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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Part 1, Slice 1
Author: Various
Language: English
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THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA - ELEVENTH EDITION


  FIRST    edition, published in three volumes,       1768-1771.
  SECOND   edition, published in ten volumes,         1777-1784.
  THIRD    edition, published in eighteen volumes,    1788-1797.
  FOURTH   edition, published in twenty volumes,      1801-1810.
  FIFTH    edition, published in twenty volumes,      1815-1817.
  SIXTH    edition, published in twenty volumes,      1823-1824.
  SEVENTH  edition, published in twenty-one volumes,  1830-1842.
  EIGHTH   edition, published in twenty-two volumes,  1853-1860.
  NINTH    edition, published in twenty-five volumes, 1875-1889.
  TENTH    edition, ninth edition and eleven
  supplementary volumes, 1902-1903.
  ELEVENTH edition, published in twenty-nine volumes, 1910-1911.


THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL INFORMATION


ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME II

ANDROS to AUSTRIA

[E-Text Edition of Volume II - Part 01 of 16 - ANDROS to ANISE]



INITIALS USED IN VOLUME II. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTORS, WITH
THE HEADINGS OF THE ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.

[Note: Listing adjusted to E-Text Edition of Volume II, Part 01. The
full list of contributors appear in the complete E-text Edition of
Volume II. A complete list of all contributors to the encyclopaedia,
appears in the final volume.]


A.B.R. - ALFRED BARTON RENDLE, F.R S F.L.S. D.Sc. Keeper of the
Department of Botany, British Museum.

- ANGIOSPERMS


C.Pl. - REV. CHARLES PLUMMER, M.A. Fellow of Corpus Christi College,
Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1901. Author of _Life and Times of Alfred the
Great_; &c.

- ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE


E.O. - EDMUND OWEN, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.SC. Consulting Surgeon
to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital,
Great Ormond Street. Late Examiner in Surgery at the Universities
of Cambridge, Durham and London. Author of _A Manual of Anatomy for
Senior Students_.

- ANEURYSM


H.M.C. - HECTOR MUNRO CHADWICK, M.A. Fellow and Librarian of Clare
College, Cambridge. Author of _Studies on Anglo-Saxon Institutions_.

- ANGLI; ANGLO-SAXONS


H.Sm. - HUGH SHERINGHAM. Angling Editor of _The Field_ (London).

- ANGLING


I.B.B. - ISAAC BAYLEY BALFOUR, F.R.S., M.D. King's Botanist in
Scotland. Regius Keeper of Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. Professor
of Botany in the University of Edinburgh. Regius Professor of Botany
in the University of Glasgow, 1879-1884. Sherardian Professor of
Botany in the University of Oxford, 1884-1888.

- ANGIOSPERMS (_in part_).


J.G.C.A. - JOHN GEORGE CLARK ANDERSON, M.A. Student, Censor and Tutor
of Christ Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1896. Formerly Fellow of
Lincoln College, Oxford. Joint-author of _Studica Pontica_.

- ANGORA


L.J.S. - LEONARD JAMES SPENCER, M.A., F.G.S. Department of Mineralogy,
British Museum. Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge,
and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the _Mineralogical Magazine_.

- ANHYDRITE


L.M.Br. - LOUIS MAURICE BRANDIN, M.A. Fielden Professor of French and
of Romance Philology in the University of London.

- ANGLO-NORMAN LITERATURE


N.W.T. - NORTHCOTE WHITBRIDGE THOMAS, M.A. Government Anthropologist
to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the Societe
d'Anthropologie de Paris. Author of _Thought Transference_; _Kinship
and Marriage in Australia_; &c.

- ANIMAL-WORSHIP, ANIMISM


P.C.M. - PETER CHALMERS MITCHELL, F.R.S., F.Z.S., D.Sc., LL.D.
Secretary to the Zoological Society of London from 1903. University
Demonstrator in Comparative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor
at Oxford, 1888-1891. Lecturer on Biology at Charing Cross Hospital,
1892-1894; at London Hospital, 1894. Examiner in Biology to the Royal
College of Physicians, 1892-1896, 1901-1903. Examiner in Zoology to
the University of London, 1903.

- ANIMAL


P.C.Y. - PHILIP CHESNEY YORKE, M.A. Magdalen College, Oxford.

- ANGLESEY, 1st EARL OF


P.Vi. - PAUL VINOGRADOFF, D.C.L. (Oxford), LL.D. (Cambridge and
Harvard). Corpus Professor of Jurisprudence in the University of
Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Honorary Professor of History
in the University of Moscow. Author of _Villainage in England_;
_English Society in the 11th Century_; &c.

- ANGLO-SAXON LAW


T.Ba. - SIR THOMAS BARCLAY, M.P.

Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme
Council of the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour.
Author of _Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy_; &c. M.P.
for Blackburn, 1910.

- ANGARY


W.H.Be. - WILLIAM HENRY BENNETT, M.A., D.D., D.LITT. (Cantab.).
Professor of Old Testament Exegesis in New and Hackney Colleges,
London. Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. Lecturer
in Hebrew at Firth College, Sheffield. Author of _Religion of the
Post-Exilic Prophets_; &c.

- ANGEL


W.H.Di. - WILLIAM HENRY DINES, F.R.S.

- ANEMOMETER


W.M.R. - WILLIAM MICHAEL ROSSETTI. See the biographical article:
ROSSETTI, DANTE GABRIEL.

- ANGELICO, FRA


PRINCIPAL UNSIGNED ARTICLES

  Anglican Communion.
  Angola.


  [Note regarding E-text edition:
  Volume and page numbers have been incorporated into the text
  at the first paragraph break of each page as: v.02 p.0001 ]



THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME II, PART I


[v.02 p.0001]

ANDROS, SIR EDMUND (1637-1714), English colonial governor in America,
was born in London on the 6th of December 1637, son of Amice Andros,
an adherent of Charles I., and the royal bailiff of the island of
Guernsey. He served for a short time in the army of Prince Henry of
Nassau, and in 1660-1662 was gentleman in ordinary to the queen of
Bohemia (Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of James I. of England). He then
served against the Dutch, and in 1672 was commissioned major in
what is said to have been the first English regiment armed with the
bayonet. In 1674 he became, by the appointment of the duke of York
(later James II.), governor of New York and the Jerseys, though his
jurisdiction over the Jerseys was disputed, and until his recall in
1681 to meet an unfounded charge of dishonesty and favouritism in
the collection of the revenues, he proved himself to be a capable
administrator, whose imperious disposition, however, rendered him
somewhat unpopular among the colonists. During a visit to England in
1678 he was knighted. In 1686 he became governor, with Boston as his
capital, of the "Dominion of New England," into which Massachusetts
(including Maine), Plymouth, Rhode Island, Connecticut and New
Hampshire were consolidated, and in 1688 his jurisdiction was extended
over New York and the Jerseys. But his vexatious interference with
colonial rights and customs aroused the keenest resentment, and on the
18th of April 1689, soon after news of the arrival of William, prince
of Orange, in England reached Boston, the colonists deposed and
arrested him. In New York his deputy, Francis Nicholson, was soon
afterwards deposed by Jacob Leisler (q.v.); and the inter-colonial
union was dissolved. Andros was sent to England for trial in 1690, but
was immediately released without trial, and from 1692 until 1698
he was governor of Virginia, but was recalled through the agency of
Commissary James Blair (q.v.), with whom he quarrelled. In 1693-1694
he was also governor of Maryland. From 1704 to 1706 he was governor
of Guernsey. He died in London in February 1714 and was buried at
St. Anne's, Soho.

See _The Andros Tracts_ (3 vols., Boston, 1869-1872).



ANDROS, or ANDRO, an island of the Greek archipelago, the most
northerly of the Cyclades, 6 m. S.E. of Euboea, and about 2 m. N.
of Tenos; it forms an eparchy in the modern kingdom of Greece. It is
nearly 25 m. long, and its greatest breadth is 10 m. Its surface is
for the most part mountainous, with many fruitful and well-watered
valleys. Andros, the capital, on the east coast, contains about 2000
inhabitants. The ruins of Palaeopolis, the ancient capital, are on the
west coast; the town possessed a famous temple, dedicated to Bacchus.
The island has about 18,000 inhabitants.

The island in ancient times contained an Ionian population, perhaps
with an admixture of Thracian blood. Though originally dependent on
Eretria, by the 7th century B.C. it had become sufficiently prosperous
to send out several colonies to Chalcidice (Acanthus, Stageirus,
Argilus, Sane). In 480 it supplied ships to Xerxes and was
subsequently harried by the Greek fleet. Though enrolled in the Delian
League it remained disaffected towards Athens, and in 447 had to be
coerced by the settlement of a cleruchy. In 411 Andros proclaimed its
freedom and in 408 withstood an Athenian attack. As a member of the
second Delian League it was again controlled by a garrison and an
archon. In the Hellenistic period Andros was contended for as a
frontier-post by the two naval powers of the Aegean Sea, Macedonia and
Egypt. In 333 it received a Macedonian garrison from Antipater; in 308
it was freed by Ptolemy I. In the Chremonidean War (266-263) it passed
again to Macedonia after a battle fought off its shores. In 200 it
was captured by a combined Roman, Pergamene and Rhodian fleet, and
remained a possession of Pergamum until the dissolution of that
kingdom in 133 B.C. Before falling under Turkish rule, Andros was from
A.D. 1207 till 1566 governed by the families Zeno and Sommariva under
Venetian protection.



ANDROTION (c. 350 B.C.), Greek orator, and one of the leading
politicians of his time, was a pupil of Isocrates and a contemporary
of Demosthenes. He is known to us chiefly from the speech of
Demosthenes, in which he was accused of illegality in proposing
the usual honour of a crown to the Council of Five Hundred at the
expiration of its term of office. Androtion filled several important
posts, and during the Social War was appointed extraordinary
commissioner to recover certain arrears of taxes. Both Demosthenes
and Aristotle (_Rhet._ iii. 4) speak favourably of his powers as an
orator. He is said to have gone into exile at Megara, and to have
composed an _Atthis_, or annalistic account of Attica from the
earliest times to his own days (Pausanias vi. 7; x. 8). It is disputed
whether the annalist and orator are identical, but an Androtion
who wrote on agriculture is certainly a different person. Professor
Gaetano de Sanctis (in _L'Attide di Androzione e un papiro
di Oxyrhynchos_, Turin, 1908) attributes to Androtion, the
atthidographer, a 4th-century historical fragment, discovered by
B.P. Grenfell and A.S. Hunt (_Oxyrhynchus Papyri_, vol. v.). Strong
arguments against this view are set forth by E.M. Walker in the
_Classical Review_, May 1908.

[v.02 p.0002]



ANDÚJAR (the anc. _Slilurgi_), a town of southern Spain, in the
province of Jaén; on the right bank of the river Guadalquivir and the
Madrid-Cordova railway. Pop. (1900) 16,302. Andújar is widely known
for its porous earthenware jars, called _alcarrazas_, which keep water
cool in the hottest weather, and are manufactured from a whitish clay
found in the neighbourhood.



ANECDOTE (from [Greek: an]-, privative, and [Greek: ekdidomi], to give
out or publish), a word originally meaning something not published. It
has now two distinct significations. The primary one is something not
published, in which sense it has been used to denote either secret
histories--Procopius, _e.g._, gives this as one of the titles of his
secret history of Justinian's court--or portions of ancient writers
which have remained long in manuscript and are edited for the first
time. Of such _anecdota_ there are many collections; the earliest was
probably L.A. Muratori's, in 1709. In the more general and popular
acceptation of the word, however, anecdotes are short accounts of
detached interesting particulars. Of such anecdotes the collections
are almost infinite; the best in many respects is that compiled by
T. Byerley (d. 1826) and J. Clinton Robertson (d. 1852), known as the
_Percy Anecdotes_ (1820-1823).



ANEL, DOMINIQUE (1679-1730), French surgeon, was born at Toulouse
about 1679. After studying at Montpellier and Paris, he served as
surgeon-major in the French army in Alsace; then after two years at
Vienna he went to Italy and served in the Austrian army. In 1710 he
was teaching surgery in Rouen, whence he went to Genoa, and in 1716 he
was practising in Paris. He died about 1730. He was celebrated for his
successful surgical treatment of _fistula lacrymalis_, and while
at Genoa invented for use in connexion with the operation the
fine-pointed syringe still known by his name.



ANEMOMETER (from Gr. [Greek: anemos], wind, and [Greek: metron],
a measure), an instrument for measuring either the velocity or the
pressure of the wind. Anemometers may be divided into two classes, (1)
those that measure the velocity, (2) those that measure the pressure
of the wind, but inasmuch as there is a close connexion between the
pressure and the velocity, a suitable anemometer of either class will
give information about both these quantities.

Velocity anemometers may again be subdivided into two classes, (1)
those which do not require a wind vane or weathercock, (2) those
which do. The Robinson anemometer, invented (1846) by Dr. Thomas Romney
Robinson, of Armagh Observatory, is the best-known and most generally
used instrument, and belongs to the first of these. It consists
of four hemispherical cups, mounted one on each end of a pair of
horizontal arms, which lie at right angles to each other and form a
cross. A vertical axis round which the cups turn passes through the
centre of the cross; a train of wheel-work counts up the number of
turns which this axis makes, and from the number of turns made in any
given time the velocity of the wind during that time is calculated.
The cups are placed symmetrically on the end of the arms, and it is
easy to see that the wind always has the hollow of one cup presented
to it; the back of the cup on the opposite end of the cross also
faces the wind, but the pressure on it is naturally less, and hence
a continual rotation is produced; each cup in turn as it comes round
providing the necessary force. The two great merits of this anemometer
are its simplicity and the absence of a wind vane; on the other hand
it is not well adapted to leaving a record on paper of the actual
velocity at any definite instant, and hence it leaves a short but
violent gust unrecorded. Unfortunately, when Dr. Robinson first
designed his anemometer, he stated that no matter what the size of the
cups or the length of the arms, the cups always moved with one-third
of the velocity of the wind. This result was apparently confirmed by
some independent experiments, but it is very far from the truth, for
it is now known that the actual ratio, or factor as it is commonly
called, of the velocity of the wind to that of the cups depends very
largely on the dimensions of the cups and arms, and may have almost
any value between two and a little over three. The result has been
that wind velocities published in many official publications have
often been in error by nearly 50%.

The other forms of velocity anemometer may be described as belonging
to the windmill type. In the Robinson anemometer the axis of rotation
is vertical, but with this subdivision the axis of rotation must
be parallel to the direction of the wind and therefore horizontal.
Furthermore, since the wind varies in direction and the axis has to
follow its changes, a wind vane or some other contrivance to fulfil
the same purpose must be employed. This type of instrument is very
little used in England, but seems to be more in favour in France. In
cases where the direction of the air motion is always the same, as
in the ventilating shafts of mines and buildings for instance, these
anemometers, known, however, as air meters, are employed, and give
most satisfactory results.

Anemometers which measure the pressure may be divided into the plate
and tube classes, but the former term must be taken as including a
good many miscellaneous forms. The simplest type of this form consists
of a flat plate, which is usually square or circular, while a wind
vane keeps this exposed normally to the wind, and the pressure of the
wind on its face is balanced by a spring. The distortion of the spring
determines the actual force which the wind is exerting on the plate,
and this is either read off on a suitable gauge, or leaves a record in
the ordinary way by means of a pen writing on a sheet of paper moved
by clockwork. Instruments of this kind have been in use for a long
series of years, and have recorded pressures up to and even exceeding
60 lb per sq. ft., but it is now fairly certain that these high values
are erroneous, and due, not to the wind, but to faulty design of the
anemometer.

The fact is that the wind is continually varying in force, and while
the ordinary pressure plate is admirably adapted for measuring the
force of a steady and uniform wind, it is entirely unsuitable for
following the rapid fluctuations of the natural wind. To make
matters worse, the pen which records the motion of the plate is often
connected with it by an extensive system of chains and levers. A
violent gust strikes the plate, which is driven back and carried by
its own momentum far past the position in which a steady wind of the
same force would place it; by the time the motion has reached the pen
it has been greatly exaggerated by the springiness of the connexion,
and not only is the plate itself driven too far back, but also its
position is wrongly recorded by the pen; the combined errors act
the same way, and more than double the real maximum pressure may be
indicated on the chart.

A modification of the ordinary pressure-plate has recently been
designed. In this arrangement a catch is provided so that the plate
being once driven back by the wind cannot return until released by
hand; but the catch does not prevent the plate being driven back
farther by a gust stronger than the last one that moved it. Examples
of these plates are erected on the west coast of England, where in the
winter fierce gales often occur; a pressure of 30 lb per sq. ft. has
not been shown by them, and instances exceeding 20 lb are extremely
rare.

Many other modifications have been used and suggested. Probably a
sphere would prove most useful for a pressure anemometer, since owing
to its symmetrical shape it would not require a weathercock. A small
light sphere hanging from the end of 30 or 40 ft. of fine sewing
cotton has been employed to measure the wind velocity passing over
a kite, the tension of the cotton being recorded, and this plan has
given satisfactory results.

Lind's anemometer, which consists simply of a U tube containing liquid
with one end bent into a horizontal direction to face the wind, is
perhaps the original form from which the tube class of instrument
has sprung. If the wind blows into the mouth of a tube it causes an
increase of pressure inside and also of course an equal increase in
all closed vessels with which the mouth is in airtight communication.
If it blows horizontally over the open end of a vertical tube it
causes a decrease of pressure, but this fact is not of any practical
use in anemometry, because the magnitude of the decrease depends on
the wind striking the tube exactly at right angles to its axis,
the most trifling departure from the true direction causing great
variations in the magnitude. The pressure tube anemometer (fig. 1)
utilizes the increased pressure in the open mouth of a straight tube
facing the wind, and the decrease of pressure caused inside when the
wind blows over a ring of small holes drilled through the metal of
a vertical tube which is closed at the upper end. The pressure
differences on which the action depends are very small, and special
means are required to register them, but in the ordinary form of
recording anemometer (fig. 2), any wind capable of turning the vane
which keeps the mouth of the tube facing the wind is capable of
registration.

[v.02 p.0003]

The great advantage of the tube anemometer lies in the fact that the
exposed part can be mounted on a high pole, and requires no oiling
or attention for years; and the registering part can be placed in any
convenient position, no matter how far from the external part. Two
connecting tubes are required. It might appear at first sight as
though one connexion would serve, but the differences in pressure on
which these instruments depend are so minute, that the pressure of
the air in the room where the recording part is placed has to be
considered. Thus if the instrument depends on the pressure or suction
effect alone, and this pressure or suction is measured against the
air pressure in an ordinary room, in which the doors and windows are
carefully closed and a newspaper is then burnt up the chimney, an
effect may be produced equal to a wind of 10 m. an hour; and the
opening of a window in rough weather, or the opening of a door, may
entirely alter the registration.

[Illustration: FIG. 1 & FIG. 2 Anemometers.]

The connexion between the velocity and the pressure of the wind is
one that is not yet known with absolute certainty. Many text-books on
engineering give the relation P=.005 _v_^2 when P is the pressure in
lb per sq. ft. and _v_ the velocity in miles per hour. The history
of this untrue relation is curious. It was given about the end of the
18th century as based on some experiments, but with a footnote stating
that little reliance could be placed on it. The statement without the
qualifying note was copied from book to book, and at last received
general acceptance. There is no doubt that under average conditions
of atmospheric density, the .005 should be replaced by .003, for many
independent authorities using different methods have found values very
close to this last figure. It is probable that the wind pressure
is not strictly proportional to the extent of the surface exposed.
Pressure plates are generally of moderate size, from a half or quarter
of a sq. ft. up to two or three sq. ft., are round or square, and
for these sizes, and shapes, and of course for a flat surface, the
relation P=.003 _v_^2 is fairly correct.

In the tube anemometer also it is really the pressure that is
measured, although the scale is usually graduated as a velocity scale.
In cases where the density of the air is not of average value, as on a
high mountain, or with an exceptionally low barometer for example, an
allowance must be made. Approximately 1-1/2% should be added to the
velocity recorded by a tube anemometer for each 1000 ft. that it
stands above sea-level.

(W.H. Di.)



ANEMONE, or WIND-FLOWER (from the Gr. [Greek: anemos], wind), a
genus of the buttercup order (Ranunculaceae), containing about ninety
species in the north and south temperate zones. _Anemone nemorosa_,
wood anemone, and _A. Pulsatilla_, Pasque-flower, occur in Britain;
the latter is found on chalk downs and limestone pastures in some of
the more southern and eastern counties. The plants are perennial herbs
with an underground rootstock, and radical, more or less deeply cut,
leaves. The elongated flower stem bears one or several, white,
red, blue or rarely yellow, flowers; there is an involucre of three
leaflets below each flower. The fruits often bear long hairy styles
which aid their distribution by the wind. Many of the species are
favourite garden plants; among the best known is _Anemone coronaria_,
often called the poppy anemone, a tuberous-rooted plant, with
parsley-like divided leaves, and large showy poppy-like blossoms on
stalks of from 6 to 9-in. high; the flowers are of various colours,
but the principal are scarlet, crimson, blue, purple and white. There
are also double-flowered varieties, in which the stamens in the
centre are replaced by a tuft of narrow petals. It is an old garden
favourite, and of the double forms there are named varieties. They
grow best in a loamy soil, enriched with well-rotted manure, which
should be dug in below the tubers. These may be planted in October,
and for succession in January, the autumn-planted ones being protected
by a covering of leaves or short stable litter. They will flower in
May and June, and when the leaves have ripened should be taken up into
a dry room till planting time. They are easily raised from the
seed, and a bed of the single varieties is a valuable addition to a
flower-garden, as it affords, in a warm situation, an abundance of
handsome and often brilliant spring flowers, almost as early as
the snowdrop or crocus. The genus contains many other lively
spring-blooming plants, of which _A. hortensis_ and _A. fulgens_ have
less divided leaves and splendid rosy-purple or scarlet flowers;
they require similar treatment. Another set is represented by _A.
Pulsatilla_, the Pasque-flower, whose violet blossoms have the outer
surface hairy; these prefer a calcareous soil. The splendid _A.
japonica_, and its white variety called Honorine Joubert, the
latter especially, are amongst the finest of autumn-blooming hardy
perennials; they grow well in light soil, and reach 2-1/2 to 3 ft.
in height, blooming continually for several weeks. A group of dwarf
species, represented by the native British _A. nemorosa_ and _A.
apennina_, are amongst the most beautiful of spring flowers for
planting in woods and shady places.

The genus _Hepatica_ is now generally included in anemone as a
subgenus. The plants are known in gardens as hepaticas, and are
varieties of the common South European _A. Hepatica_; they are
charming spring-flowering plants with usually blue flowers.



ANENCLETUS, or ANACLETUS, second bishop of Rome. About the 4th century
he is treated in the catalogues as two persons--Anacletus and Cletus.
According to the catalogues he occupied the papal chair for twelve
years (c. 77-88).



ANERIO, the name of two brothers, musical composers, very great Roman
masters of 16th-century polyphony. Felice, the elder, was born about
1560, studied under G.M. Nanino and succeeded Palestrina in 1594 as
composer to the papal chapel. Several masses and motets of his are
printed in Proske's _Musica Divina_ and other modern anthologies, and
it is hardly too much to say that they are for the most part worthy
of Palestrina himself. The date of his death is conjecturally given as
1630. His brother, Giovanni Francesco, was born about 1567, and seems
to have died about 1620. The occasional attribution of some of his
numerous compositions to his elder brother is a pardonable mistake, if
we may judge by the works that have been reprinted. But the statement,
which continues to be repeated in standard works of reference,
that "he was one of the first of Italians to use the quaver and its
subdivisions" is incomprehensible. Quavers were common property in
all musical countries quite early in the 16th century, and semiquavers
appear in a madrigal of Palestrina published in 1574. The two brothers
are probably the latest composers who handled 16th-century music
as their mother-language; suffering neither from the temptation to
indulge even in such mild neologisms as they might have learnt
from the elder brother's master, Nanino, nor from the necessity of
preserving their purity of style by a mortified negative asceticism.
They wrote pure polyphony because they understood it and loved it, and
hence their work lives, as neither the progressive work of their
own day nor the reactionary work of their imitators could live. The
12-part _Stabat Mater_ in the seventh volume of Palestrina's complete
works has been by some authorities ascribed to Felice Anerio.

[v.02 p.0004]


ANET, a town of northern France, in the department of Eure-et-Loir,
situated between the rivers Eure and Vègre, 10 m. N.E. of Dreux by
rail. Pop. (1906) 1324. It possesses the remains of a magnificent
castle, built in the middle of the 16th century by Henry II. for Diana
of Poitiers. Near it is the plain of Ivry, where Henry IV. defeated
the armies of the League in 1590.



ANEURIN, or ANEIRIN, the name of an early 7th-century British (Welsh)
bard, who has been taken by Thomas Stephens (1821-1875), the editor
and translator of Aneurin's principal epic poem _Gododin_, for a
son of Gildas, the historian. _Gododin_ is an account of the British
defeat (603) by the Saxons at Cattraeth (identified by Stephens with
Dawstane in Liddesdale), where Aneurin is said to have been taken
prisoner; but the poem is very obscure and is differently interpreted.
It was translated and edited by W.F. Skene in his _Four Ancient
Books of Wales_ (1866), and Stephens' version was published by the
Cymmrodorion Society in 1888. See CELT: _Literature_ (Welsh).



ANEURYSM, or ANEURISM (from Gr. [Greek: aneurisma], a dilatation), a
cavity or sac which communicates with the interior of an artery and
contains blood. The walls of the cavity are formed either of the
dilated artery or of the tissues around that vessel. The dilatation
of the artery is due to a local weakness, the result of disease or
injury. The commonest cause is chronic inflammation of the inner coats
of the artery. The breaking of a bottle or glass in the hand is apt to
cut through the outermost coat of the artery at the wrist (radial)
and thus to cause a local weakening of the tube which is gradually
followed by dilatation. Also when an artery is wounded and the wound
in the skin and superficial structures heals, the blood may escape in
to the tissues, displacing them, and by its pressure causing them to
condense and form the sac-wall. The coats of an artery, when diseased,
may be torn by a severe strain, the blood escaping into the condensed
tissues which thus form the aneurysmal sac.

The division, of aneurysms into two classes, _true_ and _false_, is
unsatisfactory. On the face of it, an aneurysm which is false is not
an aneurysm, any more than a false bank-note is legal tender. A better
classification is into _spontaneous_ and _traumatic_. The man who has
chronic inflammation of a large artery, the result, for instance, of
gout, arduous, straining work, or kidney-disease, and whose artery
yields under cardiac pressure, has a _spontaneous_ aneurysm; the
barman or window-cleaner who has cut his radial artery, the soldier
whose brachial or femoral artery has been bruised by a rifle bullet
or grazed by a bayonet, and the boy whose naked foot is pierced by
a sharp nail, are apt to be the subjects of _traumatic_ aneurysm.
In those aneurysms which are a _saccular_ bulging on one side of the
artery the blood may be induced to coagulate, or may of itself deposit
layer upon layer of pale clot, until the sac is obliterated. This
laminar coagulation by constant additions gradually fills the
aneurysmal cavity and the pulsation in the sac then ceases;
contraction of the sac and its contents gradually takes place and
the aneurysm is cured. But in those aneurysms which are _fusiform_
dilatations of the vessel there is but slight chance of such cure, for
the blood sweeps evenly through it without staying to deposit clot or
laminated fibrine.

In the treatment of aneurysm the aim is generally to lower the blood
pressure by absolute rest and moderated diet, but a cure is rarely
effected except by operation, which, fortunately, is now resorted
to more promptly and securely than was previously the case.
Without trying the speculative and dangerous method of treatment
by compression, or the application of an india rubber bandage, the
surgeon now without loss of time cuts down upon the artery, and
applies an aseptic ligature close above the dilatation. Experience
has shown that this method possesses great advantages, and that it has
none of the disadvantages which were formerly supposed to attend it.
Saccular dilatations of arteries which are the result of cuts or
other injuries are treated by tying the vessel above and below, and by
dissecting out the aneurysm. Popliteal, carotid and other aneurysms,
which are not of traumatic origin, are sometimes dealt with on this
plan, which is the old "Method of Antyllus" with modern aseptic
conditions. Speaking generally, if an aneurysm can be dealt with
surgically the sooner that the artery is tied the better. Less heroic
measures are too apt to prove painful, dangerous, ineffectual and
disappointing. For anturysm in the chest or abdomen (which cannot be
dealt with by operation) the treatment may be tried of injecting a
pure solution of gelatine into the loose tissues of the armpit, so
that the gelatine may find its way into the blood stream and increase
the chance of curative coagulation in the distant aneurysmal sac.

(E.O.)



ANFRACTUOSITY (from Lat. _anfractuosus_, winding), twisting and
turning, circuitousness; a word usually employed in the plural to
denote winding channels such as occur in the depths of the sea,
mountains, or the fissures (_sulci_) separating the convolutions of
the brain, or, by analogy, in the mind.



ANGARIA (from [Greek: aggaros], the Greek form of a Babylonian word
adopted in Persian for "mounted courier"), a sort of postal system
adopted by the Roman imperial government from the ancient Persians,
among whom, according to Xenophon (_Cyrop._ viii. 6; cf. Herodotus
viii. 98) it was established by Cyrus the Great. Couriers on horseback
were posted at certain stages along the chief roads of the empire, for
the transmission of royal despatches by night and day in all weathers.
In the Roman system the supply of horses and their maintenance was a
compulsory duty from which the emperor alone could grant exemption.
The word, which in the 4th century was used for the heavy transport
vehicles of the cursus publicus, and also for the animals by which
they were drawn, came to mean generally "compulsory service." So
_angaria_, _angariare_, in medieval Latin, and the rare English
derivatives "angariate," "angariation," came to mean any service which
was forcibly or unjustly demanded, and oppression in general.



ANGARY (Lat. _jus angariae_; Fr. _droit d'angarie_; Ger. _Angarie_;
from the Gr. [Greek: aggareia], the office of an [Greek: aggaros],
courier or messenger), the name given to the right of a belligerent to
seize and apply for the purposes of war (or to prevent the enemy from
doing so) any kind of property on, belligerent territory, including
that which may belong to subjects or citizens of a neutral state. Art.
53 of the Regulations respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land,
annexed to the Hague Convention of 1899 on the same subject, provides
that railway plant, land telegraphs, telephones, steamers and other
ships (other than such as are governed by maritime law), though
belonging to companies or private persons, _may be used_ for military
operations, but "must be restored at the conclusion of peace _and_
indemnities paid for them." And Art. 54 adds that "the plant of
railways coming from neutral states, whether the property of those
states or of companies or private persons, shall be sent back to them
as soon as possible." These articles seem to sanction the right of
angary against neutral property, while limiting it as against both
belligerent and neutral property. It may be considered, however,
that the right to use implies as wide a range of contingencies as the
"necessity of war" can be made to cover.

(T. BA.)



ANGEL, a general term denoting a subordinate superhuman being in
monotheistic religions, _e.g._. Islam, Judaism, Christianity, and in
allied religions, such as Zoroastrianism. In polytheism the grades of
superhuman beings are continuous; but in monotheism there is a sharp
distinction of kind, as well as degree, between God on the one hand,
and all other superhuman beings on the other; the latter are the
"angels."

"Angel" is a transcription of the Gr. [Greek: angelos], messenger.
[Greek: angelos] in the New Testament, and the corresponding _mal'akh_
in the Old Testament, sometimes mean "messenger," and sometimes
"angel," and this double sense is duly represented in the English
Versions. "Angel" is also used in the English Version for [Hebrew:]
_'Abbir_, Ps. lxxviii. 25. (lit. "mighty"), for [Hebrew:]
_'Elohim_, Ps. viii. 5, and for the obscure [Hebrew:] _shin'an_,
in Ps. lxviii. 17.

[v.02 p.0005]

In the later development of the religion of Israel, _'Elohim_ is
almost entirely reserved for the one true God; but in earlier times
_'Elohim_ (gods), _bn[=e] 'Elohim, bn[=e] Elim_ (sons of gods,
_i.e._ members of the class of divine beings) were general terms
for superhuman beings. Hence they came to be used collectively of
superhuman beings, distinct from Yahweh, and therefore inferior,
and ultimately subordinate.[1] So, too, the angels are styled "holy
ones,"[2] and "watchers,"[3] and are spoken of as the "host of
heaven"[4] or of "Yahweh."[5] The "hosts," [Hebrew:] _Sebaoth_ in
the title _Yahweh Sebaoth_, Lord of Hosts, were probably at one time
identified with the angels.[6] The New Testament often speaks of
"spirits," [Greek: pneumata].[7] In the earlier periods of the
religion of Israel, the doctrine of monotheism had not been formally
stated, so that the idea of "angel" in the modern sense does not
occur, but we find the _Mal'akh Yahweh_, Angel of the Lord, or
_Mal'akh Elohim_, Angel of God. The _Mal'akh Yahweh_ is an appearance
or manifestation of _Yahweh_ in the form of a man, and the term
_Mal'akh Yahweh_ is used interchangeably with Yahweh (cf. Exod. iii.
2, with iii. 4; xiii. 21 with xiv. 19). Those who see the _Mal'akh
Yahweh_ say they have seen God.[8] The _Mal'akh Yahweh_ (or _Elohim_)
appears to Abraham, Hagar, Moses, Gideon, &c., and leads the
Israelites in the Pillar of Cloud.[9] The phrase _Mal'akh Yahweh_ may
have been originally a courtly circumlocution for the Divine King;
but it readily became a means of avoiding crude anthropomorphism, and
later on, when the angels were classified, the _Mal'akh Yahweh_ came
to mean an angel of distinguished rank.[10] The identification of the
_Mal'akh Yahweh_ with the _Logos_, or Second Person of the Trinity, is
not indicated by the references in the Old Testament; but the idea
of a Being partly identified with God, and yet in some sense distinct
from Him, illustrates the tendency of religious thought to distinguish
persons within the unity of the Godhead, and foreshadows the doctrine
of the Trinity, at any rate in some slight degree.

In the earlier literature the _Mal'akh Yahweh_ or _Elohim_ is almost
the only _mal'akh_ ("angel") mentioned. There are, however, a few
passages which speak of subordinate superhuman beings other than the
_Mal'akh Yahweh_ or _Elohim_. There are the cherubim who guard Eden.
In Gen. xviii., xix. (J) the appearance of Yahweh to Abraham and
Lot is connected with three, afterwards two, men or messengers; but
possibly in the original form of the story Yahweh appeared alone.[11]
At Bethel, Jacob sees the angels of God on the ladder,[12] and later
on they appear to him at Mahanaim.[13] In all these cases the
angels, like the _Mal'akh Yahweh_, are connected with or represent a
theophany. Similarly the "man" who wrestles with Jacob at Peniel is
identified with God.[14] In Isaiah vi. the seraphim, superhuman
beings with six wings, appear as the attendants of Yahweh. Thus the
pre-exilic literature, as we now have it, has little to say about
angels or about superhuman beings other than Yahweh and manifestations
of Yahweh; the pre-exilic prophets hardly mention angels.[15]
Nevertheless we may well suppose that the popular religion of ancient
Israel had much to say of superhuman beings other than Yahweh, but
that the inspired writers have mostly suppressed references to them as
unedifying. Moreover such beings were not strictly angels.

The doctrine of monotheism was formally expressed in the period
immediately before and during the Exile, in Deuteronomy[16] and
Isaiah;[17] and at the same time we find angels prominent in Ezekiel
who, as a prophet of the Exile, may have been influenced by the
hierarchy of supernatural beings in the Babylonian religion, and
perhaps even by the angelology of Zoroastrianism.[18] Ezekiel gives
elaborate descriptions of cherubim;[19] and in one of his visions he
sees seven angels execute the judgment of God upon Jerusalem.[20] As
in Genesis they are styled "men," _mal'akh_ for "angel" does not occur
in Ezekiel. Somewhat later, in the visions of Zechariah, angels play
a great part; they are sometimes spoken of as "men," sometimes as
_mal'akh_, and the _Mal'akh Yahweh_ seems to hold a certain primacy
among them.[21] Satan also appears to prosecute (so to speak) the
High Priest before the divine tribunal.[22] Similarly in Job the _bne
Elohim_, sons of God, appear as attendants of God, and amongst them
Satan, still in his rôle of public prosecutor, the defendant being
Job.[23] Occasional references to "angels" occur in the Psalter;[24]
they appear as ministers of God.

In Ps. lxxviii. 49 the "evil angels" of A.V. conveys a false
impression; it should be "angels of evil," as R.V., _i.e._ angels who
inflict chastisement as ministers of God.

The seven angels of Ezekiel may be compared with the seven eyes of
Yahweh in Zech. iii. 9, iv. 10. The latter have been connected by
Ewald and others with the later doctrine of seven chief angels,[25]
parallel to and influenced by the Ameshaspentas (Amesha Spenta), or
seven great spirits of the Persian mythology, but the connexion is
doubtful.

In the Priestly Code, _c._ 400 B.C., there is no reference to angels
apart from the possible suggestion in the ambiguous plural in Genesis
i. 26.

During the Persian and Greek periods the doctrine of angels underwent
a great development, partly, at any rate, under foreign influences.
In Daniel, _c._ 160 B.C., angels, usually spoken of as "men" or
"princes," appear as guardians or champions of the nations; grades are
implied, there are "princes" and "chief" or "great princes"; and
the names of some angels are known, Gabriel, Michael; the latter is
pre-eminent,[26] he is the guardian of Judah. Again in Tobit a leading
part is played by Raphael, "one of the seven holy angels."[27]

In Tobit, too, we find the idea of the demon or evil angel. In the
canonical Old Testament angels may inflict suffering as ministers
of God, and Satan may act as accuser or tempter; but they appear as
subordinate to God, fulfilling His will; and not as morally evil. The
statement[28] that God "charged His angels with folly" applies to
all angels. In Daniel the princes or guardian angels of the heathen
nations oppose Michael the guardian angel of Judah. But in Tobit we
find Asmodaeus the evil demon, [Greek: to poneros daimonion], who
strangles Sarah's husbands, and also a general reference to "a devil
or evil spirit," [Greek: pneuma].[29] The Fall of the Angels is not
properly a scriptural doctrine, though it is based on Gen. vi. 2, as
interpreted by the Book of Enoch. It is true that the _bn[=e] Elohim_
of that chapter are subordinate superhuman beings (cf. above), but
they belong to a different order of thought from the angels of Judaism
and of Christian doctrine; and the passage in no way suggests that the
_bne Elohim_ suffered any loss of status through their act.

The guardian angels of the nations in Daniel probably represent the
gods of the heathen, and we have there the first step of the process
by which these gods became evil angels, an idea expanded by Milton
in _Paradise Lost_. The development of the doctrine of an organized
hierarchy of angels belongs to the Jewish literature of the period 200
B.C. to A.D. 100. In Jewish apocalypses especially, the imagination
ran riot on the rank, classes and names of angels; and such works as
the various books of Enoch and the _Ascension of Isaiah_ supply much
information on this subject.

[v.02 p.0006]

In the New Testament angels appear frequently as the ministers of God
and the agents of revelation;[30] and Our Lord speaks of angels
as fulfilling such functions,[31] implying in one saying that they
neither marry nor are given in marriage.[32] Naturally angels are most
prominent in the Apocalypse. The New Testament takes little interest
in the idea of the angelic hierarchy, but there are traces of the
doctrine. The distinction of good and bad angels is recognized; we
have names, Gabriel,[33] and the evil angels Abaddon or Apollyon,[34]
Beelzebub.[35] and Satan;[36] ranks are implied, archangels,[37]
principalities and powers,[38] thrones and dominions.[39] Angels
occur in groups of four or seven.[40] In Rev. i.-iii. we meet with
the "Angels" of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor. These are probably
guardian angels, standing to the churches in the same relation that
the "princes" in Daniel stand to the nations; practically the "angels"
are personifications of the churches. A less likely view is that the
"angels" are the human representatives of the churches, the bishops or
chief presbyters. There seems, however, no parallel to such a use
of "angel," and it is doubtful whether the monarchical government of
churches was fully developed when the Apocalypse was written.

Later Jewish and Christian speculation followed on the lines of the
angelology of the earlier apocalypses; and angels play an important
part in Gnostic systems and in the Jewish Midrashim and the Kabbala.
Religious thought about the angels during the middle ages was much
influenced by the theory of the angelic hierarchy set forth in the
_De Hierarchia Celesti_, written in the 5th century in the name
of Dionysius the Areopagite and passing for his. The creeds and
confessions do not formulate any authoritative doctrine of angels; and
modern rationalism has tended to deny the existence of such beings,
or to regard the subject as one on which we can have no certain
knowledge. The principle of continuity, however, seems to require the
existence of beings intermediate between man and God.

The Old Testament says nothing about the origin of angels; but the
_Book of Jubilees_ and the Slavonic _Enoch_ describe their creation;
and, according to Col. i. 16, the angels were created in, unto and
through Christ.

Nor does the Bible give any formal account of the nature of angels.
It is doubtful how far Ezekiel's account of the cherubim and Isaiah's
account of the seraphim are to be taken as descriptions of actual
beings; they are probably figurative, or else subjective visions.
Angels are constantly spoken of as "men," and, including even the
Angel of Yahweh, are spoken of as discharging the various functions
of human life; they eat and drink,[41] walk[42] and speak.[43] Putting
aside the cherubim and seraphim, they are not spoken of as having
wings. On the other hand they appear and vanish,[44] exercise
miraculous powers,[45] and fly.[46] Seeing that the anthropomorphic
language used of the angels is similar to that used of God, the
Scriptures would hardly seem to require a literal interpretation in
either case. A special association is found, both in the Bible and
elsewhere, between the angels and the heavenly bodies,[47] and the
elements or elemental forces, fire, water, &c.[48] The angels are
infinitely numerous.[49]

The _function_ of the angels is that of the supernatural servants of
God. His agents and representatives; the Angel of Yahweh, as we have
seen, is a manifestation of God. In old times, the _bne Elohim_ and
the seraphim are His court, and the angels are alike the court and the
army of God; the cherubim are his throne-bearers. In his dealings with
men, the angels, as their name implies, are specially His messengers,
declaring His will and executing His commissions. Through them he
controls nature and man. They are the guardian angels of the nations;
and we also find the idea that individuals have guardian angels.[50].
Later Jewish tradition held that the Law was given by angels.[51]
According to the Gnostic Basilides, the world was created by angels.
Mahommedanism has taken over and further elaborated the Jewish and
Christian ideas as to angels.

While the scriptural statements imply a belief in the existence of
spiritual beings intermediate between God and men, it is probable that
many of the details may be regarded merely as symbolic imagery. In
Scripture the function of the angel overshadows his personality; the
stress is on their ministry; they appear in order to perform specific
acts.


[Footnote 1: _E.g._ Gen. vi. 2; Job i. 6; Ps. viii. 5, xxix. I.]

[Footnote 2: Zech. xiv. 5.]

[Footnote 3: Dan. iv. 13.]

[Footnote 4: Deut. xvii. 3 (?).]

[Footnote 5: Josh. v. 14 (?).]

[Footnote 6: The identification of the "hosts" with the stars comes
to the same thing; the stars were thought of as closely connected with
angels. It is probable that the "hosts" were also identified with the
armies of Israel.]

[Footnote 7: Rev. i. 4.]

[Footnote 8: Gen. xxxii. 30; Judges xiii. 22.]

[Footnote 9: Exod. iii. 2, xiv.]

[Footnote 10: Zech. i. 11f.]

[Footnote 11: Cf. xviii. I with xviii. 2, and note change of number in
xix. 17.]

[Footnote 12: Gen. xxviii. 12, E.]

[Footnote 13: Gen. xxxii. I, E.]

[Footnote 14: Gen. xxxii. 24, 30, J.]

[Footnote 15: "An angel" of I Kings xiii. 18 might be the _Mal'akh
Yahweh_, as in xix. 5, cf. 7, or the passage, at any rate in its
present form, may be exilic or post-exilic.]

[Footnote 16: Deut. vi. 4. 5.]

[Footnote 17: Isaiah xliii. 10 &c.]

[Footnote 18: It is not however certain that these doctrines of
Zoroastrianism were developed at so early a date.]

[Footnote 19: Ezek. i.x.]

[Footnote 20: Ezek. ix.]

[Footnote 21: Zech. i. 11 f.]

[Footnote 22: Zech. iii. 1.]

[Footnote 23: Job i., ii. Cf. I Chron. xxi. 1.]

[Footnote 24: Pss. xci. 11, ciii. 20 &c.]

[Footnote 25: Tobit xii. 15; Rev. viii. 2.]

[Footnote 26: Dan. viii. 16, x. 13, 20, 21.]

[Footnote 27: Tob. xii. 15.]

[Footnote 28: Job iv. 18.]

[Footnote 29: Tobit iii. 8, 17, vi. 7.]

[Footnote 30: _E.g._ Matt. i. 20 (to Joseph), iv. 11. (to Jesus), Luke
i. 26 (to Mary), Acts xii. 7 (to Peter).]

[Footnote 31: _E.g._ Mark viii. 38, xiii. 27.]

[Footnote 32: Mark xii. 25.]

[Footnote 33: Luke i. 19.]

[Footnote 34: Rev. ix. 11.]

[Footnote 35: Mark iii. 22.]

[Footnote 36: Mark i. 13.]

[Footnote 37: Michael, Jude 9.]

[Footnote 38: Rom. viii. 38; Col, ii. 10.]

[Footnote 39: Col. i. 16.]

[Footnote 40: Rev. vii. 1.]

[Footnote 41: Gen. xviii. 8.]

[Footnote 42: Gen. xix. 16.]

[Footnote 43: Zech. iv. 1.]

[Footnote 44: Judges vi. 12, 21.]

[Footnote 45: Rev. vii. 1. viii.]

[Footnote 46: Rev. viii. 13, xiv. 6.]

[Footnote 47: Job xxxviii. 7; _Asc. of Isaiah_, iv. 18; Slav. _Enoch_,
iv. 1.]

[Footnote 48: Rev. xiv. 18, xvi. 5; possibly Gal. iv. 3; Col. ii. 8,
20.]

[Footnote 49: Ps. lxviii. 17; Dan. vii. 10.]

[Footnote 50: Matt, xviii. 10; Acts xii. 15.]

[Footnote 51: Gal. iii. 19; Heb. ii. 2; _LXX_. of Deut. xxxiii. 2.]


BIBLIOGRAPHY.--See the sections on "Angels" in the handbooks of O.T.
Theology by Ewald, Schultz, Smend, Kayser-Marti, &c.; and of
N.T. Theology by Weiss, and in van Oosterzee's _Dogmatics_. Also
commentaries on special passages, especially Driver and Bevan on
_Daniel_, and G.A. Smith, _Minor Prophets_, ii. 310 ff.; and articles
_s.v._ "Angel" in Hastings' _Bible Dictionary_, and the _Encyclopaedia
Biblica_.

(W.H. BE.)



ANGEL, a gold coin, first used in France (_angelot, ange_) in 1340,
and introduced into England by Edward IV. in 1465 as a new issue of
the "noble," and so at first called the "angel-noble." It varied in
value between that period and the time of Charles I. (when it was
last coined) from 6s. 8d. to 10s. The name was derived from the
representation it bore of St. Michael and the dragon. The angel was the
coin given to those who came to be touched for the disease known
as king's evil; after it was no longer coined, medals, called
touch-pieces, with the same device, were given instead.



ANGELICA, a genus of plants of the natural order _Umbelliferae_,
represented in Britain by one species, _A. sylvestris_, a tall
perennial herb with large bipinnate leaves and large compound umbels
of white or purple flowers. The name Angelica is popularly given to
a plant of an allied genus, _Archangelica officinalis_, the tender
shoots of which are used in making certain kinds of aromatic
sweetmeats. _Angelica balsam_ is obtained by extracting the roots with
alcohol, evaporating and extracting the residue with ether. It is of
a dark brown colour and contains angelica oil, angelica wax and
angelicin, C_{18}_H_{30}_O. The essential oil of the roots of
_Angelica archangelica_ contains ß-terebangelene, C_{10}_H_{16}, and
other terpenes; the oil of the seeds also contains ß-terebangelene,
together with methylethylacetic acid and hydroxymyristic acid.

The angelica tree is a member of the order _Avaliaceae_, a species of
_Aralia (A. spinosa_), a native of North America; it grows 8 to 12 ft.
high, has a simple prickle-bearing stem forming an umbrella-like head,
and much divided leaves.



ANGELICO, FRA (1387-1455), Italian painter. Il Beato Fra Giovanni
Angelico da Fiesole is the name given to a far-famed painter-friar of
the Florentine state in the 15th century, the representative, beyond
all other men, of pietistic painting. He is often, but not accurately,
termed simply "Fiesole," which is merely the name of the town where he
first took the vows; more often Fra Angelico. If we turn his compound
designation into English, it runs thus--"the Beatified Friar John the
Angelic of Fiesole." In his lifetime he was known no doubt simply as
Fra Giovanni or Friar John; "The Angelic" is a laudatory term which
was assigned to him at an early date,--we find it in use within thirty
years after his death; and, at some period which is not defined in
our authorities, he was beatified by due ecclesiastical process. His
baptismal name was Guido, Giovanni being only his name in religion. He
was born at Vicchio, in the Tuscan province of Mugello, of unknown
but seemingly well-to-do parentage, in 1387 (not 1390 as sometimes
stated); in 1407 he became a novice in the convent of S. Domenico at
Fiesole, and in 1408 he took the vows and entered the Dominican order.
Whether he had previously been a painter by profession is not certain,
but may be pronounced probable. The painter named Lorenzo Monaco may
have contributed to his art-training, and the influence of the Sienese
school is discernible in his work.

[v.02 p.0007]

According to Vasari, the first paintings of this artist were in the
Certosa of Florence; none such exist there now. His earliest extant
performances, in considerable number, are at Cortona, whither he
was sent during his novitiate, and here apparently he spent all the
opening years of his monastic life. His first works executed in fresco
were probably those, now destroyed, which he painted in the convent
of S. Domenico in this city; as a fresco-painter, he may have worked
under, or as a follower of, Gherardo Starnina. From 1418 to 1436
he was back at Fiesole; in 1436 he was transferred to the Dominican
convent of S. Marco in Florence, and in 1438 undertook to paint the
altarpiece for the choir, followed by many other works; he may have
studied about this time the renowned frescoes in the Brancacci chapel
in the Florentine church of the Carmine and also the paintings of
Orcagna. In or about 1445 he was invited by the pope to Rome. The pope
who reigned from 1431 to 1447 was Eugenius IV., and he it was who in
1445 appointed another Dominican friar, a colleague of Angelico, to
be archbishop of Florence. If the story (first told by Vasari) is
true--that this appointment was made at the suggestion of Angelico
only after the archbishopric had been offered to himself, and by
him declined on the ground of his inaptitude for so elevated and
responsible a station--Eugenius, and not (as stated by Vasari) his
successor Nicholas V., must have been the pope who sent the invitation
and made the offer to Fra Giovanni, for Nicholas only succeeded in
1447. The whole statement lacks authentication, though in itself
credible enough. Certain it is that Angelico was staying in Rome in
the first half of 1447; and he painted in the Vatican the Cappella del
Sacramento, which was afterwards demolished by Paul III. In June
1447 he proceeded to Orvieto, to paint in the Cappella Nuova of the
cathedral, with the co-operation of his pupil Benozzo Gozzoli. He
afterwards returned to Rome to paint the chapel of Nicholas V. In
this capital he died in 1455, and he lies buried in the church of the
Minerva.

According to all the accounts which have reached us, few men on
whom the distinction of beatification has been conferred could
have deserved it more nobly than Fra Giovanni. He led a holy and
self-denying life, shunning all advancement, and was a brother to
the poor; no man ever saw him angered. He painted with unceasing
diligence, treating none but sacred subjects; he never retouched
or altered his work, probably with a religious feeling that such as
divine providence allowed the thing to come, such it should remain. He
was wont to say that he who illustrates the acts of Christ should
be with Christ. It is averred that he never handled a brush without
fervent prayer and he wept when he painted a Crucifixion. The Last
Judgment and the Annunciation were two of the subjects he most
frequently treated.

