finally:

In infantry training we can not go far wrong or fail to accomplish
the best results if we keep before our minds the spirit as well as
the wording of paragraph 352 of the Infantry Drill Regulations:
"The duties of infantry are many and difficult. All infantry
must be fit to cope with all conditions that may arise. Modern
war requires but one kind of infantry--good infantry."


SECTION 2. COMBAT.

The field of battle is the final test of the instruction, discipline,
and efficiency of the fighting force of any army.

The battalion is the attack unit or the defense unit, whether
operating alone or as part of a regiment. The companies constitute
the firing line and the support.

An individual soldier is concerned only with the enemy in his
immediate front, in obeying orders, and instinctively doing what
he has been trained to do.

The one requisite necessary to win the battle is intelligent
team work. The army is handled just like a football team. A part
is on the first line facing the enemy. Another part, like the
half backs, is held back as supports. Another part, like the
full backs, is held as a reserve. Each unit, like each player,
has a certain duty to perform. When the signal is given, all
work together--all play the game--team work. The players consist
of all branches of the service.

The same rule holds true down to the smallest unit and even to
the individual enlisted man. Each regiment is a team composed
of three players--each a battalion. Each battalion is a team of
four players--each a company. In the same manner each company
is a team of two or more platoons; each platoon a team of two
or more squads; and last, but not least, each squad is a team
of eight players.

The one question that always presents itself on the battlefield
every minute of the time to every person, whether he be a general
or a private, is "What play has my team captain ordered, and
how best may I act so as to work in conjunction with the other
players to bring about the desired result?"--team play.

To the Infantry private this means--

First. Prompt and loyal obedience to the squad leader. Every
squad always has a team captain. If the squad leader is killed or
disabled, another player previously designated takes his place.
If no one was designated, then the private with the longest service
takes command. When the squad leader gives the command for a
certain play, don't stop to think if the play is a good one,
but do your very best to carry ont the play as ordered. A poor
play in which every player enters with his whole heart (team
work) will often win, while, on the other hand, the best play in
which some of the players are skulkers and shirkers will probably
fail.

Second. Never lose touch with your squad. Every individual, as
well as every unit, should always be acting under the control
of some higher commander. This is necessary if there is to be
any unity of action. Therefore if you lose your squad, or it
becomes broken up, join the first squad you can find and obey
your new squad leader as loyally and as cheerfully as you did
your own.

Infantry approaches the battle field in columns of squads. While
yet several miles from the enemy's position the troops may come
under artillery fire. On green men entering upon their fight,
the sound of the projectile whistling through the air, the noise,
flash, and smoke on the burst of the shrapnel, and the hum of
the various pieces thereafter, all produce a very terrifying
effect, but old soldiers soon learn to pay little attention to
this, as the danger is not great.

As the troops advance, the column breaks up into smaller columns,
which form on an irregular line with more or less interval between.
As the advance continues each column breaks up into smaller columns
until finally a line of skirmishers is formed.

Firing is delayed as long as possible for three reasons, viz:
(a) At the extreme ranges little damage can be done on the
enemy, and ineffective firing always encourages him; (b)
halting to fire delays the advance, and the great object to be
accomplished is to close in on the enemy where you can meet him
on better terms; (c) plenty of ammunition will be required
at the decisive stage of the fight, and it is very difficult to
send extra ammunition up to the firing line. Therefore never
fire until ordered to do so, and then never fire more than the
number of rounds designated. Never fire after the command "cease
firing" is given.

Ammunition in the bandoleers will ordinarily be expended first.
Thirty rounds in the right pocket section of the belt will be
held as a reserve, to be expended only when ordered by an officer.

Soon, however, it will be necessary to halt and open fire on
the enemy in order to cause him some loss, to make his riflemen
keep down in their trenches, and to make them fire wildly. It
is probable that at this time and until you arrive much closer
you will not see any of the enemy to fire at. You may not even
see any trenches nor know just where the enemy is. Your higher
officers, however, with their field glasses and the messages
they receive, will know. Each company will be assigned a certain
front to cover with its fire. Therefore be careful to fix your
sights at the designated range and fire only at the designated
target. This means team work in firing, which is one of the most
important elements of success.

The firing line advances from position to position by means of
rushes. At long range the entire line may rush forward at the
same time, but as the range decreases one part of the line rushes
forward while the remainder keeps up a hot fire on the enemy.
The number taking part in each rush decreases as the fire of
the enemy becomes warmer, until perhaps only one squad, or even
less, rushes or crawls forward at a time, protected by the fire
of the rest of the company. The distance covered by each rush
also becomes less and less. After any rush no part of the line
again advances until the rest of the line is up. In making a
rush, the leader of the unit gives the signal and leads the way.
The rest follow. No attempt is made to keep a line, but each man
rushes forward at a run, seeking only to reach the new halting
position as quickly and with as little exposure as possible.
When halted, the skirmishers need not be in a perfect line, but
every advantage should be taken of the ground for concealment
and protection. It is necessary only that no man or group of
men should interfere with the fire of other parts of the firing
line.

The noise on the firing line will be great. Leaders will be disabled
and new men will take their places. Reinforcements coming up will
cause units to become mixed. To the green man everything may appear
to be in confusion, but this is not so. This is war as it really
is. If you have lost your squad or your squad leader, join the
leader nearest to you. This is the way the game is played.

As long as the fight lasts every available rifleman must be kept
in the firing line. The first and last consideration is to win
the battle. Therefore, under no circumstances will any soldier be
permitted to go to the rear, either for ammunition or to assist
the wounded.

If the attacking force can no longer advance, it is much safer to
throw up hasty intrenchments and await the arrival of reinforcements
or darkness than it is to retreat. Retreating troops are the one
that suffer the greatest. This lesson is taught by every great
war. Therefore, always remember that the safest thing to do is
to stick to firing line.

Troops on the firing line, when not actually engaged in firing
at the enemy, busy themselves throwing up shelter trenches. It
only requires a few minutes to construct a trench that gives
great protection. Therefore, never get separated from your
intrenching tool.

Concealment is no less important than protection. Therefore,
when conditions permit, as is generally the case when on the
defensive, every effort should be made to hide intrenchments by
the use of sod, grass, weeds, bushes, etc.

In making an attack the infantry is always supported when possible
by its own artillery, which continues to fire over its head until
the infantry arrives very close to the enemy's trenches. This
fire is helping you a great deal by keeping down the fire of
the enemies infantry and artillery. Therefore, don't think you
are being fired into by your own artillery because you hear their
shells and shrapnel singing through the air or bursting a short
distance in your front, but rather be thankful you are receiving
their help up to the very last minute.

In the last rush which carries the enemy's position there is
always much mixing of units. The firing line does not continue
rushing madly as individuals after the enemy, but halts and fires
on him until he gets out of good range. The pursuit is taken
up by formed troops held in reserve or by the firing line only
after its units are again gotten together.

As the fighting often lasts all day, and great suffering is caused
from thirst, don't throwaway your canteen when the fight commences.
It may also be impossible to get rations up to the line during
the night. Therefore, it is advisable to hold onto at least one
ration.

As the recent war has shown the possibility of hand-to-hand fighting,
especially at night, each soldier should be schooled in the use
of the bayonet.

The following has particular reference to the duties of platoon
and squad leaders and to the team work of the platoon in combat:

Attacking troops must first gain fire superiority in order to
reach the hostile position. By gaining fire superiority is meant
making one's fire superior to that of the enemy in volume and
accuracy, and it depends upon the number of rifles employed,
the rate of fire, the character of the target, training and
discipline, and fire direction and control. When the fire of the
attackers becomes effective and superior to that of the defenders
the latter are no longer able to effectively and coolly aim and
fire at the former, and, as a consequence, the attackers are
able to inaugurate a successful rush or advance which carries
them nearer to the enemy's position.

When a trained organization has been committed to the attack,
the gaining of fire superiority depends upon the way in which
fire direction and fire control are exercised.

The captain directs the fire of the company. He indicates to
the platoon commanders the target (enemy) which the company is
to fire and advance upon, and tells each upon which part of this
target he is to direct the fire of his platoon. When he desires
the fire to be opened he gives the necessary commands or signals,
including the range at which the sights lire to be set.

When the fire fight has once started it becomes to a great extent
a fight of a number of platoons. The platoon is the largest
organization which can be controlled by a single leader in action.
The platoon commander (lieutenant or sergeant) controls its fire
in order to gain the maximum fire effect and to avoid wasting
ammunition. He must try his best to make the fire of his platoon
effective, to get it forward, and to support neighboring platoons
in their effort to advance. At the same time he must hold himself
subject to his captain's directions. He should take advantage
of every chance to carry his platoon forward unless otherwise
ordered. In all this he is assisted by his platoon guide (sergeant)
and by his corporals.

At the commencement of an engagement the platoon commander will
give the objective (part of the enemy's line or aiming target) at
which his platoon is to direct its fire. Noncommissioned officers
must be sure that they see and understand the objective, and that
all the men in their squads do likewise. Fire is then directed at
this objective without further command until the platoon commander
gives a new objective.

Men should be instructed to aim at that part of the target assigned
to their platoon which corresponds with their own position in
their own platoon, so that there will be no portion of the target
which is not covered by fire. A portion of the enemy's line not
covered by fire means that that portion is able to coolly aim
and fire at their opponents.

In an engagement the voice can seldom be heard over a few feet,
and the platoon commander will generally have to convey his orders
by signals. A corporal may be able to shout orders to his squad,
and orders may be repeated along a skirmish line by shouting.
Care should be taken that orders intended for one platoon only
are not thus conveyed to another platoon.

A short blast on the whistle, given by the platoon commander,
means "Attention to Orders." All noncommissioned officers at
once suspend firing and glance toward the platoon commander to
see if the latter has any signals or orders for them. If not,
they resume firing. A long blast on the whistle means "Suspend
Firing." When a noncommissioned officer hears this signal from
his platoon commander he should at once shout "Suspend Firing."
Upon receiving a signal, the noncommissioned officer for whom
it is intended should at once repeat it back, to be sure that
it is correctly understood.

When a leader in command of a platoon or squad receives an order
or signal to rush, he should cause his men to suspend firing and
to hold themselves flat but ready for a sprinter's start. He
selects the point, as far as possible with reference to cover,
to which he intends to carry his unit forward. He then gives the
command "RUSH," springs forward, and running at full speed about
three paces ahead of his men, leads them in the rush. Arriving
at the position he has selected, he throws himself prone, and
the men drop on either side of him. All crawl forward to good
firing positions, considering the cover also, and the leader
gives the necessary orders for resuming the fire. The latter
will include giving the range again, the length of the rush being
subtracted from the sight setting ordered at the last position.

As a rule, rushes should be started by a unit on one flank, and
should be followed in succession by the other units to the opposite
flank. Each succeeding unit should halt on the line established
by the unit which first rushed. When a unit is about to rush,
leaders in charge of adjacent units should caution their men to
be careful not to fire into the rushing unit as it bounds forward.

When one unit suspends fire for the purpose of rushing, adjacent
leaders should arrange to have a portion of their men turn their
fire on the target of the rushing unit, to the end that there
may be no portion of the enemy's line not under fire and able
to fire coolly on the rushing unit.

Rushes should be made for as long a distance as possible, due
regard being had for the wind of the men and not to get beyond
supporting distance of the other units. Long rushes facilitate an
advance, and quickly place a skirmish line close to the enemy's
position, where its fire will have more effect. An attacking
line suffers less from casualties at short ranges than it does
at mid range.

Every advantage should be taken to utilize the cover available.
The best kind of cover is that which, while it masks the skirmishers
from the sight and fire of the enemy, affords favorable conditions
for firing and for readily advancing. In order to allow men to
regain their wind, or should the fire of the enemy be so effective
as to prevent a further advance without reinforcement, advantage
may be taken to lie close in cover, or hasty fire trenches may be
thrown up in order to allow the line to maintain its position.
"To go back under fire is to die."

When a platoon is firing, all noncommissioned officers watch
every opportunity to make the fire more effective. The platoon
guide should constantly watch the men to see that they do not
become excited, fire too hastily or without aim, that their sights
are set at the correct range, that they are obviously firing
at the designated target, and that they assume steady firing
positions and take advantage of cover. In performing these duties
it may be necessary for the guides to be constantly crawling
along the line. A corporal in like manner supervises his squad,
firing with it when he is not actively engaged in controlling
it.

Bayonets are fixed preparatory to a charge. This command is usually
given by the bugle. Only one or two men in each squad should
fix their bayonets at the same time, in order that there may
be no marked pause or diminution in the fire at this critical
stage of the engagement.

In order to be effective in combat, the platoon must be thoroughly
trained to work as a team. Each noncommissioned officer must be
conversant with the signals and commands and the proper methods
for instantly putting into effect the orders of his platoon
commander. Each private must be trained until he instinctively
does the right thing in each phase of the action.


SECTION 3. PATROLLING.

The designation of a patrol indicates the nature of the duty for
which it is detailed, as, for example, visiting, reconnoitering,
exploring, flanking, combat, harassing, pursuing, etc. An Infantry
patrol consists, as a rule, of from 3 to 16 men.

Reconnoitering patrols are habitually small and seek safety in
concealment or flight, fighting only when their mission demands
it. The most skillful reconnaissance is where patrols accomplish
their mission and return without being discovered by the enemy.
When resistance is expected stronger detachments are required.
These cover themselves with small patrols of two to four men,
the remainder acting as support.

The commander determines the number and strength of patrols and
when they are to be sent out. It is a cardinal principle to send
out patrols of such strength only as will accomplish the object.

The officer sending out the patrol verifies the detail, designates
a second in command, and gives the necessary instruction. The
orders or instructions for a patrol, or for any detachment going
on reconnoissance, must state clearly where the enemy is or is
supposed to be, what information is desired, what features are
of special importance, the general direction to be followed,
whether friendly patrols are liable to be encountered, and where
messages are to be sent or the patrol is to report. Important and
comprehensive instructions should be in writing, but precautions
against capture of papers must be taken. An officer sending out a
patrol must be certain that his orders are understood. Detailed
instructions are, as a rule, avoided. When necessary the time
of return is stated.

The patrol leader should be selected with care. He should have
good judgment, courage, be able to read maps, make sketches,
and send clear and concise messages. In addition to his ordinary
equipment, he should have a map of the country, a watch, field
glass, compass, whistle, message blanks, and pencils.

The leader of a patrol should carefully inspect it before starting
out and see that each member is in good physical condition, has
serviceable shoes, a full canteen, one ration, a first-aid packet,
and that his rifle and ammunition are in good condition. He will
see that the equipment is arranged so as not to rattle; that
nothing bright is exposed so as to glitter in the sunlight; that
nothing is taken along that will give information to the enemy
should any member fall into his hands, as, for example, copies
of orders, maps with position of troops marked thereon, letters,
newspapers, or collar ornaments. Blanket rolls should generally
be left behind, in order that the patrol may travel as light
as possible.

The leader then gives his patrol information and instructions.
These embrace instructions from higher authority; his detailed
plans; information of the country and enemy; the countersign,
if any; the point where the patrol will assemble if scattered.
He will see that the men understand the prescribed signals.

It must always be remembered that it makes no difference how
valuable may be the information that the patrol gets, it is worthless
if not sent back in time to be of service. Herein is where most
patrols full. This applies particularly to the information obtained
by patrols acting as a point or flankers of advance, rear, and
flank guards. Whenever the patrol gets any information, the leader
must think whether the commanding officer would change his plans
or issue new orders if he had the information. If he would, the
information should be sent back at once. If the distance is great
or the inhabitants are hostile, it is well to send two men with
the message. These men should not travel side by side, but as
a patrol of two men. If the information is very important, and
the danger of capture is considerable, the message should be
sent by two parties, each traveling by a different route.

A message from a patrol should always show (a) the place from
which it is sent; (b) the time it is sent (date, hour, and minute);
(c) to whom it is sent; (d) the message itself; (e) what the
patrol intends doing after sending the message; (f) the name of
the sender. Under (d) care must be taken to separate what has
actually been seen by the patrol from information received from
other sources. Care must also be taken not to exaggerate what is
seen, but to report only the exact facts.

In their conduct patrols exercise the greatest vigilance to prevent
discovery. No formal formation is or should be prescribed. Under
the leader's guidance it moves so as to guard against surprise,
usually with point and flankers. To extend the sphere of its
observation, still smaller patrols (one or two men) may be sent
out for short distances, communication with the leader being
maintained by signals. Whatever the formation adopted, it should
favor the escape of at least one man in case of surprise.

In patrols of two to five men the commander generally leads.
In this formation few signals are necessary, the men simply
regulating their movements by his.

In questioning civilians caution is observed not to disclose
information that may be of value to the enemy. Strangers are
not allowed to precede the patrol. Patrol lenders are authorized
to seize telegrams and mail matter, and to arrest individuals,
reporting the facts as soon as possible.

Patrols should observe everything for signs of the enemy. Even
apparent trifles may be of great value. The finding of a collar
ornament showing a man's regiment may enable the chief of staff
to determine that the enemy has been reenforced.

Patrols should not travel on the main roads if they can observe
them and at the same time make the necessary progress by moving
some distance to the side of the roads.

Unless in case of attack or of great personal danger, no member
of the patrol should fire on hostile troops without orders from
the patrol leader. When sent out to gain information, patrols
should avoid fighting unless it is absolutely necessary in order
to carry out their orders.

Villages and inclosures involving danger of surprise are entered
with precaution, and for brief periods only. Halts are made at
points affording good view, and the country is studied in all
directions, landmarks to the rear being impressed on the minds
of the men so that the way back can be readily found; the leader
consults his map and locates himself thereon.

When a patrol is scattered it reassembles at some place previously
selected; if checked in one direction, it takes another; if cut
off, it returns by a detour or forces its way through. As a last
resort, it scatters so that at least one man may return with
information. Patrols nearing their own lines should march at a
walk unless pressed by the enemy.

Occasionally it is advisable fur the leader to conceal his patrol
and continue the reconnoissance with one or two companions.

Patrols far from their commands or in contact with the enemy
often remain out overnight. In such cases they seek a place of
concealment, proceeding thereto after nightfall or under cover.

When the enemy is encountered it is very necessary to locate his
main force. Information is particularly desired of his strength,
whether he has infantry, cavalry, and artillery, the route and
direction of his march, or the location of his camp and line
of outposts.

Dust clouds indicate moving bodies. Infantry raises a low, thick
cloud; cavalry a high thin cloud; artillery and wagons a broken
cloud. The kind of troops, direction of march, and approximate
strength may thus sometimes be roughly estimated. If from some
position a body of troops can be seen marching along in column,
the exact time in minutes and seconds it requires for them to
pas a certain point should be noted, together with the formation
they are in, thus: Infantry, column of squads, three minutes and
twelve seconds; cavalry, columns of twos at a trot, one minute
and twenty seconds; wagons, four-mule, five minutes. From this
information the strength can be determined by the following rule:

Assuming that infantry in column of squads occupy half a yard
per man, cavalry in column of fours 1 yard per man, and artillery
and wagons in single column 20 yards per gun, caisson, or wagon,
a given point would be passed in one minute by about--

  175 infantry.
  110 cavalry at a walk.
  200 cavalry at a trot.
    5 guns, caissons, or wagons.

For troops in column of twos, take one-half of the above estimate.

Patrols should always observe the country marched over, with a
view to making a report on the same. The following information
is always of value:

ROADS.--Direction; kind, whether dirt, gravel, macadam, etc.;
width, whether suitable for column of squads, etc.; border, whether
fenced with stone, barbed, wire, rails, etc.; steepness in crossing
hills and valleys; where they pass through defiles and along
commanding heights. etc.; crossroads.

SURROUNDING COUNTRY.--Whether generally open and passable for
infantry, cavalry, and artillery, or whether broken and impassable,
due to fences, woods, crops, ravines, etc.

RAILROADS.--Single or double track, narrow or broad gauge, tunnels,
bridges, cuts, direction, stations, etc.

BRIDGES.--Material, wood, stone, steel, etc.: length and breadth;
number and kind of piers or supports.

RIVERS.--Direction; width, depth; kind of bottom, such as mud,
sand, rocky, etc.: banks, steep or gentle, open or wooded; rapidity
of current; variations in depth at different times as indicated
by driftwood and high-water marks; islands; heights in vicinity
commanding streams.

WOODS.--Extent and shape; kind of trees; free from underbrush
or not; clearings, roads, swamps, ravines, etc.

TELEGRAPH LINES.--Number of wires, along ronds or railroads,
stations, etc.

VILLAGES.--Size, kind of houses, nature of streets, means of defense,
etc.

HILLS AND RIDGES.--Whether slopes are gentle or steep; whether top
is narrow or wide; whether ground is broken or smooth, wooded or
clear; whether difficult or easy to cross, etc.; whether commanded
by other hills.

DEFILES.--Their direction, length, and width; whether surrounding
heights are passable for infantry and artillery; kind of country
at each opening of the defile, etc.

RAVINES, DITCHES, ETC.--Width and depth; banks, whether passable
for infantry, cavalry, and wagons; whether suitable for trenches,
or for movement of troops therein, etc.

In general, every soldier should be constantly on the lookout to
obtain information that might be of some military value. Remember
that information of the enemy and of the country is worthless
unless made known to the proper officials in time to be of use.

Every soldier should be able to find his way in a strange country;
should know how to use a compass; should know how to locate the
North Star; should be able to travel across country, keeping
a given direction, both by day and by night, and by observing
landmarks he should be able to return to the starting point either
over the same route or by a more circuitous one. This can easily
be learned by a little practice.

It adds a great deal to the value of a soldier if he knows how
to use a map to find his way. If he knows how to make a rough
sketch of the country, showing the position of roads, streams,
woods, railroads, bridges, houses, villages, fields, fences,
hills, etc., he has added to his value as a soldier very much,
indeed, because a rough sketch of a country will give more and
better information at a glance than can be obtained by reading
many pages of written description.

PATROLLING is one of the most important duties a soldier can
learn. Any enlisted man who understands thoroughly his duties as
a member of a patrol will understand also most of his duties when
with advance or rear guards or when on outpost duty. Patrolling
can not be learned merely by reading books nor by work indoors.
Thoroughness comes only by actually going out in the country
and acting as a patrol.

In carrying out this idea the following scheme is recommended:

Let four or more men and a noncommissioned officer act as a patrol.
They assemble at a certain time, at a convenient point on some
country road. An officer, whom we will call Captain A, acts as
the director; the noncommissioned officer, whom we will call
Sergeant B, acts as patrol leader; and the others (Privates C,
D, E, etc.) act as members of Sergeant B's patrol.

Assume that the company (battalion. etc.) has just made camp in
this vicinity find that the inhabitants are friendly (or hostile).

Captain A indicates to the rest of the men where the camp is
situated and points out where the various sentinels are posted.
(This in itself affords an opportunity for much discussion and
for teaching many valuable lessons.)

Captain A then calls up Sergeant B and tells him--

(a) Just what information Captain A has of the enemy,
and also any information of the country or of friendly troops
in the vicinity that might be of service to Sergeant B.

(b) How many men he shall take for the patrol (this is
another problem for Captain A to solve). Any men present not
used as part of the patrol go along with Captain A as observers.

(c) How far he shall go and what country he shall cover
with the patrol.

(d) Just what information it is particularly desired he
shall obtain.

(e) Where he shall send his messages and when he shall
return.

Example 1:

"Sergeant B, it has just been reported to me that a company of
hostile infantry was in camp last night at X, about 5 miles from
here on this road. Take 5 men and proceed toward X and find out
whether the enemy is still there, and if not, when he left and
where he went. Send messages to me here, and return by 8 o'clock
this evening."

Example 2:

"Sergeant B, I think I heard the firing of field guns over in
that direction a short while ago. Take 6 men and proceed to that
high hill you see over there about 4 miles away. Send a message to
me here when you reach there. You may go farther if you then think
it advisable, but return before daylight. I desire particularly to
know if there are any hostile troops in this vicinity, especially
artillery. I shall send Sergeant X with 3 men to observe the
country from that hill you see over there farther to the south.
He will remain there till dark. Send messages to me here. If
the company is not here on your return you will find a note for
you underneath this rail."

Example 3:

"Sergeant B, this friendly country boy has just reported that
four hostile cavalrymen stopped about half an hour ago at his
father's house, which he says is about 2 miles up this road.
One of the men seemed to be very sick. You will select eight
men from your section and endeavor to capture these men. If they
have disappeared you will reconnoiter in that vicinity until dark.
This boy will accompany you as a guide. I desire particularly to
learn the position, strength, and composition of any hostile
troops in this vicinity. Send reports to me here. Return before
daylight."

Example 4:

"Sergeant B, here is a map of the country in this vicinity on
a scale of 1 inch to the mile. Here is where we are camped
[indicating position on map]. I have just learned that foraging
parties of the enemy are collecting supplies over here at X
[indicating point on map], which is 10 miles off in that direction
[pointing across country toward X]. It is reported that this
bridge over this stream [indicating same on the map] which is
about 3 miles down this road [indicating road and direction on
the ground], has been destroyed. You will take three men from
your platoon and verify this report. You will also reconnoiter
the stream for a distance of 1 mile both above and below the
bridge for fords suitable for infantry. Messages will reach me
here. Return by 8 o'clock to-night."

Sergeant B then inspects his men and gives them their instructions.
The patrol is then formed and moves out exactly as it would under
actual war conditions.

Captain A may halt (and assemble if desirable) the patrol at
intervals in order to discuss the formation used and the movement
of any members of the patrol, their route, use of cover, etc.,
with the reasons therefor, and compare the same with suggested
modifications of the formations, etc. After the discussion, the
patrol is again set in motion. Captain A may accompany any part
of the patrol. From time to time he presents certain situations
to some member of the patrol, being very careful to assume only
such situations as might naturally occur.

Thus, take Example 1:

Captain A is with Sergeant B, who, with Private C, is marching
along the road as the point of the patrol. The other members of
the patrol are distributed to suit the nature of the country
over which the patrol is marching. The point has just reached a
ridge beyond which the country is open and cultivated for about
half a mile. Beyond this the road enters a woods. Captain A now
says: "Sergeant B, from this point you see two soldiers in khaki
on the road there at the beginning of that cornfield about 200
yards from the woods [points out same]. They are moving in this
direction. About 200 yards to the right of these find somewhat
farther to their rear you see two more men moving along that
rail fence."

Sergeant B now does exactly as he would do in actual war. How
does he signal to his patrol? Does he assemble his men? If so,
how and where? Does he send a message back to camp; and if so,
by whom, and is it written or verbal? (If written, Sergeant B
actually writes it and delivers it to Private ----, with the
necessary instructions. If verbal, it is actually given to Private
---- with instructions.) Captain A must in this case make notes
of what the message was. In either case, Private ---- ceases to
be a member of the patrol and joins Captain A as an observer.
He should, however, at some later time be required to repeat his
message to Captain A, on the assumption that he had reached camp
with the same. The message, whether oral or written, should be
thoroughly analyzed and discussed. Was it proper to send a message
at this time? Does Sergeant B intend to remain in observation; if
so, how long? (Captain A can give such information from time to
time concerning the hostile patrol as Sergeant B might reasonably
be supposed to learn in view of his dispositions. In order that
Captain A may present natural assumptions, it is very essential
that in his own mind he should, at the outset, assume a situation
for the hostile forces and that he should consider himself as
in command of all hostile troops. In this particular case he
should assume himself to be in command of the hostile patrol,
acting under certain specified orders similar to examples given,
and he should conduct this patrol in his own mind in accordance
with these orders, giving Sergeant B only such information as
he might reasonably be expected to obtain in view of whatever
action Sergeant B takes.) Will Sergeant B attempt to capture this
patrol? If so, how? Will he avoid fighting and attempt to pass
it unobserved; and if so, how and why?

In this manner the exercise is continued. Care must be taken
not to have the patrol leader or members state what they would
do, but they must actually do it. Explanations and discussions
may take place later.

In a similar manner the director may inform Sergeant B (or any
member of the patrol) that this hostile patrol is followed by
a squad (on the assumption that it is the leading unit of an
advance guard), and the exercise is then continued along these
lines.

The following are examples of assumption that might be made and
carried out:

(a) That the patrol is unexpectedly fired upon.

(b) That one or more of the patrol is wounded.

(c) That a prisoner is captured (let an observer act as
prisoner).

(d) That a friendly inhabitant gives certain information.

(e) That a dust cloud is seen in the distance over the trees.

(f) That a column of troops can be seen marching along
a distant road.

(g) That an abandoned camp is discovered and certain signs
noted.

(h) That the patrol is attacked by a superior force and
compelled to scatter.

There is practically no end to the number of reasonable assumptions
that may be made.

Company officers may use this method of instructing non-commissioned
officers in patrolling, advance and rear guard duty, outposts,
and in squad leading, in writing messages, in selecting positions
for trenches, and in constructing and concealing same. This form
of instruction is called "a tactical walk." It is very greatly
used by all foreign armies. Exercises along the same general
lines are conducted for field and staff officers and even general
officers, and are called "tactical rides" and "strategical rides,"
depending upon their object.

After some proficiency has been attained as a result of these
tactical walks, the greatest interest and enthusiasm can be awakened
in this work by sending out two patrols the same day, one to
operate against the other. Each should wear a distinctive uniform.
The strength of each patrol, its starting point, route to be
followed, and its orders should all be unknown to the other patrol.
If blank ammunition is used, an officer should supervise its
issue and carefully inspect to see that no man carries any ball
cartridges. One umpire should accompany the commander of each
party. Each umpire should be fully informed of the strength,
orders, and route of both patrols. He must, however, carefully
avoid giving suggestions or offering any information to the
commander. Observers in these small maneuver problems are generally
in the way and none should be permitted to be along.

These small maneuvers may be gradually developed by having one
side establish al outpost or fight a delaying action, etc.

It should always be remembered that there is no hard and fast
rule prescribing how a patrol of three, five, or any number of
men should march. The same is equally true of advance guards,
and applies also to the establishment of outposts. It is simply
a question of common sense based on military knowledge. Don't
try to remember any diagrams in a book. Think only of what you
have been ordered to do and how best you can handle your men
to accomplish your mission, and at the same time save the men
from any unnecessary hardships. Never use two or more men to do
what one can do just as well, and don't let your men get beyond
your control.

In addition to the signals prescribed in the Infantry Drill
Regulations, the following should be clearly understood by the
members of a patrol.

Enemy in sight in small numbers, hold rifle above the head
horizontally; enemy in force, same proceeding, raising and lowering
the rifle several times; take cover, a downward motion of the
hand.

Other signals may be agreed upon, but they must be familiar to
the men; complicated signals are avoided. Signals must be used
cautiously so as not to convey information to the enemy.


SECTION 4. ADVANCE GUARDS.

The advance guard is a detachment of the main body which precedes
and covers it on the march. The primary duty of an advance guard
is to insure the safe and uninterrupted march of the main body.
Specifically its duties are:

1. To guard against surprise and furnish information by
reconnoitering.

2. To push back small parties of the enemy and prevent their
observing, firing upon, or delaying the main body.

3. To check the enemy's advance in force long enough to permit
the main body to prepare for action.

4. When the enemy is encountered on the defensive, to seize a
good position and locate his lines, care being taken not to bring
on a general engagement unless the advance guard commander is
empowered to do so.

5. To remove obstacles, repair the road, and favor in every way
the steady march of the column.

The strength of the advance guard will vary with the proximity
of the enemy and character of the country; for a regiment it
will generally consist of from two companies to a battalion,
for a battalion of one company; for a company of from a squad
to a platoon. The advance guard commander is responsible for
the proper performance of the duties with which it is charged
and for its conduct and formation.

The advance guard provides for its security and gains information
by throwing out to the front and flanks smaller bodies. Each part
must keep in touch with the unit from which it is sent out. An
advance guard is generally divided into a reserve and a support;
where it consists of less than a battalion, the reserve is generally
omitted.

The support sends forward an advance party, which, in turn, sends
forward a point. In small advance guards the point precedes the
advance party about 150 yards, the advance party the support
about 300 yards, and the support the main body about 400 yards.
Where advance guards are large enough to require a reserve these
distances are increased about one-fourth, the reserve following
the support, the main body following the reserve at a distance
varying from 500 to 800 yards.

Unless the country to the flanks is distinctly visible from the
roads for a distance of what may be said to be effective rifle
fire, approximately 1,000 yards, flanking patrols of two or three
men each should be sent out from the advance party, and, when
in proximity of the enemy, in addition from the support. When
the nature of the country is such that patrols may move across
country without undue effort and fatigue these patrols should
march at a distance of from 200 to 300 yards from the flank of
the body from which detached. For the examination of any object,
such as a wood, buildings, etc., examining patrols should be sent
out from the main body. The usual method of protecting the flanks,
particularly when the country is at all cut up or difficult, is
to send out patrols from time to time to some point from which a
good outlook can be obtained, or which will afford protection to
the enemy. These patrols remain in observation until the advance
guard has passed, when they rejoin the nearest subdivision, as
quickly as possible working their way to that to which they belong
during the halts. By sending out a succession of small patrols in
this manner the flanks are protected. Should the advance party
become depleted, it must be reenforced from the support.

A battalion acting as advance guard would have two companies
in reserve and two in support. The support would send forward
as advance party two platoons, the advance party in turn sending
forward as point one squad. A company acting as advance guard
would have no reserve and would send forward as advance party
one platoon.

Cases may arise when the best means of covering the head and
flanks of the column will be by a line of skirmishers extended at
intervals of from 5 to 50 yards, as, for instance, when passing
through high corn, underbrush, etc.

It must always be remembered that the principal duty of the advance
guard is to secure the uninterrupted march of the main body. If
the point is fired upon, it should at once deploy and endeavor to
advance fighting. The flankers should assist in this and endeavor
to locate the enemy's flank should there be such resistance that
advance was impossible. Each succeeding body should march promptly
forward, and in turn be placed in action, with the idea of clearing
the way for the advance of the main body. Should this be impossible,
the commander of the entire body must determine what measures he
will take.


SECTION 5. REAR GUARDS.

A rear guard is a detachment detailed to protect the main body
from attack in rear. In a retreat it checks pursuit and enables
the main body to increase the distance between it and the enemy
and to re-form if disorganized. The general formation is that
of an advance guard reversed.

Its commander should take advantage of every favorable opportunity
to delay the pursuers by obstructing the road or by taking up
specially favorable positions from which to force the enemy to
deploy. In this latter case care must be taken not to become so
closely engaged as to render withdrawal unnecessarily difficult.
The position taken should be selected with reference to ease of
withdrawal and ability to bring the enemy under fire at long
ranges.


SECTION 6. FLANK GUARDS.

A flank guard is a detachment detailed to cover the flank of a
column marching past, or across the front of, an enemy. It may
be placed in position to protect the passage, or it may be so
marched as to cover the passage. The object of the flank guard
is to hold the enemy in check long enough to enable the main body
to pass, or, like the advance guard, to enable the main body
to deploy. Like all other detachments, it should be no larger
than is necessary, and should not be detailed except when its
protection is required.

When a flank guard consists of a regiment or less, its distance
from the main body should not exceed a mile and a half. Practicable
communication must exist between it and the main body. The flank
guard is marched as a separate command; that is, with advance or
rear guards, or both, as circumstances demand, and with patrolling
on the exposed flank.


SECTION 7. OUTPOSTS.

Troops not on the march provide for their security by outposts.
The general duties of an outpost are reconnoissance, observation,
and resistance.

The specific duties are:

1. To protect the main body, so that the troops may rest undisturbed.

2. In case of attack, to check the enemy long enough to enable
the main body to make the necessary dispositions.

During an advance the outposts are usually detailed from the
advance guard. During the retreat the outpost for the night usually
forms the rear guard the next day. If the command remains in
bivouac, the new outpost generally goes on duty at daybreak.

The vigilance of outpost troops must be unceasing, but they should
avoid bringing on combats or unnecessarily alarming the command.
Firing disturbs the rest of troops and, if frequently indulged
in, ceases to be a warning.

No trumpet signals except "to arms" or "to horse" are sounded,
and all unnecessary noises must be avoided.

As a rule an outpost will not exceed one-sixth the strength of
a command. For a single company a few sentinels and patrols will
suffice; for a larger command a more elaborate system must be
devised. The troops composing the outpost are generally divided
into a reserve and several supports.

At a proper distance in front of the camp of the main body a
line which offers a good defensive position is selected. This
is called the LINE OF RESISTANCE, and should he so located that
an advancing enemy will be held in check beyond effective rifle
range in case of a small force, artillery range in case of a
large force, of the main body until the latter can deploy. The
reserve is stationed at some point in rear of this line, where
it can be moved quickly to reinforce any point as needed. The
line of resistance is divided into sections, the limits of each of
which are clearly defined. A support is assigned to each section,
which are numbered from right to left, and occupies a position
on or near the line, having special regard to covering avenues
of approach. The position occupied should always be intrenched.
The reserve and supports proceed to their respective positions
by the shortest routes, providing for their own protection by
sending out covering detachments.

Generally speaking, about one-half the Infantry of the advance
guard should be in the supports. As each support arrives at its
position it sends out observation groups, varying in size from
four men to a platoon, to watch the country in the direction of
the enemy. These groups are called outguards. For convenience
they are classified as pickets, sentry squads, and cossack posts,
and should be sufficient in number to cover the front of the
section occupied by the support and connect with the neighboring
supports.

A picket is a group consisting of two or more squads, ordinarily
not exceeding half a company, posted in the line of outposts
to cover a given sector. It furnishes patrols and one or more
sentinels, sentry squads, or cossack posts for observation. Pickets
are placed at the more important points in the line of outguards,
such as road forks. The strength of each depends upon the number
of small groups required to observe properly its sector.

