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Title: Pennsylvania Dutch Cooking
Author: Unknown
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Pennsylvania Dutch Cooking


           [Illustration: Kissin wears out ... cookin’ don’t]

                Jacob’s at the table and half et already

                        PENNSYLVANIA Dutch FOODS



In 1683 the Plain Sects began to arrive in William Penn’s Colony seeking
a land of peace and plenty. They were a mixed people; Moravians from
Bohemia and Moravia, Mennonites from Switzerland and Holland, the Amish,
the Dunkards, the Schwenkfelds, and the French Huguenots. After the lean
years of clearing the land and developing their farms they established
the peace and plenty they sought. These German-speaking people were
originally called the Pennsylvania Deutsch but time and custom have
caused them to be known to us as the Pennsylvania Dutch.

The Pennsylvania Dutch are a hard working people and as they say, “Them
that works hard, eats hearty.” The blending of recipes from their many
home lands and the ingredients available in their new land produced
tasty dishes that have been handed down from mother to daughter for
generations. Their cooking was truly a folk art requiring much intuitive
knowledge, for recipes contained measurements such as “flour to
stiffen,” “butter the size of a walnut,” and “large as an apple.” Many
of the recipes have been made more exact and standardized providing us
with a regional cookery we can all enjoy.

Soups are a traditional part of Pennsylvania Dutch cooking and the Dutch
housewife can apparently make soup out of anything. If she has only milk
and flour she can still make rivel soup. However, most of their soups
are sturdier dishes, hearty enough to serve as the major portion of the
evening meal. One of the favorite summer soups in the Pennsylvania Dutch
country is Chicken Corn Soup. Few Sunday School picnic suppers would be
considered complete without gallons of this hearty soup.

Many of the Pennsylvania Dutch foods are a part of their folklore. No
Shrove Tuesday would be complete without raised doughnuts called
“fastnachts.” One of the many folk tales traces this custom back to the
burnt offerings made by their old country ancestors to the goddess of
spring. With the coming of Christianity the custom became associated
with the Easter season and “fastnachts” are eaten on Shrove Tuesday to
insure living to next Shrove Tuesday. Young dandelion greens are eaten
on Maundy Thursday in order to remain well throughout the year.

The Christmas season is one of the busiest times in the Pennsylvania
Dutch kitchen. For weeks before Christmas the house is filled with the
smell of almond cookies, anise cookies, sandtarts, Belsnickle Christmas
cookies, walnut kisses, pfeffernusse, and other traditional cookies. Not
just a few of one kind but dozens and dozens of many kinds of cookies
must be made. There must be plenty for the enjoyment of the family and
many holiday visitors.

Regardless of the time of the year or the time of the day there are
pies. The Pennsylvania Dutch eat pies for breakfast. They eat pies for
lunch. They eat pies for dinner and they eat pies for midnight snacks.
Pies are made with a great variety of ingredients from the apple pie we
all know to the rivel pie which is made from flour, sugar, and butter.
The Dutch housewife is as generous with her pies as she is with all her
cooking, baking six or eight at a time not one and two.

The apple is an important Pennsylvania Dutch food. Dried apples form the
basis for many typical dishes. Each fall barrels of apples are converted
into cider. Apple butter is one of the Pennsylvania Dutch foods which
has found national acceptance. The making of apple butter is an all-day
affair and has the air of a holiday to it. Early in the morning the
neighbors gather and begin to peel huge piles of apples that will be
needed. Soon the great copper apple butter kettle is brought out and set
up over a wood fire. Apple butter requires constant stirring to prevent
burning. However, stirring can be light work for a boy and a girl when
they’re young and the day is bright and the world is full of promise. By
dusk the apple butter is made, neighborhood news is brought up to date
and hunger has been driven that much further away for the coming winter.

Food is abundant and appetites are hearty in the Pennsylvania Dutch
country. The traditional dishes are relatively simple and unlike most
regional cookery the ingredients are readily available. Best of all, no
matter who makes them the results are “wonderful good.”


[Illustration: “Make with a smile for once”

“Some folks are wonderful nice”]



  ½ cup sugar
  1½ tblsp. flour
  2 eggs
  ½ cup pineapple juice
  ½ cup lemon juice
  1 cup whipped cream

Combine the fruit juices and stir slowly into the flour and sugar. Cook.
Stirring constantly, until it thickens. (or cook in double boiler) Add
the beaten eggs and cook for another minute. Let cool and fold in the
whipped cream.


  2 cups apples, diced
  2 cups cooked beets, diced
  ¼ cup chopped nuts
  2 hard boiled eggs
  ½ cup salad dressing

Mix the apples, beets, and chopped eggs. Add salad dressing (see
Grandma’s salad dressing). Mix and garnish with chopped nuts and


  2 hard boiled eggs, mashed
  a little grated onion
  3 tablespoons salad oil
  1 tablespoon vinegar
  ½ teaspoon salt
  pinch of pepper

Mix well together, then put on lettuce and turn and stir until it is
well covered with the dressing. Good with any green salad.


  2 cups shredded cabbage
  1 large green pepper
  ½ cup hot salad dressing
  1 tsp. salt

Mix the cabbage, pepper, chopped fine and salt. Let stand 1 hour in cool
place. Drain off all liquid. Make a hot dressing with:

  1 tblsp. butter
  1 tsp. flour
  ½ tsp. dry mustard
  salt and pepper
  yolk of 1 egg
  ½ cup vinegar

Melt the butter and blend in the flour. Add vinegar and stir until
mixture thickens. Mix mustard, salt and pepper and add to the liquid.
Cool for 4 minutes, pour over the beaten egg yolk and mix well. Cook for
1 minute more. Pour this over the pepper cabbage and mix well.


  1 beaten egg
  ½ cup sugar
  1 tbsp. flour
  ½ cup water
  ½ cup vinegar
  2 tbsp. butter
  ½ tsp. salt
  ¼ tsp. pepper

Combine in the order given, stirring after each addition. Boil until
thick. Cool before adding to the salad.


  3 cups navy beans baked or boiled
  1 medium onion
  2 tblsp. pickle relish or 1-large pickle
  3 hard boiled eggs
  2 tblsp. vinegar
  ⅔ cup boiled salad dressing
  1½ tsp. salt

Chop the onion fine, the boiled eggs, add the relish, or the pickle,
chopped and the beans. Mix well together and add salt and salad
dressing. Chill and serve. Green string beans, cut in 1-inch pieces may
be used for this salad.


  Young dandelion greens
  4 thick slices bacon
  ½ cup cream
  2 tblsp. butter
  2 eggs
  1 tsp. salt
  1 tblsp. sugar
  4 tblsp. vinegar
  ½ tsp. paprika
  black pepper

Wash dandelions and pick over carefully. Roll in cloth and pat dry. Put
into a salad bowl and set in warm place. Cut bacon in small cubes, fry
quickly and pour over dandelions. Put butter and cream into a skillet
and melt over low heat. Beat eggs, add salt, pepper, sugar and vinegar,
then mix with the slightly warm cream mixture. Cook over high heat until
dressing is quite thick. Pour, very hot, over the dandelions, stir well
and serve.


  1 head young cabbage
  ½ cup cream
  1 teaspoon salt
  ½ cup sugar
  ½ cup vinegar

Beat cream, sugar, vinegar and salt together thoroughly until the
dressing is like whipped cream. Discard outer leaves of cabbage. Shred
the rest finely and combine with dressing just before it is ready to
serve. Serves six. As variation: Add shredded green and red peppers.


  6 hard-boiled eggs
  ½ tsp. prepared mustard
  2 tsp. soft butter
  salt, pepper, paprika

Remove shells and cut eggs in half. Mash the yolks to a smooth paste,
adding the mustard, butter, salt and pepper. When well mixed press into
the cup-shaped egg whites, round the tops and sprinkle with paprika. For
a special treat, add 2 tblsp. finely chopped ham or a small can of
deviled ham to the egg yolk mixture.


  4 slices bacon
  ½ cup chopped onion
  ½ cup chopped green pepper
  ¼ cup vinegar
  1 teaspoon salt
  3 hard boiled eggs
  ⅛ teaspoon pepper
  1 teaspoon sugar
  1 egg
  1 qt. hot, cubed, cooked potatoes
  ¼ cup grated raw carrot

Dice bacon and pan fry. Add chopped onion and green pepper. Cook 3
minutes. Add vinegar, salt, pepper, sugar and beaten egg. Cook slightly.
Add cubed potatoes, grated carrot and diced hard-cooked eggs. Blend and
serve hot.


Shred cabbage finely. Boil in slightly salted water until tender. Drain.
Serve hot thoroughly mixed with warm cooked salad dressing made as

  ½ teaspoon mustard
  1½ teaspoons salt
  1½ teaspoons sugar
  1½ tablespoons flour
  ⅛ teaspoon pepper
  1 beaten egg
  1 cup milk
  4 tablespoons vinegar
  1½ tablespoons butter

Mix mustard, salt, sugar, flour, paprika and pepper. Add egg and mix
thoroughly. Add milk and vinegar. Cook over hot water, stirring
frequently until thick. Add butter. Cook and stir until melted.


  2 medium cucumbers
  1 medium onion
  2 tblsp. vinegar
  sour cream

Pare and thinly slice cucumber and onion sprinkle with a teaspoon of
salt and let stand for a few minutes. Pat with towel or absorbent paper
to take out all moisture possible. Place cucumbers and onions in serving
dish, add the vinegar and mix. Pour on enough sour cream to half cover
and dust with pepper. Chill.





  1 lb. honeycomb tripe
  1 veal knuckle
  1½ qts. water
  2 tablespoons salt
  1 tblsp. red pepper, diced
  1 tblsp. green pepper, diced
  1 tablespoon powdered thyme
  6 peppercorns
  4 potatoes, diced
  2 bay leaves
  3 whole cloves
  3 tablespoons chopped parsley
  2 stalks celery, diced
  2 carrots, diced
  2 tomatoes, peeled, cut up
  4 onions, thinly sliced
  1 piece pimento, cut fine

Wash and scrub tripe thoroughly. Place in large kettle and cover with
plenty of cold water. Bring to a boil and simmer until tender. Simmer
without boiling, that is the secret of making tripe tender. Drain and
dice, ½ inch squares. In the meantime place the veal knuckle in
another kettle adding 1½ qts. of water and all ingredients except the
potatoes. Simmer at least one hour, put in potatoes and simmer for
another hour or until meat falls off the bone. Remove bone and take off
all the meat. Cut it into small pieces and together with the tripe put
it back into the soup. Bring to a boil and the soup is ready to serve.
This soup keeps well and can be reheated.

DUMPLINGS (Spaetzle)

  1 cup milk
  2 cups flour
  2 eggs
  1 tsp. salt

Add milk to flour slowly, stirring constantly to keep mixture smooth.
Add 1 egg at a time, beating well after each addition. Salt and mix
well. When cooking in boiling salted water or meat broth, pour the
batter from a shallow bowl, tilting it over the boiling kettle. With a
sharp knife slice off pieces of the batter into the boiling liquid. Dip
knife in the liquid before each cut to prevent sticking.


  4 slices bacon
  2 tblsp. onion, minced
  1 tblsp. celery, minced
  1 tblsp. pepper, minced
  2 cups corn
  2 potatoes, diced
  3 tomatoes, cut-up
  2 pints milk

Dice the bacon and put into pan to brown, add onion, celery and pepper;
fry until bacon is crisp. Add the corn and saute together for 3 minutes.
Add the potatoes, tomatoes and seasoning, cover and simmer for 30
minutes. Finally add the milk, heat to the boiling point and serve with
a little chopped parsley.


  2 eggs
  ½ tsp. salt
  sifted flour

Add salt to the eggs and work in enough flour to make a stiff dough.
Knead thoroughly, divide into 2 portions and roll each out as thin as
possible, on a floured board. Cover with cloth and let stand until
partly dry. Roll up the dough and cut into ¼ inch strips. Spread out
on paper to dry a little longer.


  1 lb. soup beans
  1 ham bone
  ½ cup chopped onion
  1 cup diced celery
  1 can tomato sauce
  ½ cup diced potatoes
  2 tsp. minced parsley
  salt and pepper

Soak beans in water overnight. Drain, add fresh water and cook slowly
with the ham bone for 2 hours. Put in the onion, celery, potatoes,
tomato sauce, parsley and the salt and pepper and simmer until
vegetables are soft. Remove the ham bone, trim off any meat, cut it up
and add to soup. Many Pennsylvania Dutch cooks cut up hard boiled eggs
and add them to the soup.


