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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 4, Part 3 - "Brescia" to "Bulgaria"
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 4, Part 3 - "Brescia" to "Bulgaria"" ***

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Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text. Volume and page numbers have been
incorporated into the text of each page as: v.04 p.0001.

[v.04 p.0498] BRÉQUIGNY, LOUIS GEORGE OUDARD FEUDRIX DE (_continued from
part 2_)

... volumes x.-xiv., the preface to vol. xi. containing important
researches into the French communes. To the _Table chronologique des
diplômes, chartes, lettres, et actes imprimés concernant l'histoire de
France_ he contributed three volumes in collaboration with Mouchet
(1769-1783). Charged with the supervision of a large collection of
documents bearing on French history, analogous to Rymer's _Foedera_, he
published the first volume (_Diplomatat. Chartae_, &c., 1791). The
Revolution interrupted him in his collection of _Mémoires concernant
l'histoire, les sciences, les lettres, et les arts des Chinois_, begun in
1776 at the instance of the minister Bertin, when fifteen volumes had
appeared.

See the note on Bréquigny at the end of vol. i. of the _Mémoires de
l'Académie des Inscriptions_ (1808); the Introduction to vol. iv. of the
_Table chronologique des diplômes_ (1836); Champollion-Figeac's preface to
the _Lettres des rois et reines_; the _Comité des travaux historiques_, by
X. Charmes, vol. i. _passim_; N. Oursel, _Nouvelle biographie normande_
(1886); and the _Catalogue des manuscrits des collections Duchesne et
Bréquigny_ (in the Bibliothèque Nationale), by René Poupardin (1905).

(C. B.*)

BRESCIA (anc. _Brixia_), a city and episcopal see of Lombardy, Italy, the
capital of the province of Brescia, finely situated at the foot of the
Alps, 52 m. E. of Milan and 40 m. W. of Verona by rail. Pop. (1901) town,
42,495; commune, 72,731. The plan of the city is rectangular, and the
streets intersect at right angles, a peculiarity handed down from Roman
times, though the area enclosed by the medieval walls is larger than that
of the Roman town, which occupied the eastern portion of the present one.
The Piazza del Museo marks the site of the forum, and the museum on its
north side is ensconced in a Corinthian temple with three _cellae_, by some
attributed to Hercules, but more probably the Capitolium of the city,
erected by Vespasian in A.D. 73 (if the inscription really belongs to the
building; cf. Th. Mommsen in _Corp. Inscrip. Lat._ v. No. 4312, Berlin,
1872), and excavated in 1823. It contains a famous bronze statue of
Victory, found in 1826. Scanty remains of a building on the south side of
the forum, called the _curia_, but which may be a basilica, and of the
theatre, on the east of the temple, still exist.

Brescia contains many interesting medieval buildings. The castle, at the
north-east angle of the town, commands a fine view. It is now a military
prison. The old cathedral is a round domed structure of the 10th (?)
century erected over an early Christian basilica, which has forty-two
ancient columns; and the Broletto, adjoining the new cathedral (a building
of 1604) on the north, is a massive building of the 12th and 13th centuries
(the original town hall, now the prefecture and law courts), with a lofty
tower. There are also remains of the convent of S. Salvatore, founded by
Desiderius, king of Lombardy, including three churches, two of which now
contain the fine medieval museum, which possesses good ivories. The church
of S. Francesco has a Gothic façade and cloisters. There are also some good
Renaissance palaces and other buildings, including the Municipio, begun in
1492 and completed by Jacopo Sansovino in 1554-1574. This is a magnificent
structure, with fine ornamentation. The church of S. Maria dei Miracoli
(1488-1523) is also noteworthy for its general effect and for the richness
of its details, especially of the reliefs on the façade. Many other
churches, and the picture gallery (Galleria Martinengo), contain fine works
of the painters of the Brescian school, Alessandro Bonvicino (generally
known as Moretto), Girolamo Romanino and Moretto's pupil, Giovanni Battista
Moroni. The Biblioteca Queriniana contains early MSS., a 14th-century MS.
of Dante, &c., and some rare incunabula. The city is well supplied with
water, and has no less than seventy-two public fountains. Brescia has
considerable factories of iron ware, particularly fire-arms and weapons
(one of the government small arms factories being situated here), also of
woollens, linens and silks, matches, candles, &c. The stone quarries of
Mazzano, 8 m. east of Brescia, supplied material for the monument to Victor
Emmanuel II. and other buildings in Rome. Brescia is situated on the main
railway line between Milan and Verona, and has branch railways to Iseo,
Parma, Cremona and (via Rovato) to Bergamo, and steam tramways to Mantua,
Soncino, Ponte Toscolano and Cardone Valtrompia.

The ancient Celtic Brixia, a town of the Cenomani, became Roman in 225
B.C., when the Cenomani submitted to Rome. Augustus founded a civil (not a
military) colony here in 27 B.C., and he and Tiberius constructed an
aqueduct to supply it. In 452 it was plundered by Attila, but was the seat
of a duchy in the Lombard period. From 1167 it was one of the most active
members of the Lombard League. In 1258 it fell into the hands of Eccelino
of Verona, and belonged to the Scaligers (della Scala) until 1421, when it
came under the Visconti of Milan, and in 1426 under Venice. Early in the
16th century it was one of the wealthiest cities of Lombardy, but has never
recovered from its sack by the French under Gaston de Foix in 1512. It
belonged to Venice until 1797, when it came under Austrian dominion; it
revolted in 1848, and again in 1849, being the only Lombard town to rally
to Charles Albert in the latter year, but was taken after ten days'
obstinate street fighting by the Austrians under Haynau.

See _Museo Bresciano Illustrato_ (Brescia, 1838).

(T. AS.)

BRESLAU (Polish _Wraclaw_), a city of Germany, capital of the Prussian
province of Silesia, and an episcopal see, situated in a wide and fertile
plain on both banks of the navigable Oder, 350 m. from its mouth, at the
influx of the Ohle, and 202 m. from Berlin on the railway to Vienna. Pop.
(1867) 171,926; (1880) 272,912; (1885) 299,640; (1890) 335,186; (1905)
470,751, about 60% being Protestants, 35% Roman Catholics and nearly 5%
Jews. The Oder, which here breaks into several arms, divides the city into
two unequal halves, crossed by numerous bridges. The larger portion, on the
left bank, includes the old or inner town, surrounded by beautiful
promenades, on the site of the ramparts, dismantled after 1813, from an
eminence within which, the Liebichs Höhe, a fine view is obtained of the
surrounding country. Outside, as well as across the Oder, lies the new town
with extensive suburbs, containing, especially in the Schweidnitz quarter
in the south, and the Oder quarter in the north, many handsome streets and
spacious squares. The inner town, in contrast to the suburbs, still retains
with its narrow streets much of its ancient characters, and contains
several medieval buildings, both religious and secular, of great beauty and
interest. The cathedral, dedicated to St John the Baptist, was begun in
1148 and completed at the close of the 15th century, enlarged in the 17th
and 18th centuries, and restored between 1873 and 1875; it is rich in
notable treasures, especially the high altar of beaten silver, and in
beautiful paintings and sculptures. The Kreuzkirche (church of the Holy
Cross), dating from the 13th and 14th centuries, is an interesting brick
building, remarkable for its stained glass and its historical monuments,
among which is the tomb of Henry IV., duke of Silesia. The Sandkirche, so
called from its dedication to Our Lady on the Sand, dates from the 14th
century, and was until 1810 the church of the Augustinian canons. The
Dorotheenor Minoritenkirche, remarkable for its high-pitched roof, was
founded by the emperor Charles IV. in 1351. These are the most notable of
the Roman Catholic churches. Of the Evangelical churches the most important
is that of St Elizabeth, founded about 1250, rebuilt in the 14th and 15th
centuries, and restored in 1857. Its lofty tower contains the largest bell
in Silesia, and the church possesses a celebrated organ, fine stained
glass, a magnificent stone pyx (erected in 1455) over 52 ft. high, and
portraits of Luther and Melanchthon by Lucas Cranach. The church of St Mary
Magdalen, built in the 14th century on the model of the cathedral, has two
lofty Gothic towers connected by a bridge, and is interesting as having
been the church in which, in 1523, the reformation in Silesia was first
proclaimed. Other noteworthy ecclesiastical buildings are the graceful
Gothic church of St Michael built in 1871, the bishop's palace and the
Jewish synagogue, the finest in Germany after that in Berlin.

The business streets of the city converge upon the Ring, the market square,
in which is the town-hall, a fine Gothic building, begun in the middle of
the 14th and completed in the 16th century. Within is the Fürstensaal, in
which the diets of Silesia were formerly held, while beneath is the famous
Schweidnitzer Keller, used continuously since 1355 as a beer and wine
house. [v.04 p.0499] The university, a spacious Gothic building facing the
Oder, is a striking edifice. It was built (1728-1736) as a college by the
Jesuits, on the site of the former imperial castle presented to them by the
emperor Leopold I., and contains a magnificent hall (Aula Leopoldina),
richly ornamented with frescoes and capable of holding 1200 persons.
Breslau possesses a large number of other important public buildings: the
Stadthaus (civic hall), the royal palace, the government offices (a
handsome pile erected in 1887), the provincial House of Assembly, the
municipal archives, the courts of law, the Silesian museum of arts and
crafts and antiquities, stored in the former assembly hall of the estates
(Ständehaus), which was rebuilt for the purpose, the museum of fine arts,
the exchange, the Stadt and Lobe theatres, the post office and central
railway station. There are also numerous hospitals and schools. Breslau is
exceedingly rich in fine monuments; the most noteworthy being the
equestrian statues of Frederick the Great and Frederick William III., both
by Kiss; the statue of Blücher by Rauch; a marble statue of General
Tauentzien by Langhans and Schadow; a bronze statue of Karl Gottlieb Svarez
(1746-1798), the Prussian jurist, a monument to Schleiermacher, born here
in 1768, and statues of the emperor William I., Bismarck and Moltke. There
are also several handsome fountains. Foremost among the educational
establishments stands the university, founded in 1702 by the emperor
Leopold I. as a Jesuit college, and greatly extended by the incorporation
of the university of Frankfort-on-Oder in 1811. Its library contains
306,000 volumes and 4000 MSS., and has in the so-called _Bibliotheca
Habichtiana_ a valuable collection of oriental literature. Among its
auxiliary establishments are botanical gardens, an observatory, and
anatomical, physiological and kindred institutions. There are eight
classical and four modern schools, two higher girls' schools, a Roman
Catholic normal school, a Jewish theological seminary, a school of arts and
crafts, and numerous literary and charitable foundations. It is, however,
as a commercial and industrial city that Breslau is most widely known. Its
situation, close to the extensive coal and iron fields of Upper Silesia, in
proximity to the Austrian and Russian frontiers, at the centre of a network
of railways directly communicating both with these countries and with the
chief towns of northern and central Germany, and on a deep waterway
connecting with the Elbe and the Vistula, facilitates its very considerable
transit and export trade in the products of the province and of the
neighbouring countries. These embrace coal, sugar, cereals, spirits,
petroleum and timber. The local industries comprise machinery and tools,
railway and tramway carriages, furniture, cast-iron goods, gold and silver
work, carpets, furs, cloth and cottons, paper, musical instruments, glass
and china. Breslau is the headquarters of the VI. German army corps and
contains a large garrison of troops of all arms.

_History._--Breslau (Lat. _Vratislavia_) is first mentioned by the
chronicler Thietmar, bishop of Merseburg, in A.D. 1000, and was probably
founded some years before this date. Early in the 11th century it was made
the seat of a bishop, and after having formed part of Poland, became the
capital of an independent duchy in 1163. Destroyed by the Mongols in 1241,
it soon recovered its former prosperity and received a large influx of
German colonists. The bishop obtained the title of a prince of the Empire
in 1290.[1] When Henry VI., the last duke of Breslau, died in 1335, the
city came by purchase to John, king of Bohemia, whose successors retained
it until about 1460. The Bohemian kings bestowed various privileges on
Breslau, which soon began to extend its commerce in all directions, while
owing to increasing wealth the citizens took up a more independent
attitude. Disliking the Hussites, Breslau placed itself under the
protection of Pope Pius II. in 1463, and a few years afterwards came under
the rule of the Hungarian king, Matthias Corvinus. After his death in 1490
it again became subject to Bohemia, passing with the rest of Silesia to the
Habsburgs when in 1526 Ferdinand, afterwards emperor, was chosen king of
Bohemia. Having passed almost undisturbed through the periods of the
Reformation and the Thirty Years' War, Breslau was compelled to own the
authority of Frederick the Great in 1741. It was, however, recovered by the
Austrians in 1757, but was regained by Frederick after his victory at
Leuthen in the same year, and has since belonged to Prussia, although it
was held for a few days by the French in 1807 after the battle of Jena, and
again in 1813 after the battle of Bautzen. The sites of the fortifications,
dismantled by the French in 1807, were given to the civic authorities by
King Frederick William III., and converted into promenades. In March 1813
this monarch issued from Breslau his stirring appeals to the Prussians, _An
mein Volk_ and _An mein Kriegesheer_, and the city was the centre of the
Prussian preparations for the campaign which ended at Leipzig. After the
Prussian victory at Sadowa in 1866, William I. made a triumphant and
complimentary entry into the city, which since the days of Frederick the
Great has been only less loyal to the royal house than Berlin itself.

See Bürkner and Stein, _Geschichte der Stadt Breslau_ (Bresl. 1851-1853);
J-Stein, _Geschichte der Stadt Breslau im 19ten Jahrhundert_ (1884); O
Frenzel, _Breslauer Stadtbuch_ ("Codex dipl. Silisiae," vol. ii. 1882);
Luchs, _Breslau, ein Führer durch die Stadt_ (12th ed., Bresl. 1904).

[1] In 1195 Jaroslaw, son of Boleslaus I. of Lower Silesia, who became
bishop of Breslau in 1198, inherited the duchy of Neisse, which at his
death (1201) he bequeathed to his successors in the see. The Austrian part
of Neisse still belongs to the bishop of Breslau, who also still bears the
title of prince bishop.

BRESSANT, JEAN BAPTISTE PROSPER (1815-1886), French actor, was born at
Chalon-sur-Saône on the 23rd of October 1815, and began his stage career at
the Variétés in Paris in 1833. In 1838 he went to the French theatre at St
Petersburg, where for eight years he played important parts with
ever-increasing reputation. His success was confirmed at the Gymnase when
he returned to Paris in 1846, and he made his _début_ at the Comédie
Française as a full-fledged _sociétaire_ in 1854. From playing the ardent
young lover, he turned to leading rôles both in modern plays and in the
classical répertoire. His Richelieu in _Mlle de Belle-Isle_, his Octave in
Alfred de Musset's _Les Caprices de Marianne_, and his appearance in de
Musset's _Il faut qu'une porte soit ouverte ou fermée_ and _Un caprice_
were followed by _Tartuffe_, _Le Misanthrope_ and _Don Juan_. Bressant
retired in 1875, and died on the 23rd of January 1886. During his
professorship at the Conservatoire, Mounet-Sully was one of his pupils.

BRESSE, a district of eastern France embracing portions of the departments
of Ain, Saône-et-Loire and Jura. The Bresse extends from the Dombes on the
south to the river Doubs on the north, and from the Saône eastwards to the
Jura, measuring some 60 m. in the former, and 20 m. in the latter
direction. It is a plain varying from 600 to 800 ft. above the sea, with
few eminences and a slight inclination westwards. Heaths and coppice
alternate with pastures and arable land; pools and marshes are numerous,
especially in the north. Its chief rivers are the Veyle, the Reyssouze and
the Seille, all tributaries of the Saône. The soil is a gravelly clay but
moderately fertile, and cattle-raising is largely carried on. The region
is, however, more especially celebrated for its table poultry. The
inhabitants preserve a distinctive but almost obsolete costume, with a
curious head-dress. The Bresse proper, called the _Bresse Bressane_,
comprises the northern portion of the department of Ain. The greater part
of the district belonged in the middle ages to the lords of Bâgé, from whom
it passed in 1272 to the house of Savoy. It was not till the first half of
the 15th century that the province, with Bourg as its capital, was founded
as such. In 1601 it was ceded to France by the treaty of Lyons, after which
it formed (together with the province of Bugey) first a separate government
and afterwards part of the government of Burgundy.

BRESSUIRE, a town of western France, capital of an arrondissement in the
department of Deux-Sèvres, 48 m. N. of Niort by rail. Pop. (1906) 4561. The
town is situated on an eminence overlooking the Dolo, a tributary of the
Argenton. It is the centre of a cattle-rearing and agricultural region, and
has important markets; the manufacture of wooden type and woollen goods is
carried on. Bressuire has two buildings of interest: the church of
Notre-Dame, which, dating chiefly from the 12th and 15th centuries, has an
imposing tower of the Renaissance period; and the castle, built by the
lords of [v.04 p.0500] Beaumont, vassals of the viscount of Thouars. The
latter is now in ruins, and a portion of the site is occupied by a modern
château, but an inner and outer line of fortifications are still to be
seen. The whole forms the finest assemblage of feudal ruins in Poitou.
Bressuire is the seat of a sub-prefect and has a tribunal of first
instance. Among the disasters suffered at various times by the town, its
capture from the English and subsequent pillage by French troops under du
Guesclin in 1370 is the most memorable.

BREST, a fortified seaport of western France, capital of an arrondissement
in the department of Finistère, 155 m. W.N.W. of Rennes by rail. Population
(1906) town, 71,163; commune, 85,294. It is situated to the north of a
magnificent landlocked bay, and occupies the slopes of two hills divided by
the river Penfeld,--the part of the town on the left bank being regarded as
Brest proper, while the part on the right is known as Recouvrance. There
are also extensive suburbs to the east of the town. The hill-sides are in
some places so steep that the ascent from the lower to the upper town has
to be effected by flights of steps and the second or third storey of one
house is often on a level with the ground storey of the next. The chief
street of Brest bears the name of rue de Siam, in honour of the Siamese
embassy sent to Louis XIV., and terminates at the remarkable swing-bridge,
constructed in 1861, which crosses the mouth of the Penfeld. Running along
the shore to the south of the town is the Cours d'Ajot, one of the finest
promenades of its kind in France, named after the engineer who constructed
it. It is planted with trees and adorned with marble statues of Neptune and
Abundance by Antoine Coysevox. The castle with its donjon and seven towers
(12th to the 16th centuries), commanding the entrance to the river, is the
only interesting building in the town. Brest is the capital of one of the
five naval arrondissements of France. The naval port, which is in great
part excavated in the rock, extends along both banks of the Penfeld; it
comprises gun-foundries and workshops, magazines, shipbuilding yards and
repairing docks, and employs about 7000 workmen. There are also large naval
barracks, training ships and naval schools of various kinds, and an
important naval hospital. Brest is the seat of a sub-prefect and has
tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, a board
of trade-arbitrators, two naval tribunals, and a tribunal of maritime
commerce. There are also lycées for boys and girls and a school of commerce
and industry. The commercial port, which is separated from the town itself
by the Cours d'Ajot, comprises a tidal port with docks and an outer
harbour; it is protected by jetties to the east and west and by a
breakwater on the south. In 1905 the number of vessels entered was 202 with
a tonnage of 67,755, and cleared 160 with a tonnage of 61,012. The total
value of the imports in 1905 was £244,000. The chief were wine, coal,
timber, mineral tar, fertilizers and lobsters and crayfish. Exports, of
which the chief were wheat-flour, fruit and superphosphates, were valued at
£40,000. Besides its sardine and mackerel fishing industry, the town has
flour-mills, breweries, foundries, forges, engineering works, and
manufactures of blocks, candles, chemicals (from sea-weed), boots, shoes
and linen. Brest communicates by submarine cable with America and French
West Africa. The roadstead consists of a deep indentation with a maximum
length of 14 m. and an average width of 4 m., the mouth being barred by the
peninsula of Quélern, leaving a passage from 1 to 2 m. broad, known as the
Goulet. The outline of the bay is broken by numerous smaller bays or arms,
formed by the embouchures of streams, the most important being the Anse de
Quélern, the Anse de Poulmie, and the mouths of the Châteaulin and the
Landerneau. Brest is a fortress of the first class. The fortifications of
the town and the harbour fall into four groups: (1) the very numerous forts
and batteries guarding the approaches to and the channel of the Goulet; (2)
the batteries and forts directed upon the roads; (3) a group of works
preventing access to the peninsula of Quélern and commanding the ground to
the south of the peninsula from which many of the works of group (2) could
be taken in reverse; (4) the defences of Brest itself, consisting of an
old-fashioned _enceinte_ possessing little military value and a chain of
detached forts to the west of the town.

Nothing definite is known of Brest till about 1240, when it was ceded by a
count of Léon to John I., duke of Brittany. In 1342 John of Montfort gave
it up to the English, and it did not finally leave their hands till 1397.
Its medieval importance was great enough to give rise to the saying, "He is
not duke of Brittany who is not lord of Brest." By the marriage of Francis
I. with Claude, daughter of Anne of Brittany, Brest with the rest of the
duchy definitely passed to the French crown. The advantages of the
situation for a seaport town were first recognized by Richelieu, who in
1631 constructed a harbour with wooden wharves, which soon became a station
of the French navy. Colbert changed the wooden wharves for masonry and
otherwise improved the post, and Vauban's fortifications followed in
1680-1688. During the 18th century the fortifications and the naval
importance of the town continued to develop. In 1694 an English squadron
under John, 3rd Lord Berkeley, was miserably defeated in attempting a
landing; but in 1794, during the revolutionary war, the French fleet, under
Villaret de Joyeuse, was as thoroughly beaten in the same place by the
English admiral Howe.

BREST-LITOVSK (Polish _Brzesc-Litevski_; and in the Chron. _Berestie_ and
_Berestov_), a strongly fortified town of Russia, in the government of
Grodno, 137 m. by rail S. from the city of Grodno, in 52° 5' N. lat. and
23° 39' E. long., at the junction of the navigable river Mukhovets with the
Bug, and at the intersection of railways from Warsaw, Kiev, Moscow and East
Prussia. Pop. (1867) 22,493; (1901) 42,812, of whom more than one-half were
Jews. It contains a Jewish synagogue, which was regarded in the 16th
century as the first in Europe, and is the seat of an Armenian and of a
Greek Catholic bishop; the former has authority over the Armenians
throughout the whole country. The town carries on an extensive trade in
grain, flax, hemp, wood, tar and leather. First mentioned in the beginning
of the 11th century, Brest-Litovsk was in 1241 laid waste by the Mongols
and was not rebuilt till 1275; its suburbs were burned by the Teutonic
Knights in 1379; and in the end of the 15th century the whole town met a
similar fate at the hands of the khan of the Crimea. In the reign of the
Polish king Sigismund III. diets were held there; and in 1594 and 1596 it
was the meeting-place of two remarkable councils of the bishops of western
Russia. In 1657, and again in 1706, the town was captured by the Swedes; in
1794 it was the scene of Suvarov's victory over the Polish general
Sierakowski; in 1795 it was added to the Russian empire. The Brest-Litovsk
or King's canal (50 m. long), utilizing the Mukhovets-Bug rivers, forms a
link in the waterways that connect the Dnieper with the Vistula.

BRETEUIL, LOUIS CHARLES AUGUSTE LE TONNELIER, BARON DE (1730-1807), French
diplomatist, was born at the chateau of Azay-le-Féron (Indre) on the 7th of
March 1730. He was only twenty-eight when he was appointed by Louis XV.
ambassador to the elector of Cologne, and two years later he was sent to St
Petersburg. He arranged to be temporarily absent from his post at the time
of the palace revolution by which Catherine II. was placed on the throne.
In 1769 he was sent to Stockholm, and subsequently represented his
government at Vienna, Naples, and again at Vienna until 1783, when he was
recalled to become minister of the king's household. In this capacity he
introduced considerable reforms in prison administration. A close friend of
Marie Antoinette, he presently came into collision with Calonne, who
demanded his dismissal in 1787. His influence with the king and queen,
especially with the latter, remained unshaken, and on Necker's dismissal on
the 11th of July 1789, Breteuil succeeded him as chief minister. The fall
of the Bastille three days later put an end to the new ministry, and
Breteuil made his way to Switzerland with the first party of _émigrés_. At
Soleure, in November 1790, he received from Louis XVI. exclusive powers to
negotiate with the European courts, and in his efforts to check the
ill-advised diplomacy of the _émigré_ princes, he soon brought himself into
opposition with his old rival Calonne, who held a chief place in their
councils. [v.04 p.0501] After the failure of the flight to Varennes, in the
arrangement of which he had a share, Breteuil received instructions from
Louis XVI., designed to restore amicable relations with the princes. His
distrust of the king's brothers and his defence of Louis XVI.'s prerogative
were to some extent justified, but his intransigeant attitude towards these
princes emphasized the dissensions of the royal family in the eyes of
foreign sovereigns, who looked on the comte de Provence as the natural
representative of his brother and found a pretext for non-interference on
Louis's behalf in the contradictory statements of the negotiators. Breteuil
himself was the object of violent attacks from the party of the princes,
who asserted that he persisted in exercising powers which had been revoked
by Louis XVI. After the execution of Marie Antoinette he retired into
private life near Hamburg, only returning to France in 1802. He died in
Paris on the 2nd of November 1807.

See the memoirs of Bertrand de Molleville (2 vols., Paris, 1816) and of the
marquis de Bouillé (2 vols., Paris, 1884); and E. Daudet, _Coblentz,
1789-1793_ (1889), forming part of his _Hist. de l'émigration._

BRÉTIGNY, a French town (dept. Eure-et-Loir, arrondissement and canton of
Chartres, commune of Sours), which gave its name to a celebrated treaty
concluded there on the 8th of May 1360, between Edward III. of England and
John II., surnamed the Good, of France. The exactions of the English, who
wished to yield as few as possible of the advantages claimed by them in the
treaty of London, made negotiations difficult, and the discussion of terms
begun early in April lasted more than a month. By virtue of this treaty
Edward III. obtained, besides Guienne and Gascony, Poitou, Saintonge and
Aunis, Agenais, Périgord, Limousin, Quercy, Bigorre, the countship of
Gaure, Angoumois, Rouergue, Montreuil-sur-mer, Ponthieu, Calais, Sangatte,
Ham and the countship of Guines. John II. had, moreover, to pay three
millions of gold crowns for his ransom. On his side the king of England
gave up the duchies of Normandy and Touraine, the countships of Anjou and
Maine, and the suzerainty of Brittany and of Flanders. As a guarantee for
the payment of his ransom, John the Good gave as hostages two of his sons,
several princes and nobles, four inhabitants of Paris, and two citizens
from each of the nineteen principal towns of France. This treaty was
ratified and sworn to by the two kings and by their eldest sons on the 24th
of October 1360, at Calais. At the same time were signed the special
conditions relating to each important article of the treaty, and the
renunciatory clauses in which the kings abandoned their rights over the
territory they had yielded to one another.

See Rymer's _Foedera_, vol. iii; Dumont, _Corps diplomatique_, vol. ii.;
Froissart, ed. Luce, vol. vi.; _Les Grandes Chroniques de France_, ed. P.
Paris, vol. vi.; E. Cosneau, _Les Grands Traités de la guerre de cent ans_
(1889).

BRETON, JULES ADOLPHE AIMÉ LOUIS (1827- ), French painter, was born on the
1st of May 1827, at Courrières, Pas de Calais, France. His artistic gifts
being manifest at an early age, he was sent in 1843 to Ghent, to study
under the historical painter de Vigne, and in 1846 to Baron Wappers at
Antwerp. Finally he worked in Paris under Drolling. His first efforts were
in historical subjects: "Saint Piat preaching in Gaul"; then, under the
influence of the revolution of 1848, he represented "Misery and Despair."
But Breton soon discovered that he was not born to be a historical painter,
and he returned to the memories of nature and of the country which were
impressed on him in early youth. In 1853 he exhibited the "Return of the
Harvesters" at the Paris Salon, and the "Little Gleaner" at Brussels.
Thenceforward he was essentially a painter of rustic life, especially in
the province of Artois, which he quitted only three times for short
excursions: in 1864 to Provence, and in 1865 and 1873 to Brittany, whence
he derived some of his happiest studies of religious scenes. His numerous
subjects may be divided generally into four classes: labour, rest, rural
festivals and religious festivals. Among his more important works may be
named "Women Gleaning," and "The Day after St Sebastian's Day" (1855),
which gained him a third-class medal; "Blessing the Fields" (1857), a
second-class medal; "Erecting a Calvary" (1859), now in the Lille gallery;
"The Return of the Gleaners" (1859), now in the Luxembourg; "Evening" and
"Women Weeding" (1861), a first-class medal; "Grandfather's Birthday"
(1862); "The Close of Day" (1865); "Harvest" (1867); "Potato Gatherers"
(1868); "A Pardon, Brittany" (1869); "The Fountain" (1872), medal of
honour; "The Bonfires of St John" (1875); "Women mending Nets" (1876), in
the Douai museum; "A Gleaner" (1877), Luxembourg; "Evening, Finistère"
(1881); "The Song of the Lark" (1884); "The Last Sunbeam" (1885); "The
Shepherd's Star" (1888); "The Call Home" (1889); "The Last Gleanings"
(1895); "Gathering Poppies" (1897); "The Alarm Cry" (1899); "Twilight
Glory" (1900). Breton was elected to the Institut in 1886 on the death of
Baudry. In 1889 he was made commander of the Legion of Honour, and in 1899
foreign member of the Royal Academy of London. He also wrote several books,
among them _Les Champs et la mer_ (1876), _Nos peintres du siècle_ (1900),
"Jeanne," a poem, _Delphine Bernard_ (1902), and _La Peinture_ (1904).

See Jules Breton, _Vie d'un artiste, art et nature_ (autobiographical),
(Paris, 1890); Marius Vachon, _Jules Breton_ (1899).

BRETON, BRITTON OR BRITTAINE, NICHOLAS (1545?-1626), English poet, belonged
to an old family settled at Layer-Breton, Essex. His father, William
Breton, who had made a considerable fortune by trade, died in 1559, and the
widow (née Elizabeth Bacon) married the poet George Gascoigne before her
sons had attained their majority. Nicholas Breton was probably born at the
"capitall mansion house" in Red Cross Street, in the parish of St Giles
without Cripplegate, mentioned in his father's will. There is no official
record of his residence at the university, but the diary of the Rev.
Richard Madox tells us that he was at Antwerp in 1583 and was "once of
Oriel College." He married Ann Sutton in 1593, and had a family. He is
supposed to have died shortly after the publication of his last work,
_Fantastickes_ (1626). Breton found a patron in Mary, countess of Pembroke,
and wrote much in her honour until 1601, when she seems to have withdrawn
her favour. It is probably safe to supplement the meagre record of his life
by accepting as autobiographical some of the letters signed N.B. in _A
Poste with a Packet of Mad Letters_ (1603, enlarged 1637); the 19th letter
of the second part contains a general complaint of many griefs, and
proceeds as follows: "hath another been wounded in the warres, fared hard,
lain in a cold bed many a bitter storme, and beene at many a hard banquet?
all these have I; another imprisoned? so have I; another long been sicke?
so have I; another plagued with an unquiet life? so have I; another
indebted to his hearts griefe, and fame would pay and cannot? so am I."
Breton was a facile writer, popular with his contemporaries, and forgotten
by the next generation. His work consists of religious and pastoral poems,
satires, and a number of miscellaneous prose tracts. His religious poems
are sometimes wearisome by their excess of fluency and sweetness, but they
are evidently the expression of a devout and earnest mind. His praise of
the Virgin and his references to Mary Magdalene have suggested that he was
a Catholic, but his prose writings abundantly prove that he was an ardent
Protestant. Breton had little gift for satire, and his best work is to be
found in his pastoral poetry. His _Passionate Shepheard_ (1604) is full of
sunshine and fresh air, and of unaffected gaiety. The third pastoral in
this book--"Who can live in heart so glad As the merrie country lad"--is
well known; with some other of Breton's daintiest poems, among them the
lullaby, "Come little babe, come silly soule,"[1]--it is incorporated in
A.H. Bullen's _Lyrics from Elizabethan Romances_ (1890). His keen
observation of country life appears also in his prose idyll, _Wits
Trenchmour_, "a conference betwixt a scholler and an angler," and in his
_Fantastickes_, a series of short prose pictures of the months, the
Christian festivals and the hours, which throw much light on the customs of
the times. Most of Breton's books are very rare and have great
bibliographical value. His works, with the exception of some belonging to
private owners, were collected by Dr A.B. Grosart in the [v.04 p.0502]
_Chertsey Worthies Library_ in 1879, with an elaborate introduction quoting
the documents for the poet's history.

Breton's poetical works, the titles of which are here somewhat abbreviated,
include _The Workes of a Young Wit_ (1577); _A Floorish upon Fancie_
(1577); _The Pilgrimage to Paradise_ (1592); _The Countess of Penbrook's
Passion_ (MS.), first printed by J.O. Halliwell Phillipps in 1853;
_Pasquil's Fooles cappe_, entered at Stationers' Hall in 1600; _Pasquil's
Mistresse_ (1600); _Pasquil's Passe and Passeth Not_ (1600); _Melancholike
Humours_ (1600); _Marie Magdalen's Love: a Solemne Passion of the Soules
Love_ (1595), the first part of which, a prose treatise, is probably by
another hand; the second part, a poem in six-lined stanza, is certainly by
Breton; _A Divine Poem_, including "The Ravisht Soul" and "The Blessed
Weeper" (1601); _An Excellent Poem, upon the Longing of a Blessed Heart_
(1601); _The Soules Heavenly Exercise_ (1601); _The Soules Harmony_ (1602);
_Olde Madcappe newe Gaily mawfrey_ (1602); _The Mother's Blessing_ (1602);
_A True Description of Unthankfulnesse_ (1602); _The Passionate Shepheard_
(1604); _The Soules Immortall Crowne_ (1605); _The Honour of Valour_
(1605); _An Invective against Treason; I would and I would not_ (1614);
_Bryton's Bowre of Delights_ (1591), edited by Dr Grosart in 1893, an
unauthorized publication which contained some poems disclaimed by Breton;
_The Arbor of Amorous Devises_ (entered at Stationers' Hall, 1594), only in
part Breton's; and contributions to _England's Helicon_ and other
miscellanies of verse. Of his twenty-two prose tracts may be mentioned
_Wit's Trenchmour_ (1597), _The Wil of Wit_ (1599), _A Poste with a Packet
of Mad Letters_ (1603). _Sir Philip Sidney's Ourania by N.B._ (1606); _Mary
Magdalen's Lamentations_ (1604), and _The Passion of a Discontented Mind_
(1601), are sometimes, but erroneously, ascribed to Breton.

[1]  This poem, however, comes from _The Arbor of Amorous Devises_, which
is only in part Breton's work.

BRETÓN DE LOS HERREROS, MANUEL (1796-1873), Spanish dramatist, was born at
Quel (Logroño) on the 19th of December 1796 and was educated at Madrid.
Enlisting on the 24th of May 1812, he served against the French in Valencia
and Catalonia, and retired with the rank of corporal on the 8th of March
1822. He obtained a minor post in the civil service under the liberal
government, and on his discharge determined to earn his living by writing
for the stage. His first piece, _Á la vejez viruelas_, was produced on the
14th of October 1824, and proved the writer to be the legitimate successor
of the younger Moratin. His industry was astonishing: between October 1824
and November 1828, he composed thirty-nine plays, six of them original, the
rest being translations or recasts of classic masterpieces. In 1831 he
published a translation of Tibullus, and acquired by it an unmerited
reputation for scholarship which secured for him an appointment as
sub-librarian at the national library. But the theatre claimed him for its
own, and with the exception of _Elena_ and a few other pieces in the
fashionable romantic vein, his plays were a long series of successes. His
only serious check occurred in 1840; the former liberal had grown
conservative with age, and in _La Ponchada_ he ridiculed the National
Guard. He was dismissed from the national library, and for a short time was
so unpopular that he seriously thought of emigrating to America; but the
storm blew over, and within two years Bretón de los Herreros had regained
his supremacy on the stage. He became secretary to the Spanish Academy,
quarrelled with his fellow-members, and died at Madrid on the 8th of
November 1873. He is the author of some three hundred and sixty original
plays, twenty-three of which are in prose. No Spanish dramatist of the
nineteenth century approaches him in comic power, in festive invention, and
in the humorous presentation of character, while his metrical dexterity is
unique. _Marcela o a cual de los trés?_ (1831), _Muérete; y verás!_ (1837)
and _La Escuela del matrimonio_ (1852) still hold the stage, and are likely
to hold it so long as Spanish is spoken.

See Marqués de Molíns, _Bretón de los Herreros, recuerdos de su vida y de
sus obras_ (Madrid, 1883); _Obras de Bretón de Herreros_ (5 vols., Madrid,
1883); E. Piñeyro, _El Romanticismo en España_ (Paris, 1904).

(J. F.-K.)

BRETSCHNEIDER, KARL GOTTLIEB (1776-1848), German scholar and theologian,
was born at Gersdorf in Saxony. In 1794 he entered the university of
Leipzig, where he studied theology for four years. After some years of
hesitation he resolved to be ordained, and in 1802 he passed with great
distinction the examination for _candidatus theologiae_, and attracted the
regard of F.V. Reinhard, author of the _System der christlichen Moral_
(1788-1815), then court-preacher at Dresden, who became his warm friend and
patron during the remainder of his life. In 1804-1806 Bretschneider was
_Privat-docent_ at the university of Wittenberg, where he lectured on
philosophy and theology. During this time he wrote his work on the
development of dogma, _Systematische Entwickelung aller in der Dogmatik
vorkommenden Begriffe nach den symbolischen Schriften der
evangelisch-lutherischen und reformirten Kirche_ (1805, 4th ed. 1841),
which was followed by others, including an edition of Ecclesiasticus with a
Latin commentary. On the advance of the French army under Napoleon into
Prussia, he determined to leave Wittenberg and abandon his university
career. Through the good offices of Reinhard, he became pastor of
Schneeberg in Saxony (1807). In 1808 he was promoted to the office of
superintendent of the church of Annaberg, in which capacity he had to
decide, in accordance with the canon law of Saxony, many matters belonging
to the department of ecclesiastical law. But the climate did not agree with
him, and his official duties interfered with his theological studies. With
a view to a change he took the degree of doctor of theology in Wittenberg
in August 1812. In 1816 he was appointed general superintendent at Gotha,
where he remained until his death in 1848. This was the great period of his
literary activity.

In 1820 was published his treatise on the gospel of St John, entitled
_Probabilia de Evangelii el Epistolarum Joannis Apostoli indole et
origine_, which attracted much attention. In it he collected with great
fulness and discussed with marked moderation the arguments against
Johannine authorship. This called forth a number of replies. To the
astonishment of every one, Bretschneider announced in the preface to the
second edition of his _Dogmatik_ in 1822, that he had never doubted the
authenticity of the gospel, and had published his _Probabilia_ only to draw
attention to the subject, and to call forth a more complete defence of its
genuineness. Bretschneider remarks in his autobiography that the
publication of this work had the effect of preventing his appointment as
successor to Karl C. Tittmann in Dresden, the minister Detlev von Einsiedel
(1773-1861) denouncing him as the "slanderer of John" (_Johannisschänder_).
His greatest contribution to the science of exegesis was his _Lexicon
Manuale Graeco-Latinum in libros Novi Testamenti_ (1824, 3rd ed. 1840).
This work was valuable for the use which its author made of the Greek of
the Septuagint, of the Old and New Testament Apocrypha, of Josephus, and of
the apostolic fathers, in illustration of the language of the New
Testament. In 1826 he published _Apologie der neuern Theologie des
evangelischen Deutschlands_. Hugh James Rose had published in England
(1825) a volume of sermons on the rationalist movement (_The State of the
Protestant Religion in Germany_), in which he classed Bretschneider with
the rationalists; and Bretschneider contended that he himself was not a
rationalist in the ordinary sense of the term, but a "rational
supernaturalist." Some of his numerous dogmatic writings passed through
several editions. An English translation of his _Manual of the Religion and
History of the Christian Church_ appeared in 1857. His dogmatic position
seems to be intermediate between the extreme school of naturalists, such as
Heinrich Paulus, J.F. Röhr and Julius Wegscheider on the one hand, and D.F.
Strauss and F.C. Baur on the other. Recognizing a supernatural element in
the Bible, he nevertheless allowed to the full the critical exercise of
reason in the interpretation of its dogmas (cp. Otto Pfleiderer,
_Development of Theology_, pp. 89 ff.).

See his autobiography, _Aus meinem Leben: Selbstbiographie von K.G.
Bretschneider_ (Gotha, 1851), of which a translation, with notes, by
Professor George E. Day, appeared in the _Bibliotheca Sacra and American
Biblical Repository_, Nos. 36 and 38 (1852, 1853); Neudecker in _Die
allgemeine Kirchenzeitung_ (1848), No. 38; Wüstemann, _Bretschneideri
Memoria_ (1848); A.G. Farrar, _Critical History of Free Thought_ (Bampton
Lectures, 1862); Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_ (ed. 1897).

BRETTEN, a town of Germany, in the grand duchy of Baden, on the Saalbach, 9
m. S.E. of Bruchsal by rail. Pop. (1900) 4781. It has some manufactories of
machinery and japanned goods, and a considerable trade in timber and
livestock. Bretten was the birthplace of Melanchthon (1497), and in
addition to a [v.04 p.0503] statue of him by Drake, a memorial hall,
containing a collection of his writings and busts and pictures of his
famous contemporaries, has been erected.

BRETWALDA, a word used in the _Anglo-Saxon Chronicle_ under the date 827,
and also in a charter of Æthelstan, king of the English. It appears in
several variant forms (_brytenwalda_, _bretenanwealda_, &c.), and means
most probably "lord of the Britons" or "lord of Britain"; for although the
derivation of the word is uncertain, its earlier syllable seems to be
cognate with the words Briton and Britannia. In the _Chronicle_ the title
is given to Ecgbert, king of the English, "the eighth king that was
Bretwalda," and retrospectively to seven kings who ruled over one or other
of the English kingdoms. The seven names are copied from Bede's _Historia
Ecclesiastica_, and it is interesting to note that the last king named,
Oswiu of Northumbria, lived 150 years before Ecgbert. It has been assumed
that these seven kings exercised a certain superiority over a large part of
England, but if such superiority existed it is certain that it was
extremely vague and was unaccompanied by any unity of organization. Another
theory is that Bretwalda refers to a war-leadership, or _imperium_, over
the English south of the Humber, and has nothing to do with Britons or
Britannia. In support of this explanation it is urged that the title is
given in the _Chronicle_ to Ecgbert in the year in which he "conquered the
kingdom of the Mercians and all that was south of the Humber." Less likely
is the theory of Palgrave that the Bretwaldas were the successors of the
pseudo-emperors, Maximus and Carausius, and claimed to share the imperial
dignity of Rome; or that of Kemble, who derives Bretwalda from the British
word _breotan_, to distribute, and translates it "widely ruling." With
regard to Ecgbert the word is doubtless given as a title in imitation of
its earlier use, and the same remark applies to its use in Æthelstan's
charter.

See E.A. Freeman, _History of the Norman Conquest_, vol. i. (Oxford, 1877);
W. Stubbs, _Constitutional History_, vol. i. (Oxford, 1897); J.R. Green,
_The Making of England_, vol. ii. (London, 1897); F. Palgrave, _The Rise
and Progress of the English Commonwealth_ (London, 1832); J. M. Kemble,
_The Saxons in England_ (London, 1876); J. Rhys, _Celtic Britain_ (London,
1884).

BREUGHEL (or BRUEGHEL), PIETER, Flemish painter, was the son of a peasant
residing in the village of Breughel near Breda. After receiving instruction
in painting from Koek, whose daughter he married, he spent some time in
France and Italy, and then went to Antwerp, where he was elected into the
Academy in 1551. He finally settled at Brussels and died there. The
subjects of his pictures are chiefly humorous figures, like those of D.
Teniers; and if he wants the delicate touch and silvery clearness of that
master, he has abundant spirit and comic power. He is said to have died
about the year 1570 at the age of sixty; other accounts give 1590 as the
date of his death.

His son PIETER, the younger (1564-1637), known as "Hell" Breughel, was born
in Brussels and died at Antwerp, where his "Christ bearing the Cross" is in
the museum.

Another son JAN (c. 1569-1642), known as "Velvet" Breughel, was born at
Brussels. He first applied himself to painting flowers and fruits, and
afterwards acquired considerable reputation by his landscapes and
sea-pieces. After residing long at Cologne he travelled into Italy, where
his landscapes, adorned with small figures, were greatly admired. He left a
large number of pictures, chiefly landscapes, which are executed with great
skill. Rubens made use of Breughel's hand in the landscape part of several
of his small pictures--such as his "Vertumnus and Pomona," the "Satyr
viewing the Sleeping Nymph," and the "Terrestrial Paradise."

BREVET (a diminutive of the Fr. _bref_), a short writing, originally an
official writing or letter, with the particular meaning of a papal
indulgence. The use of the word is mainly confined to a commission, or
official document, giving to an officer in the army a permanent, as opposed
to a local and temporary, rank in the service higher than that he holds
substantively in his corps. In the British army "brevet rank" exists only
above the rank of captain, but in the United States army it is possible to
obtain a brevet as first lieutenant. In France the term _breveté_ is
particularly used with respect to the General Staff, to express the
equivalent of the English "passed Staff College" (p.s.c.).

BREVIARY (Lat. _breviarium_, abridgment, epitome), the book which contains
the offices for the canonical hours, _i.e._ the daily service of the Roman
Catholic Church. As compared with the Anglican Book of Common Prayer it is
both more and less comprehensive; more, in that it includes lessons and
hymns for every day in the year; less, because it excludes the Eucharistic
office (contained in the Missal), and the special offices connected with
baptism, marriage, burial, ordination, &c., which are found in the Ritual
or the Pontifical. In the early days of Christian worship, when Jewish
custom was followed, the Bible furnished all that was thought necessary,
containing as it did the books from which the lessons were read and the
psalms that were recited. The first step in the evolution of the Breviary
was the separation of the Psalter into a choir-book. At first the president
of the local church (bishop) or the leader of the choir chose a particular
psalm as he thought appropriate. From about the 4th century certain psalms
began to be grouped together, a process that was furthered by the monastic
practice of daily reciting the 150 psalms. This took so much time that the
monks began to spread it over a week, dividing each day into hours, and
allotting to each hour its portion of the Psalter. St Benedict in the 6th
century drew up such an arrangement, probably, though not certainly, on the
basis of an older Roman division which, though not so skilful, is the one
in general use. Gradually there were added to these psalter choir-books
additions in the form of antiphons, responses, collects or short prayers,
for the use of those not skilful at improvisation and metrical
compositions. Jean Beleth, a 12th-century liturgical author, gives the
following list of books necessary for the right conduct of the canonical
office:--the _Antiphonarium_, the Old and New Testaments, the
_Passionarius_ (_liber_) and the _Legendarius_ (dealing respectively with
martyrs and saints), the _Homiliarius_ (homilies on the Gospels), the
_Sermologus_ (collection of sermons) and the works of the Fathers, besides,
of course, the _Psalterium_ and the _Collectarium_. To overcome the
inconvenience of using such a library the Breviary came into existence and
use. Already in the 8th century Prudentius, bishop of Troyes, had in a
_Breviarium Psalterii_ made an abridgment of the Psalter for the laity,
giving a few psalms for each day, and Alcuin had rendered a similar service
by including a prayer for each day and some other prayers, but no lessons
or homilies. The Breviary rightly so called, however, only dates from the
11th century; the earliest MS. containing the whole canonical office is of
the year 1099 and is in the Mazarin library. Gregory VII. (pope 1073-1085),
too, simplified the liturgy as performed at the Roman court, and gave his
abridgment the name of Breviary, which thus came to denote a work which
from another point of view might be called a Plenary, involving as it did
the collection of several works into one. There are several extant
specimens of 12th-century Breviaries, all Benedictine, but under Innocent
III. (pope 1198-1216) their use was extended, especially by the newly
founded and active Franciscan order. These preaching friars, with the
authorization of Gregory IX., adopted (with some modifications, _e.g._ the
substitution of the "Gallican" for the "Roman" version of the Psalter) the
Breviary hitherto used exclusively by the Roman court, and with it
gradually swept out of Europe all the earlier partial books (Legendaries,
Responsories), &c., and to some extent the local Breviaries, like that of
Sarum. Finally, Nicholas III. (pope 1277-1280) adopted this version both
for the curia and for the basilicas of Rome, and thus made its position
secure. The Benedictines and Dominicans have Breviaries of their own. The
only other types that merit notice are:--(1) the Mozarabic Breviary, once
in use throughout all Spain, but now confined to a single foundation at
Toledo; it is remarkable for the number and length of its hymns, and for
the fact that the majority of its collects are addressed to God the Son;
(2) the Ambrosian, now confined to Milan, where it owes its retention to
the attachment of the clergy and people to their traditionary rites, which
they derive from St Ambrose (see LITURGY).

[v.04 p.0504] Till the council of Trent every bishop had full power to
regulate the Breviary of his own diocese; and this was acted upon almost
everywhere. Each monastic community, also, had one of its own. Pius V.
(pope 1566-1572), however, while sanctioning those which could show at
least 200 years of existence, made the Roman obligatory in all other
places. But the influence of the court of Rome has gradually gone much
beyond this, and has superseded almost all the local "uses." The Roman has
thus become nearly universal, with the allowance only of additional offices
for saints specially venerated in each particular diocese. The Roman
Breviary has undergone several revisions: The most remarkable of these is
that by Francis Quignonez, cardinal of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme (1536),
which, though not accepted by Rome,[1] formed the model for the still more
thorough reform made in 1549 by the Church of England, whose daily morning
and evening services are but a condensation and simplification of the
Breviary offices. Some parts of the prefaces at the beginning of the
English Prayer-Book are free translations of those of Quignonez. The Pian
Breviary was again altered by Sixtus V. in 1588, who introduced the revised
Vulgate text; by Clement VIII. in 1602 (through Baronius and Bellarmine),
especially as concerns the rubrics; and by Urban VIII. (1623-1644), a
purist who unfortunately tampered with the text of the hymns, injuring both
their literary charm and their historic worth.

In the 17th and 18th centuries a movement of revision took place in France,
and succeeded in modifying about half the Breviaries of that country.
Historically, this proceeded from the labours of Jean de Launoy
(1603-1678), "le dénicheur des saints," and Louis Sébastien le Nain de
Tillemont, who had shown the falsity of numerous lives of the saints; while
theologically it was produced by the Port Royal school, which led men to
dwell more on communion with God as contrasted with the invocation of the
saints. This was mainly carried out by the adoption of a rule that all
antiphons and responses should be in the exact words of Scripture, which,
of course, cut out the whole class of appeals to created beings. The
services were at the same time simplified and shortened, and the use of the
whole Psalter every week (which had become a mere theory in the Roman
Breviary, owing to its frequent supersession by saints' day services) was
made a reality. These reformed French Breviaries--_e.g._ the Paris Breviary
of 1680 by Archbishop François de Harlay (1625-1695) and that of 1736 by
Archbishop Charles Gaspard Guillaume de Vintimille (1655-1746)--show a deep
knowledge of Holy Scripture, and much careful adaptation of different
texts; but during the pontificate of Pius IX. a strong Ultramontane
movement arose against them. This was inaugurated by Montalembert, but its
literary advocates were chiefly Dom Gueranger, a learned Benedictine monk,
abbot of Solesmes, and Louis François Veuillot (1813-1883) of the
_Univers_; and it succeeded in suppressing them everywhere, the last
diocese to surrender being Orleans in 1875. The Jansenist and Gallican
influence was also strongly felt in Italy and in Germany, where Breviaries
based on the French models were published at Cologne, Münster, Mainz and
other towns. Meanwhile, under the direction of Benedict XIV. (pope
1740-1758), a special congregation collected many materials for an official
revision, but nothing was published. Subsequent changes have been very few
and minute. In 1902, under Leo XIII., a commission under the presidency of
Monsignor Louis Duchesne was appointed to consider the Breviary, the
Missal, the Pontifical and the Ritual.

The beauty and value of many of the Latin Breviaries were brought to the
notice of English churchmen by one of the numbers of the Oxford _Tracts for
the Times_, since which time they have been much more studied, both for
their own sake and for the light they throw upon the English Prayer-Book.

From a bibliographical point of view some of the early printed Breviaries
are among the rarest of literary curiosities, being merely local. The
copies were not spread far, and were soon worn out by the daily use made of
them. Doubtless many editions have perished without leaving a trace of
their existence, while others are known by unique copies. In Scotland the
only one which has survived the convulsions of the 16th century is that of
Aberdeen, a Scottish form of the Sarum Office,[2] revised by William
Elphinstone (bishop 1483-1514), and printed at Edinburgh by Walter Chapman
and Andrew Myllar in 1509-1510. Four copies have been preserved of it, of
which only one is complete; but it was reprinted in facsimile in 1854 for
the Bannatyne Club by the munificence of the duke of Buccleuch. It is
particularly valuable for the trustworthy notices of the early history of
Scotland which are embedded in the lives of the national saints. Though
enjoined by royal mandate in 1501 for general use within the realm of
Scotland, it was probably never widely adopted. The new Scottish _Proprium_
sanctioned for the Roman Catholic province of St Andrews in 1903 contains
many of the old Aberdeen collects and antiphons.

The Sarum or Salisbury Breviary itself was very widely used. The first
edition was printed at Venice in 1483 by Raynald de Novimagio in folio; the
latest at Paris, 1556, 1557. While modern Breviaries are nearly always
printed in four volumes, one for each season of the year, the editions of
the Sarum never exceeded two parts.

_Contents of the Roman Breviary_.--At the beginning stands the usual
introductory matter, such as the tables for determining the date of Easter,
the calendar, and the general rubrics. The Breviary itself is divided into
four seasonal parts--winter, spring, summer, autumn--and comprises under
each part (1) the Psalter; (2) _Proprium de Tempore_ (the special office of
the season); (3) _Proprium Sanctorum_ (special offices of saints); (4)
_Commune Sanctorum_ (general offices for saints); (5) Extra Services. These
parts are often published separately.

1. _The Psalter_.--This is the very backbone of the Breviary, the
groundwork of the Catholic prayer-book; out of it have grown the antiphons,
responsories and versicles. In the Breviary the psalms are arranged
according to a disposition dating from the 8th century, as follows. Psalms
i.-cviii., with some omissions, are recited at Matins, twelve each day from
Monday to Saturday, and eighteen on Sunday. The omissions are said at
Lauds, Prime and Compline. Psalms cix.-cxlvii. (except cxvii., cxviii. and
cxlii.) are said at Vespers, five each day. Psalms cxlviii.-cl. are always
used at Lauds, and give that hour its name. The text of this Psalter is
that commonly known as the Gallican. The name is misleading, for it is
simply the second revision (A.D. 392) made by Jerome of the old _Itala_
version originally used in Rome. Jerome's first revision of the _Itala_
(A.D. 383), known as the Roman, is still used at St Peter's in Rome, but
the "Gallican," thanks especially to St Gregory of Tours, who introduced it
into Gaul in the 6th century, has ousted it everywhere else. The
Antiphonary of Bangor proves that Ireland accepted the Gallican version in
the 7th century, and the English Church did so in the 10th.

2. The _Proprium de Tempore_ contains the office of the seasons of the
Christian year (Advent to Trinity), a conception that only gradually grew
up. There is here given the whole service for every Sunday and week-day,
the proper antiphons, responsories, hymns, and especially the course of
daily Scripture-reading, averaging about twenty verses a day, and (roughly)
arranged thus: for Advent, Isaiah; Epiphany to Septuagesima, Pauline
Epistles; Lent, patristic homilies (Genesis on Sundays); Passion-tide,
Jeremiah; Easter to Whitsun, Acts, Catholic epistles and Apocalypse;
Whitsun to August, Samuel and Kings; August to Advent, Wisdom books,
Maccabees, Prophets. The extracts are often scrappy and torn out of their
context.

3. The _Proprium Sanctorum_ contains the lessons, psalms and liturgical
formularies for saints' festivals, and depends on the days of the secular
month. Most of the material here is hagiological biography, occasionally
revised as by Leo XIII. in view of archaeological and other discoveries,
but still largely uncritical. Covering a great stretch of time and space,
they do for the worshipper in the field of church history what the
Scripture readings do in that of biblical history. As something like 90% of
the days in the year have, during the course of centuries, been allotted to
some saint or other, it is easy to see how this section of the Breviary has
encroached upon the _Proprium de Tempore_, and this is the chief problem
that confronts any who are concerned for a revision of the Breviary.

4. The _Commune Sanctorum_ comprises psalms, antiphons, lessons, &c., for
feasts of various groups or classes (twelve in all); _e.g._ apostles,
martyrs, confessors, virgins, and the Blessed Virgin Mary. These offices
are of very ancient date, and many of them were probably [v.04 p.0505] in
origin proper to individual saints. They contain passages of great literary
beauty. The lessons read at the third nocturn are patristic homilies on the
Gospels, and together form a rough summary of theological instruction.

5. _Extra Services_.--Here are found the Little Office of the Blessed
Virgin Mary, the Office of the Dead (obligatory on All Souls' Day), and
offices peculiar to each diocese.

It has already been indicated, by reference to Matins, Lauds, &c., that not
only each day, but each part of the day, has its own office, the day being
divided into liturgical "hours." A detailed account of these will be found
in the article HOURS, CANONICAL. Each of the hours of the office is
composed of the same elements, and something must be said now of the nature
of these constituent parts, of which mention has here and there been
already made. They are: psalms (including canticles), antiphons,
responsories, hymns, lessons, little chapters, versicles and collects.

The _psalms_ have already been dealt with, but it may be noted again how
the multiplication of saints' festivals, with practically the same special
psalms, tends in practice to constant repetition of about one-third of the
Psalter, and correspondingly rare recital of the remaining two-thirds,
whereas the _Proprium de Tempore_, could it be adhered to, would provide
equal opportunities for every psalm. As in the Greek usage and in the
Benedictine, certain canticles like the Song of Moses (Exodus xv.), the
Song of Hannah (1 Sam. ii.), the prayer of Habakkuk (iii.), the prayer of
Hezekiah (Isaiah xxxviii.) and other similar Old Testament passages, and,
from the New Testament, the Magnificat, the Benedictus and the Nunc
dimittis, are admitted as psalms.

The _antiphons_ are short liturgical forms, sometimes of biblical,
sometimes of patristic origin, used to introduce a psalm. The term
originally signified a chant by alternate choirs, but has quite lost this
meaning in the Breviary.

The _responsories_ are similar in form to the antiphons, but come at the
end of the psalm, being originally the reply of the choir or congregation
to the precentor who recited the psalm.

The _hymns_ are short poems going back in part to the days of Prudentius,
Synesius, Gregory of Nazianzus and Ambrose (4th and 5th centuries), but
mainly the work of medieval authors. Together they make a fine collection,
and it is a pity that Urban VIII. in his mistaken humanistic zeal tried to
improve them.

The _lessons_, as has been seen, are drawn variously from the Bible, the
Acts of the Saints and the Fathers of the Church. In the primitive church,
books afterwards excluded from the canon were often read, _e.g._ the
letters of Clement of Rome and the _Shepherd of Hermas_. In later days the
churches of Africa, having rich memorials of martyrdom, used them to
supplement the reading of Scripture. Monastic influence accounts for the
practice of adding to the reading of a biblical passage some patristic
commentary or exposition. Books of homilies were compiled from the writings
of SS. Augustine, Hilary, Athanasius, Isidore, Gregory the Great and
others, and formed part of the library of which the Breviary was the
ultimate compendium. In the lessons, as in the psalms, the order for
special days breaks in upon the normal order of ferial offices and
dislocates the scheme for consecutive reading. The lessons are read at
Matins (which is subdivided into three nocturns).

The _little chapters_ are very short lessons read at the other "hours."

The _versicles_ are short responsories used after the little chapters.

The _collects_ come at the close of the office and are short prayers
summing up the supplications of the congregation. They arise out of a
primitive practice on the part of the bishop (local president), examples of
which are found in the _Didach[=e]_ (Teaching of the Apostles) and in the
letters of Clement of Rome and Cyprian. With the crystallization of church
order improvisation in prayer largely gave place to set forms, and
collections of prayers were made which later developed into Sacramentaries
and Orationals. The collects of the Breviary are largely drawn from the
Gelasian and other Sacramentaries, and they are used to sum up the dominant
idea of the festival in connexion with which they happen to be used.

The difficulty of harmonizing the _Proprium de Tempore_ and the _Proprium
Sanctorum_, to which reference has been made, is only partly met in the
thirty-seven chapters of general rubrics. Additional help is given by a
kind of Catholic Churchman's Almanack, called the _Ordo Recitandi Divini
Officii_, published in different countries and dioceses, and giving, under
every day, minute directions for proper reading.

Every clerk in orders and every member of a religious order must publicly
join in or privately read aloud (_i.e._ using the lips as well as the
eyes--it takes about two hours in this way) the whole of the Breviary
services allotted for each day. In large churches the services are usually
grouped; _e.g._ Matins and Lauds (about 7.30 A.M.); Prime, Terce (High
Mass), Sext, and None (about 10 A.M.); Vespers and Compline (4 P.M.); and
from four to eight hours (depending on the amount of music and the number
of high masses) are thus spent in choir. Laymen do not use the Breviary as
a manual of devotion to any great extent.

The Roman Breviary has been translated into English (by the marquess of
Bute in 1879; new ed. with a trans, of the Martyrology, 1908), French and
German. The English version is noteworthy for its inclusion of the skilful
renderings of the ancient hymns by J.H. Newman, J.M. Neale and others.

AUTHORITIES.--F. Cabrol, _Introduction aux études liturgiques_; Probst,
_Kirchenlex_. ii., _s.v._ "Brevier"; Bäumer, _Geschichte des Breviers_
(Freiburg, 1895); P. Batiffol, _L'Histoire du bréviaire romain_ (Paris,
1893; Eng. tr.); Baudot, _Le Bréviaire romain_ (1907). A complete
bibliography is appended to the article by F. Cabrol in the _Catholic
Encyclopaedia_, vol. ii. (1908).

[1] It was approved by Clement VII. and Paul III., and permitted as a
substitute for the unrevised Breviary, until Pius V. in 1568 excluded it as
too short and too modern, and issued a reformed edition (_Breviarium
Pianum_, Pian Breviary) of the old Breviary.

[2] The Sarum Rite was much favoured in Scotland as a kind of protest
against the jurisdiction claimed by the church of York.

BREVIARY OF ALARIC (_Breviarium Alaricanum_), a collection of Roman law,
compiled by order of Alaric II., king of the Visigoths, with the advice of
his bishops and nobles, in the twenty-second year of his reign (A.D. 506).
It comprises sixteen books of the Theodosian code; the Novels of Theodosius
II., Valentinian III., Marcian, Majorianus and Severus; the Institutes of
Gaius; five books of the _Sententiae Receptae_ of Julius Paulus; thirteen
titles of the Gregorian code; two titles of the Hermogenian code; and a
fragment of the first book of the _Responsa Papiniani_. It is termed a code
(codex), in the certificate of Anianus, the king's referendary, but unlike
the code of Justinian, from which the writings of jurists were excluded, it
comprises both imperial constitutions (_leges_) and juridical treatises
(_jura_). From the circumstance that the Breviarium has prefixed to it a
royal rescript (_commonitorium_) directing that copies of it, certified
under the hand of Anianus, should be received exclusively as law throughout
the kingdom of the Visigoths, the compilation of the code has been
attributed to Anianus by many writers, and it is frequently designated the
Breviary of Anianus (Breviarium Aniani). The code, however, appears to have
been known amongst the Visigoths by the title of "Lex Romana," or "Lex
Theodosii," and it was not until the 16th century that the title of
"Breviarium" was introduced to distinguish it from a recast of the code,
which was introduced into northern Italy in the 9th century for the use of
the Romans in Lombardy. This recast of the Visigothic code has been
preserved in a MS. known as the Codex Utinensis, which was formerly kept in
the archives of the cathedral of Udine, but is now lost; and it was
published in the 18th century for the first time by P. Canciani in his
collection of ancient laws entitled _Barbarorum Leges Antiquae_. Another
MS. of this Lombard recast of the Visigothic code was discovered by Hänel
in the library of St Gall. The chief value of the Visigothic code consists
in the fact that it is the only collection of Roman Law in which the five
first books of the Theodosian code and five books of the _Sententiae
Receptae_ of Julius Paulus have been preserved, and until the discovery of
a MS. in the chapter library in Verona, which contained the greater part of
the Institutes of Gaius, it was the only work in which any portion of the
institutional writings of that great jurist had come down to us.

The most complete edition of the Breviarium will be found in the collection
of Roman law published under the title of _Jus Civile Ante-Justinianum_
(Berlin, 1815). See also G. Hänel's _Lex Romana Visigothorum_ (Berlin,
1847-1849).

BREWER, JOHN SHERREN (1810-1879), English historian, was born in Norwich in
1810, the son of a Baptist schoolmaster. He was educated at Queen's
College, Oxford, was ordained in the Church of England in 1837, and became
chaplain to a central London workhouse. In 1839 he was appointed lecturer
in classical literature at King's College, London, and in 1855 he became
professor of English language and literature and lecturer in modern
history, succeeding F.D. Maurice. Meanwhile from 1854 onwards he was also
engaged in journalistic work on the _Morning Herald_, _Morning Post_ and
_Standard_. In 1856 he was commissioned by the master of the rolls to
prepare a calendar of the state papers of Henry VIII., a work demanding a
vast amount of research. He was also made reader at the Rolls, and
subsequently preacher. In 1877 Disraeli secured for him the crown living of
Toppesfield, Essex. There he had time to continue his task of preparing his
_Letters and Papers of the Reign of King Henry VIII_., the Introductions to
which (published separately, under the title _The Reign of Henry VIII_., in
1884) form a scholarly and authoritative history of Henry VIII.'s reign.
New editions of several standard historical works were also produced under
Brewer's direction. He died at Toppesfield in February 1879.

[v.04 p.0506] BREWING, in the modern acceptation of the term, a series of
operations the object of which is to prepare an alcoholic beverage of a
certain kind--to wit, beer--mainly from cereals (chiefly malted barley),
hops and water. Although the art of preparing beer (_q.v._) or ale is a
very ancient one, there is very little information in the literature of the
subject as to the apparatus and methods employed in early times. It seems
fairly certain, however, that up to the 18th century these were of the most
primitive kind. With regard to _materials_, we know that prior to the
general introduction of the hop (see ALE) as a preservative and astringent,
a number of other bitter and aromatic plants had been employed with this
end in view. Thus J.L. Baker (_The Brewing Industry_) points out that the
Cimbri used the _Tamarix germanica_, the Scandinavians the fruit of the
sweet gale (_Myrica gale_), the Cauchi the fruit and the twigs of the
chaste tree (_Vitex agrius castus_), and the Icelanders the yarrow
(_Achillea millefolium_).

The preparation of beer on anything approaching to a manufacturing scale
appears, until about the 12th or 13th century, to have been carried on in
England chiefly in the monasteries; but as the brewers of London combined
to form an association in the reign of Henry IV., and were granted a
charter in 1445, it is evident that brewing as a special trade or industry
must have developed with some rapidity. After the Reformation the ranks of
the trade brewers were swelled by numbers of monks from the expropriated
monasteries. Until the 18th century the professional brewers, or brewers
for sale, as they are now called, brewed chiefly for the masses, the
wealthier classes preparing their own beer, but it then became gradually
apparent to the latter (owing no doubt to improved methods of brewing, and
for others reasons) that it was more economical and less troublesome to
have their beer brewed for them at a regular brewery. The usual charge was
30s. per barrel for bitter ale, and 8s. or so for small beer. This tendency
to centralize brewing operations became more and more marked with each
succeeding decade. Thus during 1895-1905 the number of private brewers
declined from 17,041 to 9930. Of the private brewers still existing, about
four-fifths were in the class exempted from beer duty, _i.e._ farmers
occupying houses not exceeding £10 annual value who brew for their
labourers, and other persons occupying houses not exceeding £15 annual
value. The private houses subject to both beer and licence duty produced
less than 20,000 barrels annually. There are no official figures as to the
number of "cottage brewers," that is, occupiers of dwellings not exceeding
£8 annual value; but taking everything into consideration it is probable
that more than 99% of the beer produced in the United Kingdom is brewed by
public brewers (brewers for sale). The disappearance of the smaller public
brewers or their absorption by the larger concerns has gone hand-in-hand
with the gradual extinction of the private brewer. In the year 1894-1895
8863 licences were issued to brewers for sale, and by 1904-1905 this number
had been reduced to 5164. There are numerous reasons for these changes in
the constitution of the brewing industry, chief among them being (a) the
increasing difficulty, owing partly to licensing legislation and its
administration, and partly to the competition of the great breweries, of
obtaining an adequate outlet for retail sale in the shape of licensed
houses; and (b) the fact that brewing has continuously become a more
scientific and specialized industry, requiring costly and complicated plant
and expert manipulation. It is only by employing the most up-to-date
machinery and expert knowledge that the modern brewer can hope to produce
good beer in the short time which competition and high taxation, &c., have
forced upon him. Under these conditions the small brewer tends to
extinction, and the public are ultimately the gainers. The relatively
non-alcoholic, lightly hopped and bright modern beers, which the small
brewer has not the means of producing, are a great advance on the muddy,
highly hopped and alcoholized beverages to which our ancestors were
accustomed.

