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Title: Birds from Coahuila, Mexico
Author: Urban, Emil K.
Language: English
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UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS
MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

Volume 11, No. 8, pp. 443-516
August 1, 1959


Birds From Coahuila, México

BY EMIL K. URBAN


UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS
LAWRENCE
1959

UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS
MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS
MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY


Institutional libraries interested in publications exchange may obtain
this series by addressing the Exchange Librarian, University of Kansas
Library, Lawrence, Kansas. Copies for individuals, persons working in a
particular field of study, may be obtained by addressing instead the
Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas.
There is no provision for sale of this series by the University Library
which meets institutional requests, or by the Museum of Natural History
which meets the requests of individuals. However, when individuals
request copies from the Museum, 25 cents should be included, for each
separate number that is 100 pages or more in length, for the purpose of
defraying the costs of wrapping and mailing.

* An asterisk designates those numbers of which the Museum's supply
(not the Library's supply) is exhausted. Numbers published to date, in
this series, are as follows:

 Vol. 1.  Nos. 1-26 and index. Pp. 1-638, 1946-1950.

*Vol. 2.  (Complete) Mammals of Washington. By Walter W. Dalquest. Pp.
              1-444, 140 figures in text. April 9, 1948.

 Vol. 3.  *1. The avifauna of Micronesia, its origin, evolution, and
              distribution. By Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 1-359, 16 figures
              in text. June 12, 1951.

          *2. A quantitative study of the nocturnal migration of birds.
              By George H. Lowery, Jr. Pp. 361-472, 47 figures in text.
              June 29, 1951.

           3. Phylogeny of the waxwings and allied birds. By M. Dale
              Arvey. Pp. 473-530, 49 figures in text, 13 tables. October
              10, 1951.

           4. Birds from the state of Veracruz, Mexico. By George H.
              Lowery, Jr., and Walter W. Dalquest. Pp. 531-649, 7
              figures in text, 2 tables. October 10, 1951.

          Index. Pp. 651-681.

*Vol. 4.  (Complete) American weasels. By E. Raymond Hall. Pp. 1-466, 41
              plates, 31 figures in text. December 27, 1951.

 Vol. 5.  Nos. 1-37 and index. Pp. 1-676, 1951-1953.

*Vol. 6.  (Complete) Mammals of Utah, _taxonomy and distribution_.
              By Stephen D. Durrant. Pp. 1-549, 91 figures in text, 30
              tables. August 10, 1952.

 Vol. 7.  *1. Mammals of Kansas. By E. Lendell Cockrum. Pp. 1-303, 73
              figures in text, 37 tables. August 25, 1952.

           2. Ecology of the opossum on a natural area in northeastern
              Kansas. By Henry S. Fitch and Lewis L. Sandidge. Pp.
              305-338, 5 figures in text. August 24, 1953.

           3. The silky pocket mice (Perognathus flavus) of Mexico. By
              Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 339-347, 1 figure in text. February
              15, 1954.

           4. North American jumping mice (Genus Zapus). By Philip H.
              Krutzsch. Pp. 349-472, 47 figures in text, 4 tables. April
              21, 1954.

           5. Mammals from Southeastern Alaska. By Rollin H. Baker and
              James S. Findley. Pp. 473-477. April 21, 1954.

           6. Distribution of Some Nebraskan Mammals. By J. Knox Jones,
              Jr. Pp. 479-487. April 21, 1954.

           7. Subspeciation in the montane meadow mouse. Microtus
              montanus, in Wyoming and Colorado. By Sydney Anderson. Pp.
              489-506, 2 figures in text. July 23, 1954.

           8. A new subspecies of bat (Myotis velifer) from southeastern
              California and Arizona. By Terry A. Vaughan. Pp. 507-512.
              July 23, 1954.

           9. Mammals of the San Gabriel mountains of California. By
              Terry A. Vaughan. Pp. 513-582, 1 figure in text, 12
              tables. November 15, 1954.

          10. A new bat (Genus Pipistrellus) from northeastern Mexico.
              By Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 583-586. November 15, 1954.

          11. A new subspecies of pocket mouse from Kansas. By E.
              Raymond Hall. Pp. 587-590. November 15, 1954.

          12. Geographic variation in the pocket gopher, Cratogeomys
              castanops, in Coahuila, Mexico. By Robert J. Russell and
              Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 591-608. March 15, 1955.

          13. A new cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) from
              northeastern Mexico. By Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 609-612.
              April 8, 1955.

          14. Taxonomy and distribution of some American shrews. By
              James S. Findley. Pp. 613-618. June 10, 1955.

          15. The pigmy woodrat, Neotoma goldmani, its distribution and
              systematic position. By Dennis G. Rainey and Rollin H.
              Baker. Pp. 619-624, 2 figures in text. June 10, 1955.

           Index. Pp. 625-651.

                 (Continued on inside of back cover)



UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS
MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

Volume 11, No. 8, pp. 443-516
August 1, 1959



Birds From Coahuila, México



BY

EMIL K. URBAN



UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS
LAWRENCE
1959


UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS, MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

Editors: E. Raymond Hall, Chairman, Henry S. Fitch,
Robert W. Wilson

Volume 11, No. 8, pp. 443-516
Published August 1, 1959


UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS
Lawrence, Kansas


PRINTED IN
THE STATE PRINTING PLANT
TOPEKA, KANSAS
1959



Birds From Coahuila, México

BY EMIL K. URBAN


INTRODUCTION


The following account is a summary of the present knowledge of the
birds of Coahuila. Some 500 specimens from Coahuila in the Museum of
Natural History at the University of Kansas are the basis for this
report; these are supplemented by records of birds previously listed
from the State.

In Coahuila, habitats vary from those characteristic near tree-line to
those of the floors of the low deserts. Because of the variety of
habitats, many kinds of birds are present in the State; at least 312
living named kinds of 249 species have been recorded. Possibly another
100 species will be reported after further studies have been made
there. At least 154 of the species listed in this paper probably breed
in Coahuila. The bird fauna in the State includes species characteristic
of eastern North America and of western North America, species that
range from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, and species found only,
or mostly, in México.

I thank Professor E. Raymond Hall, Doctor Richard F. Johnston and
Doctor Robert M. Mengel for their kind help, and Doctor Harrison B.
Tordoff for first suggesting this study to me. Unless otherwise stated,
the nomenclature in this paper is that of the A.O.U. Check-list
Committee (1957). Catalogue numbers are those of the Museum of Natural
History at the University of Kansas. In so far as known to me, all
birds recorded in the literature from Coahuila are listed below. In a
few instances the only support for occurrence is the ascription of a
given kind to Coahuila (without mention of date, catalogue number, or
precise locality) by Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950), and/or the
A.O.U. Check-list Committee (1957); when this is so the entire entry is
inclosed within brackets. In the accounts beyond, an asterisk indicates
that the kind breeds in Coahuila; two asterisks indicate probable
breeding in the State.



LIST OF COLLECTORS


Persons who have obtained specimens of birds from Coahuila for the
Museum of Natural History are as follows:

Albert A. Alcorn
Joseph Raymond Alcorn
Sydney Anderson
Rollin Harold Baker
James Sheldon Carey
Peter Stanley Chrapliwy
W. Kim Clark
Robert William Dickerman
John R. Esther
James Smith Findley
John Keever Greer
John William Hardy
Gerd H. Heinrich
William McKee Lynn
Jack M. Mohler
Roger O. Olmstead
Robert Lewis Packard
Robert Julian Russell
William J. Schaldach, Jr.
Harrison Bruce Tordoff
South Van Hoose, Jr.
Olin Lawrence Webb


GAZETTEER OF LOCALITIES IN COAHUILA

The following place-names were used to record the localities of
Coahuilan birds now specimens in the University of Kansas Museum of
Natural History. Each place-name is followed by its location in degrees
and minutes of latitude and longitude, respectively.

Acebuches.--28°17', 102°56'.
Americanos.--27°12', 103°14'.
Australia.--26°18', 102°18'.
Bella Unión.--25°26', 100°51'.
Boquillas.--29°11', 102°55'.
Castillón.--28°21', 103°33'.
Cuatro Ciénegas.--26°58', 102°04'.
Diamante.--25°22', 100°54'.
Don Martin.--27°32', 100°37'.
Fortín.--28°48', 101°41'.
General Cepeda.--25°22', 101°28'.
Gómez Farías.--24°58', 101°02'.
Hermanas.--27°13', 101°13'.
Iglesias.--27°34', 101°20'.
Jaco.--27°50', 103°55'.
Jiménez.--29°04', 100°42'.
La Babia.--28°33', 102°03'.
La Gacha.--28°09', 101°31'.
La Mariposa.--28°12', 101°49'.
La Ventura.--24°48', 100°38'.
Las Delicias.--26°10', 102°49'.
Las Margaritas.--28°42', 101°14'.
Mesa de Tablas.--25°14', 100°24'.
Múzquiz.--27°53', 101°32'.
Nava.--28°25', 100°46'.
Ocampo.--27°22', 102°26'.
Paila.--25°38', 102°09'.
Parras.--25°25', 102°12'.
Piedras Blanca.--29°02', 102°33'.
Piedras Negras.--28°43', 100°32'.
Sabinas.--27°52', 101°07'.
Saltillo.--25°26', 101°00'.
San Antonio de las Alazanas.--25°16', 100°37'.
San Buenaventura.--27°06', 101°32'.
San Francisco.--27°37', 102°37'.
San Gerónimo.--28°30', 101°48'.
San Isidro.--27°33', 102°27'.
San Juan de Sabinas.--27°55', 101°17'.
San Lorenzo.--25°28', 102°12'.
San Marcos.--26°41', 102°07'.
San Miguel.--29°14', 101°22'.
San Pedro de las Colonias (San Pedro).--25°45', 102°58'.
Santa Teresa.--26°27', 101°21'.
Tanque Alvarez.--27°56', 102°38'.
Torreón.--25°33', 103°27'.
Villa Acuña.--29°19', 100°56'.

For mountain ranges, the approximate center of the highland of each
range is used as the point of reference.

Pico de Jimulco.--25°08', 103°16'.
Sierra del Carmen.--29°00', 102°30'.
Sierra de la Encantada.--28°25', 102°30'.
Sierra de Guadalupe.--25°13', 101°32'.
Sierra del Pino.--28°15', 103°03'.
Sierra de la Madera.--27°03', 102°30'.


DISTRIBUTION OF THE KNOWN BREEDING BIRDS OF COAHUILA

Topography and Climate

Coahuila lies in the broad northern end of México, immediately east of
the center of the continental mass. The mountains of Coahuila, which
are part of the Rocky Mountain-Sierra Madre Oriental Axis, extend in a
north-south direction and divide the lower lands into two areas, a
larger one, a part of the Central Plateau, to the westward and a
smaller one, a part of the Gulf Coastal Plain, to the northeastward.
Most of the mountains of Coahuila do not exceed 6000 feet in elevation.
A few peaks such as in the Sierra del Carmen, Sierra del Pino, Sierra
de la Madera, Sierra Encarnación, and Sierra de Guadalupe, are more
than 9000 feet high, and some more than 10,000 feet in elevation occur
near the southeastern border of the State in the Sierra Madre Oriental.
The Gulf Coastal Plain of northeastern Coahuila ranges from 700 feet to
1800 feet. The desert plains of the Mesa del Norte to the west of the
Sierra Madre Oriental Axis are higher, more rugged, and more dissected
than those of the Coastal Plain and are marked by scattered desert
ranges, buttes, low hills, and knobs.

Most of Coahuila is arid. Rainfall is moderate on the Coastal Plain and
is low west of the central mountains. Baker (1956:128-132) and Muller
(1947:35-38) give good summary discussions of the topography and
climate of Coahuila, and the reader is referred to these for further
details.


Biotic Communities

Baker (1956:132) stated that "the biotic communities of Coahuila might
be divided in accordance with the three physiographic areas of the
State: the Gulf Coastal Plain, the mountains, and the desert plains of
the Mesa del Norte." Goldman and Moore (1945:348-349) listed three
biotic provinces in Coahuila: the Chihuahua-Zacatecas Biotic Province,
in the western half of the State; the Tamaulipas Biotic Province, in
the northeastern part of the State; and the Sierra Madre Oriental
Biotic Province, in the southeastern part of the State. Merriam (1898)
noted that definable portions of the Lower Sonoran Life-zone, the Upper
Sonoran Life-zone, the Transition Life-zone, and the Canadian Life-zone
can be distinguished in Coahuila. In my study of the distribution of
the avifauna of Coahuila, I found that the three biotic provinces
listed by Goldman and Moore (_op. cit._) as major headings and
Merriam's life-zones as supplements are the most satisfactory
divisions.

_The Tamaulipas Biotic Province._--This province consists of lowland
plains and a few isolated ranges of low mountains. The average rainfall
is 23 inches (Baker, 1956:130), considerably more than the 10 inches
falling in the western part of the State. In the northeastern section
of the State, the moderate amount of rain, mesic vegetation, and close
proximity to the eastern migration pathway importantly influence the
types of birds found.

In Coahuila, the Coastal Plain and the Río Grande Plain lie in the path
of the northernmost trade winds; they account for the more humid
eastern slopes of the mountains of the northeastern part of the State
(Muller, 1947:38). Nevertheless, the northeastern section of the State
is semi-arid and can be placed in the Lower Sonoran Life-zone. The
vegetation consists mainly of thorny shrubs and small trees with a
liberal admixture of yuccas, agaves, and cacti, and closely resembles
that of southern Texas, northern Nuevo León, and northern Tamaulipas
(Goldman and Moore, 1945:354).

Migrant birds from the eastern flyway and less commonly migrants from
western North America pass through northeastern Coahuila. The following
breeding birds seem to be associated with this province: Harris' Hawk,
Bobwhite (_C. v. texanus_), Scaled Quail (_C. s. castanogastris_),
Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Groove-billed Ani, Green Kingfisher,
Golden-fronted Woodpecker, Hairy Woodpecker (_D. v. intermedius_),
Ladder-backed Woodpecker (_D. s. symplectus_), Vermilion Flycatcher
(_P. r. mexicanus_), Cave Swallow, Gray-breasted Martin, Black-crested
Titmouse (_P. a. atricristatus_), Carolina Wren, Long-billed Thrasher,
Curve-billed Thrasher (_T. c. oberholseri_), Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (_P.
c. caerulea_), Hutton's Vireo (_V. h. carolinae_), Bell's Vireo (_V. b.
medius_), Yellow-throated Vireo, Red-eyed Vireo, Summer Tanager (_P. r.
rubra_), Olive Sparrow, Cassin's Sparrow, and Black-throated Sparrow
(_A. b. bilineata_).

_The Sierra Madre Oriental Biotic Province._--Southeastern Coahuila is
in this province that includes mountains in southern Nuevo León,
southwestern Tamaulipas, and eastern San Luis Potosí. Areas classifiable
as Canadian, Transition, Upper Sonoran, and Lower Sonoran in life-zone
are found in this province. This region of Coahuila receives the
highest rainfall; this is evidenced by the luxuriant growth of boreal
plants living in the higher places there (Baker, 1956:131). Spruce,
pine, and aspen occur at higher elevations and oaks, thorny shrubs, and
grasslands are present lower down.

Birds of central or southern México reach the southern part of
Coahuila; the Thick-billed Parrot, Hooded Yellowthroat, and
Rufous-capped Atlapetes are examples. A boreal forest on the higher
slopes of the mountains of southeastern Coahuila is suitable for
certain northern birds such as Goshawks, Pine Siskins, and Brown
Creepers. Some species of birds ordinarily associated with western
North America are present in Coahuila only in its southeastern part;
striking examples of disjunction in range thus occur. Probably sometime
in the past these birds were distributed throughout most of Coahuila.
When this area became arid, these species disappeared from all of
Coahuila except from the high mountains in the southeastern part. For
example, Steller's Jay and the Scrub Jay are absent in the Sierra del
Carmen of northwestern Coahuila but do occur in southeastern Coahuila.

Migrants of the eastern flyway as well as migrants associated with
western North America pass through this section of Coahuila. The
following breeding birds are associated with this province: Goshawk,
Band-tailed Pigeon, Thick-billed Parrot, Golden-fronted Woodpecker,
Ladder-backed Woodpecker (_D. s. giraudi_), Pine Flycatcher,
Buff-breasted Flycatcher, Vermilion Flycatcher (_P. r. mexicanus_),
Steller's Jay, Scrub Jay, Mexican Chickadee, Black-crested Titmouse
(_P. a. atricristatus_), Cactus Wren (_C. b. guttatus_), Robin,
Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (_P. c. amoenissima_), Hutton's Vireo (_V. h.
stephensi_), Bell's Vireo (_V. b. medius_), Hartlaub's Warbler, Summer
Tanager (_P. r. cooperi_), Pine Siskin, Rufous-capped Atlaptes, and
Black-throated Sparrow (_A. b. grisea_).

_The Chihuahua-Zacatecas Biotic Province._--This province in Coahuila
covers the arid, interior, western desert area; it consists of rolling
plains with mountains that rise islandlike above the general surface.
Some of the mountains, such as in the Sierra del Carmen and the Sierra
del Pino, are more than 9000 feet high. The major part of this biotic
area lies within the Lower Sonoran Life-zone. Areas of the Transition
and Canadian life-zones are present on some of the higher mountains;
their discontinuity results in a discontinuous distribution of the
conifer-dependent avifauna.

The large desert restricts the movement of birds considerably. Major
results of this include isolation of certain populations and absence of
others in the boreal islands. For example, Miller (1955a:157) noted
that the "dispersal of conifer-belt birds to and from the Sierra del
Carmen, although not as difficult as to well separated islands [such as
off the coast of Baja California], is nevertheless a formidable matter
to accomplish across the great deserts of Texas, Chihuahua, and
Coahuila." Miller (_loc. cit._) noted also that the avifauna of the
Sierra del Carmen, due to its insularity, is unbalanced and stated that
"as a consequence of unbalance, species that are present show ecologic
extension and unusual numerical relations." At least in this type of
environment, an extension or expansion of the ecologic habits of the
related types takes place when some species are absent.

This isolation influences local variation among some of the birds found
in Coahuila. Niches elsewhere usually occupied by certain species,
absent here, are occupied by other species. These other species thus
enjoy an ecologic freedom and can expand their niches in the absence
of related types of similar ecologic scope. For example, Miller
(1955a:158-159) reported that Hairy Woodpeckers occurred only casually
in the Sierra del Carmen and that the Ladder-backed Woodpecker has
spread out and seems to occupy the niche or niches usually characteristic
of the Hairy Woodpecker. Changes usually thought of as of subspecific
character seem to be taking place between the Ladder-backed Woodpeckers
of the Sierra del Carmen and of other areas, possibly because the
Ladder-backed Woodpecker in the Sierra del Carmen is extending its
ecologic sphere more than in areas where the Hairy Woodpecker exists.
Restriction in dispersal due to geographic isolation has probably
hindered gene flow, thus allowing rapid local adaptation, recognizable
in variation at the infraspecific level. Miller (_loc. cit._) listed
other birds that have expanded their ecologic scope; his work should be
referred to for further details.

The following birds are associated with this province: Black Vulture,
Scaled Quail (_C. s. pallida_), Turkey, Elf Owl, Green Kingfisher,
Hairy Woodpecker (_D. v. icastus_), Ladder-backed Woodpecker (_D. s.
cactophilus_), Wied's Crested Flycatcher, Buff-breasted Flycatcher,
Vermilion Flycatcher (_P. r. flammeus_), Black-crested Titmouse (_P. a.
dysleptus_), Cactus Wren (_C. b. couesi_), Curve-billed Thrasher (_T.
c. celsum_), Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (_P. c. amoenissima_), Hutton's
Vireo (_V. h. carolinae_), Summer Tanager (_P. r. cooperi_), and
Black-throated Sparrow (_A. b. opuntia_). Several kinds of birds, such
as the Band-tailed Pigeon, occur in the "pine islands" in this province
rather than on the desert floor.

There remain several kinds of birds that are not especially associated
with any one or two of the above-named provinces. These birds are
widely distributed and vary geographically without corresponding to the
Biotic Provinces. Examples of these species are: Black Phoebe (_S. n.
semiatra_ in northern Coahuila; _S. n. nigricans_ in southern Coahuila),
Violet-green Swallow (_T. t. lepida_ in northwestern Coahuila; _T. t.
thalassina_ in southeastern Coahuila), Black-eared Bushtit (_P. m.
lloydi_ in northern Coahuila; _P. m. iulus_ in southeastern Coahuila),
White-breasted Nuthatch (_S. c. nelsoni_ in northern Coahuila; _S. c.
mexicana_ in southern Coahuila), Brown-throated Wren (_T. b. cahooni_
in northern Coahuila; _T. b. compositus_ in southern Coahuila), Crissal
Thrasher (_T. d. dorsale_ in northern Coahuila; _T. d. dumosum_ in
southern Coahuila), and Rufous-crowned Sparrow (_A. r. tenuirostris_ in
northern Coahuila; _A. r. boucardi_ in southern Coahuila).

Some representatives of the avifauna of the central and southern
sections of the Central Plateau reach southwestern Coahuila. The
subspecies _squamata_ of the Scaled Quail and _eurhyncha_ of the Blue
Grosbeak are examples. Each in Coahuila seems to be at the northern
limit of its range.

In summary, there are three associations of vegetation in Coahuila and
each has characteristic birds. Gross climate and topography, through
their influence on vegetation, are the prime factors in the distribution
 and kinds of birds in the State. Some birds of central and southern
 México reach southeastern and southwestern Coahuila. Representatives
 of the Gulf Coastal Plain in Tamaulipas and Nuevo León as well as
 migrants of the eastern flyway occur in northeastern Coahuila. Most of
 the species that occur in Coahuila seem to be associated with western
 North America. The aridity of western Coahuila restricts, to a large
 extent, the diversity of the breeding populations of its avifauna.
 Xeric conditions surrounding some of the higher mountains are barriers
 to movement of some species.


ORIGIN OF BREEDING BIRDS OF COAHUILA

Probably beginning in the late Pliocene and ending in the Ice Age
(Griscom, 1950:379) the refrigeration of climate in the Northern
Hemisphere initiated a period of southward withdrawal of birds from the
northern part of North America. Some members of the avifauna of
Coahuila probably reached the State in this time. When the continental
deserts were formed, or reformed, many tropical and subtropical Middle
American species were forced to leave Coahuila. Species associated with
arid conditions found their way there. Many representatives of the Old
World element also seem to have found their way to the State during the
refrigeration of climate in the Northern Hemisphere. The separation of
North and South America in the greater part of the Tertiary (Mayr,
1946:9) that deterred mammals from intercontinental colonization
seemingly did not hinder birds. Some South American species moved
northward into México, all the way north to Coahuila.

The avifauna of Coahuila today is a mixture of the several mentioned
elements. Of the breeding populations, 43 per cent breed in the western
rather than the eastern United States, 6 per cent breed in the eastern
rather than the western United States, 30 per cent breed in both the
eastern and western United States, 20 per cent are restricted to the
Republic of México, and the southern parts of Arizona, New Mexico, and
Texas, and 1 per cent (Aztec Thrush and Rufous-capped Atlapetes) is
endemic to the Republic of México.

It is instructive to consider also the origin of avifaunal elements at
the level of Family. According to Mayr (1946:11) most North American
families and subfamilies clearly originated in the Old World, in South
America, or from a North American element that developed in the partial
isolation of North America in the Tertiary. Three other elements, the
Panboreal, the Pan-American, and the Pantropical are represented by
some North American families and subfamilies. Because of the obscurity
of the place of origin of certain groups, an additional unanalyzed
element must be recognized.

The Caprimulgidae and Picidae probably originated in North America
(Mayr, 1946:26). Although the Psittacidae are Pantropical in
distribution, indications are that they probably originated in the Old
World (Mayr, 1946:17). The Phasianidae, Turdidae (_Myadestes-Hylocichla_
group), and Sylviidae (Polioptilinae) seem to have originated in the
Old World (Mayr, 1946:27). However, Mayr considered these groups to
have had a secondary center of proliferation in North America, and I
thus consider these groups to have a North American origin. Mayr
(1946:27) considered the Trochilidae, Tyrannidae, and Icteridae
Pan-American in distribution; however, he suggested that they probably
originated in South America, and I here treat them as South American in
origin. No representatives of the Pan-American element that probably
originated in North America have been recorded from Coahuila nor have
members of the Panboreal element (Mayr, 1946:11) been recorded in the
State. According to my analysis, representatives of families of birds
known to breed in Coahuila and those that probably breed there thus
seem to have been derived historically from the following sources:

    Old World           24.7%
    North America       37.0%
    South America       24.0%
    Unanalyzed          14.3%

Mayr (1946:28-29) gave examples of analysis by geographic origin of the
breeding species of several districts of North America. For instance,
at Yakutat Bay in southeastern Alaska the South American element of
breeding passerine species was 3 per cent, the North American element
39 per cent, and the Old World element 58 per cent whereas at Sonora,
México, the South American element of breeding passerine species was 27
per cent, the North American element 52 per cent, and the Old World
element 21 per cent. The breeding avifauna of Coahuila is thus in line
with Mayr's analysis, resembling that of Sonora to a considerable
degree at the taxonomic level of Family.


ACCOUNTS OF SPECIES

**_Podiceps caspicus_ (Hablizl).--On March 31, 1952, Olmstead saw "many
Eared Grebes" on a pond 10 mi. E Hacienda La Mariposa. This is the
first record of the Eared Grebe in Coahuila.

[_Pelecanus erythrorhynchos_ Gmelin.--The White Pelican is uncommon, if
not rare; Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:21) list it.]

_Anhinga anhinga_ (Linnaeus).--On March 31, 1952, Olmstead noted an
Anhinga perched on a submerged fence post in a lake 10 mi. E Hacienda
La Mariposa. This is the first record of the Anhinga in Coahuila.

**_Ardea herodias_ Linnaeus.--Two subspecies of the Great Blue Heron,
_treganzai_ and _wardi_, have been recorded from Coahuila. Friedmann,
Griscom, and Moore (1950:27) listed _A. h. treganzai_ from the State;
presumably this subspecies occurs widely in low density. They (_loc.
cit._) remarked also that a record of _A. h. wardi_ from Coahuila
"cannot be allocated subspecifically."

Dickerman saw two Great Blue Herons in a marshy area at San Marcos (=20
mi. S Cuatro Ciénegas) on May 4, 1954. Van Tyne and Sutton (1937:12)
noted the Great Blue Heron "near Boquillas [Texas], along the Río
Grande, on May 10 and 15...."

**_Butorides virescens_ (Linnaeus).--Olmstead saw a Green Heron at
Boquillas, 700 feet, on March 10, 1952. Findley reported seeing Green
Herons 2 mi. W Jiménez, 850 feet, on June 19, 1952, and 2 mi. S and 3
mi. E San Juan de Sabinas on June 22, 1952.

**_Casmerodius albus egretta_ (Gmelin).--The Common Egret is an
uncommon migrant in Coahuila. Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:30)
recorded _C. a. egretta_ from the "extreme northern part" of Coahuila.
Van Tyne and Sutton (1937:12) saw the Common Egret "along the Río
Grande on the Graham ranch just west of Boquillas," Texas, on May 16,
which might well be the locality to which Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore
referred. Olmstead saw a Common Egret at Don Martín on March 22, 1952.

**_Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli_ (Gmelin).--This subspecies of the
Black-crowned Night Heron was listed from the "extreme north" section
of Coahuila by Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:32). Van Tyne and
Sutton (1937:14) saw three Black-crowned Night Herons along the Río
Grande about two miles west of Boquillas, Texas, on May 16. This record
probably represents the locality to which Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore
(_op. cit._) referred.

_Nyctanassa violacea violacea_ (Linnaeus).--A Yellow-crowned Night
Heron in immediate post-juvenile plumage, No. 36413, was obtained on
September 7, 1958, 16 km. south of Cuatro Ciénegas, by W. L. Minckley.
According to him the bird was accompanied by "several" other herons
seemingly of the same species and condition of plumage. The species
seems not to have been recorded previously from Coahuila [Eds.].

_Botaurus lentiginosus_ (Rackett).--Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore
(1950:34) listed the American Bittern from the "extreme northern part"
of Coahuila. Van Tyne and Sutton (1937:14) saw two representatives of
this bittern "along the Río Grande not far from Hot Springs," Texas, on
May 15. I suspect that this is the locality to which Friedmann,
Griscom, and Moore (_loc. cit._) referred.

[_Branta canadensis leucopareia_ (Brandt).--Friedmann, Griscom, and
Moore (1950:38) listed _B. c. leucopareia_ from "northern Coahuila."]

**_Dendrocygna autumnalis_ (Linnaeus).--Evenden (1952:112) reported a
Black-bellied Tree Duck standing beside a reservoir in southern
Coahuila along the railroad between Saltillo, Coahuila, and Avalos,
Zacatecas.

**_Anas platyrhynchos_ Linnaeus.--On March 30, 1952, Olmstead recorded
a Mallard from 10 mi. E Hacienda La Mariposa, 2000 feet.

_Anas strepera_ Linnaeus.--_Specimen examined:_ one, [Male] 31016, from
10 mi. E Hacienda La Mariposa, 2000 ft., March 30, 1952.

The Gadwell is not an uncommon spring migrant; Olmstead saw it 10 mi. E
Hacienda La Mariposa on March 30, 1952, and Baker observed it 8 mi. N
and 4 mi. W Múzquiz on March 30, 1952. Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore
(1950:42) recorded the Gadwell from Coahuila.

_Anas acuta_ Linnaeus.--Miller (1955a:161) took a Pintail on September
10 in the Sierra del Carmen.

_Anas carolinensis_ Gmelin.--The Green-winged Teal has been recorded
from northern Coahuila. Van Tyne and Sutton (1937:15) recorded two
mated pairs along the Río Grande at Lajitas, Texas, on May 10. Miller
(1955a:161) remarked that a male of the year was taken in the Sierra
del Carmen on September 4.

_Anas discors discors_ Linnaeus.--_Specimens examined:_ total 2: sex ?
31646 and sex ? 31647 from .5 mi. S Las Margaritas, 2800 ft., September
28, 1953.

The Blue-winged Teal is a fairly common spring and fall migrant in
Coahuila. Van Tyne and Sutton (1937:15) noted the Blue-winged Teal at
several different localities along the Río Grande: "on May 8, four
males and several females resting on a mud bar along the Río Grande
near Hot Springs [Texas]; ... on May 7, three pairs in a flock, along
the Río Grande, Castalon [Texas]; ... and on May 20, three pairs, along
the Río Grande, San Vicente [Texas]." Miller (1955a:161) reported that
Marsh took a male of the year in the Sierra del Carmen on September 10.
Dickerman observed Blue-winged Teal 8 mi. E and 2 mi. S Americanos on
May 18, 1954. Olmstead listed Blue-winged Teal from 10 mi. E Hacienda
La Mariposa on March 30, 1952. Nos. 31646-31647, which are probably
females, represent the subspecies _discors_ because the light edgings
of their crowns are definitely present; the areas of their backs are
brownish, not more intensively black, and their underparts are
brownish, less blackish.