Bearing in mind the details already given as to the dates of Fra
Giovanni's sojournings in various localities, the reader will be able
to trace approximately the sequence of the works which we now proceed
to name as among his most important productions. In Florence, in the
convent of S. Marco (now converted into a national museum), a series
of frescoes, beginning towards 1443; in the first cloister is the
Crucifixion with St. Dominic kneeling; and the same treatment recurs on
a wall near the dormitory; in the chapterhouse is a third Crucifixion,
with the Virgin swooning, a composition of twenty life-sized
figures--the red background, which has a strange and harsh effect, is
the misdoing of some restorer; an "Annunciation," the figures of about
three-fourths of life-size, in a dormitory; in the adjoining passage,
the "Virgin enthroned," with four saints; on the wall of a cell,
the "Coronation of the Virgin," with Saints Paul, Thomas Aquinas,
Benedict, Dominic, Francis and Peter Martyr; two Dominicans welcoming
Jesus, habited as a pilgrim; an "Adoration of the Magi"; the "Marys
at the Sepulchre." All these works are later than the altarpiece which
Angelico painted (as before mentioned) for the choir connected
with this convent, and which is now in the academy of Florence; it
represents the Virgin with Saints Cosmas and Damian (the patrons of
the Medici family), Dominic, Peter, Francis, Mark, John Evangelist and
Stephen; the pediment illustrated the lives of Cosmas and Damian, but
it has long been severed from the main subject. In the Uffizi gallery,
an altarpiece, the Virgin (life-sized) enthroned, with the Infant and
twelve angels. In S. Domenico, Fiesole, a few frescoes, less fine than
those in S. Marco; also an altarpiece in tempera of the Virgin and
Child between Saints Peter, Thomas Aquinas, Dominic and Peter Martyr,
now much destroyed. The subject which originally formed the predella
of this picture has, since 1860, been in the National Gallery, London,
and worthily represents there the hand of the saintly painter. The
subject is a Glory, Christ with the banner of the Resurrection, and
a multitude of saints, including, at the extremities, the saints or
beati of the Dominican order; here are no fewer than 266 figures
or portions of figures, many of them having names inscribed. This
predella was highly lauded by Vasari; still more highly another
picture which used to form an altarpiece in Fiesole, and which now
obtains world-wide celebrity in the Louvre--the "Coronation of the
Virgin," with eight predella subjects of the miracles of St. Dominic.
For the church of Santa Trinita, Florence, Angelico executed a
"Deposition from the Cross," and for the church of the Angeli, a "Last
Judgment," both now in the Florentine academy; for S. Maria Novella, a
"Coronation of the Virgin," with a predella in three sections, now
in the Uffizi,--this again is one of his masterpieces. In Orvieto
cathedral he painted three triangular divisions of the ceiling,
portraying respectively Christ in a glory of angels, sixteen saints
and prophets, and the virgin and apostles: all these are now much
repainted and damaged. In Rome, in the Chapel of Nicholas V., the acts
of Saints Stephen and Lawrence; also various figures of saints, and
on the ceiling the four evangelists. These works of the painter's
advanced age, which have suffered somewhat from restorations, show
vigour superior to that of his youth, along with a more adequate
treatment of the architectural perspectives. Naturally, there are a
number of works currently attributed to Angelico, but not really his;
for instance, a "St Thomas with the Madonna's girdle," in the Lateran
museum, and a "Virgin enthroned," in the church of S. Girolamo,
Fiesole. It has often been said that he commenced and frequently
practised as an illuminator; this is dubious and a presumption arises
that illuminations executed by Giovanni's brother, Benedetto, also
a Dominican, who died in 1448, have been ascribed to the more famous
artist. Benedetto may perhaps have assisted Giovanni in the frescoes
at S. Marco, but nothing of the kind is distinctly traceable. A folio
series of engravings from these paintings was published in Florence,
in 1852. Along with Gozzoli already mentioned, Zanobi Strozzi and
Gentile da Fabriano are named as pupils of the Beato.

We have spoken of Angelico's art as "pietistic"; this is in fact
its predominant character. His visages have an air of rapt suavity,
devotional fervency and beaming esoteric consciousness, which is
intensely attractive to some minds and realizes beyond rivalry a
particular ideal--that of ecclesiastical saintliness and detachment
from secular fret and turmoil. It should not be denied that he did not
always escape the pitfalls of such a method of treatment, the faces
becoming sleek and prim, with a smirk of sexless religiosity which
hardly eludes the artificial or even the hypocritical; on other minds,
therefore, and these some of the most masculine and resolute, he
produces little genuine impression. After allowing for this, Angelico
should nevertheless be accepted beyond cavil as an exalted typical
painter according to his own range of conceptions, consonant with his
monastic calling, unsullied purity of life and exceeding devoutness.
Exquisite as he is in his special mode of execution, he undoubtedly
falls far short, not only of his great naturalist contemporaries such
as Masaccio and Lippo Lippi, but even of so distant a precursor as
Giotto, in all that pertains to bold or life-like invention of a
subject or the realization of ordinary appearances, expressions and
actions--the facts of nature, as distinguished from the aspirations or
contemplations of the spirit. Technically speaking, he had much finish
and harmony of composition and colour, without corresponding
mastery of light and shade, and his knowledge of the human frame
was restricted. The brilliancy and fair light scale of his tints
is constantly remarkable, combined with a free use of gilding; this
conduces materially to that celestial character which so pre-eminently
distinguishes his pictured visions of the divine persons, the
hierarchy of heaven and the glory of the redeemed.

[v.02 p.0008]

Books regarding Fra Angelico are numerous. We may mention those by S.
Beissel, 1895; V.M. Crawford, 1900; R.L. Douglas, 1900; I.B. Supino,
1901; D. Tumiati, 1897; G. Williamson, 1901.

(W.M.R.)



ANGELL, GEORGE THORNDIKE (1823-1909), American philanthropist, was
born at Southbridge, Massachusetts, on the 5th of June 1823. He
graduated at Dartmouth in 1846, studied law at the Harvard Law School,
and in 1851 was admitted to the bar in Boston, where he practised
for many years. In 1868 he founded and became president of the
Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, in the
same year establishing and becoming editor of _Our Dumb Animals_, a
journal for the promotion of organized effort in securing the humane
treatment of animals. For many years he was active in the organization
of humane societies in England and America. In 1882 he initiated the
movement for the establishment of Bands of Mercy (for the promotion
of humane treatment of animals), of which in 1908 there were more than
72,000 in active existence. In 1889 he founded and became president
of the American Humane Education Society. He became well known as a
criminologist and also as an advocate of laws for the safeguarding of
the public health and against adulteration of food. He died at Boston
on the 16th of March 1909.



ANGEL-LIGHTS, in architecture, the outer upper lights in a
perpendicular window, next to the springing; probably a corruption of
the word angle-lights, as they are nearly triangular.



ANGELUS, a Roman Catholic devotion in memory of the Annunciation.
It has its name from the opening words, _Angelus Domini nuntiavit
Mariae_. It consists of three texts describing the mystery, recited
as versicle and response alternately with the salutation "Hail, Mary!"
This devotion is recited in the Catholic Church three times daily,
about 6 A.M., noon and 6 P.M. At these hours a bell known as the
Angelus bell is rung. This is still rung in some English country
churches, and has often been mistaken for and alleged to be a survival
of the curfew bell. The institution of the Angelus is by some ascribed
to Pope Urban II., by some to John XXII. The triple recitation is
ascribed to Louis XI. of France, who in 1472 ordered it to be thrice
said daily.



ANGELUS SILESIUS (1624-1677), German religious poet, was born in 1624
at Breslau. His family name was Johann Scheffler, but he is generally
known by the pseudonym Angelus Silesius, under which he published his
poems and which marks the country of his birth. Brought up a Lutheran,
and at first physician to the duke of Württemberg-Oels, he joined in
1652 the Roman Catholic Church, in 1661 took orders as a priest, and
became coadjutor to the prince bishop of Breslau. He died at Breslau
on the 9th of July 1677. In 1657 Silesius published under the title
_Heilige Seelenlust, oder geistliche Hirtenlieder der in ihren
Jesum verliebten Psyche_ (1657), a collection of 205 hymns, the most
beautiful of which, such as, _Liebe, die du mich zum Bilde deiner
Gottheit hast gemacht_ and _Mir nach, spricht Christus, unser Held_,
have been adopted in the German Protestant hymnal. More remarkable,
however, is his _Geistreiche Sinn-und Schluss-reime_ (1657),
afterwards called _Cherubinischer Wandersmann_ (1674). This is a
collection of "Reimsprüche" or rhymed distichs embodying a strange
mystical pantheism drawn mainly from the writings of Jakob Böhme and
his followers. Silesius delighted specially in the subtle paradoxes of
mysticism. The essence of God, for instance, he held to be love; God,
he said, can love nothing inferior to himself; but he cannot be an
object of love to himself without going out, so to speak, of himself,
without manifesting his infinity in a finite form; in other words, by
becoming man. God and man are therefore essentially one.

A complete edition of Scheffler's works (_Sämtliche poetische Werke_)
was published by D.A. Rosenthal, 2 vols. (Regensburg, 1862). Both
the _Cherubinischer Wandersmann_ and _Heilige Seelenlust_ have been
republished by G. Ellinger (1895 and 1901); a selection from the
former work by O.E. Hartleben (1896). For further notices of Silesius'
life and work, see Hoffmann von Fallersleben in _Weimarisches Jahrbuch
I_. (Hanover, 1854); A. Kahlert, _Angelus Silesius_ (1853); C.
Seltmann, _Angelus Silesius und seine Mystik_ (1896), and a biog. by
H. Mahn (Dresden, 1896).



ANGERMÜNDE, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of
Brandenburg, on Lake Münde, 43 m. from Berlin by the Berlin-Stettin
railway, and at the junction of lines to Prenzlau, Freien-walde and
Schwedt. Pop. (1900) 7465. It has three Protestant churches, a grammar
school and court of law. Its industries embrace iron founding and
enamel working. In 1420 the elector Frederick I. of Brandenburg gained
here a signal victory over the Pomeranians.



ANGERONA, or ANGERONIA, an old Roman goddess, whose name and functions
are variously explained. According to ancient authorities, she was a
goddess who relieved men from pain and sorrow, or delivered the Romans
and their flocks from _angina_ (quinsy); or she was the protecting
goddess of Rome and the keeper of the sacred name of the city, which
might not be pronounced lest it should be revealed to her enemies; it
was even thought that Angerona itself was this name. Modern scholars
regard her as a goddess akin to Ops, Acca Larentia and Dea Dia; or
as the goddess of the new year and the returning sun (according to
Mommsen, _ab angerendo_= [Greek: apo tou anapheresthai. ton haelion).]
Her festival, called Divalia or Angeronalia, was celebrated on the
21st of December. The priests offered sacrifice in the temple of
Volupia, the goddess of pleasure, in which stood a statue of Angerona,
with a finger on her mouth, which was bound and closed (Macrobius
i. 10; Pliny, _Nat. Hist._ iii. 9; Varro, _L. L._ vi. 23). She was
worshipped as Ancharia at Faesulae, where an altar belonging to her
has been recently discovered. (See FAESULAE.)



ANGERS, a city of western France, capital of the department of
Maine-et-Loire, 191 m. S.W. of Paris by the Western railway to Nantes.
Pop. (1906) 73,585. It occupies rising ground on both banks of the
Maine, which are united by three bridges. The surrounding district is
famous for its flourishing nurseries and market gardens. Pierced
with wide, straight streets, well provided with public gardens, and
surrounded by ample, tree-lined boulevards, beyond which lie new
suburbs, Angers is one of the pleasantest towns in France. Of its
numerous medieval buildings the most important is the cathedral of
St. Maurice, dating in the main from the 12th and 13th centuries.
Between the two flanking towers of the west façade, the spires of
which are of the 16th century, rises a central tower of the same
period. The most prominent feature of the façade is the series of
eight warriors carved on the base of this tower. The vaulting of the
nave takes the form of a series of cupolas, and that of the choir and
transept is similar. The chief treasures of the church are its rich
stained glass (12th, 13th and 15th centuries) and valuable tapestry
(14th to 18th centuries). The bishop's palace which adjoins the
cathedral contains a fine synodal hall of the 12th century. Of the
other churches of Angers, the principal are St. Serge, an abbey-church
of the 12th and 15th centuries, and La Trinité (12th century). The
prefecture occupies the buildings of the famous abbey of St. Aubin; in
its courtyard are elaborately sculptured arcades of the 11th and 12th
centuries, from which period dates the tower, the only survival of the
splendid abbey-church. Ruins of the old churches of Toussaint (13th
century) and Notre-Dame du Ronceray (11th century) are also to be
seen. The castle of Angers, an imposing building girt with towers and
a moat, dates from the 13th century and is now used as an armoury.
The ancient hospital of St. Jean (12th century) is occupied by an
archaeological museum; and the Logis Barrault, a mansion built about
1500, contains the public library, the municipal museum, which has
a large collection of pictures and sculptures, and the Musée David,
containing works by the famous sculptor David d'Angers, who was a
native of the town. One of his masterpieces, a bronze statue of René
of Anjou, stands close by the castle. The Hôtel de Pincé or d'Anjou
(1523-1530) is the finest of the stone mansions of Angers; there are
also many curious wooden houses of the 15th and 16th centuries. The
palais de justice, the Catholic institute, a fine theatre, and
a hospital with 1500 beds are the more remarkable of the modern
buildings of the town. Angers is the seat of a bishopric, dating
from the 3rd century, a prefecture, a court of appeal and a court of
assizes. It has a tribunal of first instance, a tribunal of commerce,
a board of trade-arbitrators, a chamber of commerce, a branch of
the Bank of France and several learned societies. Its educational
institutions include ecclesiastical seminaries, a lycée, a preparatory
school of medicine and pharmacy, a university with free faculties
(_facultés libres_) of theology, law, letters and science, a higher
school of agriculture, training colleges, a school of arts and
handicrafts and a school of fine art. The prosperity of the town
is largely due to the great slate-quarries of the vicinity, but the
distillation of liqueurs from fruit, cable, rope and thread-making,
and the manufacture of boots and shoes, umbrellas and parasols are
leading industries. The weaving of sail-cloth and woollen and other
fabrics, machine construction, wire-drawing, and manufacture of
sparkling wines and preserved fruits are also carried on. The chief
articles of commerce, besides slate and manufactured goods, are hemp,
early vegetables, fruit, flowers and live-stock.

[v.02 p.0009]

Angers, capital of the Gallic tribe of the Andecavi, was under the
Romans called Juliomagus. During the 9th century it became the seat of
the counts of Anjou (_q.v._). It suffered severely from the invasions
of the Northmen in 845 and the succeeding years, and of the English
in the 12th and 15th centuries; the Huguenots took it in 1585, and the
Vendean royalists were repulsed near it in 1793. Till the Revolution,
Angers was the seat of a celebrated university founded in the 14th
century.

See L.M. Thorode, _Notice de la ville d'Angers_ (Angers, 1897).



ANGERSTEIN, JOHN JULIUS (1735-1822), London merchant, and patron of
the fine arts, was born at St. Petersburg and settled in London about
1749. His collection of paintings, consisting of about forty of
the most exquisite specimens of the art, purchased by the British
government, on his death, formed the nucleus of the National Gallery.



ANGILBERT (d. 814), Frankish Latin poet, and minister of Charlemagne,
was of noble Frankish parentage, and educated at the palace school
under Alcuin. As the friend and adviser of the emperor's son, Pippin,
he assisted for a while in the government of Italy, and was later
sent on three important embassies to the pope, in 792, 794 and 796.
Although he was the father of two children by Charlemagne's daughter,
Bertha, one of them named Nithard, we have no authentic account of
his marriage, and from 790 he was abbot of St. Riquier, where his
brilliant rule gained for him later the renown of a saint. Angilbert,
however, was little like the true medieval saint; his poems reveal
rather the culture and tastes of a man of the world, enjoying the
closest intimacy with the imperial family. He accompanied Charlemagne
to Rome in 800 and was one of the witnesses to his will in 814.
Angilbert was the Homer of the emperor's literary circle, and was
the probable author of an epic, of which the fragment which has been
preserved describes the life at the palace and the meeting between
Charlemagne and Leo III. It is a mosaic from Virgil, Ovid, Lucan and
Fortunatus, composed in the manner of Einhard's use of Suetonius,
and exhibits a true poetic gift. Of the shorter poems, besides the
greeting to Pippin on his return from the campaign against the Avars
(796), an epistle to David (Charlemagne) incidentally reveals a
delightful picture of the poet living with his children in a house
surrounded by pleasant gardens near the emperor's palace. The
reference to Bertha, however, is distant and respectful, her name
occurring merely on the list of princesses to whom he sends his
salutation.

Angilbert's poems have been published by E. Dummler in the _Monumenta
Germaniae Historica_. For criticisms of this edition see Traube in
Roederer's _Schriften für germanische Philologie_ (1888). See also A.
Molinier, _Les Sources de l'histoire de France._



ANGINA PECTORIS (Latin for "pain of the chest"), a term applied to a
violent paroxysm of pain, arising almost invariably in connexion
with disease of the coronary arteries, a lesion causing progressive
degeneration of the heart muscle (see HEART: _Disease_). An attack of
angina pectoris usually comes on with a sudden seizure of pain, felt
at first over the region of the heart, but radiating through the chest
in various directions, and frequently extending down the left arm.
A feeling of constriction and of suffocation accompanies the pain,
although there is seldom actual difficulty in breathing. When the
attack comes on, as it often does, in the course of some bodily
exertion, the sufferer is at once brought to rest, and during the
continuance of the paroxysm experiences the most intense agony. The
countenance becomes pale, the surface of the body cold, the pulse
feeble, and death appears to be imminent, when suddenly the attack
subsides and complete relief is obtained. The duration of a paroxysm
rarely exceeds two or three minutes, but it may last for a longer
period. The attacks are apt to recur on slight exertion, and even in
aggravated cases without any such exciting cause. Occasionally the
first seizure proves fatal; but more commonly death takes place as the
result of repeated attacks. Angina pectoris is extremely rare under
middle life, and is much more common in males than in females. It
must always be regarded as a disorder of a very serious nature. In the
treatment of the paroxysm, nitrite of amyl has now replaced all other
remedies. It can be carried by the patient in the form of nitrite
of amyl pearls, each pearl containing the dose prescribed by the
physician. Kept in this way the drug does not lose strength. As soon
as the pain begins the patient crushes a pearl in his handkerchief
and holds it to his mouth and nose. The relief given in this way is
marvellous and usually takes place within a very few seconds. In the
rare cases where this drug does not relieve, hypodermic injections
of morphia are used. But on account of the well-known dangers of this
drug, it should only be administered by a medical man. To prevent
recurrence of the attacks something may be done by scrupulous
attention to the general health, and by the avoidance of mental and
physical strain. But the most important preventive of all is "bed,"
of which fourteen days must be enforced on the least premonition of
anginal pain.


_Pseudo-angina_.--In connexion with angina pectoris, a far more common
condition must be mentioned that has now universally received the
name of pseudo-angina. This includes the praecordial pains which very
closely resemble those of true angina. The essential difference lies
in the fact that pseudo-angina is independent of structural disease
of the heart and coronary arteries. In true angina there is some
condition within the heart which starts the stimulus sent to the nerve
centres. In pseudo-angina the starting-point is not the heart but
some peripheral or visceral nerve. The impulse passes thence to the
medulla, and so reaching the sensory centres starts a feeling of pain
that radiates into the chest or down the arm. There are three main
varieties:--(1) the reflex, (2) the vaso-motor, (3) the toxic. The
reflex is by far the most common, and is generally due to irritation
from one of the abdominal organs. An attack of pseudo-angina may be
agonizing, the pain radiating through the chest and into the left arm,
but the patient does not usually assume the motionless attitude of
true angina, and the duration of the seizure is usually much longer.
The treatment is that of the underlying neurosis and the prognosis is
a good one, sudden death not occurring.



ANGIOSPERMS. The botanical term "Angiosperm" ([Greek: angeion],
receptacle, and [Greek: sperma], seed) was coined in the form
Angiospermae by Paul Hermann in 1690, as the name of that one of
his primary divisions of the plant kingdom, which included flowering
plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, in contradistinction to
his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with achenial or schizo-carpic
fruits--the whole fruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as
a seed and naked. The term and its antonym were maintained by Linnaeus
with the same sense, but with restricted application, in the names of
the orders of his class Didynamia. Its use with any approach to its
modern scope only became possible after Robert Brown had established
in 1827 the existence of truly naked seeds in the Cycadeae and
Coniferae, entitling them to be correctly called Gymnosperms. From
that time onwards, so long as these Gymnosperms were, as was usual,
reckoned as dicotyledonous flowering plants, the term Angiosperm was
used antithetically by botanical writers, but with varying limitation,
as a group-name for other dicotyledonous plants. The advent in 1851
of Hofmeister's brilliant discovery of the changes proceeding in the
embryo-sac of flowering plants, and his determination of the correct
relationships of these with the Cryptogamia, fixed the true position
of Gymnosperms as a class distinct from Dicotyledons, and the
term Angiosperm then gradually came to be accepted as the suitable
designation for the whole of the flowering plants other than
Gymnosperms, and as including therefore the classes of Dicotyledons
and Monocotyledons. This is the sense in which the term is nowadays
received and in which it is used here.

[v.02 p.0010]

The trend of the evolution of the plant kingdom has been in the
direction of the establishment of a vegetation of fixed habit and
adapted to the vicissitudes of a life on land, and the Angiosperms are
the highest expression of this evolution and constitute the dominant
vegetation of the earth's surface at the present epoch. There is no
land-area from the poles to the equator, where plant-life is possible,
upon which Angiosperms are not found. They occur also abundantly in
the shallows of rivers and fresh-water lakes, and in less number in
salt lakes and in the sea; such aquatic Angiosperms are not, however,
primitive forms, but are derived from immediate land-ancestors.
Associated with this diversity of habitat is great variety in general
form and manner of growth. The familiar duckweed which covers the
surface of a pond consists of a tiny green "thalloid" shoot, one, that
is, which shows no distinction of parts--stem and leaf, and a
simple root growing vertically downwards into the water. The great
forest-tree has a shoot, which in the course perhaps of hundreds of
years, has developed a wide-spreading system of trunk and branches,
bearing on the ultimate twigs or branchlets innumerable leaves, while
beneath the soil a widely-branching root-system covers an area of
corresponding extent. Between these two extremes is every conceivable
gradation, embracing aquatic and terrestrial herbs, creeping, erect or
climbing in habit, shrubs and trees, and representing a much greater
variety than is to be found in the other subdivision of seed-plants,
the Gymnosperms.


_Internal structure._

In internal structure also the variety of tissue-formation far exceeds
that found in Gymnosperms (see PLANTS: _Anatomy_). The vascular
bundles of the stem belong to the collateral type, that is to say,
the elements of the wood or xylem and the bast or phloem stand side
by side on the same radius. In the larger of the two great groups into
which the Angiosperms are divided, the Dicotyledons, the bundles in
the very young stem are arranged in an open ring, separating a central
pith from an outer cortex. In each bundle, separating the xylem and
phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue, known as
cambium; by the formation of a layer of cambium between the bundles
(interfascicular cambium) a complete ring is formed, and a regular
periodical increase in thickness results from it by the development
of xylem on the inside and phloem on the outside. The soft phloem soon
becomes crushed, but the hard wood persists, and forms the great bulk
of the stem and branches of the woody perennial. Owing to differences
in the character of the elements produced at the beginning and end
of the season, the wood is marked out in transverse section into
concentric rings, one for each season of growth--the so-called annual
rings. In the smaller group, the Monocotyledons, the bundles are more
numerous in the young stem and scattered through the ground tissue.
Moreover they contain no cambium and the stem once formed increases in
diameter only in exceptional cases.


_Vegetative organs._

As in Gymnosperms, branching is monopodial; dichotomy or the forking
of the growing point into two equivalent branches which replace the
main stem, is absent both in the case of the stem and the root. The
leaves show a remarkable variety in form (see LEAF), but are generally
small in comparison with the size of the plant; exceptions occur in
some Monocotyledons, _e.g._ in the Aroid family, where in some genera
the plant produces one huge, much-branched leaf each season.

In rare cases the main axis is unbranched and ends in a flower,
as, for instance, in the tulip, where scale-leaves, forming the
underground bulb, green foliage-leaves and coloured floral leaves are
borne on one and the same axis. Generally, flowers are formed only
on shoots of a higher order, often only on the ultimate branches of
a much branched system. A potential branch or bud, either foliage or
flower, is formed in the axil of each leaf; sometimes more than one
bud arises, as for instance in the walnut, where two or three stand in
vertical series above each leaf. Many of the buds remain dormant, or
are called to development under exceptional circumstances, such as
the destruction of existing branches. For instance, the clipping of
a hedge or the lopping of a tree will cause to develop numerous buds
which may have been dormant for years. Leaf-buds occasionally arise
from the roots, when they are called adventitious; this occurs in many
fruit trees, poplars, elms and others. For instance, the young shoots
seen springing from the ground around an elm are not seedlings but
root-shoots. Frequently, as in many Dicotyledons, the primary root,
the original root of the seedling, persists throughout the life of
the plant, forming, as often in biennials, a thickened tap-root, as
in carrot, or in perennials, a much-branched root system. In many
Dicotyledons and most Monocotyledons, the primary root soon perishes,
and its place is taken by adventitious roots developed from the stem.


_Flower._

The most characteristic feature of the Angiosperm is the flower, which
shows remarkable variety in form and elaboration, and supplies the
most trustworthy characters for the distinction of the series and
families or natural orders, into which the group is divided. The
flower is a shoot (stem bearing leaves) which has a special form
associated with the special function of ensuring the fertilization of
the egg and the development of fruit containing seed. Except where
it is terminal it arises, like the leaf-shoot, in the axil of a leaf,
which is then known as a bract. Occasionally, as in violet, a flower
arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf; it is then
termed axillary. Generally, however, the flower-bearing portion of
the plant is sharply distinguished from the foliage leaf-bearing or
vegetative portion, and forms a more or less elaborate branch-system
in which the bracts are small and scale-like. Such a branch-system is
called an inflorescence. The primary function of the flower is to bear
the spores. These, as in Gymnosperms, are of two kinds, microspores
or pollen-grains, borne in the stamens (or microsporophylls) and
megaspores, in which the egg-cell is developed, contained in the
ovule, which is borne enclosed in the carpel (or megasporophyll). The
flower may consist only of spore-bearing leaves, as in willow, where
each flower comprises only a few stamens or two carpels. Usually,
however, other leaves are present which are only indirectly concerned
with the reproductive process, acting as protective organs for the
sporophylls or forming an attractive envelope. These form the perianth
and are in one series, when the flower is termed monochlamydeous, or
in two series (dichlamydeous). In the second case the outer series
(calyx of sepals) is generally green and leaf-like, its function being
to protect the rest of the flower, especially in the bud; while
the inner series (corolla of petals) is generally white or brightly
coloured, and more delicate in structure, its function being to
attract the particular insect or bird by agency of which pollination
is effected. The insect, &c., is attracted by the colour and scent
of the flower, and frequently also by honey which is secreted in some
part of the flower. (For further details on the form and arrangement
of the flower and its parts, see FLOWER.)


_Stamen and pollen._

Each stamen generally bears four pollen-sacs (_microsporangia_)
which are associated to form the anther, and carried up on a stalk
or filament. The development of the microsporangia and the contained
spores (pollen-grains) is closely comparable with that of the
microsporangia in Gymnosperms or heterosporous ferns. The pollen is
set free by the opening (dehiscence) of the anther, generally by means
of longitudinal slits, but sometimes by pores, as in the heath family
(Ericaceae), or by valves, as in the barberry. It is then dropped
or carried by some external agent, wind, water or some member of the
animal kingdom, on to the receptive surface of the carpel of the same
or another flower. The carpel, or aggregate of carpels forming the
pistil or gynaeceum, comprises an ovary containing one or more ovules
and a receptive surface or stigma; the stigma is sometimes carried up
on a style. The mature pollen-grain is, like other spores, a single
cell; except in the case of some submerged aquatic plants, it has
a double wall, a thin delicate wall of unaltered cellulose, the
endospore or intine, and a tough outer cuticularized exospore or
extine. The exospore often bears spines or warts, or is variously
sculptured, and the character of the markings is often of value
for the distinction of genera or higher groups. Germination of the
microspore begins before it leaves the pollen-sac. In very few cases
has anything representing prothallial development been observed;
generally a small cell (the antheridial or generative cell) is cut
off, leaving a larger tube-cell. When placed on the stigma, under
favourable circumstances, the pollen-grain puts forth a pollen-tube
which grows down the tissue of the style to the ovary, and makes its
way along the placenta, guided by projections or hairs, to the mouth
of an ovule. The nucleus of the tube-cell has meanwhile passed into
the tube, as does also the generative nucleus which divides to
form two male- or sperm-cells. The male-cells are carried to their
destination in the tip of the pollen-tube.

[v.02 p.0011]


_Pistil and embryo-sac._

The ovary contains one or more ovules borne on a placenta, which is
generally some part of the ovary-wall. The development of the ovule,
which represents the macrosporangium, is very similar to the
process in Gymnosperms; when mature it consists of one or two coats
surrounding the central nucellus, except at the apex where an opening,
the micropyle, is left. The nucellus is a cellular tissue enveloping
one large cell, the embryo-sac or macrospore. The germination of the
macrospore consists in the repeated division of its nucleus to form
two groups of four, one group at each end of the embryo-sac. One
nucleus from each group, the polar nucleus, passes to the centre of
the sac, where the two fuse to form the so-called definitive nucleus.
Of the three cells at the micropylar end of the sac, all naked cells
(the so-called egg-apparatus), one is the egg-cell or oosphere, the
other two, which may be regarded as representing abortive egg-cells
(in rare cases capable of fertilization), are known as synergidae.
The three cells at the opposite end are known as antipodal cells
and become invested with a cell-wall. The gametophyte or prothallial
generation is thus extremely reduced, consisting of but little more
than the male and female sexual cells--the two sperm-cells in the
pollen-tube and the egg-cell (with the synergidae) in the embryo-sac.


_Fertilization._

At the period of fertilization the embryo-sac lies in close proximity
to the opening of the micropyle, into which the pollen-tube has
penetrated, the separating cell-wall becomes absorbed, and the male or
sperm-cells are ejected into the embryo-sac. Guided by the synergidae
one male-cell passes into the oosphere with which it fuses, the two
nuclei uniting, while the other fuses with the definitive nucleus, or,
as it is also called, the endosperm nucleus. This remarkable
double fertilization as it has been called, although only recently
discovered, has been proved to take place in widely-separated
families, and both in Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons, and there is
every probability that, perhaps with variations, it is the normal
process in Angiosperms. After impregnation the fertilized oosphere
immediately surrounds itself with a cell-wall and becomes the oospore
which by a process of growth forms the embryo of the new plant. The
endosperm-nucleus divides rapidly to produce a cellular tissue which
fills up the interior of the rapidly-growing embryo-sac, and forms a
tissue, known as endosperm, in which is stored a supply of nourishment
for the use later on of the embryo. It has long been known that after
fertilization of the egg has taken place, the formation of endosperm
begins from the endosperm nucleus, and this had come to be regarded as
the recommencement of the development of a prothallium after a pause
following the reinvigorating union of the polar nuclei. This view is
still maintained by those who differentiate two acts of fertilization
within the embryo-sac, and regard that of the egg by the first
male-cell, as the true or generative fertilization, and that of the
polar nuclei by the second male gamete as a vegetative fertilization
which gives a stimulus to development in correlation with the other.
If, on the other hand, the endosperm is the product of an act of
fertilization as definite as that giving rise to the embryo itself,
we have to recognize that twin-plants are produced within the
embryo-sac--one, the embryo, which becomes the angiospermous plant,
the other, the endosperm, a short-lived, undifferentiated nurse to
assist in the nutrition of the former, even as the subsidiary embryos
in a pluri-embryonic Gymnosperm may facilitate the nutrition of the
dominant one. If this is so, and the endosperm like the embryo is
normally the product of a sexual act, hybridization will give a hybrid
endosperm as it does a hybrid embryo, and herein (it is suggested) we
may have the explanation of the phenomenon of xenia observed in the
mixed endosperms of hybrid races of maize and other plants, regarding
which it has only been possible hitherto to assert that they were
indications of the extension of the influence of the pollen beyond the
egg and its product. This would not, however, explain the formation
of fruits intermediate in size and colour between those of crossed
parents. The signification of the coalescence of the polar nuclei is
not explained by these new facts, but it is noteworthy that the second
male-cell is said to unite sometimes with the apical polar nucleus,
the sister of the egg, before the union of this with the basal polar
one. The idea of the endosperm as a second subsidiary plant is no new
one; it was suggested long ago in explanation of the coalescence of
the polar nuclei, but it was then based on the assumption that these
represented male and female cells, an assumption for which there
was no evidence and which was inherently improbable. The proof of a
coalescence of the second male nucleus with the definitive nucleus
gives the conception a more stable basis. The antipodal cells aid more
or less in the process of nutrition of the developing embryo, and may
undergo multiplication, though they ultimately disintegrate, as do
also the synergidae. As in Gymnosperms and other groups an interesting
qualitative change is associated with the process of fertilization.
The number of chromosomes (see PLANTS: _Cytology_) in the nucleus of
the two spores, pollen-grain and embryo-sac, is only half the number
found in an ordinary vegetative nucleus; and this reduced number
persists in the cells derived from them. The full number is restored
in the fusion of the male and female nuclei in the process of
fertilization, and remains until the formation of the cells from which
the spores are derived in the new generation.

In several natural orders and genera departures from the course of
development just described have been noted. In the natural order
Rosaceae, the series Querciflorae, and the very anomalous genus
_Casuarina_ and others, instead of a single macrospore a more or less
extensive sporogenous tissue is formed, but only one cell proceeds to
the formation of a functional female cell. In _Casuarina_, _Juglans_
and the order Corylaceae, the pollen-tube does not enter by means
of the micropyle, but passing down the ovary wall and through the
placenta, enters at the chalazal end of the ovule. Such a method
of entrance is styled chalazogamic, in contrast to the porogamic or
ordinary method of approach by means of the micropyle.


_Embryology._

The result of fertilization is the development of the ovule into
the seed. By the segmentation of the fertilized egg, now invested by
cell-membrane, the embryo-plant arises. A varying number of transverse
segment-walls transform it into a pro-embryo--a cellular row of which
the cell nearest the micropyle becomes attached to the apex of the
embryo-sac, and thus fixes the position of the developing embryo,
while the terminal cell is projected into its cavity. In Dicotyledons
the shoot of the embryo is wholly derived from the terminal cell of
the pro-embryo, from the next cell the root arises, and the remaining
ones form the suspensor. In many Monocotyledons the terminal cell
forms the cotyledonary portion alone of the shoot of the embryo, its
axial part and the root being derived from the adjacent cell; the
cotyledon is thus a terminal structure and the apex of the primary
stem a lateral one--a condition in marked contrast with that of the
Dicotyledons. In some Monocotyledons, however, the cotyledon is not
really terminal. The primary root of the embryo in all Angiosperms
points towards the micropyle. The developing embryo at the end of the
suspensor grows out to a varying extent into the forming endosperm,
from which by surface absorption it derives good material for growth;
at the same time the suspensor plays a direct part as a carrier of
nutrition, and may even develop, where perhaps no endosperm is formed,
special absorptive "suspensor roots" which invest the developing
embryo, or pass out into the body and coats of the ovule, or even into
the placenta. In some cases the embryo or the embryo-sac sends
out suckers into the nucellus and ovular integument. As the embryo
develops it may absorb all the food material available, and store,
either in its cotyledons or in its hypocotyl, what is not immediately
required for growth, as reserve-food for use in germination, and by so
doing it increases in size until it may fill entirely the embryo-sac;
or its absorptive power at this stage may be limited to what is
necessary for growth and it remains of relatively small size,
occupying but a small area of the embryo-sac, which is otherwise
filled with endosperm in which the reserve-food is stored. There are
also intermediate states. The position of the embryo in relation to
the endosperm varies, sometimes it is internal, sometimes external,
but the significance of this has not yet been established.

[v.02 p.0012]

The formation of endosperm starts, as has been stated, from the
endosperm nucleus. Its segmentation always begins before that of the
egg, and thus there is timely preparation for the nursing of the young
embryo. If in its extension to contain the new formations within it
the embryo-sac remains narrow, endosperm formation proceeds upon the
lines of a cell-division, but in wide embryo-sacs the endosperm is
first of all formed as a layer of naked cells around the wall of the
sac, and only gradually acquires a pluricellular character, forming
a tissue filling the sac. The function of the endosperm is primarily
that of nourishing the embryo, and its basal position in the
embryo-sac places it favourably for the absorption of food material
entering the ovule. Its duration varies with the precocity of the
embryo. It may be wholly absorbed by the progressive growth of the
embryo within the embryo-sac, or it may persist as a definite and more
or less conspicuous constituent of the seed. When it persists as
a massive element of the seed its nutritive function is usually
apparent, for there is accumulated within its cells reserve-food, and
according to the dominant substance it is starchy, oily, or rich in
cellulose, mucilage or proteid. In cases where the embryo has stored
reserve food within itself and thus provided for self-nutrition, such
endosperm as remains in the seed may take on other functions, for
instance, that of water-absorption.

Some deviations from the usual course of development may be noted.
Parthenogenesis, or the development of an embryo from an egg-cell
without the latter having been fertilized, has been described in
species of _Thalictrum_, _Antennaria_ and _Alchemilla_. Polyembryony
is generally associated with the development of cells other than the
egg-cell. Thus in _Erythronium_ and _Limnocharis_ the fertilized
egg may form a mass of tissue on which several embryos are produced.
Isolated cases show that any of the cells within the embryo-sac may
exceptionally form an embryo, _e.g._ the synergidae in species of
_Mimosa_, _Iris_ and _Allium_, and in the last-mentioned the
antipodal cells also. In _Coelebogyne_ (Euphorbiaceae) and in _Funkia_
(Liliaceae) polyembryony results from an adventitious production
of embryos from the cells of the nucellus around the top of the
embryo-sac. In a species of _Allium_, embryos have been found
developing in the same individual from the egg-cell, synergids,
antipodal cells and cells of the nucellus. In two Malayan species of
_Balanophora_, the embryo is developed from a cell of the endosperm,
which is formed from the upper polar nucleus only, the egg apparatus
becoming disorganized. The last-mentioned case has been regarded
as representing an apogamous development of the sporophyte from the
gametophyte comparable to the cases of apogamy described in Ferns. But
the great diversity of these abnormal cases as shown in the examples
cited above suggests the use of great caution in formulating definite
morphological theories upon them.


_Fruit and seed._

As the development of embryo and endosperm proceeds within the
embryo-sac, its wall enlarges and commonly absorbs the substance of
the nucellus (which is likewise enlarging) to near its outer limit,
and combines with it and the integument to form the _seed-coat_; or
the whole nucellus and even the integument may be absorbed. In some
plants the nucellus is not thus absorbed, but itself becomes a seat of
deposit of reserve-food constituting the _perisperm_ which may coexist
with endosperm, as in the water-lily order, or may alone form a
food-reserve for the embryo, as in _Canna_. Endospermic food-reserve
has evident advantages over perispermic, and the latter is
comparatively rarely found and only in non-progressive series. Seeds
in which endosperm or perisperm or both exist are commonly called
_albuminous_ or _endospermic_, those in which neither is found are
termed _exalbuminous_ or _exendospermic_. These terms, extensively
used by systematists, only refer, however, to the grosser features
of the seed, and indicate the more or less evident occurrence of a
food-reserve; many so-called exalbuminous seeds show to microscopic
examination a distinct endosperm which may have other than a nutritive
function. The presence or absence of endosperm, its relative amount
when present, and the position of the embryo within it, are valuable
characters for the distinction of orders and groups of orders.
Meanwhile the ovary wall has developed to form the fruit or pericarp,
the structure of which is closely associated with the manner of
distribution of the seed. Frequently the influence of fertilization is
felt beyond the ovary, and other parts of the flower take part in
the formation of the fruit, as the floral receptacle in the apple,
strawberry and others. The character of the seed-coat bears a definite
relation to that of the fruit. Their function is the twofold one of
protecting the embryo and of aiding in dissemination; they may also
directly promote germination. If the fruit is a dehiscent one and the
seed is therefore soon exposed, the seed-coat has to provide for the
protection of the embryo and may also have to secure dissemination. On
the other hand, indehiscent fruits discharge these functions for the
embryo, and the seed-coat is only slightly developed.


_Dissemination._

Dissemination is effected by the agency of water, of air, of
animals--and fruits and seeds are therefore grouped in respect of this
as hydrophilous, anemophilous and zooidiophilous. The needs for these
are obvious--buoyancy in water and resistance to wetting for the
first, some form of parachute for the second, and some attaching
mechanism or attractive structure for the third. The methods in which
these are provided are of infinite variety, and any and every part of
the flower and of the inflorescence may be called into requisition to
supply the adaptation (see FRUIT). Special outgrowths, arils, of the
seed-coat are of frequent occurrence. In the feature of fruit and
seed, by which the distribution of Angiosperms is effected, we have a
distinctive character of the class. In Gymnosperms we have seeds, and
the carpels may become modified and close around these, as in _Pinus_,
during the process of ripening to form an imitation of a box-like
fruit which subsequently opening allows the seeds to escape; but
there is never in them the closed ovary investing from the outset the
ovules, and ultimately forming the ground-work of the fruit.


_Germination of Seed._

Their fortuitous dissemination does not always bring seeds upon a
suitable nidus for germination, the primary essential of which is a
sufficiency of moisture, and the duration of vitality of the embryo is
a point of interest. Some seeds retain vitality for a period of many
years, though there is no warrant for the popular notion that genuine
"mummy wheat" will germinate; on the other hand some seeds lose
vitality in little more than a year. Further, the older the seed the
more slow as a general rule will germination be in starting, but there
are notable exceptions. This pause, often of so long duration, in
the growth of the embryo between the time of its perfect development
within the seed and the moment of germination, is one of the
remarkable and distinctive features of the life of Spermatophytes. The
aim of germination is the fixing of the embryo in the soil, effected
usually by means of the root, which is the first part of the embryo
to appear, in preparation for the elongation of the epicotyledonary
portion of the shoot, and there is infinite variety in the details
of the process. In albuminous Dicotyledons the cotyledons act as the
absorbents of the reserve-food of the seed and are commonly brought
above ground (_epigeal_), either withdrawn from the seed-coat or
carrying it upon them, and then they serve as the first green organs
of the plant. The part of the stem below the cotyledons (_hypocotyl_)
commonly plays the greater part in bringing this about. Exalbuminous
Dicotyledons usually store reserve-food in their cotyledons, which
may in germination remain below ground (_hypogeal_). In albuminous
Monocotyledons the cotyledon itself, probably in consequence of its
terminal position, is commonly the agent by which the embryo is thrust
out of the seed, and it may function solely as a feeder, its extremity
developing as a sucker through which the endosperm is absorbed, or
it may become the first green organ, the terminal sucker dropping
off with the seed-coat when the endosperm is exhausted. Exalbuminous
Monocotyledons are either hydrophytes or strongly hygrophilous plants
and have often peculiar features in germination.

[v.02 p.0013]


_Vegetative reproduction._

Distribution by seed appears to satisfy so well the requirements of
Angiosperms that distribution by vegetative buds is only an occasional
process. At the same time every bud on a shoot has the capacity
to form a new plant if placed in suitable conditions, as the
horticultural practice of propagation by cuttings shows; in nature we
see plants spreading by the rooting of their shoots, and buds we know
may be freely formed not only on stems but on leaves and on roots.
Where detachable buds are produced, which can be transported through
the air to a distance, each of them is an incipient shoot which may
have a root, and there is always reserve-food stored in some part of
it. In essentials such a bud resembles a seed. A relation between
such vegetative distribution buds and production of flower is usually
marked. Where there is free formation of buds there is little flower
and commonly no seed, and the converse is also the case. Viviparous
plants are an illustration of substitution of vegetative buds for
flower.


_Phylogeny and taxonomy._

The position of Angiosperms as the highest plant-group is
unassailable, but of the point or points of their origin from the
general stem of the plant kingdom, and of the path or paths of their
evolution, we can as yet say little.

Until well on in the Mesozoic period geological history tells us
nothing about Angiosperms, and then only by their vegetative organs.
We readily recognize in them now-a-days the natural classes of
Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons distinguished alike in vegetative
and in reproductive construction, yet showing remarkable parallel
sequences in development; and we see that the Dicotyledons are the
more advanced and show the greater capacity for further progressive
evolution. But there is no sound basis for the assumption that
the Dicotyledons are derived from Monocotyledons; indeed, the
palaeontological evidence seems to point to the Dicotyledons being
the older. This, however, does not entitle us to assume the origin
of Monocotyledons from Dicotyledons, although there is manifestly a
temptation to connect helobic forms of the former with ranal ones of
the latter. There is no doubt that the phylum of Angiosperms has not
sprung from that of Gymnosperms.

Within each class the flower-characters as the essential feature
of Angiosperms supply the clue to phylogeny, but the uncertainty
regarding the construction of the primitive angiospermous flower gives
a fundamental point of divergence in attempts to construct progressive
sequences of the families. Simplicity of flower-structure has appeared
to some to be always primitive, whilst by others it has been taken to
be always derived. There is, however, abundant evidence that it may
have the one or the other character in different cases. Apart from
this, botanists are generally agreed that the concrescence of parts of
the flower-whorls--in the gynaeceum as the seed-covering, and in the
corolla as the seat of attraction, more than in the androecium and the
calyx--is an indication of advance, as is also the concrescence
that gives the condition of epigyny. Dorsiventrality is also clearly
derived from radial construction, and anatropy of the ovule has
followed atropy. We should expect the albuminous state of the seed
to be an antecedent one to the exalbuminous condition, and the recent
discoveries in fertilization tend to confirm this view. Amongst
Dicotyledons the gamopetalous forms are admitted to be the highest
development and a dominant one of our epoch. Advance has been along
two lines, markedly in relation to insect-pollination, one of which
has culminated in the hypogynous epipetalous bicarpellate forms with
dorsiventral often large and loosely arranged flowers such as occur
in Scrophulariaceae, and the other in the epigynous bicarpellate
small-flowered families of which the Compositae represent the most
elaborate type. In the polypetalous forms progression from hypogyny
to epigyny is generally recognized, and where dorsiventrality with
insect-pollination has been established, a dominant group has been
developed as in the Leguminosae. The starting-point of the class,
however, and the position within it of apetalous families with
frequently unisexual flowers, have provoked much discussion. In
Monocotyledons a similar advance from hypogyny to epigyny is observed,
and from the dorsiventral to the radial type of flower. In this
connexion it is noteworthy that so many of the higher forms are
adapted as bulbous geophytes, or as aerophytes to special xerophilous
conditions. The Gramineae offer a prominent example of a dominant
self-pollinated or wind-pollinated family, and this may find
explanation in a multiplicity of factors.

Though best known for his artificial (or sexual) system, Linnaeus
was impressed with the importance of elaborating a natural system of
arrangement in which plants should be arranged according to their true
affinities. In his _Philosophia Botanica_ (1751) Linnaeus grouped the
genera then known into sixty-seven orders (_fragmenta_), all except
five of which are Angiosperms. He gave names to these but did not
characterize them or attempt to arrange them in larger groups.
Some represent natural groups and had in several cases been already
recognized by Ray and others, but the majority are, in the light
of modern knowledge, very mixed. Well-defined polypetalous and
gamopetalous genera sometimes occur in the same order, and even
Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons are classed together where they have
some striking physiological character in common.

Work on the lines suggested by the Linnaean _fragmenta_ was continued
in France by Bernard de Jussieu and his nephew, Antoine Laurent,
and the arrangement suggested by the latter in his _Genera Plantarum
secundum Ordines Naturales disposita_ (1789) is the first which can
claim to be a natural system. The orders are carefully characterized,
and those of Angiosperms are grouped in fourteen classes under the two
main divisions Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons. The former comprise
three classes, which are distinguished by the relative position of the
stamens and ovary; the eleven classes of the latter are based on the
same set of characters and fall into the larger subdivisions Apetalae,
Monopetalae and Polypetalae, characterized respectively by absence,
union or freedom of the petals, and a subdivision, _Diclines
Irregulares_, a very unnatural group, including one class only. A.P.
de Candolle introduced several improvements into the system. In his
arrangement the last subdivision disappears, and the Dicotyledons fall
into two groups, a larger containing those in which both calyx and
corolla are present in the flower, and a smaller, Monochlamydeae,
representing the Apetalae and _Diclines Irregulares_ of Jussieu.
The dichlamydeous group is subdivided into three, Thalamiflorae,
Calyciflorae and Corolliflorae, depending on the position and union of
the petals. This, which we may distinguish as the French system,
finds its most perfect expression in the classic _Genera Plantarum_
(1862-1883) of Bentham and Hooker, a work containing a description,
based on careful examination of specimens, of all known genera of
flowering plants. The subdivision is as follows:--

  DICOTYLEDONS.

  Polypetalae:
  Thalamiflorae.
  Disciflorae.
  Calyciflorae.

  Gamopetalae:
  Inferae.
  Heteromerae.
  Bicarpellatae.

  Monochlamydeae in eight series.
  Monocotyledons in seven series.

Of the Polypetalae, series 1, Thalamiflorae, is characterized by
hypogynous petals and stamens, and contains 34 orders distributed in 6
larger groups or cohorts. Series 2, Disciflorae, takes its name from
a development of the floral axis which forms a ring or cushion at the
base of the ovary or is broken up into glands; the ovary is superior.
It contains 23 orders in 4 cohorts. Series 3, Calyciflorae, has petals
and stamens perigynous, or sometimes superior. It contains 27 orders
in 5 cohorts.

Of the Gamopetalae, series 1, Inferae, has an interior ovary and
stamens usually as many as the corolla-lobes. It contains 9 orders
in 3 cohorts. Series 2, Heteromerae, has generally a superior ovary,
stamens as many as the corolla-lobes or more, and more than two
carpels. It contains 12 orders in 3 cohorts. Series 3, Bicarpellatae,
has generally a superior ovary and usually two carpels. It contains 24
orders in 4 cohorts.

The eight series of Monochlamydeae, containing 36 orders, form groups
characterized mainly by differences in the ovary and ovules, and are
now recognized as of unequal value.

The seven series of Monocotyledons represent a sequence beginning
with the most complicated epigynous orders, such as Orchideae and
Scitamineae, and passing through the petaloid hypogynous orders
(series Coronarieae) of which Liliaceae is the representative to
Juncaceae and the palms (series Calycinae) where the perianth loses
its petaloid character and thence to the Aroids, screw-pines and
others where it is more or less aborted (series Nudiflorae). Series
6, Apocarpeae, is characterized by 5 carpels, and in the last series
Glumaceae, great simplification in the flower is associated with a
grass-like habit.

[v.02 p.0014]

The sequence of orders in the polypetalous subdivision of Dicotyledons
undoubtedly represents a progression from simpler to more elaborate
forms, but a great drawback to the value of the system is the
inclusion among the Monochlamydeae of a number of orders which are
closely allied with orders of Polypetalae though differing in absence
of a corolla. The German systematist, A.W. Eichler, attempted
to remove this disadvantage which since the time of Jussieu had
characterized the French system, and in 1883 grouped the Dicotyledons
in two subclasses. The earlier Choripetalae embraces the Polypetalae
and Monochlamydae of the French systems. It includes 21 series, and
is an attempt to arrange as far as possible in a linear series those
orders which are characterized by absence or freedom of petals. The
second subclass, Gamopetalae, includes 9 series and culminates
in those which show the most elaborate type of flower, the series
Aggregatae, the chief representative of which is the great and
wide-spread order Compositae. A modification of Eichler's system,
embracing the most recent views of the affinities of the orders of
Angiosperms, has been put forward by Dr. Adolf Engler of Berlin, who
adopts the suggestive names Archichlamydeae and Metachlamydeae for the
two subdivisions of Dicotyledons. Dr. Engler is the principal editor
of a large series of volumes which, under the title _Die naturlichen
Pflanzenfamilien_, is a systematic account of all the known genera
of plants and represents the work of many botanists. More recently
in _Das Pflanzenreich_ the same author organized a series of complete
monographs of the families of seed-plants.

As an attempt at a phylogenetic arrangement, Engler's system is now
preferred by many botanists. More recently a startling novelty in the
way of system has been produced by van Tieghem, as follows:

  Monocotyledons.
  Liorhizal Dicotyledons.
  Dicotyledons.
  INSEMINEAE.
  SEMINEAE.
  _Unitegmineae.
  Bitegmineae_.

The most remarkable feature here is the class of Liorhizal
Dicotyledons, which includes only the families of Nymphaeaceae
and Gramineae. It is based upon the fact that the histological
differentiation of the epidermis of their root is that generally
characteristic of Monocotyledons, whilst they have two cotyledons--the
old view of the epiblast as a second cotyledon in Gramineae being
adopted. But the presence of a second cotyledon in grasses is
extremely doubtful, and though there may be ground for reconsidering
the position of Nymphaeaceae, their association with the grasses as
a distinct class is not warranted by a comparative examination of the
members of the two orders. Ovular characters determine the grouping in
the Dicotyledons, van Tieghem supporting the view that the integument,
the outer if there be two, is the lamina of a leaf of which the
funicle is the petiole, whilst the nucellus is an outgrowth of
this leaf, and the inner integument, if present, an indusium. The
Insemineae include forms in which the nucellus is not developed, and
therefore there can be no seed. The plants included are, however,
mainly well-established parasites, and the absence of nucellus is only
one of those characters of reduction to which parasites are liable.
Even if we admit van Tieghem's interpretation of the integuments to
be correct, the diagnostic mark of his unitegminous and bitegminous
groups is simply that of the absence or presence of an indusium, not a
character of great value elsewhere, and, as we know, the number of the
ovular coats is inconstant within the same family. At the same time
the groups based upon the integuments are of much the same extent as
the Polypetalae and Gamopetalae of other systems. We do not yet
know the significance of this correlation, which, however, is not an
invariable one, between number of integuments and union of petals.

Within the last few years Prof. John Coulter and Dr. C.J. Chamberlain
of Chicago University have given a valuable general account of the
morphology of Angiosperms as far as concerns the flower, and the
series of events which ends in the formation of the seed (_Morphology
of Angiosperms_, Chicago, 1903).


AUTHORITIES.--The reader will find in the following works details
of the subject and references to the literature: Bentham and Hooker,
_Genera Plantarum_ (London, 1862-1883); Eichler, _Bluthendiagramme_
(Leipzig, 1875-1878); Engler and Prantl, _Die naturlichen
Pflanzenfamilien_ (Leipzig, 1887-1899); Engler, _Syllabus der
Pflanzenfamilien_, 3rd ed. (Berlin, 1903); Knuth, _Handbuch der
Blutenbiologie_ (Leipzig, 1898, 1899); Sachs, _History of Botany_,
English ed. (Oxford, 1890); Solereder, _Systematische Anatomie
der Dicotyledonen_ (Stuttgart, 1899); van Tieghem, _Elements de
botanique_; Coulter and Chamberlain, _Morphology of Angiosperms_ (New
York, 1903).

(I.B.B.; A.B.R.)