A sentry squad is a squad (eight men) posted in observation at
an indicated point. It posts a double sentinel in observation,
the remaining men resting near by and furnishing the reliefs of
sentinels. In some cases it may be required to furnish a patrol.

A cossack post consists of four men. It is an observation group
similar to a sentry squad, but employs a single sentinel.

As a rule not more than one-third of the support should be on
outguard duty. As soon as they are sent out to their postions
the support commander selects a defensive position on the line of
resistance; gives instruction for intrenching same; establishes
a sentinel to watch for and transmit signals from outguards;
sends out patrols to reconnoiter the country to the front of
his section and, if on the flank of the line, the flank; and
then proceeds to make a careful reconnoissance of the section
assigned him, rectifying the position of outguards if necessary,
seeing that they understand their instructions in case of attack
or when strangers approach their posts, and pointing out their
lines of retreat in case they are compelled to fall back on the
support.

When the outguards are established, the members of the support may
stack arms and remove equipment except cartridge belts. No fires
will be built or smoking permitted unless specially authorized,
or no loud talking or other noise. All patrolling to the front
will be done, as a rule, from the support. The support commander
should locate the position of the adjacent supports und make
arrangements with the commanders for the joint defense of the
line of resistance. At nights all roads and trails should be
carefully covered and the country to the front and between adjacent
outguards well patrolled.

The line occupied by the outguards is called the LINE OF OBSERVATION.
Outguards move to their positions providing for their own protection
and so us to conceal the movement from the enemy. These positions
are intrenched and are numbered from right to left in each support.

The duties of the outguard are to observe the enemy, to guard
the outpost from surprise, and to make a preliminary resistance
to the enemy's advance. The strength of the outguard will vary
according to its object. When an important road which at night
will afford a line of advance, or a bridge is to be covered, or
when several posts are established from an outguard it should
be of considerable strength, two squads or a platoon. When mere
observation and alarm are all that is required four men will
suffice. A squall is a good unit to use as an outguard; this
will allow one double sentry post of three reliefs and one man in
addition to the commander, who may be used for messenger service.
The outguard should be carefully concealed.

The utmost quiet should be observed, and there should be no cooking
or smoking. The intervals between outguards will depend upon
the situation and the terrain. The line of observation is not
necessarily continuous, but all avenues of approach must be carefully
guarded. The distance of the outguard from the support likewise
is governed by the terrain, but in general may be said to be
from 300 to 400 yards. In thick country or at night outguards
patrol along the line of observation between posts. Communication
between outguards and the support is by signal and messenger, in
special cases by wire. Members of the outguard retain possession
of their weapons and do not remove their equipment.

Sentinels from the outguard are posted so as to avoid observation,
but so that they may have a clear lookout and be able to see,
if possible, by day, the sentinels of the adjacent outguards.
Double sentinels are always posted near enough to each other to
communicate easily in ordinary voice. Sentinels are generally
on post two hours out of six. For every sentinel and every patrol
there should be three reliefs, and outguards should be of a strength
sufficient to allow this. The position of a sentinel should be
selected with reference to observation. It may be advantageous
to place a sentinel in a tree. Sentinels furnished by cossack
posts or sentry squads are kept near their group. Those furnished
by their pickets may be kept as far sa 100 yards away.

Reliefs, visiting patrols, and inspecting officers approach sentinels
from the rear.

A sentinel on the line of observation should always have the
following instructions: The names of villages, streams, and prominent
features in sight and where the roads lead. The number (if any) of
his post, and the number of his and of the adjoining outguards;
the position of the support; the line of retreat to be followed if
the outguard is compelled to fall back; the position of advance
detachments and whether friendly patrols are operating in front;
to watch to the front and flanks without intermission and devote
special attention to unusual or suspicious occurrences; if he
sees indications of the enemy, to at once notify his immediate
superior; in case of imminent danger, or when an attack is made,
to give the alarm by firing rapidly; by day to pass in or out
officers, noncommissioned officers, and detachments recognized
as part of the outposts, and officers known to have authority to
do so; to detain all others and notify the outguard commander;
at night, when persons approach his post, to come to a ready, halt
them, and notify the outguard commander; the latter challenges,
ascertains their identity, and acts accordingly. When individuals
fail to halt, or otherwise disobey, to fire upon them after a
second warning, or sooner if they attempt to attack or escape;
to require deserters to lay down their arms, and remain until a
patrol is sent out to bring them in; to order deserters pursued
by the enemy to drop their arms and to give an alarm; if they
fail to obey they are fired upon; to require bearers of flags of
truce and their escorts to halt and to face outward; to permit
them to hold no conversation and to see that they are then
blindfolded and disposed of in accordance with instructions from
the support commander; if they fall to obey to fire upon them;
at night, to remain practically stationary, moving about for
purposes of observation only; not to sit or lie down unless
authorized to do so; in the daytime, to make use of natural or
artificial cover and assume such positions as to give him the
best field of view; to inform passing patrols of what he has
seen; to carry his weapon habitually loaded and locked and at
will.

Outpost patrols are divided into those which operate beyond the
lines and those whose duty lies principally within the lines.
The former, called reconnoitering patrols, scout in the direction
of the enemy; the latter, called visiting patrols, maintain
communication between the parts of the outpost and supervise the
performance of duty on the line of observation. Reconnoissance
should be continuous. Though scouts and detachments of cavalry
remain in contact with the enemy, or at least push forward to a
considerable distance, more detailed reconnoissance by infantry
patrols in the foreground must not be neglected. Reconnoitering
patrols are composed of at least two men and a skillful leader, who,
in important cases, would be an officer. They obtain information,
ascertain the presence of the enemy, or discover his approach.
All patrols, when they cross the line of observation, inform the
nearest sentinel of the direction in which they are to advance;
on their return they similarly report what they have seen of the
enemy; signals are agreed upon so that they can be recognized
when returning. Any ground near the line of observation which
might afford cover for troops, or for scouts or spies, and the
approach to which can not be observed by sentinels, is searched
frequently by patrols. Definite information concerning the enemy
is reported at once. Patrols fire only in self-defense or to
give the alarm. Supports on the flank of an outpost position
patrol the country on the exposed flank. Visiting patrols and
reliefs should not march in the open, and thereby expose the
position of sentinels.

During a march in the vicinity of the enemy when halts are made,
special measures for protection are taken. When the halt is for
a short period, less than half an hour, the advance party and
support remain at ease, the point and flankers move to positions
from which they can obtain a good lookout, and additional patrols
may be sent out from advance parties and supports. Where the halt
is for a period exceeding half an hour a MARCH OUTPOST should
be formed. With an advance guard consisting of a battalion, 2
companies in the reserve, 2 in the support, the latter having
as advance party one-half a company, a typical march outpost
would be formed as follows: The advance party would send one
platoon, four or five hundred yards to the right as outguard No.
1, the remaining platoon constituting outguard No. 2. A platoon
from the head of the support would be sent a similar distance to
the left as outguard No. 3. The balance of the support would
constitute the support of the march outpost, the reserve of the
advance guard acting as reserve. On signal being given to resume
the march, the various units would close in, and as soon as the
advance party had assembled the march would be taken up.


SECTION 8. RIFLE TRENCHES.

Soldiers should remember that only by acting vigorously on the
offensive can an army hope to gain the victory. The defensive may
delay or stop the enemy, but it can never destroy him. "Troops
dig because they are forced to halt; they do not halt to dig."

Trenches will frequently be constructed, without being used,
and soldiers must expect this as a feature of campaigning and
accept cheerfully what at times may appear as unnecessary labor.

When intrenching under fire cover is first secured in the lying
position, each man scooping out a depression for his body and
throwing the earth to the front. In this position no excavation
can be conveniently made for the legs, but if time permits the
original excavation is enlarged and deepened until it is possible
to assume a sitting position, with the legs crossed and the shoulder
to the parapet. In such a position a man presents a smaller target
to shrapnel bullets than in the lying trench and can fire more
comfortably and with less exposure than in the kneeling trench.
From the sitting position the excavation may be continued until
a standing trench is secured.

The accompanying plate shows some of the more common forms of
trenches in profile. Figure 1 is the simplest form of standing
trench. Figure 2 shows the same trench deepened in rear, so as
to allow men to walk along in the rear (deeper) portion of the
trench without exposing their heads above the parapet. Figure 3
shows a cover and firing trench, with a chamber in which men can
find shelter when under heavy artillery fire. When the excavated
earth is easily removed figure 4 shows a good profile. The enemy's
infantry, as well as his artillery, will generally have great
difficulty in seeing this type of trench.

The mound or bank of earth thrown up for shelter in front of a
trench is called the PARAPET. It should be at least 30 inches
thick on top, and the front should slope gradually, as shown in
the plate, so that shells will tend to glance from it, rather
than penetrate and explode. The top should be covered with sod,
grass, or leaves, so as to hide the newly turned earth, which
could be easily seen and aimed at by the enemy. There should be
no rocks, loose stones, or pebbles on top, which might be struck
by the bullets, splintering and flying, thus adding greatly to
the number of dangerous projectiles, and often deflecting bullets
downward into the trench. A stone wall is a very dangerous thing
to be behind in a fight.

The portion of the ground in rear of the parapet and between
the parapet and the trench not covered by the parapet is to rest
the elbows on when firing, the rifle being rested on top of the
parapet.

To obtain head cover in a trench fill a gunny sack or other bag
with sand or soil and place it on top of the parapet, aiming
around the right-hand side of it, or dig a small lateral trench
in the parapet large enough to hold the rifle. Roof it over with
boards, small logs, or brush, and heap dirt on top, aiming through
the small trench or resulting loophole.

Figure 5 shows the plan of a section of a rifle trench.[7] Between
the portions occupied by each squad there is often placed a mound
of earth as high as the top of the parapet and projecting back into
the trench. This is called a TRAVERSE and protects the occupants
of the trench from fire from a flank. Bullets from this direction
hit a traverse, instead of flying down into the trench and wounding
several men.

[Footnote 7: The traverse should be at least 6 feet wide instead
of 3 feet, as shown in figure 5.]

Trenches are seldom continuous, but are made in sections placed
at the most advantageous points, as shown in figure 6. A company
or battalion may occupy a single section. The firing trenches
have cover trenches in rear of them, where the supports can rest
undisturbed by the hostile fire until they are needed in the
firing trench to repel a serious assault or to take part in a
counter attack. Passages consisting of deep communicating trenches
facilitate passage from the cover trenches to the firing trenches
when under fire. These communicating trenches are usually zigzag
or traversed to prevent their being swept by hostile fire.

When troops are likely to remain in trenches for a considerable
time drainage should be arranged for, and latrines and dressing
stations should be constructed in trenches. Water should be brought
into the trenches and holes excavated in the front wall of the
trench for extra ammunition.

In digging trenches men usually work in reliefs, one relief digging
while the others rest, the proportion of shovelers to pick men
being about 3 to 1. If a plow can be obtained to turn the sod,
it will greatly facilitate the initial work of digging.

[Illustration: Plate V.]



CHAPTER VII.

MARCHING AND CAMPING.


SECTION 1. BREAKING CAMP AND PREPARATION FOR A MARCH.

THE EVENING BEFORE THE MARCH.

When a command learns that it is to make a march on the following
day, presumably starting early in the morning, certain details
should be attended to the evening before.

All men should fill their canteens as there will probably be no
time for this in the morning.

The mess sergeant should find out whether lunch or the reserve
ration will be carried on the march and should attend to these
details in the evening in order that the issue can be made promptly
in the morning.

The commander of the guard should be given a memorandum as to
what time to awaken the cooks and where their tent is. The member
of the guard who does this should awaken them without noise so
as not to disturb the rest of the remainder of the command.

The cooks should be instructed as to what time breakfast is to
be served and what time to awaken the first sergeant.

The cooks or cook's police must cut and split all firewood for
the morning before 9 p. m. There must be no chopping, talking,
or rattling of pans before reveille which will disturb the rest
of the command. This applies to every morning in camp.


THE MORNING OF THE MARCH.

Cooks arise when called by the guard and start the preparation of
breakfast without noise. The first sergeant is usually awakened
by one of the cooks about half an hour before reveille in order
that he may complete his toilet and breakfast early and be able
to devote all his time to supervising the details of the morning's
work. If the officers desire to be awakened before reveille they
will notify the first sergeant accordingly.

At first call the men turn out, perform their toilets, strike
their shelter tents (unless it has been directed to await the
sounding of the general for this), and make up their packs.

At the sounding of assembly immediately after reveille each man
must be in his proper place in ranks. This assembly is under
arms. The first sergeant starts to call the roll or commands
"Report" at the last note of assembly. Arms are stacked before
the company is dismissed.

Breakfast is served to the company immediately after roll call.
Immediately after breakfast each man will wash his mess kit in
the hot water provided for that purpose at the kitchen and will
at once pack the mess kit in his haversack.

The cooks will provide hot water for washing mess kits at the
same time that breakfast is served.

Immediately after breakfast the company proceeds to the work
of breaking camp and packing in accordance with a prearranged
system similar to the following:

One squad assists the cooks in packing the kitchen.

One squad strikes and folds the officers' tents and brings them
to the kitchen.

One squad fills in the sink. The sink should not be filled in
earlier than is absolutely necessary.

One squad polices the camp within the company police limits.

One squad is available for possible details from regimental
headquarters.

Officers and first sergeant supervise the work.

A permanent assignment of squads to these duties lightens the
labor and decreases the time necessary for breaking camp. After
the breaking of camp the entire company is used to police camp.

Men should not start from camp thirsty, but should drink all
the water they want immediately after breakfast. All canteens
should be filled before marching, one man in each squad being
detailed to fill the canteens for his squad.

At assembly for the march the men fall in in rear or the stacks
fully equipped for marching.


SECTION 2. MARCHING.

The principal work of troops in the field consists of marching.
Battles take place only at indefinite intervals, but marches are
of daily occurrence. It is only by good marching that troops
can arrive at a given point at a given time and in good condition
for battle.

The rate of march depends greatly upon the condition of the roads
and the weather, but the average rate for infantry is about 2-1/2
miles per hour. This allows for a rest of 10 minutes each hour.
The total distance marched in a day depends not only on the rate
of march, but upon the size of the command, large commands often
covering only about 10 miles a day, while small commands easily
cover double that distance.

In order to make the march with the greatest comfort and the
least danger, it is necessary that each unit be kept well in
hand. Each man is permitted and encouraged to make himself as
comfortable as possible at all times, excepting only that he
must not interfere with the comfort of others or with the march
of the column.

Infantry generally marches in column of squads, but on narrow
roads or trails column of twos or files is used. The route step is
habitually used when silence is not required. In large commands,
in order that the column be kept in hand, it is very necessary that
each man keep his place in ranks and follow his file leader at the
prescribed distance. This is one of the best tests for determining
the discipline and efficiency of troops. The equipment should
be carefully adjusted before starting out, and any part that is
not comfortable should be rearranged at the first opportunity.
The rifle is carried at will, except that the muzzle must be
pointed up so as not to interfere with the other men.

Under no circumstances will any man leave the ranks without
permission from his company or higher commander. If the absence
is to be for more than a short while, he must be given a pass
showing his name, rank, and organization, and the reason he is
permitted to be absent. If sick, it is better to wait by the
roadside at some comfortable place for the arrival of the surgeon
or the ambulance. In any case, the soldier keeps his rifle and
equipment with him, if possible. Soldiers absent from their
organization without a pass will be arrested and returned to their
command for punishment.

Marches in hot weather are particularly trying. Green leaves or
a damp cloth carried in the hat lessens the chance of sunstroke.
The hat should have ventilators, and when not exposed to the
direct rays of the sun it should be removed from the head. It
is well to keep the clothing about the neck and throat open,
and sometimes to turn up the shirt sleeves so as to leave the
wrists free.

The canteen should always be filled before starting out. Use
the water very sparingly. None at all should be drunk during
the first three or four hours of the march. After that take only
a few mouthfuls at a time and wash out the mouth and throat.
Except possibly in very hot weather, one canteen of water should
last for the entire day's march. Excessive water drinking on
the march will play a man out very quickly. Old soldiers never
drink when marching. A small pebble carried in the mouth keeps it
moist and therefore reduces thirst. Or a small piece of chocolate
may occasionally be eaten. Smoking is very depressing during a
march.

Canteens will not be refilled on the march without authority
from an officer, as the clearest water, whether from a well,
spring, or running stream, may be very impure and the source of
many camp diseases. If canteens are to be refilled, it should be
done by order, and a detail is generally made for this purpose.

Entering upon private property without permission, or stealing
fruit, etc., from gardens and orchards, is a serious military
offense, as well as a violation of the civil laws.

When a cooked meal is carried, it should not be eaten until the
proper time.

A command ordinarily marches for 50 minutes and halts for 10
minutes. The first halt in a day's march is for about 15 minutes,
is made after about 30 minutes' marching, and is for the express
purpose of allowing the men to relieve themselves. Men who wish
to do this should attend to it at once and not wait until the
command is almost ready to march again.

At every halt get all the rest possible and don't spend the time
wandering around or standing about. Only green recruits do this.
If the ground is dry, stretch out at full length, removing the
pack or blanket roll and belt, and get in as comfortable position
as possible. The next best way is to sit down with a good back
rest against a tree or a fence or some other object. Never sit
down or lie down, however, on wet or damp ground. Sit on your
pack or blanket roll, or on anything else that is dry. At a halt
it is very refreshing to adjust the underclothing.


SECTION 3. MAKING CAMP.

On reaching the camp site the men should be allowed to fall out
and rest as soon as the arms have been stacked and the shelter
tents pitched. If the blanket rolls have been carried on the
wagons, then the location of the front poles of the shelter tents
should be marked before they are allowed to fall out. The men
will not be allowed to relieve themselves until sinks are dug.
Temporary sinks may be dug with intrenching tools, if carried.
A guard should be placed over the water supply at once.

As soon as the shelter tents are pitched the company proceeds
to the remainder of the camp work in accordance with a permanent
assignment similar to the following:

One squad helps arrange the kitchen.

One squad pitches the officers' tents.

One squad digs the sink.

One squad procures wood and water.

One squad is held available for details from regimental headquarters.

The officers and first sergeant supervise the work.

The sinks are located by the commanding officer. The detail to
dig them should wait until informed of the location. An officer
should inspect the sink as soon as the detail reports it as
completed.

After the camp has been put in order the first sergeant makes
the details from roster for kitchen police and noncommissioned
officer in charge of quarters for the next day and for such guard
as may be ordered for that day.

The details called for by regimental headquarters for pitching
the headquarters camp for the quartermaster, etc., should be
reported to the adjutant without delay.

The cooks pitch their tent at that end of the company street
nearest the kitchen. Space must be left for this tent if the
cooks are not in ranks when the company pitches tents. Unless
lunch has been carried or cooked during the march, the cooks
should get to work on a hot meal as soon as possible. The kitchen
police report at the kitchen as soon as their tent is pitched.
Wood and water will be required at once.

Officers should avoid keeping the men unnecessarily under arms
or on their feet after a hard day's march.

When the details of making camp have been completed, all men
should at once care for their rifles and feet. (For details as
to the care of the rifle see Chapter II Section 1, for the care
of the feet see Chapter IV.)


SECTION 4. CAMP SERVICE AND DUTIES.

In camp "Reveille" is preceded by "First call," and a march played
by the band or field music, and is followed immediately by
"Assembly." If there is a reveille gun, it is fired at the first
note of the march and is the signal for all to arise. The roll
is called at the last notes of assembly after reveille. At this
formation men should fall in in the proper uniform--rifle and
belt, service hat, olive-drab flannel shirt, service breeches,
leggings, and shoes. The regimental commander may prescribe that
coats are to be worn and will prescribe the exact uniform for
all drills, parades, and other formations, as well as for men
going on pass.

Immediately after reveille roll call the sergeant next in rank
to the first sergeant takes command of the company and deploys
it for a general police of the camp within the limits assigned
to the company. Men pick up all scraps of paper and rubbish of
all kinds, depositing it in the company incinerator or place
designated for the purpose. The police limits of each company
are usually designated as extending from head to rear of camp
within the space occupied by the company street, including the
ground occupied by the tents of the company, no unassigned space
being left between companies.

Immediately after breakfast men police their tents and raise
walls of same. If the day is fair, all bedding should be spread
on the tents for several hours' airing.

At sick call all men who are sick fall in and are marched to
the regimental infirmary, under charge of the noncommissioned
officer in charge of quarters. The noncommissioned officer takes
with him the company sick report previously filled in and signed
by the company commander. The surgeon examines all those reporting
and indicates their status on the sick report. This status may be
"Duty" (available for all duty), "Quarters" (patient to remain
in tent or company street), and "Hospital" (patient to be sent
to the hospital). The noncommissioned officer then returns to
the company with all the men not marked "Hospital" and hands
the sick report to the first sergeant.

At "Drill call" the company prepares for drill and falls in so
that it will be completely formed at assembly, which is usually
sounded 10 minutes after drill call. All men are required to attend
drill except those excused by sick report and those specially
excused from headquarters. The excused list should include in each
company only the mess sergeant, the two cooks, one kitchen police,
and men on regimental guard. During drill hours the guard to be
excused should be limited to a small patrol to guard against
fire and thieves in camp.

If the bedding has been aired, it should be taken in immediately
after drill and placed in the tents neatly folded.

Some time during the morning, at a time designated by him, the
company commander inspects the entire company camp. At this
inspection the entire street should be policed, kitchen in order,
and tents policed, as follows:

In permanent camp, when pyramidal, conical, or wall tents are
used: Bedding folded neatly and placed on the head of the cot.
(If bed sacks are used, they will be folded in three folds and
the bedding placed on top.) Hats on top of the bedding. Shoes
under foot of cot. Surplus kit bag at side of squad leader's
cot. Equipment suspended neatly from a frame arranged around
the tent pole. Rifles in rack constructed around the tent pole.

In shelter-tent camp: Bedding neatly folded and placed at rear
of tent, ponchos underneath. Equipment arranged on the bedding.
Rifles laid on bedding except when used as tent poles.

The regimental commander prescribes the exact scheme to be followed
in the police of tents.

Should there be no parade, retreat roll call is held at the same
hour. This roll call is under arms and is supervised by an officer
of the company. After the roll call and at the sounding of "Retreat,"
the officer brings the company to parade rest and keeps it in
this position during the sounding of this call. At the first
note of the National Anthem ("The Star-Spangled Banner") or "To
the Color" the company is brought to attention and so stands
until the end of the playing. The officer then reports the result
of the roll call to the adjutant or officer of the day, returns
to the company, inspects the arms, and dismisses it.

At the sounding of "Call to quarters" all men will repair to their
company street.

After taps has sounded all talking must cease and all lights must
be extinguished, and so remain until first call for reveille.

In camp all enlisted men are prohibited from crossing the officers'
street, or from visiting officers' tents unless actually engaged
in some duty requiring them to do so, or sent for by an officer.

Men are not allowed to leave camp without a pass signed by the
company commander and countersigned by the regimental adjutant.
The first sergeant is sometimes allowed to give men permission
to leave camp from retreat to taps.

The noncommissioned officer in charge of quarters, detailed for
24 hours goes on duty each day at reveille. He is responsible
that the grounds around the company are kept in proper police;
that no loud noise, disturbance, or disorder occurs in the company
street; that men confined to the company street do not leave
the same without proper authority. He reports men who are sick
to the surgeon. He may be required to report all other details
called for. He accompanies the captain in his daily inspection
of the company. He will not leave the company street during his
tour of duty except as provided above.

One or two privates are detailed daily as kitchen police. They
go on duty at reveille. It is their duty to assist the cooks in
the kitchen. They assist in the preparation of meals, wait on
the table, wash dishes, procure water and wood, chop firewood,
and keep the kitchen, mess tent, and surrounding ground policed.
They are under the orders of the mess sergeant and the cooks.

Rifles need careful attention in camp. They should be cleaned
and oiled daily, preferably just before retreat or parade. It
is advisable for each man to have a canvas cover to keep off
the dust and dampness. In a shelter-tent camp tie the rifle,
muzzle up, to the pole of the tent, placing a chip of wood under
the butt plate and an oily rag over (never inside) the muzzle.

Wet shoes should be filled with oats or dry sand, and set in a
cool place to dry. Never dry them by a fire.

Uniforms need special care, as camp service is very hard on them.
In a permanent camp every man should have two pair of breeches.
The coat will seldom be worn except at parade or retreat. One
pair of breeches and the coat should be kept neat, clean, and
pressed for use on ceremonies, inspections, and when going on
pass. Woolen uniforms may be cleaned and freed from spots by
rubbing with a flannel rag saturated with gasoline. Cotton uniforms
may be washed with water, soap, and a scrubbing brush, wrung
out, and stretched, properly creased, on a flat wood surface in
the sun to dry. Leggings can be similarly washed. Hats should
be cleaned with gasoline, and dampened and ironed to restore
their shape.

Enlisted men should be very careful to observe all the sanitary
regulations of the camp. Flies are the greatest spreaders of camp
disease. All fecal matter and food should be carefully guarded from
them. In camps extreme precautions are taken to screen the sinks
and kitchens from flies, and all enlisted men should cooperate in
the effort to make these precautions successful. One fly carrying
germs on his feet from the sinks to the food can start a serious
and fatal epidemic in a camp. Defecating on the ground in the
vicinity of camp or urinating in camp are extremely dangerous
to the health of the command, and are serious military offenses.
At night a urinal can is provided in each company street.

In a permanent camp cots or bed sacks are usually provided for
the men to sleep on. In a shelter tent camp beds should be made
of hay, grass, leaves, pine or spruce boughs, or pine needles,
on top of which the poncho and blanket are spread, thus softening
the ground and keeping the sleeper away from the cold and dampness.
Neglect to prepare the bed when sleeping without cot or bed sack
means a loss of sleep, and may lead to colds, bowel disorders,
and rheumatism.

In wet weather tents should be ditched, and in windy or cold
weather dirt may be banked around them. A place for washing the
person and clothes should be arranged for in each company street,
and the waste water disposed of by means of drainage or rock-filled
pits. In dry weather the streets in camp should frequently be
sprinkled with water to keep down the dust. This is specially
necessary around the kitchen.



CHAPTER VIII.

TARGET PRACTICE.


SECTION 1. PRELIMINARY TRAINING IN MARKSMANSHIP.

Effective rifle fire is generally what counts most in battle.
To have effective rifle fire, the men on the firing line must
be able to HIT what they are ordered to shoot at. There is no
man who can not be taught how to shoot. It is not necessary or
even desirable to begin instruction by firing on a rifle range.
A perfectly green recruit who has never fired a rifle may be made
into a good shot by a little instruction and some preliminary
drills and exercises.

Before a man goes on the range to fire it is absolutely necessary
that he should know--

  1. How to set the rear sight.
  2. How to sight or aim.
  3. How to squeeze the trigger.
  4. How to hold the rifle in all positions.

If he does not know these things it is worse than useless for
him to fire. He will not improve; the more he shoots the worse
he will shoot, and it will become more difficult to teach him.


SECTION 2. SIGHT ADJUSTMENT.

Men must be able to adjust their sights correctly and quickly.
An error in adjustment so small that one can scarcely see it
on the sight leaf is sufficient to cause a miss at an enemy at
500 yards and over.

Notice your rear sight. When the leaf is laid down the BATTLE
SIGHT appears on top. This sight is set for 547 yards and is
not adjustable. When the leaf is raised four sights come into
view. The extreme range sight for 2,850 yards at the top of the
leaf is seldom used. The open sight at the upper edge of the
drift slide is adjustable from 1,400 to 2,750 yards. To set it
the upper edge of the slide is made to correspond with the range
reading on the leaf, and the slide is then clamped with the slide
screw. This sight also is seldom used. The open sight at the
bottom of the triangular opening in the drift slide is adjustable
from 100 to 2,450 yards. To set it the index line at the lower
corners of the triangle is set opposite the range graduation on
the leaf and the slide clamped. This and the peep sight just
below it are the sights most commonly used. To set the peep sight,
the index lines on either side of the peephole are set opposite
the range desired and the slide clamped.

Notice the scales for the various ranges on either side of the
face of the leaf. The odd-numbered hundreds of yards are on the
right and the even on the left. The line below the number is
the index line for that range. Thus to set the sight for 500
yards the index line of the slide is brought in exact line with
the line on the leaf below the figure 5 and the slide clamped.
To set for 550 yards the index lines of the slide are set half
way between the index lines on the leaf below the figure 5 on
the right side and the figure 6 on the left side. Look at your
sight carefully when setting it and take great pains to get it
exact. An error in setting the width of one of the lines on the
leaf will cause an error of about 8 inches in where your bullet
will strike at 500 yards.

The WIND GAUGE is adjusted by means of the windage screw at the
right front end of the base of the sight. Each graduation on
the wind-gauge scale is called a "point." For convenience in
adjusting the line of each third point on the scale is longer
than the others. If you turn the windage screw so that the movable
base moves to the right, you are taking right windage, which
will cause your rifle to shoot more to the right.

It is seldom that a rifle will shoot correctly to the point aimed
at at a given range with the sights adjusted exactly to the scale
graduations for that range. If your sight is not correctly adjusted
for your shooting and you wish to move it slightly to make it
correct, remember to move it in the direction you wish your shot
to hit. If you wish to shoot higher raise your sight. If to the
right, move the wind gauge to the right. Always move your sight
the correct amount in accordance with the following table:


SECTION 3. TABLE OF SIGHT CORRECTIONS.

_Showing_to_what_extent_the_point_of_impact_is_moved_by_a_change_
_of_25_yards_in_elevation_or_1_point_in_windage._

              Correction      Correction
              by a change     by a change
   Range.     in elevation    in windage
              of 25 yards.    of 1 point.
  --------   --------------  -------------
  _Yards._      _Inches._       _Inches._
     100           0.72             4
     200           1.62             8
     300           2.79            12
     400           4.29            16
     500           6.22            20
     600           8.59            24
     800          15.43            32
   1,000          25.08            40

An easy rule to remember the windage correction by is: "A change
of 1 point of wind changes the point of impact 4 inches for every
100 yards of range."

Copy this table and take it to the range with you.

Example of sight adjustment: Suppose you are firing at 500 yards.
The first two or three shots show you that your shots are hitting
about a foot below and a foot to the right of the center of the
bull's-eye. From the above table you will see that if you will
raise your sight 50 yards and move the wind gauge half a point to
the left the rifle will be sighted so that if you aim correctly
the bullets will hit well inside the bull's eye.


SECTION 4. AIMING.

OPEN SIGHT: Always align your sights with the front sight squarely
in the middle of the "U" or notch of the rear sight, and the
top of the front sight even with the upper corners of the "U."
(See fig. 1.) All the sights on the rifle except the peep sight
are open sights.

PEEP SIGHT: Always center the tip of the front sight in the center
of the peephole when aiming with this sight. (See fig. 2.)

[Illustration: FIGURE 1.]

Always aim below the bull's-eye. Never let your front sight appear
to touch the bull's-eye in aiming. Try to see the same amount of
white target between the top of the front sight and the bottom
of the bull's-eye each time. The eye must be focused on the
bull's-eye or mark and not on the front or rear sight.

Look at figures 1 and 2 until your eye retains the memory of
them, then try to duplicate the picture every time you aim. Aim
consistently, always the same. Never change your aim; change
your sight adjustment if your shots are not hitting in the right
place.


SECTION 5. BATTLE SIGHT.

The battle sight is the open sight seen when the leaf is laid
flat. It is adjusted for a range of 547 yards. It is intended
to be used in battle, when you get nearer to the enemy than 600
yards. Always aim at the belt of a standing enemy, or just below
him if he is kneeling, sitting, or lying. On the target range
this sight is used for rapid fire. With it the rifle shoots about
2 feet high at ranges between 200 and 400 yards, so you must aim
below the figure on the target "D." Find out in four instruction
practice just how much you must aim below to hit the figure.


SECTION 6. TRIGGER SQUEEZE.

Use the first joint of the fore finger to squeeze the trigger.
It is the most sensitive and best controlled portion of the body.
As you place the rifle to your shoulder squeeze the trigger so
as to pull it back about one-eighth of an inch, thus taking up
the safety portion, or slack, of the pull. Then contract the
trigger finger gradually, slowly and steadily increasing the
pressure on the trigger while the aim is being perfected. Continue
the gradual increase of pressure so that when the aim has become
exact the additional pressure required to release the point of
the sear can be given almost insensibly and without causing any
deflection of the rifle. Put absolutely all your mind and will
power into holding the rifle steady and squeezing the trigger
off without disturbing the aim. Practice squeezing the trigger
in this way every time you have your rifle in your hand until
you can surely and quickly do it without a suspicion of a jerk.

[Illustration: FIGURE 2.]

By practice the soldier becomes familiar with the trigger squeeze
of his rifle, and knowing this, he is able to judge at any time,
within limits, what additional pressure is required for its
discharge. By constant repetition of this exercise he should be
able finally to squeeze the trigger to a certain point beyond
which the slightest movement will release the sear. Having squeezed
the trigger to this point, the aim is corrected, and, when true,
the additional pressure is applied and the discharge follows
and the bullet flies true to the mark.


SECTION 7. FIRING POSITIONS.

When in ranks at close order the positions are those described
in the Infantry Drill Regulations. When in extended order, or
when firing alone, these positions may be modified somewhat to
better suit the individual. The following remarks on the various
positions are offered as suggestions whereby steady positions
may be learned by the soldier.

STANDING POSITION: Face the target, then execute right half face.
Plant the feet about 12 inches apart. As you raise the ride to
the shoulder lean very slightly backward just enough to preserve
the perfect balance on both feet which the raising of the rifle
has somewhat disturbed. Do not lean far back, and do not lean
forward at all. If your body is out of balance it will be under
strain and you will tremble. The right elbow should be at about
the height of the shoulder. The left hand should grasp well around
the stock and handguard in front of the rear sight, and the left
elbow should be almost directly under the rifle. The right hand
should do more than half the work of holding the rifle up and
against the shoulder, the left hand only steadying and guiding
the piece. Do not try to meet the recoil; let the whole body
move back with it. Do not be afraid to press the jaw hard against
the stock; this steadies the position, and the head goes back
with the recoil and insures that your face is not hurt.

KNEELING POSITION: Assume the position very much as described
in the Infantry Drill Regulations. Sit on the right heel. The
right knee should point directly to the right, that is, along
the firing line. The point of the left elbow should rest over
the left knee. There is a flat place under the elbow which fits
a flat place on the knee and makes a solid rest. Lean the body
well forward. This position is uncomfortable until practiced,
when it quickly ceases to be uncomfortable.

SITTING POSITION: Sit down half faced to the right, feet from 6
to 8 inches apart, knees bent, right knee slightly higher than
the left, left leg pointed toward the target. Rest both elbows
on the knees, hands grasping the piece the same as in the prone
position. This is a very steady position, particularly if holes
can be found or made in the ground for the heels.

PRONE POSITION AND USE OF THE GUN SLING: To adjust the sling
for firing, unhook the straight strap of the sling and let it
out as far as it will go. Adjust the loop so that when stretched
along the bottom of the stock its rear end (bight) comes about
opposite the comb of the stock. A small man needs a longer loop
than a tall man. Lie down facing at an angle of about 60° to
the right of the direction of the target. Spread the legs as
wide apart as they will go with comfort. Thrust the left arm
through between the rifle and the sling, and then back through
the loop of the sling, securing the loop, by means of the keeper,
around the upper left arm as high up as it will go. Pass the
hand under and then over the sling from the left side, and grasp
the stock and handguard just in rear of the lower band. Raise
the right elbow off the ground, rolling slightly over on the
left side. Place the butt to the shoulder and roll back into
position, clamping the rifle hard and steady in the firing position.
The rifle should rest deep down in the palm of the left hand
with fingers almost around the handguard. Shift the left palm
a little to the right or left until the rifle stands perfectly
upright (no cant) without effort. The left elbow should rest
on the ground directly under the rifle, and right elbow on the
ground about 5 inches to the right of a point directly under
the stock. In this position the loop of the sling, starting at
the lower band, passes to the right of the left wrist, and thence
around the left upper arm. The loop should be so tight that about
50 pounds tension is placed on it when the position is assumed.
This position is uncomfortable until practiced, when it quickly
ceases to be uncomfortable. It will be steadier if small holes
can be found or dug in the ground for the elbows. In this position
the sling binds the left forearm to the rifle and to the ground
so that it forms a dead rest for the rifle, with a universal
joint, the wrist, at its upper end. Also the rifle is so bound
to the shoulder that the recoil is not felt at all. This is the
steadiest of all firing positions.

The gun sling can also be used in this manner with advantage in
the other positions.


SECTION 8. CALLING THE SHOT.

It is evident that the sights should be so adjusted at each range
that the rifle will hit where you aim. In order to determine
that the sights are so adjusted it is necessary that you shall
know each time just where you were aiming on the target at the
instant your rifle was discharged. If you know this and your
rifle hits this point your rifle is correctly sighted. If your
shot does not hit near this point, you should change your sight
adjustment in accordance with the table of sight corrections
in section 3.

No man can hold absolutely steady. The rifle trembles slightly,
and the sights seem to wobble and move over the target. You try
to squeeze off the last ounce of the trigger squeeze just as
the sights move to the desired alignment under the bull's-eye.
At this instant, just before the recoil blots out a view of the
sights and target, you should catch with your eye a picture, as
it were, of just where on the target your sights were aligned, and
call to yourself or to the coach this point. This point is where
your shot should strike if your sights are correctly adjusted,
and if you have squeezed the trigger without disturbing your
aim. Until a man can call his shots he is not a good shot, for
he can never tell if his rifle is sighted right or not, or if
a certain shot is a good one or only the result of luck.