The brewing trade has reached vast proportions in the United Kingdom. The
maximum production was 37,090,986 barrels in 1900, and while there has been
a steady decline since that year, the figures for 1905-1906--34,109,263
barrels--were in excess of those for any year preceding 1897. It is
interesting in this connexion to note that the writer of the article on
Brewing in the 9th edition of the _Encyclopaedia Britannica_ was of the
opinion that the brewing industry--which was then (1875) producing,
roughly, 25,000,000 barrels--had attained its maximum development. In the
year ending 30th September 1905 the beer duty received by the exchequer
amounted to £13,156,053. The number of brewers for sale was 5180. Of these
one firm, namely, Messrs Guinness, owning the largest brewery in the world,
brewed upwards of two million barrels, paying a sum of, roughly, one
million sterling to the revenue. Three other firms brewed close on a
million barrels or upwards. The quantity of malt used was 51,818,697
bushels; of unmalted corn, 125,671 bushels; of rice, flaked maize and
similar materials, 1,348,558 cwt.; of sugar, 2,746,615 cwt.; of hops,
62,360,817 lb; and of hop substitutes, 49,202 lb. The average specific
gravity of the beer produced in 1905-1906 was 1053.24. The quantity of beer
exported was 520,826; of beer imported, 57,194 barrels. It is curious to
note that the figures for exports and imports had remained almost
stationary for the last thirty years. By far the greater part of the beer
brewed is consumed in England. Thus of the total quantity retained for
consumption in 1905-1906, 28,590,563 barrels were consumed in England,
1,648,463 in Scotland, and 3,265,084 in Ireland. In 1871 it was calculated
by Professor Leone Levi that the capital invested in the liquor trade in
the United Kingdom was £117,000,000. In 1908 this figure might be safely
doubled. A writer in the _Brewers' Almanack_ for 1906 placed the capital
invested in limited liability breweries alone at £185,000,000. If we allow
for over-capitalization, it seems fairly safe to say that, prior to the
introduction of the Licensing Bill of 1908, the market value of the
breweries in the United Kingdom, together with their licensed property, was
in the neighbourhood of £120,000,000, to which might be added another
£20,000,000 for the value of licences not included in the above
calculation; the total capital actually sunk in the whole liquor trade
(including the wine and spirit industries and trades) being probably not
far short of £250,000,000, and the number of persons directly engaged in or
dependent on the liquor trade being under-estimated at 2,000,000. (For
comparative production and consumption see BEER.)

_Taxation and Regulations_.--The development of the brewing industry in
England is intimately interwoven with the history of its taxation, and the
regulations which have from time to time been formed for the safeguarding
of the revenue. The first duty on beer in the United Kingdom was imposed in
the reign of Charles II. (1660), namely 2s. 6d. per barrel on strong and
6d. per barrel on weak beer. This was gradually increased, amounting to 4s.
9d. on strong and 1s. 3d. on weak beer in the last decade of the 17th
century, and to 8s. to 10s. in the year 1800, at which rate it continued
until the repeal of the beer duty in 1830. A duty on malt was first imposed
in the reign of William III. (1697), and from that date until 1830 both
beer duty and malt tax were charged. The rate at first was under 7d. per
bushel, but this was increased up to 2s. 7d. prior to the first repeal of
the beer duty (1830), and to 4s. 6d. after the repeal. In 1829 the joint
beer and malt taxes amounted to no less than 13s. 8d. per barrel, or 4½d.
per gallon, as against 2½d. at the present day. From 1856 until the
abolition of the malt tax, the latter remained constant at a fraction under
2s. 8½d. A _hop duty_ varying from 1d. to 2½d. per pound was in existence
between 1711 and 1862. One of the main reasons for the abolition of the hop
duty was the fact that, owing to the uncertainty of the crop, the amount
paid to the revenue was subject to wide fluctuations. Thus in 1855 the
revenue from this source amounted to £728,183, in 1861 to only £149,700.

It was not until 1847 that the use of sugar in brewing was permitted, and
in 1850 the first sugar tax, amounting to 1s. 4d. per cwt., was imposed. It
varied from this figure up to 6s. 6d. in 1854, and in 1874, when the
general duty on sugar was repealed, it was raised to 11s. 6d., at which
rate it remained until 1880, when it was repealed simultaneously with the
malt duty. In 1901 a general sugar tax of 4s. 2d. and under (according to
the percentage of actual sugar contained) was imposed, but no drawback was
allowed to brewers using sugar, and therefore--and this obtains at the
present day--sugar used in brewing pays the general tax and also the beer
duty.

By the Free Mash-Tun Act of 1880, the duty was taken off the malt and
placed on the beer, or, more properly speaking, on the wort; maltsters' and
brewers' licences were repealed, and in lieu thereof an annual licence duty
of £1 payable by every brewer for sale was [v.04 p.0507] imposed. The chief
feature of this act was that, on and after the 1st of October 1880, a beer
duty was imposed in lieu of the old malt tax, at the rate of 6s. 3d. per
barrel of 36 gallons, at a specific gravity of 1.057, and the regulations
for charging the duty were so framed as to leave the brewer practically
unrestricted as to the description of malt or corn and sugar, or other
description of saccharine substitutes (other than deleterious articles or
drugs), which he might use in the manufacture or colouring of beer. This
freedom in the choice of materials has continued down to the present time,
except that the use of "saccharin" (a product derived from coal-tar) was
prohibited in 1888, the reason being that this substance gives an apparent
palate-fulness to beer equal to roughly 4° in excess of its real gravity,
the revenue suffering thereby. In 1889 the duty on beer was increased by a
reduction in the standard of gravity from 1.057 to 1.055, and in 1894 a
further 6d. per barrel was added. The duty thus became 6s. 9d. per barrel,
at a gravity of 1.055, which was further increased to 7s. 9d. per barrel by
the war budget of 1900, at which figure it stood in 1909. (See also LIQUOR
LAWS.)

Prior to 1896, rice, flaked maize (see below), and other similar
preparations had been classed as malt or corn in reference to their
wort-producing powers, but after that date they were deemed sugar[1] in
that regard. By the new act (1880) 42 lb weight of corn, or 28 lb weight of
sugar, were to be deemed the equivalent of a bushel of malt, and a brewer
was expected by one of the modes of charge to have brewed at least a barrel
(36 gallons) of worts (less 4% allowed for wastage) at the standard gravity
for every two bushels of malt (or its equivalents) used by him in brewing;
but where, owing to lack of skill or inferior machinery, a brewer cannot
obtain the standard quantity of wort from the standard equivalent of
material, the charge is made not on the wort, but directly on the material.
By the new act, licences at the annual duty of £1 on brewers for sale, and
of 6s. (subsequently modified by 44 Vict. c. 12, and 48 and 49 Vict. c. 5,
&c., to 4s.) or 9s., as the case might be, on any other brewers, were
required. The regulations dealing with the mashing operations are very
stringent. Twenty-four hours at least before mashing the brewer must enter
in his brewing book (provided by the Inland Revenue) the day and hour for
commencing to mash malt, corn, &c., or to dissolve sugar; and the date of
making such entry; and also, two hours at least before the notice hour for
mashing, the quantity of malt, corn, &c., and sugar to be used, and the day
and hour when all the worts will be drawn off the grains in the mash-tun.
The worts of each brewing must be collected within twelve hours of the
commencement of the collection, and the brewer must within a given time
enter in his book the quantity and gravity of the worts before
fermentation, the number and name of the vessel, and the date of the entry.
The worts must remain in the same vessel undisturbed for twelve hours after
being collected, unless previously taken account of by the officer. There
are other regulations, _e.g._ those prohibiting the mixing of worts of
different brewings unless account has been taken of each separately, the
alteration of the size or shape of any gauged vessel without notice, and so
on.

_Taxation of Beer in Foreign Countries_.--The following table shows the
nature of the tax and the amount of the same calculated to English barrels.

        Country.           Nature of Tax.    Amount per English
                                               Barrel (round
                                                  numbers)
United States                 Beer tax            5s. 9d.
Germany --
---- N. German Customs        Malt tax             1s. 6d
Union
---- Bavaria                  Malt tax      3s. 5d. to 4s. 8d.,
                                                according to
                                             quantity produced
Belgium                       Malt tax            2s. 9d.
France                         On Wort            4s. 1d.
Holland                       On cubic      About 1s. 9d. to 3s.
                             contents of     3d., according to
                           Mash-Tun or on         quality
                                Malt
Austro-Hungarian Empire        On Wort            6s. 8d.
Russia                        Malt tax         5s. to 6s. 8d.

MATERIALS USED IN BREWING.--These are water, malt (_q.v._), hops (_q.v._),
various substitutes for the two latter, and preservatives.

_Water_.--A satisfactory supply of water--which, it may here be mentioned,
is always called _liquor_ in the brewery--is a matter of great importance
to the brewer. Certain waters, for instance, those contaminated to any
extent with organic matter, cannot be used at all in brewing, as they give
rise to unsatisfactory fermentation, cloudiness and abnormal flavour.
Others again, although suited to the production of one type of beer, are
quite unfit for the brewing of another. For black beers a soft water is a
desideratum, for ales of the Burton type a hard water is a necessity. For
the brewing of mild ales, again, a water containing a certain proportion of
chlorides is required. The presence or absence of certain mineral
substances as such in the finished beer is not, apparently, a matter of any
moment as regards flavour or appearance, but the importance of the rôle
played by these substances in the brewing process is due to the influence
which they exert on the solvent action of the water on the various
constituents of the malt, and possibly of the hops. The excellent quality
of the Burton ales was long ago surmised to be due mainly to the well water
obtainable in that town. On analysing Burton water it was found to contain
a considerable quantity of calcium sulphate--gypsum--and of other calcium
and magnesium salts, and it is now a well-known fact that good bitter ales
cannot be brewed except with waters containing these substances in
sufficient quantities. Similarly, good mild ale waters should contain a
certain quantity of sodium chloride, and waters for stout very little
mineral matter, excepting perhaps the carbonates of the alkaline earths,
which are precipitated on boiling.

The following analyses (from W.J. Sykes, _The Principles and Practice of
Brewing_) are fairly illustrative of typical brewing waters.

      _Burton Water_ (Pale Ale)
                    Grains per Gallon
Sodium Chloride                  3.90
Potassium Sulphate               1.59
Sodium Nitrate                   1.97
Calcium Sulphate                77.87
Calcium Carbonate                7.62
Magnesium Carbonate             21.31
Silica and Alumina               0.98
       _Dublin Water_ (Stout).
Sodium Chloride                  1.83
Calcium Sulphate                 4.45
Calcium Carbonate               14.21
Magnesium Carbonate              0.90
Iron Oxide and                   0.24
Alumina
Silica                           0.26
          _Mild Ale Water_.
Sodium Chloride                 35.14
Calcium Chloride                 3.88
Calcium Sulphate                 6.23
Calcium Carbonate                4.01
Iron Oxide and                   0.24
Alumina
Silica                           0.22

Our knowledge of the essential chemical constituents of brewing waters
enables brewers in many cases to treat an unsatisfactory supply
artificially in such a manner as to modify its character in a favourable
sense. Thus, if a soft water only is to hand, and it is desired to brew a
bitter ale, all that is necessary is to add a sufficiency of gypsum,
magnesium sulphate and calcium chloride. If it is desired to convert a soft
water lacking in chlorides into a satisfactory mild ale liquor, the
addition of 30-40 grains of sodium chloride will be necessary. On the other
hand, to convert a hard water into a soft supply is scarcely feasible for
brewing purposes. To the substances used for treating brewing liquors
already mentioned we may add kainite, a naturally deposited composite salt
containing potassium and magnesium sulphates and magnesium chloride.

_Malt Substitutes._--Prior to the repeal of the Malt Acts, the only
substitute for malt allowed in the United Kingdom was sugar. The quantity
of the latter employed was 295,865 cwt. in 1870, 1,136,434 cwt. in 1880,
and 2,746,615 cwt. in 1905; that is to say, that the quantity used had been
practically trebled during the last twenty-five years, although the
quantity of malt employed had not materially increased. At the same time
other substitutes, such as unmalted corn and preparations of rice and
maize, had come into favour, the quantity of these substances used being in
1905 125,671 bushels of unmalted corn and 1,348,558 cwt. of rice, maize,
&c.

The following statistics with regard to the use of malt substitutes in the
United Kingdom are not without interest.

[v.04 p.0508]

Year.    Quantities of    Quantities of   Percentage
         Malt and Corn    Sugar, Rice,        of
            used in      Maize, &c. used  Substitutes
           Brewing.        in Brewing.     to Total
                                          Material.
           Bushels.         Bushels.
 1878        59,388,905        3,825,148        6.05
 1883     [2]51,331,451     [3]4,503,680        8.06
 1890     [2]55,359,964     [3]7,904,708       12.48
 1895        53,731,177       10,754,510       16.66
 1905        51,942,368       15,706,413       23.22

The causes which have led to the largely increased use of substitutes in
the United Kingdom are of a somewhat complex nature. In the first place, it
was not until the malt tax was repealed that the brewer was able to avail
himself of the surplus diastatic energy present in malt, for the purpose of
transforming starch (other than that in malted grain) into sugar. The
diastatic enzyme or ferment (see below, under _Mashing_) of malted barley
is present in that material in great excess, and a part of this surplus
energy may be usefully employed in converting the starch of unmalted grain
into sugar. The brewer has found also that brewing operations are
simplified and accelerated by the use of a certain proportion of
substitutes, and that he is thereby enabled appreciably to increase his
turn-over, _i.e._ he can make more beer in a given time from the same
plant. Certain classes of substitutes, too, are somewhat cheaper than malt,
and in view of the keenness of modern competition it is not to be wondered
at that the brewer should resort to every legitimate means at his disposal
to keep down costs. It has been contended, and apparently with much reason,
that if the use of substitutes were prohibited this would not lead to an
increased use of domestic barley, inasmuch as the supply of home barley
suitable for malting purposes is of a limited nature. A return to the
policy of "malt and hops only" would therefore lead to an increased use of
foreign barley, and to a diminution in the demand for home barley, inasmuch
as sugar and prepared cereals, containing as they do less nitrogen, &c.
than even the well-cured, sun-dried foreign barleys, are better diluents
than the latter. At the same time, it is an undoubted fact that an
excessive use of substitutes leads to the production of beer of poor
quality. The better class of brewer rarely uses more than 15-20%, knowing
that beyond that point the loss of flavour and quality will in the long run
become a more serious item than any increased profits which he might
temporarily gain.

With regard to the nature of the substitutes or adjuncts for barley malt
more generally employed, raw grain (unmalted barley, wheat, rice, maize,
&c.) is not used extensively in Great Britain, but in America brewers
employ as much as 50%, and even more, of maize, rice or similar materials.
The maize and rice preparations mostly used in England are practically
starch pure and simple, substantially the whole of the oil, water, and
other subsidiary constituents of the grain being removed. The germ of maize
contains a considerable proportion of an oil of somewhat unpleasant
flavour, which has to be eliminated before the material is fit for use in
the mash-tun. After degerming, the maize is unhusked, wetted, submitted to
a temperature sufficient to rupture the starch cells, dried, and finally
rolled out in a flaky condition. Rice is similarly treated.

The _sugars_ used are chiefly cane sugar, glucose and invert sugar--the
latter commonly known as "saccharum." Cane sugar is mostly used for the
preparation of heavy mild ales and stouts, as it gives a peculiarly sweet
and full flavour to the beer, to which, no doubt, the popularity of this
class of beverage is largely due. _Invert sugar_ is prepared by the action
either of acid or of yeast on cane sugar. The chemical equation
representing the conversion (or inversion) of cane sugar is:--

  C12H22O11  +  H2O  =  C6H12O6   +  C6H12O6.
  cane sugar   water    glucose      fructose
                        ----invert sugar----

Invert sugar is so called because the mixture of glucose and fructose which
forms the "invert" is laevo-rotatory, whereas cane sugar is dextro-rotatory
to the plane of polarized light. The preparation of invert sugar by the
acid process consists in treating the cane sugar in solution with a little
mineral acid, removing the excess of the latter by means of chalk, and
concentrating to a thick syrup. The yeast process (Tompson's), which makes
use of the inverting power of one of the enzymes (invertase) contained in
ordinary yeast, is interesting. The cane sugar solution is pitched with
yeast at about 55° C., and at this comparatively high temperature the
inversion proceeds rapidly, and fermentation is practically impossible.
When this operation is completed, the whole liquid (including the yeast) is
run into the boiling contents of the copper. This method is more suited to
the preparation of invert in the brewery itself than the acid process,
which is almost exclusively used in special sugar works. Glucose, which is
one of the constituents of invert sugar, is largely used by itself in
brewing. It is, however, never prepared from invert sugar for this purpose,
but directly from starch by means of acid. By the action of dilute boiling
acid on starch the latter is rapidly converted first into a mixture of
dextrine and maltose and then into glucose. The proportions of glucose,
dextrine and maltose present in a commercial glucose depend very much on
the duration of the boiling, the strength of the acid, and the extent of
the pressure at which the starch is converted. In England the materials
from which glucose is manufactured are generally sago, rice and purified
maize. In Germany potatoes form the most common raw material, and in
America purified Indian corn is ordinarily employed.

_Hop substitutes_, as a rule, are very little used. They mostly consist of
quassia, gentian and camomile, and these substitutes are quite harmless
_per se_, but impart an unpleasantly rough and bitter taste to the beer.

_Preservatives_.--These are generally, in fact almost universally, employed
nowadays for draught ales; to a smaller extent for stock ales. The light
beers in vogue to-day are less alcoholic, more lightly hopped, and more
quickly brewed than the beers of the last generation, and in this respect
are somewhat less stable and more likely to deteriorate than the latter
were. The preservative in part replaces the alcohol and the hop extract,
and shortens the brewing time. The preservatives mostly used are the
bisulphites of lime and potash, and these, when employed in small
quantities, are generally held to be harmless.

BREWING OPERATIONS.--The general scheme of operations in an English brewery
will be readily understood if reference be made to fig. 1, which represents
an 8-quarter brewery on the _gravitation system_, the principle of which is
that all materials to be employed are pumped or hoisted to the highest
point required, to start with, and that subsequently no further pumping or
hoisting is required, the materials (in the shape of water, malt, wort or
hops, &c.) being conveyed from one point to another by the force of
gravity.

The malt, which is hoisted to the top floor, after cleaning and grading is
conveyed to the _Malt Mill_, where it is crushed. Thence the ground malt,
or "grist" as it is now called, passes to the _Grist Hopper_, and from the
latter to the _Mashing Machine_, in which it is intimately mixed with hot
water from the _Hot Liquor Vessel_. From the mashing machine the mixed
grist and "liquor" pass to the _Mash-Tun_, where the starch of the malt is
rendered soluble. From the mash-tun the clear wort passes to the _Copper_,
where it is boiled with hops. From the copper the boiled wort passes to the
_Hop Back_, where the insoluble hop constituents are separated from the
wort. From the hop back the wort passes to the _Cooler_, from the latter to
the _Refrigerator_, thence (for the purpose of enabling the revenue
officers to assess the duty) to the _Collecting Vessel_,[4] and finally to
the _Fermenting Vessels_, in which the wort is transformed into "green"
beer. The latter is then cleansed, and finally racked and stored.

It will be seen from the above that brewing consists of seven distinct main
processes, which may be classed as follows: (1) Grinding; (2) Mashing; (3)
Boiling; (4) Cooling; (5) Fermenting; (6) Cleansing; (7) Racking and
Storing.

_Grinding_.--In most modern breweries the malt passes, on its way [v.04
p.0509] from the bins to the mill, through a cleaning and grading
apparatus, and then through an automatic measuring machine. The mills,
which exist in a variety of designs, are of the smooth roller type, and are
so arranged that the malt is _crushed_ rather than ground. If the malt is
ground too fine, difficulties arise in regard to efficient drainage in the
mash-tun and subsequent clarification. On the other hand, if the crushing
is too coarse the subsequent extraction of soluble matter in the mash-tun
is incomplete, and an inadequate yield results.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--An 8-quarter Brewery (Messrs. L. Lumley & Co.,
Ltd.).]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Mash-tun with mashing machine.]

_Mashing_ is a process which consists mainly in extracting, by means of
water at an adequate temperature, the soluble matters pre-existent in the
malt, and in converting the insoluble starch and a great part of the
insoluble nitrogenous compounds into soluble and partly fermentable
products. Mashing is, without a doubt, the most important of the brewing
processes, for it is largely in the mash-tun that the character of the beer
to be brewed is determined. In modern practice the malt and the mashing
"liquor" (_i.e._ water) are introduced into the mash-tun simultaneously, by
means of the mashing machine (fig. 2, A). This is generally a cylindrical
metal vessel, commanding the mash-tun and provided with a central shaft and
screw. The grist (as the crushed malt is called) enters the mashing machine
from the grist case above, and the liquor is introduced at the back. The
screw is rotated rapidly, and so a thorough mixture of the grist and liquor
takes place as they travel along the mashing machine. The mash-tun (fig. 2)
is a large metal or wooden vessel, fitted with a false bottom composed of
plates perforated with numerous small holes or slits (C). This arrangement
is necessary in order to obtain a proper separation of the "wort" (as the
liquid portion of the finished mash is called) from the spent grains. The
mash-tun is also provided with a stirring apparatus (the _rakes_) so that
the grist and liquor may be intimately mixed (D), and an automatic
sprinkler, the _sparger_ (fig. 2, B, and fig. 3), which is employed in
order to wash out the wort remaining in the grains. The sparger consists of
a number of hollow arms radiating from a common centre and pierced by a
number of small perforations. The common central vessel from which the
sparge-arms radiate is mounted in such a manner that it rotates
automatically when a stream of water is admitted, so that a constant fine
spray covers the whole tun when the sparger is in operation. There are also
pipes for admitting "liquor" to the bottom of the tun, and for carrying the
wort from the latter to the "underback" or "copper."

The grist and liquor having been introduced into the tun (either by means
of the mashing machine or separately), the rakes are set going, so that the
mash may become thoroughly homogeneous, and after a short time the rakes
are stopped and the mash allowed to rest, usually for a period of about two
hours. After this, "taps are set"--_i.e._ communication is established
between the mash-tun and the vessel into which the wort runs--and the
sparger is started. In this manner the whole of the wort or extract is
separated from the grains. The quantity of water employed is, in all, from
two to three barrels to the quarter (336 lb) of malt.

In considering the process of mashing, one might almost say the process of
brewing, it is essential to remember that the type and quality of the beer
to be produced (see MALT) depends almost entirely (a) on the kind of malt
employed, and (b) on the mashing temperature. In other words, quality may
be controlled on the kiln or in the mash-tun, or both. Viewed in this
light, the following theoretical methods for preparing different types of
beer are possible:--(1) high kiln heats and high mashing temperatures; (2)
high kiln heats and low mashing temperatures; (3) low kiln heats and high
mashing temperatures; and (4) low kiln heats and low mashing temperatures.
In practice all these combinations, together with many intermediate ones,
are met with, and it is not too much to say that the whole science of
modern brewing is based upon them. It is plain, then, that the mashing
temperature will depend on the kind of beer that is to be produced, and on
the kind of malt employed. For stouts and black beers generally, a mashing
temperature of 148° to 150° F. is most usual; for pale or stock ales, 150°
to 154° F.; and for mild running beers, 154° to 149° F. The range of
temperatures employed in brewing English beers is a very limited one as
compared with foreign mashing methods, and does not range further,
practically speaking, than from 140° to 160° F. The effect of higher
temperatures is chiefly to cripple the enzyme or "ferment" diastase, which,
as already said, is the agent which converts the insoluble starch into
soluble dextrin, sugar and intermediate products. The higher the mashing
temperature, the more the diastase will be crippled in its action, and the
more dextrinous (non-fermentable) matter as compared with maltose
(fermentable sugar) will be formed. A pale or stock ale, which is a type of
beer that must be "dry" and that will keep, requires to contain a
relatively high proportion of dextrin and little maltose, and, in its
preparation, therefore, a high mashing temperature will be employed. On the
other hand, a mild running ale, which is a full, sweet beer, intended for
rapid consumption, will be obtained by means of low mashing temperatures,
which produce relatively little dextrin, but a good deal of maltose, _i.e._
sweet and readily fermentable matter.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Sparger.]

Diastase is not the only enzyme present in malt. There is also a ferment
which renders a part of the nitrogenous matter soluble. This again is
affected by temperature in much the same way as diastase. Low heats tend to
produce much non-coagulable [v.04 p.0510] nitrogenous matter, which is
undesirable in a stock beer, as it tends to produce fret and side
fermentations. With regard to the kind of malt and other materials employed
in producing various types of beer, pale ales are made either from pale
malt (generally a mixture of English and fine foreign, such as Smyrna,
California) only, or from pale malt and a little flaked maize, rice, invert
sugar or glucose. Running beers (mild ale) are made from a mixture of pale
and amber malts, sugar and flaked goods; stout, from a mixture of pale,
amber and roasted (black) malts only, or with the addition of a little
sugar or flaked maize.

When raw grain is employed, the process of mashing is slightly modified.
The maize, rice or other grain is usually gelatinized in a vessel (called a
_converter_ or _cooker_) entirely separated from the mash-tun, by means of
steam at a relatively high temperature, mostly with, but occasionally
without, the addition of some malt meal. After about half an hour the
gelatinized mass is mixed with the main mash, and this takes place shortly
before taps are set. This is possible inasmuch as the starch, being already
in a highly disintegrated condition, is very rapidly converted. By working
on the limited-decoction system (see below), it is possible to make use of
a fair percentage of raw grain in the mash-tun proper, thus doing away with
the "converter" entirely.

_The Filter Press Process._--The ordinary mash-tun process, as described
above, possesses the disadvantage that only coarse grists can be employed.
This entails loss of extract in several ways. To begin with, the sparging
process is at best a somewhat inefficient method for washing out the last
portions of the wort, and again, when the malt is at all hard or "steely,"
starch conversion is by no means complete. These disadvantages are overcome
by the filter press process, which was first introduced into Great Britain
by the Belgian engineer P. Meura. The malt, in this method of brewing, is
ground quite fine, and although an ordinary mash-tun may be used for
mashing, the separation of the clear wort from the solid matter takes place
in the filter press, which retains the very finest particles with ease. It
is also a simple matter to wash out the wort from the filter cake in the
presses, and experience has shown that markedly increased yields are thus
obtained. In the writer's opinion, there is little doubt that in the future
this, or a similar process, will find a very wide application.

_Boiling_.--From the mash-tun the wort passes to the _copper_. If it is not
possible to arrange the plant so that the coppers are situated beneath the
mash-tuns (as is the case in breweries arranged on the _gravitation
system_), an intermediate collecting vessel (the underback) is interposed,
and from this the wort is pumped into the copper. The latter is a large
copper vessel heated by direct fire or steam. Modern coppers are generally
closed in with a dome-shaped head, but many old-fashioned open coppers are
still to be met with, in fact pale-ale brewers prefer open coppers. In the
closed type the wort is frequently boiled under slight pressure. When the
wort has been raised to the boil, the hops or a part thereof are added, and
the boiling is continued generally from an hour to three hours, according
to the type of beer. The objects of boiling, briefly put, are: (1)
sterilization of the wort; (2) extraction from the hops of substances that
give flavour and aroma to the beer; (3) the coagulation and precipitation
of a part of the nitrogenous matter (the coagulable albuminoids), which, if
left in, would cause cloudiness and fret, &c., in the finished beer; (4)
the concentration of the wort. At least three distinct substances are
extracted from the hops in boiling. First, the _hop tannin_, which,
combining with a part of the proteids derived from the malt, precipitates
them; second, the _hop resin_, which acts as a preservative and bitter;
third, the _hop oil_, to which much of the fine aroma of beer is due. The
latter is volatile, and it is customary, therefore, not to add the whole of
the hops to the wort when it commences to boil, but to reserve about a
third until near the end of the copper stage. The quantity of hops employed
varies according to the type of beer, from about 3 lb to 15 lb per quarter
(336 lb) of malt. For mild ales and porters about 3 to 4 lb, for light pale
ales and light stouts 6 to 10 lb, and for strong ales and stouts 9 to 15 lb
of hops are employed.

_Cooling_.--When the wort has boiled the necessary time, it is turned into
the _hop back_ to settle. A hop back is a wooden or metal vessel, fitted
with a false bottom of perforated plates; the latter retain the spent hops,
the wort being drawn off into the coolers. After resting for a brief period
in the hop back, the bright wort is run into the _coolers_. The cooler is a
very shallow vessel of great area, and the result of the exposure of the
hot wort to a comparatively large volume of air is that a part of the hop
constituents and other substances contained in the wort are rendered
insoluble and are precipitated. It was formerly considered absolutely
essential that this hot aeration should take place, but in many breweries
nowadays coolers are not used, the wort being run direct from the hop back
to the refrigerator. There is much to be said for this procedure, as the
exposure of hot wort in the cooler is attended with much danger of
bacterial and wild yeast infection, but it is still a moot point whether
the cooler or its equivalent can be entirely dispensed with for all classes
of beers. A rational alteration would appear to be to place the cooler in
an air-tight chamber supplied with purified and sterilized air. This
principle has already been applied to the refrigerator, and apparently with
success. In America the cooler is frequently replaced by a cooling tank, an
enclosed vessel of some depth, capable of artificial aeration. It is not
practicable, in any case, to cool the wort sufficiently on the cooler to
bring it to the proper temperature for the fermentation stage, and for this
purpose, therefore, the _refrigerator_ is employed. There are several kinds
of refrigerators, the main distinction being that some are vertical, others
horizontal; but the principle in each case is much the same, and consists
in allowing a thin film or stream of wort to trickle over a series of pipes
through which cold water circulates. Fig. 5, Plate I., shows refrigerators,
employed in Messrs Allsopp's lager beer brewery, at work.

_Fermenting_.--By the process of fermentation the wort is converted into
beer. By the action of living yeast cells (see FERMENTATION) the sugar
contained in the wort is split up into alcohol and carbonic acid, and a
number of subsidiary reactions occur. There are two main systems of
fermentation, the _top fermentation_ system, which is that employed in the
United Kingdom, and the _bottom fermentation_ system, which is that used
for the production of beers of the continental ("lager") type. The wort,
generally at a temperature of about 60° F. (this applies to all the systems
excepting B [see below], in which the temperature is higher), is "pitched"
with liquid yeast (or "barm," as it is often called) at the rate of,
according to the type and strength of the beer to be made, 1 to 4 lb to the
barrel. After a few hours a slight froth or scum makes its appearance on
the surface of the liquid. At the end of a further short period this
develops into a light curly mass (_cauliflower_ or _curly head_), which
gradually becomes lighter and more solid in appearance, and is then known
as _rocky head_. This in its turn shrinks to a compact mass--the _yeasty
head_--which emits great bubbles of gas with a hissing sound. At this point
the _cleansing_ of the beer--_i.e._ the separation of the yeast from the
liquid--has fairly commenced, and it is let down (except in the skimming
and Yorkshire systems [see below]) into the pontos or unions, as the case
may be. During fermentation the temperature rises considerably, and in
order to prevent an excessive temperature being obtained (70-75° F. should
be the maximum) the fermenting vessels are fitted with "attemperators,"
_i.e._ a system of pipes through which cold water may be run.

_Cleansing_.--In England the methods of applying the top fermentation
system may be classified as follows: (A) _The Cleansing System_: (a)
Skimming System, (b) Dropping System (pontos or ordinary dropping system),
(c) Burton Union System. (B) _The Yorkshire Stone Square System_.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Fermenting Round.
A, Skimmer; B, Parachute; C, Attemperator.]

(A) In (a) the _Skimming System_ the fermentation from start to finish
takes place in wooden vessels (termed "squares" or "rounds"), fitted with
an attemperator and a parachute or other similar skimming device for
removing or "skimming" the yeast at the end of the fermentation (fig. 4).
The principle of (b) the _Dropping System_ is that the beer undergoes only
the main fermentation in the "round" or "square," and is then dropped down
into a second vessel or vessels, in which fermentation and cleansing are
completed. The _ponto_ system of dropping, which is now somewhat
old-fashioned, consists in discharging the beer into a series of vat-like
vessels, fitted with a peculiarly-shaped overflow lip. The yeast works its
way out of the vessel over the lip, and then flows into a gutter and is
collected. The pontos are kept filled with beer by means of a vessel placed
at a higher level. In the _ordinary_ dropping system the partly fermented
beer is let down from the "squares" and "rounds" into large vessels, termed
dropping or skimming "backs." These are fitted with attemperators, and
parachutes for the removal of yeast, in much the same way as in the
skimming system. As a rule the parachute covers the whole width of the
back. (c) The _Burton Union System_ is really an improved ponto system. A
series of casks, supplied with beer at the cleansing stage from a feed
vessel, are mounted so that they may rotate axially. Each cask is fitted
with an attemperator, a pipe and cock at the base for the removal of the
finished beer and "bottoms," and lastly with a swan neck fitting through a
bung-hole and commanding a common gutter. This system yields excellent
results for certain classes of beers, and many Burton brewers think it is
essential for obtaining [v.04 p.0511] the Burton character. Fig. 6 (Plate
II.) shows the process in operation in Messrs Allsopp's brewery.

(B) _The Stone Square System_, which is only used to a certain extent
(exclusively in the north of England), practically consists in pumping the
fermenting wort from one to the other of two superimposed square vessels,
connected with one another by means of a man-hole and a valve. These
squares are built of stone and kept very cool. At the end of the
fermentation the yeast (after closing the man-hole) is removed from the top
square.

_Racking, &c._--After the fermentation and cleansing operations are
completed, the beer is racked off (sometimes after passing a few hours in a
settling tank) into storage vessels or trade casks. The finest "stock" and
"pale" ales are stored from six weeks to three months prior to going out,
but "running" beers (mild ales, &c.) are frequently sent out of the brewery
within a week or ten days of mashing. It is usual to add some hops in cask
(this is called _dry hopping_) in the case of many of the better beers.
Running beers, which must be put into condition rapidly, or beers that have
become flat, are generally _primed_. Priming consists in adding a small
quantity of sugar solution to the beer in cask. This rapidly ferments and
so produces "condition."

_Fining_.--As a very light article is desired nowadays, and this has to be
provided in a short time, artificial means must be resorted to, in order to
replace the natural fining or brightening which storage brings about.
_Finings_ generally consist of a solution or semi-solution of isinglass in
sour beer, or in a solution of tartaric acid or of sulphurous acid. After
the finings are added to the beer and the barrels have been well rolled,
the finings slowly precipitate (or work out through the bung-hole) and
carry with them the matter which would otherwise render the beer turbid.

_Bottling_.--Formerly it was the general custom to brew a special beer for
bottling, and this practice is still continued by some brewers. It is
generally admitted that the special brew, matured by storage and an
adequate secondary fermentation, produces the best beer for bottling, but
the modern taste for a very light and bright bottled beer at a low cost has
necessitated the introduction of new methods. The most interesting among
these is the "chilling" and "carbonating" system. In this the beer, when it
is ripe for racking, is first "chilled," that is, cooled to a very low
temperature. As a result, there is an immediate deposition of much matter
which otherwise would require prolonged time to settle. The beer is then
filtered and so rendered quite bright, and finally, in order to produce
immediate "condition," is "carbonated," _i.e._ impregnated under pressure
with carbon dioxide (carbonic acid gas).

FOREIGN BREWING AND BEERS.--The system of brewing which differs most widely
from the English _infusion_ and _top fermentation_ method is the
_decoction_ and _bottom fermentation_ system, so widely employed, chiefly
on the continent of Europe, for the production of beers of the "lager"
type.

The method pursued in the decoction system is broadly as follows:--After
the grist has been mashed with cold water until a homogeneous mixture
ensues, sufficient hot water is introduced into the mash-tun to raise the
temperature to 85-100° F., according to circumstances. Thereupon, about
one-third of the mash (including the "goods") is transferred to the _Maisch
Kessel_ (mash copper), in which it is gradually brought to a temperature of
(about) 165° F., and this heat is maintained until the mash becomes
transparent. The _Dickmaische_, as this portion is called, is then raised
to the boil, and the ebullition sustained between a quarter and
three-quarters of an hour. Just sufficient of the _Dickmaische_ is returned
to the mash-tun proper to raise the temperature of the whole to 111-125°
F., and after a few minutes a third is again withdrawn and treated as
before, to form the second "thick mash." When the latter has been returned
to the mash-tun the whole is thoroughly worked up, allowed to stand in
order that the solids may deposit, and then another third (called the
_Läutermaische_ or "clear mash") is withdrawn, boiled until the coagulable
albuminoids are precipitated, and finally reconveyed to the mash-tun, where
the mashing is continued for some time, the final heat being rather over
160° F. The wort, after boiling with hops and cooling, much as in the
English system, is subjected to the peculiar system of fermentation called
_bottom fermentation_. In this system the "pitching" and fermentation take
place at a very low temperature and, compared with the English system, in
very small vessels. The fermenting cellars are maintained at a temperature
of about 37-38° F., and the temperature of the fermenting wort does not
rise above 50° F. The yeast, which is of a different type from that
employed in the English system, remains at the bottom of the fermenting
tun, and hence is derived the name of "bottom fermentation" (see
FERMENTATION). The primary fermentation lasts about eleven to twelve days
(as compared with three days on the English system), and the beer is then
run into store (lager) casks where it remains at a temperature approaching
the freezing-point of water for six weeks to six months, according to the
time of the year and the class of the beer. As to the relative character
and stability of decoction and infusion beers, the latter are, as a rule,
more alcoholic; but the former contain more unfermented malt extract, and
are therefore, broadly speaking, more nutritive. Beers of the German type
are less heavily hopped and more peptonized than English beers, and more
highly charged with carbonic acid, which, owing to the low fermentation and
storing temperatures, is retained for a comparatively long time and keeps
the beer in condition. On the other hand, infusion beers are of a more
stable and stimulating character. It is impossible to keep "lager" beer on
draught in the ordinary sense of the term in England. It will not keep
unless placed on ice, and, as a matter of fact, the "condition" of lager is
dependent to a far greater extent on the methods of distribution and
storage than is the case with infusion beers. If a cask is opened it must
be rapidly consumed; indeed it becomes undrinkable within a very few hours.
The gas escapes rapidly when the pressure is released, the temperature
rises, and the beer becomes flat and mawkish. In Germany every publican is
bound to have an efficient supply of ice, the latter frequently being
delivered by the brewery together with the beer.

In America the common system of brewing is one of infusion mashing combined
with bottom fermentation. The method of mashing, however, though on
infusion lines, differs appreciably from the English process. A very low
initial heat--about 100° F.--at which the mash remains for about an hour,
is employed. After this the temperature is rapidly raised to 153-156° F. by
running in the boiling "cooker mash," _i.e._ raw grain wort from the
converter. After a period the temperature is gradually increased to about
165° F. The very low initial heat, and the employment of relatively large
quantities of readily transformable malt adjuncts, enable the American
brewer to make use of a class of malt which would be considered quite unfit
for brewing in an English brewery. The system of fermentation is very
similar to the continental "lager" system, and the beer obtained bears some
resemblance to the German product. To the English palate it is somewhat
flavourless, but it is always retailed in exceedingly brilliant condition
and at a proper temperature. There can be little doubt that every nation
evolves a type of beer most suited to its climate and the temperament of
the people, and in this respect the modern American beer is no exception.
In regard to plant and mechanical arrangements generally, the modern
American breweries may serve as an object-lesson to the European brewer,
although there are certainly a number of breweries in the United Kingdom
which need not fear comparison with the best American plants.

It is a sign of the times and further evidence as to the growing taste for
a lighter type of beer, that lager brewing in its most modern form has now
fairly taken root in Great Britain, and in this connexion the process
introduced by Messrs Allsopp exhibits many features of interest. The
following is a brief description of the plant and the methods
employed:--The wort is prepared on infusion lines, and is then cooled by
means of refrigerated brine before passing to a temporary store tank, which
serves as a gauging vessel. From the latter the wort passes directly to the
fermenting tuns, huge closed cylindrical vessels made of sheet-steel and
coated with glass enamel. There the wort ferments under reduced pressure,
the carbonic acid generated being removed by means of a vacuum pump, and
the gas thus withdrawn is replaced by the introduction of cool sterilized
air. The fermenting cellars are kept at 40° F. The yeast employed is a pure
culture (see FERMENTATION) bottom yeast, but the withdrawal of the products
of yeast metabolism and the constant supply of pure fresh air cause the
fermentation to proceed far more rapidly than is the case with lager beer
brewed on ordinary lines. It is, in fact, finished in about six days.
Thereupon the air-supply is cut off, the green beer again cooled to 40° F.
and [v.04 p.0512] then conveyed by means of filtered air pressure to the
store tanks, where secondary fermentation, lasting three weeks, takes
place. The gases evolved are allowed to collect under pressure, so that the
beer is thoroughly charged with the carbonic acid necessary to give it
condition. Finally the beer is again cooled, filtered, racked and bottled,
the whole of these operations taking place under counter pressure, so that
no gas can escape; indeed, from the time the wort leaves the copper to the
moment when it is bottled in the shape of beer, it does not come into
contact with the outer air.

The preparation of the Japanese beer _saké_ (_q.v._) is of interest. The
first stage consists in the preparation of _Koji_, which is obtained by
treating steamed rice with a culture of _Aspergillus oryzae_. This
micro-organism converts the starch into sugar. The _Koji_ is converted into
_moto_ by adding it to a thin paste of fresh-boiled starch in a vat.
Fermentation is set up and lasts for 30 to 40 days. The third stage
consists in adding more rice and _Koji_ to the _moto_, together with some
water. A secondary fermentation, lasting from 8 to 10 days, ensues.
Subsequently the whole is filtered, heated and run into casks, and is then
known as _saké_. The interest of this process consists in the fact that a
single micro-organism--a mould--is able to exercise the combined functions
of saccharification and fermentation. It replaces the diastase of malted
grain and also the yeast of a European brewery. Another liquid of interest
is _Weissbier_. This, which is largely produced in Berlin (and in some
respects resembles the _wheat-beer_ produced in parts of England), is
generally prepared from a mash of three parts of wheat malt and one part of
barley malt. The fermentation is of a symbiotic nature, two organisms,
namely a yeast and a fission fungus (the _lactic acid bacillus_) taking
part in it. The preparation of this peculiar double ferment is assisted by
the addition of a certain quantity of white wine to the yeast prior to
fermentation.

BREWING CHEMISTRY.--The principles of brewing technology belong for the
most part to physiological chemistry, whilst those of the cognate industry,
malting, are governed exclusively by that branch of knowledge. Alike in
following the growth of barley in field, its harvesting, maturing and
conversion into malt, as well as the operations of mashing malt, fermenting
wort, and conditioning beer, physiological chemistry is needed. On the
other hand, the consideration of the saline matter in waters, the
composition of the extract of worts and beers, and the analysis of brewing
materials and products generally, belong to the domain of pure chemistry.
Since the extractive matters contained in wort and beer consist for the
most part of the transformation products of starch, it is only natural that
these should have received special attention at the hands of scientific men
associated with the brewing industry. It was formerly believed that by the
action of diastase on starch the latter is first converted into a gummy
substance termed dextrin, which is then subsequently transformed into a
sugar--glucose. F.A. Musculus, however, in 1860, showed that sugar and
dextrin are simultaneously produced, and between the years 1872 and 1876
Cornelius O'Sullivan definitely proved that the sugar produced was maltose.
When starch-paste, the jelly formed by treating starch with boiling water,
is mixed with iodine solution, a deep blue coloration results. The first
product of starch degradation by either acids or diastase, namely soluble
starch, also exhibits the same coloration when treated with iodine. As
degradation proceeds, and the products become more and more soluble and
diffusible, the blue reaction with iodine gives place first to a purple,
then to a reddish colour, and finally the coloration ceases altogether. In
the same way, the optical rotating power decreases, and the cupric reducing
power (towards Fehling's solution) increases, as the process of hydrolysis
proceeds. C. O'Sullivan was the first to point out definitely the influence
of the temperature of the mash on the character of the products. The work
of Horace T. Brown (with J. Heron) extended that of O'Sullivan, and (with
G.H. Morris) established the presence of an intermediate product between
the higher dextrins and maltose. This product was termed maltodextrin, and
Brown and Morris were led to believe that a large number of these
substances existed in malt wort. They proposed for these substances the
generic name "amyloins." Although according to their view they were
compounds of maltose and dextrin, they had the properties of mixtures of
these two substances. On the assumption of the existence of these
compounds, Brown and his colleagues formulated what is known as the
maltodextrin or amyloin hypothesis of starch degradation. C.J. Lintner, in
1891, claimed to have separated a sugar, isomeric with maltose, which is
termed isomaltose, from the products of starch hydrolysis. A.R. Ling and
J.L. Baker, as well as Brown and Morris, in 1895, proved that this
isomaltose was not a homogeneous substance, and evidence tending to the
same conclusion was subsequently brought forward by continental workers.
Ling and Baker, in 1897, isolated the following compounds from the products
of starch hydrolysis--maltodextrin-[alpha], C_{36}H_{62}O_{31}, and
maltodextrin-[beta], C_{24}H_{42}O_{21} (previously named by Prior,
achroodextrin III.). They also separated a substance, C_{12}H_{22}O_{11},
isomeric with maltose, which had, however, the characteristics of a
dextrin. This is probably identical with the so-called dextrinose isolated
by V. Syniewski in 1902, which yields a phenylosazone melting at 82-83° C.
It has been proved by H. Ost that the so-called isomaltose of Lintner is a
mixture of maltose and another substance, maltodextrin, isomeric with Ling
and Baker's maltodextrin-[beta].

The theory of Brown and Morris of the degradation of starch, although based
on experimental evidence of some weight, is by no means universally
accepted. Nevertheless it is of considerable interest, as it offers a
rational and consistent explanation of the phenomena known to accompany the
transformation of starch by diastase, and even if not strictly correct it
has, at any rate, proved itself to be a practical working hypothesis, by
which the mashing and fermenting operations may be regulated and
controlled. According to Brown and Morris, the starch molecule consists of
five amylin groups, each of which corresponds to the molecular formula
(C_{12}H_{20}O_{10})_{20}. Four of these amylin radicles are grouped
centrally round the fifth, thus:--

  (C_{12}H_{20}O_{10})_{20}                       (C_{12}H_{20}O_{10})_{20}
                          \                       /
                          (C_{12}H_{20}O_{10})_{20}
                          /                       \
  (C_{12}H_{20}O_{10})_{20}                       (C_{12}H_{20}O_{10})_{20}

By the action of diastase, this complex molecule is split up, undergoing
hydrolysis into four groups of amyloins, the fifth or central group
remaining unchanged (and under brewing conditions unchangeable), forming
the substance known as stable dextrin. When diastase acts on starch-paste,
hydrolysis proceeds as far as the reaction represented by the following
equation:--

  5(C_{12}H_{20}O_{10})_{20} + 80 H_2O
        starch.                 water.
        = 80 C_{12}H_{22}O_{11} + (C_{12}H_{20}O_{10})_{20}
               maltose.                  stable dextrin.

The amyloins are substances containing varying numbers of amylin (original
starch or dextrin) groups in conjunction with a proportional number of
maltose groups. They are not separable into maltose and dextrin by any of
the ordinary means, but exhibit the properties of mixtures of these
substances. As the process of hydrolysis proceeds, the amyloins become
gradually poorer in amylin and relatively richer in maltose-groups. The
final products of transformation, according to Brown and J.H. Millar, are
maltose and glucose, which latter is derived from the hydrolysis of the
stable dextrin. This theory may be applied in practical brewing in the
following manner. If it is desired to obtain a beer of a stable
character--that is to say, one containing a considerable proportion of
high-type amyloins--it is necessary to restrict the action of the diastase
in the mash-tun accordingly. On the other hand, for mild running ales,
which are to "condition" rapidly, it is necessary to provide for the
presence of sufficient maltodextrin of a low type. Investigation has shown
that the type of maltodextrin can be regulated, not only in the mash-tun
but also on the malt-kiln. A higher type is obtained by low kiln and high
mashing temperatures than by high kiln and low mashing heats, and it is
possible therefore to regulate, on scientific lines, not only the quality
but also the type of amyloins which are suitable for a particular beer.

The chemistry of the nitrogenous constituents of malt is equally important
with that of starch and its transformations. Without nitrogenous compounds
of the proper type, vigorous fermentations are not possible. It may be
remembered that yeast assimilates nitrogenous compounds in some of their
simpler forms--amides and the like. One of the aims of the maltster is,
therefore, to break down the protein substances present in barley to such a
degree that the wort has a maximum nutritive value for the yeast. Further,
it is necessary for the production of stable beer to eliminate a large
proportion of nitrogenous matter, and this is only done by the yeast when
the proteins are degraded. There is also some evidence that the presence of
albumoses assists in producing the foaming properties of beer. It has now
been established definitely, by the work of A. Fernbach, W. Windisch,
F.Weiss and P. Schidrowitz, that finished malt contains at least two
proteolytic enzymes (a peptic and a pancreatic enzyme).

[Illustration: BREWING

PLATE I.

FIG. 5.--REFRIGERATORS IN "LAGER" BREWERY OF MESSRS. ALLSOPP.

The hot wort trickles over the outside of the series of pipes, and is
cooled by the cold water which circulates in them. From the shallow
collecting trays the cooled wort is conducted to the fermenting backs.]

[Illustration: BREWING

PLATE II.

FIG. 6.--BURTON-UNION SYSTEM OF CLEANSING. (MESSRS. ALLSOPP'S BREWERY.)

The green beer is filled into the casks, and the excess of yeast, &c., then
works out through the swan necks into the long common gutter shown.]

[v.04 p.0513]

The presence of different types of phosphates in malt, and the important
influence which, according to their nature, they exercise in the brewing
process by way of the enzymes affected by them, have been made the subject
of research mainly by Fernbach and A. Hubert, and by P.E. Petit and G.
Labourasse. The number of enzymes which are now known to take part in the
brewing process is very large. They may with utility be grouped as
follows:--

                         Name.                Rôle or Nature.
                  +- Cytase                  Dissolves cell walls of
                  |                             of starch granules.
  In the malt ----+- Diastase A              Liquefies starch
    or mash-tun.  +- Diastase B              Saccharifies starch.
                  +- Proteolytic Enzymes -+- (1) Peptic.
                  |                       +- (2) Pancreatic.
                  +- Catalase                Splits peroxides.

  In fermenting   +- Invertase               Inverts cane sugar.
    wort and -----+- Glucase                 Splits maltose into glucose.
    yeast.        +- Zymase                  Splits sugar into alcohol
                                                and carbonic acid.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.--W.J. Sykes, _Principles and Practice of Brewing_ (London,
1897); Moritz and Morris, _A Text-book of the Science of Brewing_ (London,
1891); H.E. Wright, _A Handy Book for Brewers_ (London, 1897); Frank
Thatcher, _Brewing and Malting_ (London, 1898); Julian L. Baker, _The
Brewing Industry_ (London, 1905); E.J. Lintner, _Grundriss der
Bierbrauerei_ (Berlin, 1904); J.E. Thausing, _Die Theorie und Praxis der
Malzbereitung und Bierfabrikation_ (Leipzig, 1898); E. Michel, _Lehrbuch
der Bierbrauerei_ (Augsburg, 1900); E. Prior, _Chemie u. Physiologie des
Malzes und des Bieres_ (Leipzig, 1896). Technical journals: _The Journal of
the Institute of Brewing_ (London); _The Brewing Trade Review_ (London);
_The Brewers' Journal_ (London); _The Brewers' Journal_ (New York);
_Wochenschrift für Brauerei_ (Berlin); _Zeitschrift für das gesammte
Brauwesen_ (Munich).

(P. S.)

[1] They were classified at 28 lb in 1896, but since 1897 the standard has
been at the rate of 32 lb to the bushel.

[2] Inclusive of rice and maize.

[3] Exclusive of rice and maize.

[4] As a rule there is no separate "collecting vessel," duty being assessed
in the fermenting vessels.

BREWSTER, SIR DAVID (1781-1868), Scottish natural philosopher, was born on
the 11th of December 1781 at Jedburgh, where his father, a teacher of high
reputation, was rector of the grammar school. At the early age of twelve he
was sent to the university of Edinburgh, being intended for the clerical
profession. Even before this, however, he had shown a strong inclination
for natural science, and this had been fostered by his intimacy with a
"self-taught philosopher, astronomer and mathematician," as Sir Walter
Scott called him, of great local fame--James Veitch of Inchbonny, who was
particularly skilful in making telescopes. Though he duly finished his
theological course and was licensed to preach, Brewster's preference for
other pursuits prevented him from engaging in the active duties of his
profession. In 1799 he was induced by his fellow-student, Henry Brougham,
to study the diffraction of light. The results of his investigations were
communicated from time to time in papers to the _Philosophical
Transactions_ of London and other scientific journals, and were admirably
and impartially summarized by James D. Forbes in his preliminary
dissertation to the eighth edition of the _Encyclopaedia Britannica_. The
fact that other philosophers, notably Etienne Louis Malus and Augustin
Fresnel, were pursuing the same investigations contemporaneously in France
does not invalidate Brewster's claim to independent discovery, even though
in one or two cases the priority must be assigned to others.

The most important subjects of his inquiries are enumerated by Forbes under
the following five heads:--(1) The laws of polarization by reflection and
refraction, and other quantitative laws of phenomena; (2) The discovery of
the polarizing structure induced by heat and pressure; (3) The discovery of
crystals with two axes of double refraction, and many of the laws of their
phenomena, including the connexion of optical structure and crystalline
forms; (4) The laws of metallic reflection; (5) Experiments on the
absorption of light. In this line of investigation the prime importance
belongs to the discovery (1) of the connexion between the refractive index
and the polarizing angle, (2) of biaxial crystals, and (3) of the
production of double refraction by irregular heating. These discoveries
were promptly recognized. So early as the year 1807 the degree of LL.D. was
conferred upon Brewster by Marischal College, Aberdeen; in 1815 he was made
a member of the Royal Society of London, and received the Copley medal; in
1818 he received the Rumford medal of the society; and in 1816 the French
Institute awarded him one-half of the prize of three thousand francs for
the two most important discoveries in physical science made in Europe
during the two preceding years. Among the non-scientific public his fame
was spread more effectually by his rediscovery about 1815 of the
kaleidoscope, for which there was a great demand in both England and
America. An instrument of higher interest, the stereoscope, which, though
of much later date (1849-1850), may be mentioned here, since along with the
kaleidoscope it did more than anything else to popularize his name, was
not, as has often been asserted, the invention of Brewster. Sir Charles
Wheatstone discovered its principle and applied it as early as 1838 to the
construction of a cumbrous but effective instrument, in which the binocular
pictures were made to combine by means of mirrors. To Brewster is due the
merit of suggesting the use of lenses for the purpose of uniting the
dissimilar pictures; and accordingly the lenticular stereoscope may fairly
be said to be his invention. A much more valuable practical result of
Brewster's optical researches was the improvement of the British lighthouse
system. It is true that the dioptric apparatus was perfected independently
by Fresnel, who had also the satisfaction of being the first to put it into
operation. But it is indisputable that Brewster was earlier in the field
than Fresnel; that he described the dioptric apparatus in 1812; that he
pressed its adoption on those in authority at least as early as 1820, two
years before Fresnel suggested it; and that it was finally introduced into
British lighthouses mainly by his persistent efforts.

Brewster's own discoveries, important though they were, were not his only,
perhaps not even his chief, service to science. He began literary work in
1799 as a regular contributor to the _Edinburgh Magazine_, of which he
acted as editor at the age of twenty. In 1807 he undertook the editorship
of the newly projected _Edinburgh Encyclopaedia_, of which the first part
appeared in 1808, and the last not until 1830. The work was strongest in
the scientific department, and many of its most valuable articles were from
the pen of the editor. At a later period he was one of the leading
contributors to the _Encyclopaedia Britannica_ (seventh and eighth
editions), the articles on Electricity, Hydrodynamics, Magnetism,
Microscope, Optics, Stereoscope, Voltaic Electricity, &c., being from his
pen. In 1819 Brewster undertook further editorial work by establishing, in
conjunction with Robert Jameson (1774-1854), the _Edinburgh Philosophical
Journal_, which took the place of the _Edinburgh Magazine_. The first ten
volumes (1819-1824) were published under the joint editorship of Brewster
and Jameson, the remaining four volumes (1825-1826) being edited by Jameson
alone. After parting company with Jameson, Brewster started the _Edinburgh
Journal of Science_ in 1824, sixteen volumes of which appeared under his
editorship during the years 1824-1832, with very many articles from his own
pen. To the transactions of various learned societies he contributed from
first to last between three and four hundred papers, and few of his
contemporaries wrote so much for the various reviews. In the _North British
Review_ alone seventy-five articles of his appeared. A list of his larger
separate works will be found below. Special mention, however, must be made
of the most important of them all--his biography of Sir Isaac Newton. In
1831 he published a short popular account of the philosopher's life in
Murray's _Family Library_; but it was not until 1855 that he was able to
issue the much fuller _Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir
Isaac Newton_, a work which embodied the results of more than twenty years'
patient investigation of original manuscripts and all other available
sources.

Brewster's relations as editor brought him into frequent communication with
the most eminent scientific men, and he was naturally among the first to
recognize the benefit that would accrue from regular intercourse among
workers in the field of science. In an article in the _Quarterly Review_ he
threw out a suggestion for "an association of our nobility, clergy, gentry
and philosophers," which was taken up by others and found speedy
realization in the British Association for the Advancement of [v.04 p.0514]
Science. Its first meeting was held at York in 1831; and Brewster, along
with Charles Babbage and Sir John F. W. Herschel, had the chief part in
shaping its constitution. In the same year in which the British Association
held its first meeting, Brewster received the honour of knighthood and the
decoration of the Guelphic order of Hanover. In 1838 he was appointed
principal of the united colleges of St Salvator and St Leonard, St Andrews.
In 1849 he acted as president of the British Association and was elected
one of the eight foreign associates of the Institute of France in
succession to J.J. Berzelius; and ten years later he accepted the office of
principal of the university of Edinburgh, the duties of which he discharged
until within a few months of his death, which took place at Allerly,
Melrose, on the 10th of February 1868.

In estimating Brewster's place among scientific discoverers the chief thing
to be borne in mind is that the bent of his genius was not
characteristically mathematical. His method was empirical, and the laws
which he established were generally the result of repeated experiment. To
the ultimate explanation of the phenomena with which he dealt he
contributed nothing, and it is noteworthy in this connexion that if he did
not maintain to the end of his life the corpuscular theory he never
explicitly adopted the undulatory theory of light. Few will be inclined to
dispute the verdict of Forbes:--"His scientific glory is different in kind
from that of Young and Fresnel; but the discoverer of the law of
polarization of biaxial crystals, of optical mineralogy, and of double
refraction by compression, will always occupy a foremost rank in the
intellectual history of the age." In addition to the various works of
Brewster already noticed, the following may be mentioned:--Notes and
Introduction to Carlyle's translation of Legendre's _Elements of Geometry_
(1824); _Treatise on Optics_ (1831); _Letters on Natural Magic,_ addressed
to Sir Walter Scott (1831); _The Martyrs of Science, or the Lives of
Galileo, Tycho Brahe, and Kepler_ (1841); _More Worlds than One_ (1854).

See _The Home Life of Sir David Brewster,_ by his daughter Mrs Gordon.

BREWSTER, WILLIAM (c. 1566-1644), American colonist, one of the leaders of
the "Pilgrims," was born at Scrooby, in Nottinghamshire, England, about
1566. After studying for a short time at Cambridge, he was from 1584 to
1587 in the service of William Davison (? 1541-1608), who in 1585 went to
the Low Countries to negotiate an alliance with the states-general and in
1586 became assistant to Walsingham, Queen Elizabeth's secretary of state.
Upon the disgrace of Davison, Brewster removed to Scrooby, where from 1590
until September 1607 he held the position of "Post," or postmaster
responsible for the relays of horses on the post road, having previously,
for a short time, assisted his father in that office. About 1602 his
neighbours began to assemble for worship at his home, the Scrooby manor
house, and in 1606 he joined them in organizing the Separatist church of
Scrooby. After an unsuccessful attempt in 1607 (for which he was imprisoned
for a short time), he, with other Separatists, removed to Holland in 1608
to obtain greater freedom of worship. At Leiden in 1609 he was chosen
ruling elder of the Congregation. In Holland he supported himself first by
teaching English and afterwards in 1616-1619, as the partner of one Thomas
Brewer, by secretly printing, for sale in England, books proscribed by the
English government, thus, says Bradford, having "imploymente inough." In
1619 their types were seized and Brewer was arrested by the authorities of
the university of Leiden, acting on the instance of the British ambassador,
Sir Dudley Carleton. Brewster, however, escaped, and in the same year, with
Robert Cushman (c. 1580-1625), obtained in London, on behalf of his
associates, a land patent from the Virginia Company. In 1620 he emigrated
to America on the "Mayflower," and was one of the founders of the Plymouth
Colony. Here besides continuing until his death to act as ruling elder, he
was also--regularly until the arrival of the first pastor, Ralph Smith (d.
1661), in 1629 and irregularly afterward--a "teacher," preaching "both
powerfully and profitably to ye great contentment of ye hearers and their
comfortable edification." By many he is regarded as pre-eminently the
leader of the "Pilgrims." He died, probably on the 10th of April 1644.

See Ashbel Steele's _Chief of the Pilgrims; or the Life and Time of William
Brewster_ (Philadelphia, 1857); and a sketch in William Bradford's _History
of the Plimouth Plantation_ (new ed., Boston, 1898).

BRÉZÉ the name of a noble Angevin family, the most famous member of which
was PIERRE DE BRÉZÉ (c. 1410-1465), one of the trusted soldiers and
statesmen of Charles VII. He had made his name as a soldier in the English
wars when in 1433 he joined with Yolande, queen of Sicily, the constable
Richmond and others, in chasing from power Charles VII.'s minister La
Trémoille. He was knighted by Charles of Anjou in 1434, and presently
entered the royal council. In 1437 he became seneschal of Anjou, and in
1440 of Poitou. During the Praguerie he rendered great service to the royal
cause against the dauphin Louis and the revolted nobles, a service which
was remembered against him after Louis's accession to the throne. He fought
against the English in Normandy in 1440-1441, and in Guienne in 1442. In
the next year he became chamberlain to Charles VII., and gained the chief
power in the state through the influence of Agnes Sorel, superseding his
early allies Richmond and Charles of Anjou. The six years (1444-1450) of
his ascendancy were the most prosperous period of the reign of Charles VII.
His most dangerous opponent was the dauphin Louis, who in 1448 brought
against him accusations which led to a formal trial resulting in a complete
exoneration of Brézé and his restoration to favour. He fought in Normandy
in 1450-1451, and became seneschal of the province after the death of Agnes
Sorel and the consequent decline of his influence at court. He made an
ineffective descent on the English coast at Sandwich in 1457, and was
preparing an expedition in favour of Margaret of Anjou when the accession
of Louis XI. brought him disgrace and a short imprisonment. In 1462,
however, his son Jacques married Louis's half-sister, Charlotte de Valois,
daughter of Agnes Sorel. In 1462 he accompanied Margaret to Scotland with a
force of 2000 men, and after the battle of Hexham he brought her back to
Flanders. On his return he was reappointed seneschal of Normandy, and fell
in the battle of Montlhéry on the 16th of July 1465. He was succeeded as
seneschal of Normandy by his eldest son Jacques de Brézé (c. 1440-1490),
count of Maulevrier; and by his grandson, husband of the famous Diane de
Poitiers, Louis de Brézé (d. 1531), whose tomb in Rouen cathedral,
attributed to Jean Goujon and Jean Cousin, is a splendid example of French
Renaissance work.

The lordship of Brézé passed eventually to Claire Clémence de Maillé,
princess of Condé, by whom it was sold to Thomas Dreux, who took the name
of Dreux Brézé, when it was erected into a marquisate. HENRI EVRARD,
marquis de Dreux-Brézé (1762-1829), succeeded his father as master of the
ceremonies to Louis XVI. in 1781. On the meeting of the states-general in
1789 it fell to him to regulate the questions of etiquette and precedence
between the three estates. That as the immediate representative of the
crown he should wound the susceptibilities of the deputies was perhaps
inevitable, but little attempt was made to adapt traditional etiquette to
changed circumstances. Brézé did not formally intimate to President Bailly
the proclamation of the royal séance until the 20th of June, when the
carpenters were about to enter the hall to prepare for the event, thus
provoking the session in the tennis court. After the royal séance Brézé was
sent to reiterate Louis's orders that the estates should meet separately,
when Mirabeau replied that the hall could not be cleared except by force.
After the fall of the Tuileries Brézé emigrated for a short time, but
though he returned to France he was spared during the Terror. At the
Restoration he was made a peer of France, and resumed his functions as
guardian of an antiquated ceremonial. He died on the 27th of January 1829,
when he was succeeded in the peerage and at court by his son Scipion
(1793-1845).

The best contemporary account of Pierre de Brézé is given in the
_Chroniques_ of the Burgundian chronicler, Georges Chastellain, who had
been his secretary. Chastellain addressed a _Déprécation_ to Louis XI. on
his behalf at the time of his disgrace.

[v.04 p.0515] BRIALMONT, HENRI ALEXIS (1821-1903), Belgian general and
military engineer, son of General Laurent Mathieu Brialmont (d. 1885), was
born at Venlo in Limburg on the 25th of May 1821. Educated at the Brussels
military school, he entered the army as sub-lieutenant of engineers in
1843, and became lieutenant in 1847. From 1847 to 1850 he was private
secretary to the war minister, General Baron Chazal. In 1855 he entered the
staff corps, became major in 1861, lieutenant-colonel 1864, colonel in 1868
and major-general 1874. In this rank he held at first the position of
director of fortifications in the Antwerp district (December 1874), and
nine months later he became inspector-general of fortifications and of the
corps of engineers. In 1877 he became lieutenant-general. His far-reaching
schemes for the fortification of the Belgian places met with no little
opposition, and Brialmont seems to have felt much disappointment in this;
at any rate he went in 1883 to Rumania to advise as to the fortification
works required for the defence of the country, and presided over the
elaboration of the scheme by which Bucharest was to be made a first-class
fortress. He was thereupon placed _en disponibilité_ in his own service, as
having undertaken the Bucharest works without the authorization of his
sovereign. This was due in part to the suggestion of Austria, which power
regarded the Bucharest works as a menace to herself. His services were,
however, too valuable to be lost, and on his return to Belgium in 1884 he
resumed his command of the Antwerp military district. He had, further,
while in eastern Europe, prepared at the request of the Hellenic
government, a scheme for the defence of Greece. He retired in 1886, but
continued to supervise the Rumanian defences. He died on the 21st of
September 1903.

In the first stage of his career as an engineer Brialmont's plans followed
with but slight modification the ideas of Vauban; and his original scheme
for fortifying Antwerp provided for both enceinte and forts being on a
bastioned trace. But in 1859, when the great entrenched camp at Antwerp was
finally taken in hand, he had already gone over to the school of polygonal
fortification and the ideas of Montalembert. About twenty years later
Brialmont's own types and plans began to stand out amidst the general
confusion of ideas on fortification which naturally resulted from the
introduction of long-range guns, and from the events of 1870-71. The
extreme detached forts of the Antwerp region and the fortifications on the
Meuse at Liége and Namur were constructed in accordance with Brialmont's
final principles, viz. the lavish use of armour to protect the artillery
inside the forts, the suppression of all artillery positions open to
overhead fire, and the multiplication of intermediate batteries (see
FORTIFICATION AND SIEGECRAFT). In his capacity of inspector-general
Brialmont drafted and carried out the whole scheme for the defences of
Belgium. He was an indefatigable writer, and produced, besides essays,
reviews and other papers in the journals, twenty-three important works and
forty-nine pamphlets. In 1850 he originated the _Journal de l'armée Belge_.
His most important publications were _La Fortification du temps présent_
(Brussels, 1885); _Influence du tir plongeant et des obus-torpilles sur la
fortification_ (Brussels, 1888); _Les Régions fortifiées_ (Brussels, 1890);
_La Défense des états et la fortification à la fin du XIX^e siècle_
(Brussels, 1895); _Progrès de la défense des états et de la fortification
permanente depuis Vauban_ (Brussels, 1898).