**_Anas cyanoptera septentrionalium_ Snyder and Lumsden.--Van Tyne and
Sutton (1937:15) listed several localities along the Río Grande in
Brewster County, Texas, where Cinnamon Teal were seen. I suspect that
Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:41) referred to those localities.
Dickerman saw four pairs of Cinnamon Teal 14 mi. E and 16 mi. N Ocampo
on May 9, 1954, and also saw Cinnamon Teal 8 mi. E and 2 mi. S
Americanos on May 18, 1954.

_Mareca americana_ (Gmelin).--The American Widgeon is a fairly common
spring migrant in Coahuila. Olmstead observed this duck 10 mi. E
Hacienda La Mariposa on March 30, 1952. Dickerman saw five to seven
American Widgeons 8 mi. E and 2 mi. S Americanos on May 18, 1954.

_Spatula clypeata_ (Linnaeus).--The Shoveler is a spring and probably
fall migrant in Coahuila, and has been observed at several localities.
Van Tyne and Sutton (1937:16) saw two pairs along the Río Grande at
Castalon, Texas, On May 7 and saw "a fair-sized flock along the Río
Grande on the Johnson ranch [in Texas] on May 13 and 14." Dickerman saw
12 pairs of Shovelers on two ponds 14 mi. E and 16 mi. N Ocampo on May
9, 1954, and 10 more 8 mi. E and 2 mi. S Americanos on May 18.

_Aythya affinis_ (Eyton).--Olmstead observed Lesser Scaup 10 mi. E
Hacienda La Mariposa on March 30, 1952.

[_Bucephala albeola_ (Linnaeus).--Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore
(1950:44) listed the Bufflehead from the State.]

*_Cathartes aura aura_ (Linnaeus).--_Specimen examined:_ one, [Male]
31017 (skeleton only), from 4 mi. W Hacienda La Mariposa, 2300 ft.,
March 26, 1952.

Miller (1955a:161) took a female Turkey Vulture, which was in breeding
condition, in the Sierra del Carmen on April 17 and stated that "until
more statistics are available on breeding birds of northern Coahuila,
they must be considered _C. a. aura_...." Amadon and Phillips
(1947:577) took a Turkey Vulture at Las Delicias which represented _C.
a. aura_. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:188) stated that this species was
not uncommon, and was noted each day soaring overhead both in the
valleys and over the tops of the ridges of southeastern Coahuila.

Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:47) listed _C. a. teter_ from
Coahuila. Miller (1955a:161) remarked that the subspecies _aura_ and
_teter_ might intergrade in the Sierra del Carmen. At the present time
it is possible to say only that _teter_ is present in Coahuila in
migrant and wintering populations, but the extent to which _teter_
remains in northeastern México is undetermined. However, all
indications point to this area as being the region where _aura_ and
_teter_ intergrade.

**_Coragyps atratus_ (Bechstein).--The Black Vulture is locally common
throughout most of eastern Coahuila but is uncommon in the western part
of the State. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:25) noted the Black Vulture
"regularly east of Saltillo in low country," but did not see Black
Vultures at San Pedro or elsewhere in southwestern Coahuila. Burleigh
and Lowery (1942:188) stated that "the Black Vulture apparently avoids
to a large extent the higher altitudes, and only rarely was it observed
at all, even about Saltillo." Olmstead saw Black Vultures 8 mi. N and 4
mi. W Múzquiz, 1800 feet, on March 31, 1952, and Dickerman observed a
flock at La Gacha (=Rancho La Coucha), 1600 feet, on December 2, 1953.

**_Accipiter gentilis_ (Linnaeus).--On July 6, 1955, Hardy saw a
Goshawk 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas; this is the first record
of occurrence of this species from northeastern México.

*_Accipiter striatus velox_ (Wilson).--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Female] 31018, from along the Río Grande (=Boquillas), 700 ft., March
10, 1952, measurements: wing, 207 mm.; tail, 171 mm.; tarsus, 53 mm.;
culmen, 12 mm.

Our specimen of the Sharp-shinned Hawk is referred to _velox_ on the
basis of the reddish, maculated breast, sides, and thighs. The
collector's field notes recorded the iris as blood-red. Marsh and
Stevenson (1938:286) thought that this subspecies was resident in the
pine and Douglas-fir forest of upper Vivoras Canyon of the Sierra del
Carmen at 8500 feet, where Marsh observed a family group including
three immature birds. Friedmann (1950:196) indicated that the immature
male obtained by Marsh and Stevenson is _A. s. suttoni_; Miller
(1955a:161), nevertheless, remarked that this male has well barred
feathers and thus is _velox_. Miller (_loc. cit._) obtained also an
adult male of _A. s. velox_ in the Sierra del Carmen at 7000 feet on
April 18.

**_Accipiter striatus suttoni_ van Rossem.--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Male] 32626, from 13 mi. E San Antonio, 9950 ft., July 6, 1955,
measurements: wing, 186 mm.; tail, 144 mm.; tarsus, 49 mm.; culmen, 11
mm.; weight, 103 gms.

The recording of _A. s. suttoni_ in Coahuila by Friedmann, Griscom, and
Moore (1950:52), seems to have been based on their knowledge of the
specimen earlier mentioned by Friedmann (1950:196) and later identified
by Miller (1955a:161) as _A. s. velox_. Therefore the KU specimen seems
to be the first record of _A. s. suttoni_ in Coahuila. The size of its
testes (right, 2.5×4 mm.; left, 3×4 mm.) does not indicate breeding;
however, the time of the year in which it was obtained suggests that it
may have been a resident.

*_Accipiter cooperii_ (Bonaparte).--Miller (1955a:161) found Cooper's
Hawk breeding in the Sierra del Carmen on April 26.

_Buteo jamaicensis borealis_ (Gmelin).--The Red-tailed Hawk is common
in Coahuila. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:188) noted the Red-tailed Hawk
on the higher ridges above an elevation of 6000 feet in southeastern
Coahuila. On April 17, Burleigh and Lowery (_loc. cit._) saw two
Red-tailed Hawks "in the open valley south of Diamante Pass" and on
April 20, "just outside of Saltillo," these workers obtained an
immature male that was referred to _B. j. borealis_.

**_Buteo jamaicensis fuertesi_ Sutton and Van Tyne.--Miller (1955a:161)
took a male Red-tailed Hawk, on April 14 at 7000 feet in the Sierra del
Carmen, that was referred to as _B. j. fuertesi_. To my knowledge,
there are no other records of this subspecies from Coahuila, but this
must be the resident form over the bulk of western Coahuila.

There are several sight records of the Red-tailed Hawk. Olmstead saw
one 16 mi. S Boquillas, 1600 feet, on March 6, 1952; Dickerman saw a
Red-tailed Hawk 16 mi. E and 18 mi. N Ocampo on May 7, 1954, one 20 mi.
S Ocampo on April 4, 1954; and an immature at Saltillo on January 17,
1954.

_Buteo platypterus platypterus_ (Vieillot).--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Male] 32628, from 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas, 9950 ft., July
6, 1955.

The Broad-winged Hawk is rare in Coahuila. No. 32628, if a migrant, was
retarded from moving northward by the loss of its right foot and distal
one-third of its tarsus. Packard (1957:371) reported this specimen as
the first record of the species in Coahuila.

*_Buteo swainsoni Bonaparte._--_Specimens examined:_ total 2: [Male]
32022 from 2 mi. W Jiménez, 850 ft., June 20, 1952; and [Male] 29555
from Iglesias (=15 mi. SW Sabinas), 1000 ft., August 22, 1949.

Swainson's Hawk is not common in Coahuila. The size of the testes (6×4
mm.) of No. 32022, the adult plumage, and the date (June 20) on which
it was obtained suggest that it was a breeding bird. Friedmann,
Griscom, and Moore (1950:55) reported that this species breeds as far
east as Durango and Chihuahua. Findley saw a Swainson's Hawk 2 mi. S
and 3 mi. E San Juan de Sabinas on June 22, 1952.

**_Buteo albonotatus Kaup._--The Zone-tailed Hawk is uncommon in
Coahuila. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:26) noted the species "a few miles
west of Saltillo ... on January 30."

_Buteo regalis_ (Gray).--The Ferruginous Hawk is uncommon in Coahuila.
Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:26) noted a single bird "not far from
Parras, on January 30."

_Buteo nitidus_ (Latham).--Evenden (1952:112) saw a Gray Hawk one mile
northeast of Saltillo, at Ramos Arizpe on March 4. Although there are
no other records of the Gray Hawk from Coahuila, its occurrence in the
State would be expected because this species has been recorded from
Nuevo León and Tamaulipas in northeastern México (Friedmann, Griscom,
and Moore, 1950:57).

**_Parabuteo unicinctus harrisi_ (Audubon).--Harris' Hawk is fairly
common in southern Coahuila. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:26) stated that
Harris' Hawk "was one of the few birds noted repeatedly in ... southern
Coahuila...."

_Circus cyaneus_ (Linnaeus).--The Marsh Hawk is a common migrant and
winter visitant in Coahuila. Miller (1955a:161) remarked that the Marsh
Hawk was "seen in northward migratory flight across the desert east of
the Sierra del Carmen on March 31 and on April 11 along the west face
of Loomis Peak at 8800 feet." Olmstead saw a female Marsh Hawk 1 mi. W
San Buenaventura on April 2, 1952. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:188) noted
the Marsh Hawk "about Saltillo" and "above the summit of Diamante Pass
at about 8,000 feet" on April 14. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:26) noted
wintering Marsh Hawks "near San Pedro."

_Pandion haliaetus_ (Linnaeus).--Miller (1955a:161) reported seeing an
Osprey on April 9 in Corte Madera Canyon, "apparently in migration;"
this is the only record from Coahuila.

**_Caracara cheriway_ (Jacquin).--From the few records in the
literature, I judge that the Caracara is uncommon in Coahuila. Evenden
(1952:113) saw three Caracaras "south of Saltillo" on March 5. Baker
saw a Caracara in the Sierra del Pino (=6 mi. NW Tanque Alvarez), 3400
feet, on July 6, 1953. No specimens of the Caracara have been taken
from Coahuila.

_Falco mexicanus_ Schlegel.--_Specimen examined:_ one, [Male] 31596,
from Saltillo, January 10, 1954.

The Prairie Falcon is an uncommon winter visitant in Coahuila.
Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:65) indicated that _Falco
mexicanus_ winters south to Sonora, Oaxaca, Chihuahua, Durango,
Zacatecas, Auguascalientes, Hidalgo, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas.

No. 31596 is the first recorded specimen of the Prairie Falcon from
Coahuila. The bird was heavily parasitized by worms in the mesenteries
and seems to be an adult. Although its nuchal collar, as in immatures,
is washed with pale cinnamon-buff, its thighs are not heavily marked
with dark brown spots. The superciliary lines have blackish rather than
brownish streaks, and the scapulars do not have four or five dark bars
(Friedmann, 1950:624).

_Falco columbarius bendirei_ Swann.--_Specimen examined:_ one, [Male]
31634, from Don Martín Dam (=Río Salado), November 27, 1953,
measurements: wing, 191 mm.; tail, 111 mm.; tarsus, 37 mm.; culmen, 12
mm.; testes, 3×1 mm.

The Pigeon Hawk seems to be uncommon in Coahuila. No. 31634, the first
record of this species in Coahuila, has pale gray interspaces on the
rectrices of its tail that are definitely wider than the three black
bands, indicating affinity with _bendirei_ (Friedmann, 1950:702). Our
bird was obtained near the base of the Don Martín Dam of the Río
Salado, and was observed hunting dragonflies over the water.

_Falco sparverius sparverius_ Linnaeus.--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Male] 31648, from the north foot of Sierra Guadalupe (=10 mi. S, 5 mi.
W General Cepeda), 6400 ft., April 17, 1953, weight, 104 gms.

The Sparrow Hawk is locally common in Coahuila. Miller (1955a:162)
noted the species occasionally in the lower canyon areas of the Sierra
del Carmen at 5000 feet from April 20 to 28. Dickerman saw two Sparrow
Hawks in the Sierra del Pino on May 12, 1954. Sutton and Burleigh
(1939a:27) took a male at La Rosa on January 30 that was typical for
_F. s. sparverius_. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:188) noted Sparrow Hawks
almost daily about Saltillo and infrequently in the open valley south
of Diamante Pass; they took a female at Saltillo on April 22 that was
assigned to _F. s. sparverius_.

*_Colinus virginianus texanus_ (Lawrence).--_Specimens examined:_ total
9: [Male] 29408 and [Female] 29409 from 1 mi. S, 9 mi. W Villa Acuña,
April 2, 1950, weights, 169.5 and 174.7 gms., [Male] 29410 and [Female]
[Female] 29411-29413 from 3 mi. W, 1 mi. S San Gerónimo, April 9, 1950,
weights, 152.6, 158.6, 158.2, 159.0, and 152.8 gms.; and [Male] [Male]
32032-32034 from 9 mi. S, 11 mi. E Sabinas, 1050 ft., June 13 and 14,
1952.

The Bobwhite is locally common in northeastern Coahuila. Aldrich and
Duvall (1955:18) indicated that _C. v. texanus_ has been recorded from
two separate localities in northeastern Coahuila and from several
localities in Texas along the Río Grande. Findley saw Bobwhites 2 mi. S
and 3 mi. E San Juan de Sabinas on June 22, 1952. The specimens of
Bobwhite from 3 mi. W and 1 mi. S San Gerónimo seem to extend the known
range of _texanus_ nearly 100 miles west. The sizes of the testes (11,
16, 15, 15 mm.) of Nos. 29408, 32032-32034, respectively, indicates
breeding by the Bobwhite in Coahuila.

*_Callipepla squamata pallida_ Brewster.--_Specimens examined:_ total
16: [Male] 29414 from 1 mi. S, 13 mi. W Villa Acuña, April 4, 1950;
[Male] [Male] 29415-29417 from 11 mi. W Hacienda San Miguel, 2200 ft.,
April 4, 1950, weights, 205.3, 198.6, and 182.7 gms.; [Female] [Female]
31019-31021 from 10 mi. S, 5 mi. E Boquillas, 1500 ft., March 2 and 4,
1952, weights, 184.4, 180 and 154.2 gms.; [Male] 34454 from 2 mi. SSE
Castillón, 4050 ft., June 29, 1953, weight, 169 gms.; [Male] 29418 and
[Female] 29419 from 8 mi. N, 2 mi. E La Babia, April 8, 1950; [Male]
[Male] 32023-32024, [Male] 32026, [Female] 32025, and [Female] 32027
from 5 mi. N, 19 mi. W Cuatro Ciénegas, 3250 ft., July 6, 1952; and
[Male] 32640 from 2 mi. W Paila, July 3, 1955.

The Scaled Quail is common in Coahuila. The subspecies _pallida_ occurs
in northwestern Coahuila south to Sierra de los Alamitos. Intergrades
of _pallida_, _castanogastris_, and _squamata_ are present in the
central part of the State. No. 32640, obtained 2 mi. W Paila, has some
resemblance to _squamata_. Five specimens of _pallida_ from the central
part of Coahuila (5 mi. N and 19 mi. W Cuatro Ciénegas), show little or
no approach toward _squamata_. Miller (1955a:162) stated that two of
the Scaled Quail collected in the Sierra del Carmen show no approach to
the race _castanogastris_ of eastern Coahuila nor to _C. s. squamata_
of southern Coahuila. From the specimens that I have examined, I judge
that the range of _pallida_ extends as far south as the Sierra de los
Alamitos rather than only to the northwestern part of Coahuila as
reported by Aldrich and Duvall (1955:17). In northeastern Coahuila
_pallida_ seems to intergrade with _castanogastris_; No. 29414 has an
indistinct rusty chestnut patch on its abdomen, thus resembling
_castanogastris_.

The sizes of the testes (9-12 mm.) and of the largest ova (14 mm. in
diameter and an egg 23 mm. long) of birds labeled with reference to
Cuatro Ciénegas indicate breeding activity.

**_Callipepla squamata castanogastris_ Brewster.--_Specimen examined:_
one, [Male] 32028, from 9 mi. S, 11 mi. E Sabinas, June 14, 1952.

Typical representatives of _C. s. castanogastris_ in Coahuila occur
only in the extreme northeastern section of the State, and most
specimens of the Scaled Quail from northeastern Coahuila are
intergrades between _pallida_ and _castanogastris_.

No. 32028 is identified as _C. s. castanogastris_ because there is a
distinct rusty chestnut patch on its abdomen. This patch, nevertheless,
is not so large as in a more nearly typical male _C. s. castanogastris_
from 15 mi. NNW Anahuac, Nuevo León.

**_Callipepla squamata squamata_ (Vigors).--_Specimens examined:_ total
2: [Male] 30231 and [Female] 30232 from 10 mi. NW San Lorenzo, 4200
ft., February 3, 1951.

The subspecies _squamata_ occurs in southern Coahuila. Amadon and
Phillips (1947:577) took a Scaled Quail at Las Delicias on August 18
that "was only two-thirds grown, though well able to fly" and obtained
an adult 19 mi. W Saltillo that was typical _squamata_. Burleigh and
Lowery (1942:188) stated that _C. s. squamata_ was one of the
characteristic birds of the open desert country of southeastern
Coahuila. Scaled Quail were seen by Burleigh and Lowery (_loc. cit._)
"about Saltillo and in the open valley south of Diamante Pass."

The breast and upper back of both specimens from 10 mi. NW San Lorenzo,
are plumbeous-gray rather than pale dull gray. Also the lower back,
rump, abdomen, forehead, and crown more closely resemble the subspecies
_squamata_ rather than _C. s. pallida_. However, the upper backs of
both specimens are not so plumbeous-gray as on a male (32030) and a
female (32031) of the subspecies _squamata_ from 1 mi. N Chorro,
Durango, 6450 ft., July 11, 1952. The two birds from Durango appear to
be slightly darker than the Coahuilan specimens that approach the
subspecies _pallida_.

Burleigh and Lowery (1942:188-189) stated that one of their specimens
of _C. s. squamata_ obtained at Saltillo seems to be "very close to
_castanogastris_, suggesting that southeastern Coahuila is in the
region of intergradation between the two races." Aldrich and Duvall
(1955:17) indicated that _squamata_ and _castanogastris_ intergrade
near Sabinas. The two specimens that I have examined show no sign of
approach toward _castanogastris_. More specimens of Scaled Quail from
Coahuila are needed to permit accurate definition of the distribution
of the subspecies.

*_Cyrtonyx montezumae mearnsi_ Nelson.--The Harlequin Quail is locally
common in Coahuila; _C. m. mearnsi_ is present in northwestern Coahuila
(Aldrich and Duvall, 1955:20). Miller (1955a:162) stated that an area
in the head of Corte Madera Canyon of the Sierra del Carmen at 7500
feet was the principal location for _C. m. mearnsi_. He further
suggested that the Harlequin Quail breeds in the Sierra del Carmen and
remarked that Marsh took a male on September 7 at Jardín del Sur. He
added that the occurrence of _C. m. montezumae_ in northern Coahuila as
reported by Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:79) is "possibly an
error or was based on individual dark variants...." Baker noted the
Harlequin Quail (unidentified to subspecies) 9 mi. W and 1 mi. S Villa
Acuña, 1120 feet, on April 4, 1950.

*_Cyrtonyx montezumae montezumae_ (Vigors).--This subspecies of the
Harlequin Quail has been recorded from southeastern Coahuila. Ridgway
and Friedmann (1946:396) listed _C. m. montezumae_ from Saltillo. Baker
saw a pair of Harlequin Quail (unidentified to subspecies) at San
Antonio de las Alazanas on March 25, 1950. More collecting is necessary
for an understanding of the distribution and intergradation of these
subspecies in Coahuila.

*_Meleagris gallopavo intermedia_ Sennett.--_Specimens examined:_ total
4: [Female] 31022 from Fortín (=33 mi. N, 8 mi. W San Gerónimo), 3300
ft., March 28, 1952, weight, 9 lbs.; [Female] 29420 from 3 mi. W, 1 mi.
S San Gerónimo, April 9, 1950, weight, 7 lbs.; and [Male] 29421 and
[Female] 29422 from 3 mi. W, 2 mi. S San Gerónimo, April 9, 1950,
weights, 11.5 and 8.5 lbs.

The Turkey in Coahuila is restricted to the northern section of the
State. Miller (1955a:162) remarked that the population of Turkeys in
the Sierra del Carmen was sparse and did not range above 7500 feet into
the highest pine-oak and Douglas fir areas. Baker saw Turkeys 4 mi. W
Hacienda La Mariposa, 2300 feet, on March 23, 1952. William Schaldach,
Jr., noted 30 Turkeys "just west of Rancho San Gerónimo" on April 9,
1950. Aldrich and Duvall (1955:22) indicated several localities in
northern Coahuila where the Turkey occurs or occurred.

_Grus canadensis_ (Linnaeus).--Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:28) remarked
that a flock of Sandhill Cranes was heard "near Mayran ... on January
30."

_Porzana carolina_ (Linnaeus).--The Sora is an uncommon spring and fall
migrant in Coahuila. Amadon and Phillips (1947:577) obtained an adult
male Sora at Las Delicias on August 15.

_Fulica americana_ Gmelin.--The American Coot probably occurs in the
State as a spring and fall migrant. Dickerman saw two coots 8 mi. E and
2 mi. S Americanos on May 18, 1954.

*_Charadrius vociferus vociferus_ Linnaeus.--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Male] 31023, from the Río Grande (=17 mi. S Dryden, Terrell Co.,
Texas, in Coahuila), 600 ft., March 19, 1952, weight, 82.7 gms.

In Coahuila the Killdeer seems to be uncommon. Van Tyne and Sutton
(1937:28) remarked that it nested in Brewster County, Texas. The
species probably nests in northern Coahuila as well; the lengths of the
testes (left, 9 mm.; right, 4 mm.) of No. 31023 support this view.

_Eupoda montana_ (Townsend).--Pitelka (1948:118) recorded one female
Mountain Plover from Hipólito on February 23. Van Tyne and Sutton
(1937:28) reported that the Mountain Plover nested in Brewster County,
Texas. Possibly _Eupoda montana_ nests in northern Coahuila as well.

_Numenius americanus parvus_ Bishop.--_Specimens examined:_ total 3:
[Male] 31434 and [Female] 35406 (skeleton only) from 8 mi. E, 2 mi. S
Americanos, May 19, 1954, measurements: wing, 250, 258 mm.; tail, 96,
100 mm.; tarsus, 74, 81.5 mm.; culmen, 11.2, 16.5 mm.; [Male] gonad,
6×2 mm.; and [Female] 35400 (skeleton only) from 7 mi. W San Antonio de
las Alazanas, January 11, 1954.

The Long-billed Curlew is not common in Coahuila. Dickerman obtained
both the specimens from 8 mi. E and 2 mi. S Americanos out of a flock
of 35. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:28) noted the Long-billed Curlew
"near San Pedro ... [on] January 29."

_Actitis macularia_ (Linnaeus).--The Spotted Sandpiper has been
obtained from two localities in Coahuila. Miller (1955a:162) stated
that an immature in fall migration was taken "at the tank in the
western hills" of the Sierra del Carmen on September 4. Burleigh and
Lowery (1942:189) found the Spotted Sandpiper "at the Chorro del Agua
near Arteaga" on April 17 and 19.

_Totanus melanoleucus_ (Gmelin).--_Specimen examined:_ one, [Female]
31024, from the Río Grande (=17 mi. S Dryden, Terrell Co., Texas, in
Coahuila), 600 ft., March 18, 1952, weight, 224 gms.

The Greater Yellowlegs is an uncommon spring and probably fall migrant
in Coahuila. No. 31024 is the first record of this species in Coahuila.

_Totanus flavipes_ (Gmelin).--Miller (1955a:162) reported that Marsh
took a Lesser Yellowlegs "at the tank in the western hills" of the
Sierra del Carmen on September 4.

_Erolia melanotos_ (Vieillot).--Miller (1955a:162) reported taking a
Pectoral Sandpiper on September 4 "at the tank in the western hills" of
the Sierra del Carmen.

[_Erolia minutilla_ (Vieillot).--Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore
(1950:99) listed the Least Sandpiper from Coahuila.]

*_Recurvirostra americana_ Gmelin.--_Specimens examined:_ total 2:
[Male] 31433 and [Female] 31432 from 8 mi. E, 2 mi. S Americanos, May
19, 1954.

Van Hoose (1955:302) reported a small breeding colony of American
Avocets 8 mi. E and 2 mi. S Americanos "on a large grassy playa
traversed by rows of creosote (_Larrea tridentata_)." No. 31432 was
taken from a nest containing four partly-incubated eggs. Van Hoose
(_loc. cit._) also reported that four eggs in a second nest contained
well-developed, downy young.

_Steganopus tricolor_ Vieillot.--Wilson's Phalarope occurs in Coahuila
as a spring and probably fall migrant. Van Tyne and Sutton (1937:31)
saw the species several times along the Río Grande. Friedmann, Griscom,
and Moore (1950:102) listed _Steganopus tricolor_ from the Río Grande
along the borders of Chihuahua and Coahuila on May 10-16.

[_Larus argentatus smithsonianus_ Coues.--Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore
(1950:104) listed this subspecies of the Herring Gull from the State.]

[_Larus delawarensis_ Ord.--Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:103)
stated that the Ring-billed Gull occurs in Coahuila.]

*_Columba fasciata fasciata_ Say.--_Specimens examined:_ total 3:
[Male] 35401 (skeleton only) from 22 mi. S and 5 mi. W Ocampo, 7000
ft., April 6, 1954; and [Male] 32035 and [Female] 32036 from 4 mi. N,
21 mi. W Cuatro Ciénegas, 6200 ft., July 2, 1952.

The Band-tailed Pigeon is locally common in Coahuila. Miller
(1955a:162) remarked that the Band-tailed Pigeon "was unaccountably
rare in 1953" in the Sierra del Carmen, and said that a specimen was
taken on August 7 in Vivoras Canyon. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:189)
wrote that "small flocks were seen each day ... on the summit of
Diamante Pass, but only on one occasion was a pair noted." Dickerman
saw 10 Band-tailed Pigeons 20 mi. S Ocampo, 6000 feet, on April 4,
1954. The enlarged testes (17 mm.) of No. 32035, and an egg (38 mm.
long) in No. 32036 show that the species breeds in central Coahuila.

*_Zenaida asiatica asiatica_ (Linnaeus).--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Female] 31025 (skeleton only), from 10 mi. S and 5 mi. E Boquillas,
1500 ft., March 4, 1952.

Miller (1955a:163) took a male White-winged Dove on April 23 "at the
mouth of Boquillas Canyon at about 4900 feet" and remarked that this
bird might either be a straggler or a representative of a normal
breeding population (_Z. a. asiatica_). On January 29 and 30, Sutton
and Burleigh (1939a:29) saw White-winged Doves several times in
southern Coahuila along the highway from Saltillo to San Pedro.

**_Zenaida asiatica mearnsi_ (Ridgway).--Amadon and Phillips (1947:577)
obtained an adult White-winged Dove of this subspecies at Delicias on
August 14.

_Zenaidura macroura carolinensis_ (Linnaeus).--Friedmann, Griscom, and
Moore (1950:117) listed this subspecies of the Mourning Dove as a
spring and fall migrant on the "Central Plateau" (Coahuila is part of
the "Central Plateau,"), "as proven by banding records not indicated in
literature."

*_Zenaidura macroura marginella_ (Woodhouse).--_Specimen examined:_
one, [Female] 34455, from 1 mi. W Jaco, June 27, 1953.

Miller (1955a:163) reported _Z. m. marginella_ as occurring commonly in
the desert border and lower canyons at the base of the mountains of the
Sierra del Carmen, "but it occasionally ranged up to 6000 feet in
openings in the pine-oak belt." Burleigh and Lowery (1942:189) remarked
that this dove was fairly plentiful in the open desert country "about
Saltillo, and was ... noted in small numbers in Diamante Valley on
April 17 and 19;" they also said that the Mourning Dove was not seen
above an elevation of about 7500 feet. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:29)
observed Mourning Doves along the highway across southern Coahuila.
Mourning Doves were seen by Findley 2 mi. W Jiménez, 850 feet, on June
19, 1952, and 2 mi. S and 11 mi. E Nava, 810 feet, on June 15, 1952.
Dickerman saw one in the Sierra del Pino on May 12, 1954. Findley saw
more than one 2 mi. S and 3 mi. E San Juan de Sabinas on June 22, 1952,
as did Dickerman at San Marcos (=20 mi. S Cuatro Ciénegas) on May 4,
1954.

**_Columbigallina passerina_ (Linnaeus).--The Ground Dove seems to be
uncommon in Coahuila. Van Tyne and Sutton (1937:34) saw a single Ground
Dove fly across the Río Grande into Coahuila at Lajitas, Texas, on May
10. Findley saw one 2 mi. S and 3 mi. E San Juan de Sabinas on June 22,
1952.

**_Scardafella inca_ (Lesson).--The Inca Dove has been recorded from
two localities in Coahuila. Hellmayr and Conover (1942:510) listed it
from Sabinas. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:189) collected a male and
female on April 16 and 19, respectively, "outside the city limits of
Saltillo."

_Leptotila verreauxi angelica_ Bangs and Penard.--_Specimens examined:_
total 2: [Male] [Male] 31026-31027 (skeletons only) from 4 mi. W
Hacienda La Mariposa, 2300 ft., March 25, 1952.

The White-fronted Dove seems to be uncommon in Coahuila. Hellmayr and
Conover (1942:570) listed _L. v. angelica_ from Sabinas.

**_Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha terrisi_ Moore.--_Specimens examined:_
total 4: [Male] [Male] 31531-31532 from 13 mi. E San Antonio de las
Alazanas, 9345 ft., April 10, 1954, weights, 391.5 and 467.5 gms.;
[Female] 31533 from 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas, 10,000 ft.,
April 10, 1954, weight, 466 gms.; and sex ? 31534 from Mesa de las
Tablas, June, 1951.

The Thick-billed Parrot occurs in the southeastern section of the
State, where it is fairly common. Moore (1947:27-28) described this
parrot as _Rhynchopsitta terrisi_: he thought it differed decidedly
from _Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha_. However, Hardy and Dickerman
(1955:305-306) decided that uniting the two forms as a single species
better expresses their relationship.

Burleigh and Lowery (1942:189) reported seeing a small flock of
Thick-billed Parrots on the summit of Diamante Pass. Dickerman, in his
field notes, wrote that at a place 13 mi. E San Antonio de las
Alazanas, 9345 feet, a large flock of about 300 birds was in a
spruce-fir-pine-aspen association.

*_Coccyzus americanus americanus_ (Linnaeus).--_Specimens examined:_
total 2: [Male] [Male] 32037-32038 from 12 mi. N, 12 mi. W Jiménez, 850
ft., June 19, 1952, measurements: wing, 141, 146 mm.; tail, 142, 149
mm.; tarsus, 27, 27 mm.; culmen, 25, 24 mm.

In Coahuila, the Yellow-billed Cuckoo seems to be uncommon. It occurs
in the northeastern section of the State, in the Gulf Coastal Plain
(Baker, 1956:128), and probably breeds there. One subspecies,
_americanus_, has been recorded from Coahuila.