  1 lb. split peas
  3 qts. water
  1 ham bone
  2 carrots, sliced
  1 stalk celery, chopped
  1 large onion, chopped

Wash peas, add cold water, vegetables and ham bone and simmer for three
hours or until mixture is thick. Remove ham bone, force peas through
coarse sieve and season to taste. Dilute with milk. Serve with toasted


  1 soup bone
  2 lbs. stewing beef
  2 qts. water
  1 cup chopped onion
  1 cup chopped celery
  1 cup tomatoes
  2 tsp. salt
  black pepper

Into 2 qts. of water put soup bone and beef and boil for 2 hours. For a
hearty, substantial soup, cut up the meat in small pieces and return to
the broth. Add tomatoes, onions and celery. Also add other available
vegetables, such as diced potatoes, carrots, turnip, string beans, corn,
peas, cabbage or chopped peppers. Boil until all vegetables are tender.


  1 cup ground beef
  2 tblsp. fat
  1 small onion
  ½ cup dry bread crumbs
  1 cup bread cubes
  salt and pepper
  2 tblsp. butter

Make a recipe of noodle dough (see above). Roll thin, let dry and cut
into 3 inch squares. Brown meat in hot fat with the onion and seasoning.
Soak bread cubes in water and press dry then add to the meat. Spoon
mixture on the center of the noodle squares, fold in half and seal
edges, like little pillows. Drop the filled squares into salted boiling
water and cook 8 to 10 minutes. Lift carefully with draining spoon to a
serving dish and top with the half cup of bread crumbs which have been
browned in butter.


Rub the yolks of three or four hard boiled eggs to a smooth paste and
salt. To these add two raw ones lightly beaten. Add enough flour to hold
the paste together. Make into balls with floured hands and set in cool
place until just before your soup comes off. Put the balls carefully
into the soup and boil one minute.


  2 lbs. raw spinach, chopped
  3 tblsp. butter
  salt and pepper
  1½ cups bread crumbs
  2 eggs

Make a recipe of noodle dough (see above). Steam and brown the spinach
in melted butter. Add the eggs, 1 cup of dry bread crumbs and the
seasoning. Mix well, spoon mixture on noodle dough squares and proceed
as above.


  1½ cups diced salsify
  1½ cups water
  1 tblsp. vinegar
  1 tblsp. butter
  1 quart milk
  salt and pepper

Scrub, scrape and clean salsify. Dice and cook in salted water, with 1
tablespoon of vinegar added, until tender. Drain, add butter and rich
milk, salt and pepper. Bring to a boil and serve with crackers.


  1 soup bone
  2 lbs. stewing beef
  2 quarts water
  1½ cups flour
  1 egg
  ½ cup milk

Cook meat until tender and remove from the broth. Add water until you
have 2 quarts of broth. Make dumplings by mixing beaten egg and milk
into flour until about the consistency of pancake batter. Drop from
teaspoon into the boiling broth to form small dumplings. Cook for 3 or 4

POTATO SOUP (Gruumbier Suupe)

  4 cups diced potatoes
  1 medium onion
  3 tblsp. flour
  1 tblsp. butter
  1 qt. milk
  1 egg, beaten
  salt and pepper

Boil potatoes and onion in small amount of water until soft. Add milk,
salt and pepper then reheat. Brown flour in the butter and blend it
slowly into the potato mixture. Add a little water to the beaten egg and
stir into the soup. Let it cook for a few minutes and serve with a
sprinkling of chopped parsley.


  1 stewing hen, about 4-lbs.
  4 qts. water
  1 onion, chopped
  10 ears corn
  ½ cup celery, chopped with leaves
  2 hard-boiled eggs
  salt and pepper

Put cut-up chicken and onion into the water and cook slowly until
tender, add salt. Remove chicken, cut the meat into small (1-inch)
pieces and return to broth, together with corn, which has been cut from
the cob, celery and seasoning. Continue to simmer. Make rivels by
combining 1 cup flour, a pinch of salt, 1 egg and a little milk. Mix
well with fork or fingers to form small crumbs. Drop these into the
soup, also the chopped, hard-boiled eggs. Boil for 15 minutes longer.


  3 cups fresh or canned corn
  2 qts. water
  1 cup rich milk
  1⅓ cups flour
  1 egg
  3 tblsp. butter
  1½ tsp. salt

Cook corn in water for 10 minutes. Make a batter by mixing egg, flour
and milk together. Pour this batter through a colander, letting it drop
into the boiling corn. Add butter and salt. Cook slowly in a covered pan
for 3 minutes. Garnish with chopped parsley. Soup should be eaten
immediately after rivels are cooked.


  4 lb. chicken
  2½ qts. water
  2½ tsp. salt
  3 cups cooked noodles

Cut a young stewing chicken into serving pieces, bring to a boil and
simmer for 2½ hours, adding water as needed. Skim off the fat and

  1 tsp. peppercorns
  1 small onion, sliced
  1 carrot, sliced
  1 bay leaf
  1 tblsp. parsley, chopped
  salt and pepper

Bring to boil again and add noodles, preferably home made noodles. Cook
for 20 minutes longer.



Main Dishes


  ½ large head cabbage
  ¼ lb. dried beef
  1½ cups white sauce
  ½ cup buttered crumbs

Chop cabbage coarsely and cook in salted water until tender, then drain.
Chop the dried beef and soak in a little warm water for 10 minutes.
Grease a casserole and in it place alternate layers of cabbage and dried
beef. Pour the white sauce over it and top with buttered bread crumbs.
Bake in moderate oven (350-f) 25 minutes.


  1 cup egg noodles
  3 tblsp. butter
  3 tblsp. flour
  ½ tsp. salt
  ½ tsp. paprika
  1½ cups milk
  2 eggs, well beaten
  Swiss cheese (¼ to ½ lb.)

Boil noodles in salted water until tender. Drain and place in
well-greased ring mold. Melt the butter, add flour and blend smooth.
Stir in milk and cook, stirring constantly until it thickens. Add
seasoning and cheese cut in small pieces. Cook until cheese melts. To
½ of the sauce add the well-beaten eggs and mix well. Pour this over
the noodles. Set mold in pan of hot water and bake in moderate (350-f)
oven 45 minutes. Unmold on large platter, pour over the remaining hot
cheese sauce. Fill center with peas, and carrots or spinach.


  2 cups mashed potatoes
  1 egg, beaten
  1 qt. stale bread, cubed
  2 tblsp. butter
  1 onion, minced
  ½ cup celery, diced
  1 tblsp. minced parsley
  1 tsp. salt
  pinch of pepper

Put the beaten egg into the mashed potatoes and mix well. Melt the
butter in a large skillet and saute the onion and celery. Stir in the
bread crumbs to toast for a few minutes, stirring constantly. Add all
the other ingredients, combine with the potatoes and mix thoroughly.


  1 lb. ground beef
  ⅓ cup rice, uncooked
  1 egg
  1 onion, chopped fine
  2 tblsp. shortening
  Juice of 1 lemon
  1 can tomato soup
  ½ cup celery, chopped
  1 tsp. sugar
  1 tsp. parsley, minced
  6 cabbage leaves
  salt and pepper

Combine meat, salt, pepper, rice and egg, mix well. For the sauce: saute
onion in the butter until soft. Add tomato soup and equal amount of
water to onion, also celery, parsley, lemon juice, sugar, salt and
pepper. Cook for 10 minutes. Wash the cabbage leaves and boil until
tender. Put equal amounts of the meat mixture into cabbage leaves, roll
tightly and secure with toothpicks. Place rolls in sauce pan, pour sauce
over them, cover pan and cook very slowly for 3 hours.


Prepare a young duck for roasting. Place in a roasting pan and add 2
quarts of sauerkraut, 1 cup of water and 3 tablespoons granulated sugar.
Cover and bake until duck is tender and golden brown. Serve with creamy
mashed potatoes.


  8 loin pork chops
  2 qts. water
  1 dumpling recipe
  4 medium potatoes
  1 lb. sausage in casing

Boil the pork chops in water for ½ hour. Then add the potatoes cut in
half and the sausage cut in 1 inch pieces. Cook until potatoes are
almost done. Drop well-beaten dumpling dough into the boiling meat
mixture, cover and cook 10 minutes.


2 inch thick piece of chuck, pot roast or tender boiling beef. Place in
dish or bowl and cover with solution of half vinegar and half water, put
in two large onions sliced. Do this two or three days before the meat is
wanted. On the day before it is to be cooked cut 3 or 4 slices of bacon
into 1" pieces and chop fine 1 tablespoon of the onion which has been
soaking in the vinegar. Cut holes in the meat 1 or 2 inches apart and
stuff bits of the bacon and chopped onion into the holes. Put the meat
back into the solution, add 1 tablespoon whole cloves and 1 teaspoon
whole allspice. Bake the meat as a pot roast in part of the solution,
until tender. Use more of the solution, adding sugar to taste, in making
the gravy which will be almost black.


For Boiled beef or Corned beef

  2 tblsp. butter
  2 tblsp. flour
  1 cup milk
  ¼ cup grated horseradish
  ¼ tsp. dry mustard
  salt and pepper

Melt butter, remove from heat and stir in flour. Add the milk gradually,
stirring constantly, until mixture boils and thickens. Add salt and
pepper and cook for 3 minutes more. Add the grated horseradish and dry
mustard and blend well. Keep hot in double boiler. Serve on slices of
boiled beef or corned beef.


  1½ lbs. veal steak cut in cubes
  2 tblsp. shortening
  2 tblsp. flour
  1 cup tomato juice
  2 carrots, diced
  1 small onion, chopped fine.
  Salt and pepper

Dredge meat with flour and season. Melt shortening (preferably bacon
fat) and brown the meat in it. Remove meat from the pan, stir in the
flour and blend. Add the tomato juice and stir well until mixture
thickens. Add meat, carrots and onion. Cover closely and simmer for 45


  1 cup flour
  1 egg
  2 tsp. baking powder
  ½ egg shell of water
  small teaspoon salt

Mix the above ingredients, roll out and cut in two inch squares. Flour
chicken and fry in butter. Put layers of chicken, potato slices, sliced
onion and squares of pot-pie dough. Barely cover with boiling water and
cook for two hours.


  ½ lb. noodles
  1½ cups cooked ham, diced
  2 eggs, beaten
  1½ cups milk

Cook noodles in salted boiling water until soft. Pour into colander,
drain and wash. Into a well greased casserole put alternate layers of
noodles and ham. Beat eggs with the milk and pour over noodles and ham.
Set casserole in pan of hot water and bake in moderate oven (350-f) for
30 minutes.


  chicken cut up
  butter for frying
  2 tablespoons flour
  2 tablespoons butter
  boiled rice
  2 cups water
  12 small white onions
  small pinch each of thyme,
  celery salt and sage

Roll chicken pieces in flour and brown in butter. Add remaining
ingredients and cook until tender, adding water so that there are 2 cups
at end of cooking. Make gravy by adding 3 tablespoons of hot liquid to
yolk of an egg. Stir thoroughly, then return to rest of liquid and cook
five minutes. Pour over steamed rice.


  2 lbs. stewing beef
  6 medium potatoes
  pot pie dough
  2 onions
  chopped parsley
  salt and pepper

Cut the beef into 1" cubes cover with water, season and boil until
tender. Peel potatoes, cut in ¼" slices and slice the onion. Into the
hot broth drop layers of potatoes, onions, a sprinkling of parsley and
dough squares alternately, ending with dough on top. Cover and boil for
20 minutes. Stir meat thru pot pie.

For the pot pie dough:

To 2 cups of flour add a little salt, 1 egg, beaten and enough milk to
make a stiff dough. Roll out thin (⅛”) on floured board and cut into
2" squares. Equally good with veal or pork.


  1½ lbs. boiled beef
  2 tablespoons butter
  1 tablespoon vinegar
  1 onion
  2 tablespoons flour
  1 pinch of pepper
  ½ cup meat stock

Mince the onion. Simmer in butter until soft. Add flour and simmer until
brown. To this add vinegar, salt, pepper and meat stock and let come to
a boil. Cut the meat in slices and serve hot, with the onion sauce.


  2 lbs. veal steak
  1 egg, beaten
  bread crumbs
  lemon juice

Veal should be about ½ inch thick and cut into serving portions.
Season with salt and pepper. Dip pieces in bread crumbs, then into the
beaten egg and again in the crumbs. Let stand in the refrigerator a
while before cooking. Brown in hot fat on both sides, cover and simmer
for 30 minutes. Sprinkle with lemon juice.