BRIAN (926-1014), king of Ireland, known as BRIAN BORU, BOROMA, or BOROIMHE
(from _boroma_, an Irish word for tribute), was a son of a certain Kennedy
or Cenneide (d. 951). He passed his youth in fighting against the Danes,
who were constantly ravaging Munster, the northern part of which district
was the home of Brian's tribe, and won much fame in these encounters. In
976 his brother, Mathgamhain or Mahon, who had become king of Thomond about
951 and afterwards king of Munster, was murdered; Brian avenged this deed,
became himself king of Munster in 978, and set out upon his career of
conquest. He forced the tribes of Munster and then those of Leinster to own
his sovereignty, defeated the Danes, who were established around Dublin, in
Wicklow, and marched into Dublin, and after several reverses compelled
Malachy (Maelsechlainn), the chief king of Ireland, who ruled in Meath, to
bow before him in 1002. Connaught was his next objective. Here and also in
Ulster he was successful, everywhere he received hostages and tribute, and
he was generally recognized as the _ardri_, or chief king of Ireland. After
a period of comparative quiet Brian was again at war with the Danes of
Dublin, and on the 23rd of April 1014 his forces gained a great victory
over them at Clontarf. After this battle, however, the old king was slain
in his tent, and was buried at Armagh. Brian has enjoyed a great and not
undeserved reputation. One of his charters is still preserved in Trinity
College, Dublin.

See E.A. D'Alton, _History of Ireland_, vol. i. (1903).

BRIANÇON, a strongly fortified town in the department of Hautes-Alpes in
S.E. France. It is built at a height of 4334 ft. on a plateau which
dominates the junction of the Durance with the Guisane. The town itself is
formed of very steep and narrow, though picturesque streets. As it lies at
the foot of the descent from the Mont Genèvre Pass, giving access to Turin,
a great number of fortifications have been constructed on the heights
around Briançon, especially towards the east. The Fort Janus is no less
than 4000 ft. above the town. The parish church, with its two towers, was
built 1703-1726, and occupies a very conspicuous position. The Pont
d'Asfeld, E. of the town, was built in 1734, and forms an arch of 131 ft.
span, thrown at a height of 184 ft. across the Durance. The modern town
extends in the plain at the S.W. foot of the plateau on which the old town
is built and forms the suburb of Ste Catherine, with the railway station,
and an important silk-weaving factory. Briançon is 51½ m. by rail from Gap.
The commune had a civil population in 1906 of 4883 (urban population 3130),
while the permanent garrison was 2641--in all 7524 inhabitants.

Briançon was the _Brigantium_ of the Romans and formed part of the kingdom
of King Cottius. About 1040 it came into the hands of the counts of Albon
(later dauphins of the Viennois) and thenceforth shared the fate of the
Dauphiné. The Briançonnais included not merely the upper valley of the
Durance (with those of its affluents, the Gyronde and the Guil), but also
the valley of the Dora Riparia (Césanne, Oulx, Bardonnèche and Exilles),
and that of the Chisone (Fénestrelles, Pérouse, Pragelas)--these glens all
lying on the eastern slope of the chain of the Alps. But by the treaty of
Utrecht (1713) all these valleys were handed over to Savoy in exchange for
that of Barcelonnette, on the west slope of the Alps. In 1815 Briançon
successfully withstood a siege of three months at the hands of the Allies,
a feat which is commemorated by an inscription on one of its gates, _Le
passé répond de l'avenir_.

(W. A. B. C.)

BRIAND, ARISTIDE (1862- ), French statesman, was born at Nantes, of a
bourgeois family. He studied law, and while still young took to politics,
associating himself with the most advanced movements, writing articles for
the anarchist journal _Le Peuple_, and directing the _Lanterne_ for some
time. From this he passed to the _Petite République_, leaving it to found,
with Jean Jaurès, _L'Humanité_. At the same time he was prominent in the
movement for the formation of labour unions, and at the congress of working
men at Nantes in 1894 he secured the adoption of the labour union idea
against the adherents of Jules Guesde. From that time, Briand became one of
the leaders of the French Socialist party. In 1902, after several
unsuccessful attempts, he was elected deputy. He declared himself a strong
partisan of the union of the Left in what is known as the _Bloc_, in order
to check the reactionary deputies of the Right. From the beginning of his
career in the chamber of deputies, Briand was occupied with the question of
the separation of church and state. He was appointed reporter of the
commission charged with the preparation of the law, and his masterly report
at once marked him out as one of the coming leaders. He succeeded in
carrying his project through with but slight modifications, and without
dividing the parties upon whose support he relied. He was the principal
author of the law of separation, but, not content with preparing it, he
wished to apply it as well, especially as the existing Rouvier [v.04
p.0516] ministry allowed disturbances to occur during the taking of
inventories of church property, a clause of the law for which Briand was
not responsible. Consequently he accepted the portfolio of public
instruction and worship in the Sarrien ministry (1906). So far as the
chamber was concerned his success was complete. But the acceptance of a
portfolio in a bourgeois ministry led to his exclusion from the Unified
Socialist party (March 1906). As opposed to Jaurès, he contended that the
Socialists should co-operate actively with the Radicals in all matters of
reform, and not stand aloof to await the complete fulfilment of their
ideals.

BRIANZA, a district of Lombardy, Italy, forming the south part of the
province of Como, between the two southern arms of the lake of that name.
It is thickly populated and remarkable for its fertility; and being hilly
is a favourite summer resort of the Milanese.

BRIARE, a town of north-central France in the department of Loiret on the
right bank of the Loire, 45½ m. S.E. of Orléans on the railway to Nevers.
Pop. (1906) 4613. Briare, the _Brivodorum_ of the Romans, is situated at
the extremity of the Canal of Briare, which unites the Loire and its
lateral canal with the Loing and so with the Seine. The canal of Briare was
constructed from 1605 to 1642 and is about 36 m. long. The industries
include the manufacture of fine pottery, and of so-called porcelain buttons
made of felspar and milk by a special process; its inventor, Bapterosses,
has a bust in the town. The canal traffic is in wood, iron, coal, building
materials, &c. A modern hospital and church, and the hôtel de ville
installed in an old moated château, are the chief buildings. The lateral
canal of the Loire crosses the Loire near Briare by a fine canal-bridge 720
yds. in length.

BRIAREUS, or AEGAEON, in Greek mythology, one of the three hundred-armed,
fifty-headed Hecatoncheires, brother of Cottus and Gyges (or Gyes).
According to Homer (_Iliad_ i. 403) he was called Aegaeon by men, and
Briareus by the gods. He was the son of Poseidon (or Uranus) and Gaea. The
legends regarding him and his brothers are various and somewhat
contradictory. According to the most widely spread myth, Briareus and his
brothers were called by Zeus to his assistance when the Titans were making
war upon Olympus. The gigantic enemies were defeated and consigned to
Tartarus, at the gates of which the three brothers were placed (Hesiod,
_Theog._ 624, 639, 714). Other accounts make Briareus one of the assailants
of Olympus, who, after his defeat, was buried under Mount Aetna
(Callimachus, _Hymn to Delos_, 141). Homer mentions him as assisting Zeus
when the other Olympian deities were plotting against the king of gods and
men (_Iliad_ i. 398). Another tradition makes him a giant of the sea, ruler
of the fabulous Aegaea in Euboea, an enemy of Poseidon and the inventor of
warships (Schol. on Apoll. Rhod. i. 1165). It would be difficult to
determine exactly what natural phenomena are symbolized by the
Hecatoncheires. They may represent the gigantic forces of nature which
appear in earthquakes and other convulsions, or the multitudinous motion of
the sea waves (Mayer, _Die Giganten und Titanen_, 1887).

BRIBERY (from the O. Fr. _briberie_, begging or vagrancy, _bribe_, Mid.
Lat. _briba_, signifying a piece of bread given to beggars; the Eng.
"bribe" has passed through the meanings of alms, blackmail and extortion,
to gifts received or given in order to influence corruptly). The public
offence of bribery may be defined as the offering or giving of payment in
some shape or form that it may be a motive in the performance of functions
for which the proper motive ought to be a conscientious sense of duty. When
this is superseded by the sordid impulses created by the bribe, a person is
said to be corrupted, and thus corruption is a term sometimes held
equivalent to bribery. The offence may be divided into two great
classes--the one where a person invested with power is induced by payment
to use it unjustly; the other, where power is obtained by purchasing the
suffrages of those who can impart it. It is a natural propensity, removable
only by civilization or some powerful counteracting influence, to feel that
every element of power is to be employed as much as possible for the
owner's own behoof, and that its benefits should be conferred not on those
who best deserve them, but on those who will pay most for them. Hence
judicial corruption is an inveterate vice of imperfect civilization. There
is, perhaps no other crime on which the force of law, if unaided by public
opinion and morals, can have so little influence; for in other crimes, such
as violence or fraud, there is generally some person immediately injured by
the act, who can give his aid in the detection of the offender, but in the
perpetration of the offence of bribery all the immediate parties obtain
what they desire, and are satisfied.

The purification of the bench from judicial bribery has been gradual in
most of the European countries. In France it received an impulse in the
16th century from the high-minded chancellor, Michel de L'Hôpital. In
England judicial corruption has been a crime of remarkable rarity. Indeed,
with the exception of a statute of 1384 (repealed by the Statute Law
Revision Act 1881) there has been no legislation relating to judicial
bribery. The earliest recorded case was that of Sir William Thorpe, who in
1351 was fined and removed from office for accepting bribes. Other
celebrated cases were those of Michael de la Pole, chancellor of England,
in 1387; Lord Chancellor Bacon in 1621; Lionel Cranfield, earl of
Middlesex, in 1624; and Sir Thomas Parker, 1st earl of Macclesfield, in
1725. In Scotland for some years after the Revolution the bench was not
without a suspicion of interested partiality; but since the beginning of
the 19th century, at least, there has been in all parts of the empire a
perfect reliance on its purity. The same may be said of the higher class of
ministerial officers. There is no doubt that in the period from the
Revolution to the end of Queen Anne's reign, when a speaker of the House of
Commons was expelled for bribery, and the great Marlborough could not clear
his character from pecuniary dishonesty, there was much corruption in the
highest official quarters. The level of the offence of official bribery has
gradually descended, until it has become an extremely rare thing for the
humbler officers connected with the revenue to be charged with it. It has
had a more lingering existence with those who, because their power is more
of a constitutional than an official character, have been deemed less
responsible to the public. During Walpole's administration there is no
doubt that members of parliament were paid in cash for votes; and the
memorable saying, that every man has his price, has been preserved as a
characteristic indication of his method of government. One of the forms in
which administrative corruption is most difficult of eradication is the
appointment to office. It is sometimes maintained that the purity which
characterizes the administration of justice is here unattainable, because
in giving a judgment there is but one form in which it can be justly given,
but when an office has to be filled many people may be equally fitted for
it, and personal motives must influence a choice. It very rarely happens,
however, that direct bribery is supposed to influence such appointments. It
does not appear that bribery was conspicuous in England until, in the early
part of the 18th century, constituencies had thrown off the feudal
dependence which lingered among them; and, indeed, it is often said, that
bribery is essentially the defect of a free people, since it is the sale of
that which is taken from others without payment.

In English law bribery of a privy councillor or a juryman (see EMBRACERY)
is punishable as a misdemeanour, as is the taking of a bribe by any
judicial or ministerial officer. The buying and selling of public offices
is also regarded at common law as a form of bribery. By the Customs
Consolidation Act 1876, any officer in the customs service is liable to
instant dismissal and a penalty of £500 for taking a bribe, and any person
offering or promising a bribe or reward to an officer to neglect his duty
or conceal or connive at any act by which the customs may be evaded shall
forfeit the sum of £200. Under the Inland Revenue Regulations Act 1890, the
bribery of commissioners, collectors, officers or other persons employed in
relation to the Inland Revenue involves a fine of £500. The Merchant
Shipping Act 1894, ss. 112 and 398, makes provision for certain offences in
the nature of bribery. Bribery is, by the Extradition Act 1906, [v.04
p.0517] an extraditable offence. Administrative corruption was dealt with
in the Public Bodies' Corrupt Practices Act 1889. The public bodies
concerned are county councils, town or borough councils, boards,
commissioners, select vestries and other bodies having local government,
public health or poor law powers, and having for those purposes to
administer rates raised under public general acts. The giving or receiving,
promising, offering, soliciting or agreeing to receive any gift, fee, loan
or advantage by any person as an inducement for any act or forbearance by a
member, officer or servant of a public body in regard to the affairs of
that body is made a misdemeanour in England and Ireland and a crime and
offence in Scotland. Prosecution under the act requires the consent of the
attorney or solicitor-general in England or Ireland and of the lord
advocate in Scotland. Conviction renders liable to imprisonment with or
without hard labour for a term not exceeding two years, and to a fine not
exceeding £500, in addition to or in lieu of imprisonment. The offender may
also be ordered to pay to the public body concerned any bribe received by
him; he may be adjudged incapable for seven years of holding public office,
_i.e._ the position of member, officer or servant of a public body; and if
already an officer or servant, besides forfeiting his place, he is liable
at the discretion of the court to forfeit his right to compensation or
pension. On a second conviction he may be adjudged forever incapable of
holding public office, and for seven years incapable of being registered or
of voting as a parliamentary elector, or as an elector of members of a
public body. An offence under the act may be prosecuted and punished under
any other act applicable thereto, or at common law; but no person is to be
punished twice for the same offence. Bribery at political elections was at
common law punishable by indictment or information, but numerous statutes
have been passed dealing with it as a "corrupt practice." In this sense,
the word is elastic in meaning and may embrace any method of corruptly
influencing another for the purpose of securing his vote (see CORRUPT
PRACTICES). Bribery at elections of fellows, scholars, officers and other
persons in colleges, cathedral and collegiate churches, hospitals and other
societies was prohibited in 1588-1589 by statute (31 Eliz. c. 6). If a
member receives any money, fee, reward or other profit for giving his vote
in favour of any candidate, he forfeits his own place; if for any such
consideration he resigns to make room for a candidate, he forfeits double
the amount of the bribe, and the candidate by or on whose behalf a bribe is
given or promised is incapable of being elected on that occasion. The act
is to be read at every election of fellows, &c., under a penalty of £40 in
case of default. By the same act any person for corrupt consideration
presenting, instituting or inducting to an ecclesiastical benefice or
dignity forfeits two years' value of the benefice or dignity; the corrupt
presentation is void, and the right to present lapses for that turn to the
crown, and the corrupt presentee is disabled from thereafter holding the
same benefice or dignity; a corrupt institution or induction is void, and
the patron may present. For a corrupt resignation or exchange of a benefice
the giver and taker of a bribe forfeit each double the amount of the bribe.
Any person corruptly procuring the ordaining of ministers or granting of
licenses to preach forfeits £40, and the person so ordained forfeits £10
and for seven years is incapacitated from holding any ecclesiastical
benefice or promotion.

In the United States the offence of bribery is very severely dealt with. In
many states, bribery or the attempt to bribe is made a felony, and is
punishable with varying terms of imprisonment, in some jurisdictions it may
be with a period not exceeding ten years. The offence of bribery at
elections is dealt with on much the same lines as in England, voiding the
election and disqualifying the offender from holding any office.

Bribery may also take the form of a secret commission (_q.v._), a profit
made by an agent, in the course of his employment, without the knowledge of
his principal.

BRIC À BRAC (a French word, formed by a kind of onomatopoeia, meaning a
heterogeneous collection of odds and ends; cf. _de bric et de broc_,
corresponding to our "by hook or by crook"; or by reduplication from
_brack_, refuse), objects of "virtu," a collection of old furniture, china,
plate and curiosities.

BRICK (derived according to some etymologists from the Teutonic _bricke_, a
disk or plate; but more authoritatively, through the French _brique_,
originally a "broken piece," applied especially to bread, and so to clay,
from the Teutonic _brikan_, to break), a kind of artificial stone generally
made of burnt clay, and largely used as a building material.

_History_.--The art of making bricks dates from very early times, and was
practised by all the civilized nations of antiquity. The earliest burnt
bricks known are those found on the sites of the ancient cities of
Babylonia, and it seems probable that the method of making strong and
durable bricks, by burning blocks of dried clay, was discovered in this
corner of Asia. We know at least that well-burnt bricks were made by the
Babylonians more than 6000 years ago, and that they were extensively used
in the time of Sargon of Akkad (c. 3800 B.C.). The site of the ancient city
of Babylon is still marked by huge mounds of bricks, the ruins of its great
walls, towers and palaces, although it has been the custom for centuries to
carry away from these heaps the bricks required for the building of the
modern towns in the surrounding country. The Babylonians and Assyrians
attained to a high degree of proficiency in brickmaking, notably in the
manufacture of bricks having a coating of coloured glaze or enamel, which
they largely used for wall decoration. The Chinese claim great antiquity
for their clay industries, but it is not improbable that the knowledge of
brickmaking travelled eastwards from Babylonia across the whole of Asia. It
is believed that the art of making glazed bricks, so highly developed
afterwards by the Chinese, found its way across Asia from the west, through
Persia and northern India, to China. The great wall of China was
constructed partly of brick, both burnt and unburnt; but this was built at
a comparatively late period (c. 210 B.C.), and there is nothing to show
that the Chinese had any knowledge of burnt bricks when the art flourished
in Babylonia.

Brickmaking formed the chief occupation of the Israelites during their
bondage in Egypt, but in this case the bricks were probably sun-dried only,
and not burnt. These bricks were made of a mixture of clay and chopped
straw or reeds, worked into a stiff paste with water. The clay was the
river mud from the banks of the Nile, and as this had not sufficient
cohesion in itself, the chopped straw (or reeds) was added as a binding
material. The addition of such substances increases the plasticity of wet
clay, especially if the mixture is allowed to stand for some days before
use; so that the action of the chopped straw was twofold; a fact possibly
known to the Egyptians. These sun-dried bricks, or "adobes," are still
made, as of old, on the banks of the Nile by the following method:--A
shallow pit or bed is prepared, into which are thrown the mud, chopped
straw and water in suitable proportions, and the whole mass is tramped on
until it is thoroughly mixed and of the proper consistence. This mixture is
removed in lumps and shaped into bricks, in moulds or by hand, the bricks
being simply sun-dried.

Pliny mentions that three kinds of bricks were made by the Greeks, but
there is no indication that they were used to any great extent, and
probably the walls of Athens on the side towards Mount Hymettus were the
most important brick-structures in ancient Greece. The Romans became
masters of the brickmaker's art, though they probably acquired much of
their knowledge in the East, during their occupation of Egypt and Greece.
In any case they revived and extended the manufacture of bricks about the
beginning of the Christian era; exercising great care in the selection and
preparation of their clay, and introducing the method of burning bricks in
kilns. They carried their knowledge and their methods throughout western
Europe, and there is abundant evidence that they made bricks extensively in
Germany and in Britain.

Although brickmaking was thus introduced into Britain nearly 2000 years
ago, the art seems to have been lost when the Romans withdrew from the
country, and it is doubtful whether any burnt bricks were made in England
from that time until the 13th century. Such bricks as were used during this
long [v.04 p.0518] period were generally taken from the remains of Roman
buildings, as at Colchester and St Albans Abbey. One of the earliest
existing brick buildings, erected after the revival of brickmaking in
England, is Little Wenham Hall, in Suffolk, built about A.D. 1210; but it
was not until the 15th century that bricks came into general use again, and
then only for important edifices. During the reign of Henry VIII.
brickmaking was brought to great perfection, probably by workmen brought
from Flanders, and the older portions of St James's Palace and Hampton
Court Palace remain to testify to the skill then attained. In the 16th
century bricks were increasingly used, but down to the Great Fire of
London, in 1666, the smaller buildings, shops and dwelling-houses, were
constructed of timber framework filled in with lath and plaster. In the
rebuilding of London after the fire, bricks were largely used, and from the
end of the 17th century to the present day they have been almost
exclusively used in all ordinary buildings throughout the country, except
in those districts where building stone is plentiful and good brick-clay is
not readily procurable. The bricks made in England before 1625 were of many
sizes, there being no recognized standard; but in that year the sizes were
regulated by statute, and the present standard size was adopted, viz. 9 x
4½ x 3 in. In 1784 a tax was levied on bricks, which was not repealed until
1850. The tax averaged about 4s. 7d. per thousand on ordinary bricks, and
special bricks were still more heavily taxed.

The first brick buildings in America were erected on Manhattan Island in
the year 1633 by a governor of the Dutch West India Company. These bricks
were made in Holland, where the industry had long reached great excellence;
and for many years bricks were imported into America from Holland and from
England. In America burnt bricks were first made at New Haven about 1650,
and the manufacture slowly spread through the New England states; but for
many years the home-made article was inferior to that imported from Europe.

The Dutch and the Germans were the great brickmakers of Europe during the
middle ages, although the Italians, from the 14th to the 15th century,
revived and developed the art of decorative brick-work or terra-cotta, and
discovered the method of applying coloured enamels to these materials.
Under the Della Robbias, in the 15th century, some of the finest work of
this class that the world has seen was executed, but it can scarcely be
included under brickwork.

_Brick Clays_.--All clays are the result of the denudation and
decomposition of felspathic and siliceous rocks, and consist of the fine
insoluble particles which have been carried in suspension in water and
deposited in geologic basins according to their specific gravity and degree
of fineness (see CLAY). These deposits have been formed in all geologic
epochs from the "Recent" to the "Cambrian," and they vary in hardness from
the soft and plastic "alluvial" clays to the hard and rock-like shales and
slates of the older formations. The alluvial and drift clays (which were
alone used for brickmaking until modern times) are found near the surface,
are readily worked and require little preparation, whereas the older
sedimentary deposits are often difficult to work and necessitate the use of
heavy machinery. These older shales, or rocky clays, may be brought into
plastic condition by long weathering (_i.e._ by exposure to rain, frost and
sun) or by crushing and grinding in water, and they then resemble ordinary
alluvial clays in every respect.

The clays or earths from which burnt bricks are made may be divided into
two principal types, according to chemical composition: (1) Clays or shales
containing only a small percentage of carbonate of lime and consisting
chiefly of hydrated aluminium silicates (the "true clay substance") with
more or less sand, undecomposed grains of felspar, and oxide or carbonate
of iron; these clays usually burn to a buff, salmon or red colour; (2)
Clays containing a considerable percentage of carbonate of lime in addition
to the substances above mentioned. These latter clay deposits are known as
"marls,"[1] and may contain as much as 40% of chalk. They burn to a
sulphur-yellow colour which is quite distinctive.

Brick clays of class (1) are very widely distributed, and have a more
extensive geological range than the marls, which are found in connexion
with chalk or limestone formations only. These ordinary brick clays vary
considerably in composition, and many clays, as they are found in nature,
are unsuitable for brickmaking without the addition of some other kind of
clay or sand. The strongest brick clays, _i.e._ those possessing the
greatest plasticity and tensile strength, are usually those which contain
the highest percentage of the hydrated aluminium silicates, although the
exact relation of plasticity to chemical composition has not yet been
determined. This statement cannot be applied indiscriminately to all clays,
but may be taken as fairly applicable to clays of one general type (see
CLAY). All clays contain more or less free silica in the form of sand, and
usually a small percentage of undecomposed felspar. The most important
ingredient, after the clay-substance and the sand, is oxide of iron; for
the colour, and, to a less extent, the hardness and durability of the burnt
bricks depend on its presence. The amount of oxide of iron in these clays
varies from about 2 to 10%, and the colour of the bricks varies accordingly
from light buff to chocolate; although the colour developed by a given
percentage of oxide of iron is influenced by the other substances present
and also by the method of firing. A clay containing from 5 to 8% of oxide
of iron will, under ordinary conditions of firing, produce a red brick; but
if the clay contains 3 to 4% of alkalis, or the brick is fired too hard,
the colour will be darker and more purple. The actions of the alkalis and
of increased temperature are probably closely related, for in either case
the clay is brought nearer to its fusion point, and ferruginous clays
generally become darker in colour as they approach to fusion. Alumina acts
in the opposite direction, an excess of this compound tending to make the
colour lighter and brighter. It is impossible to give a typical composition
for such clays, as the percentages of the different constituents vary
through such wide ranges. The clay substance may vary from 15 to 80%, the
free silica or sand from 5 to 80%, the oxide of iron from 1 to 10%, the
carbonates of lime and magnesia together, from 1 to 5%, and the alkalis
from 1 to 4%. Organic matter is always present, and other impurities which
frequently occur are the sulphates of lime and magnesia, the chlorides and
nitrates of soda and potash, and iron-pyrites. The presence of organic
matter gives the wet clay a greater plasticity, probably because it forms a
kind of mucilage which adds a certain viscosity and adhesiveness to the
natural plasticity of the clay. In some of the coal-measure shales the
amount of organic matter is very considerable, and may render the clay
useless for brickmaking. The other impurities, all of which, except the
pyrites, are soluble in water, are undesirable, as they give rise to
"scum," which produces patchy colour and pitted faces on the bricks. The
commonest soluble impurity is calcium sulphate, which produces a whitish
scum on the face of the brick in drying, and as the scum becomes
permanently fixed in burning, such bricks are of little use except for
common work. This question of "scumming" is very important to the maker of
high-class facing and moulded bricks, and where a clay containing calcium
sulphate must be used, a certain percentage of barium carbonate is nowadays
added to the wet clay. By this means the calcium sulphate is converted into
calcium carbonate which is insoluble in water, so that it remains
distributed throughout the mass of the brick instead of being deposited on
the surface. The presence of magnesium salts is also very objectionable, as
these generally remain in the burnt brick as magnesium sulphate, which
gives rise to an efflorescence of fine white crystals after the bricks are
built into position. Clays which are strong or plastic are known as "fat"
clays, and they always contain a high percentage of true "clay substance,"
and, consequently, a low percentage of sand. Such clays take up a
considerable amount of water in "tempering"; they dry slowly, shrink
greatly, and so become liable to lose their shape and develop cracks in
drying and firing. "Fat" clays are greatly improved by the addition of
coarse sharp sand, [v.04 p.0519] which reduces the time of drying and the
shrinkage, and makes the brick more rigid during the firing. Coarse sand,
unlike clay-substance, is practically unaffected during the drying and
firing, and is a desirable if not a necessary ingredient of all brick
clays. The best brick-clays feel gritty between the fingers; they should,
of course, be free from pebbles, sufficiently plastic to be moulded into
shape and strong enough when dry to be safely handled. All clays are
greatly improved by being turned over and exposed to the weather, or by
standing for some months in a wet condition. This "weathering" and "ageing"
of clay is particularly important where bricks are made from tempered clay,
_i.e._ clay in the wet or plastic state; where bricks are made from shale,
in the semi-plastic condition, weathering is still of importance.

The lime clays or "marls" of class (2), which contain essentially a high
percentage of chalk or limestone, are not so widely distributed as the
ordinary brick-clays, and in England the natural deposits of these clays
have been largely exhausted. A very fine chalk-clay, or "malm" as it was
locally called, was formerly obtained from the alluvium in the vicinity of
London; but the available supply of this has been used up, and at the
present time an artificial "malm" is prepared by mixing an ordinary
brick-clay with ground chalk. For the best London facing-bricks the clay
and chalk are mixed in water. The chalk is ground on grinding-pans, and the
clay is mixed with water and worked about until the mixture has the
consistence of cream. The mixture of these "pulps" is run through a grating
or coarse sieve on to a drying-kiln or "bed," where it is allowed to stand
until stiff enough to walk on. A layer of fine ashes is then spread over
the clay, and the mass is turned over and mixed by spade, and tempered by
the addition of water. In other districts, where clays containing limestone
are used, the marl is mixed with water on a wash-pan and the resulting
creamy fluid passed through coarse sieves on to a drying-bed. If necessary,
coarse sand is added to the clay in the wash-pan, and such addition is
often advisable because the washed clays are generally very fine in grain.
Another method of treating these marls, when they are in the plastic
condition, is to squeeze them by machinery through iron gratings, which
arrest and remove the pebbles. In other cases the marl is passed through a
grinding-mill having a solid bottom and heavy iron rollers, by which means
the limestone pebbles are crushed sufficiently and mixed through the whole
mass. The removal of limestone pebbles from the clay is of great
importance, as during the firing they would be converted into quicklime,
which has a tendency to shatter the brick on exposure to the weather. As
before stated, these marls (which usually contain from 15 to 30% of calcium
carbonate) burn to a yellow colour which is quite distinctive, although in
some cases, where the percentage of limestone is very high, over 40%, the
colour is grey or a very pale buff. The action of lime in bleaching the
ferric oxide and producing a yellow instead of a red brick, has not been
thoroughly investigated, but it seems probable that some compound is
produced, between the lime and the oxide of iron, or between these two
oxides and the free silica, entirely different from that produced by oxide
of iron in the absence of lime. Such marls require a harder fire than the
ordinary brick-clays in order to bring about the reaction between the lime
and the other ingredients. Magnesia may replace lime to some extent in such
marls, but the firing temperature must be higher when magnesia is present.
Marls usually contract very little, if at all, in the burning, and
generally produce a strong, square brick of fine texture and good colour.
When under-fired, marl bricks are very liable to disintegrate under the
action of the weather, and great care must be exercised in burning them at
a sufficiently high temperature.

_Brickmaking_.--Bricks made of tempered clay may be made by hand or by
machine, and the machines may be worked by hand or by mechanical power.
Bricks made of semi-plastic clay (_i.e._ ground clay or shale sufficiently
damp to adhere under pressure) are generally machine-made throughout. The
method of making bricks by hand is the same, with slight variation, the
world over. The tempered clay is pressed by hand into a wooden or metal
mould or four-sided case (without top or bottom) which is of the desired
shape and size, allowance being made for the shrinkage of the brick in
drying and firing. The moulder stands at the bench or table, dips the mould
in water, or water and then sand, to prevent the clay from sticking, takes
a rudely shaped piece of clay from an assistant, and dashes this into the
mould which rests on the moulding bench. He then presses the clay into the
corners of the mould with his fingers, scrapes off any surplus clay and
levels the top by means of a strip of wood called a "strike," and then
turns the brick out of the mould on to a board, to be carried away by
another assistant to the drying-ground. The mould may be placed on a
special piece of wood, called the stock-board, provided with an elevated
tongue of wood in the centre, which produces the hollow or "frog" in the
bottom of the brick.

Machine-made bricks may be divided into two kinds, plastic and
semi-plastic, although the same type of machine is often used for both
kinds.

The machine-made plastic bricks are made of tempered clay, but generally
the tempering and working of the clay are effected by the use of machinery,
especially when the harder clays and shales are used. The machines used in
the preparation of such clays are grinding-mills and pug-mills. The
grinding-mills are either a series of rollers with graduated spaces
between, through which the clay or shale is passed, or are of the ordinary
"mortar pan" type, having a solid or perforated iron bottom on which the
clay or shale is crushed by heavy rollers. Shales are sometimes passed
through a grinding-mill before they are exposed to the action of the
weather, as the disintegration of the hard lumps of shale greatly
accelerates the "weathering." In the case of ordinary brick-clay, in the
plastic condition, grinding-mills are only used when pebbles more than a
quarter of an inch in diameter are present, as otherwise the clay may be
passed directly through the pug-mill, a process which may be repeated if
necessary. The pug-mill consists of a box or trough having a feed hole at
one end and a delivery hole or nose at the other end, and provided with a
central shaft which carries knives and cutters so arranged that when the
shaft revolves they cut and knead the clay, and at the same time force it
towards and through the delivery nose. The cross section of this nose of
the pug-mill is approximately the same as that of the required brick (9 in.
× 4½ in. plus contraction, for ordinary bricks), so that the pug delivers a
solid or continuous mass of clay from which bricks may be made by merely
making a series of square cuts at the proper distances apart. In practice,
the clay is pushed from the pug along a smooth iron plate, which is
provided with a wire cutting frame having a number of tightly stretched
wires placed at certain distances apart, arranged so that they can be
brought down upon, and through, the clay, and so many bricks cut off at
intervals. The frame is sometimes in the form of a skeleton cylinder, the
wires being arranged radially (or the wires may be replaced by metal
disks); but in all cases bricks thus made are known as "wire-cuts." In
order to obtain a better-shaped and more compact brick, these wire-cuts may
be placed under a brick press and there squeezed into iron moulds under
great pressure. These two processes are now generally performed by one
machine, consisting of pug-mill and brick press combined. The pug delivers
the clay, downwards, into the mould; the proper amount of clay is cut off;
and the mould is made to travel into position under the ram of the press,
which squeezes the clay into a solid mass.

There are many forms of brick press, a few for hand power, but the most
adapted for belt-driving; although in recent years hydraulic presses have
come more and more into use, especially in Germany and America. The
essential parts of a brick press are: (1) a box or frame in which the clay
is moulded; (2) a plunger or die carried on the end of a ram, which gives
the necessary pressure; (3) an arrangement for pushing the pressed brick
out of the moulding box. Such presses are generally made of iron
throughout, although other metals are used, occasionally, for the moulds
and dies. The greatest variations found in brick presses are in the means
adopted for actuating the ram; and many ingenious mechanical devices have
been applied to this end, each claiming some particular advantage over its
predecessors. In many recent presses, especially where semi-plastic clay is
used, the brick is pressed simultaneously from top and bottom, a second
ram, working upwards from beneath, giving the additional pressure.

Although the best bricks are still pressed from tempered or plastic clay,
there has recently been a great development in the manufacture of
semi-plastic or dust-made bricks, especially in those districts where
shales are used for brickmaking. These semi-plastic bricks are stamped out
of ground shale that has been sufficiently moistened with water to enable
it to bind together. The hard-clay, or shale, is crushed under heavy
rollers in an iron grinding-pan having a perforated bottom through which
the crushed clay passes, when sufficiently fine, into a small compartment
underneath. This clay powder is then delivered, by an elevator, into a
sieve or screen, which retains the coarser particles for regrinding. Sets
of rollers may also be used for crushing shales that are only moderately
hard, the ground material being sifted as before. The material, as fed
[v.04 p.0520] into the mould of the press, is a coarse, damp powder which
becomes adhesive under pressure, producing a so-called "semi-plastic"
brick. The presses used are similar to those employed for plastic clay, but
they are generally more strongly and heavily built, and are capable of
applying a greater pressure.

The semi-plastic method has many advantages where shales are used, although
the bricks are not as strong nor as perfect as the best "plastic" bricks.
The method, however, enables the brickmaker to make use of certain kinds of
clay-rock, or shale, that would be impracticable for plastic bricks; and
the weathering, tempering and "ageing" may be largely or entirely dispensed
with. The plant required is heavier and more costly, but the brickyard
becomes more compact, and the processes are simpler than with the "plastic"
method.

The drying of bricks, which was formerly done in the open, is now, in most
cases, conducted in a special shed heated by flues along which the heated
gases from the kilns pass on their way to the chimney. It is important that
the atmosphere of the drying-shed should be fairly dry, to which end
suitable means of ventilation must be arranged (by fans or otherwise). If
the atmosphere is too moist the surface of the brick remains damp for a
considerable time, and the moisture from the interior passes to the surface
as water, carrying with it the soluble salts, which are deposited on the
surface as the water slowly evaporates. This deposit produces the "scum"
already referred to. When the drying is done in a dry atmosphere the
surface quickly dries and hardens, and the moisture from the interior
passes to the surface as vapour, the soluble salts being left distributed
through the whole mass, and consequently no "scum" is produced. Plastic
bricks take much longer to dry than semi-plastic; they shrink more and have
a greater tendency to warp or twist.

The burning or firing of bricks is the most important factor in their
production; for their strength and durability depend very largely on the
character and degree of the firing to which they have been subjected. The
action of the heat brings about certain chemical decompositions and
re-combinations which entirely alter the physical character of the dry
clay. It is important, therefore, that the firing should be carefully
conducted and that it should be under proper control. For ordinary bricks
the firing atmosphere should be oxidizing, and the finishing temperature
should be adjusted to the nature of the clay, the object being to produce a
hard strong brick, of good shape, that will not be too porous and will
withstand the action of frost. The finishing temperature ranges from 900°
C. to 1250° C., the usual temperature being about 1050° C. for ordinary
bricks. As before mentioned, lime-clays require a higher firing temperature
(usually about 1150° C. to 1200° C.) in order to bring the lime into
chemical combination with the other substances present.

It is evident that the best method of firing bricks is to place them in
permanent kilns, but although such kilns were used by the Romans some 2000
years ago, the older method of firing in "clamps" is still employed in the
smaller brickfields, in every country where bricks are made. These clamps
are formed by arranging the unfired bricks in a series of rows or walls,
placed fairly closely together, so as to form a rectangular stack. A
certain number of channels, or firemouths, are formed in the bottom of the
clamp; and fine coal is spread in horizontal layers between the bricks
during the building up of the stack. Fires are kindled in the fire-mouths,
and the clamp is allowed to go on burning until the fuel is consumed
throughout. The clamp is then allowed to cool, after which it is taken
down, and the bricks sorted; those that are under-fired being built up
again in the next clamp for refiring. Sometimes the clamp takes the form of
a temporary kiln, the outside being built of burnt bricks which are
plastered over with clay, and the fire-mouths being larger and more
carefully formed. There are many other local modifications in the manner of
building up the clamps, all with the object of producing a large percentage
of well-fired bricks. Clamp-firing is slow, and also uneconomical, because
irregular and not sufficiently under control; and it is now only employed
where bricks are made on a small scale.

Brick-kilns are of many forms, but they can all be grouped under two main
types--Intermittent kilns and Continuous kilns. The intermittent kiln is
usually circular in plan, being in the form of a vertical cylinder with a
domed top. It consists of a single firing-chamber in which the unfired
bricks are placed, and in the walls of which are contrived a number of
fire-mouths where wood or coal is burned. In the older forms known as
_up-draught_ kilns, the products of combustion pass from the fire-mouth,
through flues, into the bottom of the firing-chamber, and thence directly
upwards and out at the top. The modern plan is to introduce the products of
combustion near the top, or crown, of the kiln, and to draw them downwards
through holes in the bottom which lead to flues connected with an
independent chimney. These _down-draught_ kilns have short chimneys or
"bags" built round the inside wall in connexion with the fire-mouths, which
conduct the flames to the upper part of the firing-chamber, where they are
reverberated and passed down through the bricks in obedience to the pull of
the chimney. The "bags" may be joined together, forming an inner circular
wall entirely round the firing-chamber, except at the doorway; and a number
of kilns may be built in a row or group having their bottom flues connected
with the same tall chimney. Down-draught kilns usually give a more regular
fire and a higher percentage of well-fired bricks; and they are more
economical in fuel consumption than up-draught kilns, while the hot gases,
as they pass from the kiln, may be utilized for drying purposes, being
conducted through flues under the floor of the drying-shed, on their way to
the chimney. The method of using one tall chimney to work a group of
down-draught kilns naturally led to the invention of the "continuous" kiln,
which is really made up of a number of separate kilns or firing-chambers,
built in series and connected up to the main flue of the chimney in such a
manner that the products of combustion from one kiln may be made to pass
through a number of other kilns before entering the flue. The earliest form
of continuous kiln was invented by Friedrich Hoffman, and all kilns of this
type are built on the Hoffman principle, although there are a great number
of modifications of the original Hoffman construction. The great principle
of "continuous" firing is the utilization of the waste heat from one kiln
or section of a kiln in heating up another kiln or section, direct firing
being applied only to finish the burning. In practice a number of kilns or
firing-chambers, usually rectangular in plan, are built side by side in two
parallel lines, which are connected at the ends by other kilns so as to
make a complete circuit. The original form of the complete series was
elliptical in plan, but the tendency in recent years has been to flatten
the sides of the ellipse and bring them together, thus giving two parallel
rows joined at the ends by a chamber or passage at right angles. Coal or
gas is burnt in the chamber or section that is being fired-up, the air
necessary for the combustion being heated on its passage through the kilns
that are cooling down, and the products of combustion, before entering the
chimney flue, are drawn through a number of other kilns or chambers
containing unfired bricks, which are thus gradually heated up by the
otherwise waste-heat from the sections being fired. Continuous kilns
produce a more evenly fired product than the intermittent kilns usually do,
and, of course, at much less cost for fuel. Gas firing is now being
extensively applied to continuous kilns, natural gas in some instances
being used in the United States of America; and the methods of construction
and of firing are carried out with greater care and intelligence, the prime
objects being economy of fuel and perfect control of firing. Pyrometers are
coming into use for the control of the firing temperature, with the result
that a constant and trustworthy product is turned put. The introduction of
machinery greatly helped the brickmaking industry in opening up new sources
of supply of raw material in the shales and hardened clays of the
sedimentary deposits of the older geologic formations, and, with the
extended use of continuous firing plants, it has led to the establishment
of large concerns where everything is co-ordinated for the production of
enormous quantities of bricks at a minimum cost. In the United Kingdom, and
still more in Germany and the United States of America, great improvements
have been made in machinery, firing-plant and organization, so that the
whole manufacture is now being conducted on more scientific lines, to the
great advantage of the industry.

_Blue Brick_ is a very strong vitreous brick of dark, slaty-blue colour,
used in engineering works where great strength or impermeability is
desirable. These bricks are made of clay containing front 7 to 10% of oxide
of iron, and their manufacture is carried out in the ordinary way until the
later stages of the firing process, when they are subjected to the strongly
reducing action of a smoky atmosphere, which is produced by throwing small
bituminous coal upon the fire-mouths and damping down the admission of air.
The smoke thus produced reduces the red ferric oxide to blue-green ferrous
oxide, or to metallic iron, which combines with the silica present to form
a fusible ferrous silicate. This fusible "slag" partly combines with the
other silicates present, and partly fills up the pores, and so produces a
vitreous impermeable layer varying in thickness according to the duration
and character of the smoking, the finishing temperature of the kiln and the
texture of the brick. Particles of carbon penetrate the surface during the
early stages of the smoking, and a small quantity of carbon probably enters
into combination, tending to produce a harder surface and darker colour.

_Floating Bricks_ were first mentioned by Strabo, the Greek geographer, and
afterwards by Pliny as being made at Pitane in the Troad. The secret of
their manufacture was lost for many centuries, but was rediscovered in 1791
by Fabroni, an Italian, who made them from the fossil meal (diatomaceous
earth) found in Tuscany. These bricks are very light, fairly strong, and
being poor conductors of heat, have been employed for the construction of
powder-magazines on board ship, &c.

_Mortar Bricks_ belong to the class of unburnt bricks, and are, strictly
speaking, blocks of artificial stone made in brick moulds. These bricks
have been made for many years by moulding a mixture of sand and slaked lime
and allowing the blocks thus made to harden in the air. This hardening is
brought about partly by evaporation of the water, but chiefly by the
conversion of the calcium hydrate, or slaked lime, into calcium carbonate
by the action of the carbonic acid in the atmosphere. A small proportion of
the lime enters into combination with the silica and water present to form
hydrated calcium silicate, and probably a little hydrated basic carbonate
of lime is also formed, both of which substances are in the nature of
cement. This process of natural hardening by exposure to the air was a very
long one, occupying from six to eighteen months, and many improvements were
introduced during the latter half of the 19th century to improve the
strength of the bricks and to hasten the hardening. [v.04 p.0521] Mixtures
of sand, lime and cement (and of certain ground blast-furnace slags and
lime) were introduced; the moulding was done under hydraulic presses and
the bricks afterwards treated with carbon dioxide under pressure, with or
without the application of mild heat. Some of these mixtures and methods
are still in use, but a new type of mortar brick has come into use during
recent years which has practically superseded the old mortar brick.

_Sand-lime Bricks_.--In the early 'eighties of the 19th century, Dr
Michaelis of Berlin patented a new process for hardening blocks made of a
mixture of sand and lime by treating them with high-pressure steam for a
few hours, and the so-called _sand-lime_ bricks are now made on a very
extensive scale in many countries. There are many differences of detail in
the manufacture, but the general method is in all cases the same. Dry sand
is intimately mixed with about one-tenth of its weight of powdered slaked
lime, the mixture is then slightly moistened with water and afterwards
moulded into bricks under powerful presses, capable of exerting a pressure
of about 60 tons per sq. in. After removal from the press the bricks are
immediately placed in huge steel cylinders usually 60 to 80 ft. long and
about 7 ft. in diameter, and are there subjected to the action of
high-pressure steam (120 lb to 150 lb per sq. in.) for from ten to fifteen
hours. The proportion of slaked lime to sand varies according to the nature
of the lime and the purity and character of the sand, one of lime to ten of
sand being a fair average. The following is an analysis of a typical German
sand-lime brick: silica (SiO_2), 84%; lime (CaO), 7%; alumina and oxide of
iron, 2%; water, magnesia and alkalis, 7%. Under the action of the
high-pressure steam the lime attacks the particles of sand, and a chemical
compound of water, lime and silica is produced which forms a strong bond
between the larger particles of sand. This bond of hydrated calcium
silicate is evidently different from, and of better type than, the filling
of calcium carbonate produced in the mortar-brick, and the sand-lime brick
is consequently much stronger than the ordinary mortar-brick, however the
latter may be made. The sand-lime brick is simple in manufacture, and with
reasonable care is of constant quality. It is usually of a light-grey
colour, but may be stained by the addition of suitable colouring oxides or
pigments unaffected by lime and the conditions of manufacture.

_Strength of Brick._--The following figures indicate the crushing load for
bricks of various types in tons per sq. in.:--

  Common hand-made                from 0.4 to 0.9
 "      machine-made               "  0.9 "  1.2
  London stock                      "  0.7 "  1.3
  Staffordshire blue                "  2.8 "  3.3
  Sand-lime                         "  2.9 "  3.4

See also BRICKWORK.

(J. B.*; W. B.*)

[1] The term "marl" has been wrongly applied to many fire-clays. It should
be restricted to natural mixtures of clay and chalk such as those of the
Paris and London basins.

BRICKFIELDER, a term used in Australia for a hot scorching wind blowing
from the interior, where the sandy wastes, bare of vegetation in summer,
are intensely heated by the sun. This hot wind blows strongly, often for
several days at a time, defying all attempts to keep the dust down, and
parching all vegetation. It is in one sense a healthy wind, as, being
exceedingly dry and hot, it destroys many injurious germs of disease. The
northern brickfielder is almost invariably followed by a strong "southerly
buster," cloudy and cool from the ocean. The two winds are due to the same
cause, viz. a cyclonic system over the Australian Bight. These systems
frequently extend inland as a narrow V-shaped depression (the apex
northward), bringing the winds from the north on their eastern sides and
from the south on their western. Hence as the narrow system passes eastward
the wind suddenly changes from north to south, and the thermometer has been
known to fall fifteen degrees in twenty minutes.

BRICKWORK, in building, the term applied to constructions made of bricks.
The tools and implements employed by the bricklayer are:--the trowel for
spreading the mortar; the plumb-rule to keep the work perpendicular, or in
the case of an inclined or battering wall, to a regular batter, for the
plumb-rule may be made to suit any required inclination; the spirit-level
to keep the work horizontal, often used in conjunction with a straight-edge
in order to test a greater length; and the gauge-rod with the brick-courses
marked on it. The quoins or angles are first built up with the aid of the
gauge-rod, and the intermediate work is kept regular by means of the line
and line pins fixed in the joints. The raker, jointer, pointing rule and
Frenchman are used in pointing joints, the pointing staff being held on a
small board called the hawk. For roughly cutting bricks the large trowel is
used; for neater work such as facings, the bolster and club-hammer; the
cold chisel is for general cutting away, and for chases and holes. When
bricks require to be cut, the work is set out with the square, bevel and
compasses. If the brick to be shaped is a hard one it is placed on a
V-shaped cutting block, an incision made where desired with the tin saw,
and after the bolster and club-hammer have removed the portion of the
brick, the scutch, really a small axe, is used to hack off the rough parts.
For cutting soft bricks, such as rubbers and malms, a frame saw with a
blade of soft iron wire is used, and the face is brought to a true surface
on the rubbing stone, a slab of Yorkshire stone.

In ordinary practice a scaffold is carried up with the walls and made to
rest on them. Having built up as high as he can reach from the ground, the
scaffolder erects a scaffold with standards, ledgers and putlogs to carry
the scaffold boards (see SCAFFOLD, SCAFFOLDING). Bricks are carried to the
scaffold on a hod which holds twenty bricks, or they may be hoisted in
baskets or boxes by means of a pulley and fall, or may be raised in larger
numbers by a crane. The mortar is taken up in a hod or hoisted in pails and
deposited on ledged boards about 3 ft. square, placed on the scaffold at
convenient distances apart along the line of work. The bricks are piled on
the scaffold between the mortar boards, leaving a clear way against the
wall for the bricklayers to move along. The workman, beginning at the
extreme left of his section, or at a quoin, advances to the right,
carefully keeping to his line and frequently testing his work with the
plumb-rule, spirit-level and straight-edge, until he reaches another angle,
or the end of his section. The pointing is sometimes finished off as the
work proceeds, but in other cases the joints are left open until the
completion, when the work is pointed down, perhaps in a different mortar.
When the wall has reached a height from the scaffold beyond which the
workman cannot conveniently reach, the scaffolding is raised and the work
continued in this manner from the new level.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

It is most important that the brickwork be kept perfectly plumb, and that
every course be perfectly horizontal or level, both longitudinally and
transversely. Strictest attention should be paid to the levelling of the
lowest course of footings of a wall, for any irregularity will necessitate
the inequality being made up with mortar in the courses above, thus
inducing a liability for the wall to settle unequally, and so perpetuate
the infirmity. To save the trouble of keeping the plumb-rule and level
constantly in his hands and yet ensure correct work, the bricklayer, on
clearing the footings of a wall, builds up six or eight courses of bricks
at the external angles (see fig. 1), which he carefully plumbs and levels
across. These form a gauge for the intervening work, a line being tightly
strained between and fixed with steel pins to each angle at a level with
the top of the next course to be laid, and with this he makes his work
range. If, however, the length between the quoins be great, the line will
of course sag, and it must, therefore, be carefully supported at intervals
to the proper level. Care must be taken to keep the "perpends," or vertical
joints, one immediately over the other. Having been carried up three or
four courses to a level with the guidance of the line which is raised
course by course, the work should be proved with the level and plumb-rule,
particularly with the latter at the quoins and reveals, as well as over the
face. A smart tap with the end of the handle of the trowel will suffice to
make a brick yield what little it may be out of truth, while the work is
green, and not injure it. The work of an efficient craftsman, however, will
need but little adjustment.

For every wall of more than one brick (9 in) thick, two men should be
employed at the same time, one on the outside and the [v.04 p.0522] other
inside; one man cannot do justice from one side to even a 14-in. wall. When
the wall can be approached from one side only, the work is said to be
executed "overhand." In work circular on plan, besides the level and
plumb-rule, a gauge mould or template, or a ranging trammel--a rod working
on a pivot at the centre of the curve, and in length equalling the
radius--must be used for every course, as it is evident that the line and
pins cannot be applied to this in the manner just described.

Bricks should not be merely _laid_, but each should be placed frog upwards,
and rubbed and pressed firmly down in such a manner as to secure absolute
adhesion, and force the mortar into joints. Every brick should be well
wetted before it is laid, especially in hot dry weather, in order to wash
off the dust from its surface, and to obtain more complete adhesion, and
prevent it from absorbing water from the mortar in which it is bedded. The
bricks are wetted either by the bricklayer dipping them in water as he uses
them, or by water being thrown or sprinkled on them as they lie piled on
the scaffold. In bricklaying with quick-setting cements an ample use of
water is of even more importance.

All the walls of a building that are to sustain the same floors and the
same roof, should be carried up simultaneously; in no circumstances should
more be done in one part than can be reached from the same scaffold, until
all the walls are brought up to the same height. Where it is necessary for
any reason to leave a portion of the wall at a certain level while carrying
up the adjoining work the latter should be racked back, i.e. left in steps
as shown in fig. 7, and not carried up vertically with merely the toothing
necessary for the bond.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Section of a Hollow Wall.]

Buildings in exposed situations are frequently built with cavity-walls,
consisting of the inside or main walls with an outer skin [Sidenote: Hollow
walls.] usually half a brick thick, separated from the former by a cavity
of 2 or 3 in. (fig. 2). The two walls are tied together at frequent
intervals by iron or stoneware ties, each having a bend or twist in the
centre, which prevents the transmission of water to the inner wall. All
water, therefore, which penetrates the outer wall drops to the base of the
cavity, and trickles out through gratings provided for the purpose a few
inches above the ground level. The base of the cavity should be taken down
a course or two below the level of the damp-proof course. The ties are
placed about 3 ft. apart horizontally, with 12 or 18 in. vertical
intervals; they are about 8 in. long and ¾ in. wide. It is considered
preferable by some architects and builders to place the thicker wall on the
outside. This course, however, allows the main wall to be attacked by the
weather, whereas the former method provides for its protection by a screen
of brickwork. Where door and window frames occur in hollow walls, it is of
the utmost importance that a proper lead or other flashing be built in,
shaped so as to throw off on each side, clear of the frames and main wall,
the water which may penetrate the outer shell. While building the wall it
is very essential to ensure that the cavity and ties be kept clean and free
from rubbish or mortar, and for this purpose a wisp of straw or a narrow
board, is laid on the ties where the bricklayer is working, to catch any
material that may be inadvertently dropped, this protection being raised as
the work proceeds. A hollow wall tends to keep the building dry internally
and the temperature equable, but it has the disadvantage of harbouring
vermin, unless care be taken to ensure their exclusion. The top of the wall
is usually sealed with brickwork to prevent vermin or rubbish finding its
way into the cavity. Air gratings should be introduced here to allow of air
circulating through the cavity; they also facilitate drying out after rain.

Hollow walls are not much used in London for two reasons, the first being
that, owing to the protection from the weather afforded by surrounding
buildings, one of the main reasons for their use is gone, and the other
that the expense is greatly increased, owing to the authorities ignoring
the outer shell and requiring the main wall to be of the full thickness
stipulated in schedule I. of London Building Act 1894. Many English
provincial authorities in determining the thickness of a cavity-wall, take
the outer portion into consideration.

In London and the surrounding counties, brickwork is measured by the _rod_
of 16½ ft. square, 1½ bricks in thickness. A rod of brickwork [Sidenote:
Materials and labour.] gauged four courses to a foot with bricks 8¾ in.
long, 4¼ in. wide, and 2¾ in thick, and joints ¼ in. in thickness, will
require 4356 bricks, and the number will vary as the bricks are above or
below the average size, and as the joints are made thinner or thicker. The
quantity of mortar, also, will evidently be affected by the latter
consideration, but in London it is generally reckoned at 50 cub. ft. for a
¼-in. joint, to 72 cub. ft. for a joint 3/8 in. thick. To these figures
must be added an allowance of about 11 cub. ft. if the bricks are formed
with frogs or hollows. Bricks weigh about 7 lb each; they are bought and
sold by the thousand, which quantity weighs about 62 cwt. The weight of a
rod of brickwork is 13½-15 tons, work in cement mortar being heavier than
that executed in lime. Seven bricks are required to face a sq. ft.; 1 ft.
of reduced brickwork--1½ bricks thick--will require 16 bricks. The number
of bricks laid by a workman in a day of eight hours varies considerably
with the description of work, but on straight walling a man will lay an
average of 500 in a day.

The absorbent properties of bricks vary considerably with the kind of
brick. The ordinary London stock of good quality should [Sidenote:
Varieties of bricks.] not have absorbed, after twenty-four hours' soaking,
more than one-fifth of its bulk. Inferior bricks will absorb as much as a
third. The Romans were great users of bricks, both burnt and sun-dried. At
the decline of the Roman empire, the art of brickmaking fell into disuse,
but after the lapse of some centuries it was revived, and the ancient
architecture of Italy shows many fine examples of brick and terra-cotta
work. The scarcity of stone in the Netherlands led to the development of a
brick architecture, and fine examples of brickwork abound in the Low
Countries. The Romans seem to have introduced brickmaking into England, and
specimens of the large thin bricks, which they used chiefly as a bond for
rubble masonry, may be seen in the many remains of Roman buildings
scattered about that country. During the reigns of the early Tudor kings
the art of brickmaking arrived at great perfection, and some of the finest
known specimens of ornamental brickwork are to be found among the work of
this period. The rebuilding of London after the Great Fire of 1666 gave
considerable impetus to brickmaking, most of the new buildings being of
brick, and a statute was passed regulating the number of bricks in the
thickness of the walls of the several rates of dwelling-houses.

The many names given to the different qualities of bricks in various parts
of Great Britain are most confusing, but the following are those generally
in use:--

_Stocks_, hard, sound, well-burnt bricks, used for all ordinary purposes.

_Hard Stocks,_ sound but over-burnt, used in footings to walls and other
positions where good appearance is not required.

_Shippers_, sound, hard-burnt bricks of imperfect shape. Obtain their name
from being much used as ballast for ships.

_Rubbers_ or _Cutters_, sandy in composition and suitable for cutting with
a wire saw and rubbing to shape on the stone slab.

_Grizzles_, sound and of fair shape, but under-burnt; used for inferior
work, and in cases where they are not liable to be heavily loaded.

_Place-bricks_, under-burnt and defective; used for temporary work.

_Chuffs_, cracked and defective in shape and badly burnt. [v.04 p.0523]
_Burrs_, lumps which have vitrified or run together in the burning; used
for rough walling, garden work, &c.

_Pressed bricks_, moulded under hydraulic pressure, and much used for
facing work. They usually have a deep frog or hollow on one or both
horizontal faces, which reduces the weight of the brick and forms an
excellent key for the mortar.

_Blue bricks_, chiefly made in South Staffordshire and North Wales. They
are used in engineering work, and where great compressional resistance is
needed, as they are vitrified throughout, hard, heavy, impervious and very
durable. Blue bricks of special shape may be had for paving, channelling
and coping.

_Fire-bricks_, withstanding great heat, used in connexion with furnaces.
They should always be laid with fire-clay in place of lime or cement
mortar.

_Glazed bricks_, either salt-glazed or enamelled. The former, brown in
colour, are glazed by throwing salt on the bricks in the kiln. The latter
are dipped into a slip of the required colour before being burnt, and are
used for decorative and sanitary purposes, and where reflected light is
required.

_Moulded bricks_, for cornices, string courses, plinths, labels and
copings. They are made in the different classes to many patterns; and on
account of their greater durability, and the saving of the labour of
cutting, are preferable in many cases to rubbers. For sewer work and
arches, bricks shaped as voussoirs are supplied.

The strength of brickwork varies very considerably according to the kind of
brick used, the position in which it is used, the kind and [Sidenote:
Strength of brickwork.] quality of the lime or cement mortar, and above all
the quality of the workmanship. The results of experiments with short walls
carried out in 1896-1897 by the Royal Institute of British Architects to
determine the average loads per sq. ft. at which crushing took place, may
be briefly summarized as follows: Stock brickwork in lime mortar crushed
under a pressure of 18.63 tons per sq. ft., and in cement mortar under
39.29 tons per sq. ft. Gault brickwork in lime mortar crushed at 31.14
tons, and in cement mortar at 51.34 tons. Fletton brickwork in lime crushed
under a load of 30.68 tons, in cement under 56.25 tons. Leicester red
brickwork in lime mortar crushed at 45.36 tons per sq. ft., in cement
mortar at 83.36 tons. Staffordshire blue brick work in lime mortar crushed
at 114.34 tons, and in cement mortar at 135.43 tons.

The height of a brick pier should not exceed twelve times its least width.
The London Building Act in the first schedule prescribes that in buildings
not public, or of the warehouse class, in no storey shall any external or
party walls exceed in height sixteen times the thickness. In buildings of
the warehouse class, the height of these walls shall not exceed fourteen
times the thickness.

In exposed situations it is necessary to strengthen the buildings by
increasing the thickness of walls and parapets, and to provide heavier
copings and flashings. Special precautions, too, must be observed in the
fixing of copings, chimney pots, ridges and hips. The greatest wind
pressure experienced in England may be taken at 56 lb on a sq. ft., but
this is only in the most exposed positions in the country or on a sea
front. Forty pounds is a sufficient allowance in most cases, and where
there is protection by surrounding trees or buildings 28 lb per sq. ft. is
all that needs to be provided against.

In mixing mortar, particular attention must be paid to the sand with which
the lime or cement is mixed. The best sand is that [Sidenote: Mortar.]
obtained from the pit, being sharp and angular. It is, however, liable to
be mixed with clay or earth, which must be washed away before the sand is
used. Gravel found mixed with it must be removed by screening or sifting.
River sand is frequently used, but is not so good as pit sand on account of
the particles being rubbed smooth by attrition. Sea sand is objectionable
for two reasons; it cannot be altogether freed from a saline taint, and if
it is used the salt attracts moisture and is liable to keep the brickwork
permanently damp. The particles, moreover, are generally rounded by
attrition, caused by the movement of the sea, which makes it less efficient
for mortar than if they retained their original angular forms. Blue or
black mortar, often used for pointing the joints of external brickwork on
account of its greater durability, is made by using foundry sand or smith's
ashes instead of ordinary sand. There are many other substitutes for the
ordinary sand. As an example, fine stone grit may be used with advantage.
Thoroughly burnt clay or ballast, old bricks, clinkers and cinders, ground
to a uniform size and screened from dust, also make excellent substitutes.

Fat limes (that is, limes which are pure, as opposed to "hydraulic" limes
which are burnt from limestone containing some clay) should not be used for
mortar; they are slow-setting, and there is a liability for some of the
mortar, where there is not a free access of air to assist the setting,
remaining soft for some considerable period, often months, thus causing
unequal settlement and possibly failure. Grey stone lime is feebly
hydraulic, and makes a good mortar for ordinary work. It, however, decays
under the influence of the weather, and it is, therefore, advisable to
point the external face of the work in blue ash or cement mortar, in order
to obtain greater durability. It should never be used in foundation work,
or where exposed to wet. Lias lime is hydraulic, that is, it will set firm
under water. It should be used in all good class work, where Portland
cement is not desired.

Of the various cements used in building, it is necessary only to mention
three as being applicable to use for mortar. The first of these is Portland
cement, which has sprung into very general use, not only for work where
extra strength and durability are required, and for underground work, but
also in general building where a small extra cost is not objected to.
Ordinary lime mortar may have its strength considerably enhanced by the
addition of a small proportion of Portland cement. Roman cement is rarely
used for mortar, but is useful in some cases on account of the rapidity
with which it sets, usually becoming hard about fifteen minutes after
mixing. It is useful in tidal work and embankments, and constructions under
water. It has about one-third of the strength of Portland cement, by which
it is now almost entirely supplanted. Selenitic cement or lime, invented by
Major-General H. Y. D. Scott (1822-1883), is lias lime, to which a small
proportion of plaster of Paris has been added with the object of
suppressing the action of slaking and inducing quicker setting. If
carefully mixed in accordance with the instructions issued by the
manufacturers, it will take a much larger proportion of sand than ordinary
lime.

Lime should be slaked before being made into mortar. The lime is measured
out, deposited in a heap on a wooden "bank" or platform, and after being
well watered is covered with the correct proportion of sand. This retains
the heat and moisture necessary to thorough slaking; the time required for
this operation depends on the variety of the lime, but usually it is from a
few hours to one and a half days. If the mixing is to be done by hand the
materials must be screened to remove any unslaked lumps of lime. The
occurrence of these may be prevented by grinding the lime shortly before
use. The mass should then be well "larried," _i.e._ mixed together with the
aid of a long-handled rake called the "larry." Lime mortar should be
tempered for at least two days, roughly covered up with sacks or other
material. Before being used it must be again turned over and well mixed
together. Portland and Roman cement mortars must be mixed as required on
account of their quick-setting properties. In the case of Portland cement
mortar, a quantity sufficient only for the day's use should be "knocked
up," but with Roman cement fresh mixtures must be made several times a day,
as near as possible to the place of using. Cement mortars should never be
worked up after setting has taken place. Care should be taken to obtain the
proper consistency, which is a stiff paste. If the mortar be too thick,
extra labour is involved in its use, and much time wasted. If it be so thin
as to run easily from the trowel, a longer time is taken in setting, and
the wall is liable to settle; also there is danger that the lime or cement
will be killed by the excess of water, or at least have its binding power
affected. It is not advisable to carry out work when the temperature is
below freezing point, but in urgent cases bricklaying may be successfully
done by using unslaked lime mortar. The mortar must be prepared in small
quantities immediately before being used, so that binding action takes
place before it cools. When the wall is left at night time the top course
should be covered up to prevent the penetration of rain into the work,
which would then be destroyed by the action of frost. Bricks used during
frosty weather should be quite dry, and those that have been exposed to
rain or frost should never be employed. The question whether there is any
limit to bricklayers' work in frost is still an open one. Among the members
of the Norwegian Society of Engineers and Architects, at whose meetings the
subject has been frequently discussed, that limit is variously estimated at
between -6° to -8° Réaumur (18½° to 14° Fahr.) and -12° to -15° Réaumur (5°
above to 1¾° below zero Fahr.). It has been proved by hydraulic tests that
good bricklayers' work can be executed at the latter minimum. The
conviction is held that the variations in the opinions held on this subject
are attributable to the degree of care bestowed on the preparation of the
mortar. It is generally agreed, however, that from a practical point of
view, bricklaying should not be carried on at temperatures lower than -8°
to -10° Réaumur (14° to 9½° Fahr.), for as the thermometer falls the
expense of building is greatly increased, owing to a larger proportion of
lime being required.

For grey lime mortar the usual proportion is one part of lime to two or
three parts of sand; lias lime mortar is mixed in similar proportions,
except for work below ground, when equal quantities of lime and sand should
be used. Portland cement mortar is usually in the proportions of one to
three, or five, of sand; good results are obtained with lime mortar
fortified with cement as follows:--one part slaked lime, one part Portland
cement, and seven parts sand. Roman cement mortar should consist of one or
one and a half parts of cement to one part of sand. Selenitic lime mortar
is usually in the proportions of one to four or five, and must be mixed in
a particular manner, the lime being first ground in water in the mortar
mill, and the sand gradually added. Blue or black mortar contains equal
parts of foundry ashes and lime; but is improved by the addition of a
proportion of cement. For setting fire-bricks fire-clay is always used.
Pargetting for rendering inside chimney flues is made of one part of lime
with three parts of cow dung free from straw or litter. No efficient
substitute has been found for this mixture, which should be used fresh. A
mortar that has found approval for tall chimney shafts is composed by
grinding in a mortar-mill one part of blue lias lime with one part each of
sand and foundry ashes. In the external walls of the Albert Hall the mortar
used was one part Portland cement, one part grey Burham lime and six parts
pit sand. The lime was slaked twenty-four hours, and after being mixed
[v.04 p.0524] with the sand for ten minutes the cement was added and the
whole ground for one minute; the stuff was prepared in quantities only
sufficient for immediate use. The by-laws dated 1891, made by the London
County Council under section 16 of the Metropolis Management and Building
Acts Amendment Act 1878, require the proportions of lime mortar to be one
to three of sand or grit, and for cement mortar one to four. Clean soft
water only should be used for the purpose of making mortar.

_Grout_ is thin liquid mortar, and is legitimately used in gauged arches
and other work when fine joints are desired. In ordinary work it is
sometimes used every four or five courses to fill up any spaces that may
have been inadvertently left between the bricks. This at the best is but
doing with grout what should be done with mortar in the operation of laying
the bricks; and filling or flushing up every course with mortar requires
but little additional exertion and is far preferable. The use of grout is,
therefore, a sign of inefficient workmanship, and should not be
countenanced in good work. It is liable, moreover, to ooze out and stain
the face of the brickwork.

_Lime putty_ is pure slaked lime. It is prepared or "run," as it is termed,
in a wooden tub or bin, and should be made as long a time as possible
before being used; at least three weeks should elapse between preparation
and use.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Forms of Joints.]