SECTION 9. COORDINATION.

Good marksmanship consists in learning thoroughly the details
of--

  Holding the rifle in the various positions.
  Aiming.
  Squeezing the trigger.
  Calling the shot.
  Adjusting the sights.

And, when these have been mastered in detail, then the coordination
of them in the act of firing. This coordination consists in putting
absolutely all of one's will power into an effort to hold the
rifle steadily, especially in getting it to steady down when
the aim is perfected; in getting the trigger squeezed off easily
at the instant the rifle is steadiest and the aim perfected; in
calling the shot at this instant; and, if the shot does not hit
near the point called, then in adjusting the sights the correct
amount so that the rifle will be sighted to hit where you aim.


SECTION 10. ADVICE TO RIFLEMEN.

Before going to the range clean the rifle carefully, removing
every trace of oil from the bore. This can best be done with
a rag saturated with gasoline. Put a light coat of oil on the
bolt and cams. Blacken the front and rear sights with smoke from
a burning candle or camphor or with liquid sight black.

Look through the bore and see that there is no obstruction in
it.

Keep the rifle off the ground; the stock may absorb dampness,
the sights may be injured, or the muzzle filled with dirt.

Watch your hold carefully and be sure to know where the line
of sight is at discharge. It is only in this way that the habit
of calling shots, which is essential to good shooting, can be
acquired.

Study the conditions, adjust the sling, and set the sight before
going to the firing point.

Look at the sight adjustment before each shot and see that it
has not changed.

If sure of your hold and if the hit is not as called, determine
and make FULL correction in elevation and windage to put the
next shot in the bull's-eye.

Keep a written record of the weather conditions and the corresponding
elevation and windage for each day's firing.

Less elevation will generally be required on hot days; on wet
days; in a bright sunlight; with a 6 o'clock wind; or with a
cold barrel.

More elevation will generally be required on cold days; on very
dry days; with a 12 o'clock wind; with a hot barrel; in a dull
or cloudy light.

The upper band should not be tight enough to bind the barrel.

Do not put a cartridge into the chamber until ready to fire.
Do not place cartridges in the sun. They will get hot and shoot
high.

Do not rub the eyes--especially the sighting eye.

In cold weather warm the trigger hand before shooting.

After shooting, clean the rifle carefully and then oil it to prevent
rust.

Have a strong, clean cloth that will not tear and jam, properly
cut to size, for use in cleaning.

Always clean the rifle from the breech, using a brass cleaning
rod when available. An injury to the rifling at the muzzle causes
the piece to shoot very irregularly.

Regular physical exercise, taken systematically, will cause a
marked improvement in shooting.

Frequent practice of the "Position and aiming drills" is of the
greatest help in preparing for shooting on the range.

RAPID FIRING: Success is rapid firing depends upon catching a
quick and accurate aim, holding the piece firmly and evenly,
and in squeezing the trigger without a jerk.

In order to give as much time as possible for aiming accurately,
the soldier must practice taking position, loading with the clip,
and working the bolt, so that no time will be lost in these
operations. With constant practice all these movements may be
made quickly and without false motions.

When the bolt handle is raised, it must be done with enough force
to start the shell from the chamber; and when the bolt is pulled
back, it must be with sufficient force to throw the empty shell
well away from the chamber and far enough to engage the next
cartridge.

In loading, use force enough to load each cartridge with one motion.

The aim must be caught quickly, and, once caught, must be held
and the trigger squeezed steadily. Rapid firing, as far as holding,
aim, and squeezing the trigger are concerned, should be done with
all the precision of slow fire. The gain in time should be in
getting ready to fire, loading, and working the bolt.

FIRING WITH RESTS: In order that the shooting may be uniform the
piece should always be rested at the same point.


SECTION 11. THE COURSE IN SMALL-ARMS FIRING.

The course in small-arms firing consists of--

  (a) Nomenclature and care of rifle.
  (b) Sighting drills.
  (c) Position and aiming drills.
  (d) Deflection and elevation correction drills.
  (e) Gallery practice.
  (f) Estimating distance drill.
  (g) Individual known-distance firing, instruction practice.
  (h) Individual known-distance firing, record practice.
  (i) Long-distance practice.
  (j) Practice with telescopic sights.
  (k) Instruction combat practice.
  (l) Combat practice.
  (m) Proficiency test.

The regulations governing these are found in Small Arms Firing
Manual, 1913. There should be several copies of this manual in
every company.


SECTION 12. TARGETS.

The accompanying plates show the details and size of the targets:

[Illustration: TARGET A.]

[Illustration: TARGET B.]

[Illustration: TARGET C.]

[Illustration: TARGET D.]


SECTION 13. PISTOL AND REVOLVER PRACTICE.[8]

[Footnote 8: Whenever in these regulations the word "pistol"
appears the regulation applies with equal force to the revolver,
if applicable to that weapon.]

135.[9] NOMENCLATURE AND CARE OF THE WEAPON; HANDLING AND PRECAUTIONS
AGAINST ACCIDENTS.--The soldier will first be taught the nomenclature
of those parts of the weapon necessary to an understanding of
its action and use and the proper measures for its care and
preservation. Ordnance pamphlets Nos. 1866 (description of the
Colt's automatic pistol), 1919, and 1927 (description of the
Colt's revolver, calibers .38 and .45, respectively) contain full
information on this subject, and are furnished to organizations
armed with these weapons.

[Footnote 9: The number refer to paragraphs in the Small Arms
Firing Manual, 1918.]

Careless handling of the pistol or revolver is the cause of many
accidents and results in broken parts of the mechanism. The following
rules will, if followed, prevent much trouble of this character:

(a) On taking the PISTOL from the armrack or holster,
take out the magazine and see that it is empty before replacing
it; then draw back the slide and make sure that the piece is
unloaded. Observe the same precaution after practice on the target
range, and again before replacing the pistol in the holster or
in the armrack. When taking the REVOLVER from the armrack or
holster and before returning it to the same, open the cylinder
and eject empty shells and cartridges. Before beginning a drill
and upon arriving on the range observe the same precaution.

(b) Neither load nor cock the weapon until the moment of
firing, nor until a run in the mounted course is started.

(c) Always keep the pistol or revolver in the position
of "Raise pistol" (par. 146, Cavalry Drill Regulations, 1916),
except when it is pointed at the target. (The position of "Lower
pistol" is authorized for mounted firing only.)

(d) Do not place the weapon on the ground where sand or
earth can enter the bore or mechanism.

(e) Before loading the PISTOL, draw back the slide and
look through the bore to see that it is free from obstruction.
Before loading the REVOLVER, open the cylinder and look through
the bore to see that it is free from obstruction. When loading[10]
the pistol for target practice place five cartridges in the magazine
and insert the magazine in the handle; draw back the slide and
insert the first cartridge in the chamber and carefully lower[11]
the hammer fully down.

[Footnote 10: TO LOAD PISTOL: Being at raise pistol (right hand
grasping stock at the height of and 6 inches in front of the
point of the right shoulder, forefinger alongside barrel, barrel
to the rear and inclined forward about 30°).

Without deranging position of the hand, rotate the pistol so
the sights move to the left, the barrel pointing to the right
front and up.

With the thumb and forefinger of the left hand (thumb to the
right) grasp the slide and pull it toward the body until it stops,
and then release it. The pistol is thus loaded, and the hammer
at full cock.

If the pistol is to be kept in the hand and not to be fired at
once, engage the safety lock with the thumb of the right hand.

If the pistol is to be carried in the holster, remove safety lock,
if on, and lower the hammer fully down.]

[Footnote 11: TO LOWER THE HAMMER: Being at the loading position
at full cock.

I. Firmly seat thumb of right hand on the hammer: insert forefinger
inside trigger guard.

II. With thumb of left hand exert a momentary pressure on the
grip-safety to release hammer from sear.

III. At the same instant exert pressure or the trigger and carefully
and slowly lower the hammer fully down.

IV. Remove finger from trigger.

V. Insert pistol in holster.

CAUTION.--The pistol must never be placed in the holster until
hammer is fully down.]

In loading the REVOLVER place five cartridges in the cylinder
and let the hammer down on the EMPTY CHAMBER.

(f) Whenever the pistol is being LOADED or UNLOADED, the
muzzle must be kept up.

(g) Do not point the weapon in any direction where an
accidental discharge might do harm.

(h) After loading do not cock the pistol or the revolver
until ready to fire.

(i) Keep the working parts properly lubricated.

136. POSITION, DISMOUNTED.--Stand firmly on both feet, body perfectly
balanced and erect and turned at such an angle as is most comfortable
when the arm is extended toward the target; the feet far enough
apart to insure firmness and steadiness or position (about 8 to
10 inches); weight of body borne equally upon both feet; right
arm fully extended, left arm hanging naturally.

REMARKS.--The right arm may be slightly bent, although the difficulty
of holding the pistol uniformly and of keeping it as well as the
forearm in the same vertical plane makes this objectionable.

137. THE GRIP.--Grasp the stock as high as possible with the
thumb and last three fingers, the forefinger alongside the trigger
guard, the thumb extended along the stock. The barrel, hand, and
forearm should be as nearly in one line as possible when the
weapon is pointed toward the target. The grasp should not be so
tight as to cause tremors of the hand or arm to be communicated
to the weapon, but should be firm enough to avoid losing the grip
when the recoil takes place.

REMARKS.--The force of recoil of the pistol or revolver is exerted
in a line above the hand which grasps the stock. The lower the
stock is grasped the greater will be the movement or "jump" of
the muzzle caused by the recoil. This not only results in a severe
strain upon the wrist, but in loss of accuracy.

If the hand be placed so that the grasp is on one side of the
stock, the recoil will cause a rotary movement of the weapon
toward the opposite side.

The releasing of the sear causes a slight movement of the muzzle,
generally to the left. The position of the thumb along the stock
overcomes much of this movement. The soldier should be encouraged
to practice this method of holding until it becomes natural.

To do uniform shooting the weapon must be held with exactly the
same grip for each shot. Not only must the hand grasp the stock
at the same point for each shot, but the tension of the grip
must be uniform.

138. (a) THE TRIGGER SQUEEZE.--The trigger must be squeezed
in the same manner as in rifle dring. (See Chapter VIII, section
6.) The pressure of the forefinger on the trigger should be steadily
increased and should be straight back, not sideways. The pressure
should continue to that point beyond which the slightest movement
will release the sear. Then, when the aim is true, the additional
pressure is applied and the pistol fired.

Only by much practice can the soldier become familiar with the
trigger squeeze. This is essential to accurate shooting. It is the
most important detail to master in pistol or revolver shooting.

(b) SELF-COCKING ACTION.--The force required to squeeze
the trigger of the revolver when the self-cocking device is used
is considerably greater than with the single action. To accustom
a soldier to the use of the self-cocking mechanism, and also to
strengthen and develop the muscles of the hand, a few minutes
practice daily in holding the unloaded revolver on a mark and
snapping it, using the self-cocking mechanism, is recommended.
The use of the self-cocking device in firing is not recommended
except in emergency. By practice in cocking the revolver the
soldier can become sufficiently expert to fire very rapidly,
using single action, while his accuracy will be greater than when
using double action.

139. AIMING.--Except when delivering rapid or quick fire, the
rear and front sights of the pistol are used in the same manner
as the rifle sights. The normal sight is habitually used (see
Pl. VI), and the line of sight is directed upon a point just
under the bull's-eye at "6 o'clock." The front sight must be
seen through the middle of the rear-sight notch, the top being
on a line with the top of the notch. Care must be taken not to
cant the pistol to either side.[12]

[Footnote 12: The instructor should take cognizance of the fact
that the proper aiming point is often affected by the personal
and fixed peculiarities of the firer, and if unable to correct
such abnormalities, permit firer to direct sight at such point
as promises effective results.]

If the principles of aiming have not been taught, the soldier's
instruction will begin with sighting drills as prescribed for
the rifle so far as they may be applicable. The sighting bar
with open sight will be used to teach the normal sight and to
demonstrate errors likely to be committed.

To construct a sighting rest for the pistol (see Pl. VI) take
a piece of wood about 10 inches long, 1-1/4 inches wide, and
9/16 inch thick. Shape one end so that it will fit snugly in
the handle of the pistol when the magazine has been removed.
Screw or nail this stick to the top of a post or other object
at such an angle that the pistol when placed on the stick will
be approximately horizontal. A suitable sighting rest for the
revolver may be easily improvised.

[Illustration: Plate VI.]

140. (a) HOW TO COCK THE PISTOL.--The pistol should be
cocked by the thumb of the right hand and with the least possible
derangement of the grip. The forefinger should be clear of the
trigger when cocking the pistol. Some men have difficulty at
first in cocking the pistol with the right thumb. This can be
overcome by a little practice. Jerking the pistol forward while
holding the thumb on the hammer will not be permitted.

(b) HOW TO COCK THE REVOLVER.--The revolver should be
cocked by putting the thumb on the hammer at as nearly a right
angle to the hammer as possible, and by the action of the thumb
muscles alone bringing the hammer back to the position of full
cock. Some men with large hands are able to cock the revolver
with the thumb while holding it in the position of aim or raise
pistol. Where the soldier's hand is small this can not be done,
and in this case it assists the operation to give the revolver
a slight tilt to the right and upward (to the right). Particular
care should be taken that the forefinger is clear of the trigger
or the cylinder will not revolve. Jerking the revolver forward
while holding the thumb on the hammer will not be permitted.

141. POSITION AND AIMING DRILLS, DISMOUNTED.--For this instruction
the squad will be formed with an interval of 1 pace between files.
Black pasters to simulate bull's-eyes will be pasted opposite
each man on the barrack or other wall, from which the squad is
10 paces distant.

The squad being formed as described above, the instructor gives
the command: 1. _Raise_, 2. _Pistol_ (par. 156, Cavalry
Drill Regulations), and cautions, "Position and aiming drill,
dismounted." The men take the positions described in paragraph
136, except that the pistol is held at "Raise pistol."

The instructor cautions, "Trigger squeeze exercise." At the command
READY, cock the weapon as described in paragraph 140. At the
command, 1. _Squad_, 2. FIRE, slowly extend the arm till
it is nearly horizontal, the pistol directed at a point about 6
inches below the bull's-eye. At the same time put the forefinger
inside the trigger guard and gradually "feel" the trigger. Inhale
enough air to comfortably fill the lungs and gradually raise
the piece until the line of sight is directed at the point of
aim, i. e., just below the bull's-eye at 6 o'clock. While the
sights are directed upon the mark, gradually increase the pressure
on the trigger until it reaches that point where the slightest
additional pressure will release the sear. Then, when the aim
is true, the additional pressure necessary to fire the piece is
given so smoothly as not to derange the alignment of the sights.
The weapon will be held on the mark for an instant after the
hammer falls and the soldier will observe what effect, if any,
the squeezing of the trigger has had on his aim.

It is impossible to hold the arm perfectly still, but each time the
line of sight is directed on the point of aim a slight additional
pressure is applied to the trigger until the piece is finally
discharged at one of the moments when the sights are correctly
aligned upon the mark.

When the soldier has become proficient in taking the proper position,
the trigger squeeze should be executed at will. The instructor
prefaces the preparatory command by "At will" and gives the command
HALT at the conclusion of the exercise, when the soldier will
return to the position of "Raise pistol."

At first this exercise should be executed with deliberation, but
gradually the soldier will be taught to catch the aim quickly
and to lose no time in beginning the trigger squeeze and bringing
it to the point where the slightest additional pressure will
release the sear.

REMARKS.--In service few opportunities will be offered for slow
aimed fire with the pistol or revolver, although use will be
made of the weapon under circumstances when accurate pointing
and rapid manipulation are of vital importance.

In delivering a rapid fire, the soldier must keep his eyes fixed
upon the mark and, after each shot, begin a steadily increasing
pressure on the trigger, trying at the same time to get the sights
as nearly on the mark as possible before the hammer again falls.
The great difficulty in quick firing with the pistol lies in
the fact that when the front sight is brought upon the mark,
the rear sight is often found to be outside the line joining the
eye with the mark. This tendency to hold the pistol obliquely
can be overcome only by a uniform manner of holding and pointing.
This uniformity is to be attained only by acquiring a grip which
can be taken with certainty each time the weapon is fired. It
is this circumstance which makes the position and aiming drills
so important. The soldier should constantly practice pointing
the pistol until he acquires the ability to direct it on the
mark in the briefest interval of time and practically without
the aid of sights.

The soldier then repeats the exercises with the pistol in the
left hand, the left side being turned toward the target.

142. TO DRAW AND FIRE QUICKLY--SNAP SHOOTING.--With the squad
formed as described in paragraph 141 except that the pistol is
in the holster and the flap, if any, buttoned, the instructor
cautions "Quick-fire exercise." And gives the command, 1. SQUAD;
2. Fire. At this command each soldier, keeping his eye on the
target, quickly draws his pistol, cocks it as in paragraph 140,
thrusts it toward the target, squeezes the trigger, and at the
instant the weapon is brought in line with the eye and the objective
increases the pressure, releasing the sear. To enable the soldier
to note errors in pointing, the weapon will be momentarily held
in position after the fall of the hammer. Efforts at deliberate
aiming in this exercise must be discouraged.

Remarks under paragraph 141 are specially applicable also to
this type of fire. When the soldier has become proficient in
the details of this exercise, it should be repeated at will;
the instructor cautions, "At will; quick fire exercise." The
exercise should be practiced until the mind, the eye, and trigger
finger act in unison.

To simulate this type of fire mounted, the instructor places
the squad so that the simulated bull's-eyes are in turn, to the
RIGHT, to the LEFT, to the RIGHT FRONT, to the LEFT FRONT, to
the RIGHT REAR. With the squad in one of these positions, the
instructor cautions, "Position and aiming drill, mounted." At
this caution the right foot is carried 20 inches to the right and
the left hand to the position of the bridle hand (par. 246, Cavalry
Drill Regulations). The exercise is carried out as described for
the exercise dismounted, using the commands and means laid down in
paragraphs 161 to 168, inclusive, Cavalry Drill Regulations, for
firing in the several directions. The exercise is to be executed
at will when the squad has been sufficiently well instructed in
detail.

When firing to the left the pistol hand will be about opposite
the left shoulder and the shoulders turned about 45° to the left;
when firing to the right rear the shoulders are turned about
45° to the right.

When the soldier is proficient in these exercises with the pistol
in the right hand, they are repeated with the pistol in the left
hand.

REVOLVER OR PISTOL RANGE PRACTICE.--The courses in range practice
are given in paragraphs 147 to 199, Small Arms Firing Manual,
1913.



CHAPTER IX.

EXTRACTS FROM MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY.

UNITED STATES ARMY, 1914.

[The numbers refer to paragraphs in the Manual.]


SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION.

1. Guards may be divided into four classes: Exterior guards, interior
guards, military police, and provost guards.

2. Exterior guards are used only in time of war. They belong to
the domain of tactics and are treated of in the Field Service
Regulations and in the drill regulations of the different arms
of the service,

The purpose of exterior guards is to prevent surprise, to delay
attack, and otherwise to provide for the security of the main
body.

On the march they take the form of advance guards, rear guards,
and flank guards. At a halt they consist of outposts.

3. Interior guards are used in camp or garrison to preserve order,
protect property, and to enforce police regulations. In time
of war such sentinels of an interior guard as may be necessary
are placed close in or about a camp, and normally there is an
exterior guard further out consisting of outposts. In time of
peace the interior guard is the only guard in a camp or garrison.

4. Military police differ somewhat from either of these classes.
(See Field Service Regulations.) They are used in time of war
to guard prisoners, to arrest stragglers and deserters, and to
maintain order and enforce police regulations in the rear of
armies, along lines of communication, and in the vicinity of large
camps.

5. Provost guards are used in the absence of military police,
generally in conjunction with the civil authorities at or near
large posts or encampments, to preserve order among soldiers
beyond the interior guard.


SECTION 2. CLASSIFICATION OF INTERIOR GUARDS.

6. The various elements of an interior guard classified according
to their particular purpose and the manner in which they perform
their duties are as follows:

(a) The main guard.

(b) Special guards: Stable guards, park guards, prisoner
guards, herd guards, train guards, boat guards, watchmen, etc.


SECTION 3. DETAILS AND ROSTERS.

7. At every military post, and in every regiment or separate
command in the field, an interior guard will be detailed and duly
mounted.

It will consist of such number of officers and enlisted men as
the commanding officer may deem necessary, and will be commanded
by the senior officer or noncommissioned officer therewith, under
the supervision of the officer of the day or other officer detailed
by the commanding officer.

8. The system of sentinels on fixed posts is of value in discipline
and training because of the direct individual responsibility
which is imposed and required to be discharged in a definite
and precise manner. While the desirability of this type of duty
is recognized, it should only be put in practice to an extent
sufficient to insure thorough instruction in this method of
performing guard duty and should not be the routine method of its
performance. The usual guard duty will be performed by watchmen,
patrols, or such method as, in the opinion of the commanding
officer, may best secure results under the particular local
conditions.

9. At posts where there are less than three companies the main
guard and special guards may all be furnished by one company
or by details from each company. It is directed that whenever
possible such guards shall be furnished by a single company, for
the reason that if guard details are taken from each organization
at a post of two companies, troops, or batteries it will result
in both being so reduced as to seriously interfere with drill
and instruction, whereas if details are taken from only one,
the other is available for instruction at full strength.

Where there are three or more companies, the main guard will,
if practicable, be furnished by a single company, and, as far
as practicable, the same organization will supply all details
for that day for special guard, overseer, and fatigue duty. In
this case the officer of the day and the officers of the guard,
if there are any, will, if practicable, be from the company
furnishing the guard.

10. At a post or camp where the headquarters of more than one
regiment are stationed, or in the case of a small brigade in
the field, if but one guard be necessary for the whole command,
the details will be made from the headquarters of the command.

If formal guard mounting is to be held, the adjutant, sergeant
major, and band to attend guard mounting will be designated by
the commanding officer.

11. When a single organization furnishes the guard, a roster
of organizations will be kept by the sergeant major under the
supervision of the adjutant. (See Appendix B.)

12. When the guard is detailed from several organizations, rosters
will be kept by the adjutant, of officers of the day and officers
of the guard by name; by the sergeant major under the supervision
of the adjutant, of sergeants, corporals, musicians, and privates
of the guard by number per organization; and by first sergeants,
of sergeants, corporals, musicians, and privates by name. (See
Appendix A.)

13. When organizations furnish their own stable, or stable and
park guards, credit will be given each for the number of enlisted
men so furnished as though they had been detailed for main guard.

14. Special guards, other than stable or park guards, will be
credited the same as for main guard, credited with fatigue duty,
carried on special duty, or credited as the commanding officer
may direct. (Pars. 6, 221, 247, and 300.)

15. Captains will supervise the keeping of company rosters and see
that all duties performed are duly credited. (See pars. 355-364,
A. R., for rules governing rosters, and Form 342, A. G. O., for
instructions as to how rosters should be kept.)

16. There will be an officer of the day with each guard, unless
in the opinion of the commanding officer the guard is so small
that his services are not needed. In this case an officer will
be detailed to supervise the command and instruction of the guard
for such period as the commanding officer may direct.

17. When more than one guard is required for a command, a field
officer of the day will be detailed, who will receive his orders
from the brigade or division commander, as the latter may direct.
When necessary captains may be placed on the roster for field
officer of the day.

18. The detail of officers of the guard will be limited to the
necessities of the service and efficient instruction; inexperienced
officers may be detailed as supernumerary officers of the guard
for purposes of instruction.

19. Officers serving on staff departments are, in the discretion
of the commanding officer, exempt from guard duty.

20. Guard details will, if practicable, be posted or published
the day preceding the beginning of the tour, and officers notified
personally by a written order at the same time.

21. The strength of guards and the number of consecutive days for
which an organization furnishes the guard will be so regulated
as to insure privates of the main guard an interval of not less
than five days between tours.

When this is not otherwise practicable, extra and special duty
men will be detailed for night guard duty, still performing their
daily duties. When so detailed a roster will be kept by the adjutant
showing the duty performed by them.

22. The members of main guards and stable and park guards will
habitually be relieved every 24 hours. The length of the tour
of enlisted men detailed as special guards, other than stable
or park guards, will be so regulated as to permit of these men
being held accountable for a strict performance of their duty.

23. Should the officer of the day be notified that men are required
to fill vacancies in the guard, he will cause them to be supplied
from the organization to which the guard belongs. If none are
available in that organization, the adjutant will be notified
and will cause them to be supplied from the organization that
is next for guard. (Par. 68.)

24. The adjutant will have posted on the bulletin board at his
office all data needed by company commanders in making details
from their companies.

At first sergeant's call, first sergeants will go to headquarters
and take from the bulletin board all data necessary for making
the details required from their companies; these details will
be made from their company rosters.

25. In order to give ample notice, first sergeants will, when
practicable, publish at retreat and post on the company bulletin
board all details made from the company for duties to be performed.

26. Where rosters are required to be kept by this manual, all
details will be made by roster.


SECTION 4. COMMANDER OF THE GUARD.

41. The commander of the guard is responsible for the instruction
and discipline of the guard. He will see that all of its members
are correctly instructed in their orders and duties and that
they understand and properly perform them. He will visit each
relief at least once while it is on post, and at least one of
these visits will be made between 12 o'clock midnight and daylight.

42. He receives and obeys the orders of the commanding officer
and the officer of the day, and reports to the latter without
delay all orders to the guard not received from the officer of
the day; he transmits to his successor all material instructions
and information relating to his duties.

43. He is responsible under the officer of the day for the general
safety of the post or camp as soon as the old guard marches away
from the guardhouse. In case of emergency, while both guards
are at the guardhouse, the senior commander of the two guards
will be responsible that the proper action is taken.

44. Officers of the guard will remain constantly with their guards,
except while visiting patrols or necessarily engaged elsewhere
in the performance of their duties. The commanding officer will
allow a reasonable time for meals.

45. A commander of a guard leaving his post for any purpose will
inform the next in command of his destination and probable time
of return.

46. Except in emergencies, the commander of the guard may divide
the night with the next in command, but retains his responsibility;
the one on watch must be constantly on the alert.

47. When any alarm is raised in camp or garrison, the guard will
be informed immediately. (Par, 234.) If the case be serious,
the proper call will be sounded, and the commander of the guard
will cause the commanding officer and the officer of the day
to be at once notified.

48. If a sentinel calls: "The guard," the commander of the guard
will at once send a patrol to the sentinel's post. If the danger
be great, in which case the sentinel will discharge his piece,
the patrol will be as strong as possible.

49. When practicable, there should always be an officer or
noncommissioned officer and two privates of the guard at the
guardhouse in addition to the sentinels there on post.

50. Between reveille and retreat, when the guard had been turned
out for any person entitled to the compliment (see pars. 222 and
224), the commander of the guard, if an officer, will receive
the report of the sergeant, returning the salute of the latter
with the right hand. He will then draw his saber and place himself
two paces in front of the center of the guard. When the person
for whom the guard has been turned out approaches, he faces his
guard and commands: 1. _Present_, 2. ARMS; faces to the
front and salutes. When his salute is acknowledged, he resumes
the carry, faces about, and commands: 1. _Order_, 2. ARMS;
and faces to the front.

If it be an officer entitled to inspect the guard, after saluting
and before bringing his guard to an order, the officer of the
guard reports: "Sir, all present or accounted for"; or "Sir,
(so-and-so) is absent"; or if the roll call has been omitted:
"Sir, the guard is formed," except that at guard mounting the
commanders of the guards present their guards and salute without
making any report.

Between retreat and reveille the commander of the guard salutes
and reports but does not bring the guard to a present.

51. To those entitled to have the guard turned out but not entitled
to inspect it, no report will be made; nor will a report be made
to any officer unless he halts in front of the guard.

52. When a guard commanded by a noncommissioned officer is turned
out as a compliment or for inspection, the noncommissioned officer,
standing at a right shoulder on the right of the right guide,
commands: 1. _Present_, 2. ARMS. He then executes the rifle
salute. If a report be also required, he will, after saluting,
and before bringing his guard to an order, report as prescribed
for the officer of the guard. (Par. 50.)

53. When a guard is in line, not under inspection, and commanded
by an officer, the commander of the guard salutes his regimental,
battalion, and company commander, by bringing the guard to attention
and saluting in person.

For all other officers, excepting those entitled to the compliment
from a guard (par. 224), the commander of the guard salutes in
person, but does not bring the guard to attention.

When commanded by a noncommissioned officer, the guard is brought
to attention in either case, and the noncommissioned officer
salutes.

The commander of a guard exchanges salutes with the commanders
of all other bodies of troops; the guard is brought to attention
during the exchange.

"Present arms" is executed by a guard only when it has turned
out for inspection or as a compliment, and at the ceremonies
of guard mounting and relieving the old guard.

54. In marching a guard or a detachment of a guard the principles
of paragraph 53 apply. "Eyes right" is executed only in the
ceremonies of guard mounting and relieving the old guard.

55. If a person entitled to the compliment, or the regimental,
battalion, or company commander, passes in rear of a guard, neither
the compliment nor the salute is given, but the guard is brought to
attention while such person is opposite the post of the commander.

After any person has received or declined the compliment, or
received the salute from the commander of the guard, official
recognition of his presence thereafter while he remains in the
vicinity will be taken by bringing the guard to attention.

56. The commander of the guard will inspect the guard at reveille
and retreat, and at such other times as may be necessary, to
assure himself that the men are in proper condition to perform
their duties and that their arms and equipments are in proper
condition. For inspection by other officers, he prepares the
guard in each case as directed by the inspecting officer.

57. The guard will not be paraded during ceremonies unless directed
by the commanding officer.

58. At all formations members of the guard or reliefs will execute
inspection arms as prescribed in the drill regulations of their
arm.

59. The commander of the guard will see that all sentinels are
habitually relieved every two hours, unless the weather or other
cause makes it necessary that it be done at shorter or longer
intervals, as directed by the commanding officer.

60. He will question his noncommissioned officers and sentinels
relative to the instructions they may have received from the old
guard; he will see that patrols and visits of inspection are
made as directed by the officer of the day.

61. He will see that the special orders for each post and member of
the guard, either written or printed, are posted in the guardhouse
and, if practicable, in the sentry box or other sheltered place
to which the member of the guard has constant access.

62. He will see that the proper calls are sounded at the hours
appointed by the commanding officer.

63. Should a member of the guard be taken sick, or be arrested,
or desert, or leave his guard, he will at once notify the officer
of the day. ( Par. 23.)

64. He will, when the countersign is used (pars. 210 to 216),
communicate it to the noncommissioned officers of the guard and
see that it is duly communicated to the sentinels before the hour
for challenging; the countersign will not be given to sentinels
posted at the guardhouse.

65. He will have the details for hoisting the flag at reveille
and lowering it at retreat, and for firing the reveille and retreat
gun, made in time for the proper performance of these duties.
(See pars. 338, 344, 345, and 346.) He will see that the flags
are kept in the best condition possible, and that they are never
handled except in the proper performance of duty.

66. He may permit members of the guard while at the guardhouse
to remove their head dress, overcoats, and gloves; if they leave
the guardhouse for any purpose whatever, he will require that
they be properly equipped and armed, according to the character
of the service in which engaged, or as directed by the commanding
officer.

67. He will enter in the guard report a report of his tour of
duty and, on the completion of his tour, will present it to the
officer of the day. He will transmit with his report all passes
turned in at the post of the guard.

68. Whenever a prisoner is sent to the guardhouse or guard tent
for confinement, he will cause him to be searched, and will without
unnecessary delay, report the case to the officer of the day.

69. Under war conditions, if anyone is to be passed out of camp
at night, he will be sent to the commander of the guard who will
have him passed beyond the sentinels.

70. The commander of the guard will detain at the guardhouse all
suspicious characters, or parties attempting to pass a sentinel's
post without authority, reporting his action to the officer of
the day, to whom persons so arrested will be sent, if necessary.

71. He will inspect the guardrooms and cells, and the irons of
such prisoners as may be ironed, at least once during his tour,
and at such other times as he may deem necessary.

72. He will cause the corporals of the old and new reliefs to
verify together, immediately before each relief goes on post,
the number of prisoners who should then properly be at the
guardhouse.

73. He will see that the sentences of prisoners under his charge
are executed strictly in accordance with the action of the reviewing
authority.

74. When no special prisoner guard has been detailed (par. 300),
he will, as far as practicable, assign as guards over working
parties of prisoners sentinels from posts guarded at night only.

75. The commander of the guard will inspect all meals sent to
the guardhouse and see that the quantity and quality of food
are in accordance with regulations.

76. At guard mounting he will report to the old officer of the
day all cases of prisoners whose terms of sentence expire on
that day, and also all cases of prisoners concerning whom no
statement of charges has been received. (See par. 241.)

77. The commander of the guard is responsible for the security
of the prisoners under the charge of his guard; he becomes
responsible for them after their number has been verified and
they have been turned over to the custody of his guard by the
old guard or by the prisoner guard or overseers.

78. The prisoners will be verified and turned over to the new
guard without parading them, unless the commanding officer or
the officer of the day shall direct otherwise.

79. To receive the prisoners at the guardhouse when they have
been paraded and after they have been verified by the officers
of the day, the commander of the new guard directs his sergeant
to form his guard with an interval, and commands: 1. Prisoners, 2.
_Right_, 3. FACE, 4. _Forward_, 5. MARCH. The prisoner's
having arrived opposite the interval in the new guard, he commands:
1. Prisoners, 2. HALT, 3. _Left_, 4. FACE, 5. _Right_(or_left)_,
6. DRESS. 7. FRONT.

The prisoners dress on the line of the new guard.


SECTION 5. SERGEANT OF THE GUARD.

80. The senior noncommissioned officer of the guard always acts
as sergeant of the guard, and if there be no officer of the guard,
will perform the duties prescribed for the commander of the guard.

81. The sergeant of the guard has general supervision over the
other noncommissioned officers and the musicians and privates
of the guard, and must be thoroughly familiar with all of their
orders and duties.

82. He is directly responsible for the property under charge
of the guard, and will see that it is properly cared for. He
will make lists of articles taken out by working parties and see
that all such articles are duly returned. If they are not, he
will immediately report the fact to the commander of the guard.

83. Immediately after guard mounting he will prepare duplicate
lists of the names of all noncommissioned officers, musicians, and
privates of the guard, showing the relief and post or duties of
each. One list will be handed as soon as possible to the commander
of the guard; the other will be retained by the sergeant.

84. He will see that all reliefs are turned out at the proper
time, and that the corporals thoroughly understand, and are prompt
and efficient in, the discharge of their duties.

85. During the temporary absence from the guardhouse of the sergeant
of the guard, the next in rank of the noncommissioned officers
will perform his duties.

86. Should the corporal whose relief is on post be called away
from the guardhouse, the sergeant of the guard will designate
a noncommissioned officer to take the corporal's place until
his return.

87. The sergeant of the guard is responsible at all times for
the proper police of the guardhouse or guard tent, including
the ground about them and the prison cells.

88. At first sergeant's call he will proceed to the adjutant's
office and obtain the guard report book.

89. When the national or regimental colors are taken from the
stacks of the color line, the color bearer and guard, or the
sergeant of the guard, unarmed, and two armed privates as a guard,
will escort the colors to the colonel's quarters, as prescribed
for the color guard in the drill regulations of the arm of the
service to which the guard belongs.

90. He will report to the commander of the guard any suspicious
or unusual occurrence that comes under his notice, will warn
him of the approach of any armed body, and will send to him all
persons arrested by the guard.

91. When the guard is turned out its formation will be as follows:
The senior noncommissioned officer, if commander of the guard, is
on the right of the right guide; if not commander of the guard,
he is in the line of file closers, in rear of the right four
of the guard; the next in rank is right guide; the next left
guide: the others in the line of file closers, usually each in
rear of his relief; the field music, with its left three paces
to the right of the right guide. The reliefs form in the same
order as when the guard was first divided, except that if the
guard consists of dismounted cavalry and infantry, the cavalry
forms on the left.

92. The sergeant forms the guard, calls the roll, and, if not
in command of the guard, reports to the commander of the guard
as prescribed in drill regulations for a first sergeant forming
a troop or company; the guard is not divided into platoons or
sections, and, except when the whole guard is formed prior to
marching off, fours are not counted.

93. The sergeant reports as follows: "Sir, all present or accounted
for," or "Sir, (so-and-so) is absent"; or if the roll call has
been omitted, "Sir, the guard is formed." Only men absent without
proper authority are reported absent. He then takes his place,
without command.

94. At night the roll may be called by reliefs and numbers instead
of names; thus, the first relief being on post: Second relief:
No. 1; No. 2, etc.; Third relief, Corporal; No. 1, etc.

95. Calling the roll will be dispensed with in forming the guard
when it is turned out as a compliment, on the approach of an
armed body, or in any sudden emergency; but in such cases the
roll may be called before dismissing the guard. If the guard
be turned out for an officer entitled to inspect it, the roll
will, unless he directs otherwise, always be called before a
report is made.

96. The sergeant of the guard has direct charge of the prisoners,
except during such time us they may be under the charge of the
prisoner guard or overseers, and is responsible to the commander
of the guard for their security.

97. He will carry the keys of the guardroom and cells, and will
not suffer them to leave his personal possession while he is
at the guardhouse, except as hereinafter provided. (Par. 99.)
Should he leave the guardhouse for any purpose he will turn the
keys over to the noncommissioned officer who takes his place.
(Par. 85.)

98. He will count the knives, forks, etc., given to the prisoners
with their food, and see that none of these articles remain in
their possession. He will see that no forbidden articles of any
kind are conveyed to the prisoners.