ANGKOR, an assemblage of ruins in Cambodia, the relic of the ancient
Khmer civilization. They are situated in forests to the north of the
Great Lake (Tonle-Sap), the most conspicuous of the remains being the
town of Angkor-Thom and the temple of Angkor-Vat, both of which lie on
the right bank of the river Siem-Reap, a tributary of Tonle-Sap.
Other remains of the same form and character lie scattered about the
vicinity on both banks of the river, which is crossed by an ancient
stone bridge.

Angkor-Thom lies about a quarter of a mile from the river. According
to Aymonier it was begun about A.D. 860, in the reign of the Khmer
sovereign Jayavarman III., and finished towards A.D. 900. It consists
of a rectangular enclosure, nearly 2 m. in each direction, surrounded
by a wall from 20 to 30 ft. in height. Within the enclosure, which
is entered by five monumental gates, are the remains of palaces and
temples, overgrown by the forest. The chief of these are:--

(1) The vestiges of the royal palace, which stood within an enclosure
containing also the pyramidal religious structure known as the
Phimeanakas. To the east of this enclosure there extends a terrace
decorated with magnificent reliefs.

(2) The temple of Bayon, a square enclosure formed by galleries with
colonnades, within which is another and more elaborate system of
galleries, rectangular in arrangement and enclosing a cruciform
structure, at the centre of which rises a huge tower with a circular
base. Fifty towers, decorated with quadruple faces of Brahma, are
built at intervals upon the galleries, the whole temple ranking as
perhaps the most remarkable of the Khmer remains.

Angkor-Vat, the best preserved example of Khmer architecture, lies
less than a mile to the south of the royal city, within a rectangular
park surrounded by a moat, the outer perimeter of which measures 6060
yds. On the west side of the park a paved causeway, leading over the
moat and under a magnificent portico, extends for a distance of a
quarter of a mile to the chief entrance of the main building. The
temple was originally devoted to the worship of Brahma, but afterwards
to that of Buddha; its construction is assigned by Aymonier to the
first half of the 12th century A.D. It consists of three stages,
connected by numerous exterior staircases and decreasing in dimensions
as they rise, culminating in the sanctuary, a great central tower
pyramidal in form. Towers also surmount the angles of the terraces
of the two upper stages. Three galleries with vaulting supported on
columns lead from the three western portals to the second stage.
They are connected by a transverse gallery, thus forming four square
basins. Khmer decoration, profuse but harmonious, consists chiefly in
the representation of gods, men and animals, which are displayed on
every flat surface. Combats and legendary episodes are often depicted;
floral decoration is reserved chiefly for borders, mouldings and
capitals. Sandstone of various colours was the chief material employed
by the Khmers; limonite was also used. The stone was cut into huge
blocks which are fitted together with great accuracy without the use
of cement.

See E. Aymonier, _Le Cambodge_ (3 vols., 1900-1904); Doudart de
Lagrée, _Voyage d'exploration en Indo-Chine_ (1872-1873); A.H. Mouhot,
_Travels in Indo-China, Cambodia and Laos_ (2 vols., 1864); Fournereau
and Porcher, _Les Ruines d'Angkor_ (1890); L. Delaporte, _Voyage
au Cambodge: l'architecture Khmer_ (1880); J. Moura, _Le Royaume de
Cambodge_ (2 vols., 1883).



ANGLE (from the Lat. _angulus_, a corner, a diminutive, of which the
primitive form, _angus_, does not occur in Latin; cognate are the Lat.
_angere_, to compress into a bend or to strangle, and the Gr. [Greek:
ankos], a bend; both connected with the Aryan root _ank_-, to bend:
see ANGLING), in geometry, the inclination of one line or plane to
another. Euclid (_Elements_, book I) defines a plane angle as the
inclination to each other, in a plane, of two lines which meet
each other, and do not lie straight with respect to each other (see
GEOMETRY, EUCLIDEAN). According to Proclus an angle must be either
a quality or a quantity, or a relationship. The first concept was
utilized by Eudemus, who regarded an angle as a deviation from a
straight line; the second by Carpus of Antioch, who regarded it as the
interval or space between the intersecting lines; Euclid adopted the
third concept, although his definitions of right, acute, and obtuse
angles are certainly quantitative. A discussion of these concepts and
the various definitions of angles in Euclidean geometry is to be
found in W.B. Frankland, _The First Book of Euclid's Elements_ (1905).
Following Euclid, a right angle is formed by a straight line standing
upon another straight line so as to make the adjacent angles equal;
any angle less than a right angle is termed an acute angle, and any
angle greater than a right angle an obtuse angle. The difference
between an acute angle and a right angle is termed the complement of
the angle, and between an angle and two right angles the supplement
of the angle. The generalized view of angles and their measurement is
treated in the article TRIGONOMETRY. A solid angle is definable as
the space contained by three or more planes intersecting in a common
point; it is familiarly represented by a corner. The angle between two
planes is termed dihedral, between three trihedral, between any number
more than three polyhedral. A spherical angle is a particular dihedral
angle; it is the angle between two intersecting arcs on a sphere, and
is measured by the angle between the planes containing the arcs and
the centre of the sphere.

[v.02 p.0015]

The angle between a line and a curve (mixed angle) or between two
curves (curvilinear angle) is measured by the angle between the line
and the tangent at the point of intersection, or between the tangents
to both curves at their common point. Various names (now rarely, if
ever, used) have been given to particular cases:--amphicyrtic (Gr.
[Greek: amphi], on both sides, [Greek: kyrtos], convex) or cissoidal
(Gr. [Greek: kissos], ivy), biconvex; xystroidal or sistroidal (Gr.
[Greek: xystris], a tool for scraping), concavo-convex; amphicoelic
(Gr. [Greek: koilae], a hollow) or _angulus lunularis_, biconcave.


[Illustration: The Angler (_Lophius piscatorius_).]


ANGLER, also sometimes called fishing-frog, frog-fish, sea-devil
(_Lophius piscatorius_), a fish well known off the coasts of Great
Britain and Europe generally, the grotesque shape of its body and its
singular habits having attracted the attention of naturalists of all
ages. To the North Sea fishermen this fish is known as the "monk," a
name which more properly belongs to _Rhina squatina_, a fish allied to
the skates. Its head is of enormous size, broad, flat and depressed,
the remainder of the body appearing merely like an appendage. The wide
mouth extends all round the anterior circumference of the head;
and both jaws are armed with bands of long pointed teeth, which are
inclined inwards, and can be depressed so as to offer no impediment to
an object gliding towards the stomach, but to prevent its escape from
the mouth. The pectoral and ventral fins are so articulated as to
perform the functions of feet, the fish being enabled to move, or
rather to walk, on the bottom of the sea, where it generally hides
itself in the sand or amongst sea-weed. All round its head and also
along the body the skin bears fringed appendages resembling short
fronds of sea-weed, a structure which, combined with the extraordinary
faculty of assimilating the colour of the body to its surroundings,
assists this fish greatly in concealing itself in places which
it selects on account of the abundance of prey. To render the
organization of this creature perfect in relation to its wants, it is
provided with three long filaments inserted along the middle of the
head, which are, in fact, the detached and modified three first spines
of the anterior dorsal fin. The filament most important in the economy
of the angler is the first, which is the longest, terminates in a
lappet, and is movable in every direction. The angler is believed to
attract other fishes by means of its lure, and then to seize them
with its enormous jaws. It is probable enough that smaller fishes are
attracted in this way, but experiments have shown that the action
of the jaws is automatic and depends on contact of the prey with the
tentacle. Its stomach is distensible in an extraordinary degree, and
not rarely fishes have been taken out quite as large and heavy as
their destroyer. It grows to a length of more than 5 ft.; specimens
of 3 ft. are common. The spawn of the angler is very remarkable. It
consists of a thin sheet of transparent gelatinous material 2 or 3
ft. broad and 25 to 30 ft. in length. The eggs in this sheet are in a
single layer, each in its own little cavity. The spawn is free in the
sea. The larvae are free-swimming and have the pelvic fins elongated
into filaments. The British species is found all round the coasts of
Europe and western North America, but becomes scarce beyond 60° N.
lat.; it occurs also on the coasts of the Cape of Good Hope. A second
species (_Lophius budegassa_) inhabits the Mediterranean, and a third
(_L. setigerus_) the coasts of China and Japan.



ANGLESEY, ARTHUR ANNESLEY, 1st EARL OF (1614-1686), British statesman,
son of the 1st Viscount Valentia (cr. 1621) and Baron Mountnorris (cr.
1628), and of Dorothy, daughter of Sir John Philipps of Picton Castle,
Pembrokeshire, was born at Dublin on the 10th of July 1614, was
educated at Magdalen College, Oxford, and was admitted to Lincoln's
Inn in 1634. Having made the grand tour he returned to Ireland; and
being employed by the parliament in a mission to the duke of Ormonde,
now reduced to the last extremities, he succeeded in concluding a
treaty with him on the 19th of June 1647, thus securing the country
from complete subjection to the rebels. In April 1647 he was
returned for Radnorshire to the House of Commons. He supported the
parliamentary as against the republican or army party, and appears
to have been one of the members excluded in 1648. He sat in Richard
Cromwell's parliament for Dublin city, and endeavoured to take his
seat in the restored Rump Parliament of 1659. He was made president of
the council in February 1660, and in the Convention Parliament sat for
Carmarthen borough. The anarchy of the last months of the commonwealth
converted him to royalism, and he showed great activity in bringing
about the Restoration. He used his influence in moderating measures of
revenge and violence, and while sitting in judgment on the regicides
was on the side of leniency. In November 1660 by his father's death
he had become Viscount Valentia and Baron Mountnorris in the Irish
peerage, and on the 20th April 1661 he was created Baron Annesley of
Newport Pagnell in Buckinghamshire and earl of Anglesey in the
peerage of Great Britain. He supported the king's administration in
parliament, but opposed strongly the unjust measure which, on the
abolition of the court of wards, placed the extra burden of
taxation thus rendered necessary on the excise. His services in the
administration of Ireland were especially valuable. He filled the
office of vice-treasurer from 1660 till 1667, served on the committee
for carrying out the declaration for the settlement of Ireland and on
the committee for Irish affairs, while later, in 1671 and 1672, he was
a leading member of various commissions appointed to investigate the
working of the Acts of Settlement. In February 1661 he had obtained a
captaincy of horse, and in 1667 he exchanged his vice-treasuryship of
Ireland for the treasuryship of the navy. His public career was marked
by great independence and fidelity to principle. On the 24th of July
1663 he alone signed a protest against the bill "for the encouragement
of trade," on the plea that owing to the free export of coin and
bullion allowed by the act, and to the importation of foreign
commodities being greater than the export of home goods, "it must
necessarily follow ... that our silver will also be carried away into
foreign parts and all trade fail for want of money."[1] He especially
disapproved of another clause in the same bill forbidding the
importation of Irish cattle into England, a mischievous measure
promoted by the duke of Buckingham, and he opposed again the bill
brought in with that object in January 1667. This same year his
naval accounts were subjected to an examination in consequence of his
indignant refusal to take part in the attack upon Ormonde;[2] and he
was suspended from his office in 1668, no charge, however, against him
being substantiated. He took a prominent part in the dispute in 1671
between the two Houses concerning the right of the Lords to amend
money bills, and wrote a learned pamphlet on the question entitled
_The Privileges of the House of Lords and Commons_ (1702), in which
the right of the Lords was asserted. In April 1673 he was appointed
lord privy seal, and was disappointed at not obtaining the great seal
the same year on the removal of Shaftesbury. In 1679 he was included
in Sir W. Temple's new-modelled council.

[v.02 p.0016]

In the bitter religious controversies of the time Anglesey showed
great moderation and toleration. In 1674 he is mentioned as
endeavouring to prevent the justices putting into force the laws
against the Roman Catholics and Nonconformists.[3] In the panic of the
"Popish Plot" in 1678 he exhibited a saner judgment than most of his
contemporaries and a conspicuous courage. On the 6th of December he
protested with three other peers against the measure sent up from the
Commons enforcing the disarming of all convicted recusants and taking
bail from them to keep the peace; he was the only peer to dissent
from the motion declaring the existence of an Irish plot; and though
believing in the guilt and voting for the death of Lord Stafford, he
interceded, according to his own account,[4] with the king for him as
well as for Langhorne and Plunket. His independent attitude drew
upon him an attack by Dangerfield, and in the Commons by the
attorney-general, Sir W. Jones, who accused him of endeavouring to
stifle the evidence against the Romanists. In March 1679 he protested
against the second reading of the bill for disabling Danby. In 1681
Anglesey wrote _A Letter from a Person of Honour in the Country_, as a
rejoinder to the earl of Castlehaven, who had published memoirs on
the Irish rebellion defending the action of the Irish and the Roman
Catholics. In so doing Anglesey was held by Ormonde to have censured
his conduct and that of Charles I. in concluding the "Cessation," and
the duke brought the matter before the council. In 1682 he wrote _The
Account of Arthur, Earl of Anglesey ... of the true state of Your
Majesty's Government and Kingdom_, which was addressed to the king
in a tone of censure and remonstrance, but appears not to have been
printed till 1694.[5] In consequence he was dismissed on the 9th of
August 1682 from the office of lord privy seal. In 1683 he appeared
at the Old Bailey as a witness in defence of Lord Russell, and in June
1685 he protested alone against the revision of Stafford's attainder.
He died at his home at Blechingdon in Oxfordshire on the 26th of April
1686, closing a career marked by great ability, statesmanship and
business capacity, and by conspicuous courage and independence of
judgment. He amassed a large fortune in Ireland, in which country he
had been allotted lands by Cromwell.

The unfavourable character drawn of him by Burnet is certainly unjust
and not supported by any evidence. Pepys, a far more trustworthy
judge, speaks of him invariably in terms of respect and approval as a
"grave, serious man," and commends his appointment as treasurer of
the navy as that of "a very notable man and understanding and will do
things regular and understand them himself."[6] He was a learned and
cultivated man and collected a celebrated library, which was dispersed
at his death. Besides the pamphlets already mentioned, he wrote:--_A
True Account of the Whole Proceedings betwixt ... the Duke of Ormond
and ... the Earl of Anglesey_ (1682); _A Letter of Remarks upon
Jovian_ (1683); other works ascribed to him being _The King's Right of
Indulgence in Matters Spiritual ... asserted_ (1688); _Truth Unveiled,
to which is added a short Treatise on ... Transubstantiation_ (1676);
_The Obligation resulting from the Oath of Supremacy_ (1688);
and _England's Confusion_ (1659). _Memoirs_ of Lord Anglesey were
published by Sir P. Pett in 1693, but contain little biographical
information and were repudiated as a mere imposture by Sir John
Thompson (Lord Haversham), his son-in-law, in his preface to Lord
Anglesey's _State of the Government_ in 1694. The author however
of the preface to _The Rights of the Lords asserted_ (1702), while
blaming their publication as "scattered and unfinished papers," admits
their genuineness.

Lord Anglesey married Elizabeth, daughter and co-heiress of Sir James
Altham of Oxey, Hertfordshire, by whom, besides other children, he had
James, who succeeded him, Altham, created Baron Altham, and Richard,
afterwards 3rd Baron Altham. His descendant Richard, the 6th earl
(d. 1761), left a son Arthur, whose legitimacy was doubted, and the
peerage became extinct. He was summoned to the Irish House of Peers as
Viscount Valentia, but was denied his writ to the parliament of Great
Britain by a majority of one vote. He was created in 1793 earl of
Mountnorris in the peerage of Ireland. All the male descendants of the
1st earl of Anglesey became extinct in the person of George, 2nd earl
of Mountnorris, in 1844, when the titles of Viscount Valentia and
Baron Mountnorris passed to his cousin Arthur Annesley (1785-1863),
who thus became 10th Viscount Valentia, being descended from the
1st Viscount Valentia the father of the 1st earl of Anglesey in the
Annesley family. The 1st viscount was also the ancestor of the Earls
Annesley in the Irish peerage.

[Footnote 1: _Protests of the Lords_, by J.E. Thorold Rogers (1875),
i. 27: Carti's _Life of Ormonde_ (1851), iv. 234; _Parl. Hist._ iv.
284.]

[Footnote 2: Carti's _Ormonde_, iv. 330, 340.]

[Footnote 3: _Cal. of State Pap. Dom._ (1673-1675), p. 152.]

[Footnote 4: _Memoirs_, 8, 9.]

[Footnote 5: By Sir J. Thompson, his son-in-law. Reprinted in _Somers
Tracts_ (Scott, 1812), viii. 344, and in _Parl. Hist._ iv. app. xvi.]

[Footnote 6: _Diary_ (ed. Wheatley, 1904), iv. 298, vii. 14.]


AUTHORITIES.--_Dict. of Nat. Biography_, with authorities there
collected; lives in Wood's _Athenae Oxonienses_ (Bliss), iv. 181,
_Biographia Britannica_, and H. Walpole's _Royal and Noble Authors_
(1806), iii. 288 (the latter a very inadequate review of Anglesey's
character and career); also _Bibliotheca Anglesiana_ ... per Thomam
Philippum (1686); _The Happy Future State of England_, by Sir Peter
Pett (1688); _Great News from Poland_ (1683), where his religious
tolerance is ridiculed; _Somers Tracts_ (Scott, 1812), viii. 344;
_Notes of the Privy Council_ (Roxburghe Club, 1896); _Cal. of State
Papers, Dom._; _State Trials_, viii. and ix. 619.

(P.C.Y.)



ANGLESEY, HENRY WILLIAM PAGET, 1st MARQUESS OF (1768-1854), British
field-marshal, was born on the 17th of May 1768. He was the eldest son
of Henry Paget, 1st earl of Uxbridge (d. 1812), and was educated at
Westminster School and Christ Church, Oxford, afterwards entering
parliament in 1790 as member for Carnarvon, for which he sat for six
years. At the outbreak of the French Revolutionary wars Lord Paget (as
he was then styled), who had already served in the militia, raised on
his father's estate the regiment of Staffordshire volunteers, in which
he was given the temporary rank of lieutenant-colonel (1793). The
corps soon became part of the regular army as the 80th Foot, and it
took part, under Lord Paget's command, in the Flanders campaign of
1794. In spite of his youth he held a brigade command for a time, and
gained also, during the campaign, his first experience of the cavalry
arm, with which he was thenceforward associated. His substantive
commission as lieutenant-colonel of the 16th Light Dragoons bore the
date of the 15th of June 1795, and in 1796 he was made a colonel
in the army. In 1795 he married Lady Caroline Elizabeth Villiers,
daughter of the earl of Jersey. In April 1797 Lord Paget was
transferred to a lieut.-colonelcy in the 7th Light Dragoons, of which
regiment he became colonel in 1801. From the first he applied himself
strenuously to the improvement of discipline, and to the perfection of
a new system of cavalry evolutions. In the short campaign of 1799
in Holland, Paget commanded the cavalry brigade, and in spite of the
unsuitable character of the ground, he made, on several occasions,
brilliant and successful charges. After the return of the expedition,
he devoted himself zealously to his regiment, which under his command
became one of the best corps in the service. In 1802 he was promoted
major-general, and six years later lieutenant-general. In command of
the cavalry of Sir John Moore's army during the Corunna campaign, Lord
Paget won the greatest distinction. At Sahagun, Mayorga and Benavente,
the British cavalry behaved so well under his leadership that Moore
wrote:--"It is impossible for me to say too much in its praise.... Our
cavalry is very superior in quality to any the French have, and the
right spirit has been infused into them by the example and instruction
of their ... leaders...." At Benavente one of Napoleon's best cavalry
leaders, General Lefebvre Desnoëttes, was taken prisoner. Corunna was
Paget's last service in the Peninsula. His _liaison_ with the wife of
Henry Wellesley, afterwards Lord Cowley, made it impossible at
that time for him to serve with Wellington, whose cavalry, on many
occasions during the succeeding campaigns, felt the want of the true
cavalry leader to direct them. His only war service from 1809 to
1815 was in the disastrous Walcheren expedition (1809) in which he
commanded a division. During these years he occupied himself with his
parliamentary duties as member for Milborne Port, which he represented
almost continuously up to his father's death in 1812, when he took
his seat in the House of Lords as earl of Uxbridge. In 1810 he was
divorced and married Mrs Wellesley, who had about the same time been
divorced from her husband. Lady Paget was soon afterwards married
to the duke of Argyll. In 1815 Lord Uxbridge received command of the
British cavalry in Flanders. At a moment of danger such as that of
Napoleon's return from Elba, the services of the best cavalry general
in the British army could not be neglected. Wellington placed the
greatest confidence in him, and on the eve of Waterloo extended his
command so as to include the whole of the allied cavalry and horse
artillery. He covered the retirement of the allies from Quatre Bras
to Waterloo on the 17th of June, and on the 18th gained the crowning
distinction of his military career in leading the great cavalry charge
of the British centre, which checked and in part routed D'Erlon's
_corps d'armée_ (see WATERLOO CAMPAIGN). Freely exposing his own life
throughout, the earl received, by one of the last cannon shots fired,
a severe wound in the leg, necessitating amputation. Five days later
the prince regent created him marquess of Anglesey in recognition of
his brilliant services, which were regarded universally as second only
to those of the duke himself. He was made a G.C.B. and he was also
decorated by many of the allied sovereigns.

[v.02 p.0017]

In 1818 the marquess was made a knight of the Garter, in 1819 he
became full general, and at the coronation of George IV. he acted as
lord high steward of England. His support of the proceedings against
Queen Caroline made him for a time unpopular, and when he was on one
occasion beset by a crowd, who compelled him to shout "The Queen,"
he added the wish, "May all your wives be like her." At the close of
April 1827 he became a member of the Canning administration, taking
the post of master-general of the ordnance, previously held by
Wellington. He was at the same time sworn a member of the privy
council. Under the Wellington administration he accepted the
appointment of lord-lieutenant of Ireland (March 1828), and in the
discharge of his important duties he greatly endeared himself to
the Irish people. The spirit in which he acted and the aims which
he steadily set before himself contributed to the allaying of party
animosities, to the promotion of a willing submission to the laws,
to the prosperity of trade and to the extension and improvement of
education. On the great question of the time his views were opposed
to those of the government. He saw clearly that the time was come when
the relief of the Catholics from the penal legislation of the past was
an indispensable measure, and in December 1828 he addressed a letter
to the Roman Catholic primate of Ireland distinctly announcing his
view. This led to his recall by the government, a step sincerely
lamented by the Irish. He pleaded for Catholic emancipation in
parliament, and on the formation of Earl Grey's administration in
November 1830, he again became lord-lieutenant of Ireland. The times
were changed; the act of emancipation had been passed, and the task of
viceroy in his second tenure of office was to resist the agitation for
repeal of the union carried on by O'Connell. He felt it his duty now
to demand Coercion Acts for the security of the public peace; his
popularity was diminished, differences appeared in the cabinet on
the difficult subject, and in July 1833 the ministry resigned. To the
marquess of Anglesey Ireland is indebted for the board of education,
the origination of which may perhaps be reckoned as the most memorable
act of his viceroyalty. For thirteen years after his retirement
he remained out of office, and took little part in the affairs of
government. He joined the Russell administration in July 1846 as
master-general of the ordnance, finally retiring with his chief in
March 1852. His promotion in the army was completed by his advancement
to the rank of field-marshal in 1846. Four years before, he exchanged
his colonelcy of the 7th Light Dragoons which he had held over forty
years, for that of the Royal Horse Guards. He died on the 29th of
April 1854.

The marquess had a large family by each of his two wives, two sons
and six daughters by the first and six sons and four daughters by the
second. His eldest son, Henry, succeeded him in the marquessate;
but the title passed rapidly in succession to the 3rd, 4th and 5th
marquesses. The latter, whose extravagances were notorious, died in
1905, when the title passed to his cousin.

Other members of the Paget family distinguished themselves in the army
and the navy. Of the first marquess's brothers one, SIR CHARLES PAGET
(1778-1839), rose to the rank of vice-admiral in the Royal Navy;
another, General SIR EDWARD PAGET (1775-1849), won great distinction
by his skilful and resolute handling of a division at Corunna,
and from 1822 to 1825 was commander-in-chief in India. One of the
marquess's sons by his second marriage, LORD CLARENCE EDWARD PAGET
(1811-1895), became an admiral; another, LORD GEORGE AUGUSTUS
FREDERICK PAGET (1818-1880), led the 4th Light Dragoons in the charge
of the Light Brigade at Balaklava, and subsequently commanded the
brigade, and, for a short time, the cavalry division in the Crimea.
In 1865 he was made inspector-general of cavalry, in 1871
lieutenant-general and K.C.B., and in 1877 full general. His Crimean
journals were published in 1881.



ANGLESEY, or ANGLESEA, an insular northern county of Wales. Its area
is 176,630 acres or about 276 sq. m. Anglesey, in the see of Bangor,
is separated from the mainland by the Menai Straits (Afon Menai),
over which were thrown Telford's suspension bridge, in 1826, and the
Stephenson tubular railway bridge in 1850. The county is flat, with
slight risings such as Parys, Cadair Mynachdy (or Monachdy, _i.e._.
"chair of the monastery"; there is a Nanner, "convent," not far away)
and Holyhead Mountain. There are a few lakes, such as Cors cerrig y
daran, but rising water is generally scarce. The climate is humid, the
land poor for the most part compared with its old state of fertility,
and there are few industries.

As regards geology, the younger strata in Anglesey rest upon a
foundation of very old pre-Cambrian rocks which appear at the
surface in three areas:--(1) a western region including Holyhead and
Llanfaethlu, (2) a central area about Aberffraw and Trefdraeth,
and (3) an eastern region which includes Newborough, Caerwen and
Pentraeth. These pre-Cambrian rocks are schists and slates, often much
contorted and disturbed. The general line of strike of the formations
in the island is from N.E. to S.W. A belt of granitic rocks lies
immediately north-west of the central pre-Cambrian mass, reaching from
Llanfaelog near the coast to the vicinity of Llanerchymedd. Between
this granite and the pre-Cambrian of Holyhead is a narrow tract of
Ordovician slates and grits with Llandovery beds in places; this
tract spreads out in the N. of the island between Dulas Bay and Carmel
Point. A small patch of Ordovician strata lies on the northern side of
Beaumaris. In parts, these Ordovician rocks are much folded, crushed
and metamorphosed, and they are associated with schists and altered
volcanic rocks which are probably pre-Cambrian. Between the eastern
and central pre-Cambrian masses carboniferous rocks are found. The
carboniferous limestone occupies a broad area S. of Ligwy Bay and
Pentraeth, and sends a narrow spur in a south-westerly direction by
Llangefni to Malldraeth sands. The limestone is underlain on the
N.W. by a red basement conglomerate and yellow sandstone (sometimes
considered to be of Old Red Sandstone age). Limestone occurs again on
the N. coast about Llanfihangel and Llangoed; and in the S.W. round
Llanidan on the border of the Menai Strait. Puffin Island is made
of carboniferous limestone. Malldraeth Marsh is occupied by coal
measures, and a small patch of the same formation appears near
Tall-y-foel Ferry on the Menai Straits. A patch of granitic and
felsitic rocks form Parys Mountain, where copper and iron ochre have
been worked. Serpentine (Mona Marble) is found near Llanfaerynneubwll
and upon the opposite shore in Holyhead. There are abundant evidences
of glaciation, and much boulder clay and drift sand covers the older
rocks. Patches of blown sand occur on the S.W. coast.

[v.02 p.0018]

The London & North-Western railway (Chester and Holyhead branch)
crosses Anglesey from Llanfairpwllgwyngyll to Gaerwen and Holyhead
(Caer Gybi), also from Gaerwen to Amlwch. The staple of the island is
farming, the chief crops being turnips, oats, potatoes, with flax in
the centre. Copper (near Amlwch), lead, silver, marble, asbestos, lime
and sandstone, marl, zinc and coal have all been worked in Anglesey,
coal especially at Malldraeth and Trefdraeth. The population of the
county in 1901 was 50,606. There is no parliamentary borough, but one
member is returned for the county. It is in the north-western circuit,
and assizes are held at Beaumaris, the only municipal borough (pop.
2326). Amlwch (2994), Holyhead (10,079), Llangefni (1751) and Menai
Bridge (Pont y Borth, 1700) are urban districts. There are six
hundreds and seventy-eight parishes.

Môn (a cow) is the Welsh name of Anglesey, itself a corrupted form of
O.E., meaning the Isle of the Angles. Old Welsh names are Ynys Dywyll
("Dark Isle") and Ynys y cedairn (cedyrn or kedyrn; "Isle of brave
folk"). It is the Mona of Tacitus (_Ann._ xiv. 29, _Agr._ xiv. 18),
Pliny the Elder (iv. 16) and Dio Cassius (62). It is called Mam Cymru
by Giraldus Cambrensis. Clas Merddin, Y vel Ynys (honey isle), Ynys
Prydein, Ynys Brut are other names. According to the Triads (67),
Anglesey was once part of the mainland, as geology proves. The island
was the seat of the Druids, of whom 28 cromlechs remain, on uplands
overlooking the sea, _e.g._ at Plâs Newydd. The Druids were attacked
in A.D. 61 by Suetonius Paulinus, and by Agricola in A.D. 78. In the
5th century Caswallon lived here, and here, at Aberffraw, the
princes of Gwynedd lived till 1277. The present road from Holyhead
to Llanfairpwllgwyngyll is originally Roman. British and Roman camps,
coins and ornaments have been dug up and discussed, especially by the
Hon. Mr. Stanley of Penrhos. Pen Caer Gybi is Roman. The island was
devastated by the Danes (_Dub Gint_ or black nations, _gentes_),
especially in A.D. 853.

See Edw. Breese, _Kalendar of Gwynedd_ (Venedocia), on Anglesey,
Carnarvon and Merioneth (London, 1873); and _The History of Powys
Fadog_.



ANGLESITE, a mineral consisting of lead sulphate, PbSO_{4},
crystallizing in the orthorhombic system, and isomorphous with
barytes and celestite. It was first recognized as a mineral species
by Dr. Withering in 1783, who discovered it in the Parys copper-mine
in Anglesey; the name anglesite, from this locality, was given by F.S.
Beudant in 1832. The crystals from Anglesey, which were formerly found
abundantly on a matrix of dull limonite, are small in size and simple
in form, being usually bounded by four faces of a prism and four faces
of a dome; they are brownish-yellow in colour owing to a stain of
limonite. Crystals from some other localities, notably from Monteponi
in Sardinia, are transparent and colourless, possessed of a brilliant
adamantine lustre, and usually modified by numerous bright faces. The
variety of combinations and habits presented by the crystals is very
extensive, nearly two hundred distinct forms being figured by V.
von Lang in his monograph of the species; without measurement of the
angles the crystals are frequently difficult to decipher. The hardness
is 3 and the specific gravity 6.3. There are distinct cleavages
parallel to the faces of the prism (110) and the basal plane (001),
but these are not so well developed as in the isomorphous minerals
barytes and celestite.

[Illustration: Anglesite specimen.]

Anglesite is a mineral of secondary origin, having been formed by the
oxidation of galena in the upper parts of mineral lodes where these
have been affected by weathering processes. At Monteponi the crystals
encrust cavities in glistening granular galena; and from Leadhills,
in Scotland, pseudomorphs of anglesite after galena are known. At most
localities it is found as isolated crystals in the lead-bearing
lodes, but at some places, in Australia and Mexico, it occurs as large
masses, and is then mined as an ore of lead, of which the pure mineral
contains 68%.



ANGLI, ANGLII or ANGLES, a Teutonic people mentioned by Tacitus in
his _Germania_ (cap. 40) at the end of the 1st century. He gives no
precise indication of their geographical position, but states that,
together with six other tribes, including the Varini (the Warni of
later times), they worshipped a goddess named Nerthus, whose sanctuary
was situated on "an island in the Ocean." Ptolemy in his _Geography_
(ii. 11. § 15), half a century later, locates them with more precision
between the Rhine, or rather perhaps the Ems, and the Elbe, and speaks
of them as one of the chief tribes of the interior. Unfortunately,
however, it is clear from a comparison of his map with the evidence
furnished by Tacitus and other Roman writers that the indications
which he gives cannot be correct. Owing to the uncertainty of these
passages there has been much speculation regarding the original home
of the Angli. One theory, which however has little to recommend it, is
that they dwelt in the basin of the Saale (in the neighbourhood of the
canton Engilin), from which region the _Lex Angliorum et Werinorum hoc
est Thuringorum_ is believed by many to have come. At the present time
the majority of scholars believe that the Angli had lived from the
beginning on the coasts of the Baltic, probably in the southern part
of the Jutish peninsula. The evidence for this view is derived partly
from English and Danish traditions dealing with persons and events of
the 4th century (see below), and partly from the fact that striking
affinities to the cult of Nerthus as described by Tacitus are to
be found in Scandinavian, especially Swedish and Danish, religion.
Investigations in this subject have rendered it very probable that
the island of Nerthus was Sjaelland (Zealand), and it is further to be
observed that the kings of Wessex traced their ancestry ultimately
to a certain Scyld, who is clearly to be identified with Skiöldr, the
mythical founder of the Danish royal family (Skiöldungar). In English
tradition this person is connected with "Scedeland" (pl.), a name
which may have been applied to Sjaelland as well as Skåne, while in
Scandinavian tradition he is specially associated with the ancient
royal residence at Leire in Sjaelland.

Bede states that the Angli before they came to Britain dwelt in a
land called Angulus, and similar evidence is given by the _Historia
Brittonum_. King Alfred and the chronicler Æthelweard identified this
place with the district which is now called Angel in the province of
Schleswig (Slesvig), though it may then have been of greater extent,
and this identification agrees very well with the indications given by
Bede. Full confirmation is afforded by English and Danish traditions
relating to two kings named Wermund (_q.v._) and Offa (_q.v._), from
whom the Mercian royal family were descended, and whose exploits are
connected with Angel, Schleswig and Rendsburg. Danish tradition has
preserved record of two governors of Schleswig, father and son, in
their service, Frowinus (Freawine) and Wigo (Wig), from whom the royal
family of Wessex claimed descent. During the 5th century the Angli
invaded this country (see BRITAIN, _Anglo-Saxon_), after which time
their name does not recur on the continent except in the title of the
code mentioned above.

The province of Schleswig has proved exceptionally rich in prehistoric
antiquities which date apparently from the 4th and 5th centuries.
Among the places where these have been found, special mention should
be made of the large cremation cemetery at Borgstedterfeld, between
Rendsburg and Eckernförde, which has yielded many urns and brooches
closely resembling those found in heathen graves in England. Of still
greater importance are the great deposits at Thorsbjaerg (in Angel)
and Nydam, which contained large quantities of arms, ornaments,
articles of clothing, agricultural implements, &c., and in the latter
case even ships. By the help of these discoveries we are able to
reconstruct a fairly detailed picture of English civilization in the
age preceding the invasion of Britain.

AUTHORITIES.--Bede, _Hist. Ecc._ i. 15: King Alfred's version of
_Orosius_, i. 1. §§ 12, 19; Æthelweard's _Chronicle_, lib. i. For
traditions concerning the kings of Angel, see under OFFA (1). L.
Weiland, _Die Angeln_ (1889); A. Erdmann, _Über die Heimat und den
Namen der Angeln_ (Upsala, 1890--cf. H. Möller in the _Anzeiger für
deutsches Altertum und deutsche Litteratur_, xxii. 129 ff.); A. Kock
in the _Historisk Tidskrift_ (Stockholm), 1895, xv. p. 163 ff.; G.
Schütte, _Var Anglerne Tyskere?_ (Flensborg, 1900); R. Munro Chadwick,
_The Origin of the English Nation_ (Cambridge, 1907); C. Engelhardt,
_Denmark in the Early Iron Age_ (London, 1866); J. Mestorf,
_Urnenfriedhofe in Schleswig-Holstein_ (Hamburg, 1886); S. Müller,
_Nordische Altertumskunde_ (Ger. trans., Strassburg, 1898), ii. p. 122
ff.; see further ANGLO-SAXONS and BRITAIN, _Anglo-Saxon_.

(H.M.C.)

[v.02 p.0019]



ANGLICAN COMMUNION, the name used to denote that great branch of the
Christian Church consisting of the various churches in communion with
the Church of England. The necessity for such a phrase as "Anglican
Communion," first used in the 19th century, marked at once the immense
development of the Anglican Church in modern times and the change
which has taken place in the traditional conceptions of its character
and sphere. The Church of England itself is the subject of a separate
article (see ENGLAND, CHURCH OF); and it is not without significance
that for more than two centuries after the Reformation the history
of Anglicanism is practically confined to its developments within the
limits of the British Isles. Even in Ireland, where it was for over
three centuries the established religion, and in Scotland, where it
early gave way to the dominant Presbyterianism, its religious was long
overshadowed by its political significance. The Church, in fact,
while still claiming to be Catholic in its creeds and in its religious
practice, had ceased to be Catholic in its institutional conception,
which was now bound up with a particular state and also with a
particular conception of that state. To the native Irishman and the
Scotsman, as indeed to most Englishmen, the Anglican Church was one of
the main buttresses of the supremacy of the English crown and nation.
This conception of the relations of church and state was hardly
favourable to missionary zeal; and in the age succeeding the
Reformation there was no disposition on the part of the English Church
to emulate the wonderful activity of the Jesuits, which, in the 16th
and 17th centuries, brought to the Church of Rome in countries beyond
the ocean compensation for what she had lost in Europe through the
Protestant reformation. Even when English churchmen passed beyond the
seas, they carried with them their creed, but not their ecclesiastical
organization. Prejudice and real or imaginary legal obstacles stood in
the way of the erection of episcopal sees in the colonies; and though
in the 17th century Archbishop Laud had attempted to obtain a bishop
for Virginia, up to the time of the American revolution the churchmen
of the colonies had to make the best of the legal fiction that
their spiritual needs were looked after by the bishop of London, who
occasionally sent commissaries to visit them and ordained candidates
for the ministry sent to England for the purpose.

The change which has made it possible for Anglican churchmen to claim
that their communion ranks with those of Rome and the Orthodox East
as one of the three great historical divisions of the Catholic Church,
was due, in the first instance, to the American revolution. The
severance of the colonies from their allegiance to the crown brought
the English bishops for the first time face to face with the idea of
an Anglican Church which should have nothing to do either with the
royal supremacy or with British nationality. When, on the conclusion
of peace, the church-people of Connecticut sent Dr. Samuel Seabury to
England, with a request to the archbishop of Canterbury to consecrate
him, it is not surprising that Archbishop Moore refused. In the
opinion of prelates and lawyers alike, an act of parliament was
necessary before a bishop could be consecrated for a see abroad; to
consecrate one for a foreign country seemed impossible, since, though
the bestowal of the _potestas ordinis_ would be valid, the crown,
which, according to the law, was the source of the episcopal
_jurisdiction_, could hardly issue the necessary mandate for the
consecration of a bishop to a see outside the realm (see BISHOP).
The Scottish bishops, however, being hampered by no such legal
restrictions, were more amenable; and on the 11th of November 1784
Seabury was consecrated by them to the see of Connecticut. In 1786,
on the initiative of the archbishop, the legal difficulties in England
were removed by the act for the consecration of bishops abroad; and,
on being satisfied as to the orthodoxy of the church in America and
the nature of certain liturgical changes in contemplation, the two
English archbishops proceeded, on the 14th of February 1787,
to consecrate William White and Samuel Prevoost to the sees of
Pennsylvania and New York (see PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH).

This act had a significance beyond the fact that it established in the
United States of America a flourishing church, which, while completely
loyal to its own country, is bound by special ties to the religious
life of England. It marked the emergence of the Church of England from
that insularity to which what may be called the territorial principles
of the Reformation had condemned her. The change was slow, and it is
not yet by any means complete.

Since the Church of England, whatever her attitude towards the
traditional Catholic doctrines, never disputed the validity of
Catholic orders whether Roman or Orthodox, nor the jurisdiction of
Catholic bishops in foreign countries, the expansion of the Anglican
Church has been in no sense conceived as a Protestant aggressive
movement against Rome. Occasional exceptions, such as the consecration
by Archbishop Plunket of Dublin of a bishop for the reformed church in
Spain, raised so strong a protest as to prove the rule. In the main,
then, the expansion of the Anglican Church has followed that of the
British empire, or, as in America, of its daughter states; its claim,
so far as rights of jurisdiction are concerned, is to be the Church
of England and the English race, while recognizing its special duties
towards the non-Christian populations subject to the empire or brought
within the reach of its influence. As against the Church of Rome, with
its system of rigid centralization, the Anglican Church represents the
principle of local autonomy, which it holds to be once more primitive
and more catholic. In this respect the Anglican communion has
developed on the lines defined in her articles at the Reformation;
but, though in principle there is no great difference between a church
defined by national, and a church defined by racial boundaries, there
is an immense difference in effect, especially when the race--as in
the case of the English--is itself ecumenical.

The realization of what may be called this catholic mission of the
English church, in the extension of its organization to the colonies,
was but a slow process.


_The Church in the Colonies._

On the 12th of August 1787 Dr. Charles Inglis was consecrated bishop
of Nova Scotia, with jurisdiction over all the British possessions in
North America. In 1793 the see of the Québec was founded; Jamaica
and Barbados followed in 1824, and Toronto and Newfoundland in 1839.
Meanwhile the needs of India has been tardily met, on the urgent
representations in parliament of William Wilberforce and others, by
the consecration of Dr. T.F. Middleton as bishop of Calcutta, with
three archdeacons to assist him. In 1817 Ceylon was added to his
charge; in 1823 all British subjects in the East Indies and the
islands of the Indian Ocean; and in 1824 "New South Wales and its
dependencies"! Some five years later, on the nomination of the duke
of Wellington, William Broughton was sent out to work in this enormous
jurisdiction as archdeacon of Australia. Soon afterwards, in 1835
and 1837, the sees of Madras and Bombay were founded; whilst in 1836
Broughton himself was consecrated as first bishop of Australia. Thus
down to 1840 there were but ten colonial bishops; and of these several
were so hampered by civil regulations that they were little more
than government chaplains in episcopal orders. In April of that year,
however, Bishop Blomfield of London published his famous letter to the
archbishop of Canterbury, declaring that "an episcopal church without
a bishop is a contradiction in terms," and strenuously advocating a
great effort for the extension of the episcopate. It was not in vain.
The plan was taken up with enthusiasm, and on Whitsun Tuesday of 1841
the bishops of the United Kingdom met and issued a declaration which
inaugurated the Colonial Bishoprics Council. Subsequent declarations
in 1872 and 1891 have served both to record progress and to stimulate
to new effort. The diocese of New Zealand was founded in 1841, being
endowed by the Church Missionary Society through the council, and
George Augustus Selwyn was chosen as the first bishop. Since then the
increase has gone on, as the result both of home effort and of the
action of the colonial churches. Moreover, in many cases bishops
have been sent to inaugurate new missions, as in the cases of the
Universities' Mission to Central Africa, Lebombo, Corea and New
Guinea; and the missionary jurisdictions so founded develop in time
into dioceses. Thus, instead of the ten colonial jurisdictions
of 1841, there are now about a hundred foreign and colonial
jurisdictions, in addition to those of the Protestant Episcopal Church
of the United States.

[v.02 p.0020]

It was only very gradually that these dioceses acquired legislative
independence and a determinate organization. At first, sees were
created and bishops were nominated by the crown by means of letters
patent; and in some cases an income was assigned out of public
funds. Moreover, for many years all bishops alike were consecrated in
England, took the customary "oath of due obedience" to the archbishop
of Canterbury, and were regarded as his extra-territorial suffragans.
But by degrees changes have been made on all these points.


_Provincial Organization._

(1) Local conditions soon made a provincial organization necessary,
and it was gradually introduced. The bishop of Calcutta received
letters patent as metropolitan of India when the sees of Madras and
Bombay were founded; and fresh patents were issued to Bishop Broughton
in 1847 and Bishop Gray in 1853, as metropolitans of Australia and
South Africa respectively. Similar action was taken in 1858, when
Bishop Selwyn became metropolitan of New Zealand; and again in 1860,
when, on the petition of the Canadian bishops to the crown and the
colonial legislature for permission to elect a metropolitan, letters
patent were issued appointing Bishop Fulford of Montreal to that
office. Since then metropolitans have been chosen and provinces formed
by regular synodical action, a process greatly encouraged by
the resolutions of the Lambeth conferences on the subject. The
constitution of these provinces is not uniform. In some cases, as
South Africa, New South Wales, and Queensland, the metropolitan see
is fixed. Elsewhere, as in New Zealand, where no single city can claim
pre-eminence, the metropolitan is either elected or else is the senior
bishop by consecration. Two further developments must be mentioned:
(a) The creation of diocesan and provincial synods, the first diocesan
synod to meet being that of New Zealand in 1844, whilst the formation
of a provincial synod was foreshadowed by a conference of Australasian
bishops at Sydney in 1850; (b) towards the close of the 19th century
the title of _archbishop_ began to be assumed by the metropolitans of
several provinces. It was first assumed by the metropolitans of Canada
and Rupert's Land, at the desire of the Canadian general synod in
1893; and subsequently, in accordance with a resolution of the Lambeth
conference of 1897, it was given by their synods to the bishop of
Sydney as metropolitan of New South Wales and to the bishop of Cape
Town as metropolitan of South Africa. Civil obstacles have hitherto
delayed its adoption by the metropolitan of India.


_Freedom from state control._

(2) By degrees, also, the colonial churches have been freed from their
rather burdensome relations with the state. The church of the West
Indies was disestablished and disendowed in 1868. In 1857 it was
decided, in _Regina_ v. _Eton College_, that the crown could not
claim the presentation to a living when it had appointed the former
incumbent to a colonial bishopric, as it does in the case of an
English bishopric. In 1861, after some protest from the crown lawyers,
two missionary bishops were consecrated without letters patent for
regions outside British territory: C.F. Mackenzie for the Zambezi
region and J.C. Patteson for Melanesia, by the metropolitans of Cape
Town and New Zealand respectively. In 1863 the privy council declared,
in _Long_ v. _The Bishop of Cape Town_, that "the Church of England,
in places where there is no church established by law, is in the same
situation with any other religious body." In 1865 it adjudged Bishop
Gray's letters patent, as metropolitan of Cape Town, to be powerless
to enable him "to exercise any coercive jurisdiction, or hold any
court or tribunal for that purpose," since the Cape colony already
possessed legislative institutions when they were issued; and his
deposition of Bishop Colenso was declared to be "null and void in law"
(_re The Bishop of Natal_). With the exception of Colenso the South
African bishops forthwith surrendered their patents, and formally
accepted Bishop Gray as their metropolitan, an example followed in
1865 in the province of New Zealand. In 1862, when the diocese of
Ontario was formed, the bishop was elected in Canada, and consecrated
under a royal mandate, letters patent being by this time entirely
discredited. And when, in 1867, a coadjutor was chosen for the bishop
of Toronto, an application for a royal mandate produced the reply
from the colonial secretary that "it was not the part of the crown
to interfere in the creation of a new bishop or bishopric, and not
consistent with the dignity of the crown that he should advise Her
Majesty to issue a mandate which would not be worth the paper on which
it was written, and which, having been sent out to Canada, might be
disregarded in the most complete manner." And at the present day the
colonial churches are entirely free in this matter. This, however,
is not the case with the church in India. Here the bishops of sees
founded down to 1879 receive a stipend from the revenue (with the
exception of the bishop of Ceylon, who no longer does so). They are
not only nominated by the crown and consecrated under letters
patent, but the appointment is expressly subjected "to such power of
revocation and recall as is by law vested" in the crown; and where
additional oversight was necessary for the church in Tinnevelly, it
could only be secured by the consecration of two assistant bishops,
who worked under a commission for the archbishop of Canterbury which
was to expire on the death of the bishop of Madras. Since then,
however, new sees have been founded which are under no such
restrictions: by the creation of dioceses either in native states
(Travancore and Cochin), or out of the existing dioceses (Chota
Nagpur, Lucknow, &c.). In the latter case there is no _legal_
subdivision of the older diocese, the new bishop administering
such districts as belonged to it under commission from its bishop,
provision being made, however, that in all matters ecclesiastical
there shall be no appeal but to the metropolitan of India.


_Spiritual autonomy._

(3) By degrees, also, the relations of colonial churches to the
archbishop of Canterbury have changed. Until 1855 no colonial bishop
was consecrated outside the British Isles, the first instance being
Dr. MacDougall of Labuan, consecrated in India under a commission
from the archbishop of Canterbury; and until 1874 it was held to be
unlawful for a bishop to be consecrated in England without taking the
suffragan's oath of due obedience. This necessity was removed by
the Colonial Clergy Act of 1874, which permits the archbishop at his
discretion to dispense with the oath. This, however, has not been done
in all cases; and as late as 1890 it was taken by the metropolitan of
Sydney at his consecration. Thus the constituent parts of the Anglican
communion gradually acquire autonomy: missionary jurisdictions develop
into organized dioceses, and dioceses are grouped into provinces with
canons of their own. But the most complete autonomy does not involve
isolation. The churches are in full communion with one another, and
act together in many ways; missionary jurisdictions and dioceses are
mapped out by common arrangement, and even transferred if it seems
advisable; _e.g._ the diocese Honolulu (Hawaii), previously under the
jurisdiction of the archbishop of Canterbury, was transferred in 1900
to the Episcopal Church in the United States on account of political
changes. Though the see of Canterbury claims no primacy over the
Anglican communion analogous to that exercised over the Roman Church
by the popes, it is regarded with a strong affection and deference,
which shows itself by frequent consultation and interchange of
greetings. There is also a strong common life emphasized by common
action.

[v.02 p.0021]


_Pan-Anglican Congress._

The conference of Anglican bishops from all parts of the world,
instituted by Archbishop Longley in 1867, and known as the Lambeth
Conferences (_q.v._), though even for the Anglican communion they
have not the authority of an ecumenical synod, and their decisions
are rather of the nature of counsels than commands, have done much to
promote the harmony and co-operation of the various branches of the
Church. An even more imposing manifestation of this common life was
given by the great pan-Anglican congress held in London between the
12th and 24th of June 1908, which preceded the Lambeth conference
opened on the 5th of July. The idea of this originated with Bishop
Montgomery, secretary to the Society for the Propagation of the
Gospel, and was endorsed by a resolution of the United Boards of
Mission in 1903. As the result of negotiations and preparations
extending over five years, 250 bishops, together with delegates,
clerical and lay, from every diocese in the Anglican communion, met in
London, the opening service of intercession being held in Westminster
Abbey. In its general character, the meeting was but a Church congress
on an enlarged scale, and the subjects discussed, _e.g._. the attitude
of churchmen towards the question of the marriage laws or that of
socialism, followed much the same lines. The congress, of course,
had no power to decide or to legislate for the Church, its main value
being in drawing its scattered members closer together, in bringing
the newer and more isolated branches into consciousness of their
contact with the parent stem, and in opening the eyes of the Church
of England to the point of view and the peculiar problems of the
daughter-churches.

The Anglican communion consists of the following:--(1) The Church of
England, 2 provinces, Canterbury and York, with 24 and 11 dioceses
respectively. (2) The Church of Ireland, 2 provinces, Armagh and
Dublin, with 7 and 6 dioceses respectively. (3) The Scottish Episcopal
Church, with 7 dioceses. (4) The Protestant Episcopal Church of
the United States, with 89 dioceses and missionary jurisdictions,
including North Tokyo, Kyoto, Shanghai, Cape Palmas, and the
independent dioceses of Hayti and Brazil. (5) The Canadian Church,
consisting of (a) the province of Canada, with 10 dioceses; (b) the
province of Rupert's Land, with 8 dioceses. (6) The Church in India
and Ceylon, 1 province of 11 dioceses. (7) The Church of the West
Indies, 1 province of 8 dioceses, of which Barbados and the Windward
Islands are at present united. (8) The Australian Church, consisting
of (a) the province of New South Wales, with 10 dioceses; (b) the
province of Queensland, with 5 dioceses; (c) the province of Victoria,
with 5 dioceses. (9) The Church of New Zealand, 1 province of 7
dioceses, together with the missionary jurisdiction of Melanesia.
(10) The South African Church, 1 province of 10 dioceses, with the 2
missionary jurisdictions of Masbonaland and Lebombo. (11) Nearly 30
isolated dioceses and missionary jurisdictions holding mission from
the see of Canterbury.

AUTHORITIES.--_Official Year-book of the Church of England_;
Phillimore, _Ecclesiastical Law_, vol. ii. (London, 1895); _Digest
of S.P.G. Records_ (London, 1893); E. Stock, _History of the Church
Missionary Society_, 3 vols. (London, 1899); H.W. Tucker, _The English
Church in Other Lands_ (London, 1886); A.T. Wirgman, _The Church and
the Civil Power_ (London, 1893).



ANGLING, the art or practice of the sport of catching fish by means of
a baited hook or "angle" (from the Indo-European root _ank-_, meaning
"bend").[1] It is among the most ancient of human activities, and may
be said to date from the time when man was in the infancy of the Stone
Age, eking out a precarious existence by the slaughter of any living
thing which he could reach with the rude weapons at his command. It is
probable that attack on fishes was at first much the same as attack
on animals, a matter of force rather than of guile, and conducted by
means of a rude spear with a flint head. It is probable, too, that the
primitive harpooners were not signally successful in their efforts,
and so set their wits to work to devise other means of getting at the
abundant food which waited for them in every piece of water near their
caves. Observation would soon show them that fish fed greedily on each
other and on other inhabitants of the water or living things that fell
into it, and so, no doubt, arose the idea of entangling the prey by
means of its appetite. Hence came the notion of the first hook, which,
it seems certain, was not a hook at all but a "gorge," a piece of
flint or stone which the fish could swallow with the bait but which it
could not eject afterwards. From remains found in cave-dwellings and
their neighbourhood in different parts of the world it is obvious that
these gorges varied in shape, but in general the idea was the same, a
narrow strip of stone or flake of flint, either straight or slightly
curved at the ends, with a groove in the middle round which the line
could be fastened. Buried in the bait it would be swallowed end
first; then the tightening of the line would fix it cross-wise in the
quarry's, stomach or gullet and so the capture would be assured. The
device still lingers in France and in a few remote parts of England in
the method of catching eels which is known as "sniggling." In this a
needle buried in a worm plays the part of the prehistoric gorge.

