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Title: A Week of Instruction and Amusement, - or, Mrs. Harley's birthday present to her daughter : - interspersed with short stories, outlines of sacred and - prophane history, geography &c.
Author: Unknown
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Illustration: Instruction.]



                    A

                   WEEK

                    OF

               INSTRUCTION

                   AND

                AMUSEMENT;


              MRS. HARLEY'S
            _BIRTHDAY PRESENT_
                   TO
              HER DAUGHTER.


     INTERSPERSED WITH SHORT STORIES
         --OUTLINES OF SACRED AND
            PROPHANE HISTORY--
             GEOGRAPHY, &c.


                 LONDON:
         PRINTED FOR J. HARRIS,
    CORNER OF ST. PAUL'S CHURCH-YARD.

                  1812.



H. Bryer, Printer, Bridge-Street, Blackfriars, London.



ADVERTISEMENT.


The following pages were written with the design of communicating, in a
manner agreeable to children, some knowledge of those subjects which
they so often find tedious and uninteresting.--Should the stories
related inspire a love of virtue, and the lessons awaken a desire for
the further acquisition of useful knowledge, the attempt,
notwithstanding its defect, cannot, it is hoped, be deemed wholly
useless.



A WEEK OF INSTRUCTION, _&c._



_CHAPTER I._

THURSDAY.


At a pleasant village a few miles from London, resided a widow-lady of
the name of Harley; she had but one child, and to forming her manners
and instructing her mind she devoted her whole time. Anne (for so was
this little girl named) was an amiable child; she rewarded her mother's
care and affection, by paying great attention to her instructions; like
all other children, she was fond of play, but seldom murmured when
called to attend the hours set apart for working, reading, or learning
her lessons: all these she performed extremely well for her age, and had
already gone through many of the first books that are put into the hands
of children.

As a reward for her application, her mamma had promised to write a few
stories on purpose for her, and one Thursday in the month of August, the
day on which little Anne completed her eighth year, Mrs. Harley
presented her the book which contained them, saying, "I shall only
permit you to read in this book, my dear Anne, when I have reason to be
satisfied with your conduct, for as it is now given to a good little
girl, I would never upon any account, allow a naughty one to make use of
it. We will begin our mornings with reading one of these stories, and
afterwards I will give you a lesson upon different subjects, many of
which you are now quite unacquainted with. By pursuing this method you
will be daily adding to your stock of knowledge, and will I hope in time
become a good and sensible girl: this, my dear, is the first wish of my
heart, and you must do every thing in your power to promote it. Be
industrious and docile, and you may be sure of succeeding in all I
require you to undertake. But come, the morning is so fine that we will
go into the garden, where upon yonder seat you shall begin your new
study."

Little Anne after thanking her mamma for her kind present, followed her
to the bench, when they were seated, she opened the book, and the first
story that presented itself was


_The pleasure of giving, much greater than that of receiving._

Edward and James were the sons of a respectable farmer, who spared no
pains in giving them an education suited to their situation in life.
Having been pleased with their good conduct in some circumstances that
had lately occurred, he promised them a holiday the first time the
weather should be fine enough for them to visit their aunt, who lived a
few miles distant from the village where they resided. The wished for
morning at length arrived, the farmer gave each of his sons a shilling,
and a basket filled with provisions. Thus equipped, they began their
journey, and amused themselves on the road, by talking of the pleasure
they should have in seeing their good aunt. The best way of spending
their shillings was a subject of great importance, "I will have a
handsome kite," said Edward, "and the string shall be long enough to
allow it to fly as high as the clouds." "Yes," answered James, "but
however long your string may be, I believe it must depend upon the wind
for flying. Now, I will have a bag of marbles, with these I can always
play on the stones in the church-yard after school." "Excepting when it
rains brother James; however, as the money is our own, we have each you
know a right to please ourselves."

Just as Edward finished speaking, a poor little ragged boy came up to
the brothers, and asked for a halfpenny to buy a bit of bread, saying
he was so very hungry he knew not what to do. "What, have you had no
breakfast! my little man?" asked James. "No, sir, nor supper last night,
do pray give me a halfpenny, I am so very faint for want of food."

Edward immediately took a piece of cake from his basket and gave it to
the boy, enquiring at the same time, where his father and mother was.

"Alas, my good young gentleman, they are both dead. I lost father about
a month ago, and I fear I shall soon follow him, for indeed I am very
ill, and not able to work, therefore I must be starved." "O no," said
James, "not if I can prevent it, you do indeed look very ill, but take
courage, I hope you will soon recover, and surely the parish must
provide for you--where do you live?"

"Since father died I have had no regular home, and this is not my
parish. Sometimes I sleep in a barn. I do what I can to assist an old
man, who was my mother's uncle, but he is ill now, and not able to keep
me, so I shall be quite deserted."--"Well," said Edward, "I will provide
you with a dinner to day, and give you money to procure a lodging at
night; here is a shilling, my father gave it me to buy toys with, but I
can do better without them, than you can without food." The little boy
took the shilling, and with tears in his eyes thanked his kind friend.
James would not suffer him to depart without accepting his shilling
also, and desiring him to call the next morning at their father's, where
they would try to be of further use to him, they bade him adieu, and
pursued their journey.

"I am sure," said Edward, "I feel more pleasure in making that child
happy, than in flying the finest kite in the world." "And I," added
James, "was a hundred times happier in giving him a shilling, than I was
when I received it this morning. Only think how rejoiced the poor boy
must be, to have so much money; I dare say he never before, possessed so
large a sum, but Edward, we shall have no new kite nor marbles
now!--Never mind, brother, we have done a good action, and that, you
know, our father says is the surest way to secure happiness"--

Thus conversing, these good lads arrived at their aunt's, where they
spent a very pleasant day, and in the evening returned home, to delight
their father's heart, with an account of their morning's adventure.--The
poor boy came the next morning to the farmer's, who having made the
necessary enquiries into his former conduct, took him into his service.
The brothers had soon the satisfaction of seeing him restored to health,
and in time he became a useful, faithful, and grateful servant to his
benevolent master.

         *         *         *         *         *

"Well, my dear Anne," said Mrs. Harley, "how do you like my first
story?"

_Anne._ O very much mamma, what good children Edward and James were, to
give their money to a poor little hungry boy; indeed, if ever I should
meet one I will do the same.

_Mrs. Harley._ Then you will do well, and I shall love you dearly.
Remember, that the use of reading examples of virtue is to inspire you
with the desire to imitate them. But do you, my dear, know of what the
story you have just read is composed?

_Anne._ O yes, mamma, of words, is it not?

_Mrs. Harley._ You are right: letters make syllables, one or more
syllables make a word, words form a sentence, and a number of sentences
compose not only the little story of Edward and James, but all the great
books in the library. Now can you tell me how letters are divided?

_Anne._ Not properly mamma, pray explain it to me.

_Mrs. Harley._ I will my dear, and so we begin our


FIRST LESSON.

_Mrs. Harley._ Letters of which there are twenty six in our language,
are divided into vowels and consonants. There are five proper vowels, a,
e, i, o, and u. Y is generally a consonant at the beginning of words,
and a vowel at the end of them. Repeat the vowels.

_Anne._ a, e, i, o, u. Y, is sometimes a vowel, and sometimes a
consonant. The other letters are all consonants, they are, b, c, d, f,
g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z.

_Mrs. Harley._ Very well, now you understand the letters, I will explain
the other little marks you see in this book. They are called stops:
there are six different ones, the comma, which is the shortest; the
semicolon;--the colon:--the period.--the note of admiration!--which
denotes wonder or surprise--and the note of interrogation? which shews
that a question is asked. Repeat them to me.

_Anne._ , ; : . ! ?

_Mrs. Harley._ Quite right, you may now put away your book, and go to
play.



_CHAPTER II._

FRIDAY.


_Mrs. Harley._ Here is another story for you Anne.

_Anne._ Thank you, dear mamma, let me begin it directly.


_The Naughty Girl Reformed._

There was once a little girl who had been so much indulged in her
infancy, that by the time she arrived at her sixth year, every one
disliked her. She was proud and ill-tempered, she wanted whatever she
saw, and when any thing was refused her, she immediately began crying
and teazing her mamma for it, who being at last quite tired of her
importunity, generally gave up the point, and Fanny obtained what she
wished for. Now, though the mamma certainly intended to be very kind to
her child, yet I think she did wrong in this respect, because children
should never have what they cry for.

Fanny's ill-temper increased with her years, she quarrelled with all the
children who used to play with her, till at length she was quite
shunned, and none of her little friends took any notice of her.

A lady had given her sister Julia a pretty wax-doll, and she had taken
great pleasure in dressing it: almost all her leisure was occupied in
making its cloaths, and when they were completed she was quite
delighted. It so happened that Fanny was from home when her sister
received this present, but no sooner was she returned, and the doll
produced, than she began, as usual, to cry for it, and so loud, too,
that she disturbed the whole house. For this time, however, her tears
were in vain, Julia would not give up her favourite, though she
endeavoured to sooth her sister, by promising to lend it her as soon as
she should be a little more careful. Fanny was at length pacified, but
she watched the first opportunity to get possession of the doll. She
soon succeeded, and for some time played with it very carefully, but
having acquired a negligent habit of using her toys, she soon forgot its
brittle texture, and when tired of nursing it, threw it down on the
ground. The face was immediately broken to pieces, and while she was
picking up the scattered remains of the once beautiful features, Julia
entered the room. On seeing her favourite thus destroyed, she could not
help shedding tears, and she reproached Fanny for having taken the doll
without permission, especially as she had been so repeatedly desired
never to touch it. Fanny felt quite ashamed for her fault, and was
really sorry for the mischief she had occasioned: she begged her
sister's pardon and promised never again to be so naughty. The good
tempered Julia readily forgave her, and for a few days after this
misfortune Fanny behaved much better than usual. However, as ill habits
are very difficult to be overcome, she soon relapsed into her former
fretful and passionate ways; indeed, she made the family so
uncomfortable that her mother determined to send her from home, and for
that purpose wrote to a relation, entreating her to take the care of
Fanny for some time, and try if a different mode of treatment might have
some good effect in correcting her faults.

Mrs. Benson was eminently distinguished for good sense and pleasing
manners. She had frequently regretted the improper indulgences that were
granted to this little girl, and accepted with alacrity the charge
consigned to her care. She made but a short visit to her sister, and
when she returned to her own residence, took back her little niece. It
had been a very difficult task to persuade Fanny to accompany Mrs. Benson,
but at length the engaging manners of this lady quite overcame her
reluctance, and after parting very affectionately with her mother and
sister, she got into the carriage that was to convey her above a hundred
miles from the place where she had hitherto resided.

It was night when Mrs. Benson with her young charge arrived at the end
of her journey. The motion of the carriage had lulled Fanny to sleep,
and she was undressed and put to bed without being conscious of what was
passing around her. The next morning on opening her eyes, she was quite
surprised to find herself in an apartment with which she was wholly
unacquainted, but the sight of her aunt soon brought to her recollection
the change that had taken place. Mrs. Benson desired her to rise, but
when told to put on her stockings she began to cry, and said that her
maid always did it at home. "But here, my dear," replied Mrs. Benson,
"you must do it yourself, for I make it an invariable rule never to
assist a little girl in any thing she can so easily accomplish by
herself. And I must now tell you Fanny, that you never can have what you
cry for in my house, so be a good girl and do as you are desired."

Fanny then continued to cry very violently, and would not obey; her
naughty behaviour had no effect upon her aunt, who continued dressing
herself, and when she had finished, went out of the room without
noticing it. Fanny being left alone, and finding that no one attended to
her tears, at length began to dress, and after she had remained quiet
for some time, a servant was sent up to assist her. She then went down
stairs, and when she entered the parlour, her aunt said to her, "I am
sorry you have been so long dressing, because I have breakfasted; the
things are removed, and I cannot suffer them to be brought up again this
morning. I am going out, and if you like to accompany me, I will shew
you the village, and we will visit some of the cottagers who are
employed in making lace, their work, I assure you, is very beautiful."

Fanny was greatly disappointed at being deprived of her breakfast, but
she fetched her bonnet and followed her aunt. She was quite delighted
with her walk, and on her return to the house was very glad to see a
plate of bread and fruit on the table. After she had eaten as much as
she chose, Mrs. Benson shewed her some pictures, and she remained a
tolerably good girl during the rest of the day.

The following morning, when Mrs. Benson desired Fanny to read, she was
very naughty, and would not say a letter. "Well," said her aunt, "if you
will not read you shall neither play nor walk, so when I go out I shall
leave you at home." Fanny persisted in her ill-humour, and was therefore
obliged to spend the morning alone, instead of enjoying a pleasant
ramble in the fields. When Mrs. Benson returned, she asked her niece if
she would then try to read, "because," added she "till you have done
so, you may be assured I will grant you no amusement." Fanny perceiving
that her aunt was quite determined to keep her word, at length took up
the book and read as well as she could. Mrs. Benson, pleased with her
compliance, made no allusion to her former obstinacy, but gave her a
pretty sattin pincushion, telling her that if she would try to be a good
child she should love her dearly.