99. Prisoners when paraded with the guard are placed in line, in
its center. The sergeant, immediately before forming the guard,
will turn over his keys to the noncommissioned officer at the
guardhouse. Having formed the guard, he will divide it into two
nearly equal parts. Indicating the point of division with his
hand, he commands: 1. _Right_(or_left)_, 2. FACE, 3.
_Forward_, 4. MARCH, 5. _Guard_, 6. HALT, 7. _Left_
_(or_right)_, 8. FACE.

If the first command be RIGHT FACE, the right half of the guard
only will execute the movements; if LEFT FACE, the left half only
will execute them. The command HALT is given when sufficient
interval is obtained to admit the prisoners. The doors of the
guardroom and cells are then opened by the noncommissioned officer
having the keys. The prisoners will file out under the supervision
of the sergeant, the noncommissioned officer, and sentinel on
duty at the guardhouse, and such other sentinels all may be
necessary; they will form in line in the interval between the
two parts of the guard.

100. To return the prisoners to the guardroom and cells, the
sergeant commands; 1. _Prisoners_, 2. _Right_(or_left)_,_
3. FACE, 4. _Column_right_(or_left)_, 5. MARCH.

The prisoners, under the same supervision as before, return to
their proper rooms or cells.

101. To close the guard. the sergeant commands: 1. _Left_(or_
_right)_, 2. FACE, 3. _Forward_, 4. MARCH, 5. _Guard_,
6. HALT, 7. _Right_(or_left)_, 8. FACE.

The left or right half only of the guard, as indicated, executes
the movement.

102. If there be but few prisoners, the sergeant may indicate
the point of division as above, and form the necessary interval
by the commands: 1. _Right_(or_left)_step_, 2. MARCH: 3.
_Guard_, 4. HALT, and close the intervals by the commands:
1. _Left_(or_right)_step_, 2. MARCH, 3. _Guard_, 4.
HALT.

103. If sentinels are numerous, reliefs may, at the discretion of
the commanding officer, be posted in detachments, and sergeants,
as well as corporals, required to relieve and post them.


SECTION 6. CORPORAL OF THE GUARD.

104. A corporal of the guard receives and obeys orders from none
but noncommissioned officers of the guard senior to himself, the
officers of the guard, the officer of the day, and the commanding
officer.

105. It is the duty of the corporal of the guard to post and
relieve sentinels and to instruct the members of his relief in
their orders and duties.

106. Immediately after the division of the guard into reliefs
the corporals will assign the members of their respective reliefs
to posts by number, and a soldier so assigned to his post will
not be changed to another during the same tour of guard duty,
unless by direction of the commander of the guard or higher
authority. Usually, experienced soldiers are placed over the arms
of the guard, and at remote and responsible posts.

107. Each corporal will then make a list of the members of his
relief, including himself. This list will contain the number of
the relief, the name, the company, and the regiment of every
member thereof, and the post to which each is assigned. The list
will be made in duplicate, one copy to be given to the sergeant
of the guard as soon as completed, the other to be retained by
the corporal.

108. When directed by the commander of the guard, the corporal
of the first relief forms his relief, and then commands: CALL
OFF.

Commencing on the right, the men call off alternately rear and
front rank, "one," "two," "three," "four," and so on; it in single
rank, they call off from right to left. The corporal then commands:
1. _Right_, 2. FACE, 3. _Forward_, 4. MARCH.

The corporal marches on the left, and near the rear file, in
order to observe the march. The corporal of the old guard marches
on the right of the leading file, and takes command when the
last one of the old sentinels is relieved, changing places with
the corporal of the new guard.

109. When the relief arrives at six paces from a sentinel (see
par. 168), the corporal halts it and commands, according to the
number of the post: No. (----.)

Both sentinels execute port arms or saber; the new sentinel
approaches the old, halting about one pace from him. (See par.
172.)

110. The corporals advance and place themselves, facing each other,
a little in advance of the new sentinel, the old corporal on his
right, the new corporal on his left, both at right shoulder, and
observe that the old sentinel transmits correctly his instructions.

The following diagram will illustrate the positions taken:

                                          A
          R                               -
      | | | | |                        C|   |D
      |   | | |                           -
                                          B

R is the relief; A, the new corporal; B, the old; C, the new
sentinel; D, the old.

111. The instructions relative to the post having been communicated,
the new corporal commands. Post: both sentinels then resume the
right shoulder, face toward the new corporal and step back so as
to allow the relief to pass in front of them. The new corporal
then commands: "1. _Forward_, 2. March"; the old sentinel
takes his place in rear of the relief as it passes him, his piece
in the same position as those of the relief. The new sentinel
stands fast at a right shoulder until the relief has passed six
paces beyond him, when he walks his post. The corporals take
their places as the relief passes them.

112. Mounted sentinels are posted and relieved in accordance with
the same principles.

113. On the return of the old relief, the corporal of the new
guard falls out when the relief halts; the corporal of the old
guard forms his relief on the left of the old guard, salutes,
and reports to the commander of his guard: "Sir, the relief is
present"; or "Sir, (so and so) is absent," and takes his place
in the guard.

114. To post a relief other than that which is posted when the
old guard is relieved, its corporal commands:

1. _(Such)_relief_, 2. FALL IN; and if arms are stacked,
they are taken at the proper commands.

The relief is formed facing to the front, with arms at an order,
the men place themselves according to the numbers of their respective
posts, viz, two, four, six, and so on, in the front rank, and
one, three, five, and so on, in the rear rank. The corporal,
standing about two paces in front of the center of his relief,
then commands: CALL OFF.

The men call off as prescribed. The corporal then commands: 1.
_Inspection_, 2. ARMS, 3. _Order_, 4. ARMS; faces the
commander of the guard, executes the rifle salute, reports: "Sir,
the relief is present "; or "Sir, (so and so) is absent"; he
then takes his place on the right at order arms.

115. When the commander of the guard directs the corporal, POST
YOUR RELIEF, the corporal salutes and posts his relief as prescribed
(Pars. 108 to 111); the corporal of the relief on post does not
go with the new relief, except when necessary to show the way.

116. To dismiss the old relief, it is halted and faced to the
front at the guardhouse by the corporal of the new relief, who
then falls out; the corporal of the old relief then steps in
front of the relief and dismisses it by the proper commands.

117. Should the pieces have been loaded before the relief was
posted, the corporal will, before dismissing the relief, see
that no cartridges are left in the chambers or magazines. The
same rule applies to sentinels over prisoners.

118. Each corporal will thoroughly acquaint himself with all
the special orders of every sentinel on his relief, and see that
each understands and correctly transmits such order in detail
to his successor.

119. There should be at least one noncommissioned officer constantly
on the alert at the guardhouse, usually the corporal whose relief
is on post. This noncommissioned officer takes post near the
entrance of the guardhouse, and does not fall in with the guard
when it is formed. He will have his rifle constantly with him.

120. Whenever it becomes necessary for the corporal to leave
his post near the entrance of the guardhouse, he will notify
the sergeant of the guard, who will at once take his place, or
designate another noncommissioned officer to do so.

121. He will see that no person enters the guardhouse or guard
tent, or crosses the posts of the sentinels there posted without
proper authority.

122. Should any sentinel call for the corporal of the guard,
the corporal will, in every case, at once and quickly proceed to
such sentinel. He will notify the sergeant of the guard before
leaving the guardhouse.

123. He will at once report to the commander of the guard any
violation of regulations or any unusual occurrence which is reported
to him by a sentinel, or which comes to his notice in any other
way.

124. Should a sentinel call "The Guard," the corporal will promptly
notify the commander of the guard.

125. Should a sentinel call "Relief," the corporal will at once
proceed to the post of such sentinel, taking with him the man
next for duty on that post. If the sentinel is relieved for a
short time only, the corporal will again post him as soon as
the necessity for his relief ceases.

126. When the countersign is used, the corporal at the posting
of the relief during whose tour challenging is to begin gives
the countersign to the members of the relief, excepting those
posted at the guardhouse.

127. He will wake the corporal whose relief is next on post in
time for the latter to verify the prisoners, form his relief,
and post it at the proper hour.

128. Should the guard be turned out, each corporal will call his
own relief, and cause its members to fall in promptly.

129. Tents or bunks in the same vicinity will be designated for the
reliefs so that all the members of each relief may, if necessary,
be found and turned out by the corporal in the least time and
with the least confusion.

130. When challenged by a sentinel while posting his relief, the
corporal commands: 1. _Relief_, 2. HALT; to the sentinel's
challenge he answers "Relief," and at the order of the sentinel
he advances alone to give the countersign, or to be recognized.
When the sentinel says, "Advance relief," the corporal commands:
1. _Forward_, 2. MARCH.

If to be relieved, the sentinel is then relieved as prescribed.

131. Between retreat and reveille, the corporal of the guard
will challenge all suspicious looking persons or parties he may
observe, first halting his patrol or relief, if either be with
him. He will advance them in the same manner that sentinels on
post advance like parties (pars. 191 to 197), but if the route
of a patrol is on a continuous chain of sentinels, he should
not challenge persons coming near him unless he has reason to
believe that they have eluded the vigilance of sentinels.

132. Between retreat and reveille, whenever so ordered by an
officer entitled to inspect the guard, the corporal will call:
"Turn out the guard," announcing the title of the officer, and
then, if not otherwise ordered, he will salute and return to
his post.

133. As a general rule he will advance parties approaching the
guard at night in the same manner that sentinels on post advance
like parties. Thus, the sentinel at the guardhouse challenges
and repeats the answer to the corporal, as prescribed hereafter
(par. 200); the corporal, advancing at port arms, says: "Advance
(so and so) with the countersign," or "to be recognized," if
there be no countersign used; the countersign being correctly
given, or the party being duly recognized, the corporal says:
"Advance (so and so)," repeating the answer to the challenge
of the sentinel.

134. When officers of different rank approach the guardhouse
from different directions at the same time, the senior will be
advanced first, and will not be made to wait for his junior.

135. Out of ranks and under arms, the corporal salutes with the
rifle salute. He will salute all officers, whether by day or
night.

136. The corporal will examine parties halted and detained by
sentinels, and, if he have reason to believe the parties have
no authority to cross sentinel's posts, will conduct them to
the commander of the guard.

137. The corporal of the guard will arrest all suspicious looking
characters prowling about the post or camp, all persons of a
disorderly character disturbing the peace, and all persons taken
in the act of committing crime against the Government on a military
reservation or post. All persons arrested by corporals of the
guard or by sentinels will at once be conducted to the commander
of the guard by the corporal.


SECTION 7. MUSICIANS OF THE GUARD.

138. The musicians of the guard will sound calls as prescribed
by the commanding officer.

139. Should the guard be turned out for national or regimental
colors or standards, uncased, the field music of the guard will,
when the guard present arms, sound, "To the color" or "To the
standard"; or, if for any person entitled thereto, the march,
flourishes, or ruffles, prescribed in paragraphs 375, 376, and
377, A. R.


SECTION 8. ORDERLIES AND COLOR SENTINELS.

140. When so directed by the commanding officer, the officer
who inspects the guard at guard mounting will select from the
members of the new guard an orderly for the commanding officer
and such number of other orderlies and color sentinels as may
be required.

141. For these positions the soldiers will be chosen who are
most correct in the performance of duty and in military bearing,
neatest in person and clothing, and whose arms and accouterments
are in the best condition. Clothing, arms, and equipments must
conform to regulations. If there is any doubt as to the relative
qualifications of two or more soldiers, the inspecting officer
will cause them to fall out at the guardhouse and to form in
line in single rank. He will then, by testing them in drill
regulations, select the most proficient. The commander of the
guard will be notified of the selection.

142. When directed by the commander of the guard to fall out
and report an orderly will give his name, company, and regiment
to the sergeant of the guard, and, leaving his rifle in the arm
rack in his company quarters, will proceed at once to the officer
to whom he is assigned, reporting: "Sir, Private ----, Company
----, reports all orderly."

143. If the orderly selected be a cavalryman, he will leave his
rifle in the arm rack of his troop quarters, and report with
his belt on, but without side arms unless specially otherwise
ordered.

144. Orderlies, while on duty as such, are subject only to the
orders of the commanding officer and of the officers to whom
they are ordered to report.

145. When an orderly is ordered to carry a message, he will be
careful to deliver it exactly as it was given to him.

146. His tour of duty ends when he is relieved by the orderly
selected from the guard relieving his own.

147. Orderlies are members of the guard, and their name, company,
and regiment are entered on the guard report and lists of the
guard.

148. If a color line is established, sufficient sentinels are
placed on the color line to guard the colors and stacks.

149. Color sentinels are posted only so long as the stacks are
formed. The commander of the guard will divide the time equally
among them.

150. When stacks are broken, the color sentinels may be permitted
to return to their respective companies. They are required to
report in person to the commander of the guard at reveille and
retreat. They will fall in with the guard, under arms, at guard
mounting.

151. Color sentinels are not placed on the regular reliefs, nor
are their posts numbered. In calling for the corporal of the
guard, they call: "Corporal of the guard. Color line."

152. Officers or enlisted men passing the uncased colors will
render the prescribed salute. If the colors are on the stacks,
the salute will be made on crossing the color line or on passing
the colors.

153. A sentinel placed over the colors will not permit them to be
moved except in the presence of an armed escort. Unless otherwise
ordered by the commanding officer, he will allow no one to touch
them but the color bearer.

He will not permit any soldier to take arms from the stacks or
to touch them except by order of an officer or noncommissioned
officer of the guard.

If any person passing the colors or crossing the color line falls
to salute the colors, the sentinel will caution him to do so,
and if the caution be not heeded he will call the corporal of
the guard and report the facts.


SECTION 9. PRIVATES OF THE GUARD.

154. Privates are assigned to reliefs by the commander or the
guard, and to posts usually by the corporal of their relief.
They will not change from one relief or post to another during
the same tour of guard duty unless by proper authority.


SECTION 10. ORDERS FOR SENTINELS.

155. Orders for sentinels are of two classes: General orders and
special orders. General orders apply to all sentinels. Special
orders relate to particular posts and duties.

156. Sentinels will be required to memorize the following:

My general orders are:

1. To take charge of this post and all Government property in
view.

2. To walk my post in a military manner keeping always on the
alert and observing everything that takes place within sight
or hearing.

3. To report all violations of orders I am instructed to enforce.

4. To repeat all calls from posts more distant from the guard
house than my own.

5. To quit my post only when properly relieved.

6. To receive, obey, and pass on to the sentinel who relieves
me all orders from the commanding officer, officer of the day,
and officers and noncommissioned officers of the guard only.

7. To talk to no one except in line of duty.

8. In case of fire or disorder to give the alarm.

9. To allow no one to commit a nuisance on or near my post.

10. In any case not covered by instructions to call the corporal
of the guard.

11. To salute all officers, and all colors and standards not cased.

12. To be especially watchful at night and during the time for
challenging, to challenge all persons on or near my post and
to allow no one to pass without proper authority.


REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE GENERAL ORDERS FOR SENTINELS.


No. 1: To take charge of this post and all Government property
in view.

157. All persons, of whatever rank in the service, are required
to observe respect toward sentinels and members of the guard
when such are in the performance of their duties.

158. A sentinel will at once report to the corporal of the guard
every unusual or suspicious occurrence noted.

159. He will arrest suspicious persons prowling about the post
or camp at any time, all parties to a disorder occurring on or
near his post, and all, except authorized persons, who attempt
to enter the camp at night, and will turn over ro the corporal
of the guard all persons arrested.

160. The number, limits, and extent of his post will invariably
constitute part of the special orders of a sentinel on post.
The limits of his post should be so defined as to include every
place to which he is required to go in the performance of his
duties.


No. 2: To walk my post in a military manner, keeping always on
the alert and observing everything that takes place within sight
or hearing.

161. A sentinel is not required to halt and change the position
of his rifle on arriving at the end of his post, nor to execute TO
THE REAR, MARCH, precisely as prescribed in the drill regulations,
but faces about while walking in the manner most convenient to
him and at any part of his post as may be best suited to the
proper performance of his duties. He carries his rifle on either
shoulder, and in wet or severe weather, when not in a sentry
box, may carry it at a secure.

162. Sentinels when in sentry boxes stand at ease. Sentry boxes
will be used in wet weather only, or at other times when specially
authorized by the commanding officer.

163. In very hot weather, sentinels may be authorized to stand
at ease on their posts, provided they can effectively discharge
their duties in this position; but they will take advantage of
this privilege only on the express authority of the officer of
the day or the commander of the guard.

164. A mounted sentinel may dismount occasionally and lead his
horse, but will not relax his vigilance.


No. 3: To report all violations of orders I am instructed to enforce.

165. A sentinel will ordinarily report a violation of orders
when he is inspected or relieved, but if the case be urgent,
he will call the corporal of the guard, and also, if necessary,
will arrest the offender.


No. 4: To repeat all calls from posts more distant from the
guardhouse than my own.

166. To call the corporal of the guard for any purpose other
than relief, fire, or disorder (pars. 167 and 178), a sentinel
will call, "Corporal of the guard, No. (----)," adding the number
of his post. In no case will any sentinel call, "Never mind the
corporal"; nor will the corporal heed such call if given.


No. 5: To quit my post only when properly relieved.

167. If relief becomes necessary, by reason of sickness or other
cause, a sentinel will call, "Corporal of the guard, No. (----),
Relief," giving the number of his post.

168. Whenever a sentinel is to be relieved, he will halt, and
with arms at a right shoulder, will face toward the relief, when
it is 30 paces from him. He will come to a port arms with the
new sentinel, and in a low tone will transmit to him all the
special orders relating to the post and any other information
which will assist him to better perform his duties.


No. 6: To receive, obey, and pass on to the sentinel who relieves
me, all orders from the commanding officer, officer of the day,
and officers and noncommissioned officers of the guard only.

169. During his tour of duty a soldier is subject to the orders
of the commanding officer, officer of the day, and officers and
noncommissioned officers of the guard only; but any officer is
competent to investigate apparent violations of regulations by
members of the guard.

170. A sentinel will quit his piece on an explicit order from
any person from whom he lawfully receives orders while on post;
under no circumstances will he yield it to any other person. Unless
necessity therefor exists, no person will require a sentinel to
quit his piece, even to allow it to be inspected.

171. A sentinel will not divulge the countersign (pars. 209 to
217) to anyone except the sentinel who relieves him, or to a
person from whom he properly receives orders, on such person's
verbal order given personally. Privates of the guard will not
use the countersign except in the performance of their duties
while posted as sentinels.


No. 7: To talk to no one except in line of duty.

172. When calling for any purpose, challenging, or holding
communication with any person a dismounted sentinel armed with
a rifle or saber will take the position of port arms or saber.
At night a dismounted sentinel armed with a pistol takes the
position of raised pistol in challenging or holding communication.
A mounted sentinel does not ordinarily draw his weapon in the
daytime when challenging or holding conversation; but if drawn, he
holds it at advance rifle, raise pistol, or port saber, according
as he is armed with a rifle, pistol, or saber. At night in
challenging and holding conversation his weapon is drawn and
held as just prescribed, depending on whether he is armed with
a rifle, pistol, or saber.


No. 8: In case of fire or disorder to give the alarm.

173. In case of fire, a sentinel will call, "Fire, No. (----),"
adding the number of his post; if possible, he will extinguish
the fire himself. In case of disorder he will call, "The Guard,
No. (----)," adding the number of his post. If the danger be
great, he will in either case discharge his piece before calling.


No. 11: To salute all officers and all colors and standards not
cased.

174. When not engaged in the performance of a specific duty,
the proper execution of which would prevent it, a member of the
guard will salute all officers who pass him. This rule applies
at all hours of the day or night, except in the case of mounted
sentinels armed with a rifle or pistol, or dismounted sentinels
armed with a pistol, after challenging. (See par. 181.)

175. Sentinels will salute as follows: A dismounted sentinel armed
with a rifle or saber, salutes by presenting arms; if otherwise
armed, he salutes with the right hand.

A mounted sentinel, if armed with a saber and the saber be drawn,
salutes by presenting saber; otherwise he salutes in all cases
with the right hand.

176. To salute, a dismounted sentinel, with piece at a right
shoulder or saber at a carry, halts and faces toward the person
to be saluted when the latter arrives within 30 paces.

The limit within which individuals and insignia of rank can be
readily recognized is assumed to be about 30 paces, and therefore
at this distance cognizance is taken of the person or party to
be saluted.

177. The salute is rendered at six paces; if the person to be
saluted does not arrive within that distance, then when he is
nearest.

178. A sentinel in a sentry box, armed with a rifle, stands at
attention in the doorway on the approach of a person or party
entitled to salute, and salutes by presenting arms according
to the foregoing rules.

If armed with a saber, he stands at a carry and salutes as before.

179. A mounted sentinel on a regular post, halts, faces, and
salutes in accordance with the foregoing rules. If doing patrol
duty, he salutes, but does not halt unless spoken to.

180. Sentinels salute, in accordance with the foregoing rules,
all persons and parties entitled to compliments from the guards
(pars. 224, 227, and 228); officers of the Army, Navy, and Marine
Corps; military and naval officers of foreign powers; officers
of volunteers and militia officers when in uniform.

181. A sentinel salutes as just prescribed when an officer comes
on his post; if the officer holds communication with the sentinel,
the sentinel again salutes when the officer leaves him.

During the hours when challenging is prescribed, the first salute
is given as soon as the officer has been duly recognized and
advanced. A mounted sentinel armed with a rifle or pistol, or a
dismounted sentinel armed with a pistol, does not salute after
challenging.

He stands at advance rifle or raise pistol until the officer passes.

182. In case of the approach of an armed party of the guard, the
sentinel will halt when it is about 30 paces from him, facing
toward the party with his piece at the right shoulder. If not
himself relieved, he will, as the party passes, place himself
so that the party will pass in front of him; he resumes walking
his post when the party has reached six paces beyond him.

183. An officer is entitled to the compliments prescribed, whether
in uniform or not.

184. A sentinel in communication with an officer will not interrupt
the conversation to salute. In the case of seniors the officer
will salute, whereupon the sentinel will salute.

185. When the flag is being lowered at retreat, a sentinel on
post and in view of the flag will face the flag, and, at the
first note of the Star Spangled Banner or to the color will come
to a present arms. At the sounding of the last note he will resume
walking his post.


No. 12: To be especially watchful at night and during the time
for challenging, to challenge all persons on or near my post,
and to allow no one to pass without proper authority.

186. During challenging hours, it a sentinel sees any person
or party on or near his post, he will advance rapidly along his
post toward such person or party and when within about 30 yards
will challenge sharply, "Halt, Who is there!" He will place himself
in the best possible position to receive or, if necessary, to
arrest the person or party.

187. In case a mounted party be challenged, the sentinel will
call, "Halt, Dismount. Who is there?"

188. The sentinel will permit only one of any party to approach
him for the purpose of giving the countersign (pars. 209 to 217),
or, if no countersign be used, of being duly recognized. When
this is done the whole party is advanced, i. e., allowed to pass.

189. In all cases the sentinel must satisfy himself beyond a
reasonable doubt that the parties are what they represent themselves
to be and have a right to pass. If he is not satisfied, he must cause
them to stand and call the corporal of the guard. So, likewise, if
he have no authority to pass persons with the countersign, or
when the party has not the countersign, or gives all incorrect
one.

190. A sentinel will not permit any person to approach so close
as to prevent the proper use of his own weapon before recognizing
the person or receiving the countersign.

191. When two or more persons approach in one party, the sentinel,
on receiving an answer that indicates that some one in the party
has the countersign, will say, "Advance one with the countersign,"
and, if the countersign is given correctly, will then say, "Advance
(so-and-so)," repeating the answer to his challenge. Thus it the
answer be "Relief (friend with the countersign, patrol, etc.),"
the sentinel will say, "Advance one with the countersign"; then
"Advance, relief (friends, patrol, etc.)."

192. If a person having the countersign approach alone, he advanced
to give the countersign. Thus if the answer be "Friend with the
countersign (or officer of the day, or etc.)." the sentinel will
say, "Advance, friend (or officer of the day, or etc.) with the
countersign"; then "Advance, friend (or officer of the day, or
etc.)."

193. If two or more persons approach a sentinel's post from different
directions at the same time, all such persons are challenged in
turn and required to halt and to remain halted until advanced.

The senior is first advanced, in accordance with the foregoing
rules.

194. If a party is already advanced and in communication with
a sentinel, the latter will challenge any other party that may
approach; if the party challenged be senior to the one already
on his post, the sentinel will advance the new party at once. The
senior may allow him to advance any or all of the other parties;
otherwise the sentinel will not advance any of them until the
senior leaves him. He will then advance the senior only of the
remaining parties, and so on.

195. The following order of rank will govern a sentinel in advancing
different persons or parties approaching his post: Commanding
officers, officer of the day, officer of the guard, officers,
patrols, reliefs, noncommissioned officers of the guard in order
of rank, friends.

196. A sentinel will never allow himself to be surprised, nor
permit two parties to advance upon him at the same time.

197. If no countersign be used, the rules for challenging are the
same. The rules for advancing parties are modified only as follows:
Instead of saying "Advance (so-and-so) with the countersign,"
the sentinel will say; "Advance (so-and-so) to be recognized."
Upon recognition he will say, "Advance (so-and-so)."

198. Answers to a sentinel's challenge intended to confuse or
mislead him are prohibited, but the use of such an answer as
"Friends with the countersign," is not to be understood as
misleading, but as the usual answer made by officers, patrol,
etc., when the purpose of their visit makes it desirable that
their official capacity should not be announced.


SPECIAL ORDERS FOR SENTINELS AT THE POST OF THE GUARD.

199. Sentinels posted at the guard will be required to memorize
the following:

Between reveille and retreat to turn out the guard for all persons
designated by the commanding officer, for all colors or standards
not cased, and in time of war for all armed parties approaching
my post, except troops at drill and reliefs and detachments of
the guard.

At night after challenging any person or party, to advance no
one but call the corporal of the guard, repeating the answer
to the challenge.

200. After receiving an answer to his challenge, the sentinel
calls, "Corporal of the guard (so and so)," repeating the answer
to the challenge.

He does not in such cases repeat the number of his post.

201. He remains in the position assumed in challenging until
the corporal has recognized or advanced the person or party
challenged, when he resumes walking his post, or, if the person
or party he entitled thereto, he salutes and, as soon as the
salute has been acknowledged, resumes walking his post.

202. The sentinel at the post of the guard will be notified by
direction of the commanding officer of the presence in camp or
garrison of persons entitled to the compliment. (Par. 224.)

203. The following examples illustrate the manner in which the
sentinel at the post of the guard will turn out the guard upon the
approach of persons or parties entitled to the compliment (pars.
224, 227, and 228), "Turn out the guard, commanding officer"; "Turn
out the guard, governor of a Territory"; "Turn out the guard,
national colors"; "Turn out the guard, armed party"; etc.

At the approach of the new guard at guard mounting the sentinel
will call, "Turn out the guard, armed party."

204. Should the person named by the sentinel not desire the guard
formed, he will salute, whereupon the sentinel will call "Never
mind the guard."

205. After having culled "Turn out the guard," the sentinel will
never call "Never mind the guard," on the approach of an armed
party.

206. Though the guard be already formed he will not fail to call,
"Turn out the guard," as required in his special orders, except
that the guard will not be turned out for any person while his
senior is at or coming to the post of the guard.

207. The sentinels at the post of the guard will warn the commander
of the approach of any armed body and of the presence in the
vicinity of all suspicious or disorderly persons.

208. In case of fire or disorder in sight or hearing, the sentinel
at the guardhouse will call the corporal of the guard and report
the facts to him.


SECTION 11. COUNTERSIGNS AND PAROLES.

209. _Seventy-seventh_article_of_war_.--Any person subject
to military law who makes known the parole or countersign to any
person not entitled to receive it according to the rules and
discipline of war, or gives a parole or countersign different
from that which he received, shall, if the offense be committed
in time of war, suffer death or such other punishment as a
court-martial may direct. (See par. 171.)

210. The COUNTERSIGN is a word given daily from the principal
headquarters of a command to aid guards and sentinels in identifying
persons who may be authorized to pass at night.

It is given to such persons as may be authorized to pass and
repass sentinels' posts during the night, and to officers,
noncommissioned officers, and sentinels of the guard.

211. The PAROLE is a word used as a check on the countersign
in order to obtain more accurate identification of persons. It
is imparted only to those who are entitled to inspect guards
and to commanders of guards.

The parole or countersign, or both, are sent sealed in the form
of an order to those entitled to them.

212. When the commander of the guard demands the parole, he will
advance and receive it as the corporal receives the countersign.
(See par. 133.)

213. As the communications containing the parole and countersign
must at times be distributed by many orderlies, the parole intrusted
to many officers, and the countersign and parole to many officers
and sentinels, and as both the countersign and parole must, for
large commands, be prepared several days in advance, there is
always danger of their being lost or becoming known to persons
who would make improper use of them; moreover, a sentinel is
too apt to take it for granted that any person who gives the
right countersign is what he represents himself to be; hence for
outpost duty there is greater security in omitting the use of
the countersign and parole, or in using them with great caution.
The chief reliance should be upon personal recognition or
identification of all persons claiming authority to pass.

Persons whose sole means of identification is the countersign, or
concerning whose authority to pass there is a reasonable doubt,
should not be allowed to pass without the authority of the corporal
of the guard after proper investigation; the corporal will take
to his next superior any person about whom he is not competent
to decide.

214. The COUNTERSIGN is usually the name of a battle; the PAROLE,
that of a general or other distinguished person.

215. When they can not be communicated daily, a series of words
for some days in advance may be sent to posts or detachments that
are to use the same parole or countersign as the main body.

216. If the countersign be lost, or if a member of the guard
deserts with it, the commander on the spot will substitute another
for it and report the case at once to headquarters.

217. In addition to the countersign, use may be made of pre-concerted
signals, such as striking the rifle with the hand or striking the
hands together a certain number of times as agreed upon. Such
signals may be used only by guards that occupy exposed points.

They are used before the countersign is given and must not be
communicated to anyone not entitled to know the countersign.
Their use is intended to prevent the surprise of a sentinel.

In the daytime signals such as raising a cap or a handkerchief
in a prearranged manner may be used by sentinels to communicate
with the guard or with each other.


SECTION 12. GUARD PATROLS.

218. A guard patrol consists of one or more men detailed for the
performance of some special service connected with guard duty.

219. If the patrol be required to go beyond the chain of sentinels,
the officer or noncommissioned officer in charge will be furnished
with the countersign and the outposts and sentinels warned.

220. If challenged by a sentinel, the patrol is halted by its
commander, and the noncommissioned officer accompanying it advances
alone and gives the countersign.


SECTION 13. WATCHMEN.

221. Enlisted men may be detailed as watchmen or as overseers
over prisoners, and as such will receive their orders and perform
their duties as the commanding officer may direct.


SECTION 14. COMPLIMENTS FROM GUARDS.

222. The compliment from a guard consists in the guard turning
out and presenting arms. (See par. 50.) No compliments will be paid
between retreat and reveille except as provided in paragraphs 361
and 362, nor will any person other than those named in paragraph
224 receive the compliment.

223. Though a guard does not turn out between retreat and reveille
as a matter of compliment it may be turned out for inspection
at any time by a person entitled to inspect it.

224. Between reveille and retreat, the following persons are
entitled to the compliment: The President; sovereign or chief
magistrate of a foreign country and members of a royal-family;
Vice President: President and President pro tempore of the Senate;
American and foreign ambassadors; members of the Cabinet; Chief
Justice; Speaker of the House of Representatives; committees of
Congress officially visiting a military post; governors within
their respective States and Territories; governors general; Assistant
Secretary of War officially visiting a military post; all general
officers of the Army; general officers of foreign services visiting
a post; naval, marine, volunteer, and militia officers in the
service of the United States and holding the rank of general
officer; American or foreign envoys or ministers; ministers
accredited to the United States; charges d'affaires accredited
to the United States; consuls general accredited to the United
Suites; commanding officer of the post or camp; officer of the
day.

225. The relative rank between officers of the Army and Navy
is as follows: General with admiral, lieutenant general with
vice admiral, major general with rear admiral, brigadier general
with commodore,[13] colonel with captain, lieutenant colonel
with commander, major with lieutenant commander, captain with
lieutenant, first lieutenant with lieutenant (junior grade),
second lieutenant with ensign. (A. R. 12.)

[Footnote 13: The grade of commodore ceased to exist as a grade
on the active list of the Navy of the United States on Mar. 3,
1899. By section 7 of the act of Mar. 3. 1899, the nine junior
rear admirals are authorized to receive the pay and allowances
of a brigadier general of the Army.]

226. Sentinels will not be required to memorize paragraph 224,
and, except in the cases of general officers of the Army, the
commanding officer and the officer of the day will be advised in
each case of the presence in camp or garrison of persons entitled
to the compliment.

227. Guards will turn out and present arms when the national
or regimental colors or standards, not cased, are carried past
by a guard or an armed party. This rule also applies when the
party carrying the colors is at drill. If the drill is conducted
in the vicinity of the guardhouse, the guard will be turned out
when the colors first pass, and not thereafter.

228. In ease the remains of a deceased officer or soldier are
carried past, the guard will turn out and present arms.

229. In time of war all guards will turn out under arms when
armed parties, except troops at drill and reliefs or detachments
of the guard, approach their post. (See par. 53.)

230. The commander of the guard will be notified of the presence
in camp or garrison of all persons entitled to the compliment
except general officers of the Army, the commanding officer,
and the officer of the day. Members of the guard will salute
all persons entitled to the compliment and all officers in the
military or naval service of foreign powers, officers of the
Army, Navy, and Marine Corps, officers of volunteers, and officers
of militia when in uniform.


GENERAL RULES CONCERNING GUARD DUTY.

232. _Eighty-fifth_article_of_war_.-- Any person subject
to military law, except an officer, who is found drunk on duty
shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

233. All material instructions given to a member of the guard
by an officer having authority will be promptly communicated
to the commander of the guard by the officer giving them.

234. Should the guard be formed, soldiers will fall in ranks
under arms. At roll call each man, as his name or number and
relief are called, will answer "Here," and come to an ORDER ARMS.

235. Whenever the guard or a relief is dismissed, each member
not at once required for duty will place his rifle in the arm
racks, if they be provided, and will not remove it therefrom
unless he requires it in the performance of some duty.

236. Without permission from the commander of the guard, members
of the main guard, except orderlies, will not leave the immediate
vicinity of the guardhouse. Permission to leave will not be granted
except in cases of necessity.

237. Members of the main guard, except orderlies, will not remove
their accouterments or clothing without permission from the commander
of the guard. (Par. 66.)


SECTION 15. PRISONERS.

238. Articles of war 69, 70, 71, 72, and 73 have special reference
to the confinement of prisoners and should be carefully borne
in mind.

239. The commander of the guard will place a civilian in confinement
on an order from higher authority only, unless such civilian is
arrested while in the act of committing some crime within the
limits of the military jurisdiction, in which case the commanding
officer will be immediately notified.

240. Except as provided in the sixty-eighth article of war, or
when restraint is necessary, no soldier will be confined without
the order of an officer, who shall previously inquire into his
offense. (A. R. 930.)

241. An officer ordering a soldier into confinement will send,
as soon as practicable, a written statement, signed by himself,
to the commander of the guard, setting forth the name, company,
and regiment of such soldier, and a brief statement of the alleged
offense. It is a sufficient statement of the offense to give the
number and article of war under which the soldier is charged.

242. A prisoner, after his first day of confinement, and until
his sentence has been duly promulgated, is considered as held
in confinement by the commanding officer. After due promulgation
of his sentence, the prisoner is held in confinement by authority
of the officer who reviews the proceedings of the court awarding
sentence. The commander of the guard will state in his report, in
the proper place, the name of the officer by whom the prisoner
was originally confined.

243. Enlisted men against whom charges have been preferred will
be designated as "awaiting trial"; enlisted men who have been
tried will, prior to the promulgation of the result, be designated
as "awaiting result of trial"; enlisted men serving sentences
of confinement not involving dishonorable discharge, will be
designated as "garrison prisoners." Persons sentenced to dismissal
or dishonorable discharge and to terms of confinement at military
posts or elsewhere will be designated as "general prisoners."
(A. R. 928.)

244. The sentences of prisoners will be read to them when the
order promulgating the same is received. The officer of the guard,
or the officer of the day if there be no officer of the guard, will
lead them unless the commanding officer shall direct otherwise.

245. When the date for the commencement of a term of confinement
imposed by sentence of a court-martial is not expressly fixed
by sentence, the term of confinement begins on the date of the
officer promulgating it. The sentence is continuous until the
term expires, except when the person sentenced is absent without
authority. (A. R. 969.)

246. When soldiers awaiting trial or the result of trial, or
undergoing sentence commit offenses for which they are tried,
the second sentence will be executed upon the expiration of the
first.

247. Prisoners awaiting trial by, or undergoing sentence of, a
general court-martial and those confined for serious offenses
will be kept apart, when practicable, from those confined by
sentence of an inferior court or for minor offenses. Enlisted
men in confinement for minor offenses, or awaiting trial or the
result of trial for the same, will ordinarily be sent to work
under charge of unarmed overseers instead of armed sentinels
and will be required attend drills unless the commanding officer
shall direct otherwise.

248. Prisoners, other than general prisoners, will be furnished
with food from their respective companies or from the organizations
to which they may be temporarily attached.

The food of prisoners will, when practicable, be sent to their
places of confinement, but post commanders may arrange to send
the prisoners, under proper guard, to their messes for meals.

When there is no special mess for general prisoners, they will
be attached for rations to companies.

Enlisted men bringing meals for the prisoners will not be allowed
to enter the prison room. (See par. 289.)