  1 lb. hamburger
  3 cups potatoes, sliced
  1 small head cabbage
  1 cup milk

Shred cabbage and put ½ of it in a greased casserole. Add ½ of the
sliced potatoes and half of the hamburger a sprinkle of salt and pepper.
Add remaining half in the same manner. Pour on the milk and bake in a
moderate oven (350-f) for 2 hours.


  1 young chicken, cut up
  ½ cup flour
  1½ tsp. salt
  ⅛ tsp. pepper
  3 tblsp. butter
  1½ cups cream, sweet or sour

Sprinkle the pieces of chicken with salt and pepper and dredge in flour.
Melt butter and fry chicken until a golden brown on all sides. Place the
chicken in a casserole, pour the cream over it. Cover and bake in a
moderate oven (350-f) for 2 hours. Serve with gravy made from the pan
fryings left after frying the chicken.


  2½ lbs. hamburg
  2½ cups bread crumbs
  1 cup cheese (cubed small)
  salt and pepper
  ½ green pepper, chopped
  1 small onion, chopped
  2 eggs
  1 cup catsup

Mix all ingredients, form into two loaves. Pour some catsup over top of
loaves. Bake at 350 until done.

LIVER NOODLES (Leberknoedel)

  1 lb. calf’s liver
  1 onion
  1 tablespoon butter
  salt and pepper
  2 eggs
  ½ cup flour
  ¼ teaspoon cloves
  ¼ teaspoon marjoram

Simmer the liver in boiling water for 30 minutes. Then trim off any skin
or ligaments and grind the liver fine. Season. Mince the onion, add the
butter, beat the eggs and add them. Work into this paste the flour,
using enough to make the paste quite stiff. Form into small balls and
poach them in any meat soup for 15 minutes. Serve them swimming in the


  1½ lbs. ground beef and pork
  6 green peppers
  1 can tomato soup
  3 tblsp. rice, uncooked
  2 eggs, beaten
  ½ tsp. salt

Mix the meat, rice, eggs and seasoning together. Cut tops off the
peppers and soak in hot water for a couple of minutes. Scoop out seeds
and fill with the meat mixture. Stand them in baking pan, pour the
tomato soup over them and bake in slow oven (300-f) for 1 hour.


  1½ cups leftover meat
  3 tblsp. flour
  ¼ cup drippings
  1 cup milk
  1 tblsp. grated onion
  ⅓ cup chopped pepper

Add flour to drippings and blend, add milk gradually and cook, stirring
constantly until it thickens. Stir in the salt, onion and green pepper.
Mix cut-up meat into the gravy and pour it into pastry lined baking
dish. Top with crust and bake in hot oven (425-f) for 25 minutes.


  3 acorn squash
  ⅓ cup molasses
  1 tsp. salt
  1 lb. pork sausage
  1 tsp. sage
  bread crumbs

Wash squash and cut in halves, remove seeds. Put a tablespoon of
molasses in each half, sprinkle with salt and a pinch of powdered sage
(if the sausage does not contain sage). Fill the cavity with sausage and
top with bread crumbs. Place the squash halves in a baking pan, add
about an inch of water to the pan. Cover and bake in hot oven (400-f)
for 40 minutes. Remove cover and brown.

with Dumplings

  2 cups flour
  1 egg, beaten
  1 tsp. baking powder
  1 cup milk

Cut spareribs into serving portions and place in the bottom of roasting
pan. Add the sauerkraut and a little liquid. Cover and bake in moderate
oven (350-f) 1½ hours. Make dumplings by combining flour, baking
powder, milk and egg. Drop by spoonfuls on sauerkraut, cover tightly and
bake for 20 minutes.


Use 3 pigs feet or about 2 lbs. Scrape, wash and clean thoroughly. Place
in stew pan with 1 chopped onion, ½ cup chopped celery and cover with
cold water. Let it come to a boil, then reduce heat and simmer until
meat is tender and comes easily from the bone. Pick meat from the bones,
strain liquid, which should measure a scant 3 cups. (If less add water).
Put meat and liquid into a bowl. Add 3 tblsp. strong cider vinegar, ¾
tsp. salt, black pepper and several thin slices of lemon. Chill
overnight, remove surplus fat from the top. Turn out on a platter and
serve with lemon slices and parsley.

PORK AND KRAUT (Speck Un Kraut)

  2 or 3 lbs. fresh pork
  1 qt. sauerkraut
  salt and pepper

Put pork in large stew pan and cover with cold water, cook slowly for 1
hour. Add the sauerkraut making sure there is enough liquid in the pan
to cover. Cook slowly for another hour. Season to taste. Serve with
mashed or boiled potatoes.


  1 thick round steak
  2 cups bread crumbs
  1 tblsp. onion minced
  2 eggs
  ½ cup milk
  1 tblsp. butter
  1 tsp. salt
  poultry seasoning

To make dressing beat eggs, add milk and pour over bread crumbs. Add the
onion, seasoning and work in the butter mixing thoroughly. Spread the
dressing over the meat and roll up carefully. Fasten with skewers or tie
with string. Place in a greased pan and bake in medium hot oven (375-f)
for 1½ hours. Slice to serve.


  1 pig’s stomach
  2 lbs. smoked sausage meat, diced.
  3 cups boiled potatoes, diced
  3 cups sliced apples
  2½ cups bread crumbs
  1 medium onion, chopped
  2 cups chopped celery
  chopped parsley
  salt and pepper

Clean stomach well and soak in salt water. Combine all ingredients and
mix well. Stuff the stomach with the mixture and sew up the opening.
Simmer for 2 hours in a large kettle with water to cover. Remove to
baking pan with hot fat, brown in hot oven (400-f) basting frequently.
Slice with sharp knife.


Boil a 3 lb. piece of ham for two hours. Pick over and clean 1 qt. of
dried apples; soak in enough water to cover. When meat has boiled for
the stated time, add dried apples and water in which they have been
soaking and continue to boil for another hour. Prepare dumpling batter
as follows:

  2 cups flour
  1 egg
  4 teaspoons baking powder
  3 tblsp. melted shortening
  ¼ teaspoon pepper
  1 tablespoon milk
  1 teaspoon salt

Sift together the dry ingredients and mix the dough with egg, which has
been well beaten, the melted shortening and the milk. Drop batter by
spoonfuls into the boiling liquor of the ham and apples. Cover tightly
and cook for 15 minutes. Raisins may be added if desired.


  2 or 3 lbs. ham or ham bone
  1 qt. green string beans
  salt and pepper

Place ham in large pot and cover with water. Cook slowly for a couple of
hours (less if the ham is tenderized) keeping plenty of water on the
ham. Clean and break-up the string beans, put them in with ham and cook
for 25 minutes more. Add the potatoes, which have been pared and cut-up,
and cook slowly until ready. Season to taste.


Equal amount of lean and fat fresh pork, ground. To each pound of this
mixture, add 1 teaspoon salt, ⅛ teaspoon pepper, pinch each of sage
and thyme. Add one egg beaten, mould into cakes and fry until brown.
Wonderful with pancakes or waffles.

DUTCH MEAT ROLLS (Boova Shenkel)

  2½ lbs. beef
  10 potatoes
  2 tablespoons butter
  2 tablespoons minced parsley
  1 chopped onion
  ½ teaspoon salt
  ½ cup milk
  3 eggs
  2½ cups flour
  2 teaspoons baking powder
  1 tablespoon shortening
  1 tablespoon butter

After seasoning the meat with salt and pepper, stew the meat for two
hours. Then make dough with flour, baking powder, salt and the
shortening. Mix into a pie-crust dough. Roll into a dozen circles 8 to
10 inches in diameter. Steam the potatoes, pared and sliced thin; add
salt and pepper, 2 tablespoons of butter; the parsley and onions and
then beat lightly the three eggs into the mixture. Put this mixture on
the circles of dough after it has stood a little while. Fold half the
circle of dough over like a half moon and press edges together tightly.
Drop these into the pot with the meat and stew water. Cover tightly and
cook for 30 minutes. Into a frying pan put a couple of tablespoons of
fat skimmed from the stew before putting in the dough rolls, add to this
1 tablespoon of butter. In this brown small cubes of hard bread and stir
in a half cup of milk. Pour this milk sauce over the Meat rolls when

[Illustration: “Eat yourself full of what we got”]


  ½ lb. chopped raw meat (beef or pork)
  1¼ teaspoons salt
  ⅛ teaspoon pepper
  1 cup corn meal
  1 medium onion chopped
  1¼ qts. water

Brown onion slowly in a little fat. Add meat, seasoning and water. Cook
at simmering point 20 minutes. Add to corn meal and boil for 1 hour.
Turn into a mold, cool, cut in slices and fry in fat until brown. Serve
with gravy or tomato sauce.


  1 stewing chicken
  1 pt. oysters
  ¼ lb. butter
  salt and pepper
  a little flour
  pastry crust

Stew chicken until tender, season with ¼ lb. butter, salt and pepper.
Line deep dish with pastry crust. Pour in the stewed chicken and cover
loosely with a crust in the center of which a hole the size of a tea cup
has been cut. Prepare separately 1 pt. oysters, heating the liquor with
a little flour and water. Season with salt, pepper and 2 tablespoons of
butter. When it comes to a boil, pour over oysters. 20 minutes before
pie is done, lift the top crust and put the oyster mixture in.



Vegetable Dishes


To 1 cup of dried corn (ground in food chopper) pour on 2 cups of hot
milk and let stand about an hour. Then add 2 beaten eggs, 1 cup milk, 1
tablespoon butter, 2 tablespoons sugar and salt to taste. Bake ½ hour
in oven of 350 to 360 degrees.


  2 cups milk
  2 teaspoons flour
  salt and pepper
  1 tablespoon butter
  2 cups chopped cabbage

Heat the milk to boiling. Add butter and the cabbage. Cook seven
minutes. Thicken with the flour, mixed with a little cold water.


  6 medium-sized sweet potatoes
  ½ cup brown sugar
  1½ cups sliced apples
  4 tblsp. butter
  ½ tsp. salt
  1 tsp. mace

Boil sweet potatoes until tender. Slice in ¼ inch pieces. Butter
baking dish and put a layer of sweet potatoes in bottom, then a layer of
apples. Sprinkle with sugar, salt and mace, and dot with butter. Repeat
until dish is filled, having the top layer of apples. Bake in moderate
oven (350-f) for 50 minutes.


  1 pt. mashed sweet potatoes
  1 tblsp. butter
  1 tsp. salt
  1 tblsp. sugar
  1 egg white
  bread crumbs

Mash sweet potatoes very fine and add salt, sugar and melted butter.
Shape into croquette rolls or patties and chill in the refrigerator for
a half hour. Then roll in bread crumbs, dip in the egg white, slightly
beaten, and in the crumbs again. Bake in a shallow, greased baking dish
for 20 minutes, in hot oven (400-f). For a modern variation of this old
recipe, place a marshmallow in the center of each with the potato
mixture coating it completely.


  4 slices bacon
  1 qt. string beans
  3 medium onions, sliced
  2 cups tomatoes, chopped
  1 tsp. salt
  ¼ tsp. pepper
  1 cup hot water

Dice the bacon and fry until crisp. Slice the onions and fry until soft.
Cut the beans into small (1-inch) pieces and brown them slightly with
the bacon and onions. Add the tomatoes, seasoning and boiling water.
Cover and cook very slowly until beans are tender. Add water if
necessary, so there will be a little sauce to serve with the beans.


  4 tomatoes
  3 tblsp. hot fat and butter
  2 tblsp. brown sugar
  ½ cup milk
  salt and pepper

Cut large, solid, ripe tomatoes in ½ inch slices. Dredge thickly with
flour. Fry quickly in 2 tablespoons of hot drippings or butter, browning
well on both sides. Remove to serving platter, sprinkle with salt,
pepper and brown sugar. Keep warm. Add 1 tablespoon of butter to the pan
fryings and blend in a tablespoon of flour. Add the milk and cook,
stirring constantly. It should be about the consistency of thick cream.
Pour it over the tomatoes and serve.


  6 or 7 parsnips
  1 tablespoon butter or shortening
  2 eggs
  ½ cup bread crumbs, dry
  1 teaspoon sugar
  ½ teaspoon salt
  little pepper

Boil parsnips in salted water. When soft, peel and remove the core then
mash. Add shortening, bread crumbs, salt, pepper, sugar and 1 egg and
the white of the other, beaten. Mix well and form into cakes. Beat the
remaining egg yolk with a little milk added. Dip the cakes into the egg,
roll in corn meal or bread crumbs and fry to a nice brown.