From this time Fanny began to amend; at first she found it very
difficult to restrain her temper, but the more she tried, the easier she
found the task: and though during the first few months of her residence
at Mrs. Benson's she frequently forgot the good resolutions she had
formed, yet she was always sincerely sorry for her faults, and
endeavoured to make amends by doing whatever she thought would restore
her to her aunt's favour.

Thus Mrs. Benson had the satisfaction of seeing a child whom she had
formerly known so undutiful and ill-tempered, become by degrees quite
amiable and obliging: the alteration in her was so great, that when at
the end of a year Mrs. Benson carried her to pay a visit to her family,
they could hardly trace any resemblance between Fanny such as she now
was, and the naughty little girl who had given them so much trouble. She
staid in London three weeks, during which time the cloud of ill-humour
scarcely once ruffled her brow. At the end of that time Mrs. Benson
wished to return home, and Fanny begged to accompany her, fearing that
if deprived of her aunt's counsel before her good habits were entirely
fixed, she might relapse into her former errors.

Several years are now past since these events happened. Fanny has been
constantly improving, she is now the delight of her family, and the
favourite of all who know her.

Let the history of Fanny teach all little girls that to be _good_ is to
be _happy_!

         *         *         *         *         *

"What an interesting story," said Anne, as she shut the book: "now I
find what a silly thing it is to be naughty, I will always try to be
good."

_Mrs. Harley._ Do my dear child, and you will be sure of success. It
gives me pleasure to see you so attentive to the instructions contained
in the stories you read.


SECOND LESSON.

_Mrs. Harley._ We talked about letters yesterday: to-day I will explain
figures or numbers to you, the following is a list of them: those
letters which stand for numbers are called _numeral letters_.

       1  I         One
       2  II        Two
       3  III       Three
       4  IV        Four
       5  V         Five
       6  VI        Six
       7  VII       Seven
       8  VIII      Eight
       9  IX        Nine
      10  X         Ten
      11  XI        Eleven
      12  XII       Twelve
      13  XIII      Thirteen
      14  XIV       Fourteen
      15  XV        Fifteen
      16  XVI       Sixteen
      17  XVII      Seventeen
      18  XVIII     Eighteen
      19  XIX       Nineteen
      20  XX        Twenty
      21  XXI       Twenty-one
      22  XXII      Twenty-two
      23  XXIII     Twenty-three
      24  XXIV      Twenty-four
      25  XXV       Twenty-five
      30  XXX       Thirty
      36  XXXVI     Thirty-six
      40  XL        Forty
      47  XLVII     Forty-seven
      50  L         Fifty
      60  LX        Sixty
      70  LXX       Seventy
      80  LXXX      Eighty
      90  XC        Ninety
     100  C         One hundred
     200  CC        Two hundred
     300  CCC       Three hundred
     400  CCCC      Four hundred
     500  D         Five hundred
     600  DC        Six hundred
     700  DCC       Seven hundred
     800  DCCC      Eight hundred
     900  DCD       Nine hundred
    1000  M         One thousand
    1100  MC        One thousand one hundred
    1500  MD        One thousand five hundred
    1812  MDCCCXII  One thousand eight hundred and twelve

In the above list you perceive the numeral letters are I, V, X, L, C,
D, and M; the letter that stands for a smaller sum put before one that
denotes a greater takes so many from it, and that after it adds so many
to it.

The numbers you learned long ago; but I don't think you know the
numeration table, it will teach you to read any number of figures not
exceeding nine: the last figure on the right hand denotes _units_, or
single figures, the one before that tens, then _hundreds_, _thousands_,
_tens of thousands_, _hundreds of thousands_, _tens of hundreds of
thousands_, _millions_, _tens of millions_, _hundreds of millions_, now
my dear read the following number, 123,456,789.

_Anne._ One hundred and twenty three millions, four hundred and fifty
six thousand, seven hundred and eighty nine.

_Mrs. Harley._ Right; it is absolutely necessary to be able to read
figures perfectly, before you can learn arithmetic.

_Anne._ What is arithmetic, mamma?

_Mrs. Harley._ The act of numbering, or computing by numbers, my dear.
The four principal rules of arithmetic are addition, subtraction,
multiplication, and division.

_Anne._ I wish you would explain them to me.

_Mrs. Harley._ Addition teaches to collect several numbers together in
order to know their total value. The answer to a question in addition
is therefore called the _sum_, _total_, or _amount_; subtraction teaches
to take a less number from a greater, in order to know the remainder.
The answer in subtraction is called the _remainder_, or _difference_.

Multiplication teaches to find the amount of any given number repeated a
certain number of times. The answer in multiplication is called the
_product_. The three terms made use of in multiplication are, the
multiplicand, or number to be multiplied; the multiplier, or number that
multiplies; and the product or answer, which is the amount of the
multiplicand and multiplier.

Division teaches to find how often one number is contained in another.
The answer in division is called the _quotient_. The four terms made use
of in division are, the dividend or number to be divided, the divisor,
or number that divides, the quotient or answer which is the number of
times one number is contained in another, and the remainder or what is
left after dividing.

This explanation of arithmetic must serve you for the present, you shall
learn the multiplication table, and do some sums every day, and when you
are thoroughly acquainted with these rules, we will proceed to the
others.



_CHAPTER III._

SATURDAY.


_Mrs. Harley._ Come hither my dear Anne. Your smiling countenance tells
me I may give you a story, so take the book and let us hear the


_History of an Orphan._

One fine autumnal morning in the year 1789, John and Cicely Wortham,
with their little son Robert, began a long journey into the North of
England. They had hitherto resided at a small village near Abergavenny
in South Wales, and there they would most probably have ended their
days, had not John been informed of the death of a distant relation at
Durham, to whose property he knew himself to be the rightful heir,
though to secure it, he found it necessary to repair thither. Having,
therefore, disposed of his Welsh hut, and converted all his furniture
into money, he removed to London, and after spending a few days there,
secured places on the outside of a stage-coach, which was to convey him
with his family about half way on their journey.

Their conversation chiefly turned on the friends they had left, and the
hopes of finding as kind ones in the country whither they were going.
Robert was too young to be interested in either the hopes or fears of
his parents; at the age of six months he slept as comfortably on his
mother's red cloak as if he had been placed on a bed of down.

Towards the close of their second day's journey the sky began to darken,
and a violent storm of hail and rain completely penetrated the cloaths
of our poor travellers. However, as they had been always accustomed to
the inclemency of the weather they did not much mind it, and Cicely, who
was an excellent mother, took care to prevent her boy from feeling any
inconvenience. In this manner they proceeded for several miles, till at
length a large stone in the winding of the road overturned the carriage
and dashed all the outside passengers with violence to the ground. Poor
Cicely was killed on the spot; John had his leg and three of his ribs
broken, but little Robert escaped unhurt. This unfortunate family were
carried to a neighbouring farm-house, a surgeon was sent for who set
John's leg, but all attempts to recover Cicely were fruitless, a
stronger and more powerful hand than that of the surgeon had for ever
closed her eyes! The melancholy intelligence was for some hours
concealed from her husband, but at length he enquired for his wife, and
soon discovered in the mournful countenances of those around him that
she was no more. This fatal news, together with the pain of his leg and
side, so agitated his mind, that his fever increased to a very alarming
degree; and the third day from that on which the accident happened, poor
John Wortham lay a lifeless corpse by the side of his beloved Cicely.

The humane farmer into whose house they had been carried when the coach
overset, ordered them to be decently buried. Little Robert attended at
their funeral, but was quite unconscious of his loss, though he sadly
cried for that nourishment he would never more receive from the breast
of a mother.

When the undertaker's bill and other expences were paid, farmer Hodson
found that no more than six guineas remained for the young orphan. The
trunks and pockets of his parents were carefully searched, but no paper
appeared that gave the least information either of the name or residence
of the unfortunate pair. Hodson made every enquiry that seemed most
likely to lead to a discovery of little Robert's remaining relations: he
advertised the circumstance in several papers, but in vain, and he at
length gave up the fruitless search. Though by no means in flourishing
circumstances himself, yet he had not the heart to send the poor orphan
to the parish, and as he had no children of his own, it was agreed,
with his wife's consent, to bring him up as their adopted son. Dame
Hodson took the greatest care of her little nursling, and she had the
satisfaction of seeing his daily improvement in health and good humour.

As Robert grew in years, he discovered to his kind friends a heart
framed for the reception of every noble and virtuous sentiment: by the
time he attained his twelfth year he was their chief delight, and the
affectionate supporter of their declining years. Time passed on, Hodson
could not labour as he had done, and two bad years, joined to his
infirmities, reduced the family to much distress. Now was the time for
the farmer to reap the reward of his generous compassion to a forlorn
infant. Robert, ever industrious, earned enough with his own hands to
maintain his benefactors. Were they sick, Robert was their nurse--were
they sad, Robert was their comforter--he read to them, cheered their
drooping spirits, and smoothed the pillow of declining years.

It happened about this time, that a gentleman of the name of Goldworthy,
bought a large estate in the county where farmer Hodson resided; he
heard the story of young Robert, and felt greatly interested for the
whole family. He visited them, and found the accounts that had been
given him were strictly true, and from that time he resolved to be
their friend. Mr. Goldworthy, though master of a large fortune, and
consequently placed above the reach of many misfortunes to which the
more indigent are exposed, yet possessed a heart always alive to the
distresses of others.--He determined with Hodson's consent, to take
charge of young Robert, and fit him for some respectable employment,
where he might have a larger scope for the exercise of his virtues and
more abundant means for gratifying his generous disposition. Hodson with
gratitude accepted Mr. Goldworthy's proposal; but no temptation, however
alluring to his youthful mind, could induce our hero to quit his old and
earliest friends, till Mr. Goldworthy promised to remove them to a
cottage adjoining his own house, where they should be furnished with
every thing necessary to their support. Here they spent many happy
years, and had the heartfelt satisfaction of seeing their beloved boy
grow up a respectable and worthy member of society, a useful assistant
to his benefactor, and a friend to the poor.

         *         *         *         *         *

"Dear mamma," said Anne, "I am quite delighted with farmer Hodson and
his wife: they deserved Mr. Goldworthy's kindness to them, and what a
sweet little boy Robert must have been!"

_Mrs. Harley._ Yes, my dear, he was an excellent youth, and his good
conduct met its reward in the affection of his friends. I wish you, my
dear child, to be convinced, from this story, that there is no situation
in life, however humble, which does not afford opportunities for
exercising those duties recommended to us by our Saviour.--To feed the
hungry, to clothe the naked, and to comfort the afflicted, is, to a
certain degree, in the power of us all. You may be in a situation that
will enable you to dispense comfort to many; but in relieving strangers,
never forget the duties you owe to your own family; be mild and
submissive when they correct you, obedient to their wishes, attentive to
their instructions, and endeavour by the affectionate gratitude of your
conduct, to repay the many hours of anxious solicitude they must spend
on your account.

Lift up your heart with gratitude to the great God who made you, and,
when you reflect on the many blessings you enjoy, never, if you do meet
with little disappointments, give way to discontent and murmurings.
Remember, it is easy to be good humoured when every thing happens
agreeably to our wishes: it is only by cheerfully submitting to the
opposition of them that a really good temper is proved. We must now
hasten to our other business, or we shall not have time to finish it
before dinner.

_Anne._ I am quite ready to attend to you, dear mamma; Grammar, I think,
is to be the subject of our lesson. What is the meaning of the word
Grammar?


THIRD LESSON.

_Mrs. Harley._ The shortest definition I can give you of Grammar, is I
believe, my dear, by saying, that it is the art of speaking and writing
a language correctly. By parts of speech are meant the different kinds
of words of which a language is composed: ours is the English language,
and it contains _nine_ parts of speech, which are,

    The Article,
    The Noun or Substantive,
    The Pronoun,
    The Adjective,
    The Verb,
    The Adverb,
    The Preposition,
    The Conjunction,
    The Interjection.

Do you think you can remember their names, Anne.

_Anne._ I will try do so, mamma.

_Mrs. Harley._ I will now give you a short explanation of them. An
article is placed before a substantive to limit or determine its
meaning; the articles are _a_, _an_, and _the_; _a_ or _an_ is called
the _indefinite article_, because it does not point out any particular
object: _the_ is called the _definite article_ because it determines
what particular object is meant. Do you understand this explanation, my
dear?

_Anne._ Perfectly mamma; _a_ man, _an_ orange, mean any man, or any
orange; but _the_ man, _the_ orange, refer to some particular man or
orange.