249. With the exception of those specially designated by the
commanding officer, no prisoners will be allowed to leave the
guardhouse unless under charge of a sentinel and passed by an
officer or noncommissioned officer of the guard. The commanding
officer may authorize certain garrison prisoners and paroled
general prisoners to leave the guardhouse, not under the charge
of a sentinel, for the purpose of working outside under such
surveillance and restrictions as he may impose.

250. Prisoners reporting themselves sick at sick cull, or at
the time designated by the commanding officer, will be sent to
the hospital under charge of proper guard, with a sick report
kept for the purpose. The recommendation of the surgeon will
be entered in the guard report.

251. The security of sick prisoners in the hospital devolves
upon the post surgeon, who will, if necessary, apply to the post
commander for a guard.

252. Prisoners will be paraded with the guard only when directed
by the commanding officer or the officer of the day.

253. A prisoner under charge of a sentinel will not salute an
officer.

254. All serviceable clothing which belongs to a prisoner, and
his blankets, will accompany him to the post designated for his
confinement, and will be fully itemized on the clothing list
sent to that post. The guard in charge of the prisoner during
transfer will be furnished with a duplicate of this list, and
will be held responsible for the delivery of all articles itemized
therein with the prisoner. At least one serviceable woolen blanket
will be sent with every such prisoner so transferred. (A.R. 939.)

255. When mattresses are not supplied, each prisoner in the
guardhouse will be allowed a bed sack and 30 pounds of straw
per month for bedding. So far as practicable iron bunks will be
furnished to all prisoners in post guardhouses and prison room.
(A. R. 1084.)

256. If the number of prisoners, including general prisoners,
confined at a post justifies it, the commanding officer will
detail a commissioned officer as "officer in charge of prisoners."
At posts where the average number of prisoners continually in
confinement is less than 12, the detail of an officer in charge
of prisoners will not be made.


SECTION 16. GUARDING PRISONERS.

299. The sentinel at the post of the guard has charge of the
prisoners except when they have been turned over to the prisoner
guard or overseers. (Pars. 247 and 300 to 304.)

(a) He will allow none to escape.

(b) He will allow none to cross his post leaving the guardhouse
except when passed by an officer or noncommissioned officer of
the guard.

(c) He will allow no one to communicate with prisoners without
permission from proper authority.

(d) He will promptly report to the corporal of the guard any
suspicious noise made by the prisoners.

(e) He will be prepared to tell, whenever asked, how many prisoners
are in the guardhouse and how many are out at work or elsewhere.

Whenever prisoners are brought to his post returning from work
or elsewhere, he will halt them and call the corporal of the
guard, notifying him of the number of prisoners returning. Thus:
"Corporal of the guard, (so many). Prisoners."

He will not allow prisoners to pass into the guardhouse until
the corporal of the guard has responded to the call and ordered
him to do so.

300. Whenever practicable, special guards will be detailed for
the particular duty of guarding working parties composed of such
prisoners as can not be placed under overseers. (Par. 247.)

301. The prisoner guard and overseers will be commanded by the
police officer; if there be no police officer, then by the officer
of the day.

302. The provost sergeant is sergeant of the prisoner guard and
overseers, and as such receives orders from the commanding officer
and the commander of the prisoner guard only.

303. Details for prisoner guard are marched to the guardhouse and
mounted by being inspected by the commander of the main guard,
who determines whether all of the men are in proper condition
to perform their duties and whether their arms and equipments
are in proper condition, and rejects any men found unfit.

304. When prisoners have been turned over to the prisoner guard
or overseers, such guards or overseers are responsible for them
under their commander, and all responsibility and control of the
main guard ceases until they are returned to the main guard.
(Par. 306.)

305. It a prisoner attempts to escape, the sentinel will call
"Halt." If he fails to halt when the sentinel has once repeated
his call, and if there be no other possible means of preventing
his escape, the sentinel will fire upon him.

The following will more fully explain the important duties of
a sentinel in this connection:

(Circular.)                      WAR DEPARTMENT.
                           ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE,
                           _Washington,_November_1,_1887._

By direction of the Secretary of War, the following is published
for the information of the Army:

UNITED STATES CIRCUIT COURT, EASTERN DISTRICT OF MICHIGAN, AUGUST
1, 1887.

THE UNITED STATES V. JAMES CLARK.

The circuit court has jurisdiction of a homicide committed by
one soldier upon another within a military reservation of the
United States.

If a homicide be committed by a military guard without malice
and in the performance of his supposed duty as a soldier, such
homicide is excusable, unless it was manifestly beyond the scope
of his authority or was such that a man of ordinary sense and
understanding would know that it was illegal.

It seems that the sergeant of the guard has a right to shoot a
military convict if there be no other possible means of preventing
his escape.

The common-law distinction between felonies and misdemeanors has
no application to military offenses.

While the finding of a court of inquiry acquitting the prisoner
of all blame is not a legal bar to a prosecution, it is entitled
to weight as an expression of the views of the military court
of the necessity of using a musket to prevent the escape of the
deceased.

       *       *       *       *       *

By order of the Secretary of War:
                               R. C. DRUM, _Adjutant_General._

The following is taken from Circular No. 3, of 1883, from
Headquarters Department of the Columbia:

                  VANCOUVER BARRACKS, W. T., _April_20,_1883_.

To the ASSISTANT ADJUTANT GENERAL,
                    _Department_of_the_Columbia._

SIR:

       *       *       *       *       *

A sentinel is placed as guard over prisoners to prevent their
escape, and, for this purpose, he is furnished a musket, with
ammunition. To prevent escape is his first and most important
duty.

       *       *       *       *       *

I suppose the law to be this: That a sentinel shall not use more
force or violence to prevent the escape of a prisoner than is
necessary to effect that object, but if the prisoner, after being
ordered to halt, continues his flight the sentinel may maim or
even kill him, and it is his duty to do so.

A sentinel who allows a prisoner to escape without firing upon
him, and firing to hit him, is, in my judgment, guilty of a most
serious military offense, for which he should and would be severely
punished by a general court-martial.

       *       *       *       *       *

                    (Signed) HENRY A. MORROW,
            _Colonel_Twenty-first_Infantry,_Commanding_Post._

[Third indorsement.]

                                     OFFICE JUDGE ADVOCATE,
                              MILITARY DIVISION OF THE PACIFIC,
                                             _May_11,_1883._

Respectfully returned to the assistant adjutant general, Military
Division of the Pacific, concurring fully in the views expressed
by Col. Morrow. I was not aware that such a view had ever been
questioned. That the period is a time of peace does not affect
the authority and duty of the sentinel or guard to fire upon the
escaping prisoner, if this escape can not otherwise be prevented.
He should, of course, attempt to stop the prisoner before firing
by ordering him to halt, and will properly warn him by the words
"Halt, or I fire," or words to such effect.

                             W. WINTHROP, _Judge_Advocate_.

[Fourth indorsement.]

                 HEADQUARTERS MILITARY DIVISION OF THE PACIFIC,
                                               _May_11,_1883._

Respectfully returned to the commanding general, Department of
the Columbia, approving the opinion of the commanding officer,
Twenty-first Infantry, and of the judge advocate of the division,
in respect to the duty of and method to be adopted by sentinels
in preventing prisoners from escaping.

       *       *       *       *       *

By command of Maj. Gen. Schofield:
                                               J. C. KELTON,
                                  _Assistant_Adjutant_General._

See also Circular No. 53, A. G. O., December 22, 1900.

306. On approaching the post of the sentinel at the guardhouse,
a sentinel of the prisoner guard or an overseer in charge of
prisoners will halt them and call, "No. 1, (so many) prisoners."
He will not allow them to cross the post of the sentinel until
so directed by the corporal of the guard.

307. Members of the prisoner guard and overseers placed over
prisoners for work will receive specific and explicit instructions
covering the required work; they will be held strictly responsible
that the prisoners under their care properly and satisfactorily
perform the designated work.


SECTION 17. FLAGS.

337. The garrison, post, and storm flags are national flags and
shall be of bunting. The union of such is as described in paragraph
216, Army Regulations, and shall be of the following proportions:
Width, seven-thirteenths of the hoist of the flag; length,
seventy-six one-hundredths of the hoist of the flag.

The garrison flag will have 38 feet fly and 20 feet hoist. It
will be furnished only to posts designated in orders from time
to time from the War Department, and will be hoisted only on
holidays and important occasions.

The post flag will have 19 feet fly and 10 feet hoist. It will be
furnished for all garrison posts and will be hoisted in pleasant
weather.

The storm flag will have 9 feet 6 inches fly and 5 feet hoist.
It will be furnished for all occupied posts for use in stormy and
windy weather. It will also be furnished to national cemeteries.
(A. R. 223.)

338. At every military post or station the flag will be hoisted
at the sounding of the first note of the reveille, or of the first
note of the march, if a march be played before the reveille. The
flag will be lowered at the sounding of the last note of the
retreat, and while the flag is being lowered the band will play
"The Star Spangled Banner," or, if there be no band present,
the field music will sound "to the color." When "to the color"
is sounded by the field music while the flag is being lowered
the same respect will be observed as when "The Star-Spangled
Banner" is played by the band, and in either case officers and
enlisted men out of ranks will face toward the flag, stand at
attention, and render the prescribed salute at the last note
of the music. (A: R. 437.)

The lowering of the flag will be so regulated as to be completed
at the last note of "The Star-Spangled Banner" or "to the color."

339. The national flag will be displayed at a seacoast or lake
fort at the beginning of and during an action in which a fort
may be engaged, whether by day or by night. (A. R. 437.)

340. The national flag will always be displayed at the time of
firing a salute. (A. R. 397.)

341. The flag of a military post will not be dipped by way of
salute or compliment. (A. R. 405.)

342. On the death of an officer at a military post the flag is
displayed at halfstaff and so remains between reveille and retreat
until the last salvo or volley is fired over the grave; or if
the remains are not interred at the post until they are removed
therefrom. (A. R. 422.)

343. During the funeral of all enlisted man at a military post
the flag is displayed at halfstaff. It is hoisted to the top
after the final volley or gun is fired or after the remains are
taken from the post. The same honors are paid on the occasion
of the funeral of a retired enlisted man. (A. R. 423.)

344. When practicable, a detail consisting of a noncommissioned
officer and two privates of the guard will raise or lower the
flag. This detail wears side arms or if the special equipments
do not include side arms then belts only.

The noncommissioned officer, carrying the flag, forms the detail
in line, takes his post in the center and marches it to the staff.
The flag is then securely attached to the halyards and rapidly
hoisted. The halyards are then securely fastened to the cleat
on the staff and the detail marched to the guardhouse.

345. When the flag is to be lowered, the halyards are loosened
from the staff and made perfectly free. At retreat the flag is
lowered at the last note of retreat. It is then neatly folded
and the halyards made fast. The detail is then re-formed and
marched to the guardhouse, where the flag is turned over to the
commander of the guard.

The flag should never be allowed to touch the ground and should
always be hoisted or lowered from the leeward side of the staff,
the halyards being held by two persons.


SECTION 18. REVEILLE AND RETREAT GUN.

346. The morning and evening gun will be fired by a detachment
of the guard, consisting, when practicable, of a corporal and two
privates. The morning gun is fired at the first note of reveille,
or, if marches be played before the reveille, it is fired at the
beginning of the first march. The retreat gun is fired at the
last note of retreat.

The corporal marches the detachment to and from the piece, which
is fired, sponged out, find secured under his direction.


SECTION 19. GUARD MOUNTING.

347. Guard mounting will be formal or informal as the commanding
officer may direct. It will be held as prescribed in the drill
regulations of the arm of the service to which the guard belongs.
If none is prescribed, then as for infantry. In case the guard
is composed wholly of mounted organizations, guard mounting may
be held mounted.

348. When infantry and mounted troops dismounted are united for
guard mounting, all details form as prescribed for infantry.


SECTION 20. FORMAL GUARD MOUNTING FOR INFANTRY.

349. Formal guard mounting will ordinarily be held only in posts
or camps where a band is present.

350. At the assembly, the men designated for the guard fall in
on their company parade grounds as prescribed in paragraph 106,
I. D. R. The first sergeant then verifies the detail, inspects
it, replaces any man unfit to go on guard, turns the detail over
to the senior noncommissioned officer, and retires. The band
takes its place on the parade ground so that the left of its
front rank shall be 12 paces to the right of the front rank of
the guard when the latter is formed.

351. At adjutant's call, the adjutant, dismounted and the sergeant
major on his left, marches to the parade ground. The adjutant
halts and takes post so as to be 12 paces in front of and facing
the center of the guard when formed; the sergeant major continues
on, moves by the left flank and takes post facing to the left,
12 paces to the left of the front rank of the hand; the band
plays in quick or double time; the details are marched to the
parade ground by the senior noncommissioned officers; the detail
that arrives first is marched to the line so that, upon halting,
the breast of the front rank men shall be near to and opposite
the left arm of the sergeant major; the commander of the detail
halts his detail, places himself in front of and facing the sergeant
major, at a distance equal to or a little greater than the front
of his detail, and commands: 1. _Right_, 2. DRESS. The detail
dresses up to the line of the sergeant major and its commander,
the right front rank man placing his breast against the left arm
of the sergeant major; the noncommissioned officers take post
two paces in rear of the rear rank of the detail. The detail
aligned, the commander of the detail commands: FRONT, salutes, and
then reports; "The detail is correct," or "(So many) sergeants,
corporals, or privates are absent"; the sergeant major returns
the salute with the right hand after the report is made. The
commander then passes by the right of the guard and takes post
in the line of noncommissioned officers in rear of the right
file of his detail.

Should there be more than one detail, it is formed in like manner
on the left of the one preceding. The privates, noncommissioned
officers, and commander of each detail dress on those of the
preceding details in the same rank or line. Each detail commander
closes the rear rank to the right and fills blank files as far
as practicable with the men from his front rank.

Should the guard from a company not include a noncommissioned
officer, one will be detailed to perform the duties of commander
of the detail. In this case the commander of the detail, after
reporting to the sergeant major, passes around the right flank
between the guard and the band and retires.

352. When the last detail has formed, the sergeant major takes a
side step to the right, draws sword, verifies the detail, takes
post two paces to the right and two paces to the front of the
guard, facing to the left, causes the guard to count off, completes
the left squad, if necessary, as in the School of the Company,
and if there be more than three squads, divides the guard into
two platoons, again takes post as described above and commands:
1. _Open_ranks_, 2. MARCH.

At the command march, the rear rank and file closers march backward
four steps, halt, and dress to the right. The sergeant major aligns
the ranks and file closers and again taking post as described
above, commands: FRONT, moves parallel to the front rank until
opposite the center, turns to the right, halts midway to the
adjutant, salutes and reports: "Sir, the details are correct,"
or "Sir, (so many) sergeants, corporals, or privates are absent";
the adjutant returns the salute, directs the sergeant major:
Take your post, and then draws saber; the sergeant major faces
about, approaches to within two paces of the center of the front
rank, turns to the right, moves three paces beyond the left of
the front rank, turns to the left, halts on the line of the front
rank, faces about, and brings his sword to the order. When the
sergeant major has reported the officer of the guard takes post,
facing to the front three paces in front of the center of the
guard, and draws saber.

The adjutant then commands: 1. _Officer_(or_officer)_and_
_noncommissioned_officers_, 2. _Front_and_center_, 3. MARCH.

At the command center, the officers carry saber. At the command
MARCH, the officer advances and halts three paces from the adjutant,
remaining at the carry; the noncommissioned officers pass by the
flanks, along the front, and form in order of rank from right to
left, three paces in rear of the officer, remaining at the right
shoulder; if there is no officer of the guard the noncommissioned
officers halt on a line three paces from the adjutant; the adjutant
then assigns the officers and noncommissioned officers according
to rank, as follows: Commander of the guard, leader of first
platoon, leader of second platoon, right guide of first platoon,
left guide of second platoon, left guide of first platoon, right
guide of second platoon, and file closers, or, if the guard is
not divided into platoons: Commander of the guard, right guide,
left guide, and file closers.

The adjutant then commands: 1. _Officer_(or_officers)_and_
_noncommissioned_officers_, 2. POSTS, 3. MARCH.

At the command posts, all, except the officer commanding the
guard, face about. At the command MARCH, they take the posts
presented in the school of the company with open ranks. The adjutant
directs: Inspect your guard, sir; at which the officer commanding
the guard faces about, commands: Prepare for inspection, returns
saber and inspects the guard.

During the inspection the band plays; the adjutant returns saber,
observes the general condition of the guard, and falls out any
man who is unfit for guard duty or does not present a creditable
appearance. Substitutes will report to the commander of the guard
at the guardhouse.

353. The adjutant, when so directed, selects orderlies and color
sentinels, as prescribed in paragraphs 140 and 141, and notifies
the commander of the guard of his selection.

354. If there be a junior officer of the guard he takes post at
the same time as the senior, facing to the front, three paces
in front of the center of the first platoon; in going to the
front and center he follows and takes position on the left of
the senior and is assigned as lender of the first platoon; he may
be directed by the commander of the guard to assist in inspecting
the guard.

If there be no officer of the guard, the adjutant inspects the
guard. A noncommissioned officer commanding the guard takes post
on the right of the right guide when the guard is in line, and
takes the post of the officer of the guard when in column or
passing in review.

355. The inspection ended, the adjutant faces himself about thirty
paces in front of and facing the center of the guard and draws
saber; the new officer of the day takes post in front of and
facing the guard, about thirty paces from the adjutant; the old
officer of the day takes post three paces to the right of and
one pace to the rear of the new officer of the day; the officer
of the guard takes post three paces in front of its center, draws
saber with the adjutant, and comes to the order; thereafter he
takes the same relative position as a captain of a company.

The adjutant then commands: 1. _Parade_, 2. REST, 3. SOUND
OFF, and comes to the order and parade rest.

The band, playing, passes in front of the officer of the guard
to the left of the line and back to its post on the right, when
it ceases playing.

The adjutant then comes to attention, carries saber and commands:
1. _Guard_, 2. ATTENTION, 3. _Close_ranks_, 4. MARCH.

The ranks are opened and closed as in paragraph 745, I. D. R.

The adjutant then commands: 1. _Present_, 2. ARMS, faces
toward the new officer of the day, salutes, and then reports:
Sir, the guard is formed. The new officer of the day, after the
adjutant has reported, returns the salute with the hand and directs
the adjutant: March the guard in review, sir.

The adjutant caries saber, faces about, brings the guard to an
order, and commands: 1. _At_trail,_platoons_(or_guard)_right_,
2. MARCH, 3. _Guard_, 4. HALT.

The platoons execute the movement; the band turns to the right
and places itself 12 paces in front of the first platoon.

The adjutant places himself six paces from the flank and abreast
of the commander of the guard; the sergeant major six paces from
the left flank of the second platoon.

The adjutant then commands: 1. _Pass_in_review_, 2. FORWARD,
3. MARCH.

The guard marches in quick time past the officer of the day,
according to the principles of review, and is brought to eyes right
at the proper time by the commander of the guard; the adjutant,
commander of the guard, leaders of platoons, sergeant major, and
drum major salute.

The band, having passed the officer of the day, turns to the
left of the column, places itself opposite and facing him, and
continues to play until the guard leaves the parade ground. The
field music detaches itself from the band when the latter turns
out of the column, and, remaining in front of the guard, commences
to play when the band ceases.

Having passed 12 paces beyond the officer of the day, the adjutant
halts; the sergeant major halts abreast of the adjutant and 1
pace to his left; they then return saber, salute, and retire;
the commander of the guard then commands: 1. _Platoons,_right_
_by_squads_, 2. MARCH, and marches the guard to its post.

The officers of the day face toward each other and salute; the
old officer of the day turns over the orders to the new officer
of the day.

While the band is sounding off, and while the guard is marching
in review, the officers of the day stand at parade rest with
arms folded. They take this position when the adjutant comes
to parade rest, resume the attention with him, again take the
parade rest at the first note of the march in review, and resume
attention as the head of the column approaches.

The new officer of the day returns the salute of the commander
of the guard and the adjutant, making one salute with the hand.

356. If the guard be not divided into platoons, the adjutant
commands: 1. _At_trail,_guard_right_, 2. MARCH, 3. _Guard_,
4. HALT, and it passes in review as above; the commander of the
guard is 3 paces in front of its center; the adjutant places
himself 6 paces front the left flank and abreast of the commander
of the guard; the sergeant covers the adjutant on a line with
the front rank.


SECTION 21. INFORMAL GUARD MOUNTING FOR INFANTRY.

357. Informal guard mounting will be held on the parade ground
of the organization from which the guard is detailed. If it is
detailed from more than one organization, then at such place
as the commanding officer may direct.

358. At assembly, the detail for guard falls in on the company
parade ground. The first sergeant verifies the detail, inspects
their dress and general appearance, and replaces any man unfit
to march on guard. He then turns the detail over to the commander
of the guard and retires.

359. At adjutant's call, the officer of the day takes his place
15 paces in front of the center of the guard and commands: 1.
_Officer_(or_officers)_and_noncommissioned_officers_, 2.
_Front_and_center_, 3. MARCH; whereupon the officers and
noncommissioned officers take their positions, are assigned and
sent to their posts as prescribed in formal guard mounting. (Par.
352.)

The officer of the day will then inspect the guard with especial
reference for its fitness for the duty for which it is detailed
and will select, as prescribed in paragraphs 140 and 141, the
necessary orderlies and color sentinels. The men found unfit
for guard will be returned to quarters and will be replaced by
others found to be suitable, if available in the company. If
none are available in the company the fact will be reported to
the adjutant immediately after guard mounting.

When the inspection shall have been completed the officer of
the day resumes his position and directs the commander of the
guard to march the guard to its post.


SECTION 22. RELIEVING THE OLD GUARD.

360. As the new guard approaches the guardhouse, the old guard
is formed in line, with its field music three paces to its right;
and, when the field music at the head of the new guard arrives
opposite its left, the commander of the new guard commands: 1.
_Eyes_, 2. RIGHT; the commander of the old guard commands:
1. _Present_, 2. ARMS; commanders of both guards salute.
The new guard marches in quick time past the old guard.

When the commander of the new guard is opposite the field music
of the old guard, he commands: FRONT; the commander of the old
guard commands: 1. _Order_, 2. ARMS, as soon as the new
guard shall have cleared the old guard.

The field music having marched three paces beyond the field music
of the old guard, changes direction to the right, and, followed
by the guard, changes direction to the left when on a line with
the old guard; the changes of direction are without command.
The commander of the guard halts on the line of the front rank
of the old guard, allows his guard to march past him, and, when
its rear approaches, forms it in line to the left, establishes
the left guide three paces to the right of the field music of the
old guard, and on a line with the front rank, and then dresses
his guard to the left; the field music of the new guard is three
paces to the right of its front rank.

361. The new guard being dressed the commander of each guard,
in front of and facing its center, commands: 1. _Present_,
2. ARMS, resumes his front, salutes, carries saber, faces his
guard, and commands: 1. _Order_, 2. ARMS.

Should a guard be commanded by a noncommissioned officer, he
stands on the right or left of the front rank, according as he
commands the old or new guard, and executes the rifle salute.

362. After the new guard arrives at its post and has saluted the
old guard, each guard is presented by its commander to its officer
of the day; if there be but one officer of the day present, or
if one officer acts in the capacity of old and new officer of
the day, each guard is presented to him by its commander.

363. If other persons entitled to a salute approach, each commander
of the guard will bring his own guard to attention if not already
at attention. The senior commander of the two guards will then
command: "1. Old and new guards, 2. Present, 3. Arms."

The junior will salute at the command "Present Arms" given by
the senior. After the salute has been acknowledged, the senior
brings both guards to the order.

364. After the salutes have been acknowledged by the officers of
the day, each guard is brought to an order by its commander; the
commander of the new guard then directs the orderly or orderlies
to fall out and report and causes bayonets to be fixed if so
ordered by the commanding officer; bayonets will not then be
unfixed during the tour except in route marches while the guard
is actually marching or when specially directed by the commanding
officer.

The commander of the new guard then falls out members of the
guard for detached posts, placing them under charge of the proper
noncommissioned officers, divides the guard into three reliefs,
first, second, and third, from right to left, and directs a list
of the guard to be made by reliefs. When the guard consists of
troops of different arms combined, the men are assigned to reliefs
so as to insure a fair division of duty under rules prescribed
by the commanding officer.

365. The sentinels and detachments of the old guard are at once
relieved by members of the new guard, the two guards standing at
ease or at rest while these changes are being made. The commander
of the old transmits to the commander of the new guard all his
orders, instructions, and information concerning the guard and
its duties. The commander of the new guard then takes possession
of the guardhouse and verifies the articles in charge of the
guard.

366. If considerable time is required to bring in that portion
of the old guard still on post, the commanding officer may direct
that as soon as the orders and property are turned over to the
new guard the portion of the old guard at the guardhouse may be
marched off and dismissed. In such a case the remaining detachment
or detachments of the old guard will be inspected by the commander
of the new guard when they reach the guardhouse. He will direct the
senior noncommissioned officer present to march these detachments
off and dismiss them in the prescribed manner.

367. In bad weather, at night, after long marches, or when the
guard is very small, the field music may be dispensed with.



CHAPTER X.

MAP READING AND SKETCHING.


SECTION 1. MILITARY MAP READING.

When you pick up a map, the first question is, Where is the north?
This can usually be told by an arrow (see fig. 1, section 1)
which will be found in one of the corners of the map, and which
points to the true north--the north of the north star.

On some maps no arrow is to be found. The chances are a hundred
to one that the north is at the top of the map, as it is on almost
all printed maps. But you can only assure yourself of that fact
by checking the map with the ground it represents. For instance,
if you ascertain that the city of Philadelphia is due east of
the city of Columbus, then the Philadelphia-Columbus line on
the map is a due east-and-west line, and establishes at once all
the other map directions.

Now, the map represents the ground as nearly as it can be represented
on a flat piece of paper. If you are standing up. facing the
north, your right hand will be in the east, your left in the
west, and your back to the south. It is the same with a map;
if you look across it in the direction of the arrow--that is,
toward its north--your right hand will be toward what is east
on the map; your left hand to the west; the south will be at
the bottom of the map.

There is another kind of an arrow that sometimes appears on a
map. It is like the one in figure 2, section 1, and points not
to the true north but to the magnetic north, which is the north
of the compass. Though the compass needle, and therefore the arrow
that represents it on the map, does not point exactly north, the
deviation is, from a military point of view, slight, and appreciable
error will rarely result through the use of the magnetic instead
of the true north in the solution of any military problems.

[Illustration: Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5.]

Should you be curious to know the exact deviation, consult your
local surveyor or any civil engineer.

Both arrows may appear on your map. In that case disregard the
magnetic arrow unless you are using the map in connection with
a compass.

If a map is being used on the ground, the first thing to be done
is to put the lines of the map parallel to the real outlines of
the ground forms, and roads, fences, railroads, etc., that the
map shows; for the making of a map is no more than the drawing
on paper of lines parallel to and proportional in length to real
directions and distances on the ground.

For instance, the road between two places runs due north and south.
Then on the map a line representing the road will be parallel to
the arrow showing the north and will be proportional in length
to the real road. In this way a map is a picture, or, better, a
bare outline sketch; and, as we can make out a picture, though
it be upside down, or crooked on the wall, so we call use a map
that is upside down or not parallel to the real ground forms.
But it is easier to make out both the picture and the map if
their lines are parallel to what they represent. So in using a
map on the ground we always put the lines parallel to the actual
features they show. This is easy if the map has an arrow.

If the map has no arrow, you must locate objects or features on
the ground, and on the map, their representations. Draw on the
map a line connecting any two of the features; place this line
parallel to all imaginary line through the two actual features
located, and your map will be correctly placed. Look to it that
you do not reverse on the map the positions of the two objects
or features, or your map will be exactly upside down.

When the map has been turned into the proper position--that is
to say, "oriented"--the next thing is to locate on the map your
position. If you are in the village of Easton and there is a
place on the map labeled Easton, the answer is apparent. But
if you are out in the country, at an unlabeled point that looks
like any one of a dozen other similar points, the task is more
complicated. In this latter case you must locate and identify,
both on the map and on the ground, other points--hills, villages,
peculiar bends in rivers, forests--any ground features that have
some easily recognizable peculiarity and that you can see from
your position.

Suppose, for instance, you were near Leavenworth and wanted to
locate your exact position, of which you are uncertain. You have
the map shown in this manual, and, looking about, you see southwest
from where you stand the United States Penitentiary; also, halfway
between the south and the southeast--south-southeast a sailor would
say--the reservoir (rectangle west of "O" in "Missouri"). Having
oriented your map, draw on it a line from the map position of the
reservoir toward its actual position on the ground. Similarly
draw a line from the map position of penitentiary toward its
actual position. Prolong the two lines until they intersect.
The intersection of the lines will mark the place where you
stand--south Merritt Hill.

This method consists merely in drawing on the map lines that
represent the lines of sight to known and visible places. The
lines pass through the map position of the places you see and
are parallel to the actual lines of sight; therefore they are the
map representations of the lines of sight, and their intersection
is the map position of the eye of the observer.

After this orientation and location of position, one can deduce
from the map everything there is to know in regard to directions.
In this respect, study of the ground itself will show no more
than will study of the map.

After "What direction?" comes "How far?" To answer this, one
must understand that the map distance between any two points
shown bears a fixed and definite relation or proportion to the
real distance between the two points.

For instance: We measure on a map and find the distance between
two points to be 1 inch. Then we measure the real distance on
the ground and find it to be 10,000 inches; hence the relation
between the map distance and the real distance is 1 to 10,000,
or 1/10000. Now, if the map is properly drawn, the same relation
will hold good for all distances, and we can obtain any ground
distance by multiplying by 10,000 the corresponding map distance.

This relation need not be 1/10000, but may be anything from 1/100
that an architect might use in making a map or plan of a house up
to one over a billion and a half, which is about the proportion
between map and real distances in a pocket-atlas representation of
the whole world on a 6-inch page. Map makers call this relation
the "scale" of the map and put it down in a corner in one of
three ways.

First. 1 inch equals 100.

Second. 1/100.

Third. As shown in figure 3 (section 1).

These expressions mean one and the same thing. A variation of
the first method on a map of different scale might be: 1 inch
equals 1 mile. Since a mile contains 63,360 inches, then the
real distance between any two points shown on the map is 63,360
times the map distance.

To find the ground distance by the third kind of scale, copy it
on the edge of a slip of paper, apply the slip directly to the
map, and read off the distance; and so we answer the question,
"How far?"

After direction and distance comes the interpretation of the
signs, symbols, and abbreviations on the map. Those authorized
are given in section 2 (a reprint of Appendix 4, Field Service
Regulations, 1914); but there are a good many other conventional
signs in common use. A key to them is published by the War
Department, and is called "Conventional Signs, United States
Army." From these you read at once the natural and artificial
features of the country shown on your map. It should be borne in
mind that these conventional signs are not necessarily drawn to
scale, as are the distances. They show the position and outline
of the features rather than the size. This, for the reason that
many of the features shown, if drawn to scale, would be so small
that one could not make them out except with a magnifying glass.
If the exact dimensions are of any importance, they will be written
in figures on the map. For instances, bridges.

In addition to te above conventional signs, we have CONTOURS
to show the elevations, depressions, slope, and shape of the
ground. Abroad, HACHURES are much used, but they serve only to
indicate elevation, and, as compared to contours, are of little
value. Contours resemble the lines shown in figure 4 (section
1)

Hachures are shown in figure 5 (section 1), and may be found on
any European map. They simply show slopes, and, when carefully
drawn, show steeper slopes by heavier shading and gentler slopes
by the fainter hachures. The crest of the mountain is within
the hachures. (See fig. 5, section 1.)

_Contours_.--A certain student, when asked by his instructor
to define "space," said: "I have it, sir, in my head, but can
not put it into words." The Instructor replied: "I suppose that
under those circumstances, Mr. ----, the definition really would
not help much." And so it is with contours--the definition does
not help much if you know a contour when you meet it on a map. For
examples of contours, turn to the map in section 2 and, starting
at the United States penitentiary, note the smooth, flowing,
irregular curved lines marked 880, 860, 840, 840, 860, etc.

The only other lines on the map that at all resemble contours
are stream lines, like "Corral Creek," but the stream lines are
readily distinguished from contours by the fact that they cross the
contours squarely, while the contours run approximately parallel
to each other. Note the stream line just to the west of South
Merritt Hill.

The contours represent lines on the ground that are horizontal
and whose meanderings follow the surface, just as the edge of
a flood would follow the irregularities of the hills about it.
Those lines that contours stand for are just as level as the
water's edge of a lake, but horizontally they wander back and
forth to just as great a degree.

The line marked 880, at the penitentiary, passes through on that
particular piece of ground every point that is 880 feet above
sea level. Should the Missouri River rise in flood to 880 feet,
the penitentiary would be on an island, the edge of which is
marked by the 880 contour.

Contours show several things; among them the height of the ground
they cross. Usually the contour has labeled on it in figures the
height above some starting point, called the DATUM PLANE--generally
sea level. If, with a surveying instrument, you put in on a piece
of ground a lot of stakes, each one of which is exactly the same
height above sea level--that is, run a line of levels--then make
a map showing the locution of the stakes, a line drawn on the
map through all the stake positions is a contour and shows the
position of all points of that particular height.

On any given map all contours are equally spaced in a vertical
direction, and the map shows the location of a great number of
points at certain fixed levels. If you know the vertical interval
between any two adjacent contours, you know the vertical interval
for all the contours on that map, for these intervals on a given
map are all the same.

With reference to a point through which no contour passes, we
can only say that the point in question is not higher than the
next contour up the hill, nor lower than the next one down the
hill. For the purposes of any problem, it is usual to assume
that the ground slopes evenly between the two adjacent contours
and that the vertical height of the point above the lower contour
is proportional to its horizontal distance from the contour, as
compared to the whole distance between the two contours. For
instance, on the map, find the height of point A. The horizontal
measurements are as shown on the map. The vertical distance between
the contours is 20 feet. A is about one-quarter of the distance
between the 800 and the 820 contours, and we assume its height
to be one-quarter of 20 feet (5 feet) higher than 800 feet. So
the height of A is 805 feet.

The vertical interval is usually indicated in the corner of the
map by the letters "V. I." For instance: V. I.=20 feet.

On maps of very small pieces of ground, the V. I. is usually
small--perhaps as small as 1 foot; on maps of large areas on a
small scale it may be very great--even 1,000 feet.

Contours also show SLOPES. It has already been explained that
from any contour to the next one above it the ground rises a
fixed number of feet, according to the vertical interval of that
map. From the scale of distances on the map the horizontal
distance between any two contours can be found. For example:
On the map the horizontal distance between D and E is 90
yards, or 270 feet. The vertical distance is 20 feet the V. I. of
the map. The slope then is 20/270 =  1/13.5 = 7-1/2% = 4-1/2°, in all of
which different ways the slope can be expressed,

[Illustration]

On a good many contoured maps a figure like this will be found
in one of the corners:

[Illustration]

On that particular map contours separated by the distance

[Illustration]

on the vertical scale show a slope of 1°: if separated by the
distance

[Illustration]

they show a 2° slope. etc. A slope of 1° is a rise of 1 foot in
57. To use this scale of slopes copy it on the edge of a piece
of paper just as you did the scale of distances and apply it
directly to the map.

You will notice that where the contours lie closest the slope
is steepest; where they are farthest apart the ground is most
nearly flat,

It has already been set forth how contours show height and slope;
in addition to this they show the shape of the ground, or GROUND
FORMS. Each single contour shows the shape at its particular level
of the hill or valley it outlines; for instance, the 880 contour
about the penitentiary shows that the hill at that level has a
shape somewhat like a horse's head. Similarly, every contour
on the map gives us the form of the ground at its particular
level, and knowing these ground forms for many levels we can form
a fair conception of what the whole surface is like.

A round contour like the letter O outlines a round ground feature;
a long narrow one indicates a long narrow ground feature.

Different hills and depressions have different shapes. A good
many of them have one shape at one level and another shape at
another level, all of which information will be given you by
the contours on the map.

One of the ways to see how contours show the shape of the ground
is to pour half a bucket of water into a small depression in
the ground. The water's edge will be exactly level, and if the
depression is approximately round the water's edge will also be
approximately round. The outline will look something like figure
6.

Draw roughly on a piece of paper a figure of the same shape and
you will have a contour showing the shape of the bit of ground
where you poured your water.

Next, with your heel gouge out on one edge of your little pond
a small round bay. The water will rush in and the water-mark
on the soil will now be shaped something like figure 7.

Alter your drawing accordingly, and the new contour will show
the new ground shape.

Again do violence to the face of nature by digging with a stick a
narrow inlet opening out of your miniature ocean, and the watermark
will now look something like figure 8.

Alter your drawing once more and your contour shows again the
new ground form. Drop into your main pond a round clod and you
will have a new watermark, like figure 9, to add to your drawing.
This new contour, of the same level with the one showing the
limit of the depression, shows on the drawing the round island.

Drop in a second clod, this time long and narrow, the watermark
will be like figure 10, and the drawing of it, properly placed,
will show another island of another shape. Your drawing now will
look like figure 11.

It shows a depression approximately round, off which open a round
bay and a long narrow bay. There is also a round elevation and a
long, narrow one; a long, narrow ridge, jutting out between the
two bays, and a short, broad one across the neck of the round
bay.

[Illustration: Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig 8. Fig. 9. Fig 10. Fig. 11.]

Now flood your lake deeply enough to cover up the features you
have introduced. The new water line, about as shown by the dotted
line in figure 11, shows the oblong shape of the depression at a
higher level; the solid lines show the shape farther down; the
horizontal distance between the two contours at different points
shows where the bank is steep and where the slope is gentler.