The pointing of a wall, as previously mentioned, is done either with the
bricklaying or at the completion of the work. If the [Sidenote: Pointing.]
pointing is to be of the same mortar as the rest of the work, it would
probably greatly facilitate matters to finish off the work at one operation
with the bricklaying, but where, as in many cases, the pointing is required
to be executed in a more durable mortar, this would be done as the scaffold
is taken down at the completion of the building, the joints being raked out
by the bricklayer to a depth of ½ or ¾ in. By the latter method the whole
face of the work is kept uniform in appearance. The different forms of
joints in general use are clearly shown in fig. 3. Flat or flush joints (A)
are formed by pressing the protruding mortar back flush with the face of
the brickwork. This joint is commonly used for walls intended to be coated
with distemper or limewhite. The flat joint jointed (two forms, B and C) is
a development of the flush joint. In order to increase the density and
thereby enhance the durability of the mortar, a semicircular groove is
formed along the centre, or one on each side of the joint, with an iron
jointer and straight-edge. Another form, rarely used, is the keyed joint
shown at D, the whole width of the joint in this case being treated with
the curved key. Struck or bevelled, or weathered, joints have the upper
portion pressed back with the trowel to form a sloping surface, which
throws off the wet. The lower edge is cut off with the trowel to a straight
edge. This joint is in very common use for new work. Ignorant workmen
frequently make the slope in the opposite direction (F), thus forming a
ledge on the brick; this catches the water, which on being frozen rapidly
causes the disintegration of the upper portion of the brick and of the
joint itself. With recessed jointing, not much used, a deep shadow may be
obtained. This form of joint, illustrated in G, is open to very serious
objections, for it encourages the soaking of the brick with rain instead of
throwing off the wet, as it seems the natural function of good pointing,
and this, besides causing undue dampness in the wall, renders it liable to
damage by frost. It also leaves the arrises of the bricks unprotected and
liable to be damaged, and from its deep recessed form does not make for
stability in the work. Gauged work has very thin joints, as shown at H,
formed by dipping the side of the brick in white lime putty. The sketch I
shows a joint raked out and filled in with pointing mortar to form a flush
joint, or it may be finished in any of the preceding forms. Where the wall
is to be plastered the joints are either left open or raked out, or the
superfluous mortar may be left protruding as shown at J. By either method
an excellent key is obtained, to which the rendering firmly adheres. In
tuck pointing (K) the joints are raked out and stopped, i.e. filled in
flush with mortar coloured to match the brickwork. The face of the wall is
then rubbed over with a soft brick of the same colour, or the work may be
coloured with pigment. A narrow groove is then cut in the joints, and the
mortar allowed to set. White lime putty is next filled into the groove,
being pressed on with a jointing tool, leaving a white joint 1/8 to ¼ in.
wide, and with a projection of about 1/16 in. beyond the face of the work.
This method is not a good or a durable one, and should only be adopted in
old work when the edges of the bricks are broken or irregular. In bastard
tuck pointing (L), the ridge, instead of being in white lime putty, is
formed of the stopping mortar itself.

Footings, as will be seen on reference to fig. 1, are the wide courses of
brickwork at the base or foot of a wall. They serve to spread [Sidenote:
Footings.] the pressure over a larger area of ground, offsets 2¼ in. wide
being made on each side of the wall until a width equal to double the
thickness of the wall is reached. Thus in a wall 13½ in. (1½ bricks) thick,
this bottom course would be 2 ft. 3 in. (3 bricks) wide. It is preferable
for greater strength to double the lowest course. The foundation bed of
concrete then spreading out an additional 6 in. on each side brings the
width of the surface bearing on the ground to 3 ft. 3 in. The London
Building Act requires the projection of concrete on each side of the
brickwork to be only 4 in., but a projection of 6 in. is generally made to
allow for easy working. Footings should be built with hard bricks laid
principally as headers; stretchers, if necessary, should be placed in the
middle of the wall.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Diagram of Bonding.]

Bond in brickwork is the arrangement by which the bricks of every course
cover the joints of those in the course below it, and so [Sidenote:
Bonding.] tend to make the whole mass or combination of bricks act as much
together, or as dependently one upon another, as possible. The workmen
should be strictly supervised as they proceed with the work, for many
failures are due to their ignorance or carelessness in this particular. The
object of bonding will be understood by reference to fig. 4. Here it is
evident from the arrangement of the bricks that any weight placed on the
topmost brick (a) is carried down and borne alike in every course; in this
way the weight on each brick is distributed over an area increasing with
every course. But this forms a longitudinal bond only, which cannot extend
its influence beyond the width of the brick; and a wall of one brick and a
half, or two bricks, thick, built in this manner, would in effect consist
of three or four half brick thick walls acting independently of each other.
If the bricks were turned so as to show their short sides or ends in front
instead of their long ones, certainly a compact wall of a whole brick
thick, instead of half a brick, would be produced, and while the thickness
of the wall would be double, the longitudinal bond would be shortened by
one-half: a wall of any great thickness built in this manner would
necessarily be composed of so many independent one-brick walls. To produce
a transverse and yet preserve a true longitudinal bond, the bricks are laid
in a definite arrangement of stretchers and headers.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--English Bond.

In this and following illustration of bond in brickwork the position of
bricks in the second course is indicated by dotted lines.]

In "English bond" (fig. 5), rightly considered the most perfect in use, the
bricks are laid in alternate courses of headers and stretchers, thus
combining the advantages of the two previous modes of arrangement. A
reference to fig. 5 will show how the process of bonding is pursued in a
wall one and a half bricks in thickness, and how the quoins are formed. In
walls which are a multiple of a whole brick, the appearance of the same
course is similar on the elevations of the front and back faces, but in
walls where an odd half brick must be used to make up the thickness, as is
the case in the illustration, the appearance of the opposite sides of a
course is inverted. The example illustrates the principle of English bond;
thicker walls are constructed in the same manner by an extension of the
same methods. It will be observed that portions of a brick have to be
inserted near a vertical end or a quoin, in order to start the regular
bond. These portions equal a half header in width, and are called queen
closers; they are placed next to the first header. A three-quarter brick is
obviously as available for this purpose as a header and closer combined,
but the latter method is preferred because by the use of it uniformity of
appearance is preserved, and whole bricks are retained on the returns. King
closers are used at rebated openings formed in walls in Flemish bond, and
by reason of the greater width of the back or "tail," add strength to the
work. They are cut on the splay so that the front end is half the width of
a header and one side half the length of the brick. An example of their use
will be seen in fig. 15. In walls of almost all thicknesses above 9 in.,
except in the [v.04 p.0525] English bond, to preserve the transverse and
yet not destroy the longitudinal bond, it is frequently necessary to use
half bricks. It may be taken as a general rule that a brick should never be
cut if it can be worked in whole, for a new joint is thereby created in a
construction, the difficulty of which consists in obviating the debility
arising from the constant recurrence of joints. Great insistence must be
laid on this point, especially at the junctions of walls, where the
admission of closers already constitutes a weakness which would only be
increased by the use of other bats or fragments of bricks.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--Flemish Bond.]

Another method of bonding brickwork, instead of placing the bricks in
alternate courses of headers and stretchers, places them alternately as
headers and stretchers in the same course, the appearance of the course
being the same on each face. This is called "Flemish bond." Closers are
necessary to this variety of bond. From fig. 6 it will be seen that, owing
to the comparative weakness of the transverse tie, and the numbers of half
bricks required to be used and the thereby increased number of joints, this
bond is not so perfect nor so strong as English. The arrangements of the
face joints, however, presenting in Flemish bond a neater appearance than
in English bond, it is generally selected for the external walls of
domestic and other buildings where good effect is desirable. In buildings
erected for manufacturing and similar purposes, and in engineering works
where the greatest degree of strength and compactness is considered of the
highest importance, English bond should have the preference.

A compromise is sometimes made between the two above-mentioned bonds. For
the sake of appearance the bricks are laid to form Flemish bond on the
face, while the backing is of English bond, the object being to combine the
best features of the two bonds. Undoubtedly the result is an improvement on
Flemish bond, obviating as it does the use of bats in the interior of the
wall. This method of bonding is termed "single Flemish bond," and is shown
in fig. 7.

In stretching bond, which should only be used for walls half a brick in
thickness, all the bricks are laid as stretchers, a half brick being used
in alternate courses to start the bond. In work curved too sharply on plan
to admit of the use of stretchers, and for footings, projecting mouldings
and corbels, the bricks are all laid as headers, i.e. with their ends to
the front, and their length across the thickness of the wall. This is
termed "heading bond."

[Illustration: FIG. 7.--Single Flemish Bond.]

In thick walls, three bricks thick and upwards, a saving of labour is
effected without loss of strength, by the adoption of "herring bone" or
"diagonal bond" in the interior of the wall, the outer faces of the wall
being built in English and Flemish bond. This mode should not be had
recourse to for walls of a less thickness than 27 in., even that being
almost too thin to admit of any great advantage from it.

Hoop-iron, about 1½ in. wide and 1/16 in. thick, either galvanized or well
tarred and sanded to retard rusting, is used in order to obtain additional
longitudinal tie. The customary practice is to use one strip of iron for
each half-brick in thickness of the wall. Joints at the angles, and where
necessary in the length, are formed by bending the ends of the strips so as
to hook together. A patent stabbed iron now on the market is perforated to
provide a key for the mortar.

A difficulty often arises in bonding when facing work with bricks of a
slightly different size from those used in "backing," as it is technically
termed. As it is, of course, necessary to keep all brickwork in properly
levelled courses, a difference has to be made in the thickness of the
mortar joints. Apart from the extra labour involved, this obviously is
detrimental to the stability of the wall, and is apt to produce unequal
settlement and cracking. Too much care cannot be taken to obtain both
facing and backing bricks of equal size.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.]

Dishonest bricklayers do not hesitate, when using for the face of a wall
bricks of a quality superior to those used for the interior, to use
"snapped headers," that is cutting the heading bricks in halves, one brick
thus serving the purposes of two as regards outward appearance. This is a
most pernicious practice, unworthy of adoption by any craftsman of repute,
for a skin of brickwork 4½ in. thick is thus carried up with a straight
mortar joint behind it, the proper bonding with the back of the wall by
means of headers being destroyed.

American building acts describe the kind of bond to be used for ordinary
walls, and the kind for faced walls. Tie courses also require an extra
thickness where walls are perforated with over 30% of flues.

The importance for sanitary and other reasons of keeping walls dry is
admitted by all who have observed the deleterious action of damp upon a
building.

Walls are liable to become damp, (1) by wet rising up the wall from the
earth; (2) by water soaking down from the top of the [Sidenote: Prevention
of damp.] wall; (3) by rain being driven on to the face by wind. Dampness
from the first cause may be prevented by the introduction of damp-proof
courses or the construction of dry areas; from the second by means of a
coping of stone, cement or other non-porous material; and from the third by
covering the exterior with impervious materials or by the adoption of
hollow walls.

[Illustration: FIG. 9.]

After the footings have been laid and the wall has been brought up to not
less than 6 in. above the finished surface of the ground, and previous to
fixing the plate carrying the ground floor, there should always be
introduced a course of some damp-proof material to prevent the rise of
moisture from the soil. There are several forms of damp-proof course. A
very usual one is a double layer of roofing slates laid in neat Portland
cement (fig. 8), the joints being well lapped. A course or two of
Staffordshire blue bricks in cement is excellent where heavy weights have
to be considered. Glazed stoneware perforated slabs about 2 in. thick are
specially made for use as damp-proof courses. Asphalt (fig. 9) recently has
come into great favour with architects; a layer ½ or ¾ in. thick is a good
protection against damp, and not likely to crack should a settlement occur,
but in hot weather it is liable to squeeze out at the joints under heavy
weights. Felt covered with bitumen is an excellent substitute for asphalt,
and is not liable to crack or squeeze out. Sheet lead is efficient, but
very costly and also somewhat liable to squeezing. A damp-proof course has
been introduced consisting of a thin sheet of lead sandwiched between
layers of asphalt. Basement storeys to be kept dry require, besides the
damp-proof course horizontally in the wall, a horizontal course, usually of
asphalt, in the thickness of the floor, and also a vertical damp-proof
course from a level below that of the floor to about 6 in. above the level
of the ground, either built in the thickness of the wall or rendered on the
outside between the wall and the surrounding earth (fig. 10).

By means of dry areas or air drains (figs. 11 and 12), a hollow [v.04
p.0526] space 9 in. or more in width is formed around those portions of the
walls situated below the ground, the object being to prevent them from
coming into contact with the brickwork of the main walls and so imparting
its moisture to the building. Arrangements should be made for keeping the
area clear of vermin and for ventilating and draining it. Dry areas, being
far from sanitary, are seldom adopted now, and are being superseded by
asphalt or cement applied to the face of the wall.

[Illustration: FIG. 10.]

[Illustration: FIG. 11.]

[Illustration: FIG. 12.]

Moisture is prevented from soaking down from the top of the wall by using a
covering of some impervious material in the form of a coping. This may
consist of ordinary bricks set on edge in cement with a double course of
tiles immediately below, called a "creasing," or of specially made
non-porous coping bricks, or of stone, cast-iron, or cement sloped or
"weathered" in order to throw the rain off.

[Illustration: FIG. 13.]

The exterior of walls above the ground line may be protected by coating the
surface with cement or rough cast; or covering with slates or tiles fixed
on battens in a similar manner to those on a roof (fig.13).

The use of hollow walls in exposed positions has already been referred to.

The by-laws dated 1891, made by the London County Council under section 16
of the Metropolis Management and Buildings Acts Amendment Act 1878, require
that "every wall of a house or building shall have a damp course composed
of materials impervious to moisture approved by the district surveyor,
extending throughout its whole thickness at the level of not less than 6
in. below the level of the lowest floor. Every external wall or enclosing
wall of habitable rooms or their appurtenances or cellars which abuts
against the earth shall be protected by materials impervious to moisture to
the satisfaction of the district surveyor..." "The top of every party-wall
and parapet-wall shall be finished with one course of hard, well-burnt
bricks set on edge, in cement, or by a coping of any other waterproof and
fire-resisting material, properly secured."

Arches are constructions built of wedge-shaped blocks, which by reason of
their shape give support one to another, and to the [Sidenote: Arches.]
super-imposed weight, the resulting load being transmitted through the
blocks to the abutments upon which the ends of the arch rest. An arch
should be composed of such materials and designed of such dimensions as to
enable it to retain its proper shape and resist the crushing strain imposed
upon it. The abutments also must be strong enough to take safely the thrust
of the weighted arch, as the slightest movement in these supports will
cause deflection and failure. The outward thrust of an arch decreases as it
approaches the semicircular form, but the somewhat prevalent idea that in
the latter form no thrusting takes place is at variance with fact.

[Illustration: FIG. 14.]

Arches in brickwork may be classed under three heads: plain arches,
rough-cut and gauged. Plain arches are built of uncut bricks, and since the
difference between the outer and inner periphery of the arch requires the
parts of which an arch is made up to be wedge-formed, which an ordinary
brick is not, the difference must be made in mortar, with the result that
the joints become wedge-shaped. This obviously gives an objectionable
inconsistency of material in the arch, and for this reason to obtain
greatest strength it is advisable to build these arches in independent
rings of half-brick thickness. The undermost rings should have thin joints,
those of each succeeding ring being slightly thickened. This prevents the
lowest ring from settling while those above remain in position, which would
cause an ugly fissure. In work of large span bonding blocks or "lacing
courses" should be built into the arch, set in cement and running through
its thickness at intervals, care being taken to introduce the lacing course
at a place where the joints of the various rings coincide. Stone blocks in
the shape of a voussoir (fig. 14) may be used instead. Except for these
lacing courses hydraulic lime mortar should be used for large arches, on
account of its slightly accommodating nature.

Rough-cut arches are those in which the bricks are roughly cut with an axe
to a wedge form; they are used over openings, such as doors and windows,
where a strong arch of neat appearance is desired. The joints are usually
made equal in width to those of the ordinary brickwork. Gauged arches are
composed of specially made soft bricks, which are cut and rubbed to gauges
or templates so as to form perfectly fitting voussoirs. Gauging is, of
course, equally applicable to arches and walling, as it means no more than
bringing every brick exactly to a certain form by cutting and rubbing.
Gauged brickwork is set in lime putty instead of common mortar; the
finished joints should not be more than 1/32 in. wide. To give stability
the sides of the voussoirs are gauged out hollow and grouted in Portland
cement, thus connecting each brick with the next by a joggle joint. Gauged
arches, being for the most part but a half-brick in thickness on the soffit
and not being tied by a bond to anything behind them--for behind them is
the lintel with rough discharging arch over, supporting the remaining width
of the wall--require to be executed with great care and nicety. It is a
common fault with workmen to rub the bricks thinner behind than before to
lessen the labour required to obtain a very fine face joint. This practice
tends to make the work bulge outwards; it should rather be inverted if it
be done at all, though the best work is that in which the bricks are gauged
to exactly the same thickness at the back as at the front. The same fault
occurs when a gauged arch is inserted in an old wall, on account of the
difficulty of filling up with cement the space behind the bricks.

The bond of an arch obtains its name from the arrangement of headers and
stretchers on its soffit. The under side of an arch built in English bond,
therefore, will show the same arrangement as the face of a wall built in
English bond. If the arch is in Flemish the soffit presents the same
appearance as the elevation of a wall built in that bond.

It is generally held that the building of wood into brickwork [Sidenote:
Plates.] should as far as is possible be avoided. Wall plates of wood are,
however, necessary where wood joists are used, and where these plates may
not be supported on corbels of projecting brickwork or iron they must be
let flush into the wall, taking the place of a course of bricks. They form
a uniform bed for the joists, to which easy fixing is obtained. The various
modes adopted for resting and fixing the ends of joists on walls are
treated in the article CARPENTRY.

[Illustration: FIG. 15.]

Lintels, which may be of iron, steel, plain or reinforced concrete, or
stone, are used over square-headed openings instead of or in conjunction
with arches. They are useful to preserve the square form and receive the
joiners' fittings, but except when made of steel or of concrete reinforced
with steel bars, they should have relieving arches turned immediately over
them (Fig.15).

"Fixing bricks" were formerly of wood of the same size as the ordinary
brick, and built into the wall as required for fixing joinery. Owing to
their liability to shrinkage and decay, their use is now practically
abandoned, their place being taken by bricks of coke-breeze concrete, which
do not shrink or rot and hold fast nails or screws driven into them.
Another method often adopted for [v.04 p.0527] providing a fixing for
joinery is to build in wood slips the thickness of a joint and 4½ in. wide.
When suitable provision for fixing has not been made, wood plugs are driven
into the joints of the bricks. Great care must be taken in driving these in
the joints of reveals or at the corners of walls, or damage may be done.

The name "brick-ashlar" is given to walls faced with ashlar stonework
backed in with brickwork. Such constructions are liable in an aggravated
degree to the unequal settling and its attendant evils pointed out as
existing in walls built with different qualities of bricks. The outer face
is composed of unyielding stone with few and very thin joints, which
perhaps do not occupy more than a hundredth part of its height, while the
back is built up of bricks with about one-eighth its height composed of
mortar joints, that is, of a material that by its nature and manner of
application must both shrink in drying and yield to pressure. To obviate
this tendency to settle and thus cause the bulging of the face or failure
of the wall, the mortar used should be composed of Portland cement and sand
with a large proportion of the former, and worked as stiff as it
conveniently can be. In building such work the stones should be in height
equal to an exact number of brick courses. It is a common practice in
erecting buildings with a facing of Kentish rag rubble to back up the
stonework with bricks. Owing to the great irregularity of the stones, great
difficulty is experienced in obtaining proper bond between the two
materials. Through bonding stones or headers should be frequently built in,
and the whole of the work executed in cement mortar to ensure stability.

Not the least important part of the bricklayer's art is the formation of
chimney and other flues. Considerable skill is required in [Sidenote:
Chimneys and flues.] gathering-over properly above the fireplace so as to
conduct the smoke into the smaller flue, which itself requires to be built
with precision, so that its capacity may not vary in different parts. Bends
must be made in gradual curves so as to offer the least possible resistance
to the up-draught, and at least one bend of not less than 60° should be
formed in each flue to intercept down-draughts. Every fireplace must have a
separate flue. The collection of a number of flues into a "stack" is
economical, and tends to increase the efficiency of the flues, the heat
from one flue assisting the up-draught in those adjoining it. It is also
desirable from an aesthetic point of view, for a number of single flue
chimneys sticking up from various parts of the roof would appear most
unsightly. The architects of the Elizabethan and later periods were masters
of this difficult art of treating a stack or stacks as an architectural
feature. The shaft should be carried well above the roof, higher, if
possible, than adjacent buildings, which are apt to cause down-draught and
make the chimney smoke. When this is found impossible, one of the many
forms of patent chimney-pots or revolving cowls must be adopted. Each flue
must be separated by smoke-proof "withes" or divisions, usually half a
brick in thickness; connexion between them causes smoky chimneys. The size
of the flue for an ordinary grate is 14×9 in.; for a kitchen stove 14×14
in. The outer wall of a chimney stack may with advantage be made 9 in.
thick. Fireclay tubes, rectangular or circular in transverse section, are
largely used in place of the pargetting; although more expensive than the
latter they have the advantage in point of cleanliness and durability.
Fireplaces generally require more depth than can be provided in the
thickness of the wall, and therefore necessitate a projection to contain
the fireplace and flues, called the "chimney breast." Sometimes, especially
when the wall is an external one, the projection may be made on the back,
thus allowing a flush wall in the room and giving more space and a more
conveniently-shaped room. The projection on the outside face of the wall
may be treated as an ornamental feature. The fireplace opening is covered
by a brick relieving arch, which is fortified by wrought-iron bar from ½ to
¾ in. thick and 2 to 3 in. wide. It is usually bent to a "camber," and the
brick arch built upon it naturally takes the same curve. Each end is
"caulked," that is, split longitudinally and turned up and down. The
interior of a chimney breast behind the stove should always be filled in
solid with concrete or brickwork. The flooring in the chimney opening is
called the "hearth"; the back hearth covers the space between the jambs of
the chimney breast, and the front hearth rests upon the brick "trimmer
arch" designed to support it. The hearth is now often formed in solid
concrete, supported on the brick wall and fillets fixed to the floor
joists, without any trimmer arch and finished in neat cement or glazed
tiles instead of stone slabs.

Tall furnace chimneys should stand as separate constructions, unconnected
with other buildings. If it is necessary to bring other work close up, a
straight joint should be used. The shaft of the chimney will be built
"overhand," the men working from the inside. Lime mortar is used, cement
being too rigid to allow the chimney to rock in the wind. Not more than 3
ft. in height should be erected in one day, the work of necessity being
done in small portions to allow the mortar to set before it is required to
sustain much weight. The bond usually adopted is one course of headers to
four of stretchers. Scaffolding is sometimes erected outside for a height
of 25 or 30 ft., to facilitate better pointing, especially where the
chimney is in a prominent position. The brickwork at the top must,
according to the London Building Act, be 9 in. thick (it is better 14 in.
in shafts over 100 ft. high), increasing half a brick in thickness for
every additional 20 ft. measured downwards. "The shaft shall taper
gradually from the base to the top at the rate of at least 2½ in. in 10 ft.
of height. The width of the base of the shaft if square shall be at least
one-tenth of the proposed height of the shaft, or if round or any other
shape, then one-twelfth of the height. Firebricks built inside the lower
portion of the shaft shall be provided, as additional to and independent of
the prescribed thickness of brickwork, and shall not be bonded therewith."
The firebrick lining should be carried up from about 25 ft. for ordinary
temperatures to double that height for very great ones, a space of 1½ to 3
in. being kept between the lining and the main wall. The lining itself is
usually 4½ in. thick. The cap is usually of cast iron or terra-cotta
strengthened with iron bolts and straps, and sometimes of stone, but the
difficulty of properly fixing this latter material causes it to be
neglected in favour of one of the former. (See a paper by F.J. Bancroft on
"Chimney Construction," which contains a tabulated description of nearly
sixty shafts, _Proc. Civ. and Mech. Eng. Soc._, December 1883.)

The work of laying bricks or tiles as paving falls to the lot of the
bricklayer. Paving formed of ordinary bricks laid flat or on their
[Sidenote: Brick paving.] edges was once in general use, but is now almost
abandoned in favour of floors of special tiles or cement paving, the latter
being practically non-porous and therefore more sanitary and cleaner.
Special bricks of extremely hard texture are made for stable and similar
paving, having grooves worked on the face to assist drainage and afford
good foothold. A bed of concrete 6 in. thick is usually provided under
paving, or when the bricks are placed on edge the concrete for external
paving may be omitted and the bricks bedded in sand, the ground being
previously well rammed. The side joints of the bricks are grouted in with
lime or cement. Dutch clinkers are small, hard paving bricks burned at a
high temperature and of a light yellow colour; they are 6 in. long, 3 in.
wide, 1½ in. thick. A variety of paving tile called "oven tiles" is of
similar material to the ordinary red brick, and in size is 10 or 12 in.
square and 1 to 2 in. thick. An immense variety of ornamental paving and
walling tiles is now manufactured of different colours, sizes and shapes,
and the use of these for lining sculleries, lavatories, bathrooms,
provision shops, &c., makes for cleanliness and improved sanitary
conditions. Besides, however, being put to these uses, tiles are often used
in the ornamentation of buildings, externally as well as internally.

Mosaic work is composed of small pieces of marble, stone, glass or pottery,
laid as paving or wall lining, usually in some ornamental pattern or
design. A firm bed of concrete is required, the pieces of [v.04 p.0528]
material being fixed in a float of cement about half or three-quarters of
an inch thick. Roman mosaic is formed with cubes of marble of various
colours pressed into the float. A less costly paving may be obtained by
strewing irregularly-shaped marble chips over the floated surface: these
are pressed into the cement with a plasterer's hand float, and the whole is
then rolled with an iron roller. This is called "terazzo mosaic." In either
the Roman or terazzo method any patterns or designs that are introduced are
first worked in position, the ground-work being filled in afterwards. For
the use of cement for paving see PLASTER.

The principal publications on brickwork are as follows:--Rivington, _Notes
on Building Construction_, vols. i. ii. iii.; Col. H.E. Seddon, _Aide
Memoir_, vol. ii.; _Specification_; J.P. Allen, _Building Construction_;
F.E. Kidder, _Building Construction and Superintendence_, part i. (1903);
Longmans & Green, _Building Construction_; E. Dobson, _Bricks and Tiles_;
Henry Adams, _Building Construction_; C.F. Mitchell, _Building
Construction_, vols. i. ii.; E. Street, _Brick and Marble Architecture in
Italy_.

(J. BT.)

BRICOLE (a French word of unknown origin), a military engine for casting
heavy stones; also a term in tennis for a sidestroke rebounding off the
wall of the court, corrupted into "brickwall" from a supposed reference to
the wall, and in billiards for a stroke off the cushion to make a cannon or
hazard.

BRIDAINE (or BRYDAYNE), JACQUES (1701-1767), French Roman Catholic
preacher, was born at Chuslan in the department of Gard on the 21st of
March 1701. He was educated at Avignon, first in the Jesuit college and
afterwards at the Sulpician seminary of St Charles. Soon after his
ordination to the priesthood in 1725, he joined the _Missions Royales_,
organized to bring back to the Catholíc faith the Protestants of France. He
gained their good-will and made many converts; and for over forty years he
visited as a missionary preacher almost every town of central and southern
France. In Paris, in 1744, his sermons created a deep impression by their
eloquence and sincerity. He died at Roquemaure, near Avignon, on the 22nd
of December 1767. He was the author of _Cantiques spirituels_ (Montpelier,
1748, frequently reprinted, in use in most French churches); his sermons
were published in 5 vols. at Avignon in 1823 (ed. Paris, 1861).

See Abbé G. Carron, _Le Modèle des prêtres_ (1803).

BRIDE (a common Teutonic word, e.g. Goth. _bruths_, O.Eng. _bryd_, O.H.Ger.
_prût_, Mod. Ger. _Braut_, Dut. _bruid_, possibly derived from the root
_bru-_, cook, brew; from the med. latinized form _bruta_, in the sense of
daughter-in-law, is derived the Fr. _bru_), the term used of a woman on her
wedding-day, and applicable during the first year of wifehood. It appears
in combination with many words, some of them obsolete. Thus "bridegroom" is
the newly married man, and "bride-bell," "bride-banquet" are old
equivalents of wedding-bells, wedding-breakfast. "Bridal" (from
_Bride-ale_), originally the wedding-feast itself, has grown into a general
descriptive adjective, e.g. the _bridal_ party, the _bridal_ ceremony. The
_bride-cake_ had its origin in the Roman _confarreatio_, a form of
marriage, the essential features of which were the eating by the couple of
a cake made of salt, water and flour, and the holding by the bride of three
wheat-ears, symbolical of plenty. Under Tiberius the cake-eating fell into
disuse, but the wheat ears survived. In the middle ages they were either
worn or carried by the bride. Eventually it became the custom for the young
girls to assemble outside the church porch and throw grains of wheat over
the bride, and afterwards a scramble for the grains took place. In time the
wheat-grains came to be cooked into thin dry biscuits, which were broken
over the bride's head, as is the custom in Scotland to-day, an oatmeal cake
being used. In Elizabeth's reign these biscuits began to take the form of
small rectangular cakes made of eggs, milk, sugar, currants and spices.
Every wedding guest had one at least, and the whole collection were thrown
at the bride the instant she crossed the threshold. Those which lighted on
her head or shoulders were most prized by the scramblers. At last these
cakes became amalgamated into a large one which took on its full glories of
almond paste and ornaments during Charles II.'s time. But even to-day in
rural parishes, e.g. north Notts, wheat is thrown over the bridal couple
with the cry "Bread for life and pudding for ever," expressive of a wish
that the newly wed may be always affluent. The throwing of rice, a very
ancient custom but one later than the wheat, is symbolical of the wish that
the bridal may be fruitful. The _bride-cup_ was the bowl or loving-cup in
which the bridegroom pledged the bride, and she him. The custom of breaking
this wine-cup, after the bridal couple had drained its contents, is common
to both the Jews and the members of the Greek Church. The former dash it
against the wall or on the ground, the latter tread it under foot. The
phrase "bride-cup" was also sometimes used of the bowl of spiced wine
prepared at night for the bridal couple. _Bride-favours_, anciently called
bride-lace, were at first pieces of gold, silk or other lace, used to bind
up the sprigs of rosemary formerly worn at weddings. These took later the
form of bunches of ribbons, which were at last metamorphosed into rosettes.
_Bridegroom-men_ and _bridesmaids_ had formerly important duties. The men
were called bride-knights, and represented a survival of the primitive days
of marriage by capture, when a man called his friends in to assist to
"lift" the bride. Bridesmaids were usual in Saxon England. The senior of
them had personally to attend the bride for some days before the wedding.
The making of the bridal wreath, the decoration of the tables for the
wedding feast, the dressing of the bride, were among her special tasks. In
the same way the senior groomsman (the _best man_) was the personal
attendant of the husband. The _bride-wain_, the wagon in which the bride
was driven to her new home, gave its name to the weddings of any poor
deserving couple, who drove a "wain" round the village, collecting small
sums of money or articles of furniture towards their housekeeping. These
were called bidding-weddings, or bid-ales, which were in the nature of
"benefit" feasts. So general is still the custom of "bidding-weddings" in
Wales, that printers usually keep the form of invitation in type. Sometimes
as many as six hundred couples will walk in the bridal procession. The
_bride's wreath_ is a Christian substitute for the gilt coronet all Jewish
brides wore. The crowning of the bride is still observed by the Russians,
and the Calvinists of Holland and Switzerland. The wearing of orange
blossoms is said to have started with the Saracens, who regarded them as
emblems of fecundity. It was introduced into Europe by the Crusaders. The
_bride's veil_ is the modern form of the _flammeum_ or large yellow veil
which completely enveloped the Greek and Roman brides during the ceremony.
Such a covering is still in use among the Jews and the Persians.

See Brand, _Antiquities of Great Britain_ (Hazlitt's ed., 1905); Rev J.
Edward Vaux, _Church Folklore_ (1894).

BRIDEWELL, a district of London between Fleet Street and the Thames, so
called from the well of St Bride or St Bridget close by. From William the
Conqueror's time, a castle or Norman tower, long the occasional residence
of the kings of England, stood there by the Fleet ditch. Henry VIII., Stow
says, built there "a stately and beautiful house," specially for the
housing of the emperor Charles V. and his suite in 1525. During the hearing
of the divorce suit by the Cardinals at Blackfriars, Henry and Catharine of
Aragon lived there. In 1553 Edward VI. made it over to the city as a
penitentiary, a house of correction for vagabonds and loose women; and it
was formally taken possession of by the lord mayor and corporation in 1555.
The greater part of the building was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666.
New Bridewell, built in 1829, was pulled down in 1864. The term has become
a synonym for any reformatory.

BRIDGE, a game of cards, developed out of the game of whist. The country of
its origin is unknown. A similar game is said to have been played in
Denmark in the middle of the 19th century. A game in all respects the same
as bridge, except that in "no trumps" each trick counted ten instead of
twelve, was played in England about 1884 under the name of Dutch whist.
Some connect it with Turkey and Egypt under the name of "Khedive," or with
a Russian game called "Yeralash." It was in Turkey that it first won a
share of popular favour. Under the synonyms of "Biritch," "Bridge," or
"Russian whist," it found its way to the London clubs about 1894, from
which date its popularity rapidly increased.

_Ordinary Bridge._--Bridge, in its ordinary form, differs from [v.04
p.0529] whist in the following respects:--Although there are four players,
yet in each hand the partner of the dealer takes no part in the play of
that particular hand. After the first lead his cards are placed on the
table exposed, and are played by the dealer as at dummy whist; nevertheless
the dealer's partner is interested in the result of the hand equally with
the dealer. The trump suit is not determined by the last card dealt, but is
selected by the dealer or his partner without consultation, the former
having the first option. It is further open to them to play without a trump
suit. The value of tricks and honours varies with the suit declared as
trumps. Honours are reckoned differently from whist, and on a scale which
is somewhat involved. The score for honours does not count towards winning
or losing the rubber, but is added afterwards to the trick score in order
to determine the value of the rubber. There are also scores for holding no
trumps ("chicane"), and for winning all the tricks or all but one ("slam").

The score has to be kept on paper. It is usual for the scoring block to
have two vertical columns divided halfway by a horizontal line. The left
column is for the scorers' side, and the right for the opponents'. Honours
are scored above the horizontal line, and tricks below. The drawback to
this arrangement is that, since the scores for each hand are not kept
separately, it is generally impossible to trace an error in the score
without going through the whole series of hands. A better plan, it seems,
is to have four columns ruled, the inner two being assigned to tricks, the
outer ones to honours. By this method a line can be reserved for each hand,
and any discrepancy in the scores at once rectified.

The Portland Club, London, drew up a code of laws in 1895, and this code,
with a few amendments, was in July 1895 adopted by a joint committee of the
Turf and Portland Clubs. A revised code came into force in January 1905,
the provisions of which are here summarized.

Each trick above 6 counts 2 points in a spade declaration, 4 in a club, 6
in a diamond, 8 in a heart, 12 in a no-trump declaration. The game consists
of 30 points made by tricks alone. When one side has won two games the
rubber is ended. The winners are entitled to add 100 points to their score.
Honours consist of ace, king, queen, knave, ten, in a suit declaration. If
a player and his partner conjointly hold 3 (or "simple") honours they score
twice the value of a trick; if 4 honours, 4 times; if 5 honours, 5 times.
If a player in his own hand hold 4 honours he is entitled to score 4
honours in addition to the score for conjoint honours; thus, if one player
hold 4 honours and his partner the other their total score is 9 by honours.
Similarly if a player hold 5 honours in his own hand he is entitled to
score 10 by honours. If in a no-trump hand the partners conjointly hold 3
aces, they score 30 for honours; if 4 aces, 40 for honours. 4 aces in 1
hand count 100. On the same footing as the score for honours are the
following: _chicane_, if a player hold no trump, in amount equal to simple
honours; _grand slam_, if one side win all the tricks, 40 points; _little
slam_, if they win 12 tricks, 20 points. At the end of the rubber the total
scores, whether made by tricks, honours, chicane, slam, or rubber points,
are added together, and the difference between the two totals is the number
of points won.

At the opening of play, partners are arranged and the cards are shuffled,
cut and dealt (the last card not being turned) as at whist; but the dealer
cannot lose the deal by misdealing. After the deal is completed, the dealer
makes the trump or no-trump (_sans atout_) declaration, or passes the
choice to his partner without remark. If the dealer's partner make the
declaration out of his turn, the adversary on the dealer's left may,
without consultation, claim a fresh deal. If an adversary make a
declaration, the dealer may claim a fresh deal or disregard the
declaration. Then after the declaration, either adversary may double, the
leader having first option. The effect of doubling is that each trick is
worth twice as many points as before; but the scores for honours, chicane
and slam are unaltered. If a declaration is doubled, the dealer and his
partner have the right of redoubling, thus making each trick worth four
times as much as at first. The declarer has the first option. The other
side can again redouble, and so on; but the value of a trick is limited to
100 points. In the play of the hand the laws are nearly the same as the
laws of whist, except that the dealer may expose his cards and lead out of
turn without penalty; after the second hand has played, however, he can
only correct this lead out of turn with the permission of the adversaries.
Dummy cannot revoke. The dealer's partner may take no part in the play of
the hand beyond guarding the dealer against revoking.

_Advice to Players._--In the choice of a suit two objects are to be aimed
at: first, to select the suit in which the combined forces have the best
chance of making tricks; secondly, to select the trump so that the value of
the suit agrees with the character of the hand, _i.e._ a suit of high value
when the hands are strong and of low value when very weak. As the deal is a
great advantage it generally happens that a high value is to be aimed at,
but occasionally a low value is desirable. The task of selection should
fall to the hand which has the most distinctive features, that is, either
the longest suit or unusual strength or weakness. No consultation being
allowed, the dealer must assume only an average amount of variation from
the normal in his partner's hand. If his own hand has distinctive features
beyond the average, he should name the trump suit himself, otherwise pass
it to his partner. It may here be stated what is the average in these
respects.

As regards the length of a suit, a player's long suit is rather more likely
to be fewer than five than over five. If the dealer has in his hand a suit
of five cards including two honours, it is probable that he has a better
suit to make trumps than dummy; if the suit is in hearts, and the dealer
has a fair hand, he ought to name the trump. As regards strength, the
average hand would contain ace, king, queen, knave and ten, or equivalent
strength. Hands stronger or weaker than this by the value of a king or less
may be described as featureless. If the dealer's hand is a king over the
average, it is more likely than not that his partner will either hold a
stronger hand, or will hold such a weak hand as will counteract the
player's strength. The dealer would not generally with such a hand declare
no trump, especially as by making a no-trump declaration the dealer
forfeits the advantage of holding the long trumps.

_Declarations by Dealer._--In calculating the strength of a hand a knave is
worth two tens, a queen is worth two knaves, a king is worth a queen and
knave together, and an ace is worth a king and queen together. A king
unguarded is worth less than a queen guarded; a queen is not fully guarded
unless accompanied by three more cards; if guarded by one small card it is
worth a knave guarded. An ace also loses in value by being sole.

A hand to be strong enough for a no-trump declaration should be a king and
ten above the average with all the honours guarded and all the suits
protected. It must be a king and knave or two queens above the average if
there is protection in three suits. It must be an ace or a king and queen
above the average if only two suits are protected. An established black
suit of six or more cards with a guarded king as card of entry is good
enough for no trumps. With three aces no trumps can be declared. Without an
ace, four kings, two queens and a knave are required in order to justify
the declaration. When the dealer has a choice of declarations, a sound
heart make is to be preferred to a doubtful no-trump. Four honours in
hearts are to be preferred to any but a very strong no-trump declaration;
but four aces counting 100 points constitute a no-trump declaration without
exception.

Six hearts should be made trumps and five with two honours unless the hand
is very weak; five hearts with one honour or four hearts with three honours
should be declared if the hand is nearly strong enough for no trumps, also
if the hand is very irregular with one suit missing or five of a black
suit. Six diamonds with one honour, five with three honours or four all
honours should be declared; weaker diamonds should be declared if the suits
are irregular, especially if blank in hearts. Six clubs with three honours
or five with four honours should be declared. Spades are practically only
declared with a weak hand; with only a king in the hand a suit of five
spades should be declared as a defensive measure. With nothing above a ten
a suit of two or three spades can be declared, though even with the weakest
hands a suit of five clubs or of six red cards will probably prove less
expensive.

_Declarations by Dummy._--From the fact that the call has been passed, the
dealer's partner must credit the dealer with less than average strength as
regards the rank of his cards, and probably a slightly increased number of
black cards; he must therefore be more backward in making a high
declaration whenever he can make a sound declaration of less value. On the
other hand, he has not the option of passing the declaration, and may be
driven to declare on less strength because the only alternative is a short
suit of spades. For example, with the hand: Hearts, ace, kv. 2; diamonds,
qn. 9, 7, 6, 3; clubs, kg. 10, 4; spades, 9, 2, the chances are in the
dealer's favour with five trumps, but decidedly against with only two, and
the diamond declaration is to be preferred to the spade. Still, a hand may
be so weak that spades should be declared with two or less, but five clubs
or six diamonds would be preferable with the weakest of hands.

[v.04 p.0530] _Declarations to the Score._--When one's score is over
twenty, club declarations should be made more frequently by the dealer.
Spades should be declared with six at the score of twenty-six and with five
at twenty-eight. When much behind in the score a risky no-trumper such as
one with an established suit of seven or eight cards without a card of
entry, may be declared.

Declaring to the score is often overdone; an ordinary weak no-trump
declaration carries with it small chances of three by tricks unless dummy
holds a no-trump hand.

_Doubling._--Practically the leader only doubles a no-trump declaration
when he holds what is probably an established suit of seven cards or a suit
which can be established with the loss of one trick and he has good cards
of re-entry. Seven cards of a suit including the ace, king and queen make
sound double without any other card of value in the hand, or six cards
including king, queen and knave with two aces in other suits.

Doubling by the third hand is universally understood to mean that the
player has a very strong suit which he can establish. In response to the
double his partner, according to different conventions, leads either a
heart or his own shortest suit as the one most likely to be the third
player's strongest. Under the short suit convention, if the doubler holds
six of a suit headed by the ace, king and queen, it is about an even chance
that his suit will be selected; he should not double with less strength.
Under the heart convention it is not necessary to have such great strength;
with a strong suit of six hearts and good cards of re-entry, enough tricks
will be saved to compensate for the doubled value. A player should
ascertain the convention followed before beginning to play.

Before doubling a suit declaration a player should feel almost certain that
he is as strong as the declarer. The minimum strength to justify the
declaration is generally five trumps, but it may have been made on six. If,
then, a player holds six trumps with an average hand as regards the rank of
his cards, or five trumps with a hand of no-trump strength, it is highly
probable that he is as strong as the declarer. It must be further taken
into account that the act of doubling gives much valuable information to
the dealer, who would otherwise play with the expectation of finding the
trumps evenly distributed; this is counterbalanced when the doubler is on
the left of the declaring hand by the intimation given to his partner to
lead trumps through the strong hand. In this position, then, the player
should double with the strength stated above. When on the declarer's right,
the player should hold much greater strength unless his hand is free from
tenaces. When a spade declaration has been made by dummy, one trump less is
necessary and the doubler need not be on the declarer's left. A spade
declaration by the dealer can be doubled with even less strength. A
declaration can be rather more freely doubled when a single trick undoubled
will take the dealer out, but even in this position the player must be
cautious of informing the dealer that there is a strong hand against him.

_Redoubling._--When a declaration has been doubled, the declarer knows the
minimum that he will find against him; he must be prepared to find
occasionally strength against him considerably exceeding this minimum.
Except in the case of a spade declaration, cases in which redoubling is
justifiable are very rare.

_The Play of the Hand._--In a no-trump declaration the main object is to
bring in a long suit. In selecting the suit to establish, the following are
favourable conditions:--One hand should hold at least five cards of the
suit. The two hands, unless with a sequence of high cards, should hold
between them eight cards of the suit, so as to render it probable that the
suit will be established in three rounds. The hand which contains the
strong suit should be sufficiently strong in cards of re-entry. The suit
should not be so full of possible tenaces as to make it disadvantageous to
open it. As regards the play of the cards in a suit, it is not the object
to make tricks early, but to make all possible tricks. Deep finesses should
be made when there is no other way of stealing a trick. Tricks may be given
away, if by so doing a favourable opening can be made for a finesse. When,
however, it is doubtful with which hand the finesse should be made, it is
better to leave it as late as possible, since the card to be finessed
against may fall, or an adversary may fail, thus disclosing the suit. It is
in general unsound to finesse against a card that must be unguarded. From a
hand short in cards of re-entry, winning cards should not be led out so as
to exhaust the suit from the partner's hand. Even a trick should sometimes
be given away. For instance, if one hand holds seven cards headed by ace,
king, and the other hand hold's only two of the suit, although there is a
fair chance of making seven tricks in the suit, it would often be right to
give the first trick to the adversaries. When one of the adversaries has
shown a long suit, it is frequently possible to prevent its being brought
in by a device, such as holding up a winning card, until the suit is
exhausted from his partner's hand, or playing in other suits so as to give
the player the lead whilst his partner his a card of his suit to return,
and to give the latter the lead when he has no card to return. The dealer
should give as little information as possible as to what he holds in his
own hand, playing frequent false cards. Usually he should play the higher
or highest of a sequence; still, there are positions in which playing the
higher gives more information than the lower; a strict adherence to a rule
in itself assists the adversaries.

With a suit declaration, if there is no chance of letting the weak hand
make a trump by ruffing, it will generally be the dealer's aim to discard
the losing cards in the declaring hand either to high cards or to the cards
of an established suit in the other hand, sometimes after the adverse
trumps have been taken out, but often before, there being no time for
drawing trumps. With no card of any value in a suit in one hand, the lead
should come from that hand, but it is better, if possible, to let the
adversaries open the suit. It is generally useless to lead a moderately
high card from the weaker hand in order to finesse it, when holding no
cards in sequence with it in either hand. Sometimes (especially in
no-trumps) it is the better play to make the weak hand third player. For
instance, with king, 8, 7, 5, 2 in one hand, knave, 4 in the other, the
best way of opening is from the hand that holds five cards.

In a no-trump declaration the opponents of the dealer should endeavour to
find the longest suit in the two hands, or the one most easily established.
With this object the leader should open his best suit. If his partner next
obtains the lead he ought to return the suit, unless he himself has a suit
which he considers better, having due regard to the fact that the first
suit is already partially established. The opponents should employ the same
tactics as the dealer to prevent the latter from bringing in a long suit;
they can use them with special effect when the long suit is in the exposed
hand.

Against no-trumps the leader should not play his winning cards unless he
has a good chance of clearing the suit without help from his partner; in
most cases it is advisable to give away the first trick, especially if he
has no card of re-entry, in order that his partner on gaining the lead may
have a card of the suit to return; but holding ace, king and queen, or ace,
king with seven in the suit, or ace, king, knave, ten with six, the player
may lead out his best. With three honours any two of which are in sequence
(not to the ace) the player should lead the higher of the sequence. He
should lead his highest card from queen, knave, ten; from queen, knave,
nine; from knave, ten, nine; knave, ten, eight, and ten, nine, eight. In
other cases the player should lead a small card; according to the usual
convention, the fourth best. His partner, and also the dealer, can credit
him with three cards higher than the card led, and can often place the
cards of the suit: for instance, the seven is led, dummy holds queen and
eight, playing the queen, the third player holds the nine and smaller
cards; the unseen cards higher than the seven are ace, king, knave and ten
of which the leader must hold three; he cannot hold both knave and ten or
he would have led the knave; he must therefore hold the ace, king and
either knave or ten. The "eleven" rule is as follows: the number of pips in
the card led subtracted from eleven (11-7=4 in the case stated) gives the
number of cards higher than the one led not in the leader's hand; the three
cards seen (queen, nine and eight) leave one for the dealer to hold. The
mental process is no shorter than assigning three out of the unseen cards
to the leader, and by not noting the unseen cards much valuable information
may be missed, as in the illustrative case given.

With a suit declared the best opening lead is a singleton, failing which a
lead from a strong sequence. A lead from a tenace or a guarded king or
queen is to be avoided. Two small cards may be led from, though the lead is
objected to by some. A suit of three small cards of no great strength
should not be opened. In cases of doubt preference should be given to
hearts and to a less extent to diamonds.

To lead up to dummy's weak suits is a valuable rule. The converse, to lead
through strength, must be used with caution, and does not apply to no-trump
declarations. It is not advisable to adopt any of the recent whist methods
of giving information. It is clear that, if the adversaries signal, the
dealer's hand alone is a secret, and he, in addition to his natural
advantage, has the further advantage of better information than either of
the adversaries. The following signals are however, used, and are of great
trick-making value: playing an unnecessarily high card, whether to one's
partner's suit or in discarding in a no-trump declaration, indicates
strength in the suit; in a suit declaration a similar method of play
indicates two only of the suit and a desire to ruff,--it is best used in
the case of a king led by one's partner.

The highest of a sequence led through dummy will frequently tell the third
player that he has a good finesse. The lowest of a sequence led through the
dealer will sometimes explain the position to the third player, at the same
time keeping the dealer in the dark.

When on dummy's left it is futile to finesse against a card not in dummy's
hand. But with ace and knave, if dummy has either king or queen, the knave
should usually be played, partly because the other high card may be in the
leader's hand, partly because, if the finesse fails, the player may still
hold a tenace over dummy. When a player is with any chance of success
trying to establish his long suit, he should keep every card of it if
possible, whether it is a suit already opened or a suit which he wishes his
partner to lead; when, however, the main object of the hand is to establish
one's partner's suit, it is not necessary for a player to keep his own long
suit, and he should pay attention to guarding the other suits. In some
circles a discard from a suit is always understood to indicate strength in
the suit; this convention, while it makes the game easier for inferior
players, frequently causes the player to throw away one of his most
valuable cards.

_Playing to the Score._--At the beginning of the hand the chances are so
great against any particular result, that at the score of love-all the
advantage of getting to any particular score has no appreciable [v.04
p.0531] effect in determining the choice of suit. In the play of the hand,
the advantage of getting to certain points should be borne in mind. The
principal points to be aimed at are 6, 18, and, in a less degree, 22. The
reason is that the scores 24, 12 and 8, which will just take the dealer out
from the respective points, can each be made in a variety of ways, and are
the most common for the dealer to make. The 2 points that take the score
from 4 to 6 are worth 4, or perhaps 5, average points; and the 2 points
that take the score from 6 to 8 are worth 1 point. When approaching game it
is an advantage to make a declaration that may just take the player out,
and, in a smaller degree, one that will not exactly take the adversaries
out. When the score is 24 to 22 against the dealer, hearts and clubs are
half a trick better relatively to diamonds than at the score of love-all.
In the first and second games of the rubber the value of each point scored
for honours is probably about a half of a point scored for tricks--in a
close game rather less, in a one-sided game rather more. In the deciding
game of the rubber, on account of the importance of winning the game, the
value of each point scored for honours sinks to one-third of a point scored
for tricks.

_Other Forms of Bridge._--The following varieties of the game are also
played:--

_Three-handed Bridge._--The three players cut; the one that cuts the lowest
card deals, and takes dummy for one deal: each takes dummy in turn. Dummy's
cards are dealt face downwards, and the dealer declares without seeing
them. If the dealer declares trumps, both adversaries may look at their
hands; doubling and redoubling proceeds as at ordinary bridge, but dummy's
hand is not exposed till the first card has been led. If the dealer passes
the declaration to dummy, his right-hand adversary, who must not have
looked at his own hand, examines dummy's, and declares trumps, not,
however, exposing the hand. The declaration is forced: with three or four
aces _sans atout_ (no trumps) must be declared: in other cases the longest
suit: if suits are equal in length, the strongest, _i.e._ the suit
containing most pips, ace counting eleven, king, queen and knave counting
ten each. If suits are equal in both length and strength, the one in which
the trick has the higher value must be trumps. On the dummy's declaration
the third player can only double before seeing his own cards. When the
first card has been led, dummy's hand is exposed, never before the lead.
The game is 30: the player wins the rubber who is the first to win two
games. Fifty points are scored for each game won, and fifty more for the
rubber. Sometimes three games are played without reference to a rubber,
fifty points being scored for a game won. No tricks score towards game
except those which a player wins in his own deal; the value of tricks won
in other deals is scored above the line with honours, slam and chicane. At
the end of the rubber the totals are added up, and the points won or lost
are adjusted thus. Suppose A is credited with 212, B with 290, and C with
312, then A owes 78 to B and 100 to C; B owes 22 to C.

_Dummy Bridge._--The player who cuts the lowest card takes dummy. Dummy
deals the first hand of all. The player who takes dummy always looks at his
own hand first, when he deals for himself or for dummy; he can either
declare trumps or "leave it" to dummy. Dummy's declaration is compulsory,
as in three-handed bridge. When the dealer deals for dummy, the player on
the dealer's _left_ must not look at his cards till either the dealer has
declared trumps or, the declaration having been left to dummy, his own
partner has led a card. The latter can double, but his partner can only
double without seeing his hand. The dealer can only redouble on his own
hand. When the player of dummy deals for himself, the player on his _right_
hand looks at dummy's hand if the declaration is passed, the positions and
restrictions of his partner and himself being reversed. If the player of
dummy declares from his own hand, the game proceeds as in ordinary bridge,
except that dummy's hand is not looked at till permission to play has been
given. When the player on dummy's right deals, dummy's partner may look at
dummy's hand to decide if he will double, but he may not look at his own
till a card has been led by dummy. In another form of dummy bridge two
hands are exposed whenever dummy's adversaries deal, but the game is
unsuited for many players, as in every other hand the game is one of
double-dummy.

_Misery Bridge._--This is a form of bridge adapted for two players. The
non-dealer has the dummy, whilst the dealer is allowed to strengthen his
hand by discarding four or fewer cards and taking an equal number from the
fourth packet dealt; the rest of the cards in that packet are unused and
remain unseen. A novel and interesting addition to the game is that the
three of clubs (called "Cato") does not rank as a club but can be played to
any trick and win it. The dealer, in addition to his other calls, may
declare "misery" when he has to make less than two tricks.

_Draw- or Two-handed Bridge._--This is the best form of bridge for two
players. Each player has a dummy, which is placed opposite to him; but the
cards are so arranged that they cannot be seen by his opponent, a special
stand being required for the purpose. The dealer makes the declaration or
passes it to his dummy to make by the same rules as in three-handed or
dummy bridge. The objection to this is that, since the opponent does not
see the dealer's dummy, he has no chance of checking an erroneous
declaration. This could be avoided by not allowing the dealer the option of
passing.

_Auction Bridge._--This variety of the game for four players, which adds an
element characteristic of poker, appears to have been suggested about 1904,
but was really introduced at the Bath Club, London, in 1907, and then was
gradually taken up by a wider circle. The laws were settled in August 1908
by a joint committee of the Bath and Portland clubs. The scoring (except as
below), value of suits, and play are as at ordinary bridge, but the variety
consists in the method of declaration, the declaration not being confined
in auction bridge to the dealer or his partner, and the deal being a
disadvantage rather than otherwise. The dealer, having examined his hand,
_must_ declare to win at least one "odd" trick, and then each player in
turn, beginning with the one on the dealer's left, has the right to pass
the previous declaration, or double, or redouble, or overcall by making a
declaration of higher value any number of times till all are satisfied, the
actual play of the combined hands (or what in ordinary bridge would be
dealer and dummy) resting eventually with the partners making the final
declaration; the partner who made the first call (however small) in the
suit finally constituting the trump (or no-trump) plays the hands, the
other being dummy. A declaration of a greater number of tricks in a suit of
lower value, which equals a previous call in value of points (_e.g._ two in
spades as against one in clubs) is "of higher value"; but doubling and
redoubling only affect the score and not the declaration, so that a call of
two diamonds overcalls one no-trump even though this has been doubled. The
scoring in auction bridge has the additional element that when the eventual
player of the two hands wins what was ultimately declared or more, his side
score the full value below the line (as tricks), but if he fails the
opponents score 50 points above the line (as honours) for each under-trick
(_i.e._ trick short of the declaration), or 100 or 200 if doubled or
redoubled, nothing being scored by either side below the line; the loss on
a declaration of one spade is limited, however, to a maximum of 100 points.
A player whose declaration has been doubled and who fulfils his contract,
scores a bonus of 50 points above the line and a further 50 points for each
additional trick beyond his declaration; if there was a redouble and he
wins, he scores double the bonus. The penalty for a revoke (unaffected by a
double) is (1) in the case of the declarer, that his adversaries add 150
above the line; (2) in the case of one of his adversaries, that the
declarer may either add 150 points above the line or may take three tricks
from his opponents and add them to his own; in the latter case such tricks
may assist him to fulfil his contract, but shall not entitle him to any
bonus for a double or redouble. A revoking side may score nothing either
above or below the line except for honours or chicane. As regards the
essential feature of auction bridge, the competitive declaration, it is
impossible here to discuss the intricacies involved. It entails, clearly,
much reliance on a good partner, since the various rounds of bidding enable
good players to draw inferences as to where the cards lie. The game opens
the door to much larger scores than ordinary bridge, and since the end only
comes from scores made below the line, there are obvious ways of prolonging
it at the cost of scores above the line which involve much more of the
gambling element. It by no means follows that the winner of the rubber is
the winner by points, and many players prefer to go for points (_i.e._
above the line) extorted from their opponents rather than for fulfilling a
declaration made by themselves.

AUTHORITIES.--"Hellespont," _Laws and Principles of Bridge_; W. Dalton,
_Saturday Bridge_, containing full bibliography (London, 1906); J. B.
Elwell, _Advanced Bridge_; R. F. Foster, _Bridge Tactics_; "Badsworth,"
_Laws and Principles of Bridge_; E. Bergholt, _Double-Dummy Bridge:
Biritch, or Russian Whist_, pamphlet in Brit. Mus.; W. Dalton, _Auction
Bridge_ (1908).

(W. H. W.*)

BRIDGEBUILDING BROTHERHOOD, a confraternity (_Fratres Pontifices_) that
arose in the south of France during the latter part of the 12th century,
and maintained hospices at the chief fords of the principal rivers, besides
building bridges and looking after ferries. The brotherhood was recognized
by Pope Clement III. in 1189.

BRIDGE-HEAD (Fr. _tête-du-pont_), in fortification, a work designed to
cover the passage of a river by means of fortifications [v.04 p.0532] on
one or both banks. As the process of moving an army over bridges is slow
and complicated, it is usually necessary to secure it from hostile
interruption, and the works constituting the bridge-head must therefore be
sufficiently far advanced to keep the enemy's artillery out of range of the
bridges. In addition, room is required for the troops to form up on the
farther bank. In former days, with short-range weapons, a bridge-head was
often little more than a screen for the bridge itself, but modern
conditions have rendered necessary far greater extension of bridge
defences.

BRIDGEND, a market town in the southern parliamentary division of
Glamorganshire, Wales, on both sides of the river Ogwr (whence its Welsh
name Penybont-ar-Ogwr). Pop. of urban district (1901) 6062. It has a
station 165 m. from London on the South Wales trunk line of the Great
Western railway, and is the junction of the Barry Company's railway to
Barry via Llantwit Major. Bridgend has a good market for agricultural
produce, and is an important centre owing to its being the natural outlet
for the mining valleys of the Llynvi, Garw and the two Ogwr rivers, which
converge about 3 m. north of the town and are connected with it by branch
lines of the Great Western railway. Though without large manufacturing
industries, the town has joinery works, a brass and iron foundry, a tannery
and brewery. There are brick-works and stone quarries, and much lime is
burnt in the neighbourhood. Just outside the town at Angelton and Parc
Gwyllt are the Glamorgan county lunatic asylums.

There was no civil parish of Bridgend previous to 1905, when one was formed
out of portions of the parishes of Newcastle and Coity. Of the castle of
Newcastle, built on the edge of a cliff above the church of that parish,
there remain a courtyard with flanking towers and a fine Norman gateway. At
Coity, about 2 m. distant, there are more extensive ruins of its castle,
originally the seat of the Turbervilles, lords of Coity, but now belonging
to the earls of Dunraven. Coity church, dating from the 14th century, is a
fine cruciform building with central embattled tower in Early Decorated
style.

BRIDGE OF ALLAN, a police burgh of Stirlingshire, Scotland. Pop. (1901)
3240. It lies on the Allan, a left-hand tributary of the Forth, 3 m. N. of
Stirling by the Caledonian railway and by tramway. Built largely on the
well-wooded slopes of Westerton and Airthrey Hill, sheltered by the Ochils
from the north and east winds, and environed by charming scenery, it has a
great reputation as a health resort and watering-place, especially in
winter and spring. There is a pump-room. The chief buildings are the
hydropathic and the Macfarlane museum of fine art and natural history. The
industries include bleaching, dyeing and paper-making. The Strathallan
Gathering, usually held in the neighbourhood, is the most popular athletic
meeting in mid-Scotland. Airthrey Castle, standing in a fine park with a
lake, adjoins the town on the south-east, and just beyond it are the old
church and burying-ground of Logie, beautifully situated at the foot of a
granite spur of the Ochil range.

BRIDGEPORT, a city, a port of entry, and one of the county-seats of
Fairfield county, Connecticut, U.S.A., co-extensive with the town of
Bridgeport, in the S.W. part of the state, on Long Island Sound, at the
mouth of the Pequonnock river; about 18 m. S.W. of New Haven. Pop. (1880)
27,643; (1890) 48,866; (1900) 70,996, of whom 22,281 were foreign-born,
including 5974 from Ireland, 3172 from Hungary, 2854 from Germany, 2755
from England, and 1436 from Italy; (1910) 102,054. Bridgeport is served by
the New York, New Haven & Hartford railway, by lines of coast steamers, and
by steamers to New York City and to Port Jefferson, directly across Long
Island Sound. The harbour, formed by the estuary of the river and Yellow
Mill Pond, an inlet, is excellent. Between the estuary and the pond is a
peninsula, East Bridgeport, in which are some of the largest manufacturing
establishments, and west of the harbour and the river is the main portion
of the city, the wholesale section extending along the bank, the retail
section farther back, and numerous factories along the line of the railway
far to the westward. There are two large parks, Beardsley, in the extreme
north part of the city, and Seaside, west of the harbour entrance and along
the Sound; in the latter are statues of Elias Howe, who built a large
sewing-machine factory here in 1863, and of P.T. Barnum, the showman, who
lived in Bridgeport after 1846 and did much for the city, especially for
East Bridgeport. In Seaside Park there is also a soldiers' and sailors'
monument, and in the vicinity are many fine residences. The principal
buildings are the St Vincent's and Bridgeport hospitals, the Protestant
orphan asylum, the Barnum Institute, occupied by the Bridgeport Scientific
and Historical Society and the Bridgeport Medical Society; and the United
States government building, which contains the post-office and the customs
house.

In 1905 Bridgeport was the principal manufacturing centre in Connecticut,
the capital invested in manufacturing being $49,381,348, and the products
being valued at $44,586,519. The largest industries were the manufacture of
corsets--the product of Bridgeport was 19.9% of the total for the United
States in 1905, Bridgeport being the leading city in this industry--sewing
machines (one of the factories of the Singer Manufacturing Co. is here),
steam-fitting and heating apparatus, cartridges (the factory of the Union
Metallic Cartridge Co. is here), automobiles, brass goods, phonographs and
gramophones, and typewriters. There are also large foundry and machine
shops. Here, too, are the winter headquarters of "Barnum and Bailey's
circus" and of "Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show." Bridgeport is a port of
entry; its imports in 1908 were valued at $656,271. Bridgeport was
originally a part of the township of Stratford. The first settlement here
was made in 1659. It was called Pequonnock until 1695, when its name was
changed to Stratfield. During the War of Independence it was a centre of
privateering. In 1800 the borough of Bridgeport was chartered, and in 1821
the township was incorporated. The city was not chartered until 1836.

See S. Orcutt's _History of the Township of Stratford and the City of
Bridgeport_ (New Haven, 1886).

BRIDGES, ROBERT (1844- ), English poet, born on the 23rd of October 1844,
was educated at Eton and at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and studied
medicine in London at St Bartholomew's hospital. He was afterwards
assistant physician at the Children's hospital, Great Ormond Street, and
physician at the Great Northern hospital, retiring in 1882. Two years later
he married Mary, daughter of Alfred Waterhouse, R.A. As a poet Robert
Bridges stands rather apart from the current of modern English verse, but
his work has had great influence in a select circle, by its restraint,
purity, precision, and delicacy yet strength of expression; and it embodies
a distinct theory of prosody. His chief critical works are _Milton's
Prosody_ (1893), a volume made up of two earlier essays (1887 and 1889),
and _John Keats, a Critical Essay_ (1895). He maintained that English
prosody depended on the number of "stresses" in a line, not on the number
of syllables, and that poetry should follow the rules of natural speech.
His poetry was privately printed in the first instance, and was slow in
making its way beyond a comparatively small circle of his admirers. His
best work is to be found in his _Shorter Poems_ (1890), and a complete
edition of his _Poetical Works_ (6 vols.) was published in 1898-1905. His
chief volumes are _Prometheus_ (Oxford, 1883, privately printed), a "mask
in the Greek Manner"; _Eros and Psyche_ (1885), a version of Apuleius; _The
Growth of Love_, a series of sixty-nine sonnets printed for private
circulation in 1876 and 1889; _Shorter Poems_ (1890); _Nero_ (1885), a
historical tragedy, the second part of which appeared in 1894; _Achilles in
Scyros_ (1890), a drama; _Palicio_ (1890), a romantic drama in the
Elizabethan manner; _The Return of Ulysses_ (1890), a drama in five acts;
_The Christian Captives_ (1890), a tragedy on the same subject as
Calderon's _El Principe Constante_; _The Humours of the Court_ (1893), a
comedy founded on the same dramatist's _El secreto á voces_ and on Lope de
Vega's _El Perro del hortelano_; _The Feast of Bacchus_ (1889), partly
translated from the _Heauton-Timoroumenos_ of Terence; _Hymns from the
Yattendon Hymnal_ (Oxford, 1899); and _Demeter, a Mask_ (Oxford, 1905).

[v.04 p.0533] BRIDGES. 1. _Definitions and General
Considerations._--Bridges (old forms, _brig_, _brygge_, _brudge_; Dutch,
_brug_; German, _Brücke_; a common Teutonic word) are structures carrying
roadways, waterways or railways across streams, valleys or other roads or
railways, leaving a passage way below. Long bridges of several spans are
often termed "viaducts," and bridges carrying canals are termed
"aqueducts," though this term is sometimes used for waterways which have no
bridge structure. A "culvert" is a bridge of small span giving passage to
drainage. In railway work an "overbridge" is a bridge over the railway, and
an "underbridge" is a bridge carrying the railway. In all countries there
are legal regulations fixing the minimum span and height of such bridges
and the width of roadway to be provided. Ordinarily bridges are fixed
bridges, but there are also movable bridges with machinery for opening a
clear and unobstructed passage way for navigation. Most commonly these are
"swing" or "turning" bridges. "Floating" bridges are roadways carried on
pontoons moored in a stream.

In classical and medieval times bridges were constructed of timber or
masonry, and later of brick or concrete. Then late in the 18th century
wrought iron began to be used, at first in combination with timber or cast
iron. Cast iron was about the same time used for arches, and some of the
early railway bridges were built with cast iron girders. Cast iron is now
only used for arched bridges of moderate span. Wrought iron was used on a
large scale in the suspension road bridges of the early part of the 19th
century. The great girder bridges over the Menai Strait and at Saltash near
Plymouth, erected in the middle of the 19th century, were entirely of
wrought iron, and subsequently wrought iron girder bridges were extensively
used on railways. Since the introduction of mild steel of greater tenacity
and toughness than wrought iron (_i.e._ from 1880 onwards) it has wholly
superseded the latter except for girders of less than 100 ft. span. The
latest change in the material of bridges has been the introduction of
ferro-concrete, armoured concrete, or concrete strengthened with steel bars
for arched bridges. The present article relates chiefly to metallic
bridges. It is only since metal has been used that the great spans of 500
to 1800 ft. now accomplished have been made possible.

2. In a bridge there may be distinguished the _superstructure_ and the
_substructure_. In the former the main supporting member or members may be
an arch ring or arched ribs, suspension chains or ropes, or a pair of
girders, beams or trusses. The bridge flooring rests on the supporting
members, and is of very various types according to the purpose of the
bridge. There is also in large bridges wind-bracing to stiffen the
structure against horizontal forces. The _substructure_ consists of (a) the
piers and end piers or abutments, the former sustaining a vertical load,
and the latter having to resist, in addition, the oblique thrust of an
arch, the pull of a suspension chain, or the thrust of an embankment; and
(b) the foundations below the ground level, which are often difficult and
costly parts of the structure, because the position of a bridge may be
fixed by considerations which preclude the selection of a site naturally
adapted for carrying a heavy structure.

3. _Types of Bridges_.--Bridges may be classed as _arched bridges_, in
which the principal members are in compression; _suspension bridges_, in
which the principal members are in tension; and _girder bridges_, in which
half the components of the principal members are in compression and half in
tension. But there are cases of bridges of mixed type. The choice of the
type to be adopted depends on many and complex considerations:--(1) The
cost, having regard to the materials available. For moderate spans brick,
masonry or concrete can be used without excessive cost, but for longer
spans steel is more economical, and for very long spans its use is
imperative. (2) The importance of securing permanence and small cost of
maintenance and repairs has to be considered. Masonry and concrete are more
durable than metal, and metal than timber. (3) Aesthetic considerations
sometimes have great weight, especially in towns. Masonry bridges are
preferable in appearance to any others, and metal arch bridges are less
objectionable than most forms of girder.

Most commonly the engineer has to attach great importance to the question
of cost, and to design his structure to secure the greatest economy
consistent with the provision of adequate strength. So long as bridge
building was an empirical art, great waste of material was unavoidable. The
development of the theory of structures has been largely directed to
determining the arrangements of material which are most economical,
especially in the superstructure. In the case of bridges of large span the
cost and difficulty of erection are serious, and in such cases facility of
erection becomes a governing consideration in the choice of the type to be
adopted. In many cases the span is fixed by local conditions, such as the
convenient sites for piers, or the requirements of waterway or navigation.
But here also the question of economy must be taken into the reckoning. The
cost of the superstructure increases very much as the span increases, but
the greater the cost of the substructure, the larger the span which is
economical. Broadly, the least costly arrangement is that in which the cost
of the superstructure of a span is equal to that of a pier and foundation.