_Mrs. Harley._ Quite right, _a_ you perceive is used before a consonant
and _an_ before a vowel.

A noun is the name of a _person_, _place_, or _thing_. Nouns are divided
into _proper_ and _common_; _proper nouns_ are the names of particular
persons, places, or things, common nouns are the names that belong to
all persons, places or things of the same kind. Give me some examples.

_Anne._ Anne, Clapham, Limetree, are proper nouns; girl, village, tree,
are common nouns.

_Mrs. Harley._ _Gender_ is the distinction of sex; there are three
genders, the _masculine_ which denotes the male kind as, a man: the
_feminine_ which denotes the female kind as, a woman: and the _neuter_
which denotes things without animated life as, a cabbage.

_Number_ is the distinction of one from many: there are two numbers, the
_singular_ which speaks of one; and the _plural_ which speaks of more
than one. Tell me some nouns with their genders and numbers.

_Anne._ I know that mamma is a noun of the feminine gender and singular
number; men is a noun masculine and plural; table is neuter and
singular.

_Mrs. Harley._ Very well. A _Pronoun_ is used to avoid repeating the
noun as, Frederic was good, and _he_ went out. There are four kinds of
pronouns. _Personal pronouns_, as, _I_, _me_; _thou_, _thee_; _he_,
_him_; _she_, _her_; _it_: _we_, _us_; _you_; _they_, _them_.
_Possessive pronouns_ which denote property, as, _my_, _mine_; _thy_,
_thine_; _his_; _her_, _hers_; _its_: _our_, _ours_; _your_, _yours_;
_their_, _theirs_; _whose_, _ones_, and _anothers_. _Relative pronouns_
which refer to a noun going before or coming after them; they are,
_who_, _whom_, _which_, _what_, and _whether_. _Demonstrative pronouns_
point out some particular object; they are, _this_, _these_; _that_, and
_those_.

_Anne._ I don't think I can remember all these words without reading
them over a great many times, but I quite understand the use of the
pronoun, for it would be very awkward to say, Mary played, Mary
laughed, and Mary danced; I ought to say, Mary played, she laughed, and
she danced.

_Mrs. Harley._ I am pleased with your attention. The _adjective_
explains the _quality_, _colour_, _form_, _size_, or any other property
of the noun, as, good, blue, square, large. The signification of
adjectives may be increased or diminished, and this is called
_comparison_; there are two degrees of comparison, the comparative,
which increases or diminishes the quality, is formed by adding _er_ to
the adjective in its positive state; the superlative increases or
diminishes the comparative to its last degree, and is formed by adding
_est_ to the adjective in its positive or original state, as long,
longer, longest; short, shorter, shortest. When the adjective consists
of more than two syllables, the comparative and superlative are formed
by prefixing the words more and most to the adjective; as, beautiful,
more beautiful, most beautiful. Some adjectives differ entirely from
these rules in forming their comparison, as, good, better, best; bad,
worse, worst. Now, some examples.

_Anne._ Fine is an adjective because it is a quality, black because it
is a colour, coarse is an adjective in its positive state, brighter is
the comparative degree, and youngest is the superlative.

_Mrs. Harley._ A _verb_ is a word which signifies _to be_, _to do_, or
_to suffer_. Verbs are divided into _neuter_, _active_, and _passive_.
Neuter verbs merely signify being, or that kind of action which has no
effect upon any thing beyond the performer, as, _I am_, _I sit_, _I
walk_. (You may distinguish those neuter verbs that seem to imply action
from active verbs by their making a complete sense by themselves,
whereas active verbs always require a noun or pronoun after them to
finish the sense.)

_Active verbs_, denote action as, I eat, I love, I work. _Passive
verbs_, denote suffering, they are only the _participle passive_ of an
active verb with a tense of the neuter verb _to be_ before it; as, _I am
loved_, _you are dressed_.

Any word is a verb before which you can place a _noun_, a _pronoun_, or
the word _to_, as _Mary talks_, _he works_, _to be_. The different times
when actions are performed are called _tenses_, there are properly only
three, the present, as _I am_, the past as _I was_, and the future as _I
shall be_; but these are subdivided into others; and there are a great
many other things relating to verbs, which you shall learn when you are
a little older.

_Anne._ Thank you, mamma, I believe I understand all that you have told
me about verbs, except the meaning of _participle passive_.

_Mrs. Harley._ A _participle passive_, my dear, is that part of a verb
which follows a tense of either of the verbs _to have_, or _to be_.
Some people consider it a distinct part of speech.

_Adverbs_ denote _time_, _place_, _manner_, and _quantity_; therefore
you may always know them by recollecting their meaning: _to-day_,
_there_, _prettily_, _much_, are adverbs.

Prepositions serve to connect words with one another and to shew the
relation between them. They require some word after them to complete the
sense; as, come _to_ me, _up_, _down_, _to_, _from_, _for_, are
prepositions.

Conjunctions join words and sentences together, as you _and_ I are
going, _but_ she stays at home.

Interjections express some emotion of the mind as, Alas! Oh! Ah!

I am afraid, my dear, you are quite tired of this long lesson, but I
don't expect you to remember all I have told you; we will talk over a
_very_ small portion of it every day, and then in time you will be able
to tell me what part of speech any word is that I may ask you.--I will
give you a little example to shew you what I mean and then you shall run
away.

The rose in your nosegay was very beautiful a little while ago; but
alas! it is now quite dead!

_The_, an article definite--_rose_, a substantive, neuter gender,
singular number--_in_, a preposition--_your_, a possessive
pronoun--_nosegay_, a substantive--_was_, a verb neuter past
tense--_very_, an adverb--_beautiful_, an adjective--_a_, an article
indefinite--_little_, an adjective--_while_, a substantive--_ago_, an
adverb--_but_, a conjunction--_alas!_, an interjection--_it_, a personal
pronoun neuter gender--_is_, a verb--_now_, an adverb--_quite_, an
adverb,--_dead_, a verb, participle passive.

         *         *         *         *         *

Children might soon understand that a case in grammar signifies the
different terminations of nouns and pronouns. A noun has two cases, the
nominative which simply names the object: it generally precedes the
verb, and answers to the questions who? which? what? The genitive
denotes possession and is formed by adding an apostrophe, and the letter
_s_ to the nominative; it answers to the question whose? When the
plural nominative ends in _s_ the apostrophe only is added: ex. _Anne_
plays. Who? Anne.--_Mary's_ gown. Whose? _Mary's._--_Birds'_ feathers.
Whose? _Birds'._

A personal pronoun has two cases the _nominative_ and the _objective_.
The nominative precedes the verb, and requires it to be of the same
person and number as itself; it answers to the questions, who? which?
what? The objective follows the verb, and answers to the question whom?
ex. _I_ dance, who? _I._--We love _her_, whom? _her._

    SINGULAR.                PLURAL.

    _Nom._     _Objec._      _Nom._     _Objec._
    I          Me            We         Us
    Thou       Thee          You        You
    He         Him           They       Them
    She        Her
    It         It

The accusative case of the relative pronoun _who_ is _whom_.



_CHAPTER IV_

SUNDAY.


_Mrs. Harley._ Come hither, my love: you know that to-day is called
_Sunday_, and is set apart for the observance of _religious_ duties.

You have read in the Bible that God created the heavens, the earth, the
sea, and all that therein is, in the space of six days, that he rested
on the seventh, and called that day holy, ordering his people so to
observe it, and to abstain from every kind of labour throughout its
duration. Therefore, the Jews, to whom this commandment was originally
given, keep their sabbath on Saturday, the last day in the week; but
Christians, who have been taught the blessed religion of Jesus, begin
the week with praising God. No command for changing the day of worship
seems ever to have been given, either by our Saviour or the apostles;
but we know that it was the custom of the earliest Christians, even
during our Lord's time, to meet together on the first day of the week
for the purpose of holding religious assemblies; and all nations which
have embraced the religion of the New Testament have adhered to this
practice.

_Anne._ Thank you, mamma. Will you now perform your promise of giving
me a new morning and evening prayer?

_Mrs. Harley._ In the evening I will, my dear; but at present, I wish to
give you a short account of the contents of the books contained in the
sacred volumes. As yet you have only read detached parts of them, and
before you proceed to a more general perusal, it may be useful to have
some distinct idea of the whole. The account I shall give you I have
chiefly extracted from Dr. Prettyman's Elements of Christian Theology.

All the books of the Bible were originally written in Hebrew, excepting
a few passages towards the conclusion of the volume, which appear in
the Chaldee tongue. The English translation used in all our churches was
begun and completed in the reign of James the first.

The five first books of the Bible are, Genesis, which begins with an
account of the creation of the world, and ends with the death of Joseph.

Exodus, which relates the departure of the Israelites out of Egypt;
their bondage in that country, deliverance by Moses, and the
promulgation of the law.

Leviticus, which describes the offices and duties of the Levites and
priests.

Numbers, which contains an account of the numbering of the people in the
wilderness when a very miraculous increase was found to have taken
place since the arrival of Jacob and his family in Egypt.

Deuteronomy, which contains a repetition of the civil and moral law, and
ends with the death of Moses. These five books are called the
Pentateuch, and were written by Moses. They contain the history of 2552
years and a half.

Joshua, contains an account of the conquest and division of Canaan among
the twelve tribes, and ends with the death of Joshua. This book is
supposed to have been written by himself, excepting the last few verses,
which were added by one of his successors.

Judges gives an account of the Jewish history from the death of Moses
to that of Sampson. It was most probably written by Samuel.

Ruth contains the history of the person of that name, a native of Moab:
she married Boaz an Israelite, and was the great grandmother of David.
This book is generally ascribed to Samuel. The first book of Samuel
completes the government of the Judges, and relates the appointment of
Saul to be king of Israel, the rejection of his family, and the
anointing of David.

The second book of Samuel continues the history of David after the death
of Saul. Most probably, Samuel wrote the first 24 chapters of the first
book, and the prophets Gad and Nathan the remainder of it, and all the
second.

The first book of Kings commences with an account of the death of
David, and continues to that of Jehosaphat.

The second book of Kings continues the history of the kings of Judah and
Israel to the destruction of the city and temple of Jerusalem by
Nebuchadnezzar. These books were probably compiled by Ezra, from the
records which were kept both at Jerusalem and Samaria of all public
transactions.

The two books of Chronicles contain a great many genealogical tables,
and various circumstances omitted in the other historical books of
Scripture.

Ezra, continues the Jewish history from the edict of Cyrus (which
permitted the Jews to return to their own land, and rebuild their
temple,) to the reform effected among them, by Ezra and Nehemiah. Ezra
wrote part of this book in Chaldee.

Nehemiah gives an account of his own appointment to the government of
Judea, and his administration to the year of the world 3595, at which
period the scripture history closes.

Esther, contains the history of a Jewish captive of that name, who by
her good qualities gained the affections of Ahasuerus, and was by him
raised to the throne of Persia. It is supposed that by Ahasuerus is
meant Artaxerxes Longimanus. There is great diversity of opinion
concerning the author of this book; it has been ascribed to Ezra, to
Mordecai, and to the joint labours of the great synagogue.

Job, contains the history of a man remarkable for his piety and
patience, under severe afflictions. The author of this book is very
uncertain. Some ascribe it to Moses, others to Job himself.

The Psalms, are a collection of hymns in praise of God, written by
different persons, but as the greater part of them was composed by
David, they are generally called the Psalms of David.

The Proverbs, are a collection of short sentences, written by Solomon,
in which much excellent advice is contained.

Ecclesiastes, is supposed to have been written by Solomon, after he
repented of the idolatry and sin into which he fell, towards the close
of his life, and with the design to point out the vanity of worldly
pursuits, in order to induce men to prepare for that state, where there
will be no vanity nor vexation of spirit.

The Song of Solomon, is a pastoral dialogue, supposed to have been
written by him, upon his marriage with the daughter of Pharoah.

It is universally allowed that the 16 Prophetical Books, and the
Lamentations of Jeremiah, which describe the desolation of Judah, during
the Babylonian captivity, and prophecy the still greater misfortunes to
be suffered at a future time, were written by the persons whose names
they bear.

The four great prophets were, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and
Daniel.--The twelve minor prophets were, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah,
Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habbakuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and
Malachi.

The books of the New Testament were all originally written in Greek;
except St. Matthew's Gospel, and St. Paul's Epistle to the Hebrews,
which many commentators suppose to have been originally composed in
Hebrew, and then immediately translated into Greek; but opinions in this
respect are much divided.

The Four Gospels, written by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, give an
account of the life, ministry, death, and resurrection of our Saviour.

The Acts of the Apostles written by Luke, gives an historical account of
the progress of Christianity after our Saviour's ascension. The latter
part of the book is confined to the history of Saint Paul, of whom St.
Luke was the constant companion for many years.