  6 potatoes, sliced
  1 onion, chopped
  2 tsp. salt
  3 tblsp. butter
  2 tblsp. flour
  2 cups hot milk
  ¾ cup grated cheese

Melt butter in double boiler or sauce pan. Add flour, seasoning and stir
smooth. Slowly add the hot milk stirring constantly. When it thickens
melt the grated cheese in the sauce. Into a buttered baking dish or
casserole put layers of the sliced potatoes, onions and cheese sauce,
repeating until all ingredients are used. Bake in a moderate oven
(350-f) for 1 hour.


Pare egg plant and cut in slices ½ inch thick. Soak slices in salt
water for about an hour. Drain and wipe dry. Dip slices in beaten egg
and roll in fine bread or cracker crumbs. Fry in hot fat (or deep fat)
until well browned on both sides. Serve with catsup or tomato sauce.


  3 cups beets, diced
  1 cup beet water
  1 tblsp. sugar
  ¼ cup vinegar
  2 tsp. butter
  1 tblsp. corn starch

Cut off beet tops leaving 2 inches of the stems. Clean well, place in
pot and cover with boiling water. Cook until tender, slip off the outer
skins and dice. Strain and save 1 cup of the water in which beets were
cooked. Add sugar, vinegar and butter. Thicken with 1 tablespoon of corn
starch and cook to the consistency of cream. Add the diced beets, salt
and pepper and heat.


  3 cups tomatoes canned or fresh
  1 medium cucumber pared and sliced
  1 small onion, sliced
  ½ cup bread crumbs, buttered
  ½ cup grated cheese

Into a greased baking dish or casserole place a layer of tomatoes, add
half the cucumber and onion slices and half of the crumbs. Repeat with
more tomatoes and remaining cucumbers, onions and crumbs. Top with
tomatoes and sprinkle with cheese. Bake in moderate oven, (375-f) 40


  1½ cups cold mashed potatoes
  1 tablespoon butter
  1 teaspoon minced parsley
  2 tablespoons cream
  corn meal
  ¼ teaspoon salt
  ½ teaspoon minced onion
  dash of pepper
  1 egg

Mix up a paste with the potatoes and butter, add the parsley, salt and
pepper, cream, onion and egg. Mold into croquettes, dip into the egg
white, roll in corn meal. Fry in deep fat.

RED CABBAGE (Rote Kraut)

    Place 4 tablespoons bacon grease in pressure cooker, then chop
    fine 1 small onion in grease and brown onion to golden brown.
    Shred (1) 2½ lb. head of red cabbage. Mix ¼ cup vinegar with
    ¼ cup water and 2 tablespoons sugar.

Then place cabbage in onion and grease. Pour mixture of vinegar and
sugar on cabbage. Season with salt and pepper to taste and mix lightly.
Quarter 1 large pared apple and place on top of cabbage. Cook 4 min.
When using an ordinary pot the cooking time is 20 minutes. This makes 10


  2 lbs. spinach
  2 cups milk
  4 tblsp. butter
  2 eggs, beaten
  2 cups bread crumbs
  ½ cup chopped bacon

Wash spinach thoroughly. Drain and cook with a little water in covered
pot, over moderate heat for 8 to 10 minutes. Drain and chop the spinach.
Add milk, the beaten eggs, 1½ cups of the bread crumbs, melted
butter, salt and pepper then mix well. Sprinkle the remaining ½ cup
bread crumbs and the chopped bacon, on the top. Bake in moderate oven
(350-f) 35 minutes.


  3 cups fresh peas
  12 small new potatoes
  1½ tsp. salt
  1½ cups milk
  1½ tsp. flour
  2 tblsp. butter

Cook potatoes and peas in separate pans, in salted water until soft and
almost free of water. Mix the peas and potatoes and add the milk. Bring
to the boiling point then add the butter and flour which have been
blended smooth and cook until thickened.


  1 can golden crushed corn
  2 eggs, slightly beaten
  2 tbs. flour
  2 tbs. sugar
  1 cup milk
  salt and pepper
  lots of butter

Mix all ingredients together. Place in buttered casserole. Bake in slow
oven 300 degrees for one hour.


  2 cups celery, diced
  1 tsp. salt
  2 tblsp. sugar
  2 tblsp. vinegar
  2 tblsp. flour
  1 egg
  1 cup water
  ¼ cup sour cream

Cut up celery and cook in a little salt water until soft and almost dry.
Make a dressing of the egg, flour, sugar, vinegar and water, bring to a
boil and when it thickens add the sour cream. Pour this over the celery,
heat and serve.


  2 cups navy beans
  1½ tsp. salt
  1 small onion, minced
  4 tblsp. molasses
  1 tsp. dry mustard
  4 tblsp. catsup
  ¼ lb. salt pork
  or 4 slices bacon

Soak beans over night in cold water. Drain, add 1½ qts. of fresh
water, the Onion and cook slowly until skins burst. Drain save the
liquid. Mix molasses, seasoning and catsup with 1 cup of the liquid. Put
half the salt pork or bacon in bottom of bean pot or baking dish, add
the beans and top with remainder of pork or bacon. Pour molasses mixture
over beans, add more liquid to cover. Bake covered for 5 hours in slow
oven (300-f). Uncover for the last 30 minutes. Add water if necessary,
while cooking.


  1 egg
  ¼ cup vinegar
  1 tablespoon sugar
  1 teaspoon salt

Shred cabbage rather finely. Put in sauce pan and sprinkle with salt.
Cover pan and place over low heat and steam until tender. Beat the egg,
add the vinegar, sugar and salt and pour over the steamed cabbage. Heat
five minutes and serve at once.


1 cup ground dried corn, add 1¼ cups milk (or part water); let stand
½ hour or longer, add ½ teaspoon salt, ½ teaspoon sugar, 1
teaspoon baking powder, ½ cup flour, 1 egg, well beaten, and fry to a
golden brown.


  6 medium, cold boiled potatoes
  3 raw green peppers
  ¼ teaspoon celery salt
  salt and pepper

Chop potatoes fine, season with celery salt, salt and pepper to taste.
Remove seeds and stem from pepper, wash drain and chop fine. Mix with
potatoes. Put about 1 tablespoon of melted shortening in pan and when
hot, add potatoes and cook slowly. When partly brown, fold into omelet
shape in one side of pan. Fry until a rich brown.


  2 cups dried limas
  4 slices bacon or salt pork
  1 medium onion
  1 green pepper
  1 cup canned tomatoes
  2 tsp. salt
  1 tsp. mustard
  2 tblsp. brown sugar

Soak beans overnight in cold water. Drain, add 2 quarts of fresh water
and boil until tender. Pour beans in buttered casserole. Add minced
pepper, onion, tomatoes and seasoning and mix. Put bacon or salt pork on
top and bake, covered. Add water if necessary. Bake 2 hours at (325-f).
Uncover for the last 20 minutes.


Pancakes and Fritters


  1 cup sifted flour
  1½ teaspoons baking powder
  2 tablespoons sugar
  ½ teaspoon salt
  ¾ cup milk
  1 egg
  4 large apples

Sift dry ingredients. Add milk and egg. Beat well. Peel and core apples
and slice in rings about ¼ inch thick. Dip rings in batter and drop
into skillet containing ½ inch of hot melted shortening. Fry until
golden brown on both sides. Drain on paper towel. Mix sugar and cinnamon
together and sprinkle over fritters. Makes 16 to 20.


  1 cup flour, sifted
  1 tsp. baking powder
  ½ tsp. salt
  2 tblsp. sugar
  2 eggs, separated
  3 tblsp. water
  1 cup pitted sour cherries

Sift together the flour, baking powder, salt and sugar. Combine the
beaten egg yolks with water and mix until smooth. Fold in the
stiffly-beaten egg whites and add the cherries. Drop by spoonfuls into
hot fat (360-f) and cook 2 to 5 minutes or until browned. Drain on
absorbent paper and serve with powdered sugar or fruit sauce. Other
fruits or berries may be used.


  2 cups corn meal
  ½ cup flour
  1 tsp. baking powder
  1 tsp. soda
  2 eggs
  2 cups buttermilk
  2 tblsp. butter
  1½ tsp. salt

Sift flour, corn meal, baking powder, soda and salt. Sift again. Beat
eggs well, add the buttermilk and combine with the dry ingredients. Beat
until smooth and add melted butter. Bake on hot griddle. The “dutch”
housewife rubbed the griddle with the flat part of a raw turnip cut in
half, to prevent sticking. Some used a little cloth bag filled with
salt. Serve with brown sugar or syrup.


  2 eggs, separated
  2 tblsp. flour
  1 tblsp. sugar
  2 cups grated fresh corn

Beat the egg yolks and add the flour, 1 teaspoon salt and a little
pepper. Add the corn and fold in the stiffly beaten egg whites. Drop
small spoonfuls on greased griddle or frying pan. Do not cook too fast.


  2 cups flour
  1 tblsp. baking powder
  1 tsp. salt
  2 cups milk
  2 eggs, separated
  2 tblsp. melted butter

Sift together in a bowl the flour, salt and baking powder. Beat the egg
yolks and add the milk. Pour milk mixture slowly into the dry
ingredients and beat to a smooth batter. Add the melted butter then fold
in the stiffly beaten egg whites. Bake on hot griddle. Makes about 12


  1 cup corn meal
  2 qts. boiling water
  1 tsp. salt

Moisten corn meal with a little cold water and stir into the salted
boiling water. Cook over slow fire, stirring often, for 45 minutes.
(Most of the corn meal sold today has been processed to cook much
faster, so follow the directions.) Pour the hot corn meal into a greased
loaf pan or glass baking dish. Let stand, uncovered, until cold and
firm. Cut into slices, dip in flour and fry in hot fat until browned.
Serve with syrup. Wonderful with sausage.


  ½ cup sugar
  2 eggs, well beaten
  ⅓ cup butter
  2 cups flour
  3 tsp. baking powder
  ½ tsp. salt
  1 cup milk
  ½ tsp. lemon juice
  ½ tsp. vanilla
  1½ cups chopped peaches, fresh or canned
  whipped cream

Cream the butter and sugar, add the eggs and beat thoroughly. Sift dry
ingredients together and add the milk slowly. Fold in peaches, lemon
juice and vanilla. Drop by teaspoonfuls into hot fat. Fry golden brown.
Serve with whipped cream or sprinkle with powdered sugar.


  5 eggs, separated
  ½ cup milk
  1 cup flour, sifted

Put the yolks of 5 eggs in a bowl and beat until very light. Add the
milk and flour gradually and mix into a smooth batter which is not too
thick. Fold in the stiffly beaten egg whites. Drop large spoonfuls on a
hot greased griddle. Serve hot sprinkled with sugar or spread with
currant or other tart jelly or jam.


  2 eggs, separated
  1 cup mashed potatoes
  ½ cup flour
  1 cup milk
  2 tsp. baking powder

Add egg yolks to the mashed potatoes and mix well. Add the flour and
baking powder alternately with the milk until smooth. Fold in the
stiffly beaten egg whites and drop spoonfuls on hot greased griddle or
skillet. Finely chopped onion is sometimes sprinkled on the batter on
griddle before turning. Serve hot with meat.



Fastnacht Day]



  ¾ cup sugar
  2 eggs
  1 cup mashed potatoes
  ½ cup sweet milk
  2½ cups flour
  1½ tblsp. shortening
  ½ tsp. salt
  ⅛ tsp. nutmeg
  1 tblsp. baking powder

Beat mashed potatoes, add melted shortening, beaten eggs and milk. Sift
dry ingredients together and add to the liquid. Dough should be soft yet
firm enough to roll. Separate dough into 2 parts and roll each out to
thickness of ¾ inch. Cut with doughnut cutter and cook in deep fat
(365-f) fry to golden brown. Drain on absorbent paper. Dust with
powdered sugar or sugar and cinnamon mixture.


  ⅓ cup butter
  ¾ cup sugar
  1 egg beaten lightly
  1 cup milk
  2 level cups flour
  4 level teaspoons baking powder
  ½ teaspoon salt
  1 cup blueberries

Cream butter and sugar. Add fruit and egg, then milk and flour sifted
with baking powder and salt. Bake in muffin tins.


  1½ cups yellow corn meal
  ¾ cup flour, sifted
  1½ tsp. baking powder
  ¾ tsp. baking soda
  1 tsp. salt
  2 tblsp. sugar
  2 eggs, beaten
  1¼ cups sour milk or buttermilk
  ¼ cup shortening, melted

Sift flour, corn meal, baking powder, soda, salt and sugar together.
Combine eggs and sour milk (or buttermilk) and add to the flour mixture.
Mix well and stir in the shortening. Bake in greased 8 × 8 × 2-inch pan,
in moderately hot oven (375-f) 40 minutes.