For masonry, brick or concrete the arch subjected throughout to compression
is the most natural form. The arch ring can be treated as a blockwork
structure composed of rigid voussoirs. The stability of such structures
depends on the position of the line of pressure in relation to the extrados
and intrados of the arch ring. Generally the line of pressure lies within
the middle half of the depth of the arch ring. In finding the line of
pressure some principle such as the principle of least action must be used
in determining the reactions at the crown and springings, and some
assumptions must be made of not certain validity. Hence to give a margin of
safety to cover contingencies not calculable, an excess of material must be
provided. By the introduction of hinges the position of the line of
resistance can be fixed and the stress in the arch ring determined with
less uncertainty. In some recent masonry arched bridges of spans up to 150
ft. built with hinges considerable economy has been obtained.

For an elastic arch of metal there is a more complete theory, but it is
difficult of application, and there remains some uncertainty unless (as is
now commonly done) hinges are introduced at the crown and springings.

In suspension bridges the principal members are in tension, and the
introduction of iron link chains about the end of the 18th century, and
later of wire ropes of still greater tenacity, permitted the construction
of road bridges of this type with spans at that time impossible with any
other system of construction. The suspension bridge dispenses with the
compression member required in girders and with a good deal of the
stiffening required in metal arches. On the other hand, suspension bridges
require lofty towers and massive anchorages. The defect of the suspension
bridge is its flexibility. It can be stiffened by girders and bracing and
is then of mixed type, when it loses much of its advantage in economy.
Nevertheless, the stiffened suspension bridge will probably be the type
adopted in future for very great spans. A bridge on this system has been
projected at New York of 3200 ft. span.

The immense extension of railways since 1830 has involved the construction
of an enormous number of bridges, and most of these are girder bridges, in
which about half the superstructure is in tension and half in compression.
The use of wrought iron and later of mild steel has made the construction
of such bridges very convenient and economical. So far as superstructure is
concerned, more material must be used than for an arch or chain, for the
girder is in a sense a combination of arch and chain. On the other hand, a
girder imposes only a vertical load on its piers and abutments, and not a
horizontal thrust, as in the case of an arch or suspension chain. It is
also easier to erect.

A fundamental difference in girder bridges arises from the mode of support.
In the simplest case the main girders are supported at the ends only, and
if there are several spans they are _discontinuous_ or _independent_. But a
main girder may be supported at two or more points so as to be _continuous_
over two [v.04 p.0534] or more spans. The continuity permits economy of
weight. In a three-span bridge the theoretical advantage of continuity is
about 49% for a dead load and 16% for a live load. The objection to
continuity is that very small alterations of level of the supports due to
settlement of the piers may very greatly alter the distribution of stress,
and render the bridge unsafe. Hence many multiple-span bridges such as the
Hawkesbury, Benares and Chittravatti bridges have been built with
independent spans.

Lastly, some bridges are composed of cantilevers and suspended girders. The
main girder is then virtually a continuous girder hinged at the points of
contrary flexure, so that no ambiguity can arise as to the stresses.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Trajan's Bridge.]

Whatever type of bridge is adopted, the engineer has to ascertain the loads
to be carried, and to proportion the parts so that the stresses due to the
loads do not exceed limits found by experience to be safe. In many
countries the limits of working stress in public and railway bridges are
prescribed by law. The development of theory has advanced _pari passu_ with
the demand for bridges of greater strength and span and of more complex
design, and there is now little uncertainty in calculating the stresses in
any of the types of structure now adopted. In the modern metal bridge every
member has a definite function and is subjected to a calculated straining
action. Theory has been the guide in the development of bridge design, and
its trustworthiness is completely recognized. The margin of uncertainty
which must be met by empirical allowances on the side of safety has been
steadily diminished.

The larger the bridge, the more important is economy of material, not only
because the total expenditure is more serious, but because as the span
increases the dead weight of the structure becomes a greater fraction of
the whole load to be supported. In fact, as the span increases a point is
reached at which the dead weight of the superstructure becomes so large
that a limit is imposed to any further increase of span.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Bridge of Alcantara.]

HISTORY OF BRIDGE BUILDING

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Ponte Salario.]

4. _Roman Bridges_.--The first bridge known to have been constructed at
Rome over the Tiber was the timber Pons Sublicius, the bridge defended by
Horatius. The Pons Milvius, now Ponte Molle, was reconstructed in stone by
M. Aemilius Scaurus in 109 B.C., and some portions of the old bridge are
believed to exist in the present structure. The arches vary from 51 to 79
ft. span. The Pons Fabricius (mod. Ponte dei Quattro Capi), of about 62
B.C., is practically intact; and the Pons Cestius, built probably in 46
B.C., retains much of the original masonry. The Pons Aelius, built by
Hadrian A.D. 134 and repaired by Pope Nicholas II. and Clement IX., is now
the bridge of St Angelo. It had eight arches, the greatest span being 62
ft.[1] Dio Cassius mentions a bridge, possibly 3000 to 4000 ft. in length,
built by Trajan over the Danube in A.D. 104. Some piers are said still to
exist. A bas-relief on the Trajan column shows this bridge with masonry
piers and timber arches, but the representation is probably conventional
(fig. 1). Trajan also constructed the bridge of Alcantara in Spain (fig.
2), of a total length of 670 ft., at 210 ft. above the stream. This had six
arches and was built of stone blocks without cement. The bridge of Narses,
built in the 6th century (fig. 3), carried the Via Salaria over the Anio.
It was destroyed in 1867, during the approach of Garibaldi to Rome. It had
a fortification such as became usual in later bridges for defence or for
the enforcement of tolls. The great lines of aqueducts built by Roman
engineers, and dating from 300 B.C. onwards, where they are carried above
ground, are arched bridge structures of remarkable magnitude (see
AQUEDUCTS, § _Roman_). They are generally of brick and concrete.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--First Span of Schaffhausen Bridge.]

5. _Medieval and other Early Bridges_.--Bridges with stone piers and timber
superstructures were no doubt constructed from Roman times onward, but they
have perished. Fig. 4 shows a timber bridge erected by the brothers
Grubenmann at Schaffhausen about the middle of the 18th century. It had
spans of 172 and 193 ft., and may be taken as a representative type of
bridges of this kind. The Wittingen bridge by the same engineers had a span
of 390 ft., probably the longest timber [v.04 p.0535] span ever
constructed. Of stone bridges in Great Britain, the earliest were the
cyclopean bridges still existing on Dartmoor, consisting of stone piers
bridged by stone slabs. The bridge over the East Dart near Tavistock had
three piers, with slabs 15 ft. by 6 ft. (Smiles, _Lives of the Engineers,_
ii. 43). It is reputed to have lasted for 2000 years.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--Crowland Bridge.]

The curious bridge at Crowland near Peterborough (fig. 5) which now spans
roadways, the streams which formerly flowed under it having been diverted,
is one of the earliest known stone bridges in England. It is referred to in
a charter of the year 943. It was probably built by the abbots. The first
bridges over the Thames at London were no doubt of timber. William of
Malmesbury mentions the existence of a bridge in 994. J. Stow (_Survey of
the Cities of London and Westminster_) describes the building of the first
stone bridge commonly called Old London Bridge: "About the year 1176, the
stone bridge was begun to be founded by Peter of Colechurch, near unto the
bridge of timber, but more towards the west." It carried timber houses
(fig. 6) which were frequently burned down, yet the main structure existed
till the beginning of the 19th century. The span of the arches ranged from
10 to 33 ft., and the total waterway was only 337 ft. The waterway of the
present London Bridge is 690 ft., and the removal of the obstruction caused
by the old bridge caused a lowering of the low-water level by 5 ft., and a
considerable deepening of the river-bed. (See Smiles, _Lives of the
Engineers_, "Rennie.")

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--Old London Bridge, A.D. 1600. From a Drawing in the
Pepysian Library Magdalene College, Cambridge.

From J. R Green's _A Short History of the English People_, by permission of
Macmillan & Co., Ltd.]

The architects of the Renaissance showed great boldness in their designs. A
granite arch built in 1377 over the Adda at Trezzo had a span at low water
of 251 ft. This noble bridge was destroyed for military reasons by
Carmagnola in 1416. The Rialto bridge at Venice, with a span of 91 ft., was
built in 1588 by Antonio da Ponte. Fig. 7 shows the beautiful Ponte dellà
Trinità erected at Florence in 1566 from the design of B. Ammanati.

6. _Modern Bridges._--(a) _Timber._--In England timber bridges of
considerable span, either braced trusses or laminated arches (_i.e._ arches
of planks bolted together), were built for some of the earlier railways,
particularly the Great Western and the Manchester, Sheffield &
Lincolnshire. They have mostly been replaced, decay having taken place at
the joints. Timber bridges of large span were constructed in America
between the end of the 18th and the middle of the 19th century. The
Amoskeag bridge over the Merrimac at Manchester, N.H., U.S.A., built in
1792, had 6 spans of 92 ft. The Bellows Falls bridge over the Connecticut
(built 1785-1792) had 2 spans of 184 ft. The singular Colossus bridge,
built in 1812 over the Schuylkill, a kind of flat arched truss, had a span
of 340 ft. Some of these timber bridges are said to have lasted ninety
years with ordinary repairs, but they were road bridges not heavily loaded.
From 1840, trusses, chiefly of timber but with wrought-iron tension-rods
and cast-iron shoes, were adopted in America. The Howe truss of 1830 and
the Pratt truss of 1844 are examples. The Howe truss had timber chords and
a lattice of timber struts, with vertical iron ties. In the Pratt truss the
struts were vertical and the ties inclined. Down to 1850 such bridges were
generally limited to 150 ft. span. The timber was white pine. As railway
loads increased and greater spans were demanded, the Howe truss was
stiffened by timber arches on each side of each girder. Such a composite
structure is, however, fundamentally defective, the distribution of loading
to the two independent systems being indeterminate. Remarkably high timber
piers were built. The Genesee viaduct, 800 ft. in length, built in
1851-1852 in 10 spans, had timber trestle piers 190 ft. in height. (See
Mosse, "American Timber Bridges," _Proc. Inst. C.E._ xxii. p. 305, and for
more modern examples, cxlii. p. 409; and clv. p. 382; Cooper, "American
Railroad Bridges," _Trans. Am. Soc. C.E._ vol. xxi pp. 1-28.) These timber
framed structures served as models for the earlier metal trusses which
began to be used soon after 1850, and which, except in a few localities
where iron is costly, have quite superseded them.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.--Ponte della Trinità, Florence.]

7. (b) _Masonry._--The present London Bridge, begun in 1824 and completed
in 1831, is as fine an example of a masonry arch structure as can be found
(figs. 8 and 9). The design was made by John Rennie the elder, and the
acting engineer was his son, Sir John Rennie. The semi-elliptical shape of
the arches the variation of span, the slight curvature of the roadway, and
the simple yet bold architectural details, combine to make it a singularly
beautiful bridge. The centre arch has a span of 152 ft., and rises 29 ft. 6
in above Trinity high-water mark; the arches on each side of the centre
have a span of 140 ft. and the abutment arches 130 ft. The total length of
the bridge is 1005 ft., its width from outside to outside 56 ft., and
height above low [v.04 p.0536] water 60 ft. The two centre piers are 24 ft.
thick, the exterior stones are granite, the interior, half Bramley Fall and
half from Painshaw, Derbyshire. The voussoirs of the centre arch (all of
granite) are 4 ft. 9 in. deep at the crown, and increase to not less than 9
ft. at the springing. The general depth at which the foundations are laid
is about 29 ft. 6 in. below low water. The total cost was £1,458,311, but
the contractor's tender for the bridge alone was £425,081.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.--London New Bridge.]

Since 1867 it had been recognized that London Bridge was inadequate to
carry the traffic passing over it, and a scheme for widening it was adopted
in 1900. This was carried out in 1902-1904, the footways being carried on
granite corbels, on which are mounted cornices and open parapets. The width
between parapets is now 65 ft., giving a roadway of 35 ft. and two footways
of 15 ft. each. The architect was Andrew Murray and the engineer, G. E. W.
Cruttwell. (Cole, _Proc. Inst. C.E._ clxi. p. 290.)

The largest masonry arch is the Adolphe bridge in Luxemburg, erected in
1900-1903. This has a span of 278 ft., 138 ft. rise above the river, and
102 ft. from foundation to crown. The thickness of the arch is 4 ft. 8 in.
at the crown and 7 ft. 2 in. where it joins the spandrel masonry. The
roadway is 52 ft. 6 in. wide. The bridge is not continuous in width, there
are arch rings on each face, each 16.4 ft. wide with a space between of
19.7 ft. This space is filled with a flooring of reinforced concrete,
resting on the two arches, and carrying the central roadway. By the method
adopted the total masonry has been reduced one-third. One centering was
used for the two arch rings, supported on dwarf walls which formed a
slipway, along which it was moved after the first was built.

[Illustration: FIG. 9.--Half Elevation and Half Section of Arch of London
Bridge.]

Till near the end of the 19th century bridges of masonry or brickwork were
so constructed that they had to be treated as rigid blockwork structures.
The stability of such structures depends on the position of the line of
pressure relatively to the intrados and extrados of the arch ring.
Generally, so far as could be ascertained, the line of pressure lies within
the middle half of the depth of the voussoirs. In finding the abutment
reactions some principle such as the principle of least action must be
used, and some assumptions of doubtful validity made. But if hinges are
introduced at crown and springings, the calculation of the stresses in the
arch ring becomes simple, as the line of pressures must pass through the
hinges. Such hinges have been used not only for metal arches, but in a
modified form for masonry and concrete arches. Three cases therefore arise:
(a) The arch is rigid at crown and springings; (b) the arch is two-hinged
(hinges at springings); (c) the arch is three-hinged (hinges at crown and
springings). For an elementary account of the theory of arches, hinged or
not, reference may be made to a paper by H. M. Martin (_Proc. Inst. C. E._
vol. xciii. p. 462); and for that of the elastic arch, to a paper by
A.E.Young (_Proc. Inst. C.E._ vol. cxxxi. p. 323).

In Germany and America two- and three-hinged arches of masonry and concrete
have been built, up to 150 ft. span, with much economy, and the
calculations being simple, an engineer can venture to work closely to the
dimensions required by theory. For hinges, Leibbrand, of Stuttgart, uses
sheets of lead about 1 in. thick extending over the middle third of the
depth of the voussoir joints, the rest of the joints being left open. As
the lead is plastic this construction is virtually an articulation. If the
pressure on the lead is uniformly varying, the centre of pressure must be
within the middle third of the width of the lead; that is, it cannot
deviate from the centre of the voussoir joint by more than one-eighteenth
of its depth. In any case the position of the line of pressures is confined
at the lead articulations within very narrow limits, and ambiguity as to
the stresses is greatly diminished. The restricted area on which the
pressure acts at the lead joints involves greater intensity of stress than
has been usual in arched bridges. In the Württemberg hinged arches a limit
of stress of 110 tons per sq. ft. was allowed, while in the unhinged arches
at Cologne and Coblentz the limit was 50 to 60 tons per sq. ft. (_Annales
des Fonts et Chaussées_, 1891). At Rechtenstein a bridge of two concrete
arches has been constructed, span 75½ ft., with lead articulations: width
of arch 11 ft.; depth of arch at crown and springing 2.1 and 2.96 ft.
respectively. The stresses were calculated to be 15, 17 and 12 tons per sq.
ft. at crown, joint of rupture, and springing respectively. At Cincinnati a
concrete arch of 70 ft. span has been built, with a rise of 10 ft. The
concrete is reinforced by eleven 9-in. steel-rolled joists, spaced 3 ft.
apart and supported by a cross-channel joist at each springing. The arch is
15 in. thick at the crown and 4 ft. at the abutments. The concrete
consisted of 1 cement, 2 sand and 3 to 4 broken stone. An important series
of experiments on the strength of masonry, brick and concrete structures
will be found in the _Zeitschr. des österreichen Ing. und Arch. Vereines_
(1895).

The thermal coefficient of expansion of steel and concrete is nearly the
same, otherwise changes of temperature would cause shearing stress at the
junction of the two materials. If the two materials are disposed
symmetrically, the amount of load carried by each would be in direct
proportion to the coefficient of elasticity and inversely as the moment of
inertia of the cross section. But it is usual in many cases to provide a
sufficient section of steel to carry all the tension. For concrete the
coefficient of elasticity E varies with the amount of stress and diminishes
as the ratio of sand and stone to cement increases. Its value is generally
taken at 1,500,000 to 3,000,000 lb per sq. in. For steel E = 28,000,000 to
30,000,000, or on the average about twelve times its value for concrete.
The maximum compressive working stress on the concrete may be 500 lb per
sq. in., the tensile working stress 50 lb per sq. in., and the working
shearing stress 75 lb per sq. in. The tensile stress on the steel may be
16,000 lb per sq. in. The amount of steel in the structure may vary from
0.75 to 1.5%. The concrete not only affords much of the strength to resist
compression, but effectively protects the steel from corrosion.

8. (c) _Suspension Bridges._--A suspension bridge consists of two or more
chains, constructed of links connected by pins, or of twisted wire strands,
or of wires laid parallel. The chains pass over lofty piers on which they
usually rest on saddles carried by rollers, and are led down on either side
to anchorages in rock chambers. A level platform is hung from the chains by
suspension rods. In the suspension bridge iron or steel can be used in its
strongest form, namely hard-drawn wire. Iron suspension bridges began to be
used at the end of the 18th century for road bridges with spans
unattainable at that time in any other system. In 1819 T. Telford began the
construction of the Menai bridge (fig. 10), the span being 570 ft. and the
dip 43 ft. This bridge suffered some injury in a storm, but it is still in
good condition and one of the most graceful of bridges. Other bridges built
soon after were the Fribourg bridge of 870 ft. span, the Hammersmith bridge
of 422 ft. span, and the Pest bridge of 666 ft. span. The merit of the
simple suspension bridge is its cheapness, and its defect is its
flexibility. This last becomes less [v.04 p.0537] serious as the dead
weight of the structure becomes large in proportion to the live or
temporary load. It is, therefore, a type specially suited for great spans.
Some suspension bridges have broken down in consequence of the oscillations
produced by bodies of men marching in step. In 1850 a suspension bridge at
Angers gave way when 487 soldiers were marching over it, and 226 were
killed.

[Illustration: FIG. 10.--Menai Suspension Bridge.]

To obtain greater stiffness various plans have been adopted. In the Ordish
system a certain number of intermediate points in the span are supported by
oblique chains, on which girders rest. The Ordish bridge built at Prague in
1868 had oblique chains supporting the stiffening girders at intermediate
points of the span. A curved chain supported the oblique chains and kept
them straight. In 1860 a bridge was erected over the Danube canal at
Vienna, of 264 ft. span which had two parallel chains one above the other
and 4 ft. apart on each side of the bridge. The chains of each pair were
connected by bracing so that they formed a stiff inverted arch resisting
deformation under unequal loading. The bridge carried a railway, but it
proved weak owing to errors of calculation, and it was taken down in 1884.
The principle was sound and has been proposed at various times. About 1850
it was perceived that a bridge stiff enough to carry railway trains could
be constructed by combining supporting chains with stiffening girders
suspended from them. W. J. M. Rankine proved (_Applied Mechanics_, p. 370)
that the necessary strength of a stiffening girder would be only
one-seventh part of that of an independent girder of the same span as the
bridge, suited to carry the same moving load (not including the dead weight
of the girder which is supported by the chain). (See "Suspension Bridge
with Stiffened Roadway," by Sir G. Airy, and the discussion, _Proc. Inst,
C.E._, 1867, xxvi. p. 258; also "Suspension Bridges with Stiffening
Girders," by Max am Ende, _Proc. Inst. C.E._ cxxxvii. p. 306.)

[Illustration: FIG. 11.--Niagara Suspension Bridge.]

The most remarkable bridge constructed on this system was the Niagara
bridge built by J. A. Roebling in 1852-1855 (fig. 11). The span was 821
ft., much the largest of any railway bridge at that time, and the height
above the river 245 ft. There were four suspension cables, each 10 in. in
diameter; each was composed of seven strands, containing 520 parallel
wires, or 3640 wires in each cable. Each cable was carried on a separate
saddle on rollers on each pier. The stiffening girder, constructed chiefly
of timber, was a box-shaped braced girder 18 ft. deep and 25 ft. wide,
carrying the railway on top and a roadway within. After various repairs and
strengthenings, including the replacement of the timber girder by an iron
one in 1880, this bridge in 1896-1897 was taken down and a steel arch built
in its place. It was not strong enough to deal with the increasing weight
of railway traffic. In 1836 I. K. Brunei constructed the towers and
abutments for a suspension bridge of 702 ft. span at Clifton over the Avon,
but the project was not then carried further; in 1860, however, the link
chains of the Hungerford suspension bridge which was being taken down were
available at small cost, and these were used to complete the bridge. There
are three chains on each side, of one and two links alternately, and these
support wrought iron stiffening girders. There are wrought iron saddles and
steel rollers on the piers. At 196 ft. on either side from the towers the
chains are carried over similar saddles without rollers, and thence at 45°
with the horizontal down to the anchorages. Each chain has an anchor plate
5 ft. by 6 ft. The links are 24 ft. long at the centre of the bridge, and
longer as they are more inclined, so that their horizontal projection is 24
ft. The chains are so arranged that there is a suspending rod at each 8
ft., attached at the joint of one of the three chains. For erection a
suspended platform was constructed on eight wire ropes, on which the chains
were laid out and connected. Another wire rope with a travelling carriage
took out the links. The sectional area of the chains is 481 sq. in. at the
piers and 440 sq. in. at the centre. The two stiffening girders are plate
girders 3 ft. deep with flanges of 11 sq. in. area. In addition, the hand
railing on each side forms a girder 4 ft. 9 in. deep, with flanges 4½ sq.
in. area.

[Illustration: FIG. 12.--Williamsburg Suspension Bridge.]

Of later bridges of great span, perhaps the bridges over the East river at
New York are the most remarkable. The Brooklyn bridge, begun in 1872, has a
centre span of 1595½ and side spans of 930 ft. The Brooklyn approach being
971 ft., and the New York approach 1562½ ft., the total length of the
bridge is 5989 ft. There are four cables which carry a promenade, a roadway
and an electric railway. The stiffening girders of the main span are 40 ft.
deep and 67 ft. apart. The saddles for the chains are 329 ft. above high
water. The cables are 15¾ in. in diameter. Each cable has 19 strands of 278
parallel steel wires, 7 B.W.G. Each wire is taken separately across the
river and its length adjusted. Roebling preferred parallel wires as 10 %
stronger than twisted wires. Each strand when made up and clamped was
lowered to its position. The Williamsburg bridge (fig. 12), begun in 1897
and opened for traffic in 1903, has a span of 1600 ft., a versed sine of
176 ft., and a width of 118 ft. It has two decks, and carries two elevated
railway tracks, four electric tramcar lines, two carriageways, two footways
and two [v.04 p.0538] bicycle paths. There are four cables, one on each
side of the two main trusses or stiffening girders. These girders are
supported by the cables over the centre span but not in the side spans.
Intermediate piers support the trusses in the side spans. The cables are
18¾ in. in diameter; each weighs about 1116 tons, and has a nominal
breaking strength of 22,320 tons, the actual breaking strength being
probably greater. The saddles are 332 ft. above the water. The four cables
support a dead load of 7140 tons and a live load of 4017 tons. Each cable
is composed of 37 strands of 208 wires, or 7696 parallel steel wires, No. 8
B.W.G., or about 3/16 in. in diameter. The wire was required to have a
tensile strength of 89 tons per sq. in., and 2½% elongation in 5 ft. and 5%
in 8 in. Cast steel clamps hold the cable together, and to these the
suspending rods are attached. The cables are wrapped in cotton duck soaked
in oxidized oil and varnish, and are sheathed in sheet iron. A later
bridge, the Manhattan, is designed to carry four railway tracks and four
tramway lines, with a wide roadway and footpaths, supported by cables 21¼
in. in diameter, each composed of 9472 galvanized steel wires 3/16 in. in
diameter.

[Illustration: FIG. 13.--Tower Bridge, London.]

The Tower Bridge, London (fig. 13), is a suspension bridge with a secondary
bascule bridge in the centre span to permit the passage of ships. Two main
towers in the river and two towers on the shore abutments carry the
suspension chains. The opening bridge between the river towers consists of
two leaves or bascules, pivoted near the faces of the piers and rotating in
a vertical plane. When raised, the width of 200 ft. between the main river
piers is unobstructed up to the high-level foot-bridge, which is 141 ft.
above Trinity H.W. The clear width of the two shore spans is 270 ft. The
total length of the bridge is 940 ft., and that of the approaches 1260 ft.
on the north and 780 ft. on the south. The width of the bridge between
parapets is 60 ft., except across the centre span, where it is 49 ft. The
main towers consist of a skeleton of steel, enclosed in a facing of granite
and Portland stone, backed with brickwork. There are two high-level
footways for use when the bascules are raised, the main girders of which
are of the cantilever and suspended girder type. The cantilevers are fixed
to the shore side of the towers. The middle girders are 120 ft. in length
and attached to the cantilevers by links. The main suspension chains are
carried across the centre span in the form of horizontal ties resting on
the high-level footway girders. These ties are jointed to the hanging
chains by pins 20 in. in diameter with a ring in halves surrounding it 5
in. thick. One half ring is rigidly attached to the tie and one to the
hanging chain, so that the wear due to any movement is distributed over the
length of the pin. A rocker bearing under these pins transmits the load at
the joint to the steel columns of the towers. The abutment towers are
similar to the river towers. On the abutment towers the chains are
connected by horizontal links, carried on rockers, to anchor ties. The
suspension chains are constructed in the form of braced girders, so that
they are stiff against unsymmetrical loading. Each chain over a shore span
consists of two segments, the longer attached to the tie at the top of the
river tower, the shorter to the link at the top of the abutment tower, and
the two jointed together at the lowest point. Transverse girders are hung
from the chains at distances of 18 ft. There are fifteen main transverse
girders to each shore span, with nine longitudinal girders between each
pair. The trough flooring, 3/8 in. thick and 6 in. deep, is riveted to the
longitudinals. The anchor ties are connected to girders embedded in large
concrete blocks in the foundations of the approach viaducts.

The two bascules are each constructed with four main girders. Over the
river these are lattice girders, with transverse girders 12 ft. apart, and
longitudinal and subsidiary transverse girders dividing the floor into
rectangles 3 ft. by 3½ ft. covered with buckled plates. The roadway is of
pine blocks dowelled. The bascules rotate through an angle of 82°, and
their rear ends in the bascule chambers of the piers carry 365 tons of
counterweight, the total weight of each being 1070 tons. They rotate on
steel shafts 21 in. in diameter and 48 ft. long, and the bascules can be
lifted or lowered in one minute, but usually the time taken is one and a
half minutes. They are worked by hydraulic machinery.

9. (d) _Iron and Steel Girder Bridges._--The main supporting members are
two or more horizontal beams, girders or trusses. The girders carry a floor
or platform either on top (_deck_ bridges) or near the bottom (_through_
bridges). The platform is variously constructed. For railway bridges it
commonly consists of cross girders, attached to or resting on the main
girders, and longitudinal rail girders or stringers carried by the cross
girders and directly supporting the sleepers and rails. For spans over 75
ft., expansion due to change of temperature is provided for by carrying one
end of each chain girder on rollers placed between the bearing-plate on the
girder and the bed-plate on the pier or abutment.

Fig. 14 shows the roller bed of a girder of the Kuilenburg bridge of 490
ft. span. It will be seen that the girder directly rests on a cylindrical
pin or rocker so placed as to distribute the load uniformly to all the
rollers. The pressure on the rollers is limited to about p = 600 d in lb
per in. length of roller, where d is the diameter of the roller in inches.

[Illustration: FIG. 14.--Roller Bed of a Girder.]

In the girders of bridges the horizontal girder is almost exclusively
subjected to vertical loading forces. Investigation of the internal
stresses, which balance the external forces, shows that most of the
material should be arranged in a top flange, boom or chord, subjected to
compression, and a bottom flange or chord, subjected to tension. (See
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.) Connecting the flanges is a vertical web which may
be a solid plate or a system of bracing bars. In any case, though the exact
form of cross section of girders varies very much, it is virtually an I
section (fig. 15). The function of the flanges is to resist a horizontal
tension and compression distributed practically uniformly on their cross
sections. The web resists forces equivalent [v.04 p.0539] to a shear on
vertical and horizontal planes. The inclined tensions and compressions in
the bars of a braced web are equivalent to this shear. The horizontal
stresses in the flanges are greatest at the centre of a span. The stresses
in the web are greatest at the ends of the span. In the most numerous cases
the flanges or chords are parallel. But girders may have curved chords and
then the stresses in the web are diminished.

[Illustration: FIG. 15.--Flanged Girder.]

At first girders had solid or plate webs, but for spans over 100 ft. the
web always now consists of bracing bars. In some girder bridges the members
are connected entirely by riveting, in others the principal members are
connected by pin joints. The pin system of connexion used in the Chepstow,
Saltash, Newark Dyke and other early English bridges is now rarely used in
Europe. But it is so commonly used in America as to be regarded as a
distinctive American feature. With pin connexions some weight is saved in
the girders, and erection is a little easier. In early pin bridges
insufficient bearing area was allowed between the pins and parts connected,
and they worked loose. In some cases riveted covers had to be substituted
for the pins. The proportions are now better understood. Nevertheless the
tendency is to use riveted connexions in preference to pins, and in any
case to use pins for tension members only.

On the first English railways cast iron girder bridges for spans of 20 to
66 ft. were used, and in some cases these were trussed with wrought iron.
When in 1845 the plans for carrying the Chester and Holyhead railway over
the Menai Straits were considered, the conditions imposed by the admiralty
in the interests of navigation involved the adoption of a new type of
bridge. There was an idea of using suspension chains combined with a
girder, and in fact the tower piers were built so as to accommodate chains.
But the theory of such a combined structure could not be formulated at that
time, and it was proved, partly by experiment, that a simple tubular girder
of wrought iron was strong enough to carry the railway. The Britannia
bridge (fig. 16) has two spans of 460 and two of 230 ft. at 104 ft. above
high water. It consists of a pair of tubular girders with solid or plate
sides stiffened by angle irons, one line of rails passing through each
tube. Each girder is 1511 ft. long and weighs 4680 tons. In cross section
(fig. 17), it is 15 ft. wide and varies in depth from 23 ft. at the ends to
30 ft. at the centre. Partly to counteract any tendency to buckling under
compression and partly for convenience in assembling a great mass of
plates, the top and bottom were made cellular, the cells being just large
enough to permit passage for painting. The total area of the cellular top
flange of the large-span girders is 648 sq. in., and of the bottom 585 sq.
in. As no scaffolding could be used for the centre spans, the girders were
built on shore, floated out and raised by hydraulic presses. The credit for
the success of the Conway and Britannia bridges must be divided between the
engineers. Robert Stephenson and William Fairbairn, and Eaton Hodgkinson,
who assisted in the experimental tests and in formulating the imperfect
theory then available. The Conway bridge was first completed, and the first
train passed through the Britannia bridge in 1850. Though each girder has
been made continuous over the four spans it has not quite the proportions
over the piers which a continuous girder should have, and must be regarded
as an imperfectly continuous girder. The spans were in fact designed as
independent girders, the advantage of continuity being at that time
imperfectly known. The vertical sides of the girders are stiffened so that
they amount to 40% of the whole weight. This was partly necessary to meet
the uncertain conditions in floating when the distribution of supporting
forces was unknown and there were chances of distortion.

[Illustration: FIG. 16.--Britannia Bridge.]

[Illustration: FIG. 17.--Britannia Bridge (Cross Section of Tubular
Girder).]

Wrought iron and, later, steel plate web girders were largely used for
railway bridges in England after the construction of the Conway and Menai
bridges, and it was in the discussions arising during their design that the
proper function of the vertical web between the top and bottom flanges of a
girder first came to be understood. The proportion of depth to span in the
Britannia bridge was 1/16. But so far as the flanges are concerned the
stress [v.04 p.0540] to be resisted varies inversely as the depth of the
girder. It would be economical, therefore, to make the girder very deep.
This, however, involves a much heavier web, and therefore for any type of
girder there must be a ratio of depth to span which is most economical. In
the case of the plate web there must be a considerable excess of material,
partly to stiffen it against buckling and partly because an excess of
thickness must be provided to reduce the effect of corrosion. It was soon
found that with plate webs the ratio of depth to span could not be
economically increased beyond 1/15 to 1/12. On the other hand a framed or
braced web afforded opportunity for much better arrangement of material,
and it very soon became apparent that open web or lattice or braced girders
were more economical of material than solid web girders, except for small
spans. In America such girders were used from the first and naturally
followed the general design of the earlier timber bridges. Now plate web
girders are only used for spans of less than 100 ft.

Three types of bracing for the web very early developed--the Warren type in
which the bracing bars form equilateral triangles, the Whipple Murphy in
which the struts are vertical and the ties inclined, and the lattice in
which both struts and ties are inclined at equal angles, usually 45° with
the horizontal. The earliest published theoretical investigations of the
stresses in bracing bars were perhaps those in the paper by W.T. Doyne and
W.B. Blood (_Proc. Inst. C.E._, 1851, xi. p. 1), and the paper by J.
Barton, "On the economic distribution of material in the sides of wrought
iron beams" (_Proc. Inst. C.E._, 1855, xiv. p. 443).

[Illustration: FIG. 18.--Span of Saltash Bridge.]

The Boyne bridge, constructed by Barton in Ireland, in 1854-1855, was a
remarkable example of the confidence with which engineers began to apply
theory in design. It was a bridge for two lines of railway with lattice
girders continuous over three spans. The centre span was 264 ft., and the
side spans 138 ft. 8 in.; depth 22 ft. 6 in. Not only were the bracing bars
designed to calculated stresses, and the continuity of the girders taken
into account, but the validity of the calculations was tested by a
verification on the actual bridge of the position of the points of contrary
flexure of the centre span. At the calculated position of one of the points
of contrary flexure all the rivets of the top boom were cut out, and by
lowering the end of the girder over the side span one inch, the joint was
opened 1/32 in. Then the rivets were cut out similarly at the other point
of contrary flexure and the joint opened. The girder held its position with
both joints severed, proving that, as should be the case, there was no
stress in the boom where the bending moment changes sign.

[Illustration: FIG. 19.--Newark Dyke Bridge and Section of Newark Dyke
Bridge.]

By curving the top boom of a girder to form an arch and the bottom boom to
form a suspension chain, the need of web except for non-uniform loading is
obviated. I.K. Brunel adopted this principle for the Saltash bridge near
Plymouth, built soon after the Britannia bridge. It has two spans of 455
ft. and seventeen smaller spans, the roadway being 100 ft. above high
water. The top boom of each girder is an elliptical wrought iron tube 17
ft. wide by 12 ft. deep. The lower boom is a pair of chains, of
wrought-iron links, 14 in each chain, of 7 in. by 1 in. section, the links
being connected by pins. The suspending rods and cross bracing are very
light. The depth of the girder at the centre is about one-eighth of the
span.

[Illustration: FIG. 20.--Fink Truss.]

In both England and America in early braced bridges cast iron, generally in
the form of tubes circular or octagonal in section, was used for
compression members, and wrought iron for the tension members. Fig. 19
shows the Newark Dyke bridge on the Great Northern railway over the Trent.
It was a pin-jointed Warren girder bridge erected from designs by C.M. Wild
in 1851-1853. The span between supports was 259 ft., the clear span 240½
ft.; depth between joint pins 16 ft. There were four girders, two to each
line of way. The top flange consisted of cast iron hollow castings butted
end to end, and the struts were of cast iron. The lower flange and ties
were flat wrought iron links. This bridge has now been replaced by a
stronger bridge to carry the greater loads imposed by modern traffic. Fig.
20 shows a Fink truss, a characteristic early American type, with cast iron
compression and wrought iron tension members. The bridge is a deck bridge,
the railway being carried on top. The transfer of the loads to the ends of
the bridge by [v.04 p.0541] long ties is uneconomical, and this type has
disappeared. The Warren type, either with two sets of bracing bars or with
intermediate verticals, affords convenient means of supporting the floor
girders. In 1869 a bridge of 390 ft. span was built on this system at
Louisville.

Amongst remarkable American girder bridges may be mentioned the Ohio bridge
on the Cincinnati & Covington railway, which is probably the largest girder
span constructed. The centre span is 550 ft. and the side spans 490
ft.--centre to centre of piers. The girders are independent polygonal
girders. The centre girder has a length of 545 ft. and a depth of 84 ft.
between pin centres. It is 67 ft. between parapets, and carries two lines
of railway, two carriageways, and two footways. The cross girders,
stringers and wind-bracing are wrought iron, the rest of mild steel. The
bridge was constructed in 1888 by the Phoenix Bridge Company, and was
erected on staging. The total weight of iron and steel in three spans was
about 5000 tons.

[Illustration: FIG. 21.--Typical Cantilever Bridge.]

[Illustration: FIG. 22.]

10. (e) _Cantilever Bridges._--It has been stated that if in a girder
bridge of three or more spans, the girders were made continuous there would
be an important economy of material, but that the danger of settlement of
the supports, which would seriously alter the points of contrary flexure or
points where the bending moment changes sign, and therefore the magnitude
and distribution of the stresses, generally prevents the adoption of
continuity. If, however, hinges or joints are introduced at the points of
contrary flexure, they become necessarily points where the bending moment
is zero and ambiguity as to the stresses vanishes. The exceptional local
conditions at the site of the Forth bridge led to the adoption there of the
cantilever system, till then little considered. Now it is well understood
that in many positions this system is the simplest and most economical
method of bridging. It is available for spans greater than those
practicable with independent girders; in fact, on this system the spans are
virtually reduced to smaller spans so far as the stresses are concerned.
There is another advantage which in many cases is of the highest
importance. The cantilevers can be built out from the piers, member by
member, without any temporary scaffolding below, so that navigation is not
interrupted, the cost of scaffolding is saved, and the difficulty of
building in deep water is obviated. The centre girder may be built on the
cantilevers and rolled into place or lifted from the water-level. Fig. 21
shows a typical cantilever bridge of American design. In this case the
shore ends of the cantilevers are anchored to the abutments. J.A.L. Waddell
has shown that, in some cases, it is convenient to erect simple independent
spans, by building them out as cantilevers and converting them into
independent girders after erection. Fig. 22 shows girders erected in this
way, the dotted lines being temporary members during erection, which are
removed afterwards. The side spans are erected first on staging and
anchored to the piers. From these, by the aid of the temporary members, the
centre span is built out from both sides. The most important cantilever
bridges so far erected or projected are as follows:--

[Illustration: FIG. 23.--Forth Bridge.]

(1) The Forth bridge (fig. 23). The original design was for a stiffened
suspension bridge, but after the fall of the Tay bridge in 1879 this was
abandoned. The bridge, which was begun in 1882 and completed in 1889, is at
the only narrowing of the Forth in a distance of 50 m., at a point where
the channel, about a mile in width, is divided by the island of Inchgarvie.
The length of the cantilever bridge is 5330 ft., made up thus: central
tower on Inchgarvie 260 ft.; Fife and Queensferry piers each 145 ft.; two
central girders between cantilevers each 350 ft.; and six cantilevers each
680 ft. The two main spans are each 1710 ft. The clear headway is 157 ft.,
and the extreme height of the towers above high water 361 ft. The outer
ends of the shore cantilevers are loaded to balance half the weight of the
central girder, the rolling load, and 200 tons in addition. An internal
viaduct of lattice girders carries a double line of rails. Provision is
made for longitudinal expansion due to change of temperature, for
distortion due to the sun acting on one side of the structure, and for the
wind acting on one side of the bridge. The amount of steel used was 38,000
tons exclusive of approach viaducts. (See _The Forth Bridge_, by W.
Westhofen; _Reports of the British Association_ (1884 and 1885); _Die Forth
Brücke_, von G. Barkhausen (Berlin, 1889); _The Forth Bridge_, by Philip
Phillips (1890); Vernon Harcourt, _Proc. Inst. C.E._ cxxi. p. 309.)

(2) The Niagara bridge of a total length of 910 ft., for two lines of
railway. Clear span between towers 495 ft. Completed in 1883, and more
recently strengthened (_Proc. Inst. C.E._ cvii. p. 18, and cxliv. p. 331).

[Illustration: FIG. 24.--Lansdowne Bridge.]

(3) The Lansdowne bridge (completed 1889) at Sukkur, over the Indus. The
clear span is 790 ft., and the suspended girder 200 ft. in length. The span
to the centres of the end uprights is 820 ft.; width between centres of
main uprights at bed-plate 100 ft., and between centres of main members at
end of cantilevers 20 ft. The bridge is for a single line of railway of 5
ft. 6 in. gauge. The back guys are the most heavily strained part of the
structure, the stress provided for being 1200 tons. This is due to the half
weight of centre girder, the weight of the cantilever itself, the rolling
load on half the bridge, and the wind pressure. The anchors are built up of
steel plates and angle, bars, and are buried in a large mass of concrete.
The area of each anchor plate, normal to the line of stress, is 32 ft. by
12 ft. The bridge was designed by Sir A. Rendel, the consulting engineer to
the Indian government (_Proc. Inst. C.E._ ciii. p. 123).

(4) The Red Rock cantilever bridge over the Colorado river, with a centre
span of 660 ft.

(5) The Poughkeepsie bridge over the Hudson, built 1886-1887. There are
five river and two shore spans. The girders over the second and fourth
spans are extended as cantilevers over the adjoining spans. The shore piers
carry cantilevers projecting one way over the river openings and the other
way over a shore span where it is secured to an anchorage. The girder spans
are 525 ft., the cantilever spans 547 ft., and the shore spans 201 ft.

[Illustration: FIG. 25.--Quebec Bridge (original design)]

(6) The Quebec bridge (fig. 25) over the St Lawrence, which collapsed while
in course of construction in 1907. This bridge, connecting very important
railway systems, was designed to carry two lines of rails, a highway and
electric railway on each side, all between the main trusses. Length between
abutments 3240 ft.; [v.04 p.0542] channel span 1800 ft.; suspended span 675
ft.; shore spans 562½ ft. Total weight of metal about 32,000 tons.

[Illustration: FIG. 26.--Jubilee Bridge over the Hugli.]

(7) The Jubilee bridge over the Hugli, designed by Sir Bradford Leslie, is
a cantilever bridge of another type (fig. 26). The girders are of the
Whipple Murphy type, but with curved top booms. The bridge carries a double
line of railway, between the main girders. The central double cantilever is
360 ft. long. The two side span girders are 420 ft long. The cantilever
rests on two river piers 120 ft. apart, centre to centre. The side girders
rest on the cantilevers on 15 in. pins, in pendulum links suspended from
similar pins in saddles 9 ft. high.

[Illustration: FIG. 27.--Coalbrookdale Bridge.]

11. (f) _Metal Arch Bridges._--The first iron bridge erected was
constructed by John Wilkinson (1728-1808) and Abraham Darby (1750-1791) in
1773-1779 at Coalbrookdale over the Severn (fig. 27). It had five cast iron
arched ribs with a centre span of 100 ft. This curious bridge is still in
use. Sir B. Baker stated that it had required patching for ninety years,
because the arch and the high side arches would not work together.
Expansion and contraction broke the high arch and the connexions between
the arches. When it broke they fished it. Then the bolts sheared or the
ironwork broke in a new place. He advised that there was nothing unsafe; it
was perfectly strong and the stress in vital parts moderate. All that
needed to be done was to fish the fractured ribs of the high arches, put
oval holes in the fishes, and not screw up the bolts too tight.

Cast iron arches of considerable span were constructed late in the 18th and
early in the 19th century. The difficulty of casting heavy arch ribs led to
the construction of cast iron arches of cast voussoirs, somewhat like the
voussoirs of masonry bridges. Such a bridge was the Wearmouth bridge,
designed by Rowland Burdon and erected in 1793-1796, with a span of 235 ft.
Southwark bridge over the Thames, designed by John Rennie with cast iron
ribs and erected in 1814-1819, has a centre span of 240 ft. and a rise of
24 ft. In Paris the Austerlitz (1800-1806) and Carrousel (1834-1836)
bridges had cast iron arches. In 1858 an aqueduct bridge was erected at
Washington by M.C. Meigs (1816-1892). This had two arched ribs formed by
the cast iron pipes through which the water passed. The pipes were 4 ft. in
diameter inside, 1½ in. thick, and were lined with staves of pine 3 in.
thick to prevent freezing. The span was 200 ft.

[Illustration: FIG. 28.--Arch of Bridge at Coblenz]

Fig. 28 shows one of the wrought iron arches of a bridge over the Rhine at
Coblenz. The bridge consists of three spans of about 315 ft. each.

[Illustration: FIG. 29.--St Louis Bridge.]

Of large-span bridges with steel arches, one of the most important is the
St Louis bridge over the Mississippi, completed in 1874 (fig. 29). The
river at St Louis is confined to a single channel, 1600 ft. wide, and in a
freshet in 1870 the scour reached a depth of 51 ft. Captain J.B. Eads, the
engineer, determined to establish the piers and abutments on rock at a
depth for the east pier and east abutment of 136 ft. below high water. This
was effected by caissons with air chambers and air locks, a feat
unprecedented in the annals of engineering. The bridge has three spans,
each formed of arches of cast steel. The centre span is 520 ft. and the
side spans 502 ft. in the clear. The rise of the centre arch is 47½ ft.,
and that of the side arches 46 ft. Each span has four steel double ribs of
steel tubes butted and clasped by wrought iron couplings. The vertical
bracing between the upper and lower members of each rib, which are 12 ft.
apart, centre to centre, consolidates them into a single arch. The arches
carry a double railway track and above this a roadway 54 ft. wide.

The St Louis bridge is not hinged, but later bridges have been constructed
with hinges at the springings and sometimes with hinges at the crown also.

The Alexander III. bridge over the Seine has fifteen steel ribs hinged at
crown and springings with a span of 353 ft. between centres of hinges and
358 ft. between abutments. The rise from side to centre hinges is 20 ft. 7
in. The roadway is 65½ ft. wide and footways 33 ft. (_Proc. Inst. C.E._
cxxx. p. 335).

[Illustration: FIG. 30.--Viaur Viaduct.]

The largest three-hinged-arch bridge constructed is the Viaur viaduct in
the south of France (fig. 30). The central span is 721 ft. 9 in. and the
height of the rails above the valley 380 ft. It has a very fine appearance,
especially when seen in perspective and not merely in elevation.

[Illustration: FIG. 31.--Douro Viaduct.]

Fig. 31 shows the Douro viaduct of a total length of 1158 ft. carrying a
railway 200 ft. above the water. The span of the central opening is 525 ft.
The principal rib is crescent-shaped 32.8 ft. deep [v.04 p.0543] at the
crown. Rolling load taken at 1.2 ton per ft. Weight of centre span 727
tons. The Luiz I. bridge is another arched bridge over the Douro, also
designed by T. Seyrig. This has a span of 566 ft. There are an upper and
lower roadway, 164 ft. apart vertically. The arch rests on rollers and is
narrowest at the crown. The reason given for this change of form was that
it more conveniently allowed the lower road to pass between the springings
and ensured the transmission of the wind stresses to the abutments without
interrupting the cross-bracing. Wire cables were used in the erection, by
which the members were lifted from barges and assembled, the operations
being conducted from the side piers.

[Illustration: FIG. 32.--Niagara Falls and Clifton Bridge.]

The Niagara Falls and Clifton steel arch (fig. 32) replaces the older
Roebling suspension bridge. The centre span is a two-hinged parabolic
braced rib arch, and there are side spans of 190 and 210 ft. The bridge
carries two electric-car tracks, two roadways and two footways. The main
span weighed 1629 tons, the side spans 154 and 166 tons (Buck, _Proc. Inst.
C.E._ cxliv. p. 70). Prof. Claxton Fidler, speaking of the arrangement
adopted for putting initial stress on the top chord, stated that this
bridge marked the furthest advance yet made in this type of construction.
When such a rib is erected on centering without initial stress, the
subsequent compression of the arch under its weight inflicts a bending
stress and excess of compression in the upper member at the crown. But the
bold expedients adopted by the engineer annulled the bending action.

The Garabit viaduct carries the railway near St Flour, in the Cantal
department, France, at 420 ft. above low water. The deepest part of the
valley is crossed by an arch of 541 ft. span, and 213 ft. rise. The bridge
is similar to that at Oporto, also designed by Seyrig. It is formed by a
crescent-shaped arch, continued on one side by four, on the other side by
two lattice girder spans, on iron piers. The arch is formed by two lattice
ribs hinged at the abutments. Its depth at the crown is 33 ft., and its
centre line follows nearly the parabolic line of pressures. The two arch
ribs are 65½ ft. apart at the springings and 20½ ft. at the crown. The
roadway girders are lattice, 17 ft. deep, supported from the arch ribs at
four points. The total length of the viaduct is 1715 ft. The lattice
girders of the side spans were first rolled into place, so as to project
some distance beyond the piers, and then the arch ribs were built out,
being partly supported by wire-rope cables from the lattice girders above.
The total weight of ironwork was 3200 tons and the cost £124,000 (_Annales
des travaux publiques_, 1884).

The Victoria Falls bridge over the Zambezi, designed by Sir Douglas Fox,
and completed in 1905, is a combination of girder and arch having a total
length of 650 ft. The centre arch is 500 ft. span, the rise of the crown 90
ft., and depth at crown 15 ft. The width between centres of ribs of main
arch is 27½ ft. at crown and 53 ft. 9 in at springings. The curve of the
main arch is a parabola. The bridge has a roadway of 30 ft. for two lines
of rails. Each half arch was supported by cables till joined at the centre.
An electric cableway of 900 ft. span capable of carrying 10 tons was used
in erection.

12. (g) _Movable Bridges_ can be closed to carry a road or railway or in
some cases an aqueduct, but can be opened to give free passage to
navigation. They are of several types:--

[Illustration: FIG. 33.]

(1) _Lifting Bridges._--The bridge with its platform is suspended from
girders above by chains and counterweights at the four corners (fig. 33 a).
It is lifted vertically to the required height when opened. Bridges of this
type are not very numerous or important.

(2) _Rolling Bridges._--The girders are longer than the span and the part
overhanging the abutment is counter-weighted so that the centre of gravity
is over the abutment when the bridge is rolled forward (fig. 33 b). To fill
the gap in the approaches when the bridge is rolled forward a frame
carrying that part of the road is moved into place sideways. At Sunderland,
the bridge is first lifted by a hydraulic press so as to clear the roadway
behind, and is then rolled back.

(3) _Draw or Bascule Bridges._--The fortress draw-bridge is the original
type, in which a single leaf, or bascule, turns round a horizontal hinge at
one abutment. The bridge when closed is supported on abutments at each end.
It is raised by chains and counterweights. A more common type is a bridge
with two leaves or bascules, one hinged at each abutment. When closed [v.04
p.0544] the bascules are locked at the centre (see fig. 13). In these
bridges each bascule is prolonged backwards beyond the hinge so as to
balance at the hinge, the prolongation sinking into the piers when the
bridge is opened.

(4) _Swing or Turning Bridges._--The largest movable bridges revolve about
a vertical axis. The bridge is carried on a circular base plate with a
central pivot and a circular track for a live ring and conical rollers. A
circular revolving platform rests on the pivot and rollers. A toothed arc
fixed to the revolving platform or to the live ring serves to give motion
to the bridge. The main girders rest on the revolving platform, and the
ends of the bridge are circular arcs fitting the fixed roadway. Three
arrangements are found: (a) the axis of rotation is on a pier at the centre
of the river and the bridge is equal armed (fig. 33 c), so that two
navigation passages are opened simultaneously. (b) The axis of rotation is
on one abutment, and the bridge is then usually unequal armed (fig. 33 d),
the shorter arm being over the land. (c) In some small bridges the shorter
arm is vertical and the bridge turns on a kind of vertical crane post at
the abutment (fig. 33 e).

(5) _Floating Bridges_, the roadway being carried on pontoons moored in the
stream.

The movable bridge in its closed position must be proportioned like a fixed
bridge, but it has also other conditions to fulfil. If it revolves about a
vertical axis its centre of gravity must always lie in that axis; if it
rolls the centre of gravity must always lie over the abutment. It must have
strength to support safely its own overhanging weight when moving.

At Konigsberg there is a road bridge of two fixed spans of 39 ft., and a
central span of 60 ft. between bearings, or 41 ft. clear, with balanced
bascules over the centre span. Each bascule consists of two main girders
with cross girders and stringers. The main girders are hung at each side on
a horizontal shaft 8-5/8 in. in diameter, and are 6 ft. deep at the hinge,
diminishing to 1 ft. 7 in. at the centre of the span. The counterweight is
a depressed cantilever arm 12 ft. long, overlapped by the fixed platform
which sinks into a recess in the masonry when the bridge opens. In closed
position the main girders rest on a bed plate on the face of the pier 4 ft.
3 in. beyond the shaft bearings. The bridge is worked by hydraulic power,
an accumulator with a load of 34 tons supplying pressure water at 630 lb
per sq. in. The bridge opens in 15 seconds and closes in 25 seconds.

At the opening span of the Tower bridge (fig. 13) there are four main
girders in each bascule. They project 100 ft. beyond and 62 ft. 6 in.
within the face of the piers. Transverse girders and bracings are inserted
between the main girders at 12 ft. intervals. The floor is of buckled
plates paved with wood blocks. The arc of rotation is 82°, and the axis of
rotation is 13 ft. 3 in. inside the face of the piers, and 5 ft. 7 in.
below the roadway. The weight of ballast in the short arms of the bascules
is 365 tons. The weight of each leaf including ballast is about 1070 tons.
The axis is of forged steel 21 in. in diameter and 48 ft. long. The axis
has eight bearings, consisting of rings of live rollers 4-7/16 in. in
diameter and 22 in. long. The bascules are rotated by pinions driven by
hydraulic engines working in steel sectors 42 ft. radius (_Proc. Inst.
C.E._ cxxvii. p. 35).

As an example of a swing bridge, that between Duluth and Superior at the
head of Lake Superior over the St Louis river may be described. The centre
opening is 500 ft., spanned by a turning bridge, 58 ft. wide. The girders
weighing 2000 tons carry a double track for trains between the girders and
on each side on cantilevers a trolley track, roadway and footway. The
bridge can be opened in 2 minutes, and is operated by two large electric
motors. These have a speed reduction from armature shaft to bridge column
of 1500 to 1, through four intermediate spur gears and a worm gear. The end
lifts which transfer the weight of the bridge to the piers when the span is
closed consist of massive eccentrics having a throw of 4 in. The clearance
is 2 in., so that the ends are lifted 2 in. This gives a load of 50 tons
per eccentric. One motor is placed at each end of the span to operate the
eccentrics and also to release the latches and raise the rails of the steam
track.

At Riga there is a floating pontoon bridge over the Duna. It consists of
fourteen rafts, 105 ft. in length, each supported by two pontoons placed 64
ft. apart. The pairs of rafts are joined by three baulks 15 ft. long laid
in parallel grooves in the framing. Two spans are arranged for opening
easily. The total length is 1720 ft. and the width 46 ft. The pontoons are
of iron, 85½ ft. in length, and their section is elliptical, 10½ ft.
horizontal and 12 ft. vertical. The displacement of each pontoon is 180
tons and its weight 22 tons. The mooring chains, weighing 22 lb per ft.,
are taken from the upstream end of each pontoon to a downstream screw pile
mooring and from the downstream end to an upstream screw pile.

13. _Transporter Bridges._--This new type of bridge consists of a high
level bridge from which is suspended a car at a low level. The car receives
the traffic and conveys it across the river, being caused to travel by
electric machinery on the high level bridge. Bridges of this type have been
erected at Portugalete, Bizerta, Rouen, Rochefort and more recently across
the Mersey between the towns of Widnes and Runcorn.

[Illustration: FIG. 34.--Widnes and Runcorn Transporter Bridge.]

The Runcorn bridge crosses the Manchester Ship Canal and the Mersey in one
span of 1000 ft., and four approach spans of 55½ ft. on one side and one
span on the other. The low-level approach roadways are 35 ft. wide with
footpaths 6 ft. wide on each side. The supporting structure is a cable
suspension bridge with stiffening girders. A car is suspended from the
bridge, carried by a trolley running on the underside of the stiffening
girders, the car being [v.04 p.0545] propelled electrically from one side
to the other. The underside of the stiffening girder is 82 ft. above the
river. The car is 55 ft. long by 24½ ft. wide. The electric motors are
under the control of the driver in a cabin on the car. The trolley is an
articulated frame 77 ft. long in five sections coupled together with pins.
To this are fixed the bearings of the running wheels, fourteen on each
side. There are two steel-clad series-wound motors of 36 B.H.P. For a test
load of 120 tons the tractive force is 70 lb per ton, which is sufficient
for acceleration, and maintaining speed against wind pressure. The brakes
are magnetic, with auxiliary handbrakes. Electricity is obtained by two gas
engines (one spare) each of 75 B.H.P.

On the opening day passengers were taken across at the rate of more than
2000 per hour in addition to a number of vehicles. The time of crossing is
3 or 4 minutes. The total cost of the structure was £133,000.

14. In the United States few railway companies design or build their own
bridges. General specifications as to span, loading, &c., are furnished to
bridge-building companies, which make the design under the direction of
engineers who are experts in this kind of work. The design, with strain
sheets and detail drawings, is submitted to the railway engineer with
estimates. The result is that American bridges are generally of
well-settled types and their members of uniform design, carefully
considered with reference to convenient and accurate manufacture. Standard
patterns of details are largely adopted, and more system is introduced in
the workshop than is possible where the designs are more varied. Riveted
plate girders are used up to 50 ft. span, riveted braced girders for spans
of 50 ft. to 75 ft., and pin-connected girders for longer spans. Since the
erection of the Forth bridge, cantilever bridges have been extensively
used, and some remarkable steel arch and suspension bridges have also been
constructed. Overhead railways are virtually continuous bridge
constructions, and much attention has been given to a study of the special
conditions appertaining to that case.

_Substructure._

15. The substructure of a bridge comprises the piers, abutments and
foundations. These portions usually consist of masonry in some form,
including under that general head stone masonry, brickwork and concrete.
Occasionally metal work or woodwork is used for intermediate piers.

When girders form the superstructure, the resultant pressure on the piers
or abutments is vertical, and the dimensions of these are simply regulated
by the sufficiency to bear this vertical load.

When arches form the superstructure, the abutment must be so designed as to
transmit the resultant thrust to the foundation in a safe direction, and so
distributed that no part may be unduly compressed. The intermediate piers
should also have considerable stability, so as to counterbalance the thrust
arising when one arch is loaded while the other is free from load.

For suspension bridges the abutment forming the anchorage must be so
designed as to be thoroughly stable under the greatest pull which the
chains can exert. The piers require to be carried above the platform, and
their design must be modified according to the type of suspension bridge
adopted. When the resultant pressure is not vertical on the piers these
must be constructed to meet the inclined pressure. In any stiffened
suspension bridge the action of the pier will be analogous to that of a
pier between two arches.

_Concrete in a shell_ is a name which might be applied to all the methods
of founding a pier which depend on the very valuable property which strong
hydraulic concrete possesses of setting into a solid mass under water. The
required space is enclosed by a wooden or iron shell; the soil inside the
shell is removed by dredging, or some form of mechanical excavator, until
the formation is reached which is to support the pier; the concrete is then
shot into the enclosed space from a height of about 10 ft., and rammed down
in layers about 1 ft. thick; it soon consolidates into a permanent
artificial stone.

_Piles_ are used as foundations in compressible or loose soil. The heads of
the piles are sawn off, and a platform of timber or concrete rests on them.
Cast iron and concrete reinforced piles are now used. _Screw piles_ are
cast iron piles which are screwed into the soil instead of being driven in.
At their end is fixed a blade of cast iron from two to eight times the
diameter of the shaft of the pile; the pitch of the screw varies from
one-half to one-fourth of the external diameter of the blade.

_Disk piles_ have been used in sand. These piles have a flat flange at the
bottom, and water is pumped in at the top of the pile, which is weighted to
prevent it from rising. Sand is thus blown or pumped from below the piles,
which are thus easily lowered in ground which baffles all attempts to drive
in piles by blows. In ground which is of the nature of quicksand, piles
will often slowly rise to their original position after each blow.

_Wells._--In some soils foundations may be obtained by the device of
building a masonry casing like that of a well and excavating the soil
inside; the casing gradually sinks and the masonry is continued at the
surface. This method is applicable in running sands. The interior of the
well is generally filled up with concrete or brick when the required depth
has been reached.

_Piers and Abutments._--Piers and abutments are of masonry, brickwork, or
cast or wrought iron. In the last case they consist of any number of hollow
cylindrical pillars, vertical or raking, turned and planed at the ends and
united by a projection or socket and by flanges and bolts. The pillars are
strengthened against lateral yielding by horizontal and diagonal bracing.
In some cases the piers are cast iron cylinders 10 ft. or more in diameter
filled with concrete.

[Illustration: FIG. 35.--Cylinder, Charing Cross Bridge.]

_Cylinder Foundations._--Formerly when bridge piers had to be placed where
a firm bearing stratum could only be reached at a considerable depth, a
timber cofferdam was used in which piles were driven down to the firm
stratum. On the piles the masonry piers were built. Many bridges so
constructed have stood for centuries. A great change of method arose when
iron cylinders and in some cases brick cylinders or wells were adopted for
foundations. These can be sunk to almost any depth or brought up to any
height, and are filled with Portland cement concrete. They are sometimes
excavated by grabs. Sometimes they are closed in and kept free of water by
compressed air so that excavation work can be carried on inside them (fig.
35). Sometimes in silty river beds they are sunk 100 ft. or more, for [v.04
p.0546] security against deep scouring of the river-bed in floods. In the
case of the Empress bridge over the Sutlej each pier consisted of three
brick wells, 19 ft. in diameter, sunk 110 ft. The piers of the Benares
bridge were single iron caissons, 65 ft. by 28 ft., sunk about 100 ft.,
lined with brick and filled with concrete. At the Forth bridge iron
caissons 70 ft. in diameter were sunk about 40 ft. into the bed of the
Forth. In this case the compressed air process was used.

16. _Erection._--Consideration of the local conditions affecting the
erection of bridges is always important, and sometimes becomes a
controlling factor in the determination of the design. The methods of
erection may be classed as--(1) erection on staging or falsework; (2)
floating to the site and raising; (3) rolling out from one abutment; (4)
building out member by member, the completed part forming the stage from
which additions are handled.

(1) In erection on staging, the materials available determine the character
of the staging; stacks of timber, earth banks, or built-up staging of piles
and trestles have all been employed, also iron staging, which can be
rapidly erected and moved from site to site. The most ordinary type of
staging consists of timber piles at nearly equal distances of 20 ft. to 30
ft., carrying a timber platform, on which the bridge is erected. Sometimes
a wide space is left for navigation, and the platform at this part is
carried by a timber and iron truss. When the headway is great or the river
deep, timber-braced piers or clusters of piles at distances of 50 ft. to
100 ft. may be used. These carry temporary trusses of timber or steel. The
Kuilenburg bridge in Holland, which has a span of 492 ft., was erected on a
timber staging of this kind, containing 81,000 cub. ft. of timber and 5
tons of bolts. The bridge superstructure weighed 2150 tons, so that 38 cub.
ft. of timber were used per ton of superstructure.

(2) The Britannia and Conway bridges were built on staging on shore, lifted
by pontoons, floated out to their position between the piers, and lastly
lifted into place by hydraulic presses. The Moerdyk bridge in Holland, with
14 spans of 328 ft., was erected in a similar way. The convenience of
erecting girders on shore is very great, but there is some risk in the
floating operations and a good deal of hauling plant is required.

(3) If a bridge consists of girders continuous over two or more spans, it
may be put together on the embankment at one end and rolled over the piers.
In some cases hauling tackle is used, in others power is applied by levers
and ratchets to the rollers on which the girders travel. In such rolling
operations the girder is subjected to straining actions different from
those which it is intended to resist, and parts intended for tension may be
in compression; hence it may need to be stiffened by timber during rolling.
The bending action on the bottom boom in passing over the rollers is also
severe. Modifications of the system have been adopted for bridges with
discontinuous spans. In narrow ravines a bridge of one span may be rolled
out, if the projecting end is supported on a temporary suspension cable
anchored on each side. The free end is slung to a block running on the
cable. If the bridge is erected when the river is nearly dry a travelling
stage may be constructed to carry the projecting end of the girder while it
is hauled across, the other end resting on one abutment. Sometimes a girder
is rolled out about one-third of its length, and then supported on a
floating pontoon.

(4) Some types of bridge can be built out from the abutments, the completed
part forming an erecting stage on which lifting appliances are fixed.
Generally, in addition, wire cables are stretched across the span, from
which lifting tackle is suspended. In bridges so erected the straining
action during erection must be studied, and material must be added to
resist erecting stresses. In the case of the St Louis bridge, half arches
were built out on either side of each pier, so that the load balanced.
Skeleton towers on the piers supported chains attached to the arched ribs
at suitable points. In spite of careful provision, much difficulty was
experienced in making the connexion at the crown, from the expansion due to
temperature changes. The Douro bridge was similarly erected. The girders of
the side spans were rolled out so as to overhang the great span by 105 ft.,
and formed a platform from which parts of the arch could be suspended.
Dwarf towers, built on the arch ring at the fifth panel from either side,
helped to support the girder above, in erecting the centre part of the arch
(Seyrig, _Proc. Inst. C.E._ lxiii. p. 177). The great cantilever bridges
have been erected in the same way, and they are specially adapted for
erection by building out.

_Straining Actions and Working Stresses._

17. In metal bridges wrought iron has been replaced by mild steel--a
stronger, tougher and better material. Ingot metal or mild steel was
sometimes treacherous when first introduced, and accidents occurred, the
causes of which were obscure. In fact, small differences of composition or
variations in thermal treatment during manufacture involve relatively large
differences of quality. Now it is understood that care must be taken in
specifying the exact quality and in testing the material supplied.
Structural wrought iron has a tenacity of 20 to 22½ tons per sq. in. in the
direction of rolling, and an ultimate elongation of 8 or 10% in 8 in.
Across the direction of rolling the tenacity is about 18 tons per sq. in.,
and the elongation 3% in 8 in. Steel has only a small difference of quality
in different directions. There is still controversy as to what degree of
hardness, or (which is nearly the same thing) what percentage of carbon,
can be permitted with safety in steel for structures.

The qualities of steel used may be classified as follows:--(a) Soft steel,
having a tenacity of 22½ to 26 tons per sq. in., and an elongation of 32 to
24% in 8 in. (b) Medium steel, having a tenacity of 26 to 34 tons per sq.
in., and 28 to 25% elongation. (c) Moderately hard steel, having a tenacity
of 34 to 37 tons per sq. in., and 17% elongation, (d) Hard steel, having a
tenacity of 37 to 40 tons per sq. in., and 10% elongation. Soft steel is
used for rivets always, and sometimes for the whole superstructure of a
bridge, but medium steel more generally for the plates, angle bars, &c.,
the weight of the bridge being then reduced by about 7% for a given factor
of safety. Moderately hard steel has been used for the larger members of
long-span bridges. Hard steel, if used at all, is used only for compression
members, in which there is less risk of flaws extending than in tension
members. With medium or moderately hard steel all rivet holes should be
drilled, or punched 1/8 in. less in diameter than the rivet and reamed out,
so as to remove the ring of material strained by the punch.

In the specification for bridge material, drawn up by the British
Engineering Standards Committee, it is provided that the steel shall be
acid or basic open-hearth steel, containing not more than 0.06% of sulphur
or phosphorus. Plates, angles and bars, other than rivet bars, must have a
tensile strength of 28 to 32 tons per sq. in., with an elevation of 20% in
8 in. Rivet bars tested on a gauge length eight times the diameter must
have a tensile strength of 26 to 30 tons per sq. in. and an elongation of
25%.