Of the fourteen Epistles ascribed to St. Paul, viz. Romans, 1 and 2 to
the Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 and 2
to the Thessalonians, 1 and 2 to Timothy, Titus, Philemon, and Hebrews,
the first thirteen have, in all ages of the Church, been universally
acknowledged to be written by him. Many doubts have been entertained
concerning the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews. St. Paul was born
at Tarsus the principal city of Cilicia in Asia Minor, and was by birth
both a Jew and a citizen of Rome. St. Paul is not mentioned in the
Gospels, nor is it known whether he ever heard our Saviour preach. His
name is first noticed in the account of St. Stephen's Martyrdom, which
was followed by a severe persecution of the Church at Jerusalem, in
which St. Paul, (who was then called Saul) distinguished himself among
its enemies, by his activity and violence. He was going to Damascus, to
bring back bound any Christians whom he might find there, when his
miraculous conversion took place: after which, he became one of the most
zealous preachers of the Gospel; and as he devoted much of his time to
the instruction of the Gentiles, he is called the _Apostle of the
Gentiles_. Gentiles, was the appellation by which all nations were
distinguished, that were not Jews, and consequently the Gentiles were
Pagans. St. Paul performed many voyages and journies in the service of
the Christian religion, and the New Testament history closes A. D. 63,
with his release from a two years imprisonment at Rome; no ancient
author has left any particulars of the remaining part of this Apostle's
life.

The Epistle of St. James was written by that Apostle, who is called
James the Less, the son of Alphæus or Cleophat, which are supposed to
be the same name, differently written. It contains much excellent
instruction.

The two Epistles of St. Peter, were written by that Apostle, who enjoyed
the favour of his divine master, in a peculiar degree. St. Peter seems
to have been almost the constant companion of our Lord, and was
extremely zealous in propagating his religion, though he was
occasionally led into great errors, particularly the denial of his
master, but his bitter remorse and repentance, prove that his sorrow for
this crime was sincere. He admitted Cornelius, the first Gentile
convert, into the Christian faith, but as the chief of his instructions
were confined to the Jews, he is called the apostle of the Jews.

The three Epistles of St. John, were written by the apostle who was
favoured with the greatest share of our Saviour's affection. He leaned
on his bosom at the last supper, and was one of the first who were made
acquainted with his resurrection.

The Epistle of St. Jude was written by the apostle, who was also called
Lebbæus and Thaddæus, he was the brother of James the Less, and
excepting in the catalogue of the apostles, is only once mentioned in
the Gospels. (John chap. 14, verse 22).

The Revelation of John the divine, was written by the same Evangelist
and Apostle who wrote the Gospels and Epistles bearing that name. The
Revelation is a prophetical book, and was written by St. John, during
his banishment to the isle of Patmos, in the time of Domitian. St. John
is supposed to have been the youngest of the Apostles, and to have
survived all the rest. He died at Ephesus in Asia Minor, in the third
year of the emperor Trajan's reign, A. D. 100.--The Apostles were twelve
good men, whom Jesus chose to be the ministers of his gospel. They were
entrusted with the power of working miracles: and their names were,
Simon Peter, James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, Andrew,
Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James the son of Alphæus (called
also James the Less,) Thaddeus whose sirname was Jude, Simon the
Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot.--After the death of Judas Iscariot who
betrayed our Saviour, Matthias was chosen in his stead.

The Disciples of Christ, were those who learned of him as their master.

Thus, my dear, I have given you a short account of all the books
contained in the sacred volumes. I will now mention to you, a few of the
principal Jewish sects, and then proceed to some description of the
history of that people.

There does not appear to have been any difference of religious opinions
among the Jews, till after the cessation of prophecy: most of them
sprang up, subsequent to the return from the Babylonian captivity.

The Scribes are not usually considered as a religious sect: they were
writers of the law, and often perverted the meaning of the text, instead
of explaining it. "Scribes," "doctors of the law," and "lawyers," were
only different names for the same class of men.

The Pharisees believed in the immortality of the soul, the resurrection
of the dead, and in a future state of rewards and punishments. "Trusting
in themselves that they were righteous," they despised the rest of
mankind, were entirely destitute of humility towards God, and paid more
attention to outward ceremonies than to the duties of moral virtue.

The Sadducees denied the resurrection of the dead, and the immortality
of the soul; therefore, confining all their hopes to this present world,
they devoted themselves to its pleasures, and only punished the crimes
which disturbed the public tranquillity.

The Nazarites, of whom we read in the Old and New Testament, were
persons either devoted to God by their parents, or who devoted
themselves for life, or for a limited time. The only three instances of
Nazarites devoted to God by their parents before their birth, are
Sampson, Samuel, and John the Baptist.

The Herodians were partizans of Herod the Great.

The Galileans, so called from their leader Judas of Galilee, were a very
turbulent and seditious sect, and by degrees united to themselves almost
all the other sects.

The Publicans were not of any sect, civil or religious, but merely
tax-gatherers, and collectors of customs due to the Romans. The
Publicans were generally Jews, and by their employment were rendered
odious to their brethren.

Proselytes were those persons, who being Gentiles by birth, came over to
the Jewish religion, but retained that name, till they were admitted
into the congregation of the Lord, as adopted children.

The land of Canaan, so named from Canaan the son of Ham, whose
posterity possessed this land, as well as Egypt or Mizraim, lies in the
western part of Asia. Its boundaries were to the north, Coelo Syria;
to the west, the Mediterranean Sea; to the east, Arabia Deserta; and to
the south and south west, Arabia Petrea and Egypt. Its extent was about
200 miles from north to south, and its breadth 100.--It was divided into
two parts, by the river Jordan; the capital was Jerusalem, (supposed to
have been the Salem of Melchisedek.) The whole country was also called
Palestine from the Philistines, who inhabiting the western coast, were
first known to the Romans, and being by them corruptly called
Palestines, gave that name to the country; but it was more commonly
called Judea, as the land of the Jews. Since our Saviour's advent it has
been called the Holy land, but in modern writers, all distinction is
frequently lost in the name of Syria, which is given to the whole
country east of the Mediterranean, between the sea and the desert.

         *         *         *         *         *

The government of the Jews partook of the patriarchal form, as much as
was consistent with the condition and circumstances of a nation.

The leaders or princes of the 12 tribes, possessed a peculiar and
supreme authority over each tribe, as their chief magistrate and leader
in time of war.

The elders or rulers of cities, only exercised authority in their own
respective cities, and as well as the princes were subject to the great
council.

The Sanhedrim or great national council of the Jews was established by
Moses: it consisted of 70 persons, besides the president, who after the
time of Moses was usually the High Priest.

         *         *         *         *         *

The Septuagint is a Greek translation of the Bible, made at Alexandria,
when Ptolemy Philadelphus was king of Egypt. It is often signified in
books by "the LXX."

The Vulgate was a very ancient version of the Bible in Latin.

The Bible commences with an account of the creation of the world, 4004
B. C., the history of our first parents, their deviation from virtue,
and the evil consequences that ensued. To Adam and Eve were born sons
and daughters. The only three mentioned by name, are Cain, Abel and
Seth, and the sacred historian has chiefly confined himself to the
posterity of Seth, from whom Noah descended: in his time mankind became
very wicked, and to punish them, God sent a violent rain upon the earth
which caused a general deluge, and all the inhabitants of the world were
drowned, except Noah, his wife, their three sons, Shem, Ham, and
Japhet, and their wives, and a few animals of every kind. The
descendants of Noah and his sons multiplied greatly, and "they were all
of one language," after a time the whole race of men moved from their
original habitations in Armenia, and settled in the plains of Shinar
near the Euphrates. Here they determined to establish themselves, and
build a tower whose top might reach the heavens. God was displeased with
this work, which seems to have been undertaken in defiance of his power,
and he confounded the language of those who were engaged in it. This
obliged them to discontinue their labour; they soon after dispersed, and
the different parts of the world became inhabited.

Terah the father of Abraham was a descendant of Shem; he settled with
his family in Haran in Mesopotamia, where he died: God soon after
commanded Abraham to remove with his wife Sarah into the land of Canaan,
and here when they were far advanced in age, their son Isaac was born.
God made many remarkable promises to Abraham, and one of them was, "that
in him all the families of the earth should be blessed." This was a
declaration that the Messiah should be a descendant of Abraham. To make
trial of his obedience, God ordered him to offer up Isaac, as a burnt
offering on Mount Moriah, but just as he was going to slay him, an
angel of the Lord appeared, and told him not to touch the lad, but to
take a ram and offer it up in his stead. It was upon this mountain that
Solomon's temple was afterwards built and here our Saviour was
crucified, the mountain being then called Calvary.

Isaac married Rebekah, and had two sons, Esau and Jacob. Jacob though
the younger obtained the rights of primogeniture; he also procured his
father's blessing by very unjustifiable means; and then repaired to
Padan-aram to take a wife out of his own family. He married Leah and
Rachel, and had twelve sons, who were called the twelve Patriarchs or
fathers of the 12 tribes of Israel, their names were, Reuben, Simeon,
Levi, Judah, Dan, Naphthali, Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zabulon, Joseph and
Benjamin. They were all born in Padan-aram; but Jacob returned to Canaan
before his father's death. Joseph was the favourite son of Jacob; on
which account his brethren hated him, and at length sold him to some
Ishmaelites, who were merchants, and the descendants of Ishmael a son of
Abraham; these Ishmaelites carried Joseph into Egypt, where he became a
slave to Potiphar, the chief officer under the king. His good conduct
soon gained the esteem and confidence of his master, but the wickedness
of Potiphar's wife caused him to be thrown into prison. He was released
from this confinement, in order to interpret two dreams of Pharoah's.
God enabled him to discover that they predicted seven years of plenty
which would be followed by seven years of famine; and the wise advice
Joseph gave the king on this subject, induced the monarch to raise him
to a very high office in his kingdom, and entrust to him the whole care
of collecting and managing the corn. This famine was severely felt in
Canaan, and Jacob sent his sons into Egypt to purchase corn. Joseph
recognised his brethren, and after putting them to several trials, for
the purpose of making them properly sensible of their former cruel
conduct, he discovered himself to them in a very affectionate manner;
he enquired concerning his father, and when he found the old man was
still alive, he desired his brothers to fetch him, and their families
out of Canaan. Jacob who had bitterly wept the loss of his favourite
son, whom he believed from the accounts of his other children to have
been devoured by a wild beast, rejoiced when he heard of his safety, and
desired to go to Egypt to see him before he died. Pharoah gave Joseph's
family the land of Goshen for their residence; and during his reign, the
Hebrews were held in great estimation. The descendants of Jacob
multiplied to so great a degree, that about sixty years after the death
of Joseph, the king who then reigned over Egypt became jealous of their
numbers, and endeavoured to check their increase by slaying the infants,
and reducing the parents to a state of slavery. They suffered many
hardships during several years, but at length God was pleased to deliver
them in a miraculous manner by the hand of Moses, who would soon have
conducted them into the promised land, had not their disobedience and
perverseness brought upon them the punishment of a forty years'
wandering in the wilderness. During this time, God commanded Moses to
deliver his laws to the people of Israel. Aaron the brother of Moses was
made High Priest, and to him was committed the superintendance of
religious ceremonies.

Neither Moses nor Aaron were permitted to enter the promised land on
account of their disobedience to a command of God; and they both died in
the wilderness during the last year of their wandering. Joshua was
appointed to succeed Moses in the important office of leader of the
people, God promised him his support, and when all things were prepared,
he led the Israelites to the banks of the river Jordan: as soon as their
feet touched the water, the current was stopped, the river became dry
ground, and the people entered the country opposite to the city of
Jericho, which was taken in a miraculous manner.

Some time after Joshua's death, Judges were appointed to govern Israel:
they were 12 in number and their government lasted rather more than 300
years. Othniel was the first of the Judges, and Samuel the last. In his
time the people desired to have a king like other nations, and God
commanded him to anoint Saul of the tribe of Benjamin 1095 years B. C.,
to be the first king of Israel. Johim succeeded David of the tribe of
Judah, and at his death the throne devolved to his son Solomon, who
built a temple to the name of the "Lord his God;" in it were deposited
the ark--the holy Scriptures, and other sacred things.--Solomon was
succeeded by his son Rehoboam, the folly and wickedness of whose conduct
induced ten of the tribes to revolt, and they chose Jeroboam one of his
officers for their king. The two tribes that remained faithful to
Rehoboam were Judah and Benjamin. Rehoboam's kingdom was called Judah,
and the capital of it was Jerusalem. Jeroboam's kingdom was named Israel
and its chief city was Samaria.

Jeroboam was succeeded by his son Nadab; and after he had reigned two
years, he was killed by Baasha, who usurped the crown and destroyed the
whole race of Jeroboam, a man remarkable for his impiety.--All the
succeeding kings of Judah were descendants of Rehoboam, which fulfilled
the promise made by God to David, that he would "establish his house and
the throne of his kingdom for ever:" this was a declaration that the
Messiah was to be a descendant of David.