The evolution of the fish-hook from the slightly curved gorge is
easily intelligible. The ends became more and more curved, until
eventually an object not unlike a double hook was attained. This
development would be materially assisted by man's discovery of the
uses of bronze and its adaptability to his requirements. The single
hook, of the pattern more or less familiar to us, was possibly a
concession of the lake-dweller to what may even then have been a
problem--the "education" of fish, and to a recognition of the fact
that sport with the crude old methods was falling off. But it is
also not improbable that in some parts of the world the single hook
developed _pari passu_ with the double, and that, on the sea-shore
for instance, where man was able to employ so adaptable a substance as
shell, the first hook was a curved fragment of shell lashed with fibre
to a piece of wood or bone, in such a way that the shell formed the
bend of the hook while the wood or bone formed the shank. Both
early remains and recent hooks from the Fiji Islands bear out this
supposition. It is also likely that flint, horn and bone were pressed
into service in a similar manner. The nature of the line or the rod
that may have been used with these early hooks is largely a matter
of conjecture. The first line was perhaps the tendril of a plant, the
first rod possibly a sapling tree. But it is fairly obvious that the
rod must have been suggested by the necessity of getting the bait out
over obstacles which lay between the fisherman and the water, and
that it was a device for increasing both the reach of the arm and the
length of the line. It seems not improbable that the rod very early
formed a part of the fisherman's equipment.

[Footnote 1: As to whether "angling" necessarily implies a rod as well
as a line and hook, see the discussion in the law case of _Barnard_ v.
_Roberts_ (_Times L.R._, April 13, 1907), when the question arose
as to the use of night-lines being angling; but the decision against
night-lines went on the ground of the absence of the personal element
rather than on the absence of a rod. The various dictionaries
are blind guides on this point, and the authorities cited are
inconclusive; but, broadly speaking, angling now implies three
necessary factors--a personal angler, the sporting element, and the
use of recognized fishing-tackle.]


_Literary History_.--From prehistoric times down to comparatively
late in the days of chronicles, angling appears to have remained a
practice; its development into an art or sport is a modern idea. In
the earliest literature references to angling are not very numerous,
but there are passages in the Old Testament which show that
fish-taking with hook as well as net was one of the common industries
in the East, and that fish, where it was obtainable, formed an
important article of diet. In _Numbers_ (xi. 5) the children of Israel
mourn for the fish which they "did eat in Egypt freely." So much too
is proved by the monuments of Egypt; indeed more, for the figures
found in some of the Egyptian fishing pictures using short rods and
stout lines are sometimes attired after the manner of those who were
great in the land. This indicates that angling had already, in
a highly civilized country, taken its place among the methods
of diversion at the disposal of the wealthy, though from the
uncompromising nature of the tackle depicted and the apparent
simplicity of the fish it would scarcely be safe to assume that in
Egypt angling arrived at the dignity of becoming an "art." In Europe
it took very much longer for the taking of fish to be regarded even as
an amusement, and the earliest references to it in the Greek and Latin
classics are not very satisfying to the sportsman.

[v.02 p.0022]

There is, however, a passage in the _Odyssey_ (xii. 247) which is of
considerable importance, as it shows that fishing with rod and line
was well enough understood in early Greece to be used as a popular
illustration. It occurs in the well-known scene where Scylla seizes
the companions of Odysseus out of the ship and bears them upwards,
just as "some fisher on a headland with a long rod" brings small
fishes gasping to the shore. Another important, though comparatively
late, passage in Greek poetry is the twenty-first idyll of Theocritus.
In this the fisherman Asphalion relates how in a dream he hooked
a large golden fish and describes graphically, albeit with some
obscurity of language, how he "played" it. Asphalion used a rod and
fished from a rock, much after the manner of the Homeric angler. Among
other Greek writers, Herodotus has a good many references to fish and
fishing; the capture of fish is once or twice mentioned or implied by
Plato, notably in the _Laws_ (vii. 823); Aristotle deals with fishes
in his _Natural History_, and there are one or two fishing passages
in the anthology. But in Greek literature, as a whole the subject of
angling is not at all prominent. In writers of late Greek, however,
there is more material. Plutarch, for instance, gives us the famous
story of the fishing match between Antony and Cleopatra, which has
been utilized by Shakespeare. Moreover, it is in Greek that the first
complete treatise on fishing which has come down to us is written, the
_Halieutica_ of Oppian (c. A.D. 169). It is a hexameter poem in five
books with perhaps more technical than sporting interest, and not so
much even of that as the length of the work would suggest. Still it
contains some information about tackle and methods, and some passages
describing battles with big fish, in the right spirit of enthusiasm.
Also in Greek is what is famous as the first reference in literature
to fly-fishing, in the fifteenth book of Aelian's _Natural History_
(3rd century A.D.). It is there described how the Macedonians captured
a certain spotted fish in the river Astraeus by means of a lure
composed of coloured wool and feathers, which was presumably used in
the manner now known as "dapping." That there were other Greek writers
who dealt with fish and fishing and composed "halieutics" we know from
Athenaeus. In the first book of his _Deipnosophistae_ he gives a list
of them. But he compares their work unfavourably with the passage of
Homer already cited, in a way which suggests that their knowledge of
angling was not a great advance upon the knowledge of their remote
literary ancestors. In Latin literature allusions to angling are
rather more numerous than in Greek, but on the whole they are
unimportant. Part of a poem by Ovid, the _Halieuticon_, composed
during the poet's exile at Tomi after A.D. 9, still survives. In
other Roman writers the subject is only treated by way of allusion or
illustration. Martial, however, provides, among other passages, what
may perhaps be entitled to rank as the earliest notice of private
fishery rights--the epigram _Ad Piscatorem_, which warns would-be
poachers from casting a line in the Baian lake. Pliny the elder
devoted the ninth book of his _Natural History_ to fishes and
water-life, and Plautus, Cicero, Catullus, Horace, Juvenal, Pliny
the younger and Suetonius all allude to angling here and there.
Agricultural writers, too, such as Varro and Columella, deal with the
subject of fish ponds and stews rather fully. Later than any of these,
but still just included in Latin literature, we have Ausonius (_c_.
A.D. 320) and his well-known idyll the _Mosella_, which contains a
good deal about the fish of the Moselle and the methods of catching
them. In this poem is to be found the first recognizable description
of members of the salmon family, and, though the manner of their
application is rather doubtful, the names _salmo, salar_ and _fario_
strike a responsive note in the breast of the modern angler.


_Post-classical Literature_.--As to what happened in the world of
angling in the first few centuries of the Christian era we know
little. It may be inferred, however, that both fish and fishermen
occupied a more honourable position in Christendom than they ever did
before. The prominence of fishermen in the gospel narratives would in
itself have been enough to bring this about, but it also happened
that the Greek word for fish, [Greek: ICHTHUS], had an anagrammatic
significance which the devout were not slow to perceive. The initials
of the word resolve into what is practically a confession of faith,
[Greek: Iesous Christos Theou Uios Soter](Jesus Christ, Son of God,
Saviour). It is therefore not surprising that we find the fish very
prominent as a sacred emblem in the painting and sculpture of
the primitive church, or that Clement of Alexandria should have
recommended it, among other things, as a device for signet rings or
seals. The fisherman too is frequently represented in early Christian
art, and it is worthy of remark that he more often uses a line and
hook than a net. The references to fish and fishing scattered about
in the writings of the early fathers for the most part reflect the two
ideas of the sacredness of the fish and divine authorization of the
fisherman; the second idea certainly prevailed until the time of Izaak
Walton, for he uses it to justify his pastime. It is also not unlikely
that the practice of fasting (in many cases fish was allowed when meat
was forbidden) gave the art of catching fish additional importance.
It seems at any rate to have been a consideration of weight when
sites were chosen for monasteries in Europe, and in many cases when
no fish-producing river was at hand the lack was supplied by the
construction of fish-ponds. Despite all this, however, save for an
occasional allusion in the early fathers, there is hardly a connecting
link between the literature of Pagan Rome and the literature that
sprang up on the invention of printing. One volume, the _Geoponica_, a
Greek compilation concerning whose authorship and date there has
been much dispute, is attributed in _Bibliotheca Piscatoria_ to
the beginning of the 10th century. It contains one book on fish,
fish-ponds and fishing, with prescriptions for baits, &c., extracted
for the most part from other writers. But it seems doubtful whether
its date should not be placed very much earlier. Tradition makes it
a Carthaginian treatise translated into Greek. A more satisfactory
fragment of fishing literature is to be found in the Colloquy of
Ælfric, written (_ad pucros linguae latinae locutionis exercendos_)
towards the end of the same century. Ælfric became archbishop of
Canterbury in A.D. 995, and the passage in the Anglo-Saxon text-book
takes honourable rank as the earliest reference to fishing in English
writings, though it is not of any great length. It is to be noted that
the fisher who takes a share in the colloquy states that he prefers
fishing in the river to fishing in the sea. Ascribed to the 13th or
14th century is a Latin poem _De Vetula_, whose author was apparently
Richard de Fournival. It contains a passage on angling, and was placed
to the credit of Ovid when first printed (c. 1470). A manuscript in
the British museum, _Comptes des pêcheries de l'église de Troyes_
(A.D. 1349-1413), gives a minute account of the fisheries with the
weights of fish captured and the expenses of working. There is,
however, practically nothing else of importance till we come to
the first printed book on angling (a translation of Oppian, 1478,
excepted), and so to the beginning of the literature proper. This
first book was a little volume printed in Antwerp probably in 1492 at
the press of Matthias van der Goes. In size it is little more than a
pamphlet, and it treats of birds as well as fish:--_Dit Boecxken leert
hoe men mach Voghelen ... ende ... visschen vangen metten kanden. Ende
oeck andersins...._ ("This book teaches how one may catch birds ...
and ... fish with the hands, and also otherwise"). Only one copy
apparently survives, in the Denison library, and a translation
privately printed for Mr. Alfred Denison in 1872 was limited to
twenty-five copies. At least two other editions of the book appeared
in Flemish, and it also made its way, in 1502, to Germany, where,
translated and with certain alterations and additions, it seems
to have been re-issued frequently. Next in date comes the famous
_Treatyse of Fysshynge wyth an Angle_, printed at Westminster by
Wynkyn de Worde in 1496 as a part of the second edition of _The Book
of St. Albans_. The treatise is for this reason associated with the
name of Dame Juliana Berners, but that somewhat dubious compiler
can have had nothing whatever to do with it. The treatise is almost
certainly a compilation from some earlier work on angling ("bokes of
credence" are mentioned in its text), possibly from a manuscript of
the earlier part of the 15th century, of which a portion is preserved
in the Denison collection. This was published in 1883 by Mr. Thomas
Satchell under the title _An Older Form of the Treatyse of Fysshynge
wyth an Angle_. But it is also possible that a still older work was
the parent of both books, for it has been held that the manuscript is
an independent version. However this may be, it is certain that the
treatise itself has been the parent of many other works. Many of
the instructions contained in it are handed down from generation to
generation with little change except in diction. Especially is this
the case with the list of trout-flies, a meagre twelve, which survives
in many fishing books until well into the 18th century.

[v.02 p.0023]

From the beginning of the 16th century the fisherman's library begins
to grow apace, as, though books solely devoted to fishing are not yet
frequent, works on husbandry and country pursuits almost all contain
something on the subject. In Italy the fisherman and his occupation
apparently were considered poetically; the word _pescatore_ or its
cognates are common on Italian 16th and 17th century title-pages,
though in many instances the fulfilment of the implied promise is
not adequate, from an angler's point of view. From the pages of
_Bibliotheca Piscatoria_ a fairly long list of Italian writers could
be gleaned. Among them may be mentioned Sannazaro (_Piscatoria_, &c.,
Rome, 1526) and Andrea Calmo (_Rime pescatorie_, Venice, 1557). A
century later was Parthenius, who published a volume of _Halieutica_
at Naples. This writer has an amusing reference to the art of
"tickling" trout as practised in Britain. In Germany, as has been
shown, the original little Flemish treatise had a wide vogue in
the 16th century, and fishing played a part in a good many books on
husbandry such as that of Conrad Heresbach (1570). Fish and fish-ponds
formed the main topic of a Latin work by Dubravius (1552), while
Gesner in the middle of the 16th and Aldrovandi at the beginning of
the 17th centuries wrote at length on the natural history of fishes.
In France the subject is less well represented, but _Les Pescheries_
of Chris. de Gamon (Lyons, 1599) and _Le Plaisir des champs_ of Cl.
Gauchet (Paris, 1604) deserve to be noted. _Les Ruses innocentes_ by
François Fortin, first published at Paris in 1600, and several times
in later editions, is characterized by Messrs Westwood and Satchell as
"on the whole the most interesting contribution made by France to
the literature of angling." England during the most part of the 16th
century was evidently well enough served by the original treatise
out of _The Book of St. Albans_. It was republished twice by Wynkyn
de Worde, six or seven times by Copland, and some five times by other
printers. It was also practically republished in _A Booke of Fishing_
by L.M. (1590). L.M. (Leonard Mascall) ranks as an angling author, but
he did little more than borrow and edit the treatise. The same may
be said of another version of _The Book of St. Albans_ "now newly
collected by W.G. Faulkener" and issued in 1596.


_Modern Literature_.--In 1600 appeared John Taverner's _Certaine
Experiments concerning Fish and Fruite_, and after this the period of
angling literature proper begins. The _Secrets of Angling_ (1613),
by J(ohn) D(ennys). Esq., is one of the most important volumes in the
angler's library, both on account of the excellence of the verse
in which it is written and also on account of its practical value.
Gervase Markham, "the first journalist," as he has been called,
published his first book of husbandry at the same date, and, as in
most of his many books on the same subject, devoted a certain amount
of space to fishing. But Markham gathered his materials in a rather
shameless manner and his angling passages have little originality.
Thomas Barker's _The Art of Angling_ (1st ed., 1651) takes a more
honourable position, and received warm commendation from Izaak Walton
himself, who followed it in 1653 with _The Compleat Angler_. So
much has been written about this treasured classic that it is only
necessary to indicate its popularity here by saying that its editions
occupy some twenty pages in _Bibliotheca Piscatoria_ (1883), and that
since that work was published at least forty new editions have to be
added to the list. During Walton's life-time the book ran through five
editions, and with the fifth (1676) was incorporated Charles Cotton's
second part, the "instructions how to angle for a trout or grayling,
in a clear stream." In some cases too there was added a third book,
the fourth edition of _The Experienced Angler_, by Robert Venables
(1st ed., 1662). The three books together bore the title of _The
Universal Angler_. Venables's portion was dropped later, but it is
worth reading, and contained sound instruction though it has not the
literary merit of Walton and Cotton.

A few other notable books of the century call for enumeration,
_The Gentleman's Recreation_ by Nicholas Cox (1674), Gilbert's _The
Angler's Delight_ (1676), Chetham's _Vade-Mecum_ (1681), _The Complete
Troller_ by Robert Nobbes (1682), R. Franck's _Northern Memoirs_
(1694), and _The True Art of Angling_ by J.S. (1696). Of these
Chetham, Nobbes, Franck and J.S. have the merit of considerable
originality. Franck has gained some notoriety by his round abuse
of Walton. In the 18th century among others we find _The Secrets of
Angling_ by C.G. (1705), Robert Hewlett's _The Angler's Sure Guide_
(1706), _The Whole Art of Fishing_ (1714), _The Compleat Fisherman_
by James Saunders (1724), _The Art of Angling_ by R. Brookes (1740),
another book with the same title by R. and C. Bowlker (Worcester,
c. 1750), _The Complete Sportsman_ by Thomas Fairfax (c. 1760), _The
Angler's Museum_ by T. Shirley (1784), and _A Concise Treatise on
the Art of Angling_ by Thomas Best (1787). Of these only Saunders's,
Bowlker's and Best's books are of much importance, the rest being
for the most part "borrowed." One volume of verse in the 18th century
calls for notice, Moses Browne's _Piscatory Eclogues_ (1729). Among
greater names we get angling passages in Pope, Gay and Thomson; the
two last were evidently brothers of the angle.

With the 19th century angling literature becomes too big a subject to
be treated in detail, and it is only possible to glance at a few of
the more important books and writers. Daniel's _Rural Sports_ appeared
in 1801; it is a treasure-house of odd facts. In 1828 Sir Humphry Davy
published his famous _Salmonia_, which was reviewed in the _Quarterly_
by Sir Walter Scott. At about this time too were appearing the _Noctes
Ambrosianae_ in _Blackwood's Magazine_. Christopher North (Professor
Wilson) often touched upon angling in them, besides contributing a
good many angling articles to the magazine. In 1835 that excellent
angling writer Thomas Tod Stoddart began his valuable series of
books with _The Art of Angling as Practised in Scotland_. In 1839 he
published _Songs and Poems_, among which are pieces of great merit.
During this period, too, first appeared, year by year, the _Newcastle
Fishers' Garlands_, collected by Joseph Crawhall afterwards and
republished in 1864. These border verses, like Stoddart's, have often
a genuine ring about them which is missing from the more polished
effusions of Gay and Thomson. Alfred Ronalds's _The Fly-Fisher's
Entomology_ (1st ed., 1836) was a publication of great importance, for
it marked the beginning of the scientific spirit among trout-fishers.
It ran through many editions and is still a valuable book of
reference. A step in angling history is also marked by George Pulman's
_Vade-Mecum of Fly-fishing for Trout_ (1841), for it contains the
first definite instructions on fishing with a "dry fly." Another is
marked by Hewett Wheatley's _The Rod and the Line_ (1849), where is
to be found the earliest reference to the "eyed" hook. Yet another is
marked by W.C. Stewart's _The Practical Angler_ (1857), in which is
taught the new doctrine of "up-stream" fishing for trout. This is a
book of permanent value. Among the many books of this period Charles
Kingsley's _Miscellanies_ (1859) stands out, for it contains the
immortal "Chalk-Stream Studies." The work of Francis Francis begins
at about the same time, though his _A Book on Angling_, which is still
one of the most valuable text-books, was not first published till
1867. Another well-known and excellent writer, Mr. H. Cholmondeley
Pennell, began in the early 'sixties; it is to him that we owe the
admirable volumes on fresh-water fishing in the "Badminton Library."
Among other English writers mention must be made of Messrs William
Senior, John Bickerdyke and F.M. Halford, who have all performed
signal services for angling and its literature. (See further
bibliography _ad fin_.) In America the latter half of the 19th century
produced a good deal of fishing literature, much of it of a high
standard.

[v.02 p.0024]

_I go a-Fishing_ by Dr. W.C. Prime (1873), _Fishing with the Fly_ by
C.F. Orvis, A. Nelson Cheney and others (1883), _The American Salmon
Fisherman_ and _Fly Rods and Fly Tackle_ by H.P. Wells (1886 and
1885), _Little Rivers_ and other books by the Rev. H. Van Dyke--these
are only a few specially distinguished in style and matter. Germany
and France have not contributed so largely to the modern library,
but in the first country we find several useful works by Max von dem
Borne, beginning with the _Handbuch der Angelfischerei_ of 1875,
and there are a good many other writers who have contributed to
the subject, while in France there are a few volumes on fishing by
different hands. The most noticeable is M.G. Albert Petit's _La Truite
de rivière_ (1897), an admirable book on fly-fishing. As yet, however,
though there are many enthusiastic anglers in France, the sport has
not established itself so firmly as to have inspired much literature
of its own; the same may be said of Germany.


_Modern Conditions_.--In the modern history of angling there are one
or two features that should be touched upon. The great increase in the
number of fishermen has had several results. One is a corresponding
increase in the difficulty of obtaining fishing, and a notable rise in
the value of rivers, especially those which are famed for salmon and
trout. Salmon-fishing now may be said to have become a pastime of the
rich, and there are signs that trout-fishing will before long have
to be placed in the same exclusive category, while even the right to
angle for less-esteemed fish will eventually be a thing of price. The
development is natural, and it has naturally led to efforts on the
part of the angling majority to counteract, if possible, the growing
difficulty. These efforts have been directed chiefly in two ways, one
the establishment of fishing clubs, the other the adoption of angling
in salt water. The fishing club of the big towns was originally a
social institution, and its members met together to sup, converse
on angling topics and perhaps to display notable fish that they had
caught. Later, however, arose the idea that it would be a convenience
if a club could give its members privileges of fishing as well as
privileges of reunion. So it comes about that all over the United
Kingdom, in British colonies and dependencies, in the United States,
and also in Germany and France, fishing clubs rent waters, undertake
preservation and restocking and generally lead an active and useful
existence. It is a good sign for the future of angling and anglers
that they are rapidly increasing in number. One of the oldest
fishing clubs, if not the oldest, was the Schuylkill club, founded
in Pennsylvania in 1732. An account of its history was published in
Philadelphia in 1830. Among the earliest clubs in London are to be
numbered such societies as The True Waltonians, The Piscatorial,
The Friendly Anglers and The Gresham, which are still flourishing. A
certain amount of literary activity has been observable in the world
of angling clubs, and several volumes of "papers" are on the records.
Most noticeable perhaps are the three volumes of _Anglers' Evenings_
published in 1880-1894, a collection of essays by members of the
Manchester Anglers' Association. The other method of securing a
continuance of sport, the adoption of sea-angling as a substitute for
fresh-water fishing, is quite a modern thing. Within the memory of
men still young the old tactics of hand-line and force were considered
good enough for sea fish. Now the fresh-water angler has lent his
centuries of experience in deluding his quarry; the sea-angler has
adopted many of the ideas presented to him, has modified or improved
others, and has developed the capture of sea-fish into a science
almost as subtle as the capture of their fresh-water cousins. One more
modern feature, which is also a result of the increase of anglers,
is the great advance made in fish-culture, fish-stocking and
fish-acclimatization during the last half-century. Fish-culture is
now a recognized industry; every trout-stream of note and value is
restocked from time to time as a matter of course; salmon-hatcheries
are numerous, though their practical utility is still a debated
matter, in Great Britain at any rate; coarse fish are also bred for
purposes of restocking; and, lastly, it is now considered a fairly
simple matter to introduce fish from one country to another, and even
from continent to continent. In England the movement owes a great deal
to Francis Francis, who, though he was not the earliest worker in the
field, was among the first to formulate the science of fish-breeding;
his book _Fish-Culture_, first published in 1863, still remains one of
the best treatises on the subject. In the United States, where fishery
science has had the benefit of generous governmental and official
support and countenance and so has reached a high level of
achievement, Dr. T. Garlick (_The Artificial Reproduction of Fishes_,
Cleveland, 1857) is honoured as a pioneer. On the continent of Europe
the latter half of the 19th century saw a very considerable and rapid
development in fish-culture, but until comparatively recently the
propagation and care of fish in most European waters have been
considered almost entirely from the point of view of the fish-stew and
the market. As to what has been done in the way of acclimatization it
is not necessary to say much. Trout (_Salmo fario_) were introduced
to New Zealand in the late 'sixties from England; in the 'eighties
rainbow trout (_Salmo irideus_) were also introduced from California;
now New Zealand provides the finest trout-fishing of its kind in the
world. American trout of different kinds have been introduced into
England, and brown trout have been introduced to America; but neither
innovation can be said to have been an unqualified success, though
the rainbow has established itself firmly in some waters of the
United Kingdom. It is still regarded with some suspicion, as it has
a tendency to wander from waters which do not altogether suit it. For
the rest, trout have been established in Ceylon, in Kashmir and in
South Africa, and early in 1906 an attempt was made to carry them to
British Central Africa. In fact the possibilities of acclimatization
are so great that, it seems probable, in time no river of the
civilized world capable of holding trout will be without them.


METHODS AND PRACTICE

Angling now divides itself into two main divisions, fishing in fresh
water and fishing in the sea. The two branches of the sport have much
in common, and sea-angling is really little more than an adaptation of
fresh-water methods to salt-water conditions. Therefore it will not
be necessary to deal with it at great length and it naturally comes in
the second place. Angling in fresh water is again divisible into
three principal parts, fishing on the surface, _i.e._ with the fly; in
mid-water, _i.e._ with a bait simulating the movements of a small fish
or with the small fish itself; and on the bottom with worms, paste or
one of the many other baits which experience has shown that fish will
take. With the premise that it is not intended here to go into the
minutiae of instruction which may more profitably be discovered in the
many works of reference cited at the end of this article, some account
of the subdivisions into which these three styles of fishing fall may
be given.


_Fresh-Water Fishing._

_Fly-fishing_.--Fly-fishing is the most modern of them, but it is
the most highly esteemed, principally because it is the method par
excellence of taking members of the most valuable sporting family
of fish, the _Salmonidae_. It may roughly be considered under three
heads, the use of the "wet" or sunk fly, of the "dry" or floating fly,
and of the natural insect. Of these the first is the most important,
for it covers the widest field and is the most universally practised.
There are few varieties of fish which may not either consistently or
occasionally be taken with the sunk fly in one of its two forms. The
large and gaudy bunch of feathers, silk and tinsel with which salmon,
very large trout, black bass and occasionally other predaceous
fish are taken is not, strictly speaking, a fly at all. It rather
represents, if anything, some small fish or subaqueous creature on
which the big fish is accustomed to feed and it may conveniently
receive the generic name of salmon-fly. The smaller lures, however,
which are used to catch smaller trout and other fish that habitually
feed on insect food are in most cases intended to represent that
food in one of its forms and are entitled to the name of "artificial
flies." The dry or floating fly is simply a development of the
imitation theory, and has been evolved from the wet fly in course of
closer observation of the habits of flies and fish in certain waters.
Both wet and dry fly methods are really a substitute for the third and
oldest kind of surface-fishing, the use of a natural insect as a bait.
Each method is referred to incidentally below.

[v.02 p.0025]

_Spinning, &c_.--Mid-water fishing, as has been said, broadly consists
in the use of a small fish, or something that simulates it, and its
devices are aimed almost entirely at those fish which prey on their
fellows. Spinning, live-baiting and trolling[1] are these devices.
In the first a small dead fish or an imitation of it made in metal,
india-rubber, or other substance, is caused to revolve rapidly as it
is pulled through the water, so that it gives the idea of something in
difficulties and trying to escape. In the second a small fish is
put on the angler's hook alive and conveys the same idea by its own
efforts. In the third a small dead fish is caused to dart up and
down in the water without revolving; it conveys the same idea as the
spinning fish, though the manipulation is different.

[Footnote 1: Trolling is very commonly confused in angling writing and
talk with _trailing_, which simply means drawing a spinning-bait along
behind a boat in motion.]

_Bottom-Fishing_.--Bottom-fishing is the branch of angling which is
the most general. There is practically no fresh-water fish that will
not take some one or more of the baits on the angler's list if they
are properly presented to it when it is hungry. Usually the baited
hook is on or near the bottom of the water, but the rule suggested by
the name "bottom-fishing" is not invariable and often the bait is best
used in mid-water; similarly, in "mid-water fishing" the bait must
sometimes be used as close to the bottom as possible. Bottom-fishing
is roughly divisible into two kinds, float-fishing, in which a bite is
detected by the aid of a float fastened to the line above the hook and
so balanced that its tip is visible above the water, and hand-fishing,
in which no float is used and the angler trusts to his hand to feel
the bite of a fish. In most cases either method can be adopted and it
is a matter of taste, but broadly speaking the float-tackle is more
suited to water which is not very deep and is either still or not
rapid. In great depths or strong streams a float is difficult to
manage.


_The Fish_.

It is practically impossible to classify the fish an angler catches
according to the methods which he employs, as most fish can be taken
by at least two of these methods, while many of those most highly
esteemed can be caught by all three. Sporting fresh-water fish are
therefore treated according to their families and merits from the
angler's point of view, and it is briefly indicated which method or
methods best succeed in pursuit of them.

_Salmon_.--First in importance come the migratory _Salmonidae_, and
at the head of them the salmon (_Salmo salar_), which has a two-fold
reputation as a sporting and as a commercial asset. The salmon
fisheries of a country are a very valuable possession, but it is only
comparatively recently that this has been realized and that salmon
rivers have received the legal protection which is necessary to their
well-being. Even now it cannot be asserted that in England the salmon
question, as it is called, is settled. Partly owing to our ignorance
of the life-history of the fish, partly owing to the difficulty of
reconciling the opposed interests of commerce and sport, the problem
as to how a river should be treated remains only partially solved,
though it cannot be denied that there has been a great advance in the
right direction. The life-history of the salmon, so far as it concerns
the matter in hand, may be very briefly summed up. It is bred in the
rivers and fed in the sea. The parent fish ascend in late autumn
as high as they can get, the ova are deposited on gravel shallows,
hatching out in the course of a few weeks into parr. The infant salmon
remains in fresh water at least one year, generally two years, without
growing more than a few inches, and then about May assumes what is
called the smolt-dress, that is to say, it loses the dark parr-bands
and red spots of infancy and becomes silvery all over. After this it
descends without delay to the sea, where it feeds to such good purpose
that in a year it has reached a weight of 2 lb to 4 lb or more, and it
may then reascend as a grilse. Small grilse indeed may only have been
in the sea a few months, ascending in the autumn of the year of their
first descent. If the fish survives the perils of its first ascent
and spawning season and as a kelt or spawned fish gets down to the sea
again, it comes up a second time as a salmon of weight varying from
8 lb upwards. Whether salmon come up rivers, and, if so, spawn, every
year, why some fish are much heavier than others of the same age, what
their mode of life is in the sea, why some run up in spring and summer
when the breeding season is not till about November or December,
whether they were originally sea-fish or river-fish--these and other
similar questions await a conclusive answer. One principal fact,
however, stands out amid the uncertainty, and that is that without a
free passage up and down unpolluted rivers and without protection on
the spawning beds salmon have a very poor chance of perpetuating
their species. Economic prudence dictates therefore that every year a
considerable proportion of running salmon should be allowed to escape
the dangers that confront them in the shape of nets, obstructions,
pollutions, rods and poachers. And it is in the adjustment of the
interests which are bound up in these dangers (the last excepted;
officially poachers have no interests, though in practice their plea
of "custom and right" has too often to be taken into consideration)
that the salmon question consists. To secure a fair proportion of fish
for the market, a fair proportion for the rods and a fair proportion
for the redds, without unduly damaging manufacturing interests, this
is the object of those who have the question at heart, and with many
organizations and scientific observers at work it should not be long
before the object is attained. Already the system of "marking" kelts
with a small silver label has resulted in a considerable array of
valuable statistics which have made it possible to estimate the
salmon's ordinary rate of growth from year to year. It is very largely
due to the efforts of anglers that the matter has gone so far. Whether
salmon feed in fresh water is another question of peculiar interest to
anglers, for it would seem that if they do not then the whole practice
of taking them must be an anomaly. Champions have arisen on both sides
of the argument, some, scientists, asserting that salmon (parr and
kelts excluded, for both feed greedily as opportunity occurs) do not
feed, others, mostly anglers, maintaining strongly that they do, and
bringing as evidence their undoubted and customary capture by rod and
line, not only with the fly, but also with such obvious food-stuffs as
dead baits, worms and prawns. On the other side it is argued that
food is never found inside a salmon after it has been long enough in a
river to have digested its last meal taken in salt water. The very few
instances of food found in salmon which have been brought forward to
support the contrary opinion are in the scientific view to be regarded
with great caution; certainly in one case of recent years, which at
first appeared to be well authenticated, it was afterwards found that
a small trout had been pushed down a salmon's throat after capture
by way of a joke. A consideration of the question, however, which
may perhaps make some appeal to both sides, is put forward by Dr.J.
Kingston Barton in the first of the two volumes on _Fishing_ (_Country
Life_ Series). He maintains that salmon do not habitually feed
in fresh water, but he does not reject the possibility of their
occasionally taking food. His view is that after exertion, such as
that entailed by running from pool to pool during a spate, the fish
may feel a very transient hunger and be impelled thereby to snap
at anything in its vicinity which looks edible. The fact that the
angler's best opportunity is undoubtedly when salmon have newly
arrived into a pool, supports this contention. The longer they are
compelled to remain in the same spot by lack of water the worse
becomes the prospect of catching them, and "unfishable" is one of the
expressive words which fishermen use to indicate the condition of a
river during the long periods of drought which too often distinguish
the sport.

[v.02 p.0026]

_Salmon Tackle and Methods_.--It is when the drought breaks up and the
long-awaited rain has come that the angler has his chance and makes
ready his tackle, against the period of a few days (on some short
streams only a few hours) during which the water will be right;
_right_ is a very exact term on some rivers, meaning not only that the
colour of the water is suitable to the fly, but that its height shall
be within an inch or two of a given mark, prescribed by experience.
As to the tackle which is made ready, there is, as in most angling
matters, divergence of opinion. Salmon fly-rods are now made
principally of two materials, greenheart and split-cane; the former is
less expensive, the latter is more durable; it is entirely a matter of
taste which a man uses, but the split-cane rod is now rather more in
favour, and for salmon-fishing it is in England usually built with a
core of steel running from butt to tip and known as a "steel centre."
How long the rod shall be is also a matter on which anglers differ,
but from 16 ft. to 17 ft. 6 in. represents the limits within which
most rods are preferred. The tendency is to reduce rather than to
increase the length of the rod, which may be accounted for by the
adoption of a heavy line. Early in the 19th century anglers used
light-topped rods of 20 ft. and even more, and with them a light line
composed partly of horse-hair; they thought 60 ft. with such material
a good cast. Modern experience, however, has shown that a shorter rod
with a heavier top will throw a heavy dressed silk line much farther
with less exertion. Ninety feet is now considered a good fishing cast,
while many men can throw a great deal more. In the United States,
where rods have long been used much lighter than in England, the
limits suggested would be considered too high. From 12 ft. 6 in. to 15
ft. 6 in. is about the range of the American angler's choice, though
long rods are not unknown with him. The infinite variety of reels,
lines, gut collars[1] and other forms of tackle which is now presented
to the angler's consideration and for his bewilderment is too wide a
subject to be touched upon here. Something, however, falls to be said
about flies. One of the perennially fruitful topics of inquiry is what
the fish takes a salmon-fly to be. Beyond a fairly general admission
that it is regarded as something endowed with life, perhaps resembling
a remembered article of marine diet, perhaps inviting gastronomic
experiment, perhaps irritating merely and rousing an impulse to
destroy, the discussion has not reached any definite conclusion. But
more or less connected with it is the controversy as to variety of
colour and pattern. Some authorities hold that a great variety of
patterns with very minute differences in colour and shades of colour
is essential to complete success; others contend that salmon do not
differentiate between nice shades of colour, that they only draw
distinctions between flies broadly as being light, medium or dark in
general appearance, and that the size of a fly rather than its colour
is the important point for the angler's consideration. Others again
go some way with the supporters of the colour-scheme and admit the
efficacy of flies whose general character is red, or yellow, or black,
and so on. The opinion of the majority, however, is probably based on
past experience, and a man's favourite flies for different rivers
and condition of water are those with which he or someone else has
previously succeeded. It remains a fact that in most fly-books great
variety of patterns will be discoverable, while certain old standard
favourites such as the Jock Scott, Durham Ranger, Silver Doctor, and
Thunder and Lightning will be prominent. Coming out of the region of
controversy it is a safe generalization to say that the general rule
is: big flies for spring fishing when rivers are probably high, small
flies for summer and low water, and flies medium or small in autumn
according to the conditions. Spring fishing is considered the cream of
the sport. Though salmon are not as a rule so numerous or so heavy as
during the autumn run, and though kelts are often a nuisance in the
early months, yet the clean-run fish of February, March or April amply
repays patience and disappointment by its fighting powers and its
beauty. Summer fishing on most rivers in the British Islands is
uncertain, but in Norway summer is the season, which possibly explains
to some extent the popularity of that country with British anglers,
for the pleasure of a sport is largely increased by good weather.

Two methods of using the fly are in vogue, casting and harling. The
first is by far the more artistic, and it may be practised either from
a boat, from the bank or from the bed of the river itself; in the last
case the angler wades, wearing waterproof trousers or wading-stockings
and stout nail-studded brogues. In either case the fishing is similar.
The fly is cast across and down stream, and has to be brought over the
"lie" of the fish, swimming naturally with its head to the stream,
its feathers working with tempting movement and its whole appearance
suggesting some live thing dropping gradually down and across stream.
Most anglers add to the motion of the fly by "working" it with short
pulls from the rod-top. When a fish takes, the rise is sometimes seen,
sometimes not; in any case the angler should not respond with the rod
until he _feels_ the pull. Then he should _tighten_, not strike. The
fatal word "strike," with its too literal interpretation, has caused
many a breakage. Having hooked his fish, the angler must be guided by
circumstances as to what he does; the salmon will usually decide
that for him. But it is a sound rule to give a well-hooked fish no
unnecessary advantage and to hold on as hard as the tackle will allow.
Good tackle will stand an immense strain, and with this "a minute
a pound" is a fair estimate of the time in which a fish should be
landed. A foul-hooked salmon (no uncommon thing, for a fish not
infrequently misses the fly and gets hooked somewhere in the body)
takes much longer to land. The other method of using the fly, harling,
which is practised on a few big rivers, consists in trailing the
fly behind a boat rowed backward and forwards across the stream and
dropping gradually downwards. Fly-fishing for salmon is also practised
on some lakes, into which the fish run. On lakes the boat drifts
slowly along a "beat," while the angler casts diagonally over the
spots where salmon are wont to lie. Salmon may also be caught by
"mid-water fishing," with a natural bait either spun or trolled
and with artificial spinning-baits of different kinds, and by
"bottom-fishing" with prawns, shrimps and worms. Spinning is usually
practised when the water is too high or too coloured for the fly;
trolling is seldom employed, but is useful for exploring pools which
cannot be fished by spinning or with the fly; the prawn is a valuable
lure in low water and when fish are unwilling to rise; while the worm
is killing at all states of the river, but except as a last resource
is not much in favour. There are a few waters where salmon have the
reputation of not taking a fly at all; in them spinning or prawning
are the usual modes of fishing. But most anglers, wherever possible,
prefer to use the fly. The rod for the alternative methods is
generally shorter and stiffer than the fly-rod, though made of like
material. Twelve to fourteen feet represents about the range of
choice. Outside the British Islands the salmon-fisher finds the
headquarters of his sport in Europe in Scandinavia and Iceland, and in
the New World in some of the waters of Canada and Newfoundland.

[Footnote 1: The precise date when silkworm gut (now so important a
feature of the angler's equipment) was introduced is obscure. Pepys,
in his _Diary_ (1667), mentions "a gut string varnished over" which
"is beyond any hair for strength and smallness" as a new angling
secret which he likes "mightily." In the third edition (1700) of
Chetham's _Vade-Mecum_, already cited, appears an advertisement of
the "East India weed, which is the only thing for trout, carp and
bottom-fishing." Again, in the third edition of Nobbes's _Art of
Trolling_ (1805), in the supplementary matter, appears a letter signed
by J. Eaton and G. Gimber, tackle-makers of Crooked Lane (July 20,
1801), in which it is stated that gut "is produced from the silkworm
and not an Indian weed, _as has hitherto been conjectured_...." The
word "gut" is employed before this date, but it seems obvious that
silkworm gut was for a long time used under the impression that it was
a weed, and that its introduction was a thing of the 17th century. It
is probable, however, that vegetable fibre was used too; we believe
that in some parts of India it is used by natives to this day. Pepys'
"minikin" was probably cat-gut.]

_Land-locked Salmon_.--The land-locked salmon (_Salmo salar sebago_)
of Canada and the lakes of Maine is, as its name implies, now regarded
by scientists as merely a land-locked form of the salmon. It does not
often attain a greater size than 20 ft, but it is a fine fighter and
is highly esteemed by American anglers. In most waters it does not
take a fly so well as a spinning-bait, live-bait or worm. The methods
of angling for it do not differ materially from those employed for
other _Salmonidae_.

_Pacific Salmon_.--Closely allied to _Salmo salar_ both in appearance
and habits is the genus _Oncorhynchus_, commonly known as Pacific
salmon. It contains six species, is peculiar to the North Pacific
Ocean, and is of some importance to the angler, though of not nearly
so much as the Atlantic salmon. The quinnat is the largest member of
the genus, closely resembles _salar_ in appearance and surpasses him
in size. The others, sockeye, humpback, cohoe, dog-salmon and masu,
are smaller and of less interest to the angler, though some of them
have great commercial value. The last-named is only found in the
waters of Japan, but the rest occur in greater or less quantities
in the rivers of Kamchatka, Alaska, British Columbia and Oregon. The
problems presented to science by solar are offered by _Oncorhynchus_
also, but there are variations in his life-history, such as the fact
that few if any fish of the genus are supposed to survive their first
spawning season. When once in the rivers none of these salmon is of
very much use to the angler; as, though it is stated that they will
occasionally take a fly or spoon in fresh water, they are not nearly
so responsive as their Atlantic cousin and in many streams are
undoubtedly not worth trying for. At the mouths of some rivers,
however, where the water is distinctly tidal, and in certain bays of
the sea itself they give very fine sport, the method of fishing for
them being usually to trail a heavy spoonbait behind a boat. By this
means remarkable bags of fish have been made by anglers. The sport is
of quite recent development.

[v.02 p.0027]

_Sea-Trout_.--Next to the salmon comes the sea-trout, the other
migratory salmonid of Europe. This is a fish with many local names and
a good deal of local variation. Modern science, however, recognises
two "races" only, _Salmo trutta_, the sea-trout proper, and _Salmo
cambricus_ or _eriox_, the bull-trout, or sewin of Wales, which
is most prominent in such rivers as the Coquet and Tweed. The
life-history of sea-trout is much the same as that of salmon, and the
fish on their first return from the sea in the grilse-stage are called
by many names, finnock, herling and whitling being perhaps the best
known. Of the two races _Salmo trutta_ alone is of much use to the
fly-fisher. The bull-trout, for some obscure reason, is not at all
responsive to his efforts, except in its kelt stage. Then it will take
greedily enough, but that is small consolation. The bull-trout is a
strong fish and grows to a great size and it is a pity that it is not
of greater sporting value, if only to make up for its bad reputation
as an article of food. Some amends, however, are made by its cousin
the sea-trout, which is one of the gamest and daintiest fish on the
angler's list. It is found in most salmon rivers and also in not a few
streams which are too small to harbour the bigger fish, while there
are many lakes in Scotland and Ireland (where the fish is usually
known as white trout) where the fishing is superb when the trout have
run up into them. Fly-fishing for sea-trout is not a thing apart.
A three-pounder that will impale itself on a big salmon-fly, might
equally well have taken a tiny trout-fly. Many anglers, when fishing a
sea-trout river where they run large, 5 lb or more, and where there is
also a chance of a salmon, effect a compromise by using a light 13
ft. or 14 ft. double-handed rod, and tackle not so slender as to make
hooking a salmon a certain disaster. But undoubtedly to get the full
pleasure out of sea-trout-fishing a single-handed rod of 10 ft. to 12
ft. with reasonably fine gut and small flies should be used, and
the way of using it is much the same as in wet-fly fishing for brown
trout, which will be treated later. When the double-handed rod and
small salmon-flies are used, the fishing is practically the same as
salmon-fishing except that it is on a somewhat smaller scale. Flies
for sea-trout are numberless and local patterns abound, as may be
expected with a fish which has so catholic a taste. But, as with
salmon-fishers so with sea-trout-fishers, experience forms belief and
success governs selection. Among the small salmon-flies and loch-flies
which will fill his book, the angler will do well to have a store of
very small trout-flies at hand, while experience has shown that even
the dry fly will kill sea-trout on occasion, a thing that is worth
remembering where rivers are low and fish shy. July, August and
September are in general the best months for sea-trout, and as they
are dry months the angler often has to put up with indifferent sport.
The fish will, however, rise in tidal water and in a few localities
even in the sea itself, or in salt-water lochs into which streams run.
Sea-trout have an irritating knack of "coming short," that is to
say, they will pluck at the fly without really taking it. There are
occasions, on the other hand, in loch-fishing where plenty of time
must be given to the fish without tightening on it, especially if it
happens to be a big one. Like salmon, sea-trout are to be caught with
spinning-baits and also with the worm. The main controversy that is
concerned with sea-trout is whether or no the fish captured in early
spring are clean fish or well-mended kelts. On the whole, as sea-trout
seldom run before May, the majority of opinion inclines to their being
kelts.

_Non-migratory Salmonidae_.--Of the non-migratory members of the
_Salmonidae_ the most important in Great Britain is the brown trout
(_Salmo fario_). Its American cousin the rainbow trout (_S. irideus_)
is now fairly well established in the country too, while other
transatlantic species both of trout and char (which are some of them
partially migratory, that is to say, migratory when occasion offers),
such as the steelhead (_S. rivularis_), fontinalis (_S. fonlinalis_)
and the cut-throat trout (_S. clarkii_), are at least not unknown.
All these fish, together with their allied forms in America, can be
captured with the fly, and, speaking broadly, the wet-fly method will
do well for them all. Therefore it is only necessary to deal with the
methods applicable to one species, the brown trout.

_Trout_.--Of the game-fishes the brown trout is the most popular,
for it is spread over the whole of Great Britain and most of Europe,
wherever there are waters suited to it. It is a fine sporting fish and
is excellent for the table, while in some streams and lakes it grows
to a very considerable size, examples of 16 lb from southern rivers
and 20 lb from Irish and Scottish lakes being not unknown. One of the
signs of its popularity is that its habits and history have produced
some very animated controversies. Some of the earliest discussions
were provoked by the liability of the fish to change its appearance
in different surroundings and conditions, and so at one time many a
district claimed its local trout as a separate species. Now, however,
science admits but one species, though, to such well-defined varieties
as the Loch Leven trout, the estuarine trout and the gillaroo, it
concedes the right to separate names and "races." In effect all, from
the great _ferox_ of the big lakes of Scotland and Ireland to
the little fingerling of the Devonshire brook, are one and the
same--_Salmo fario_.

_Wet-Fly Fishing for Trout_.--Fly-fishing for trout is divided into
three kinds: fishing with the artificial fly sunk or "wet," fishing
with it floating or "dry" and fishing with the natural insect. Of the
two first methods the wet fly is the older and may be taken first.
Time was when all good anglers cast their flies downstream and thought
no harm. But in 1857 W.C. Stewart published his _Practical Angler_, in
which he taught that it paid better to fish up-stream, for by so doing
the angler was not only less likely to be seen by the trout but was
more likely to hook his fish. The doctrine was much discussed and
criticized, but it gradually won adherents, until now up-stream
fishing is the orthodox method where it is possible. Stewart was also
one of the first to advocate a lighter rod in place of the heavy 12
ft. and 13 ft. weapons that were used in the North in his time.
There are still many men who use the long rod for wet-fly fishing in
streams, but there are now more who find 10 ft. quite enough for their
purpose. For lake-fishing from a boat, however, the longer rod is
still in many cases preferred. In fishing rivers the main art is
to place the right flies in the right places and to let them come
naturally down with the stream. The right flies may be ascertained to
some extent from books and from local wisdom, but the right places
can only be learnt by experience. It does not, however, take long to
acquire "an eye for water" and that is half the battle, for the haunts
of trout in rapid rivers are very much alike. In lake-fishing chance
has a greater share in bringing about success, but here too the right
fly and the right place are important; the actual management of rod,
line and flies, of course, is easier, for there is no stream to be
reckoned with. Though there is little left to be said about wet-fly
fishing where the fly is an imitation more or less exact of a natural
insect, there is another branch of the art which has been stimulated
by modern developments. This is the use of salmon-flies for big trout
much in the same way as for salmon. In such rivers as the Thames,
where the trout are cannibals and run very large, ordinary trout-flies
are of little use, and the fly-fisher's only chance is to use a big
fly and "work" it, casting across and down stream. The big fly has
also been found serviceable with the great fish of New Zealand and
with the inhabitants of such a piece of water as Blagdon Lake near
Bristol, where the trout run very large. For this kind of fishing much
stronger tackle and a heavier rod are required than for catching fish
that seldom exceed the pound.

[v.02 p.0028]

_Dry Fly_.--Fishing with the floating fly is a device of southern
origin, and the idea no doubt arose from the facts that on the placid
south country streams the natural fly floats on the surface and that
the trout are accustomed to feed on it there. The controversy "dry
_versus_ wet" was long and spirited, but the new idea won the day
and now not only on the chalk-streams, but on such stretches of even
Highland rivers as are suitable, the dry-fly man may be seen testing
his theories. These theories are simple and consist in placing before
the fish an exact imitation of the insect on which it is feeding, in
such a way that it shall float down exactly as if it were an insect
of the same kind. To this end special tackle and special methods have
been found necessary. Not only the fly but also the line has to float
on the wafer; the line is very heavy and therefore the rod (split-cane
or greenheart) must be stiff and powerful; special precautions have
to be taken that the fly shall float unhindered and shall not "drag";
special casts have to be made to counteract awkward winds; and,
lastly, the matching of the fly with the insect on the water is a
matter of much nicety, for the water-flies are of many shades and
colours. Many brains have busied themselves with the solution of these
problems with such success that dry-fly fishing is now a finished art.
The entomology of the dry-fly stream has been studied very deeply by
Mr. F.M. Halford, the late G.S. Marryat and others, and improvements
both in flies and tackle have been very great. Quite lately, however,
there has been a movement in favour of light rods for dry-fly fishing
as well as wet-fly fishing. The English split-cane rod for dry-fly
work weighs about an ounce to the foot, rather more or rather
less. The American rod of similar action and material weighs much
less--approximately 6 oz. to 10 ft. The light rod, it is urged, is
much less tiring and is quite powerful enough for ordinary purposes.
Against it is claimed that dry-fly fishing is not "ordinary purposes,"
that chalk-stream weeds are too strong and chalk-stream winds too wild
for the light rod to be efficient against them. However, the light rod
is growing in popular favour; British manufacturers are building rods
after the American style; and anglers are taking to them more and
more. The dry-fly method is now practised by many fishermen both in
Germany and France, but it has scarcely found a footing as yet in the
United States or Canada.

_Fishing with the Natural Fly._--The natural fly is a very killing
bait for trout, but its use is not wide-spread except in Ireland.
In Ireland "dapping" with the green drake or the daddy-longlegs is
practised from boats on most of the big loughs. A light whole-cane rod
of stiff build, about 16 ft. in length, is required with a floss-silk
line light enough to be carried out on the breeze; the "dap"
(generally two mayflies or daddy-longlegs on a small stout-wired hook)
is carried out by the breeze and just allowed to touch the water. When
a trout rises it is well to count "ten" before striking. Very heavy
trout are caught in this manner during the mayfly season. In the North
"creeper-fishing" is akin to this method, but the creeper is the
larva of the stone-fly, not a fly itself, and it is cast more like
an ordinary fly and allowed to sink. Sometimes, however, the mature
insect is used with equally good results. A few anglers still practise
the old style of dapping or "dibbling" after the manner advised by
Izaak Walton. It is a deadly way of fishing small overgrown brooks.
A stiff rod and strong gut are necessary, and a grasshopper or almost
any large fly will serve for bait.

_Other Methods._--The other methods of taking trout principally
employed are spinning, live-baiting and worming. For big river trout
such as those of the Thames a gudgeon or bleak makes the best spinning
or live bait, for great lake trout (_Jerox_) a small fish of their
own species and for smaller trout a minnow. There are numberless
artificial spinning-baits which kill well at times, the Devon being
perhaps the favourite. The use of the drop-minnow, which is trolling
on a lesser scale, is a killing method employed more in the north of
England than elsewhere. The worm is mostly deadly in thick water, so
deadly that it is looked on askance. But there is a highly artistic
mode of fishing known as "clear-water worming." This is most
successful when rivers are low and weather hot, and it needs an expert
angler to succeed in it. The worm has to be cast up-stream rather like
a fly, and the method is little inferior to fly-fishing in delicacy
and difficulty. The other baits for trout, or rather the other baits
which they will take sometimes, are legion. Wasp-grubs, maggots,
caterpillars, small frogs, bread, there is very little the fish will
not take. But except in rural districts little effort is made to catch
trout by means less orthodox than the fly, minnow and worm, and the
tendency nowadays both in England and America is to restrict anglers
where possible to the use of the artificial fly only.

_Grayling._--The only other member of the salmon family in England
which gives much sport to the fly-fisher is the grayling, a fish
which possesses the recommendation of rising well in winter. It can be
caught with either wet or dry fly, and with the same tackle as trout,
which generally inhabit the same stream. Grayling will take most small
trout-flies, but there are many patterns of fly tied specially for
them, most of them founded on the red tag or the green insect. Worms
and maggots are also largely used in some waters for grayling, and
there is a curious contrivance known as the "grasshopper," which is a
sort of compromise between the fly and bait. It consists of a leaded
hook round the shank of which is twisted bright-coloured wool. The
point is tipped with maggots, and the lure, half artificial, half
natural, is dropped into deep holes and worked up and down in the
water. In some places the method is very killing. The grayling has
been very prominent of late years owing to the controversy "grayling
_versus_ trout." Many people hold that grayling injure a trout stream
by devouring trout-ova and trout-food, by increasing too rapidly and
in other ways. Beyond, however, proving the self-evident fact that a
stream can only support a given amount of fish-life, the grayling's
opponents do not seem to have made out a very good case, for no real
evidence of its injuring trout has been adduced.

_Char._--The chars (_Sahelinus_) are a numerous family widely
distributed over the world, but in Great Britain are not very
important to the angler. One well-defined species (_Sahelinus
alpinus_) is found in some lakes of Wales and Scotland, but
principally in Westmorland and Cumberland. It sometimes takes a small
fly but is more often caught with small artificial spinning-baits. The
fish seldom exceeds 1-1/2 lb in Great Britain, though in Scandinavia
it is caught up to 5 lb or more. There are some important chars in
America, _fontinalis_ being one of the most esteemed. Some members of
the genus occasionally attain a size scarcely excelled by the
salmon. Among them are the Great Lake trout of America, _Cristinomer
namaycush_, and the Danubian "salmon" or huchen, _Salmo hucho_. Both
of these fish are caught principally with spinning-baits, but both
will on occasion take a salmon-fly, though not with any freedom
after they have reached a certain size. An attempt has been made to
introduce huchen into the Thames but at the time of writing the result
cannot yet be estimated.