According to Ridgway (1916:13-17) the difference between _C. a.
americanus_ and _C. a. occidentalis_ is size. His (_loc. cit._) average
measurements of males of _occidentalis_ are: wing, 149.6 mm.; tail,
147.1 mm.; tarsus, 26.7 mm.; and culmen, 27.7 mm. whereas average
measurements given by him of males of _americanus_ are: wing, 143.6
mm.; tail, 140.7 mm.; tarsus, 25.2 mm.; and culmen, 26.4 mm. Van Tyne
and Sutton (1937:35) question the value of maintaining the subspecies
_occidentalis_, because individuals of _americanus_ and _occidentalis_
are almost impossible to tell apart. Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore
(1950:132) stated that _americanus_ occurs in eastern North America
whereas _occidentalis_ occurs in western North America. If the
subspecies _occidentalis_ exists, then Nos. 32037 and 32038 are, by
size, _americanus_ and No. 32038 is an intergrade between the two
subspecies (or a large individual of _americanus_).

The Yellow-billed Cuckoo was seen also by Findley 2 mi. S and 3 mi. E
San Juan de Sabinas on June 22, 1952, and by Dickerson at Torreón on
July 2, 1955. The sizes of the testes of the birds from 12 mi. N and 12
mi. W Jiménez (9, 10 mm. long) and the date (June 19) on which they
occurred there indicate that the birds possibly were breeding.

_Coccyzus erythropthalmus_ (Wilson).--Miller (1955a:163) reported a
migrant Black-billed Cuckoo taken in the maples and basswood near a
water hole in the bottom of Boquillas Canyon in the Sierra del Carmen,
5200 feet, on April 22. Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:132)
reported that this cuckoo is presumably a regular transient in México,
but generally overlooked.

*_Geococcyx californianus_ (Lesson).--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Female] 32049, from 8 mi. N, 2 mi. W Piedras Negras, June 18, 1952.

Miller (1955a:163) heard several Roadrunners calling at Boquillas
Canyon in the Sierra del Carmen, where he obtained two females.
Burleigh and Lowery (1942:190) stated that the species proved to be
"unexpectedly scarce" and was noted but once by them on April 22 when a
single bird was observed in "the open desert west of Saltillo." Sutton
and Burleigh (1939a:30) noted that the Roadrunner was not common
anywhere in southern Coahuila; they obtained one female at San Pedro on
January 29. The size of the largest ovum (15 mm. in diameter) of No.
32040 indicates that this species breeds in Coahuila.

*_Crotophaga sulcirostris sulcirostris_ Swainson.--_Specimen examined:_
one, [Female] 32039, from 2 mi. S, 3 mi. E San Juan de Sabinas, June
22, 1952.

No. 32039, obtained by Harrison B. Tordoff in a cypress woods along the
shore of a lagoon, provides the first record of the Groove-billed Ani
in Coahuila. The size of its largest ovum (10 mm. in diameter) and the
date indicate breeding by this species in Coahuila.

**_Tyto alba pratincola_ (Bonaparte).--The Barn Owl seems to be
uncommon in Coahuila. To my knowledge, there are two records of the
Barn Owl in Coahuila. Ridgway (1914:607) recorded this owl at the "head
of Las Vacas Creek." Miller (1955a:163) heard the Barn Owl at 5000 feet
in the oak belt on April 25 in the Sierra del Carmen.

*_Otus asio suttoni_ Moore.--_O. a. suttoni_ is found in the higher
country of the Sierra del Carmen and western Coahuila. Miller
(1955a:163) stated that Screech Owls were common in groves of oaks both
at 7000 feet and 5000 feet in the Sierra del Carmen, and remarked that
his series from the Sierra del Carmen matched well a series of
_suttoni_ from Chihuahua and Durango. Miller (1955a:163-164) also
stated that Marsh took an adult at Jardín del Sur on August 28 and said
that the specimen from the Sierra del Carmen referred to as
_cineraceus_ by Marsh and Stevenson (1938:286) agreed well with his
series of _suttoni_. _O. a. suttoni_ probably occurs no farther east
than the Sierra del Carmen.

**_Otus asio mccallii_ (Cassin).--_Specimens examined:_ total 2: [Male]
32041 from 2 mi. W Jiménez, 850 ft., June 20, 1952; and sex ? 31645
from La Gacha, 1600 ft., December 9, 1953.

Three subspecies of the Screech Owl, _Otus asio_, occur in northeastern
México; two of these, _suttoni_ and _mccallii_, occur in Coahuila, the
latter in the eastern part. The third subspecies, _O. a. semplei_,
occurs still farther east, for example in the state of Nuevo León on
the Mesa del Chipinque 6 miles south of Monterrey (Sutton and Burleigh,
1939b:174).

Nos. 31645 and 32041 differ from _semplei_ in that the tops of their
heads do not appear to be solid blackish brown at a distance of four to
five feet and in that the dark streakings of their backs and scapulars
are not so heavy as in _semplei_. The mentioned specimens are brownish,
not more black and white throughout as in _suttoni_ nor are their toes
heavily feathered (see Moore, 1941:154).

Findley observed a Screech Owl 2 mi. S and 3 mi. E San Juan de Sabinas
on June 22, 1952. La Gacha would seem to represent the western extent
of _mccallii_ in Coahuila. _O. a. mccallii_ and _suttoni_ probably
intergrade along the eastern slope of the Sierra del Carmen. Tordoff
took No. 32041 near a tree that contained three young Screech Owls.

*_Otus flammeolus flammeolus_ (Kaup).--_Specimens examined:_ total 2:
[Male] 31600 from 20 mi. S Ocampo, 6000 ft., April 4, 1954; and [Male]
31581 from 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas, 9345 ft., April 9,
1954.

Miller (1955a:163) collected seven Flammulated Owls in the pines and
oaks at 7000 feet in Carboneras Canyon and said that these owls were
common there. Nos. 31600 and 31581 are suffused with cinnamoneous
pigmentation, but represent the grayish phase, as described by Ridgway
(1914:729). Van Hoose (1955:302) previously recorded Nos. 31600 and
31581 from Coahuila.

*_Bubo virginianus pallescens_ Stone.--_Specimens examined:_ total 2:
[Female] 32042 from 2 mi. S, 12 mi. E Nava, June 15, 1952;
measurements: wing, 367 mm.; tail, 233 mm.; culmen, 29 mm.; and [Male]
31677 from 1.5 mi. NE Las Margaritas, 3100 ft., May 31, 1954;
measurements: wing, 345 mm.; tail, 213 mm.; culmen, 26 mm.; testes, 8
mm. long.

Miller (1955a:164) took a male Great Horned Owl in the Sierra del
Carmen on April 22. Ridgway (1914:742) listed _B. v. pallescens_ from
Sabinas. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:30) obtained a female "near San
Pedro" on January 29. Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:143) recorded
_B. v. pallescens_ from Coahuila on February 24, May 26, and June 10.
The record of _B. v. mayensis_ from Las Delicias (Amadon and Phillips,
1947:578) has been reidentified by Webster and Orr (1958:141) as _B. v.
pallescens_. Dickerman saw a Great Horned Owl in the Sierra del Pino on
May 12,1954.

*_Glaucidium gnoma californicum_ Sclater.--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Male] 31582, from 20 mi. S Ocampo, 6500 ft., April 5, 1954, weight, 55
gms.

Concerning forms of Pygmy Owls, Miller (1955a:164) remarked that the
best distinguishing characters of _G. g. gnoma_ and _californicum_ are
tail length and wing length. The characters of No. 31582 (wing, 94 mm.;
tail, 69 mm.) are clearly those of _californicum_ and not those of
_gnoma_. Miller (_loc. cit._) remarked that he "encountered at least
five different individuals, chiefly in the pine-oak at 7000 feet" and
one in oaks and piñons at 5000 feet in Boquillas Canyon of the Sierra
del Carmen. The size of the testes (left, 9×5 mm.; right, 7×4 mm.) of
No. 31582 indicates good probability of breeding by the Pygmy Owl in
the State.

**_Micrathene whitneyi_ (Cooper).--Miller (1955a:164) heard the Elf Owl
at close range in oaks at 5000 feet in Boquillas Canyon of the Sierra
del Carmen on April 24.

**_Speotyto cunicularia hypugaea_ (Bonaparte).--_Specimens examined:_
total 3: [Female] 32043 from 3 mi. S, 9 mi. E Cuatro Ciénegas, 2250
ft., June 30, 1952; [Male] 32653 from 6 mi. W San Antonio de las
Alazanas, July 5, 1955; and [Male] 31602 from 14 mi. W San Antonio de
las Alazanas, 6500 ft., January 7, 1954.

Although there are no records in Coahuila of specimens of Burrowing
Owls north of 3 mi. S and 9 mi. E Cuatro Ciénegas, this owl probably
occurs in the northern section of the State. The records of Burrowing
Owls from the southern part of Brewster County, Texas (Van Tyne and
Sutton, 1937:38), suggest such occurrence. No. 31602 was shot in a
prairie dog colony; No. 32043 was captured in a steel trap. Baker saw
Burrowing Owls 7 mi. S and 4 mi. E Bella Unión, 7200 feet, on June 25,
1952.

*_Caprimulgus vociferus arizonae_ (Brewster).--_Specimens examined:_
total 4: [Male] 31449 and [Female] 31450 from Sierra del Pino (=5 mi.
S, 3 mi. W Acebuches), May 12 and 15, 1954, weights, 48 and 42 gms.;
and [Male] [Male] 31028-31029 from 2 mi. N, 18 mi. W Santa Teresa, 7250
ft., April 3, 1952.

The Whip-poor-will occurs between 5000 feet and 9000 feet in Coahuila.
Miller (1955a:164) reported _C. v. arizonae_ in the Sierra del Carmen.
Ridgway (1914:521) stated that _Antrostomus vociferus macromystax_
(=_C. v. arizonae_) occurs in the southeastern sector of Coahuila at
Sierra Guadalupe. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:190) reported the
Whip-poor-will "near the summit of Diamante Pass"; because of its size
(wing, 170 mm.; tail, 135 mm.) this Whip-poor-will from Diamante Pass
seems to represent the subspecies _arizonae_. Dickerman saw four
Whip-poor-wills 20 mi. S Ocampo, 6000 feet, on April 4, 1954. The sizes
of the testes of Nos. 31449, 31028, and 31029 (13, 12, and 13 mm. long)
and an egg taken from No. 31450 indicate breeding by this species in
the State.

*_Phalaenoptilus nuttallii nuttallii_ (Audubon).--_Specimens examined:_
total 6: [Male] 31032 from 37 mi. S, 21 mi. E Boquillas, 4100 ft.,
March 12, 1952; [Male] 31446 and [Female] 31447 from Sierra del Pino
(=5 mi. S, 3 mi. W Acebuches), 6200 ft., May 13, 1954; [Male] [Male]
32048-32049 from 2 mi. S, 11 mi. E Nava, June 16, 1952; and [Female]
31033 from 4 mi. W Hacienda La Mariposa, 2300 ft., March 26, 1952.

Miller (1955a:164) found the Poor-will common along the rocky canyon
walls up to 5000 feet in the Sierra del Carmen. Ridgway (1914:550)
recorded the Poor-will at Sabinas on May 21 and at Saltillo on May 6.
Van Tyne and Sutton (1937:39) stated that _P. n. nuttallii_ was not
common in the Big Bend Country of Texas; this probably is true for
northwestern Coahuila as well. The specimens from the Sierra del Pino,
collected by Dickerman in a pine-oak association at 6200 feet, were
taken near the upper limit of their range. Findley saw Poor-wills 2 mi.
W Jiménez, 850 feet, on June 19, 1952; 2 mi. S and 11 mi. E Nava, 810
feet, on June 15, 1952; and 2 mi. S and 3 mi. E San Juan de Sabinas on
June 22, 1952. Dickerman noted Poor-wills 16 mi. E and 18 mi. N Ocampo
on May 7, 1954, and 20 mi. S Ocampo, 6000 feet, on April 4, 1954.

The size of the testes (9×5 mm.) of No. 31446 and an enlarged oviduct
and an ovum (4 mm. in diameter) of No. 31447 indicate breeding by the
Poor-will in Coahuila.

**_Chordeiles minor howelli_ Oberholser.--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Male] 31443, from 3 mi. N, 4 mi. E San Francisco (=25 mi. N Ocampo),
4850 ft., May 16, 1954.

Van Hoose (1955:302) wrote that nighthawks were heard and seen
frequently 3 mi. N and 4 mi. E San Francisco. Blake (1953:227) said
that the Common Nighthawk breeds in Sonora, Chihuahua, Tamaulipas, and
Durango; the size of the testes (7×4.5 mm.) of No. 31443 indicates the
possibility of breeding by this species in the State.

*_Chordeiles acutipennis texensis_ Lawrence.--_Specimens examined:_
total 4: [Male] 32044 and [Female] 32045 from 2 mi. W Jiménez, 850 ft.,
June 20, 1952; [Female] 31442 from 5 mi. N, 13 mi. E Ocampo, May 6,
1954; and [Male] 32046 from 2 mi. N, 1 mi. W Ocampo, 4050 ft., July 6,
1952.

Specimens of the Lesser Nighthawk, subspecies _C. a. texensis_, have
been recorded in the literature from representative localities
throughout most of Coahuila. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:190-191)
obtained, on April 18, at "a small pond at the edge of Saltillo," one
male that was exceedingly fat; they (_loc. cit._) suggested that their
specimen was a migrant. Goldman (1951:377, 389) stated that _C. a.
texensis_ occupied the Lower and Upper Sonoran and Upper Austral
life-zones of Coahuila. Dickerman saw Lesser Nighthawks at San Marcos
(=20 mi. S Cuatro Ciénegas) on May 4, 1954. Van Tyne and Sutton
(1937:41) reported that the Lesser Nighthawk was common throughout the
lower parts of the Big Bend in Texas. This is probably true for
northwestern Coahuila as well.

The presence of an egg in the oviduct of No. 32045 and the dates (May
6, June 20, and July 6) on which Nos. 31442, and 32044-32046 were
obtained indicate breeding by this species in Coahuila.

**_Aëronautes saxatalis saxatalis_ (Woodhouse).--_Specimen examined:_
one, [Male] 31672, from Pico de Jimulco, 5600 ft., April 5, 1953,
weight, 35 gms.

Burleigh and Lowery (1942:191) found the White-throated Swift to be
common at "the summit of Diamante Pass and on the nearby ridges."
Miller (1955a:164) saw the species from 4800 feet up to the crest of
the Sierra del Carmen. Several White-throated Swifts were seen flying
overhead at Pico de Jimulco on April 5.

No specimens of _A. s. sclateri_ from México are known. Miller
(1955a:165) listed one specimen with dimensions (wing, 145 mm.) that
approaches _sclateri_. The measurements of No. 31672 (wing, 143 mm.;
tail, 58 mm.) also approach the dimensions of specimens of _sclateri_
but are best referred to _A. s. saxatalis_.

**_Calothorax lucifer_ (Swainson).--Burleigh and Lowery (1942:191)
obtained a male Lucifer Hummingbird at the Chorro del Agua on April 19.
Van Tyne and Sutton (1937:43) reported a male from the Río Grande (=3
mi. W Boquillas, Texas).

_Archilochus colubris_ (Linnaeus).--Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore
(1950:180) remarked that the Ruby-throated Hummingbird is a moderately
common migrant, wintering from sea level to 9350 feet throughout
México, except in a few states. The only published record of a specimen
of this hummer in the State is of a male taken on April 22 in a small
arroyo twenty miles west of Saltillo (Burleigh and Lowery, 1942:191).

*_Archilochus alexandri_ (Bourcier and Mulsant).--_Specimens examined:_
total 2: [Male] 31035 from the Río Grande (=17 mi. S Dryden, Terrell
County, Texas, in Coahuila), 600 ft., March 18, 1952; and [Male] 32052
from 2 mi. S, 11 mi. E Nava, 810 ft., June 16, 1952.

Miller (1955a:165) stated the Black-chinned Hummingbird was common in
the desert area at the base of the mountains of the Sierra del Carmen,
and that Marsh, on July 25, obtained this hummingbird "near Piedra
Blanca (Conejo)." Burleigh and Lowery (1942:191) obtained a female in
an arroyo about twenty miles west of Saltillo on April 22.

**_Selasphorus platycercus platycercus_ (Swainson).--_Specimens
examined:_ total 2: [Male] 31583 from 20 mi. S Ocampo, 6500 ft., April
4, 1954; and [Female] 32673 from 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas,
9950 ft., July 6, 1955.

Miller (1955a:165) indicated that the Broad-tailed Hummingbird was
fairly common in the Sierra del Carmen. According to Burleigh and
Lowery (1942:191) this species is not uncommon in the pine woods
bordering the summit of Diamante Pass; they saw the bird between 4900
and 10,000 feet.

*_Eugenes fulgens fulgens_ Boucard.--Miller (1955a:165) obtained a male
Rivoli's Hummingbird on Loomis Peak, 8800 feet, on April 11 in the
Sierra del Carmen.

**_Lampornis clemenciae clemenciae_ (Lesson).--_Specimens examined:_
total 2: [Male] 31036 from 26 mi. W Santa Teresa, 7050 ft., April 5,
1952; and [Female] 32668 from 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas,
9950 ft., July 6, 1955.

The Blue-throated Hummingbird occurs between 5000 and 9950 feet in
Coahuila. Miller (1955a:165) remarked that it was found in canyon
bottoms, "whether at 7500 feet among the rocky slopes, oaks, and white
pines ... or at 5000 feet in the madrone, maples, elms, and
basswoods...." No. 32668, was obtained in a Douglas fir-pine-aspen
association at 9950 feet.

[_Amazilia yucatanensis chalconota_ Oberholser.--The Buff-bellied
Hummingbird seems to be uncommon in Coahuila. Friedmann, Griscom, and
Moore (1950:172) and the AOU Check-list Committee (1957:306) stated
that this hummingbird occurs in Coahuila.]

_Megaceryle alcyon alcyon_ (Linnaeus).--Miller (1955a:165) saw a Belted
Kingfisher at Carboneras Canyon in the Sierra del Carmen. Miller,
Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:15) stated that one specimen of _M.
a. alcyon_ was obtained in Coahuila on November 14.

**_Chloroceryle americana hachisukai_ (Laubmann).--_Specimens
examined:_ total 2: [Female] 32053 from 12 mi. N, 12 mi. W Jiménez,
June 19, 1952; and [Female] 31038 from 8 mi. N, 4 mi. W Múzquiz, 1800
ft., March 31, 1952.

The Green Kingfisher has been recorded in Coahuila as far south as 8
mi. N and 4 mi. W Múzquiz. The forehead of No. 31038, when compared
with typical representatives of _C. a. hachisukai_, is not extensively
streaked with white, nor are all the coverts conspicuously spotted with
white, yet it clearly has more extensive white markings than typical
representatives of _C. a. septentrionalis_. This specimen from 8 mi. N
and 4 mi. W Múzquiz probably is intermediate between _hachisukai_ and
_septentrionalis_. Miller (1955a:165) stated that Marsh took a specimen
at Tanque de los Melones on La Bavia Ranch east of Fresno Mesa in the
Sierra del Carmen that is a typical _C. a. hachisukai_.

_Colaptes cafer collaris_ Vigors.--Ridgway (1914:34) listed this
subspecies of the Red-shafted Flicker from Saltillo and Agua Nueva.

*_Colaptes cafer nanus_ Griscom.--_Specimens examined:_ total 3:
[Female] 31463 from Sierra del Pino (=5 mi. W, 3 mi. S Acebuches), May
13, 1954, weight, 108 gms.; and [Male] 31651 and [Female] 31652 from
the north foot of Sierra Guadalupe (=10 mi. S, 5 mi. W General Cepeda),
6500 ft., April 21, 1953.

In suitable habitats in Coahuila the Red-shafted Flicker is common.
Miller (1955a:165-166) stated that _C. c. nanus_ was common at Corte
Madera Canyon, Boquillas Canyon, and Carboneras Canyon in the Sierra
del Carmen and recorded a specimen also from Sierra de Jardín on August
7. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:192) recorded _C. c. nanus_ from Diamante
Pass and Saltillo. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:31) stated that the
Red-shafted Flickers, obtained 5 mi. E La Rosa and at Diamante Pass,
may be intermediate between _C. c. collaris_ (then called _C. c.
chihuahuae_) and _C. c. nanus_. Nesting of the Red-shafted Flicker in
Coahuila was reported by Miller (1955a:165) and Burleigh and Lowery
(1942:192). Hardy saw Red-shafted Flickers 13 mi. E San Antonio de las
Alazanas on July 6, 1955.

*_Centurus aurifrons aurifrons_ (Wagler).--_Specimens examined:_ total
6: [Male] 32054 from 12 mi. N, 12 mi. W Jiménez, 850 ft., June 19,
1952; [Female] [Female] 32055-32057 from 2 mi. W Jiménez, 850 ft., June
20, 1952; [Female] 31039 from 8 mi. N, 4 mi. W Múzquiz, 1800 ft., April
1, 1952; and [Male] 33150 (skeleton only) from Parras, July 4, 1955.

The Golden-fronted Woodpecker occurs throughout Coahuila, but
uncommonly in the western part. Wetmore (1948:185-186) examined a
series of Golden-fronted Woodpeckers that showed a definite cline in
dorsal coloration from north-central Texas to Jalisco, Michoacán, and
Hidalgo in south-central México. He (_loc. cit._) stated that "the
extremes are easily separable, but in southern and southwestern Texas
and in northeastern Mexico the two kinds [_C. a. aurifrons_ and _C. a.
incanescens_] ... merge so gradually that over a broad area the whole
population is intermediate, making decisions as to any sharply drawn
dividing line difficult and in part arbitrary." _C. a. incanescens_,
according to Wetmore, occurs in western and central Texas south to
northeastern Chihuahua and northern Coahuila whereas _C. a. aurifrons_
occurs in north-central Coahuila (Monclova) and southern Texas south to
Jalisco, Michoacán, Hidalgo, and central Tamaulipas.

The specimens that I have examined from Coahuila are variably
intermediate between the subspecies _aurifrons_ and _incanescens_. The
dark and white cross-bars on the back of No. 31039 are nearly equal
(dark bands wider in _aurifrons_; white bands wider in _incanescens_);
the rump and upper tail coverts are more or less mixed with black as in
_aurifrons_. The dark cross-bars on the backs of Nos. 32054-32057 are
slightly larger than the white cross-bars; the rump and upper tail
coverts of these specimens are somewhat mixed with black.

*_Centurus aurifrons incanescens_ Todd.--This subspecies of the
Golden-fronted Woodpecker is listed by Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and
Moore (1957:34) from "... northern Coahuila (upper Río Grande valley)."
Burleigh and Lowery (1942:192) stated that the Golden-fronted
Woodpecker "apparently avoids the mountain slopes, but was found to be
not uncommon on the arid plateau about Saltillo." Findley saw
Golden-fronted Woodpeckers 2 mi. W Jiménez, 850 feet, on June 19, 1952;
and 2 mi. S and 3 mi. E San Juan de Sabinas on June 22, 1952. Cory
(1919:424) listed the Golden-fronted Woodpecker from Sabinas. Nos.
32055-32057 are juveniles, and thus document breeding by this
woodpecker in Coahuila.

*_Melanerpes formicivorus formicivorus_ (Swainson).--_Specimens
examined:_ total 5: [Male] 31040 (skeleton only) from Fortín (=33 mi.
N, 8 mi. W San Gerónimo), 3300 ft., March 28, 1952; [Male] 29423 and
[Female] 29424 from Club Sierra del Carmen (=2 mi. N, 6 mi. W Piedra
Blanca), 4950 ft., April 8, 1950; [Female] 31041 (skeleton only) from
26 mi. W Santa Teresa, 7050 ft., April 5, 1952; and [Female] 31668 from
Sierra Guadalupe, Cañon d. Meco (=10 mi. S General Cepeda), 6500 ft.,
April 23, 1953.

The Acorn Woodpecker in Coahuila is common in the oak and pine-oak
belts, from 4950 to 8000 feet. Miller (1955a:166) stated that the Acorn
Woodpecker in the Sierra del Carmen was an abundant and conspicuous
bird throughout the oak and pine-oak belts, from 5000 to 8000 feet.
Dickerman saw two Acorn Woodpeckers in the Sierra de la Madera on
December 13, 1953, and four 20 mi. S Ocampo, 6000 feet, on April 4,
1954. Breeding of _M. f. formicivorus_ was reported by Miller (_loc.
cit._) who took females nearly ready to begin laying; one of our
specimens (No. 29423) had enlarged testes (11 mm.).

_Sphyrapicus varius varius_ (Linnaeus).--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Female] 31649, from the north foot of Sierra Guadalupe (=10 mi. S, 5
mi. W General Cepeda), 6400 ft., April 19, 1953.

Miller (1955a:166) reported this Yellow-bellied Sapsucker as a winter
visitant or migrant in the Sierra del Carmen. Burleigh and Lowery
(1942:192) took a female _S. v. varius_ at the summit of Diamante Pass
on April 14. Ridgway (1914:275) listed _S. v. varius_ from Sierra de
Guadalupe.

_Sphyrapicus varius nuchalis_ Baird.--Miller (1955a:166) reported this
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker as "indeed common" in the Sierra del Carmen,
and indicated that both _S. v. nuchalis_ and _S. v. varius_ were "found
only at the upper levels in the pine-oak formation and usually in
relatively dense clumps of trees in the canyon bottoms." Ridgway
(1914:280) listed _C. v. nuchalis_ from Río Sabinas.

**_Dendrocopos villosus icastus_ (Oberholser).--Miller, Friedmann,
Griscom, and Moore (1957:39) remarked that this subspecies of the Hairy
Woodpecker occurs, in northwestern México, from eastern Sonora,
Jalisco, Chihuahua, Durango, Zacatecas to southern Coahuila. Ridgway
(1914:222) stated that _D. v. icastus_ occurs in Coahuila at Carneros
and Sierra de Guadalupe, the former being the easternmost known
locality for the subspecies.

**_Dendrocopos villosus intermedius_ (Nelson).--_Specimens examined:_
total 2: [Male] 32701 from 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas, 9950
ft., July 6, 1955; and [Female] 31604 from 2 mi. E Mesa de Tablas, 8500
ft., January 15, 1954.

In northeastern México this subspecies, according to Miller, Friedmann,
Griscom, and Moore (1957:39), occurs in Guanajuato, San Luis Potosí,
Hidalgo, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Nos. 31604 and 32701 represent the
first records of _D. v. intermedius_ from Coahuila.

*_Dendrocopos scalaris cactophilus_ (Oberholser).--_Specimens
examined:_ total 2: [Female] 31042 from 7 mi. S, 2 mi. E Boquillas, 800
ft., March 1, 1952; and [Female] 31043 from 10 mi. S, 5 mi. E
Boquillas, 1500 ft., March 3, 1952.

These specimens of the Ladder-backed Woodpecker show signs of
intergradation with _D. s. symplectus_. Both specimens are pale enough
above for _D. s. symplectus_, but the wing and the tail of each (wing,
102, 103 mm.; tail, 60, 65 mm.) are too long for _symplectus_. This
suggestion of intergradation is not unexpected because _symplectus_
occurs in northeastern Coahuila and _cactophilus_ in the Chisos
Mountains of Texas. Miller (1955a:166) also obtained one female _D. s.
cactophilus_ from the Sierra del Carmen that suggested intergradation
with _symplectus_.

Miller (_loc. cit._) wrote that _D. c. cactophilus_ was found chiefly
in the oaks and was common in the lower oak belt at 5000 feet. The
upper limit of the range of the Ladder-backed Woodpecker, according to
Miller, is 6800 feet. He reported the species as breeding in the Sierra
del Carmen.

Miller (1955b:317) took a hybrid woodpecker representing a cross
between _Dendrocopos villosus_ and _Dendrocopos scalaris_ in the Sierra
del Carmen, where, although Ladder-backed Woodpeckers were common, he
found no Hairy Woodpeckers.

**_Dendrocopos scalaris symplectus_ (Oberholser).--_Specimens
examined:_ total 2: [Male] 32058 from 2 mi. W Jiménez, June 20, 1952;
and [Male] 31667 from Sierra Guadalupe, Domingo Canyon (=10 mi. S, 14
mi. W General Cepeda), 6700 ft., April 18, 1953.

This Ladder-backed Woodpecker, according to the AOU Check-list
Committee (1957:327) and Oberholser (1912:156), occurs in Texas (east
of Pecos), northeastern Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. The area
of intergradation of _D. s. symplectus_ and _giraudi_ is in
southeastern Coahuila. The dark smoky underparts and the equal size of
the white and black bars of the upper parts of No. 31667 suggest
intergradation with _D. s. giraudi_. Yet, the size of the wing
indicates that this specimen is closer to _D. s. symplectus_. No. 32058
has characters of typical representatives of _D. s. symplectus_.
Burleigh and Lowery (1942:193) reported _D. s. symplectus_ "in the
desert country west of Saltillo." Ridgway (1914:257) listed the
Ladder-backed Woodpecker from Sabinas. Cory (1919:494) listed _D. s.
symplectus_ from Pabinas (=Sabinas?).

**_Dendrocopos scalaris giraudi_ (Stone).--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Male] 34623, from 12 mi. N, 10 mi. E Parras, 3850 ft., July 12, 1953,
weight, 35 gms.

Ridgway (1914:259) reported that _D. s. giraudi_ (then called
_Dryobates scalaris bairdi_) has been recorded from La Ventura,
Carneros, and Jaral. Oberholser (1912:159) indicated that the
subspecies _giraudi_ occurs north to Jaral in southern Coahuila, east
to La Ventura in southeastern Coahuila, and south through central
México. The present specimen is darker ventrally than specimens of
either _D. s. cactophilus_ or _D. s. symplectus_, and on its upper
surface the black bars are wider than the white. The specimen is in
worn plumage, but nevertheless suggests intergradation with _D. s.
symplectus_.

_Platypsaris aglaiae albiventris_ (Lawrence).--The Rose-throated
Becard, if it occurs in Coahuila at all, is rare in the State. Without
giving any specific locality, Sclater (1857:74) described
_Pachyrhamphus aglaiae_ from Coahuila. Hellmayr (1929:202) considered
Sclater's record as representing _Platypsaris aglaiae albiventris_
(Lawrence).

*_Tyrannus vociferans vociferans_ (Swainson).--_Specimens examined:_
total 2: [Male] 32064 from 7 mi. S, 4 mi. E Bella Unión, 7200 ft., June
24, 1952; and [Female] 31650 from the north foot of Sierra Guadalupe
(=10 mi. S, 5 mi. W General Cepeda), 6400 ft., April 15, 1953.

The small number of records of Cassin's Kingbird in Coahuila is
surprising, for I would expect the species in most areas of the State
between 6000 and 7000 feet. All Coahuilan records are from the
southeastern part of the State. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:193) found it
"on infrequent occasions in the arid country near Saltillo." Miller,
Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:71) reported that _T. v.
vociferans_ nested in Coahuila on July 7. The size of the testes (15×7
mm.) of our specimen from near Bella Unión also indicates breeding.

**_Muscivora forficata_ (Gmelin).--_Specimen examined:_ one, [Female]
32063, from 12 mi. N, 12 mi. W Jiménez, 850 ft., June 19, 1952.