Put together the information that each of these contours gives
you, and you will see how contours show the shape of the ground.
On the little map you have drawn you have introduced all the
varieties of ground forms there are; therefore all the contour
forms.

The contours on an ordinary map seem much more complicated, but
this is due only to the number of them, their length, and many
turns before they finally close on themselves. Or they may close
off the paper. But trace each one out, and it will resolve itself
into one of the forms shown in figure 11.

Just as the high-tide line round the continents of North and
South America runs a long and tortuous course, but finally closes
back on itself, so will every contour do likewise. And just as
truly as every bend in that high-tide mark turns out around a
promontory, or in around a bay, so will every bend in a contour
stand for a hill or a valley, pointing to the lowlands if it
be a hill, and to the height if it mark a valley.

If the map embrace a whole continent or an island, all the contours
will be of closed form, as in figure 11, but if it embrace only
it part of the continent or island, some of the contours will be
chopped off at the edge of the map, and we have the open form
of contours, as we would have if figure 11 were cut into two
parts.

The closed form may indicate a hill or a basin; the open form,
a ridge or a valley; sometimes a casual glance does not indicate
which.

Take up, first, the contour of the open type. If the map shows
a stream running down the inside of the contour, there is no
difficulty in saying at once that the ground feature is a valley;
for instance, V, V, V, and the valley of Corral Creek on the
map. But if there is no stream line, does the contour bend show
a valley or a ridge?

First of all, there is a radical difference between the bend
of a contour round the head of a valley and its bend round the
nose of a ridge,

Compare on the map the valleys V and the ridges R. The bend of
the contour round the head of the valley is much sharper than
the bend of the contour round the nose of the ridge. This is a
general truth, not only in regard to maps, but also in regard
to ground forms. Study any piece of open ground and note how
much wider are the ridges than the valleys. Where you find a
"hog back" or "devil's backbone," you have an exception to the
rule, but the exceptions are not frequent enough to worry over.

To tell whether a given point is on a ridge or in a valley, start
from the nearest stream shown on the map and work across the
map to the undetermined point, keeping in mind that in a real
trip across the country you start from the stream, go up the
hill to the top of a ridge, down the other side of the hill to a
water-course, then up a hill to the top of a ridge, down again,
up again, etc. That is all traveling is--valley, hill, valley,
hill, valley, etc., though you wander till the crack o' doom.
And so your map travels must go--valley, hill, valley, hill--till
you run off the map or come back to the starting point.

On the map, follow the R-V line, V indicating valley and R ridge
or hill. Note first the difference in sharpness in the contour
bends; also how the valley contours point to the highland and
the ridge contours to the lowland.

The contours go thus:

[Illustration]

The streams flow down the valleys, and the sharp angle of the
contour points always _up_ stream. Note also how the junction
of a stream and its tributary usually makes an angle that points
_down_ stream.

"Which way does this stream run?"

Water flows down hill. If you are in the bed of a stream, contours
representing higher ground must be to your right and to your
left. Get the elevations of these contours. Generally the nearest
contour to the bank of the stream will cross the stream and there
will be an angle or sharp turn in the contour at this crossing.
If the point of the angle or sharp turn is toward you, you are
going downstream; if away from you, you are going upstream.

If the contours are numbered, you have only to look at the numbers
to say where the low and where the high places are; but to read a
map with any speed one must be quite independent of these numbers.
In ordinary map reading look, first of all, for the stream lines.
The streams are the skeleton upon which the whole map is hung.
Then pick out the hilltops and ridges and you have a body to
clothe with ail the details that will be revealed by a close and
careful study of what the map maker has recorded.

As to closed contours, they may outline a depression or a hill.
On the map, "881" or "885" might be hills or ponds, as far as
their shape is concerned. But, clearly, they are hills, for on
either side are small streams running _away_ from them. If
they were ponds, the stream lines would run _toward_ the
closed contours. The rest of "hill, valley, hill," will always
solve the problem when there are not enough stream lines shown
to make evident at once whether a closed contour marks a pond or
a hill. Look in the beginning for the stream lines and valleys,
and, by contrast, if for no other reason, the hills and ridges
at once loom up.

To illustrate the subject of contours to aid those who have
difficulty in reading contoured maps the following is suggested:

1. Secure modeling clay and build a mound.

2. Use wire and slice this mound horizontally at equal vertical
intervals into zones; then insert vertical dowels through the
mound of clay.

3. Remove the top zone, place on paper, and draw outline of the
bottom edge. Trim your paper roughly to the outline drawn. Indicate
where the holes made by the dowels pierce the paper.

4. Do the above with each zone of your mound.

5. Place these papers in proper order on dowels similarly placed
to ones in original mound at, say, 1 inch vertical interval apart.
A skeleton mound results.

6. Replace the zones of the clay mound and form the original clay
mound along the side of skeleton mound.

7. New force all the paper sheets down the dowels onto the bottom
sheet, and we have a map of clay mound with contours.

NOTE.--One-inch or 2-inch planks can be made into any desired
form by the use of dowels and similar procedure followed.

People frequently ask, "What should I see when I read a map?"
and the answer is given, "The ground as it is." This is not true
any more than it is true that the words, "The valley of the Meuse,"
bring to your mind vine-clad hills, a noble river, and green
fields where cattle graze. Nor can any picture ever put into
your thought what the Grand Canyon really is. What printed word
or painted picture can not do, a map will not. A map says to you,
"Here stands a hill," "Here is a valley," "This stream runs so,"
and gives you a good many facts in regard to them. But you do not
have to "see" anything, any more than you have to visualize Liege
in order to learn the facts of its geography. A map sets forth
cold facts in an alphabet all its own, but an easy alphabet, and
one that tells with a few curving lines more than many thousand
words could tell.


SECTION 2. SKETCHING.

Noncommissioned officers and selected privates should be able
to make simple route sketches. This is particularly useful in
patrolling as thereby a patrol leader is able to give his commander
a good idea of the country his patrol has traversed. Sketches
should be made on a certain scale, which should be indicated
on the sketch, such as 3 inches on the sketch equals 1 mile on
the ground. The north should be indicated on the sketch by means
of an arrow pointing in that direction. Any piece of paper may
be used to make the sketch on. The back of the field-message
blank is ruled and prepared for this purpose. The abbreviations
and conventional signs shown on the following pages should be
used in making such simple sketches.


Field Maps and Sketches.

The following abbreviations and signs are authorized for use on
field maps and sketches. For more elaborate map work the authorized
conventional signs as given in the manual of "Conventional Signs,
United States Army Maps," are used.

Abbreviations other than those given should not be used.

ABBREVIATIONS.

  A.       Arroyo.            L. S. S. Life-Saving Station.
  abut.    Abutment.          L. H.    Lighthouse
  Ar.      Arch.              Long.    Longitude.
  b.       Brick.             Mt.      Mountain.
  B. S.    Blacksmith Shop.   Mts.     Mountains.
  bot.     Bottom.            N.       North.
  Br.      Branch.            n. f.    Not fordable.
  br.      Bridge.            P.       Pier.
  C.       Cape.              pk.      Plank.
  cem.     Cemetery.          P. O.    Post Office
  con.     Concrete.          Pt.      Point.
  cov.     Covered.           q.p      Queen-post
  Cr.      Creek.             R.       River.
  d.       Deep.              R. H.    Roundhouse.
  cul.     Culvert.           R. R.    Railroad.
  D. S.    Drug Store.        S.       South.
  E.       East.              s.       Steel.
  Est.     Estuary.           S. H.    Schoolhouse.
  f.       Fordable.          S. M.    Sawmill.
  Ft.      Fort.              Sta.     Station.
  G. S     General Store.     st.      Stone.
  gir.     Girder.            str.     Stream.
  G. M.    Gristmill.         T. G.    Tollgate.
  I.       Iron.              Tres.    Trestle.
  I.       Island.            tr.      Truss.
  Jc.      Junction.          W. T.    Water Tank.
  k.p.     King-post.         W. W.    Water Works.
  L.       Lake.              W.       West.
  Lat.     Latitude.          w.       Wood.
  Ldg.     Landing.           wd.      Wide.

[Illustration: SIGNS--FIELD MAPS AND SKETCHES]

[Illustration]


MESSAGE BLANKS

[Illustration]

The heading "From" is filled in with the _name_ of the
detachment sending the information: as "Officer's Patrol, 7th
Cav." Messages sent on the same day from the same source to the
same person are numbered consecutively. The address is written
briefly, thus: "Commanding officer, Outpost, 1st Brigade," In
the signature the writer's surname only and rank are given.

This blank is four and a half by six and three quarters-inches,
including the margin on the left for binding. The back is ruled
in squares, the side of each square representing 100 yards on a
scale of 3 inches to one mile, for use in making simple sketches
explanatory of the message. It is issued by the Signal Corps in
blocks of forty with duplicating sheets. The regulation envelope
is three by five and one-fourth inches and is printed as follows:

               UNITED STATES ARMY FIELD MESSAGE.

  _To_ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ._No_ . . . .
                                 (For signal operator only.)
  _When_sent_  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ._No_ . . . .
  _Rate_of_speed_  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  _Name_of_messenger_  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  _When_and_by_whom_rec'd_ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                 This Envelope will be Returned to Bearer.

[Illustration]



CHAPTER XII.

SIGNALS AND CODES.

(Extracts from Signal Book, United States Army, 1916.)


General Instructions for Army Signaling.

1. Each signal station will have its call, consisting of one or
two letters, as Washington, "W"; and each operator or signalist
will also have his personal signal of one or two letters, as
Jones, "Jo." These being once adopted will not be changed without
due authority.

2. To lessen liability of error, numerals which occur in the body
of a message should be spelled out.

3. In receiving a message the man at the telescope should call
out each letter as received, and not wait for the completion
of a word.

4. A record of the date and time of the receipt or transmission
of every message must be kept.

5. The duplicate manuscript of messages received at, or the original
sent from, a station should be carefully filed.

6. In receiving messages nothing should be taken for granted,
and nothing considered as seen until it has been positively and
clearly in view. Do not anticipate what will follow from signals
already given. Watch the communicating station until the last
signals are made, and be very certain that the signal for the
end of the message has been given.

7. Every address must contain at least two words and should be
sufficient to secure delivery.

8. All that the sender writes for transmission after the word
"To" is counted.

9. Whenever more than one signature is attached to a message count
all initials and names as a part of the message.

10. Dictionary words, initial letters, surnames of persons, names
of cities, towns, villages, States, and Territories, or names of
the Canadian Provinces will be counted each as one word: _e._g._,
New York, District of Columbia, East St. Louis should each be
counted as one word. The abbreviation of the names of cities,
towns, villages, States, Territories, and provinces will be
counted the same as if written in full.

11. Abbreviations of weights and measures in common use, figures,
decimal points, bars of division, and in ordinal numbers the
affixes "st," "d," "nd," "rd," and "th" will be each counted
as one word. Letters and groups of letters, when such groups do
not form dictionary words and are not combinations of dictionary
words, will be counted at the rate of five letters or fraction
of five letters to a word. When such groups are made up of
combinations of dictionary words, each dictionary word so used
will be counted.

12. The following are exceptions to paragraph 55, and are counted
as shown:

  A. M.     1 word
  P. M.     1 word
  O. K.     1 word
  Per cent  1 word

13. No message will be considered sent until its receipt has been
acknowledged by the receiving station.


The International Morse or General Service Code.

18. The International Morse Code is the General Service Code
and is prescribed for use by the Army of the United States and
between the Army and the Navy of the United States. It will be
used on radio systems, submarine cables using siphon recorders,
and with the heliograph, flash-lantern, and all visual signaling
apparatus using the wigwag.

         _Alphabet_.

  A  . -         N  - .
  B  - . . .     O  - - -
  C  - . - .     P  . - - .
  D  - . .       Q  - - . -
  E  .           R  . - .
  F  . . - .     S  . . .
  G  - - .       T  -
  H  . . . .     U  . . -
  I  . .         V  . . . -
  J  . - - -     W  . - -
  K  - . -       X  - . . -
  L  . - . .     Y  - . - -
  M  - -         Z  - - . .

         _Numerals_.

  1  . - - - -   6  - . . . .
  2  . . - - -   7  - - . . .
  3  . . . - -   8  - - - . .
  4  . . . . -   9  - - - - .
  5  . . . . .   0  - - - - -

        _Punctuation_.

  Period                                        . .   . .  . .
  Comma                                          . - . - . -
  Interrogation                                  . . - - . .
  Hyphen or dash                                 - . . . . -
  Parentheses (before and after the words)       - . - - . -
  Quotation mark (beginning and ending)          . - . . - .
  Exclamation                                    - - . . - -
  Apostrophe                                     . - - - - .
  Semicolon                                      - . - . - .
  Colon                                          - - - . . .
  Bar indicating fraction                        - . . - .
  Underline (before and after the word or
    words it is wished to underline)             . . - - . -
  Double dash (between preamble and address,
    between address and body of message,
    between body of message and signature,
    and immediately before a fraction)           - . . . -
  Cross                                          . - . - .


Visual Signaling in General.

21. Methods of visual signaling are divided as follows:

(a) By flag, torch, hand lantern, or beam of searchlight (without
shutter). (General Service Code).

(b) By heliograph, flash lantern, or searchlight (with shutter).
(General Service Code).

(c) By Ardois. (General Service Code).

(d) By hand flags or by stationary semaphore. (Two-arm semaphore
Code.)

(e) By preconcerted signals with Coston lights, rockets, bombs,
Very pistols, small arms, guns, etc.

(f) By flag signals by permanent hoists. (International Code.)

22. The following conventional signals, with exceptions noted,
will be used in the first four classes.

                                                 _Exceptions_
                                             Ardois and semaphore.
  End of word.          Interval.
  End of sentence.      Double interval.
  End of message.       Triple interval.
  Signal separating
    preamble from
    address; address
    from text; text
    from signature.     - . . . -            Double interval,
                                               signature preceded
                                               also by "Sig."
                                               Interval.
  Acknowledgement.      R.
  Error.                . . . . . . . .      A.
  Negative.             K.
  Preparatory.          L.
  Annulling.            N.
  Affirmative.          P.
  Interrogatory.        . . - - . .          O.
  Repeat after word.    Interrogatory. A
                          (word).
  Repeat last message.  Interrogatory
                          three times
  Send faster.          QRQ
  Send slower.          QRS
  Cease sending         QRT
  Wait a moment         . - . . .            None.
  Execute.              IX, IX
  Move to your right.   MR
  Move to your left.    ML
  Move up.              MU
  Move down.            MD
  Finished              . . . - . -          None.


Visual Signaling: By Flag (Wig-Wag), Torch, Hand Lantern, or Beam
or Searchlight (Without Shutter).

GENERAL SERVICE CODE.

23. For the flag used with the General Service Code there are
three motions and one position. The position is with the flag
held vertically, the signalman facing directly toward the station
with which it is desired to communicate. The first motion (the
dot) is to the right of the sender, and will embrace an arc of
90°, starting with the vertical and returning to it, and will
be made in a plane at right angles to the line connecting the
two stations. The second motion (the dash) is a similar motion
to the left of the sender. The third motion (front) is downward
directly in front of the sender and instantly returned upward
to the first position. Front is used to indicate an interval.

24. The beam of the searchlight, though ordinarily used with
the shutter like the heliograph, may be used for long-distance
signaling, when no shutter is suitable or available, in a similar
manner to the flag or torch, the first position being a vertical
one. A movement of the beam 90° to the right of the sender indicates
a dot, a similar movement to the left indicates a dash; the beam
is lowered vertically for front.

25. To use the torch or hand lantern, a foot light must be employed
as a point of reference to the motion. The lantern is most
conveniently swung out upward to the right of the footlight for
a dot, to the left for a dash, and raised vertically for front.

NOTE.--To call a station, make the call letter until acknowledged,
at intervals giving the call or signal of the calling station.
If the call letter of a station is unknown, wave flag until
acknowledged. In using the searchlight without shutter throw
the beam in a vertical position and move it through an arc of
180° in a plane at right angles to the line connecting the two
stations until acknowledged. To acknowledge a call, signal
"Acknowledgment" followed by the call letter of the acknowledging
station.


Signaling with Heliograph, Flash Lantern, and Searchlight (With
Shutter).

GENERAL SERVICE CODE.

26. The first position is to turn a steady flash on the receiving
station. The signals are made by short and long flashes. Use a
short flash for dot and a long steady flash for dash. The elements
of a letter should be slightly longer than in sound signals.

27. To call a station, make its call letter until acknowledged.

28. If the call letter of a station be unknown, signal A until
acknowledged. Each station will then turn on a steady flash and
adjust. When adjustment is satisfactory to the called station,
it will cut off its flash and the calling station will proceed
with its message.

29. If the receiver sees that the sender's mirror or light needs
adjustment, he will turn on a steady flash until answered, by a
steady flash. When the adjustment is satisfactory the receiver
will cut off his flash and the sender will resume his message.

[Illustration: THE TWO-ARM SEMAPHORE CODE.]

[Illustration: THE TWO-ARM SEMAPHORE CODE.]

30. To break the sending station for other purposes, turn on a
steady flash.


SOUND SIGNALS.

56. Sound signals made by the whistle, foghorn, bugle, trumpet,
and drum may well be used in a fog, mist, falling snow, or at
night. They may be used with the dot and dash code.

In applying the General Service Code to whistle, foghorn, bugle,
or trumpet, one short blast indicates a dot and one long blast
a dash. With the drum, one tap indicates a dot and two taps in
rapid succession a dash. Although these signals can be used with
a dot and dash code, they should be so used in connection with
a preconcerted or conventional code.


Signaling by Two-Arm Semaphore.

HAND FLAGS.

43. Signaling by the two-arm semaphore is the most rapid method
of sending spelled-out messages. It is, however, very liable to
error if the motions are slurred over or run together in an attempt
to make speed. Both arms should move rapidly and simultaneously,
but there should be a perceptible pause at the end of each letter
before making the movements for the next letter. Rapidity is
secondary to accuracy. For alphabet see pages following.

NOTE.--In making the interval the flags are crossed downward in
front of the body (just above the knees); the double interval
is the "chop-chop" signal made twice; the triple interval is
"chop-chop" signal made three times. In calling a station face
it squarely and make its call. If there is no immediate reply
wave the flags over the head to attract attention, making the call
at frequent intervals. When the sender makes "end of message" the
receiver, if message is understood, extends the flags horizontally
and waves them until the sender does the same, when both leave
their stations. Care must be taken with hand flags to hold the
staffs so as to form a prolongation of the arms.


LETTER CODES.

INFANTRY.

47. For use with General Service Code or semaphore hand flags.

  -------------------------------------------------------------
   Letter of  |    If signaled from    |  If signaled from
   alphabet   |     the rear to the    |   the firing line
              |       firing line.     |    to the rear.
  ------------|------------------------|-----------------------
  AM          | Ammunition going       | Ammunition required.
              |   forward.             |
  CCC         | Charge (mandatory      | Am about to charge
              | at all times).         | if no instructions
              |                        | to the contrary.
  CF          | Cease firing.          | Cease firing.
  DT          | Double time or "rush." | Double time or "rush."
  F           | Commence firing.       |
  FB          | Fix bayonet.           |
  FL          | Artillery fire is      |
              | causing us losses.     |
  G           | Move forward.          | Preparing to move
              |                        | forward.
  HHH         | Halt.                  |
  K           | Negative.              | Negative.
  LT          | Left.                  | Left.
  O           | What is the (R. N.,    | What is the (R. N.,
  (Ardois and | etc.)? Interrogatory.  | etc.)? Interrogatory.
  Semaphore   |                        |
  only.)      |                        |
  . . - - . . | What is the (R. N.,    | What is the (R. N.,
  (All methods| etc.)? Interrogatory.  | etc.)? Interrogatory.
  but ardois  |                        |
  and         |                        |
  semaphore.) |                        |
  P           | Affirmative.           | Affirmative.
  RN          | Range.                 | Range.
  RT          | Right.                 | Right.
  SSS         | Support going forward. | Support needed.
  SUF         | Suspend firing.        | Suspend firing.
  T           | Target.                | Target.
  -------------------------------------------------------------


CAVALRY.

48. For use with General Service Code or semaphore hand flags.

             AM--Ammunition going forward (if signaled from the
                 rear to the front).
                 Ammunition required (If signaled from the front).
            CCC--Charge (if signaled rear the rear to the front).
                 About to charge if no instructions to the
                 contrary (if signaled from the front).
             CF--Cease firing.
             DT--Double time, rush, or hurry.
              F--Commence firing.
             FL--Artillery fire is causing us losses.
              G--Move forward (if signaled from the rear to
                 the front). Preparing to move forward (if
                 signaled from the front).
            HHH--Halt.
              K--Negative.
             LT--Left.
              M--Bring up the horses (if signaled from front
                 to rear). Horses going forward (if signaled
                 from rear to front).
              O--What is the (R. N., etc.)? Interrogatory.
                 (Ardois and semaphore only.)
    . . - - . .--What is the (R. N., etc.)? Interrogatory.
                 (All methods but ardois and semaphore.)
              P--Affirmative.
              R--Acknowledgment.
             RN--Range.
             RT--Right.
            SSS--Support going forward (if signaled from the
                 rear to the front). Support needed (if
                 signaled from the front).
            SUF--Suspend firing.
              T--Target.


FIELD ARTILLERY.

49. For use with General Service Code or semaphore hand flags.

. . . . . . . .--Error. (All methods but ardois and semaphore.)
              A--Error. (Ardois and semaphore only.)
             AD--Additional.
            AKT--Draw ammunition from combat tram.
             AL--Draw ammunition from limbers.
             AM--Ammunition going forward.
            AMC--At my command.
             AP--Aiming point.
   B (numerals)--Battery (so many) rounds.
  BS (numerals)--(Such.) Battalion station.
             BL--Battery from the left.
             BR--Battery from the right.
            CCC--Charge (mandatory at all times). Am about to
                 charge if not instructed to contrary.
             CF--Cease firing.
             CS--Close station.
             CT--Change target.
              D--Down.
             DF--Deflection.
             DT--Double time. Rush. Hurry.
              F--Commence firing.
 FCL (numerals)--On 1st piece close by (so much).
             FL--Artillery fire is causing us losses.
 FOP (numerals)--On 1st piece open by (so much).
              G--Move forward. Preparing to move forward.
            HHH--Halt. Action suspended.
             IX--Execute. Go ahead. Transmit.
             JI--Report firing data.
              K--Negative. No.
             KR--Corrector.
              L--Preparatory. Attention.
 LCL (numerals)--On 4th piece close by (so much).
 LOP (numerals)--On 4th piece open by (so much).
             LT--Left.
             LL--Left from the left.
             LR--Left from the right.
  LE (numerals)--Left (so much).
             MD--Move down.
             ML--Move to your left.
             MR--Move to your right.
             MU--Move up.
  MO (numerals)--Move (so much).
              N--Annul, cancel.
              O--What is the (R. N., etc.)? Interrogatory.
                 (Ardois and semaphore only.)
    . . - - . .--What is the (R. N.. etc.)? Interrogatory.
                 (All methods but ardois and semaphore.)
              P--Affirmative. Yes.
             PS--Percussion. Shrapnel.
            QRQ--Send faster.
            QRS--Send slower.
            QRT--Cease sending.
              R--Acknowledgment. Received.
             RS--Regimental station.
             RL--Right from the left.
             RR--Right from the right.
             RN--Range.
             RT--Right.
              S--Subtract.
 SCL (numerals)--On 2d piece close by (so much).
 SOP (numerals)--On 2d piece open by (so much).
             SH--Shell.
             SI--Site.
            SSS--Support needed.
              T--Target.
 TCL (numerals)--On 3d piece close by (so much).
 TOP (numerals)--On 3d piece open by (so much).
              U--Up.
     Y (letter)--Such battery station.



CHAPTER XIII.

FIRST AID RULES.

The bandages and dressings contained in the first-aid packet
have been so treated as to destroy any germs thereon. Therefore,
when dressing a wound, be careful not to touch or handle that
part of the dressing which is to be applied to the wound.

A sick or injured person should always be made to lie down on his
back, if practicable, as this is the most comfortable position,
and all muscles may be relaxed.

All tight articles of clothing and equipment should be loosened,
so as not to interfere with breathing or the circulation of the
blood. Belts, collars, and the trousers at the waist should be
opened.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

Don't let mere onlookers crowd about the patient. They prevent
him from getting fresh air and also make him nervous and excited.

In case of injury the heart action is generally weak from shock,
and the body, therefore, grows somewhat cold. So don't remove
any more clothing than is necessary to expose the injury.

Cut or rip the clothing, but don't pull it. Try to disturb the
patient as little as possible.

Don't touch a wound with your fingers or a handkerchief, or with
anything else but the first-aid dressing. Don't wash the wound
with water, as you may infect it.

Don't administer stimulants (whisky, brandy, wine, etc.) unless
ordered to do so by a doctor. While in a few cases stimulants
are of benefit, in a great many cases they do positive harm,
especially where there has been any bleeding.

The heart may be considered as a pump and the arteries as a rubber
hose, which carry the blood from the heart to every part of the
body. The veins are the hose which carry the blood back to the
heart. Every wound bleeds some, but, unless a large artery or
a large vein is cut, the bleeding will stop after a short while
if the patient is kept quiet and the first-aid dressing is bound
over the wound so as to make pressure on it.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

When a large artery is cut the blood gushes out in spurts every
time the heart beats. In this case it is necessary to stop the
flow of blood by pressing upon the hose somewhere between the
heart and the leak.

If the leak is in the arm or hand, apply pressure as in figure
1.

If the leak is in the leg, apply pressure as in figure 2.

If the leak is in the shoulder or armpit, apply pressure as in
figure 3.

The reason for this is that at the places indicated the arteries
may be pressed against a bone more easily than at any other places.

Another way of applying pressure (by means of a tourniquet) is
shown in figure 4. Place a pad of tightly rolled cloth or paper,
or any suitable object, over the artery. Tie a bandage loosely
about the limb and then insert your bayonet, or a stick, and
twist up the bandage until the pressure of the pad on the artery
stops the leak. Twist the bandage slowly and stop as soon as
the blood ceases to flow, in order not to bruise the flesh or
muscles unnecessarily.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.]

A tourniquet may cause pain and swelling of the limb, and it
left on too long may cause the limb to die. Therefore, about
every half hour or so, loosen the bandage very carefully, but if
the bleeding continues pressure must be applied again. In this
case apply the pressure with the thumb for five or ten minutes,
as this cuts off only the main artery and leaves some of the
smaller arteries and the veins free to restore some of the
circulation. When a tourniquet is painful, it is too tight and
should be carefully loosened a little.

It the leg or arm is held upright, this also helps to reduce
the bleeding in these parts, because the heart then has to pump
the blood uphill.

A broken bone is called a fracture. The great danger in the case
of a fracture is that the sharp, jagged edges of the bones may
stick through the flesh and skin, or tear and bruise the arteries,
veins, and muscles. If the skin is not broken, a fracture is
not so serious, as no germs can get in. Therefore never move a
person with a broken bone until the fracture has been so fixed
that the broken ends of the bone can not move.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Improvised tourniquet.]

If the leg or arm is broken, straighten the limb gently and if
necessary pull upon the end firmly to get the bones in place.
Then bind the limb firmly to a splint to hold it in place. A
splint may be made of any straight, stiff material--a shingle
or piece of board, a bayonet, a rifle, a straight branch of a
tree, etc. Whatever material you use must be well padded on the
side next to the limb. Be careful never to place the bandages
over the fracture, but always above and below. (Figs. 5, 6, 7,
8.)

Many surgeons think that the method of binding a broken leg to
the well one, and of binding the arm to the body, is the best
plan in the field as being the quickest and one that serves the
immediate purpose.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.]

[Illustration: FIG. 6.]

With wounds about the body the chest and abdomen you must not
meddle except to protect them when possible without much handling
with the materials of the packet.


FAINTING, SHOCK, HEAT EXHAUSTION.

The symptoms of fainting, shock, and heat exhaustion are very
similar. The face is pale, the skin cool and moist, the pulse is
weak, and generally the patient is unconscious. Keep the patient
quiet, resting on his back, with his head low. Loosen the clothing,
but keep the patient warm, and give stimulants (whisky, hot coffee,
tea, etc.).


SUNSTROKE.

In the case of sunstroke the face is flushed, the skin is dry
and very hot, and the pulse is full and strong. In this case
place the patient in a cool spot, remove the clothing, and make
every effort to lessen the heat in the body by cold applications
to the head and surface generally. Do not, under any circumstances,
give any stimulants or hot drinks.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.]

[Illustration: FIG. 8.]


FREEZING AND FROSTBITE.

The part frozen, which looks white or bluish white, and is cold,
should be very slowly raised in temperature by brisk but careful
rubbing in a cool place and never near a fire. Stimulants are to
be given cautiously when the patient can swallow, and followed by
small amounts of warm liquid nourishment. The object is to restore
the circulation of the blood and the natural warmth gradually and
not violently. Care and patience are necessary to do this.


RESUSITATION OF THE APPARENTLY DROWNED.

In the instruction of the Army in First Aid the method of
resuscitation of the apparently drowned, as described by "Schaefer,"
will be taught instead of the "Sylvester Method," heretofore
used. The Schaefer method of artificial respiration is also
applicable in cases of electric shock, asphyxiation by gas, and
of the failure of respiration following concussion of the brain.

Being under water for four of five minutes is generally fatal,
but an effort to revive the apparently drowned should always
be made, unless it is known that the body has been under water
for a very long time. The attempt to revive the patient should
not be delayed for the purpose of removing his clothes or placing
him in the ambulance. Begin the procedure as soon as he is out
of the water, on the shore or in the boat. The first and most
important thing is to start artificial respiration without delay.

The Schaefer method is preferred because it can be carried out
by one person without assistance, and because its procedure is
not exhausting to the operator, thus permitting him, if required,
to continue it for one or two hours. When it is known that a
person has been under water for but a few minutes continue the
artificial respiration for at least one and a half to two hours
before considering the case hopeless. Once the patient has begun to
breathe watch carefully to see that he does not stop again. Should
the breathing be very faint, or should he stop breathing, assist
him again with artificial respiration. After he starts breathing
do not lift him nor permit him to stand until the breathing has
become full and regular.

As soon as the patient is removed from the water, turn him face
to the ground, clasp your hands under his waist, and raise the
body so any water may drain out of the air passages while the
head remains low. (Figure 9.)

[Illustration: FIG. 9.--Schaefer method of artificial respiration.
Inspiration.]

[Illustration: FIG. 10.--Schaefer method of artificial respiration.
Expiration.]

The patient is laid on his stomach, arms extended from his body
beyond his head, face turned to one side so that the mouth and
nose do not touch the ground. This position causes the tongue to
fall forward of its own weight and so prevents its falling back
into the air passages. Turning the head to one side prevents the
face coming into contact with mud or water during the operation.
This position also facilitates the removal from the mouth of
foreign bodies, such as tobacco, chewing gum, false teeth, etc.,
and favors the expulsion of mucus, blood, vomitus, serum, or
any liquid that may be in the air passages.

The operator kneels, straddles one or both of the patient's thighs,
and faces his head. Locating the lowest rib, the operator, with
his thumbs nearly parallel to his fingers, places his hands so
that the little finger curls over the twelfth rib. If the hands
are on the pelvic bones the object of the work is defeated; hence
the bones of the pelvis are first located in order to avoid them.
The hands must be free from the pelvis and resting on the lowest
rib. By operating on the bare back it is easier to locate the
lower ribs and avoid the pelvis. The nearer the ends of the ribs
the hands are placed without sliding off the better. The hands
are thus removed from the spine, the fingers being nearly out
of sight.

The fingers help some, but the chief pressure is exerted by the
heels (thenar and hypothenar eminences) of the hands, with the
weight coming straight from the shoulders. It is a waste of energy
to bend the arms at the elbows and shove in from the sides, because
the muscles of the back are stronger than the muscles of the
arms.

The operator's arms are held straight, and his weight is brought
from his shoulders by bringing his body and shoulders forward.
This weight is gradually increased until at the end of the three
seconds of vertical pressure upon the lower ribs of the patient
the force is felt to be heavy enough to compress the parts; then
the weight is suddenly removed. If there is danger of not returning
the hands to the right position again, they can remain lightly
in place; but it is usually better to remove the hands entirely.
If the operator is light and the patient an overweight adult,
he can utilize over 80 per cent of his weight by raising his
knees from the ground and supporting himself entirely on his
toes and the heels of his hands, the latter properly placed on
the ends of the floating ribs of the patient. In this manner
he can work as effectively as a heavy man.

A light feather or a piece of absorbent cotton drawn out thin
and held near the nose by some one will indicate by its movements
whether or not there is a current of air going and coming with
each forced expiration and spontaneous inspiration.

The natural rate of breathing is 12 to 15 times per minute. The
rate of operation should not exceed this. The lungs must be
thoroughly emptied by three seconds of pressure, then refilling
takes care of itself. Pressure and release of pressure--one complete
respiration--occupies about five seconds. If the operator is
alone, he can be guided in each act by his own deep, regular
respiration or by counting or by his watch lying by his side.
If comrades are present, he can be advised by them.

The duration of the efforts as artificial respiration should
ordinarily exceed an hour; indefinitely longer if there are any
evidences of returning animation, by way of breathing, speaking,
or movements. There are liable to be evidences of life within 25
minutes in patients who will recover from electric shock, but
where there is doubt the patient should be given the benefit
of the doubt. In drowning, especially, recoveries are on record
after two hours or more of unconsciousness; hence, the Schaefer
method, being easy of operation, is more likely to be persisted
in.

Aromatic spirits of ammonia may be poured on a handkerchief and
held continuously within 3 inches of the face and nose. If other
ammonia preparations are used, they should be diluted or held
farther away. Try it on your own nose first.

When the operator is a heavy man it is necessary to caution him
not to bring force too violently upon the ribs, as one of them
might be broken.

Do not attempt to give liquids of any kind to the patient while
unconscious. Apply warm blankets and hot-water bottles as soon
as they can be obtained.



CHAPTER XIV.

LAWS AND REGULATIONS.


SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS.

The Army of the United States is governed by certain laws called
"The Articles of War" and certain regulations called "Army
Regulations."

The following list includes the offenses most often committed
by soldiers, generally through ignorance or carelessness rather
than viciousness. Violations of any rule or regulation should
be carefully guarded against, since they not only subject the
offender to punishment, but also bring discredit on his comrades,
his organization, and on the military profession:

1. Selling, pawning, or, through neglect, losing or spoiling
any Government property, such as uniforms, blankets, equipment,
ammunition, etc.

2. Disobedience of the orders of any officer or noncommissioned
officer.

3. Disrespect to an officer or noncommissioned officer.

4. Absence from camp without leave.

5. Absence from any drill, formation, or other duty without
authority.

6. Drunkenness on duty or off duty, whether in camp or when absent
either with or without leave.

7. Bringing liquor into camp.

8. Noisy or disorderly conduct in camp or when absent either with
or without leave.

9. Entering on private property, generally for the purpose of
stealing fruit, etc.

10. Negligence or carelessness at drill or on other duty,
particularly while on guard or as a sentinel over prisoners.

11. Wearing an unauthorized uniform or wearing the uniform in
an improper manner.

12. Urinating in or around camp.

13. Falling to salute properly.

14. Disrespect or affront to a sentinel.

15. Abuse or neglect of his horse.

"The basic principles of the combat tactics of the different arms
are set forth in the Drill Regulations of those arms for units as
high as brigades," (_Preface,_Field_Service_Regulations_.)

"The Drill Regulations are furnished as a guide. They provide
the principles for training and for increasing the probability
of success in battle. In the interpretation of the regulations
the spirit must be sought. Quibbling over the minutæ of form is
indicative of failure to grasp the spirit," (_Paragraph_4,_
_Infantry_Drill_Regulations._)

Field Service Regulations govern all arms of the Army of the United
States."


SECTION 2. THE ARMY OF THE UNITED STATES.

The Army of the United States shall consist of the Regular Army,
the Volunteer Army, the Officers' Reserve Corps, the Enlisted
Reserve Corps, the National Guard while in the service of the United
States, and such other land forces as are now or may hereafter
be authorized by law. (Sec. 1, act of June 3, 1916.)


SECTION 3. RANK AND PRECEDENCE OF OFFICERS AND NONCOMMISSIONED
OFFICERS.

The following are the grades of rank of officers and noncommissioned
officers:

  1. Lieutenant general.
  2. Major general.
  3. Brigadier general.
  4. Colonel.
  5. Lieutenant colonel.
  6. Major.
  7. Captain.
  8. First lieutenant.
  9. Second lieutenant.
  10. Aviator, Signal Corps.
  11. Cadet.
  12. (a) Sergeant major, regimental; sergeant major, senior
  grade, Coast Artillery Corps; (b) quartermaster sergeant,
  senior grade, Quartermaster Corps; master hospital sergeant,
  Medical Department; master engineer, senior grade, Corps of
  Engineers; master electrician, Coast Artillery Corps; master
  signal electrician; band lender; (c) hospital sergeant, Medical
  Department; master engineer, junior grade, Corps of Engineers;
  engineer, Coast Artillery Corps.
  13. Ordnance sergeant; quartermaster sergeant, Quartermaster
  Corps; supply sergeant, regimental.
  14. Sergeant-major, squadron and battalion; sergeant major,
  junior grade, Coast Artillery Corps; supply sergeant, battalion,
  Corps of Engineers.
  15. (a) First sergeant; (b) sergeant, first class, Medical
  Department; sergeant, first class, Quartermaster Corps; sergeant,
  first class, Corps of Engineers; sergeant, first class, Signal
  Corps; electrician sergeant, first class, Coast Artillery Corps;
  electrician sergeant, Artillery Detachment, United States
  Military Academy; assistant engineer, Coast Artillery Corps;
  (c) master gunner, Coast Artillery Corps; master gunner,
  Artillery Detachment, United States Military Academy; band
  sergeant and assistant leader, United States Military Academy
  band; assistant band leader; sergeant bugler; electrician
  sergeant, second class, Coast Artillery Corps; electrician
  sergeant, second class, Artillery Detachment, United States
  Military Academy; radio sergeant.
  16. Color sergeant.
  17. Sergeant; supply sergeant, company; mess sergeant; stable
  sergeant; fireman, Coast Artillery Corps.
  18. Corporal.