  1 cup flour
  3½ tsp. baking powder
  ½ tsp. salt
  2 tblsp. brown sugar
  1 cup bran
  1 egg, beaten
  ⅔ cup milk
  2 tblsp. shortening, melted

Sift the flour, baking powder and salt. Stir in the sugar and bran.
Combine the beaten egg, milk and melted shortening. Add to the dry
ingredients and mix quickly. Turn into greased muffin pans and bake in
hot oven (425-f) 25 minutes. Raisins or chopped dried prunes may be


  2 cups flour
  1 tablespoon sugar
  3 tablespoons melted shortening
  1 cup milk
  3 teaspoons baking powder
  ½ teaspoon salt
  1 egg
  ½ cup bits crisp bacon

Sift flour, add sugar, salt and baking powder and sift again, add beaten
egg and milk. Add melted shortening beating in quickly. Add bits of
crisped bacon. Bake in hot (425 degree) oven for 15 to 20 minutes. Serve
with orange marmalade.

FASTNACHTS—Raised Doughnuts

For the Sponge:

  1 cake yeast
  2 cups lukewarm water
  4 scant cups sifted flour

At night break and soak yeast in lukewarm water for 20 minutes. Mix with
flour to a thick batter. Cover, let rise in warm place overnight until

For the Dough:

  ½ cup shortening
  ⅜ cup sugar
  1½ teaspoons salt
  2 eggs
  ½ teaspoon ground nutmeg
  5 cups or more of flour

In the morning cream together the shortening, sugar and salt. Add this
to the risen sponge, with the beaten eggs and spice. Stir in as much
flour as mixture will take up readily, making a rather soft dough. Mix
well. Let rise until doubled in bulk. If desired, stir down and let rise
again until nearly doubled. Turn onto floured board, pat or roll until
⅓ inch thick and cut with doughnut cutter. Cover to prevent drying and
let rise until doubled. Fry in deep hot fat about 375 degrees. If no
thermometer is at hand, test temperature with 1 inch square of bread,
which should brown in 1 minute.

[Illustration: Becky ... fill the pitcher, the milk is all]


  2 eggs
  ½ cup cream, sweet or sour
  ½ cup milk
  1 tsp. baking soda
  1 tsp. salt
  ¼ cup sugar
  3½ to 4 cups flour

Beat the eggs, add cream and milk. Sift dry ingredients and combine with
liquid, using just enough flour to make dough that can be rolled, but
still remain soft. Mix well and let stand for 2 hours. Turn out on
floured board and roll to ¼ in. thick. Cut into strips 6" × 1". Fry in
deep fat (360-f) until brown on both sides. Drain on absorbent paper and
dust with powdered sugar, if you wish.


An old York County Recipe

  ½ lb. butter
  1 cup sugar
  6 eggs, beaten
  ½ tsp. cinnamon
  about 5 cups flour

Cream together the butter and sugar. Add the eggs beating well. Sift in
the cinnamon and enough flour to make a stiff dough. Roll out the dough
very thin on a floured board to about ⅛ inch thick. Cut into
rectangular pieces 3 inches by 5 inches. Make 5 cuts lengthwise in the
dough ½ inch apart and 4½ inches long, so that the rectangle
remains in one piece. Fry in hot deep fat (360-f) for 2 minutes or until
they bob up to the top of the hot grease. When dropping them into the
fryer, pick up the 1st, 3rd and 5th strips and pull them upward. Let the
2nd, 4th and 6th sag downward so that in frying they get all fahuudelt
(tangled) or as the dutch say, all through each other. Dust with
powdered sugar or dribble molasses over them and eat hot.


For the crumb part:

  ¼ cup shortening
  1½ cups flour
  1 cup brown sugar

Work the above ingredients together.

For the liquid part:

  ¾ teaspoon baking soda
  ⅛ teaspoon nutmeg
  a little ginger, cinnamon and cloves
  ¼ teaspoon salt
  ¾ cup molasses
  ¾ cup hot water

Mix well together and add hot water. Into an unbaked pie shell, combine
the crumbs and liquid in alternate layers with crumbs on bottom and top.
Bake 15 minutes at 450 degrees, then 20 minutes at 350 degrees.


  2 cups flour
  1 heaping cup brown sugar
  1½ tblsp. shortening
  1 tsp. soda
  ½ cup buttermilk or sour cream
  1 9-inch, unbaked pastry shell

Combine sugar, flour and soda. Cut in the shortening and blend well. Add
the liquid and rub into coarse crumbs. Put crumbs loosely into the
unbaked pie shell. Bake in moderate oven (375-f) for 40 minutes. This is
a breakfast treat especially good for dunking in coffee.

FUNNEL CAKES (Drechter Kuche)

  3 eggs
  2 cups milk
  ¼ cup sugar
  3 to 4 cups flour
  ½ tsp. salt
  2 tsps. baking powder

Beat eggs and add sugar and milk. Sift half the flour, salt and baking
powder together and add to milk and egg mixture. Beat the batter smooth
and add only as much more flour as needed. Batter should be thin enough
to run thru a funnel. Drop from funnel into deep, hot fat (375-f).
Spirals and endless intricate shapes can be made by swirling and
criss-crossing while controlling the funnel spout with a finger. Serve
hot with molasses, tart jelly, jam or sprinkle with powdered sugar.


  2 cups flour, sifted
  3 tsp. baking powder
  ½ tsp. salt
  3 tblsp. sugar
  2 eggs, separated
  ½ cup milk
  ½ cup shortening, melted

Sift flour, baking powder, salt and sugar. Combine the beaten egg yolks
and milk and add to the flour mixture, stirring only until mixed. Add
shortening, fold in the stiffly beaten egg whites. Turn into greased 9
inch square pan and bake in moderate oven (350-f) about 30 minutes. Cut
into 3 inch squares.


  2¼ cups flour, sifted
  1 cup milk
  3½ tsp. baking powder
  1 tsp. salt
  ⅓ cup shortening
  ⅓ cup sugar
  1 egg

Sift together flour, baking powder and salt. Cream shortening and sugar
beating until fluffy. Add egg, beat well and then the milk. Add the
flour mixture, stirring just enough to moisten. Turn into greased 8 inch
square baking pan. Top with:

  ¼ cup butter
  ¼ cup sugar
  1 cup dry bread crumbs
  1 tsp. cinnamon

Cream butter and sugar, well. Add bread crumbs and cinnamon. Blend well
and sprinkle over cake dough. Bake in moderate oven (375-f) 40 to 50
minutes. Serve hot.


[Illustration: “UNDER THE COW HANKS MILK.”]

Sweets and Rolls


(Kleina Kaffee Kuchen)

  ½ cup shortening, half butter
  3 cups flour, sifted
  2 whole eggs and
  2 egg yolks
  3 tblsp. sugar
  ¼ cup cream
  ¼ cup milk
  1 yeast cake

Dissolve yeast cake in ¼ cup of warm milk, add 2 tablespoons of flour
and stand in warm place to rise. Cream butter and sugar, add salt and
the eggs, beaten in one at a time. Add the sponge containing the yeast,
the lukewarm cream and the sifted flour. Grease muffin pans and sift a
little flour over them. Fill pans about ⅔ full with the batter. Set in
a warm place until dough rises to the top of the pans. Bake in hot oven
(400-f) for 25 minutes.


  1 cup mashed potatoes
  ¾ cup shortening, ½ butter
  1 cup sugar
  1 tsp. salt
  2 eggs
  1 yeast cake
  1 cup warm water
  6 cups flour

In a mixing bowl put warm mashed potatoes, shortening, sugar and salt.
Beat to a cream and add 2 eggs, the yeast cake dissolved in cup of
lukewarm water. Use about 2 cups of the flour to make a thin batter.
Cover and let it raise over night. When well risen add 4 cups of flour
to make as stiff a dough as can be stirred well with a mixing spoon.
Roll out dough to ½ inch thickness on a floured board. Cut into
squares about the size of a soda cracker. Bring each of the 4 corners,
of each square, to the center and pinch together. Place a small piece of
butter on top of each. Put on greased baking sheets about 2 inches apart
and stand in warm place to rise until very light. Bake in hot oven
(400-f) for 15 to 20 minutes. While still hot, brush with melted butter
and dust with powdered sugar or sugar and cinnamon mixed.


  2 cakes yeast
  2 cups lukewarm milk
  ½ cup lukewarm water
  ⅔ cup butter
  ¾ cup sugar
  1½ teaspoons salt
  2 eggs
  ½ lemon grated ring and juice
  ¼ teaspoon nutmeg
  8 cups flour

Break and soak yeast in water until soft. Scald and then cool milk.
Cream together butter, sugar and salt. Add well beaten eggs, lemon and
spice. Add lukewarm milk to yeast and mix with half the flour. Work in
butter and sugar mixture and enough flour to knead into a smooth dough.
Keep it as soft as can be handled readily. Let rise over night at about
80 degrees. As soon as dough is fully doubled in bulk, knead down and
let rise again for an hour. Makes three dozen.


  ½ cup sugar
  ½ teaspoon cinnamon
  ¼ cup chopped nuts
  ¾ cup flour
  3 tablespoons melted butter

Combine the dry ingredients. Work in melted butter until crumbs are
formed. Add nuts. Sprinkle over top of coffee cake dough and bake.


Roll ⅓ of the sweet dough into an oblong sheet, ¼ inch thick. Brush
with butter and sprinkle with brown sugar and cinnamon. Roll up and cut
off 1 inch slices. Place cut side down in greased pan. Brush tops with
butter. Let rise until double. Sprinkle with brown sugar and cinnamon
and chopped pecans or pour corn syrup in the bottom of the pan. Bake 20
mins. at 375.

COFFEE CAKE (Kaffee Kuchen)

For the Sponge:

  ½ cake yeast
  ¼ cup lukewarm water
  1 cup milk
  ½ teaspoon salt
  2 cups sifted flour

At night crumble and soak yeast 20 minutes in lukewarm water. Scald
milk, add salt and let cool. Add yeast to lukewarm milk and mix enough
flour to make a thick batter. Beat smooth. Cover and let rise in
moderately warm place (78 degrees) over night or until light.

For the Dough:

  ½ cup milk
  ½ cup butter
  ¾ cup sugar
  1 teaspoon salt
  2 eggs
  4 cups flour

In morning scald and cool milk. Cream butter, sugar and salt. Add beaten
eggs. Mix sponge with lukewarm milk, then add butter mixture and enough
flour to make soft dough. Beat hard or knead by hand. Let dough rise
until doubled. When light turn on floured board and roll out gently
until ½ inch thick. Place in buttered pans. Brush top with melted
butter. Let rise until double. Sprinkle with sugar or cinnamon and bake
in hot oven for 20 minutes.




  3 eggs
  1 cup sugar
  1 cup flour
  ½ tsp. salt
  1 tsp. baking powder
  3 tblsp. warm water
  1 tsp. lemon juice

Beat the eggs until thick and creamy. Add sifted sugar and beat well.
Add water and lemon juice and beat again. Sift the flour, add salt and
baking powder and sift again. Combine dry ingredients with the egg
mixture, a little at a time folding in gently. When well blended pour
into an ungreased pan with center tube. Bake in moderate oven (350-f)
for 50 minutes.


Behold there was a cake baken. I-Kings, 9:16

  ½ cup butter
  Judges, 5:25
  2 cups flour
  I-Kings, 4:22
  ½ tsp. salt
  Leviticus, 2:13
  1 cup figs
  I-Samuel, 30:12
  1½ cups sugar
  Jeremiah, 6:20
  2 tsp. baking powder
  Luke, 13:21
  ½ cup water
  Genesis, 24:11
  1 cup raisins
  I-Samuel, 30:12
  3 eggs
  Isaiah, 10:14
  Cinnamon, mace, cloves
  I-Kings, 10:10
  1 tblsp. honey
  Proverbs, 24:13
  ½ cup almonds
  Genesis, 43:11

Blend butter, sugar, spices and salt. Beat egg yolks and add. Sift in
baking powder and flour, then add the water and honey. Put fruit and
nuts thru food chopper and flour well. Follow Solomon’s advice for
making good boys—1st clause of Proverbs, 23:14. Fold in stiffly beaten
egg whites. Bake for 1 hour in 375-f oven.