The status of the Scissor-tailed Flycatcher in Coahuila is uncertain.
Although the condition of the gonads of No. 32063 was not recorded by
the collector, the late date (June 19) on which is was obtained
suggests that this female was a resident in northeastern Coahuila.
Findley saw a Scissor-tailed Flycatcher 2 mi. S and 11 mi. E Nava, 810
feet, on June 15, 1952. Dickerman saw one 4 mi. N San Isidro on May 10,
1954. Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:69) recorded this
flycatcher from Sabinas on April 12. No other records of _Muscivora
forficata_ in Coahuila have come to my attention, but the species
probably occurs in the State in migration.

*_Myiarchus crinitus crinitus_ (Linnaeus).--_Specimens examined:_ total
3: [Female] 32065 from 12 mi. N, 12 mi. W Jiménez, 850 ft., June 19,
1952; and [Male] 32066 and [Female] 32067 from 2 mi. W Jiménez, 850
ft., June 20, 1952.

The Great Crested Flycatcher seems to be rare in Coahuila. Nos.
32065-32067 are the first specimens that I know of from Coahuila. Bangs
(1898:179-180) said that the subspecies _crinitus_ has an "enormous
swollen bill" (exposed culmen of male, 20 mm.; breadth of bill at
middle of nostril, 10.3 mm.) whereas _M. c. boreus_ has a "small
slender bill" (exposed culmen of male, 18.6 mm.; breadth of bill at
middle of nostril, 8.6 mm.). No. 32066 has a large bill (exposed
culmen, 21 mm.; breadth of bill at middle of nostril, 10 mm.). Bangs
(_loc. cit._) did not give any measurements for females of _M. c.
crinitus_ or _boreus_. Nevertheless, I suspect that Nos. 32065 and
32067 represent _crinitus_ (No. 32065: exposed culmen, 19 mm.; breadth
of bill at middle of nostril, 9 mm.; No. 32067: exposed culmen, 20 mm.;
breadth of bill at middle of nostril, 9.5 mm.). The size of the testes
(9 mm. long) of No. 32066 and the dates (June 19 and 20) on which the
specimens were collected indicate breeding by this species in the
State.

*_Myiarchus tyrannulus cooperi_ Baird.--_Specimens examined:_ total 2:
[Male] 32068 and [Female] 32069 from 2 mi. S, 3 mi. E San Juan de
Sabinas, 1160 ft., June 22, 1952, measurements: wing, 102, 97 mm.;
tail, 93, 90 mm.

Wied's Crested Flycatcher is not common in Coahuila. Eastern Coahuila
represents the eastern limit of the range of _M. t. cooperi_.
Measurements of our specimens agree well with the average measurements
of typical _M. t. cooperi_. According to Ridgway (1907:621), _M. t.
cooperi_ (then called _Myiarchus mexicanus mexicanus_) has been
recorded from Sabinas. The size of the testes (14×7 mm.) of No. 32068
and the date (June 22) on which the specimens were collected indicate
breeding by this species in the State.

*_Myiarchus cinerascens cinerascens_ (Lawrence).--_Specimens examined:_
total 7: [Female] 31045 from 15 mi. SE Boquillas, 1500 ft., March 16,
1952; [Male] 32070 from 12 mi. N, 12 mi. W Jiménez, 850 ft., June 19,
1952; [Female] 32071 from 2 mi. W Jiménez, 850 ft., June 20, 1952;
[Male] 35413 from 6 mi. N, 2 mi. W Castillón, 3750 ft., June 30, 1953;
[Male] 32072 from 9 mi. S, 11 mi. E Sabinas, June 14, 1952; [Female]
31584 from 17 mi. S Ocampo, 5300 ft., April 7, 1954; and [Male] 31673
from the west foot of Pico de Jimulco, 5000 ft., April 4, 1953.

The Ash-throated Flycatcher is common in Coahuila. All specimens
examined by me from there are typical of _M. c. cinerascens_. Ridgway
(1907:626) listed _M. c. cinerascens_ from Monclovia (=Monclova?) and
Sabinas. Miller (1955a:166) found the species "only in the oak belt at
5000 feet, where it was common." Burleigh and Lowery (1942:193)
recorded _M. c. cinerascens_ from "near Saltillo." Dickerman obtained
No. 31584 in a mesquite-grassland-shrubby area. Miller, Friedmann,
Griscom, and Moore (1957:78) stated that _M. c. cinerascens_ breeds in
Coahuila.

_Sayornis phoebe_ (Latham).--Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore
(1957:66) recorded the Eastern Phoebe from Coahuila on November 4-14.

*_Sayornis nigricans semiatra_ (Vigors).--_Specimens examined:_ total
2: [Female] 31046 from 1 mi. N Boquillas, 700 ft., March 7, 1952; and
[Female] 31047 from Fortín (=33 mi. N, 8 mi. W San Gerónimo), 3300 ft.,
March 27, 1952.

Of the Black Phoebe, the two subspecies _semiatra_ and _nigricans_
intergrade in Coahuila. Typical representatives of _S. n. semiatra_ are
present in northern Coahuila. The under tail coverts of Nos.
31046-31047 are immaculate and white. Miller (1955:167) noted the two
specimens collected from the Sierra del Carmen to have narrow dark
shaft streaks on the under tail coverts. He (_loc. cit._) remarked also
that "the marking of the under tail coverts may indicate a beginning of
a gradient in increased darkening of these feathers toward _S. n.
nigricans_ in southern Coahuila."

*_Sayornis nigricans nigricans_ (Swainson).--Burleigh and Lowery
(1942:193) collected several specimens of _S. n. nigricans_ "on the
outskirts of Saltillo" and saw a pair at the Chorro del Agua on April
19.

*_Sayornis saya saya_ (Bonaparte).--_Specimens examined:_ total 4:
[Female] 31049 from the Río Grande (=17 mi. S Dryden, Terrell Co.,
Texas, in Coahuila), 600 ft., March 18, 1952; sex ? 31048 from 10 mi. S,
5 mi. E Boquillas, 1500 ft., March 4, 1952; [Male] 31050 from Fortín
(=33 mi. N, 8 mi. W San Gerónimo), 3300 ft., March 29, 1952; and
[Female] 32059 from 7 mi. S, 4 mi. E Bella Unión, 7200 ft., June 25,
1952.

Say's Phoebe occurs commonly in Coahuila. Miller (1955a:167) obtained a
female with an active brood patch in Boquillas Canyon of the Sierra del
Carmen, and remarked that Marsh took a juvenile on September 2 at El
Rincón. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:33) saw this phoebe several times in
southern Coahuila and obtained a male "near San Pedro" on January 29.
Burleigh and Lowery (1942:193) recorded this species as "a common
breeding bird both on Diamante Pass and on the arid plateau around
Saltillo." No. 32059 was a juvenile.

_Empidonax traillii brewsteri_ Oberholser.--Amadon and Phillips
(1947:578) look a Traill Flycatcher of the subspecies _brewsteri_ at
Las Delicias on August 11.

_Empidonax minimus_ (Baird and Baird).--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Male] 31470, from Sierra del Pino (=5 mi. S, 3 mi. W Acebuches), 6200
ft., May 13, 1954.

Amadon and Phillips (1947:578) obtained two Least Flycatchers at Las
Delicias on August 12. Dickerman took No. 31470 in pine-oak vegetation.

_Empidonax hammondii_ (Xantus).--_Specimen examined:_ one, sex ? 31657,
from the north slope of Sierra Guadalupe (=11 mi. S, 7 mi. W General
Cepeda), 7800 ft., April 20, 1953.

No. 31657 is similar to _E. wrightii_ (Wright's Flycatcher); however,
the outmost (tenth) primary is equal to or slightly larger than the
fifth primary. Yet, the underparts of No. 31657 are darker and more
uniform in coloration than those of typical representatives of _E.
wrightii_. Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:88) stated that
Hammond's Flycatcher is "transient" in Coahuila. Burleigh and Lowery
(1942:193-194) reported that _E. hammondii_ was the most prevalent of
the small flycatchers in southeastern Coahuila. They (_loc. cit._)
obtained specimens of this flycatcher from the Chorro del Agua and
Diamante Pass. Miller (1955a:167) characterized _E. hammondii_ as a
common migrant, "chiefly in stands of low oaks in the pine-oak belt but
also occasionally in the desert scrub" of the Sierra del Carmen.

_Empidonax wrightii_ Baird.--Amadon and Phillips (1947:578) reported
one Wright's Flycatcher from Las Delicias. Miller (1955a:167) stated
that this species was a common migrant and occurred chiefly in the
lower oak belt and in the desert scrub. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:34)
obtained specimens of _E. wrightii_ from San Pedro on January 29.

_Empidonax griseus_ Brewster.--Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:34) noted
that the Gray Flycatcher was common "in the San Pedro region" and
collected two at San Pedro on January 29. Burleigh and Lowery
(1942:194) collected specimens "near the Chorro del Agua, at Saltillo,
and ... in the open desert some twenty miles west of Saltillo."

**_Empidonax affinis trepidus_ Nelson.--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Male] 32750, from 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas, 9950 ft., July
6, 1955.

Ridgway (1907:576) previously reported the little known and poorly
defined Pine Flycatcher from Sierra Guadalupe. Because of its small
size (wing, 75 mm.; tail, 65 mm.), No. 32750 is referable to _E. a.
trepidus_. No indication of breeding of the subspecies _trepidus_
exists for Coahuila. Nevertheless, the date (July 6) on which No. 32750
was obtained suggests that this flycatcher may breed in southeastern
Coahuila.

*_Empidonax difficilis hellmayri_ Brodkorb.--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Male] 31469, from Sierra del Pino (=5 mi. S, 3 mi. W Acebuches), May
13, 1954, measurements: wing, 71 mm.; tail, 65 mm.; culmen, 11.5 mm.;
tarsus, 17.0 mm.

Miller (1955a:167) reported that the Western Flycatcher breeds in the
Sierra del Carmen, from 6800 to 7500 feet. According to Miller,
Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:91), this subspecies has been
recorded from Sierra Guadalupe. No. 31469 closely resembles, especially
in measurements, the specimens of the Western Flycatcher from the
Chisos Mountains of Texas as reported by Brodkorb (1935:2).

_Empidonax difficilis_ subsp.--Burleigh and Lowery (1942:194) obtained
a specimen of _E. difficilis_ "near the summit of Diamante Pass" that
they tentatively identified as _E. d. salvini_. However, they
considered the specimen as possibly _E. d. immemoratus_ or _E. d.
occidentalis_.

Localities listed by Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:92) of
_E. d. salvini_ and _E. d. immemoratus_ are south of twenty-three
degrees north latitude whereas the range of _E. d. occidentalis_
includes parts of Nuevo León north of twenty-three degrees north
latitude (_occidentalis_ intergrades with _hellmayri_ at Cerro Potosí,
Nuevo León, [Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore, _loc. cit._]).
Thus, the specimen from Diamante Pass probably is either _E. d.
hellmayri_ or _E. d. occidentalis_.

**_Empidonax fulvifrons pygmaeus_ Coues.--Miller, Friedmann, Griscom,
and Moore (1957:95) listed this subspecies of the Buff-breasted
Flycatcher from the Sierra Guadalupe on April 21. This record
represents the eastern limit of the range of _E. f. pygmaeus_ in
northeastern México.

**_Contopus pertinax pertinax_ Cabanis and Heine.--Burleigh and Lowery
(1942:194) obtained one female Coues' Flycatcher "in a small gully just
below the summit of Diamante Pass."

_Contopus virens_ (Linnaeus).--I judge from the paucity of records in
the literature that the Eastern Wood Pewee is uncommon in Coahuila.
Burleigh and Lowery (1942:194) obtained two males at the Chorro del
Agua, and remarked also that "it is possible that as far west as
Saltillo, this species is a rather uncommon transient." Ridgway
(1907:519) listed _Contopus virens_ from Sabinas.

*_Contopus sordidulus veliei_ Coues.--_Specimens examined:_ total 2:
[Male] 31467 from Sierra del Pino (=5 mi. S, 3 mi. W Acebuches), May
14, 1954; and [Male] 31653 from the north foot of Sierra Guadalupe (=10
mi. S, 5 mi. W General Cepeda), 6400 ft., April 19, 1953.

Specimen No. 31467 of the Western Wood Pewee was obtained in pine and
oak vegetation by Dickerman. Ridgway (1907:523) reported _Contopus
sordidulus veliei_, under the name _Myiochanes richardsonii
richardsonii_, from Sierra Encarnación. Amadon and Phillips (1947:578)
obtained a specimen of _C. sordidulus_ from Las Delicias. Miller,
Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:83) remarked that the Western Wood
Pewee breeds in the State.

_Nuttallornis borealis_ (Swainson).--Several records of the Olive-sided
Flycatcher from Coahuila are present in the literature. Miller
(1955a:167) reported it as a migrant in the desert at the base of the
Sierra del Carmen on April 24. Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore
(1957:82) reported this species from Ocampo on June 16. Amadon and
Phillips (1947:578) obtained one at Las Delicias on August 16. Burleigh
and Lowery (1942:194) collected two males "near the summit of Diamante
Pass" on April 14.

*_Pyrocephalus rubinus mexicanus_ Sclater.--_Specimens examined:_ total
3: [Male] 32060 and [Female] 32061 from 12 mi. N, 12 mi. W Jiménez, 850
ft., June 19, 1952; and sex ? 32062 from 2 mi. W Jiménez, 850 ft., June
20, 1952.

The Vermilion Flycatcher is common in Coahuila. Except in the
northwestern part of the State, the subspecies _mexicanus_ is present
throughout Coahuila. The size of No. 32060 (wing, 80 mm.; tail, 62 mm.)
suggests that the specimen is an intergrade between _P. r. flammeus_
and _mexicanus_. _P. r. flammeus_ and _mexicanus_ seem to intergrade in
northern Coahuila.

Burleigh and Lowery (1942:195) found _mexicanus_ to be "quite plentiful
on the plains surrounding Saltillo." Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:33)
noted the Vermilion Flycatcher "near San Pedro." Cory and Hellmayr
(1927:92) listed _P. r. mexicanus_ from Sabinas. The size of the testes
(6×4 mm. long) of No. 32060 and the dates (June 19 and 20) on which our
specimens were collected indicate breeding.

_Pyrocephalus rubinus flammeus_ van Rossem.--This subspecies of
Vermilion Flycatcher occupies the northwestern section of Coahuila.
Marsh and Stevenson (1938:287) took a specimen of _P. r. flammeus_
"near Santo Domingo, east of the Del Carmens...." Miller (1955a:167)
re-examined this specimen and stated that "its affinity with the
northwest race of the species seems correct in terms of the characters
outlined by van Rossem (1934:353)."

_Eremophila alpestris enthymia_ (Oberholser).--Miller, Friedmann,
Griscom, and Moore (1957:105) recorded this subspecies of Horned Lark
wintering 4 mi. S Hipólito (November 2 to February 24). They reported
also that _E. a. enthymia_ breeds in Coahuila (4 mi. S Hipólito ?).

*_Eremophila alpestris diaphora_ (Oberholser).--_Specimens examined:_
total 9: [Male] [Male] 32073-32078 and [Female] 32079 from 7 mi. S, 4
mi. E Bella Unión, 7200 ft., June 25, 1952; and [Male] [Male]
31605-31606 from 14 mi. W San Antonio de las Alazanas, 6500 ft.,
January 9, 1954.

Burleigh and Lowery (1942:195) wrote that this subspecies of Horned
Lark was uncommon "about Saltillo," but "fairly common" in Diamante
Valley, at about 7000 feet. Oberholser (1902:863) recorded the
subspecies _aphrasta_ from La Ventura. Ridgway (1907:326) listed
_Otocoris alpestris aphrasta_ Oberholser from Saltillo and La Ventura.
However, Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:105) indicated
that _E. a. diaphora_ rather than _aphrasta_ was recorded from Saltillo
and La Ventura. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:35) remarked that "specimens
collected near Ramos Arizpe [in southeastern Coahuila]" proved to be
_E. a. aphrasta_. However, this record might be questioned, as Miller,
Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (_op. cit._) indicated, because
_diaphora_, rather than _aphrasta_, seems to occupy the southeastern
sector of Coahuila. Possibly typical representatives of _aphrasta_
and/or intergrades between _aphrasta_ and _diaphora_ are present in
western Coahuila; however, no records of _E. a. aphrasta_ exist from
western Coahuila.

The sizes of Nos. 32073-32077 and 31605-31606 (wing, 98.0-101.5 mm.,
averaging 99.7 mm.), the bright yellow throat, and the vinaceous color
of the hindneck characterize clearly the subspecies _diaphora_. The
sizes of the testes (9×6 mm.; 8×5 mm.; 10×6 mm.; 8×4 mm.; 11×6 mm.) of
Nos. 32073-32077, the size of the largest ovum (6.5 mm.) of No. 32079,
and the juvenile (32078) are evidence of breeding of _E. a. diaphora_
in Coahuila.

*_Tachycineta thalassina thalassina_ (Swainson).--_Specimens examined:_
total 3: [Male] 31471, [Male] 31473, and [Female] 31472 from Sierra del
Pino (=5 mi. S, 3 mi. W Acebuches), May 15, 1954, measurements: wings,
125, 118, 108 mm.; tails, 56, 54, 46 mm.

The two subspecies of the Violet-green Swallow, _thalassina_ and
_lepida_, intergrade in Coahuila. Specimens from different localities
in the State represent various stages of intergradation between the two
subspecies; generally those from northern Coahuila seem to be closer to
_T. t. lepida_, and those from southern Coahuila are closer to _T. t.
thalassina_. Nos. 31471-31473 are intergrades between _T. t.
thalassina_ and _T. t. lepida_; in size the three resemble _T. t.
thalassina_, but in green, rather than purple, backs and scapulars
resemble _T. t. lepida_. The rumps of Nos. 31471-31473 show some purple
with the green, but are nearer _thalassina_ in this character.

Gonadal sizes (testes 10×7, 10×8 mm., one ovum 6 mm.) indicate that the
Violet-green Swallow breeds in the Sierra del Pino.

*_Tachycineta thalassina lepida_ Mearns.--Miller (1955a:167) reported
that Violet-green Swallows taken in Boquillas Canyon of the Sierra del
Carmen are intermediate between _T. t. lepida_ and _thalassina_;
however, he referred his sample to _lepida_ on the basis of short wing.

_Iridoprocne bicolor_ (Vieillot).--Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and
Moore (1957:114) reported the Tree Swallow from Hipólito on February
22.

_Stelgidopteryx ruficollis psammochrous_ Griscom.--Miller, Friedmann,
Griscom, and Moore (1957:111) reported this subspecies of the
Rough-winged Swallow from Saltillo.

*_Hirundo rustica erythrogaster_ Boddaert.--Burleigh and Lowery
(1942:195) stated that the Barn Swallow was the most abundant swallow
"about Saltillo." Because these swallows occupied houses about Saltillo
and neighboring villages, Burleigh and Lowery (_loc. cit._) concluded
that the species nests commonly in the Saltillo area. Findley saw Barn
Swallows 2 mi. S and 11 mi. E Nava, 810 feet, on June 15, 1952.
Dickerman observed them at San Marcos (=20 mi. S Cuatro Ciénegas) on
May 4, 1954.

*_Petrochelidon pyrrhonota minima_ van Rossem and
Hachisuka.--_Specimens examined:_ total 2: [Male] [Male] 31585-31586
from 14 mi. W San Antonio de las Alazanas, April 9, 1954.

Burleigh and Lowery (1942:196) noted the Cliff Swallow "in small
numbers about Saltillo and the nearby villages" where the species
"showed evidence of beginning to nest in many of the houses...." They
(_loc. cit._) found Cliff Swallows also at the Chorro del Agua and
Diamante Valley. According to Dickerman, Nos. 31585-31586 were from a
colony, members of which were collecting mud at a stock tank.

*_Petrochelidon fulva pallida_ Nelson.--The Cave Swallow seems to be
uncommon in eastern Coahuila. Selander and Baker (1957:345) list
Saltillo, Sabinas, and Monclova as the three known localities for this
swallow in the State.

*_Progne subis subis_ (Linnaeus).--Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and
Moore (1957:107) reported, presumably on the basis of a published
record not found by me, that the Purple Martin breeds in Coahuila.

**_Progne chalybea chalybea_ (Gmelin).--The only record of the
Gray-breasted Martin in Coahuila was given by Ridgway (1904:42) when he
listed _P. c. chalybea_ from Sabinas.

**_Cyanocitta stelleri macrolopha_ Baird.--_Specimens examined:_ total
2: [Male] 32788 and [Female] 32787 from 13 mi. E San Antonio de las
Alazanas, 9950 ft., July 6, 1955.

From the paucity of records in the literature, I judge that Steller's
Jay is uncommon in Coahuila. Nos. 32787-32788 seemingly represent the
first records of this species in the State, and are referred to the
subspecies _macrolopha_ on the basis of relatively long (150, 151 mm.)
wing, near the maximum for _stelleri_ from México. The date (July 6) of
collection suggests that these birds were resident in southeastern
Coahuila.

**_Aphelocoma coerulescens cyanotis_ Ridgway.--The Scrub Jay is common
in southeastern Coahuila. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:196) noted this
species in small numbers at the summit of Diamante Pass, daily on the
lower slopes of the mountains, and a few birds "on the outskirts of
Saltillo, where they were probably nesting...." Sutton and Burleigh
(1939a:35) also noted several flocks at Diamante Pass. Miller,
Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:123) reported _A. c. cyanotis_ from
El Diamante. Ridgway (1904:335) listed this subspecies of the Scrub Jay
(then called _Aphelocoma cyanotis_) from Carneros, Sierra Encarnación,
and Sierra Guadalupe.

*_Aphelocoma ultramarina couchii_ (Baird).--_Specimens examined:_ total
14: [Female] 31051 from Sierra de la Encantada (=38 mi. S, 23 mi. E
Boquillas), 4400 ft., March 15, 1952; [Male] [Male] 29425-29426 and
[Female] [Female] 29427-29428 from Club Sierra del Carmen (=2 mi. N, 6
mi. W Piedra Blanca), 4950 ft., April 8, 1950; sex ? 31052 (skeleton
only) from 4 mi. W Hacienda La Mariposa, 2300 ft., March 25, 1952;
[Female] [Female] 31635-31636 from Canyon de Parazos in the Sierra de
la Parazos Azula (=9 mi. E Hermanas), 2100 ft., December 7, 1953;
[Female] 32082 from 4 mi. N, 21 mi. W Cuatro Ciénegas, 6200 ft., July
3, 1952; [Female] 31053 (skeleton only) from 26 mi. W Santa Teresa,
7050 ft., April 5, 1952; [Male] 32081 from 7 mi. S, 4 mi. E Bella
Unión, 7200 ft., June 25, 1952; [Female] 33173 (skeleton only) from 13
mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas, 9950 ft., July 6, 1955; [Male] 31607
from 13 mi. E, 3 mi. S San Antonio de las Alazanas, 8900 ft., January
11, 1954; and [Male] 31654 from Sierra Guadalupe (=10 mi. S, 5 mi. W
General Cepeda), 7000 ft., April 13, 1953.

The Mexican Jay is common in Coahuila. This species occupies various
habitats in the State and has been collected at stations ranging from
2100 to 9950 feet.

Miller (1955a:167) stated that the Mexican Jay was the most abundant
species of bird in the Sierra del Carmen. Burleigh and Lowery
(1942:196) remarked that specimens of _A. u. couchii_ were obtained "in
the area surrounding the summit of Diamante Pass." At no time did
Burleigh and Lowery (_loc. cit._) see this species below 6500 feet. The
Mexican Jay is restricted to the higher altitudes in southern Coahuila
but is more widespread in northern Coahuila. Dickerman saw Mexican Jays
in the Sierra del Pino on May 12, 1954; 16 mi. E and 18 mi. N Ocampo on
May 7, 1954; in the Sierra de la Madera on December 13, 1953; and 20
mi. S Ocampo on April 4, 1954.

Ridgway (1904:340) remarked that _Aphelocoma sieberii potosina_ Nelson
[=_A. u. couchii_ (Baird)] has been recorded in southern Coahuila, at
Carneros. Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:124) recorded _A.
u. couchii_ from Carneros, Nuevo León. I suspect (Ridgway, 1904:340 and
Goldman, 1951: map opposite p. 34) that the locality given by Miller,
Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (_op. cit._) should be Carneros,
Coahuila, rather than Carneros, Nuevo León.

Specimens (31051, 29425-29428, 31635-31636, 32081-32082, 31607, and
31654) of the Mexican Jay increase in size from northern Coahuila to
southern Coahuila. The average length of the wings of Nos. 29425-29426
from Club Sierra del Carmen is 152 mm. whereas the average length of
the wings of No. 32081 from 7 mi. S and 4 mi. E Bella Unión, of No.
31607 from 13 mi. E and 3 mi. S San Antonio de las Alazanas, and of No.
31654 from Sierra Guadalupe is 164 mm.

Miller (1955a:169) indicated that the Mexican Jay breeds in the Sierra
del Carmen. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:196) remarked that the species
breeds at Diamante Pass. The sizes of the testes (12, 11 mm.) of Nos.
29425-29426, the size of the ovum (8 mm.) of No. 29428, and the short
tail (126 mm.) of the immature female from 4 mi. N and 21 mi. W Cuatro
Ciénegas are also evidence of breeding by this species in the State.

*_Corvus corax sinuatus_ Wagler.--The Common Raven seems to occur in
low density in Coahuila. Miller (1955a:168) saw ravens in the pine-oak
and cliff areas of the Sierra del Carmen, and took a breeding female at
the head of Corte Madera Canyon, 7500 feet. Burleigh and Lowery
(1942:196) found this species to be a bird of the higher slopes of the
mountains although not uncommon in the broad open valley south of
Diamante Pass. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:35) took a male at Santa
Rosa.

*_Corvus cryptoleucus_ Couch.--_Specimens examined:_ total 4: [Male]
32080 from 2 mi. W Jiménez, 850 ft., June 20, 1952; [Female] 35404
(skeleton only) from 4 mi. N San Isidro (=16 mi. N Ocampo), May 10,
1954; and [Male] [Male] 31474-31475 from R. de Almendárez (=53 mi. NW
Ocampo), May 11, 1954.

The White-necked Raven occurs throughout Coahuila. Sutton and Burleigh
(1939a:36) observed this species "in the vicinity of Saltillo," but not
farther west. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:197) noted _C. cryptoleucus_
frequently "on the arid plateau around Saltillo" and obtained a
specimen "in the high fertile valley south of Diamante Pass." Burleigh
and Lowery (_loc. cit._) remarked that the White-necked Raven avoids
the mountain slopes; 7000 feet was the uppermost limit of occurrence.
The sizes of the testes (32080, 20 mm.; 31474: left, 12×20 mm., right,
10x16 mm.; and 31475: left, 10×16 mm., right, 10×14 mm.) of the
specimens that I have examined and the dates (May 11, June 20) on which
they were collected indicate breeding by the White-necked Raven in
Coahuila.

*_Parus sclateri eidos_ (Peters).--_Specimens examined:_ total 4:
[Female] 32083 from 7 mi. S, 4 mi. E Bella Unión, 7200 ft., June 25,
1952; [Male] 31609 from 2 mi. E Mesa de Tablas, 9000 ft., January 15,
1954; [Male] 31656 and [Female] 31655 from the north slope of Sierra
Guadalupe (=11 mi. S, 7 mi. W General Cepeda), 7800 ft., April 20, 1953.

The Mexican Chickadee is common in southeastern Coahuila. Miller,
Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:133) stated that _P. s. eidos_ and
_P. s. sclateri_ intergrade in southern Coahuila. The specimens that I
have examined also show signs of intergradation, but are closer to _P.
s. eidos_.

Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:36) reported taking specimens of _P. s.
eidos_ at Diamante Pass where they saw several individuals. Burleigh
and Lowery (1942:197) also observed these chickadees "in the pine woods
about the summit of Diamante Pass...." The size of the testes (6×5 mm.)
of No. 31656 and the fact that No. 31655 was incubating eggs at the
time it was obtained are evidence of breeding by this chickadee in the
State.

**_Parus sclateri sclateri_ Kleinschmidt.--Miller, Friedmann, Griscom,
and Moore (1957:133) stated that a specimen (or specimens?) of _P. s.
sclateri_ which showed evidence of intergradation with _P. s. eidos_
was obtained at El Diamante.

**_Parus atricristatus dysleptus_ Van Tyne.--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Male] 31054 from 37 mi. S, 21 mi. E Boquillas, 4100 ft., March 13,
1952.

Two subspecies of the Black-crested Titmouse are present in Coahuila.
_P. a. dysleptus_ occurs in northwestern Coahuila. Miller (1955a:168)
stated that the Black-crested Titmouse, identified as _dysleptus_, was
the only representative of the genus _Parus_ in the Sierra del Carmen.
The weak extension of black onto the nape in No. 31054 suggests
intergradation between _P. a. dysleptus_ and _P. a. atricristatus_; the
latter lacks the black nape of _dysleptus_.

*_Parus atricristatus atricristatus_ Cassin.--_Specimens examined:_
total 4: [Female] 32084 from 12 mi. N, 12 mi. W Jiménez, 850 ft., June
19, 1952; sex ? 32085 from 2 mi. W Jiménez, 850 ft., June 20, 1952;
[Female] 31055 (skeleton only) from Fortín (=33 mi. N, 1 mi. E San
Gerónimo), 3300 ft., on March 29, 1952; and [Female] 35399 (skeleton
only) from 3.5 mi. W, 22 mi. S Ocampo, December 15, 1953, weight, 16
gms.

Typical _P. a. atricristatus_ occurs in Coahuila in the southeastern
sector (Dixon, 1955:184). Black-crested Titmice intermediate between
_atricristatus_ and _dysleptus_ were listed from Cuidad Múzquiz and
Sabinas by Dixon (_loc. cit._:189), as _dysleptus_ but were shown on
his map (_loc. cit._:184) as _atricristatus_. Our Nos. 32084 and 32085
(wing, 71, 71, tail, 63, 64 mm.) are small and fall in the upper range
of size for _atricristatus_ to which the specimens are here referred.

*_Auriparus flaviceps ornatus_ (Lawrence).--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Male] 31056, from Sierra de la Encantada (=38 mi. S, 23 mi. E
Boquillas), 4400 ft., March 15, 1952.

The Verdin occurs up to about 5000 feet in Coahuila. Miller (1955a:168)
reported that "this desert species followed the catclaw scrub up the
washes to about 4800 feet, the limit of such habitat" in the Sierra del
Carmen and also gave evidence of breeding by the Verdin in Coahuila.
Amadon and Phillips (1947:578) reported a nest of _Auriparus flaviceps_
at Las Delicias. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:197) obtained a single
specimen "in an arroyo a few miles east of Saltillo" and a single
specimen "about twenty miles west" of Saltillo. Ridgway (1904:421)
reported _A. f. ornatus_ [he referred to it as _A. f. flaviceps_] at
Monclova. Hellmayr (1934:88) listed _A. f. ornatus_ from Jaral. Findley
saw a Verdin 2 mi. S and 3 mi. E San Juan de Sabinas on June 22, 1952.