In each grade and subgrade date of commission, appointment, or
warrant determines the order of precedence. (Paragraph. 9 Army
Regulations, 1913.)


SECTION 4. INSIGNIA OF OFFICERS AND NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS.

The insignia of rank appearing on the shoulder straps, shoulder
loops, or collar of shirt (when shirt is worn without coat) of
officers are as follows:

  General: Coat of arms and two stars.
  Lieutenant general: One large star and two smaller ones.
  Major general: Two silver stars.
  Brigadier general: One silver star.
  Colonel: One silver spread eagle.
  Lieutenant colonel: One silver leaf.
  Major: One gold leaf.
  Captain: Two silver bars.
  First lieutenant: One silver bar.

The grade of noncommissioned officers is indicated by chevrons
worn on the sleeve.


SECTION 5. EXTRACTS FROM THE ARTICLES OF WAR.

(Relating to enlisted men.)


CERTAIN ARTICLES TO BE READ AND EXPLAINED.

ART. 110. Articles 1, 2, and 29, 54 to 96, inclusive, and 104
to 109, inclusive, shall be read and explained to every soldier
at the time of his enlistment or muster in, or within six days
thereafter, and shall be read and explained once every six months
to the soldiers of every garrison, regiment, or company in the
service of the United States.


DEFINITIONS.

ARTICLE 1. The following words when used in these articles shall
be construed in the sense indicated in this article, unless the
context shows that a different sense is intended, namely:

(a) The word "officer" shall be construed to refer to a commissioned
officer;

(b) The word "soldier" shall be construed as including a
noncommissioned officer, a private, or any other enlisted man;

(c) The word "company" shall be understood as including a troop
or battery; and

(d) The word "battalion" shall be understood as including a squadron.


PERSONS SUBJECT TO MILITARY LAW.

ART. 2. The following persons are subject to these articles and
shall be understood as included in the term "any person subject
to military law" or "persons subject to military law" whenever
used in these articles: _Provided_, That nothing contained
in this act, except as specifically provided in article 2,
subparagraph (c), shall be construed to apply to any person under
the United States naval jurisdiction, unless otherwise specifically
provided by law:

(a) All officers and soldiers belonging to the Regular Army of
the United States; all volunteers, from the dates of their muster
or acceptance into the military service of the United States;
and all other persons lawfully called, drafted, or ordered into
or to duty or for training in the said service, from the dates
they are required by the terms of the call, draft, or order to
obey the same.

(b) Cadets.

(c) Officers and soldiers of the Marine Corps when detached for
service with the armies of the United States by order of the
President: _Provided_, That an officer soldier of the Marine
Corps when so detached may be tried by military court-martial
for an offense committed against the laws for the government of
the naval service prior to his detachment, and for an offense
committed against these articles he may be tried by a naval
court-martial after such detachment ceases.

(d) All retainers to the camp and all persons accompanying or
serving with the armies of the United States without the territorial
jurisdiction of the United States, and in time of war all such
retainers and persons accompanying or serving with the armies
of the United States in the field, both within and without the
territorial jurisdiction of the United States, though not otherwise
subject to these articles.

(e) All persons under sentence adjudged by courts-martini.

(f) All persons admitted into the Regular Army Soldiers' Home
at Washington. D. C.


ENLISTMENT WITHOUT DISCHARGE.

ART. 29. Any soldier who, without having first received a regular
discharge, again enlists in the Army, or in the militia when
in the service of the United States, or in the Navy or Marine
Corps of the United States, or in any foreign army, shall be
deemed to have deserted the service of the United States; and,
where enlistment is in one of the forces of the United States
mentioned above, to have fraudulently enlisted therein.


FRAUDULENT ENLISTMENT.

ART. 54. Any person who shall procure himself to be enlisted in
the military service of the United States by means of willful
misrepresentation or concealment as to his qualifications for
enlistment, and shall receive pay or allowances under such
enlistment, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.


OFFICER MAKING UNLAWFUL ENLISTMENT

ART. 55. Any officer who knowingly enlists or musters into the
military service any person whose enlistment or muster in is
prohibited by law, regulation, or orders shall be dismissed from
the service or suffer such other punishment as a court-martial
may direct.


MUSTER ROLLS--FALSE MUSTER.

ART. 56. At every muster of a regiment, troop, battery, or company
the commanding officer thereof shall give to the mustering officer
certificates, signed by himself, stating how long absent officers
have been absent and the reasons of their absence. And the commanding
officer of every troop, battery, or company shall give like
certificates, stating how long absent noncommissioned officers
and private soldiers have been absent and the reasons of their
absence. Such reasons and time of absence shall be inserted in
the muster rolls opposite the names of the respective absent
officers and soldiers, and the certificates, together with the
muster rolls, shall be transmitted by the mustering officer to
the Department of War as speedily as the distance of the place
and muster will admit. Any officer who knowingly makes a false
muster of man or animal, or who signs or directs or allows the
signing of any muster roll knowing the same to contain false
muster or false statement as to the absence or pay of an officer
or soldier, or who wrongfully takes money or other consideration
on mustering in a regiment, company, or other organization, or
on signing muster rolls, or who knowingly musters as an officer
or soldier a person who is not such officer or soldier, shall
be dismissed from the service and suffer such other punishment
as a court-martial may direct.


FALSE RETURNS--OMISSION TO RENDER RETURNS.

ART. 57. Every officer commanding a regiment, an independent
troop, battery, or company, or a garrison shall, in the beginning
of every month, transmit, through the proper channels, to the
War Department an exact return of the same, specifying the names
of the officers then absent from their posts, with the reasons
for and the time of their absence. Every officer whose duty it
is to render to the War Department or other superior authority
a return of the state of the troops under his command, or of the
arms, ammunition, clothing, funds, or other property thereunto
belonging, who knowingly makes a false return thereof shall be
dismissed from the service and suffer such other punishment as
a court-martial may direct. And any officer who, through neglect
or design, omits to render such return shall be punished as a
court-martial may direct.


DESERTION.

ART. 58. Any person subject to military law who deserts or attempts
to desert the service of the United States shall, if the offense
be committed in time of war, suffer death or such other punishment
as a court-martial may direct, and, if the offense be committed
at any other time, any punishment, excepting death, that a
court-martial may direct.


ADVISING OR AIDING ANOTHER TO DESERT.

ART. 59. Any person subject to military law who advises or persuades
or knowingly assists another to desert the service of the United
States shall, if the offense be committed in time of war, suffer
death, or such other punishment as a court-martial may direct,
and if the offense be committed at any other time any punishment,
excepting death, that a court-martial may direct.


ENTERTAINING A DESERTER.

ART. 60. Any officer who, after having discovered that a soldier
in his command is a deserter from the military or naval service
or from the Marine Corps, retains such deserter in his command
without informing superior authority or the commander of the
organization to which the deserter belongs, shall be punished
as a court-martial may direct.


ABSENCE WITHOUT LEAVE.

ART. 61. Any person subject to military law who fails to repair
at the fixed time to the properly appointed place of duty, or
goes from the same without proper leave, or absents himself from
his command, guard, quarters, station or camp without proper
leave, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.


DISRESPECT TOWARD THE PRESIDENT, VICE PRESIDENT, CONGRESS, SECRETARY
OF WAR, GOVERNORS, LEGISLATURES.

ART. 62. Any officer who uses contemptuous or disrespectful words
against the President, Vice President, the Congress of the United
States, the Secretary of War, or the governor or legislature of
any State, Territory, or other possession of the United States
in which he is quartered shall be dismissed from the service
or suffer such other punishment as a court-martial may direct.
Any other person subject to military law who so offends shall
be punished as a court-martial may direct.


DISRESPECT TOWARD SUPERIOR OFFICERS.

ART. 63. Any person subject to military law who behaves himself
with disrespect toward his superior officer shall be punished
as a court-martial may direct.


ASSAULTING OR WILLFULLY DISOBEYING SUPERIOR OFFICER.

ART. 64. Any person subject to military law who, on any pretense
whatsoever, strikes his superior officer or draws or lifts up any
weapon or offers any violence against him, being in the execution
of his office, or willfully disobeys any lawful command of his
superior officer, shall suffer death or such other punishment
as a court-martial may direct.


INSUBORDINATE CONDUCT TOWARD NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICER.

ART. 65. Any soldier who strikes or assaults, or who attempts
or threatens to strike or assault, or willfully disobeys the
lawful order of a noncommissioned officer while in the execution
of his office, or uses threatening or insulting language, or
behaves in an insubordinate or disrespectful manner toward a
noncommissioned officer while in the execution of his office,
shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.


MUTINY OR SEDITION.

ART. 66. Any person subject to military law who attempts to create
or who begins, excites, causes, or joins in any mutiny or sedition
in any company, party, post, camp detachment, guard, or other
command shall suffer death or such other punishment as a
court-martial may direct.


FAILURE TO SUPPRESS MUTINY OR SEDITION.

ART. 67. Any officer or soldier who, being present at any mutiny
or sedition, does not use his utmost endeavor to suppress the
same, or knowing or having reason to believe that a mutiny or
sedition is to take place, does not without delay give information
thereof to his commanding officer shall suffer death or such
other punishment as a court-martial may direct.


QUARRELS, FRAYS, DISORDERS.

ART. 68. All officers and noncommissioned officers have power to
part and quell all quarrels, frays, and disorders among persons
subject to military law and to order officers who take part in the
same into arrest, and other persons subject to military law who
take part in the same into arrest or confinement, as circumstances
may require, until their proper superior officer is acquainted
therewith. And whosoever, being so ordered, refuses to obey such
officer or noncommissioned officer or draws a weapon upon or
otherwise threatens or does violence to him shall be punished
as a court-martial may direct.


ARREST OR CONFINEMENT OF ACCUSED PERSONS.

ART. 69. An officer charged with crime or with a serious offense
under these articles shall be placed in arrest by the commanding
officer, and in exceptional cases an officer so charged may be
placed in confinement by the same authority. A soldier charged
with crime or with a serious offense under these articles shall
be placed in confinement, and when charged with a minor offense
he may be placed in arrest. Any other person subject to military
law charged with crime or with a serious offense under these
articles shall be placed in confinement or in arrest, as
circumstances may require; and when charged with a minor offense
such person may be placed in arrest. Any person placed in arrest
under the provisions of this article shall thereby be restricted
to his barracks, quarters, or tent, unless such limits shall be
enlarged by proper authority. Any officer who breaks his arrest
or who escapes from confinement before he is set at liberty by
proper authority shall be dismissed from the service or suffer
such other punishment as a court-martial may direct; and any
other person subject to military law who escapes from confinement
or who breaks his arrest before he is set at liberty by proper
authority shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.


INVESTIGATION OF AND ACTION UPON CHARGES.

ART. 70. No person put in arrest shall be continued in confinement
more than eight days, or until such time as a court-martial can
be assembled. When any person is put in arrest for the purpose of
trial, except at remote military posts or stations, the officer
by whose order he is arrested shall see that a copy of the charges
on which he is to be tried is served upon him within eight days
after his arrest, and that he is brought to trial within 10 days
thereafter, unless the necessities of the service prevent such
trial; and then he shall be brought to trial within 30 days after
the expiration of said 10 days. If a copy of the charges be not
served, or the arrested person be not brought to trial, as herein
required, the arrest shall cease. But persons released from arrest,
under the provisions of this article, may be tried, whenever
the exigencies of the service shall permit, within 12 months
after such release from arrest: _Provided_, That in time
of peace no person shall, against his objection, be brought to
trial before a general court-martial within a period of five
days subsequent to the service of charles upon him.


REFUSAL TO RECEIVE AND KEEP PRISONERS.

ART. 71. No provost marshal or commander of a guard shall refute
to receive or keep any prisoner committed to his charge by an
officer belonging to the forces of the United States, provided
the officer committing shall, at the time, deliver an account
in writing, signed by himself, of the crime or offense charged
against the prisoner. Any officer or soldier so refusing shall
be punished as a court-martial may direct.


REPORT OF PRISONERS RECEIVED.

ART. 72. Every commander of a guard to whose charge a prisoner
is committed shall, within 24 hours after such confinement, or
as soon as he is relieved from his guard, report in writing to
the commanding officer the name of such prisoner, the offense
charged against him, and the name of the officer committing him;
and if he fails to make such report he shall be punished as a
court-martial may direct.


RELEASING PRISONER WITHOUT PROPER AUTHORITY.

ART. 73. Any person subject to military law who, without proper
authority, releases any prisoner duly committed to his charge, or
who, through neglect or design, suffers any prisoner so committed
to escape, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.


DELIVERY OF OFFENDERS TO CIVIL AUTHORITIES.

ART. 74. When any person subject to military law, except one
who is held by the military authorities to answer, or who is
awaiting trial or result of trial, or who is undergoing sentence
for a crime or offense punishable under these articles, is accused
of a crime or offense committed within the geographical limits
of the States of the Union and the District of Columbia, and
punishable by the laws of the land, the commanding officer is
required, except in time of war, upon application duly made,
to use his utmost endeavor to deliver over such accused person
to the civil authorities, or to aid the officers, of justice in
apprehending and securing him, in order that he may be brought
to trial. Any commanding officer who upon such application refuses
or willfully neglects, except in time of war, to deliver over such
accused person to the civil authorities or to aid the officers of
justice in apprehending and securing him shall be dismissed from
the service or suffer such other punishment as a court-martial
may direct.

When under the provisions of this article delivery is made to
the civll authorities of an offender undergoing sentence of a
court-martial, such delivery, if followed by conviction, shall
be held to interrupt the execution of the sentence of the
court-martial, and the offender shall be returned to military
custody, after having answered to the civil authorities for his
offense, for the completion of the said court-martial sentence.


MISBEHAVIOR BEFORE THE ENEMY.

ART. 75. Any officer or soldier who misbehaves himself before
the enemy, runs away, or shamefully abandons or delivers up any
fort, post, camp, guard, or other command which it is his duty
to defend, or speaks words inducing others to do the like, or
casts away his arms or ammunition, or quits his post or colors
to plunder or pillage, or by any means whatsoever occasions false
alarms in camp, garrison, or quarters, shall suffer death or
such other punishment as a court-martial may direct.


SUBORDINATES COMPELLING COMMANDER TO SURRENDER.

ART. 76. If any commander of any garrison, fort, post, camp,
guard, or other command is compelled by the officers or soldiers
under his command to give it up to the enemy or to abandon it,
the officers or soldiers so offending shall suffer death or such
other punishment as a court-martial may direct.


IMPROPER USE OF COUNTERSIGN.

ART. 77. Any person subject to military law who makes known the
parole or countersign to any person not entitled to receive it
according to the rules and discipline of war, or gives a parole
or countersign different from that which he received, shall, if
the offense be committed in time of war, suffer death or such
other punishment as a court-martial may direct.


FORCING A SAFEGUARD.

ART. 78. Any person subject to military law who, in time of war,
forces a safeguard shall suffer death or such other punishment
as a court-martial may direct.


CAPTURED PROPERTY TO BE SECURED FOR PUBLIC SERVICE.

ART. 79. All public property taken from the enemy is the property
of the United States and shall be secured for the service of the
United States, and any person subject to military law who neglects
to secure such property or is guilty of wrongful application
thereof shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.


DEALING IN CAPTURED OR ABANDONED PROPERTY.

ART. 80. Any person subject to military law who buys, sells,
trades, or in any way deals in or disposes of captured or abandoned
property, whereby he shall receive or expect any profit, benefit, or
advantage to himself or to any other person directly or indirectly
connected with himself, or who falls whenever such property comes
into his possession or custody or within his control to give notice
thereof to the proper authority and to turn over such property to
the proper authority without delay, shall, on conviction thereof,
be punished by fine or imprisonment, or by such other punishment as
a court-martial, military commission, or other military tribunal
may adjudge, or by any or all of said penalties.


RELIEVING, CORRESPONDING WITH, OR AIDING THE ENEMY.

ART. 81. Whosoever relieves the enemy with arms, ammunition,
supplies, money, or other thing, or knowingly harbors or protects
or holds correspondence with or gives intelligence to the enemy,
either directly or indirectly, shall suffer death, or such other
punishment as a court-martial or military commission may direct.


SPIES.

ART. 82. Any person who in time of war shall be found lurking
or acting as a spy in or about any of the fortifications, posts,
quarters, or encampments of any of the armies of the United States,
or elsewhere, shall be tried by a general court-martial or by a
military commission, and shall, on conviction thereof, suffer
death.


MILITARY PROPERTY--WILLFUL OR NEGLIGENT LOSS, DAMAGE, OR WRONGFUL
DISPOSITION OF.

ART. 83. Any person subject to military law who willfully or
through neglect suffers to be lost, spoiled, damaged, or wrongfully
disposed of any military property belonging to the United States
shall make good the loss or damage and suffer such punishment
as a court-martial may direct.


WASTE OR UNLAWFUL DISPOSITION OF MILITARY PROPERTY ISSUED TO
SOLDIERS.

ART. 84. Any soldier who sells or wrongfully disposes of or willfully
or through neglect injures or loses any horse, arms, ammunition,
accouterments, equipments, clothing, or other property issued for
use in the military service shall be punished as a court-martial
may direct.


DRUNK ON DUTY.

ART. 85. Any officer who is found drunk on duty shall, if the
offense be committed in time of war, be dismissed from the service
and suffer such other punishment as a court-martial may direct;
and if the offense be committed in time of peace he shall be
punished as a court-martial may direct. Any person subject to
military law, except un officer, who is found drunk on duty shall
be punished as a court-martial may direct.


MISBEHAVIOR OF SENTINEL.

ART. 86. Any sentinel who is found drunk or sleeping upon his
post, or who leaves it before he is regularly relieved, shall,
if the offense be committed in time of war, suffer death or such
other punishment as a court-martial may direct; and if the offense
be committed in time of pence he shall suffer any punishment,
except death, that a court-martial may direct.


PERSONAL INTEREST IN SALE OF PROVISIONS.

ART. 87. Any officer commanding in any garrison, fort, barracks,
camp, or other place where troops of the United States may be serving
who, for his private advantage, lays any duty or imposition upon
or is interested in the sale of any victuals or other necessaries
of life brought into such garrison, fort, barracks, camp, or
other place for the use of the troops, shall be dismissed from
the service and suffer such other Punishment as a court-martial
may direct.


INTIMIDATION OF PERSONS BRINGING PROVISIONS.

ART. 88. Any person subject to military law who abuses, intimidates,
does violence to, or wrongfully interferes with any person bringing
provisions, supplies, or other necessaries to the camp, garrison,
or quarters of the forces of the United States shall suffer such
punishment as a court-martial may direct.


GOOD ORDER TO BE MAINTAINED AND WRONGS REDRESSED.

ART. 89. All persons subject to military law are to behave themselves
orderly in quarters, garrison, camp, and on the march; and any
person subject to military law who commits any waste or spoil,
or willfully destroys any property whatsoever (unless by order
of his commanding officer), or commits any kind of depredation
or riot, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. Any
commanding officer who, upon complaint made to him, refuses or
omits to see reparation made to the party injured, in so far as
the offender's pay shall go toward such reparation, as provided
for in article 105, shall be dismissed from the service or otherwise
punished as a court-martial may direct.


PROVOKING SPEECHES OR GESTURES

ART. 90. No person subject to military law shall use any reproachful
or provoking speeches or gestures to another; and any person
subject to military law who offends against the provisions of
this article shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.


DUELING.

ART. 91. Any person subject to military law who fights or promotes
or is concerned in or connives at fighting a duel, or who having
knowledge of a challenge sent or about to be sent fails to report
the fact promptly to the proper authority, shall, if an officer,
be dismissed from the service or suffer such other punishment
as a court-martial may direct; and if any other person subject
to military law shall suffer such punishment as a court-martial
may direct.


MURDER-RAPE.

ART. 92. Any person subject to military law who commits murder
or rape shall suffer death or imprisonment for life, as a
court-martial may direct; but no person shall be tried by
court-martial for murder or rape committed within the geographical
limits of the States of the Union and the District of Columbia
in time of peace.


VARIOUS CRIMES.

ART. 93. Any person subject to military law who commits manslaughter,
mayhem, arson, burglary, robbery, larceny, embezzlement, perjury,
assault with intent to commit any felony, or assault with intent
to do bodily harm, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.


FRAUDS AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT.

ART. 94. Any person subject to military law who makes or causes
to be made any claim against the United States or any officer
thereof, knowing such claim to be false or fraudulent; or

Who presents or causes to be presented to any person in the civil
or military service thereof, for approval or payment, any claim
against the United States or any officer thereof, knowing such
claim to be false or fraudulent; or

Who enters into any agreement or conspiracy to defraud the United
States by obtaining, or aiding others to obtain, the allowance
or payment of any false or fraudulent claim; or

Who, for the purpose of obtaining, or aiding others to obtain,
the approval, allowance, or payment of any claim against the
United States or against any officer thereof, makes or uses,
or procures, or advises the making or use of, any writing or
other paper, knowing the same to contain any false or fraudulent
statements; or

Who, for the purpose of obtaining, or aiding others to obtain,
the approval, allowance, or payment of any claim against the
United States or any officer thereof, makes, or procures, or
advises the making of, any oath to any fact or to any writing
or other paper, knowing such oath to be false; or

Who, for the purpose of obtaining, or aiding others to obtain,
the approval, allowance, or payment of any claim against the
United States or any officer thereof, forges or counterfeits,
or procures, or advises the forging or counterfeiting of any
signature upon any writing or other paper, or uses, or procures,
or advises the use of any such signature, knowing the same to
be forged or counterfeited; or

Who, having charge, possession, custody, or control of any money
or other property of the United States, furnished or intended
for the military service thereof, knowingly delivers, or causes
to be delivered, to any person having authority to receive the
same, any amount thereof less than that for which he receives
a certificate or receipt; or

Who, being authorized to make or deliver any paper certifying
the receipt of any property of the United States furnished or
intended for the military service thereof, makes or delivers
to any person such writing, without having full knowledge of
the truth of the statements therein contained and with intent
to defraud the United States; or

Who steals, embezzles, knowingly and willfully misappropriates,
applies to his own use or benefit, or wrongfully or knowingly
sells or disposes of any ordnance, arms, equipments, ammunition,
clothing, subsistence stores, money, or other property of the
United States furnished or intended for the military service
thereof; or

Who knowingly purchases or receives in pledge for any obligation
or indebtedness from any soldier, officer, or other person who is
a part of or employed in said forces or service, any ordnance,
arms, equipment, ammunition, clothing, subsistence stores, or
other property of the United States, such soldier, officer, or
other person not having lawful right to sell or pledge the same;

Shall, on conviction thereof, be punished by fine or imprisonment,
or by such other punishment as a court-martial may adjudge, or
by any or all of said penalties. And if any person, being guilty
of any of the offenses aforesaid while in the military service
of the United States, receives his discharge or is dismissed
from the service, he shall continue to be liable to be arrested
and held for trial and sentence by a court-martial in the same
manner and to the same extent as if he had not received such
discharge nor been dismissed.


CONDUCT UNBECOMING AN OFFICER AND GENTLEMAN.

ART. 95. Any officer or cadet who is convicted of conduct unbecoming
an officer and a gentleman shall be dismissed from the service.


GENERAL ARTICLE.

ART. 96. Though not mentioned in these articles, all disorders and
neglects to the prejudice of good order and military discipline,
all conduct of a nature to bring discredit upon the military
service, and all crimes or offenses not capital of which persons
subject to military law may be guilty shall be taken cognizance
of by a general or special or summary court-martial, according
to the nature and degree of the offense, and punished at the
discretion of such court.


DISCIPLINARY POWERS OF COMMANDING OFFICERS.

ART. 104. Under such regulations as the President may prescribe,
and which he may from time to time revoke, alter, or add to,
the commanding officer of any detachment, company, or higher
command may, for minor offences not denied by the accused, impose
disciplinary punishments upon persons of his command without
the intervention of a court-martial, unless the accused demands
trial by court-martial.

The disciplinary punishments authorized by this article may include
admonition, reprimand, withholding of privileges, extra fatigue,
and restriction to certain specified limits, but shall not include
forfeiture of pay or confinement under guard. A person punished
under authority fit this article who deems his punishment unjust
or disproportionate to the offense may, through the proper channel,
appeal to the next superior authority, but may in the meantime
be required to undergo the punishment adjudged. The commanding
officer who imposes the punishment, his successor in command,
and superior authority shall have power to mitigate or remit
any unexecuted portion of the punishment. The imposition and
enforcement of disciplinary punishment under authority of this
article for any act or omission shall not be a bar to trial by
court-martial for a crime or offense growing out of the same
act or omission; but the fact that a disciplinary punishment
has been enforced may be shown by the accused upon trial, and
when so shown shall be considered in determining the measure of
punishment to be adjudged in the event of a finding of guilty.


REDRESS OF INJURIES TO PERSON OR PROPERTY.

ART. 105. Whenever complaint is made to any commanding officer
that damage has been done to the property of any person or that
his property has been wrongfully taken by persons subject to
military law, such complaint shall be investigated by a board
consisting of any number of officers from one to three, which
board shall be convened by the commanding officer and shall have,
for the purpose of such investigation, power to summon witnesses
and examine them upon oath or affirmation, to receive depositions
or other documentary evidence, and to assess the damages sustained
against the responsible parties. The assessment of damages made
by such board shall be subject to the approval of the commanding
officer, and in the amount approved by him shall be stopped against
the pay of the offenders. And the order of such commanding officer
directing stoppages herein authorized shall be conclusive on any
disbursing officer for the payment by him to the injured parties
of the stoppages so ordered.

Where the offenders can not be ascertained but the organization
or detachment to which they belong is known, stoppages to the
amount of damages inflicted may be made and assessed in such
proportion as may be deemed just upon the individual members
thereof who are shown to have been present with such organization
or detachment at the time the damages complained of were inflicted,
as determined by the approved findings of the board.


ARREST OF DESERTERS BY CIVIL OFFICIALS.

ART. 106. It shall be lawful for any civil officer having authority
under the laws of the United States, or of any State, Territory,
District, or possession of the United States, to arrest offenders,
summarily to arrest a deserter from the military service of the
United States and deliver him into the custody of the military
authorities of the United States.


SOLDIERS TO MAKE GOOD TIME LOST.

ART. 107. Every soldier who in an existing or subsequent enlistment
deserts the service of the United States or without proper authority
absents himself from his organization, station, or duty for more
than one day, or who is confined for more than one day under
sentence, or while awaiting trial and disposition of his case,
if the trial results in conviction, or through the intemperate
use of drugs or alcoholic liquor, or through disease or injury
the result at his own misconduct, renders himself unable for more
than one day to perform duty, shall be liable to serve, after
his return to a full-duty status, for such period as shall, with
the time he may have served prior to such desertion, unauthorized
absence, confinement, or inability to perform duty, amount to
the full term of that part of his enlistment period which he is
required to serve with his organization before being furloughed
to the Army Reserve.


SOLDIERS--SEPARATION FROM THE SERVICE.

ART. 108. No enlisted man, lawfully inducted into the military
service of the United States, shall be discharged from said service
without a certificate of discharge, signed by a field officer of
the regiment or other organization to which the enlisted man
belongs or by the commanding officer when no such field officer
is present; and no enlisted man shall be discharged from said
service before his term of service has expired, except by order
of the President, the Secretary of War, the commanding officer
of a department, or by sentence of a general Court-martial.


OATH OF ENLISTMENT.

ART. 109. At the time of his enlistment every soldier shall take
the following oath or affirmation: "I, ----, do solemnly swear
(or affirm) that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the
United States of America; that I will serve them honestly and
faithfully against all their enemies whomsoever; and that I will
obey the orders of the President of the United States and the
orders of the officers appointed over me, according to the Rules
and Articles of War," This oath or affirmation may be taken before
any officer.



CHAPTER XV.

ENGLISH-FRENCH VOCABULARY.


COMMON WORDS.

Afternoon (this)  . . . . . . Cet après-midi.
Army (an) . . . . . . . . . . Une armée.
Bandage . . . . . . . . . . . Un bandage.
Bath  . . . . . . . . . . . . Un bain.
Bayonet . . . . . . . . . . . Une baïonnette.
Bed . . . . . . . . . . . . . Un lit.
Blanket . . . . . . . . . . . Une couverture
Boy . . . . . . . . . . . . . Un garçon.
Bullet  . . . . . . . . . . . Une balle.
                              un pruneau (soldier slang).
Camp  . . . . . . . . . . . . Un camp.
                              Un campement.
Cartridge . . . . . . . . . . Une cartouche.
Child . . . . . . . . . . . . Un enfant.
                              Une enfant.
Cook  . . . . . . . . . . . . Un cuisinier.
                              Un cuistot (slang).
                              Une Cuisinière (fem.).
Dance . . . . . . . . . . . . Un bal.
                              Une danse (one dance).
Dark  . . . . . . . . . . . . Obscur.
Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . Un jour.
Dead  . . . . . . . . . . . . Mort.
Deserter  . . . . . . . . . . Un déserteur.
Door  . . . . . . . . . . . . Une porte.
Farm  . . . . . . . . . . . . Une ferme.
Firearms  . . . . . . . . . . Des armes à feu.
Field gun . . . . . . . . . . Une pièce de campagne.
Flag  . . . . . . . . . . . . Un drapeau.
                              Un étendard (standard).
Forest  . . . . . . . . . . . Une forêt.
                              Un bois (woods).
                              Un boqueteau (clump of trees).
Friend  . . . . . . . . . . . Un ami.
                              Une amie.
Girl  . . . . . . . . . . . . Une jeune fille.
Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . Un guide.
Gun . . . . . . . . . . . . . Un fusil.
Halt! . . . . . . . . . . . . Halte!
Hand  . . . . . . . . . . . . Une main.
Hat . . . . . . . . . . . . . Un chapeau.
                              Un képi (cap).
                              Un casque (helmet).
                              Un feutre (campaign hat).
Head  . . . . . . . . . . . . La tête.
Headquarters  . . . . . . . . Le quartier-général.
Horse . . . . . . . . . . . . Un cheval.
Interpreter . . . . . . . . . Un interprète.
Knife . . . . . . . . . . . . Un couteau.
Lake  . . . . . . . . . . . . Un lac.
Man . . . . . . . . . . . . . Un homme.
Meat  . . . . . . . . . . . . De la viande.
Name  . . . . . . . . . . . . Un nom.
Night . . . . . . . . . . . . La nuit.
Noon  . . . . . . . . . . . . Midi.
Machine gun . . . . . . . . . Une mitrailleuse.
Mess call . . . . . . . . . . La soupe.
Password  . . . . . . . . . . Le mot de passe.
Pay . . . . . . . . . . . . . Le prêt (enlisted men).
                              La solde (officers).
Prisoner  . . . . . . . . . . Un prisonnier.
Recruit . . . . . . . . . . . Une recrue.
                              Un bleu (slang).
                              Un bleuet (slang).
                              Un blanc-bec (slang).
Restaurant  . . . . . . . . . Un restaurant.
                              Un cafe.
Road  . . . . . . . . . . . . Un chemin.
                              Une route.
Retreat . . . . . . . . . . . La retraite.
Reveille  . . . . . . . . . . Le réveil.
                              La diane.
Saber . . . . . . . . . . . . Un sabre.
Saddle  . . . . . . . . . . . Une selle.
Shoe  . . . . . . . . . . . . Des chaussures (shoes in general).
                              Des souliers (low shoes).
                              Des bottines (high shoes).
                              Des brodequins (marching shoes).
Shotgun . . . . . . . . . . . Un fusil de cirasse
Sick  . . . . . . . . . . . . Malade.
Soup  . . . . . . . . . . . . Une soup.
                              Un potage.
Spy . . . . . . . . . . . . . Un espion.
Supper  . . . . . . . . . . . Le sourer.
Sword . . . . . . . . . . . . Une épée.
Tent  . . . . . . . . . . . . Une tente.
Shelter tent  . . . . . . . . Une tente-abri.


NUMERALS.

One . . . . . . . . . . . . . Un, une.
Two . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deux.
Three . . . . . . . . . . . . Trois.
Four  . . . . . . . . . . . . Quatre.
Five  . . . . . . . . . . . . Cinq(pronounce _sank_).
Six . . . . . . . . . . . . . Six (pronounce _cease_).
Seven . . . . . . . . . . . . Sept (pronounce _set_).
Eight . . . . . . . . . . . . Huit (pronounce _weet_).
Nine  . . . . . . . . . . . . Neuf.
Ten . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dix (pronounce _deess_)
Eleven  . . . . . . . . . . . Onze.
Twelve  . . . . . . . . . . . Douze.
Thirteen  . . . . . . . . . . Treize.
Fourteen  . . . . . . . . . . Quatorze.
Fifteen . . . . . . . . . . . Quinze.
Sixteen . . . . . . . . . . . Seize.
Seventeen . . . . . . . . . . Dix-sept.
Eighteen  . . . . . . . . . . Dix-huit.
Nineteen  . . . . . . . . . . Dix-neuf.
Twenty  . . . . . . . . . . . Vingt (pronounce _vant_.)
Twenty-one  . . . . . . . . . Vingt-et-un.
Thirty  . . . . . . . . . . . Trente.
Thirty-one  . . . . . . . . . Trente-et-un.
Thirty-two  . . . . . . . . . Trente-deux.
Forty . . . . . . . . . . . . Quarante.
Fifty . . . . . . . . . . . . Cinquante.
Sixty . . . . . . . . . . . . Soixante.
Seventy . . . . . . . . . . . Soixante-dix.
Seventy-one . . . . . . . . . Soixante-et-onze.
Seventy-two . . . . . . . . . Soixante-douze.
Eighty  . . . . . . . . . . . Quatre-vingt.
Eighty-one  . . . . . . . . . Quatre-vingt-un.
Ninety  . . . . . . . . . . . Quatre-vingt-dix.
Ninety-one  . . . . . . . . . Quatre-vingt-onze.
One hundred . . . . . . . . . Cent.
One hundred and one . . . . . Cent un.
Two hundred . . . . . . . . . Deux cents.
Two hundred and one . . . . . Deux cent un.
One thousand  . . . . . . . . Mille.
Two thousand  . . . . . . . . Deux mille.
One thousand one hundred  . . Mille cent; onze cents.
Thousands of soldiers . . . . Des milliers de soldats.
A million . . . . . . . . . . Un million.
Two million men . . . . . . . Deux millions d'hommes.
A score . . . . . . . . . . . Une vingtaine.
About forty men . . . . . . . Une quarantaine d'hommes.
Hundreds of men . . . . . . . Des centaines d'hommes.


CURRENCY, MEASURES, AND WEIGHTS.

1 cent  . . . . . . . . . . . Un sou; cinq centimes.
10 cents  . . . . . . . . . . Dix sous; cinquante centimes.
20 cents (about)  . . . . . . Un francs.
1 dollar  . . . . . . . . . . Cinq francs.

(The French have gold pieces of 10 francs and 20 francs; bank
notes of 50 francs, 100 francs, and higher. The gold pieces are
probably replaced by bank notes now.)

1 meter (1.0936 yards)  . . . Un mètre.
1 kilometer (0.62138 mile)  . Un kilomètre.

NOTE:--For all ordinary purposes, the "kilomètre" = 5/8 of a mile;
the "centimètre"--4/10 of an inch.

1 league (2.48552 miles)  . . Une lieue.
1 hectare (2.4711 acres)  . . Un hectare.
1 gram (15.43239 grains troy) Un gramme.
1 kilogram (2.204621 pounds
  avoirdupois)  . . . . . . . Un kilogramme.
220.46 pounds avoirdupois . . Un quintal; 100 kilos.
2,204.6 pounds avoirdupois  . Une tonne; 1,000 kilos.

(Coal is sold by the _tonne_; grain and hay by the
_quintal_. Dix quintaux de blé, de foin = 10 quintals of
grain, of hay.)

1,0567 quart (liquid) . . . . Un litre.
26.417 gallons  . . . . . . . Un hectolitre.
0.9081 quart (dry)  . . . . . Un litre.
2.8379 bushels  . . . . . . . Un hectolitre.

(The _litre_, which is the principal unit of both fluid
and dry measures, is the contents of 1 cubic _décimètre_
(décimètre = 1/10 mètre).)


DAYS, MONTHS, AND SEASONS.

Sunday  . . . . . . . . . . . Dimanche.
Monday  . . . . . . . . . . . Lundi.
Tuesday . . . . . . . . . . . Mardi.
Wednesday . . . . . . . . . . Mercredi.
Thursday  . . . . . . . . . . Jeudi.
Friday  . . . . . . . . . . . Vendredi.
Saturday  . . . . . . . . . . Samedi.
January . . . . . . . . . . . Janvier.
February  . . . . . . . . . . Février.
March . . . . . . . . . . . . Mars.
April . . . . . . . . . . . . Avril.
May . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mai.
June  . . . . . . . . . . . . Juin.
July  . . . . . . . . . . . . Juillet.
August  . . . . . . . . . . . Août (pronounce _oo_).
September . . . . . . . . . . Septembre.
October . . . . . . . . . . . Octobre.
November  . . . . . . . . . . Novembre.
December  . . . . . . . . . . Décembre.
The seasons . . . . . . . . . Les saisons.
Winter  . . . . . . . . . . . L'hiver.
Spring  . . . . . . . . . . . Le printemps.
Summer  . . . . . . . . . . . L'été.
Fall  . . . . . . . . . . . . L'automne.
Year  . . . . . . . . . . . . Un an; une année.
Month . . . . . . . . . . . . Un mois.
Week  . . . . . . . . . . . . Un semaine.
Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . Un jour.
Hour  . . . . . . . . . . . . Un heure.
Minute  . . . . . . . . . . . Un minute.
Second  . . . . . . . . . . . Une seconde.