There were frequent wars between the kings of Judah and Israel, and
between them and the neighbouring kings,--the kings and people both of
Judah and Israel, soon fell into the greatest depravity; and at length
God suffered Shalmaneser king of Assyria, by the capture of Samaria in
the reign of Hoshea, to put an end to the kingdom of Israel 721 years
B. C. and about 250 years after its first establishment into a separate
kingdom. And 606 years B. C. and about 115 years after the destruction
of the kingdom of Israel, God permitted Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon,
to invade Judea in the reign of Jehoiakim, and to besiege and take
Jerusalem. Jehoiakim was carried prisoner to Babylon, though afterwards
restored to his kingdom, and succeeded by two other kings, yet, from
this period may be dated the commencement of the Babylonian captivity,
which according to the prediction of Jeremiah was to last 70 years. When
this time was completed, Cyrus, under whom were united the kingdoms of
Persia, Media, and Babylon, permitted the Jews to return to their own
land, and rebuild their temple at Jerusalem.

They were conducted by Zerubbabel the grandson of Jeconias, and Joshua
the son of Josedec the high priest. The second temple was finished in
the reign of king Darius of Persia.

The settlement of the people "after their old estate," together with the
arrangement of all civil and ecclesiastical matters, were completed by
Ezra and Nehemiah.

At the period, about 430 years B. C. the Scripture history closes, and
for the remaining particulars of the Jewish history recourse must be had
to uninspired writers, particularly to the books of the Maccabees and to
Josephus.

Judea continued subject to Persia until Alexander conquered that
country; it then fell under his dominion and he treated the Jews with
great lenity. After the conqueror's death, Judea became subject to his
successors, till Mattathias, a priest eminent for his piety and
resolution, encouraged the people to shake off the Syrian yoke.
Mattathias died before this was effected, but his son Judas Maccabeus
completed the deliverance of his country, and the government of Judea
remained in his family till the time of Herod the great, who put an end
to the administration of the Maccabees or Armenians, and prevailed upon
the Roman senate to appoint him king of Judea.

It was in the thirty sixth year of the reign of Herod, and while
Augustus was Emperor of Rome that our Saviour Jesus Christ was born,
four years before the common æra.

Herod was a cruel tyrant to his people, and even to his own children:
but to keep the Jews in subjection, and to erect a lasting monument to
his own name, he repaired the temple at Jerusalem, and considerably
enlarged the kingdom of Judea.

At his death, the countries over which he had reigned were divided among
his three sons, but they were not allowed to take the title of kings;
they were called ethnarchs or tetrarchs. Archelaus one of Herod's sons,
acting with great cruelty and injustice, was, by order of Augustus,
banished to Vienne in Gaul, where he died. His dominions were then
reduced to a Roman province, and from this time the Jews possessed but
little civil authority. Justice was administered in the name and by the
laws of Rome, and taxes were paid immediately to the emperor. Several of
the Roman governors severely oppressed and persecuted the Jews, and at
length, in the reign of Nero they openly revolted from the Romans. Then
began the Jewish war, which was terminated after an obstinate defence
and unparalleled suffering, on the part of the Jews, by the total
destruction of the city and temple of Jerusalem, by Titus son of
Vespasian the Roman emperor. Since that time the Jews have no where
subsisted as a nation.

Though I have endeavoured, my dear, to give you as brief an account as
possible of the Jewish history, yet the subject is so interesting, that
I perceive it has already occupied a much longer time than I at first
intended. The history of our Saviour's ministry and the Acts of the
Apostles we must therefore defer to a future opportunity: though I
hardly know if these subjects require any elucidation; the facts in the
New Testament being recorded in so clear a manner by the Evangelists
themselves, that I think they must be intelligible even to your
apprehension.

I hope you will perceive that I have mentioned but very slightly some of
the most interesting and important events, purposely to induce you to
seek a more detailed account of them in the sacred volume itself. This
inestimable treasure will I am sure furnish the most agreeable topic of
many of our future conversations. You, my dear, have never been taught
to consider religion as a dry and difficult study, but rather as a means
of adding to the cheerful enjoyment of the many blessings bestowed upon
you by the almighty giver of all good, and I trust the gratitude and
piety of your future life will prove you worthy of being called a
disciple of the benevolent Jesus.

_Anne._ Indeed, mamma, I feel the truth of what you say, and I will
endeavour to act as you wish me.--I am sure I shall have much more
pleasure in reading those parts of the Bible you think proper for me,
now I have some connected idea of the whole.

_Mrs. Harley._ I believe you will. But good bye, my love, for the
present: when you go to bed you will find the prayers you asked for on
my table; there are besides two hymns which I have selected from an
admirable collection.

_Anne._ Thank you, mamma, I will learn to repeat them.


_A Morning Prayer for a Child._

O Almighty God, the Father and Preserver of all mankind! I desire to
offer thee my sincerest thanks that I am arisen this morning in health
and safety. May I spend the day on which I am now entered in
endeavouring to do thy will: let me carefully avoid all that I know to
be displeasing in thy sight, and diligently apply myself to perform all
the good in my power. May I keep a strict watch over my lips and temper,
and try to live in peace with those around me. Grant thy protection and
blessing to my relations and friends; if it should please thee to
preserve us through this day, may the close of it find us more worthy of
again addressing thee through Jesus Christ,

Our Father, &c.


_An Evening Prayer._

Almighty and Merciful God! at the close of another day which thou hast
graciously permitted me to spend in the enjoyment of many blessings, I
would return thee humble thanksgivings from a grateful heart. Conscious
of the many errors I am continually committing, I would earnestly
implore thy pardon for whatsoever has been amiss in my conduct this day.
Forgive me, O Lord, every foolish and angry word I have spoken, every
perverse thought I have indulged, all I have done that I ought not to
have done, and all I have left undone that I ought to have done. O may I
truly repent of these my past faults, and strive to amend my future
life. Bless my relations and friends; pardon all their past
transgressions, and if it please thee to preserve us through the night,
may we arise in the morning to do thy will. Above all the other
blessings thou hast granted me, I would value that of having become
early acquainted with the religion of Jesus. May his example be my
guide, and, with a thankful remembrance of all he did and suffered for
our sakes, I sum up my petitions for the whole human race in the prayer
himself taught us, saying,

Our Father, &c.


    A MORNING HYMN.

    Lord of my life! O may thy praise
      Employ my noblest powers.
    Whose goodness lengthens out my days,
      And fills the circling hours!

    Preserved by thine almighty arm,
      I pass the shades of night,
    Serene, and safe from every harm,
      And see returning light.

    While many spent the night in sighs,
      And restless pains and woes;
    In gentle sleep I clos'd my eyes,
      And undisturb'd repose.

    When sleep, death's semblance o'er me spread,
      And I unconscious lay,
    Thy watchful care was round my bed,
      To guard my feeble clay.

    O let the same almighty care
      My waking hours attend;
    From every danger, every snare,
      My heedless steps defend.

    Smile on my minutes as they roll,
      And guide my future days;
    And let thy goodness fill my soul
      With gratitude and praise.


    AN EVENING HYMN.

    Great God! to thee my ev'ning song,
    With humble gratitude, I raise;
    O let thy mercy tune my tongue,
    And fill my heart with lively praise?

    My days unclouded, as they pass,
    And ev'ry gently rolling hour,
    Are monuments of wond'rous grace,
    And witness to thy love and power.

    Thy love and power, celestial guard,
    Preserve me from surrounding harms:
    Can danger reach me, while the Lord
    Extends his kind protecting arms?

    Let cheering hope my eyelids close,
    With sleep refresh my feeble frame,
    Safe in thy care may I repose,
    And wake with praises to thy name.



_CHAPTER V._

MONDAY.


_Mrs. Harley._ The story you are to read this morning, my dear, is
founded upon facts which come within my own observation. I dare say you
have frequently heard the French Revolution spoken of: it was this event
which gave rise to the incidents contained in


_The History of the Melcour Family._

Mr. de Melcour was the son of a younger branch of a good family; his
father died when he was quite a child, and left him but a small
patrimony. He early entered the army, where for many years he served
his country with honour and fidelity: he was present in several
engagements, and by his bravery and exemplary conduct, acquired the
esteem of all his fellow officers. During the peace which followed the
American war he married an amiable lady, whose fortune united to his
own, enabled him to quit the noisy scenes of a military life, and settle
on a beautiful little estate he purchased in the province of Gascony.
Here he enjoyed all the happiness which a good conscience, a good
temper, and a feeling heart can bestow, joined to the blessings of
domestic peace. Madame de Melcour spent her time in the bosom of her
family; she had little taste for the dissipation of the capital, and
possessing only a limited income, had she indulged herself in expensive
pleasures, she must have foregone the higher satisfaction of
contributing to the comfort of those in less fortunate circumstances.
She had profited by the excellent education her parents had been careful
to give her, and this enabled her to bring up her own children with
little assistance from others. Frederic and Elizabeth were the happiest
little boy and girl in the neighbourhood: they tenderly loved their
parents, and feeling the necessity of doing their duty, it became quite
habitual to them. The little faults natural to childhood they were
conscious would not be punished with severity, and their good actions
they knew would never pass unrewarded. Frederic employed much of his
time in working in a little garden that his father had given him:
Elizabeth assisted in the management of the flowers, and their highest
ambition was to present their mamma with a nosegay of roses, before any
were blown in the _great_ garden.

Thus happily passed many years at Melcour; when the troubles attendant
on the revolution came to disturb the tranquillity of their domestic
enjoyment. M. de Melcour was called upon to resume a military command;
and though he disapproved of many of the measures that had been pursued
by the government, yet, when he saw his sovereign in distress, he would
not withhold his aid. He was particularly active in endeavouring to put
a stop to the devastation caused by a misguided populace; and in a fray
between some peasants and soldiers, he fell a victim to his benevolent
exertions in the cause of humanity.

The sad news was brought to Madame de Melcour just as she was recovering
from the bed of sickness; her constitution already much weakened, was
unable to support the fatal shock, and she soon after closed her eyes
for ever in the arms of her beloved children.

At this period, Frederic was just fifteen, his sister two years younger;
they were left without any protector but an aged grandmother, who had
constantly resided with her daughter since the marriage of the latter
with M. de Melcour. Already suffering from the infirmities of age,
Madame de Joinville felt herself unable to resist the persecutions of
ill-disposed persons, and in the course of a few months found it
necessary to leave the chateau. It was her intention to retire with her
grandchildren into England, the country where she had spent much of the
early part of her life, and where she still hoped to discover some of
her former friends. Accordingly, having settled her affairs as well as
the distracted state of the nation would permit, and, accompanied by
Frederic and Elizabeth, she proceeded to the nearest seaport. They
encountered many difficulties on the road, but at length, through
Frederic's activity, succeeded in securing their passage in a vessel
that was on the point of sailing for England.

Madame de Joinville suffered extremely from the fatigues and anxieties
she had lately undergone, and on their arrival at ---- it was found
necessary to remain there a few days in order to recruit her exhausted
strength.

As soon as Madame de Joinville was sufficiently recovered, they
hastened to London, where, by the assistance of some friends, a small
house was hired for their reception. The expences of a long journey had
much diminished the sum Madame de Joinville had collected before her
departure from France, and the most rigid economy was necessary to
prevent them from becoming burthensome to others. In these
circumstances, Frederic could not bear the idea of leading an idle life;
he greatly wished to follow the profession of his father, but the
anxious fears of his grandmother and sister long opposed his
inclinations: however, he at length prevailed, and entered a regiment
that was ordered on foreign service. The parting between Elizabeth and
Frederic was a melancholy scene: she was long inconsolable for his loss,
but religion, which she had always been taught to consider as the best
comforter of the afflicted, came to her aid, and feeling the necessity
of submission, she determined by active exertions to divert her mind
from past calamities.

It was now that Elizabeth felt the inestimable advantages of _a good
education_; she perfectly understood the English language; her industry
and punctuality procured her many friends, who, young as she was,
entrusted her with the translation of papers of consequence, and the
reward she received for her labour, greatly contributed to the support
of the family. Every instant she could spare from her employment and the
care of their domestic affairs, was devoted to her grandmother. She
nursed her when sick, read aloud for her amusement, and by every kind
attention endeavoured to lessen her regret for the blessings she had
lost. Madame de Joinville has often been heard to declare, that without
the filial affection of her granddaughter she could hardly have
supported her afflictions. The infirmities of age must sometimes render
those advanced in years petulant and capricious: Elizabeth never
murmured when her endeavours to please failed of success; much less did
she irritate her grandmother by contradiction; she patiently submitted
to these trials of her temper, and when evening came, and Madame de
Joinville retired to rest, Elizabeth thought herself amply repaid for
any little disappointments she had encountered during the day, by
receiving her blessing and the assurance of her tenderest love.