The size (wing, 50 mm.; tail, 43 mm.) of No. 31056 is small for typical
representatives of _A. f. ornatus_. The yellow of the head of No. 31056
is darker than that of the other subspecies of the Verdin, and I have
accordingly allocated the specimen to _A. f. ornatus_.

*_Psaltriparus melanotis lloydi_ Sennett.--_Specimens examined:_ total
5: [Male] 31058 and [Female] 31057 from 37 mi. S, 21 mi. E Boquillas,
4100 ft., March 13, 1952; [Male] 31060 and [Female] 31059 from Sierra
de la Encantada (=38 mi. S, 23 mi. E Boquillas), 4400 ft., March 15,
1952; and [Male] 35407 (skeleton only) from Sierra del Pino (=5 mi. W,
3 mi. S Acebuches), 6200 ft., May 14, 1954.

The Black-eared Bushtit is common in Coahuila. Typical representatives
of _P. m. lloydi_ in the northern part of the State range from 4100
feet to 8000 feet. Miller (1955a:168-169) reported _P. m. lloydi_
breeding in the Sierra del Carmen. Marsh and Stevenson (1938:287)
obtained a male in the Sierra del Carmen at El Jardín. The size of the
testes (3.5 mm.) of No. 31058 suggests breeding by the Black-eared
Bushtit 37 mi. S and 21 mi. E Boquillas.

**_Psaltriparus melanotis iulus_ Jouy.--_Specimens examined:_ total 2:
[Male] 31659 from the north slope of Sierra Guadalupe (=10 mi. S, 7 mi.
W General Cepeda), 7000 ft., April 20, 1953; and [Female] 31658 from
the north slope of Sierra Guadalupe (=10 mi. S, 5 mi. W General
Cepeda), 6700 ft., April 15, 1953.

Typical representatives of this Black-eared Bushtit are present in the
southeastern sector of Coahuila. The backs of Nos. 31658-31659 differ
slightly in color from the backs of typical representatives of
_lloydi_. I suspect that the specimens from the Sierra Guadalupe are
intergrades between _lloydi_ and _iulus_.

Burleigh and Lowery (1942:197) took two males and two females of
_Psaltriparus melanotis iulus_ (they called their specimens
_Psaltriparus minimus iulus_) at Saltillo and stated that their
specimens tended to approach _lloydi_ rather than being typical
_iulus_. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:36) recorded _P. m. iulus_ only at
Diamante Pass where they took two specimens.

*_Sitta carolinensis nelsoni_ Mearns.--Miller (1955a:169) reported that
this subspecies of the White-breasted Nuthatch breeds and was common in
the oaks and open conifers from 6500 to 8000 feet in the Sierra del
Carmen and stated also that the populations of the White-breasted
Nuthatch in "the Chisos Mountains [of Texas] and the Sierra del Carmen
seem best regarded as a stage in the cline of which _nelsoni_ and
_mexicana_ are end points, although falling closer to _nelsoni_."

*_Sitta carolinensis mexicana_ Nelson and Palmer.--_Specimens
examined:_ total 2: [Male] 31669 and [Female] 31670 from the Cañon d.
Meco, Sierra Guadalupe (=10 mi. S General Cepeda), 6500 ft., April 23,
1953, weights, 17, 18 gms.

Typical populations of this White-breasted Nuthatch occur in southern
Coahuila. Ridgway (1904:449) listed _S. c. mexicana_ from Sierra
Guadalupe in southern Coahuila. The underparts of our specimens are
darker than in _nelsoni_, and their bills (culmen, 15, 13 mm.) are
shorter than the average ([Male], 19.8 mm.; [Female], 18.6 mm.
[Ridgway, 1904:447]) in _nelsoni_. The large size of the testes (5×3
mm.) of No. 31669 suggests breeding by _S. c. mexicana_ in Sierra
Guadalupe.

*_Sitta pygmaea melanotis_ van Rossem.--In Coahuila the Pigmy Nuthatch
seems to be locally common. Miller (1955a:169) reported it so between
7500 and 8000 feet in pine-oak on the mesa tops and in the heads of
canyons of the Sierra del Carmen and noted that it breeds there. Hardy
saw the Pigmy Nuthatch 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas on July 6,
1955.

_Certhia familiaris americana_ Bonaparte.--_Specimens examined:_ total
2: [Female] 31612 from the base of Don Martín Dam, November 27, 1953,
skull partially unossified; and [Female] 31587 from 20 mi. S Ocampo,
6500 ft., April 5, 1954, weight, 7 gms.

This subspecies of the Brown Creeper can be considered a sparse winter
visitant to Coahuila. Van Hoose (1955:302) reported that Nos. 31612 and
31587 constitute the southernmost records of _C. f. americana_ and
represent the first records of occurrence of _americana_ in México.

_Certhia familiaris montana_ Ridgway.--Miller (1955a:169) reported this
subspecies of the Brown Creeper, which he assumed to be a winter
visitant or a migrant, in the Sierra del Carmen. He (_loc. cit._)
remarked also that the higher conifers would seem to constitute
favorable habitat for nesting by the Brown Creeper, but did not find
any evidence of a breeding population of creepers in the Sierra del
Carmen. Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:143) reported _C.
f. montana_ from San Lázaro Mountain on November 9.

**_Certhia familiaris albescens_ Berlepsch.--_Specimens examined:_
total 3: sex ? 32805 from 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas, July 7,
1955; [Male] [Male] 31610-31611 from 3 mi. S, 13 mi. E San Antonio de
las Alazanas, 8900 ft., January 12, 1954.

Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:143) reported _C. f.
albescens_ from "southern Coahuila." Nos. 31610-31611 and 32805
represent the only other records of this subspecies from the State. The
date (July 7) on which No. 32805 was obtained suggests that this bird
was a resident 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas.

_Troglodytes aedon parkmanii_ Audubon.--_Specimen examined:_ one, sex ?
29556, from 1.5 mi. N Parras, 5500 ft., November 10, 1949, weight, 9.8
gms.

Burleigh and Lowery (1942:197) recorded the House Wren "in small
numbers about Saltillo where occasional birds, presumably migrants,
were noted in thickets or stretches of underbrush fringing cultivated
fields." They obtained a single male "on the outskirts of Saltillo."
Hellmayr (1934:218) listed _T. a. parkmanii_ from Sabinas.

*_Troglodytes brunneicollis cahooni_ Brewster.--Typical representatives
of this subspecies of the Brown-throated Wren occur in northern
Coahuila. In the Sierra del Carmen, Miller (1955a:170) found _T. b.
cahooni_ that in no way suggested _compositus_ of the Sierra Madre
Oriental. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:198) recorded a _cahooni_-like
specimen from Diamante Pass in southern Coahuila.

**_Troglodytes brunneicollis compositus_ Griscom.--_Specimen examined:_
one, [Male] 32819, from 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas, July 6,
1955.

The subspecies _cahooni_ and _compositus_ of the Brown-throated Wren
seem to intergrade in the southern part of the State. Although No.
32819 represents the subspecies _compositus_, the somewhat whitish
abdomen and the fairly large spots of the lesser wing coverts suggest
some relationship with _cahooni_. In addition to the present record,
Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:163) recorded _T. b.
compositus_ from southern Coahuila at Sierra Guadalupe. The record of
_T. b. cahooni_ from Sierra Guadalupe (Ridgway, 1904:588) I suspect
probably represents _T. b. compositus_ or an intergrade between
_compositus_ and _cahooni_. The date (July 6) on which No. 32819 was
obtained 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas suggests that this bird
was resident there.

*_Thryomanes bewickii eremophilus_ Oberholser.--_Specimens examined:_
total 3: [Male] 32088 from 2 mi. W Jiménez, 850 ft., June 20, 1952;
[Female] 31061 from 4 mi. W Hacienda La Mariposa, 2300 ft., March 24,
1952, weight, 10.8 gms.; and [Male] 31660 from the north foot of Sierra
Guadalupe (=10 mi. S, 5 mi. W General Cepeda), 6500 ft., April 21,
1953, weight, 13 gms.

Bewick's Wren occurs commonly in Coahuila. Miller, Friedmann, Griscom,
and Moore (1957:160) reported that, in Coahuila, _T. b. eremophilus_
"intergrades in the eastern and southern sections with _T. b. cryptus_
and _T. b. murinus_, respectively." The slightly darker coloration of
No. 31660, suggesting a resemblance to _T. b. murinus_, is the only
evidence of intergradation of _T. b. murinus_ and _eremophilus_ that I
have found.

Miller (1955a:170) stated that _T. b. eremophilus_ was "common in the
piedmont area on yucca-dotted slopes and along the lower canyon walls
in growth of piñon, yucca, and cactus" in the Sierra del Carmen, and
reported breeding there. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:198) remarked that
_T. b. eremophilus_ "proved without question to be the most widely
distributed and abundant wren" in the Saltillo region. The series that
Burleigh and Lowery (_loc. cit._) assembled "proved to be uniform and
clearly referable to" _T. b. eremophilus_. Sutton and Burleigh
(1939a:36) noted _Thryomanes bewickii_ at San Pedro on January 29 and
30. Hardy saw a male _T. b. eremophilus_ at Parras on July 4, 1955.
Ridgway (1904:557) listed _T. b. eremophilus_ from Saltillo in April
and as breeding at Sabinas.

The sizes of the testes (8 mm.; 6×4 mm.) of Nos. 32088 and 31660,
respectively, suggest breeding 2 mi. W Jiménez and Sierra Guadalupe.

**_Thryomanes bewickii cryptus_ Oberholser.--Miller, Friedmann,
Griscom, and Moore (1957:161) recorded _T. b. cryptus_ from Saltillo.

*_Thryothorus ludovicianus berlandieri_ Baird.--_Specimens examined:_
total 3: [Male] 32086 from 12 mi. N, 12 mi. W Jiménez, 850 ft., June
19, 1952; sex ? 32087 from 2 mi. W Jiménez, June 20, 1952; and [Female]
31063 from 8 mi. N, 4 mi. W Múzquiz, 1800 ft., April 1, 1952, weight,
18.3 gms.

One subspecies of the Carolina Wren, _berlandieri_, occurs in Coahuila
in the northeastern section of the State. Ridgway (1904:547) recorded
_T. l. berlandieri_ from Sabinas. The fact that No. 32086 was a
juvenile suggests that the Carolina Wren breeds 12 mi. N and 12 mi. W
Jiménez.

*_Campylorhynchus brunneicapillum couesi_ Sharpe.--_Specimens
examined:_ total 6: [Male] 29429 from Cañon del Cochino (=16 mi. N, 21
mi. E Piedra Blanca), 3200 ft., April 6, 1950; [Male] 31064 from 7 mi.
S, 2 mi. E Boquillas, 800 ft., February 29, 1952, weight, 38.1 gms.;
[Female] 31066 (skeleton only) from 10 mi. S, 5 mi. E Boquillas, 1500
ft., March 5, 1952; [Male] 31637 from La Gacha (=La Concha), December
1, 1953, weight, 40 gms.; [Male] 31638 from 18 mi. S Ocampo, December
16, 1953; and sex ? 29557 from 7 mi. S, 1 mi. E Gómez Farías, 6500 ft.,
November 18, 1949, weight, 41 gms.

This subspecies of the Cactus Wren occurs throughout Coahuila except in
the extreme southeastern section of the State, where the subspecies _C.
b. guttatus_ occurs. Miller (1955a:169) found _C. b. couesi_ breeding
and occupying the open swales and mesas at the base of the mountains of
the Sierra del Carmen. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:198) found _C.
brunneicapillum_ "to be rather scarce and decidedly local in its
distribution" and observed an occasional bird "in the open desert
country west of Saltillo." Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore
(1957:151) recorded _C. b. couesi_ "south to [the] vicinity of
Monclova."

No. 29557 does not have any characters of _C. b. guttatus_; its under
tail coverts and flanks have roundish black spots, rather than black
bars as in _C. b. guttatus_.

**_Campylorhynchus brunneicapillum guttatus_ (Gould).--This subspecies
of Cactus Wren seems to occupy the extreme southeastern section of
Coahuila. Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:152) recorded _C.
b. guttatus_ from Hipólito.

_Telmatodytes palustris plesius_ (Oberholser).--Miller, Friedmann,
Griscom, and Moore (1957:148) reported this subspecies of the
Long-billed Marsh Wren from 8 mi. S Cuatro Ciénegas.

*_Catherpes mexicanus albifrons_ (Giraud).--Miller (1955a:170) found
this subspecies of Cañon Wren "in shaded rocky canyons and on larger
cliff slopes at the base of the mountains from 4700 to 5300 feet" in
the Sierra del Carmen where it nested. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:198)
noted that the Cañon Wren was "decidedly uncommon" at Saltillo and
obtained a male at the Chorro de Agua on April 19. Ridgway (1904:657)
listed _C. m. albifrons_ from Patos.

*_Salpinctes obsoletus obsoletus_ (Say).--_Specimens examined:_ total
4: [Female] 31067 from 1 mi. N Boquillas, 700 ft., March 6, 1952,
weight, 16.1 gms.; [Female] 31068 from 7 mi. S, 2 mi. E Boquillas, 800
ft., March 1, 1952, weight, 18.2 gms.; sex ? 29558 from 12 mi. N, 10
mi. E Parras, 5000 ft., November 11, 1949, weight, 16.9 gms.; and
[Male] 32089 from 7 mi. S, 4 mi. E Bella Unión 7200 ft., June 24, 1952.

The Rock Wren is common in Coahuila. Miller (1955a:170) found _S. o.
obsoletus_ "only in the rocky piedmont and on lower bare canyon faces"
and stated that Marsh took a bird in fresh fall plumage on September 6
at El Jardín. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:37) found the Rock Wren "near
San Pedro." Burleigh and Lowery (1942:198) wrote that the subspecies
_obsoletus_ was "characteristically a bird of the arroyos of the arid
plateau about Saltillo, where it was fairly common...." The large size
of the testes (5×3 mm.) of No. 32089 and the date (June 24) on which it
was obtained suggest breeding by the Rock Wren 7 mi. S and 4 mi. E
Bella Unión.

*_Mimus polyglottos leucopterus_ (Vigors).--_Specimens examined:_ total
5: [Female] 31070 from 10 mi. S, 5 mi. E Boquillas, 1500 ft., March 5,
1952, weight, 55.1 gms.; [Male] [Male] 32094-32095 from 2 mi. W
Jiménez, 850 ft., June 20, 1952; [Male] 32096 from 5 mi. N, 19 mi. W
Cuatro Ciénegas, 3250 ft., July 5, 1952; and [Male] 33186 (skeleton
only) from Parras, July 5, 1955, testes, 6×3 mm.

The Mockingbird is sparsely distributed throughout Coahuila. Miller
(1955a:170) found _M. p. leucopterus_ in the mesquite and catclaw at
the base of the mountains in the Sierra del Carmen. Sutton and Burleigh
(1939a:37) reported _M. p. leucopterus_ from Diamante Pass. Amadon and
Phillips (1947:578) found a young Mockingbird out of the nest begging
for food from an adult on August 18 at Las Delicias. Burleigh and
Lowery (1942:199) found the Mockingbird on the arid plateau "about
Saltillo." Hellmayr (1934:308) listed _M. p. leucopterus_ from Jaral.
Findley saw Mockingbirds 2 mi. S and 3 mi. E San Juan de Sabinas on
June 22, 1952. Dickerman saw Mockingbirds in the Sierra del Pino on May
12, 1954, and 8 mi. E and 2 mi. S Americanos on May 18, 1954. The sizes
of the testes (8, 7 mm.) of Nos. 32094 and 32096, respectively, suggest
breeding 2 mi. W Jiménez and 5 mi. N and 19 mi. W Cuatro Ciénegas, as
does No. 32095, a juvenile.

*_Toxostoma longirostre sennetti_ (Ridgway).--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Male] 32090, from 2 mi. S, 3 mi. E San Juan de Sabinas, June 22, 1952.

In Coahuila the Long-billed Thrasher seems to be uncommon. It has been
recorded in Coahuila as far west as San Juan de Sabinas. Ridgway
(1907:192) recorded _T. l. sennetti_ from Sabinas, the only other
record of the Long-billed Thrasher, to my knowledge, from the State.
The large size of the testes (11×6 mm.) of No. 32090 and the date (June
22) on which it was obtained suggest that _T. l. sennetti_ breeds 2 mi.
S and 3 mi. E San Juan de Sabinas.

*_Toxostoma curvirostre celsum_ Moore.--_Specimens examined:_ total 2:
[Female] 31071 from 7 mi. S, 2 mi. E Boquillas, March 1, 1952, wing,
111 mm., tail, 114 mm., weight, 97.2 gms.; and [Female] 31072 (skeleton
only) from 10 mi. S, 5 mi. E Boquillas, 1500 ft., March 5, 1952.

This subspecies of the Curve-billed Thrasher occurs in northwestern
Coahuila. Specimens of _T. c. celsum_ and _oberholseri_ from Coahuila
are too few to show clearly the distribution and intergradation in
Coahuila.

No. 31071 is referred to _T. c. celsum_ because of large size; the
spots on its upper abdomen, which are large and pronounced, suggest a
relationship with _T. c. oberholseri_. Miller (1955a:170) remarked that
_T. c. celsum_ was a scarce resident of the desert scrub at the mouth
of Boquillas Canyon of the Sierra del Carmen.

*_Toxostoma curvirostre oberholseri_ Law.--_Specimens examined:_ total
5: [Female] 35405 (skeleton only) from 4 mi. N San Isidro, May 11,
1954; [Female] 32091 from 5 mi. N, 19 mi. W Cuatro Ciénegas, 3250 ft.,
July 5, 1952; [Male] 32833 from Parras, July 4, 1955, weight, 76.5
gms.; [Female] 32092 from 7 mi. S, 4 mi. E Bella Unión, 7200 ft., June
25, 1952; and [Male] 31614 from 16 mi. W San Antonio de las Alazanas,
6500 ft., January 7, 1954, weight, 90 gms.

This subspecies of the Curve-billed Thrasher occurs in eastern and
southern Coahuila. Amadon and Phillips (1947:578) took a Curve-billed
Thrasher twenty miles west of Saltillo that had an enlarged ovary and a
brood patch still somewhat evident on August 27. Burleigh and Lowery
(1942:199) stated that _T. c. oberholseri_ "was rather widely and
commonly distributed, being noted from the area about the summit of
Diamante Pass at 7,800 feet down to the desert country about Saltillo."
Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:177) recorded _T. c.
oberholseri_ from Sabinas, from 8 mi. S Cuatro Ciénegas, and from El
Diamante. Hellmayr (1934:298) also recorded _T. c. oberholseri_ from
Sabinas, as did Ridgway (1907:199) under the name _T. c. curvirostre_
before the subspecies _oberholseri_ was named. The female from 4 mi. N
San Isidro had an egg in its oviduct. The immature male (32833), the
large size of ovum (8 mm.) of No. 32092, and the presence of a brood
patch on No. 32091 also are evidences of breeding by the Curve-billed
Thrasher in Coahuila.

*_Toxostoma dorsale dorsale_ Henry.--The Crissal Thrasher is uncommon
in Coahuila. The subspecies _dorsale_ occurs in northern Coahuila.
Miller (1955a:170-171) found the subspecies _dorsale_, at about 4700
feet, only in the mesquite, desert willow, and walnut scrub along the
wash of Boquillas Canyon of the Sierra del Carmen and remarked also
that the bird nested there.

**_Toxostoma dorsale dumosum_ Moore.--_Specimen examined:_ one, sex ?
29559, from 8 mi. N La Ventura, 6000 ft., November 17, 1949, weight,
57.0 gms.

The subspecies _dumosum_ of the Crissal Thrasher in Coahuila has been
reported only from the southeastern section of the State. Burleigh and
Lowery (1942:199-200) found _T. d. dumosum_ "not uncommon in the lower
foot-hills outside of Saltillo as well as on the summit of Diamante
Pass." The specimen of _T. d. dorsale_ from Diamante Pass reported by
Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:37) is closer, according to Burleigh and
Lowery (1942:199), to _T. d. dumosum_. No. 29559 is darker above and
below than typical specimens of _T. d. dorsale_ and represents _T. d.
dumosum_.

_Oreoscoptes montanus_ (Townsend).--_Specimen examined:_ one, sex ?
30237, from 1 mi. SW San Pedro de las Colonias, 3700 ft., February 8,
1951.

The Sage Thrasher seems to be a winter visitant to Coahuila. Miller,
Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:173) recorded the species in
November from 8 mi. S Cuatro Ciénegas.

*_Turdus migratorius propinquus_ Ridgway.--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Female] 31073 (skeleton only) from 4 mi. W Hacienda La Mariposa, 2300
ft., March 24, 1952.

Burleigh and Lowery (1942:200) stated that "the Robin apparently breeds
rather sparingly on the higher ridges" in southeastern Coahuila. They
collected a pair "in the open pine woods just below the summit of
Diamante Pass" on April 15 and noted another at the Chorro del Agua on
April 19.

**_Ridgwayia pinicola_ (Sclater).--_Specimen examined:_ one, [Male]
31619, from 5 mi. W, 22 mi. S Ocampo, 6000 ft., December 15, 1953,
weight, 88 gms.

The Aztec Thrush is rare in Coahuila. Van Hoose (1955:302) remarked
that No. 31619, the skull of which was incompletely ossified,
"represents the northernmost record for this species, which was
previously unknown in Coahuila."

_Hylocichla guttata guttata_ (Pallas).--_Specimens examined:_ total 2:
[Male] [Male] 31074-31075 from 4 mi. W Hacienda La Mariposa, 2300 ft.,
March 25 and 26, 1952, weights, 25, 21 gms.

The Hermit Thrush is a common migrant or winter visitant in Coahuila.
_H. g. guttata_ has been reported from northern Coahuila. Miller
(1955a:171) observed _H. g. guttata_ (and _H. g. auduboni_) in the
Douglas fir and pine-oak belts and in the lower levels in the oaks at
the foot of the Sierra del Carmen. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:200) noted
_H. g. guttata_ "in small numbers in the open woods surrounding the
summit of Diamante Pass, and at infrequent intervals in the arroyos on
the arid plateau near Saltillo."

_Hylocichla guttata sequoiensis_ (Belding).--Ridgway (1907:45) recorded
this subspecies of Hermit Thrush from Sierra Guadalupe in April.
However, Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:188) suggest that
the material on which this identification was based needs
redetermination.

_Hylocichla guttata auduboni_ (Baird).--_Specimens examined:_ total 3:
[Female] 31488 from Sierra del Pino (=5 mi. S, 3 mi. W Acebuches), May
12, 1954, weight, 25 gms.; [Female] 31076 (skeleton only) from Fortín
(=33 mi. N, 1 mi. E San Gerónimo), 3300 ft., March 28, 1952; and
[Female] 31077 (skeleton only) from 26 mi. W Santa Teresa, 7050 ft.,
April 4, 1952.

Miller (1955a:171) found this subspecies of Hermit Thrush wintering
with _H. g. guttata_ in the Sierra del Carmen. Hellmayr (1934:456)
listed _H. g. auduboni_ from Sabinas.

**_Sialia sialis fulva_ Brewster.--Hellmayr (1934:479) listed this
subspecies of the Eastern Bluebird from Sabinas.

*_Sialia mexicana mexicana_ Swainson.--Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and
Moore (1957:199) remarked that the subspecies _mexicana_ of the Western
Bluebird breeds in the southern mountains of Coahuila where, at El
Diamante, on July 7, a specimen (or specimens ?) in breeding condition
was obtained. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:200) found _S. m. mexicana_
"well distributed in the open woods about" Diamante Pass, but at no
time below an elevation of approximately 6500 feet. Sutton and Burleigh
(1939a:38) also saw "several brown-backed" Western Bluebirds at
Diamante Pass on March 6. Ridgway (1907:150) recorded _S. m. mexicana_
from Saltillo, Carneros, and Sierra Guadalupe.

_Sialia currucoides_ (Bechstein).--_Specimen examined:_ one, [Female]
31078, from Sierra de la Encantada (=38 mi. S, 23 mi. E Boquillas),
4400 ft., March 14, 1952, weight, 23.7 gms.

The Mountain Bluebird is a winter visitant to Coahuila. Miller,
Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:200) recorded _Sialia currucoides_
from Hipólito on February 24.

**_Myadestes townsendi townsendi_ (Audubon).--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Female] 31079, from 26 mi. W Santa Teresa, 7050 ft., April 4, 1952.

Miller (1955a:171) detected Townsend's Solitaire in clumps of large
pines in two different locations at 7000 and 7500 feet on April 4, 6,
and 8 in the Sierra del Carmen. He did not find a breeding population
of _M. t. townsendi_, but did note favorable habitat for breeding.
Ridgway (1907:164) recorded _M. townsendi_ from the Sierra Guadalupe on
April 21. Dickerman saw a Townsend's Solitaire in the Sierra de la
Madera on December 13, 1953.

The underparts of No. 31079 are not uniformly dark, being paler on the
chin, throat, and abdomen than elsewhere as is true of typical
representatives of _M. t. townsendi_.

**_Polioptila caerulea caerulea_ (Linnaeus).--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Male] 32097, from 2 mi. S, 11 mi. E Nava, June 15, 1952.

No. 32097 is the first record of occurrence of this subspecies of
Blue-gray Gnatcatcher in the State. The white of the underparts of No.
32097 is less grayish than the underparts of typical representatives of
_P. c. amoenissima_, and the black at the base of the inner webs of the
outermost rectrix does not extend beyond the tip of the under tail
coverts. Representatives of _P. c. amoenissima_ have black at the base
of the inner web of the outermost rectrix more extended, usually
showing beyond the tip of the under tail coverts. The size of the
testes (3×2 mm.) of No. 32097 does not suggest breeding, but the date
(June 15) indicates that it was a resident.

*_Polioptila caerulea amoenissima_ Grinnell.--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Male] 31080, from 7 mi. S, 2 mi. E Boquillas, 800 ft., February 29,
1952, weight, 5.4 gms.

This subspecies of the Blue-gray Gnatcatcher breeds in Coahuila and
occurs throughout all of the State except the northeastern section.
Miller (1955a:171) remarked that "this gnatcatcher was apparently
established on summer territories in the oaks and walnuts of the wash
of Boquillas Canyon at the foot of the mountains" of the Sierra del
Carmen. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:200) noted "this species only in the
open woods at the summit of Diamante Pass, where, however, it was not
uncommon." Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:201) recorded
_P. c. amoenissima_ breeding at El Diamante on July 8.

*_Polioptila melanura melanura_ Lawrence.--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Male] 31081, from 7 mi. S, 2 mi. E Boquillas, 800 ft., March 1, 1952,
weight, 5.6 gms.

In Coahuila this subspecies of the Black-tailed Gnatcatcher has been
recorded from several localities. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:200) found
that it "was limited in its distribution to the lower altitudes and was
noted only in the open desert country west of Saltillo." Sutton and
Burleigh (1939a:38) noted it "several times near San Pedro" where on
January 29 one female was taken. Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore
(1957:205) recorded _P. m. melanura_ at Hipólito on June 30 to July 2
in breeding condition.

_Regulus satrapa satrapa_ Lichtenstein.--Miller (1955a:171) found a
small wintering flock of Golden-crowned Kinglets in the Sierra del
Carmen; this is the only record of the species in Coahuila.

_Regulus calendula calendula_ (Linnaeus).--_Specimens examined:_ total
5: [Female] 31085 from the Río Grande (=17 mi. S Dryden, Terrell Co.,
Texas, in Coahuila), 600 ft., March 19, 1952, weight, 6.3 gms.; [Male]
[Male] 31082-31083 from 1 mi. N Boquillas, 700 ft., March 8, 1952,
weight, 7.2, 6.5 gms.; [Male] 31084 from Sierra de la Encantada (=38
mi. S, 23 mi. E Boquillas), 4400 ft., March 15, 1954, weight, 5.4 gms.;
and [Male] 31661 from the north slope of Sierra Guadalupe (=11 mi. S, 7
mi. W General Cepeda), 7800 ft., April 20, 1953, weight, 5 gms.

In Coahuila this subspecies of the Ruby-crowned Kinglet is a common
migrant. Miller (1955a:171) found it (and _R. c. cineraceus_) "common
in the conifers and oaks of the upper levels of the mountains [Sierra
del Carmen], at 6500 to 7000 feet, as winter visitants or migrants."
Burleigh and Lowery (1942:201) took specimens of _R. c. calendula_ at
Diamante Pass on April 15, at the Chorro del Agua on April 19, and at
20 mi. W Saltillo on April 22. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:38) noted the
Ruby-crowned Kinglet "in the arid parts of southern Coahuila." Hellmayr
(1934:513) listed _R. c. calendula_ from Sabinas. Dickerman saw
Ruby-crowned Kinglets in the Sierra de la Madera on December 13, 1953,
20 mi. S Ocampo on April 4, 1954, and 3 mi. S and 13 mi. E San Antonio
de las Alazanas on January 12, 1954.

_Regulus calendula cineraceus_ Grinnell.--Miller (1955a:171) found _R.
c. cineraceus_ common in the Sierra del Carmen; on April 3, 5, and 10
the birds were "abundant, as though a wave of migrants were passing
through."

_Anthus spinoletta rubescens_ (Tunstall).--_Specimens examined:_ Total
3: [Male] [Male] 31086-31087 and sex ? 31088 from 1 mi. N Boquillas,
700 ft., March 6, 7, and 8, 1952, weights, 19.3, 19.9, and 16.6 gms.

This subspecies of the Water Pipit is an uncommon winter visitant or
migrant in Coahuila. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:201) found "a flock of
ten birds ... on the outskirts of Saltillo" on April 18. Miller,
Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:210) recorded _A. s. rubescens_
from Cuatro Ciénegas in November and from Hipólito in February.

_Anthus spinoletta pacificus_ Todd.--Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and
Moore (1957:209) recorded this Water Pipit from Cuatro Ciénegas in
February and from Hipólito in November.

_Bombycilla cedrorum_ Vieillot.--The Cedar Waxwing is an uncommon
winter visitant to Coahuila. Miller (1955a:171) recorded a flock in the
Sierra del Carmen on April 5, and another flock on April 21. Burleigh
and Lowery (1942:201) saw two small flocks on April 15 "in the open
woods just below the summit of Diamante Pass."

*_Phainopepla nitens nitens_ Swainson.--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Male] 31674, from the west foot of Pico de Jimulco, 5000 ft., April 3,
1953, weight, 35 gms.

The Phainopepla occurs throughout most of Coahuila. Sutton and Burleigh
(1939a:39) reported _P. n. nitens_ from Diamante Pass on March 6. On
April 15 and 17 Burleigh and Lowery (1942:201) saw scattered pairs of
the Phainopepla "only in the open woods surrounding Diamante Pass."
Miller (1955a:171) noted _P. n. nitens_ "on April 20 and 28 in large
clumps of mesquite near Piedra Blanca, at about 4500 feet, on the
foothills" of the Sierra del Carmen. Dickerman saw a Phainopepla 20 mi.
S Ocampo on April 4, 1954. Baird (1858:320) listed a male _P. n.
nitens_ from Coahuila, México. Hellmayr (1935:107) remarked that
_Phainopepla nitens_ was listed from Coahuila by "Salvin and Godman,
Biol. Centr.--Amer., Aves, 1, p. 220, 1883...." Miller, Friedmann,
Griscom, and Moore (1957:213) stated that _P. n. nitens_ breeds at El
Diamante. The long wing (100 mm.) and long tail (96 mm.) of No. 31674
is typical for _P. n. nitens_.