18. _Straining Actions._--The external forces acting on a bridge may be
classified as follows:--

(1) The _live_ or _temporary load_, for road bridges the weight of a dense
crowd uniformly distributed, or the weight of a heavy wagon or traction
engine; for railway bridges the weight of the heaviest train likely to come
on the bridge. (2) An allowance is sometimes made for _impact_, that is the
dynamical action of the live load due to want of vertical balance in the
moving parts of locomotives, to irregularities of the permanent way, or to
yielding of the structure. (3) The _dead load_ comprises the weight of the
main girders, flooring and wind bracing, or the total weight of the
superstructure exclusive of any part directly carried by the piers. This is
usually treated as uniformly distributed over the span. (4) The _horizontal
pressure_ due to a wind blowing transversely to the span, which becomes of
importance in long and high bridges. (5) The _longitudinal drag_ due to the
friction of a train when braked, about one-seventh of the weight of the
train. (6) On a curved bridge the _centrifugal load_ due to the radical
acceleration of the train. If w is the weight of a locomotive in tons, r
the radius of curvature of the track, v the velocity in feet per sec.; then
the horizontal force exerted on the bridge is wv^2/gr tons. (7) In some
cases, especially in arch and suspension bridges, changes of temperature
set up stresses equivalent to those produced by an external load. In Europe
a variation of temperature of 70° C. or 126° F. is commonly assumed. For
this the expansion is about 1 in. in 100 ft. Generally a structure should
be anchored at one point and free to move if possible in other directions.
Roughly, if expansion is prevented, a stress of one ton per sq. in. is set
up in steel structures for each 12° change of temperature.

i. _Live Load on Road Bridges._--A dense crowd of people may be taken as a
uniform load of 80 to 120 lb per sq. ft. But in recent times the weight of
traction engines and wagons which pass over bridges has increased, and this
kind of load generally produces greater straining action than a crowd of
people. In manufacturing districts and near large towns loads of 30 tons
may come on road bridges, and county and borough authorities insist on
provision being made for such loads. In Switzerland roads are divided into
three classes according to their importance, and the following loads are
prescribed, the designer having to provide sufficient strength either for a
uniformly distributed crowd, or for a heavy wagon anywhere on the
roadway:-- [v.04 p.0547]

                     |      Crowd,     |          Wagon,
                     |  lb per sq. ft. |      tons per axle.
                     |                 |
  Main Roads ....... |       92        | 10 with 13 ft. wheel base
  Secondary Roads .. |       72        |  6  "   10  "      "
  Other Roads ...... |       51        |  3  "    8  "      "

In England still larger loads are now provided for. J.C. Inglis (_Proc.
Inst. C.E._ cxli. p. 35) has considered two cases--(a) a traction engine
and boiler trolley, and (b) a traction engine and trucks loaded with
granite. He has calculated the equivalent load per foot of span which would
produce the same maximum bending moments. The following are some of the
results:--

  Span Ft.                             |10. |20. |30. |40. |50. |
                                       |    |    |    |    |    |
  Equivalent load in tons per ft. run, |    |    |    |    |    |
  Case a ............................. |1.75|0.95|0.70|0.73|0.72|
  Do. Case b ......................... |3.25|1.7 |1.3 |1.2 |1.15|

Large as these loads are on short spans, they are not more than must often
be provided for.

_Live Load on Railway Bridges._--The live load is the weight of the
heaviest train which can come on the bridge. In the earlier girder bridges
the live load was taken to be equivalent to a uniform load of 1 ton per
foot run for each line of way. At that time locomotives on railways of 4
ft. 8½ in. gauge weighed at most 35 to 45 tons, and their length between
buffers was such that the average load did not exceed 1 ton per foot run.
Trains of wagons did not weigh more than three-quarters of a ton per foot
run when most heavily loaded. The weights of engines and wagons are now
greater, and in addition it is recognized that the concentration of the
loading at the axles gives rise to greater straining action, especially in
short bridges, than the same load uniformly distributed along the span.
Hence many of the earlier bridges have had to be strengthened to carry
modern traffic. The following examples of some of the heaviest locomotives
on English railways is given by W.B. Farr (_Proc. Inst. C.E._ cxli. p.
12):--

  _Passenger Engines._

  Total weights, tons ......... 84.35 | 98.90 | 91.90 | 85.48
  Tons per ft. over all .......  1.58 |  1.71 |  1.62 |  1.61
  Tons per ft. of wheel base ..  1.92 |  2.04 |  1.97 |  1.95
  Maximum axle load, tons ..... 19.00 | 16.00 | 18.70 | 18.50

  _Goods Engines._

  Total weight, tons .......... 77.90 | 78.80 | 76.46 | 75.65
  Tons per ft. over all .......  1.54 |  1.50 |  1.54 |  1.51
  Tons per ft. of wheel base ..  2.02 |  2.02 |  2.03 |  2.00
  Maximum axle load, tons ..... 15.90 | 16.00 | 13.65 | 15.50

  _Tank Engines._

  Total weight, tons .......... 53.80 | 58.61 | 60.80 | 47.00
  Tons per ft. over all .......  1.60 |  1.68 |  1.70 |  1.55
  Tons per ft. of wheel base ..  2.45 |  2.52 |  2.23 |  3.03
  Maximum axle load, tons ..... 17.54 | 15.29 | 17.10 | 15.77

Farr has drawn diagrams of bending moment for forty different very heavy
locomotives on different spans, and has determined for each case a uniform
load which at every point would produce as great a bending moment as the
actual wheel loads. The following short abstract gives the equivalent
uniform load which produces bending moments as great as those of any of the
engines calculated:--

  Span in Ft. |   Load per ft. run equivalent
              |  to actual Wheel Loads in Tons,
              |         for each Track.
              |
      5.0     |              7.6
     10.0     |              4.85
     20.0     |              3.20
     30.0     |              2.63
     50.0     |              2.24
    100.0     |              1.97

Fig. 36 gives the loads per axle and the distribution of loads in some
exceptionally heavy modern British locomotives.

[Illustration: Express Passenger Engine, G.N. Ry.]

[Illustration: Goods Engine, L. & Y. Ry.]

[Illustration: Passenger Engine, Cal. Ry.
FIG. 36.]

[v.04 p.0548] In Austria the official regulations require that railway
bridges shall be designed for at least the following live loads per foot
run and per track:--

  |      Span.     |       Live Load in Tons.      |
  | - - - - - - - -|- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -|
  |Metres. |  Ft.  | Per metre run. | Per ft. run. |
  |        |       |                |              |
  |   1    |  3.3  |      20        |      6.1     |
  |   2    |  6.6  |      15        |      4.6     |
  |   5    | 16.4  |      10        |      3.1     |
  |  20    | 65.6  |       5        |      1.5     |
  |  30    | 98.4  |       4        |      1.2     |

It would be simpler and more convenient in designing short bridges if,
instead of assuming an equivalent uniform rolling load, agreement could be
come to as to a typical heavy locomotive which would produce stresses as
great as any existing locomotive on each class of railway. Bridges would
then be designed for these selected loads, and the process would be safer
in dealing with flooring girders and shearing forces than the assumption of
a uniform load.

Some American locomotives are very heavy. Thus a consolidation engine may
weigh 126 tons with a length over buffers of 57 ft., corresponding to an
average load of 2.55 tons per ft. run. Also long ore wagons are used which
weigh loaded two tons per ft. run. J.A.L. Waddell (_De Pontibus_, New York,
1898) proposes to arrange railways in seven classes, according to the live
loads which may be expected from the character of their traffic, and to
construct bridges in accordance with this classification. For the lightest
class, he takes a locomotive and tender of 93.5 tons, 52 ft. between
buffers (average load 1.8 tons per ft. run), and for the heaviest a
locomotive and tender weighing 144.5 tons, 52 ft. between buffers (average
load 2.77 tons per ft. run). Wagons he assumes to weigh for the lightest
class 1.3 tons per ft. run and for the heaviest 1.9 tons. He takes as the
live load for a bridge two such engines, followed by a train of wagons
covering the span. Waddell's tons are short tons of 2000 lb.

ii. _Impact._--If a vertical load is imposed suddenly, but without
velocity, work is done during deflection, and the deformation and stress
are momentarily double those due to the same load at rest on the structure.
No load of exactly this kind is ever applied to a bridge. But if a load is
so applied that the deflection increases with speed, the stress is greater
than that due to a very gradually applied load, and vibrations about a mean
position are set up. The rails not being absolutely straight and smooth,
centrifugal and lurching actions occur which alter the distribution of the
loading. Again, rapidly changing forces, due to the moving parts of the
engine which are unbalanced vertically, act on the bridge; and, lastly,
inequalities of level at the rail ends give rise to shocks. For all these
reasons the stresses due to the live load are greater than those due to the
same load resting quietly on the bridge. This increment is larger on the
flooring girders than on the main ones, and on short main girders than on
long ones. The impact stresses depend so much on local conditions that it
is difficult to fix what allowance should be made. E.H. Stone (_Trans. Am.
Soc. of C.E._ xli. p. 467) collated some measurements of deflection taken
during official trials of Indian bridges, and found the increment of
deflection due to impact to depend on the ratio of dead to live load. By
plotting and averaging he obtained the following results:--

_Excess of Deflection and straining Action of a moving Load over that due
to a resting Load._

  Dead load in per cent |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
     of total load .... | 10 | 20 | 30 | 40 | 50 | 70 | 90 |
  Live load in per cent |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
     of total load .... | 90 | 80 | 70 | 60 | 50 | 30 | 10 |
  Ratio of live to dead |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
     load ............. |  9 |  4 |2.3 |1.5 |1.0 |0.43|0.10|
  Excess of deflection  |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
     and stress due to  |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
     moving load        |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
     per cent ......... | 23 | 13 |  8 |5.5 |4.0 |1.6 |0.3 |

These results are for the centre deflections of main girders, but Stone
infers that the augmentation of stress for any member, due to causes
included in impact allowance, will be the same percentage for the same
ratios of live to dead load stresses. Valuable measurements of the
deformations of girders and tension members due to moving trains have been
made by S.W. Robinson (_Trans. Am. Soc. C.E._ xvi.) and by F.E. Turneaure
(_Trans. Am. Soc. C.E._ xli.). The latter used a recording deflectometer
and two recording extensometers. The observations are difficult, and the
inertia of the instrument is liable to cause error, but much care was
taken. The most striking conclusions from the results are that the
locomotive balance weights have a large effect in causing vibration, and
next, that in certain cases the vibrations are cumulative, reaching a value
greater than that due to any single impact action. Generally: (1) At speeds
less than 25 m. an hour there is not much vibration. (2) The increase of
deflection due to impact at 40 or 50 m. an hour is likely to reach 40 to
50% for girder spans of less than 50 ft. (3) This percentage decreases
rapidly for longer spans, becoming about 25% for 75-ft. spans. (4) The
increase per cent of boom stresses due to impact is about the same as that
of deflection; that in web bracing bars is rather greater. (5) Speed of
train produces no effect on the mean deflection, but only on the magnitude
of the vibrations.

A purely empirical allowance for impact stresses has been proposed,
amounting to 20% of the live load stresses for floor stringers; 15% for
floor cross girders; and for main girders, 10% for 40-ft. spans, and 5% for
100-ft. spans. These percentages are added to the live load stresses.

iii. _Dead Load._--The dead load consists of the weight of main girders,
flooring and wind-bracing. It is generally reckoned to be uniformly
distributed, but in large spans the distribution of weight in the main
girders should be calculated and taken into account. The weight of the
bridge flooring depends on the type adopted. Road bridges vary so much in
the character of the flooring that no general rule can be given. In railway
bridges the weight of sleepers, rails, &c., is 0.2 to 0.25 tons per ft. run
for each line of way, while the rail girders, cross girders, &c., weigh
0.15 to 0.2 tons. If a footway is added about 0.4 ton per ft. run may be
allowed for this. The weight of main girders increases with the span, and
there is for any type of bridge a limiting span beyond which the dead load
stresses exceed the assigned limit of working stress.

Let W_l be the total live load, W_f the total flooring load on a bridge of
span l, both being considered for the present purpose to be uniform per ft.
run. Let k(W_l+W_f) be the weight of main girders designed to carry
W_l+W_f, but not their own weight in addition. Then

  W_g = (W_l+W_f)(k+k^2+k^3 ...)

will be the weight of main girders to carry W_l+W_f and their own weight
(Buck, _Proc. Inst. C.E._ lxvii. p. 331). Hence,

  W_g = (W_l+W_f)k/(1-k).

Since in designing a bridge W_l+W_f is known, k(W_l+W_f) can be found from
a provisional design in which the weight W_g is neglected. The actual
bridge must have the section of all members greater than those in the
provisional design in the ratio k/(1-k).

Waddell (_De Pontibus_) gives the following convenient empirical relations.
Let w_1, w_2 be the weights of main girders per ft. run for a live load p
per ft. run and spans l_1, l_2. Then

  w_2/w_1 = ½ [l_2/l_1+(l_2/l_1)^2].

Now let w_1', w_2' be the girder weights per ft. run for spans l_1, l_2,
and live loads p' per ft. run. Then

  w_2'/w_2 = 1/5(1+4p'/p)

  w_2'/w_1 = 1/10[l_2/l_1+(l_2/l_1)^2](1+4p'/p)

A partially rational approximate formula for the weight of main girders is
the following (Unwin, _Wrought Iron Bridges and Roofs_, 1869, p. 40):--

Let w = total live load per ft. run of girder; w_2 the weight of platform
per ft. run; w_3 the weight of main girders per ft. run, all in tons; l =
span in ft.; s = average stress in tons per sq. in. on gross section of
metal; d = depth of girder at centre in ft.; r = ratio of span to depth of
girder so that r = l/d. Then

  w_3 = (w_1+w_2)l^2/(Cds-l_2) = (w_1+w_2)lr/(Cs-lr),

where C is a constant for any type of girder. It is not easy to fix the
average stress s per sq. in. of gross section. Hence the formula is more
useful in the form

  w = (w_1+w_2)l^2/(Kd-l^2) = (w_1+w_2)lr/(K-lr)

where K = (w_1+w_2+w_3)lr/w_3 is to be deduced from the data of some bridge
previously designed with the same working stresses. From some known
examples, C varies from 1500 to 1800 for iron braced parallel or bowstring
girders, and from 1200 to 1500 for similar girders of steel. K = 6000 to
7200 for iron and = 7200 to 9000 for steel bridges.

iv. _Wind Pressure._--Much attention has been given to wind action since
the disaster to the Tay bridge in 1879. As to the maximum wind pressure on
small plates normal to the wind, there is not much doubt. Anemometer
observations show that pressures of 30 lb per sq. ft. occur in storms
annually in many localities, and that occasionally higher pressures are
recorded in exposed positions. Thus at Bidstone, Liverpool, where the gauge
has an exceptional exposure, a pressure of 80 lb per sq. ft. has been
observed. In tornadoes, such as that at St Louis in 1896, it has been
calculated, from the stability of structures overturned, that pressures of
45 to 90 lb per sq. ft. must have been reached. As to anemometer pressures,
it should be observed that the recorded pressure is made up of a positive
front and negative (vacuum) back pressure, but in structures the latter
must be absent or only partially developed. Great difference of opinion
exists as to whether on large surfaces the average pressure per sq. ft. is
as great as on small surfaces, such as anemometer plates. The experiments
of Sir B. Baker at the Forth bridge showed that on a surface 30 ft. × 15
ft. the intensity of pressure was less than on a similarly exposed
anemometer plate. In the case of bridges there is the further difficulty
that some surfaces partially [v.04 p.0549] shield other surfaces; one
girder, for instance, shields the girder behind it (see _Brit. Assoc.
Report_, 1884). In 1881 a committee of the Board of Trade decided that the
maximum wind pressure on a vertical surface in Great Britain should be
assumed in designing structures to be 56 lb per sq. ft. For a plate girder
bridge of less height than the train, the wind is to be taken to act on a
surface equal to the projected area of one girder and the exposed part of a
train covering the bridge. In the case of braced girder bridges, the wind
pressure is taken as acting on a continuous surface extending from the
rails to the top of the carriages, plus the vertical projected area of so
much of one girder as is exposed above the train or below the rails. In
addition, an allowance is made for pressure on the leeward girder according
to a scale. The committee recommended that a factor of safety of 4 should
be taken for wind stresses. For safety against overturning they considered
a factor of 2 sufficient. In the case of bridges not subject to Board of
Trade inspection, the allowance for wind pressure varies in different
cases. C. Shaler Smith allows 300 lb per ft. run for the pressure on the
side of a train, and in addition 30 lb per sq. ft. on twice the vertical
projected area of one girder, treating the pressure on the train as a
travelling load. In the case of bridges of less than 50 ft. span he also
provides strength to resist a pressure of 50 lb per sq. ft. on twice the
vertical projection of one truss, no train being supposed to be on the
bridge.

19. _Stresses Permitted._--For a long time engineers held the convenient
opinion that, if the total dead and live load stress on any section of a
structure (of iron) did not exceed 5 tons per sq. in., ample safety was
secured. It is no longer possible to design by so simple a rule. In an
interesting address to the British Association in 1885, Sir B. Baker
described the condition of opinion as to the safe limits of stress as
chaotic. "The old foundations," he said, "are shaken, and engineers have
not come to an agreement respecting the rebuilding of the structure. The
variance in the strength of existing bridges is such as to be apparent to
the educated eye without any calculation. In the present day engineers are
in accord as to the principles of estimating the magnitude of the stresses
on the members of a structure, but not so in proportioning the members to
resist those stresses. The practical result is that a bridge which would be
passed by the English Board of Trade would require to be strengthened 5% in
some parts and 60% in others, before it would be accepted by the German
government, or by any of the leading railway companies in America." Sir B.
Baker then described the results of experiments on repetition of stress,
and added that "hundreds of existing bridges which carry twenty trains a
day with perfect safety would break down quickly under twenty trains an
hour. This fact was forced on my attention nearly twenty-five years ago by
the fracture of a number of girders of ordinary strength under a
five-minutes' train service."

Practical experience taught engineers that though 5 tons per sq. in. for
iron, or 6½ tons per sq. in. for steel, was safe or more than safe for long
bridges with large ratio of dead to live load, it was not safe for short
ones in which the stresses are mainly due to live load, the weight of the
bridge being small. The experiments of A. Wöhler, repeated by Johann
Bauschinger, Sir B. Baker and others, show that the breaking stress of a
bar is not a fixed quantity, but depends on the range of variation of
stress to which it is subjected, if that variation is repeated a very large
number of times. Let K be the breaking strength of a bar per unit of
section, when it is loaded once gradually to breaking. This may be termed
the statical breaking strength. Let k_{max.} be the breaking strength of
the same bar when subjected to stresses varying from k_{max.} to k_{min.}
alternately and repeated an indefinitely great number of times; k_{min.} is
to be reckoned + if of the same kind as k_{max.} and - if of the opposite
kind (tension or thrust). The range of stress is therefore
k_{max.}-k_{min.}, if the stresses are both of the same kind, and
k_{max.}+k_{min.}, if they are of opposite kinds. Let [Delta] = k_{max.} ±
k_{min.} = the range of stress, where [Delta] is always positive. Then
Wöhler's results agree closely with the rule,

  k_{max.} = ½[Delta]+[root](K²-n[Delta]K),

where n is a constant which varies from 1.3 to 2 in various qualities of
iron and steel. For ductile iron or mild steel it may be taken as 1.5. For
a statical load, range of stress nil, [Delta] = 0, k_{max.} = K, the
statical breaking stress. For a bar so placed that it is alternately loaded
and the load removed, [Delta] = k_{max.} and k_{max.} = 0.6 K. For a bar
subjected to alternate tension and compression of equal amount, [Delta] = 2
f_{max.} and k_{max.} = 0.33 K. The safe working stress in these different
cases is k_{max.} divided by the factor of safety. It is sometimes said
that a bar is "fatigued" by repeated straining. The real nature of the
action is not well understood, but the word fatigue may be used, if it is
not considered to imply more than that the breaking stress under repetition
of loading diminishes as the range of variation increases.

It was pointed out as early as 1869 (Unwin, _Wrought Iron Bridges and
Roofs_) that a rational method of fixing the working stress, so far as
knowledge went at that time, would be to make it depend on the ratio of
live to dead load, and in such a way that the factor of safety for the live
load stresses was double that for the dead load stresses. Let A be the dead
load and B the live load, producing stress in a bar; [rho] = B/A the ratio
of live to dead load; f_1 the safe working limit of stress for a bar
subjected to a dead load only and f the safe working stress in any other
case. Then

  f_1 (A+B)/(A+2B) = f_1(1+[rho])/(1+2[rho]).

The following table gives values of f so computed on the assumption that
f_1 = 7½ tons per sq. in. for iron and 9 tons per sq. in. for steel.

_Working Stress for combined Dead and Live Load. Factor of Safety twice as
great for Live Load as for Dead Load._

  ----------------------+-------+----------+-----------------------------+
                        | Ratio | 1+[rho]  |Values of f, tons per sq. in.|
                        | [rho] | -------  +-----------------------------+
                        |       | 1+2[rho] |      Iron.     | Mild Steel.|
  ----------------------+-------+----------+----------------+------------+
  All dead load         |     0 |   1.00   |       7.5      |     9.0    |
                        |   .25 |   0.83   |       6.2      |     7.5    |
                        |   .33 |   0.78   |       5.8      |     7.0    |
                        |   .50 |   0.75   |       5.6      |     6.8    |
                        |   .66 |   0.71   |       5.3      |     6.4    |
  Live load = Dead load |  1.00 |   0.66   |       4.9      |     5.9    |
                        |  2.00 |   0.60   |       4.5      |     5.4    |
                        |  4.00 |   0.56   |       4.2      |     5.0    |
  All live load         | [inf] |   0.50   |       3.7      |     4.5    |
  ----------------------+-------+----------+----------------+------------+

Bridge sections designed by this rule differ little from those designed by
formulae based directly on Wöhler's experiments. This rule has been revived
in America, and appears to be increasingly relied on in bridge-designing.
(See _Trans. Am. Soc. C.E._ xli. p. 156.)

The method of J.J. Weyrauch and W. Launhardt, based on an empirical
expression for Wöhler's law, has been much used in bridge designing (see
_Proc. Inst. C.E._ lxiii. p. 275). Let t be the _statical breaking
strength_ of a bar, loaded once gradually up to fracture (t = breaking load
divided by original area of section); u the breaking strength of a bar
loaded and unloaded an indefinitely great number of times, the stress
varying from u to 0 alternately (this is termed the _primitive strength_);
and, lastly, let s be the breaking strength of a bar subjected to an
indefinitely great number of repetitions of stresses equal and opposite in
sign (tension and thrust), so that the stress ranges alternately from s to
-s. This is termed the _vibration strength_. Wöhler's and Bauschinger's
experiments give values of t, u, and s, for some materials. If a bar is
subjected to alternations of stress having the range [Delta] =
f_{max.}-f_{min.}, then, by Wöhler's law, the bar will ultimately break, if

  f_{max.} = F[Delta], . . . (1)

where F is some unknown function. Launhardt found that, for stresses always
of the same kind, F = (t-u)/(t-f_{max.}) approximately agreed with
experiment. For stresses of different kinds Weyrauch found F =
(u-s)/(2u-s-f_{max.}) to be similarly approximate. Now let
f_{max.}/f_{min.} = [phi], where [phi] is + or - according as the stresses
are of the same or opposite signs. Putting the values of F in (1) and
solving for f_{max.}, we get for the breaking stress of a bar subjected to
repetition of varying stress,

  f_{max.} = u(1+(t-u)[phi]/u)   [Stresses of same sign.]
  f_{max.} = u(1+(u-s)[phi]/u)   [Stresses of opposite sign.]

The working stress in any case is f_{max.} divided by a factor of safety.
Let that factor be 3. Then Wöhler's results for iron and Bauschinger's for
steel give the following equations for tension or thrust:--

  Iron, working stress, f = 4.4 (1+½[phi])
  Steel, working stress, f = 5.87 (1+½[phi]).

In these equations [phi] is to have its + or - value according to the case
considered. For shearing stresses the working stress may have 0.8 of its
value for tension. The following table gives values of the working stress
calculated by these equations:--

_Working Stress for Tension or Thrust by Launhardt and Weyrauch Formula._

  ------------------------+-------+-----------+--------------------+
                          | [phi] |     [phi] | Working Stress f,  |
                          |       | 1 + ----- |  tons per sq. in.  |
                          |       |       2   +--------------------+
                          |       |           |  Iron.   | Steel.  |
  ------------------------+-------+-----------+--------------------+
  All dead load           |  1.0  |   1.5     |   6.60   |  8.80   |
                          |  0.75 |   1.375   |   6.05   |  8.07   |
                          |  0.50 |   1.25    |   5.50   |  7.34   |
                          |  0.25 |   1.125   |   4.95   |  6.60   |
  All live load           |  0.00 |   1.00    |   4.40   |  5.87   |
                          | -0.25 |   0.875   |   3.85   |  5.14   |
                          | -0.50 |   0.75    |   3.30   |  4.40   |
                          | -0.75 |   0.625   |   2.75   |  3.67   |
  Equal stresses + and -  | -1.00 |   0.500   |   2.20   |  2.93   |
  ------------------------+-------+-----------+--------------------+

[v.04 p.0550] To compare this with the previous table, [phi] = (A+B)/A =
1+[rho]. Except when the limiting stresses are of opposite sign, the two
tables agree very well. In bridge work this occurs only in some of the
bracing bars.

It is a matter of discussion whether, if fatigue is allowed for by the
Weyrauch method, an additional allowance should be made for impact. There
was no impact in Wöhler's experiments, and therefore it would seem rational
to add the impact allowance to that for fatigue; but in that case the
bridge sections become larger than experience shows to be necessary. Some
engineers escape this difficulty by asserting that Wöhler's results are not
applicable to bridge work. They reject the allowance for fatigue (that is,
the effect of repetition) and design bridge members for the total dead and
live load, plus a large allowance for impact varied according to some
purely empirical rule. (See Waddell, _De Pontibus_, p.7.) Now in applying
Wöhler's law, f_{max.} for any bridge member is found for the maximum
possible live load, a live load which though it may sometimes come on the
bridge and must therefore be provided for, is not the usual live load to
which the bridge is subjected. Hence the range of stress,
f_{max.}-f_{min.}, from which the working stress is deduced, is not the
ordinary range of stress which is repeated a practically infinite number of
times, but is a range of stress to which the bridge is subjected only at
comparatively long intervals. Hence practically it appears probable that
the allowance for fatigue made in either of the tables above is sufficient
to cover the ordinary effects of impact also.

English bridge-builders are somewhat hampered in adopting rational limits
of working stress by the rules of the Board of Trade. Nor do they all
accept the guidance of Wöhler's law. The following are some examples of
limits adopted. For the Dufferin bridge (steel) the working stress was
taken at 6.5 tons per sq. in. in bottom booms and diagonals, 6.0 tons in
top booms, 5.0 tons in verticals and long compression members. For the
Stanley bridge at Brisbane the limits were 6.5 tons per sq. in. in
compression boom, 7.0 tons in tension boom, 5.0 tons in vertical struts,
6.5 tons in diagonal ties, 8.0 tons in wind bracing, and 6.5 tons in cross
and rail girders. In the new Tay bridge the limit of stress is generally 5
tons per sq. in., but in members in which the stress changes sign 4 tons
per sq. in. In the Forth bridge for members in which the stress varied from
0 to a maximum frequently, the limit was 5.0 tons per sq. in., or if the
stress varied rarely 5.6 tons per sq. in.; for members subjected to
alternations of tension and thrust frequently 3.3 tons per sq. in. or 5
tons per sq. in. if the alternations were infrequent. The shearing area of
rivets in tension members was made 1½ times the useful section of plate in
tension. For compression members the shearing area of rivets in butt-joints
was made half the useful section of plate in compression.

[Illustration: FIG. 37.]

20. _Determination of Stresses in the Members of Bridges._--It is
convenient to consider beam girder or truss bridges, and it is the stresses
in the main girders which primarily require to be determined. A main girder
consists of an upper and lower flange, boom or chord and a vertical web.
The loading forces to be considered are vertical, the horizontal forces due
to wind pressure are treated separately and provided for by a horizontal
system of bracing. For practical purposes it is accurate enough to consider
the booms or chords as carrying exclusively the horizontal tension and
compression and the web as resisting the whole of the vertical and, in a
plate web, the equal horizontal shearing forces. Let fig. 37 represent a
beam with any system of loads W_1, W_2, ... W_n.

The reaction at the right abutment is

  R_2 = W_1x_1/l+W_2x_2/l+...

That at the left abutment is

  R_1 = W_1+W_2+...-R_2.

Consider any section a b. The total shear at a b is

  S = R-[Sigma](W_1+W_2 ...)

where the summation extends to all the loads to the left of the section.
Let p_1, p_2 ... be the distances of the loads from a b, and p the distance
of R_1 from a b; then the bending moment at a b is

  M = R_1p-[Sigma](W_1p_1+W_2p_2 ...)

where the summation extends to all the loads to the left of a b. If the
loads on the right of the section are considered the expressions are
similar and give the same results.

If A_t A_c are the cross sections of the tension and compression flanges or
chords, and h the distance between their mass centres, then on the
assumption that they resist all the direct horizontal forces the total
stress on each flange is

  H_t = H_c = M/h

and the intensity of stress of tension or compression is

  f_t = M/A_th,
  f_c = M/A_ch.

If A is the area of the plate web in a vertical section, the intensity of
shearing stress is

  f_x = S/A

and the intensity on horizontal sections is the same. If the web is a
braced web, then the vertical component of the stress in the web bars cut
by the section must be equal to S.

[Illustration: FIG. 38.]

21. _Method of Sections. A. Ritter's Method._--In the case of braced
structures the following method is convenient: When a section of a girder
can be taken cutting only three bars, the stresses in the bars can be found
by taking moments. In fig. 38 m n cuts three bars, and the forces in the
three bars cut by the section are C, S and T. There are to the left of the
section the external forces, R, W_1, W_2. Let s be the perpendicular from
O, the join of C and T on the direction of S; t the perpendicular from A,
the join of C and S on the direction of T; and c the perpendicular from B,
the join of S and T on the direction of C. Taking moments about O,

  R_x-W_1(x+a)-W_2(x+2a) = Ss;

taking moments about A,

  R3a-W_12a-W_2a = Tt;

and taking moments about B,

  R2a-W_1a = Cc

Or generally, if M_1 M_2 M_3 are the moments of the external forces to the
left of O, A, and B respectively, and s, t and c the perpendiculars from O,
A and B on the directions of the forces cut by the section, then

  Ss = M_1; Tt = M_2 and Cc = M_3.

Still more generally if H is the stress on any bar, h the perpendicular
distance from the join of the other two bars cut by the section, and M is
the moment of the forces on one side of that join,

  Hh = M.

[Illustration: Fig. 39.]

[Illustration: Fig. 40.]

22. _Distribution of Bending Moment and Shearing Force._--Let a girder of
span l, fig. 39, supported at the ends, carry a fixed load W at m from the
right abutment. The reactions at the abutments are R_1 = Wm/l and R_2 =
W(l-m)/l. The shears on vertical sections to the left and right of the load
are R_1 and -R_2, and the distribution of shearing force is given by two
rectangles. Bending moment increases uniformly from either abutment to the
load, at which the bending moment is M = R_2m = R_1(l-m). The distribution
of bending moment is given by the ordinates of a triangle. Next let the
girder carry a uniform load w per ft. run (fig. 40). The total load [v.04
p.0551] is wl; the reactions at abutments, R_1 = R_2 = ½wl. The
distribution of shear on vertical sections is given by the ordinates of a
sloping line. The greatest bending moment is at the centre and = M_c =
1/8wl^2. At any point x from the abutment, the bending moment is M =
½wx(l-x), an equation to a parabola.

[Illustration: Fig. 41.]

[Illustration: Fig. 42.]

23. _Shear due to Travelling Loads._--Let a uniform train weighing w per
ft. run advance over a girder of span 2c, from the left abutment. When it
covers the girder to a distance x from the centre (fig. 41) the total load
is w(c+x); the reaction at B is

  R_2 = w(c+x)×(c+x)/4c = w/4c(c+x)²,

[Illustration: FIG. 41.]

[Illustration: FIG. 42.]

which is also the shearing force at C for that position of the load. As the
load travels, the shear at the head of the train will be given by the
ordinates of a parabola having its vertex at A, and a maximum F_{max.} =
-½wl at B. If the load travels the reverse way, the shearing force at the
head of the train is given by the ordinates of the dotted parabola. The
greatest shear at C for any position of the load occurs when the head of
the train is at C. For any load p between C and B will increase the
reaction at B and therefore the shear at C by part of p, but at the same
time will diminish the shear at C by the whole of p. The web of a girder
must resist the maximum shear, and, with a travelling load like a railway
train, this is greater for partial than for complete loading. Generally a
girder supports both a dead and a live load. The distribution of total
shear, due to a dead load w_l per ft. run and a travelling load w_l per ft.
run, is shown in fig. 42, arranged so that the dead load shear is added to
the maximum travelling load shear of the same sign.

[Illustration: FIG. 43.]

24. _Counterbracing._--In the case of girders with braced webs, the tension
bars of which are not adapted to resist a thrust, another circumstance due
to the position of the live load must be considered. For a train advancing
from the left, the travelling load shear in the left half of the span is of
a different sign from that due to the dead load. Fig. 43 shows the maximum
shear at vertical sections due to a dead and travelling load, the latter
advancing (fig. 43, a) from the left and (fig. 43, b) from the right
abutment. Comparing the figures it will be seen that over a distance x near
the middle of the girder the shear changes sign, according as the load
advances from the left or the right. The bracing bars, therefore, for this
part of the girder must be adapted to resist either tension or thrust.
Further, the range of stress to which they are subjected is the sum of the
stresses due to the load advancing from the left or the right.

[Illustration: FIG. 44.]

[Illustration: FIG. 45.]

[Illustration: FIG. 46.]

25. _Greatest Shear when concentrated Loads travel over the Bridge._--To
find the greatest shear with a set of concentrated loads at fixed
distances, let the loads advance from the left abutment, and let C be the
section at which the shear is required (fig. 44). The greatest shear at C
may occur with W_1 at C. If W_1 passes beyond C, the shear at C will
probably be greatest when W_2 is at C. Let R be the resultant of the loads
on the bridge when W_1 is at C. Then the reaction at B and shear at C is
Rn/l. Next let the loads advance a distance a so that W_2 comes to C. Then
the shear at C is R(n+a)/l-W_1, plus any reaction d at B, due to any
additional load which has come on the girder during the movement. The shear
will therefore be increased by bringing W_2 to C, if Ra/l+d > W_1 and d is
generally small and negligible. This result is modified if the action of
the load near the section is distributed to the bracing intersections by
rail and cross girders. In fig. 45 the action of W is distributed to A and
B by the flooring. Then the loads at A and B are W(p-x)/p and Wx/p. Now let
C (fig. 46) be the section at which the greatest shear is required, and let
the loads advance from the left till W_1 is at C. If R is the resultant of
the loads then on the girder, the reaction at B and shear at C is Rn/l. But
the shear may be greater when W_2 is at C. In that case the shear at C
becomes R(n+a)/l+d-W_1, if a > p, and R(n+a)/l+d-W_1a/p, if a < p. If we
neglect d, then the shear increases by moving W_2 to C, if Ra/l > W_1 in
the first case, and if Ra/l > W_1a/p in the second case.

[Illustration: FIG. 47.]

[Illustration: FIG. 48.]

26. _Greatest Bending Moment due to travelling concentrated Loads._--For
the greatest bending moment due to a travelling live load, let a load of w
per ft. run advance from the left abutment (fig. 47), and let its centre be
at x from the left abutment. The reaction at B is 2wx²/l and the bending
moment at any section C, at m from the left abutment, is 2wx²/(l-m)/l,
which increases as x increases till the span is covered. Hence, for uniform
travelling loads, the bending moments are greatest when the loading is
complete. In that case the loads on either side of C are proportional to m
and l-m. In the case of a series of travelling loads at fixed distances
apart passing over the girder from the left, let W_1, W_2 (fig. 48), at
distances x and x+a from the left abutment, be their resultants on either
side of C. Then the reaction at B is W_1x/l+W_2(x+a)/l. The bending moment
at C is

  M = W_1x(l-m)/l+W_2m{1-(x+a)/l}.

If the loads are moved a distance [Delta]x to the right, the bending moment
becomes

  M+[Delta]M = W_1(x+[Delta]x)(l-m)/l+W_2m{1-(x+[Delta]x+a)/l}
          [Delta]m = W_1[Delta]x(l-m)/l-W_2[Delta]xm/l,

and this is positive or the bending moment increases, if W_1(l-m) > W_2m,
or if W_1/m > W_2/(l-m). But these are the average loads per ft. run to the
left and right of C. Hence, if the average load to the left of a section is
greater than that to the right, the bending moment at the section will be
increased by moving the loads to the right, and vice versa. Hence the
maximum bending moment at C for a series of travelling loads will occur
when the average load is the same on either side of C. If one of the loads
is at C, spread over a very small distance in the neighbourhood of C, then
a very small displacement of the loads will permit the fulfilment of the
condition. Hence the criterion for the position of the loads which makes
the moment at C greatest is this: one load must be at C, and the other
loads must be distributed, so that the average loads per ft. on either side
of C (the load at C being neglected) are nearly equal. If the loads are
very unequal in magnitude or distance this condition may be satisfied for
more than one position of the loads, but it is not difficult to ascertain
which position gives the maximum moment. Generally one of the largest of
the loads must be at C with as many others to right and left as is
consistent with that condition.

[Illustration: FIG. 49.]

This criterion may be stated in another way. The greatest bending moment
will occur with one of the greatest loads at the section, and when this
further condition is satisfied. Let fig. 49 represent a beam with the
series of loads travelling from the right. Let a b be [v.04 p.0552] the
section considered, and let W_x be the load at a b when the bending moment
there is greatest, and W_n the last load to the right then on the bridge.
Then the position of the loads must be that which satisfies the condition

    x                W_1+W_2+... W_{x-1}
   --- greater than ------------------------
    l                W_1+W_2+... W_n

       x             W_1+W_2+... W_x
      --- less than ------------------------
       l             W_1+W_2+... W_n

[Illustration: FIG. 50.]

Fig. 50 shows the curve of bending moment under one of a series of
travelling loads at fixed distances. Let W_1, W_2, W_3 traverse the girder
from the left at fixed distances a, b. For the position shown the
distribution of bending moment due to W_1 is given by ordinates of the
triangle A'CB'; that due to W_2 by ordinates of A'DB'; and that due to W_3
by ordinates A'EB'. The total moment at W_1, due to three loads, is the sum
mC+mn+mo of the intercepts which the triangle sides cut off from the
vertical under W_1. As the loads move over the girder, the points C, D, E
describe the parabolas M_1, M_2, M_3, the middle ordinates of which are
¼W_1l, ¼W_2l, and ¼W_3l. If these are first drawn it is easy, for any
position of the loads, to draw the lines B'C, B'D, B'E, and to find the sum
of the intercepts which is the total bending moment under a load. The lower
portion of the figure is the curve of bending moments under the leading
load. Till W_1 has advanced a distance a only one load is on the girder,
and the curve A"F gives bending moments due to W_1 only; as W_1 advances to
a distance a+b, two loads are on the girder, and the curve FG gives moments
due to W_1 and W_2. GB" is the curve of moments for all three loads
W_1+W_2+W_3.

[Illustration: FIG. 51.]

Fig. 51 shows maximum bending moment curves for an extreme case of a short
bridge with very unequal loads. The three lightly dotted parabolas are the
curves of maximum moment for each of the loads taken separately. The three
heavily dotted curves are curves of maximum moment under each of the loads,
for the three loads passing over the bridge, at the given distances, from
left to right. As might be expected, the moments are greatest in this case
at the sections under the 15-ton load. The heavy continuous line gives the
last-mentioned curve for the reverse direction of passage of the loads.

With short bridges it is best to draw the curve of maximum bending moments
for some assumed typical set of loads in the way just described, and to
design the girder accordingly. For longer bridges the funicular polygon
affords a method of determining maximum bending moments which is perhaps
more convenient. But very great accuracy in drawing this curve is
unnecessary, because the rolling stock of railways varies so much that the
precise magnitude and distribution of the loads which will pass over a
bridge cannot be known. All that can be done is to assume a set of loads
likely to produce somewhat severer straining than any probable actual
rolling loads. Now, except for very short bridges and very unequal loads, a
parabola can be found which includes the curve of maximum moments. This
parabola is the curve of maximum moments for a travelling load uniform per
ft. run. Let w_e be the load per ft. run which would produce the maximum
moments represented by this parabola. Then w_e may be termed the uniform
load per ft. equivalent to any assumed set of concentrated loads. Waddell
has calculated tables of such equivalent uniform loads. But it is not
difficult to find w_e, approximately enough for practical purposes, very
simply. Experience shows that (a) a parabola having the same ordinate at
the centre of the span, or (b) a parabola having the same ordinate at
one-quarter span as the curve of maximum moments, agrees with it closely
enough for practical designing. A criterion already given shows the
position of any set of loads which will produce the greatest bending moment
at the centre of the bridge, or at one-quarter span. Let M_c and M_a be
those moments. At a section distant x from the centre of a girder of span
2c, the bending moment due to a uniform load w_e per ft run is

  M = ½w_e(c-x)(c+x).

Putting x = 0, for the centre section

  M_c = ½w_ec^2;

and putting x = ½c, for section at quarter span

  M_a = 3/8w_ec^2.

From these equations a value of w_e can be obtained. Then the bridge is
designed, so far as the direct stresses are concerned, for bending moments
due to a uniform dead load and the uniform equivalent load w_e.

[Illustration: FIG. 52.]

27. _Influence Lines._--In dealing with the action of travelling loads much
assistance may be obtained by using a line termed an _influence line_. Such
a line has for abscissa the distance of a load from one end of a girder,
and for ordinate the bending moment or shear at any given section, or on
any member, due to that load. Generally the influence line is drawn for
unit load. In fig. 52 let A'B' be a girder supported at the ends and let it
be required to investigate the bending moment at C' due to unit load in any
position on the girder. When the load is at F', the reaction at B' is m/l
and the moment at C' is m(l-x)/l, which will be reckoned positive, when it
resists a tendency of the right-hand part of the girder to turn
counter-clockwise. Projecting A'F'C'B' on to the horizontal AB, take Ff =
m(l-x)/l, the moment at C of unit load at F. If this process is repeated
for all positions of the load, we get the influence line AGB for the
bending moment at C. The area AGB is termed the influence area. The
greatest moment CG at C is x(l-x)/l. To use this line to investigate the
maximum moment at C due to a series of travelling loads at fixed distances,
let P_1, P_2, P_3, ... be the loads which at the moment considered are at
distances m_1, m_2, ... from the left abutment. Set off these distances
along AB and let y_1, y_2, ... be the corresponding ordinates of the
influence curve (y = Ff) on the verticals under the loads. Then the moment
at C due to all the loads is

  M = P_1y_1+P_2y_2+...

[v.04 p.0553] [Illustration: FIG. 53.]

The position of the loads which gives the greatest moment at C may be
settled by the criterion given above. For a uniform travelling load w per
ft. of span, consider a small interval Fk = [Delta]m on which the load is
w[Delta]m. The moment due to this, at C, is wm(l-x)[Delta]m/l. But
m(l-x)[Delta]m/l is the area of the strip Ffhk, that is y[Delta]m. Hence
the moment of the load on [Delta]m at C is wy[Delta]m, and the moment of a
uniform load over any portion of the girder is w × the area of the
influence curve under that portion. If the scales are so chosen that a inch
represents 1 in. ton of moment, and b inch represents 1 ft. of span, and w
is in tons per ft. run, then ab is the unit of area in measuring the
influence curve.

If the load is carried by a rail girder (stringer) with cross girders at
the intersections of bracing and boom, its effect is distributed to the
bracing intersections D'E' (fig. 53), and the part of the influence line
for that bay (panel) is altered. With unit load in the position shown, the
load at D' is (p-n)/p, and that at E' is n/p. The moment of the load at C
is m(l-x)/l-n(p-n)/p. This is the equation to the dotted line RS (fig. 52).

[Illustration: FIG. 54.]

[Illustration: FIG. 55]

If the unit load is at F', the reaction at B' and the shear at C' is m/l,
positive if the shearing stress resists a tendency of the part of the
girder on the right to move upwards; set up Ff = m/l (fig. 54) on the
vertical under the load. Repeating the process for other positions, we get
the influence line AGHB, for the shear at C due to unit load anywhere on
the girder. GC = x/l and CH = -(l-x)/l. The lines AG, HB are parallel. If
the load is in the bay D'E' and is carried by a rail girder which
distributes it to cross girders at D'E', the part of the influence line
under this bay is altered. Let n (Fig. 55) be the distance of the load from
D', x_1 the distance of D' from the left abutment, and p the length of a
bay. The loads at D', E, due to unit weight on the rail girder are (p-n)/p
and n/p. The reaction at B' is {(p-n)x_1+n(x_1+p)}/pl. The shear at C' is
the reaction at B' less the load at E', that is, {p(x_1+n)-nl}/pl, which is
the equation to the line DH (fig. 54). Clearly, the distribution of the
load by the rail girder considerably alters the distribution of shear due
to a load in the bay in which the section considered lies. The total shear
due to a series of loads P_1, P_2, ... at distances m_1, m_2, ... from the
left abutment, y_1, y_2, ... being the ordinates of the influence curve
under the loads, is S = P_1y_1+P_2y_2+.... Generally, the greatest shear S
at C will occur when the longer of the segments into which C divides the
girder is fully loaded and the other is unloaded, the leading load being at
C. If the loads are very unequal or unequally spaced, a trial or two will
determine which position gives the greatest value of S. The greatest shear
at C' of the opposite sign to that due to the loading of the longer segment
occurs with the shorter segment loaded. For a uniformly distributed load w
per ft. run the shear at C is w × the area of the influence curve under the
segment covered by the load, attention being paid to the sign of the area
of the curve. If the load rests directly on the main girder, the greatest +
and - shears at C will be w × AGC and -w × CHB. But if the load is
distributed to the bracing intersections by rail and cross girders, then
the shear at C' will be greatest when the load extends to N, and will have
the values w × ADN and -w × NEB. An interesting paper by F.C. Lea, dealing
with the determination of stress due to concentrated loads, by the method
of influence lines will be found in _Proc. Inst. C.E._ clxi. p.261.

Influence lines were described by Fränkel, _Der Civilingenieur_, 1876. See
also _Handbuch der Ingenieur-wissenschaften_, vol. ii. ch. x. (1882), and
Levy, _La Statique graphique_ (1886). There is a useful paper by Prof. G.F.
Swain (_Trans. Am. Soc. C.E._ xvii., 1887), and another by L.M. Hoskins
(_Proc. Am. Soc. C.E._ xxv., 1899).

[Illustration: FIG. 56.]

28. _Eddy's Method._--Another method of investigating the maximum shear at
a section due to any distribution of a travelling load has been given by
Prof. H.T. Eddy (_Trans. Am. Soc. C.E._ xxii., 1890). Let hk (fig. 56)
represent in magnitude and position a load W, at x from the left abutment,
on a girder AB of span l. Lay off kf, hg, horizontal and equal to l. Join f
and g to h and k. Draw verticals at A, B, and join no. Obviously no is
horizontal and equal to l. Also mn/mf = hk/kf or mn-W(l-x)/l, which is the
reaction at A due to the load at C, and is the shear at any point of AC.
Similarly, po is the reaction at B and shear at any point of CB. The shaded
rectangles represent the distribution of shear due to the load at C, while
no may be termed the datum line of shear. Let the load move to D, so that
its distance from the left abutment is x+a. Draw a vertical at D,
intersecting fh, kg, in s and q. Then qr/ro = hk/hg or ro = W(l-x-a)/l,
which is the reaction at A and shear at any point of AD, for the new
position of the load. Similarly, rs = W(x+a)/l is the shear on DB. The
distribution of shear is given by the partially shaded rectangles. For the
application of this method to a series of loads Prof. Eddy's paper must be
referred to.

29. _Economic Span._--In the case of a bridge of many spans, there is a
length of span which makes the cost of the bridge least. The cost of
abutments and bridge flooring is practically independent of the length of
span adopted. Let P be the cost of one pier; C the cost of the main girders
for one span, erected; n the number of spans; l the length of one span, and
L the length of the bridge between abutments. Then, n = L/l nearly. Cost of
piers (n-1)P. Cost of main girders nG. The cost of a pier will not vary
materially with the span adopted. It depends mainly on the character of the
foundations and height at which the bridge is carried. The cost of the main
girders for one span will vary nearly as the square of the span for any
given type of girder and intensity of live load. That is, G = al², where a
is a constant. Hence the total cost of that part of the bridge which varies
with the span adopted is--

  C = (n-i)P+nal²
    = LP/l-P+Lal.

Differentiating and equating to zero, the cost is least when

  dC     LP
  -- = - -- + La = 0,
  dl     l²

  /*
      P = al² = G;

that is, when the cost of one pier is equal to the cost erected of the main
girders of one span. Sir Guilford Molesworth puts this in a convenient but
less exact form. Let G be the cost of superstructure of a 100-ft. span
erected, and P the cost of one pier with its protection. Then the economic
span is l = 100[root]P/[root]G.

30. _Limiting Span._--If the weight of the main girders of a bridge, per
ft. run in tons, is--

  w_3 = (w_1+w_2)lr/(K-lr)

according to a formula already given, then w_3 becomes infinite if k-lr =
0, or if

  l = K/r,

[v.04 p.0554] where l is the span in feet and r is the ratio of span to
depth of girder at centre. Taking K for steel girders as 7200 to 9000,

                        Limiting Span in Ft.
          r = 12          l = 600 to 750
            = 10            = 720 to 900
            =  8            = 900 to 1120

[Illustration: FIG. 58.]

[Illustration: FIG. 59.]

[Illustration: FIG. 60.]

In a three-span bridge continuous girders are lighter than discontinuous
ones by about 45% for the dead load and 15% for the live load, if no
allowance is made for ambiguity due to uncertainty as to the level of the
supports. The cantilever and suspended girder types are as economical and
free from uncertainty as to the stresses. In long-span bridges the
cantilever system permits erection by building out, which is economical and
sometimes necessary. It is, however, unstable unless rigidly fixed at the
piers. In the Forth bridge stability is obtained partly by the great excess
of dead over live load, partly by the great width of the river piers. The
majority of bridges not of great span have girders with parallel booms.
This involves the fewest difficulties of workmanship and perhaps permits
the closest approximation of actual to theoretical dimensions of the parts.
In spans over 200 ft. it is economical to have one horizontal boom and one
polygonal (approximately parabolic) boom. The hog-backed girder is a
compromise between the two types, avoiding some difficulties of
construction near the ends of the girder.

[Illustration: FIG. 61.]

[Illustration: FIG. 62.]

Most braced girders may be considered as built up of two simple forms of
truss, the king-post truss (fig. 61, a), or the queen-post truss (fig. 61,
b). These may be used in either the upright or the inverted position. A
_multiple truss_ consists of a number of simple trusses, e.g. Bollman
truss. Some timber bridges consist of queen-post trusses in the upright
position, as shown diagrammatically in fig. 62, where the circles indicate
points at which the flooring girders transmit load to the main girders.
_Compound_ trusses consist of simple trusses used as primary, secondary and
tertiary trusses, the secondary supported on the primary, and the tertiary
on the secondary. Thus, the Fink truss consists of king-post trusses; the
Pratt truss (fig. 63) and the Whipple truss (fig. 64) of queen-post trusses
alternately upright and inverted.

[Illustration: FIG. 63.]

[Illustration: FIG. 64.]

A combination bridge is built partly of timber, partly of steel, the
compression members being generally of timber and the tension members of
steel. On the Pacific coast, where excellent timber is obtainable and steel
works are distant, combination bridges are still largely used (Ottewell,
_Trans. Am. Soc. C.E._ xxvii. p. 467). The combination bridge at Roseburgh,
Oregon, is a cantilever bridge, The shore arms are 147 ft. span, the river
arms 105 ft., and the suspended girder 80 ft., the total distance between
anchor piers being 584 ft. The floor beams, floor and railing are of
timber. The compression members are of timber, except the struts and bottom
chord panels next the river piers, which are of steel. The tension members
are of iron and the pins of steel. The chord blocks and post shoes are of
cast-iron.

[Illustration: FIG. 65.]

33. _Graphic Method of finding the Stresses in Braced Structures._--Fig. 65
shows a common form of bridge truss known as a _Warren girder_, with lines
indicating external forces applied to the joints; half the load carried
between the two lower joints next the piers on either side is directly
carried by the abutments. The sum of the two upward vertical reactions must
clearly be equal to the sum of the loads. The lines in the diagram
represent the directions of a series of forces which must all be in
equilibrium; these lines may, for an object to be explained in the next
paragraph, be conveniently named by the letters in the spaces which they
separate instead of by the method usually employed in geometry. Thus we
shall call the first inclined line on the left hand the line AG, the line
representing the first force on the top left-hand joint AB, the first
horizontal member at the top left hand the line BH, &c; similarly each
point requires at least three letters to denote it; the top first left-hand
joint may be called ABHG, being the point where these four spaces meet. In
this method of lettering, every enclosed space must be designated by a
letter; all external forces must be represented by lines _outside_ the
frame, and each space between any two forces must receive a distinctive
letter; this method of lettering was first proposed by O. Henrici and R. H.
Bow (_Economics of Construction_), and is convenient in applying the theory
of reciprocal figures to the computation of stresses on frames.

34. _Reciprocal Figures._--J. Clerk Maxwell gave (_Phil. Mag. 1864_) the
following definition of reciprocal figures:--"Two plane figures are
reciprocal when they consist of an equal number of lines so that
corresponding lines in the two figures are parallel, and corresponding
lines which converge to a point in one figure form a closed polygon in the
other."

Let a frame (without redundant members), and the external forces which keep
it in equilibrium, be represented by a diagram constituting one of these
two plane figures, then the lines in the other plane figure or the
reciprocal will represent in direction and magnitude the forces between the
joints of the frame, and, consequently, the stress on each member, as will
now be explained.

Reciprocal figures are easily drawn by following definite rules, and afford
therefore a simple method of computing the stresses on members of a frame.

The external forces on a frame or bridge in equilibrium under those forces
may, by a well-known proposition in statics, be represented by a closed
polygon, each side of which is parallel to one force, and represents the
force in magnitude as well as in direction. The sides of the polygon may be
arranged in any order, provided care is taken so to draw them that in
passing round the polygon in one direction this direction may for each side
correspond to the direction of the force which it represents.

[Illustration: FIG. 66.]

This polygon of forces may, by a slight extension of the above definition,
be called the _reciprocal figure_ of the external forces, if the sides are
arranged in the same order as that of the joints on which they act, so that
if the joints and forces be numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, &c., passing round the
outside of the frame in one direction, and returning at last to joint 1,
then in the polygon the side representing the force 2 will be next the side
representing the force 1, and will be followed by the side representing the
force 3, and so forth. [v.04 p.0555] This polygon falls under the
definition of a reciprocal figure given by Clerk Maxwell, if we consider
the frame as a point in equilibrium under the external forces.

Fig. 66 shows a frame supported at the two end joints, and loaded at each
top joint. The loads and the supporting forces are indicated by arrows.
Fig. 67a shows the reciprocal figure or polygon for the external forces on
the assumption that the reactions are slightly inclined. The lines in fig.
67 a, lettered in the usual manner, correspond to the forces indicated by
arrows in fig. 66, and lettered according to Bow's method. When all the
forces are vertical, as will be the case in girders, the polygon of
external forces will be reduced to two straight lines, fig. 67 b,
superimposed and divided so that the length AX represents the load AX, the
length AB the load AB, the length YX the reaction YX, and so forth. The
line XZ consists of a series of lengths, as XA, AB ... DZ, representing the
loads taken in their order. In subsequent diagrams the two reaction lines
will, for the sake of clearness, be drawn as if slightly inclined to the
vertical.

[Illustration: FIG. 67.]

If there are no redundant members in the frame there will be only two
members abutting at the point of support, for these two members will be
sufficient to balance the reaction, whatever its direction may be; we can
therefore draw two triangles, each having as one side the reaction YX, and
having the two other sides parallel to these two members; each of these
triangles will represent a polygon of forces in equilibrium at the point of
support. Of these two triangles, shown in fig. 67 c, select that in which
the letters X and Y are so placed that (naming the apex of the triangle E)
the lines XE and YE are the lines parallel to the two members of the same
name in the frame (fig. 66). Then the triangle YXE is the reciprocal figure
of the three lines YX, XE, EY in the frame, and represents the three forces
in equilibrium at the point YXE of the frame. The direction of YX, being a
thrust upwards, shows the direction in which we must go round the triangle
YXE to find the direction of the two other forces; doing this we find that
the force XE must act down towards the point YXE, and the force EY away
from the same point. Putting arrows on the frame diagram to indicate the
direction of the forces, we see that the member EY must pull and therefore
act as a tie, and that the member XE must push and act as a strut. Passing
to the point XEFA we find two known forces, the load XA acting downwards,
and a push from the strut XE, which, being in compression, must push at
both ends, as indicated by the arrow, fig. 66. The directions and
magnitudes of these two forces are already drawn (fig. 67 a) in a fitting
position to represent part of the polygon of forces at XEFA; beginning with
the upward thrust EX, continuing down XA, and drawing AF parallel to AF in
the frame we complete the polygon by drawing EF parallel to EF in the
frame. The point F is determined by the intersection of the two lines, one
beginning at A, and the other at E. We then have the polygon of forces
EXAF, the reciprocal figure of the lines meeting at that point in the
frame, and representing the forces at the point EXAF; the direction of the
forces on EH and XA being known determines the direction of the forces due
to the elastic reaction of the members AF and EF, showing AF to push as a
strut, while EF is a tie. We have been guided in the selection of the
particular quadrilateral adopted by the rule of arranging the order of the
sides so that the same letters indicate corresponding sides in the diagram
of the frame and its reciprocal. Continuing the construction of the diagram
in the same way, we arrive at fig. 67 d as the complete reciprocal figure
of the frame and forces upon it, and we see that each line in the
reciprocal figure measures the stress on the corresponding member in the
frame, and that the polygon of forces acting at any point, as IJKY, in the
frame is represented by a polygon of the same name in the reciprocal
figure. The direction of the force in each member is easily ascertained by
proceeding in the manner above described. A single known force in a polygon
determines the direction of all the others, as these must all correspond
with arrows pointing the same way round the polygon. Let the arrows be
placed on the frame round each joint, and so as to indicate the direction
of each force on that joint; then when two arrows point to one another on
the same piece, that piece is a tie; when they point from one another the
piece is a strut. It is hardly necessary to say that the forces exerted by
the two ends of any one member must be equal and opposite. This method is
universally applicable where there are no redundant members. The reciprocal
figure for any loaded frame is a complete formula for the stress on every
member of a frame of that particular class with loads on given joints.

[Illustration: FIG. 68]

[Illustration: FIG. 69]

Consider a Warren girder (fig. 68), loaded at the top and bottom joints.
Fig. 69 b is the polygon of external forces, and 69 c is half the
reciprocal figure. The complete reciprocal figure is shown in fig. 69 a.

The method of sections already described is often more convenient than the
method of reciprocal figures, and the method of influence lines is also
often the readiest way of dealing with braced girders.

35. _Chain Loaded uniformly along a Horizontal Line._--If the lengths of
the links be assumed indefinitely short, the chain under given simple
distributions of load will take the form of comparatively simple
mathematical curves known as catenaries. The true catenary is that assumed
by a chain of uniform weight per unit of length, but the form generally
adopted for suspension bridges is that assumed by a chain under a weight
uniformly distributed relatively to a horizontal line. This curve is a
parabola.

Remembering that in this case the centre bending moment [Sigma]wl will be
equal to wL²/8, we see that the horizontal tension H at the vertex for a
span L (the points of support being at equal heights) is given by the
expression

  1 . . . H = wL²/8y,

or, calling x the distance from the vertex to the point of support,

  H = wx²/2y,

The value of H is equal to the maximum tension on the bottom flange, or
compression on the top flange, of a girder of equal span, equally and
similarly loaded, and having a depth equal to the dip of the suspension
bridge.

[Illustration: FIG. 70.]

Consider any other point F of the curve, fig. 70, at a distance x [v.04
p.0556] from the vertex, the horizontal component of the resultant (tangent
to the curve) will be unaltered; the vertical component V will be simply
the sum of the loads between O and F, or wx. In the triangle FDC, let FD be
tangent to the curve, FC vertical, and DC horizontal; these three sides
will necessarily be proportional respectively to the resultant tension
along the chain at F, the vertical force V passing through the point D, and
the horizontal tension at O; hence

  H : V = DC : FC = wx²/2y : wx = x/2 : y,

hence DC is the half of OC, proving the curve to be a parabola.

The value of R, the tension at any point at a distance x from the vertex,
is obtained from the equation

  R² = H²+V² = w²x^4/4y²+w²x²,

or,

  2 . . . R = wx[root](1+x²/4y²).

Let i be the angle between the tangent at any point having the co-ordinates
x and y measured from the vertex, then

  3 . . . tan i = 2y/x.

Let the length of half the parabolic chain be called s, then

  4 . . . s = x+2y²/3x.

The following is the approximate expression for the relation between a
change [Delta]s in the length of the half chain and the corresponding
change [Delta]y in the dip:--

  s+[Delta]s = x+(2/3x) {y²+2y[Delta]y+([Delta]y)²} =
      x+2y²/3x+4y[Delta]y/3x+2[Delta]y²/3x,

or, neglecting the last term,

  5 . . . [Delta]s = 4y[Delta]y/3x,

and

  6 . . . [Delta]y = 3x[Delta]s/4y.

From these equations the deflection produced by any given stress on the
chains or by a change of temperature can be calculated.

[Illustration: FIG. 71.]

36. _Deflection of Girders._-- Let fig. 71 represent a beam bent by
external loads. Let the origin O be taken at the lowest point of the bent
beam. Then the deviation y = DE of the neutral axis of the bent beam at any
point D from the axis OX is given by the relation

  d²y   M
  --- = -- ,
  dx²   EI

where M is the bending moment and I the amount of inertia of the beam at D,
and E is the coefficient of elasticity. It is usually accurate enough in
deflection calculations to take for I the moment of inertia at the centre
of the beam and to consider it constant for the length of the beam. Then

  dy    1
  -- = ---[Integral]Mdx
  dx   EI

       1
  y = ---[Integral][Integral]Mdx².
      EI

The integration can be performed when M is expressed in terms of x. Thus
for a beam supported at the ends and loaded with w per inch length M =
w(a²-x²), where a is the half span. Then the deflection at the centre is
the value of y for x = a, and is

             5  wa^4
  [delta] = --- ----.
             24  EI

The radius of curvature of the beam at D is given by the relation

  R = EI/M.

[Illustration: FIG. 72.]

37. _Graphic Method of finding Deflection._--Divide the span L into any
convenient number n of equal parts of length l, so that nl = L; compute the
radii of curvature R_1, R_2, R_3 for the several sections. Let measurements
along the beam be represented according to any convenient scale, so that
calling L_1 and l_1 the lengths to be drawn on paper, we have L = aL_1; now
let r_1, r_2, r_3 be a series of radii such that r_1 = R_1/ab, r_2 =
R_2/ab, &c., where b is any convenient constant chosen of such magnitude as
will allow arcs with the radii, r_1, r_2, &c., to be drawn with the means
at the draughtsman's disposal. Draw a curve as shown in fig. 72 with arcs
of the length l_1, l_2, l_3, &c., and with the radii r_1, r_2, &c. (note,
for a length ½l_1 at each end the radius will be infinite, and the curve
must end with a straight line tangent to the last arc), then let v be the
measured deflection of this curve from the straight line, and V the actual
deflection of the bridge; we have V = av/b, approximately. This method
distorts the curve, so that vertical ordinates of the curve are drawn to a
scale b times greater than that of the horizontal ordinates. Thus if the
horizontal scale be one-tenth of an inch to the foot, a = 120, and a beam
100 ft. in length would be drawn equal to 10 in.; then if the true radius
at the centre were 10,000 ft., this radius, if the curve were undistorted,
would be on paper 1000 in., but making b = 50 we can draw the curve with a
radius of 20 in. The vertical distortion of the curve must not be so great
that there is a very sensible difference between the length of the arc and
its chord. This can be regulated by altering the value of b. In fig. 72
distortion is carried too far; this figure is merely used as an
illustration.

38. _Camber._--In order that a girder may become straight under its working
load it should be constructed with a camber or upward convexity equal to
the calculated deflection. Owing to the yielding of joints when a beam is
first loaded a smaller modulus of elasticity should be taken than for a
solid bar. For riveted girders E is about 17,500,000 lb per sq. in. for
first loading. W.J.M. Rankine gives the approximate rule

  Working deflection = [delta] = l²/10,000h,

where l is the span and h the depth of the beam, the stresses being those
usual in bridgework, due to the total dead and live load.

(W. C. U.)

[1] For the ancient bridges in Rome see further ROME: _Archaeology_, and
such works as R. Lanciani, _Ruins and Excavations of Ancient Rome_ (Eng.
trans., 1897), pp. 16 foll.

BRIDGET, SAINT, more properly BRIGID (c. 452-523), one of the patron saints
of Ireland, was born at Faughart in county Louth, her father being a prince
of Ulster. Refusing to marry, she chose a life of seclusion, making her
cell, the first in Ireland, under a large oak tree, whence the place was
called Kil-dara, "the church of the oak." The city of Kildare is supposed
to derive its name from St Brigid's cell. The year of her death is
generally placed in 523. She was buried at Kildare, but her remains were
afterwards translated to Downpatrick, where they were laid beside the
bodies of St Patrick and St Columba. Her feast is celebrated on the 1st of
February. A large collection of miraculous stories clustered round her
name, and her reputation was not confined to Ireland, for, under the name
of St Bride, she became a favourite saint in England, and numerous churches
were dedicated to her in Scotland.

See the five lives given in the Bollandist _Acta Sanctorum_, Feb. 1, i. 99,
119, 950. Cf. Whitley-Stokes, _Three Middle-Irish Homilies on the Lives of
Saint Patrick, Brigit and Columba_ (Calcutta, 1874); Colgan, _Acta SS.
Hiberniae_; D. O'Hanlon, _Lives of Irish Saints_, vol. ii.; Knowles, _Life
of St Brigid_ (1907); further bibliography in Ulysse Chevalier, _Répertoire
des sources hist. Bio.-Bibl._ (2nd ed., Paris, 1905), s.v.

BRIDGET, BRIGITTA, BIRGITTA, OF SWEDEN, SAINT (c. 1302-1373), the most
celebrated saint of the northern kingdoms, was the daughter of Birger
Persson, governor and _lagman_ (provincial judge) of Uppland, and one of
the richest landowners of the country. In 1316 she was married to Ulf
Gudmarson, lord of Nericia, to whom she bore eight children, one of whom
was [v.04 p.0557] afterwards honoured as St Catherine of Sweden. Bridget's
saintly and charitable life soon made her known far and wide; she gained,
too, great religious influence over her husband, with whom (1341-1343) she
went on pilgrimage to St James of Compostella. In 1344, shortly after their
return, Ulf died in the Cistercian monastery of Alvastra in East Gothland,
and Bridget now devoted herself wholly to religion. As a child she had
already believed herself to have visions; these now became more frequent,
and her records of these "revelations," which were translated into Latin by
Matthias, canon of Linköping, and by her confessor, Peter, prior of
Alvastra, obtained a great vogue during the middle ages. It was about this
time that she founded the order of St Saviour, or Bridgittines (_q.v._), of
which the principal house, at Vadstena, was richly endowed by King Magnus
II. and his queen. About 1350 she went to Rome, partly to obtain from the
pope the authorization of the new order, partly in pursuance of her
self-imposed mission to elevate the moral tone of the age. It was not till
1370 that Pope Urban V. confirmed the rule of her order; but meanwhile
Bridget had made herself universally beloved in Rome by her kindness and
good works. Save for occasional pilgrimages, including one to Jerusalem in
1373, she remained in Rome till her death on the 23rd of July 1373. She was
canonized in 1391 by Pope Boniface IX., and her feast is celebrated on the
9th of October.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Cf. the Bollandist _Acta Sanctorum_, Oct. 8, iv. 368-560;
the _Vita Sanctae Brigittae_, edited by C. Annerstedt in _Scriptores rerum
Suedicarum medii aevi_, iii. 185-244 (Upsala, 1871). The best modern work
on the subject is by the comtesse Catherine de Flavigny, entitled _Sainte
Brigitte de Suède, sa vie, ses révélations et son oeuvre_ (Paris, 1892),
which contains an exhaustive bibliography. The Revelations are contained in
the critical edition of St Bridget's works published by the Swedish
Historical Society and edited by G.E. Klemming (Stockholm, 1857-1884, II
vols.). For full bibliography (to 1904) see Ulysse Chevalier, _Répertoire
des sources hist. Bio.-Bibl._, _s.v._ "Brigitte."