Frederic remained two years abroad; whatever he could spare from his own
actual wants he constantly remitted to his sister; but without her
industry they would often have been greatly distressed. At length
Elizabeth's noble and pious conduct was made known to a lady who had
formerly been an intimate acquaintance of Madame de Joinville's family.
Her visits to the old lady gave her constant opportunities of witnessing
the amiable disposition of her granddaughter; and anxious to reward her
virtues, she interested herself so warmly in their concerns, that at
length, through the intercession of some powerful friends, a restitution
of part of M. de Melcour's property was procured for his children.
Elizabeth when in happier circumstances preserved the same humility of
mind, and her never failing attention to her grandmother was rewarded by
the pleasure of seeing the comforts of her last days make amends for the
sorrows that had embittered so many of her former ones.

Frederic arrived in England soon after this happy change in their
circumstances; he would have wished his sister to return to their
native country, but the inconvenience of removing her grandmother, and
the still unquiet state of the continent, induced her to prefer a
residence in that land where she was secured from the horrors she had
once witnessed. Frederic yielded to her reasons; and when their affairs
obliged him to leave her, a constant correspondence maintained the
affection that had always subsisted from their earliest years.

         *         *         *         *         *

"Dear mamma," said Anne, "I think I like Elizabeth better than any of
the young people I have yet read about, but do you really believe there
ever was so good a character?"

_Mrs. Harley._ Certainly, my dear; and I have no doubt but many such are
to be found. They must be depraved indeed, who can be wanting in
affection to their parents. But I fear we must not comment a great deal
on this story at present, or there will not be time to give you some
account of _Geography_, which I intend for your study this morning.

_Anne._ I will then, mamma, after dinner, ask you to explain to me a few
of the words I did not quite understand.

_Mrs. Harley._ Do, my dear, I shall be happy to give you all the
information you desire.


FOURTH LESSON.

_Mrs. Harley._ You know, my dear, what is meant by Geography?

_Anne._ O yes, mamma, Geography is a description of the earth we
inhabit.

_Mrs. Harley._ And the earth (which the globe before us represents,) is
divided into four parts, viz. Europe, Asia, Africa, and America. The
three first are contained in the eastern hemisphere, and are called the
old world. America is situated in the western hemisphere, and is called
the new world, because discovered in modern times.

_Anne._ Pray, mamma, is not a continent one of the divisions of the
land?

_Mrs. Harley._ Yes, my dear; for after we have divided the whole globe
into land and water, we again subdivide the land into Continents,
Islands, Peninsulas, Isthmusses, and Promontories,--the water into
Oceans, Seas, Straits, Gulfs, Bays, Lakes, Rivers, and Creeks.

A Continent is a large tract of land containing several countries which
are not separated by seas; as Europe, Asia, Africa, and America.

An Island, is a tract of land entirely surrounded by water, as Britain,
Ireland, Sicily, &c.

A Peninsula, is a tract of land almost surrounded by water, and is
joined to the main land by an isthmus, as the Morea.

An Isthmus, is a narrow neck of land that joins a peninsula to the
continent, as the Isthmus of Corinth.

A Cape or Promontory, is that high part of land which shoots into the
sea, and appears to terminate in a point, as the Cape of Good Hope in
Africa, Cape Finistere in Spain, &c.

A Shore or Coast, is that land which borders upon the sea.

The Ocean, is that general collection of water which surrounds the whole
earth. It is distinguished by the names of the four cardinal points of
the world; viz. the northern or icy ocean, which environs the north
pole; the western or Atlantic Ocean, which lies between Europe and
America, extending to the Equator; the southern or Ethiopic Ocean, which
extends from the Equator between Africa and America; and the Eastern or
Indian Ocean, which washes the eastern coast of Africa, and the southern
coast of Asia. To these have been added by later discoveries the Pacific
Ocean, commonly called the Great South Sea, between America and Asia;
and the Antarctic Icy Ocean which surrounds the South Pole.

A Sea, is a part of the Ocean, into which we must enter by some strait,
and it is almost surrounded by land, as the Mediterranean and Baltic
Seas.

A Strait, is a narrow passage opening a way into some sea, as the
Straits of Gibraltar, the Hellespont.

A Gulf is a part of an ocean or sea, which runs up considerably into the
land, as the Gulf of Venice, the Gulf of Mexico, &c.

A Bay is a smaller kind of gulf, (and is frequently much smaller at the
entrance than in the middle) as the Bay of Naples.

A Lake is a collection of water entirely surrounded by land, as the Lake
of Geneva, and the Lake of Constance: when no stream flows in or out of
it, it is called a pool.

A River is a current or stream, which rises in some elevated land, and
flows into the sea, another river, or lake, as the River Thames, the
Medway, and the River St. Lawrence.

A Creek, is a small part of the sea or of a river which runs but a
little way into the land.

That part of the sea which flows between the shores of an Island and a
Continent, is called a Channel, as the English Channel.

This description of the divisions of land and water, I wish you to
commit to memory; and I will shew you all the names I have mentioned on
the globe, which will give you a more perfect idea of them, than you can
acquire by reading only.

_Anne._ Thank you, mamma; but I hope you will tell me a little more of
the earth.

_Mrs. Harley._ Willingly, my dear. You have read that after the flood,
the world was peopled by Noah's children: Shem and his descendants
spread over Asia, Ham over Africa, and Japhet over Europe. It is
uncertain who were the original inhabitants of America. Europe, though
the smallest of the four parts of the world, is much the most populous;
and here the arts and sciences are brought to the greatest perfection:
it is divided into different countries, of which the following are the
principal, though many of them, have undergone great changes during the
last few years.

    ON THE NORTH.

        _Countries._      _Capitals._

    1   Norway            Bergen
    2   Sweden            Stockholm
    3   Denmark           Copenhagen
    4   Russia            St. Petersburgh

    IN THE MIDDLE.

    British       {England           London
    Dominions  1  {Scotland          Edinburgh
                  {Ireland           Dublin
               2   France            Paris
               3   Swisserland       Bern
               4   Netherlands       Brussels
               5   United Provinces  Amsterdam
               6   Germany           Vienna
               7   Bohemia           Prague
               8   Hungary           Presburgh
               9   Poland            Cracow
              10   Prussia           Koningsburgh

Note. Berlin, in Germany, was the capital of the king of Prussia's
Dominions.

    IN THE SOUTH.

    1   Spain             Madrid
    2   Portugal          Lisbon
    3   Italy             Rome
    4   Turkey            Constantinople

The most considerable Islands of Europe are

Great Britain and Ireland in the Atlantic Ocean,

Iceland in the Northern Ocean,

Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Majorca, Minorca, Candia, all in the
Mediterranean sea, and the Islands in the Archipelago.

It is now so late my dear, that I must finish my account of Europe
to-morrow; good bye, and try to remember what I have already told you.



_CHAPTER VI._

TUESDAY.


_Anne._ You see me earlier than usual this morning, dear mamma; but as I
know all the geography you desired me to learn quite perfectly, I hope
you will give me leave to read another story.

_Mrs. Harley._ Certainly, my dear: but remember to read very distinctly;
make proper pauses; fall your voice at a period, and begin the next
sentence in rather a higher tone; aspirate the _H_, excepting in such
words as _hour_, _honour_, _heiress_, and a few others where it is
silent: and above all, avoid a monotonous manner of reading, for nothing
can be more unpleasant to those who are listening to you, than to hear a
tale, however interesting in itself, read on in one continued tone:
instead of affording any amusement, it only induces the persons you are
reading to, to wish for a cessation of the unpleasant murmuring noise
which offends their ears.

_Anne._ I will attend to what you say, mamma, while I am reading the
following story, which is called


_The Advantages of Truth._

George Elliot the son of a respectable gentleman, had been paying a
visit to his uncle, and on his return home, was accompanied by one of
his cousins, who was to spend a few months with him at Hartley,
Mr. Elliot's country residence.

George was a boy of a frank and generous disposition, and good
abilities; these being cultivated by a careful education, made him at
the age of eleven years, a well-informed and agreeable boy. Charles
Morden his cousin, was much his inferior in every respect. Accustomed to
excessive indulgence, he became fretful and idle, and often entered into
mischief, for the sake of having _something to do_; his parents so
plentifully supplied him with play-things, that he was consequently
tired of every thing he possessed, and only desirous of what was in
expectation; nay, worse, for to obtain any particular gratification, he
would not scruple making use of falshood. Such was the boy, now
unfortunately the constant companion of George Elliot.

Mr. Elliot indulged his son in every innocent amusement proper for his
age, but loved him too well to suffer his faults to pass unnoticed.
George had been long anxious for a poney, and as soon as a proper one
could be purchased, his father presented it to him, and often allowed
him to ride out, either accompanied by himself or a servant, but
particularly forbade him from ever mounting any other horse in the
stables, telling him at the same time, the many fatal accidents that
had occurred, owing to boys attempting to ride horses they were unable
to manage. George promised obedience, and had strictly adhered to his
word.

It was settled that Charles was to share the studies, as well as the
amusements of his cousin, and the gentleman to whose care George's
education was confided, paid equal attention to both, though he soon
perceived that Charles had little delight in useful occupations: and he
was always glad of some excuse that might save him the trouble of
attending Mr. Darford, and laughed at George for being always _fagging_
as he called it.

About two months after his son's return, Mr. Elliot was obliged by some
business of importance, to take a journey that he thought might detain
him about a fortnight from home. He embraced the children at parting,
desired them to behave well, and at his return they should be rewarded.

For the first week after Mr. Elliot's departure, the boys were so good,
and their tutor so well pleased with their conduct, that one fine day he
gave them a holiday, telling them, that provided they avoided all
mischievous amusements they were at liberty to spend the day in any
manner most agreeable to themselves.--During several hours, they were
employed in catching their balls, flying their kites, working in the
garden, &c. At length, Charles seeing a little boy going by on
horseback, said he should like nothing so well as a nice ride before
dinner. "Nor I neither," answered George, "but you know it is
impossible, my father having expressly forbidden us to ride out alone
during his absence. Mr. Darford is not at home, and I know that all the
men are busy." "What does that signify?" returned Charles, "we are
surely old enough to take care of ourselves, and as to my uncle, he will
never know any thing of the matter."

George was at first quite shocked at the idea of disobeying his father,
but he at last suffered himself to be persuaded by the artful entreaties
of his cousin, to do what he knew to be wrong. They went to the
stables, where George took out his own little poney, and Charles one of
his uncle's large horses, assuring his cousin that he could manage it
very well. At their first setting out, they agreed not to go far from
home, only just to ride round the paddock; the pleasantness of the
weather, however, soon tempted them to alter their resolution, and they
ventured into the high road. They went on very well for some time, and
were just thinking of returning, when Charles's horse took fright at
some object on the side of the road, and by a sudden start threw his
rider; he was not much hurt by the fall, but the horse galloped away,
and they soon lost all trace of the way he took: after wasting some
time in fruitless endeavours to follow him, they were obliged to return
home.

George was very uneasy, and bitterly repented the fault he had
committed. "O Charles," cried he, "why did you ask me to disobey my
father! Alas! I fear he will never forgive me."

"Don't cry so, pray," answered his cousin, "come, follow my advice, and
this affair will never be discovered."--"How can that be? you surely
forget the horse is lost, and besides, I would not upon any account tell
an untruth." "You are very foolish then, let me tell you; for as nobody
saw us go out, if we deny knowing any thing about the horse, we shall
never be suspected."

"No, Charles, that I will never do; I had rather suffer the severest
punishment that could be inflicted upon me, than tell a _lie_. Nothing
shall induce me to add to the fault I have already committed. When my
father comes home, I will confess what I have done, and rely upon his
indulgence for pardoning a disobedience I so sincerely repent."