  2 cups light brown sugar
  ½ cup shortening
  2 eggs
  ¾ cup milk
  3 tsp. baking powder
  1 cup chopped raisins
  2¼ cups flour
  1 tsp. cinnamon
  ½ tsp. cloves
  ½ tsp. nutmeg
  ½ tsp. salt

Cream sugar and shortening and beat until fluffy. Add the eggs and beat
until light. Sift the flour, add salt, spices, baking powder, then sift
again. Add the dry ingredients to the egg mixture alternately with the
milk. Beat thoroughly and add the floured raisins. Pour into 2 greased
layer cake pans. Bake in moderate oven (350-f) for 25 or 30 minutes. For
the icing use:

  2 cups sugar
  ¾ cup milk
  2 tblsp. butter

Cream together and boil until it forms a soft ball when dropped in
water. Add vanilla and beat until cold. Spread between layers, over top
and sides.


  1 cup shortening
  1 cup sugar
  1 cup molasses
  1 teaspoon salt
  2 eggs
  1 cup raisins and currants
  flour to make a soft batter
  1 tablespoon ginger
  1 tablespoon cloves
  1 tablespoon cinnamon
  2 cups sour milk
  1 teaspoon baking soda

Cream shortening and sugar. Add molasses and beaten eggs. Sift dry
ingredients and add alternately with 1½ cups of sour milk. Mix the
soda in the remaining milk and add with remainder of flour. Floured
currants and raisins are added last. Bake in a loaf pan in a slow oven
about one hour.


  1 cup light brown sugar
  ½ cup shortening
  ½ cup black molasses
  1 cup boiling water
  3½ cups flour
  2 tsp. baking soda
  ½ tsp. ginger
  ½ tsp. cinnamon
  ½ tsp. cloves
  2 eggs
  ¾ cup chopped black walnuts

Cream the sugar and shortening in a bowl. Add the molasses and pour the
cup of boiling water over it. Mix well. Combine the flour, soda and
spices, sift and add to the molasses mixture, beating well. Add the eggs
one at a time and blend thoroughly. Next add the chopped nut meats. Pour
into a well greased loaf pan and bake in moderate oven (350-f) for 40


  1 cup light brown sugar
  ¼ cup butter
  1 cup apple sauce
  1 tsp. soda
  2 cups flour
  1 tsp. cinnamon
  ½ tsp. cloves, ground
  a little nutmeg
  1 cup raisins
  pinch of salt

Cream together butter, sugar and spices. Add apple sauce, flour and soda
dissolved in a little warm water. Add the raisins (or currants). Beat
thoroughly and pour into a loaf tin. Bake in moderate oven (350-f) for
approximately 50 minutes.


1 cup pulverized sugar, piece of butter size of a walnut. Moisten with a
little water and spread over cake.


  1½ cups sugar
  ½ cup butter
  3 eggs, separated
  2½ cups flour
  1 cup nut meats, chopped
  2 tsp. baking powder
  ¾ cup milk
  a little salt

Rub butter and sugar to a light, white cream. Add egg yolks and beat
until smooth. Sift flour, salt and baking powder and add, together with
milk, a little at a time, beating well. Fold in chopped nuts and stiffly
beaten egg whites. Pour into 2 nine inch cake pans or 1 loaf pan. Bake
in medium oven (350-f) for 30 minutes for layer cake or 1 hour for loaf
cake. Use hickory nuts, black walnuts or shellbarks.





  6 eggs, separated
  1 cup powdered sugar
  1 cup flour, sifted
  3 tsps. anise seed

Beat egg yolks until thick and foamy. Beat egg whites stiff and combine
with egg yolks. Gradually add the powdered sugar and mix lightly. Sift
flour and add to the egg mixture together with the anise seed. Drop from
teaspoon on greased cookie sheet, spacing about 1 inch apart. Chill in
refrigerator over night. Bake in slow oven (300-f) for about 12 minutes.


  1 cup shortening
  1½ cups sugar
  3 eggs
  3½ cups flour
  1 tsp. salt
  1 tsp. cinnamon
  1 tsp. soda
  1½ tblsp. hot water
  ½ cup raisins, chopped
  ½ cup currants, chopped
  1 cup nuts, chopped

Cream shortening and sugar, add the eggs and beat until light and
fluffy. Sift flour add salt and cinnamon and sift again. Dissolve the
soda in the hot water and add to the creamed mixture. Add half of the
sifted dry ingredients mixing well. Fold in the chopped fruit and nuts
and the remaining flour mixture. Stir until thoroughly blended. Drop
teaspoonfuls on greased cookie sheets, about 2 inches apart and bake in
moderate oven (350-f) for 15 minutes.

CINNAMON WAFFLES (Zimmet waffles)

  ½ lb. butter
  1 cup sugar
  2 tsp. cinnamon
  3 eggs

Cream the butter and sugar. Beat in the eggs 1 at a time and add
cinnamon. Work in enough flour to make a soft dough. Form into small
balls. Place several in a hot waffle iron, suitably spaced, press down
top and bake. This is an old recipe which the “dutch” brought over from


  ½ cup shortening
  1 cup brown sugar
  1 cup molasses
  1 egg
  4 cups flour
  1 teaspoon cinnamon
  1 teaspoon cloves
  ½ teaspoon nutmeg
  1 teaspoon soda

Blend shortening, sugar and molasses. Add beaten egg. Sift dry
ingredients and combine. Mix well, roll out and cut in fancy shapes.
Bake at 350 degrees for 10 minutes. When cool decorate with boiled


  1 cup shortening
  ½ cup white sugar
  1 cup brown sugar
  2 eggs
  ½ teaspoon vanilla
  3 cups flour
  ¼ teaspoon cinnamon
  ¼ teaspoon nutmeg
  ¼ teaspoon soda
  ¼ teaspoon salt
  ½ cup ground blanched almonds

Cream shortening with white and brown sugar. Add 2 eggs and work in the
sifted dry ingredients. Then add the chopped blanched almonds. Shape
dough into long rolls. Roll in wax paper and store in cold place for 12
hours. Slice thin and bake in hot oven.


  2 cups sugar
  1 cup butter
  4 eggs

Work butter and part of the sugar together, then the remainder of the
sugar and the eggs should be mixed in. Use flour enough to make very
stiff. Roll thin, cut out in small squares, wet top with two eggs
beaten, sprinkle with sugar, cinnamon and chopped almonds. Bake in
moderate oven, 10 minutes.


  1 lb. sugar
  6 egg whites
  3 tablespoons flour
  2 cups walnuts chopped

Beat egg whites until stiff and dry. Mix flour and sugar and fold in
stiffly beaten egg whites. Add walnuts and bake in moderate oven, 375


  1 cup butter
  1½ cups brown sugar
  3 eggs, beaten
  1 tsp. soda
  1½ tblsp. hot water
  3 cups flour
  ½ tsp. salt
  1 tsp. cinnamon
  ½ tsp. cloves
  1½ cups chopped raisins
  1 cup chopped walnuts

Cream butter and sugar and add the beaten eggs. Dissolve soda in the hot
water and add to the creamed mixture. Sift flour, salt and spices twice
and add half of it to mixture and mix thoroughly. Combine chopped
raisins and nuts with the other half and add to the dough. Mix
thoroughly and drop by teaspoonfuls onto greased baking sheets spaced a
couple of inches apart. Bake in moderate oven (350-f) for 12 to 15


  1½ cups flour
  1 tblsp. cinnamon
  ½ tsp. nutmeg
  ½ tsp. cloves, ground
  ½ tsp. cream of tartar
  2 eggs, beaten
  1 cup dark brown sugar
  ⅛ lb. citron, chopped fine
  ⅛ lb. almonds, chopped

Sift the flour, cinnamon, nutmeg, cloves and cream of tartar. Mix the
sugar and beaten eggs thoroughly. Combine with the flour mixture, add
citron and the almonds. Roll out on floured board, ¼ inch thick. Place
on a greased cookie sheet and bake in moderate oven (350-f) for 15
minutes. Cut into squares or diamonds while still warm. Ice thinly with
plain white or lemon frosting. This is an old recipe for an oldtime
Christmas favorite.


  1 cup soft butter
  ½ cup brown sugar, packed
  2¼ cups flour, sifted

Cream butter until it resembles whipped cream and slowly add the sugar,
beating well. Add flour gradually and blend thoroughly. Wrap in waxed
paper and chill for several hours. Knead dough slightly on floured
board, form into a smooth ball. Roll to about ⅛ inch thick and cut to
desired shapes. Place on ungreased cookie sheets and bake in moderate
oven (350-f) about 12 minutes. When cold decorate with butter icing,
candied fruit, etc.


  1 cup almond paste
  ¾ cup sugar
  3 egg whites

Rub paste until smooth, gradually work in the sugar until well mixed.
Add a pinch of salt and beat in one egg white at a time, mixing
thoroughly. Let stand for 20 minutes. Drop teaspoonfuls on lightly
buttered baking sheet. Bake in slow oven (300-f) for 25 or 30 minutes
until surface is dry. Keep in cool place overnight.


  3 cups sugar
  ¾ cup butter
  2 eggs
  2 teaspoons baking soda
  1 cup thick milk

Mix eggs and butter well. Then add milk and soda. Mix in enough flour to
make a soft dough, just so you can roll it. Cut into any shapes you
wish. Sprinkle with granulated sugar, bake in a moderately heated oven.


  2 cups sugar
  2 cups hickory nuts, chopped fine
  6 egg whites
  3 tablespoons flour

Beat egg whites lightly, add sugar, then nut kernels, lastly the flour.
Drop on greased tins and bake in moderate oven. 350 degrees.


  1 cup sugar
  ½ cup melted butter
  2 eggs
  1½ cups flour
  ½ tsp. baking soda
  pinch of salt

Pour melted butter over sugar in a bowl and beat until smooth and
creamy. Add the eggs, beating one at a time, into the mixture. Sift the
baking soda thru the flour add the salt and add to the cake mixture.
Stand the dough in a cold place for an hour. Roll out on floured board,
quite thin. Cut into small rounds or other shapes. Sprinkle with sugar
and bake in hot oven (400-f) for 10 minutes.


  ⅔ cup shortening
  ½ cup brown sugar
  2 tsp. ginger
  1 tsp. cinnamon
  ¼ tsp. cloves or allspice
  1½ tsp. salt
  1 egg
  ¾ cup molasses
  3 cups flour, sifted
  1 tsp. soda
  ½ tsp. baking powder

Cream together shortening, brown sugar, spices and salt. Add the egg,
mix thoroughly. Add molasses and blend. Sift together twice the flour,
soda, baking powder and add to the molasses mixture. Stir well and
chill. Roll out a fourth of the dough at a time, on floured board to a
little more than ⅛ inch thick. Cut with gingerbread man cutters or
other shapes. Bake on greased cookie sheets in moderately hot (375-f)
oven, 8 to 10 minutes. Cool before decorating.


  3 eggs
  ½ lb. powdered sugar
  2 cups flour
  ½ tsp. cinnamon
  ¼ tsp. cloves
  ¼ tsp. nutmeg
  ½ tsp. soda
  ¼ tsp. salt
  1 lemon, juice and rind

Beat eggs well, gradually add powdered sugar, lemon juice and grated
rind. Sift flour and add salt, soda and spices. Sift again and add to
egg and sugar mixture. Beat to form smooth, medium-soft dough. Chill in
refrigerator for several hours. Roll out on floured board, into long
finger-shaped sticks. Cut into small marble sized pieces and bake on
greased baking sheets in hot oven (425-f) until they turn a light,
golden brown.


  ½ lb. butter
  1 cup sugar
  1 tblsp. cream
  2 cups dark molasses
  1 tblsp. cinnamon
  ½ tblsp. ginger
  ½ tsp. cloves, ground
  8 cups flour

Cream the butter and sugar together until smooth. Add the cream,
molasses, cinnamon, ginger and cloves and blend smooth. Work in the
flour gradually. Roll out as thin as possible on floured board. Cut into
various shapes with cookie cutters. Bake on greased cookie sheets in
moderate oven (350-f) for about 12 minutes. Decorate using a pastry tube
and icing made from egg-white and confectioners sugar.


[Illustration: “A plump wife and a big barn never did any man harm”]



  1½ cups mashed cooked pumpkin
  1½ cups rich milk
  ¾ cup brown sugar
  2 eggs
  pastry for 9" shell
  1 tsp. cinnamon
  ½ tsp. ginger
  ¼ tsp. cloves, powdered
  ¾ tsp. salt
  2 tblsp. butter, melted

Place all ingredients in a bowl and beat well with a rotary egg beater.
Chill and pour into an unbaked pie shell. Bake in hot oven (450-f) for
10 minutes. Reduce heat to moderately slow oven (325-f). When surface of
pie filling turns light brown, test by inserting a silver knife. If it
comes out clean the pie is finished baking.