_Pike_.--The pike (_Esox lucius_), which after the _Salmonidae_ is the
most valued sporting fish in Great Britain, is a fish of prey pure and
simple. Though it will occasionally take a large fly, a worm or other
ground-bait, its systematic capture is only essayed with small fish
or artificial spinning-baits. A live bait is supposed to be the most
deadly lure for big pike, probably because it is the method employed
by most anglers. But spinning is more artistic and has been found
quite successful enough by those who give it a fair and full trial.
Trolling, the method of "sink and draw" with a dead bait, referred to
previously in this article, is not much practised nowadays, though at
one time it was very popular. It was given up because the traditional
form of trolling-tackle was such that the bait had to be swallowed
by the pike before the hook would take hold, and that necessitated
killing all fish caught, whether large or small. The same objection
formerly applied to live-baiting with what was known as a gorge-hook.
Now, however, what is called snap-tackle is almost invariably used in
live-baiting, and the system is by some few anglers extended to the
other method too. Pike are autumn and winter fish and are at their
best in December. They grow to a very considerable size, fish of 20
lb being regarded as "specimens" and an occasional thirty-pounder
rewarding the zealous and fortunate. The heaviest pike caught with a
rod in recent years which is sufficiently authenticated, weighed 37
lb, but heavier specimens are said to have been taken in Irish lakes.
River pike up to about 10 lb in weight are excellent eating.

[v.02 p.0029]

America has several species of pike, of which the muskelunge of the
great lake region (_Esox masquinongy_) is the most important. It is a
very fine fish, excelling _Esox lucius_ both in size and looks. From
the angler's point of view it may be considered simply as a large
pike and may be caught by similar methods. It occasionally reaches the
weight of 80 lb or perhaps more. The pickerel (_Esox reticulatus_) is
the only other of the American pikes which gives any sport. It reaches
a respectable size, but is as inferior to the pike as the pike is to
the muskelunge.

_Perch_.--Next to the pikes come the perches, also predatory fishes.
The European perch (_Perca fluviatilis_) has a place by itself in the
affections of anglers. When young it is easy to catch by almost any
method of fishing, and a large number of Walton's disciples have been
initiated into the art with its help. Worms and small live-baits are
the principal lures, but at times the fish will take small bright
artificial spinning-baits well, and odd attractions such as boiled
shrimps, caddis-grubs, small frogs, maggots, wasp-grubs, &c. are
sometimes successful. The drop-minnow is one of the best methods of
taking perch. Very occasionally, and principally in shallow pools, the
fish will take an artificial fly greedily, a small salmon-fly being
the best thing to use in such a case. A perch of 2 lb is a good fish,
and a specimen of 4-1/2 lb about the limit of angling expectation.
There have been rare instances of perch over 5 lb, and there are
legends of eight-pounders, which, however, need authentication.

_Black Bass_.--The yellow perch of America (_Perca flavescens_) is
very much like its European cousin in appearance and habits, but it is
not so highly esteemed by American anglers, because they are fortunate
in being possessed of a better fish in the black bass, another member
of the perch family. There are two kinds of black bass (_Micropterus
salmoides_ and _Micropterus dolomieu_), the large-mouthed and the
small-mouthed. The first is more a lake and pond fish than the second,
and they are seldom found in the same waters. As the black bass is a
fly-taking fish and a strong fighter, it is as valuable to the angler
as a trout and is highly esteemed. Bass-flies are _sui generis_,
but incline more to the nature of salmon-flies than trout-flies. An
artificial frog cast with a fly-rod or very light spinning-rod is also
a favourite lure. For the rest the fish will take almost anything in
the nature of worms or small fish, like its cousin the perch. A 4 lb
bass is a good fish, but five-pounders are not uncommon. Black bass
have to some extent been acclimatized in France.

The _ruffe_ or _pope_ (_Acerina vulgaris_) is a little fish common in
the Thames and many other slow-flowing English rivers. It is very
like the perch in shape but lacks the dusky bars which distinguish
the other, and is spotted with dark brown spots on a golden olive
background. It is not of much use to the angler as it seldom exceeds
3 oz. in weight. It takes small worms, maggots and similar baits
greedily, and is often a nuisance when the angler is expecting better
fish. Allied to the perches is the pike-perch, of which two species
are of some importance to the angler, one the wall-eye of eastern
America (_Stizostedion vitreum_) and the other the zander of Central
Europe (_Sandrus lucioperca_). The last especially is a fine fighter,
occasionally reaching a weight of 20 lb. It is usually caught by
spinning, but will take live-baits, worms and other things of that
nature. The Danube may be described as its headquarters. It is a fish
whose sporting importance will be more realized as anglers on the
continent become more numerous.

_Cyprinidae_.--The carp family (_Cyprinidae_) is a large one and its
members constitute the majority of English sporting fishes. In America
the various kinds of chub, sucker, dace, shiner, &c. are little
esteemed and are regarded as spoils for the youthful angler only, or
as baits for the better fish in which the continent is so rich. In
England, however, the _Cyprinidae_ have an honoured place in the
affections of all who angle "at the bottom," while in Europe some of
them have a commercial value as food-fishes. In India at least one
member of the family, the mahseer, takes rank with the salmon as a
"big game" fish.

_Carp, Tench, Barbel, Bream_.--The family as represented in England
may be roughly divided into two groups, those which feed on the bottom
purely and those which occasionally take flies. The first consists
of carp, tench, barbel and bream. Of these carp, tench and bream are
either river or pool fish, while the barbel is found only in rivers,
principally in the Thames and Trent. The carp grows to a great size,
20 lb being not unknown; tench are big at 5 lb; barbel have been
caught up to 14 lb or rather more; and bream occasionally reach 8 lb,
while a fish of over 11 lb is on record. All these fish are capricious
feeders, carp and barbel being particularly undependable. In some
waters it seems to be impossible to catch the large specimens, and the
angler who seeks to gain trophies in either branch of the sport needs
both patience and perseverance. Tench and bream are not quite so
difficult. The one fish can sometimes be caught in great quantities,
and the other is generally to be enticed by the man who knows how to
set about it. Two main principles have to be observed in attacking all
these fish, ground-baiting and early rising. Ground-baiting consists
in casting food into the water so as to attract the fish to a certain
spot and to induce them to feed. Without it very little can be done
with shy and large fish of these species. Early rising is necessary
because they only feed freely, as a rule, from daybreak till about
three hours after sun-rise. The heat of a summer or early autumn day
makes them sluggish, but an hour or two in the evening is sometimes
remunerative. The bait for them all should usually lie on the bottom,
and it consists mainly of worms, wasp and other grubs, pastes of
various kinds; and for carp, and sometimes bream, of vegetable baits
such as small boiled potatoes, beans, peas, stewed wheat, pieces of
banana, &c. None of these fish feed well in winter.

_Roach, Rudd, Dace, Chub_.--The next group of _Cyprinidae_ consists
of fish which will take a bait similar to those already mentioned and
also a fly. The sizes which limit the ordinary angler's aspirations
are roach about 2 lb, rudd about 2-1/2 lb, dace about 1 lb and chub
about 5 lb. There are instances of individuals heavier than this, one
or two roach and many rudd of over 3 lb being on record, while dace
have been caught up to 1 lb 6 oz., and chub of over 7 lb are not
unknown. Roach only take a fly as a rule in very hot weather when
they are near the surface, or early in the season when they are on
the shallows; the others will take it freely all through the summer.
Ordinary trout flies do well enough for all four species, but chub
often prefer something larger, and big bushy lures called "palmers,"
which represent caterpillars, are generally used for them. The fly may
be used either wet or dry for all these fish, and there is little to
choose between the methods as regards effectiveness. Fly-fishing for
these fish is a branch of angling which might be more practised than
it is, as the sport is a very fair substitute for trout fishing.
Roach, chub and dace feed on bottom food and give good sport all the
winter.

_Gudgeon, Bleak, Minnow, &c_.--The small fry of European waters,
gudgeon, bleak, minnow, loach, stickleback and bullhead, are
principally of value as bait for other fish, though the first-named
species gives pretty sport on fine tackle and makes a succulent dish.
Small red worms are the best bait for gudgeon and minnows, a maggot
or small fly for bleak, and the rest are most easily caught in a
small-meshed net. The loach is used principally in Ireland as a trout
bait, and the other two are of small account as hook-baits, though
sticklebacks are a valuable form of food for trout in lakes and pools.

_Mahseer_.--Among the carps of India, several of which give good
sport, special mention must be made of the mahseer (_Barbus mosal_),
a fish which rivals the salmon both in size and strength. It reaches a
weight of 60 lb and sometimes more and is fished for in much the same
manner as salmon, with the difference that after about 10 lb it takes
a spinning-bait, usually a heavy spoon-bait, better than a fly.

[v.02 p.0030]

_Cat-fish_.--None of the fresh-water cat-fishes (of which no example
is found in England) are what may be called sporting fish, but several
may be caught with rod and line. There are several kinds in North
America, and some of them are as heavy as 150 lb, but the most
important is the wels (_Silurus glanis_) of the Danube and
neighbouring waters. This is the largest European fresh-water fish,
and it is credited with a weight of 300 lb or more. It is a bottom
feeder and will take a fish-bait either alive or dead; it is said
occasionally to run at a spinning bait when used very deep.

_Burbot_.--The burbot (_Lota vulgaris_) is the only fresh-water member
of the cod family in Great Britain, and it is found only in a few
slow-flowing rivers such as the Trent, and there not often, probably
because it is a fish of sluggish habits which feeds only at night.
It reaches a weight of 3 lb or more, and will take most flesh or
fish baits on the bottom. The burbot of America has similar
characteristics.

_Sturgeon_.--The sturgeons, of which there are a good many species in
Europe and America, are of no use to the angler. They are anadromous
fishes of which little more can be said than that a specimen might
take a bottom bait once in a way. In Russia they are sometimes caught
on long lines armed with baited hooks, and occasionally an angler
hooks one. Such a case was reported from California in _The Field_ of
the 19th of August 1905.

_Shad_.--Two other anadromous fish deserve notice. The first is the
shad, a herring-like fish of which two species, allice and twaite
(_Clupea alosa_ and _C. finta_), ascend one or two British and several
continental rivers in the spring. The twaite is the more common, and
in the Severn, Wye and Teme it sometimes gives very fair sport to
anglers, taking worm and occasionally fly or small spinning bait. It
is a good fighter, and reaches a weight of about 3 lb. Its sheen when
first caught is particularly beautiful. America also has shads.

_Flounder_.--The other is the flounder (_Pleuronectes flesus_), the
only flat-fish which ascends British rivers. It is common a long way
up such rivers as the Severn, far above tidal influence, and it will
take almost any flesh-bait used on the bottom. A flounder of 1 lb is,
in a river, a large one, but heavier examples are sometimes caught.

_Eel_.--The eel (_Anguilla vulgaris_) is regarded by the angler more
as a nuisance than a sporting fish, but when of considerable size (and
it often reaches a weight of 8 lb or more) it is a splendid fighter
and stronger than almost any fish that swims. Its life history has
long been disputed, but it is now accepted that it breeds in the sea
and ascends rivers in its youth. It is found practically everywhere,
and its occurrence in isolated ponds to which it has never been
introduced by human agency has given rise to a theory that it travels
overland as well as by water. The best baits for eels are worms and
small fish, and the best time to use them is at night or in thundery
or very wet weather.


_Sea Angling._

Sea angling is attended by almost as many refinements of tackle and
method as fresh-water angling. The chief differences are differences
of locality and the habits of the fish. To a certain extent sea
angling may also be divided into three classes--fishing on the surface
with the fly, at mid-water with spinning or other bait, and on the
bottom; but the first method is only practicable at certain times and
in certain places, and the others, from the great depths that often
have to be sounded and the heavy weights that have to be used in
searching them, necessitate shorter and stouter rods, larger reels and
stronger tackle than fresh-water anglers employ. Also, of course, the
sea-fisherman is liable to come into conflict with very large fish
occasionally. In British waters the monster usually takes the form of
a skate or halibut. A specimen of the former weighing 194 lb has
been landed off the Irish coast with rod and line in recent years. In
American waters there is a much greater opportunity of catching fish
of this calibre.

_Great Game Fishes_.--There are several giants of the sea which are
regularly pursued by American anglers, chief among them being the
tarpon (_Tarpon atlanticus_) and the tuna or tunny (Thunnus thynnus),
which have been taken on rod and line up to 223 lb and 251 lb
respectively. Jew-fish and black sea-bass of over 400 lb have been
taken on rod and line, and there are many other fine sporting fish
of large size which give the angler exciting hours on the reefs of
Florida, or the coasts of California, Texas or Mexico. Practically
all of them are taken with a fish-bait either live or dead, and used
stationary on the bottom or in mid-water trailed behind a boat.

_British Game Fishes_.--On a much smaller scale are the fishes most
esteemed in British waters. The bass (_Labrax lupus_) heads the list
as a plucky and rather difficult opponent. A fish of 10 lb is a large
one, but fifteen-pounders have been taken. Small or "school" bass
up to 3 lb or 4 lb may sometimes be caught with the fly (generally a
roughly constructed thing with big wings), and when they are really
taking the sport is magnificent. In some few localities it is possible
to cast for them from rocks with a salmon rod, but usually a boat is
required. In other places bass may be caught from the shore with
fish bait used on the bottom in quite shallow water. They may again
sometimes be caught in mid-water, and in fact there are few methods
and few lures employed in sea angling which will not account for
them at times. The pollack (_Gadus pollachius_) and coal-fish (_Gadus
virens_) come next in esteem. Both in some places reach a weight of 20
lb or more, and both when young will take a fly. Usually, however,
the best sport is obtained by trailing some spinning-bait, such as
an artificial or natural sand-eel, behind a boat. Sometimes, and
especially for pollack, the bait must be kept near the bottom and
heavy weights on the line are necessary; the coal-fish are more prone
to come to the surface for feeding. The larger grey mullet (_Mugil
capito_) is a great favourite with many anglers, as it is extremely
difficult to hook, and when hooked fights strongly. Fishing for mullet
is more akin to fresh-water fishing than any branch of sea-angling,
and indeed can be carried on in almost fresh water, for the fish
frequent harbours, estuaries and tidal pools. They can be caught
close to the surface, at mid-water and at the bottom, and as a rule
vegetable baits, such as boiled macaroni, or ragworms are found to
answer best. Usually ground-baiting is necessary, and the finer the
tackle used the greater is the chance of sport. Not a few anglers fish
with a float as if for river fish. The fish runs up to about 8 lb in
weight. The cod (_Gadus morhua_) grows larger and fights less gamely
than any of the fish already mentioned. It is generally caught with
bait used on the bottom from a boat, but in places codling, or young
cod, give some sport to anglers fishing from the shore. The mackerel
(_Scomber scomber_) gives the best sport to a bait, usually a strip of
fish skin, trailed behind a boat fairly close to the surface, but it
will sometimes feed on the bottom. Mackerel on light tackle are game
fighters, though they do not usually much exceed 2 lb. Whiting and
whiting-pout (_Gadus merlangus_ and _Gadus luscus_) both feed on or
near the bottom, do not grow to any great size, and are best sought
with fine tackle, usually an arrangement of three or four hooks at
intervals above a lead which is called a "paternoster." If one or more
of the hooks are on the bottom the tackle will do for different kinds
of flat fish as well, flounders and dabs being the two species most
often caught by anglers. The bream (_Pagellus centrodontus_) is
another bottom-feeder which resembles the fresh-water bream both in
appearance and habits. It is an early morning or rather a nocturnal
fish, and grows to a weight of 3 lb or 4 lb. Occasionally it will feed
in mid-water or even close to the surface. The conger eel (_Conger
vulgaris_) is another night-feeder, which gives fine sport, as
it grows to a great size, and is very powerful. Strong tackle is
essential for conger fishing, as so powerful an opponent in the
darkness cannot be given any law. The bait must be on or near the
bottom. There are, of course, many other fish which come to the
angler's rod at times, but the list given is fairly complete as
representing the species which are especially sought. Beside them are
occasional (in some waters too frequent) captures such as dog-fish
and sharks, skates and rays. Many of them run to a great size and
give plenty of sport on a rod, though they are not as a rule welcomed.
Lastly, it must be mentioned that certain of the Salmonidae, smelts
_(Osmerus eperlanus),_ sea-trout, occasionally brown trout, and
still more occasionally salmon can be caught in salt water either in
sea-lochs or at the mouths of rivers. Smelts are best fished for
with tiny hooks tied on fine gut and baited with fragments of shrimp,
ragworm, and other delicacies.

[v.02 p.0031]


MODERN AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCE BOOKS.--_History and Literature:_
Prof. A.N. Mayer, _Sport with Gun and Rod_ (New York and Edinburgh),
with a chapter on "The Primitive Fish-Hook," by Barnet Phillips;
Dr.R. Munro, _Lake Dwellings of Europe_ (London, 1890), with
many illustrations and descriptions of early fish-books, &c.; H.
Cholmondeley Pennell and others, _Fishing Gossip_ (Edinburgh, 1866),
contains a paper on "Fishing and Fish-Hooks of the Earliest Date," by
Jonathan Couch; C.D. Badham, _Prose Halieutics_ (London, 1854), full
of curious lore, relating, however, more to ichthyophagy than angling;
_The Angler's Note-Book and Naturalist's Record_ (London, 1st series
1881, 2nd series 1888), edited by T. Satchell, the two volumes
containing much valuable matter on angling history, literature,
and other topics; R. Blakey, _Angling Literature_ (London, 1856),
inaccurate and badly arranged, but containing a good deal of curious
matter not to be found elsewhere; O. Lambert, _Angling Literature in
England_ (London, 1881), a good little general survey; J.J.
Manley, _Fish and Fishing_ (London, 1881), with chapters on fishing
literature, &c.; R.B. Marston, _Walton and Some Earlier Writers on
Fish and Fishing_ (London and New York, 1894); _Piscatorial Society's
Papers_ (vol. i. London, 1890), contains a paper on "The Useful and
Fine Arts in their Relation to Fish and Fishing," by S.C. Harding;
_Super Flumina_ (Anon.; London, 1904), gives _passim_ useful
information on fishing literature; T. Westwood and T. Satchell,
_Bibliotheca Piscatoria_ (London, 1883) an admirable bibliography
of the sport: together with the supplement prepared by R.B. Marston,
1901, it may be considered wonderfully complete.


_Methods and Practice._--General Fresh-water Fishing: F. Francis,
_A Book on Angling_ (London, 1885), though old, a thoroughly sound
text-book, particularly good on salmon fishing; H.C. Pennell
and others, _Fishing--Salmon and Trout and Pike and Coarse Fish_
(Badminton Library, 2 vols., London, 1904); John Bickerdyke, _The
Book of the All-Round Angler_ (London, 1900); Horace G. Hutchinson
and others, _Fishing (Country Life_ Series, 2 vols., London, 1904),
contains useful ichthyological notes by G.A. Boulenger, a chapter on
"The Feeding of Salmon in Fresh-Water," by Dr.J. Kingston Barton, and
a detailed account of the principal salmon rivers of Norway, by C.E.
Radclyffe.


_Salmon and Trout._--Major J.P. Traherne, _The Habits of the Salmon_
(London, 1889); G.M. Kelson, _The Salmon Fly_ (London, 1895), contains
instructions on dressing salmon-flies; A.E. Gathorne Hardy, _The
Salmon_ ("Fur, Feather and Fin Series," London, 1898); Sir H. Maxwell,
Bt., _Salmon and Sea Trout_ (Angler's Library, London, 1898); Sir E.
Grey, Bt., _Fly Fishing_ (Haddon Hall Library, London and New York,
1899); W. Earl Hodgson, _Salmon Fishing_ (London, 1906), contains a
series of coloured plates of salmon flies; Marquis of Granby, _The
Trout_ ("Fur, Feather and Fin Series," London, 1898). Wet Fly Fishing:
W.C. Stewart, _The Practical Angler_ (London, 1905), a new edition of
an old but still valuable work; E.M. Tod, _Wet Fly Fishing_ (London,
1903); W. Earl Hodgson, _Trout Fishing_ (London, 1905), contains
a series of admirable coloured plates of artificial flies. Dry Fly
Fishing: F.M. Halford, _Dry-Fly Fishing in Theory and Practice_
(London, 1902), the standard work on the subject; G.A.B. Dewar, _The
Book of the Dry Fly_ (London, 1897). Grayling: T.E. Pritt, The Book
of the Grayling (Leeds, 1888); H.A. Rolt, _Grayling Fishing in South
Country Streams_ (London, 1905).


_Coarse Fish._--C.H. Wheeley, _Coarse Fish_ (Angler's Library, London,
1897); J.W. Martin, _Practical Fishing_ (London); _Float-fishing
and Spinning_ (London, 1885); W. Senior and others, _Pike and Perch_
("Fur, Feather and Fin Series," London, 1900); A.J. Jardine, _Pike and
Perch_ (Angler's Library, London, 1898); H.C. Pennell, _The Book of
the Pike_ (London, 1884); Greville Fennell, _The Book of the Roach_
(London, 1884).


_Sea Fishing._--J.C. Wilcocks, _The Sea Fisherman_ (London, 1884);
John Bickerdyke (and others), _Sea Fishing_ (Badminton Library,
London, 1895); _Practical Letters to Sea Fishers_ (London, 1902); F.G.
Aflalo, _Sea Fish_ (Angler's Library, London, 1897); P.L. Haslope,
_Practical Sea Fishing_ (London, 1905).


_Tackle, Flies, &c._--H.C. Pennell, _Modern Improvements in Fishing
Tackle_ (London, 1887); H.P. Wells, _Fly Rods and Fly Tackle_ (New
York and London, 1901); A. Ronalds, _The Fly-Fisher's Entomology_
(London, 1883); F.M. Halford, _Dry Fly Entomology_ (London, 1902);
_Floating Flies and How to Dress them_ (London, 1886); T.E. Pritt,
_North Country Flies_ (London, 1886); H.G. M'Clelland, _How to tie
Flies for Trout and Grayling_ (London, 1905); Capt. J.H. Hale, _How
to tie Salmon Flies_ (London, 1892); F.G. Aflalo, John Bickerdyke and
C.H. Wheeley. How to buy Fishing Tackle (London).


_Ichthyology, Fisheries, Fish-Culture, &c._--Dr. Francis Day, _Fishes
of Great Britain and Ireland_ (2 vols., London, 1889); _British and
Irish Salmonidae_ (London, 1887); Dr. A.C.L.G. Günther, _Introduction
to the Study of Fishes_ (London, 1880); Dr. D.S. Jordan, _A Guide to
the Study of Fishes_ (2 vols., New York and London, 1905); F. Francis,
_Practical Management of Fisheries_ (London, 1883); _Fish Culture_
(London, 1865); F.M. Halford, _Making a Fishery_ (London, 1902); J.J.
Armistead, _An Angler's Paradise_ (Dumfries, 1902); F. Mather, _Modern
Fish-Culture_ (New York, 1899); Livingstone Stone, _Domesticated
Trout_ (Charlestown and London, 1896).


_Angling Guide Books, Geographical Information, &c._--Great Britain:
_The Angler's Diary_ (London), gives information about most important
waters in the British Isles, and about some foreign waters, published
annually; _The Sportsman's and Tourist's Guide to Scotland_ (London),
a good guide to angling in Scotland, published twice a year; Augustus
Grimble, _The Salmon Rivers of Scotland_ (London, 1900, 4 vols.); _The
Salmon Rivers of Ireland_ (London, 1903); _The Salmon and Sea Trout
Rivers of England and Wales_ (London, 1904, 2 vols.), this fine series
gives minute information as to salmon pools, flies, seasons, history,
catches, &c.; W.M. Gallichan, _Fishing in Wales_ (London, 1903);
_Fishing in Derbyshire_ (London, 1905); J. Watson, _English Lake
District Fisheries_ (London, 1899); C. Wade, _Exmoor Streams_ (London,
1903); G.A.B. Dewar, _South Country Trout Streams_ (London, 1899);
"Hi Regan," _How and Where to Fish in Ireland_ (London, 1900); E.S.
Shrubsole, _The Land of Lakes_ (London, 1906), a guide to fishing in
County Donegal. Europe: "Palmer Hackle," _Hints on Angling_ (London,
1846), contains "suggestions for angling excursions in France and
Belgium," but they are too old to be of much service; W.M. Gallichan,
_Fishing and Travel in Spain_ (London, 1905); G.W. Hartley, _Wild
Sport with Gun, Rifle and Salmon Rod_ (Edinburgh, 1903), contains a
chapter on huchen fishing; Max von dem Borne, _Wegweiser für Angler
durch Deutschland, Oesterreich und die Schweiz_ (Berlin, 1877), a book
of good conception and arrangement, and still useful, though out of
date in many particulars; _Illustrierte Angler-Schule (der deutschen
Fischerei Zeitung)_, Stettin, contains good chapters on the wels and
huchen; H. Storck, Der Angelsport (Munich, 1898), contains a certain
amount of geographical information; E.B. Kennedy, _Thirty Seasons
in Scandinavia_ (London, 1904), contains useful information about
fishing; General E.F. Burton, _Trouting in Norway_ (London, 1897);
Abel Chapman, _Wild Norway_ (London, 1897); F. Sandeman, _Angling
Travels in Norway_ (London, 1895). America: C.F. Holder, _Big Game
Fishes of the United States_ (New York, 1903); J.A. Henshall, _Bass,
Pike, Perch and Pickerel_ (New York, 1903); Dean Sage and others,
_Salmon and Trout_ (New York, 1902); E.T.D. Chambers, Angler's Guide
to Eastern Canada (Québec, 1899); Rowland Ward, _The English Angler in
Florida_ (London, 1898); J. Turner Turner, _The Giant Fish of Florida_
(London, 1902). India: H.S. Thomas, _The Rod in India_ (London, 1897);
"Skene Dhu," _The Mighty Mahseer_ (Madras, 1906), contains a chapter
on the acclimatization of trout in India and Ceylon. New Zealand:
W.H. Spackman, _Trout in New Zealand_ (London, 1894); Capt. Hamilton,
_Trout Fishing and Sport in Maoriland_ (Wellington, 1905), contains a
valuable section on fishing waters.

_Fishery Law._--G.C. Oke, _A Handy Book of the Fishery Laws_ (edited
by J.W. Willis Band and A.C. M'Barnet, London, 1903).



ANGLO-ISRAELITE THEORY, the contention that the British people in the
United Kingdom, its colonies, and the United States, are the racial
descendants of the "ten tribes" forming the kingdom of Israel, large
numbers of whom were deported by Sargon king of Assyria on the fall
of Samaria in 721 B.C. The theory (which is fully set forth in a
book called _Philo-Israel_) rests on premises which are deemed by
scholars--both theological and anthropological--to be utterly unsound.



ANGLO-NORMAN LITERATURE:--The French language (_q.v._) came over
to England with William the Conqueror. During the whole of the 12th
century it shared with Latin the distinction of being the literary
language of England, and it was in use at the court until the 14th
century. It was not until the reign of Henry IV. that English became
the native tongue of the kings of England. After the loss of the
French provinces, schools for the teaching of French were established
in England, among the most celebrated of which we may quote that
of Marlborough. The language then underwent certain changes which
gradually distinguished it from the French spoken in France; but,
except for some graphical characteristics, from which certain rules
of pronunciation are to be inferred, the changes to which the language
was subjected were the individual modifications of the various
authors, so that, while we may still speak of Anglo-Norman writers, an
Anglo-Norman language, properly so called, gradually ceased to exist.
The prestige enjoyed by the French language, which, in the 14th
century, the author of the _Manière de language_ calls "le plus bel et
le plus gracious language et plus noble parler, apres latin d'escole,
qui soit au monde et de touz genz mieulx prisée et amée que nul autre
(quar Dieux le fist si douce et amiable principalement à l'oneur et
loenge de luy mesmes. Et pour ce il peut comparer au parler des angels
du ciel, pour la grand doulceur et biaultée d'icel)," was such that it
was not till 1363 that the chancellor opened the parliamentary session
with an English speech. And although the Hundred Years' War led to a
decline in the study of French and the disappearance of Anglo-Norman
literature, the French language continued, through some vicissitudes,
to be the classical language of the courts of justice until the 17th
century. It is still the language of the Channel Islands, though there
too it tends more and more to give way before the advance of English.

[v.02 p.0032]

It will be seen from the above that the most flourishing period of
Anglo-Norman literature was from the beginning of the 12th century to
the end of the first quarter of the 13th. The end of this period is
generally said to coincide with the loss of the French provinces to
Philip Augustus, but literary and political history do not correspond
quite so precisely, and the end of the first period would be more
accurately denoted by the appearance of the history of William the
Marshal in 1225 (published for the _Societe de l'histoire de France_,
by Paul Meyer, 3 vols., 1891-1901). It owes its brilliancy largely to
the protection accorded by Henry II. of England to the men of letters
of his day. "He could speak French and Latin well, and is said to
have known something of every tongue between'the Bay of Biscay and
the Jordan.' He was probably the most highly educated sovereign of his
day, and amid all his busy active life he never lost his interest in
literature and intellectual discussion; his hands were never empty,
they always had either a bow or a book" (_Dict. of Nat. Biog._). Wace
and Benoît de Sainte-More compiled their histories at his bidding, and
it was in his reign that Marie de France composed her poems. An event
with which he was closely connected, viz. the murder of Thomas Becket,
gave rise to a whole series of writings, some of which are purely
Anglo-Norman. In his time appeared the works of Béroul and Thomas
respectively, as well as some of the most celebrated of the
Anglo-Norman _romans d'aventure_. It is important to keep this fact in
mind when studying the different works which Anglo-Norman literature
has left us. We will examine these works briefly, grouping them
into narrative, didactic, hagiographic, lyric, satiric and dramatic
literature.


_Narrative Literature:_ (_a_) _Epic and Romance_.--The French epic
came over to England at an early date. We know that the _Chanson
de Roland_ was sung at the battle of Hastings, and we possess
Anglo-Norman MSS. of a few _chansons de geste_. The _Pèlerinage de
Charlemagne_ (Koschwitz, _Altfranzösische Bibliothek_, 1883) was, for
instance, only preserved in an Anglo-Norman manuscript of the British
Museum (now lost), although the author was certainly a Parisian. The
oldest manuscript of the _Chanson de Roland_ that we possess is also
a manuscript written in England, and amongst the others of less
importance we may mention _La Chançun de Willame_, the MS. of which
has (June 1903) been published in facsimile at Chiswick (cf. Paul
Meyer, _Romania_, xxxii. 597-618). Although the diffusion of epic
poetry in England did not actually inspire any new _chansons de
geste_, it developed the taste for this class of literature, and the
epic style in which the tales of _Horn_, of _Bovon de Hampton_, of
_Guy of Warwick_ (still unpublished), of _Waldef_ (still unpublished),
and of _Fulk Fitz Warine_ are treated, is certainly partly due to this
circumstance. Although the last of these works has come down to us
only in a prose version, it contains unmistakable signs of a previous
poetic form, and what we possess is really only a rendering into prose
similar to the transformations undergone by many of the _chansons de
geste_ (cf. L. Brandin, _Introduction to Fulk Fitz Warine_, London,
1904).

The interinfluence of French and English literature can be studied in
the Breton romances and the _romans d'aventure_ even better than in
the epic poetry of the period. The _Lay of Orpheus_ is known to us
only through an English imitation; the _Lai du cor_ was composed by
Robert Biket, an Anglo-Norman poet of the 12th century (Wulff, Lund,
1888). The _lais_ of Marie de France were written in England, and the
greater number of the romances composing the _matière de Bretagne_
seem to have passed from England to France through the medium of
Anglo-Norman. The legends of Merlin and Arthur, collected in the
_Historia Regum Britanniae_ by Geoffrey of Monmouth ([+] 1154), passed
into French literature, bearing the character which the bishop of
St. Asaph had stamped upon them. Chrétien de Troye's _Perceval_ (c.
1175) is doubtless based on an Anglo-Norman poem. Robert de Boron (c.
1215) took the subject of his Merlin (published by G. Paris and J.
Ulrich, 1886, 2 vols., _Société des Anciens Textes_) from Geoffrey of
Monmouth. Finally, the most celebrated love-legend of the middle ages,
and one of the most beautiful inventions of world-literature, the
story of Tristan and Iseult, tempted two authors, Béroul and Thomas,
the first of whom is probably, and the second certainly, Anglo-Norman
(see ARTHURIAN LEGEND; GRAIL, THE HOLY; TRISTAN). One _Folie Tristan_
was composed in England in the last years of the 12th century. (For
all these questions see _Soc. des Anc. Textes_, Muret's ed. 1903;
Bédier's ed. 1902-1905). Less fascinating than the story of Tristan
and Iseult, but nevertheless of considerable interest, are the two
_romans d'aventure_ of Hugh of Rutland, _Ipomedon_ (published by
Kölbing and Koschwitz, Breslau, 1889) and _Protesilaus_ (still
unpublished) written about 1185. The first relates the adventures of
a knight who married the young duchess of Calabria, niece of King
Meleager of Sicily, but was loved by Medea, the king's wife. The
second poem is the sequel to _Ipomedon_, and deals with the wars and
subsequent reconciliation between Ipomedon's sons, Daunus, the elder,
lord of Apulia, and Protesilaus, the younger, lord of Calabria.
Protesilaus defeats Daunus, who had expelled him from Calabria. He
saves his brother's life, is reinvested with the dukedom of Calabria,
and, after the death of Daunus, succeeds to Apulia. He subsequently
marries Medea, King Meleager's widow, who had helped him to seize
Apulia, having transferred her affection for Ipomedon to his younger
son (cf. Ward, _Cat. of Rom._, i. 728). To these two romances by an
Anglo-Norman author, _Amadas et Idoine_, of which we only possess a
continental version, is to be added. Gaston Paris has proved indeed
that the original was composed in England in the 12th century
(_An English Miscellany presented to Dr. Furnivall in Honour of his
Seventy-fifth Birthday_, Oxford, 1901, 386-394). The Anglo-Norman poem
on the _Life of Richard Coeur de Lion_ is lost, and an English version
only has been preserved. About 1250 Eustace of Kent introduced into
England the _roman d'Alexandre_ in his _Roman de toute chevalerie_,
many passages of which have been imitated in one of the oldest English
poems on Alexander, namely, _King Alisaunder_ (P. Meyer, _Alexandre
le grand_, Paris, 1886, ii. 273, and Weber, _Metrical Romances_,
Edinburgh).

(_b_) _Fableaux, Fables and Religious Tales_.--In spite of the
incontestable popularity enjoyed by this class of literature, we have
only some half-dozen _fableaux_ written in England, viz. _Le chevalier
à la corbeille, Le chevalier qui faisait parler les muets, Le
chevalier, sa dame et un clerc, Les trois dames, La gageure, Le prêtre
d'Alison, La bourgeoise d'Orléans_ (Bédier, _Les Fabliaux_, 1895). As
to fables, one of the most popular collections in the middle ages was
that written by Marie de France, which she claimed to have translated
from _King Alfred_. In the _Contes moralisés_, written by Nicole Bozon
shortly before 1320 (_Soc. Anc. Textes_, 1889), a few fables bear a
strong resemblance to those of Marie de France.

The religious tales deal mostly with the Mary Legends, and have been
handed down to us in three collections:

(i.) The Adgar's collection. Most of these were translated from
William of Malmesbury ([+] 1143?) by Adgar in the 12th century
("Adgar's Marien-Legenden," _Altfr. Biblioth_. ix.; J.A. Herbert,
_Rom_. xxxii. 394).

(ii.) The collection of Everard of Gateley, a monk of St. Edmund at
Bury, who wrote _c_. 1250 three Mary Legends (_Rom_. xxix. 27).

(iii.) An anonymous collection of sixty Mary Legends composed _c_.
1250 (Brit. Museum Old Roy. 20 B, xiv.), some of which have been
published in Suchier's _Bibliotheca Normannica_; in the _Altf. Bibl_.
See also Mussafia, "Studien zu den mittelalterlichen Marien-legenden"
in _Sitzungsh. der Wien. Akademie_ (t. cxiii., cxv., cxix., cxxiii.,
cxxix.).

[v.02 p.0033]

Another set of religious and moralizing tales is to be found in
Chardri's _Set dormans_ and _Josaphat, c._ 1216 (Koch, _Altfr. Bibl._,
1880; G. Paris, _Poèmes et légendes du moyen âge_).

(_c_) _History_.--Of far greater importance, however, are the works
which constitute Anglo-Norman historiography. The first Anglo-Norman
historiographer is Geoffrey Gaimar, who wrote his _Estorie des
Angles_ (between 1147 and 1151) for Dame Constance, wife of Robert
Fitz-Gislebert (_The Anglo-Norman Metrical Chronicle,_ Hardy and
Martin, i. ii., London, 1888). This history comprised a first part
(now lost), which was merely a translation of Geoffrey of Monmouth's
_Historia regum Britanniae_, preceded by a history of the Trojan War,
and a second part which carries us as far as the death of William
Rufus. For this second part he has consulted historical documents, but
he stops at the year 1087, just when he has reached the period about
which he might have been able to give us some first-hand information.
Similarly, Wace in his _Roman de Rou et des dues de Normandie_ (ed.
Andresen, Heilbronn, 1877-1879, 2 vols.), written 1160-1174, stops at
the battle of Tinchebray in 1107 just before the period for which he
would have been so useful. His _Brut_ or _Geste des Bretons_ (Le
Roux de Lincy, 1836-1838, 2 vols.), written in 1155, is merely a
translation of Geoffrey of Monmouth. "Wace," says Gaston Paris,
speaking of the _Roman de Rou_, "traduit en les abrégeant des
historiens latins que nous possédons; mais çà et là il ajoute soit des
contes populaires, par exemple sur Richard 1'er, sur Robert 1'er, soit
des particularités qu'il savait par tradition (sur ce même Robert le
magnifique, sur l'expédition de Guillaume, &c.) et qui donnent à son
oeuvre un réel intérêt historique. Sa langue est excellente; son style
clair, serré, simple, d'ordinaire assez monotone, vous plaît par sa
saveur archaïque et quelquefois par une certaine grâce et une certaine
malice."

The _History of the Dukes of Normandy_ by Benoît de Sainte-More is
based on the work of Wace. It was composed at the request of Henry II.
about 1170, and takes us as far as the year 1135 (ed. by Francisque
Michel, 1836-1844, _Collection de documents inédits,_ 3 vols.). The
43,000 lines which it contains are of but little interest to the
historian; they are too evidently the work of a _romancier courtois,_
who takes pleasure in recounting love-adventures such as those he has
described in his romance of Troy. Other works, however, give us more
trustworthy information, for example, the anonymous poem on Henry
II.'s _Conquest of Ireland_ in 1172 (ed. Francisque Michel, London,
1837), which, together with the _Expugnatio hibernica_ of Giraud de
Barri, constitutes our chief authority on this subject. The _Conquest
of Ireland_ was republished in 1892 by Goddard Henry Orpen, under the
title of _The Song of Dermot and the Earl_ (Oxford, Clarendon Press).
Similarly, Jourdain Fantosme, who was in the north of England in 1174,
wrote an account of the wars between Henry II., his sons, William the
Lion of Scotland and Louis VII., in 1173 and 1174 (_Chronicle of the
reigns of Stephen_ ... III., ed. by Joseph Stevenson and Fr. Michel,
London, 1886, pp. 202-307). Not one of these histories, however, is to
be compared in value with _The History of William the Marshal, Count
of Striguil and Pembroke,_ regent of England from 1216-1219, which was
found and subsequently edited by Paul Meyer (_Société de l'histoire de
France,_ 3 vols., 1891-1901). This masterpiece of historiography
was composed in 1225 or 1226 by a professional poet of talent at the
request of William, son of the marshal. It was compiled from the notes
of the marshal's squire, John d'Early ([+] 1230 or 1231), who shared
all the vicissitudes of his master's life and was one of the executors
of his will. This work is of great value for the history of the period
1186-1219, as the information furnished by John d'Early is either
personal or obtained at first hand. In the part which deals with the
period before 1186, it is true, there are various mistakes, due to the
author's ignorance of contemporary history, but these slight blemishes
are amply atoned for by the literary value of the work. The style
is concise, the anecdotes are well told, the descriptions short and
picturesque; the whole constitutes one of the most living pictures
of medieval society. Very pale by the side of this work appear the
_Chronique_ of Peter of Langtoft, written between 1311 and 1320, and
mainly of interest for the period 1294-1307 (ed. by T. Wright,
London, 1866-1868); the _Chronique_ of Nicholas Trevet (1258?-1328?),
dedicated to Princess Mary, daughter of Edward I. (Duffus Hardy,
_Descr. Catal._ III., 349-350); the _Scala Chronica_ compiled by
Thomas Gray of Heaton ([+] _c._ 1369), which carries us to the year
1362-1363 (ed. by J. Stevenson, Maitland Club, Edinburgh, 1836); the
_Black Prince,_ a poem by the poet Chandos, composed about 1386, and
relating the life of the Black Prince from 1346-1376 (re-edited by
Francisque Michel, London and Paris, 1883); and, lastly, the different
versions of the _Brutes,_ the form and historical importance of which
have been indicated by Paul Meyer (_Bulletin de la Société des Anciens
Textes,_ 1878, pp. 104-145), and by F.W.D. Brie (_Geschichte und
Quellen der mittelenglischen Prosachronik, The Brute of England or The
Chronicles of England,_ Marburg, 1905).

Finally we may mention, as ancient history, the translation of
Eutropius and Dares, by Geoffrey of Waterford (13th century), who
gave also the _Secret des Secrets,_ a translation from a work wrongly
attributed to Aristotle, which belongs to the next division (_Rom._
xxiii. 314).

_Didactic Literature_.--This is the most considerable, if not the most
interesting, branch of Anglo-Norman literature: it comprises a
large number of works written chiefly with the object of giving both
religious and profane instruction to Anglo-Norman lords and ladies.
The following list gives the most important productions arranged in
chronological order:--

Philippe de Thaun, _Comput, c_. 1119 (edited by E. Mall, Strassburg,
1873), poem on the calendar; _Bestiaire, c_. 1130 (ed. by E. Walberg,
Paris, 1900; cf. G. Paris, _Rom._ xxxi. 175); _Lois de Guillaume le
Conquérant_ (redaction between 1150 and 1170, ed. by J.E. Matzke,
Paris, 1899); _Oxford Psalter, c_. 1150 (Fr. Michel, _Libri Psalmorum
versio antiqua gallica_, Oxford, 1860); _Cambridge Psalter, c_. 1160
(Fr. Michel, _Le Livre des Psaumes,_ Paris, 1877); _London Psalter,_
same as Oxford Psalter (cf. Beyer, _Zt. f. rom. Phil._ xi. 513-534;
xii. 1-56); _Disticha Catonis_, translated by Everard de Kirkham and
Elie de Winchester (Stengel, _Ausg. u. Abhandlungen_); _Le Roman de
fortune_, summary of Boetius' _De consolatione philosophiae,_ by
Simon de Fresne (_Hist. lit._ xxviii. 408); _Quatre livres des rois_,
translated into French in the 12th century, and imitated in England
soon after (P. Schlösser, _Die Lautverhältnisse der quatre livres des
rois,_ Bonn, 1886; _Romania,_ xvii. 124); _Donnei des Amanz,_, the
conversation of two lovers, overheard and carefully noted by the
poet, of a purely didactic character, in which are included three
interesting pieces, the first being an episode of the story of
Tristram, the second a fable, _L'homme et le serpent,_ the third a
tale, _L'homme et l'oiseau_, which is the basis of the celebrated
_Lai de l'oiselet_ (_Rom._ xxv. 497); _Livre des Sibiles_ (1160);
_Enseignements Trebor_, by Robert de Ho (=Hoo, Kent, on the left bank
of the Medway) [edited by Mary Vance Young, Paris; Picard, 101; cf.
G. Paris, _Rom._ xxxii. 141]; _Lapidaire de Cambridge_ (Pannier, _Les
Lapidaires français_); Frére Angier de Ste. Frideswide, _Dialogues,_
29th of November 1212 (_Rom._ xii. 145-208, and xxix.; M.K. Pope,
_Étude sur la langue de Frère Angier,_ Paris, 1903); _Li dialoge
Grégoire le pape_, ed. by Foerster, 1876; _Petit Plet_, by Chardri,
_c._ 1216 (Koch, _Altfr Bibliothek._ i., and Mussafia, _Z.f.r.P._
iii. 591); _Petite philosophie, c._ 1225 (_Rom._ xv. 356; xxix.
72); _Histoire de Marie et de Jésus (Rom._ xvi. 248-262); _Poème
sur l'Ancien Testament_ (_Not. et Extr._ xxxiv. 1, 210; _Soc. Anc.
Textes_, 1889, 73-74); _Le Corset_ and _Le Miroir,_ by Robert de
Gretham (_Rom._ vii. 345; xv. 296); _Lumière as Lais,_ by Pierre de
Peckham, _c._ 1250 (_Rom._ xv. 287); an Anglo-Norman redaction of
_Image du monde, c._ 1250 (_Rom._ xxi. 481); two Anglo-Norman versions
of _Quatre soeurs_ (Justice, Truth, Peace, Mercy), 13th century (ed.
by Fr. Michel, _Psautier d'Oxford,_ pp. 364-368, _Bulletin Soc. Anc.
Textes,_ 1886, 57, _Romania,_ xv. 352); another _Comput_ by Raüf de
Lenham, 1256 (P. Meyer, _Archives des missions,_ 2nd series iv.
154 and 160-164; _Rom._ xv. 285); _Le chastel d'amors,_ by Robert
Grosseteste or Greathead, bishop of Lincoln ([+] 1253) [ed. by Cooke,
_Carmina Anglo-Normannica_, 1852, Caxton Society]; _Poème sur l'amour
de Dieu et sur la haine du péché_, 13th century, second part (_Rom._
xxix. 5); _Le mariage des neuf filles du diable_ (_Rom._ xxix. 54);
_Ditie d' Urbain_, attributed without any foundation to Henry I. (P.
Meyer, _Bulletin Soc. Anc. Textes_, 1880, p. 73 and _Romania_ xxxii,
68); _Dialogue de l'évêque Saint Julien et son disciple_ (_Rom._ xxix.
21); _Poème sur l'antichrist et le jugement dernier_, by Henri d'Arci
(_Rom._ xxix. 78; _Not. et. Extr._ 35, i. 137). Wilham de Waddington
produced at the end of the 13th century his _Manuel des péchés_, which
was adapted in England by Robert of Brunne in his _Handlying Sinne_
(1303) [_Hist. lit._ xxviii. 179-207; _Rom._ xxix. 5, 47-53]; see
Furnivall,_Robert of Brunne's Handlying Synne_ (Roxb. Club, 1862);
in the 14th century we find Nicole Bozon's _Contes moralisés_ (see
above); _Traité de naturesse_ (_Rom._ xiii. 508); _Sermons_ in verse
(P. Meyer, op. cit. xlv.); _Proverbes de bon enseignement_ (op.
cit. xlvi.). We have also a few handbooks on the teaching of French.
Gautier de Biblesworth wrote such a treatise _à Madame Dyonise
de Mountechensi pur aprise de langage_ (Wright, _A Volume of
Vocabularies_; P. Meyer, _Rec. d'anc. textes_, p. 360 and _Romania_
xxxii, 22); _Orthographia gallica_ (Sturzinger, _Altfr. Bibl._ 1884);
_La manière de language_, written in 1396 (P. Meyer, _Rev. crit.
d'hist. et de litt._ nos. compl. de 1870); _Un petit livre pour
enseigner les enfants de leur entreparler comun françois_, c. 1399
(Stengel, _Z. für n.f. Spr. u. Litt._ i. 11). The important _Mirour
de l'omme_, by John Gower, contains about 30,000 lines written in very
good French at the end of the 14th century (Macaulay, _The Complete
Works of John Gower_, i., Oxford, 1899).

[v.02 p.0034]

_Hagiography_.--Among the numerous lives of saints written in
Anglo-Norman the most important ones are the following, the list of
which is given in chronological order:--_Voyage de Saint Brandan_ (or
_Brandain_), written in 1121, by an ecclesiastic for Queen Aelis of
Louvain (_Rom. St._ i. 553-588; _Z.f.r.P._ ii. 438-459; _Rom._ xviii.
203. C. Wahlund, _Die altfr. Prosaübersetz. von Brendan's Meerfahrt_,
Upsala, 1901); life of St. Catherine by Clemence of Barking (_Rom._
xiii. 400, Jarnik, 1894); life of St Giles, c. 1170, by Guillaume de
Berneville (_Soc. Anc. Textes fr._, 1881; _Rom._ xi. and xxiii. 94);
life of St. Nicholas, life of Our Lady, by Wace (Delius, 1850; Stengel,
_Cod. Digby_, 66); Uhlemann, _Gram. Krit. Studien zu Wace's Conception
und Nicolas_, 1878; life of St. George by Simon de Fresne (_Rom._ x.
319; J.E. Matzke, _Public. of the Mod. Lang. Ass. of Amer._ xvii.
1902; _Rom._ xxxiv. 148); _Expurgatoire de Ste. Patrice_, by Marie de
France (Jenkins, 1894; Eckleben, _Aelteste Schilderung vom Fegefeuer
d.H. Patricius_, 1851; Ph. de Felice, 1906); _La vie de St. Edmund le
Rei_, by Denis Pyramus, end of 12th century (_Memorials of St. Edmund's
Abbey_, edited by T. Arnold, ii. 1892; _Rom._ xxii. 170); Henri
d'Arci's life of St. Thais, poem on the Antichrist, _Visio S. Pauli_
(P. Meyer, _Not. et Extr._ xxxv. 137-158); life of St. Gregory the
Great by Frère Angier, 30th of April 1214 (_Rom._ viii. 509-544; ix.
176; xviii. 201); life of St. Modwenna, between 1225 and 1250 (Suchier,
_Die dem Matthäus Paris zugeschriebene Vie de St. Auban_, 1873, pp.
54-58); Fragments of a life of St Thomas Becket, c. 1230 (P. Meyer,
_Soc. Anc. Text. fr._, 1885); and another life of the same by Benoit
of St. Alban, 13th century (Michel, _Chron. des ducs de Normandie;
Hist. Lit._ xxiii. 383); a life of Edward the Confessor, written
before 1245 (Luard, _Lives of Edward the Confessor_, 1858; _Hist.
Lit._ xxvii. 1), by an anonymous monk of Westminster; life of
St. Auban, c. 1250 (Suchier, op. cit.; Uhlemann, "Über die vie de
St. Auban in Bezug auf Quelle," &c. _Rom. St._ iv. 543-626; ed. by
Atkinson, 1876). _The Vision of Tnudgal_, an Anglo-Norman fragment, is
preserved in MS. 312, Trinity College, Dublin; the MS. is of the
14th century; the author seems to belong to the 13th (_La vision de
Tondale_, ed. by Friedel and Kuno Meyer, 1906). In this category we
may add the life of Hugh of Lincoln, 13th century (_Hist. Lit._ xxiii.
436; Child, _The English and Scottish Popular Ballads_, 1888, p. v;
Wolter, _Bibl. Anglo-Norm._, ii. 115). Other lives of saints were
recognized to be Anglo-Norman by Paul Meyer when examining the MSS.
of the Welbeck library (_Rom._ xxxii. 637 and _Hist. Lit._ xxxiii.
338-378).


_Lyric Poetry._--The only extant songs of any importance are the
seventy-one _Ballads_ of Gower (Stengel, _Gower's Minnesang_, 1886).
The remaining songs are mostly of a religious character. Most of them
have been discovered and published by Paul Meyer (_Bulletin de la Soc.
Anc. Textes_, 1889; _Not. et Extr._ xxxiv; _Rom._ xiii. 518, t. xiv.
370; xv. p. 254, &c.). Although so few have come down to us such songs
must have been numerous at one time, owing to the constant intercourse
between English, French and Provençals of all classes. An interesting
passage in _Piers Plowman_ furnishes us with a proof of the extent to
which these songs penetrated into England. We read of:

  "... dykers and deluers that doth here dedes ille,
  And dryuen forth the longe day with 'Deu, vous saue,
  Dame Emme!'"           (Prologue, 223 f.)

One of the finest productions of Anglo-Norman lyric poetry written
in the end of the 13th century, is the _Plainte d'amour_ (Vising,
Göteborg, 1905; _Romania_ xiii. 507, xv. 292 and xxix. 4), and we may
mention, merely as literary curiosities, various works of a lyrical
character written in two languages, Latin and French, or English and
French, or even in three languages, Latin, English and French. In
_Early English Lyrics_ (Oxford, 1907) we have a poem in which a lover
sends to his mistress a love-greeting composed in three languages,
and his learned friend replies in the same style (_De amico ad amicam,
Responcio_, viii and ix).


_Satire_.--The popularity enjoyed by the _Roman de Renart_ and the
Anglo-Norman version of the _Riote du Monde_ (_Z.f. rom. Phil._ viii.
275-289) in England is proof enough that the French spirit of satire
was keenly appreciated. The clergy and the fair sex presented the
most attractive target for the shots of the satirists. However, an
Englishman raised his voice in favour of the ladies in a poem entitled
_La Bonté des dames_ (Meyer, _Rom._ xv. 315-339), and Nicole Bozon,
after having represented "Pride" as a feminine being whom he supposes
to be the daughter of Lucifer, and after having fiercely attacked
the women of his day in the _Char d'Orgueil_ (_Rom._ xiii. 516), also
composed a _Bounté des femmes_ (P. Meyer, op. cit. 33) in which he
covers them with praise, commending their courtesy, their humility,
their openness and the care with which they bring up their children.
A few pieces of political satire show us French and English exchanging
amenities on their mutual shortcomings. The _Roman des Français_, by
André de Coutances, was written on the continent, and cannot be quoted
as Anglo-Norman although it was composed before 1204 (cf. Gaston
Paris: _Trois versions rimées de l'évangile de Nicodème, Soc. Anc.
Textes_, 1885), it is a very spirited reply to French authors who had
attacked the English.