_Phainopepla nitens lepida_ Van Tyne.--Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:39)
recorded _P. n. lepida_ from Diamante Pass on March 6; Miller,
Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:213) suggest that this individual
was a vagrant.

_Lanius ludovicianus migrans_ Palmer.--Burleigh and Lowery (1942:202)
obtained this subspecies of Loggerhead Shrike "on the outskirts of
Saltillo on April 20." The specimen shows evidence of intergradation
with _excubitorides_.

**_Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides_ Swainson.--Miller, Friedmann,
Griscom, and Moore (1957:216) recorded _L. l. excubitorides_ from
Sabinas and from Hipólito (November 2 to February 24).

*_Lanius ludovicianus mexicanas_ Brehm.--_Specimens examined:_ total 4:
sex ? 31089 from 7 mi. S, 2 mi. E Boquillas, 800 ft., February 29,
1952, weight, 45.1 gms.; [Female] 31090 from 36 mi. S, 15 mi. E
Boquillas, 2550 ft., March 12, 1952; sex ? 30233 from 1 mi. N San
Lorenzo, 4200 ft., February 5, 1951; and [Female] 32098 from 7 mi. S, 4
mi. E Bella Unión, 7200 ft., June 25, 1952.

Miller (1931:66) suggested that _L. l. mexicanus_ and _L. l.
excubitorides_ intergrade in Coahuila; all of the specimens of
Loggerhead Shrike from Coahuila that I have examined are intergrades
between _mexicanus_ and _excubitorides_. Our four specimens have a
superciliary line that is indistinct and the black mask of each extends
somewhat posterior to the auricular region. The anterior part of their
forehead is somewhat lighter than the remaining part of their head and
back.

Miller (1955a:171) detected _L. l. mexicanus_ only once in catclaw
scrub in the lower part of Boquillas wash at about 4600 feet in the
Sierra del Carmen. He (_loc. cit._) remarked that his individual may
best be considered an intergrade between _mexicanus_ and
_excubitorides_, being "somewhat closer to the former." Burleigh and
Lowery (1942:201) obtained a male _L. l. mexicanus_ "in the open valley
just below the summit of Diamante Pass on April 23" that was typical of
this subspecies. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:201-202) suggested that _L.
l. mexicanus_ breeds in southeastern Coahuila. Sutton and Burleigh
(1939a:39) took a typical representative _L. l. mexicanus_ at Mayran on
January 30.

_Lanius ludovicianus gambeli_ Ridgway.--Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and
Moore (1957:214) recorded this subspecies from Hipólito on November 6.

*_Vireo atricapilla_ Woodhouse.--_Specimens examined:_ total 4: sex ?
32099-32100 from Sierra del Pino (=6 mi. N, 6 mi. W Acebuches), 5250
ft., July 3, 1952; and [Male] [Male] 31493-31494 from 16 mi. E, 18 mi.
N Ocampo, May 8 and 9, 1954, enlarged testes.

The Black-capped Vireo seems to breed as far south as central Coahuila.
Miller (1955a:171-172) reported this vireo as a summer resident in "the
low catclaw-dominated scrub in the lower washes of Boquillas Canyon and
its side valleys, at 4600 to 4800 feet" in the Sierra del Carmen.
Dickerman found the Black-capped Vireo common on the dry scrub and oak
hillside habitat 16 mi. E and 18 mi. N Ocampo.

_Vireo griseus noveboracensis_ (Gmelin).--Ridgway (1904:184) recorded
this subspecies of the White-eyed Vireo "west to Sabinas." Miller,
Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:220) also recorded _V. g.
noveboracensis_ from Sabinas on May 25. I suspect that the specimen of
_V. g. noveboracensis_ from Sabinas that was taken on May 25 was a
vagrant. _V. g. noveboracensis_ may occur in Coahuila as a migrant or
winter visitant; however, I do not believe that representatives of
_noveboracensis_ normally are resident in Coahuila.

*_Vireo griseus micrus_ Nelson.--_Specimen examined:_ one, [Male]
32101, from 2 mi. W Jiménez, 850 ft., June 20, 1952, measurements:
wing, 58 mm.; tail, 43.5 mm.; culmen, 10 mm.; tarsus, 19 mm.

This subspecies of the White-eyed Vireo breeds in Coahuila. Miller,
Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:221) recorded _V. g. micrus_ from
Sabinas on March 9 and May 14. The enlarged testes (5×3 mm.) of No.
32101 and the date (June 20) on which it was obtained suggest breeding
in Coahuila.

_Vireo huttoni stephensi_ Brewster.--This subspecies of Hutton's Vireo
occurs in southeastern Coahuila as a migrant. Sutton and Burleigh
(1939a:39) found _V. h. stephensi_ fairly common at Diamante Pass on
March 6. Ridgway (1904:198) recorded _V. h. stephensi_ from Sierra
Guadalupe in April.

*_Vireo huttoni carolinae_ Brandt.--_Specimens examined:_ total 3:
[Male] 31588 from 20 mi. S Ocampo, 6500 ft., April 5, 1954, weight, 11
gms.; [Female] 32851 from 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas, July 6,
1955, weight, 14.2 gms.; and [Female] 32102 from 7 mi. S, 4 mi. E Bella
Unión, 7200 ft., June 25, 1952.

To my knowledge, _V. h. carolinae_ is the only resident subspecies of
Hutton's Vireo in Coahuila. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:202) found _V. h.
carolinae_ in rather limited numbers in the woods bordering the summit
of Diamante Pass. Miller (1955a:172) remarked that the subspecies
_carolinae_ was a common bird from 6500 feet to 8000 feet in the Sierra
del Carmen. Miller (_loc. cit._) took a female on April 12 that was
nearly ready to lay and said that his specimens of _carolinae_ from the
Sierra del Carmen seem to be separate from _V. h. stephensi_ and _V. h.
mexicanus_. Our specimens showed no overlapping of characters with _V.
h. stephensi_ and _V. h. mexicanus_. The size of the largest ovum (2
mm.) of No. 32102 and the dates (June 25, and July 6) on which Nos.
32102 and 32851 were obtained suggest that _V. h. carolinae_ is a
resident in Coahuila.

*_Vireo bellii medius_ Oberholser.--_Specimen examined:_ one, [Male]
31495, from San Marcos, May 5, 1954, measurements: wing, 56 mm.; tail,
48 mm.; culmen, 9.5 mm.; tarsus, 18 mm.

Although Bell's Vireo seems to have been observed uncommonly in
Coahuila, this species does breed in the State. Burleigh and Lowery
(1942:202) obtained a single female _V. b. medius_ on April 20 "in an
arroyo east of Saltillo" and found this subspecies "not uncommon in the
open desert twenty miles west of Saltillo, where three singing males
were secured." Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:226)
recorded _V. b. medius_ in breeding condition at Hipólito from June 30
to July 3. Ridgway (1904:207) recorded the subspecies from Monclova.
Hardy saw a Bell's Vireo at Parras on July 4, 1955. The size of No.
31495 is typical for _V. b. medius_.

*_Vireo flavifrons_ Vieillot.--_Specimen examined:_ one, [Male] 32103,
from 2 mi. W Jiménez, 850 ft., June 20, 1952.

Van Hoose (1955:302-303) suggested that the occurrence of No. 32103 in
Coahuila is evidence of a southward extension of the range of the
Yellow-throated Vireo within the last generation. The size of the
testes (5×3 mm.) of No. 32103 and the date (June 20) on which it was
obtained suggest breeding by _Vireo flavifrons_ in Coahuila.

_Vireo solitarius solitarius_ (Wilson).--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Female] 31640, from 9 mi. E Hermanas (=Canyon de Parajos in the Sierra
de Parajos Azule), 2100 ft., December 7, 1953.

This subspecies of the Solitary Vireo is an uncommon migrant or winter
visitant to Coahuila. Dickerman obtained No. 31540, whose skull was
unossified and whose ovary was small, in an oak and palm habitat. The
bright yellow flanks, large and yellow wing bars, and the uniform olive
green back indicate that this specimen is a typical representative of
_V. s. solitarius_. This subspecies was previously unrecorded in
Coahuila.

_Vireo solitarius cassinii_ Xantus.--_Specimens examined:_ total 2:
[Female] 35408 (skeleton only) from 5 mi. W, 3 mi. S Acebuches, 6200
ft., May 12, 1954; and [Male] 31589 from 20 mi. S Ocampo, 6200 ft.,
April 4, 1954, measurements: wing, 75 mm.; tail, 57 mm.; culmen, 10.5
mm.; weight, 14 gms.

This subspecies of the Solitary Vireo seems to be uncommon in Coahuila.
No. 31589 provides the first record of _V. s. cassinii_ in Coahuila.
Van Hoose has (1955:303) erroneously reported that Dickerman obtained
No. 31589 on July 4, 1954; the correct date is April 4, 1954.

Although the size of No. 31589 is large for _V. s. cassinii_, the color
(sides and flanks with less yellow, more olive; narrow white wing bars)
resembles that of typical representatives of _cassinii_. The testes of
No. 31589 were not enlarged. Dickerman suggested that the female from 5
mi. W and 3 mi. S Acebuches showed some resemblance to _V. s.
plumbeus_. This is not to be unexpected since the subspecies _plumbeus_
has been reported from the Chisos Mountains of Texas (Van Tyne and
Sutton, 1937:82) and from northern Chihuahua (Miller, Friedmann,
Griscom, and Moore, 1957:227).

*_Vireo olivaceus_ (Linnaeus).--_Specimen examined:_ one, [Male] 32104,
from 12 mi. N, 12 mi. W Jiménez, 850 ft., June 19, 1952.

The Red-eyed Vireo has been uncommonly reported from eastern Coahuila.
Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:229) recorded _V.
olivaceus_ from Sabinas on May 22 and from Las Vacas Creek on June 7 as
late spring migrants. Hellmayr (1935:131) listed the Red-eyed Vireo
from northern Coahuila. Findley saw a Red-eyed Vireo 2 mi. W Jiménez on
June 19, 1952. The size of the testes (5×3 mm.) of No. 32104 and the
date (June 19) on which it was obtained indicate that the Red-eyed
Vireo possibly breeds in northeastern Coahuila; if so, this is the
first breeding record of the Red-eyed Vireo in Coahuila.

_Vireo gilvus gilvus_ (Vieillot).--This subspecies of the Warbling
Vireo is an uncommon migrant in Coahuila. Miller, Friedmann, Griscom,
and Moore (1957:232) recorded _V. g. gilvus_ from 12 mi. W Saltillo on
September 28.

_Mniotilta varia_ (Linnaeus).--_Specimen examined:_ one, [Male] 31662,
from the north slope of Sierra Guadalupe (=11 mi. S, 7 mi. W General
Cepeda), 7800 ft., April 20, 1953, weight, 10 gms., testes not
enlarged.

The Black and White Warbler is an uncommon visitant or migrant in
Coahuila. Miller (1955a:172) remarked that Marsh took a fall migrant on
September 1 in Chuperosa Canyon in the Sierra del Carmen. Burleigh and
Lowery (1942:202) secured a female Black and White Warbler "in an
orchard on the outskirts of Saltillo" on April 20 and a male "near the
top of Diamante Pass on April 23."

_Vermivora celata celata_ (Say).--_Specimens examined:_ total 2: sex ?
31091 from the Río Grande (=17 mi. S Dryden, Terrell Co., Texas, in
Coahuila), 600 ft., March 19, 1952, measurements: wing, 57 mm.; tail,
47 mm.; weight, 7.7 gms.; and [Male] 31092 from 4 mi. W Hacienda La
Mariposa, 2300 ft., March 25, 1952, measurements: wing, 62 mm.; tail,
48 mm.; weight, 9.2 gms.

This subspecies of the Orange-crowned Warbler is an uncommon migrant in
Coahuila. In Brewster County, Texas, Van Tyne and Sutton (1937:83)
found _V. c. celata_ "not common as a spring transient." Miller,
Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:239) recorded _V. c. celata_ from
Coahuila. The quality of the pale yellow color and the sizes of Nos.
31091-31092 suggest that they are representatives of _V. c. celata_.

_Vermivora celata orestera_ Oberholser.--Burleigh and Lowery (1942:202)
found _V. c. orestera_ "only on infrequent occasions ... in the open
woods surrounding the summit of Diamante Pass" where they obtained one
specimen.

_Vermivora virginiae_ (Baird).--Miller (1955a:172) took a male
Virginia's Warbler in Boquillas Canyon in the Sierra del Carmen "in
scattered scrubby oak growth with grass and cactus beneath." This
species in the Sierra del Carmen is considered "casual" by Miller,
Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:241).

**_Vermivora crissalis_ (Salvin and Godman).--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Male] 31590, from 20 mi. S Ocampo, 7000 ft., April 5, 1954, weight, 10
gms.

The Colima Warbler is common locally in Coahuila. Burleigh and Lowery
(1942:203) found this species fairly common on the steep, rugged slopes
above the summit of Diamante Pass and saw none below an elevation of
approximately 7500 feet. Bangs (1925:251) stated that Nelson and
Goldman secured a specimen of the Colima Warbler at Sierra Guadalupe on
April 25.

*_Vermivora superciliosa mexicana_ (Bonaparte).--_Specimen examined:_
one, [Male] 31591, from 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas, 9350 ft.,
April 10, 1954.

Hartlaub's Warbler is uncommon in Coahuila and seems to occur only in
the southeastern section of the State; No. 31591 is the first record of
the species in Coahuila. The size of the testes (5×2 mm.) of No. 31591
and the fact that the bird was singing when first seen suggest the
possibility that _V. s. mexicana_ breeds in southeastern Coahuila.
Breeding there is not unexpected because the species has been found
breeding in Nuevo León (Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore,
1957:242).

_Parula americana_ (Linnaeus).--Miller (1955a:172) obtained a migrant
Parula Warbler in an oak grove at 7000 feet on April 16 in the Sierra
del Carmen, and remarked that it was "apparently the first record of
this species in Coahuila."

*_Parula pitiayumi nigrilora_ Coues.--The AOU Check-list Committee
(1957:486) recorded this subspecies of the Olive-backed Warbler as a
resident at Sabinas.

*_Peucedramus taeniatus arizonae_ Miller and Griscom.--This subspecies
of the Olive Warbler is locally common in Coahuila. Miller (1955a:172)
found _P. t. arizonae_ common in the pine timber above 6800 feet in the
Sierra del Carmen and suggested that this warbler breeds in these
mountains. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:203) found the Olive Warbler in a
thick pine wood at an elevation of 9500 to 10,000 feet and remarked
that this species was "decidedly uncommon in the Diamante Pass area."
They (_loc. cit._) obtained a female (not identified to subspecies) on
April 23 that had a "well developed brood patch and was unquestionably
incubating eggs." Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:40) took a single female
at Diamante Pass on March 6 which also was not identified to
subspecies. Dickerman saw Olive Warblers in the Sierra de la Madera on
December 13, 1953, and 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas on April
10, 1954.

_Dendroica petechia morcomi_ Coale.--Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and
Moore (1957:246) reported this subspecies of the Yellow Warbler as
having been recorded from Coahuila.

_Dendroica auduboni auduboni_ (Townsend).--_Specimens examined:_ total
2: [Male] 31094 (skeleton only) from Fortín (=33 mi. N, 1 mi. E San
Gerónimo), 3300 ft., March 29, 1952; and [Male] 31093 from 4 mi. W
Hacienda La Mariposa, 2300 ft., March 25, 1952, weight, 12.3 gms.

Audubon's Warbler is a common winter visitant and migrant in Coahuila.
Miller (1955a:173) recorded _D. a. auduboni_ as a migrant from April 7
to 26 in the Sierra del Carmen; he found no suggestion of breeding by
the Audubon's Warbler in the northwestern section of the State. One
individual that Miller (_loc. cit._) obtained was extensively black and
approached the characters of the subspecies _nigrifrons_ of Chihuahua.
He (_loc. cit._) suggested that the black individual was taken from
"part of a cline of blackness and size in which _D. a. auduboni_ of the
northwest and _D. a. nigrifrons_ of Mexico are extremes." Burleigh and
Lowery (1942:203) remarked that Audubon's Warbler "is doubtless a
common winter bird in the area around Saltillo." Two specimens obtained
by Burleigh and Lowery (_loc. cit._) "might be considered intermediate"
between _auduboni_ and _memorabilis_. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:40)
saw Audubon's Warbler "in some numbers near San Pedro ... [on] January
29 and 30." Dickerman saw Audubon's Warblers 13 mi. E San Antonio de
las Alazanas on April 10, 1954. Miller (1955a:173) also obtained, in
the Sierra del Carmen, a hybrid between _D. coronata_ and _D.
auduboni_.

_Dendroica auduboni memorabilis_ Oberholser.--Oberholser (1921:246)
recorded _D. a. memorabilis_ from Saltillo on April 17. This subspecies
seems to winter commonly in western México and less commonly in the
Central Plateau and Sierra Madre Oriental (Miller, Friedmann, Griscom,
and Moore, 1957:249-250).

_Dendroica nigrescens_ (Townsend).--_Specimen examined:_ one, [Male]
31095, from Fortín (=33 mi. N, 8 mi. W San Gerónimo), 3300 ft., March
28, 1952, weight, 9.3 gms.

The Black-throated Gray Warbler is an uncommon spring and possibly fall
migrant in Coahuila. Miller (1955a:173) found _D. nigrescens_ uncommon
in the Sierra del Carmen. He saw and heard a spring migrant singing on
April 12 at 7000 feet and obtained a male on April 16.

_Dendroica townsendi_ (Townsend).--Townsend's Warbler is a spring and
fall migrant in Coahuila. Miller (1955a:173) recorded _D. townsendi_ on
September 2 at Jardín del Sur in Chuperosa Canyon in the Sierra del
Carmen. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:203) saw two individuals of
Townsend's Warbler at Diamante Pass on April 14. Amadon and Phillips
(1947:578) secured this species "in mesquite about twenty miles west of
Saltillo on August 28." Dickerman saw Townsend's Warblers in the Sierra
de la Madera on December 13, 1953; 20 mi. S Ocampo on April 4, 1954;
and 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas on April 10, 1954.

_Dendroica virens_ (Gmelin).--Dickerman saw one Black-throated Green
Warbler 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas, 9350 feet, on April 10,
1954, in a white pine-Douglas fir-aspen association. This seems to be
the first record of this species in Coahuila.

*_Dendroica chrysoparia_ Sclater and Salvin.--Miller, Friedmann,
Griscom, and Moore (1957:251) listed the Golden-cheeked Warbler from
Hipólito on July 3.

_Dendroica occidentalis_ (Townsend).--_Specimen examined:_ one, [Male]
31592, from 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas, April 10, 1954.

The Hermit Warbler seems to be an uncommon spring and probably fall
migrant in Coahuila. Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:252)
reported _D. occidentalis_ from the State. No. 31592, whose testes were
not enlarged, was obtained in a pine-spruce-aspen association.

_Geothlypis trichas brachidactylus_ (Swainson).--Miller, Friedmann,
Griscom, and Moore (1957:261) listed this subspecies of the
Yellowthroat as recorded from Coahuila.

_Geothlypis trichas occidentalis_ Brewster.--Burleigh and Lowery
(1942:204) found the Yellowthroat "only on the outskirts of Saltillo,
where ... [this species] was not uncommon in the thickets, especially
around a small stand of marsh grass bordering a pond." Three males that
Burleigh and Lowery (_loc. cit._) obtained were tentatively identified
as _G. t. occidentalis_. Dickerman saw one male Yellowthroat at San
Marcos (=20 mi. S Cuatro Ciénegas) on May 4, 1954.

_Geothlypis nelsoni nelsoni_ Richmond.--Burleigh and Lowery (1942:204)
noted the Hooded Yellowthroat "only on the open slopes above the summit
of Diamante Pass at an elevation of about 8,000 feet" where they
obtained an adult male.

*_Icteria virens virens_ (Linnaeus).--_Specimens examined:_ total 3:
[Male] [Male] 32105-32106 from 12 mi. N, 12 mi. W Jiménez, 850 ft.,
June 19, 1952; and [Female] 32107 from 2 mi. W Jiménez, 850 ft., June
20, 1952.

From the paucity of records in the literature, I judge that the
Yellow-breasted Chat is uncommon in Coahuila. Miller, Friedmann,
Griscom, and Moore (1957:265) listed _I. v. virens_ from Coahuila.
Findley saw a Yellow-breasted Chat 2 mi. S and 3 mi. E San Juan de
Sabinas on June 22, 1952. The sizes of the testes (7×4 mm.; 12 mm.) of
Nos. 32105-32106, the size of the largest ovum (2 mm.) of No. 32107,
and the dates (June 19, 20) on which these specimens were obtained
indicate breeding by _I. v. virens_ in northeastern Coahuila, an area
southwest of the previously documented breeding range.

**_Icteria virens auricollis_ (Deppe).--Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and
Moore (1957:264) listed this subspecies of the Yellow-breasted Chat as
recorded from Coahuila.

_Wilsonia pusilla pileolata_ (Pallas).--_Specimens examined:_ total 3:
[Male] 31501 and [Female] 31500 from Sierra del Pino (=5 mi. S, 3 mi. W
Acebuches), May 13 and 14, 1954, measurements: wing, 59, 55 mm.; tail,
50, 49 mm.; culmen, 8, 8.5 mm.; tarsus, 16, 16 mm.; weight: 6, 7 gms.;
and [Male] 31663 from the north foot of Sierra Guadalupe (=10 mi. S, 5
mi. W General Cepeda), 6500 ft., April 21, 1953, measurements: wing, 58
mm.; tail, 46 mm.; culmen, 8.5 mm.; tarsus, 16 mm.; weight, 7 gms.

Wilson's Warbler is a common spring and probably fall migrant in
Coahuila. Miller (1955a:173) took spring migrants of _W. p. pileolata_
from April 9 to April 27; he found _W. p. pileolata_ at 4800 feet and
at 7000 feet. Amadon and Phillips (1947:579) saw a Wilson's Warbler at
Las Delicias on August 17. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:204) found
Wilson's Warbler to be the most abundant of the warblers that they
recorded in southeastern Coahuila. They saw _W. p. pileolata_ on the
top of the high ridges and in the arid desert country in the
southeastern section of the State. Several specimens were collected by
Burleigh and Lowery (_loc. cit._) including an immature male from the
Chorro del Agua on April 19. Dickerman saw Wilson's Warblers 16 mi. E
and 18 mi. N Ocampo on May 7, 1954, and at San Marcos (=20 mi. S Cuatro
Ciénegas) on May 4, 1954. The sizes of our specimens as well as their
color (bright olive-green above, bright yellow below) are typical for
the subspecies _pileolata_.

_Setophaga ruticilla ruticilla_ (Linnaeus).--The American Redstart
seems to be uncommon in Coahuila. Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore
(1957:268) listed one specimen of _S. r. ruticilla_ from the State.

*_Setophaga picta picta_ Swainson.--_Specimens examined:_ total 2: sex
? 31096 from 26 mi. W Santa Teresa, 7050 ft., April 5, 1952; and [Male]
31671 from Cañon d. Meco in Sierra Guadalupe (=10 mi. S General
Cepeda), April 23, 1953, weight, 11 gms.

The Painted Redstart seems to be locally common in Coahuila. Miller
(1955a:173) found these warblers breeding in the Sierra del Carmen and
said that they were "common from 6000 to 7500 feet in canyon bottom
growth, in oaks, and in mixed pines and oaks;" however, he did not see
any of these warblers above 7500 feet where conifers tended to dominate
the vegetation. Marsh and Stevenson (1938:287) obtained a male Painted
Redstart in annual molt on August 11 in oak and juniper forest at
Vivoras Spring in the Sierra del Carmen and reported seeing two other
Painted Redstarts at 9000 feet (see also Miller, 1955a:173). Dickerman
also saw seven Painted Redstarts 20 mi. S Ocampo on April 4, 1954. The
size of the testes (7×4 mm.) of No. 31671 suggests breeding by _S. p.
picta_ in the Sierra Guadalupe.

**_Passer domesticus domesticus_ (Linnaeus).--Burleigh and Lowery
(1942:204) remarked that the House Sparrow was not "a common bird
around Saltillo" although they noticed _P. d. domesticus_ regularly.
They reported House Sparrows also from the Chorro del Agua and in the
high mountain valley south of Diamante Pass. Miller, Friedmann,
Griscom, and Moore (1957:275) recorded _P. d. domesticus_ from Sabinas.
Baker captured House Sparrows in a bat net 12 mi. E San Antonio de las
Alazanas, 9950 feet, on July 5, 1955. Although there are no other
records, the House Sparrow is probably fairly common in the villages
and towns of the State.

[**_Sturnella magna hoopesi_ Stone.--The Eastern Meadowlark is uncommon
in Coahuila. The AOU Check-list Committee (1957:523) listed this
subspecies of the Eastern Meadowlark from northern Coahuila.]

**_Sturnella neglecta neglecta_ Audubon.--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Female] 31098, from the Río Grande (=17 mi. S Dryden, Terrell Co.,
Texas, in Coahuila), 600 ft., March 18, 1952, weight, 71.8 gms.

This subspecies of the Western Meadowlark seems to be locally common in
the open country of Coahuila. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:205) found this
meadowlark common "about Saltillo" where a "small series" of _S.
neglecta_ was obtained. Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore
(1957:295) recorded the Western Meadowlark from El Diamante on July 7.
To my knowledge, no specific breeding records of this meadowlark from
Coahuila exist.

**_Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus_ (Bonaparte).--_Specimen examined:_
one, [Male] 32494 (skeleton only) from Las Margaritas, August 4, 1955.

The Yellow-headed Blackbird occurs in Coahuila in migration. Miller
(1955a:173) found this blackbird at Noria "in the flats immediately
east of the Sierra del Carmen" on April 28, and reported also that
Marsh took a male in worn breeding plumage on July 24 at Tanque de los
Melones on La Bavia Ranch east of Fresno Mesa. Amadon and Phillips
(1947:579) took two adult males at Las Delicias on August 11 and 15.
Dickerman also saw a female 8 mi. E and 2 mi. S Americanos on May 18,
1954. Van Hoose saw a male at Torreón on July 2, 1955.

*_Agelaius phoeniceus megapotamus_ Oberholser.--_Specimens examined:_
total 5: [Male] 32124, [Female] 32126, and [Female] 32128 from 12 mi.
N, 12 mi. W Jiménez, 850 ft., June 19, 1952; [Male] 32125 from 2 mi. W
Jiménez, 850 ft., June 20, 1952; and [Female] 32127 from 9 mi. S, 11
mi. E Sabinas, June 14, 1952.

This subspecies of the Redwinged Blackbird is common in eastern
Coahuila. There are no records of the species from western Coahuila.
Burleigh and Lowery (1942:205) obtained a male at "the edge of
Saltillo" on April 24. Oberholser (1919a:23) recorded _A. p.
megapotamus_ from Porfirio Diaz on June 2, 5, and 6. The presence of
juveniles (32126, 32128) from 12 mi. N and 12 mi. W Jiménez and (32125)
from 2 mi. W Jiménez, respectively, and the dates (June 14, 19, 20) on
which the University of Kansas specimens were obtained are evidence of
breeding by _A. p. megapotamus_ in northeastern Coahuila.

*_Icterus spurius_ (Linnaeus).--_Specimens examined:_ total 8: [Male]
[Male] 31536-31537 from 12 mi. N, 12 mi. W Jiménez, 850 ft., June 19,
1952; [Male] 31538 from 2 mi. S, 3 mi. E San Juan de Sabinas, 1160 ft.,
June 23, 1952; [Male] [Male] 32605-32607 from Parras, July 4, 1955;
[Male] 32604 and [Female] 32603 from Hacienda San Lorenzo, July 3,
1955, weights, 19.4, 18.5 gms.

The Orchard Oriole seems to occur fairly commonly in eastern and
southern Coahuila and breeds in the State. Amadon and Phillips
(1947:579) reported that Orchard Orioles were common in the desert
"about Las Delicias" in August and September and probably were
migrants. Dickerman collected Nos. 32605-32606 along an irrigated
field-edge that consisted of cottonwood and oak; he obtained Nos.
32603-32604 in an irrigated pecan orchard. The sizes of the testes
(10×5 mm.; 10×5 mm.; 8×7 mm.; 8×7 mm.; 10×8 mm.) of Nos. 31536, 31537,
32605, and 32604, respectively, and the size of the largest ovum (2
mm.) of No. 32603 as well as the dates (June 19, 23; July 3, 4) on
which all these specimens were collected indicate breeding by this
species in the State.

*_Icterus cucullatus cucullatus_ Swainson.--_Specimens examined:_ total
2: [Male] 32123 from 2 mi. W Jiménez, 850 ft., June 21, 1952; and
[Male] 32122 from 2 mi. S, 3 mi. E San Juan de Sabinas, 1160 ft., June
23, 1952.

The Hooded Oriole apparently is uncommon in Coahuila. Miller,
Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:290) listed _I. c. cucullatus_ from
Sabinas. The size of the testes (11×6 mm.) of No. 32122 and the dates
(June 21, 23) on which Nos. 32123 and 32122 were collected as well as
the juvenile male (tail, 80.5 mm.) from 2 mi. W Jiménez suggest
breeding by this subspecies in Coahuila.

*_Icterus parisorum_ Bonaparte.--_Specimen examined:_ one, [Female]
32121, from 7 mi. S, 4 mi. E Bella Unión, 7200 ft., June 25, 1952.

Scott's Oriole is common in Coahuila. Miller (1955a:173) found this
oriole breeding in the canyons at the base of the Sierra del Carmen.
Burleigh and Lowery (1942:205) found this oriole limited to the higher
altitudes above 7000 feet, and took specimens at Diamante Pass and at
the Chorro del Agua on April 19. Amadon and Phillips (1947:579) found
Scott's Oriole "not uncommon in the arroyos near Las Delicias" and
reported a juvenile "barely out of the nest and able to fly only a few
feet ..." on August 15. No. 32121 had an egg in its oviduct. Dickerman
saw Scott's Orioles in the Sierra del Pino on May 12, 1954, and 16 mi.
E and 18 mi. N Ocampo on May 7, 1954.

**_Icterus wagleri wagleri_ Sclater.--Ridgway (1902:268) recorded
_Icterus wagleri_ from Saltillo. Hellmayr (1937:122-123) referred this
record of Wagler's Oriole to _I. w. wagleri_.

*_Icterus bullockii bullockii_ (Swainson).--This subspecies of
Bullock's Oriole was listed as breeding by Miller, Friedmann, Griscom,
and Moore (1957:282) at Monclova on May 12-19.

_Euphagus cyanocephalus_ (Wagler).--Brewer's Blackbird is a common
migrant in Coahuila. Miller (1955a:174) found a few as migrants in the
Sierra del Carmen on April 27. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:205) remarked
that "this blackbird was characteristically a bird of the towns and
villages, the scattered flocks being invariably seen feeding in the
streets and near the houses." They (_loc. cit._) obtained three
specimens at Diamante Valley on April 23 and remarked that the
departure of these birds in spring was "extremely late."