  2 tablespoons flour
  ½ cup sugar
  2 eggs, separated
  pinch of salt
  1 lemon
  1½ cups milk
  1 pie shell

Mix 2 tablespoons of flour with ½ cup sugar and a pinch of salt. Beat
2 egg yolks. Add the juice and grated rind of 1 lemon. Then add flour
and sugar continuing to beat. Stir in 1½ cups milk and lastly fold in
2 egg whites beaten stiff, but not dry. Pour into unbaked pie shell.
Bake in hot oven, 425 degrees for 15 minutes. Reduce heat to moderate
350 degrees and bake 15 minutes more.


  1 qt. fresh sour cherries
  1½ cups sugar
  ½ cup flour
  pie crust

Mix flour and sugar and pitted cherries in a bowl. Fill unbaked pie
crust with the cherries. Put on a top pie crust, vented and bake in a
hot oven for 10 minutes. Reduce to moderate and bake for 20 minutes


  1 cup flour
  ½ cup sugar
  ½ cup butter and shortening mixed

Mix or “crumb” the above ingredients together with the hands to form
small lumps or rivels. Stew the rivels into a prepared pastry shell and
bake in a hot oven (400-f) for 30 minutes. Some spread 2 tblsps. of
molasses over it before baking.


  1 cup sugar
  ¾ teaspoon cinnamon
  ¼ teaspoon nutmeg
  ⅛ teaspoon salt
  1 cup thick sour cream
  3 eggs, slightly beaten
  2 cups raisins, ground
  1 unbaked pie shell

Combine all ingredients and turn into uncooked pie shell. Bake in hot,
450 degree oven 15 minutes, and then reduce to 350 degrees for 30


After lining a pie plate with pie crust, fill it with red raspberries.
Cover it with granulated sugar and with an upper crust, but rub the
edges of both upper and lower crusts with butter, so they will not stick
together. Then when pie is baked make a cream filling with:

  1 cup milk
  1 teaspoon cornstarch
  2 tablespoons sugar

Cook this and when cool, add the whites of three eggs stiffly beaten.
Lift the upper crust of the pie and pour in this cream filling. Replace
the crust and sift with powdered sugar.


When making a fruit pie, put lower crust in the oven 5 minutes and bake
while you are rolling out the top crust. Then put in filling and put on
the top crust. The undercrust will not be soggy.


For the syrup part:

  ½ cup molasses
  ½ cup sugar
  1 egg
  1 cup water
  2 tblsp. flour
  ½ lemon, juice and rind

Combine above ingredients and pour into a 9 inch, unbaked pie shell.

For the topping:

  ⅔ cup sugar
  ¼ cup butter
  1 egg, beaten
  1 tsp. baking powder
  1 cup milk
  1½ cups flour

Blend butter and sugar, add egg and beat well. Add milk and the sifted
dry ingredients a little at a time. Spread topping over mixture in the
pie shell. Bake in moderate oven (350-f) for 40 minutes.


  6 tart apples
  1 cup sugar
  ⅓ cup butter
  ¾ cup flour
  1 tsp. cinnamon
  pastry for 9" shell

Pare apples and cut into thick slices. Mix half the sugar with the
cinnamon and sprinkle over apples. Put into unbaked pastry shell. Blend
the flour, the remaining sugar and the butter and work into small
crumbs, with your fingers. Sprinkle the crumbs over the apples. Bake in
hot oven (425-f) for 10 minutes then reduce to moderate (350-f) and bake
for 35 minutes more. Serve with cheese.


  4 eggs
  3 tablespoons flour
  1½ cups sugar
  1 cup black walnuts, chopped
  1½ cups water
  1¼ cups dark corn syrup

Make crust for 2 pies and line medium size pie plates. Sprinkle the
walnuts over the crusts and then mix in the filling. The eggs must be
well beaten before adding the sugar gradually. Then fold in flour, corn
syrup and 1½ cups of water. Bake in very hot oven for three minutes
and then reduce to medium for 30 or 40 minutes.


  1 cup seeded raisins, washed
  2 cups water
  1½ cups sugar
  4 tablespoons flour
  1 egg, well beaten
  juice of a lemon
  2 teaspoons grated lemon rind
  pinch of salt

Soak raisins 3 hours, mix sugar, flour and egg. Then add seasoning,
raisins and liquid. Cook over hot water for 15 minutes, stirring
occasionally. When the mixture is cool, empty into pie-dough lined pie
plate. Cover pie with narrow strips of dough, criss-crossed and bake
until browned.


  1½ cups cottage cheese
  ½ cup sugar
  2 tblsp. flour
  ¼ tsp. salt
  2 eggs, separated
  2 cups milk
  ¼ tsp. cinnamon
  ½ tsp. lemon rind grated
  pie crust

Combine cottage cheese, sugar, flour, salt, lemon rind and spices. Add
beaten egg yolks and mix thoroughly. Add milk gradually and stir smooth.
Fold in beaten egg whites and pour into 9 inch, pastry lined pan. Bake
in moderate (350-f) oven, 1 hour.


  ½ cup apple butter
  2 eggs
  ½ cup sugar
  1½ tblsp. cornstarch
  1 tsp. cinnamon
  2 cups milk
  Pastry for 9 inch crust and strips for top

Combine apple butter, beaten eggs, sugar, cornstarch and cinnamon and
mix well. Add the milk gradually to the mixture and blend well. Pour
into unbaked pie shell. Top with “lattice” made from ½ inch wide
strips of crust. Bake at 350-f, 35 minutes.


Fill an unbaked pie shell with currants and red raspberries. Sugar
generously. Add the top crust and bake for 30 minutes. This is unusual
and very delicious.

SCHNITZ PIE (Dried apples)

  1 lb. of schnitz
  1 orange, rind and juice
  2 cups sugar
  2 tblsp. cinnamon
  prepared pie crust

Cover Schnitz with water and soak over night. Add orange rind and juice
and more water if necessary. Boil until soft, then put through colander
and add sugar and cinnamon. Pour into pastry lined shell, dot with
butter, cover with top crust or lattice strips. Bake in hot oven (450-f)
for 10 minutes. Reduce to 350-f bake 30 minutes.


  3 cups diced rhubarb
  1½ cups sugar
  3 tblsp. flour
  ¼ tsp. salt
  1 tblsp. lemon juice
  2 eggs, separated
  1 9-inch pie shell

Cut rhubarb into small pieces and arrange in an unbaked pie shell.
Combine the sugar and flour, add egg yolks and lemon juice. Stir into a
smooth paste. Pour this mixture over rhubarb. Cover with meringue made
from the egg white. Bake in a hot oven (425-f) for 10 minutes, then
reduce heat to (325-f) and bake for 30 minutes.




  1 cup raisins
  1 cup chopped suet
  1 cup molasses
  1 cup milk
  1 tsp. salt
  1 tsp. soda
  ¼ cup boiling water
  ½ tsp. cinnamon
  ½ tsp. nutmeg
  ½ tsp. allspice
  ½ tsp. cloves

Combine and mix all the ingredients with flour enough to make a stiff
batter; then add the soda dissolved in boiling water. Put into a well
greased mould, cover tightly and steam for 3 hours. Serve with a sauce
made from:

  1 cup brown sugar
  1 tsp. vanilla
  1 egg, beaten

Beat all together until creamy and pour over the pudding when serving.


Into bottom of a buttered baking dish put thick layers of apples (or
peaches). Sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon mixed. Dot with lumps of
butter. Into a mixing bowl sift:

  1 cup sugar
  1 tsp. baking powder
  1 cup flour
  ½ tsp. salt

Into this break 1 egg. Mix until crumbly. Put over apples (peaches) bake
in moderate oven (350-f) till crust is brown. Serve with milk, whipped
cream or ice cream.


  1¾ cups flour
  2½ tsp. baking powder
  ½ tsp. salt
  ¼ cup butter, or other fat
  ¾ cup sugar
  1 egg
  ½ tsp. lemon extract
  ⅔ cup milk

Mix flour, baking powder and salt and sift twice. Cream butter until
soft; add sugar gradually, beating until light. Beat in the egg and
flavoring. Add flour mixing alternately with the milk, beating smooth
after each addition. Turn into a buttered square tin (8 × 8 × 2 inches).
Bake in moderate oven (350-f) for about 40 minutes. Serve with
butterscotch or orange sauce. It’s delicious covered with crushed
berries or other fruits.


  Stewed Rhubarb
  Stale cake or bread
  Whites of 2 eggs

Line buttered baking dish with slices of plain stale cake or bread. Fill
with sweetened rhubarb. Cover and bake in moderately slow oven (325-f)
for 30 minutes. Make a meringue by beating egg whites stiff and adding 4
tblsp. sugar. Remove pudding from oven, cover with meringue and brown in


  ½ cup sugar
  ¼ cup butter
  2 tsp. baking powder
  2½ cups flour
  1 cup milk
  1 cup cherries, pitted
  1 egg

Cream together the butter and sugar and add the egg then beat well. Sift
the flour and baking powder and add alternately with the milk. Blend
well, flour the cherries and stir in. Pour batter into a baking dish and
bake in moderate oven (350-f) for 30 mins. Serve with plain or whipped


  4 tart apples
  ½ cup molasses
  ½ teaspoon cinnamon
  2 tablespoons butter
  biscuit dough

Pare and slice apples and arrange in a well greased shallow baking dish.
Sprinkle with cinnamon, drizzle over molasses and dot with butter. Cover
with biscuit dough which has been rolled to about ½ inch thickness.
Cut gashes in dough to allow steam to escape. Bake in moderate oven
about 375 degrees for 30 minutes. Serve hot, cutting out squares of the
biscuit to use as a base for the fruit mixture. Serve with cream
flavored with nutmeg.


  rich baking powder
  biscuit dough
  6 apples, medium size
  ½ cup brown sugar
  ½ teaspoon salt
  1 teaspoon cinnamon
  1 teaspoon nutmeg
  ½ cup raisins
  2 tablespoons butter

Prepare biscuit dough, roll ¼ inch thick and cut into squares. Pare
and core apples and place one in center of each square. Fill each with a
portion of the seasonings, sugar, raisins and dot with butter. Bring
corners of the dough to the top of the apples and seal by pricking with
a fork. Bake at 375 degrees for 30 minutes. Serve with cream or milk.


  2 cups pumpkin, sieved
  1 cup soft bread crumbs
  2 eggs, separated
  1½ cups milk
  1 cup sugar
  3 tblsps. butter, melted
  ¼ tsp. salt
  1 tsp. orange flavoring

Combine ingredients except egg whites in the order listed and mix well
after each addition. Pour into baking dish or custard cups. Bake in a
slow oven (325-f) until mixture thickens and browns. Beat the egg
whites, adding 2 tablespoons of sugar, until stiff, spread on top of
custard and brown lightly.


  1 cup sugar
  1 tablespoon butter
  1 cup milk or cream
  2 cups sliced peaches
  1 cup flour
  2 teaspoons baking powder
  ½ teaspoon salt
  2 cups hot water

Make a syrup of the sugar with the butter and 2 cups hot water. Add the
peaches. Let this come to a boil. Make dumplings by mixing flour and
baking powder and salt into a fairly stiff batter with milk or cream.
Drop large spoonfuls of this batter into the boiling syrup and peaches.
Cover and cook for 20 minutes. Serve while hot.


Sweets and Sours


  3 cups sour cherries
  3 cups fresh apricots
  2 cups red raspberries
  7 cups sugar

Wash and seed cherries. Drop the apricots into boiling water for a few
seconds, remove skins and seeds. Cut into quarters. Wash the berries.
Mix the fruit and sugar together and cook quickly, until fruits are
clear and tender. Seal in hot jars.


  1 gal. cucumbers
  8 onions
  ½ cup salt
  2 green peppers
  2 red peppers

Slice cucumbers, onions and peppers. Pack in ice. Let stand 3 hours. Put
a heavy weight on top the pickles. A plate with a weight on top is best.
Drain well and combine with:

  5 cups sugar
  2 tablespoons mustard seed
  2 tablespoons celery seed
  1½ teaspoons turmeric
  ½ teaspoon ground cloves
  5 cups vinegar

Mix well. Pour over pickles and simmer 30 minutes. Seal in hot jars.