_Dramatic Literature_.--This must have had a considerable influence on
the development of the sacred drama in England, but none of the
French plays acted in England in the 12th and 13th centuries has been
preserved. _Adam_, which is generally considered to be an Anglo-Norman
mystery of the 12th century, was probably written in France at
the beginning of the 13th century (_Romania_ xxxii. 637), and the
so-called Anglo-Norman _Resurrection_ belongs also to continental
French. It is necessary to state that the earliest English moralities
seem to have been imitations of the French ones.


BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Apart from the works already mentioned see generally:
Scheibner, "Über die Herrschaft der frz. Sprache in England"
(Annaberg, Progr. der Königlichen Realschule, 1880, 38 f.); Groeber,
_Grundr. der romanischen Philologie_, ii. iii. (Strassburg, 1902); G.
Paris, _La Litt. fr. au moyen âge_ (1905); _Esquisse historique de
la litt. fr. au moyen âge_ (1907); _La Litt. norm, avani l'annexion
912-1204_ (Paris, 1899); "L'Esprit normand en Angleterre," _La
Poésie au moyen âge_ (2nd series 45-74, Paris, 1906); Thomas Wright,
_Biographia britannica literaria_ (Anglo-Norman period, London, 1846);
Ten Brink, _Geschichte der englischen Litteratur_ (Berlin, 1877, i.
2); J.J. Jusserand, _Hist. litt. du peuple anglais_ (2nd ed. 1895,
vol. i.); W.H. Schofield, _English Literature from the Norman Conquest
to Chaucer_ (London, 1906); Johan Vising, _Franska Sprâket i England_
(Göteborg, 1900, 1901, 1902).

(L. BR.)


[v.02 p.0035]

ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. It is usual to speak of "the Anglo-Saxon
Chronicle"; it would be more correct to say that there are four
Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. It is true that these all grow out of a common
stock, that in some even of their later entries two or more of them
use common materials; but the same may be said of several groups
of medieval chronicles, which no one dreams of treating as single
chronicles. Of this fourfold Chronicle there are seven MSS. in
existence; _C.C.C. Cant._ 173 (A); _Cott. Tib._ A vi. (B); _Cott.
Tib._ B i. (C); _Cott. Tib._ B iv. (D); _Bodl. Laud. Misc._ 636 (E);
_Cott. Domitian_ A viii. (F); _Cott. Otho_ B xi. (G). Of these G is
now a mere fragment, and it is known to have been a transcript of A.
F is bilingual, the entries being given both in Saxon and Latin. It
is interesting as a stage in the transition from the vernacular to
the Latin chronicle; but it has little independent value, being a
mere epitome, made at Canterbury in the 11th or 12th century, of a
chronicle akin to E. B, as far as it goes (to 977), is identical with
C, both having been copied from a common original, but A, C, D, E have
every right to be treated as independent chronicles. The relations
between the four vary very greatly in different parts, and the neglect
of this consideration has led to much error and confusion. The common
stock, out of which all grow, extends to 892. The present writer sees
no reason to doubt that the idea of a national, as opposed to earlier
local chronicles, was inspired by Alfred, who may even have dictated,
or at least revised, the entries relating to his own campaigns; while
for the earlier parts pre-existing materials, both oral and written,
were utilized. Among the latter the chronological epitome appended to
Bede's _Ecclesiastical History_ may be specially mentioned. But even
this common stock exists in two different recensions, in A, B, C, on
the one hand, and D, E on the other. The main points of difference are
that in D, E (1) a series of northern annals have been incorporated;
(2) the Bede entries are taken, not from the brief epitome, but from
the main body of the _Eccl. Hist._ The inference is that, shortly
after the compiling of this Alfredian chronicle, a copy of it was sent
to some northern monastery, probably Ripon, where it was expanded in
the way indicated. Copies of this northernized Chronicle afterwards
found their way to the south. The impulse given by Alfred was
continued under Edward, and we have what may be called an official
continuation of the history of the Danish wars, which, in B, C, D
extends to 915, and in A to 924. After 915 B, C insert as a separate
document a short register of Mercian affairs during the same period
(902-924), which might be called the acts of Æthelflaed, the famous
"Lady of the Mercians," while D has incorporated it, not very
skilfully, with the official continuation. Neither of these documents
exists in E. From 925 to 975 all the chronicles are very fragmentary;
a few obits, three or four poems, among them the famous ballad on
the battle of Brunanburh, make up the meagre tale of their common
materials, which each has tried to supplement in its own way. A has
inserted a number of Winchester entries, which prove that A is a
Winchester book. And this local and scrappy character it retains
to 1001, where it practically ends. At some subsequent time it
was transferred bodily to Canterbury, where it received numerous
interpolations in the earlier part, and a few later local entries
which finally tail off into the Latin acts of Lanfranc. A may
therefore be dismissed. C has added to the common stock one or
two Abingdon entries, with which place the history of C is closely
connected; while D and E have a second group of northern annals
901-966, E being however much more fragmentary than D, omitting, or
not having access to, much both of the common and of the northern
material which is found in D. From 983 to 1018 C, D and E are
practically identical, and give a connected history of the Danish
struggles under Æthelred II. This section was probably composed at
Canterbury. From 1018 the relations of C, D, E become too complicated
to be expressed by any formula; sometimes all three agree together,
sometimes all three are independent; in other places each pair in
turn agree against the third. It may be noted that C is strongly
anti-Godwinist, while E is equally pro-Godwinist, D occupying an
intermediate position. C extends to 1066, where it ends abruptly, and
probably mutilated. D ends at 1079 and is certainly mutilated. In
its later history D is associated with some place in the diocese of
Worcester, probably Evesham. In its present form D is a comparatively
late MS., none of it probably much earlier, and some of it later, than
1100. In the case of entries in the earlier part of the chronicles,
which are peculiar to D, we cannot exclude the possibility that they
may be late interpolations. E is continued to 1154. In its present
form it is unquestionably a Peterborough book. The earlier part is
full of Peterborough interpolations, to which place many of the later
entries also refer. But (apart from the interpolations) it is only the
entries after 1121, where the first hand in the MS. ends, which were
actually composed at Peterborough. The section 1023-1067
certainly, and possibly also the section 1068-1121, was composed at
St. Augustine's, Canterbury; and the former is of extreme interest
and value, the writer being in close contact with the events which he
describes. The later parts of E show a great degeneration in language,
and a querulous tone due to the sufferings of the native population
under the harsh Norman rule; "but our debt to it is inestimable; and
we can hardly measure what the loss to English history would have
been, if it had not been written; or if, having been written, it had,
like so many another English chronicle, been lost."


BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The above account is based on the introduction in vol.
ii. of the Rev. C. Plummer's edition of _Two of the Saxon Chronicles
Parallel_ (Clarendon Press, 1892, 1899); to which the student may
be referred for detailed arguments. The _editio princeps_ of the
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle was by Abraham Wheloc, professor of Arabic at
Cambridge, where the work was printed (1643-1644). It was based mainly
on the MS. called G above, and is the chief source of our knowledge of
that MS. which perished, all but three leaves, in the Cottonian fire
of 1723. Edmund Gibson of Queen's College, Oxford, afterwards bishop
of London, published an edition in 1692. He used Wheloc's edition, and
E, with collations or transcripts of B and F. Both Wheloc and Gibson
give Latin translations. In 1823 appeared an edition by Dr. Ingram, of
Trinity College, Oxford, with an English translation. Besides A, B, E,
F, Ingram used C and D for the first time. But both he and Gibson made
the fatal error of trying to combine the disparate materials contained
in the various chronicles in a single text. An improvement in this
respect is seen in the edition made by Richard Price (d. 1833) for
the first (and only) volume of _Monumenta Historica Britannica_ (folio
1848). There is still, however, too much conflation, and owing to the
plan of the volume, the edition only extends to 1066. A translation is
appended. In 1861 appeared Benjamin Thorpe's six-text edition in the
Rolls Series. Though not free from defects, this edition is absolutely
indispensable for the study of the chronicles and the mutual relations
of the different MSS. A second volume contains the translation. In
1865 the Clarendon Press published _Two Saxon Chronicles (A and E)
Parallel, with supplementary extracts from the others_, by the Rev.
John Earle. This edition has no translation, but in the notes and
introduction a very considerable advance was made. On this edition is
partly based the later edition by the Rev. C. Plummer, already cited
above. In addition to the translations contained in the editions
already mentioned, the following have been issued separately. The
first translation into modern English was by Miss Anna Gurney,
privately printed in 1819. This was largely based on Gibson's edition,
and was in turn the basis of Dr. Giles' translation, published in 1847,
and often reprinted. The best translation is that by the Rev. Joseph
Stevenson, in his series of _Church Historians of England_ (1853). Up
to the Conquest it is a revision of the translation contained in _Mon.
Hist. Brit._ From that point it is an independent translation.

(C. PL.)



ANGLO-SAXON LAW. 1. The body of legal rules and customs which
obtained in England before the Norman conquest constitutes, with
the Scandinavian laws, the most genuine expression of Teutonic legal
thought. While the so-called "barbaric laws" (_leges barbarorum_)
of the continent, not excepting those compiled in the territory now
called Germany, were largely the product of Roman influence, the
continuity of Roman life was almost completely broken in the island,
and even the Church, the direct heir of Roman tradition, did not carry
on a continuous existence: Canterbury was not a see formed in a Roman
province in the same sense as Tours or Reims. One of the striking
expressions of this Teutonism is presented by the language in which
the Anglo-Saxon laws were written. They are uniformly worded in
English, while continental laws, apart from the Scandinavian, are all
in Latin. The English dialect in which the Anglo-Saxon laws have been
handed down to us is in most cases a common speech derived from West
Saxon--naturally enough as Wessex became the predominant English
state, and the court of its kings the principal literary centre from
which most of the compilers and scribes derived their dialect and
spelling. Traces of Kentish speech may be detected, however, in the
_Textus Roffensis_, the MS. of the Kentish laws, and Northumbrian
dialectical peculiarities are also noticeable on some occasions, while
Danish words occur only as technical terms. At the conquest, Latin
takes the place of English in the compilations made to meet the demand
for Anglo-Saxon law texts as still applied in practice.

[v.02 p.0036]

2. It is easy to group the Anglo-Saxon laws according to the manner of
their publication. They would fall into three divisions: (1) laws and
collections of laws promulgated by public authority; (2) statements of
custom; (3) private compilations of legal rules and enactments. To
the first division belong the laws of the Kentish kings, Æthelberht,
Hlothhere and Eadric, Withraed; those of Ine of Wessex, of Alfred,
Edward the Elder, Æthelstan,[1] Edmund, Edgar, Æthelred and Canute;
the treaty between Alfred and Guthrum and the so-called treaty between
Edward and Guthrum. The second division is formed by the convention
between the English and the Welsh _Dunsaetas_, the law of the
Northumbrian priests, the customs of the North people, the fragments
of local custumals entered in Domesday Book. The third division would
consist of the collections of the so-called _Pseudo-leges Canuti_, the
laws of Edward the Confessor, of Henry I., and the great compilation
of the _Quadripartitus_, then of a number of short notices and
extracts like the fragments on the "wedding of a wife," on oaths,
on ordeals, on the king's peace, on rural customs (_Rectitudines
singularum personarum_), the treatises on the reeve (_gerefa_) and on
the judge (_dema_), formulae of oaths, notions as to wergeld, &c. A
fourth group might be made of the charters, as they are based on
Old English private and public law and supply us with most important
materials in regard to it. Looking somewhat deeper at the sources
from which Old English law was derived, we shall have to modify our
classification to some extent, as the external forms of publication,
although important from the point of view of historical criticism, are
not sufficient standards as to the juridical character of the various
kinds of material. Direct statements of law would fall under the
following heads, from the point of view of their legal origins: i.
customary rules followed by divers communities capable of formulating
law; ii. enactments of authorities, especially of kings; iii. private
arrangements made under recognized legal rules. The first would
comprise, besides most of the statements of custom included in the
second division according to the first classification, a great many
of the rules entered in collections promulgated by kings; most of the
paragraphs of Æthelberht's, Hlothhere's, and Eadric's and Ine's
laws, are popular legal customs that have received the stamp of royal
authority by their insertion in official codes. On the other hand,
from Withraed's and Alfred's laws downwards, the element of enactment
by central authority becomes more and more prominent. The kings
endeavour, with the help of secular and clerical witan, to introduce
new rules and to break the power of long-standing customs (e.g. the
precepts about the keeping of holidays, the enactments of Edmund
restricting private vengeance, and the solidarity of kindreds as to
feuds, and the like). There are, however, no outward signs enabling
us to distinguish conclusively between both categories of laws in the
codes, nor is it possible to draw a line between permanent laws and
personal ordinances of single sovereigns, as has been attempted in the
case of Frankish legislation.

[Footnote 1: The _Judicia civitatis Lundoniae_ are a gild statute
confirmed by King Æthelstan.]

3. Even in the course of a general survey of the legal lore at
our disposal, one cannot help being struck by peculiarities in the
distribution of legal subjects. Matters which seem to us of primary
importance and occupy a wide place in our law-books are almost
entirely absent in Anglo-Saxon laws or relegated to the background.
While it is impossible to give here anything like a complete or
exact survey of the field--a task rendered almost impossible by the
arbitrary manner in which paragraphs are divided, by the difficulty
of making Old English enactments fit into modern rubrics, and by the
necessity of counting several times certain paragraphs bearing on
different subjects--a brief statistical analysis of the contents of
royal codes and laws may be found instructive.

We find roughly 419 paragraphs devoted to criminal law and procedure
as against 91 concerned with questions of private law and civil
procedure. Of the criminal law clauses, as many as 238 are taken
up with tariffs of fines, while 80 treat of capital and corporal
punishment, outlawry and confiscation, and 101 include rules of
procedure. On the private law side 18 clauses apply to rights of
property and possession, 13 to succession and family law, 37 to
contracts, including marriage when treated as an act of sale; 18 touch
on civil procedure. A subject which attracted special attention was
the law of status, and no less than 107 paragraphs contain disposition
dictated by the wish to discriminate between the classes of society.
Questions of public law and administration are discussed in 217
clauses, while 197 concern the Church in one way or another, apart
from purely ecclesiastical collections. In the public law division it
is chiefly the power, interests and privileges of the king that are
dealt with, in roughly 93 paragraphs, while local administration comes
in for 39 and purely economic and fiscal matter for 13 clauses. Police
regulations are very much to the fore and occupy no less than 72
clauses of the royal legislation. As to church matters, the most
prolific group is formed by general precepts based on religious and
moral considerations, roughly 115, while secular privileges conferred
on the Church hold about 62, and questions of organization some 20
clauses.

The statistical contrasts are especially sharp and characteristic when
we take into account the chronological sequence in the elaboration of
laws. Practically the entire code of Æthelberht, for instance, is a
tariff of fines for crimes, and the same subject continues to occupy
a great place in the laws of Hlothhere and Eadric, Ine and Alfred,
whereas it appears only occasionally in the treaties with the Danes,
the laws of Withraed, Edward the Elder, Æthelstan, Edgar, Edmund and
Æthelred. It reappears in some strength in the code of Canute, but the
latter is chiefly a recapitulation of former enactments. The system of
"compositions" or fines, paid in many cases with the help of kinsmen,
finds its natural place in the ancient, tribal period of English
history and loses its vitality later on in consequence of the growth
of central power and of the scattering of maegths. Royalty and the
Church, when they acquire the lead in social life, work out a
new penal system based on outlawry, death penalties and corporal
punishments, which make their first appearance in the legislation of
Withraed and culminate in that of Æthelred and Canute.

As regards status, the most elaborate enactments fall into the period
preceding the Danish settlements. After the treaties with the Danes,
the tendency is to simplify distinctions on the lines of an opposition
between twelvehynd-men and twyhynd-men, paving the way towards
the feudal distinction between the free and the unfree. In the
arrangements of the commonwealth the clauses treating of royal
privileges are more or less evenly distributed over all reigns, but
the systematic development of police functions, especially in regard
to responsibility for crimes, the catching of thieves, the suppression
of lawlessness, is mainly the object of 10th and 11th century
legislation. The reign of Æthelred, which witnessed the greatest
national humiliation and the greatest crime in English history, is
also marked by the most lavish expressions of religious feeling and
the most frequent appeals to morality. This sketch would, of course,
have to be modified in many ways if we attempted to treat the
unofficial fragments of customary law in the same way as the
paragraphs of royal codes, and even more so if we were able to
tabulate the indirect evidence as to legal rules. But, imperfect as
such statistics may be, they give us at any rate some insight into the
direction of governmental legislation.

4. The next question to be approached concerns the pedigree of
Anglo-Saxon law and the latter's natural affinities. What is its
position in the legal history of Germanic nations? How far has it been
influenced by non-Germanic elements, especially by Roman and Canon
law? The oldest Anglo-Saxon codes, especially the Kentish and the
West Saxon ones, disclose a close relationship to the barbaric laws
of Lower Germany--those of Saxons, Frisians, Thuringians. We find a
division of social ranks which reminds us of the threefold gradation
of Lower Germany (edelings, frilings, lazzen-eorls, ceorls, laets),
and not of the twofold Frankish one (_ingenui Franci, Romani_), nor
of the minute differentiation of the Upper Germans and Lombards. In
subsequent history there is a good deal of resemblance between the
capitularies' legislation of Charlemagne and his successors on one
hand, the acts of Alfred, Edward the Elder, Æthelstan and Edgar on the
other, a resemblance called forth less by direct borrowing of
Frankish institutions than by the similarity of political problems
and condition. Frankish law becomes a powerful modifying element
in English legal history after the Conquest, when it was introduced
wholesale in royal and in feudal courts. The Scandinavian invasions
brought in many northern legal customs, especially in the districts
thickly populated with Danes. The Domesday survey of Lincolnshire,
Nottinghamshire, Yorkshire, Norfolk, &c., shows remarkable deviations
in local organization and justice (lagmen, sokes), and great
peculiarities as to status (socmen, freemen), while from laws and
a few charters we can perceive some influence on criminal law
(_nidings-vaerk_), special usages as to fines (_lahslit_), the keeping
of peace, attestation and sureties of acts (_faestermen_), &c. But, on
the whole, the introduction of Danish and Norse elements, apart from
local cases, was more important owing to the conflicts and compromises
it called forth and its social results,--than on account of any
distinct trail of Scandinavian views in English law. The Scandinavian
newcomers coalesced easily and quickly with the native population.

[v.02 p.0037]

The direct influence of Roman law was not great during the Saxon
period: we notice neither the transmission of important legal
doctrines, chiefly through the medium of Visigothic codes, nor the
continuous stream of Roman tradition in local usage. But indirectly
Roman law did exert a by no means insignificant influence through the
medium of the Church, which, for all its insular character, was still
permeated with Roman ideas and forms of culture. The Old English
"books" are derived in a roundabout way from Roman models, and the
tribal law of real property was deeply modified by the introduction of
individualistic notions as to ownership, donations, wills, rights of
women, &c. Yet in this respect also the Norman Conquest increased the
store of Roman conceptions by breaking the national isolation of the
English Church and opening the way for closer intercourse with France
and Italy.

5. It would be useless to attempt to trace in a brief sketch
the history of the legal principles embodied in the documents of
Anglo-Saxon law. But it may be of some value to give an outline of a
few particularly characteristic subjects.

(a) The Anglo-Saxon legal system cannot be understood unless one
realizes the fundamental opposition between folk-right and privilege.
Folk-right is the aggregate of rules, formulated or latent but
susceptible of formulation, which can be appealed to as the expression
of the juridical consciousness of the people at large or of the
communities of which it is composed. It is tribal in its origin, and
differentiated, not according to boundaries between states, but on
national and provincial lines. There may be the folk-right of West and
East Saxons, of East Angles, of Kentish men, Mercians, Northumbrians,
Danes, Welshmen, and these main folk-right divisions remain even when
tribal kingdoms disappear and the people is concentrated in one or
two realms. The chief centres for the formulation and application of
folk-right were in the 10th and 11th centuries the shire-moots, while
the witan of the realm generally placed themselves on the higher
ground of State expediency, although occasionally using folk-right
ideas. The older law of real property, of succession, of contracts,
the customary tariffs of fines, were mainly regulated by folk-right;
the reeves employed by the king and great men were supposed to take
care of local and rural affairs according to folk-right. The law had
to be declared and applied by the people itself in its communities,
while the spokesmen of the people were neither democratic majorities
nor individual experts, but a few leading men--the twelve eldest
thanes or some similar quorum. Folk-right could, however, be broken
or modified by special law or special grant, and the fountain of such
privileges was the royal power. Alterations and exceptions were, as
a matter of fact, suggested by the interested parties themselves,
and chiefly by the Church. Thus a privileged land-tenure was
created--bookland; the rules as to the succession of kinsmen were set
at nought by concession of testamentary power and confirmations of
grants and wills; special exemptions from the jurisdiction of the
hundreds and special privileges as to levying fines were conferred.
In process of time the rights originating in royal grants of privilege
overbalanced, as it were, folk-right in many respects, and became
themselves the starting-point of a new legal system--the feudal one.

(b) Another feature of vital importance in the history of Anglo-Saxon
law is its tendency towards the preservation of peace. Society
is constantly struggling to ensure the main condition of its
existence--peace. Already in Æthelberht's legislation we find
characteristic fines inflicted for breach of the peace of householders
of different ranks--the ceorl, the eorl, and the king himself
appearing as the most exalted among them. Peace is considered not so
much a state of equilibrium and friendly relations between parties,
but rather as the rule of a third within a certain region--a house,
an estate, a kingdom. This leads on one side to the recognition of
private authorities--the father's in his family, the master's as to
servants, the lord's as to his personal or territorial dependents.
On the other hand, the tendency to maintain peace naturally takes
its course towards the strongest ruler, the king, and we witness in
Anglo-Saxon law the gradual evolution of more and more stringent and
complete rules in respect of the king's peace and its infringements.

(c) The more ancient documents of Anglo-Saxon law show us the
individual not merely as the subject and citizen of a certain
commonwealth, but also as a member of some group, all the fellows
of which are closely allied in claims and responsibilities. The most
elementary of these groups is the _maegth_, the association of agnatic
and cognatic relations. Personal protection and revenge, oaths,
marriage, wardship, succession, supervision over settlement, and good
behaviour, are regulated by the law of kinship. A man's actions are
considered not as exertions of his individual will, but as acts of the
kindred, and all the fellows of the maegth are held responsible for
them. What began as a natural alliance was used later as a means of
enforcing responsibility and keeping lawless individuals in
order. When the association of kinsmen failed, the voluntary
associations--guilds--appeared as substitutes. The gild brothers
associated in mutual defence and support, and they had to share in
the payment of fines. The township and the hundred came also in for
certain forms of collective responsibility, because they presented
groups of people associated in their economic and legal interests.

(d) In course of time the natural associations get loosened and
intermixed, and this calls forth the elaborate police legislation of
the later Anglo-Saxon kings. Regulations are issued about the sale of
cattle in the presence of witnesses. Enactments about the pursuit
of thieves, and the calling in of warrantors to justify sales of
chattels, are other expressions of the difficulties attending peaceful
intercourse. Personal surety appears as a complement of and substitute
for collective responsibility. The _hlaford_ and his _hiredmen_ are
an institution not only of private patronage, but also of police
supervision for the sake of laying hands on malefactors and suspected
persons. The _landrica_ assumes the same part in a territorial
district. Ultimately the laws of the 10th and 11th centuries show
the beginnings of the frankpledge associations, which came to act so
important a part in the local police and administration of the feudal
age.

The points mentioned are not many, but, apart from their intrinsic
importance in any system of law, they are, as it were, made prominent
by the documents themselves, as they are constantly referred to in the
latter.


BIBLIOGRAPHY.--_Editions_: Liebermann, _Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen_
(1903, 1906) is indispensable, and leaves nothing to be desired as
to the constitution of the texts. The translations and notes are,
of course, to be considered in the light of an instructive, but not
final, commentary. R. Schmid, _Gesetze der Angelsachsen_ (2nd ed.,
Leipzig, 1858) is still valuable on account of its handiness and the
fulness of its glossary. B. Thorpe, _Ancient Laws and Institutes of
England_ (1840) is not very trustworthy. _Domesday Book_, i. ii. (Rec.
Comm.); _Codex Diplomaticus Aevi Saxonici_, i.-vi. ed. J.M. Kemble
(1839-1848); _Cartularium Saxonicum_ (up to 940), ed. W. de Gray
Birch (1885-1893); J. Earle, _Land Charters_ (Oxford, 1888); Thorpe,
_Diplomatarium Anglicanum; Facsimiles of Ancient Charters_, edited
by the Ordnance Survey and by the British Museum; Haddan and Stubbs,
_Councils of Great Britain_, i.-iii. (Oxford, 1869-1878).

[v.02 p.0038]

_Modern works_.--Konrad Maurer, _Über Angelsachsische
Rechtsverhaltnisse, Kritische Ueberschau_ (Munich, 1853 ff.), still
the best account of the history of Anglo-Saxon law; _Essays on
Anglo-Saxon Law_, by H. Adams, H.C. Lodge, J.L. Laughlin and E. Young
(1876); J.M. Kemble, _Saxons in England_; F. Palgrave, _History of the
English Commonwealth_; Stubbs, _Constitutional History of England_,
i.; Pollock and Maitland, _History of English Law_, i.; H. Brunner,
_Zur Rechtsgeschichte der romisch-germanischen Urkunde_ (1880); Sir
F. Pollock, _The King's Peace_ (Oxford Lectures); F. Seebohm; _The
English Village Community_; Ibid. _Tribal Custom in Anglo-Saxon Law_;
Marquardsen, _Haft und Burgschaft im Angelsachsischen Recht_;
Jastrow, "Über die Strafrechtliche Stellung der Sklaven," Gierke's
_Untersuchungen_, i.; Steenstrup, _Normannerne_, iv.; F.W. Maitland,
_Domesday and Beyond_ (Cambridge, 1897); H.M. Chadwick, _Studies on
Anglo-Saxon Institutions_ (1905); P. Vinogradoff, "Folcland" in
the _English Historical Review_, 1893; "Romanistische Einflusse im
Angelsächsischen Recht: Das Buchland" in the _Mélanges Fitting_, 1907;
"The Transfer of Land in Old English Law" in the _Harvard Law Review_,
1907.

(P. Vi.)



ANGLO-SAXONS. The term "Anglo-Saxon" is commonly applied to that
period of English history, language and literature which preceded the
Norman Conquest. It goes back to the time of King Alfred, who seems
to have frequently used the title _rex Anglorum Saxonum_ or _rex
Angul-Saxonum_. The origin of this title is not quite clear. It is
generally believed to have arisen from the final union of the various
kingdoms under Alfred in 886. Bede (_Hist. Eccl._ i. 15) states
that the people of the more northern kingdoms (East Anglia, Mercia,
Northumbria, &c.) belonged to the Angli, while those of Essex, Sussex
and Wessex were sprung from the Saxons (_q.v._), and those of Kent
and southern Hampshire from the Jutes (_q.v._). Other early writers,
however, do not observe these distinctions, and neither in language
nor in custom do we find evidence of any appreciable differences
between the two former groups, though in custom Kent presents most
remarkable contrasts with the other kingdoms. Still more curious is
the fact that West Saxon writers regularly speak of their own nation
as a part of the _Angelcyn_ and of their language as _Englisc_, while
the West Saxon royal family claimed to be of the same stock as that
of Bernicia. On the other hand, it is by no means impossible that the
distinction drawn by Bede was based solely on the names Essex (East
Seaxan), East Anglia, &c. We need not doubt that the Angli and the
Saxons were different nations originally; but from the evidence at our
disposal it seems likely that they had practically coalesced in very
early times, perhaps even before the invasion. At all events the term
_Angli Saxones_ seems to have first come into use on the continent,
where we find it, nearly a century before Alfred's time, in the
writings of Paulus Diaconus (Paul the Deacon). There can be little
doubt, however, that there it was used to distinguish the Teutonic
inhabitants of Britain from the Old Saxons of the continent.

See W.H. Stevenson, _Asser's Life of King Alfred_ (Oxford, 1904,
pp. 148 ff.); H. Munro Chadwick, _The Origin of the English Nation_
(Cambridge, 1907); also BRITAIN, _Anglo-Saxon_.

(H.M.C.)



ANGOLA, the general name of the Portuguese possessions on the west
coast of Africa south of the equator. With the exception of the
enclave of Kabinda (_q.v._) the province lies wholly south of the
river Congo. Bounded on the W. by the Atlantic Ocean, it extends along
the coast from the southern bank of the Congo (6° S., 12° E.) to the
mouth of the Kunene river (17° 18' S., 11° 50' E.). The coast-line is
some 900 m. long. On the north the Congo forms for 80 m. the boundary
separating Angola from the Congo Free State. The frontier thence
(in 5° 52' S.) goes due east to the Kwango river. The eastern
boundary--dividing the Portuguese possessions from the Congo State and
Barotseland (N.W. Rhodesia)--is a highly irregular line. On the south
Angola borders German South-West Africa, the frontier being drawn
somewhat S. of the 17th degree of S. latitude. The area of the
province is about 480,000 sq. m. The population is estimated (1906) at
4,119,000.

The name Angola (a Portuguese corruption of the Bantu word _Ngola_)
is sometimes confined to the 105 m. of coast, with its hinterland,
between the mouths of the rivers Dande and Kwanza, forming the central
portion of the Portuguese dominions in West Africa; in a looser manner
Angola is used to designate all the western coast of Africa south
of the Congo in the possession of Portugal; but the name is now
officially applied to the whole of the province. Angola is divided
into five districts: four on the coast, the fifth, Lunda, wholly
inland, being the N.E. part of the province. Lunda is part of the
old Bantu kingdom of Muata Yanvo, divided by international agreement
between Portugal and the Congo Free State.

The coast divisions of Angola are Congo on the N. (from the river
Congo to the river Loje), corresponding roughly with the limits of
the "kingdom of Congo" (see _History_ below); Loanda, which includes
Angola in the most restricted sense mentioned above; Benguella
and Mossamedes to the south. Mossamedes is again divided into two
portions--the coast region and the hinterland, known as Huilla.


_Physical Features_.--The coast is for the most part flat, with
occasional low cliffs and bluffs of red sandstone. There is but one
deep inlet of the sea--Great Fish Bay (or Bahia dos Tigres), a little
north of the Portuguese-German frontier. Farther north are Port
Alexander, Little Fish Bay and Lobito Bay, while shallower bays are
numerous. Lobito Bay has water sufficient to allow large ships to
unload close inshore. The coast plain extends inland for a distance
varying from 30 to 100 m. This region is in general sparsely watered
and somewhat sterile. The approach to the great central plateau of
Africa is marked by a series of irregular terraces. This intermediate
mountain belt is covered with luxuriant vegetation. Water is fairly
abundant, though in the dry season obtainable only by digging in the
sandy beds of the rivers. The plateau has an altitude ranging from
4000 to 6000 ft. It consists of well-watered, wide, rolling plains,
and low hills with scanty vegetation. In the east the tableland falls
away to the basins of the Congo and Zambezi, to the south it merges
into a barren sandy desert. A large number of rivers make their way
westward to the sea; they rise, mostly, in the mountain belt, and are
unimportant, the only two of any size being the Kwanza and the Kunene,
separately noticed. The mountain chains which form the edge of the
plateau, or diversify its surface, run generally parallel to the
coast, as Tala Mugongo (4400 ft.), Chella and Vissecua (5250 ft. to
6500 ft.). In the district of Benguella are the highest points of the
province, viz. Loviti (7780 ft.), in 12° 5' S., and Mt. Elonga (7550
ft.). South of the Kwanza is the volcanic mountain Caculo-Cabaza (3300
ft.). From the tableland the Kwango and many other streams flow north
to join the Kasai (one of the largest affluents of the Congo), which
in its upper course forms for fully 300 m. the boundary between Angola
and the Congo State. In the south-east part of the province the rivers
belong either to the Zambezi system, or, like the Okavango, drain to
Lake Ngami.


_Geology_.--The rock formations of Angola are met with in three
distinct regions: (1) the littoral zone, (2) the median zone formed
by a series of hills more or less parallel with the coast, (3) the
central plateau. The central plateau consists of ancient crystalline
rocks with granites overlain by unfossiliferous sandstones and
conglomerates considered to be of Palaeozoic age. The outcrops are
largely hidden under laterite. The median zone is composed largely of
crystalline rocks with granites and some Palaeozoic unfossiliferous
rocks. The littoral zone contains the only fossiliferous strata. These
are of Tertiary and Cretaceous ages, the latter rocks resting on a
reddish sandstone of older date. The Cretaceous rocks of the Dombe
Grande region (near Benguella) are of Albian age and belong to the
_Acanthoceras mamillari_ zone. The beds containing _Schloenbachia
inflata_ are referable to the Gault. Rocks of Tertiary age are met
with at Dombe Grande, Mossamedes and near Loanda. The sandstones with
gypsum, copper and sulphur of Dombe are doubtfully considered to be
of Triassic age. Recent eruptive rocks, mainly basalts, form a line
of hills almost bare of vegetation between Benguella and Mossamedes.
Nepheline basalts and liparites occur at Dombe Grande. The presence
of gum copal in considerable quantities in the superficial rocks is
characteristic of certain regions.

[v.02 p.0039]

_Climate._--With the exception of the district of Mossamedes, the
coast plains are unsuited to Europeans. In the interior, above 3300
ft., the temperature and rainfall, together with malaria, decrease.
The plateau climate is healthy and invigorating. The mean annual
temperature at Sao Salvador do Congo is 72.5° F.; at Loanda, 74.3°;
and at Caconda, 67.2°. The climate is greatly influenced by the
prevailing winds, which arc W., S.W. and S.S.W. Two seasons are
distinguished--the cool, from June to September; and the rainy,
from October to May. The heaviest rainfall occurs in April, and is
accompanied by violent storms.


_Flora and Fauna._--Both flora and fauna are those characteristic of
the greater part of tropical Africa. As far south as Benguella the
coast region is rich in oil-palms and mangroves. In the northern part
of the province are dense forests. In the south towards the Kunene are
regions of dense thorn scrub. Rubber vines and trees are abundant, but
in some districts their number has been considerably reduced by the
ruthless methods adopted by native collectors of rubber. The species
most common are various root rubbers, notably the _Carpodinus
chylorrhiza._ This species and other varieties of carpodinus are very
widely distributed. Landolphias are also found. The coffee, cotton and
Guinea pepper plants are indigenous, and the tobacco plant flourishes
in several districts. Among the trees are several which yield
excellent timber, such as the tacula (_Pterocarpus tinctorius_), which
grows to an immense size, its wood being blood-red in colour, and the
Angola mahogany. The bark of the musuemba (_Albizzia coriaria_) is
largely used in the tanning of leather. The mulundo bears a fruit
about the size of a cricket ball covered with a hard green shell and
containing scarlet pips like a pomegranate. The fauna includes the
lion, leopard, cheetah, elephant, giraffe, rhinoceros, hippopotamus,
buffalo, zebra, kudu and many other kinds of antelope, wild pig,
ostrich and crocodile. Among fish are the barbel, bream and African
yellow fish.


_Inhabitants._--The great majority of the inhabitants are of
Bantu-Negro stock with some admixture in the Congo district with the
pure negro type. In the south-east are various tribes of Bushmen. The
best-known of the Bantu-Negro tribes are the Ba-Kongo (Ba-Fiot), who
dwell chiefly in the north, and the Abunda (Mbunda, Ba-Bundo), who
occupy the central part of the province, which takes its name from the
Ngola tribe of Abunda. Another of these tribes, the Bangala, living
on the west bank of the upper Kwango, must not be confounded with the
Bangala of the middle Congo. In the Abunda is a considerable strain of
Portuguese blood. The Ba-Lunda inhabit the Lunda district. Along the
upper Kunene and in other districts of the plateau are settlements of
Boers, the Boer population being about 2000. In the coast towns the
majority of the white inhabitants are Portuguese. The Mushi-Kongo
and other divisions of the Ba-Kongo retain curious traces of the
Christianity professed by them in the 16th and 17th centuries and
possibly later. Crucifixes are used as potent fetish charms or as
symbols of power passing down from chief to chief; whilst every native
has a "Santu" or Christian name and is dubbed dom or dona.
Fetishism is the prevailing religion throughout the province. The
dwelling-places of the natives are usually small huts of the simplest
construction, used chiefly as sleeping apartments; the day is spent in
an open space in front of the hut protected from the sun by a roof of
palm or other leaves.


_Chief Towns._--The chief towns are Sao Paulo de Loanda, the capital,
Kabinda, Benguella and Mossamedes (_q.v._). Lobito, a little north of
Benguella, is a town which dates from 1905 and owes its existence to
the bay of the same name having been chosen as the sea terminus of a
railway to the far interior. Noki is on the southern bank of the Congo
at the head of navigation from the sea, and close to the Congo Free
State frontier. It is available for ships of large tonnage, and
through it passes the Portuguese portion of the trade of the lower
Congo. Ambriz--the only seaport of consequence in the Congo district
of the province--is at the mouth of the Loje river, about 70 m. N.
of Loanda. Novo Redondo and Egito are small ports between Loanda and
Benguella. Port Alexander is in the district of Mossamedes and S. of
the town of that name.

In the interior Humpata, about 95 m. from Mossamedes, is the chief
centre of the Boer settlers; otherwise there are none but native towns
containing from 1000 to 3000 inhabitants and often enclosed by a ring
of sycamore trees. Ambaca and Malanje are the chief places in the
fertile agricultural district of the middle Kwanza, S.E. of Loanda,
with which they are in railway communication. Sao Salvador (pop. 1500)
is the name given by the Portuguese to Bonza Congo, the chief town
of the "kingdom of Congo." It stands 1840 ft. above sea-level and is
about 160 m. inland and 100 S.E. of the river port of Noki, in 6°
15' S. Of the cathedral and other stone buildings erected in the 16th
century, there exist but scanty ruins. The city walls were destroyed
in the closing years of the 19th century and the stone used to build
government offices. There is a fort, built about 1850, and a small
military force is at the disposal of the Portuguese resident. Bembe
and Encoje are smaller towns in the Congo district south of Sao
Salvador. Bihe, the capital of the plateau district of the same
name forming the hinterland of Benguella, is a large caravan centre.
Kangomba, the residence of the king of Bihe, is a large town. Caconda
is in the hill country S.E. of Benguella.


_Agriculture and Trade._--Angola is rich in both agricultural and
mineral resources. Amongst the cultivated products are mealies and
manioc, the sugar-cane and cotton, coffee and tobacco plants. The
chief exports are coffee, rubber, wax, palm kernels and palm-oil,
cattle and hides and dried or salt fish. Gold dust, cotton, ivory and
gum are also exported. The chief imports are food-stuffs, cotton and
woollen goods and hardware. Considerable quantities of coal come
from South Wales. Oxen, introduced from Europe and from South Africa,
flourish. There are sugar factories, where rum is also distilled and a
few other manufactures, but the prosperity of the province depends
on the "jungle" products obtained through the natives and from the
plantations owned by Portuguese and worked by indentured labour, the
labourers being generally "recruited" from the far interior. The trade
of the province, which had grown from about £800,000 in 1870 to
about £3,000,000 in 1905, is largely with Portugal and in Portuguese
bottoms. Between 1893 and 1904 the percentage of Portuguese as
compared with foreign goods entering the province increased from 43 to
201%, a result due to the preferential duties in force.

The minerals found include thick beds of copper at Bembe, and deposits
on the M'Brije and the Cuvo and in various places in the southern
part of the province; iron at Ociras (on the Lucalla affluent of the
Kwanza) and in Bailundo; petroleum and asphalt in Dande and Quinzao;
gold in Lombije and Cassinga; and mineral salt in Quissama. The native
blacksmiths are held in great repute.


_Communications._--There is a regular steamship communication between
Portugal, England and Germany, and Loanda, which port is within
sixteen days' steam of Lisbon. There is also a regular service between
Cape Town, Lobito and Lisbon and Southampton. The Portuguese line is
subsidized by the government. The railway from Loanda to Ambaca and
Malanje is known as the Royal Trans-African railway. It is of metre
gauge, was begun in 1887 and is some 300 m. long. It was intended to
carry the line across the continent to Mozambique, but when the line
reached Ambaca (225 m.) in 1894 that scheme was abandoned. The railway
had created a record in being the most expensive built in tropical
Africa--£8942 per mile. A railway from Lobito Bay, 25 m.N. of
Benguella, begun in 1904, runs towards the Congo-Rhodesia frontier. It
is of standard African gauge (3 ft. 6 in.) and is worked by an English
company. It is intended to serve the Katanga copper mines. Besides
these two main railways, there are other short lines linking the
seaports to their hinterland. Apart from the railways, communication
is by ancient caravan routes and by ox-wagon tracks in the southern
district. Riding-oxen are also used. The province is well supplied
with telegraphic communication and is connected with Europe by
submarine cables.

[v.02 p.0040]

_Government and Revenue._--The administration of the province is
carried on under a governor-general, resident at Loanda, who acts
under the direction of the ministry of the colonies at Lisbon. At the
head of each district is a local governor. Legislative powers, save
those delegated to the governor-general, are exercised by the home
government. Revenue is raised chiefly from customs, excise duties
and direct taxation. The revenue (in 1904-1905 about £350,000)
is generally insufficient to meet expenditure (in 1904-1905 over
£490,000)--the balance being met by a grant from the mother country.
Part of the extra expenditure is, however, on railways and other
reproductive works.


_History._--The Portuguese established themselves on the west coast
of Africa towards the close of the 15th century. The river Congo was
discovered by Diogo Cam or Cao in 1482. He erected a stone pillar at
the mouth of the river, which accordingly took the title of Rio de
Padrao, and established friendly relations with the natives, who
reported that the country was subject to a great monarch, Mwani Congo
or lord of Congo, resident at Bonza Congo. The Portuguese were not
long in making themselves influential in the country. Gonçalo de Sousa
was despatched on a formal embassy in 1490; and the first missionaries
entered the country in his train. The king was soon afterwards
baptized and Christianity was nominally established as the national
religion. In 1534 a cathedral was founded at Bonza Congo (renamed Sao
Salvador), and in 1560 the Jesuits arrived with Paulo Diaz de Novaes.
Of the prosperity of the country the Portuguese have left the most
glowing and indeed incredible accounts. It was, however, about this
time ravaged by cannibal invaders (Bangala) from the interior,
and Portuguese influence gradually declined. The attention of the
Portuguese was, moreover, now turned more particularly to the southern
districts of Angola. In 1627 the bishop's seat was removed to Sao
Paulo de Loanda and Sao Salvador declined in importance. In the 18th
century, in spite of hindrances from Holland and France, steps were
taken towards re-establishing Portuguese authority in the northern
regions; in 1758 a settlement was formed at Encoje; from 1784 to 1789
the Portuguese carried on a war against the natives of Mussolo (the
district immediately south of Ambriz); in 1791 they built a fort at
Quincollo on the Loje, and for a time they worked the mines of
Bembe. Until, however, the "scramble for Africa" began in 1884, they
possessed no fort or settlement on the coast to the north of Ambriz,
which was first occupied in 1855. At Sao Salvador, however, the
Portuguese continued to exercise influence. The last of the native
princes who had real authority was a potentate known as Dom Pedro
V. He was placed on the throne in 1855 with the help of a Portuguese
force, and reigned over thirty years. In 1888 a Portuguese resident
was stationed at Salvador, and the kings of Congo became pensioners of
the government.

Angola proper, and the whole coast-line of what now constitutes the
province of that name, was discovered by Diogo Cam during 1482 and
the three following years. The first governor sent to Angola was Paulo
Diaz, a grandson of Bartholomew Diaz, who reduced to submission the
region south of the Kwanza nearly as far as Benguella. The city of
Loanda was founded in 1576, Benguella in 1617. From that date the
sovereignty of Portugal over the coast-line, from its present southern
limit as far north as Ambriz (7° 50' S.) has been undisputed save
between 1640 and 1648, during which time the Dutch attempted to expel
the Portuguese and held possession of the ports. Whilst the economic
development of the country was not entirely neglected and many useful
food products were introduced, the prosperity of the province was
very largely dependent on the slave trade with Brazil, which was not
legally abolished until 1830 and in fact continued for many years
subsequently.

In 1884 Great Britain, which up to that time had steadily refused
to acknowledge that Portugal possessed territorial rights north of
Ambriz, concluded a treaty recognizing Portuguese sovereignty over
both banks of the lower Congo; but the treaty, meeting with opposition
in England and Germany, was not ratified. Agreements concluded with
the Congo Free State, Germany and France in 1885-1886 (modified in
details by subsequent arrangements) fixed the limits of the province,
except in the S.E., where the frontier between Barotseland (N.W.
Rhodesia) and Angola was determined by an Anglo-Portuguese agreement
of 1891 and the arbitration award of the king of Italy in 1905 (see
AFRICA: _History)_. Up to the end of the 19th century the hold of
Portugal over the interior of the province was slight, though its
influence extended to the Congo and Zambezi basins. The abolition of
the external slave trade proved very injurious to the trade of the
seaports, but from 1860 onward the agricultural resources of the
country were developed with increasing energy, a work in which
Brazilian merchants took the lead. After the definite partition of
Africa among the European powers, Portugal applied herself with some
seriousness to exploit Angola and her other African possessions.
Nevertheless, in comparison with its natural wealth the development
of the country has been slow. Slavery and the slave trade continued
to flourish in the interior in the early years of the 20th century,
despite the prohibitions of the Portuguese government. The extension
of authority over the inland tribes proceeded very slowly and was not
accomplished without occasional reverses. Thus in September 1904 a
Portuguese column lost over 300 men killed, including 114 Europeans,
in an encounter with the Kunahamas on the Kunene, not far from the
German frontier. The Kunahamas are a wild, raiding tribe and
were probably largely influenced by the revolt of their southern
neighbours, the Hereros, against the Germans. In 1905 and again in
1907 there was renewed fighting in the same region.


_AUTHORITIES._--E. de Vasconcellos, _As Colonias Portuguesas_ (Lisbon,
1896-1897); J.J. Monteiro, _Angola and the River Congo_ (2 vols.
London, 1875); Viscount de Paiva Manso, _Historia do Congo....
(Documentos_) (Lisbon, 1877); _A Report of the Kingdom of Congo_
(London, 1881), an English translation, with notes by Margarite
Hutchinson, of Filippo Pigafetta's _Relatione del Reame di Congo_
(Rome, 1591), a book founded on the statements and writings of
Duarte Lopez; Rev. Thos. Lewis, "The Ancient Kingdom of Kongo" in
_Geographical Journal,_ vol. xix. and vol. xxxi. (London, 1902 and
1908); _The Strange Adventures of Andrew Battell of Leigh in Angola
and the Adjoining Regions_ (London, 1901), a volume of the Hakluyt
Society, edited by E.G. Ravenstein, who gives in appendices the
history of the country from its discovery to the end of the 17th
century; J.C. Feo Cardozo, _Memorias contendo ... a historia dos
governadores e capitaens generaes de Angola, desde 1575 até 1825_
(Paris, 1825); H.W. Nevinson, _A Modern Slavery_ (London, 1906), an
examination of the system of indentured labour and its recruitment;
_Ornithologie d'Angola_, by J.V. Barboza du Bocage (Lisbon, 1881);
"Géologie des Colonies portugaises en Afrique," by P. Choffat, in
_Com. d. service géol. du Portugal._ See also the annual reports on
the _Trade of Angola,_ issued by the British Foreign Office.



ANGORA, or ENGURI. (1) A city of Turkey (anc. _Ancyra)_ in Asia,
capital of the vilayet of the same name, situated upon a steep, rocky
hill, which rises 500 ft. above the plain, on the left bank of the
Enguri Su, a tributary of the Sakaria (Sangarius), about 220 m.
E.S.E. of Constantinople. The hill is crowned by the ruins of the old
citadel, which add to the picturesqueness of the view; but the town
is not well built, its streets being narrow and many of its houses
constructed of sun-dried mud bricks; there are, however, many
fine remains of Graeco-Roman and Byzantine architecture, the most
remarkable being the temple of Rome and Augustus, on the walls of
which is the famous _Monumentum Ancyranum_ (see ANCYRA). Ancyra was
the centre of the Tectosages, one of the three Gaulish tribes which
settled in Galatia in the 3rd century B.C., and became the capital of
the Roman province of Galatia when it was formally constituted in
25 B.C. During the Byzantine period, throughout which it occupied a
position of great importance, it was captured by Persians and Arabs;
then it fell into the hands of the Seljuk Turks, was held for eighteen
years by the Latin Crusaders, and finally passed to the Ottoman Turks
in 1360. In 1402 a great battle was fought in the vicinity of Angora,
in which the Turkish sultan Bayezid was defeated and made prisoner by
the Tatar conqueror Timur. In 1415 it was recovered by the Turks under
Mahommed I., and since that period has belonged to the Ottoman empire.
In 1832 it was taken by the Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasha. Angora is
connected with Constantinople by railway, and exports wool, mohair,
grain and yellow berries. Mohair cloth is manufactured, and the town
is noted for its honey and fruit. From 1639 to 1768 there was an
agency of the Levant Company here; there is now a British consul.
Pop. estimated at 28,000 (Moslems, 18,000; Christians, largely Roman
Catholic Armenians, about 9400; Jews, 400).

[v.02 p.0041]

(2) A Turkish vilayet in north-central Asia Minor, which includes most
of the ancient Galatia. It is an agricultural country, depending for
its prosperity on its grain, wool (average annual export, 4,400,000
ft), and the mohair obtained from the beautiful Angora goats (average
annual clip, 3,300,000 lb). The fineness of the hair may perhaps be
ascribed to some peculiarity in the atmosphere, for it is remarkable
that the cats, dogs and other animals of the country are to a certain
extent affected in the same way, and that they all lose much of their
distinctive beauty when taken from their native districts. The only
important industry is carpet-weaving at Kir-sheher and Kaisarieh.
There are mines of silver, copper, lignite and salt, and many hot
springs, including some of great repute medicinally. Average annual
exports 1896-1898, £920,762; imports, £411,836. Pop. about 900,000
(Moslems, 765,000 to 800,000, the rest being Christians, with a few
hundred Jews).

(J.G.C.A.)

See C. Ritter, _Erdkunde van Asien_ (vol. xviii., 1837-1839); V.
Cuinet, _La Turquie d'Asie_, t, i. (1891); Murray's _Handbook to Asia
Minor_ (1895); and other works mentioned under ANCYRA.



ANGOULÊME, CHARLES DE VALOIS, DUKE OF (1573-1650), the natural son of
Charles IX. of France and Marie Touchet, was born on the 28th of April
1573, at the castle of Fayet in Dauphiné. His father dying in the
following year, commended him to the care and favour of his brother
and successor, Henry III., who faithfully fulfilled the charge. His
mother married François de Balzac, marquis d'Entragues, and one of her
daughters, Henriette, marchioness of Verneuil, afterwards became the
mistress of Henry IV. Charles of Valois, was carefully educated, and
was destined for the order of Malta. At the early age of sixteen he
attained one of the highest dignities of the order, being made grand
prior of France. Shortly after he came into possession of large
estates left by Catherine de' Medici, from one of which he took his
title of count of Auvergne. In 1591 he obtained a dispensation from
the vows of the order of Malta, and married Charlotte, daughter of
Henry, Marshal d'Amville, afterwards duke of Montmorency. In 1589
Henry III. was assassinated, but on his deathbed he commended Charles
to the good-will of his successor Henry IV. By that monarch he was
made colonel of horse, and in that capacity served in the campaigns
during the early part of the reign. But the connexion between the king
and the marchioness of Verneuil appears to have been very displeasing
to Auvergne, and in 1601 he engaged in the conspiracy formed by the
dukes of Savoy, Biron and Bouillon, one of the objects of which was
to force Henry to repudiate his wife and marry the marchioness. The
conspiracy was discovered; Biron and Auvergne were arrested and Biron
was executed. Auvergne after a few months' imprisonment was released,
chiefly through the influence of his half-sister, his aunt, the
duchess of Angouleme and his father-in-law. He then entered into
fresh intrigues with the court of Spain, acting in concert with
the marchioness of Verneuil and her father d'Entragues. In 1604
d'Entragues and he were arrested and condemned to death; at the same
time the marchioness was condemned to perpetual imprisonment in a
convent. She easily obtained pardon, and the sentence of death against
the other two was commuted into perpetual imprisonment. Auvergne
remained in the Bastille for eleven years, from 1605 to 1616. A decree
of the parlement (1606), obtained by Marguerite de Valois, deprived
him of nearly all his possessions, including Auvergne, though he still
retained the title. In 1616 he was released, was restored to his
rank of colonel-general of horse, and despatched against one of the
disaffected nobles, the duke of Longueville, who had taken Péronne.
Next year he commanded the forces collected in the Île de France, and
obtained some successes. In 1619 he received by bequest, ratified in
1620 by royal grant, the duchy of Angoulême. Soon after he was engaged
on an important embassy to Germany, the result of which was the
treaty of Ulm, signed July 1620. In 1627 he commanded the large forces
assembled at the siege of La Rochelle; and some years after in 1635,
during the Thirty Years' War, he was general of the French army in
Lorraine. In 1636 he was made lieutenant-general of the army. He
appears to have retired from public life shortly after the death of
Richelieu in 1643. His first wife died in 1636, and in 1644 he married
Francoise de Narbonne, daughter of Charles, baron of Mareuil. She had
no children and survived her husband until 1713. Angouleme himself
died on the 24th of September 1650. By his first wife he had three
children: Henri, who became insane; Louis Emmanuel, who succeeded his
father as duke of Angoulême and was colonel-general of light cavalry
and governor of Provence; and Françoise, who died in 1622.