BRIDGETON, a city, port of entry, and the county-seat of Cumberland county,
New Jersey, U.S.A., in the south part of the state, on Cohansey creek, 38
m. S. of Philadelphia. Pop. (1890) 11,424; (1900) 13,913, of whom 653 were
foreign-born and 701 were negroes; (1905) 13,624; (1910) 14,209. It is
served by the West Jersey & Sea Shore and the Central of New Jersey
railways, by electric railways connecting with adjacent towns, and by
Delaware river steamboats on Cohansey creek, which is navigable to this
point. It is an attractive residential city, has a park of 650 acres and a
fine public library, and is the seat of West Jersey academy and of Ivy
Hall, a school for girls. It is an important market town and distributing
centre for a rich agricultural region; among its manufactures are glass
(the product, chiefly glass bottles, being valued in 1905 at
$1,252,795--42.3% of the value of all the city's factory products--and
Bridgeton ranking eighth among the cities of the United States in this
industry), machinery, clothing, and canned fruits and vegetables; it also
has dyeing and finishing works. Though Bridgeton is a port of entry, its
foreign commerce is relatively unimportant. The first settlement in what is
now Bridgeton was made toward the close of the 18th century. A pioneer
iron-works was established here in 1814. The city of Bridgeton, formed by
the union of the township of Bridgeton and the township of Cohansey
(incorporated in 1845 and 1848 respectively), was chartered in 1864.

BRIDGETT, THOMAS EDWARD (1829-1899), Roman Catholic priest and historical
writer, was born at Derby on the 20th of January 1829. He was brought up a
Baptist, but in his sixteenth year joined the Church of England. In 1847 he
entered St John's College, Cambridge, with the intention of taking orders.
Being unable to subscribe to the Thirty-Nine Articles he could not take his
degree, and in 1850 became a Roman Catholic, soon afterwards joining the
Congregation of the Redemptorists. He went through his novitiate at St
Trond in Belgium, and after a course of five years of theological study at
Wittem, in Holland, was ordained priest. He returned to England in 1856,
and for over forty years led an active life as a missioner in England and
Ireland, preaching in over 80 missions and 140 retreats to the clergy and
to nuns. His stay in Limerick was particularly successful, and he founded a
religious confraternity of laymen which numbered 5000 members. Despite his
arduous life as a priest, Bridgett found time to produce literary works of
value, chiefly dealing with the history of the Reformation in England;
among these are _The Life of Blessed John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester_
(1888); _The Life and Writings of Sir Thomas More_ (1890); _History of the
Eucharist in Great Britain_ (2 vols., 1881); _Our Lady's Dowry_ (1875, 3rd
ed. 1890). He died at Clapham on the 17th of February 1899.

For a complete list of Bridgett's works see _The Life of Father Bridgett_,
by C. Ryder (London, 1906).

BRIDGEWATER, FRANCIS EGERTON, 3RD DUKE OF (1736-1803), the originator of
British inland navigation, younger son of the 1st duke, was born on the
21st of May 1736. Scroop, 1st duke of Bridgewater (1681-1745), was the son
of the 3rd earl of Bridgewater, and was created a duke in 1720; he was the
great-grandson of John Egerton, 1st earl of Bridgewater (d. 1649; cr.
1617), whose name is associated with the production of Milton's _Comus_;
and the latter was the son of Sir Thomas Egerton (1540-1617), Queen
Elizabeth's lord keeper and James I.'s lord chancellor, who was created
baron of Ellesmere in 1603, and in 1616 Viscount Brackley (_q.v._).

Francis Egerton succeeded to the dukedom at the age of twelve on the death
of his brother, the 2nd duke. As a child he was sickly and of such
unpromising intellectual capacity that at one time the idea of cutting the
entail was seriously entertained. Shortly after attaining his majority he
became engaged to the beautiful duchess of Hamilton, but her refusal to
give up the acquaintance of her sister, Lady Coventry, led to the breaking
off of the match. Thereupon the duke broke up his London establishment, and
retiring to his estate at Worsley, devoted himself to the making of canals.
The navigable canal from Worsley to Manchester which he projected for the
transport of the coal obtained on his estates was (with the exception of
the Sankey canal) the first great undertaking of the kind executed in Great
Britain in modern times. The construction of this remarkable work, with its
famous aqueduct across the Irwell, was carried out by James Brindley, the
celebrated engineer. The completion of this canal led the duke to undertake
a still more ambitious work. In 1762 he obtained parliamentary powers to
provide an improved waterway between Liverpool and Manchester by means of a
canal. The difficulties encountered in the execution of the latter work
were still more formidable than those of the Worsley canal, involving, as
they did, the carrying of the canal over Sale Moor Moss. But the genius of
Brindley, his engineer, proved superior to all obstacles, and though at one
period of the undertaking the financial resources of the duke were almost
exhausted, the work was carried to a triumphant conclusion. The untiring
perseverance displayed by the duke in surmounting the various difficulties
that retarded the accomplishment of his projects, together with the
pecuniary restrictions he imposed on himself in order to supply the
necessary capital (at one time he reduced his personal expenses to £400 a
year), affords an instructive example of that energy and self-denial on
which the success of great undertakings so much depends. Both these canals
were completed when the duke was only thirty-six years of age, and the
remainder of his life was spent in extending them and in improving his
estates; and during the latter years of his life he derived a princely
income from the success of his enterprise. Though a steady supporter of
Pitt's administration, he never took any prominent part in politics.

He died unmarried on the 8th of March 1803, when the ducal title became
extinct, but the earldom of Bridgewater passed to a cousin, John William
Egerton, who became 7th earl. By his will he devised his canals and estates
on trust, under which his nephew, the marquess of Stafford (afterwards
first duke of Sutherland), became the first beneficiary, and next his son
Francis Leveson Gower (afterwards first earl of Ellesmere) and his issue.
In order that the trust should last as long as possible, an extraordinary
use was made of the legal rule that property may be [v.04 p.0558] settled
for the duration of lives in being and twenty-one years after, by choosing
a great number of persons connected with the duke and their living issue
and adding to them the peers who had taken their seats in the House of
Lords on or before the duke's decease. Though the last of the peers died in
1857, one of the commoners survived till the 19th of October 1883, and
consequently the trust did not expire till the 19th of October 1903, when
the whole property passed under the undivided control of the earl of
Ellesmere. The canals, however, had in 1872 been transferred to the
Bridgewater Navigation Company, by whom they were sold in 1887 to the
Manchester Ship Canal Company.

BRIDGEWATER, FRANCIS HENRY EGERTON, 8TH EARL OF (1756-1829), was educated
at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, and became fellow of All Souls in 1780,
and F.R.S. in 1781. He held the rectories of Middle and Whitchurch in
Shropshire, but the duties were performed by a proxy. He succeeded his
brother (see above) in the earldom in 1823, and spent the latter part of
his life in Paris. He was a fair scholar, and a zealous naturalist and
antiquarian. When he died in February 1829 the earldom became extinct. He
bequeathed to the British Museum the valuable Egerton MSS. dealing with the
literature of France and Italy, and also £12,000. He also left £8000 at the
disposal of the president of the Royal Society, to be paid to the author or
authors who might be selected to write and publish 1000 copies of a
treatise "On the Power, Wisdom and Goodness of God, as manifested in the
Creation." Mr Davies Gilbert, who then filled the office, selected eight
persons, each to undertake a branch of this subject, and each to receive
£1000 as his reward, together with any benefit that might accrue from the
sale of his work, according to the will of the testator.

The Bridgewater treatises were published as follows:--1. _The Adaptation of
External Nature to the Moral and Intellectual Condition of Man_, by Thomas
Chalmers, D.D. 2. _The Adaptation of External Nature to the Physical
Condition of Man_, by John Kidd, M.D. 3. _Astronomy and General Physics
considered with reference to Natural Theology_, by William Whewell, D.D. 4.
_The Hand, its Mechanism and Vital Endowments as evincing Design_, by Sir
Charles Bell. 5. _Animal and Vegetable Physiology considered with reference
to Natural Theology_, by Peter Mark Roget. 6. _Geology and Mineralogy
considered with reference to Natural Theology_, by William Buckland, D.D.
7. _The Habits and Instincts of Animals with reference to Natural
Theology_, by William Kirby. 8. _Chemistry, Meteorology, and the Function
of Digestion, considered with reference to Natural Theology_, by William
Prout, M.D. The works are of unequal merit; several of them took a high
rank in apologetic literature. They first appeared during the years 1833 to
1840, and afterwards in Bohn's Scientific Library.

BRIDGITTINES, an order of Augustinian canonesses founded by St Bridget of
Sweden (_q.v._) c. 1350, and approved by Urban V. in 1370. It was a "double
order," each convent having attached to it a small community of canons to
act as chaplains, but under the government of the abbess. The order spread
widely in Sweden and Norway, and played a remarkable part in promoting
culture and literature in Scandinavia; to this is to be attributed the fact
that the head house at Vastein, by Lake Vetter, was not suppressed till
1595. There were houses also in other lands, so that the total number
amounted to 80. In England, the famous Bridgittine convent of Syon at
Isleworth, Middlesex, was founded and royally endowed by Henry V. in 1415,
and became one of the richest and most fashionable and influential
nunneries in the country. It was among the few religious houses restored in
Mary's reign, when nearly twenty of the old community were re-established
at Syon. On Elizabeth's accession they migrated to the Low Countries, and
thence, after many vicissitudes, to Rouen, and finally in 1594 to Lisbon.
Here they remained, always recruiting their numbers from England, till
1861, when they returned to England. Syon House is now established at
Chudleigh in Devon, the only English community that can boast an unbroken
conventual existence since pre-Reformation times. Some six other
Bridgittine convents exist on the Continent, but the order is now composed
only of women.

See Helyot, _Histoire des ordres religieux_ (1715), iv. c. 4; Max
Heimbucher, _Orden u. Kongregationen_ (1907), ii. § 83; Herzog-Hauck,
_Realencyklopädie_ (ed. 3), art. "Birgitta"; A. Hamilton in _Dublin
Review_, 1888, "The Nuns of Syon."

(E. C. B.)

BRIDGMAN, FREDERICK ARTHUR (1847- ), American artist, was born at Tuskegee,
Alabama, on the 10th of November 1847. He began as a draughtsman in New
York for the American Bank Note Company in 1864-1865, and studied art in
the same years at the Brooklyn Art School and at the National Academy of
Design; but he went to Paris in 1866 and became a pupil of J.L. Gérôme.
Paris then became his headquarters. A trip to Egypt in 1873-1874 resulted
in pictures of the East that attracted immediate attention, and his large
and important composition, "The Funeral Procession of a Mummy on the Nile,"
in the Paris Salon (1877), bought by James Gordon Bennett, brought him the
cross of the Legion of Honour. Other paintings by him were "An American
Circus in Normandy," "Procession of the Bull Apis" (now in the Corcoran Art
Gallery, Washington), and a "Rumanian Lady" (in the Temple collection,
Philadelphia).

BRIDGMAN, LAURA DEWEY (1829-1889), American blind deaf-mute, was born on
the 21st of December 1829 at Hanover, New Hampshire, U.S.A., being the
third daughter of Daniel Bridgman (d. 1868), a substantial Baptist farmer,
and his wife Harmony, daughter of Cushman Downer, and grand-daughter of
Joseph Downer, one of the five first settlers (1761) of Thetford, Vermont.
Laura was a delicate infant, puny and rickety, and was subject to fits up
to twenty months old, but otherwise seemed to have normal senses; at two
years, however, she had a very bad attack of scarlet fever, which destroyed
sight and hearing, blunted the sense of smell, and left her system a wreck.
Though she gradually recovered health she remained a blind deaf-mute, but
was kindly treated and was in particular made a sort of playmate by an
eccentric bachelor friend of the Bridgmans, Mr Asa Tenney, who as soon as
she could walk used to take her for rambles a-field. In 1837 Mr James
Barrett, of Dartmouth College, saw her and mentioned her case to Dr Mussey,
the head of the medical department, who wrote an account which attracted
the attention of Dr S.G. Howe (_q.v._), the head of the Perkins Institution
for the Blind at Boston. He determined to try to get the child into the
Institution and to attempt to educate her; her parents assented, and in
October 1837 Laura entered the school. Though the loss of her eye-balls
occasioned some deformity, she was otherwise a comely child and of a
sensitive and affectionate nature; she had become familiar with the world
about her, and was imitative in so far as she could follow the actions of
others; but she was limited in her communication with others to the
narrower uses of touch--patting her head meant approval, rubbing her hand
disapproval, pushing one way meant to go, drawing another to come. Her
mother, preoccupied with house-work, had already ceased to be able to
control her, and her father's authority was due to fear of superior force,
not to reason. Dr Howe at once set himself to teach her the alphabet by
touch. It is impossible, for reasons of space, to describe his efforts in
detail. He taught words before the individual letters, and his first
experiment consisting in pasting upon several common articles such as keys,
spoons, knives, &c., little paper labels with the names of the articles
printed in raised letters, which he got her to feel and differentiate; then
he gave her the same labels by themselves, which she learnt to associate
with the articles they referred to, until, with the spoon or knife alone
before her she could find the right label for each from a mixed heap. The
next stage was to give her the component letters and teach her to combine
them in the words she knew, and gradually in this way she learnt all the
alphabet and the ten digits, &c. The whole process depended, of course, on
her having a human intelligence, which only required stimulation, and her
own interest in learning became keener as she progressed. On the 24th of
July 1839 she first wrote her own name legibly. Dr Howe devoted himself
with the utmost patience and assiduity to her education and was rewarded by
increasing success. On the 20th of June 1840 she had her first arithmetic
lesson, by the aid of a metallic case perforated with square holes, square
types being used; and in nineteen days she could add a column of figures
amounting to thirty. She was in good health and happy, and was treated by
Dr Howe as his daughter. Her case already began to interest the public, and
others were brought to Dr Howe [v.04 p.0559] for treatment. In 1841 Laura
began to keep a journal, in which she recorded her own day's work and
thoughts. In January 1842 Charles Dickens visited the Institution, and
afterwards wrote enthusiastically in _American Notes_ of Dr Howe's success
with Laura. In 1843 funds were obtained for devoting a special teacher to
her, and first Miss Swift, then Miss Wight, and then Miss Paddock, were
appointed; Laura by this time was learning geography and elementary
astronomy. By degrees she was given religious instruction, but Dr Howe was
intent upon not inculcating dogma before she had grasped the essential
moral truths of Christianity and the story of the Bible. She grew up a gay,
cheerful girl, loving, optimistic, but with a nervous system inclining to
irritability, and requiring careful education in self-control. In 1860 her
eldest sister Mary's death helped to bring on a religious crisis, and
through the influence of some of her family she was received into the
Baptist church; she became for some years after this more self-conscious
and rather pietistic. In 1867 she began writing compositions which she
called poems; the best-known is called "Holy Home." In 1872, Dr Howe having
been enabled to build some separate cottages (each under a matron) for the
blind girls, Laura was moved from the larger house of the Institution into
one of them, and there she continued her quiet life. The death of Dr Howe
in 1876 was a great grief to her; but before he died he had made
arrangements by which she would be financially provided for in her home at
the Institution for the rest of her life. In 1887 her jubilee was
celebrated there, but in 1889 she was taken ill, and she died on the 24th
of May. She was buried at Hanover. Her name has become familiar everywhere
as an example of the education of a blind deaf-mute, leading to even
greater results in Helen Keller.

See _Laura Bridgman_, by Maud Howe and Florence Howe Hall (1903), which
contains a bibliography; and _Life and Education of Laura Dewey Bridgman_
(1878), by Mary S. Lamson.

(H. CH.)

BRIDGNORTH, a market town and municipal borough in the Ludlow parliamentary
division of Shropshire, England, 150 m. N.W. by W. from London by the Great
Western railway, on the Worcester-Shrewsbury line. Pop. (1901) 6052. The
river Severn separates the upper town on the right bank from the lower on
the left. A steep line of rail connects them. The upper town is built on
the acclivities and summit of a rock which rises abruptly from the river to
the height of 180 ft., and gives the town a very picturesque appearance.
The railway passes under by a long tunnel. On the summit is the tower of
the old castle, leaning about 17° from the perpendicular. There are also
two parish churches. That of St Leonard, formerly collegiate, was
practically rebuilt in 1862. This parish was held by Richard Baxter, the
famous divine, in 1640. St Mary's church is in classic style of the late
18th century. The picturesque half-timbered style of domestic building is
frequently seen in the streets. In this style are the town hall (1652), and
a house dated 1580, in which was born in 1729 Thomas Percy, bishop of
Dromore, the editor of the _Reliques of Ancient English Poetry_. The
grammar school, founded in 1503, occupies an Elizabethan building; there
are also a college of divinity, a blue-coat school, and a literary
institute with library and school of art. There are large charities. Near
the town is a curious ancient hermitage cave, in the sandstone. At
Quatford, 1 m. south-east, the site of a castle dating from 1085 may be
traced. This dominated the ancient Forest of Morf. Here Robert de Belesme
originally founded the college which was afterwards moved to Bridgnorth.
Bridgnorth manufactures carpets; brewing is carried on, and there is trade
in agricultural produce. The town is governed by a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12
councillors. Area, 3018 acres.

The early history of Bridgnorth is connected with Æthelfleda, lady of the
Mercians, who raised a mound there in 912 as part of her offensive policy
against the Danes of the five boroughs. After the Conquest William I.
granted the manor of Bridgnorth to Earl Roger of Shrewsbury, whose son
Robert de Belesme transferred his castle and borough from Quatford to
Bridgnorth, but on Robert's attainder in 1102 the town became a royal
borough. It is probable that Henry I. granted the burgesses certain
privileges, for Henry II. confirmed to them all the franchises and customs
which they had in the time of Henry I. King John in 1215 granted them
freedom from toll throughout England except the city of London, and in 1227
Henry III. conferred several new rights and liberties, among which were a
gild merchant with a hanse. These early charters were confirmed by several
succeeding kings, Henry VI. granting in addition assize of bread and ale
and other privileges. Bridgnorth was incorporated by James I. in 1546. The
burgesses returned two members to parliament in 1295, and continued to do
so until 1867, when they were assigned only one member. The town was
disfranchised in 1885. A yearly fair on the feast of the Translation of St
Leonard and three following days was granted to the burgesses in 1359, and
in 1630 Charles I. granted them licence to hold another fair on the
Thursday before the first week in Lent and two following days.

BRIDGWATER, a market town, port and municipal borough in the Bridgwater
parliamentary division of Somerset, England, on the river Parret, 10 m.
from its mouth, and 151¾ m. by the Great Western railway W. by S. of
London. Pop. (1901) 15,209. It is pleasantly situated in a level and
well-wooded country, having on the east the Mendip range and on the west
the Quantock hills. The town lies along both sides of the river, here
crossed by a handsome iron bridge. Among several places of worship the
chief is St Mary Magdalene's church; this has a north porch and windows
dating from the 14th century, besides a lofty and slender spire; but it has
been much altered by restoration. It possesses a fine painted reredos. A
house in Blake Street, largely restored, was the birthplace of Admiral
Blake in 1598. Near the town are the three fine old churches of Weston
Zoyland, Chedzoy and Middlezoy, containing some good brasses and carved
woodwork. The battlefield of Sedgemoor, where the Monmouth rebellion was
finally crushed in 1685, is within 3 m.; while not far off is Charlinch,
the home of the Agapemonites (_q.v._). Bridgwater has a considerable
coasting trade, importing grain, coal, wine, hemp, tallow and timber, and
exporting Bath brick, farm produce, earthenware, cement and plaster of
Paris. The river is navigable by vessels of 700 tons, though liable, when
spring-tides are flowing, to a bore which rises, in rough weather, to a
height of 9 ft. Bath brick, manufactured only here, and made of the mingled
sand and clay deposited by every tide, is the staple article of commerce;
iron-founding is also carried on. The town is governed by a mayor, 6
aldermen and 18 councillors. Area, 926 acres.

A settlement probably grew up in Saxon times at Bridgwater (_Briges_,
_Briggewalteri_, _Brigewauter_), owing its origin as a trade centre to its
position at the mouth of the chief river in Somerset. It became a mesne
borough by the charter granted by John in 1201, which provided that the
town should be a free borough, the burgesses to be free and quit of all
tolls, and made William de Briwere overlord. Other charters were granted by
Henry III. in 1227 (confirmed in 1318, 1370, 1380), which gave Bridgwater a
gild merchant. It was incorporated by charter of Edward IV. (1468),
confirmed in 1554, 1586, 1629 and 1684. Parliamentary representation began
in 1295 and continued until the Reform Act of 1870. A Saturday market and a
fair on the 24th of June were granted by the charter of 1201. Another fair
at the beginning of Lent was added in 1468, and a second market on
Thursday, and fairs at Midsummer and on the 21st of September were added in
1554. Charles II. granted another fair on the 29th of December. The
medieval importance of these markets and fairs for the sale of wool and
wine and later of cloth has gone. The shipping trade of the port revived
after the construction of the new dock in 1841, and corn and timber have
been imported for centuries.

See S. G. Jarman, "History of Bridgwater," _Historical MSS. Commission_,
Report 9, Appendix; _Victoria County History: Somerset_, vol. ii.

BRIDLINGTON, a market town, municipal borough and seaside resort in the
Buckrose parliamentary division of the East Riding of Yorkshire, England,
31 m. N.N.E. from Hull by a branch of the North Eastern railway. Pop.
(1891) 8919; (1901) 12,482. It is divided into two parts, the ancient
market town lying about 1 m. from the coast, while the modern houses of
Bridlington Quay, the watering-place, fringe the shore of Bridlington Bay.
Southward the coast becomes low, but northward it is steep and very fine,
where the great spur of Flamborough Head (_q.v._) projects eastward. In the
old town of Bridlington the church of St Mary and St Nicholas consists of
the fine Decorated and Perpendicular nave, with Early English portions, of
the priory church of an Augustinian foundation of the time of Henry I.
There remains also the Perpendicular gateway, serving as the town-hall. The
founder of the priory was Walter de Gaunt, about 1114, and the institution
[v.04 p.0560] flourished until 1537, when the last prior was executed for
taking part in the Pilgrimage of Grace. A Congregational society was
founded in 1662, and its old church, dating from 1702, stood until 1906. At
Bridlington Quay there is excellent sea-bathing, and the parade and
ornamental gardens provide pleasant promenades. Extensive works have been
carried out along the sea front. There is a chalybeate spring. The harbour
is enclosed by two stone piers, and there is good anchorage in the bay. The
municipal borough is under a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors, and has
an area of 2751 acres.

The mention of four burgesses at Bridlington (Brellington, Burlington) in
the Domesday survey shows it to have been a borough before the Conquest.
With the rest of the north of England, Bridlington suffered from the
ravages of the Normans, and decreased in value from £32 in the reign of
Edward the Confessor, when it formed part of the possessions of Earl
Morcar, to 8s. at the time of the Domesday survey. By that time it was in
the hands of the king by the forfeiture of Earl Morcar. It was granted by
William II. to Gilbert de Gaunt, whose son and heir Walter founded the
priory and endowed it with the manor of Bridlington and other lands. From
this date the importance of the town steadily increased. Henry I. and
several succeeding kings confirmed Walter de Gaunt's gift, Stephen granting
in addition the right to have a port. In 1546 Henry IV. granted the prior
and convent exemption from fifteenths, tenths and subsidies, in return for
prayer for himself and his queen in every mass sung at the high altar.
After the Dissolution the manor remained with the crown until 1624, when
Charles I. granted it to Sir John Ramsey, whose brother and heir, Sir
George Ramsey, sold it in 1633 to thirteen inhabitants of the town on
behalf of all the tenants of the manor. The thirteen lords were assisted by
twelve other inhabitants chosen by the freeholders, and when the number of
lords was reduced to six, seven others were chosen from the assistants. A
chief lord was chosen every year. This system still holds good. It is
evident from the fact of thirteen inhabitants being allowed to hold the
manor that the town had some kind of incorporation in the 17th century,
although its incorporation charter was not granted until 1899, when it was
created a municipal borough. In 1200 King John granted the prior of
Bridlington a weekly market on Saturday and an annual fair on the vigil,
feast and morrow of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary. Henry VI. in 1446
granted the prior three new fairs yearly on the vigil, day and morrow of
the Nativity of the Virgin Mary, the Deposition of St John, late prior of
Bridlington, and the Translation of the same St John. All fairs and markets
were sold with the manor to the inhabitants of the town.

See J. Thompson, _Historical Sketches of Bridlington_ (1821); _Victoria
County History: Yorkshire_.

BRIDPORT, ALEXANDER HOOD, VISCOUNT (1727-1814), British admiral, was the
younger brother of Samuel, Lord Hood, and cousin of Sir Samuel and Captain
Alexander Hood. Entering the navy in January 1741, he was appointed
lieutenant of the "Bridgewater" six years later, and in that rank served
for ten years in various ships. He was then posted to the "Prince," the
flag-ship of Rear-Admiral Saunders (under whom Hood had served as a
lieutenant) and in this command served in the Mediterranean for some time.
Returning home, he was appointed to the "Minerva" frigate, in which he was
present at Hawke's great victory in Quiberon Bay (20th November 1759). In
1761 the "Minerva" recaptured, after a long struggle, the "Warwick" of
equal force, and later in the same year Captain Alexander Hood went in the
"Africa" to the Mediterranean, where he served until the conclusion of
peace. From this time forward he was in continuous employment afloat and
ashore, and in the "Robust" was present at the battle of Ushant in 1778.
Hood was involved in the court-martial on Admiral (afterwards Viscount)
Keppel which followed this action, and although adverse popular feeling was
aroused by the course which he took in Keppel's defence, his conduct does
not seem to have injured his professional career. Two years later he was
made rear-admiral of the white, and succeeded Kempenfeldt as one of Howe's
flag-officers, and in the "Queen" (90) he was present at the relief of
Gibraltar in 1782. For a time he sat in the House of Commons. Promoted
vice-admiral in 1787, he became K.B. in the following year, and on the
occasion of the Spanish armament in 1790 flew his flag again for a short
time. On the outbreak of the war with France in 1793 Sir Alexander Hood
once more went to sea, this time as Howe's second in command, and he had
his share in the operations which culminated in the "Glorius First of
June," and for his services was made Baron Bridport of Cricket St Thomas in
Somerset in the Irish peerage. Henceforth Bridport was practically in
independent command. In 1795 he fought the much-criticized partial action
of the 23rd of June off Belle-Ile, which, however unfavourably it was
regarded in some quarters, was counted as a great victory by the public.
Bridport's peerage was made English, and he became vice-admiral of England.
In 1796-1797 he practically directed the war from London, rarely hoisting
his flag afloat save at such critical times as that of the Irish expedition
in 1797. In the following year he was about to put to sea when the Spithead
fleet mutinied. He succeeded at first in pacifying the crew of his
flag-ship, who had no personal grudge against their admiral, but a few days
later the mutiny broke out afresh, and this time was uncontrollable. For a
whole week the mutineers were supreme, and it was only by the greatest
exertions of the old Lord Howe that order was then restored and the men
returned to duty. After the mutiny had been suppressed, Bridport took the
fleet to sea as commander-in-chief in name as well as in fact, and from
1798 to 1800 personally directed the blockade of Brest, which grew stricter
and stricter as time went on. In 1800 he was relieved by St Vincent, and
retired from active duty after fifty-nine years' service. In reward for his
fine record his peerage was made a viscounty. He spent the remaining years
of his life in retirement. He died on the 2nd of May 1814. The viscounty in
the English peerage died with him; the Irish barony passed to the younger
branch of his brother's family, for whom the viscounty was recreated in
1868.

See Charnock, _Biographia Navalis_, vi. 153; _Naval Chronicle_, i. 265;
Ralfe, _Nav. Biog._ i. 202.

BRIDPORT, a market town and municipal borough in the Western parliamentary
division of Dorsetshire, England, 18 m. N.W. of Dorchester, on a branch of
the Great Western railway. Pop. (1901) 5710. It is pleasantly situated in a
hilly district on the river Brit, from which it takes its name. The main
part of the town is about a mile from the sea, with which it is connected
by a winding street, ending at a quay surrounded by the fishing village of
West Bay, where the railway terminates. The church of St Mary is a handsome
cruciform Perpendicular building. The harbour is accessible only to small
vessels. There is some import trade in flax, timber and coal. The principal
articles of manufacture have long been sailcloth, cordage, linen and
fishing-nets. The municipal borough is under a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18
councillors. Area, 593 acres.

Bridport was evidently of some importance before the Conquest, when it
consisted of 120 houses rated for all the king's services and paying geld
for five hides. By 1086 the number of houses had decreased to 100, and of
these 20 were in such a wretched condition that they could not pay geld.
The town is first mentioned as a borough in the Pipe Roll of 1189, which
states that William de Bendenges owed £9: 10s. for the ancient farm of
Bridport, and that the men of the town owed tallage to the amount of 53s.
10d. Henry III. granted the first charter in 1252-1253, making the town a
free borough and granting the burgesses the right to hold it at the ancient
fee farm with an increase of 40s., and to choose two bailiffs to answer at
the exchequer for the farm. A deed of 1381 shows that Henry III. also
granted the burgesses freedom from toll. Bridport was incorporated by James
I. in 1619, but Charles II. granted a new charter in 1667, and by this the
town was governed until 1835. The first existing grant of a market and
fairs to Bridport is dated 1593, but it appears from the _Quo Warranto_
Rolls that Edward I. possessed a market there. The town was noted for the
manufacture of ropes and cables as early as 1213, and an act of parliament
(21 Henry VIII.) shows that the inhabitants had "from time out of mind"
made the cables, ropes and hawsers for the royal navy and for most of the
other ships. Bridport was represented in parliament by two members from
1395 to 1867. In the latter year the number was reduced to one, and in 1885
the town was disfranchised.

BRIE (_Briegus saltus_, from Celtic _briek_, clay), an agricultural
district of northern France, to the E. of Paris, bounded W. and S. by the
Seine, N. by the Marne. It has an area of 2400 sq. m., comprising the
greater part of the department of Seine-et-Marne, together with portions of
the departments of Seine, Seine-et-Oise, Aisne, Marne and Aube. The western
portion was known as the _Brie française_, the eastern portion as the _Brie
champenoise_. The Brie forms a plateau with few eminences, varying in
altitude between 300 and 500 ft. in the west, and between 500 and 650 ft.
in the east. Its scenery is varied by forests of some size--the [v.04
p.0561] chief being the Forêt de Senart, the Forêt de Crécy and the Forêt
d'Armainvilliers. The surface soil is clay in which are embedded fragments
of siliceous sandstone, used for millstones and constructional purposes;
the subsoil is limestone. The Yères, a tributary of the Seine, and the
Grand Morin and Petit Morin, tributaries of the Marne, are the chief
rivers, but the region is not abundantly watered and the rainfall is only
between 20 and 24 in. The Brie is famous for its grain and its dairy
products, especially cheeses.

BRIEF (Lat. _brevis_, short), in English legal practice, the written
statement given to a barrister to form the basis of his case. It was
probably so called from its at first being only a copy of the original
writ. Upon a barrister devolves the duty of taking charge of a case when it
comes into court, but all the preliminary work, such as the drawing up of
the case, serving papers, marshalling evidence, &c., is performed by a
solicitor, so that a brief contains a concise summary for the information
of counsel of the case which he has to plead, with all material facts in
chronological order, and frequently such observations thereon as the
solicitor may think fit to make, the names of witnesses, with the "proofs,"
that is, the nature of the evidence which each witness is ready to give, if
called upon. The brief may also contain suggestions for the use of counsel
when cross-examining witnesses called by the other side. Accompanying the
brief may be copies of the pleadings (see PLEADING), and of all documents
material to the case. The brief is always endorsed with the title of the
court in which the action is to be tried, with the title of the action, and
the names of the counsel and of the solicitor who delivers the brief.
Counsel's fee is also marked. The delivery of a brief to counsel gives him
authority to act for his client in all matters which the litigation
involves. The result of the action is noted on the brief by counsel, or if
the action is compromised, the terms of the compromise are endorsed on each
brief and signed by the leading counsel on the opposite side. In Scotland a
brief is called a memorial.

In the United States the word has, to a certain extent, a different
meaning, a brief in its English sense not being required, for the American
attorney exercises all the functions distributed in England between
barristers and solicitors. A lawyer sometimes prepares for his own use what
is called a "trial brief" for use at the trial. This corresponds in all
essential particulars with the "brief" prepared by the solicitor in England
for the use of counsel. But the more distinctive use of the term in America
is in the case of the brief "in error or appeal," before an appellate
court. This is a written or printed document, varying according to
circumstances, but embodying the argument on the question affected. Most of
the appellate courts require the filing of printed briefs for the use of
the court and opposing counsel at a time designated for each side before
hearing. In the rules of the United States Supreme Court and circuit courts
of appeals the brief is required to contain a concise statement of the
case, a specification of errors relied on, including the substance of
evidence, the admission or rejection of which is to be reviewed, or any
extract from a charge excepted to, and an argument exhibiting clearly the
points of law or fact to be discussed. This form of brief, it may be added,
is also adopted for use at the trial in certain states of the Union which
require printed briefs to be delivered to the court.

In English ecclesiastical law a brief meant letters patent issued out of
chancery to churchwardens or other officers for the collection of money for
church purposes. Such briefs were regulated by a statute of 1704, but are
now obsolete, though they are still to be found named in one of the rubrics
in the Communion service of the Book of Common Prayer.

The _brief-bag_, in which counsel's papers are carried to and from court,
now forms an integral part of a barrister's outfit, but in the early part
of the 19th century the possession of a brief-bag was strictly confined to
those who had received one from a king's counsel. King's counsel were then
few in number, were considered officers of the court, and had a salary of
£40 a year, with a supply of paper, pens and purple bags. These bags they
distributed among rising juniors of their acquaintance, whose bundles of
briefs were getting inconveniently large to be carried in their hands.
These perquisites were abolished in 1830. English brief-bags are now either
blue or red. Blue bags are those with which barristers provide themselves
when first called, and it is a breach of etiquette to let this bag be
visible in court. The only brief-bag allowed to be placed on the desks is
the red bag, which by English legal etiquette is given by a leading counsel
to a junior who has been useful to him in some important case.

BRIEG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia, on the left
bank of the Oder, and on the Breslau and Beuthen railway, 27 m. S.E. of the
former city. Pop. (1900) 24,090. It has a castle (the residence of the old
counts of Brieg), a lunatic asylum, a gymnasium with a good library,
several churches and hospitals, and a theatre. Its fortifications were
destroyed by the French in 1807, and are now replaced by beautiful
promenades. Brieg carries on a considerable trade, its chief manufactures
being linen, embroideries, cotton and woollen goods, ribbons, leather,
machinery, hats, pasteboard and cigars. Important cattle-markets are held
here. Brieg, or, as it is called in early documents, _Civitas Altae Ripae_,
obtained municipal rights in 1250 from Duke Henry III. of Breslau, and was
fortified in 1297; its name is derived from the Polish _Brzeg_ (shore).
Burned by the Hussites in 1428, the town was soon afterwards rebuilt, and
in 1595 it was again fortified by Joachim Frederick, duke of Brieg. In the
Thirty Years' War it suffered greatly; in that of the Austrian succession
it was heavily bombarded by the Prussian forces; and in 1807 it was
captured by the French and Bavarians. From 1311 to 1675 Brieg was the
capital of an independent line of dukes, a cadet branch of the Polish dukes
of Lower Silesia, by one of whom the castle was built in 1341. In 1537
Frederick II., duke of Liegnitz, Brieg and Wohlau, concluded with Joachim
II., elector of Brandenburg, a treaty according to which his duchy was to
pass to the house of Brandenburg in the event of the extinction of his
line. On the death of George William the last duke in 1675, however,
Austria refused to acknowledge the validity of the treaty and annexed the
duchies. It was the determination of Frederick II. of Prussia to assert his
claim that led in 1740 to the war that ended two years later in the cession
of Silesia to Prussia.

See Stokvis, _Manuel d'histoire_, iii. pp. 54, 64.

BRIEG, often now spelt BRIG (Fr. _Brigue_, Ital. _Briga_), a picturesque
small town in the Swiss canton of the Valais, situated at the foot of the
northern slope of the Simplon Pass, on the right bank of the Saltine
stream, and a little above its junction with the Rhone. Its older houses
are very Italian in appearance, while its most prominent buildings (castle,
former Jesuits' college and Ursuline convent) all date from the 17th
century, and are due to the generosity of a single member of the local
Stockalper family. The prosperity of Brieg is bound up with the Simplon
Pass (_q.v._), so that it gradually supplanted the more ancient village of
Naters opposite, becoming a separate parish (the church is at Glis, a few
minutes from the town) in 1517. Its medieval name was _Briga dives_. The
opening of the carriage road across the Simplon (1807) and of the tunnel
beneath the pass (1906), as well as the fact that above Brieg is the
steeper and less fertile portion of the Upper Valais (now much frequented
by tourists), have greatly increased the importance and size of the town.
The opening of the railway tunnel beneath the Lötschen Pass, affording
direct communication with Bern and the Bernese Oberland, is calculated
still further to contribute to its prosperity. The new town extends below
the old one and is closer to the right bank of the Rhone. In 1900 the
population was 2182, almost all Romanists, while 1316 were German-speaking,
719 Italian-speaking (the Simplon tunnel workmen), and 142 French-speaking,
one person only speaking Romonsch.

(W. A. B. C.)

BRIELLE (_Briel_ or _Bril_), a seaport in the province of South Holland,
Holland, on the north side of the island of Voorne, at the mouth of the New
Maas, 5½ m. N. of Hellevoetsluis. Pop. (1900) 4107. It is a fortified place
and has a good harbour, arsenal, magazine and barracks. It also possesses a
quaint town hall, and an orphanage dating from 1533. The tower of the
Groote [v.04 p.0562] Kerk of St Catherine serves as a lighthouse. Most of
the trade of Brielle was diverted to Hellevoetsluis by the cutting of the
Voornsche Canal in 1829, but it still has some business in corn and fodder,
as well as a few factories. A large number of the inhabitants are also
engaged in the fisheries and as pilots.

The chief event in the history of Brielle is its capture by the _Gueux sur
Mer_, a squadron of privateers which raided the Dutch coast under
commission of the prince of Orange. This event, which took place on the 1st
of April 1572, was the first blow in the long war of Dutch independence,
and was followed by a general outbreak of the patriotic party (Motley,
_Rise of the Dutch Republic_, part iii. chapter vi.). "The Brill" was one
of the four Dutch towns handed over to Queen Elizabeth in 1584 as security
for English expenses incurred in aiding the Dutch. Brielle is the
birthplace of the famous admiral Martin van Tromp, and also of Admiral van
Almonde, a distinguished commander of the early 18th century.

BRIENNE-LE-CHÂTEAU, a town of north-eastern France, in the department of
Aube, 1 m. from the right bank of the Aube and 26 m. N.E. of Troyes on the
Eastern railway. Pop. (1906) 1761. The château, which overlooks the town,
is an imposing building of the latter half of the 18th century, built by
the cardinal de Brienne (see below). It possesses an important collection
of pictures, many of them historical portraits of the 17th and 18th
centuries. The church dates from the 16th century and contains good stained
glass. A statue of Napoleon commemorates his sojourn at Brienne from 1779
to 1784, when he was studying at the military school suppressed in 1790. In
1814 Brienne was the scene of fighting between Napoleon and the Allies (see
NAPOLEONIC CAMPAIGNS). Brewing is carried on in the town.
Brienne-la-Vieille, a village 1½ m. south of Brienne-le-Château, has a
church of the 12th and 16th centuries with fine stained windows. The portal
once belonged to the ancient abbey of Bassefontaine, the ruins of which are
situated near the village.

_Counts of Brienne._--Under the Carolingian dynasty Brienne-le-Château was
the capital town of a French countship. In the 10th century it was captured
by two adventurers named Engelbert and Gobert, and from the first of these
sprang the noble house of Brienne. In 1210 John of Brienne (1148-1237)
became king of Jerusalem, through his marriage with Mary of Montsserrat,
heiress of the kingdom of Jerusalem. He led a crusade in Egypt which had no
lasting success; and when in 1229 he was elected emperor of the East, for
the period of Baldwin II.'s minority, he fought and conquered the Greek
emperor John III. (Batatzes or Vatatzes). Walter V., count of Brienne and
of Lecce (Apulia) and duke of Athens, fought against the Greeks and at
first drove them from Thessaly, but was eventually defeated and killed near
Lake Copais in 1311. His son, Walter VI., after having vainly attempted to
reconquer Athens in 1331, served under Philip of Valois against the
English. Having defended Florence against the Pisans he succeeded in
obtaining dictatorial powers for himself in the republic; but his
tyrannical conduct brought about his expulsion. He was appointed constable
of France by John the Good, and was killed at the battle of Poitiers in
1356. His sister and heiress Isabelle married Walter of Enghien, and so
brought Brienne to the house of Enghien, and, by his marriage with Margaret
of Enghien, John of Luxemburg-St Pol (d. about 1397) became count of
Brienne. The house of Luxemburg retained the countship until Margaret
Charlotte of Luxemburg sold it to a certain Marpon, who ceded it to Henri
Auguste de Loménie (whose wife, Louise de Béon, descended from the house of
Luxemburg-Brienne) in 1640. The Limousin house of Loménie (the genealogies
which trace this family to the 15th century are untrustworthy) produced
many well-known statesmen, among others the celebrated cardinal Étienne
Charles de Loménie de Brienne (1727-1794), minister of Louis XV.; and the
last lords of Brienne were members of this family.

(M. P.*)

BRIENZ, LAKE OF, in the Swiss canton of Bern, the first lake into which the
river Aar expands. It lies in a deep hollow between the village of Brienz
on the east (2580 inhabitants, the chief centre of the Swiss wood-carving
industry) and, on the west, Bönigen (1515 inhabitants), close to
Interlaken. Its length is about 9 m., its width 1½ m., and its maximum
depth 856 ft., while its area is 11½ sq. m., and the surface is 1857 ft.
above the sea-level. On the south shore are the Giessbach Falls and the
hamlet of Iseltwald. On the north shore are a few small villages. The
character of the lake is gloomy and sad as compared with its neighbour,
that of Thun. Its chief affluent is the Lütschine (flowing from the valleys
of Grindelwald and Lauterbrunnen). The first steamer was placed on the lake
in 1839.

(W. A. B. C.)

BRIERLEY, BENJAMIN (1825-1896), English weaver and writer in Lancashire
dialect, was born near Manchester, the son of humble parents, and started
life in a textile factory, educating himself in his spare time. At about
the age of thirty he began to contribute articles to local papers, and the
republication of some of his sketches of Lancashire character in _A Summer
Day in Daisy Nook_ (1859) attracted attention. In 1863 he definitely took
to journalism and literature as his work, publishing in 1863 his
_Chronicles of Waverlow_, and in 1864 a long story called _The Layrock of
Langley Side_ (afterwards dramatized), followed by others. He started in
1869 _Ben Brierley's Journal_, a weekly, which continued till 1891, and he
gave public readings from his own writings, visiting America in 1880 and
1884. His various _Ab-o'-th'-Yate_ sketches (about America, London, &c.),
and his pictures of Lancashire common life were very popular, and were
collected after his death. In 1884 he lost his savings by the failure of a
building society, and a fund was raised for his support. He died on the
18th of January 1896, and two years later a statue was erected to him in
Queen's Park, Manchester.

BRIERLY, SIR OSWALD WALTERS (1817-1894), English marine painter, who came
of an old Cheshire family, was born at Chester. He entered Sass's
art-school in London, and after studying naval architecture at Plymouth he
exhibited some drawings of ships at the Royal Academy in 1839. He had a
passion for the sea, and in 1841 started round the world with Benjamin Boyd
(1796-1851), afterwards well known as a great Australian squatter, in the
latter's ship "Wanderer," and having got to New South Wales, made his home
at Auckland for ten years. Brierly Point is called after him. He added to
his sea experiences by voyages on H.M.S. "Rattlesnake" in 1848, and with
Sir Henry Keppel on the "Meander" in 1850; he returned to England in 1851
on this ship, and illustrated Keppel's book about his cruise (1853). He was
again with Keppel during the Crimean War, and published in 1855 a series of
lithographs illustrating "The English and French fleets in the Baltic." He
was now taken up by Queen Victoria and other members of the royal family,
and was attached to the suites of the duke of Edinburgh and the prince of
Wales on their tours by sea, the results being seen in further marine
pictures by him; and in 1874 he was made marine-painter to the queen. He
exhibited at the Academy, but more largely at the Royal Water-colour
Society, his more important works including the historical pictures, "The
Retreat of the Spanish Armada" (1871) and "The Loss of the Revenge" (1877).
In 1885 he was knighted, and he died on the 14th of December 1894. He was
twice married and had an active and prosperous life, but was no great
artist; his best pictures are at Melbourne and Sydney.

BRIEUX, EUGÈNE (1858- ), French dramatist, was born in Paris of poor
parents on the 19th of January 1858. A one-act play, _Bernard Palissy_,
written in collaboration with M. Gaston Salandri, was produced in 1879, but
he had to wait eleven years before he obtained another hearing, his _Ménage
d' artistes_ being produced by Antoine at the Théâtre Libre in 1890. His
plays are essentially didactic, being aimed at some weakness or iniquity of
the social system. _Blanchette_ (1892) pointed out the evil results of
education of girls of the working classes; _M. de Réboval_ (1892) was
directed against pharisaism; _L'Engrenage_ (1894) against corruption in
politics; _Les Bienssaiteurs_ (1896) against the frivolity of fashionable
charity; and _L'Évasion_ (1896) satirized an indicriminate belief in the
doctrine of heredity. _Les Trois Filles de M. Dupont_ (1897) is a powerful,
somewhat brutal, study of the miseries imposed on poor middle-class girls
by the French [v.04 p.0563] system of dowry; _Le Résultat des courses_
(1898) shows the evil results of betting among the Parisian workmen; _La
Robe rouge_ (1900) was directed against the injustices of the law; _Les
Remplaçantes_ (1901) against the practice of putting children out to nurse.
_Les Avariés_ (1901), forbidden by the censor, on account of its medical
details, was read privately by the author at the Théâtre Antoine; and
_Petite amie_ (1902) describes the life of a Parisian shop-girl. Later
plays are _La Couvée_ (1903, acted privately at Rouen in 1893), _Maternité_
(1904), _La Déserteuse_ (1904), in collaboration with M. Jean Sigaux, and
_Les Hannetons_, a comedy in three acts (1906).

BRIGADE (Fr. and Ger. _brigade_, Ital. _brigata_, Span. _brigada_; the
English use of the word dates from the early 17th century), a unit in
military organization commanded by a major-general, brigadier-general or
colonel, and composed of two or more regiments of infantry, cavalry or
artillery. The British infantry brigade consists as a rule of four
battalions (or about 4000 bayonets) with supply, transport and medical
units attached; the cavalry brigade of two or three regiments of cavalry.
An artillery "brigade" (field, horse, and heavy) is in Great Britain a
smaller unit, forming a lieut.-colonel's command and consisting of two or
three batteries. (See ARMY, ARTILLERY, INFANTRY, and CAVALRY.) The staff of
an infantry or cavalry brigade usually consists of the brigadier
commanding, his aide-de-camp, and the brigade-major, a staff officer whose
duties are intermediate between those of an adjutant and those of a general
staff officer.

BRIGANDAGE. The brigand is supposed to derive his name from the O. Fr.
_brigan_, which is a form of the Ital. _brigante,_ an irregular or partisan
soldier. There can be no doubt as to the origin of the word "bandit," which
has the same meaning. In Italy, which is not unjustly considered the home
of the most accomplished European brigands, a _bandito_ was a man declared
outlaw by proclamation, or _bando_, called in Scotland "a decree of
horning" because it was delivered by a blast of a horn at the town cross.
The brigand, therefore, is the outlaw who conducts warfare after the manner
of an irregular or partisan soldier by skirmishes and surprises, who makes
the war support itself by plunder, by extorting blackmail, by capturing
prisoners and holding them to ransom, who enforces his demands by violence,
and kills the prisoners who cannot pay. In certain conditions the brigand
has not been a mere malefactor. "It is you who are the thieves"--"_I
Ladroni, siete voi,_"--was the defence of the Calabrian who was tried as a
brigand by a French court-martial during the reign of Murat in Naples.
Brigandage may be, and not infrequently has been, the last resource of a
people subject to invasion. The Calabrians who fought for Ferdinand of
Naples, and the Spanish irregular levies, which maintained the national
resistance against the French from 1808 to 1814, were called brigands by
their enemies. In the Balkan peninsula, under Turkish rule, the brigands
(called _klephts_ by the Greeks and _hayduks_ or _haydutzi_ by the Slavs)
had some claim to believe themselves the representatives of their people
against oppressors. The only approach to an attempt to maintain order was
the permission given to part of the population to carry arms in order to
repress the klephts. They were hence called "armatoli." As a matter of fact
the armatole were rather the allies than the enemies of the klephts. The
invader who reduces a nation to anarchy, and then suffers from the disorder
he creates, always calls his opponents brigands. It is a natural
consequence of such a war, but a very disastrous one, for the people who
have to have recourse to these methods of defence, that the brigand
acquires some measure of honourable prestige from his temporary association
with patriotism and honest men. The patriot band attracts the brigand
proper, who is not averse to continue his old courses under an honourable
pretext. "_Viva Fernando y vamos robando_" (Long life to Ferdinand, and let
us go robbing) has been said by not unfair critics to have been the maxim
of many Spanish guerrilleros. Italy and Spain suffered for a long time from
the disorder developed out of the popular resistance to the French. Numbers
of the guerrilleros of both countries, who in normal conditions might have
been honest, had acquired a preference for living on the country, and for
occasional booty, which they could not resign when the enemy had retired.
Their countrymen had to work for a second deliverance from their late
defenders. In the East the brigand has had a freer scope, and has even
founded kingdoms. David's following in the cave of Adullam was such
material as brigands are made of. "And every one that was in distress, and
every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented, gathered
themselves unto him, and he became a captain over them: and there were with
him about four hundred men." Nadir Shah of Persia began in just such a cave
of Adullam, and lived to plunder Delhi with a host of Persians and Afghans.

The conditions which favour the development of brigandage may be easily
summed up. They are first bad administration, and then, in a less degree,
the possession of convenient hiding-places. A country of mountain and
forest is favourable to the brigand. The highlands of Scotland supplied a
safe refuge to the "gentlemen reavers," who carried off the cattle of the
Sassenach landlords. The Apennines, the mountains of Calabria, the Sierras
of Spain, were the homes of the Italian "banditos" and the Spanish
"bandoleros" (banished men) and "salteadores" (raiders). The forests of
England gave cover to the outlaws whose very much flattered portrait is to
be found in the ballads of Robin Hood. The "maquis," i.e. the bush of
Corsica, and its hills, have helped the Corsican brigand, as the bush of
Australia covered the bushranger. But neither forest thicket nor mountain
is a lasting protection against a good police, used with intelligence by
the government, and supported by the law-abiding part of the community. The
great haunts of brigands in Europe have been central and southern Italy and
the worst-administered parts of Spain, except those which fell into the
hands of the Turks. "Whenever numerous troops of banditti, multiplied by
success and impunity, publicly defy, instead of eluding, the justice of
their country, we may safely infer that the excessive weakness of the
government is felt and abused by the lowest ranks of the community," is the
judgment passed by Gibbon on the disorders of Sicily in the reign of the
emperor Gallienus. This weakness has not always been a sign of real
feebleness in the government. England was vigorously ruled in the reign of
William III., when "a fraternity of plunderers, thirty in number according
to the lowest estimate, squatted near Waltham Cross under the shades of
Epping Forest, and built themselves huts, from which they sallied forth
with sword and pistol to bid passengers stand." It was not because the
state was weak that the Gubbings (so called in contempt from the trimmings
and refuse of fish) infested Devonshire for a generation from their
headquarters near Brent Tor, on the edge of Dartmoor. It was because
England had not provided herself with a competent rural police. In
relatively unsettled parts of the United States there has been a
considerable amount of a certain kind of brigandage. In early days the
travel routes to the far West were infested by highwaymen, who, however,
seldom united into bands, and such outlaws, when captured, were often dealt
with in an extra-legal manner, e.g. by "vigilance committees." The Mexican
brigand Cortina made incursions into Texas before the Civil War. In Canada
the mounted police have kept brigandage down, and in Mexico the "Rurales"
have made an end of the brigands. Such curable evils as the highwaymen of
England, and their like in the States, are not to be compared with the
"Écorcheurs," or Skinners, of France in the 15th century, or the
"Chauffeurs" of the revolutionary epoch. The first were large bands of
discharged mercenary soldiers who pillaged the country. The second were
ruffians who forced their victims to pay ransom by holding their feet in
fires. Both flourished because the government was for the time disorganized
by foreign invasion or by revolution. These were far more terrible evils
than the licence of criminals, who are encouraged by a fair prospect of
impunity because there is no permanent force always at hand to check them,
and to bring them promptly to justice. At the same time it would be going
much too far to say that the absence of an efficient police is the sole
cause of brigandage in countries not subject to foreign invasion, or where
[v.04 p.0564] the state is not very feeble. The Sicilian peasants of whom
Gibbon wrote were not only encouraged by the hope of impunity, but were
also maddened by an oppressive system of taxation and a cruel system of
land tenure. So were the Gauls and Spaniards who throughout the 3rd and 4th
centuries were a constant cause of trouble to the empire, under the name of
Bagaudae, a word of uncertain origin. In the years preceding the French
Revolution, the royal government commanded the services of a strong army,
and a numerous _maréchaussée_ or gendarmerie. Yet it was defied by the
troops of smugglers and brigands known as _faux saulniers_, unauthorized
salt-sellers, and gangs of poachers haunted the king's preserves round
Paris. The salt monopoly and the excessive preservation of the game were so
oppressive that the peasantry were provoked to violent resistance and to
brigandage. They were constantly suppressed, but as the cause of the
disorder survived, so its effects were continually renewed. The offenders
enjoyed a large measure of public sympathy, and were warned or concealed by
the population, even when they were not actively supported. The traditional
outlaw who spared the poor and levied tribute on the rich was, no doubt,
always a creature of fiction. The ballad which tells us how "Rich, wealthy
misers were abhorred, By brave, free-hearted Bliss" (a rascal hanged for
highway robbery at Salisbury in 1695) must have been a mere echo of the
Robin Hood songs. But there have been times and countries in which the law
and its administration have been so far regarded as enemies by people who
were not themselves criminals, that all who defied them have been sure of a
measure of sympathy. Then and there it was that brigandage has flourished,
and has been difficult to extirpate. Schinder-Hannes, Jack the Skinner,
whose real name was Johann Buckler, and who was born at Muklen on the
Rhine, flourished from 1797 to 1802 because there was no proper police to
stop him; it is also true that as he chiefly plundered the Jews he had a
good deal of Christian sympathy. When caught and beheaded he had no
successors.

The brigandage of Greece, southern Italy, Corsica and Spain had deeper
roots, and has never been quite suppressed. All four countries are well
provided with hiding-places in forest and mountain. In all the
administration has been bad, the law and its officers have been regarded as
dangers, if not as deliberate enemies, so that they have found little
native help, and, what is not the least important cause of the persistence
of brigandage, there have generally been local potentates who found it to
their interest to protect the brigand. The case of Greece under Turkish
rule need not be dealt with. Whoever was not a klepht was the victim of
some official extortioner. It would be grossly unfair to apply the name
brigand to the Mainotes and similar clans, who had to choose between being
flayed by the Turks or living by the sword under their own law. When it
became independent Greece was extremely ill administered under a nominal
parliamentary government by politicians who made use of the brigands for
their own purposes. The result was the state of things described with only
pardonable exaggeration in Edmond About's amusing _Roi de la montagne_. An
authentic and most interesting picture of the Greek brigands will be found
in the story of the captivity of S. Soteropoulos, an ex-minister who fell
into their hands. It was translated into English under the title of _The
Brigands of the Morea_, by the Rev. J.O. Bagdon (London, 1868). The
misfortunes of Soteropoulos led to the adoption of strong measures which
cleared the Morea, where the peasantry gave active support to the troops
when they saw that the government was in earnest. But brigandage was not
yet extinct in Greece. In 1870 an English party, consisting of Lord and
Lady Muncaster, Mr Vyner, Mr Lloyd, Mr Herbert, and Count de Boyl, was
captured at Oropos, near Marathon, and a ransom of £25,000 was demanded.
Lord and Lady Muncaster were set at liberty to seek for the ransom, but the
Greek government sent troops in pursuit of the brigands, and the other
prisoners were then murdered. The scoundrels were hunted down, caught, and
executed, and Greece has since then been tolerably free from this reproach.
In the Balkan peninsula, under Turkish rule, brigandage continued to exist
in connexion with Christian revolt against the Turk, and the race conflicts
of Albanians, Walachians, Pomuks, Bulgarians and Greeks. In Corsica the
"maquis" has never been without its brigand hero, because industry has been
stagnant, family feuds persist, and the government has never quite
succeeded in persuading the people to support the law. The brigand is
always a hero to at least one faction of Corsicans.

The conditions which favour brigandage have been more prevalent, and for
longer, in Italy than elsewhere in western Europe, with the standing
exception of Corsica, which is Italian in all but political allegiance.
Until the middle of the 19th century Italy was divided into small states,
so that the brigand who was closely pursued in one could flee to another.
Thus it was that Marco Sciarra of the Abruzzi, when hard pressed by the
Spanish viceroy of Naples--just before and after 1600--could cross the
border of the papal states and return on a favourable opportunity. When
pope and viceroy combined against him he took service with Venice, from
whence he could communicate with his friends at home, and pay them
occasional visits. On one such visit he was led into a trap and slain.
Marco Sciarra had terrorized the country far and wide at the head of 600
men. He was the follower and imitator of Benedetto Mangone, of whom it is
recorded that, having stopped a party of travellers which included Torquato
Tasso, he allowed them to pass unharmed out of his reverence for poets and
poetry. Mangone was finally taken, and beaten to death with hammers at
Naples. He and his like are the heroes of much popular verse, written in
_ottava rima_, and beginning with the traditional epic invocation to the
muse. A fine example is "The most beautiful history of the life and death
of Pietro Mancino, chief of Banditti," which has remained popular with the
people of southern Italy. It begins:--

 "Io canto li ricatti, e il fiero ardire
  Del gran Pietro Mancino fuoruscito"
  (Pietro Mancino that great outlawed man
  I sing, and all his rage.)

In Naples the number of competing codes and jurisdictions, the survival of
the feudal power of the nobles, who sheltered banditti, just as a Highland
chief gave refuge to "caterans" in Scotland, and the helplessness of the
peasantry, made brigandage chronic, and the same conditions obtained in
Sicily. The Bourbon dynasty reduced brigandage very much, and secured order
on the main high-roads. But it was not extinguished, and it revived during
the French invasion. This was the flourishing time of the notorious Fra
Diavolo, who began as brigand and blossomed into a patriot. Fra Diavolo was
captured and executed by the French. When Ferdinand was restored on the
fall of Napoleon he employed an English officer, General Sir Richard
Church, to suppress the brigands. General Church, who kept good order among
his soldiers, and who made them pay for everything, gained the confidence
of the peasantry, and restored a fair measure of security. It was he who
finally brought to justice the villainous Don Ciro Anicchiarico--priest and
brigand--who declared at his trial with offhand indifference that he
supposed he had murdered about seventy people first and last. When a
brother priest was sent to give him the consolations of religion, Ciro cut
him short, saying, "Stop that chatter, we are two of a trade: we need not
play the fool to one another" (_Lasciate queste chiacchiere, siamo dell'
istessa professione: non ci burliamo fra noi_). Every successive
revolutionary disturbance in Naples saw a recrudescence of brigandage down
to the unification of 1860-1861, and then it was years before the Italian
government rooted it out. The source of the trouble was the support the
brigands received from various kinds of "_manuténgoli_"
(maintainers)--great men, corrupt officials, political parties, and the
peasants who were terrorized, or who profited by selling the brigands food
and clothes. In Sicily brigandage has been endemic. In 1866 two English
travellers, Mr E.J.C. Moens and the Rev. J.C. Murray Aynesley, were
captured and held to ransom. Mr Moens found that the "manuténgoli" of the
brigands among the peasants charged famine prices for food, and
extortionate prices for clothes and cartridges. What is true of Naples and
Sicily is true of other parts of Italy _mutatis [v.04 p.0565] mutandis_. In
Tuscany, Piedmont and Lombardy the open country has been orderly, but the
borders infested with brigands. The worst district outside Calabria has
been the papal states. The Austrian general, Frimont, did, however, partly
clear the Romagna about 1820, though at a heavy cost of life to his
soldiers--mostly Bohemian Jägers--from the malaria.

The history of brigandage in Spain is very similar. It may be said to have
been endemic in and south of the Sierra Morena. In the north it has
flourished when government was weak, and after foreign invasion and civil
wars. But it has always been put down easily by a capable administration.
It reached its greatest heights in Catalonia, where it began in the strife
of the peasants against the feudal exactions of the landlords. It had its
traditional hero, Roque Guinart, who figures in the second part of Don
Quixote. The revolt against the house of Austria in 1640, and the War of
the Succession (1700-1714), gave a great stimulus to Catalan brigandage.
But it was then put down in a way for which Italy offers no precedent. A
country gentleman named Pedro Veciana, hereditary _balio_ (military and
civil lieutenant) of the archbishop of Tarragona in the town of Valls,
armed his farm-servants, and resisted the attacks of the brigands. With the
help of neighbouring country gentlemen he formed a strong band, known as
the Mozos (Boys) of Veciana. The brigands combined to get rid of him by
making an attack on the town of Valls, but were repulsed with great loss.
The government of Philip V. then commissioned Veciana to raise a special
corps of police, the "escuadra de Cataluna," which still exists. For five
generations the colonel of the escuadra was always a Veciana. At all times
in central and northern Spain the country population has supported the
police when the government would act firmly. Since the organization of the
excellent constabulary called "La Guardia Civil" by the duke of Ahumada,
about 1844, brigandage has been well kept down. At the close of the Carlist
War in 1874 a few bands infested Catalonia, but one of the worst was
surprised, and all its members battered to death with boxwood cudgels by a
gang of charcoal-burners on the ruins of the castle of San Martin de
Centellas. In such conditions as these brigandage cannot last. More
sympathy is felt for "bandoleros" in the south, and there also they find
Spanish equivalents for the "manuténgoli" of Italy. The tobacco smuggling
from Gibraltar keeps alive a lawless class which sinks easily into pure
brigandage. Perhaps the influence of the Berber blood in the population
helps to prolong this barbarism. The Sierra Morena, and the Serrania de
Ronda, have produced the bandits whose achievements form the subject of
popular ballads, such as Francisco Esteban El Guapo (Francis Stephen, the
Buck or Dandy), Don Juan de Serralonga, Pedranza, &c. The name of José
Maria has been made familiar to all the world by Merimée's story, _Carmen_,
and by Bizet's opera. José Maria, called El Tempranillo (the early bird),
was a historical personage, a liberal in the rising against Ferdinand VII.,
1820-1823, then a smuggler, then a "bandolero." He was finally bought off
by the government, and took a commission to suppress the other brigands.
Jose Maria was at last shot by one of them, whom he was endeavouring to
arrest. The civil guard prevents brigandage from reaching any great height
in normal times, but in 1905 a bandit of the old stamp, popularly known as
"El Vivillo" (the Vital Spark), haunted the Serrania de Ronda.

The brigand life has been made the subject of much romance. But when
stripped of fiction it appears that the bands have been mostly recruited by
men who had been guilty of homicide, out of jealousy or in a gambling
quarrel, and who remained in them not from love of the life, but from fear
of the gallows. A reformed brigand, known as Passo di Lupo (Wolf's Step),
confessed to Mr McFarlane about 1820 that the weaker members of the band
were terrorized and robbed by the bullies, and that murderous conflicts
were constant among them.

The "dacoits" or brigands of India were of the same stamp as their European
colleagues. The Pindaris were more than brigands, and the Thugs were a
religious sect.

AUTHORITIES.--The literature of brigandage, apart from pure romances, or
official reports of trials, is naturally extensive. Mr McFarlane's _Lives
and Exploits of Banditti and Robbers_ (London, 1837) is a useful
introduction to the subject. The author saw a part of what he wrote about,
and gives many references, particularly for Italy. A good bibliography of
Spanish brigandage will be found in the _Reseña Historica de la Guardia
Civil_ of Eugenio de la Iglesia (Madrid, 1898). For actual pictures of the
life, nothing is better than the _English Travellers and Italian Brigands_
of W.J.C. Moens (London, 1866), and _The Brigands of the Morea_, by S.
Soteropoulos, translated by the Rev. J.O. Bagdon (London, 1868).

(D. H.)

BRIGANDINE, a French word meaning the armour for the _brigandi_ or
_brigantes_, light-armed foot soldiers; part of the armour of a foot
soldier in the middle ages, consisting of a padded tunic of canvas,
leather, &c., and lined with closely sewn scales or rings of iron.

BRIGANTES (Celtic for "mountaineers" or "free, privileged"), a people of
northern Britain, who inhabited the country from the mouth of the Abus
(Humber) on the east and the Belisama (Mersey; according to others, Ribble)
on the west as far northwards as the Wall of Antoninus. Their territory
thus included most of Yorkshire, the whole of Lancashire, Durham,
Westmorland, Cumberland and part of Northumberland. Their chief town was
Eburacum (or Eboracum; York). They first came into contact with the Romans
during the reign of Claudius, when they were defeated by Publius Ostorius
Scapula. Under Vespasian they submitted to Petillius Cerealis, but were not
finally subdued till the time of Antoninus Pius (Tac. _Agricola_, 17;
Pausan. viii. 43. 4). The name of their eponymous goddess Brigantia is
found on inscriptions (_Corp. Inscr. Lat._ vii. 200, 875, 1062; F.
Haverfield in _Archaeological Journal_, xlix., 1892), and also that of a
god Bergans = Brigans (_Ephemeris Epigraphica_, vii. No. 920). A branch of
the Brigantes also settled in the south-east corner of Ireland, near the
river Birgus (Barrow).

See A. Holder, _Altceltischer Sprachschatz_, i. (1896), for ancient
authorities; J. Rhys, _Celtic Britain_ (3rd ed., 1904); Pauly-Wissowa,
_Realencyclopädie_, iii. pt. i. (1897).

BRIGG (properly Glanford Briggs or Glamford Bridge), a market town in the
North Lindsey or Brigg parliamentary division of Lincolnshire, England,
situated on the river Ancholme, which affords water communication with the
Humber. Pop. of urban district (1901) 3137. It is 23 m. by road north of
Lincoln, and is served by the Grimsby line of the Great Central railway.
Trade is principally agricultural. In 1885 a remarkable boat, assigned to
early British workmanship, was unearthed near the river; it is hollowed out
of the trunk of an oak, and measures 48 ft. 6 in. by about 5 ft. Other
prehistoric relics have also been discovered.

BRIGGS, CHARLES AUGUSTUS (1841- ), American Hebrew scholar and theologian,
was born in New York City on the 15th of January 1841. He was educated at
the university of Virginia (1857-1860), graduated at the Union Theological
Seminary in 1863, and studied further at the university of Berlin. He was
pastor of the Presbyterian church of Roselle, New Jersey, 1869-1874, and
professor of Hebrew and cognate languages in Union Theological Seminary
1874-1891, and of Biblical theology there from 1891 to 1904, when he became
professor of theological encyclopaedia and symbolics. From 1880 to 1890 he
was an editor of the _Presbyterian Review_. In 1892 he was tried for heresy
by the presbytery of New York and acquitted. The charges were based upon
his inaugural address of the preceding year. In brief they were as follows:
that he had taught that reason and the Church are each a "fountain of
divine authority which apart from Holy Scripture may and does savingly
enlighten men"; that "errors may have existed in the original text of the
Holy Scripture"; that "many of the Old Testament predictions have been
reversed by history" and that "the great body of Messianic prediction has
not and cannot be fulfilled"; that "Moses is not the author of the
Pentateuch," and that "Isaiah is not the author of half of the book which
bears his name"; that "the processes of redemption extend to the world to
come"--he had considered it a fault of Protestant theology that it limits
redemption to this world--and that "sanctification is not complete at
death." The general assembly, to which the case was appealed, suspended Dr
Briggs [v.04 p.0566] in 1893, being influenced, it would seem, in part, by
the manner and tone of his expressions--by what his own colleagues in the
Union Theological Seminary called the "dogmatic and irritating" nature of
his inaugural address. He was ordained a priest of the Protestant Episcopal
Church in 1899. His scholarship procured for him the honorary degree of
D.D. from Edinburgh (1884) and from Glasgow (1901), and that of Litt.D.
from Oxford (1901). With S.R. Driver and Francis Brown he prepared a
revised _Hebrew and English Lexicon_ (1891-1905), and with Driver edited
the "International Commentary Series." His publications include _Biblical
Study: Its Principles, Methods and History_ (1883); _Hebrew Poems of the
Creation_ (1884); _American Presbyterianism: Its Origin and Early History_
(1885); _Messianic Prophecy_ (1886); _Whither? A Theological Question for
the Times_ (1889); _The Authority of the Holy Scripture_ (1891); _The
Bible, the Church and the Reason_ (1892); _The Higher Criticism of the
Hexateuch_ (1893); _The Messiah of the Gospels_ (1804), _The Messiah of the
Apostles_ (1894); _New Light on the Life of Jesus_ (1904); _The Ethical
Teaching of Jesus_ (1904); _A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the
Book of Psalms_ (2 vols., 1906-1907), in which he was assisted by his
daughter; and _The Virgin Birth of Our Lord_ (1909).