  3 lbs. rhubarb
  2½ cups sugar
  ½ cup water
  2 oranges, juice and rind
  2 cups raspberries

Skin and cut rhubarb into ½ inch pieces. Add water and sugar, the
orange juice and grated peel. Cook all together, stirring frequently to
prevent scorching, for 30 minutes, or until clear. Put in sterile jelly
glasses and seal.


  1 lb. carrots
  1½ lbs. sugar
  2 lemons
  ½ cup chopped nuts

Clean and scrape carrots, cook until soft, then mash. Add sugar, juice
of 2 lemons and the grated rind of 1 lemon. Cook 20 minutes, stirring
frequently. Add the chopped nuts, pour into hot, sterile jars and seal.


  2 cups apples, chopped
  2 cups peaches, chopped
  juice of 2 lemons
  3 cups sugar

Use tart unpeeled apples and firm ripe peaches, cut into small pieces.
Combine with lemon juice and sugar. Cook slowly until the apple is
transparent (about 20 minutes). Pour into sterilized glasses, seal.
Makes 7 6-oz. glasses.


  5 lbs. ripe gooseberries
  4 lbs. brown sugar
  2 cups vinegar
  2 tblsps. cloves
  3 tsps. cinnamon
  3 tsps. allspice

Wash and pick over gooseberries. Combine with sugar, vinegar, spices and
cook slowly until mixture becomes rather thick. Pour into sterilized
glasses and seal. 5 pints.


  4 cups cranberries
  2 large oranges
  1 cup chopped raisins
  2 cups hot water
  4 cups sugar
  1 cup chopped nuts

Cut oranges into quarters and remove seeds. Grind cranberries and
oranges, fruit and rind in food chopper. Add the hot water and bring to
a boil. Cook quickly until fruit is soft. Add sugar and raisins. Cook
over moderate heat, stirring often, until thickened. Add chopped walnuts
or blanched almonds.


  4 qts. apples
  2 qts. apple cider
  2 cups sugar
  2 cups dark corn syrup
  1 tsp. cinnamon

Boil the cider until reduced to 1 quart. Pare the apples and slice thin.
Put the apples into the cider and cook very slowly, stirring frequently,
until it begins to thicken. Add sugar, syrup and cinnamon and continue
to cook until thick enough to spread when cool. Seal in sterilized jars.
Makes 5 to 6 pints.


  3 lbs. cantaloupe
  ½ tblsp. alum
  2 qts. water
  3 cups sugar
  1 pt. vinegar
  2 sticks cinnamon
  ½ tblsp. whole cloves
  1 tsp. allspice

Pare the cantaloupe, remove seeds and cut into strips, 1 × 2 inch or
squares. Dissolve the alum in the water and bring to a boil. Add the
cantaloupe and cook for 15 minutes. Drain well. Combine vinegar, sugar
and spices. Add the cantaloupe and simmer slowly until fruit is
transparent (about 45 minutes). Place in hot sterilized jars and seal.


When making pickled beets, save some of the spicy pickling liquid and
put into it a half-dozen, shelled, hard-boiled eggs. These take on a
beautiful color and excellent flavor and are grand as appetizers served
with crisp hearts of celery. They are also good sliced in sandwiches or


  5 lbs. hard pears
  3 cups water
  5 lbs. sugar
  ½ cup chopped preserved ginger
  3 lemons juice and rind

Pare and core the pears. Dice or cut into thin slices. Add water and
cook until tender. Add the sugar, ginger, the lemon juice and grated
rind. Simmer mixture until thick and pears are transparent. Pour into
sterilized jars and seal. Makes 5 pints.


  3 lbs. beets
  1 stick cinnamon
  1 teaspoon whole allspice
  ½ cup sugar
  6 whole cloves
  1 pt. vinegar
  ½ cup water

Boil beets until tender. Remove skins. Tie spices in cheesecloth. Heat
vinegar, water, sugar and spices to boiling point. Add beets and boil 5
minutes. Pack in sterile jars and fill with hot liquid. Seal.


  9 ears corn
  1 qt. vinegar
  1 cup sugar
  1 tsp. salt
  1½ tblsps. dry mustard
  1 tsp. turmeric
  1 medium head cabbage
  2 medium onions, chopped
  3 red peppers
  2 green peppers

Cook corn in boiling water for 2 minutes. Dip in cold water and cut
grains from the cob. Chop the cabbage, onion and peppers into small
pieces and add to corn. Mix vinegar, sugar, salt and spices and heat to
boiling. Add the corn and vegetables and boil until tender, 20 to 30
minutes, stirring frequently. Pour into sterile jars and seal. This
makes about 8 pints.


  12 sweet red peppers
  12 sweet green peppers
  8 small onions
  1 qt. vinegar
  1½ cups sugar
  2 tsp. salt

Seed the peppers and chop fine with the onion. Put into a bowl, cover
with boiling water and let stand for 5 minutes. Drain and cover again
with boiling water, let stand for 10 minutes longer. Place in colander
or cheesecloth bag let drain over night. In the morning add the vinegar,
sugar and salt. Boil for 20 minutes. Place in hot sterilized jars and


  2 cups green beans
  1 cup vinegar
  1 cup sugar
  1 cup water

Clean and cook whole green beans. Place them in a sterile pint jar. Boil
the water, vinegar, sugar and ⅛ tsp. salt. Pour over the beans and
seal jar.


  2 qts. chopped cabbage
  1 qt. chopped green tomatoes
  6 large onions, chopped
  3 sweet red peppers, chopped
  2 lbs. sugar
  4 tablespoons dry mustard
  3 tblsp. white mustard seed
  1½ tablespoons celery seed
  ½ tablespoon ginger
  vinegar to cover (about 8 cups)
  1 tablespoon cloves

Put each kind of vegetable into a separate bowl and sprinkle a small
amount of salt over each. Let stand 4 hours. Press juice from each
vegetable and combine. Mix the dry ingredients and rub into a paste by
using a small amount of vinegar. Then add all the vinegar and heat to
boiling. Put in the vegetables and cook slowly for 20 minutes. Pack in
sterile jars and seal. Cover jars with boiling water and simmer for 15
minutes. Makes 2½ quarts.



Dutch Country Bean Soup, 8
Beef Soup with Dumplings, 9
Chicken Corn Soup, 10
Chicken Noodle Soup, 10
Corn Chowder, 8
Corn Soup with Rivels, 10
Dumplings, 7
Egg Noodles, 8
Egg Balls for Soup, 9
Meat Filling for Noodles, 9
Spinach Filling for Noodles, 9
Philadelphia Pepper Pot, 7
Potato Soup, 10
Salsify, Vegetable Oyster Soup, 9
Split Pea Soup, 8
Vegetable Soup, 8


Acorn Squash, stuffed, 15
Beef with Onions, Pa. Dutch, 14
Beef Pot Pie, 14
Cabbage Rolls, 12
Chicken and Oyster Pie, 18
Chicken Baked in Cream, 14
Chicken Fricassee, 13
Chicken Pot Pie, 13
Cabbage and Dried Beef, creamed, 11
Duck and Kraut, 12
Dutch Meat Rolls, 17
Ham and Green Beans, 17
Ham and Noodle Casserole, 13
Hamburger Dinner, 14
Hog Maw, 16
Horseradish Sauce, for meat, 13
Liver Noodles, 15
Dutch Meat Loaf, 15
Meat Pie, 15
Mock Duck, 16
Noodle Cheese Ring, 11
Pork and Kraut, 16
Potato Filling, 12
Pork Pot Pie with Dumplings, 12
Sauerbraten, 12
Sausage Patties, 17
Schnitz un Knepp, 17
Schnitzel Meat, 13
Scrapple, 18
Souse, 16
Spareribs and Sauerkraut with Dumplings, 16
Peppers, Stuffed, 15
Wiener Schnitzel, 14


Baked Lima Beans, 23
Home Baked Beans, 23
Schnitzel Beans, 20
Beets, Sweet and Sour, 21
Seven Minute Cabbage, 19
Cabbage, Sweet and Sour, 23
Red Cabbage (Rote Kraut), 22
Celery, Sweet and Sour, 22
Baked Corn, Lancaster County, 19
Corn Fritters, 23
Corn Pudding, 22
Egg Plant, Fried, 21
Parsnip Patties, 20
Peas and New Potatoes, 22
Dutch Potato Croquettes, 21
Hashed Brown Potatoes, 23
Scalloped Potatoes, 21
Sweet Potatoes and Apples, Scalloped, 19
Sweet Potato Croquettes, 20
Scalloped Spinach, 22
Fried Tomatoes, 20
Scalloped Tomatoes, 21


Bean Salad, 5
Beet and Apple Salad, 4
Cole Slaw, Pennsylvania, 6
Cucumber Salad, 6
Dandelion Salad, 5
Deviled Eggs, 6
Fruit Salad Dressing, 4
Pepper Cabbage, 5
Hot Potato Salad, 6
Hot Slaw, 6
Potato Salad Dressing, 5
Dutch Salad Dressing, 4


Apple Ring Fritters, 24
Sour Cherry Fritters, 24
Corn Fritters, 24
Corn Meal Griddle Cakes, 24
Corn Meal Mush, Fried, 25
German Egg Pancakes, 25
Flannel Cakes, 25
Peach Fritters, 25
Potato Pancakes, 25


Butter Semmels, 30
Coffee Cake, 31
Crumb Cake, 31
Dutch Sticky Buns, 31
Little Coffee Cakes, 30
Sweet Roll Dough, 31


Bacon Muffins, 27
Blueberry Muffins, 26
Bran Muffins, 27
Crullers, 28
Crumb or Sugar Pie, 29
Fastnachts, 27
Funnel Cakes, 29
Johnny Cake, 27
Potato Doughnuts, 26
Quick Coffee Cake, 29
Sally Lunn, 29
Shoo-fly Pie, 28
Tangle-Britches, 28


Almond Cookies, 35
Almond Macaroons, 36
Anise Cookies, 34
Belsnickel Christmas Cookies, 37
Christmas Butter Cookies, 36
Cinnamon Waffles, 34
Fruit and Nut Cookies, 34
Ginger Cookies, 37
Hickory Nut Kisses, 36
Lebkuchen, 36
Moravian Christmas Cookies, 35
Moravian Dark Cookies, 37
Pfeffernusse, 37
Sand Tarts, 35
Sugar Cakes, 36
Walnut Kisses, 35
Walnut Rocks, 35


Apple Sauce Cake, 33
Grandma's Molasses Cake, 33
Nutcake, 33
Scripture Cake, 32
Spice Layer Cake, 32
Sponge Cake, 32
Walnut Gingerbread, 33


Apple Butter Pie, 41
Apple Crumb Pie, 40
Black Walnut Pie, 40
Cottage Cheese Pie, 41
Cream Raspberry Pie, 39
Currant and Red Raspberry Pie, 41
Funeral Pie, 40
Lemon Custard Pie, 39
Montgomery Pie, 40
Pastry Hint, 40
Pumpkin Pie, 38
Rhubarb Pie, 41
Rivel Crumb Pie, 39
Schnitz Pie, 41
Sour Cherry Pie, 39
Sour Cream Raisin Pie, 39


Apple Dumplings, 43
Apple or Peach Strudel, 42
Apple Pandowdy, 43
Cherry Pudding, 43
Cottage Pudding, 42
Peach Dumplings, 43
Pumpkin Custard, 43
Rhubarb Pudding, 42
Steamed Fruit Pudding, 42


Apple Butter, 45
Apple and Peach Conserve, 44
Bread and Butter Pickles, 44
Carrot Marmalade, 44
Chow Chow, 46
Corn Relish, 46
Cranberry Conserve, 45
Ginger Pears, 45
Mixed Fruit Preserves, 44
Pepper Relish, 46
Pickled Beets, 46
Pickled Green Beans, 46
Raspberry Rhubarb Jam, 44
Red Beet Eggs, 45
Spiced Cantaloupe, 45
Spiced Gooseberries, 45


Distributed By
Dutchcraft Company

Transcriber’s Notes:
    All temperatures are in degrees Fahrenheit.
    Booklet uses “degrees” or “-f” to note temperature. If both were missing,
      -f was added.
    Measurements have been left as printed. (For example:
      tablespoon tbsp. tblsp.)
    1—9 inch changed to 1 9-inch for readability (2 places).
    7-6 oz. changed to 7 6-oz. for readability.
    Weiner was changed to Wiener (2 places).
    tumeric was changed to turmeric (2 places).
    Minor printing and punctuation errors were corrected without note.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Pennsylvania Dutch Cooking" ***

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