COMMON PHRASES.

Good morning, sir, madam,  \  Bonjour, monsieur, madame,
  miss. Good afternoon     /    mademoiselle.
Good evening, sir . . . . . . Bonsoir, monsieur.
Good night, sir . . . . . . . Bonne nuit, monsieur.
Pardon me . . . . . . . . . . Pardon; je vous demande pardon.
Don't mention it  . . . . . . Je vous en prie.
How do you do?  . . . . . . . Comment allez-vous?
                              Comment ça va?
                              Comment vous portez-voue?
Very well, thank you  . . . . Très bien, merci.
                              Je vais bien, merci.
                              Ça va bien, merci.
                              Je me porte bien, merci.
Do not trouble yourself . . . Ne vous gênez pas.
                              Ne vous dérangez pas.
I am very glad to see you . . Je suis bien aise de vous voir.
                              Je suis content (heureux) de
                                vous voir.
What time is it?  . . . . . . Quelle heure est-it?
It is 10 o'clock  . . . . . . Il est dix heures.
Take care; look out . . . . . Prenez garde
Do not bother me  . . . . . . Ne me dérangez pas.
Stop here . . . . . . . . . . Arrêtez-vous ici.
Does Mr. -- live here?  . . . M. -- demeure-t-il ici?
Come in . . . . . . . . . . . Entrez.
You are very kind . . . . . . Voue êtes très aimable.
At what time does the first . A quelle heure part le premier
  train start?                  train?
What is the name of this  . . Comment s'appelle cette station
  station?                      (gare)?
I want  . . . . . . . . . . . Je désire; Je veux (stronger).
I do not want it  . . . . . . Je n'en veux pas.
Let me know what I owe you  . Dites-moi ce que je vous dois.
Are you not mistaken? . . . . Ne faites-vous pas erreur?
                              Ne vous trompez-vous pas?
Please give me  . . . . . . . Veuillez me donner.
Move on . . . . . . . . . . . Avancez.
                              Circulez. (Policeman.)
I want something to eat . . . Je désire quelque chose à manger.
Where is it?  . . . . . . . . Où est-ce?
Go and look for it  . . . . . Allez le chercher.
Take this letter to the . . . Portez cette lettre à la poste.
  post office
How much is it? . . . . . . . Combien?
                              Combien cela coûte-t-il?
It is dear  . . . . . . . . . C'est cher.
Thank you . . . . . . . . . . Merci.
                              Je vous en remercie.
Don't mention it  . . . . . . Il n'y a pas de quoi.
                              De rien.
Allow me to present my  . . . Permettez-moi de vous présénter
  friend ----                   mon ami ----.
I am glad to make your  . . . Je suis enchanté de faire votre
  acquaintance.                 connaissance.
How far is it?  . . . . . . . A quelle distance est-ce?
What can I do for you?  . . . Que puis-je faire pour vous?
Do you speak English? . . . . Parlez-vous anglais?
I do not speak French very  . Je ne parle pas très bien le
  well.                          français.
Where do you come from? . . . D'où venez-vous?
How did you come? . . . . . . Comment êtes-vous venu?
On foot, in a carriage, in  . A pied, eu voiture, en auto, en
 an auto, by rail, by boat,     chemin de fer, en bateau, à
 on a bicycle, on horseback,    bicyclette, à cheval,  en
 in an aeroplane.               aéroplane.


MILITARY TITLES, RANKS, AND GRADES.

General officers  . . . . . . Les officers généraux.
General Staff . . . . . . . . L'état-major général.
Field officers  . . . . . . . Les officers supérieurs.
Company officers  . . . . . . Les officers subalternes.
Enlisted men  . . . . . . . . Les hommes de troupe.
Noncommissioned officers  . . Les sous-officiers.
Private soldiers  . . . . . . Les simples soldats.
Colonel . . . . . . . . . . . Le colonel (addressed[14] as
                                "Mon colonel ").
Major . . . . . . . . . . . . Le commandant ("Mon commandant").
Captain . . . . . . . . . . . Le capitaine ("Mon capitaine").
                              Le piston (slang).
First lieutenant  . . . . . . Le lieutenant (en premier)
                                ("Mon lieutenant").
Second Lieutenant . . . . . . Le sous-lieutenant
                                ("Mon lieutenant").
A doctor  . . . . . . . . . . Un (médecin) major.
A sergeant  . . . . . . . . . Un sergent (addressed as
                                "Sergent").
                              Un maréchal des logis (mounted
                                service).
A corporal  . . . . . . . . . Un caporal ("Caporal").
                              Un brigadier (mounted service).
A private . . . . . . . . . . Un simple soldat.
A body of troops  . . . . . . Une troupe.
French troops . . . . . . . . Des troupes françaises.
A wagoner . . . . . . . . . . Un conducteur.
                              Un fourgonnier.
A horseshoer  . . . . . . . . Un maréchal-ferrant.
A saddler . . . . . . . . . . Un sellier.
A signaler  . . . . . . . . . Un signaleur.
A deserter  . . . . . . . . . Un déserteur.
A soldier of Infantry . . . . Un fantassin.
             Cavalry  . . . . Un cavalier.
             Artillery  . . . Un artilleur.
             Engineers  . . . Un sapeur-mineur.
        Quartermaster Corps . Un homme de l'intendance.
             Signal Corps . . Un homme du corps des signaux.
             Hospital Corps . Un infirmier.
     Line of Communications . Un garde des voies et
                                communications, G. V. C.
Infantry  . . . . . . . . . . L'infanterie.
Cavalry . . . . . . . . . . . La cavalarie.
Artillery . . . . . . . . . . L'artillerie.
Engineers . . . . . . . . . . Le genie.
Signal Corps  . . . . . . . . Le corps des signaux.
Hospital Corps  . . . . . . . Le corps de santé.
                              Le service de santé.
Aviation Corps  . . . . . . . Le corps d'aviation.

[Footnote 14: See note at the end of Chapter XV.]


MILITARY TERMS.

The headquarters  . . . . . . Le quartier général.
The train . . . . . . . . . . Le train des équipages.
Railway service . . . . . . . Le service des chemins de fer.
Telegraph service . . . . . . Le service des télégraphes.
Rural guards  . . . . . . . . La gendarmerie.
                              Des gendarmes.
A paymaster . . . . . . . . . Un trésorier.
A chaplain  . . . . . . . . . Un aumônier.
An army . . . . . . . . . . . Une armée.
General So-and-so's army  . . L'armée--(l'armée Foch).
An army corps . . . . . . . . Un corps d'armée.
A division  . . . . . . . . . Une division.
A brigade . . . . . . . . . . Une brigade.
A regiment  . . . . . . . . . Un régiment.
A battalion . . . . . . . . . Un bataillon.
A company . . . . . . . . . . Une compagnie.
A platoon . . . . . . . . . . Un peloton.
A section . . . . . . . . . . Une section.
A squad . . . . . . . . . . . Une escouade.
A detachment  . . . . . . . . Un détachement.
Barracks  . . . . . . . . . . Une caserne.
A camp  . . . . . . . . . . . Un camp (more or less permanent).
                              Un campement (temporary).
A cantonment  . . . . . . . . Un cantonnement.
Line  . . . . . . . . . . . . (Une) ligne.
Column  . . . . . . . . . . . (Une) colonne.
As skirmishers  . . . . . . . En tirailleurs.
Follow me, as skirmishers . . A moi, en tirailleurs.
Scouts  . . . . . . . . . . . Des éclaireurs.
A patrol  . . . . . . . . . . Une patrouille.
The advance guard . . . . . . L'avant-garde.
The rear guard  . . . . . . . L'arrière-garde.
Flankers  . . . . . . . . . . Des flanc-gardes.
The main body . . . . . . . . Le gros (de la colonne).
Combat train  . . . . . . . . Le train de combat.
Field train . . . . . . . . . Le train régimentaire.
Outposts  . . . . . . . . . . Des avant-postes.
Cossack posts . . . . . . . . Des avant-postes à la cosaque.
A sentinel  . . . . . . . . . Une sentinelle.
                              Un factionnaire.
On post . . . . . . . . . . . En faction.
                              De faction.
Guard mounting  . . . . . . . La garde montante (also _new_
                                _guard_).
The sentinel challenges:      \ La sentinelle crie: "Halte!
  "Halt! Who's there?"        /   Qui vive?"
The answer is "France"  . . . La réponse est: "France".
Advance with the countersign  Avance au ralliement.

(The person challenged gives the _mot_d'ordre_, which is the
name of some general, and the sentinel replies with the _mot_de_
_ralliement_. which is the name of a battle or a city).

Go away; you can't pass . . . (Passe) au large.
Halt, or I fire . . . . . . . Halte, ou je fais feu.
Put down your arms  . . . . . Déposez vos armes.
Hands up! . . . . . . . . . . Levez les bras.
Face about  . . . . . . . . . (Faites) demi-tour.
Come here . . . . . . . . . . Venez ici.
A spy . . . . . . . . . . . . Un espion.
A flag of truce . . . . . . . Un drapeau blanc.
                              Un drapeau parlementaire.


UNIFORM, ARMS, CLOTHING, AND EQUIPMENT.

Clothing  . . . . . . . . . . Les vêtements, l'habillement.
Change your clothes . . . . . Changez de vêtement.
Overcoat (worn by French
  infantry) . . . . . . . . . Une capote.
Trouser . . . . . . . . . . . Un pantalon.
Breeches  . . . . . . . . . . Une culotte.
Shirt . . . . . . . . . . . . Une chemise.
Blouse  . . . . . . . . . . . Un dolman, une vareuse.
Cap . . . . . . . . . . . . . Un képi.
Campaign hat (United States)  Un (chapeau de) feutre.
Helmet  . . . . . . . . . . . Un casque (de tranchée).
Cap without visor worn by
  French off duty . . . . . . Un bonnet de police.
Tam-o'-Shanter worn by Alpine
  chasseurs . . . . . . . . . Un béret.
Shoes in general  . . . . . . Des chaussures.
Service shoes . . . . . . . . Des brodequins.
Leggins . . . . . . . . . . . Des guêtres.
Wrap putties  . . . . . . . . Des bandes molletières.
Leather putties . . . . . . . Des houseaux (or housseaux).
Full-dress uniform  . . . . . La grande tenue.
Dress uniform . . . . . . . . La petite tenue.
Field uniform . . . . . . . . La tenue de campagne.
Overcoat (mounted men)  . . . Un manteau.
Overcoat (officers) . . . . . Un manteau.
                              Un manteau-capote.
Fatigue coat  . . . . . . . . Le bourgeron.
Fatigue trousers (overalls) . Un pantalon de treillis.
Fatigue uniform . . . . . . . La tenue de corvée.
Magazine rifle  . . . . . . . Un fusil à répétition.
The barrel  . . . . . . . . . Le canon.
The bolt  . . . . . . . . . . Le verrou.
The ramrod  . . . . . . . . . La baguette.
The butt  . . . . . . . . . . La crosse.
The gun sling . . . . . . . . La bretelle.
The trigger . . . . . . . . . La détente.
Rear sight  . . . . . . . . . La hausse.
Front sight . . . . . . . . . Le guidon.
A bayonet . . . . . . . . . . Une baïonnette.
                              Rosalie (slang).
Ball cartridge  . . . . . . . Une cartouche à balle.
Blank cartridge . . . . . . . Une cartouche à blanc.
Dummy cartridge . . . . . . . Une fausse cartouche.
Belt  . . . . . . . . . . . . Un ceinturon.
Cartridge box . . . . . . . . Une cartouchière.
First-aid packet  . . . . . . Un paquet de pansement.
The pack  . . . . . . . . . . Le sac.
A haversack . . . . . . . . . Un étui-musette.
Canteen . . . . . . . . . . . Un bidon.
Tin cup . . . . . . . . . . . Un quart.
Mess can  . . . . . . . . . . Une gamelle.
Equipment . . . . . . . . . . L'équipement.
Compass . . . . . . . . . . . Une boussole.
Field glasses . . . . . . . . Des jumelles (de campagne).
Whistle . . . . . . . . . . . Un sifflet.
Revolver  . . . . . . . . . . Un revolver.


QUESTIONS ABOUT THE ROADS, ETC.

Pardon me, sir, do you speak  / Pardon,  monsieur, parlez-vous
  English?  . . . . . . . . . \   anglais?
(German, French, Italian      (Allemand, français, italien,
  Russian). . . . . . . . . .    russe).
All right, then show me,      / Très bien, alors indiquez-moi;
  please, the road to --  . . \   je vous prie, le chemin de --
Is it far from here?  . . . . Est-ce loin d'ici?
How long does it take to go   Combien faut-il de temps pour y
 there? . . . . . . . . . . .   aller?
How many kilomètres . . . . . Combien de kilomètres?
Is there a short cut? (road)  Y a-t-il un chemin de traverse?
Is there a short cut? (trail) Y a-t-il un sentier plus court?
Where does this road go?  . . Où mène cette route?
Are we on the right road to   / Sommes-nous sur le bon chemin
  go to ----? . . . . . . . . \   pour aller à ----?
Does this road go through     / Cette route passe-t-elle par
  Compiègne?  . . . . . . . . \   Compiègne?
Shall we find any villages on / Trouverons-nous des villages
  our road? . . . . . . . . . \   sur notre chemin?
Are there any other roads     / Y a-t-il d'autres chemins pour
  going to ----?  . . . . . . \   aller à ----?
Is this road in good
  condition?  . . . . . . . . Cette route est-elle en bon état?
Are there hills?  . . . . . . Y a-t-il des côtes (des coteaux)?
Are they steep? . . . . . . . Sont-elles raides?
Does the road go through      La route traverse-t-elle un pays
  open or wooded country? . .   découvert ou boisé?
Can we get through with       Peut-on passer avec de
  artillery?  . . . . . . . .   l'artillerie?
Can we get through with       / Peut-on passer avec de grosses
  heavily loaded wagons       |   voitures chargées (avec des
  (auto trucks)               \   camions-automobiles)?
Is this road practicable for  / Cette route est-elle praticable
  artillery?  . . . . . . . . \    pour l'artillerie?
Can infantry march on the     / L'infanterie peut-elle marcher
  sides of the roads? . . . . \    sur les côtés de la route?
Is the ground practicable?  . Le terrain est-il praticable?
Is the ground marshy? . . . . Le terrain est-il marécageux?
What is the nature of the
   ground?  . . . . . . . . . Quelle est la nature du sol?
Does the telegraph line       / Est-ce que la ligne télégraphique
  follow this road as far     |   (le télégraphe) suit cette
  as X                        \   route jusqu'à X?
Where does your railroad come
  from? . . . . . . . . . . . D'où vient votre chemin de fer?
Where does it go to?  . . . . Où va-t-il?
Is it single tracked or       / Est-il à une voie ou à deux voies
  double tracked the whole    |   sur tout le parcours?
  way?  . . . . . . . . . . . \
Where is the station? is it
   Far? . . . . . . . . . . . Où est la gare? Est-elle loin d'ici?
How can the river be crossed? Comment peut-on passer la rivière?
Is there a bridge? a ferry? . Y a-t-il un pont? un bac?
Are there fords?  . . . . . . Y a-t-il des passages à gué
                                (des gués)?
Can we get boats? . . . . . . Peut-on trouver des bateaux?
In that wood are there        / Dans ce bois, y a-t-il des
  clearings, ravines, brooks, |   clairières, des ravins, des
  marshes, pools? . . . . . . \   ruisseaux, des mares?
Are there any places near     / Y a-t-il des endroits près d'ici
  here for watering horses? . \   pour abreuver les chevaux?
Is the water good?  . . . . . L'eau est-elle bonne?
Is this water drinkable?  . . Est-ce de l'eau potable?
Are there watering troughs? . Y a-t-il des abreuvoirs?
Where is there good grass for / Où y a-t-il de bonne herbe pour
  animals?  . . . . . . . . . \   les animaux?
Can we buy provisions?  . . . Peut-on acheter des vivres?
Is there a field where we     / Y a-t-il un champ où nous pouvons
  can camp? . . . . . . . . . |   camper (installer notre
                              \   campement)?
Can you give me any           / Pouvez-vous me donner des
 information about the enemy? \   renseignements sur l'ennemi?
Please find me a guide who    / Veuillez me trouver un guide qui
  knows the country?  . . . . \   connaisse le pays.
We are going to follow this
  trail (tracks)  . . . . . . Nous allons suivre cette piste.
Crossroads  . . . . . . . . . Un carrefour.


TOWNS.

Where is the post-office and  / Où est le bureau des postes et
  telegraph office? . . . . . \   télégraphes?
The postmaster  . . . . . . . / Le directeur des postes et
                              \   télégraphes.
The mail  . . . . . . . . . . Le courrier.
When was the last mail        / A quelle heure a-t-on fait la
  distributed?  . . . . . . . \   derrière distribution?
General delivery  . . . . . . Poste restante.
Are there any letters for --? Y a-t-il des lettres pour --?
I should like to send a       / Je voudrais expédier un
  telegram  . . . . . . . . . \   télégramme.
Have you received a telegram  / Avez-vous reçu un télégramme
  for ----? . . . . . . . . . \   (une dépêche) pour ----?
A telegraph instrument  . . . Un appareil (télégraphique).
Can you tell me where the     / Pourriez-vous me dire où se
  mayor's office is?  . . . . \   trouve la mairie?
I couldn't tell you; I am a   / Je ne saurais vous renseigner;
  stranger here . . . . . . . \   je ne connais pas la ville.
Good-morning, sir, are you    / Bonjour, Monsieur, êtes-vous
  the  mayor? . . . . . . . . \   le maire?
No, sir, I am his assistant . Non, Monsieur, je suis son adjoint.
I should like to speak to     / Je voudrais parler au maire
  the mayor himself . . . . . \   lui-même.
Listen, sir. A detachment     / Ecoutez, monsieur; Un détachement
  will arrive here to-morrow  |   arrivera ici demain matin à
  morning at 5 o'clock  . . . \   cinq heures.
Can you arrange to lodge      / Povez-vous prendre de
  2,000 men for two days? . . |   dispositions pour loger 2,000
                              \   hommes pendant deux jours?
A policeman . . . . . . . . . Un sergent de ville, un agent de
                                la paix.


RAILROADS.

The station agent . . . . . . Le chef de gare.
The conductor . . . . . . . . Le conducteur.
The engineer  . . . . . . . . Le mécanicien.
The fireman . . . . . . . . . Le chauffeur.
The brakeman  . . . . . . . . Le serre-freins.
The telegraph operator  . . . Le télégraphiste.
An engine . . . . . . . . . . Une locomotive.
Passenger cars  . . . . . . . Des wagons (de voyageurs).
Flat cars . . . . . . . . . . Des trucks.
Box cars  . . . . . . . . . . Des wagons de marchandises.
Stock cars  . . . . . . . . . Des wagons à bestiaux.
An express train  . . . . . . Un train express.
A through train . . . . . . . Un train direct.
A local train . . . . . . . . Un train omnibus.
A passenger train . . . . . . Un train de voyageurs.
A freight train . . . . . . . Un train de marchandises.
To entrain the troops . . . . Embarquer les troupes.
To detrain the troops . . . . Débarquer les troupes.
To get on a train . . . . . . Monter dans un train.
To get off a train  . . . . . Descendre d'un train.
The railroad track  . . . . . La-voie (ferrée).
A side track  . . . . . . . . Une voie de garage.
A ticket  . . . . . . . . . . Un billet.
A round trip ticket . . . . . Un billet d'aller et retour.
One way only  . . . . . . . . Aller seulement.
The ticket window . . . . . . Le guichet.
At what time does the Paris   / A quelle heure part le train
  train start?  . . . . . . . \   pour Paris?
It is late (15 minutes late)  Il est en retard (de quinze
                                minutes).
Do we have to change cars?  . Faut-il changer de train?
The train stops . . . . . . . Le train s'arrête.
All aboard! . . . . . . . . . En voiture!
The train starts  . . . . . . Le train s'ébranle.


RATIONS AND FOOD.

Provisions (in general) . . . Les vivre.
The ration  . . . . . . . . . La ration.
Fresh beef  . . . . . . . . . De la viande fraîche.
Bacon . . . . . . . . . . . . Du lard.
Flour . . . . . . . . . . . . De la farine.
Soft bread  . . . . . . . . . Du pain frais.
Hard bread (crackers) . . . . Du biscuit.
Field bread . . . . . . . . . Du pain de guerre.
Corn meal . . . . . . . . . . De la farine de maïs.
Coffee  . . . . . . . . . . . Du café.
Sugar . . . . . . . . . . . . Du sucre.
Eggs  . . . . . . . . . . . . Des oeufs.
Chickens  . . . . . . . . . . Des poulets.
Potatoes  . . . . . . . . . . Des pommes de terre.
Peas  . . . . . . . . . . . . Des pois.
String beans  . . . . . . . . Des haricots verts.
Vegetables (in general) . . . Des légumes.
An apple  . . . . . . . . . . Une pomme.
A pear  . . . . . . . . . . . Une poire.
A cherry  . . . . . . . . . . Une cerise.
A peach . . . . . . . . . . . Une pêche.
Cheese  . . . . . . . . . . . Du fromage.
Wine  . . . . . . . . . . . . Du vin.
Beer  . . . . . . . . . . . . De la bière.
A glass of beer . . . . . . . Un bock.
I am hungry . . . . . . . . . J'ai faim.
Bring me something to eat     Apportez-moi quelque chose à
  please  . . . . . . . . . .   manger, s'il vous-plaît.
I am thirsty  . . . . . . . . J'ai soif.
Please give me a glass of     Veuillez me donner un verre
  Water . . . . . . . . . . .   d'eau.
Waiter, I'll take a beefsteak Garçon, je désire un bifteck.
Some black coffee . . . . . . Du café noir.
Coffee with milk  . . . . . . Du café au lait.
Rolls . . . . . . . . . . . . Des petits pains.
Crescent rolls  . . . . . . . Des croissants.


HOSPITALS.

A field hospital  . . . . . . Une ambulance.
A hospital (in general) . . . Un hôpital (plural: des hôpitaux).
A dressing station  . . . . . Un poste de secours.
A first-aid dressing  . . . . Un pansement sommaire.
Red Cross . . . . . . . . . . La Croix Rouge.
A doctor  . . . . . . . . . . Un médecin.
                              Un docteur.
A surgeon . . . . . . . . . . Un chirurgien.
A military surgeon  . . . . . Un (médecin) major.
Assistant surgeon . . . . . . Un aide-major.
A male nurse, hospital corps
  man . . . . . . . . . . . . Un infirmier.
A female nurse  . . . . . . . Une infirmière.
An ambulance  . . . . . . . . Une ambulance.
A stretcher (litter)  . . . . Un brancard.
A litter bearer . . . . . . . Un brancardier.
A roll of bandages  . . . . . Un rouleau de bandage.
A first-aid packet  . . . . . Un paquet de pansement.
A wounded man . . . . . . . . Un blessé.
I am sick . . . . . . . . . . Je suis malade.
I have a fever  . . . . . . . J'ai la fièvre.
I have chills and fever . . . J'ai des frissons de fièvre.
I am constipated  . . . . . . Je suis constipé.
I have diarrhea . . . . . . . J'ai la diarrhée.


POINTS OF THE COMPASS.

North . . . . . . . . . . . . Le nord.
South . . . . . . . . . . . . Le sud.
East  . . . . . . . . . . . . L'est.
West  . . . . . . . . . . . . L'ouest.
Northeast . . . . . . . . . . Le nord-est.
Southeast . . . . . . . . . . Le sud-est.
Northwest . . . . . . . . . . Le nord-ouest.
Southwest . . . . . . . . . . Le sud-ouest.


TRENCH WARFARE.

Trench warfare  . . . . . . . La guerre des tranchées.
                              La guerre de position.
                              La guerre de taupe (_moles_).
Trench  . . . . . . . . . . . Une tranchée.
Communication trench  . . . . Un boyau (de communication).
The parapet . . . . . . . . . Le parapet.
A loophole  . . . . . . . . . Un créneau.
                              Une meurtrière.
A grenade . . . . . . . . . . Une grenade.
A grenadier, bomber . . . . . Un grenadier.
Barbed wire . . . . . . . . . Du fil de fer barbelé.
Barbed wire entanglement  . . Un réseau de fils de fer barbelés.
Trench mortar . . . . . . . . Un mortier.
                              Un crapouillaud.
                              _Minenwerfer_ (German).
Bomb  . . . . . . . . . . . . Une bombe.
Howitzer  . . . . . . . . . . Un obusier.
Machine gun . . . . . . . . . Une mitrailleuse.
Fieldpiece  . . . . . . . . . Une pièce de campagne.
75 millimeter field gun . . . Une pièce de soixante-quinze.
Siege gun . . . . . . . . . . Une piece de siège.
120 long  . . . . . . . . . . Cent vingt long.
120 short . . . . . . . . . . Cent vingt court.
77 (German) . . . . . . . . . Soixante-dix-sept (allemand).
Shell . . . . . . . . . . . . Un obus.
                              Une marmite (slang).
                              Un colis à domicile (slang).
Shrapnel  . . . . . . . . . . Un shrapnell.
                              Un rageur (slang).
Periscope . . . . . . . . . . Un périscope.
Trench knife  . . . . . . . . Un couteau de tranchée.
Dugout  . . . . . . . . . . . Un abri dans les tranchées.
                              Un cagibi (slang).
                              Une cagna (slang).
                              Un gourbi (slang).
                              Une guitoune (slang).

NOTE.--In addressing an officer of grade superior to his own, an
officer must use the possessive adjective; a senior addressing
a junior uses the title of the grade only. Thus: A major to a
colonel says "Mon colonel," but the colonel to the major would
say "Commandant."



APPENDIX.

FORM FOR LAST WILL AND TESTAMENT.

List Will and Testament

OF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


I, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
do make, publish, and declare this my last will and testament.

I give, devise, and bequeath to[15]  . . . . . . . . . . . .
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
And I do give, devise, and bequeath all the rest and residue
of my estate,  both real and personal, to  . . . . . . . . .
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
heirs and assigns forever[16]  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I hereby appoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . executor of
this my last will and testament, and I desire that . . . . .
shall not be required to give bond for the performance of that
office.

Witness my hand this[17] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
day of . . . . . . . . . . . . , 191
                                 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Signed, published, and declared by . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the
above-named testator, as and for his last will and testament,
in the presence of us, who, at his request and in his presence,
and in the presence of each other, have subscribed our names
as witnesses thereto.[18]

                       . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                           Residence:  . . . . . . . . . . .

                       . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                           Residence:  . . . . . . . . . . .

                       . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                           Residence:  . . . . . . . . . . .

[Footnote 15: Here insert specific legacies and devises.]

[Footnote 16: If the residue of the estate is given to several
persons, add here the manner in which it is to be divided, as
"in equal shares as tenants in common."]

[Footnote 17: If the will is made in Nevada, or if the testator
has real estate in that State, he should affix his seal.]

[Footnote 18: If the will is made in Louisiana, unless it is
wholly in the handwriting of the testator, there should be seven
witnesses and a notary at the "sealing up." If wholly in his
handwriting no formalities are required.]



INDEX.

Abbreviations on maps
Advance guards
Advance party of advance guard
Advice to riflemen
Aiming rifle
Alignments
Ammunition
Arm signals
Arms. (_See_ Field kit.)
Articles of War:
  Extracts from
  Reading
Assembling Infantry Equipment
Ball cartridges
Battle sight
Bayonet:
  Charge
  Description of
  Fix
  Unfix
Bayonet, manual of:
  Attacks
  Combat
  Combined movements
  Defenses
  Fencing exercises
  Foot movements
  General rules
  Instruction without bayonet
  Instruction with rifle
  Instruction without rifle
  Suggestions for fencing at will
Blank cartridges
Blanket roll
Blanks, message
Blisters
Bugle signals
Calling the shot
Camp:
  Making camp
  Service and duties
Care of feet
Care of rifle
Cartridges:
  Ball
  Blank
  Dummy
  Guard
Cleaning pistol
Cleaning rifle
Close order, company drill
Clothing. (_See_ Uniforms.)
Coast Artillery companies
Codes used in signaling
  General service code (International Morse code)
  Two-arm semaphore code
  Wig-wag code
  Letter codes--
    Cavalry
    Field Artillery
    Infantry
Combat
  Exercises
Commander of the guard
Commands, Infantry Drill Regulations
Company inspection
Company, school of:
  Close order drill--
    Alignment
    At ease and route step
    Facing or marching to the rear
    Front into line
    Movements on fixed pivot
    Movements on the moving pivot
    On right (left) into line
    Rules
    To diminish the front of a column of squads
    To dismiss company
    To form the company
  Division of company
  Extended order drill--
    Deployments
    Rules for deployment
    The advance
    The company acting alone
    The company in support
    The fire attack
  Fire--
    Classes of firing
    Fire control
    Fire direction
    Fire discipline
    General rules
    Ranges
    The target
  Instruction
  Position of officers, noncommissioned officers, guides, etc.
  Position of platoons and squads
Compliments from guards
Contours
Conventional signs on maps
Cooking, individual
Coordination in firing rifle
Corporal of the guard
Cossack post
Course in small-arms firing
Courtesies in conversation
Courtesy, military
Cover, use of
Datum plane on maps
Definition, Infantry Drill Regulations
Details and rosters, interior guards
Directions on maps
Discipline
  Fire discipline
Distances on maps
Drill (_See_ Infantry Drill Regulations):
  Close order
  Extended order
  General rules
Drill regulations, all arms
Dummy cartridges
Engineer companies
English-French vocabularies
Enlistment oath
Equipment:
  Assembling
  Part of
Extended order drill
Facings
Feet, care of
Field exercises
Field kit
Field message blanks
Field service:
  Advance guard
    Advance party
    Patrols
    Point
    Reserve
    Support
  Combat
  Flank guards
  Outposts--
    Cossack posts
    Duties of
    Line of observation
    Line of resistance
    March outpost
    Outguards
    Patrols
    Pickets
    Reserves
    Sentinels
    Sentry squads
    Supports
    Patrolling
    Principles of Infantry training
    Rear guards
    Rifle trenches
Field Service Regulations
Fire:
  Control
  Direction
  Ranges
  Rapid firing
  Targets
Firing positions
Firing with rests
First-aid rules
Flag signals
Flank guards
Formations, general rules
Forage ration
Form for last will and testament
French-English vocabulary
General service code
Grain ration
Ground forms on maps
Guard cartridges
Guard duty (extracts from Manual of Interior):
  Classification of interior guards
  Color sentinels
  Commander of the guard
  Compliments from guards
  Corporal of the guard
  Countersigns
  Details
  Flags
  Guard mounting
    Formal
    Informal
  Guard patrols
  Guarding prisoners
  Introduction
  Musician of the guard
  Orderlies
  Orders for sentinels
  Paroles
  Prisoners
  Privates of the guard
  Relieving the old guard
  Retreat gun
  Reveille gun
  Rosters
  Sergeant of the guard
  Watchmen
Guard mounting
  Formal
  Informal
Gun sling, use of
Hashures on map
Hygiene, personal
Individual cooking
  Recipes
Infantry Drill Regulations, extracts from:
  Company inspection
  Definitions
  General rules for drills and formations
  Introduction
  Manual of the bayonet
  Manual of tent pitching
  Orders, commands, and signals
  School of the company
  School of the soldier
  School of the squad
Infantry equipment, assembling
Infantry training principles
Insignia:
  Noncommissioned officers
  Officers
Inspection:
  Company
Interior guard duty, Manual of. (_See_ Guard duty.)
International Morse code
Intrenching tools
Kit. (_See_ Field kit; Service kit; Surplus kit.)
Laws governing Army
Line of observation
Line of resistance
Loading and firings
Loyalty
Making maps
Manual of arms
Manual of the Bayonet. (_See_ Bayonet, Manual of.)
Manual of Interior Guard Duty. (_See_ Guard duty.)
Manual of Tent Pitching. (_See_ Tent Pitching, Manual of.)
Maps:
  Abbreviations
  Contours
  Datum plane
  Directions
  Distances
  Ground forms
  Hashures
  Making (sketching)
  Orienting
  Reading
  Ridges
  Scales
  Signs
  Slopes
  Stream lines
  Valleys
  Vertical intervals
Marching
  Preparation for
Marksmanship, preliminary training
Message blanks
Metal fouling solution for cleaning rifle
Military courtesy
Morse, international code. (_See_ General service code.)
National Anthem
Noncommissioned officers:
  Corporal of guard
  Insignia
  Precedence
  Rank
  Sergeant of guard
Oath of enlistment
Obedience
Observation, line of. (_See_ Line of observation.)
Officers:
  Insignia
  Precedence
  Rank
Orders:
  How obeyed
  Infantry Drill Regulations
Orienting maps
Outguards
Outposts
Pack
  Close
  Open
Patrolling
Patrols:
  Advance guards
  Outpost
Peep sight
Personal hygiene
Pickets
Point of advance guard
Pistol:
  Cleaning
  Practice
Pivots:
  Turn on fixed
  Turn on moving
Position of the soldier
Precedence:
  Noncommissioned officers
  Officers
Principles of Infantry training
Prisoners
Privates of the guards
Range estimators
Rank:
  Noncommissioned officers
  Officers
Rapid firing
Rations:
  Carried on person
  Cooking
  Emergency
  Forage
  Grain
  Kinds of
Reading maps
Regulations, Army
Regulations, Drill, all arms
Regulations, Field Service
Regulations Governing Army
Relieving the old guard
Reserve:
  Of advance guard
  Of outpost
Resistance, line of. (_See_ Line of resistance.)
Rests
Retreat gun
Reveille gun
Revolver practice
Ridges on maps
Rifle:
  Aiming
  Battle sight
  Care of
  Cleaning
  Coordination in firing
  Description of
  Plate showing principal parts
  Sight adjustment
  Trenches
Rosters, interior guards
Rules (_see_ First-aid rules):
  General Rules for Drills and Formations
  Governing saluting
Salutes:
  Hand
  Rifle
  Saber
  Sentinels
Saluting
  Rules governing
Scales on maps
School of the company. (_See_ Company, school of.)
School of the soldier. (_See_ Soldier, school of.)
School of the squad. (_See_ Squad, school of.)
Semaphore, two-arm signaling code
Sentinels:
  Interior guard, orders for
  Of outpost
Sentry squad
Sergeant of the guard
Service kit
Shoes
Sights:
  Adjustment
  Battle sight
  Open sight
  Peep sight
  Table of sight corrections
Signalling, general instructions
Signal flags
Signals:
  Arm
  Bugle
  Enemy in sight
  Firing line and reserve
  Flag
  Other signals
  Sound
  Take cover
  Two arm semaphore
  Whistle
  Wig-wag
Sketching
Slopes on maps
Small-arms firing course
Socks
Soda solution for cleaning rifle
Soldier, school of:
  Duties of instructor
  Eyes right or left
  Facings
  Instruction without arms
  Manual of arms
  Position of the soldier on attention
  Rifle salute
  Salute with the hand
  Salute with saber
  Steps and marchings
    Back step
    Change step
    Quick time
    Side step
    The half step
    To halt
    To march by the flank
    To march to the rear
    To mark time
  The bayonet
  The inspection
  The rests
  To dismiss the squad
Solutions for cleaning rifle
Squad, school of:
  Alignments
  Instruction
  Kneeling and lying down
  Loadings and firings
  Observation
  The assembly
  The oblique march
  The use of cover
  To cease firing
  To deploy as skirmishers
  To fire at will
  To fire by clip
  To fire by volley
  To follow the corporal
  To form squad
  To increase or diminish intervals
  To load
  To set the sight
  To stack and take arms
  To suspend firing
  To take intervals and distance
  To turn on fixed pivot
  To turn on moving pivot
  To unload
Star-Spangled Banner
Steps and marchings
Streams lines on maps
Subsistence. (_See_ Rations.)
Support:
  Advance guard
  Outpost
Surplus kit
Swabbing solution for cleaning rifle
Target practice:
  Advice to riflemen
  Aiming rifle
  Battle sight
  Calling the shot
  Coordination
  Firing positions
  Preliminary training in marksmanship
  Sight adjustment
  Table of sight corrections
  Targets
  The course in small-arms firing
  Trigger squeeze
Targets
Tent Pitching, Manual of:
  Conical wall tent
  Folding tents
  Pitch all type Army tents (except shelter and conical
    wall tents)
  Shelter tent
  Sleeping bags
  Striking tents
Toilet articles
Trenches, rifle
Trigger squeeze
Two-arm semaphore code
Uniforms
  Care of
  Disposing of
  Dress
  Full dress
  How worn
  Service
Use of cover
Valleys on maps
Vertical intervals on maps
Visual signaling (_See_ Signals):
  In general
  Flag
Vocabulary--English-French
Whistle signals
Wig-wag signaling
Will, form for last will and testament
Windage corrections
Wind gauge





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Manual for Noncommissioned Officers and Privates of Infantry of the Army of the United States, 1917 - To be used by Engineer companies (dismounted) and Coast Artillery companies for Infantry instruction and training" ***

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