The duke was the author of the following works:--(i)_Mémoires_, from
the assassination of Henri III. to the battle of Arques (1589-1593)
published at Paris by Boneau, and reprinted by Buchon in his _Choix de
chroniques_ (1836) and by Petitot in his _Mémoires_ (1st series, vol.
xliv.); (2) _Les Harangues, prononcés en assemblée de MM. les princes
protestants d'Allemagne_, par Monseigneur le duc d' Angoulême (1620);
(3) a translation of a Spanish work by Diego de Torres. To him has
also been ascribed the work, _La générale et fidèle Rélation de tout
ce qui s'est passé en l'isle de Ré, envoyée par le roi à la royne sa
mère_ (Paris, 1627).



ANGOULÊME, a city of south-western France, capital of the department
of Charente, 83 m. N.N.E. of Bordeaux on the railway between Bordeaux
and Poitiers. Pop. (1906) 30,040. The town proper occupies an elevated
promontory, washed on the north by the Charente and on the south
and west by the Anguienne, a small tributary of that river. The more
important of the suburbs lie towards the east, where the promontory
joins the main plateau, of which it forms the north-western extremity.

The main line of the Orleans railway passes through a tunnel beneath
the town. In place of its ancient fortifications Angoulême is
encircled by boulevards known as the _Remparts_, from which fine views
may be obtained in all directions. Within the town the streets are
often dark and narrow, and, apart from the cathedral and the hôtel
de ville, the architecture is of little interest. The cathedral of
St. Pierre (see CATHEDRAL), a church in the Byzantine-Romanesque style,
dates from the 11th and 12th centuries, but has undergone frequent
restoration, and was partly rebuilt in the latter half of the igth
century by the architect Paul Abadie. The façade, flanked by two
towers with cupolas, is decorated with arcades filled in with statuary
and sculpture, the whole representing the Last Judgment. The crossing
is surmounted by a dome, and the extremity of the north transept by
a fine square tower over 160 ft. high. The hôtel de ville, also by
Abadie, is a handsome modern structure, but preserves two towers of
the chateau of the counts of Angoulême, on the site of which it is
built. It contains museums of paintings and archaeology. Angoulême is
the seat of a bishop, a prefect, and a court of assizes. Its public
institutions include tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a
council of trade-arbitrators, a chamber of commerce and a branch of
the Bank of France. It also has a lycée, training-colleges, a school
of artillery, a library and several learned societies. It is a centre
of the paper-making industry, with which the town has been connected
since the 14th century. Most of the mills are situated on the banks
of the watercourses in the neighbourhood of the town. The subsidiary
industries, such as the manufacture of machinery and wire fabric,
are of considerable importance. Iron and copper founding, brewing,
tanning, and the manufacture of gunpowder, confectionery, heavy iron
goods, gloves, boots and shoes and cotton goods are also carried on.
Commerce is carried on in wine, brandy and building-stone.

Angoulême (_Iculisma_) was taken by Clovis from the Visigoths in
507, and plundered by the Normans in the 9th century. In 1360 it
was surrendered by the peace of Bretigny to the English; they were,
however, expelled in 1373 by the troops of Charles V., who granted
the town numerous privileges. It suffered much during the Wars of
Religion, especially in 1568 after its capture by the Protestants
under Coligny.

[v.02 p.0042]

The countship of Angoulême dated from the 9th century, the most
important of the early counts being William Taillefer, whose
descendants held the title till the end of the 12th century. Withdrawn
from them on more than one occasion by Richard Coeur-de-Lion, it
passed to King John of England on his marriage with Isabel, daughter
of Count Adhémar, and by her subsequent marriage in 1220 to Hugh X.
passed to the Lusignan family, counts of Marche. On the death of Hugh
XIII. in 1302 without issue, his possessions passed to the crown. In
1394 the countship came to the house of Orleans, a member of which,
Francis I., became king of France in 1515 and raised it to the rank
of duchy in favour of his mother Louise of Savoy. The duchy afterwards
changed hands several times, one of its holders being Charles of
Valois, natural son of Charles IX. The last duke was Louis-Antoine,
eldest son of Charles X., who died in 1844.

See A.F. Lièvre, _Angoulême: histoire, institutions et monuments_
(Angoulême, 1885).



ANGOUMOIS, an old province of France, nearly corresponding to-day to
the department of Charente. Its capital was Angoulême.

See _Essai d'une bibliothèque historique de l'Angoumois,_ by E.
Castaigne (1845).



ANGRA, or ANGRA DO HEROISMO ("Bay of Heroism," a name given it in
1829, to commemorate its successful defence against the Miguelist
party), the former capital of the Portuguese archipelago of the
Azores, and chief town of an administrative district, comprising the
islands of Terceira, St. George and Graciosa. Pop. (1900) 10,788. Angra
is built on the south coast of Terceira in 38° 38' N. and in 27° 13'
W. It is the headquarters of a military command, and the residence of
a Roman Catholic bishop; its principal buildings are the cathedral,
military college, arsenal and observatory. The harbour, now of little
commercial or strategic importance, but formerly a celebrated naval
station, is sheltered on the west and south-west by the promontory
of Mt. Brazil; but it is inferior to the neighbouring ports of Ponta
Delgada and Horta. The foreign trade is not large, and consists
chiefly in the exportation of pineapples and other fruit. Angra served
as a refuge for Queen Maria II. of Portugal from 1830 to 1833.



ANGRA PEQUENA, a bay in German South-West Africa, in 26° 38' S.,
15° E., discovered by Bartholomew Diaz in 1487. F.A.E. Lüderitz, of
Bremen, established a trading station here in 1883, and his agent
concluded treaties with the neighbouring chiefs, who ceded large
tracts of country to the newcomers. On the 24th of April 1884 Luderitz
transferred his rights to the German imperial government, and on the
following 7th of August a German protectorate over the district was
proclaimed. (See AFRICA, §5, and GERMAN SOUTH-WEST AFRICA.) Angra
Pequena has been renamed by the Germans Lüderitz Bay, and the adjacent
country is sometimes called Lüderitzland. The harbour is poor. At the
head of the bay is a small town, whence a railway, begun in 1906, runs
east in the direction of Bechuanaland. The surrounding country
for many miles is absolute desert, except after rare but terrible
thunderstorms, when the dry bed of the Little Fish river is suddenly
filled with a turbulent stream, the water finding its way into the
bay.

The islands off the coast of Angra Pequena, together with others north
and south, were annexed to Great Britain in 1867 and added to Cape
Colony in 1874. Seal Island and Penguin Island are in the bay;
Ichaboe, Mercury, and Hollam's Bird islands are to the north; Halifax,
Long, Possession, Albatross, Pomona, Plumpudding, and Roastbeef
islands are to the south. On these islands are guano deposits; the
most valuable is on Ichaboe Island.



ANGSTRÖM, ANDERS JONAS (1814-1874), Swedish physicist, was born on
the 13th of August 1814 at Lögdö, Medelpad, Sweden. He was educated at
Upsala University, where in 1839 he became _privat docent_ in physics.
In 1842 he went to Stockholm Observatory in order to gain experience
in practical astronomical work, and in the following year ht became
observer at Upsala Observatory. Becoming interested in terrestrial
magnetism he made many observations of magnetic intensity and
declination in various parts of Sweden, and was charged by the
Stockholm Academy of Sciences with the task, not completed till
shortly before his death, of working out the magnetic data obtained
by the Swedish frigate "Eugénie" on her voyage round the world in
1851-1853. In 1858 he succeeded Adolph Ferdinand Svanberg (1806-1857)
in the chair of physics at Upsala, and there he died on the 21st of
June 1874. His most important work was concerned with the conduction
of heat and with spectroscopy. In his optical researches, _Optiska
Undersökningar,_ presented to the Stockholm Academy in 1853, he
not only pointed out that the electric spark yields two superposed
spectra, one from the metal of the electrode and the other from the
gas in which it passes, but deduced from Euler's theory of
resonance that an incandescent gas emits luminous rays of the same
refrangibility as those which it can absorb. This statement, as Sir
E. Sabine remarked when awarding him the Rumford medal of the
Royal Society in 1872, contains a fundamental principle of spectrum
analysis, and though for a number of years it was overlooked it
entitles him to rank as one of the founders of spectroscopy. From 1861
onwards he paid special attention to the solar spectrum. He announced
the existence of hydrogen, among other elements, in the sun's
atmosphere in 1862, and in 1868 published his great map of the normal
solar spectrum which long remained authoritative in questions of
wave-length, although his measurements were inexact to the extent
of one part in 7000 or 8000 owing to the metre which he used as his
standard having been slightly too short. He was the first, in 1867, to
examine the spectrum of the aurora borealis, and detected and measured
the characteristic bright line in its yellow green region; but he was
mistaken in supposing that this same line, which is often called by
his name, is also to be seen in the zodiacal light.

His son, KNUT JOHAN ÅNGSTRÖM, was born at Upsala on the 12th of
January 1857, and studied at the university of that town from 1877
to 1884. After spending a short time in Strassburg he was appointed
lecturer in physics at Stockholm University in 1885, but in 1891
returned to Upsala, where in 1896 he became professor of physics. He
especially devoted himself to investigations of the radiation of heat
from the sun and its absorption by the earth's atmosphere, and to that
end devised various delicate methods and instruments, including his
electric compensation pyrheliometer, invented in 1893, and apparatus
for obtaining a photographic representation of the infra-red spectrum
(1895).



ANGUIER, FRANÇOIS (c. 1604-1669), and MICHEL (1612-1686), French
sculptors, were two brothers, natives of Eu in Normandy. Their
apprenticeship was served in the studio of Simon Guillain. The chief
works of François are the monument to Cardinal de Bérulle, founder of
the Carmelite order, in the chapel of the oratory at Paris, of which
all but the bust has been destroyed, and the mausoleum of Henri II.,
last duc de Montmorency, at Moulins. To Michel are due the sculptures
of the triumphal arch at the Porte St. Denis, begun in 1674, to serve
as a memorial for the conquests of Louis XIV. A marble group of the
Nativity in the church of Val de Grâce was reckoned his masterpiece.
From 1662 to 1667 he directed the progress of the sculpture and
decoration in this church, and it was he who superintended the
decoration of the apartments of Anne of Austria in the old Louvre. F.
Fouquet also employed him for his chateau in Vaux.

See Henri Stein, _Les frères Anguier_ (1889), with catalogue of
works, and many references to original sources; Armand Sanson, _Deux
sculpteurs Normands: les frères Anguier_ (1889).



ANGUILLA, or SNAKE, a small island in the British Indies, part of the
presidency of St. Kitts-Nevis, in the colony of the Leeward Islands.
Pop. (1901) 3890, mostly negroes. It is situated in 18° 12' N. and 63°
5' W., about 60 m. N.W. of St Kitts, is 16 m. long and has an area of
35 sq. m. The destruction of trees by charcoal-burners has resulted in
the almost complete deforestation of the island. Nearly all the land
is in the hands of peasant proprietors, who cultivate sweet potatoes,
peas, beans, corn, &c., and rear sheep and goats. Cattle, phosphate
of lime and salt, manufactured from a lake in the interior, are the
principal exports, the market for these being the neighbouring island
of St. Thomas.

[v.02 p.0043]


ANGULATE (Lat. _angulus_, an angle), shaped with corners or angles;
an adjective used in botany and zoology for the shape of stems, leaves
and wings.



ANGUS, EARLS OF. Angus was one of the seven original earldoms of
the Pictish kingdom of Scotland, said to have been occupied by seven
brothers of whom Angus was the eldest. The Celtic line ended with
Matilda (_fl._ 1240), countess of Angus in her own right, who married
in 1243 Gilbert de Umfravill and founded the Norman line of three
earls, which ended in 1381, the then holder of the title being
summoned to the English parliament. Meanwhile John Stewart of Bonkyl,
co. Berwick, had been created earl of Angus in a new line. This third
creation ended with Margaret Stewart, countess of Angus in her
own right, and widow of Thomas, 13th earl of Mar. By an irregular
connexion with William, 1st earl of Douglas, who had married Mar's
sister, she became the mother of George Douglas, 1st earl of Angus
(_c._ 1380-1403), and secured a charter of her estates for her son,
to whom in 1389 the title was granted by King Robert II. He was taken
prisoner at Homildon Hill and died in England. The 5th earl was his
great-grandson.



ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS, 5th earl of Angus (_c._ 1450-_c._ 1514), the famous
"Bell the Cat," was born about 1450 and succeeded his father, George
the 4th earl, in 1462 or 1463. In 1481 he was made warden of the east
marches, but the next year he joined the league against James III. and
his favourite Robert Cochrane at Lauder, where he earned his nickname
by offering to bell the cat, _i.e._ to deal with the latter, beginning
the attack upon him by pulling his gold chain off his neck and causing
him with others of the king's favourites to be hanged. Subsequently he
joined Alexander Stewart, duke of Albany, in league with Edward IV.
of England on the 11th of February 1483, signing the convention at
Westminster which acknowledged the overlordship of the English
king. In March however they returned, outwardly at least, to their
allegiance, and received pardons for their treason. Later Angus was
one of the leaders in the rebellion against James in 1487 and 1488,
which ended in the latter's death. He was made one of the guardians of
the young king James IV. but soon lost influence, being superseded by
the Homes and Hepburns, and the wardenship of the marches was given
to Alexander Home. Though outwardly on good terms with James, he
treacherously made a treaty with Henry VII. about 1489 or 1491, by
which he undertook to govern his relations with James according
to instructions from England, and to hand over Hermitage Castle,
commanding the pass through Liddesdale into Scotland, on the condition
of receiving English estates in compensation. In October 1491 he
fortified his castle of Tantallon against James, but was obliged to
submit and exchange his Liddesdale estate and Hermitage Castle for the
lordship of Bothwell. In 1493 he was again in favour, received various
grants of lands, and was made chancellor, which office he retained
till 1498. In 1501 he was once more in disgrace and confined to
Dumbarton Castle. After the disaster at Flodden in 1513, at which he
was not present, but at which he lost his two eldest sons, Angus was
appointed one of the counsellors of the queen regent. He died at the
close of this year, or in 1514. He was married three times, and by his
first wife had four sons and several daughters. His third son, Gavin
Douglas, bishop of Dunkeld, is separately noticed.



ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS, the 6th earl (_c._ 1489-1557), son of George,
master of Douglas, who was killed at Flodden, succeeded on his
grandfather's death. In 1509 he had married Margaret (d. 1513),
daughter of Patrick Hepburn, 1st earl of Bothwell; and in 1514 he
married the queen dowager Margaret of Scotland, widow of James IV.,
and eldest sister of Henry VIII. By this latter act he stirred up the
jealousy of the nobles and the opposition of the French party, and
civil war broke out. He was superseded in the government on the
arrival of John Stewart, duke of Albany, who was made regent. Angus
withdrew to his estates in Forfarshire, while Albany besieged the
queen at Stirling and got possession of the royal children; then he
joined Margaret after her flight at Morpeth, and on her departure for
London returned and made his peace with Albany in 1516. He met her
once more at Berwick in June 1517, when Margaret returned to Scotland
on Albany's departure in vain hopes of regaining the regency.
Meanwhile, during Margaret's absence, Angus had formed a connexion
with a daughter of the laird of Traquair. Margaret avenged his neglect
of her by refusing to support his claims for power and by secretly
trying through Albany to get a divorce. In Edinburgh Angus held his
own against the attempts of James Hamilton, 1st earl of Arran, to
dislodge him. But the return of Albany in 1521, with whom Margaret now
sided against her husband, deprived him of power. The regent took the
government into his own hands; Angus was charged with high treason in
December, and in March 1522 was sent practically a prisoner to France,
whence he succeeded in escaping to London in 1524. He returned to
Scotland in November with promises of support from Henry VIII., with
whom he made a close alliance. Margaret, however, refused to have
anything to do with her husband. On the 23rd, therefore, Angus forced
his way into Edinburgh, but was fired upon by Margaret and retreated
to Tantallon. He now organized a large party of nobles against
Margaret with the support of Henry VIII., and in February 1525 they
entered Edinburgh and called a parliament. Angus was made a lord of
the articles, was included in the council of regency, bore the king's
crown on the opening of the session, and with Archbishop Beaton held
the chief power. In March he was appointed lieutenant of the marches,
and suppressed the disorder and anarchy on the border. In July the
guardianship of the king was entrusted to him for a fixed period
till the 1st of November, but he refused at its close to retire, and
advancing to Linlithgow put to flight Margaret and his opponents. He
now with his followers engrossed all the power, succeeded in gaining
over some of his antagonists, including Arran and the Hamiltons,
and filled the public offices with Douglases, he himself becoming
chancellor. "None that time durst strive against a Douglas nor
Douglas's man."[1] The young king James, now fourteen, was far from
content under the tutelage of Angus, but he was closely guarded,
and several attempts to effect his liberation were prevented, Angus
completely defeating Lennox, who had advanced towards Edinburgh with
10,000 men in August, and subsequently taking Stirling. His successes
were consummated by a pacification with Beaton, and in 1527 and 1528
he was busy in restoring order through the country. In the latter
year, on the 11th of March, Margaret succeeded in obtaining her
divorce from Angus, and about the end of the month she and her lover,
Henry Stewart, were besieged at Stirling. A few weeks later, however,
James succeeded in escaping from Angus's custody, took refuge with
Margaret and Arran at Stirling, and immediately proscribed Angus and
all the Douglases, forbidding them to come within seven miles of his
person. Angus, having fortified himself in Tantallon, was attainted
and his lands confiscated. Repeated attempts of James to subdue
the fortress failed, and on one occasion Angus captured the royal
artillery, but at length it was given up as a condition of the truce
between England and Scotland, and in May 1529 Angus took refuge
with Henry, obtained a pension and took an oath of allegiance, Henry
engaging to make his restoration a condition of peace. Angus had
been chiefly guided in his intrigues with England by his brother, Sir
George Douglas of Pittendriech (_d._ 1552), master of Angus, a far
cleverer diplomatist than himself. His life and lands were also
declared forfeit, as were those of his uncle, Archibald Douglas of
Kilspindie (_d._ 1535), who had been a friend of James and was known
by the nickname of "Greysteel." These took refuge in exile. James
avenged himself on such Douglases as lay within his power. Angus's
third sister Janet, Lady Glamis, was summoned to answer the charge
of communicating with her brothers, and on her failure to appear her
estates were forfeited. In 1537 she was tried for conspiring against
the king's life. She was found guilty and burnt on the Castle Hill,
Edinburgh, on the 17th of July 1537. Her innocence has been generally
assumed, but Tytler (_Hist, of Scotland_, iv. pp. 433, 434) considered
her guilty. Angus remained in England till 1542, joining in the
attacks upon his countrymen on the border, while James refused all
demands from Henry VIII. for his restoration, and kept firm to his
policy of suppressing and extirpating the Douglas faction. On James
V.'s death in 1542 Angus returned to Scotland, with instructions
from Henry to accomplish the marriage between Mary and Edward. His
forfeiture was rescinded, his estates restored, and he was made a
privy councillor and lieutenant-general. In 1543 he negotiated the
treaty of peace and marriage, and the same year he himself married
Margaret, daughter of Robert, Lord Maxwell. Shortly afterwards strife
between Angus and the regent Arran broke out, and in April 1544
Angus was taken prisoner. The same year Lord Hertford's marauding
expedition, which did not spare the lands of Angus, made him join the
anti-English party. He entered into a bond with Arran and others to
maintain their allegiance to Mary, and gave his support to the
mission sent to France to offer the latter's hand. In July 1544 he
was appointed lieutenant of the south of Scotland, and distinguished
himself on the 27th of February 1545 in the victory over the
English at Ancrum Moor. He still corresponded with Henry VIII., but
nevertheless signed in 1546 the act cancelling the marriage and peace
treaty, and on the 10th of September commanded the van in the great
defeat of Pinkie, when he again won fame. In 1548 the attempt by
Lennox and Wharton to capture him and punish him for his duplicity
failed, Angus escaping after his defeat to Edinburgh by sea, and
Wharton being driven back to Carlisle. Under the regency of Mary of
Lorraine his restless and ambitious character and the number of his
retainers gave cause for frequent alarms to the government. On the
31st of August 1547 he resigned his earldom, obtaining a regrant _sibi
et suis haeredibus masculis et suis assignatis quibuscumque_. His
career was a long struggle for power and for the interests of his
family, to which national considerations were completely subordinate.
He died in January 1557. By Margaret Tudor he had Margaret, his only
surviving legitimate child, who married Matthew, 4th earl of Lennox,
and was mother of Lord Darnley. He was succeeded by his nephew David,
son of Sir George Douglas of Pittendriech.

[Footnote 1: Lindsay of Pitscottie (1814), ii. 314.]

[v.02 p.0044]


ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS, 8th earl, and earl of Morton (1555-1588), was the
son of David, 7th earl. He succeeded to the title and estates in 1558,
being brought up by his uncle, the 4th earl of Morton, a Presbyterian.
In 1573 he was made a privy councillor and sheriff of Berwick, in 1574
lieutenant-general of Scotland, in 1577 warden of the west marches and
steward of Fife, and in 1578 lieutenant-general of the realm. He gave
a strong support to Morton during the attack upon the latter, made a
vain attempt to rescue him, and was declared guilty of high treason
on the 2nd of June 1581. He now entered into correspondence with the
English government for an invasion of Scotland to rescue Morton,
and on the latter's execution in June went to London, where he
was welcomed by Elizabeth. After the raid of Ruthven in 1582 Angus
returned to Scotland and was reconciled to James, but soon afterwards
the king shook off the control of the earls of Mar and Gowrie,
and Angus was again banished from the court. In 1584 he joined
the rebellion of Mar and Glamis, but the movement failed, and the
insurgents fled to Berwick. Later they took up their residence at
Newcastle, which became a centre of Presbyterianism and of projects
against the Scottish government, encouraged by Elizabeth, who regarded
the banished lords as friends of the English and antagonists of the
French interest. In February 1585 they came to London, and cleared
themselves of the accusation of plotting against James's life; a plan
was prepared for their restoration and for the overthrow of James
Stewart, earl of Arran. In October they invaded Scotland and gained
an easy victory over Arran, captured Stirling Castle with the king in
November, and secured from James the restoration of their estates and
the control of the government. In 1586 Angus was appointed warden of
the marches and lieutenant-general on the border, and performed good
services in restoring order; but he was unable to overcome the king's
hostility to the establishment of Presbyterian government. In January
1586 he was granted the earldom of Morton with the lands entailed upon
him by his uncle. He died on the 4th of August 1588. He was succeeded
in the earldom by his cousin William, a descendant of the 5th earl.
(For the Morton title, see MORTON, JAMES DOUGLAS, 4th EARL OF.)


WILLIAM DOUGLAS, 10th earl (c. 1554-1611), was the son of William, the
9th earl (1533-1591). He studied at St. Andrews University and joined
the household of the earl of Morton. Subsequently, while visiting the
French court, he became a Roman Catholic, and was in consequence, on
his return, disinherited and placed under restraint. Nevertheless he
succeeded to his father's titles and estates in 1591, and though in
1592 he was disgraced for his complicity in Lord Bothwell's plot,
he was soon liberated and performed useful services as the king's
lieutenant in the north of Scotland. In July 1592, however, he was
asking for help from Elizabeth in a plot with Erroll and other lords
against Sir John Maitland, the chancellor, and protesting his absolute
rejection of Spanish offers, while in October he signed the Spanish
Blanks (see ERROLL, FRANCIS HAY, 9th EARL OF) and was imprisoned (on
the discovery of the treason) in Edinburgh Castle on his return in
January 1593. He succeeded on the 13th in escaping by the help of his
countess, joining the earls of Huntly and Erroll in the north.
They were offered an act of "oblivion" or "abolition" provided
they renounced their religion or quitted Scotland. Declining these
conditions they were declared traitors and "forfeited." They remained
in rebellion, and in July 1594 an attack made by them on Aberdeen
roused James's anger. Huntly and Erroll were subdued by James himself
in the north, and Angus failed in an attempt upon Edinburgh in concert
with the earl of Bothwell. Subsequently in 1597 they all renounced
their religion, declared themselves Presbyterians, and were restored
to their estates and honours. Angus was again included in the privy
council, and in June 1598 was appointed the king's lieutenant
in southern Scotland, in which capacity he showed great zeal and
conducted the "Raid of Dumfries," as the campaign against the
Johnstones was called. Not long afterwards, Angus, offended at the
advancement of Huntly to a marquisate, recanted, resisted all the
arguments of the ministers to bring him to a "better mind," and was
again excommunicated in 1608. In 1609 he withdrew to France, and
died in Paris on the 3rd of March 1611. He was succeeded by his son
William, as 11th earl of Angus, afterwards 1st marquis of Douglas
(1580-1660). The title is now held by the dukes of Hamilton.


AUTHORITIES.--_The Douglas Book_, by Sir W. Fraser (1885); _History
of the House of Douglas and Angus_, by D. Hume of Godscroft (1748,
legendary in some respects); _History of the House of Douglas_, by Sir
H. Maxwell (1902).



ANGUSSOLA or ANGUSSCIOLA, SOPHONISBA, Italian portrait painter of the
latter half of the 16th century, was born at Cremona about 1535, and
died at Palermo in 1626. In 1560, at the invitation of Philip II.,
she visited the court of Madrid, where her portraits elicited great
commendation. Vandyck is said to have declared that he had derived
more knowledge of the true principles of his art from her conversation
than from any other source. She painted several fine portraits of
herself, one of which is at Althorp. A few specimens of her painting
are to be seen at Florence and Madrid. She had three sisters, who were
also celebrated artists.



ANHALT, a duchy of Germany, and a constituent state of the German
empire, formed, in 1863, by the amalgamation of the two duchies
Anhalt-Dessau-Cöthen and Anhalt-Bernburg, and comprising all the
various Anhalt territories which were sundered apart in 1603. The
country now known as Anhalt consists of two larger portions--Eastern
and Western Anhalt, separated by the interposition of a part
of Prussian Saxony--and of five enclaves surrounded by Prussian
territory, viz. Alsleben, Mühlingen, Dornburg, Gödnitz and
Tilkerode-Abberode. The eastern and larger portion of the duchy
is enclosed by the Prussian government district of Potsdam (in
the Prussian province of Brandenburg), and Magdeburg and Merseburg
(belonging to the Prussian province of Saxony). The western or smaller
portion (the so-called Upper Duchy or Ballenstedt) is also enclosed by
the two latter districts and, for a distance of 5 m. on the west,
by the duchy of Brunswick. The western portion of the territory is
undulating and in the extreme south-west, where it forms part of the
Harz range, mountainous, the Ramberg peak attaining a height of 1900
ft. From the Harz the country gently shelves down to the Saale; and
between this river and the Elbe there lies a fine tract of fertile
country. The portion of the duchy lying east of the Elbe is mostly a
flat sandy plain, with extensive pine forests, though interspersed, at
intervals, by bog-land and rich pastures. The Elbe is the chief river,
and intersecting the eastern portion of the duchy, from east to west,
receives at Rosslau the waters of the Mulde. The navigable Saale takes
a northerly direction through the western portion of the eastern part
of the territory and receives, on the right, the Fuhne and, on the
left, the Wipper and the Bode. The climate is on the whole mild,
though somewhat inclement in the higher regions to the south-west. The
area of the duchy is 906 sq. m., and the population in 1905 amounted
to 328,007, a ratio of about 351 to the square mile. The country is
divided into the districts of Dessau, Cöthen, Zerbst, Bernburg and
Ballenstedt, of which that of Bernburg is the most, and that of
Ballenstedt the least, populated. Of the towns, four, viz. Dessau,
Bernburg, Cöthen and Zerbst, have populations exceeding 20,000. The
inhabitants of the duchy, who mainly belong to the upper Saxon race,
are, with the exception of about 12,000 Roman Catholics and 1700 Jews,
members of the Evangelical (Union) Church. The supreme ecclesiastical
authority is the consistory in Dessau; while a synod of 39 members,
elected for six years, assembles at periods to deliberate on internal
matters touching the organization of the church. The Roman Catholics
are under the bishop of Paderborn. There are within the duchy four
grammar schools (gymnasia), five semi-classical and modern schools,
a teachers' seminary and four high-grade girls' schools. Of the whole
surface, land under tillage amounts to about 60, meadowland to 7 and
forest to 25%. The chief crops are corn (especially wheat), fruit,
vegetables, potatoes, beet, tobacco, flax, linseed and hops. The land
is well cultivated, and the husbandry on the royal domains and the
large estates especially so. The pastures on the banks of the Elbe
yield cattle of excellent quality. The forests are well stocked
with game, such as deer and wild boar, and the open country is well
supplied with partridges. The rivers yield abundant fish, salmon (in
the Elbe), sturgeon and lampreys. The country is rich in lignite, and
salt works are abundant. Of the manufactures of Anhalt, the chief
are its sugar factories, distilleries, breweries and chemical works.
Commerce is brisk, especially in raw products--corn, cattle, timber
or wool. Coal (lignite), guano, oil and bricks are also articles of
export. The trade of the country is furthered by its excellent roads,
its navigable rivers and its railways (165 m.), which are worked in
connexion with the Prussian system. There is a chamber of commerce in
Dessau.

[v.02 p.0045]


_Constitution_.--The duchy, by virtue of a fundamental law, proclaimed
on the 17th of September 1859 and subsequently modified by various
decrees, is a constitutional monarchy. The duke, who bears the
title of "Highness," wields the executive power while sharing the
legislation with the estates. The diet (_Landtag_) is composed of
thirty-six members, of whom two are appointed by the duke, eight are
representatives of landowners paying the highest taxes, two of the
highest assessed members of the commercial and manufacturing classes,
fourteen of the other electors of the towns and ten of the rural
districts. The representatives are chosen for six years by indirect
vote and must have completed their twenty-fifth year. The duke
governs through a minister of state, who is the praeses of all the
departments--finance, home affairs, education, public worship and
statistics. The budget estimates for the financial year 1905-1906
placed the expenditure of the estate at £1,323,437. The public debt
amounted on the 30th of June 1904 to £226,300. By convention with
Prussia of 1867 the Anhalt troops form a contingent of the Prussian
army. Appeal from the lower courts of the duchy lies to the appeal
court at Naumburg in Prussian Saxony.


_History_.--During the 11th century the greater part of Anhalt was
included in the duchy of Saxony, and in the 12th century it came
under the rule of Albert the Bear, margrave of Brandenburg. Albert was
descended from Albert, count of Ballenstedt, whose son Esico (d. 1059
or 1060) appears to have been the first to bear the title of count of
Anhalt. Esico's grandson, Otto the Rich, count of Ballenstedt, was the
father of Albert the Bear, by whom Anhalt was united with the mark of
Brandenburg. When Albert died in 1170, his son Bernard, who received
the title of duke of Saxony in 1180, became count of Anhalt. Bernard
died in 1212, and Anhalt, separated from Saxony, passed to his son
Henry, who in 1218 took the title of prince and was the real founder
of the house of Anhalt. On Henry's death in 1252 his three sons
partitioned the principality and founded respectively the lines of
Aschersleben, Bernburg and Zerbst. The family ruling in Aschersleben
became extinct in 1315, and this district was subsequently
incorporated with the neighbouring bishopric of Halberstadt. The last
prince of the line of Anhalt-Bernburg died in 1468 and his lands
were inherited by the princes of the sole remaining line, that of
Anhalt-Zerbst. The territory belonging to this branch of the family
had been divided in 1396, and after the acquisition of Bernburg
Prince George I. made a further partition of Zerbst. Early in the 16th
century, however, owing to the death or abdication of several
princes, the family had become narrowed down to the two branches
of Anhalt-Cöthen and Anhalt-Dessau. Wolfgang, who became prince of
Anhalt-Cöthen in 1508, was a stalwart adherent of the Reformation,
and after the battle of Mühlberg in 1547 was placed under the ban and
deprived of his lands by the emperor Charles V. After the peace
of Passau in 1552 he bought back his principality, but as he was
childless he surrendered it in 1562 to his kinsmen the princes of
Anhalt-Dessau. Ernest I. of Anhalt-Dessau (d. 1516) left three sons,
John II., George III., and Joachim, who ruled their lands together
for many years, and who, like Prince Wolfgang, favoured the reformed
doctrines, which thus became dominant in Anhalt. About 1546 the three
brothers divided their principality and founded the lines of Zerbst,
Plötzkau and Dessau. This division, however, was only temporary, as
the acquisition of Cöthen, and a series of deaths among the ruling
princes, enabled Joachim Ernest, a son of John II., to unite the whole
of Anhalt under his rule in 1570.

Joachim Ernest died in 1586 and his five sons ruled the land in common
until 1603, when Anhalt was again divided, and the lines of Dessau,
Bernburg, Plötzkau, Zerbst and Cöthen were refounded. The principality
was ravaged during the Thirty Years' War, and in the earlier part of
this struggle Christian I. of Anhalt-Bernburg took an important part.
In 1635 an arrangement was made by the various princes of Anhalt,
which gave a certain authority to the eldest member of the family,
who was thus able to represent the principality as a whole. This
proceeding was probably due to the necessity of maintaining an
appearance of unity in view of the disturbed state of European
politics. In 1665 the branch of Anhalt-Cöthen became extinct, and
according to a family compact this district was inherited by Lebrecht
of Anhalt-Plötzkau, who surrendered Plötzkau to Bernburg, and took
the title of prince of Anhalt-Cöthen. In the same year the princes
of Anhalt decided that if any branch of the family became extinct its
lands should be equally divided between the remaining branches. This
arrangement was carried out after the death of Frederick Augustus
of Anhalt-Zerbst in 1793, and Zerbst was divided between the three
remaining princes. During these years the policy of the different
princes was marked, perhaps intentionally, by considerable uniformity.
Once or twice Calvinism was favoured by a prince, but in general the
house was loyal to the doctrines of Luther. The growth of Prussia
provided Anhalt with a formidable neighbour, and the establishment
and practice of primogeniture by all branches of the family
prevented further divisions of the principality. In 1806 Alexius of
Anhalt-Bernburg was created a duke by the emperor Francis II., and
after the dissolution of the Empire each of the three princes took
this title. Joining the Confederation of the Rhine in 1807, they
supported Napoleon until 1813, when they transferred their
allegiance to the allies; in 1815 they became members of the Germanic
Confederation, and in 1828 joined, somewhat reluctantly, the Prussian
_Zollverein_.

[v.02 p.0046]

Anhalt-Cöthen was ruled without division by a succession of princes,
prominent among whom was Louis (d. 1650), who was both a soldier and a
scholar; and after the death of Prince Charles at the battle of
Semlin in 1789 it passed to his son Augustus II. This prince sought to
emulate the changes which had recently been made in France by dividing
Cöthen into two departments and introducing the Code Napoléon. Owing
to his extravagance he left a large amount of debt to his nephew and
successor, Louis II., and on this account the control of the finances
was transferred from the prince to the estates. Under Louis's
successor Ferdinand, who was a Roman Catholic and brought the Jesuits
into Anhalt, the state of the finances grew worse and led to the
interference of the king of Prussia and to the appointment of a
Prussian official. When the succeeding prince, Henry, died in 1847,
this family became extinct, and according to an arrangement between
the lines of Anhalt-Dessau and Anhalt-Bernburg, Cöthen was added to
Dessau.

Anhalt-Bernburg had been weakened by partitions, but its princes had
added several districts to their lands; and in 1812, on the extinction
of a cadet branch, it was again united under a single ruler. The
feeble rule of Alexander Charles, who became duke in 1834, and the
disturbed state of Europe in the following decade, led to considerable
unrest, and in 1849 Bernburg was occupied by Prussian troops. A
number of abortive attempts were made to change the government, and
as Alexander Charles was unlikely to leave any children, Leopold of
Anhalt-Dessau took some part in the affairs of Bernburg. Eventually
in 1859 a new constitution was established for Bernburg and Dessau
jointly, and when Alexander Charles died in 1863 both were united
under the rule of Leopold.

Anhalt-Dessau had been divided in 1632, but was quickly reunited;
and in 1693 it came under the rule of Leopold I. (see ANHALT-DESSAU,
LEOPOLD I., PRINCE OF), the famous soldier who was generally known
as the "Old Dessauer." The sons of Leopold's eldest son were excluded
from the succession on account of the marriage of their father being
morganatic, and the principality passed in 1747 to his second son,
Leopold II. The unrest of 1848 spread to Dessau, and led to the
interference of the Prussians and to the establishment of the new
constitution in 1859. Leopold IV., who reigned from 1817 to 1871, had
the satisfaction in 1863 of reuniting the whole of Anhalt under his
rule. He took the title of duke of Anhalt, summoned one _Landtag_
for the whole of the duchy, and in 1866 fought for Prussia against
Austria. Subsequently a quarrel over the possession of the ducal
estates between the duke and the _Landtag_ broke the peace of the
duchy, but this was settled in 1872. In 1871 Anhalt became a state of
the German Empire. Leopold IV. was followed by his son Frederick I.,
and on the death of this prince in 1904 his son Frederick II. became
duke of Anhalt.


AUTHORITIES.--F. Knoke, _Anhaltische Geschichte_ (Dessau, 1893);
G. Krause, _Urkunden, Aktenstucke und Briefe zur Geschichte der
anhaltischen Lande und ihrer Fürsten unter dem Drucke des 30 jahrigen
Krieges_ (Leipzig, 1861-1866); O. von Heinemann, _Codex diplomaticus
Anhaltinus_ (Dessau, 1867-1883); Siebigk, _Das Herzogthum Anhalt
historisch, geographisch und statistisch dargestellt_ (Dessau, 1867).



ANHALT-DESSAU, LEOPOLD I., PRINCE OF (1676-1747), called the "Old
Dessauer" (Alter Dessauer), general field marshal in the Prussian
army, was the only surviving son of John George II., prince of
Anhalt-Dessau, and was born on the 3rd of July 1676 at Dessau. From
his earliest youth he was devoted to the profession of arms, for which
he educated himself physically and mentally. He became colonel of a
Prussian regiment in 1693, and in the same year his father's death
placed him at the head of his own principality; thereafter, during the
whole of his long life, he performed the duties of a sovereign prince
and a Prussian officer. His first campaign was that of 1695 in
the Netherlands, in which he was present at the siege of Namur. He
remained in the field to the end of the war of 1697, the affairs
of the principality being managed chiefly by his mother, Princess
Henriette Catherine of Orange. In 1698 he married Anna Luise Föse,
an apothecary's daughter of Dessau, in spite of his mother's long and
earnest opposition, and subsequently he procured for her the rank of
a princess from the emperor (1701). Their married life was long and
happy, and the princess acquired an influence over the stern nature of
her husband which she never ceased to exert on behalf of his subjects,
and after the death of Leopold's mother she performed the duties of
regent when he was absent on campaign. Often, too, she accompanied him
into the field. Leopold's career as a soldier in important commands
begins with the outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession. He had
made many improvements in the Prussian army, notably the introduction
of the iron ramrod about 1700, and he now took the field at the
head of a Prussian corps on the Rhine, serving at the sieges of
Kaiserswerth and Venlo. In the following year (1703), having obtained
the rank of lieutenant-general, Leopold took part in the siege of Bonn
and distinguished himself very greatly in the battle of Höchstädt, in
which the Austrians and their allies were defeated by the French under
Marshal Villars (September 20, 1703). In the campaign of 1704
the Prussian contingent served under Prince Louis of Baden and
subsequently under Eugene, and Leopold himself won great glory by his
conduct at Blenheim. In 1705 he was sent with a Prussian corps to join
Prince Eugene in Italy, and on the 16th of August he displayed his
bravery at the hard-fought battle of Cassano. In the following year he
added to his reputation in the battle of Turin, where he was the first
to enter the hostile entrenchments (September 7, 1706). He served
in one more campaign in Italy, and then went with Eugene to join
Marlborough in the Netherlands, being present in 1709 at the siege
of Tournay and the battle of Malplaquet. In 1710 he succeeded to the
command of the whole Prussian contingent at the front, and in 1712, at
the particular desire of the crown prince, Frederick William, who had
served with him as a volunteer, he was made a general field marshal.
Shortly before this he had executed a _coup de main_ on the castle
of Mörs, which was held by the Dutch in defiance of the claims of the
king of Prussia to the possession. The operation was effected with
absolute precision and the castle was seized without a shot being
fired. In the earlier part of the reign of Frederick William I.,
the prince of Dessau was one of the most influential members of
the Prussian governing circle. In the war with Sweden (1715) he
accompanied the king to the front, commanded an army of 40,000 men,
and met and defeated Charles XII. in a severe battle on the island
of Rügen (November 16). His conduct of the siege of Stralsund which
followed was equally skilful, and the great results of the war
to Prussia were largely to be attributed to his leadership in the
campaign. In the years of peace, and especially after a court quarrel
(1725) and duel with General von Grumbkow, he devoted himself to the
training of the Prussian army. The reputation it had gained in the
wars of 1675 to 1715, though good, gave no hint of its coming glory,
and it was even in 1740 accounted one of the minor armies of Europe.
That it proved, when put to the test, to be by far the best military
force existing, may be taken as the summary result of Leopold's work.
The "Old Dessauer" was one of the sternest disciplinarians in an age
of stern discipline, and the technical training of the infantry, under
his hand, made them superior to all others in the proportion of five
to three (see AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION, WAR OF THE). He was essentially an
infantry soldier; in his time artillery did not decide battles, but he
suffered the cavalry service, in which he felt little interest, to
be comparatively neglected, with results which appeared at Mollwitz.
Frederick the Great formed the cavalry of Hohenfriedberg and Leuthen
himself, but had it not been for the incomparable infantry trained by
the "Old Dessauer" he would never have had the opportunity of doing
so. Thus Leopold, heartily supported by Frederick William, who was
himself called the great drill-master of Europe, turned to good
account the twenty years following the peace with Sweden. During this
time two incidents in his career call for special mention: first,
his intervention in the case of the crown prince Frederick, who
was condemned to death for desertion, and his continued and finally
successful efforts to secure Frederick's reinstatement in the Prussian
army; and secondly, his part in the War of the Polish Succession on
the Rhine, where he served under his old chief Eugene and held the
office of field marshal of the Empire.

[v.02 p.0047]

With the death of Frederick William in 1740, Frederick succeeded to
the Prussian throne, and a few months later took place the invasion
and conquest of Silesia, the first act in the long Silesian wars and
the test of the work of the "Old Dessauer's" lifetime. The prince
himself was not often employed in the king's own army, though his sons
held high commands under Frederick. The king, indeed, found Leopold,
who was reputed, since the death of Eugene, the greatest of living
soldiers, somewhat difficult to manage, and the prince spent most of
the campaigning years up to 1745 in command of an army of observation
on the Saxon frontier. Early in that year his wife died. He was
now over seventy, but his last campaign was destined to be the most
brilliant of his long career. A combined effort of the Austrians and
Saxons to retrieve the disasters of the summer by a winter campaign
towards Berlin itself led to a hurried concentration of the Prussians.
Frederick from Silesia checked the Austrian main army and hastened
towards Dresden. But before he had arrived, Leopold, no longer in
observation, had decided the war by his overwhelming victory of
Kesselsdorf (December 14, 1745). It was his habit to pray before
battle, for he was a devout Lutheran. On this last field his words
were, "O Lord God, let me not be disgraced in my old days. Or if Thou
wilt not help me, do not help these scoundrels, but leave us to try it
ourselves." With this great victory Leopold's career ended. He retired
from active service, and the short remainder of his life was spent at
Dessau, where he died on the 7th of April 1747.

He was succeeded by his son, LEOPOLD II., MAXIMILIAN, PRINCE OF
ANHALT-DESSAU (1700-1751), who was one of the best of Frederick's
subordinate generals, and especially distinguished himself by the
capture of Glogau in 1741, and his generalship at Mollwitz, Chotusitz
(where he was made general field marshal on the field of battle),
Hohenfriedberg and Soor.

Another son, PRINCE DIETRICH OF ANHALT-DESSAU (d. 1769), was also a
distinguished Prussian general.

But the most famous of the sons was PRINCE MORITZ OF ANHALT-DESSAU
(1712-1760), who entered the Prussian army in 1725, saw his first
service as a volunteer in the War of the Polish Succession (1734-35),
and in the latter years of the reign of Frederick William held
important commands. In the Silesian wars of Frederick II., Moritz,
the ablest of the old Leopold's sons, greatly distinguished himself,
especially at the battle of Hohenfriedberg (Striegau), 1745. At
Kesselsdorf it was the wing led by the young Prince Moritz that
carried the Austrian lines and won the "Old Dessauer's" last fight. In
the years of peace preceding the Seven Years' War, Moritz was employed
by Frederick the Great in the colonizing of the waste lands of
Pomerania and the Oder Valley. When the king took the field again in
1756, Moritz was in command of one of the columns which hemmed in the
Saxon army in the lines of Pirna, and he received the surrender of
Rutowski's force after the failure of the Austrian attempts at relief.
Next year Moritz underwent changes of fortune. At the battle of Kolin
he led the left wing, which, through a misunderstanding with the
king, was prematurely drawn into action and failed hopelessly. In
the disastrous days which followed, Moritz was under the cloud of
Frederick's displeasure. But the glorious victory of Leuthen (December
5, 1757) put an end to this. At the close of that day, Frederick
rode down the lines and called out to General Prince Moritz,
"I congratulate you, Herr Feldmarschall!" At Zorndorf he again
distinguished himself, but at the surprise of Hochkirch fell wounded
into the hands of the Austrians. Two years later, soon after his
release, his wound proved mortal.


AUTHORITIES.--Varnhagen von Ense, _Preuss. biographische Denkmale_,
vol. ii. (3rd ed., 1872); _Militar Konversations-Lexikon_, vol. ii.
(Leipzig, 1833); Anon., _Fürst Leopold I. von Anhalt und seine Sohne_
(Dessau, 1852); G. Pauli, _Leben grosser Helden_, vol. vi.; von
Orlich, _Prinz Moritz von Anhalt-Dessau_ (Berlin, 1842); Crousatz,
_Militarische Denkwurdigkeiten des Fürsten Leopold von Anhalt-Dessau_
(1875); supplements to _Militär Wochenblatt_ (1878 and 1889); Siebigk,
_Selbstbiographie des Fürsten Leopold von Anhalt-Dessau_ (Dessau,
1860 and 1876); Hosäus, _Zur Biographie des Fürsten Leopold von
Anhalt-Dessau_ (Dessau, 1876); Würdig, _Des Alten Dessauers Leben und
Taten_ (3rd ed., Dessau, 1903); _Briefe Konig Friedrich Wilhelms I. an
den Fürsten L._ (Berlin, 1905).



ANHYDRITE, a mineral, differing chemically from the more commonly
occurring gypsum in containing no water of crystallization, being
anhydrous calcium sulphate, CaSO_{4}. It crystallizes in the
orthorhombic system, and has three directions of perfect cleavage
parallel to the three planes of symmetry. It is not isomorphous with
the orthorhombic barium and strontium sulphates, as might be expected
from the chemical formulae. Distinctly developed crystals are somewhat
rare, the mineral usually presenting the form of cleavage masses. The
hardness is 3-1/2 and the specific gravity 2.9. The colour is white,
sometimes greyish, bluish or reddish. On the best developed of the
three cleavages the lustre is pearly, on other surfaces it is of the
ordinary vitreous type.

Anhydrite is most frequently found in salt deposits with gypsum; it
was, for instance, first discovered, in 1794, in a salt mine near
Hall in Tirol. Other localities which produce typical specimens of the
mineral, and where the mode of occurrence is the same, are Stassfurt
in Germany, Aussee in Styria and Bex in Switzerland. At all these
places it is only met with at some depth; nearer the surface of the
ground it has been altered to gypsum owing to absorption of water.

From an aqueous solution calcium sulphate is deposited as crystals
of gypsum, but when the solution contains an excess of sodium or
potassium chloride anhydrite is deposited. This is one of the several
methods by which the mineral has been prepared artificially, and
is identical with its mode of origin in nature, the mineral having
crystallized out in salt basins.

The name anhydrite was given by A.G. Werner in 1804, because of the
absence of water, as contrasted with the presence of water in gypsum.
Other names for the species are muriacite and karstenite; the former,
an earlier name, being given under the impression that the substance
was a chloride (muriate). A peculiar variety occurring as contorted
concretionary masses is known as tripe-stone, and a scaly granular
variety, from Vulpino, near Bergamo, in Lombardy, as vulpinite; the
latter is cut and polished for ornamental purposes.

(L.J.S.)



ANI (anc. _Abnicum_), an ancient and ruined Armenian city, in Russian
Transcaucasia, government Erivan, situated at an altitude of 4390 ft.,
between the Arpa-chai (_Harpasus_) and a deep ravine. In 961 it became
the capital of the Bagratid kings of Armenia, and when yielded to the
Byzantine emperor (1046) it was a populous city, known traditionally
as the "city with the 1001 churches." It was taken eighteen years
later by the Seljuk Turks, five times by the Georgians between 1125
and 1209, in 1239 by the Mongols, and its ruin was completed by an
earthquake in 1319. It is still surrounded by a double wall partly in
ruins, and amongst the remains are a "patriarchal" church finished in
1010, two other churches, both of the 11th century, a fourth built in
1215, and a palace of large size.

See Brosset, _Les Ruines d'Ani_ (1860-1861).



ANICETUS, pope c. 154-167. It was during his pontificate that
St. Polycarp visited the Roman Church.



ANICHINI, LUIGI, Italian engraver of seals and medals, a native of
Ferrara, lived at Venice about 1550. Michelangelo pronounced his
"Interview of Alexander the Great with the high-priest at Jerusalem,"
"the perfection of the art." His medals of Henry II. of France and
Pope Paul III. are greatly valued.



ANILINE, PHENYLAMINE, or AMINOBENZENE, (C_{6}H_{5}NH_{2}), an organic
base first obtained from the destructive distillation of indigo in
1826 by O. Unverdorben (_Pogg. Ann._, 1826, 8, p. 397), who named it
crystalline. In 1834, F. Runge (_Pogg. Ann._, 1834, 31, p. 65; 32,
p. 331) isolated from coal-tar a substance which produced a beautiful
blue colour on treatment with chloride of lime; this he named kyanol
or cyanol. In 1841, C.J. Fritzsche showed that by treating indigo with
caustic potash it yielded an oil, which he named aniline, from the
specific name of one of the indigo-yielding plants, _Indigofera anil_,
_anil_ being derived from the Sanskrit _n[=i]la_, dark-blue, and
_n[=i]l[=a]_, the indigo plant. About the same time N.N. Zinin found
that on reducing nitrobenzene, a base was formed which he named
benzidam. A.W. von Hofmann investigated these variously prepared
substances, and proved them to be identical, and thenceforth they took
their place as one body, under the name aniline or phenylamine. Pure
aniline is a basic substance of an oily consistence, colourless,
melting at -8° and boiling at 184° C. On exposure to air it absorbs
oxygen and resinifies, becoming deep brown in colour; it ignites
readily, burning with a large smoky flame. It possesses a somewhat
pleasant vinous odour and a burning aromatic taste; it is a highly
acrid poison.

[v.02 p.0048]

Aniline is a weak base and forms salts with the mineral acids. Aniline
hydrochloride forms large colourless tables, which become greenish
on exposure; it is the "aniline salt" of commerce. The sulphate forms
beautiful white plates. Although aniline is but feebly basic, it
precipitates zinc, aluminium and ferric salts, and on warming expels
ammonia from its salts. Aniline combines directly with alkyl iodides
to form secondary and tertiary amines; boiled with carbon disulphide
it gives sulphocarbanilide (diphenyl thio-urea), CS(NHC_{6}H_{5})_{2},
which may be decomposed into phenyl mustard-oil, C_{6}H_{5}CNS, and
triphenyl guanidine, C_{6}H_{5}N: C(NHC_{6}H_{5})_{2}. Sulphuric acid
at 180° gives sulphanilic acid, NH2.C_{6}H_{4}.SO_{3}H. Anilides, compounds
in which the amino group is substituted by an acid radical, are
prepared by heating aniline with certain acids; antifebrin or
acetanilide is thus obtained from acetic acid and aniline. The
oxidation of aniline has been carefully investigated. In alkaline
solution azobenzene results, while arsenic acid produces the
violet-colouring matter violaniline. Chromic acid converts it into
quinone, while chlorates, in the presence of certain metallic salts
(especially of vanadium), give aniline black. Hydrochloric acid and
potassium chlorate give chloranil. Potassium permanganate in neutral
solution oxidizes it to nitrobenzene, in alkaline solution to
azobenzene, ammonia and oxalic acid, in acid solution to aniline
black. Hypochlorous acid gives para-amino phenol and para-amino
diphenylamine (E. Bamberger, _Ber._, 1898, 31, p. 1522).

The great commercial value of aniline is due to the readiness with
which it yields, directly or indirectly, valuable dyestuffs. The
discovery of mauve in 1858 by Sir W.H. Perkin was the first of
a series of dyestuffs which are now to be numbered by hundreds.
Reference should be made to the articles DYEING, FUCHSINE, SAFRANINE,
INDULINES, for more details on this subject. In addition to dyestuffs,
it is a starting-product for the manufacture of many drugs, such
as antipyrine, antifebrin, &c. Aniline is manufactured by reducing
nitrobenzene with iron and hydrochloric acid and steam-distilling the
product. The purity of the product depends upon the quality of the
benzene from which the nitrobenzene was prepared. In commerce three
brands of aniline are distinguished--aniline oil for blue, which
is pure aniline; aniline oil for red, a mixture of equimolecular
quantities of aniline and ortho- and para-toluidines; and aniline
oil for safranine, which contains aniline and ortho-toluidine, and
is obtained from the distillate (_échappés_) of the fuchsine fusion.
Monomethyl and dimethyl aniline are colourless liquids prepared by
heating aniline, aniline hydro-chloride and methyl alcohol in
an autoclave at 220°. They are of great importance in the colour
industry. Monomethyl aniline boils at 193-195°; dimethyl aniline at
192°.