_*Cassidix mexicanus prosopidicola_ Lowery.--_Specimens examined:_
total 3: [Female] 32893 from Parras, July 4, 1955, weight, 98.8 gms.;
and [Male] [Male] 35418-35419 from Torreón, January 8, 1954.

This subspecies of Boat-tailed Grackle has been recorded from several
localities in Coahuila. In southeastern Coahuila, Burleigh and Lowery
(1942:205-206) noted this grackle "somewhat local in its distribution;
it was found in cultivated fields about the towns and villages." These
authors noted it at Saltillo, the Chorro del Agua, and "occasionally in
the open valley south of Diamante Pass" and obtained specimens from
"near Saltillo" and Diamante Valley. On August 18 Amadon and Phillips
(1947:579) found _C. m. prosopidicola_ at Las Delicias where "a fledged
young was noticed begging for food...." Lowery (1938:4) recorded one
specimen of _C. m. prosopidicola_ from Monclova. Findley saw
Boat-tailed Grackles 2 mi. W Jiménez on June 19, 1952, and 2 mi. S and
11 mi. E Nava on June 15, 1952.

The distribution and intergradation of Boat-tailed Grackles in Coahuila
is presently poorly understood. _C. m. prosopidicola_ from southeastern
Coahuila may approach _C. m. mexicanus_, and there is probable
intergradation of _prosopidicola_ with _monsoni_ in northwestern
Coahuila (Phillips, 1950:78).

_Molothrus ater ater_ (Boddaert).--_Specimen examined:_ one, [Female]
31513, from 21 mi. S, 11 mi. E Australia, 4400 ft., May 3, 1954,
measurements: wing, 102 mm.; tail, 64 mm.; tarsus, 26 mm.; culmen, 17
mm.

This subspecies of the Brown-headed Cowbird is uncommon in Coahuila.
Amadon and Phillips (1947:579) took an adult male and a juvenile female
_M. a. ater_ at Las Delicias on August 15, both of which were
considered early migrants. Dickerman obtained No. 31513 from a flock of
eight cowbirds. Although the measurements of this specimen agree
equally well with those of _M. a. ater_ and _M. a. artemisiae_
(Grinnell, 1909:275-281), the shape of the bill most closely resembles
that of _ater_. Grinnell (1909:278) said that "_ater_ has a tumid bill,
broad and high at [the] base with [a] conspicuously arched culmen"
whereas "_artemisiae_ has a longer and relatively much slenderer bill,
vertically shallow at [the] base and laterally compressed, with the
culmen in its greater portion straight or even slightly depressed." The
size of the ovary (8×4 mm.) of No. 31513 and the date (May 3) on which
it was obtained suggest that this individual was a late migrant, still
south of the breeding range of _M. a. ater_.

_Molothrus ater artemisiae_ Grinnell.--This subspecies of the
Brown-headed Cowbird is an uncommon migrant in Coahuila. Amadon and
Phillips (1947:579) obtained, at Las Delicias, a juvenile male on
August 15 and an adult male on August 17.

*_Molothrus ater obscurus_ (Gmelin).--_Specimens examined:_ total 18:
[Male] [Male] 32112-32115 from 12 mi. N, 12 mi. W Jiménez, 850 ft.,
June 18 and 19, 1952; [Male] [Male] 32108-32111, [Male] 32116, and
[Female] [Female] 32117-32120 from 2 mi. W Jiménez, 850 ft., June 20,
1952; [Female] 32491 from Las Margaritas, August 4, 1955; [Male] 31511
and [Female] 31510 from 16 mi. E, 18 mi. N Ocampo, May 8 and 7, 1952;
and [Male] [Male] 35409-35410 (skeletons only) from 4 mi. N San Isidro,
May 11, 1954.

This subspecies of the Brown-headed Cowbird is common in Coahuila and
breeds there. Amadon and Phillips (1947:579) suggested that _M. a.
obscurus_ breeds at Las Delicias. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:206) saw
the Brown-headed Cowbird in "small numbers on the outskirts of
Saltillo...."

Measurements of the adult males that I have examined are: wing, 101.1
mm. (97-106); tail, 66.5 mm. (62-69); tarsus, 25.6 mm. (24.5-28);
culmen, 17.3 mm. (16-18.5). Measurements of the adult females that I
have examined are: wing, 92.3 mm. (90-97); tail, 60.1 mm. (56.5-62.5);
tarsus, 23.5 mm. (22.5-24); culmen, 14.4 mm. (14-15). The sizes of the
testes of three of the males (6-7 mm. long) and of the largest ova of
four of the females (6-9 mm. in diameter) indicate breeding by this
subspecies in Coahuila, as does the small size of one of the juvenile
males (tail, 33.5 mm. long).

_Piranga ludoviciana_ (Wilson).--In Coahuila the Western Tanager occurs
fairly commonly as a migrant. There are no records of it breeding in
the State. Miller (1955a:174) remarked that Marsh took a migrant
Western Tanager at Jardín del Sur in the Sierra del Carmen on September
7. Amadon and Phillips (1947:579) took an adult male Western Tanager at
Las Delicias on August 12. Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore
(1957:305) also recorded this tanager from 12 mi. W Saltillo. Dickerman
saw Western Tanagers in the Sierra del Pino on May 12, 1954, and 16 mi.
E and 18 mi. N Ocampo on May 7, 1954.

*_Piranga flava dextra_ Bangs.--_Specimen examined:_ one, [Male] 31526,
from Sierra del Pino (=5 mi. S, 3 mi. W Acebuches), May 12, 1954,
weight, 41 gms.

Miller (1955a:174) found this subspecies of the Hepatic Tanager "in the
pine-oak belt at 7000 feet on April 12 [in the Sierra del Carmen], when
a male was seen and a female taken." No. 31526 was with a female when
taken; this male was not fat and its testes were not enlarged. The size
of the wing (105.5 mm.) of No. 31526 represents the extreme maximum in
this subspecies.

_Piranga flava hepatica_ (Swainson).--Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and
Moore (1957:303) stated that _P. f. hepatica_ is found in northwestern
and central Arizona and southwestern New Mexico south into the
highlands of México, west of the Sierra Madre Oriental, to Oaxaca and
in winter and migration extends eastward and south to Chiapas. These
authors remarked also that _P. f. dextra_ occurs in the mountains east
of the continental divide in New Mexico and western Texas south through
eastern México to Chiapas. Specimens of the Hepatic Tanager from
Coahuila in winter might well be either _P. f. hepatic_ or _P. f.
dextra_. Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (_loc. cit._) recorded
migrants of _P. f. hepatica_ from the Sierra de Guadalupe on April
24-27.

*_Piranga rubra rubra_ (Linnaeus).--_Specimens examined:_ total 6:
[Male] 32129, [Male] 32132, and [Female] 32133 from 12 mi. N, 12 mi. W
Jiménez, 850 ft., June 18 and 19, 1952; [Male] 32130 from 2 mi. W
Jiménez, 850 ft., June 20, 1952; and [Male] 32131 and [Female] 32134
from 2 mi. S, 11 mi. E Nava, June 15, 1952.

This Summer Tanager occurs in northeastern Coahuila. The specimens from
12 mi. N and 12 mi. W Jiménez, 2 mi. W Jiménez, and 2 mi. S and 11 mi.
E Nava are typical representatives of _P. r. rubra_. The large testes
(12 mm.) of No. 32129 and the well-developed brood patch of No. 32134
are evidence of breeding by this subspecies in the State. Heretofore
this subspecies has not been recorded from Coahuila.

*_Piranga rubra cooperi_ Ridgway.--_Specimens examined:_ total 4:
[Male] [Male] 32828-32829, [Male] 32831, and [Female] 32830 from
Parras, July 4, 1955.

This subspecies of Summer Tanager seems to occur throughout Coahuila
except in the northeastern section of the State. Miller, Friedmann,
Griscom, and Moore (1957:302) listed _P. r. cooperi_ from Sabinas and
Sierra de Guadalupe. Miller (1955a:174) saw a Summer Tanager in a
canyon in the Serranías de Burros, about 40 miles east of the Sierra
del Carmen on April 28. Although there are no other records of _P. r.
cooperi_ from northwestern Coahuila, Van Tyne and Sutton (1937:96)
recorded this tanager as a common nesting species in Brewster County,
Texas, in cottonwood, mesquite, or willow trees. I suspect that _P. r.
cooperi_ is a common nesting bird in northwestern Coahuila as well.

Nos. 32828-32831 approach _P. r. rubra_. The measurements of No. 32829
are: wing, 98 mm.; tail, 80 mm.; the measurements of No. 32831 are:
wing, 98 mm.; tail, 79 mm. The specimens of _P. r. cooperi_ from Parras
are somewhat small and seemingly approach _P. r. rubra_. The sizes of
the testes (8×5 mm.; 9×5 mm.) of Nos. 32829 and 32831, respectively,
and the size of the largest ovum (4×4 mm.) of No. 32830 indicate
breeding by this subspecies in southern Coahuila, as does the presence
of No. 32828, a juvenile male.

*_Richmondena cardinalis canicaudus_ (Chapman).--_Specimens examined:_
total 3: [Male] 31099 from 1 mi. N Boquillas, 700 ft., March 8, 1952,
weight, 45.3 gms.; [Male] 32135 from 2 mi. W Jiménez, 850 ft., June 20,
1952; and [Male] 32136 from 2 mi. S, 3 mi. E San Juan de Sabinas, June
22, 1952.

In Coahuila the Cardinal is common. Miller (1955a:174) found it singing
in the Boquillas drainage of the Sierra del Carmen at 4800 feet, and
gave evidence that the Cardinal breeds there. Sutton and Burleigh
(1939a:43) found the species to be common in the low country "east of
Saltillo." Hellmayr (1938:69) recorded _R. c. canicaudus_ from Sabinas.
The sizes of the testes (9 mm.; 7×4 mm.) of Nos. 32135-32136 indicate
breeding by this subspecies in northeastern Coahuila.

*_Pyrrhuloxia sinuata sinuata_ (Bonaparte).--_Specimens examined:_
total 4: [Male] 31100 from 10 mi. S, 5 mi. E Boquillas, 1500 ft., March
4, 1952, weight, 37.3 gms.; [Male] 32137 from 5 mi. N, 19 mi. W Cuatro
Ciénegas, 3250 ft., July 5, 1952; [Male] 35403 (skeleton only) from San
Marcos, May 5, 1954; and [Male] 30234 from 3 mi. SE Torreón, 3800 ft.,
January 12, 1951.

In Coahuila, the Pyrrhuloxia is common. Hellmayr (1938:76) listed it
from Sabinas. Ridgway (1901:628) recorded _P. s. texana_ (=_sinuata_)
from La Ventura. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:206) found the species "only
in the open desert country west of Saltillo where, on April 22, several
pairs were seen in a small arroyo." Amadon and Phillips (1947:579) took
an immature _P. s. sinuata_ at Las Delicias; Sutton and Burleigh
(1939a:43-44) found this subspecies fairly common in the San Pedro
district on January 29 and 30. Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore
(1957:330) recorded breeding by _P. s. sinuata_ at Hipólito on July 2.
The size of the testes (8 mm.) of No. 32137 indicates breeding in
central Coahuila.

*_Pheucticus melanocephalus melanocephalus_ (Swainson).--_Specimen
examined:_ one, [Male] 31664, from Sierra Guadalupe (=10 mi. S, 5 mi. W
General Cepeda), 7500 ft., April 30, 1953, measurements: wing, 105.5
mm.; tail, 78 mm.; culmen, 19 mm.; weight, 48 gms.

Miller (1955a:174) reported that the Black-headed Grosbeak first
appeared in the Sierra del Carmen on April 13 and was soon seen
patrolling territories. He remarked that these specimens from the
Sierra del Carmen conformed adequately with the rather poorly
differentiated race _P. m. melanocephalus_ and stated that Marsh took
an immature male at Jardín del Sur on September 7. Oberholser
(1919b:416) listed _Hedymeles melanocephalus papago_ (=_P. m.
melanocephalus_) from Sierra Guadalupe on April 27. Dickerman saw
Black-headed Grosbeaks in the Sierra del Pino on May 12, 1954, and 16
mi. E and 18 mi. N Ocampo on May 7, 1954. The size of No. 31664
represents the characters of _P. m. melanocephalus_ as presented by
Oberholser (1919b:413). No specimen of _P. m. melanocephalus_ from
Coahuila, to my knowledge, approaches _P. m. maculatus_. The size of
the testes (7×5 mm.) of No. 31664 suggests breeding by this subspecies
in the Sierra Guadalupe.

*_Guiraca caerulea interfusa_ Dwight and Griscom.--_Specimens
examined:_ total 2: [Male] 32138 from 12 mi. N, 12 mi. W Jiménez, 850
ft., June 18, 1952; and [Female] 32139 from 2 mi. W Jiménez, 850 ft.,
June 21, 1952.

Burleigh and Lowery (1942:206) recorded this Blue Grosbeak from "about
twenty miles west of Saltillo" on April 22. Miller (1955a:174) stated
that Marsh obtained a male _G. c. interfusa_ at Vivoras Spring on
August 3. Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:334) remarked
that the Blue Grosbeak breeds in the northern and eastern sections and
reported _G. c. interfusa_ from Hipólito on July 2. Amadon and Phillips
(1947:580) reported examining material from Sabinas referable to _G. c.
interfusa_. Dickerman saw Blue Grosbeaks 4 mi. N San Isidro on May 10,
1954. Findley saw Blue Grosbeaks 4 mi. W Jiménez on June 19, 1952, and
2 mi. S and 3 mi. E San Juan de Sabinas on June 22, 1952. Nos.
32138-32139 are typical representatives of _G. c. interfusa_. The size
of the testes (12 mm.) of No. 32138, the size of the largest ovum (2
mm.) of No. 32139, and the dates (June 18, 21) on which they were
collected are evidence of breeding by this subspecies.

**_Guiraca caerulea eurhyncha_ Coues.--Amadon and Phillips (1947:580)
obtained an adult male of this Blue Grosbeak from Las Delicias on
August 12. This subspecies, according to Miller, Friedmann, Griscom,
and Moore (1957:334), is resident at middle and lower elevations
through most of central and southern México. Except for the occurrence
of intergrades of _G. c. interfusa_, _caerulea_, and _eurhyncha_ in
southern Nuevo León and Tamaulipas (Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and
Moore, 1957:335), the record from Las Delicias represents the northern
limit of the range of the subspecies _eurhyncha_.

*_Passerina cyanea_ (Linnaeus).--_Specimen examined:_ one, [Male]
31544, from San Marcos, May 5, 1954.

The Indigo Bunting is rare in Coahuila. Van Hoose (1955:303) reported
that No. 31544 seems to provide the first record of the species in the
State. The Indigo Bunting is a summer resident in southwestern Oklahoma
and southeastern Texas (Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore,
1957:336). No. 31544 seemingly represents a large extension in the
summer range of the Indigo Bunting. Van Hoose (_loc. cit._) stated that
No. 31544 was observed chasing another male, and the pursuer in turn
was followed by a female; he thought that the territorial behavior of
this bird suggested breeding.

*_Passerina versicolor versicolor_ (Bonaparte).--_Specimens examined:_
total 2: [Male] 35414 from 6 mi. N, 2 mi. W Castillón, 3750 ft., June
30, 1953, weight, 8 gms.; and [Male] 35415 from 5 mi. S Castillón, 4150
ft., June 28, 1953.

Although the Varied Bunting has been recorded only from northwestern
Coahuila, I suspect that this bird is locally common throughout most of
the State. Miller (1955a:174) stated that the habitat of this species
consisted of catclaw-covered bottom lands at the base of the Sierra del
Carmen at 4700 feet. Miller's records indicate incipient breeding by
_P. v. versicolor_ in the Sierra del Carmen on April 26. The size of
the testes (11 mm.) of No. 35415 and the dates (June 28, 30) on which
Nos. 35414-35415 were collected are strong evidence of breeding by the
Varied Bunting 6 mi. N and 2 mi. W Castillón and 5 mi. S Castillón.

*_Passerina ciris pallidior_ Mearns.--_Specimens examined:_ total 6:
[Male] 32141 and [Female] 32142 from 2 mi. S, 11 mi. E Nava, 810 ft.,
June 15 and 16, 1952; [Male] 35416 from 6 mi. N, 2 mi. W Castillón,
3750 ft., June 29, 1953, weight, 15 gms.; [Male] 32140 from 2 mi. S, 3
mi. E San Juan de Sabinas, June 22, 1952; [Male] 31547 from 16 mi. N,
14 mi. E Ocampo, May 10, 1954, weight, 16 gms.; and [Male] 31546 from
San Marcos, May 5, 1954.

The Painted Bunting is a common summer resident in Coahuila. Marsh and
Stevenson (1938:287) wrote that Painted Buntings were common in summer
in the foothills of the Sierra del Carmen, and they took a male at
Piedra Blanca on July 25 and a female at Jardín del Sur on September 1.
Amadon and Phillips (1947:580) remarked that two immature Painted
Buntings, "apparently migrants, were taken at Las Delicias on August 10
and 11." Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:339) recorded
breeding by _P. c. pallidior_ at Hipólito, 4200 feet, on July 1.
Findley saw Painted Buntings 2 mi. S and 11 mi. E Nava on June 15,
1952. Dickerman saw Painted Buntings 4 mi. N San Isidro on May 10,
1954. Hardy saw Painted Buntings at Parras on July 4, 1955.

All the University of Kansas specimens are typical of the larger
subspecies _pallidior_. The dates (May 5, 10; June 15, 16, 22, 29) on
which these specimens were collected, the sizes of the testes (9×6 mm.;
6×5 mm.; 7×3 mm.) of Nos. 32140, 31547, and 31546, respectively, and
the size of the largest ovum (2.5 mm.) of No. 32142 indicate breeding
by _P. c. pallidior_ in Coahuila.

_Carpodacus cassinii_ Baird.--Cassin's Finch is an uncommon winter
migrant in Coahuila. Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:314)
listed _C. cassinii_ from Sierra Guadalupe.

*_Carpodacus mexicanus potosinus_ Griscom.--_Specimens examined:_ total
8: [Male] 35417 from 13 mi. S, 5 mi. W Castillón, 4000 ft., June 28,
1953, testes, 6 mm., weight, 19 gms.; [Female] 35411 (skeleton only)
from Sierra del Pino (=5 mi. W, 3 mi. S Acebuches), 6200 ft., May 14,
1954; [Male] 32145 from 5 mi. N, 19 mi. W Cuatro Ciénegas, 3250 ft.,
July 5, 1952; [Male] 32144 and [Female] 32147 from 3 mi. S, 3 mi. E
Bella Unión, 6750 ft., June 27, 1952, [Male] gonads, 7 mm.; [Male]
32143 and [Female] 32146 from 7 mi. S, 4 mi. E Bella Unión, 7200 ft.,
June 24, 1952; and [Male] 31675 from the west foot of Pico de Jimulco,
5000 ft., April 4, 1953, weight, 20 gms.

The House Finch is common in Coahuila. Miller (1955a:174) reported a
sparse population of this species in the foothills adjoining Boquillas
Canyon at 4800 feet of the Sierra del Carmen and observed young just
out of the nest on April 25. He remarked also that specimens of the
House Finch from the Sierra del Carmen seem to show no intergradation
toward _frontalis_. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:206) noted _C. m.
potosinus_ at "Saltillo, in the desert country west of there, at the
Chorro del Agua, and in the open valley south of Diamante Pass."
Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:316) listed breeding by _C.
m. potosinus_ at El Diamante on July 6. Dickerman also saw the House
Finch at San Marcos on May 4, 1954, and Hardy saw it at Parras on July
4, 1955. No. 32147 had a distinct brood patch; the largest ovum of No.
32146 was 7 mm. in diameter. No. 32145 was a juvenile male.

The University of Kansas specimens agree well with descriptions of _C.
m. potosinus_ as given by Moore (1939:195). No approach toward _C. m.
frontalis_, _centralis_, or _nigrescens_ is exhibited by any of these
specimens. No. 31675, from Pico de Jimulco in southwestern Coahuila, is
paler above and below than any other specimens of _C. m. potosinus_.
Also the crown of No. 31675 is suffused with more red than in typical
representatives of _C. m. potosinus_.

**_Spinus pinus pinus_ (Wilson).--_Specimen examined:_ one, sex ? 33219
(skeleton only) from 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas, 9950 ft.,
July 6, 1955.

On April 5, 7, and 21, Miller (1955a:175) recorded winter visitant or
vagrant flocks of Pine Siskins in the Sierra del Carmen. Miller,
Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:318) listed _S. p. pinus_ south to
Sierra Guadalupe. Dickerman saw Pine Siskins 13 mi. E San Antonio de
las Alazanas on April 10, 1954.

_Spinus pinus macropterus_ (Bonaparte).--Miller, Friedmann, Griscom,
and Moore (1957:319) recorded a vagrant _S. p. macropterus_ from 50 mi.
S Monclova, 2850 feet, on November 9.

_Spinus tristis pallidus_ Mearns.--_Specimen examined:_ one, [Female]
31101, from Fortín (=33 mi. N, 8 mi. W San Gerónimo), 3300 ft., March
28, 1952, weight, 11.5 gms.

The American Goldfinch is an uncommon migrant or winter visitant in
Coahuila. Hellmayr (1938:296) recorded _S. t. pallidus_ from Sabinas.
Fortín and Sabinas are the only places in Coahuila where _S. t.
pallidus_ has been collected. No. 31101 is a typical representative of
_S. t. pallidus_.

**_Spinus psaltria psaltria_ (Say).--_Specimens examined:_ total 7:
[Male] [Male] 32148-32149 and [Female] 32151 from 12 mi. N, 12 mi. W
Jiménez, 850 ft., June 19, 1952; [Male] 32150 from 2 mi. W Jiménez,
June 20, 1952; [Male] 33220 (skeleton only) from Parras, July 4, 1955;
and [Male] 32939 and [Female] 32940 from Mesa de las Tablas, July 7,
1955, weights, 9.5, 11 gms.

In Coahuila, the Lesser Goldfinch seems to be common. Although Miller
(1955a:175) did not find it in the Sierra del Carmen, he reported that
Marsh took a specimen on August 22 in Chuperosa Canyon that was
"presumed to" be _S. p. psaltria_. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:206)
observed the Lesser Goldfinch "on the outskirts of Saltillo in an
orchard on April 20."

Nos. 32148-32151 and 32940 were typical for the subspecies _psaltria_.
A partial albino (32939), which was obtained from a pine-oak-wheat
field edge, has upper parts that lack the black coloring of typical
representatives of _S. p. psaltria_. Instead the crown and back of No.
32939 is yellow, resembling the color of its underparts, the wing
coverts are white, and its primaries are black with white edgings.

*_Atlapetes pileatus dilutus_ Ridgway.--_Specimens examined:_ total 2:
[Male] 32942 and [Female] 32943 from 13 mi. E San Antonio de las
Alazanas, 9950 ft., July 6, 1955.

The Rufous-capped Atlapetes occurs uncommonly in southeastern Coahuila.
The male and female _A. p. dilutus_ from 13 mi. E San Antonio de las
Alazanas represent the first records of occurrence of this subspecies
in the State. The smaller size, grayer upper parts, and pale yellow
color of the underparts of Nos. 32942-32943 characterize the subspecies
_dilutus_. The size of the testes (7×6 mm.) of No. 32942 and the date
(July 6) on which both specimens were collected indicate breeding by
this species in Coahuila.

*_Arremonops rufivirgata rufivirgata_ (Lawrence).--_Specimens
examined:_ total 2: [Male] 32152 and [Female] 32153 from 2 mi. S, 3 mi.
E San Juan de Sabinas, June 22 and 23, 1952.

The Olive Sparrow is uncommon in Coahuila. Miller, Friedmann, Griscom,
and Moore (1957:349) listed _A. r. rufivirgata_ from Sabinas on
February 10. Sabinas and southeast of San Juan de Sabinas seem to be
the only localities in Coahuila where the Olive Sparrow has been
collected and also are at the westernmost extremity of range of this
species. The size of the testes (9×7 mm.) of No. 32152 and the dates of
collection indicate breeding by the Olive Sparrow in Coahuila.

_Chlorura chlorura_ (Audubon).--_Specimen examined:_ one, [Male] 30238,
from 1 mi. N San Lorenzo, 4200 ft., February 5, 1951.

The Green-tailed Towhee is a common migrant and winter visitant in
Coahuila; the species has been found at several localities. Miller
(1955a:175) noted several migrants "each day in the last week of
April ... at the mouth of Boquillas Canyon" of the Sierra del Carmen.
Burleigh and Lowery (1942:207) noted the species "in an arroyo in the
open desert country about twenty miles west of Saltillo on April 22."
Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:351) listed the
Green-tailed Towhee from 12 mi. W Saltillo on September 28 and from
Sabinas.

*_Piplio erythrophthalmus gaigei_ Van Tyne and Sutton.--_Specimens
examined:_ total 3: [Female] 31102 from Fortín (=33 mi. N, 8 mi. W San
Gerónimo), 3300 ft., March 28, 1952, weight, 38.8 gms.; [Male] 35412
(skeleton only) from Sierra del Pino (=5 mi. W, 3 mi. S Acebuches),
6200 ft., May 15, 1954, testes enlarged, weight, 34 gms.; and [Male]
31593 from 17 mi. S Ocampo, 5300 ft., April 7, 1954, weight, 38 gms.

The Rufous-sided Towhee is locally common in Coahuila; _P. e. gaigei_
is present in northern Coahuila. Miller (1955a:175) remarked that
"between 6800 and 7500 feet these towhees were sparsely distributed in
areas of scattered low ceanothus and hawthorne, chiefly in canyon
bottoms, but also on slopes where ceanothus was intermingled with
downed timber and young pines." He (_loc. cit._) indicated that the
adult obtained by Marsh from Vivoras Canyon on August 25 was _P. e.
gaigei_ rather than _P. maculatus montanus_ (see also Sibley,
1950:127). Dickerman saw Rufous-sided Towhees in the Sierra de la
Madera on December 13, 1953. I have referred Nos. 31102 and 31593 to
_gaigei_ although both are close to _orientalis_. The size of the
testes (14×8 mm.) of No. 31593 suggests breeding.

*_Piplio erythrophthalmus orientalis_ Sibley.--_Specimens examined:_
total 3: [Male] 32154 from 7 mi. S, 4 mi. E Bella Unión, 7200 ft., June
25, 1952; [Male] 33223 (skeleton only) from 13 mi. E San Antonio de las
Alazanas, 9950 ft., July 6, 1955; and [Male] 31630 from Mesa de Tablas,
8600 ft., January 15, 1954, weight, 46 gms.

This subspecies of the Rufous-sided Towhee occurs in southeastern
Coahuila. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:207) stated that it "was limited in
its distribution to the mountain sides ... [and was] noted in the
arroyos at the base of the mountains and from there up to about 8,000
feet." These authors identified their specimens from Diamante Pass and
from Saltillo as _Pipilo maculatus gaigei_. Sibley (1950:129)
reidentified them, as well as a series from Sierra de Guadalupe, as _P.
e. orientalis_. The size of the testes (12×7 mm.) of No. 32154 as well
as the date (June 25) on which it was obtained suggests breeding by the
Rufous-sided Towhee in southeastern Coahuila.

*_Pipilo fuscus potosinus_ Ridgway.--_Specimens examined:_ total 3:
[Male] 32155 from 7 mi. S, 4 mi. E Bella Unión, 7200 ft., June 25,
1952; [Male] 31676 from the west foot of Pico de Jimulco, 5000 ft.,
April 5, 1953, weight, 45 gms.; and sex ? 29560 from 7 mi. S, 1 mi. E
Gómez Farías, 6500 ft., November 19, 1949, weight, 46.5 gms.

The subspecies _potosinus_ has been recorded from several localities in
Coahuila. Davis (1951:70) listed the following localities in the State
from which _P. f. potosinus_ has been collected: Muralla, San Lázaro
Mountains, 50 mi. S Monclova, 2850 ft., Saltillo; Saltillo (Chorro de
Agua); 19 mi. W Saltillo; Cresta Blanca, 12 mi. W Saltillo, 5500 ft.;
Diamante Pass, 11 mi. S Saltillo, 6000-8000 ft.; and Carneros. Miller,
Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:358) recorded a "small juvenile"
from El Diamante on July 5. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:45) recorded _P.
f. texanus_ from Diamante Pass on March 6. I suspect that Davis (_op.
cit._) reidentified the specimen concerned from Diamante Pass as _P. f.
potosinus_. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:207) indicated that _P. f.
potosinus_ "was fairly common and of general distribution in the area,
occurring both on the arid plateau about Saltillo and on the mountain
sides up to an elevation of about 8,000 feet." Nos. 32155, 31676, and
29560 are typical for _P. f. potosinus_. The size of the testes (14×7
mm.) of No. 32155 suggests breeding by the Brown Towhee in southeastern
Coahuila.

*_Pipilo fuscus texanus_ van Rossem.--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Female] 31103, from 10 mi. S, 5 mi. E Boquillas, 1500 ft., March 5,
1952, weight, 46.9 gms.

This subspecies of the Brown Towhee occurs in northwestern Coahuila
south through the Sierra del Carmen. Miller (1955a:176) reported that
his series of Brown Towhees from the Sierra del Carmen agreed
satisfactorily with _texanus_ although revealing some sign of
intergradation with _potosinus_. Davis (1951:70) thought that _P. f.
potosinus_ is present in northern as well as southern Coahuila. Miller
(1955a:176), however, remarked that _P. f. texanus_ is more
characteristic of the population of Brown Towhees of northwestern
Coahuila. He indicated that a single juvenile taken by Marsh on August
28 from Jardín del Sur and allocated to _P. f. potosinus_ by Davis
probably is _P. f. texanus_.

_Calamospiza melanocorys_ Stejneger.--_Specimen examined:_ one, [Male]
30239, from 10 mi. E Torreón, 3700 ft., January 9, 1951.

The Lark Bunting is an uncommon winter visitant in Coahuila. Other than
the present specimen, the only record of the Lark Bunting in Coahuila
is that of Burleigh and Lowery (1942:207), who reported a small flock
of this species from which several specimens were collected "on April
20 in a field on the edge of Saltillo."

_Passerculus sandwichensis oblitus_ Peters and Griscom.--Miller,
Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:364) recorded _P. s. oblitus_ from
Sabinas on February 25 and March 18 and 24. These records represent
sparse winter visitants to Coahuila.

_Passerculus sandwichensis brooksi_ Bishop.--Burleigh and Lowery
(1942:208) recorded _P. s. brooksi_ from Diamante Pass in April;
Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:363) remarked that this
specimen is perhaps best regarded as a variant of one of the races
normally wintering in this area.

_Passerculus sandwichensis anthinus_ Bonaparte.--_Specimens examined:_
total 3: [Male] 31104 from 10 mi. E Hacienda La Mariposa, 2000 ft.,
March 30, 1952, weight 15 gms.; [Female] 31105 from 8 mi. N, 4 mi. W
Múzquiz, 1800 ft., April 1, 1952, weight, 19.0 gms.; and [Female] 31594
from 17 mi. S Ocampo, 5300 ft., April 7, 1954, weight, 16 gms.