"Well then," said Charles, "if you will not follow my advice, at least
you have no occasion to say it was I who persuaded you to take out the
horses."--"I shall not even mention your name: but come, let us waste no
more time, in regretting an action that cannot be recalled, we had
better try by our future conduct, to make some reparation for the
past."--So saying, he took his cousin by the arm, and they were together
leaving the room, when Mr. Elliot entered. The young lads drew back in
dismay; Mr. Elliot ran to embrace his son. "You see me here, my dear
boy, sooner than you expected; but fortunately the business that called
me hence, was concluded much earlier than I could have imagined." Some
few minutes had elapsed, before George could gain courage to answer his
father, at length he said, "you are convinced, my dear sir, that your
company has always given me pleasure, but to day it causes me pain, for
I have just been guilty of a fault that will I fear deprive me of your
confidence." George here related to his father, all that had passed,
except carefully concealing the part his cousin had acted; when he had
finished, Mr. Elliot thus addressed him, "I am charmed with your noble
conduct, my dear boy, and most willingly forgive the error you have
committed, because I believe your repentance to be sincere, and am
convinced you have told me the exact truth. Listen, now, to the
consequences that would have ensued, had you concealed it: I was in the
adjoining apartment, and heard the whole conversation that passed
between yourself and Charles; so, had you, as he wickedly advised, had
recourse to a falsehood, it would not have deceived _me_, but only have
proved that _you_ were unworthy my care and affection: whereas, I now
rejoice in the virtuous resolution of a son thus rendered dearer to me
than ever. Always speak the _truth_, and be assured it is the easiest
and surest way of extricating yourself from every difficulty.--As for
you, Sir," continued Mr. Elliot turning to Charles, "I shall not take
the trouble of punishing the meanness and depravity of your conduct,
because I fear that any punishment I could inflict, would have little
effect on a _liar_: I shall immediately send you back to your parents,
with an account of this day's transactions, at the same time advising
them to find some place far distant from all who belong to you, and
where, under a severe discipline, you may be made to repent of your
wickedness, and I hope in time recalled to that virtuous conduct from
which you have now so miserably erred."

Mr. Elliot then taking his son by the hand led him out of the parlour,
and left Charles at leisure to reflect on the sad consequences of a
habit of lying.

         *         *         *         *         *

This story being finished, Mrs. Harley said, it is not necessary my dear
Anne, that I should comment on the subject of which you have been
reading; the advantages arising from a strict adherence to truth are too
obvious not to be immediately perceived, and I trust, from the
principles I have always endeavoured to instil into your young mind,
that you will ever prefer the fair and open path she points out, to the
intricate labyrinths of despicable falshood.

_Anne._ Indeed, mamma, if ever I should be tempted to tell an untruth, I
will think of this story, and then, I am sure I shall reject it, even
though I were certain it would remain undiscovered.

_Mrs. Harley._ Do not imagine _that_ would ever be the case, as it is
impossible for children, however artful, long to dissemble their actions
or even thoughts from persons interested about them.

I will now conclude my account of Europe.


FIFTH LESSON.

_Mrs. Harley._ I ended yesterday, I think, with the European islands.--I
will now tell you the principal seas which surround Europe--the sea of
Asoph, the Euxine or Black Sea, the Archipelago or Grecian Sea, are
between Europe and Asia--the Mediterranean between Europe and
Africa--the Atlantic Ocean between Europe and America--the German Ocean
or North Sea between Britain and Germany--the Icy Ocean on the North,
and the White Sea in Russia.

The principal straits are, the Straits of Caffa between the Sea of Asoph
and the Black Sea--the Bosphorus, or Straits of Constantinople between
the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmora--the Hellespont between the Sea of
Marmora and the Archipelago--the Faro of Messina between Italy and
Sicily--the Straits of Bonifacio between Corsica and Sardinia--the
Straits of Gibraltar between Barbary and Spain--the Straits of Dover
between England and France--the Sound in the Baltic between Denmark and
Sweden.

The principal gulfs and bays are, the Gulf of Bothnia in Sweden--the
Gulf of Finland between Sweden and Russia--the Bay of Biscay between
France and Spain--the Gulf of Venice between Italy and Turkey.

The principal rivers are, the Wolga--the Don or Tanais--and the
Boristhenes or Dnieper in Russia--the Thames and the Severn in
England--the Danube, the Rhine, and the Elbe in Germany--the Vistula or
Wesil in Poland--the Loire, the Seine, the Rhine, and the Garonne in
France--the Ebro, the Tagus, and the Douro in Spain--the Po in Italy.

The chief lakes are Ladoga and Onega in Russia--Windermere in England,
Lough Neagh in Ireland, and Loch Lomond in Scotland--Lake of Geneva
between Swisserland and Italy--Lake of Constance between Swisserland and
Germany--Lakes of Como and Maggiore in Italy.

The chief mountains are, the Dofre-field between Norway and Sweden--the
Cheviot Hills in Scotland--Plinlimmon in Wales--the Peak in Derbyshire
in England--the Carpathian mountains between Poland and Hungary--the
Pyrenean mountains between France and Spain--the Alps which divide
France and Germany from Italy--the Apennines which run through Italy
from North to South.

Besides these, there are several volcanos in Europe, Vesuvius in
Naples--Stromboli one of the Lipari isles--Etna in Sicily, and Hecla in
Iceland.

_Anne._ Thank you, mamma, I will look for all of them in the map; but
pray before you leave Europe tell me something more of our own country.

_Mrs. Harley._ England, my dear, is bounded on the north by Scotland,
on the east by the German Ocean, on the south by the British Channel,
and on the west by the Irish sea, and St. George's Channel. It is
divided into 52 counties, 40 in England and 12 in Wales. The 40 English
counties are

    6 IN THE NORTH.

    _Counties._       _Chief Towns._

    Northumberland    Newcastle.
    Cumberland        Carlisle
    Durham            Durham
    Westmoreland      Kendal
    Yorkshire         York
    Lancashire        Lancaster.

    6 IN THE EAST.

    Norfolk           Norwich
    Suffolk           Ipswich
    Essex             Chelmsford
    Middlesex         London
    Hertfordshire     Hertford
    Cambridgeshire    Cambridge.

    6 IN THE SOUTH.

    Kent              Canterbury
    Sussex            Chichester
    Surry             Guildford
    Hampshire         Winchester
    Berkshire         Reading
    Wiltshire         Salisbury.

    4 IN THE WEST.

    Dorsetshire       Dorchester
    Somersetshire     Bristol
    Devonshire        Exeter
    Cornwall          Launceston.

    18 IN THE MIDDLE.

    Gloucestershire   Gloucester
    Monmouthshire     Monmouth
    Herefordshire     Hereford
    Shropshire        Shrewsbury
    Cheshire          Chester
    Derbyshire        Derby
    Nottinghamshire   Nottingham
    Lincolnshire      Lincoln
    Huntingdonshire   Huntingdon
    Bedfordshire      Bedford
    Buckinghamshire   Buckingham
    Oxfordshire       Oxford
    Worcestershire    Worcester
    Staffordshire     Stafford
    Leicestershire    Leicester
    Rutlandshire      Oakham
    Northamptonshire  Northampton
    Warwickshire      Warwick.

The 12 Welsh counties are,

    6 IN NORTH WALES.

    _Counties._       _Chief Towns._

    Anglesea          Beaumaris
    Caernarvonshire   Caernarvon
    Denbighshire      Denbigh
    Flintshire        St. Asaph
    Merionethshire    Harlech
    Montgomeryshire   Montgomery

    6 IN SOUTH WALES.

    Cardiganshire     Cardigan
    Radnorshire       Radnor
    Pembrokeshire     Pembroke
    Caermarthenshire  Caermarthen
    Brecknockshire    Brecknock
    Glamorganshire    Cardiff.

You will learn these counties, my dear, and trace them on the map at
your first leisure opportunity. We have been so long in Europe, that I
fear I must give you a very short description of the other parts of the
world.

Asia is rendered famous on account of its having been the residence of
our first parents, and the scene of almost every transaction mentioned
in the scriptures: here our Saviour was born, lived and died; and from
hence the gospel was first promulgated to mankind. Its inhabitants,
though formerly celebrated for their refinement, are now, in general, a
lazy, ignorant people. China is celebrated for its productions of silk
and tea, which is a plant almost peculiar to this country, and the
beautiful manufacture of porcelain called China. In the southern part of
Asia the East Indies are situated, and in the West Arabia. The chief
rivers are the Euphrates, Tigris, Indus and Ganges. The principal
mountains are, Azarat, Horeb, Sinai and Lebanon. The most remarkable
Islands are, the Japan isles, the Maiana or Ladrone Islands, Formoso,
Philippines, Moluccas, Banda islands, Celebes or Macassar, the Sunda
islands, Ceylon, Maldives and Jesso isles.

_Anne._ Thank you, mamma, now for Africa.

_Mrs. Harley._ Africa, my dear, though once so highly renowned for the
learning and politeness of its natives is now nearly barbarous. In
Africa, near the northern coast, was situated the once famous city of
Carthage, founded by Queen Dido, and the native country of a famous
general named Hannibal, whose history you will hereafter read. Egypt so
famous for the Nile (an immense river) lies in this part of the world,
and here the arts and sciences were formerly highly cultivated. The
chief rivers are, the Nile, Niger, Gambia, and Senegal. The mountains
are, Mount Atlas in the north, and the Peak of Teneriffe one of the
Canary isles. The principal African Islands are, the Azores, the
Madeiras, Canaries, Cape Verde isles, and St. Helena in the Atlantic
Ocean; Madagascar, Mauritius, Bourbon, Comora isles, and Socotora in
the Indian Ocean.

America, the largest division of the globe, was discovered in the year
1492 by Christopher Columbus, a native of Genoa in Italy; though it
derives its name (not quite justly I think) from Americus Vesputius, who
extended the discoveries of Columbus. America is divided into north and
south, and these two peninsulas are joined by the Isthmus of Darien. The
mountains here are much higher and the rivers much larger than those in
the other parts of the world. The Andes, a ridge of mountains in South
America, are considered the highest in the world; their tops are covered
with perpetual snow, notwithstanding the excessive heat of the climate
in which they are situated. In North America are the Appalachian or
Allegany mountains. The principal rivers are, in the southern peninsula,
the river Amazon, the Oronoko, the Rio de la Plata, and the river
Janeiro: in the north, St. Lawrence, Delaware, and Susquehana.

Great part of North America formerly belonged to Great Britain, but some
disputes arising between the mother country (England) and the colonies,
a war ensued, which was, at length, terminated in favour of the
Americans, and in 1783 they were declared a free, sovereign, and
independent nation. This part of America is now distinguished by the
appellation of "the United States." General Washington, of whom you
have frequently heard me speak, was an American.

I must now finish my lecture on geography, which, though very imperfect,
has yet exceeded the usual limits of our lessons; many interesting
circumstances relating to the various countries I have mentioned, have
been entirely omitted, as I was fearful that by telling you too much on
the subject I should prevent you from remembering any of the particulars
so necessary for you to retain.

_Anne._ Oh, dear mamma! how much I thank you for what you have told me
about geography, I think it very entertaining, and I like looking over
maps; but now I should very much like to know the history of all these
countries.

_Mrs. Harley._ To-morrow, my dear, I will give you some account of them,
but to know all the particulars of each nation would require you to
read more volumes than as yet you have patience for. Farewell.



_CHAPTER VII._

WEDNESDAY.


_Mrs. Harley._ We will this morning, my dear, contrary to the usual
custom, begin our instructions with the _Lesson_ instead of the _Story_;
and as the two last days have given you some idea of geography, I think
I cannot better employ the present than by devoting it to History.

_Anne._ You know, mamma, I am always happy to learn what you are so good
as to teach me. Pray, if I was to ask you the meaning of the word
History, how would you answer me?

_Mrs. Harley._ I should say, my dear, that History is a relation of the
past actions of men and women. It is divided into sacred and profane. By
sacred history is meant all the relations that are contained in the Old
and New Testaments.

_Anne._ And of which you have already given me some account, mamma.

_Mrs. Harley._ From your earliest childhood, my dear, it has been my
constant endeavour to store your mind with as much knowledge of sacred
subjects as I thought it capable of receiving.

By profane history is meant the account of all transactions not included
in the sacred volumes. Ancient history relates the events that happened
from the creation of the world to the birth of Jesus Christ: Modern
history, those from the birth of Jesus Christ to the present time.
Ancient history is divided into the four periods or æras of the four
successive monarchies called universal.

_Anne._ Why were they called universal monarchies, mamma?

_Mrs. Harley._ Because they extended over the greatest part of the
_then_ known world. The first was the Assyrian monarchy, founded by
Nimrod, the grandson of Ham, who, you know, was the son of Noah. Nimrod
was a very courageous man, and a famous hunter of wild beasts, which
impressed his friends with so high an idea of his abilities, that they
agreed to elect him their king; he taught his subjects the arts of
hunting and building cities, besides several other useful things: he
founded the Assyrian monarchy about 1800 years after the creation.
Nimrod was succeeded by his son Ninus, and at his death the crown
devolved to his Queen Semiramis, remarkable for her extraordinary
valour; she was slain in battle by the Indians, who, in those days, made
use of elephants in their armies. This monarchy ended under
Sardanapalus, who was a very weak prince. The capitals of the Assyrian
empire were Babylon upon the river Euphrates, and Nineveh on the Tigris.
It was divided, after the death of Sardanapalus, into three kingdoms,
called, the Median, Babylonian, and the second Assyrian. Belshazzar, the
last king of Babylon, was a very wicked man, and treated the Jews (who
had been brought captive to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar, a former king)
with great cruelty. At a splendid entertainment which he one night gave
to the lords of his court, he ordered the vessels that had been taken
from Solomon's temple to be brought to him, and, with his guests,
insulted the Jewish religion by drinking out of them; his impiety was,
however, speedily punished, for that very night Cyrus entered Babylon
with a powerful army, made himself master of the kingdom, and
Belshazzar was slain.