ANIMAL (Lat. _animalis_, from _anima_, breath, soul), a term first
used as a noun or adjective to denote a living thing, but now used to
designate one branch of living things as opposed to the other branch
known as plants. Until the discovery of protoplasm, and the series
of investigations by which it was established that the cell was a
fundamental structure essentially alike in both animals and plants
(see CYTOLOGY), there was a vague belief that plants, if they could
really be regarded as animated creatures, exhibited at the most a
lower grade of life. We know now that in so far as life and living
matter can be investigated by science, animals and plants cannot be
described as being alive in different degrees. Animals and plants
are extremely closely related organisms, alike in their fundamental
characters, and each grading into organisms which possess some of
the characters of both classes or kingdoms (see PROTISTA). The actual
boundaries between animals and plants are artificial; they are
rather due to the ingenious analysis of the systematist than actually
resident in objective nature. The most obvious distinction is that
the animal cell-wall is either absent or composed of a nitrogenous
material, whereas the plant cell-wall is composed of a carbohydrate
material--cellulose. The animal and the plant alike require food to
repair waste, to build up new tissue and to provide material which,
by chemical change, may liberate the energy which appears in the
processes of life. The food is alike in both cases; it consists of
water, certain inorganic salts, carbohydrate material and proteid
material. Both animals and plants take their water and inorganic salts
directly as such. The animal cell can absorb its carbohydrate and
proteid food only in the form of carbohydrate and proteid; it is
dependent, in fact, on the pre-existence of these organic substances,
themselves the products of living matter, and in this respect the
animal is essentially a parasite on existing animal and plant life.
The plant, on the other hand, if it be a green plant, containing
chlorophyll, is capable, in the presence of light, of building up both
carbohydrate material and proteid material from inorganic salts; if
it be a fungus, devoid of chlorophyll, whilst it is dependent on
pre-existing carbohydrate material and is capable of absorbing,
like an animal, proteid material as such, it is able to build up its
proteid food from material chemically simpler than proteid. On these
basal differences are founded most of the characters which make the
higher forms of animal and plant life so different. The animal body,
if it be composed of many cells, follows a different architectural
plan; the compact nature of its food, and the yielding nature of its
cell-walls, result in a form of structure consisting essentially of
tubular or spherical masses of cells arranged concentrically round the
food-cavity. The relatively rigid nature of the plant cell-wall, and
the attenuated inorganic food-supply of plants, make possible and
necessary a form of growth in which the greatest surface is exposed to
the exterior, and thus the plant body is composed of flattened laminae
and elongated branching growths. The distinctions between animals and
plants are in fact obviously secondary and adaptive, and point clearly
towards the conception of a common origin for the two forms of life, a
conception which is made still more probable by the existence of many
low forms in which the primary differences between animals and plants
fade out.

An animal may be defined as a living organism, the protoplasm of which
does not secrete a cellulose cell-wall, and which requires for its
existence proteid material obtained from the living or dead bodies of
existing plants or animals. The common use of the word animal as
the equivalent of mammal, as opposed to bird or reptile or fish, is
erroneous.

The classification of the animal kingdom is dealt with in the article
ZOOLOGY.

(P.C.M.)



ANIMAL HEAT. Under this heading is discussed the physiology of the
temperature of the animal body.

The higher animals have within their bodies certain sources of heat,
and also some mechanism by means of which both the production and loss
of heat can be regulated. This is conclusively shown by the fact that
both in summer and winter their mean temperature remains the same. But
it was not until the introduction of thermometers that any exact data
on the temperature of animals could be obtained. It was then found
that local differences were present, since heat production and heat
loss vary considerably in different parts of the body, although the
circulation of the blood tends to bring about a mean temperature of
the internal parts. Hence it is important to determine the temperature
of those parts which most nearly approaches to that of the internal
organs. Also for such results to be comparable they must be made in
the same situation. The rectum gives most accurately the temperature
of internal parts, or in women and some animals the vagina, uterus or
bladder.

[v.02 p.0049]

Occasionally that of the urine as it leaves the urethra may be of use.
More usually the temperature is taken in the mouth, axilla or groin.


_Warm and Cold Blooded Animals_.--By numerous observations upon men
and animals, John Hunter showed that the essential difference between
the so-called warm-blooded and cold-blooded animals lies in the
constancy of the temperature of the former, and the variability of
the temperature of the latter. Those animals high in the scale of
evolution, as birds and mammals, have a high temperature almost
constant and independent of that of the surrounding air, whereas
among the lower animals there is much variation of body temperature,
dependent entirely on their surroundings. There are, however, certain
mammals which are exceptions, being warm-blooded during the summer,
but cold-blooded during the winter when they hibernate; such are the
hedgehog, bat and dormouse. John Hunter suggested that two groups
should be known as "animals of permanent heat at all atmospheres" and
"animals of a heat variable with every atmosphere," but later
Bergmann suggested that they should be known as "homoiothermic" and
"poikilothermic" animals. But it must be remembered there is no hard
and fast line between the two groups. Also, from work recently done
by J.O. Wakelin Barratt, it has been shown that under certain
pathological conditions a warm-blooded (homoiothermic) animal
may become for a time cold-blooded (poikilothermic). He has shown
conclusively that this condition exists in rabbits suffering from
rabies during the last period of their life, the rectal temperature
being then within a few degrees of the room temperature and varying
with it. He explains this condition by the assumption that the nervous
mechanism of heat regulation has become paralysed. The respiration and
heart-rate being also retarded during this period, the resemblance
to the condition of hibernation is considerable. Again, Sutherland
Simpson has shown that during deep anaesthesia a warm-blooded animal
tends to take the same temperature as that of its environment. He
demonstrated that when a monkey is kept deeply anaesthetized with
ether and is placed in a cold chamber, its temperature gradually
falls, and that when it has reached a sufficiently low point (about
25° C. in the monkey), the employment of an anaesthetic is no longer
necessary, the animal then being insensible to pain and incapable of
being roused by any form of stimulus; it is, in fact, narcotized
by cold, and is in a state of what may be called "artificial
hibernation." Once again this is explained by the fact that the
heat-regulating mechanism has been interfered with. Similar results
have been obtained from experiments on cats. These facts--with
many others--tend to show that the power of maintaining a constant
temperature has been a gradual development, as Darwin's theory of
evolution suggests, and that anything that interferes with the due
working of the higher nerve-centres puts the animal back again, for
the time being, on to a lower plane of evolution.


[Illustration: Chart showing diurnal variation in body temperature,
ranging from about 37.5° C. from 10 A.M. to 6 P.M., and falling to
about 36.3° C. from 2 A.M to 6 A.M.]


_Variations in the Temperature of Man and some other Animals_.--As
stated above, the temperature of warm-blooded animals is maintained
with but slight variation. In health under normal conditions the
temperature of man varies between 36° C. and 38° C., or if the
thermometer be placed in the axilla, between 36.25° C. and 37.5° C.
In the mouth the reading would be from .25° C. to 1.5° C. higher than
this; and in the rectum some .9° C. higher still. The temperature of
infants and young children has a much greater range than this, and is
susceptible of wide divergencies from comparatively slight causes.

Of the lower warm-blooded animals, there are some that appear to be
cold-blooded at birth. Kittens, rabbits and puppies, if removed from
their surroundings shortly after birth, lose their body heat until
their temperature has fallen to within a few degrees of that of the
surrounding air. But such animals are at birth blind, helpless and in
some cases naked. Animals who are born when in a condition of greater
development can maintain their temperature fairly constant. In strong,
healthy infants a day or two old the temperature rises slightly, but
in that of weakly, ill-developed children it either remains stationary
or falls. The cause of the variable temperature in infants and
young immature animals is the imperfect development of the nervous
regulating mechanism.

The average temperature falls slightly from infancy to puberty and
again from puberty to middle age, but after that stage is passed the
temperature begins to rise again, and by about the eightieth year is
as high as in infancy. A diurnal variation has been observed dependent
on the periods of rest and activity, the maximum ranging from 10 A.M.
to 6 P.M., the minimum from 11 P.M. to 3 A.M. Sutherland Simpson and
J.J. Galbraith have recently done much work on this subject. In their
first experiments they showed that in a monkey there is a well-marked
and regular diurnal variation of the body temperature, and that by
reversing the daily routine this diurnal variation is also reversed.
The diurnal temperature curve follows the periods of rest and
activity, and is not dependent on the incidence of day and night; in
monkeys which are active during the night and resting during the day,
the body temperature is highest at night and lowest through the day.
They then made observations on the temperature of animals and birds of
nocturnal habit, where the periods of rest and activity are naturally
the reverse of the ordinary through habit and not from outside
interference. They found that in nocturnal birds the temperature
is highest during the natural period of activity (night) and lowest
during the period of rest (day), but that the mean temperature is
lower and the range less than in diurnal birds of the same size. That
the temperature curve of diurnal birds is essentially similar to that
of man and other homoiothermal animals, except that the maximum occurs
earlier in the afternoon and the minimum earlier in the morning. Also
that the curves obtained from rabbit, guinea-pig and dog were quite
similar to those from man. The mean temperature of the female was
higher than that of the male in all the species examined whose sex had
been determined.


Meals sometimes cause a slight elevation, sometimes a slight
depression--alcohol seems always to produce a fall. Exercise and
variations of external temperature within ordinary limits cause very
slight change, as there are many compensating influences at work,
which are discussed later. Even from very active exercise the
temperature does not rise more than one degree, and if carried to
exhaustion a fall is observed. In travelling from very cold to very
hot regions a variation of less than one degree occurs, and the
temperature of those living in the tropics is practically identical
with those dwelling in the Arctic regions.

[v.02 p.0050]

_Limits compatible with Life._--There are limits both of heat and cold
that a warm-blooded animal can bear, and other far wider limits that a
cold-blooded animal may endure and yet live. The effect of too extreme
a cold is to lessen metabolism, and hence to lessen the production of
heat. Both katabolic and anabolic changes share in the depression, and
though less energy is used up, still less energy is generated. This
diminished metabolism tells first on the central nervous system,
especially the brain and those parts concerned in consciousness.
Both heart-beat and respiration-number become diminished, drowsiness
supervenes, becoming steadily deeper until it passes into the sleep of
death. Occasionally, however, convulsions may set in towards the end,
and a death somewhat similar to that of asphyxia takes place. In some
recent experiments on cats performed by Sutherland Simpson and
Percy T. Herring, they found them unable to survive when the
rectal temperature was reduced below 16° C. At this low temperature
respiration became increasingly feeble, the heart-impulse usually
continued after respiration had ceased, the beats becoming very
irregular, apparently ceasing, then beginning again. Death appeared to
be mainly due to asphyxia, and the only certain sign that it had
taken place was the loss of knee jerks. On the other hand, too high a
temperature hurries on the metabolism of the various tissues at such
a rate that their capital is soon exhausted. Blood that is too warm
produces dyspnoea and soon exhausts the metabolic capital of the
respiratory centre. The rate of the heart is quickened, the beats then
become irregular and finally cease. The central nervous system is also
profoundly affected, consciousness may be lost, and the patient falls
into a comatose condition, or delirium and convulsions may set in. All
these changes can be watched in any patient suffering from an acute
fever. The lower limit of temperature that man can endure depends on
many things, but no one can survive a temperature of 45° C. (113° F.)
or above for very long. Mammalian muscle becomes rigid with heat rigor
at about 50° C., and obviously should this temperature be reached the
sudden rigidity of the whole body would render life impossible. H.M.
Vernon has recently done work on the death temperature and paralysis
temperature (temperature of heat rigor) of various animals. He found
that animals of the same class of the animal kingdom showed very
similar temperature values, those from the Amphibia examined being
38.5° C., Fishes 39°, Reptilia 45°, and various Molluscs 46°. Also
in the case of Pelagic animals he showed a relation between death
temperature and the quantity of solid constituents of the body,
_Cestus_ having lowest death temperature and least amount of solids in
its body. But in the higher animals his experiments tend to show
that there is greater variation in both the chemical and physical
characters of the protoplasm, and hence greater variation in the
extreme temperature compatible with life.


_Regulation of Temperature._--The heat of the body is generated by the
chemical changes--those of oxidation--undergone not by any particular
substance or in any one place, but by the tissues at large. Wherever
destructive metabolism (katabolism) is going on, heat is being set
free. When a muscle does work it also gives rise to heat, and if
this is estimated it can be shown that the muscles alone during their
contractions provide far more heat than the whole amount given out
by the body. Also it must be remembered that the heart--also a
muscle,--never resting, does in the 24 hours no inconsiderable amount
of work, and hence must give rise to no inconsiderable amount of heat.
From this it is clear that the larger proportion of total heat of
the body is supplied by the muscles. These are essentially the
"thermogenic tissues." Next to the muscles as heat generators come the
various secretory glands, especially the liver, which appears never to
rest in this respect. The brain also must be a source of heat, since
its temperature is higher than that of the arterial blood with which
it is supplied. Also a certain amount of heat is produced by the
changes which the food undergoes in the alimentary canal before it
really enters the body. But heat while continually being produced is
also continually being lost by the skin, lungs, urine and faeces.
And it is by the constant modification of these two factors, (1)
heat production and (2) heat loss, that the constant temperature of
a warm-blooded animal is maintained. Heat is lost to the body through
the faeces and urine, respiration, conduction and radiation from
the skin, and by evaporation of perspiration. The following are
approximately the relative amounts of heat lost through these
various channels (different authorities give somewhat different
figures):--faeces and urine about 3, respiration about 20, skin
(conduction, radiation and evaporation) about 77. Hence it is clear
the chief means of loss are the skin and the lungs. The more air that
passes in and out of the lungs in a given time, the greater the loss
of heat. And in such animals as the dog, who do not perspire easily by
the skin, respiration becomes far more important.

But for man the great heat regulator is undoubtedly the skin, which
regulates heat loss by its vasomotor mechanism, and also by the
nervous mechanism of perspiration. Dilatation of the cutaneous
vascular areas leads to a larger flow of blood through the skin, and
so tends to cool the body, and _vice versa_. Also the special nerves
of perspiration can increase or lessen heat loss by promoting or
diminishing the secretions of the skin. There are greater difficulties
in the exact determination in the amount of heat produced, but there
are certain well-known facts in connexion with it. A larger living
body naturally produces more heat than a smaller one of the same
nature, but the surface of the smaller, being greater in proportion
to its bulk than that of the larger, loses heat at a more rapid rate.
Hence to maintain the same constant bodily temperature, the smaller
animal must produce a relatively larger amount of heat. And in the
struggle for existence this has become so.

Food temporarily increases the production of heat, the rate of
production steadily rising after a meal until a maximum is reached
from about the 6th to the 9th hour. If sugar be included in the meal
the maximum is reached earlier; if mainly fat, later. Muscular work
very largely increases the production of heat, and hence the more
active the body the greater the production of heat.

But all the arrangements in the animal economy for the production and
loss of heat are themselves probably regulated by the central nervous
system, there being a thermogenic centre--situated above the spinal
cord, and according to some observers in the optic thalamus.


AUTHORITIES.--M.S. Pembrey, "Animal Heat," in Schafer's _Textbook
of Physiology_ (1898); C.R. Richet, "Chaleur," in _Dictionnaire de
physiologie_ (Paris, 1898); Hale White, Croonian Lectures, _Lancet_,
London, 1897; Pembrey and Nicol, _Journal of Physiology_, vol. xxiii.,
1898-1899; H.M. Vernon, "Heat Rigor," _Journal of Physiology_, xxiv.,
1899; H.M. Vernon, "Death Temperatures," _Journal of Physiology_,
xxv., 1899; F.C. Eve, "Temperature on Nerve Cells," _Journal of
Physiology_, xxvi., 1900; G. Weiss, _Comptes Rendus, Soc. de Biol._,
lii., 1900; Swale Vincent and Thomas Lewis, "Heat Rigor of Muscle,"
_Journal of Physiology_, 1901; Sutherland Simpson and Percy Herring,
"Cold and Reflex Action," Journal of Physiology, 1905; Sutherland
Simpson, _Proceedings of Physiological Soc._, July 19, 1902;
Sutherland Simpson and J.J. Galbraith, "Diurnal Variation of Body
Temperature," _Journal of Physiology_, 1905; _Transactions Royal
Society Edinburgh_, 1905; _Proc. Physiological Society_, p. xx., 1903;
A.E. Boycott and J.S. Haldane, _Effects of High Temperatures on Man._



ANIMAL WORSHIP, an ill-defined term, covering facts ranging from the
worship of the real divine animal, commonly conceived as a "god-body,"
at one end of the scale, to respect for the bones of a slain animal or
even the use of a respectful name for the living animal at the other
end. Added to this, in many works on the subject we find reliance
placed, especially for the African facts, on reports of travellers who
were merely visitors to the regions on which they wrote.

[v.02 p.0051]


_Classification_.--Animal cults may be classified in two ways:
(A) according to their outward form; (B) according to their inward
meaning, which may of course undergo transformations.

(A) There are two broad divisions: (1) all animals of a given species
are sacred, perhaps owing to the impossibility of distinguishing the
sacred few from the profane crowd; (2) one or a fixed number of a
species are sacred. It is probable that the first of these forms is
the primary one and the second in most cases a development from it due
to (i.) the influence of other individual cults, (ii.) anthropomorphic
tendencies, (iii.) the influence of chieftainship, hereditary and
otherwise, (iv.) annual sacrifice of the sacred animal and mystical
ideas connected therewith, (v.) syncretism, due either to unity of
function or to a philosophic unification, (vi.) the desire to do
honour to the species in the person of one of its members, and
possibly other less easily traceable causes.

(B) Treating cults according to their meaning, which is not
necessarily identical with the cause which first led to the
deification of the animal in question, we can classify them under ten
specific heads: (i.) pastoral cults; (ii.) hunting cults; (iii.) cults
of dangerous or noxious animals; (iv.) cults of animals regarded as
human souls or their embodiment; (v.) totemistic cults; (vi.) cults
of secret societies, and individual cults of tutelary animals;
(vii.) cults of tree and vegetation spirits; (viii.) cults of ominous
animals; (ix.) cults, probably derivative, of animals associated with
certain deities; (x.) cults of animals used in magic.

(i.) The pastoral type falls into two sub-types, in which the species
(_a_) is spared and (_b_) sometimes receives special honour at
intervals in the person of an individual. (See _Cattle, Buffalo_,
below.)

(ii.) In hunting cults the species is habitually killed, but (_a_)
occasionally honoured in the person of a single individual, or (_b_)
each slaughtered animal receives divine honours. (See _Bear_, below.)

(iii.) The cult of dangerous animals is due (_a_) to the fear that the
soul of the slain beast may take vengeance on the hunter, (_b_) to a
desire to placate the rest of the species. (See _Leopard_, below.)

(iv.) Animals are frequently regarded as the abode, temporary or
permanent, of the souls of the dead, sometimes as the actual souls
of the dead. Respect for them is due to two main reasons: (_a_) the
kinsmen of the dead desire to preserve the goodwill of their dead
relatives; (_b_) they wish at the same time to secure that their
kinsmen are not molested and caused to undergo unnecessary suffering.
(See _Serpent_, below.)

(v.) One of the most widely found modes of showing respect to animals
is known as totemism (see TOTEM AND TOTEMISM), but except in decadent
forms there is but little positive worship; in Central Australia,
however, the rites of the Wollunqua totem group are directed towards
placating this mythical animal, and cannot be termed anything but
religious ceremonies.

(vi.) In secret societies we find bodies of men grouped together with
a single tutelary animal; the individual, in the same way, acquires
the nagual or individual totem, sometimes by ceremonies of the nature
of the bloodbond.

(vii.) Spirits of vegetation in ancient and modern Europe and in China
are conceived in animal form. (See _Goat_, below.)

(viii.) The ominous animal or bird may develop into a deity. (See
_Hawk_, below.)

(ix.) It is commonly assumed that the animals associated with certain
deities are sacred because the god was originally theriomorphic; this
is doubtless the case in certain instances; but Apollo Smintheus,
Dionysus Bassareus and other examples seem to show that the god may
have been appealed to for help and thus become associated with the
animals from whom he protected the crops, &c.

(x.) The use of animals in magic may sometimes give rise to a kind
of respect for them, but this is of a negative nature. See, however,
articles by Preuss in _Globus_, vol. lxvii., in which he maintains
that animals of magical influence are elevated into divinities.


_Animal Cults._

_Bear_.--The bear enjoys a large measure of respect from all savage
races that come in contact with it, which shows itself in apologies
and in festivals in its honour. The most important developments of
the cult are in East Asia among the Siberian tribes; among the Ainu of
Sakhalin a young bear is caught at the end of winter and fed for
some nine months; then after receiving honours it is killed, and the
people, who previously show marks of grief at its approaching fate,
dance merrily and feast on its body. Among the Gilyaks a similar
festival is found, but here it takes the form of a celebration in
honour of a recently dead kinsman, to whom the spirit of the bear
is sent. Whether this feature or a cult of the hunting type was the
primary form, is so far an open question. There is a good deal of
evidence to connect the Greek goddess Artemis with a cult of the bear;
girls danced as "bears" in her honour, and might not marry before
undergoing this ceremony. The bear is traditionally associated with
Bern in Switzerland, and in 1832 a statue of Artio, a bear goddess,
was dug up there.

_Buffalo_.--The Todas of S. India abstain from the flesh of their
domestic animal, the buffalo; but once a year they sacrifice a bull
calf, which is eaten in the forest by the adult males.

_Cattle_.--Cattle are respected by many pastoral peoples; they live
on milk or game, and the killing of an ox is a sacrificial function.
Conspicuous among Egyptian animal cults was that of the bull, Apis. It
was distinguished by certain marks, and when the old Apis died a new
one was sought; the finder was rewarded, and the bull underwent four
months' education at Nilopolis. Its birthday was celebrated once a
year; oxen, which had to be pure white, were sacrificed to it; women
were forbidden to approach it when once its education was finished.
Oracles were obtained from it in various ways. After death it was
mummified and buried in a rock-tomb. Less widespread was the cult of
the Mnevis, also consecrated to Osiris. Similar observances are found
in our own day on the Upper Nile; the Nuba and Nuer worship the bull;
the Angoni of Central Africa and the Sakalava of Madagascar keep
sacred bulls. In India respect for the cow is widespread, but is of
post-Vedic origin; there is little actual worship, but the products of
the cow are important in magic.

_Crow_.--The crow is the chief deity of the Thlinkit Indians of N.W.
America; and all over that region it is the chief figure in a group of
myths, fulfilling the office of a culture hero who brings the light,
gives fire to mankind, &c. Together with the eagle-hawk the crow plays
a great part in the mythology of S.E. Australia.

_Dog_.--Actual dog-worship is uncommon; the Nosarii of western Asia
are said to worship a dog; the Kalangs of Java had a cult of the red
dog, each family keeping one in the house; according to one authority
the dogs are images of wood which are worshipped after the death of a
member of the family and burnt after a thousand days. In Nepal it
is said that dogs are worshipped at the festival called Khicha Puja.
Among the Harranians dogs were sacred, but this was rather as brothers
of the mystae.

_Elephant_.--In Siam it is believed that a white elephant may contain
the soul of a dead person, perhaps a Buddha; when one is taken the
capturer is rewarded and the animal brought to the king to be kept
ever afterwards; it cannot be bought or sold. It is baptized and fêted
and mourned for like a human being at its death. In some parts of
Indo-China the belief is that the soul of the elephant may injure
people after death; it is therefore fêted by a whole village. In
Cambodia it is held to bring luck to the kingdom. In Sumatra the
elephant is regarded as a tutelary spirit. The cult of the white
elephant is also found at Ennarea, southern Abyssinia.

_Fish_.--Dagon seems to have been a fish-god with human head and
hands; his worshippers wore fish-skins. In the temples of Apollo and
Aphrodite were sacred fish, which may point to a fish cult. Atargatis
is said to have had sacred fish at Askelon, and from Xenophon we read
that the fish of the Chalus were regarded as gods.

_Goat_.--Dionysus was believed to take the form of a goat, probably as
a divinity of vegetation. Pan, Silenus, the Satyrs and the Fauns were
either capriform or had some part of their bodies shaped like that of
a goat. In northern Europe the wood spirit, Ljesche, is believed to
have a goat's horns, ears and legs. In Africa the Bijagos are said to
have a goat as their principal divinity.

_Hare_.--In North America the Algonquin tribes had as their chief
deity a "mighty great hare" to whom they went at death. According to
one account he lived in the east, according to another in the north.
In his anthropomorphized form he was known as Menabosho or Michabo.

[v.02 p.0052]

_Hawk_.--In North Borneo we seem to see the evolution of a god in the
three stages of the cult of the hawk among the Kenyahs, the Kayans and
the sea Dyaks. The Kenyahs will not kill it, address to it thanks
for assistance, and formally consult it before leaving home on an
expedition; it seems, however, to be regarded as the messenger of the
supreme god Balli Penyalong. The Kayans have a hawk-god, Laki Neho,
but seem to regard the hawk as the servant of the chief god, Laki
Tenangan. Singalang Burong, the hawk-god of the Dyaks, is completely
anthropomorphized. He is god of omens and ruler of the omen birds; but
the hawk is not his messenger, for he never leaves his house; stories
are, however, told of his attending feasts in human form and flying
away in hawk form when all was over.

_Horse_.--There is some reason to believe that Poseidon, like other
water gods, was originally conceived under the form of a horse. In
the cave of Phigalia Demeter was, according to popular tradition,
represented with the head and mane of a horse, possibly a relic of the
time when a non-specialized corn-spirit bore this form. Her priests
were called Poloi (colts) in Laconia. In Gaul we find a horse-goddess,
Epona; there are also traces of a horse-god, Rudiobus. The Gonds in
India worship a horse-god, Koda Pen, in the form of a shapeless stone;
but it is not clear that the horse is regarded as divine. The horse or
mare is a common form of the corn-spirit in Europe.

_Leopard_.--The cult of the leopard is widely found in West Africa.
Among the Ewe a man who kills one is liable to be put to death;
no leopard skin may be exposed to view, but a stuffed leopard is
worshipped. On the Gold Coast a leopard hunter who has killed his
victim is carried round the town behind the body of the leopard; he
may not speak, must besmear himself so as to look like a leopard and
imitate its movements. In Loango a prince's cap is put upon the head
of a dead leopard, and dances are held in its honour.

_Lion_.--The lion was associated with the Egyptian gods R[=e] and
Horus; there was a lion-god at Baalbek and a lion-headed goddess
Sekhet. The Arabs had a lion-god, Yaghuth. In modern Africa we find a
lion-idol among the Balonda.

_Lizard_.--The cult of the lizard is most prominent in the Pacific,
where it appears as an incarnation of Tangaloa. In Easter Island a
form of the house-god is the lizard; it is also a tutelary deity in
Madagascar.

_Mantis_.--Cagn is a prominent figure in Bushman mythology; the mantis
and the caterpillar, Ngo, are his incarnations. It was called the
"Hottentots' god" by early settlers.

_Monkey_.--In India the monkey-god, Hanuman, is a prominent figure; in
orthodox villages monkeys are safe from harm. Monkeys are said to be
worshipped in Togo. At Porto Novo, in French West Africa, twins have
tutelary spirits in the shape of small monkeys.

_Serpent_.--The cult of the serpent is found in many parts of the Old
World; it is also not unknown in America; in Australia, on the other
hand, though many species of serpent are found, there does not appear
to be any species of cult unless we include the Warramunga cult of the
mythical Wollunqua totem animal, whom they seek to placate by rites.
In Africa the chief centre of serpent worship was Dahomey; but the
cult of the python seems to have been of exotic origin, dating back to
the first quarter of the 17th century. By the conquest of Whydah
the Dahomeyans were brought in contact with a people of serpent
worshippers, and ended by adopting from them the cult which they
at first despised. At Whydah, the chief centre, there is a serpent
temple, tenanted by some fifty snakes; every python of the danh-gbi
kind must be treated with respect, and death is the penalty for
killing one, even by accident. Danh-gbi has numerous wives, who until
1857 took part in a public procession from which the profane crowd was
excluded; a python was carried round the town in a hammock, perhaps as
a ceremony for the expulsion of evils. The rainbow-god of the Ewe was
also conceived to have the form of a snake; his messenger was said to
be a small variety of boa; but only certain individuals, not the whole
species, were sacred. In many parts of Africa the serpent is looked
upon as the incarnation of deceased relatives; among the Amazulu, as
among the Betsileo of Madagascar, certain species are assigned as the
abode of certain classes; the Masai, on the other hand, regard each
species as the habitat of a particular family of the tribe.

In America some of the Amerindian tribes reverence the rattlesnake as
grandfather and king of snakes who is able to give fair winds or cause
tempest. Among the Hopi (Moqui) of Arizona the serpent figures largely
in one of the dances. The rattlesnake was worshipped in the Natchez
temple of the sun; and the Aztec deity Quetzalcoatl was a serpent-god.
The tribes of Peru are said to have adored great snakes in the
pre-Inca days; and in Chile the Araucanians made a serpent figure in
their deluge myth.

Over a large part of India there are carved representations of cobras
(N[=a]gas) or stones as substitutes; to these human food and flowers
are offered and lights are burned before the shrines. Among the
Dravidians a cobra which is accidentally killed is burned like a human
being; no one would kill one intentionally; the serpent-god's image is
carried in an annual procession by a celibate priestess.

Serpent cults were well known in ancient Europe; there does not, it
is true, appear to be much ground for supposing that Aesculapius was
a serpent-god in spite of his connexion with serpents. On the other
hand, we learn from Herodotus of the great serpent which defended the
citadel of Athens; the Roman _genius loci_ took the form of a serpent;
a snake was kept and fed with milk in the temple of Potrimpos, an old
Slavonic god. To this day there are numerous traces in popular belief,
especially in Germany, of respect for the snake, which seems to be a
survival of ancestor worship, such as still exists among the Zulus and
other savage tribes; the "house-snake," as it is called, cares for the
cows and the children, and its appearance is an omen of death, and the
life of a pair of house-snakes is often held to be bound up with that
of the master and mistress themselves. Tradition says that one of the
Gnostic sects known as the Ophites caused a tame serpent to coil round
the sacramental bread and worshipped it as the representative of the
Saviour. See also SERPENT-WORSHIP.

_Sheep_.--Only in Africa do we find a sheep-god proper; Ammon was the
god of Thebes; he was represented as ram-headed; his worshippers held
the ram to be sacred; it was, however, sacrificed once a year, and its
fleece formed the clothing of the idol.

_Tiger_.--The tiger is associated with Siva and Durga, but its cult is
confined to the wilder tribes; in Nepal the tiger festival is known as
Bagh Jatra, and the worshippers dance disguised as tigers. The Waralis
worship Waghia the lord of tigers in the form of a shapeless stone. In
Hanoi and Manchuria tiger-gods are also found.

_Wolf_.--Both Zeus and Apollo were associated with the wolf by the
Greeks; but it is not clear that this implies a previous cult of
the wolf. It is frequently found among the tutelary deities of
North American dancing or secret societies. The Thlinkits had a god,
Khanukh, whose name means "wolf," and worshipped a wolf-headed image.


AUTHORITIES.--For a fuller discussion and full references to these
and other cults, that of the serpent excepted, see N.W. Thomas
in Hastings' _Dictionary of Religions_; Frazer, _Golden Bough_;
Campbell's _Spirit Basis of Belief and Custom_; Maclennan's _Studies_
(series 2); V. Gennep, _Tabou et totémisme à Madagascar_. For the
serpent, see Ellis, _Ewe-speaking Peoples_, p. 54; _Internat. Archiv_,
xvii. 113; Tylor, _Primitive Culture_, ii. 239; Fergusson, _Tree and
Serpent Worship_; Mähly,_Die Schlange im Mythus_; Staniland Wake,
_Serpent Worship, &c._; _16th Annual Report of the American Bureau of
Ethnology_, p. 273, and bibliography, p. 312. For the bull, &c., in
Egypt, see EGYPT: _Religion_.

(N.W.T.)



ANIMÉ, an oleo-resin (said to be so called because in its natural
state it is infested with insects) which is exuded from the locust
tree, _Hymenaea coumaril_, and other species of _Hymenaea_ growing
in tropical South America. It is of a pale brown colour, transparent,
brittle, and in consequence of its agreeable odour is used for
fumigation and in perfumery. Its specific gravity varies from 1.054 to
1.057. It melts readily over the fire, and softens even with the heat
of the mouth; it is insoluble in water, and nearly so in cold alcohol.
It is allied to copal in its nature and appearance, and is much used
by varnish-makers. The name is also given to Zanzibar copal (_q.v._).

[v.02 p.0053]



ANIMISM (from _animus_, or _anima_, mind or soul), according to
the definition of Dr. E.B. Tylor, the doctrine of spiritual beings,
including human souls; in practice, however, the term is often
extended to include panthelism or animatism, the doctrine that a
great part, if not the whole, of the inanimate kingdom, as well as all
animated beings, are endowed with reason, intelligence and volition,
identical with that of man. This latter theory, which in many cases
is equivalent to personification, though it may be, like animism, a
feature of the philosophy of peoples of low culture, should not be
confused with it. But it is difficult in practice to distinguish the
two phases of thought and no clear account of animatism can yet be
given, largely on the ground that no people has yet been discovered
which has not already developed to a greater or less extent an
animistic philosophy. On theoretical grounds it is probable that
animatism preceded animism; but savage thought is no more consistent
than that of civilized man; and it may well be that animistic and
panthelistic doctrines are held simultaneously by the same person. In
like manner one portion of the savage explanation of nature may have
been originally animistic, another part animatistic.


_Origin_.--Animism may have arisen out of or simultaneously with
animatism as a primitive explanation of many different phenomena; if
animatism was originally applied to non-human or inanimate objects,
animism may from the outset have been in vogue as a theory of the
nature of man. Lists of phenomena from the contemplation of which the
savage was led to believe in animism have been given by Dr. Tylor,
Herbert Spencer, Mr. Andrew Lang and others; an animated controversy
arose between the former as to the priority of their respective
lists. Among these phenomena are: trance (_q.v._) and unconsciousness,
sickness, death, clairvoyance (_q.v._), dreams (_q.v._), apparitions
(_q.v._) of the dead, wraiths, hallucinations (_q.v._), echoes,
shadows and reflections.

Primitive ideas on the subject of the soul, and at the same time
the origin of them, are best illustrated by an analysis of the terms
applied to it. Readers of Dante know the idea that the dead have
no shadows; this was no invention of the poet's but a piece of
traditionary lore; at the present day among the Basutos it is held
that a man walking by the brink of a river may lose his life if his
shadow falls on the water, for a crocodile may seize it and draw him
in; in Tasmania, North and South America and classical Europe is
found the conception that the soul--[Greek: skia], _umbra_--is somehow
identical with the shadow of a man. More familiar to the Anglo-Saxon
race is the connexion between the soul and the breath; this
identification is found both in Aryan and Semitic languages; in Latin
we have _spiritus_, in Greek _pneuma_, in Hebrew _ruach_; and the
idea is found extending downwards to the lowest planes of culture in
Australia, America and Asia. For some of the Red Indians the Roman
custom of receiving the breath of a dying man was no mere pious duty
but a means of ensuring that his soul was transferred to a new body.
Other familiar conceptions identify the soul with the liver (see OMEN)
or the heart, with the reflected figure seen in the pupil of the eye,
and with the blood. Although the soul is often distinguished from
the vital principle, there are many cases in which a state of
unconsciousness is explained as due to the absence of the soul; in
South Australia _wilyamarraba_ (without soul) is the word used for
insensible. So too the autohypnotic trance of the magician or _shaman_
is regarded as due to his visit to distant regions or the nether
world, of which he brings back an account. Telepathy or clairvoyance
(_q.v._), with or without trance, must have operated powerfully to
produce a conviction of the dual nature of man, for it seems probable
that facts unknown to the automatist are sometimes discovered by means
of crystal-gazing (_q.v._), which is widely found among savages, as
among civilized peoples. Sickness is often explained as due to the
absence of the soul; and means are sometimes taken to lure back the
wandering soul; when a Chinese is at the point of death and his soul
is supposed to have already left his body, the patient's coat is held
up on a long bamboo while a priest endeavours to bring the departed
spirit back into the coat by means of incantations. If the bamboo
begins to turn round in the hands of the relative who is deputed to
hold it, it is regarded as a sign that the soul of the moribund has
returned (see AUTOMATISM). More important perhaps than all these
phenomena, because more regular and normal, was the daily period of
sleep with its frequent concomitant of fitful and incoherent ideas and
images. The mere immobility of the body was sufficient to show that
its state was not identical with that of waking; when, in addition,
the sleeper awoke to give an account of visits to distant lands, from
which, as modern psychical investigations suggest, he may even
have brought back veridical details, the conclusion must have been
irresistible that in sleep something journeyed forth, which was not
the body. In a minor degree revival of memory during sleep and similar
phenomena of the sub-conscious life may have contributed to the
same result. Dreams are sometimes explained by savages as journeys
performed by the sleeper, sometimes as visits paid by other persons,
by animals or objects to him; hallucinations, possibly more frequent
in the lower stages of culture, must have contributed to fortify
this interpretation, and the animistic theory in general. Seeing the
phantasmic figures of friends at the moment when they were, whether
at the point of death or in good health, many miles distant, must have
led the savage irresistibly to the dualistic theory. But hallucinatory
figures, both in dreams and waking life, are not necessarily those of
the living; from the reappearance of dead friends or enemies primitive
man was inevitably led to the belief that there existed an incorporeal
part of man which survived the dissolution of the body. The soul was
conceived to be a facsimile of the body, sometimes no less material,
sometimes more subtle but yet material, sometimes altogether
impalpable and intangible.


_Animism and Eschatology_.--The psychological side of animism has
already been dealt with; almost equally important in primitive creeds
is the eschatological aspect. In many parts of the world it is held
that the human body is the seat of more than one soul; in the island
of Nias four are distinguished, the shadow and the intelligence, which
die with the body, a tutelary spirit, termed _begoe_, and a second
which is carried on the head. Similar ideas are found among the
Euahlayi of S.E. Australia, the Dakotas and many other tribes. Just as
in Europe the ghost of a dead person is held to haunt the churchyard
or the place of death, although more orthodox ideas may be held and
enunciated by the same person as to the nature of a future life,
so the savage, more consistently, assigns different abodes to the
multiple souls with which he credits man. Of the four souls of a
Dakota, one is held to stay with the corpse, another in the village,
a third goes into the air, while the fourth goes to the land of souls,
where its lot may depend on its rank in this life, its sex, mode of
death or sepulture, on the due observance of funeral ritual, or many
other points (see ESCHATOLOGY). From the belief in the survival of the
dead arose the practice of offering food, lighting fires, &c., at the
grave, at first, maybe, as an act of friendship or filial piety, later
as an act of worship (see ANCESTOR WORSHIP). The simple offering of
food or shedding of blood at the grave develops into an elaborate
system of sacrifice; even where ancestor-worship is not found, the
desire to provide the dead with comforts in the future life may lead
to the sacrifice of wives, slaves, animals, &c., to the breaking or
burning of objects at the grave or to the provision of the ferryman's
toll, a coin put in the mouth of the corpse to pay the travelling
expenses of the soul. But all is not finished with the passage of the
soul to the land of the dead; the soul may return to avenge its death
by helping to discover the murderer, or to wreak vengeance for itself;
there is a widespread belief that those who die a violent death become
malignant spirits and endanger the lives of those who come near the
haunted spot; the woman who dies in child-birth becomes a _pontianak_,
and threatens the life of human beings; and man resorts to magical or
religious means of repelling his spiritual dangers.


_Development of Animism_.--If the phenomena of dreams were, as
suggested above, of great importance for the development of animism,
the belief, which must originally have been a doctrine of human
psychology, cannot have failed to expand speedily into a general
philosophy of nature. Not only human beings but animals and objects
are seen in dreams; and the conclusion would be that they too have
souls; the same conclusion may have been reached by another line of
argument; primitive psychology posited a spirit in a man to account,
amongst other things, for his actions; a natural explanation of
the changes in the external world would be that they are due to the
operations and volitions of spirits.

[v.02 p.0054]


_Animal Souls._--But apart from considerations of this sort, it is
probable that animals must, early in the history of animistic beliefs,
have been regarded as possessing souls. Education has brought with it
a sense of the great gulf between man and animals; but in the lower
stages of culture this distinction is not adequately recognized, if
indeed it is recognized at all. The savage attributes to animals the
same ideas, the same mental processes as himself, and at the same time
vastly greater power and cunning. The dead animal is credited with a
knowledge of how its remains are treated and sometimes with a power of
taking vengeance on the fortunate hunter. Powers of reasoning are not
denied to animals nor even speech; the silence of the brute creation
may be put down to their superior cunning. We may assume that man
attributed a soul to the beasts of the field almost as soon as he
claimed one for himself. It is therefore not surprising to find that
many peoples on the lower planes of culture respect and even worship
animals (see TOTEM; ANIMAL WORSHIP); though we need not attribute
an animistic origin to all the developments, it is clear that the
widespread respect paid to animals as the abode of dead ancestors, and
much of the cult of dangerous animals, is traceable to this principle.
With the rise of species, deities and the cult of individual animals,
the path towards anthropomorphization and polytheism is opened and the
respect paid to animals tends to lose its strict animistic character.


_Plant Souls._--Just as human souls are assigned to animals, so
primitive man often credits trees and plants with souls in both human
or animal form. All over the world agricultural peoples practise
elaborate ceremonies explicable, as Mannhardt has shown, on animistic
principles. In Europe the corn spirit sometimes immanent in the crop,
sometimes a presiding deity whose life does not depend on that of the
growing corn, is conceived in some districts in the form of an ox,
hare or cock, in others as an old man or woman; in the East Indies
and America the rice or maize mother is a corresponding figure; in
classical Europe and the East we have in Ceres and Demeter, Adonis
and Dionysus, and other deities, vegetation gods whose origin we can
readily trace back to the rustic corn spirit. Forest trees, no less
than cereals, have their indwelling spirits; the fauns and satyrs
of classical literature were goat-footed and the tree spirit of the
Russian peasantry takes the form of a goat; in Bengal and the East
Indies wood-cutters endeavour to propitiate the spirit of the tree
which they cut down; and in many parts of the world trees are
regarded as the abode of the spirits of the dead. Just as a process of
syncretism has given rise to cults of animal gods, tree spirits tend
to become detached from the trees, which are thenceforward only their
abodes; and here again animism has begun to pass into polytheism.


_Object Souls._--We distinguish between animate and inanimate nature,
but this classification has no meaning for the savage. The river
speeding on its course to the sea, the sun and moon, if not the stars
also, on their never-ceasing daily round, the lightning, fire, the
wind, the sea, all are in motion and therefore animate; but the savage
does not stop short here; mountains and lakes, stones and manufactured
articles, are for him alike endowed with souls like his own; he
deposits in the tomb weapons and food, clothes and implements, broken,
it may be, in order to set free their souls; or he attains the same
result by burning them, and thus sending them to the Other World for
the use of the dead man. Here again, though to a less extent than in
tree cults, the theriomorphic aspect recurs; in the north of Europe,
in ancient Greece, in China, the water or river spirit is horse or
bull-shaped; the water monster in serpent shape is even more widely
found, but it is less strictly the spirit of the water. The spirit
of syncretism manifests itself in this department of animism too; the
immanent spirit of the earlier period becomes the presiding genius
or local god of later times, and with the rise of the doctrine of
separable souls we again reach the confines of animism pure and
simple.


_Spirits in General._--Side by side with the doctrine of separable
souls with which we have so far been concerned, exists the belief in
a great host of unattached spirits; these are not immanent souls which
have become detached from their abodes, but have every appearance
of independent spirits. Thus, animism is in some directions little
developed, so far as we can see, among the Australian aborigines;
but from those who know them best we learn that they believe in
innumerable spirits and bush bogies, which wander, especially at
night, and can be held at bay by means of fire; with this belief may
be compared the ascription in European folk belief of prophylactic
properties to iron. These spirits are at first mainly malevolent;
and side by side with them we find the spirits of the dead as hostile
beings. At a higher stage the spirits of dead kinsmen are no
longer unfriendly, nor yet all non-human spirits; as fetishes (see
FETISHISM), naguals (see TOTEM), familiars, gods or demi-gods (for
which and the general question see DEMONOLOGY), they enter into
relations with man. On the other hand there still subsists a belief in
innumerable evil spirits, which manifest themselves in the phenomena
of possession (_q.v._), lycanthropy (_q.v._), disease, &c. The fear of
evil spirits has given rise to ceremonies of expulsion of evils (see
EXORCISM), designed to banish them from the community.


_Animism and Religion._--Animism is commonly described as the most
primitive form of religion; but properly speaking it is not a religion
at all, for religion implies, at any rate, some form of emotion (see
RELIGION), and animism is in the first instance an explanation of
phenomena rather than an attitude of mind toward the cause of them,
a philosophy rather than a religion. The term may, however, be
conveniently used to describe the early stage of religion in which man
endeavours to set up relations between himself and the unseen powers,
conceived as spirits, but differing in many particulars from the gods
of polytheism. As an example of this stage in one of its aspects may
be taken the European belief in the corn spirit, which is, however,
the object of magical rather than religious rites; Dr. Frazer has thus
defined the character of the animistic pantheon, "they are restricted
in their operations to definite departments of nature; their names
are general, not proper; their attributes are generic rather than
individual; in other words, there is an indefinite number of spirits
of each class, and the individuals of a class are much alike; they
have no definitely marked individuality; no accepted traditions
are current as to their origin, life and character." This stage of
religion is well illustrated by the Red Indian custom of offering
sacrifice to certain rocks, or whirlpools, or to the indwelling
spirits connected with them; the rite is only performed in the
neighbourhood of the object, it is an incident of a canoe or other
voyage, and is not intended to secure any benefits beyond a safe
passage past the object in question; the spirit to be propitiated
has a purely local sphere of influence, and powers of a very limited
nature. Animistic in many of their features too are the temporary gods
of fetishism (_q.v._), naguals or familiars, genii and even the dead
who receive a cult. With the rise of a belief in departmental gods
comes the age of polytheism; the belief in elemental spirits may still
persist, but they fall into the background and receive no cult.


_Animism and the Origin of Religion._--Two animistic theories of the
origin of religion have been put forward, the one, often termed the
"ghost theory," mainly associated with the name of Herbert Spencer,
but also maintained by Grant Allen, refers the beginning of religion
to the cult of dead human beings; the other, put forward by Dr. E.B.
Tylor, makes the foundation of all religion animistic, but
recognizes the non-human character of polytheistic gods. Although
ancestor-worship, or, more broadly, the cult of the dead, has in many
cases overshadowed other cults or even extinguished them, we have no
warrant, even in these cases, for asserting its priority, but rather
the reverse; not only so, but in the majority of cases the pantheon is
made up by a multitude of spirits in human, sometimes in animal form,
which bear no signs of ever having been incarnate; sun gods and moon
goddesses, gods of fire, wind and water, gods of the sea, and above
all gods of the sky, show no signs of having been ghost gods at any
period in their history. They may, it is true, be associated with
ghost gods, but in Australia it cannot even be asserted that the gods
are spirits at all, much less that they are the spirits of dead men;
they are simply magnified magicians, super-men who have never died; we
have no ground, therefore, for regarding the cult of the dead as the
origin of religion in this area; this conclusion is the more probable,
as ancestor-worship and the cult of the dead generally cannot be said
to exist in Australia.

[v.02 p.0055]

The more general view that polytheistic and other gods are the
elemental and other spirits of the later stages of animistic creeds,
is equally inapplicable to Australia, where the belief seems to be
neither animistic nor even animatistic in character. But we are
hardly justified in arguing from the case of Australia to a general
conclusion as to the origin of religious ideas in all other parts of
the world. It is perhaps safest to say that the science of religions
has no data on which to go, in formulating conclusions as to the
original form of the objects of religious emotion; in this connexion
it must be remembered that not only is it very difficult to get
precise information of the subject of the religious ideas of people of
low culture, perhaps for the simple reason that the ideas themselves
are far from precise, but also that, as has been pointed out above,
the conception of spiritual often approximates very closely to that of
material. Where the soul is regarded as no more than a finer sort of
matter, it will obviously be far from easy to decide whether the gods
are spiritual or material. Even, therefore, if we can say that at the
present day the gods are entirely spiritual, it is clearly possible
to maintain that they have been spiritualized _pari passu_ with the
increasing importance of the animistic view of nature and of the
greater prominence of eschatological beliefs. The animistic origin of
religion is therefore not proven.


_Animism and Mythology_.--But little need be said on the relation of
animism and mythology (_q.v._). While a large part of mythology has
an animistic basis, it is possible to believe, _e.g._ in a sky world,
peopled by corporeal beings, as well as by spirits of the dead; the
latter may even be entirely absent; the mythology of the Australians
relates largely to corporeal, non-spiritual beings; stories of
transformation, deluge and doom myths, or myths of the origin of
death, have not necessarily any animistic basis. At the same time,
with the rise of ideas as to a future life and spiritual beings, this
field of mythology is immensely widened, though it cannot be said
that a rich mythology is necessarily genetically associated with or
combined with belief in many spiritual beings.


_Animism in Philosophy_.--The term "animism" has been applied to many
different philosophical systems. It is used to describe Aristotle's
view of the relation of soul and body held also by the Stoics and
Scholastics. On the other hand monadology (Leibnitz) has also been
termed animistic. The name is most commonly applied to vitalism, a
view mainly associated with G.E. Stahl and revived by F. Bouillier
(1813-1899), which makes life, or life and mind, the directive
principle in evolution and growth, holding that all cannot be traced
back to chemical and mechanical processes, but that there is a
directive force which guides energy without altering its amount.
An entirely different class of ideas, also termed animistic, is the
belief in the world soul, held by Plato, Schelling and others.


BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Tyler, _Primitive Culture_; Frazer, _Golden Bough_;
_Id_. on Burial Customs in _J.A. I_. xv.; Mannhardt, _Baumkultus_;
G.A. Wilken, _Het Animisme_; Koch on the animism of S. America in
_Internationales Archiv_, xiii., Suppl.; Andrew Lang, _Making of
Religion_; Skeat, _Malay Magic_; Sir G. Campbell, "Spirit Basis of
Belief and Custom," in _Indian Antiquary_, xxiii. and succeeding
volumes; _Folklore_, iii. 289. xi. 162; Spencer, _Principles of
Sociology_; _Mind_ (1877), 141, 415 et seq. For animism in philosophy,
Stahl, _Theoria_; Bouillier, _Du Principe vital_.

(N.W.T.)



ANIMUCCIA, GIOVANNI, Italian musical composer, was born at Florence in
the last years of the 15th century. At the request of St. Filippo Neri
he composed a number of _Laudi_, or hymns of praise, to be sung after
sermon time, which have given him an accidental prominence in musical
history, since their performance in St. Filippo's Oratory eventually
gave rise (on the disruption of 16th century schools of composition)
to those early forms of "oratorio" that are not traceable to the
Gregorian-polyphonic "Passions." St. Filippo admired Animuccia so
warmly that he declared he had seen the soul of his friend fly upwards
towards heaven. In 1555 Animuccia was appointed _maestro di capella_
at St. Peter's, an office which he held until his death in 1571. He
was succeeded by Palestrina, who had been his friend and probably his
pupil. The manuscript of many of Animuccia's compositions is still
preserved in the Vatican Library. His chief published works were
_Madrigali e Motetti a quattro e cinque voci_ (Ven. 1548) and _Il
primo Libra di Messe_ (Rom. 1567). From the latter Padre Martini has
taken two specimens for his _Saggio di Contrapunto_. A mass from the
_Primo Libra di Messe_ on the _canto fermo_ of the hymn _Conditor
alme siderum_ is published in modern notation in the _Anthologie des
maîtres religieux primitifs_ of the _Chanteurs de Saint Gervais_. It
is solemn and noble in conception, and would be a great work but for a
roughness which is more careless than archaic.

PAOLO ANIMUCCIA, a brother of Giovanni, was also celebrated as a
composer; he is said by Fetis to have been _maestro di capella_ at S.
Giovanni in Laterano from the middle of January 1550 until 1552, and
to have died in 1563.



ANISE (_Pimpinella Anisum_), an umbelliferous plant found in Egypt and
the Levant, and cultivated on the continent of Europe for medicinal
purposes. The officinal part of the plant is the fruit, which consists
of two united carpels, called a cremocarp. It is known by the name
of aniseed, and has a strong aromatic taste and a powerful odour.
By distillation the fruit yields the volatile oil of anise, which is
useful in the treatment of flatulence and colic in children. It may
be given as _Aqua Anisi_, in doses of one or more ounces, or
as the _Spiritus Anisi_, in doses of 5-20 minims. The main
constituent of the oil (up to 90%) is anethol, C_{10}H_{12}O or
C_{6}H_{4}[1.4](OCH_{3})(CH:CH.CH_{3}.) It also contains methyl
chavicol, anisic aldehyde, anisic acid, and a terpene. Most of the oil
of commerce, however, of which anethol is also the chief constituent,
comes from _Illicium verum_ (order _Magnoliaceae_, sub-order
_Wintereae_), indigenous in N.E. China, the star-anise of _liqueur_
makers. It receives its name from its flavour, and from its fruit
spreading out like a star. The anise of the Bible (Matt. xxiii. 23) is
_Anethum_ or _Peucedanum graveolens_, _i.e._ dill (_q.v._).





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