Burleigh and Lowery (1942:208) recorded _P. s. anthinus_ from Diamante
Pass. This subspecies is not uncommon in Coahuila. The University of
Kansas specimens showed no indication of breeding.

_Passerculus sandwichensis nevadensis_ Grinnell.--This subspecies of
the Savannah Sparrow is uncommon in Coahuila; Hellmayr (1938:490)
listed one specimen from Sabinas.

_Passerculus sandwichensis brunnescens_ (Butler).--Burleigh and Lowery
(1942:208) recorded this subspecies of the Savannah Sparrow from
Diamante Pass in April.

_Ammodramus savannarum perpallidus_ (Coues).--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Female] 31562, from 3 mi. N, 4 mi. E San Francisco (=25 mi. N Ocampo),
4850 ft., May 16, 1954, weight, 15 gms.

The Grasshopper Sparrow is an uncommon spring and possibly fall migrant
in Coahuila. Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:367) recorded
_A. s. perpallidus_ from Sabinas on March 12. No. 31562, which was
obtained in a yucca and acacia association, had little fat.

_Ammodramus bairdii_ (Audubon).--Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore
(1957:368) remarked that Baird's Sparrow is a rare winter visitant to
the northern states of México and recorded _A. bairdii_ from Saltillo
on May 8.

_Pooecetes gramineus confinis_ Baird.--The Vesper Sparrow seems to be
an uncommon winter visitant in Coahuila. Miller (1955a:176) found _P.
g. confinis_ "on two occasions in the grass of the dry ciénega at the
head of Corte Madera Canyon at 7500 feet" on April 9 and 14 in the
Sierra del Carmen. In April, Burleigh and Lowery (1942:208) found _P.
g. confinis_ only in Diamante Valley where this sparrow "appeared to be
quite uncommon." Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:45) took a male _P. g.
confinis_ at San Pedro on January 29.

*_Chondestes grammacus strigatus_ Swainson.--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Male] 32156, from 8 mi. N, 2 mi. W Piedras Negras, June 18, 1952.

The Lark Sparrow is not uncommon in Coahuila. Miller (1955a:176) saw
one male, "apparently on a breeding territory, on April 27 in an open,
rather barren desert flat adjoining the lower part of Boquillas wash at
4600 feet." He reported that Marsh took a young of the year, still
largely in juvenile plumage, on September 6 in the Sierra del Carmen.
Amadon and Phillips (1947:580) remarked that Lark Sparrows were common
"about Las Delicias" after August 18. Findley saw Lark Sparrows 2 mi. W
Jiménez on June 19, 1952, and 2 mi. S and 11 mi. E Nava on June 15,
1952. Dickerman saw Lark Sparrows at San Marcos on May 4, 1954. The
pale and narrowly streaked upperparts of No. 32156 are typical for _C.
g. strigatus_. The size of the testes (9×4 mm.) of No. 32156 and the
date (June 18) on which it was obtained suggest breeding by the Lark
Sparrow in northeastern Coahuila.

*_Aimophila ruficeps tenuirostris_ Burleigh and Lowery.--This
subspecies of the Rufous-crowned Sparrow is resident in the northern
part of Coahuila. Miller (1955a:176) remarked that the species "ranged
up to 7000 feet on open south-facing slopes within the oak belt" of the
Sierra del Carmen. Specimens collected by him showed no approach to
_boucardi_ of southern México and seem to be closest to _tenuirostris_.
Miller referred the specimen that Marsh and Stevenson (1938:287) took
on August 22 in Chuperosa Canyon to _tenuirostris_ rather than
_boucardi_. Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:376) listed _A.
r. tenuirostris_ from 50 mi. S Monclova on November 8 and 10.

*_Aimophila ruficeps boucardi_ (Sclater).--This subspecies of the
Rufous-crowned Sparrow is common in southern Coahuila. Burleigh and
Lowery (1942:208) indicated that _A. r. boucardi_ was common throughout
the mountainous areas and to some extent in the arroyos of the open
desert country of southeastern Coahuila. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:46)
took a female _A. r. boucardi_ "near Diamante Pass." Ridgway (1901:252)
listed _A. r. boucardi_ from Carneros. _A. r. tenuirostris_ and
_boucardi_ seem to intergrade in central and even southern Coahuila.
Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:376) recorded intermediate
populations of the Rufous-crowned Sparrow from 12 mi. W Saltillo.

*_Aimophila cassinii_ (Woodhouse).--_Specimens examined:_ total 2:
[Male] 32157 from 9 mi. S, 11 mi. E Sabinas, June 14, 1952; and [Male]
32158 from 18 mi. S, 14 mi. E Tanque Alvarez, 4000 ft., July 6, 1952.

Cassin's Sparrow seems to be common in Coahuila. The AOU Check-list
Committee (1957:603) listed _A. cassinii_ from 10 mi. E Saltillo.
Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:378-379) recorded Cassin's
Sparrow from Sabinas, on April 25; from 25 mi. SW Monclova, on November
20; from 12 mi. W Saltillo, on September 28; and from 10 mi. NE
Saltillo, on July 3. These authors stated that Cassin's Sparrow was
breeding 10 mi. NE Saltillo. The sizes of the testes (5×3 mm.; 7×5 mm.)
of Nos. 32157-32158, respectively, and the dates (June 14, July 6) on
which they were obtained are additional evidence of breeding by
Cassin's Sparrow in Coahuila.

*_Amphispiza bilineata bilineata_ (Cassin).--_Specimens examined:_
total 5: [Male] 32159 and [Female] 32163 from 2 mi. W Jiménez, 850 ft.,
June 20, 1952; [Male] 32160 from 8 mi. N, 2 mi. W Piedras Negras, June
18, 1952; [Male] 32161 and sex ? 32162 from 5 mi. N, 19 mi. W Cuatro
Ciénegas, 3250 ft., July 5, 1952.

The Black-throated Sparrow is common in Coahuila. Typical
representatives of _A. b. bilineata_ occur in eastern Coahuila. The
center of the State is occupied by intergrades between _A. b.
bilineata_, _opuntia_, and _grisea_. Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and
Moore (1957:381) reported _A. b. bilineata_ from the "Saltillo area."
Hellmayr (1938:539) recorded _A. b. bilineata_ from Sabinas. The sizes
(13, 14 mm.) of the white spot on the lateral tail feathers of Nos.
32163 and 32160, respectively, suggest _A. b. bilineata_. The short
wing (61-64.5 mm.) and the lighter and browner color of the backs of
Nos. 32163, 32160, and 32161 are suggestive of _A. b. bilineata_.
Nevertheless, the size (8 mm.) of the white spot on the lateral tail
feather of No. 32161 indicates intergradation with _A. b. opuntia_.

The sizes of the testes (6×4 mm.; 8 mm.) of Nos. 32160 and 32161, the
size of the largest ovum (2 mm. in diameter) of No. 32163, and the
presence of the juveniles from 2 mi. W Jiménez and 5 mi. N and 19 mi. W
Cuatro Ciénegas indicate breeding by _A. b. bilineata_ in Coahuila.

*_Amphispiza bilineata opuntia_ Burleigh and Lowery.--_Specimens
examined:_ total 2: [Female] 31106 from 10 mi. S, 5 mi. E Boquillas,
1500 ft., March 3, 1952; weight, 12.3 gms.; and [Male] 31108 from 35
mi. S, 14 mi. E Boquillas, 2350 ft., March 12, 1952.

This subspecies of the Black-throated Sparrow occurs in northwestern
Coahuila. Miller (1955a:176) stated that the Black-throated Sparrow was
moderately common in the open desert scrub at the base of the Sierra
del Carmen below 4800 feet. He said that the series of Black-throated
Sparrows from the Sierra del Carmen "resembles most the race _opuntia_
of western Texas ... but shows some intergradation toward _grisea_ of
southern Coahuila and toward _A. b. bilineata_ of eastern Coahuila." He
remarked also that the specimen from Jardín del Sur, which Marsh and
Stevenson (1938:287) reported as _A. b. grisea_, was in extremely worn,
dirty summer plumage and contributed nothing reliable to racial
determination.

*_Amphispiza bilineata grisea_ Nelson.--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Male] 31665, from the north foot of Sierra Guadalupe (=10 mi. S, 5 mi.
W General Cepeda), 6500 ft., April 25, 1953.

_A. b. grisea_ is the subspecies of Black-throated Sparrow in southern
Coahuila. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:208) saw this sparrow "frequently
on the arid plateau around Saltillo" and obtained specimens there that
were identified as _A. b. grisea_. Amadon and Phillips (1947:581) saw
individuals on August 8 and 28 that were feeding "fledged young near
Saltillo." The size of its wing (68.5 mm.), the slaty color of its
back, and the size (8 mm.) of the white spot on its lateral tail
feather suggest that No. 31665 is characteristic of _A. b. grisea_. The
size of the testes (4.5×3 mm.) of No. 31665 indicates that _A. b.
grisea_ may breed in southern Coahuila.

*_Junco phaeonotus palliatus_ Ridgway.--_Specimens examined:_ total 3:
[Male] 35402 (skeleton only) from 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas,
9345 ft., April 10, 1954; [Female] 33226 (skeleton only) from 13 mi. E
San Antonio de las Alazanas, 9950 ft., July 6, 1955; and [Male] 31633
from Mesa de Tablas, 8600 ft., January 16, 1954, weight, 22 gms.

In Coahuila the Mexican Junco seems to be common. Miller (1955a:177)
found it in the conifers of the upper Corte Madera drainage at 7500
feet and up to 8800 feet on Loomis Peak in the Sierra del Carmen. Marsh
and Stevenson (1938:287) took an adult in Vivoras Canyon on August 14
in the Sierra del Carmen. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:46) found small
flocks at Diamante Pass in March. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:208-209)
noted _J. p. palliatus_ as a common bird of the mountain slopes above
an elevation of about 7000 feet in southeastern Coahuila, and obtained
specimens at Diamante Pass. Ridgway (1901:300) recorded _J. p.
phaeonotus_ from Sierra Encarnación. His record should be of _J. p.
palliatus_ as indicated by Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore
(1957:386). Dickerman saw Mexican Juncos in the Sierra de la Madera on
December 13, 1953.

No. 31633 shows no sign of intergrading with _J. p. phaeonotus_ to the
south. The outermost rectrix of No. 31633 is wholly white; the second
rectrix is nearly as white. No. 31633 is paler than representatives of
_J. p. phaeonotus_ from the southern part of the Central Plateau of
México.

_Spizella passerina arizonae_ Coues.--_Specimens examined:_ total 4:
[Male] 31110 from the Río Grande (=17 mi. S Dryden, Terrell Co., Texas,
in Coahuila), 600 ft., March 18, 1952, weight, 10.7 gms. [Male] 31111
and [Female] 31112 from 4 mi. W Hacienda La Mariposa, 2300 ft., March
24, 1952, weights, 11.0, 11.7 gms.; and [Male] 31666 from the north
foot of Sierra Guadalupe (=10 mi. S, 5 mi. W General Cepeda), 6400 ft.,
April 19, 1953, weight, 14.0 gms.

The Chipping Sparrow is a common spring and possibly fall migrant in
Coahuila. Miller (1955a:177) noted small flocks from April 21 to 27 in
the Sierra del Carmen where specimens were taken. Burleigh and Lowery
(1942:209) indicated that _S. p. arizonae_ was "quite common and of
general distribution" at Saltillo and Diamante Pass and remarked that
specimens were taken at these localities in April. Amadon and Phillips
(1947:581) took two Chipping Sparrows "near Las Delicias on August 17."
Dickerman saw individuals in the Sierra del Pino on May 12, 1954, and
at San Marcos on May 4, 1954. Our specimens, which are typical
representatives of _S. p. arizonae_, are pale; the ground color of
their backs is grayish buff.

_Spizella pallida_ (Swainson).--The Clay-colored Sparrow is a migrant
or winter visitant in Coahuila. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:209) saw
"large flocks of sparrows, mostly of this species, ... on frequent
occasions in the cultivated fields and orchards on the outskirts of
Saltillo." Four specimens were taken by Burleigh and Lowery (_loc.
cit._) on April 19 and 20 at Saltillo.

_Spizella breweri breweri_ Cassin.--_Specimens examined:_ total 2:
[Female] 31115 from the Río Grande (=17 mi. S Dryden, Terrell Co.,
Texas, in Coahuila), 600 ft., March 18, 1952, weight, 8.2 gms.; and
[Male] 31114 from 28 mi. S, 11 mi. E Boquillas, 2000 ft., March 12,
1952, weight, 9.7 gms.

Brewer's Sparrow is probably a winter resident in much of Coahuila.
Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:389) recorded _S. b.
breweri_ from 25 mi. NW Monclova on November 20 and from 8 mi. S Cuatro
Ciénegas on November 15. The only definite records obtained by Burleigh
and Lowery (1942:209) of _S. b. breweri_ are those of a female and a
male taken "near Saltillo" on April 16 and 18. The size of the dorsal
area of sandy buff with narrow streakings of Nos. 31114-31115 suggests
_S. b. breweri_.

_Spizella pusilla arenacea_ Chadbourne.--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Male] 31116, from 4 mi. W Hacienda La Mariposa, 2300 ft., March 24,
1952, weight, 13.1 gms.

The Field Sparrow is an uncommon spring and probably fall migrant in
Coahuila. Other than No. 31116, _S. p. arenacea_ has only been recorded
from Sabinas in March, when three specimens were obtained (Miller,
Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore, 1957:390). The coloration of No. 31116
is much grayer and the black streaks on its back are much narrower than
on typical representatives of _S. p. pusilla_.

**_Spizella wortheni wortheni_ Ridgway.--The single specimen of
Worthen's Sparrow obtained by Burleigh and Lowery (1942:209) "just
outside the limits of Saltillo on April 16" represents the only record
of occurrence of this species in Coahuila.

**_Spizella atrogularis atrogularis_ (Cabanis).--Miller, Friedmann,
Griscom, and Moore (1957:391) remarked that the Black-chinned Sparrow
is a common resident of the Central Plateau from Durango and southern
Coahuila southward. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:212) noted the species
only at the foot of the mountains of southeastern Coahuila where, at
6000 feet, scattered pairs were found. Miller (1955a:177) observed a
male on April 23 on a slope at the mouth of Boquillas Canyon of the
Sierra del Carmen; he presumed it to be a transient.

_Zonotrichia leucophrys leucophrys_ (Forster).--_Specimen examined:_
one, [Male] 30243, from 1 mi. SW San Pedro de las Colonias, 3700 ft.,
February 8, 1951.

The White-crowned Sparrow is a fairly common migrant or winter visitant
in Coahuila. Miller, Friedman, Griscom, and Moore (1957:393) recorded
_Z. l. leucophrys_ from Sabinas on March 16 and February 23. Burleigh
and Lowery (1942:212) remarked that "small flocks of White-crowned
Sparrows were seen at infrequent intervals in thickets and stretches of
underbrush on the outskirts of Saltillo on April 18 and again on April
24 ... [and] near a small town some twenty miles west of Saltillo on
April 22." Specimens that Burleigh and Lowery (_loc. cit._) collected
"near Saltillo" were identified as _Z. l. leucophrys_.

_Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii_ (Nuttall).--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Male] 31117, from Sierra de la Encantada (=38 mi. S, 23 mi. E
Boquillas), 4400 ft., March 15, 1952.

Miller (1955a:177) noted _Z. l. gambelii_ on April 27 at 4600 feet in
Boquillas wash in the Sierra del Carmen. Hellmayr (1938:568) listed _Z.
l. gambelii_ from Sabinas.

_Zontrichia leucophrys oriantha_ Oberholser.--This subspecies has been
recorded from Sabinas on April 25 and Hipólito on November 5 (Miller,
Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore, 1957:393).

_Melospiza lincolnii lincolnii_ (Audubon).--_Specimen examined:_ one,
[Female] 31595, from 20 mi. S Ocampo, 7000 ft., April 5, 1954,
measurements: wing, 58 mm.; tail, 50 mm.; weight, 12 gms.

Lincoln's Sparrow seems to be a fairly common migrant or winter
visitant in Coahuila; _M. l. lincolnii_ is the common subspecies.
Burleigh and Lowery (1942:212) found this sparrow only in a grain field
situated between a small pond and a narrow stream on the outskirts of
Saltillo; the four specimens collected were identified as _M. l.
lincolnii_. No. 31595 was obtained in a pine-oak association.

_Melospiza lincolnii alticola_ (Miller and McCabe).--Miller, Friedmann,
Griscom, and Moore (1957:398) listed _M. l. alticola_, which seems to
be uncommon in Coahuila, from Sabinas on March 14.

_Melospiza lincolnii gracilis_ (Kittlitz).--Miller (1955a:177) took an
unsexed representative of _M. l. gracilis_ on April 7 in Carboneras
Canyon of the Sierra del Carmen at 6700 feet. This occurrence is at the
extreme eastern range of this subspecies.

_Melospiza georgiana ericrypta_ Oberholser.--In Coahuila this
subspecies of the Swamp Sparrow has been recorded as a migrant or
winter visitant. Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:399)
recorded it from Sabinas on February 22 to March 8 and from 8 mi. S
Cuatro Ciénegas on November 4.



LITERATURE CITED


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GRISCOM, L.
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HARDY, J. W., and DICKERMAN, R. W.
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        57:305-306, September-October.

HELLMAYR, C. E.
  1929. Catalogue of birds of the Americas and the adjacent islands.
        Field Mus. Nat. Hist. (Publ. 266), Zool. Ser., 13(Pt.
        VI):vi+258 pp., November 14.

  1934. Catalogue of birds of the Americas. _Ibid._ (Publ. 330),
        Zool. Ser., 13(Pt. VII):vi+531 pp., November 15.

  1935. _Ibid._ (Publ. 347), Zool. Ser., 13(Pt. VII):vi+541 pp.,
        September 16.

  1937. Catalogue of birds of the Americas and the adjacent islands.
        _Ibid._ (Publ. 381), Zool. Ser., 13(Pt. X):vi+228 pp.,
        April 12.

  1938. _Ibid._ (Publ. 430), Zool. Ser., 13(Pt. XI):vi+662 pp.,
        December 31.

HELLMAYR, C. E., and CONOVER, B.
  1942. Catalogue of birds of the Americas. Field Mus. Nat. Hist.
        (Publ. 514), Zool. Ser., 13(Pt. I, no. 1):vi+635 pp., April 30.

LOWERY, G. H.
  1938. A new grackle of the _Cassidix mexicanus_ group. Occas.
        Papers Mus. Zool., Louisiana State Univ., 1:1-11, May 4.

MARSH, E. G., JR., and STEVENSON, J. O.
  1938. Bird records from northern Coahuila. Auk, 55:286-287, April.

MAYR, E.
  1946. History of the North American bird fauna. Wilson Bull.,
        58:3-41, March.

MERRIAM, C. H.
  1898. Life zones and crop zones of the United States. U.S. Dept.
        Agric., Div. Biol. Surv., 10:1-79.

MILLER, A. H.
  1931. Systematic revision and natural history of the American shrikes
        (_Lanius_). Univ. California Publ. Zool., 38:11-242,
        October 24.

  1955a. The avifauna of the Sierra del Carmen of Coahuila, Mexico.
        Condor, 57:154-178, May-June.

  1955b. A hybrid woodpecker and its significance in speciation in the
        genus _Dendrocopos_. Evolution, 9:317-321, September.

MILLER, A. H., FRIEDMANN, H., GRISCOM, L., and MOORE, R. T.
  1957. Distributional check-list of the birds of Mexico, Pt. 2.
        Pacific Coast Avifauna, 33:1-436, December 20.

MOORE, R. T.
  1939. A review of the House Finches of the subgenus _Burrica_.
        Condor, 41:177-205, September-October.

  1941. Three new races in the genus Otus from central Mexico. Proc.
        Biol. Soc. Washington, 54:151-159, November 17.

  1947. New species of parrot and race of quail from Mexico. Proc.
        Biol. Soc. Washington, 60:27-28, April 3.

MULLER, C. H.
  1947. Vegetation and climate of Coahuila, Mexico. Madroño, 9:33-57,
        April.

OBERHOLSER, H. C.
  1902. A review of the larks of the genus _Otocoris_. Proc. U.S.
        Nat. Mus., 24(1271):801-883, June 9.

  1912. A revision of the forms of the Ladder-backed Woodpecker
        (_Dryobates scalaris_ [Wagler]). Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus.,
        41(1847):139-159, May 20.

  1919a. Distribution of a new Red-winged Blackbird from Texas. Wilson
        Bull. 31:20-23, March.

  1919b. The geographic races of _Hedymeles melanocephalus_
        Swainson. Auk, 36:408-416, July.

  1921. A revision of the races of _Dendroica auduboni_. Ohio
        Jour. Sci., 21:240-248, May.

PACKARD, R. L.
  1957. Broad-winged Hawk in Coahuila.  Wilson Bull., 69:370-371,
        December.

PHILLIPS, A. R.
  1950. The Great-tailed Grackles of the southwest. Condor, 52:78-81,
        March.

PITELKA, F. A.
  1948. Notes on the distribution and taxonomy of Mexican game birds.
        Condor, 50:113-123, May.

RIDGWAY, R.
  1901. The birds of North and Middle America. U.S. Nat. Mus., Bull.
        50(Pt. I):xxxii+715 pp., October 24.

  1902. _Ibid._ (Pt. II):xx+834 pp., October 16.

  1904. _Ibid._ (Pt. III):xx+801 pp., December 31.

  1907. _Ibid._ (Pt. IV):xxii+973 pp., July 1.

  1914. _Ibid._ (Pt. VI):xx+882 pp., April 8.

  1916. _Ibid._ (Pt. VII):xiv+543 pp., May 5.

RIDGWAY, R., and FRIEDMANN, H.
  1946. The birds of North and Middle America. U.S. Nat. Mus., Bull.
        50(Pt. X):xii+484 pp., December 18.

SCLATER, P. L.
  1857. Review of the species of the South American subfamily
        Tityrinae. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, Pt. XXV, pp. 67-80.

SELANDER, R. K., and BAKER, J. K.
  1957. The Cave Swallow in Texas. Condor, 59:345-363,
        November-December.

SIBLEY, C. G.
  1950. Species formation in the Red-eyed Towhees of Mexico. Univ.
        California Publ. Zool., 50:109-194, November 24.

SUTTON, G. M., and BURLEIGH, T. D.
  1939a. A list of birds observed on the 1938 Semple Expedition to
        northeastern Mexico. Occas. Papers Mus. Zool., Louisiana State
        Univ., 3:15-46, April 5.

  1939b. A new Screech Owl from Nuevo León. Auk, 56:174-175, April.

VAN HOOSE, S. G.
  1955. Distributional and breeding records of some birds from
        Coahuila. Wilson Bull., 67:302-303, December.

VAN ROSSEM, A. J.
  1934. Notes on some types of North American birds. Trans. San Diego
        Soc. Nat. Hist., 7:347-362, May 31.

VAN TYNE, J., and SUTTON, G. M.
  1937. The birds of Brewster County, Texas. Univ. Michigan Mus. Zool.,
        Miscel. Publ., 37:1-115, August 24.

WEBSTER, J. D., and ORR, R. T.
  1958. Variation in the Great Horned Owls of Middle America. Auk,
        75:134-142, April.

WETMORE, A.
  1948. The Golden-fronted Woodpeckers of Texas and northern Mexico.
        Wilson Bull., 60:185-186, September.


_Transmitted February 27, 1959._



                 (Continued from inside of front cover)

 Vol. 8.   1. Life history and ecology of the five-lined skink, Eumeces
              fasciatus. By Henry S. Fitch. Pp. 1-156, 26 figs. in
              text. September 1, 1954.

           2. Myology and serology of the Avian Family Fringillidae, a
              taxonomic study. By William B. Stallcup. Pp. 157-211, 23
              figures in text, 4 tables. November 15, 1954.

           3. An ecological study of the collared lizard (Crotaphytus
              collaris). By Henry S. Fitch. Pp. 213-274, 10 figures in
              text. February 10, 1956.

           4. A field study of the Kansas ant-eating frog, Gastrophryne
              olivacea. By Henry S. Fitch. Pp. 275-306, 9 figures in
              text. February 10, 1956.

           5. Check-list of the birds of Kansas. By Harrison B.
              Tordoff. Pp. 307-359, 1 figure in text. March 10, 1956.

           6. A population study of the prairie vole (Microtus
              ochrogaster) in northeastern Kansas. By Edwin P. Martin.
              Pp. 361-416, 19 figures in text. April 2, 1956.

           7. Temperature responses in free-living amphibians and
              reptiles of northeastern Kansas. By Henry S. Fitch. Pp.
              417-476, 10 figures in text, 6 tables. June 1, 1956.

           8. Food of the crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm, in
              south-central Kansas. By Dwight Platt. Pp. 477-498, 4
              tables. June 8, 1956.

           9. Ecological observations on the woodrat, Neotoma
              floridana. By Henry S. Fitch and Dennis G. Rainey. Pp.
              499-533, 3 figures in text. June 12, 1956.

          10. Eastern woodrat, Neotoma floridana: Life history and
              ecology. By Dennis G. Rainey. Pp. 535-646, 12 plates, 13
              figures in text. August 15, 1956.

           Index. Pp. 647-675.

 Vol.  9.  1. Speciation of the wandering shrew. By James S. Findley.
              Pp. 1-68, 18 figures in text. December 10, 1955.

           2. Additional records and extensions of ranges of mammals
              from Utah. By Stephen D. Durrant, M. Raymond Lee, and
              Richard M. Hansen. Pp. 69-80. December 10, 1955.

           3. A new long-eared myotis (Myotis evotis) from northeastern
              Mexico. By Rollin H. Baker and Howard J. Stains. Pp.
              81-84. December 10, 1955.

           4. Subspeciation in the meadow mouse, Microtus
              pennsylvanicus, in Wyoming. By Sydney Anderson. Pp.
              85-104, 2 figures in text. May 10, 1956.

           5. The condylarth genus Ellipsodon. By Robert W. Wilson. Pp.
              105-116, 6 figures in text. May 19, 1956.

           6. Additional remains of the multituberculate genus
              Eucosmodon. By Robert W. Wilson. Pp. 117-123, 10 figures
              in text. May 19, 1956.

           7. Mammals of Coahuila, Mexico. By Rollin H. Baker. Pp.
              125-335, 75 figures in text. June 15, 1956.

           8. Comments on the taxonomic status of Apodemus peninsulae,
              with description of a new subspecies from North China. By
              J. Knox Jones, Jr. Pp. 337-346, 1 figure in text, 1
              table. August 15, 1956.

           9. Extensions of known ranges of Mexican bats. By Sydney
              Anderson. Pp. 347-351. August 15, 1956.

          10. A new bat (Genus Leptonycteris) from Coahuila. By Howard
              J. Stains. Pp. 353-356. January 21, 1957.

          11. A new species of pocket gopher (Genus Pappogeomys) from
              Jalisco, Mexico. By Robert J. Russell. Pp. 357-361.
              January 21, 1957.

          12. Geographic variation in the pocket gopher, Thomomys
              bottae, in Colorado. By Phillip M. Youngman. Pp. 363-387,
              7 figures in text. February 21, 1958.

          13. New bog lemming (genus Synaptomys) from Nebraska. By J.
              Knox Jones, Jr. Pp. 385-388. May 12, 1958.

          14. Pleistocene bats from San Josecito Cave, Nuevo Leon,
              Mexico. By J. Knox Jones, Jr. Pp. 389-396. December 19,
              1958.

          15. New Subspecies of the rodent Baiomys from Central
              America. By Robert L. Packard. Pp. 397-404. December 19,
              1958.

          16. Mammals of the Grand Mesa, Colorado. By Sydney Anderson.
              Pp. 405-414, 1 figure in text.  May 20, 1959.

          17. Distribution, variation, and relationships of the montane
              vole, Microtus montanus. By Emil K. Urban. Pp. 415-511.
              12 figs. in text, 2 tables. August 1, 1959.

           More numbers will appear in volume 9.

                 (Continued on outside of back cover)


                 (Continued from inside of back cover)

 Vol. 10.  1. Studies of birds killed in nocturnal migration. By
              Harrison B. Tordoff and Robert M. Mengel. Pp. 1-44, 6
              figures in text, 2 tables. September 12, 1956.

           2. Comparative breeding behavior of Ammospiza caudacuta and
              A. maritima. By Glen E. Woolfenden. Pp. 45-75, 6 plates,
              1 figure. December 20, 1956.

           3. The forest habitat of the University of Kansas Natural
              History Reservation. By Henry S. Fitch and Ronald R.
              McGregor. Pp. 77-127, 2 plates, 7 figures in text, 4
              tables. December 31, 1956.

           4. Aspects of reproduction and development in the prairie
              vole (Microtus ochrogaster). By Henry S. Fitch. Pp.
              129-161, 8 figures in text, 4 tables. December 19, 1957.

           5. Birds found on the Arctic slope of northern Alaska. By
              James W. Bee. Pp. 163-211, pls. 9-10, 1 figure in text.
              March 12, 1958.

           6. The wood rats of Colorado: distribution and ecology. By
              Robert B. Finley, Jr. Pp. 213-552, 34 plates, 8 figures
              in text, 35 tables. November 7, 1958.

           More numbers will appear in volume 10.

 Vol. 11.  1. The systematic status of the colubrid snake, Leptodeira
              discolor Günther. By William E. Duellman. Pp. 1-9, 4
              figs. July 14, 1958.

           2. Natural history of the six-lined racerunner,
              Cnemidophorus sexlineatus. By Henry S. Fitch. Pp. 11-62,
              9 figs., 9 tables. September 19, 1958.

           3. Home ranges, territories, and seasonal movements of
              vertebrates of the Natural History Reservation. By Henry
              S. Fitch. Pp. 63-326, 6 plates, 24 figures in text, 3
              tables. December 12, 1958.

           4. A new snake of the genus Geophis from Chihuahua, Mexico.
              By John M. Legler. Pp. 327-334, 2 figures in text.
              January 28, 1959.

           5. A new tortoise, genus Gopherus, from north-central
              Mexico. By John M. Legler. Pp. 335-343, 2 plates. April
              24, 1959.

           6. Fishes of Chautauqua, Cowley and Elk counties, Kansas. By
              Artie L. Metcalf. Pp. 345-400, 2 plates, 2 figures in
              text, 10 tables. May 6, 1959.

           7. Fishes of the Big Blue River Basin, Kansas. By W. L.
              Minckley. Pp. 401-442, 2 plates, 4 figures in text, 5
              tables.  May 8, 1959.

           8. Birds from Coahuila, México. By Emil K. Urban. Pp.
              443-516. August 1, 1959.

           More numbers will appear in Volume 11.

 Vol. 12.  1. Functional morphology of three bats: Eumops, Myotis,
              Macrotus. By Terry A. Vaughan. Pp. 1-153, 4 plates, 24
              figures in text, July 8, 1959.

           2. The ancestry of modern Amphibia: a review of the evidence. By
              Theodore H. Eaton, Jr. Pp. 155-180, 10 figures in text.
              July 10, 1959.

           More numbers will appear in volume 12.





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