Cyrus becoming, soon after this event, by the death of his father and
uncle, king of Persia, Media, and Babylon, established the second
universal monarchy called the Persian. He was a very good prince, and
permitted the Jews to return to their own land and rebuild their city.

_Anne._ Which was called Jerusalem, was it not, mamma?

_Mrs. Harley._ Yes, my dear, I am glad to find you recollect what you
read. Cyrus lived to be very old, and was succeeded by his son Cambyses,
who, far from following the virtuous example of his father, committed
numberless crimes, among which was the murder of his own brother. After
him reigned Smerdis the impostor, who pretended to be the true Smerdis
that had been killed by Cambyses: next to him Darius, who was chosen
because his horse neighed before any of those belonging to the other
competitors for the crown: then Xerxes, a very vain-glorious prince, who
attempted to conquer Greece, but was himself beaten, and obliged to make
his escape from thence in a little fishing boat: he was succeeded by his
son Artaxerxes, and at length, after several other kings, Darius
ascended the throne, who, had he not been proud of his riches, might
have been a wise and good sovereign. During his reign, the Greeks (who
inhabited that country which is now the southern part of Turkey in
Europe) determined, under the command of the famous Alexander, to make
the Persians submit to their power: accordingly, an immense army invaded
the Persian dominions, and after several battles, they were completely
conquered, and Darius was killed by one of his own nobles. Thus
Alexander putting an end to the Persian monarchy, established the third
Universal Empire about 330 years before Christ.

The capital of Persia was Susa.

_Anne._ I suppose then, that Alexander was a native of Greece, pray tell
me a little about that country?

_Mrs. Harley._ Long before the time of Alexander, Greece had been
highly celebrated. It was divided into several small states, the
principal of which were, Sparta and Athens. Sparta was governed by
kings; Lycurgus was their famous legislator; he framed many wise laws,
which greatly added to the prosperity of the kingdom. Athens was a
commonwealth, and even more renowned for wisdom than Sparta. Solon was
their lawgiver, and his laws tended much more to the refinement of the
people, than those of Lycurgus, some of which were very cruel. Macedon
was a state of little consequence till the time of Philip, who greatly
increased its importance: he procured himself to be appointed
commander-in-chief of all the armies destined for the invasion of
Persia, but he was killed before he set out on this expedition. He was
succeeded by his son Alexander, both as king of Macedon and
generalissimo of Greece, who, after settling the affairs of his native
country, marched into Persia; not contented with conquering this vast
country, he turned his arms against the Indian princes, many of whom
were obliged to submit to his authority; one of them was named Porus, a
man of extraordinary stature, who afterwards became the sincere friend
of the conqueror.

Thus Alexander having subdued so many nations, was at last obliged to
yield to the instances of his soldiers, and to think of returning back
to Macedon. He entered Babylon in triumph, and spent much of his time,
while there, in feasting and drinking. The excesses he committed, at
times deranged his mind, and in one fit of intoxication he killed a
faithful old friend named Clitus: many more of his actions were totally
unworthy of a prince who assumed the name of _Great_, this appellation
was certainly bestowed upon him rather for his extensive conquests, than
for any benefits his subjects derived from his reign, nor could _Good_
with any propriety have been added to the title of Great.

He at length, fell a victim to his intemperance in the thirty-third year
of his age, about 323 years before Christ. Leaving no proper person to
succeed him; four of his generals, after many disputes and battles
divided his extensive dominions among themselves. To relate the
particular histories of these kingdoms would engross too much of our
time; I shall therefore proceed to the Roman Empire which was the fourth
universal monarchy; and was founded by Romulus about 752 years before
Christ. Perhaps a short account of its origin will be entertaining to
you.

Romulus and Remus were the twin sons of a lady named Rhea Sylvia. As
soon as they were born they were condemned by their cruel uncle Amulius
king of Alba (in Italy) to be thrown into the Tiber, this was executed,
but they were found and preserved by a herdsman named Faustulus, who
brought them up as his own sons till they arrived at years of
discretion; when becoming acquainted with the history of their birth,
they determined to dethrone their wicked uncle Amulius, and restore
their grandfather Numitor to the crown his brother had unjustly deprived
him of. They succeeded, and then formed a plan for building themselves a
city, among those hills on which they had spent their earliest years.
They could not, however, agree concerning the best situation for it, but
the opinion of Romulus at length prevailing, Remus, to vex his brother,
leaped contemptuously over the city wall: this so irritated Romulus that
a violent quarrel ensued, they fought, and either by accident or design
Romulus killed his brother, and then the whole government of the new
state devolved upon himself: it was called Rome after its founder.
Inhabitants flocked from every part of the surrounding country into the
new city, and it soon became a very considerable kingdom. After the
death of Romulus six other kings succeeded to the throne all of whom,
excepting the last, were great and good men, their names were,

    Romulus the Founder,
    Numa Pompilius,
    Tullus Hostilius,
    Ancus Martius,
    Tarquinius Priscus,
    Servius Tullius, and
    Tarquinius Superbus.

Under whom ended the regal state. A Commonwealth ensued. Many great men
flourished during this period: but at length the government changed once
more, and Rome became an empire. The first twelve emperors were
distinguished by the appellation of the twelve Cæsars, their names were

    Julius Cæsar, the first Roman emperor.

    Augustus, in whose reign our Saviour Jesus Christ came into the
    world.

    Tiberius,
    Caligula,
    Claudius,
    Nero,
    Sergius Galba,
    Otho,
    Vitellius,
    Vespasian,
    Titus, and
    Domitian.

Many emperors succeeded these, until Constantine the Great, the 41st
emperor, removed the seat of empire from Rome to Constantinople, which,
before his time, was called Byzantium. Constantine was a very good man,
and was the first Roman emperor who embraced the Christian religion, but
he pursued a system of politics that hastened the destruction of the
empire. After his death the sovereignty was divided between his sons,
and soon after Rome, which had once given laws to the world, became a
prey to merciless barbarians, and sunk into comparative insignificance.

_Anne._ O! thank you, mamma, for this entertaining account of Rome, I
shall be very glad when I am old enough to read the Roman History.

_Mrs. Harley._ Age, my dear, is not the only thing necessary for the
accomplishment of your wish. Let me see you attentive to your present
employments, and I shall have much pleasure in reading with you a
history that I am sure will engage your attention. I will now tell you a
very little about our own country.

Britain was little known to the rest of the world, till about 52 years
before the common æra; when Julius Cæsar invaded the country with a
powerful army: the natives, assisted by their Druids or priests, opposed
his landing, but they were unable long to resist so warlike a people as
the Romans, who soon after making themselves masters of the island,
maintained possession of the most fertile parts of it near 500 years.
Their own affairs then requiring their attention at home, they abandoned
it, and the Saxons made their appearance. These people came from a
province in Germany, and when they had subdued Britain, they divided it
into seven kingdoms called the Saxon Heptarchy.

    Kent, which included the isles of Thanet and Sheppey.

    Northumberland, contained Northumberland, Durham, Lancashire,
    and Yorkshire.

    East Anglia, contained Cambridgeshire, Suffolk, and Norfolk.

    Mercia, contained all the middle countries from the Severn
    between East Anglia and Wessex.

    Essex, or East Saxony, contained Essex, Middlesex, and part of
    Hertfordshire.

    Sussex, or South Saxony, contained Surry, Sussex, and the New
    Forest.

    Wessex, or West Saxony, included Hampshire, Dorsetshire,
    Wiltshire, Berkshire, and the Isle of Wight.

Egbert, king of Wessex, at length subduing the other princes of the
Heptarchy, united the whole country under one monarchy, and became
himself the first king of England, in the year 827 after Christ.

I will give you a chronological list of the kings of England, not that I
wish you to learn it at present, but because it will be useful to refer
to when you are reading the history. Some knowledge of dates is
desirable, as it enables you to ascertain the periods when any
particular events occurred, and under whose reign. The Danes made
frequent incursions into England during the time of the Saxons, and
caused great devastation in the country. Alfred, the most excellent
prince mentioned in history, was obliged, owing to these barbarians, to
abandon his throne and retire to an obscure cottage, where, however, he
occupied his time in forming the best plans for his own
re-establishment, and the restoration of tranquility to his distracted
country: his wise measures were successful and for some time the Danes
were entirely quelled, but they soon renewed their usual predatory
warfare, and Canute became king of England.

    SAXON KINGS OF ENGLAND.

     800 Egbert
     838 Ethelwolf
     857 Ethelbald
     860 Ethelbert
     866 Ethelred
     871 Alfred the Great
     901 Edward the Elder
     925 Athelston
     941 Edmund
     946 Edred
     955 Edwy
     959 Edgar
     975 Edward the Martyr
     978 Ethelred II
    1016 Edmund II, or Ironside.

    DANISH KINGS.

    1017 Canute
    1035 Harold
    1039 Hardicanute
    1041 Edward the Confessor
    1065 Harold II.

William the first (commonly called the Conqueror,) Duke of Normandy,
invaded England with a powerful army, and slew Harold at the battle of
Hastings. This victory is called the Conquest; it was gained on the 14th
of October, 1066.

    NORMAN LINE.

    Kings names.    Began to reign.    Reigned years.

    William I       1066               20    Duke of Normandy
    William II      1087               12    Son to the Conqueror
    Henry I         1100               35    Brother to William II
    Stephen         1135               18    Grandson to the Conqueror by
                                             his daughter Adela, who
                                             married the Earl of Blois.

    LINE OF PLANTAGENET.

    Henry II        1154               34    Grandson to Henry I by his
                                             daughter Matilda, who married
                                             the Earl of Anjou
    Richard I       1189                9    Son to Henry I
    John            1199               17    Brother to Richard I
    Henry III       1216               56    Son to John
    Edward I        1272               34    Son to Henry III
    Edward II       1307               19    Son to Edward I
    Edward III      1327               50    Son to Edward II.
    Richard II      1377               22    Grandson to Edward III by his
                                             eldest son, the Black Prince.

    LINE OF LANCASTER.

    Henry IV        1399               13    Son to John of Gaunt, Duke of
                                             Lancaster, fourth son of
                                             Edward III
    Henry V         1413                9    Son to Henry IV
    Henry VI        1422               38    Son to Henry V.

    LINE OF YORK.

    Edward IV       1461               22    Son to Richard Duke of York,
                                             a descendant by the mother's
                                             side from Lionel, the third
                                             son of Edward III
    Edward V        1483             2ms.    Son of Edward IV
    Richard III     1483                2    Uncle to Edward V.

    LINE OF TUDOR,

    In which were united the Houses of York and Lancaster, by the
    marriage of Henry VII, son of the Countess of Richmond, of the
    House of Lancaster, to Elizabeth daughter of Edward IV.

    Henry VII       1485               23    Earl of Richmond
    Henry VIII      1509               37    Son to Henry VII
    Edward VI       1547                6    Son to Henry VIII
    Mary            1553                5    Sister to Edward VI
    Elizabeth       1558               44    Sister to Mary.

    LINE OF STUART.

    James I         1603               22    Son to Mary queen of Scots,
                                             who was descended from
                                             Henry VII
    Charles I       1625               23    Son to James I. (Charles was
                                             beheaded in 1649.)

    COMMON-WEALTH AND PROTECTORATE OF CROMWELL.

    Charles II      1660               24    Son to Charles I
    James II        1685                4    Brother to Charles II.
                                             (James II abdicated
                                             the throne in 1689.)

    LINE OF ORANGE.

    {William III    1689               13    Nephew and Son-in-law to
    {&                                       James II
    {Mary II Stuart                          Daughter to James II
    Anne            1702               12    Daughter to James II.

    LINE OF BRUNSWICK.

    George I        1714               12    Son to the Princess Sophia,
                                             Electress of Hanover, and
                                             grandaughter of James I
    George II       1728               33    Son to George I
    George III      1760                     Grandson to George II.

I will not, my dear, enter into the history of any of these sovereigns,
as there are many English histories extant, which will give you better
information upon this subject, than you could receive from any
description of mine: indeed, the little I have now been telling you of
history in general, is only intended to awaken in your mind a desire for
the attainment of this useful knowledge. Modern History we shall defer
for several years, but I will to-morrow give you Rollin's Ancient
History, a work, I think, particularly well calculated for young people;
when you have read this, you shall proceed to the Roman History, after
which you may be able to enter into the accounts of more modern times.
In the mean while, let me beg you to continue attentive to the
instructions you receive, and new lessons and more stories shall then be
prepared for your next

BIRTH-DAY PRESENT.



THE END.



H. Bryer, Printer, Bridge-Street, Blackfriars, London.





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this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
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