BRIGGS, HENRY (1556-1630), English mathematician, was born at Warley Wood,
near Halifax, in Yorkshire. He graduated at St John's College, Cambridge,
in 1581, and obtained a fellowship in 1588. In 1592 he was made reader of
the physical lecture founded by Dr Thomas Linacre, and in 1596 first
professor of geometry in Gresham House (afterwards College), London. In his
lectures at Gresham House he proposed the alteration of the scale of
logarithms from the hyperbolic form which John Napier had given them, to
that in which unity is assumed as the logarithm of the ratio of ten to one;
and soon afterwards he wrote to the inventor on the subject. In 1616 he
paid a visit to Napier at Edinburgh in order to discuss the suggested
change; and next year he repeated his visit for a similar purpose. During
these conferences the alteration proposed by Briggs was agreed upon; and on
his return from his second visit to Edinburgh in 1617 he accordingly
published the first chiliad of his logarithms. (See NAPIER, JOHN.) In 1619
he was appointed Savilian professor of geometry at Oxford, and resigned his
professorship of Gresham College on the 25th of July 1620. Soon after his
settlement at Oxford he was incorporated master of arts. In 1622 he
published a small tract on the _North-West Passage to the South Seas,
through the Continent of Virginia and Hudson's Bay_; and in 1624 his
_Arithmetica Logarithmica_, in folio, a work containing the logarithms of
thirty thousand natural numbers to fourteen places of figures besides the
index. He also completed a table of logarithmic sines and tangents for the
hundredth part of every degree to fourteen places of figures besides the
index, with a table of natural sines to fifteen places, and the tangents
and secants for the same to ten places; all of which were printed at Gouda
in 1631 and published in 1633 under the title of _Trigonometria Britannica_
(see TABLE, MATHEMATICAL). Briggs died on the 26th of January 1630, and was
buried in Merton College chapel, Oxford. Dr Smith, in his _Lives of the
Gresham Professors_, characterizes him as a man of great probity, a
contemner of riches, and contented with his own station, preferring a
studious retirement to all the splendid circumstances of life.

His works are: _A Table to find the Height of the Pole, the Magnetical
Declination being given_ (London, 1602, 4to); "Tables for the Improvement
of Navigation," printed in the second edition of Edward Wright's treatise
entitled _Certain Errors in Navigation detected and corrected_ (London,
1610, 4to); _A Description of an Instrumental Table to find the part
proportional, devised by Mr Edward Wright_ (London, 1616 and 1618, 12mo);
_Logarithmorum Chilias prima_ (London, 1617, 8vo); _Lucubrationes et
Annotationes in opera posthuma J. Neperi_ (Edinburgh, 1619, 4to); _Euclidis
Elementorum VI. libri priores_ (London, 1620. folio); _A Treatise on the
North-West Passage to the South Sea_ (London, 1622, 4to), reprinted in
Purchas's _Pilgrims_, vol. iii. p. 852; _Arithmetica Logarithmica_ (London,
1624, folio); _Trigonometria Britannica_ (Goudae, 1663, folio); two
_Letters_ to Archbishop Usher; _Mathematica ab Antiquis minus cognita_.
Some other works, as his _Commentaries on the Geometry of Peter Ramus_, and
_Remarks on the Treatise of Longomontanus respecting the Quadrature of the
Circle_, have not been published.

BRIGHOUSE, a municipal borough in the Elland parliamentary division of the
West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 5½ m. N. of Huddersfield by the
Lancashire & Yorkshire railway, on the river Calder. Pop. (1901) 21,735. It
is in the heart of the manufacturing district of the West Riding, and has
large woollen and worsted factories; carpets, machinery and soap are also
produced. The town was incorporated in 1893, and is governed by a mayor, 8
aldermen and 24 councillors. Area, 2231 acres.

BRIGHT, SIR CHARLES TILSTON (1832-1888), English telegraph engineer, who
came of an old Yorkshire family, was born on the 8th of June 1832, at
Wanstead, Essex. At the age of fifteen he became a clerk under the Electric
Telegraph Company. His talent for electrical engineering was soon shown,
and his progress was rapid; so that in 1852 he was appointed engineer to
the Magnetic Telegraph Company, and in that capacity superintended the
laying of lines in various parts of the British Isles, including in 1853
the first cable between Great Britain and Ireland, from Portpatrick to
Donaghadee. His experiments convinced him of the practicability of an
electric submarine cable connexion between Ireland and America; and having
in 1855 already discussed the question with Cyrus Field, who with J. W.
Brett controlled the Newfoundland Telegraph Company on the other side of
the ocean, Bright organized with them the Atlantic Telegraph Company in
1856 for the purpose of carrying out the idea, himself becoming
engineer-in-chief. The story of the first Atlantic cable is told elsewhere
(see TELEGRAPH), and it must suffice here to say that in 1858, after two
disappointments, Bright successfully accomplished what to many had seemed
an impossible feat, and within a few days of landing the Irish end of the
line at Valentia he was knighted in Dublin. Subsequently Sir Charles Bright
supervised the laying of submarine cables in various regions of the world,
and took a leading part as pioneer in other developments of the electrical
industry. In conjunction with Josiah Latimer Clark, with whom he entered
into partnership in 1861, he invented improved methods of insulating
submarine cables, and a paper on electrical standards read by them before
the British Association in the same year led to the establishment of the
British Association committee on that subject, whose work formed the
foundations of the system still in use. From 1865 to 1868 he was Liberal
M.P. for Greenwich. He died on the 3rd of May 1888, at Abbey Wood, near
London.

See _Life Story of Sir C. T. Bright_, by his son Charles Bright (revised
ed. 1908).

BRIGHT, JOHN (1811-1889), British statesman, was born at Rochdale on the
16th of November 1811. His father, Jacob Bright, was a much-respected
Quaker, who had started a cottonmill at Rochdale in 1809. The family had
reached Lancashire by two migrations. Abraham Bright was a Wiltshire
yeoman, who, early in the 18th century, removed to Coventry, where his
descendants remained, and where, in 1775, Jacob Bright was born. Jacob
Bright was educated at the Ackworth school of the Society of Friends, and
was apprenticed to a fustian manufacturer at New Mills. He married his
employer's daughter, and settled with his two brothers-in-law at Rochdale
in 1802, going into business for himself seven years later. His first wife
died without children, and in 1809 he married Martha Wood, daughter of a
tradesman of Bolton-le-Moors. She had been educated at Ackworth school, and
was a woman of great strength of character and refined taste. There were
eleven children of this marriage, of whom John Bright was the second, but
the death of his elder brother in childhood made him the eldest son. He was
a delicate child, and was sent as a day-scholar to a boarding-school near
his home, kept by Mr William Littlewood. A year at the Ackworth school, two
years at a school at York, and a year and a half at Newton, near Clitheroe,
completed his education. He learned, he himself said, but little Latin and
Greek, but acquired a great love of English literature, which his mother
fostered, and a love of outdoor pursuits. In his sixteenth year he entered
his father's mill, and in due time became a partner in the business. Two
agitations were then going on in Rochdale--the first (in which Jacob Bright
was a leader) in opposition to a local [v.04 p.0567] church-rate, and the
second for parliamentary reform, by which Rochdale successfully claimed to
have a member allotted to it under the Reform Bill. In both these movements
John Bright took part. He was an ardent Nonconformist, proud to number
among his ancestors John Gratton, a friend of George Fox, and one of the
persecuted and imprisoned preachers of the Society of Friends. His
political interest was probably first kindled by the Preston election in
1830, in which Lord Stanley, after a long struggle, was defeated by
"Orator" Hunt. But it was as a member of the Rochdale Juvenile Temperance
Band that he first learned public speaking. These young men went out into
the villages, borrowed a chair of a cottager, and spoke from it at open-air
meetings. In Mrs John Mills's life of her husband is an account of John
Bright's first extempore speech. It was at a temperance meeting. Bright got
his notes muddled, and broke down. The chairman gave out a temperance song,
and during the singing told Bright to put his notes aside and say what came
into his mind. Bright obeyed, began with much hesitancy, but found his
tongue and made an excellent address. On some early occasions, however, he
committed his speech to memory. In 1832 he called on the Rev. John Aldis,
an eminent Baptist minister, to accompany him to a local Bible meeting. Mr
Aldis described him as a slender, modest young gentleman, who surprised him
by his intelligence and thoughtfulness, but who seemed nervous as they
walked to the meeting together. At the meeting he made a stimulating
speech, and on the way home asked for advice. Mr Aldis counselled him not
to learn his speeches, but to write out and commit to memory certain
passages and the peroration. Bright took the advice, and acted on it all
his life.

This "first lesson in public speaking," as Bright called it, was given in
his twenty-first year, but he had not then contemplated entering on a
public career. He was a fairly prosperous man of business, very happy in
his home, and always ready to take part in the social, educational and
political life of his native town. He was one of the founders of the
Rochdale Literary and Philosophical Society, took a leading part in its
debates, and on returning from a holiday journey in the East, gave the
society a lecture on his travels. He first met Richard Cobden in 1836 or
1837. Cobden was an alderman of the newly formed Manchester corporation,
and Bright went to ask him to speak at an education meeting in Rochdale. "I
found him," said Bright, "in his office in Mosley Street, introduced myself
to him, and told him what I wanted." Cobden consented, and at the meeting
was much struck by Bright's short speech, and urged him to speak against
the Corn Laws. His first speech on the Corn Laws was made at Rochdale in
1838, and in the same year he joined the Manchester provisional committee
which in 1839 founded the Anti-Corn Law League He was still only the local
public man, taking part in all public movements, especially in opposition
to John Feilden's proposed factory legislation, and to the Rochdale
church-rate. In 1839 he built the house which he called "One Ash," and
married Elizabeth, daughter of Jonathan Priestman of Newcastle-on-Tyne. In
November of the same year there was a dinner at Bolton to Abraham Paulton,
who had just returned from a successful Anti-Corn Law tour in Scotland.
Among the speakers were Cobden and Bright, and the dinner is memorable as
the first occasion on which the two future leaders appeared together on a
Free Trade platform. Bright is described by the historian of the League as
"a young man then appearing for the first time in any meeting out of his
own town, and giving evidence, by his energy and by his grasp of the
subject, of his capacity soon to take a leading part in the great
agitation." But his call had not yet come. In 1840 he led a movement
against the Rochdale church-rate, speaking from a tombstone in the
churchyard, where it looks down on the town in the valley below. A very
happy married life at home contented him, and at the opening of the Free
Trade hall in January 1840 he sat with the Rochdale deputation,
undistinguished in the body of the meeting. A daughter, Helen, was born to
him; but his young wife, after a long illness, died of consumption in
September 1841. Three days after her death at Leamington, Cobden called to
see him. "I was in the depths of grief," said Bright, when unveiling the
statue of his friend at Bradford in 1877, "I might almost say of despair,
for the life and sunshine of my house had been extinguished." Cobden spoke
some words of condolence, but after a time he looked up and said, 'There
are thousands of homes in England at this moment where wives, mothers and
children are dying of hunger. Now, when the first paroxysm of your grief is
past, I would advise you to come with me, and we will never rest till the
Corn Laws are repealed.' "I accepted his invitation," added Bright, "and
from that time we never ceased to labour hard on behalf of the resolution
which we had made." At the general election in 1841 Cobden was returned for
Stockport, and in 1843 Bright was the Free Trade candidate at a by-election
at Durham. He was defeated, but his successful competitor was unseated on
petition, and at the second contest Bright was returned. He was already
known in the country as Cobden's chief ally, and was received in the House
of Commons with a suspicion and hostility even greater than had met Cobden
himself. In the Anti-Corn Law movement the two speakers were the
complements and correlatives of each other. Cobden had the calmness and
confidence of the political philosopher, Bright had the passion and the
fervour of the popular orator. Cobden did the reasoning, Bright supplied
the declamation, but like Demosthenes he mingled argument with appeal. No
orator of modern times rose more rapidly to a foremost place. He was not
known beyond his own borough when Cobden called him to his side in 1841,
and he entered parliament towards the end of the session of 1843 with a
formidable reputation as an agitator. He had been all over England and
Scotland addressing vast meetings and, as a rule, carrying them with him;
he had taken a leading part in a conference held by the Anti-Corn Law
League in London, had led deputations to the duke of Sussex, to Sir James
Graham, then home secretary, and to Lord Ripon and Mr Gladstone, the
secretary and under secretary of the Board of Trade; and he was universally
recognized as the chief orator of the Free Trade movement. Wherever "John
Bright of Rochdale" was announced to speak, vast crowds assembled. He had
been so announced, for the last time, at the first great meeting in Drury
Lane theatre on 15th March 1843; henceforth his name was enough. He took
his seat in the House of Commons as one of the members for Durham on 28th
July 1843, and on 7th August delivered his maiden speech in support of a
motion by Mr Ewart for reduction of import duties. He was there, he said,
"not only as one of the representatives of the city of Durham, but also as
one of the representatives of that benevolent organization, the Anti-Corn
Law League." A member who heard the speech described Bright as "about the
middle size, rather firmly and squarely built, with a fair, clear
complexion, and an intelligent and pleasing expression of countenance. His
voice is good, his enunciation distinct, and his delivery free from any
unpleasant peculiarity or mannerism." He wore the usual Friend's coat, and
was regarded with much interest and hostile curiosity on both sides of the
House.

Mr Ewart's motion was defeated, but the movement of which Cobden and Bright
were the leaders continued to spread. In the autumn the League resolved to
raise £100,000; an appeal was made to the agricultural interest by great
meetings in the farming counties, and in November _The Times_ startled the
world by declaring, in a leading article, "The League is a great fact. It
would be foolish, nay, rash, to deny its importance." In London great
meetings were held in Covent Garden theatre, at which William Johnson Fox
was the chief orator, but Bright and Cobden were the leaders of the
movement. Bright publicly deprecated the popular tendency to regard Cobden
and himself as the chief movers in the agitation, and Cobden told a
Rochdale audience that he always stipulated that he should speak first, and
Bright should follow. His "more stately genius," as Mr John Morley calls
it, was already making him the undisputed master of the feelings of his
audiences. In the House of Commons his progress was slower. Cobden's
argumentative speeches were regarded more sympathetically than Bright's
more rhetorical appeals, and in a debate on Villiers's annual motion
against the Corn Laws Bright was heard with so much impatience that [v.04
p.0568] he was obliged to sit down. In the next session (1845) he moved for
an inquiry into the operation of the Game Laws. At a meeting of county
members earlier in the day Peel had advised them not to be led into
discussion by a violent speech from the member for Durham, but to let the
committee be granted without debate. Bright was not violent, and Cobden
said that he did his work admirably, and won golden opinions from all men.
The speech established his position in the House of Commons. In this
session Bright and Cobden came into opposition, Cobden voting for the
Maynooth Grant and Bright against it. On only one other occasion--a vote
for South Kensington--did they go into opposite lobbies, during twenty-five
years of parliamentary life. In the autumn of 1845 Bright retained Cobden
in the public career to which Cobden had invited him four years before.
Bright was in Scotland when a letter came from Cobden announcing his
determination, forced on him by business difficulties, to retire from
public work. Bright replied that if Cobden retired the mainspring of the
League was gone. "I can in no degree take your place," he wrote. "As a
second I can fight, but there are incapacities about me, of which I am
fully conscious, which prevent my being more than second in such a work as
we have laboured in." A few days later he set off for Manchester, posting
in that wettest of autumns through "the rain that rained away the Corn
Laws," and on his arrival got his friends together, and raised the money
which tided Cobden over the emergency. The crisis of the struggle had come.
Peel's budget in 1845 was a first step towards Free Trade. The bad harvest
and the potato disease drove him to the repeal of the Corn Laws, and at a
meeting in Manchester on 2nd July 1846 Cobden moved and Bright seconded a
motion dissolving the league. A library of twelve hundred volumes was
presented to Bright as a memorial of the struggle.

Bright married, in June 1847, Miss Margaret Elizabeth Leatham, of
Wakefield, by whom he had seven children, Mr John Albert Bright being the
eldest. In the succeeding July he was elected for Manchester, with Mr
Milner Gibson, without a contest. In the new parliament, as in the previous
session, he opposed legislation restricting the hours of labour, and, as a
Nonconformist, spoke against clerical control of national education. In
1848 he voted for Hume's household suffrage motion, and introduced a bill
for the repeal of the Game Laws. When Lord John Russell brought forward his
Ecclesiastical Titles Bill, Bright opposed it as "a little, paltry,
miserable measure," and foretold its failure. In this parliament he spoke
much on Irish questions. In a speech in favour of the government bill for a
rate in aid in 1849, he won loud cheers from both sides, and was
complimented by Disraeli for having sustained the reputation of that
assembly. From this time forward he had the ear of the House, and took
effective part in the debates. He spoke against capital punishment, against
church-rates, against flogging in the army, and against the Irish
Established Church. He supported Cobden's motion for the reduction of
public expenditure, and in and out of parliament pleaded for peace. In the
election of 1852 he was again returned for Manchester on the principles of
free trade, electoral reform and religious freedom. But war was in the air,
and the most impassioned speeches he ever delivered were addressed to this
parliament in fruitless opposition to the Crimean War. Neither the House
nor the country would listen. "I went to the House on Monday," wrote
Macaulay in March 1854, "and heard Bright say everything I thought." His
most memorable speech, the greatest he ever made, was delivered on the 23rd
of February 1855. "The angel of death has been abroad throughout the land.
You may almost hear the beating of his wings," he said, and concluded with
an appeal to the prime minister that moved the House as it had never been
moved within living memory. There was a tremor in Bright's voice in the
touching parts of his great speeches which stirred the feelings even of
hostile listeners. It was noted for the first time in this February speech,
but the most striking instance was in a speech on Mr Osborne Morgan's
Burials Bill in April 1875, in which he described a Quaker funeral, and
protested against the "miserable superstition of the phrase 'buried like a
dog.'" "In that sense," he said, "I shall be buried like a dog, and all
those with whom I am best acquainted, whom I best love and esteem, will be
'buried like a dog.' Nay more, my own ancestors, who in past time suffered
persecution for what is now held to be a righteous cause, have all been
buried like dogs, if that phrase is true." The tender, half-broken tones in
which these words were said, the inexpressible pathos of his voice and
manner, were never forgotten by those who heard that Wednesday morning
speech.

Bright was disqualified by illness during the whole of 1856 and 1857. In
Palmerston's penal dissolution in the latter year, Bright was rejected by
Manchester, but in August, while ill and absent, Birmingham elected him
without a contest. He returned to parliament in 1858, and in February
seconded the motion which threw out Lord Palmerston's government. Lord
Derby thereupon came into office for the second time, and Bright had the
satisfaction of assisting in the passing of two measures which he had long
advocated--the admission of Jews to parliament and the transfer of the
government of India from the East India Company to the crown. He was now
restored to full political activity, and in October addressed his new
constituents, and started a movement for parliamentary reform. He spoke at
great gatherings at Edinburgh, Glasgow, Bradford and Manchester, and his
speeches filled the papers. For the next nine years he was the protagonist
of Reform. Towards the close of the struggle he told the House of Commons
that a thousand meetings had been held, that at every one the doors were
open for any man to enter, yet that an almost unanimous vote for reform had
been taken. In the debates on the Reform Bills submitted to the House of
Commons from 1859. to 1867, Bright's was the most influential voice. He
rebuked Lowe's "Botany Bay view," and described Horsman as retiring to his
"cave of Adullam," and hooking in Lowe. "The party of two," he said,
"reminds me of the Scotch terrier, which was so covered with hair that you
could not tell which was the head and which was the tail." These and
similar phrases, such as the excuse for withdrawing the Reform Bill in the
year of the great budget of 1860--"you cannot get twenty wagons at once
through Temple Bar"--were in all men's mouths. It was one of the triumphs
of Bright's oratory that it constantly produced these popular cries. The
phrase "a free breakfast table" was his; and on the rejection of Forster's
Compensation for Disturbance Bill he used the phrase as to Irish
discontent, "Force is not a remedy."

During his great reform agitation Bright had vigorously supported Cobden in
the negotiations for the treaty of commerce with France, and had taken,
with his usual vehemence, the side of the North in the discussions in
England on the American Civil War. In March 1865 Cobden died, and Bright
told the House of Commons he dared not even attempt to express the feelings
which oppressed him, and sat down overwhelmed with grief. Their friendship
was one of the most characteristic features of the public life of their
time. "After twenty years of intimate and almost brotherly friendship with
him," said Bright, "I little knew how much I loved him till I had lost
him." In June 1865 parliament was dissolved, and Bright was returned for
Birmingham without opposition. Palmerston's death in the early autumn
brought Lord John Russell into power, and for the first time Bright gave
his support to the government. Russell's fourth Reform Bill was introduced,
was defeated by the Adullamites, and the Derby-Disraeli ministry was
installed. Bright declared Lord Derby's accession to be a declaration of
war against the working classes, and roused the great towns in the demand
for reform. Bright was the popular hero of the time. As a political leader
the winter of 1866-1867 was the culminating point in his career. The Reform
Bill was carried with a clause for minority representation, and in the
autumn of 1868 Bright, with two Liberal colleagues, was again returned for
Birmingham. Mr Gladstone came into power with a programme of Irish reform
in church and land such as Bright had long urged, and he accepted the post
of president of the Board of Trade. He thus became a member of the privy
council, with the title of Right Honourable, and from this time forth was a
recognized leader of the Liberal party in parliament and in the country. He
made a great speech [v.04 p.0569] on the second reading of the Irish Church
Bill, and wrote a letter on the House of Lords, in which he said, "In
harmony with the nation they may go on for a long time, but throwing
themselves athwart its course they may meet with accidents not pleasant for
them to think of." He also spoke strongly in the same session in favour of
the bill permitting marriage with a deceased wife's sister. The next
session found him disqualified by a severe illness, which caused his
retirement from office at the end of the year, and kept him out of public
life for four years. In August 1873 Mr Gladstone reconstructed his cabinet,
and Bright returned to it as chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster. But his
hair had become white, and though he spoke again with much of his former
vigour, he was now an old man. In the election in January 1874 Bright and
his colleagues were returned for Birmingham without opposition. When Mr
Gladstone resigned the leadership of his party in 1875, Bright was chairman
of the party meeting which chose Lord Hartington as his successor. He took
a less prominent part in political discussion till the Eastern Question
brought Great Britain to the verge of war with Russia, and his old energy
flamed up afresh. In the debate on the vote of credit in February 1878, he
made one of his impressive speeches, urging the government not to increase
the difficulties manufacturers had in finding employment for their
workpeople by any single word or act which could shake confidence in
business. The debate lasted five days. On the fifth day a telegram from Mr
Layard was published announcing that the Russians were nearing
Constantinople. The day, said _The Times_, "was crowded with rumours,
alarms, contradictions, fears, hopes, resolves, uncertainties." In both
Houses Mr Layard's despatch was read, and in the excited Commons Mr
Forster's resolution opposing the vote of credit was withdrawn. Bright,
however, distrusted the ambassador at the Porte, and gave reasons for
doubting the alarming telegram. While he was speaking a note was put into
the hands of Sir Stafford Northcote, and when Bright sat down he read it to
the House. It was a confirmation from the Russian prime minister of
Bright's doubts: "There is not a word of truth in the rumours which have
reached you." At the general election in 1880 he was re-elected at
Birmingham, and joined Mr Gladstone's new government as chancellor of the
duchy of Lancaster. For two sessions he spoke and voted with his
colleagues, but after the bombardment of the Alexandria forts he left the
ministry and never held office again. He felt most painfully the severance
from his old and trusted leader, but it was forced on him by his conviction
of the danger and impolicy of foreign entanglements. He, however, gave a
general support to Mr Gladstone's government. In 1883 he took the chair at
a meeting of the Liberation Society in Mr Spurgeon's chapel; and in June of
that year was the object of an unparalleled demonstration at Birmingham to
celebrate his twenty-five years of service as its representative. At this
celebration he spoke strongly of "the Irish rebel party," and accused the
Conservatives of "alliance" with them, but withdrew the imputation when Sir
Stafford Northcote moved that such language was a breach of the privileges
of the House of Commons. At a banquet to Lord Spencer he accused the Irish
members of having "exhibited a boundless sympathy for criminals and
murderers." He refused in the House of Commons to apologise for these
words, and was supported in his refusal by both sides of the House. At the
Birmingham election in 1885 he stood for the central division of the
redistributed constituency; he was opposed by Lord Randolph Churchill, but
was elected by a large majority. In the new parliament he voted against the
Home Rule Bill, and it was generally felt that in the election of 1886
which followed its defeat, when he was re-elected without opposition, his
letters told with fatal effect against the Home Rule Liberals. His
contribution to the discussion was a suggestion that the Irish members
should form a grand committee to which every Irish bill should go after
first reading. The break-up of the Liberal party filled him with gloom. His
last speech at Birmingham was on 29th March 1888, at a banquet to celebrate
Mr Chamberlain's return from his peace mission to the United States. He
spoke of imperial federation as a "dream and an absurdity." In May his
illness returned, he took to his bed in October, and died on the 27th of
March 1889. He was buried in the graveyard of the meeting-house of the
Society of Friends in Rochdale.

Bright had much literary and social recognition in his later years. In 1882
he was elected lord rector of the university of Glasgow, and Dr Dale wrote
of his rectorial address: "It was not the old Bright." "I am weary of
public speaking," he had told Dr Dale; "my mind is almost a blank." He was
given an honorary degree of the university of Oxford in 1886, and in 1888 a
statue of him was erected at Birmingham. The 3rd marquess of Salisbury said
of him, and it sums up his character as a public man: "He was the greatest
master of English oratory that this generation--I may say several
generations--has seen.... At a time when much speaking has depressed, has
almost exterminated eloquence, he maintained that robust, powerful and
vigorous style in which he gave fitting expression to the burning and noble
thoughts he desired to utter."

See _The Life and Speeches of the Right Hon. John Bright, M.P_., by George
Barnett Smith, 2 vols. 8vo (1881); _The Life of John Bright, M.P._, by John
M^cGilchrist, in Cassell's Representative Biographies (1868); _John
Bright_, by C.A. Vince (1898); _Speeches on Parliamentary Reform by John
Bright, M.P., revised by Himself_ (1866); _Speeches on Questions of Public
Policy_, by John Bright, M.P., edited by J.E. Thorold Rogers, 2 vols. 8vo
(1868); _Public Addresses_, edited by J.E. Thorold Rogers, 8vo (1879);
_Public Letters of the Right Hon. John Bright, M.P._, collected by H.J.
Leech (1885).

(P. W. C.)

BRIGHTLINGSEA (pronounced BRITTLESEA), a port and fishing station in the
Harwich parliamentary division of Essex, England, on a creek opening from
the east shore of the Colne estuary, the terminus of a branch from
Colchester of the Great Eastern railway, 62½ m. E.N.E. of London. Pop. of
urban district (1901) 4501. The Colchester oyster beds are mainly in this
part of the Colne, and the oyster fishery is the chief industry.
Boat-building is carried on. This is also a favourite yachting centre. The
church of All Saints, principally Perpendicular, has interesting monuments
and brasses, and a fine lofty tower and west front. Brightlingsea, which
appears in Domesday, is a member of the Cinque Port of Sandwich in Kent.
Near the opposite shore of the creek is St Osyth's priory, which originated
as a nunnery founded by Osyth, a grand-daughter of Penda, king of Mercia,
martyred (c. 653) by Norse invaders. A foundation for Augustinian canons
followed on the site early in the 12th century. The remains, incorporated
with a modern residence, include a late Perpendicular gateway, abbots'
tower, clock tower and crypt. The gateway, an embattled structure with
flanking turrets, is particularly fine, the entire front being panelled and
ornamented with canopied niches. The church of St Osyth, also Perpendicular
in the main, is of interest.

BRIGHTON, a watering-place of Bourke county, Victoria, Australia, 7½ m. by
rail S.E. of Melbourne, of which it is practically a suburb. It stands on
the east shore of Port Phillip, and has two piers, a great extent of sandy
beach and numerous beautiful villas. Pop. (1901) 10,029.

BRIGHTON, a municipal, county and parliamentary borough of Sussex, England,
one of the best-known seaside resorts in the United Kingdom, 51 m. S. from
London by the London, Brighton & South Coast railway. Pop. (1901) 123,478.
Its ready accessibility from the metropolis is the chief factor in its
popularity. It is situated on the seaward slope of the South Downs; the
position is sheltered from inclement winds, and the climate is generally
mild. The sea-front, overlooking the English Channel, stretches nearly 4 m.
from Kemp Town on the east to Hove (a separate municipal borough) on the
west. Inland, including the suburb of Preston, the town extends some 2 m.
The tendency of the currents in the Channel opposite Brighton is to drive
the shingle eastward, and encroachments of the sea were frequent and
serious until the erection of a massive sea-wall, begun about 1830, 60 ft.
high, 23 ft. thick at the base, and 3 ft. at the summit. There are numerous
modern churches and chapels, many of them very handsome; and the former
parish church of St Nicholas remains, a Decorated structure containing a
Norman font and a memorial to the great duke of Wellington. The incumbency
of Trinity Chapel was held by the famous [v.04 p.0570] preacher Frederick
William Robertson (1847-1853). The town hall and the parochial offices are
the principal administrative buildings. Numerous institutions contribute to
the entertainment of visitors. Of these the most remarkable is the
Pavilion, built as a residence for the prince regent (afterwards George
IV.) and remodelled in 1819 by the architect, John Nash, in a grotesque
Eastern style of architecture. In 1849 it was purchased by the town for
£53,000, and is devoted to various public uses, containing a museum,
assembly-rooms and picture-galleries. The detached building, formerly the
stables, is converted into a fine concert hall; it is lighted by a vast
glazed dome approaching that of St Paul's cathedral, London, in dimensions.
There are several theatres and music-halls. The aquarium, the property of
the corporation, contains an excellent marine collection, but is also used
as a concert hall and winter garden, and a garden is laid out on its roof.
The Booth collection of British birds, bequeathed to the corporation by
E.T. Booth, was opened in 1893. There are two piers, of which the Palace
pier, near the site of the old chain pier (1823), which was washed away in
1896, is near the centre of the town, while the West pier is towards Hove.
Preston and Queen's parks are the principal of several public recreation
grounds; and the racecourse at Kemp Town is also the property of the town.
Educational establishments are numerous, and include Brighton College,
which ranks high among English public schools. There are municipal schools
of science, technology and art. St Mary's Hall (1836) is devoted to the
education of poor clergymen's daughters. Among many hospitals, the county
hospital (1828), "open to the sick and lame poor of every country and
nation," may be mentioned. There are an extensive mackerel and herring
fishery, and motor engineering works. The parliamentary borough, which
includes the parish of Hove, returns two members. The county borough was
created in 1888. The municipal borough is under a mayor, 14 aldermen and 42
councillors. Area, 2536 acres.

Although there is evidence of Roman and Saxon occupation of the site, the
earliest mention of Brighton (Bristelmeston, Brichelmestone,
Brighthelmston) is the Domesday Book record that its three manors belonged
to Earl Godwin and were held by William de Warenne. Of these, two passed to
the priories of Lewes and Michelham respectively, and after the dissolution
of the monasteries were subject to frequent sale and division. The third
descended to the earls of Arundel, falling to the share of the duke of
Norfolk in 1415, and being divided in 1502 between the families of Howard
and Berkeley. That Brighton was a large fishing village in 1086 is evident
from the rent of 4000 herrings; in 1285 it had a separate constable, and in
1333 it was assessed for a tenth, and fifteenth at £5:4:6¾, half the
assessment of Shoreham. In 1340 there were no merchants there, only tenants
of lands, but its prosperity increased during the 15th and 16th centuries,
and it was assessed at £6:12:8 in 1534. There is, however, no indication
that it was a borough. In 1580 commissioners sent to decide disputes
between the fishermen and landsmen found that from time immemorial Brighton
had been governed by two head boroughs sitting in the borough court, and
assisted by a council called the Twelve. This constitution disappeared
before 1772, when commissioners were appointed. Brighton refused a charter
offered by George, prince of Wales, but was incorporated in 1854. It had
become a parliamentary borough in 1832. From a fishing town in 1656 it
became a fashionable resort in 1756; its popularity increased after the
visit of the prince of Wales (see GEORGE IV.) to the duke of Cumberland in
1783, and was ensured by his building the Pavilion in 1784-1787, and his
adoption of it as his principal residence; and his association with Mrs
Fitzherbert at Brighton was the starting-point of its fashionable repute.

See _Victoria County History--Sussex; Sussex Archaeological Society
Transactions_, vol. ii.; L. Melville, _Brighton, its History, its Follies
and its Fashions_ (London, 1909).

BRIGHT'S DISEASE, a term in medicine applied to a class of diseases of the
kidneys (acute and chronic nephritis) which have as their most prominent
symptom the presence of albumen in the urine, and frequently also the
coexistence of dropsy. These associated symptoms in connexion with kidney
disease were first described in 1827 by Dr Richard Bright (1789-1858).
Since that period it has been established that the symptoms, instead of
being, as was formerly supposed, the result of one form of disease of the
kidneys, may be dependent on various morbid conditions of those organs (see
KIDNEY DISEASES). Hence the term Bright's disease, which is retained in
medical nomenclature in honour of Dr Bright, must be understood as having a
generic application.

The symptoms are usually of a severe character. Pain in the back, vomiting
and febrile disturbance commonly usher in the attack. Dropsy, varying in
degree from slight puffiness of the face to an accumulation of fluid
sufficient to distend the whole body, and to occasion serious embarrassment
to respiration, is a very common accompaniment. The urine is reduced in
quantity, is of dark, smoky or bloody colour, and exhibits to chemical
reaction the presence of a large amount of albumen, while, under the
microscope, blood corpuscles and casts, as above mentioned, are found in
abundance.

This state of acute inflammation may by its severity destroy life, or,
short of this, may by continuance result in the establishment of one of the
chronic forms of Bright's disease. On the other hand an arrest of the
inflammatory action frequently occurs, and this is marked by the increased
amount of the urine, and the gradual disappearance of its albumen and other
abnormal constituents; as also by the subsidence of the dropsy and the
rapid recovery of strength.

In the treatment of acute Bright's disease, good results are often obtained
from local depletion, from warm baths and from the careful employment of
diuretics and purgatives. Chronic Bright's disease is much less amenable to
treatment, but by efforts to maintain the strength and improve the quality
of the blood by strong nourishment, and at the same time by guarding
against the risks of complications, life may often be prolonged in
comparative comfort, and even a certain measure of improvement be
experienced.

BRIGNOLES, a town in the department of Var in the S.E. of France, 36 m. by
rail N. of Toulon. Pop. (1906) 3639. It is built at a height of 754 ft.
above the sea-level, in a fertile valley, and on the right bank of the
Carami river. It contains the old summer palace of the counts of Provence,
and has an active trade, especially in prunes, known as _prunes de
Brignoles_. Its old name was _Villa Puerorum_, as the children of the
counts of Provence were often brought up here. It was sacked on several
occasions during the religious wars in the 16th century. Twelve miles to
the N.W. is St Maximin (with a fine medieval church), which is one of the
best starting-points for the most famous pilgrimage resort in Provence, the
Sainte Baume, wherein St Mary Magdalene is said to have taken refuge. This
is 20 m. distant by road.

(W. A. B. C.)

BRIHASPATI, or BRAHMANASPATI ("god of strength"), a deity of importance in
early Hindu mythology. In the Rigveda he is represented as the god of
prayer, aiding Indra in his conquest of the cloud-demon, and at times
appears to be identified with Agni, god of fire. He is the offspring of
Heaven and Earth, the two worlds; is the inspirer of prayer and the guide
and protector of the pious. He is pictured as having seven mouths, a
hundred wings and horns and is armed with bow and arrows and an axe. He
rides in a chariot drawn by red horses. In the later scriptures he is
represented as a Rishi or seer.

See A.A. Macdonell, _Vedic Mythology_ (Strassburg, 1897).

BRIL, PAUL (1554-1626), Flemish painter, was born at Antwerp. The success
of his elder brother Matthew (1550-1584) in the Vatican induced him to go
to Rome to live. On the death of Matthew, Paul, who far surpassed him as an
artist, succeeded to his pensions and employments. He painted landscapes
with a depth of chiaroscuro then little practised in Italy, and introduced
into them figures well drawn and finely coloured. One of his best
compositions is the "Martyrdom of St Clement," in the Sala Clementina of
the Vatican.

BRILL, the name given to a flat-fish (_Psetta laevis_, or _Rhombus laevis_)
which is a species closely related to the turbot, differing [v.04 p.0571]
from it in having very small scales, being smaller in size, having no bony
tubercules in the skin, and being reddish in colour. It abounds on parts of
the British coast, and is only less favoured for the table than the turbot
itself.

BRILLAT-SAVARIN, ANTHELME (1755-1826), French gastronomist, was born at
Belley, France, on the 1st of April 1755. In 1789 he was a deputy, in 1793
mayor of Belley. To escape proscription he fled from France to Switzerland,
and went thence to the United States, where he played in the orchestra of a
New York theatre. On the fall of Robespierre he returned to France, and in
1797 became a member of the court of cassation. He wrote various volumes on
political economy and law, but his name is famous for his _Physiologie du
goût_, a compendium of the art of dining. Many editions of this work have
been published. Brillat-Savarin died in Paris on the 2nd of February 1826.

BRIMSTONE, the popular name of sulphur (_q.v._), particularly of the
commercial "roll sulphur." The word means literally "burning stone"; the
first part being formed from the stem of the Mid. Eng. _brennen_, to burn.
Earlier forms of the word are _brenstone_, _bernstone_, _brynstone,_ &c.

BRIN, BENEDETTO (1833-1898), Italian naval administrator, was born at Turin
on the 17th of May 1833, and until the age of forty worked with distinction
as a naval engineer. In 1873 Admiral Saint-Bon, minister of marine,
appointed him under-secretary of state. The two men completed each other;
Saint-Bon conceived a type of ship, Brin made the plans and directed its
construction. On the advent of the Left to power in 1876, Brin was
appointed minister of marine by Depretis, a capacity in which he continued
the programme of Saint-Bon, while enlarging and completing it in such way
as to form the first organic scheme for the development of the Italian
fleet. The huge warships "Italia" and "Dandolo" were his work, though he
afterwards abandoned their type in favour of smaller and faster vessels of
the "Varese" and the "Garibaldi" class. By his initiative Italian naval
industry, almost non-existent in 1873, made rapid progress. During his
eleven years' ministry (1876-1878 with Depretis, 1884-1891 with Depretis
and Crispi, 1896-1898 with Rudini), he succeeded in creating large private
shipyards, engine works and metallurgical works for the production of
armour, steel plates and guns. In 1892 he entered the Giolitti cabinet as
minister for foreign affairs, accompanying, in that capacity, the king and
queen of Italy to Potsdam, but showed weakness towards France on the
occasion of the massacre of Italian workmen at Aigues-Mortes. He died on
the 24th of May 1898, while minister of marine in the Rudini cabinet. He,
more than any other man, must be regarded as the practical creator of the
Italian navy.

BRINDABAN, a town of British India, in the Muttra district of the United
Provinces, on the right bank of the Jumna, 6 m. N. of Muttra. Pop. (1901)
22,717. Brindaban is one of the most popular places of pilgrimage in India,
being associated with the cult of Krishna as a shepherd. It contains
bathing-stairs, tanks and wells, and a great number of handsome temples, of
which the finest is that of Govind Deva, a cruciform vaulted building of
red sandstone, dating from 1590. The town was founded earlier in the same
century.

BRINDISI (anc. _Brundisium_, _q.v._), a seaport town and archiepiscopal see
of Apulia, Italy, in the province of Lecce, 24 m. N.W. by rail from the
town of Lecce, and 346 m. from Ancona. Pop.(1861) 8000; (1871) 13,755;
(1901) 25,317. The chief importance of Brindisi is due to its position as a
starting-point for the East. The inner harbour, admirably sheltered and 27
to 30 ft. in depth, allows ocean steamers to lie at the quays. Brindisi
has, however, been abandoned by the large steamers of the Peninsular &
Oriental Steam Navigation Company, which had called there since 1870, but
since 1898 call at Marseilles instead; small express boats, carrying the
mails, still leave every week, connecting with the larger steamers at Port
Said; but the number of passengers leaving the port, which for the years
1893-1897 averaged 14,728, was only 7608 in 1905, and only 943 of these
were carried by the P. & O. boats. The harbour railway station was not
completed until 1905 (_Consular Report_, No. 3672, 1906, pp. 13 sqq.). The
port was cleared in 1905 by 1492 vessels of 1,486,269 tons. The imports
represented a value of £629,892 and the exports a value of £663,201--an
increase of £84,077 and £57,807 respectively on the figures of the previous
year, while in 1899 the amounts, which were below the average, were only
£298,400 and £253,000. The main imports are coal, flour, sulphur, timber
and metals; and the main exports, wine and spirits, oil and dried fruits.

Frederick II. erected a castle, with huge round towers, to guard the inner
harbour; it is now a convict prison. The cathedral, ruined by earthquakes,
was restored in 1743-1749, but has some remains of its mosaic pavement
(1178). The baptismal church of S. Giovanni al Sepolcro (11th century) is
now a museum. The town was captured in 836 by the Saracens, and destroyed
by them; but was rebuilt in the 11th century by Lupus the protospatharius,
Byzantine governor. In 1071 it fell into the hands of the Normans, and
frequently appears in the history of the Crusades. Early in the 14th
century the inner port was blocked by Giovanni Orsini, prince of Taranto;
the town was devastated by pestilence in 1348, and was plundered in 1352
and 1383; but even greater damage was done by the earthquake of 1456.

(T. AS.)

BRINDLEY, JAMES (1716-1772), English engineer, was born at Thornsett,
Derbyshire, in 1716. His parents were in very humble circumstances, and he
received little or no education. At the age of seventeen he was apprenticed
to a millwright near Macclesfield, and soon after completing his
apprenticeship he set up in business for himself as a wheelwright at Leek,
quickly becoming known for his ingenuity and skill in repairing all kinds
of machinery. In 1752 he designed and set up an engine for draining some
coal-pits at Clifton in Lancashire. Three years later he extended his
reputation by completing the machinery for a silk-mill at Congleton. In
1759, when the duke of Bridgewater was anxious to improve the outlets for
the coal on his estates, Brindley advised the construction of a canal from
Worsley to Manchester. The difficulties in the way were great, but all were
surmounted by his genius, and his crowning triumph was the construction of
an aqueduct to carry the canal at an elevation of 39 ft. over the river
Irwell at Barton. The great success of this canal encouraged similar
projects, and Brindley was soon engaged in extending his first work to the
Mersey, at Runcorn. He then designed and nearly completed what he called
the Grand Trunk Canal, connecting the Trent and Humber with the Mersey. The
Staffordshire and Worcestershire, the Oxford and the Chesterfield Canals
were also planned by him, and altogether he laid out over 360 m. of canals.
He died at Turnhurst, Staffordshire, on the 30th of September 1772.
Brindley retained to the last a peculiar roughness of character and
demeanour; but his innate power of thought more than compensated for his
lack of training. It is told of him that when in any difficulty he used to
retire to bed, and there remain thinking out his problem until the solution
became clear to him. His mechanical ingenuity and fertility of resource
were very remarkable, and he undoubtedly possessed the engineering faculty
in a very high degree. He was an enthusiastic believer in canals, and his
reported answer, when asked the use of navigable rivers, "To feed canals,"
is characteristic, if not altogether authentic.

BRINTON, DANIEL GARRISON (1837-1899), American archaeologist and
ethnologist, was born at Thornbury, Pennsylvania, on the 13th of May 1837.
He graduated at Yale in 1858, studied for two years in the Jefferson
Medical College, and then for one year travelled in Europe and continued
his studies at Paris and Heidelberg. From 1862 to 1865, during the Civil
War in America, he was a surgeon in the Union army, acting for one year,
1864-1865, as surgeon in charge of the U.S. Army general hospital at
Quincy, Illinois. After the war he practised medicine at Westchester,
Pennsylvania, for several years; was the editor of a weekly periodical, the
_Medical and Surgical Reporter_, in Philadelphia, from 1874 to 1887; became
professor of ethnology and archaeology in the Academy of Natural Sciences
in Philadelphia in 1884, and was professor of American linguistics and
archaeology in the university of Pennsylvania from 1886 until his death at
Philadelphia on the 31st of July 1899. [v.04 p.0572] He was a member of
numerous learned societies in the United States and in Europe, and was
president at different times of the Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of
Philadelphia, of the American Folk-Lore Society and of the American
Association for the Advancement of Science. During the period from 1859
(when he published his first book) to 1899, he wrote a score of books,
several of them of great value, and a large number of pamphlets, brochures,
addresses and magazine articles. His principal works are:--_The Myths of
the New World_ (1868), the first attempt to analyse and correlate,
according to true scientific principles, the mythology of the American
Indians; _The Religious Sentiment: Its Sources and Aim: A Contribution to
the Science and Philosophy of Religion_ (1876); _American Hero Myths_
(1882); _Essays of an Americanist_ (1890); _Races and Peoples_ (1890); _The
American Race_ (1891); _The Pursuit of Happiness_ (1893); and _Religions of
Primitive People_ (1897). In addition, he edited and published a _Library
of American Aboriginal Literature_ (8 vols. 1882-1890), a valuable
contribution to the science of anthropology in America. Of the eight
volumes, six were edited by Brinton himself, one by Horatio Hale and one by
A.S. Gatschet.

BRINVILLIERS, MARIE MADELEINE MARGUERITE D'AUBRAY, MARQUISE DE (c.
1630-1676), French poisoner, daughter of Dreux d'Aubray, civil lieutenant
of Paris, was born in Paris about 1630. In 1651 she married the marquis de
Brinvilliers, then serving in the regiment of Normandy. Contemporary
evidence describes the marquise at this time as a pretty and much-courted
little woman, with a fascinating air of childlike innocence. In 1659 her
husband introduced her to his friend Godin de Sainte-Croix, a handsome
young cavalry officer of extravagant tastes and bad reputation, whose
mistress she became. Their relations soon created a public scandal, and as
the marquis de Brinvilliers, who had left France to avoid his creditors,
made no effort to terminate them, M. d'Aubray secured the arrest of
Sainte-Croix on a _lettre de cachet_. For a year Sainte-Croix remained a
prisoner in the Bastille, where he is popularly supposed to have acquired a
knowledge of poisons from his fellow-prisoner, the Italian poisoner Exili.
When he left the Bastille, he plotted with his willing mistress his revenge
upon her father. She cheerfully undertook to experiment with the poisons
which Sainte-Croix, possibly with the help of a chemist, Christopher
Glaser, prepared, and found subjects ready to hand in the poor who sought
her charity, and the sick whom she visited in the hospitals. Meanwhile
Sainte-Croix, completely ruined financially, enlarged his original idea,
and determined that not only M. Dreux d'Aubray but also the latter's two
sons and other daughter should be poisoned, so that the marquise de
Brinvilliers and himself might come into possession of the large family
fortune. In February 1666, satisfied with the efficiency of Sainte-Croix's
preparations and with the ease with which they could be administered
without detection, the marquise poisoned her father, and in 1670, with the
connivance of their valet La Chaussée, her two brothers. A post-mortem
examination suggested the real cause of death, but no suspicion was
directed to the murderers. Before any attempt could be made on the life of
Mlle Théresè d'Aubray, Sainte-Croix suddenly died. As he left no heirs the
police were called in, and discovered among his belongings documents
seriously incriminating the marquise and La Chaussée. The latter was
arrested, tortured into a complete confession, and broken alive on the
wheel (1673), but the marquise escaped, taking refuge first probably in
England, then in Germany, and finally in a convent at Liége, whence she was
decoyed by a police emissary disguised as a priest. A full account of her
life and crimes was found among her papers. Her attempt to commit suicide
was frustrated, and she was taken to Paris, where she was beheaded and her
body burned on the 16th of July 1676.

See G. Roullier, _La Marquise de Brinvilliers_ (Paris, 1883); Toiseleur,
_Trois énigmes historiques_ (Paris, 1882).

BRIONIAN ISLANDS, a group of small islands, in the Adriatic Sea, off the
west coast of Istria, from which they are separated by the narrow Canale di
Fasana. They belong to Austria and are twelve in number. Up to a recent
period they were chiefly noted for their quarries, which have been worked
for centuries and have supplied material not only for the palaces and
bridges of Venice and the whole Adriatic coast, but latterly for Vienna and
Berlin also. As they command the entrance to the naval harbour of Pola, a
strong fortress, "Fort Tegetthoff," has been erected on the largest of them
(Brioni), together with minor fortifications on some of the others. The
islands are inhabited by about 100 Italian quarrymen.

BRIOSCO, ANDREA (c. 1470-1532), Italian sculptor and architect, known as
Riccio ("curly-headed"), was born at Padua. In architecture he is known by
the church of Sta Giustina in his native city, but he is most famous as a
worker in metal. His masterpieces are the bronze Paschal candelabrum (11
ft. high) in the choir of the Santo (S. Antonio) at Padua (1515), and the
two bronze reliefs (1507) of "David dancing before the Ark" and "Judith and
Holofernes" in the same church. His bronze and marble tomb of the physician
Girolamo della Torre in San Fermo at Verona was beautifully decorated with
reliefs, which were taken away by the French and are now in the Louvre. A
number of other works which emanated from his workshop are attributed to
him; and he has been suggested, but doubtfully, as the author of a fine
bronze relief, a "Dance of Nymphs," in the Wallace collection at Hertford
House, London.

BRIOUDE, a town of central France, capital of an arrondissement in the
department of Haute-Loire, on the left bank of the Allier, 1467 ft. above
the sea, 47 m. N.W. of Le Puy on the Paris-Lyon railway. Pop. (1906) 4581.
Brioude has to a great extent escaped modernization and still has many old
houses and fountains. Its streets are narrow and irregular, but the town is
surrounded by wide boulevards lined with trees. The only building of
consequence is the church of St Julian (12th and 13th centuries) in the
Romanesque style of Auvergne, of which the choir, with its apse and
radiating chapels and the mosaic ornamentation of the exterior, is a fine
example. Brioude is the seat of a sub-prefect, and of tribunals of first
instance and of commerce. The plain in which it is situated is of great
fertility; the grain trade of the town is considerable, and
market-gardening is carried on in the outskirts. The industries include
brewing, saw-milling, lace-making and antimony mining and founding.

Brioude, the ancient _Brinas_, was formerly a place of considerable
importance. It was in turn besieged and captured by the Goths (532), the
Burgundians, the Saracens (732) and the Normans. In 1181 the viscount of
Polignac, who had sacked the town two years previously, made public apology
in front of the church, and established a body of twenty-five knights to
defend the relics of St Julian. For some time after 1361 the town was the
headquarters of Bérenger, lord of Castelnau, who was at the head of one of
the bands of military adventurers which then devastated France. The knights
(or canons, as they afterwards became) of St Julian bore the title of
counts of Brioude, and for a long time opposed themselves to the civic
liberties of the inhabitants.

BRIQUEMAULT (or BRIQUEMAUT), FRANÇOIS DE BEAUVAIS, SEIGNEUR DE (c.
1502-1572), leader of the Huguenots during the first religious wars, was
the son of Adrien de Briquemault and Alexane de Sainte Ville, and was born
about 1502. His first campaign was under the count of Brissac in the
Piedmontese wars. On his return to France in 1554 he joined Admiral
Coligny. Charged with the defence of Rouen, in 1562, he resigned in favour
of Montgomery, to whom the prince of Condé had entrusted the task, and went
over to England, where he concluded the treaty of Hampton Court on the 20th
of September. He then returned to France, and took Dieppe from the
Catholics before the conclusion of peace. If his share in the second
religious war was less important, he played a very active part in the
third. He fought at Jarnac, Roche-Abeille and Montcontour, assisted in the
siege of Poitiers, was nearly captured by the Catholics at Bourg-Dieu,
re-victualled Vézelay, and almost surprised Bourges. In 1570, being charged
by Coligny to stop the army of the princes in its ascent of the Rhone
valley, he crossed Burgundy and effected his junction [v.04 p.0573] with
the admiral at St. Étienne in May. On the 21st of the following June he
assisted in achieving the victory of Arnay-le-Duc, and was then employed to
negotiate a marriage between the prince of Navarre and Elizabeth of
England. Being in Paris on the night of St Bartholomew he took refuge in
the house of the English ambassador, but was arrested there. With his
friend Arnaud da Cavagnes he was delivered over to the parlement, and
failed in courage when confronted with his judges, seeking to escape death
by unworthy means. He was condemned, nevertheless, on the 27th of October
1572, to the last penalty and to the confiscation of his property, and on
the 29th of October he and Cavagnes were executed.

See _Histoire ecclésiastique des Églises réformées au royaume de France_
(new edition, 1884), vol. ii.; _La France protestante_ (2nd edition), vol.
ii., article "Beauvais."

BRIQUETTE (diminutive of Fr. _brique_, brick), a form of fuel, known also
as "patent fuel," consisting of small coal compressed into solid blocks by
the aid of some binding material. For making briquettes the small coal, if
previously washed, is dried to reduce the moisture to at most 4%, and if
necessary crushed in a disintegrator. It is then incorporated in a pug mill
with from 8 to 10% of gas pitch, and softened by heating to between 70° and
90° C. to a plastic mass, which is moulded into blocks and compacted by a
pressure of ½ to 2 tons per sq. in. in a machine with a rotating die-plate
somewhat like that used in making semi-plastic clay bricks. When cold, the
briquettes, which usually weigh from 7 to 20 lb each, although smaller
sizes are made for domestic use, become quite hard, and can be handled with
less breakage than the original coal. Their principal use is as fuel for
marine and locomotive boilers, the evaporative value being about the same
as, or somewhat greater than, that of coal. The principal seat of the
manufacture in Great Britain is in South Wales, where the dust and smalls
resulting from the handling of the best steam coals (which are very
brittle) are obtainable in large quantities and find no other use. Some
varieties of lignite, when crushed and pressed at a steam heat, soften
sufficiently to furnish compact briquettes without requiring any cementing
material. Briquettes of this kind are made to a large extent from the
tertiary lignites in the vicinity of Cologne; they are used mainly for
house fuel on the lower Rhine and in Holland, and occasionally come to
London.

BRISBANE, SIR THOMAS MAKDOUGALL (1773-1860), Scottish soldier and
astronomer, was born on the 23rd of July 1773 at Brisbane House, near
Largs, in Ayrshire. He entered the army in 1789, and served in Flanders,
the West Indies and the Peninsula. In 1814 he was sent to North America; on
the return of Napoleon from Elba he was recalled, but did not arrive in
time to take part in the battle of Waterloo. In 1821 he was appointed
governor of New South Wales. During the four years for which he held that
office, although he allowed the finances of the colony to get into
confusion, he endeavoured to improve its condition by introducing the vine,
sugar-cane and tobacco plant, and by encouraging the breeding of horses and
the reclamation of land. At his instigation exploring parties were sent
out, and one of these discovered the Brisbane river which was named after
him. He established an astronomical observatory at Paramatta in 1822, and
the _Brisbane Catalogue_, which was printed in 1835 and contained 7385
stars, was the result of observations made there in 1822-1826. The
observatory was discontinued in 1855. After his return to Scotland he
resided chiefly at Makerstoun in Roxburghshire, where, as at Brisbane
House, he had a large and admirably equipped observatory. Important
magnetic observations were begun at Makerstoun in 1841, and the results
gained him in 1848 the Keith prize of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, in
whose _Transactions_ they were published. In 1836 he was made a baronet,
and G.C.B. in 1837; and in 1841 he became general. He was elected president
of the Royal Society of Edinburgh after the death of Sir Walter Scott in
1833, and in the following year acted as president of the British
Association. He died at Brisbane House on the 27th of January 1860. He
founded two gold medals for the encouragement of scientific research, one
in the award of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and the other in that of
the Scottish Society of Arts.

BRISBANE, the capital of Queensland, Australia. It is situated in Stanley
county, on the banks of the river Brisbane, 25 m. from its mouth in Moreton
Bay. It is built on a series of hills rising from the river-banks, but some
parts of it, such as Woollongabba and South Brisbane, occupy low-lying
flats, which have sometimes been the scene of disastrous floods. The main
streets and principal buildings of the city are situated on a tongue of
land formed by a southward bend of the river. The extremity of the tongue,
however, is open. Here, adjoining one another, are the botanical gardens,
the grounds surrounding Government House, the official residence of the
governor of the colony, and the Houses of Parliament, and Queen's Park,
which is used as a recreation ground. From this park Albert Street runs for
about three-quarters of a mile through the heart of the city, leading to
Albert Park, in which is the observatory. Queen's Street, the main
thoroughfare of Brisbane, crosses Albert Street midway between the two
parks and leads across the Victoria Bridge to the separate city of South
Brisbane on the other side of the river. The Victoria Bridge is a fine
steel structure, which replaced the bridge swept away by floods in February
1893. Brisbane has a large number of buildings of architectural merit,
though in some cases their effect is marred by the narrowness of the
streets in which they stand. Among the most prominent are the Houses of
Parliament, the great domed custom-house on the river-bank, the lands
office, the general post-office, the town halls of Brisbane and South
Brisbane, and the opera house. The Roman Catholic cathedral of St Stephen
(Elizabeth Street) is an imposing building, having a detached campanile
containing the largest bell in Australia. The foundation-stone of the
Anglican cathedral, on an elevated site in Ann Street, was laid by the
prince of Wales (as duke of York) in 1901. The city is the seat of a Roman
Catholic archbishop and of an Anglican bishop. Many of the commercial and
private buildings are also worthy of notice, especially the Queensland
National Bank, a classic Italian structure, the massive treasury buildings,
one of the largest erections in Australia, the Queensland Club with its
wide colonnades in Italian Renaissance style, and the great buildings of
the Brisbane Newspaper Company. Brisbane is well provided with parks and
open spaces; the Victoria Park and Bowen Park are the largest; the
high-lying Mount Coot-tha commands fine views, and there are other parks
and numerous recreation grounds in various parts of the city, besides the
admirable botanical gardens and the gardens of the Acclimatization Society.
Electric tramways and omnibuses serve all parts of the city, and numerous
ferries ply across the river. There is railway communication to north,
south and west. By careful dredging, the broad river is navigable as far as
Brisbane for ocean-going vessels, and the port is the terminal port for the
Queensland mail steamers to Europe, and is visited by steamers to China,
Japan and America, and for various inter-colonial lines. There is wharf
accommodation on both banks of the river, a graving dock which can be used
by vessels up to 5000 tons, and two patent slips which can take up ships of
1000 and 400 tons respectively. The exports are chiefly coal, sheep,
tallow, wool, frozen meat and hides. The annual value of imports and
exports exceeds seven and nine millions sterling respectively. There are
boot factories, soap works, breweries, tanneries, tobacco works, &c. The
climate is on the whole dry and healthy, but during summer the temperature
is high, the mean shade temperature being about 70° F.

Brisbane was founded in 1825 as a penal settlement, taking its name from
Sir Thomas Brisbane, then governor of Australia; in 1842 it became a free
settlement and in 1859 capital of Queensland, the town up to that time
having belonged to New South Wales. It was incorporated in the same year.
South Brisbane became a separate city in 1903. The municipal government of
the city, and also of South Brisbane, is in the hands of a mayor and ten
alderman; the suburbs are controlled by shire councils and divisional
boards. The chief suburbs are Kangaroo Point, Fortitude Valley, New Farm,
Red Hill, Paddington, Milon, Toowong, Breakfast Creek, Bulimba,
Woolongabba, [v.04 p.0574] Highgate and Indooroopilly. The population of
the metropolitan area in 1901 was 119,907; of the city proper, 28,953; of
South Brisbane, 25,481.

BRISEUX, CHARLES ÉTIENNE (c. 1680-1754), French architect. He was
especially successful as a designer of internal decorations--mantelpieces,
mirrors, doors and overdoors, ceilings, consoles, candelabra, wall
panellings and other fittings, chiefly in the Louis Quinze mode. He was
also an industrious writer on architectural subjects. His principal works
are:--_L'Architecture moderne_ (2 vols., 1728); _L'Art de bâtir les maisons
de campagne_ (2 vols., 1743); _Traité du beau essentiel dans les arts,
appliqué particulièrement à l'architecture_ (1752); and _Traité des
proportions harmoniques._

BRISSAC, DUKES OF. The fief of Brissac in Anjou was acquired at the end of
the 15th century by a noble French family named Cossé belonging to the same
province. René de Cossé married into the Gouffier family, just then very
powerful at court, and became _premier panelier_ (chief pantler) to Louis
XII. Two of his sons were marshals of France. Brissac was made a countship
in 1560 for Charles, the eldest, who was grandmaster of artillery, and
governor of Piedmont and of Picardy. The second, Artus, who held the
offices of _grand panetier_ of France and superintendent of finance,
distinguished himself in the religious wars. Charles II. de Cossé fought
for the League, and as governor of Paris opened the gates of that town to
Henry IV., who created him marshal of France in 1594. Brissac was raised to
a duchy in the peerage of France in 1611. Louis Hercule Timoléon de Cossé,
due de Brissac, and commandant of the constitutional guard of Louis XVI.,
was killed at Versailles on the 9th of September 1792 for his devotion to
the king.

(M. P.*)

BRISSON, EUGÈNE HENRI (1835- ), French statesman, was born at Bourges on
the 31st of July 1835. He followed his father's profession of advocate, and
having made himself conspicuous in opposition during the last days of the
empire, was appointed deputy-mayor of Paris after its overthrow. He was
elected to the Assembly on the 8th of February 1871, as a member of the
extreme Left. While not approving of the Commune, he was the first to
propose amnesty for the condemned (on the 13th of September 1871), but the
proposal was voted down. He strongly supported obligatory primary
education, and was a firm anti-clerical. He was president of the chamber
from 1881--replacing Gambetta--to March 1885, when he became prime minister
upon the resignation of Jules Ferry; but he resigned when, after the
general elections of that year, he only just obtained a majority for the
vote of credit for the Tongking expedition. He remained conspicuous as a
public man, took a prominent part in exposing the Panama scandals, was a
powerful candidate for the presidency after the murder of President Carnot
in 1894, and was again president of the chamber from December 1894 to 1898.
In June of the latter year he formed a cabinet when the country was
violently excited over the Dreyfus affair; his firmness and honesty
increased the respect in which he was already held by good citizens, but a
chance vote on an occasion of especial excitement overthrew his ministry in
October. As one of the leaders of the radicals he actively supported the
ministries of Waldeck-Rousseau and Combes, especially concerning the laws
on the religious orders and the separation of church and state. In 1899 he
was a candidate for the presidency. In May 1906 he was elected president of
the chamber of deputies by 500 out of 581 votes.

BRISSON, MATHURIN JACQUES (1723-1806), French zoologist and natural
philosopher, was born at Fontenay le Comte on the 30th of April 1723. The
earlier part of his life was spent in the pursuit of natural history, his
published works in this department including _Le Règne animal_ (1756) and
_Ornithologie_ (1760). After the death of R.A.F. Réaumur (1683-1757), whose
assistant he was, he abandoned natural history, and was appointed professor
of natural philosophy at Navarre and later at Paris. His most important
work in this department was his _Poids spécifiques des corps_ (1787), but
he published several other books on physical subjects which were in
considerable repute for a time. He died at Croissy near Paris, on the 23rd
of June 1806.

BRISSOT, JACQUES PIERRE (1754-1793), who assumed the name of DE WARVILLE, a
celebrated French Girondist, was born at Chartres, where his father was an
inn-keeper, in January 1754. Brissot received a good education and entered
the office of a lawyer at Paris. His first works, _Théorie des lois
criminelles_ (1781) and _Bibliothèque philosophique du législateur_ (1782),
were on the philosophy of law, and showed how thoroughly Brissot was imbued
with the ethical precepts of Rousseau. The first work was dedicated to
Voltaire, and was received by the old _philosophe_ with much favour.
Brissot became known as a facile and able writer, and was engaged on the
_Mercure_, on the _Courrier de l'Europe_, and on other papers. Ardently
devoted to the service of humanity, he projected a scheme for a general
concourse of all the savants in Europe, and started in London a paper,
_Journal du Lycée de Londres_, which was to be the organ of their views.
The plan was unsuccessful, and soon after his return to Paris Brissot was
lodged in the Bastille on the charge of having published a work against the
government. He obtained his release after four months, and again devoted
himself to pamphleteering, but had speedily to retire for a time to London.
On this second visit he became acquainted with some of the leading
Abolitionists, and founded later in Paris a Société des Amis des Noirs, of
which he was president during 1790 and 1791. As an agent of this society he
paid a visit to the United States in 1788, and in 1791 published his
_Nouveau Voyage dans les États-Unis de l'Amerique Septentrionale_ (3
vols.).

From the first, Brissot threw himself heart and soul into the Revolution.
He edited the _Patriote français_ from 1789 to 1793, and being a
well-informed and capable man took a prominent part in affairs. Upon the
demolition of the Bastille the keys were presented to him. Famous for his
speeches at the Jacobin club, he was elected a member of the municipality
of Paris, then of the Legislative Assembly, and later of the National
Convention. During the Legislative Assembly his knowledge of foreign
affairs enabled him as member of the diplomatic committee practically to
direct the foreign policy of France, and the declaration of war against the
emperor on the 20th of April 1792, and that against England on the 1st of
July 1793, were largely due to him. It was also Brissot who gave these wars
the character of revolutionary propaganda. He was in many ways the leading
spirit of the Girondists, who were also known as Brissotins. Vergniaud
certainly was far superior to him in oratory, but Brissot was quick, eager,
impetuous, and a man of wide knowledge. But he was at the same time
vacillating, and not qualified to struggle against the fierce energies
roused by the events of the Revolution. His party fell before the Mountain;
sentence of arrest was passed against the leading members of it on the 2nd
of June 1793. Brissot attempted to escape in disguise, but was arrested at
Moulins. His demeanour at the trial was quiet and dignified; and on the
31st of October 1793 he died bravely with several other Girondists.

See _Mémoires de Brissot, sur ses contemporains et la Révolution
française_, published by his sons, with notes by F. de Montrol (Paris,
1830); Helena Williams, _Souvenirs de la Révolution française_ (Paris,
1827); F. A. Aulard, _Les Orateurs de la Législative et de la Convention_
2nd ed., (Paris, 1905); F. A. Aulard, _Les Portraits littéraires à la fin
du XVIII^e siècle, pendant la Révolution_ (Paris, 1883).

BRISTOL, EARLS AND MARQUESSES OF. This English title has been held in the
Hervey family since 1714, though previously an earldom of Bristol, in the
Digby family, is associated with two especially famous representatives, of
whom separate biographies are given. The Herveys are mentioned during the
13th century as seated in Bedfordshire, and afterwards in Suffolk, where
they have held the estate of Ickworth since the 15th century. John Hervey
(1616-1679) was the eldest son of Sir William Hervey (d. 1660), and was
born on the 18th of August 1616. He held a high position in the household
of Catherine, wife of Charles II., and was for many years member of
parliament for Hythe. He married Elizabeth, the only surviving child of his
kinsman, William, Lord Hervey of Kidbrooke (d. 1642), but left no children
when he died on the 18th of January 1679, and his estates passed to his
brother, Sir Thomas Hervey. Sir Thomas, who was member of parliament for
Bury St Edmunds, [v.04 p.0575] died on the 27th of May 1694, and was
succeeded by his son, John, who became the 1st earl of Bristol.

JOHN HERVEY, 1st earl of Bristol (1665-1751), born on the 27th of August
1665, was educated at Clare Hall, Cambridge, and became member of
parliament for Bury St Edmunds in March 1694. In March 1703 he was created
Baron Hervey of Ickworth, and in October 1714 was made earl of Bristol as a
reward for his zeal in promoting the principles of the revolution and
supporting the Hanoverian succession. He died on the 20th of January 1751.
By his first wife, Isabella (d. 1693), daughter of Sir Robert Carr, Bart.,
of Sleaford, he had one son, Carr, Lord Hervey (1691-1723), who was
educated at Clare Hall, Cambridge, and was member for Bury St Edmunds from
1713 to 1722. (It has been suggested that Carr, who died unmarried on the
14th of November 1723, was the father of Horace Walpole.) He married
secondly Elizabeth (d. 1741), daughter and co-heiress of Sir Thomas Felton,
Bart., of Playford, Suffolk, by whom he had ten sons and six daughters. His
eldest son, John (1696-1743), took the courtesy title of Lord Hervey on the
death of his half-brother, Carr, in 1723, and gained some renown both as a
writer and a politician (see HERVEY OF ICKWORTH). Another son, Thomas
(1699-1775), was one of the members for Bury from 1733 to 1747; held
various offices at court; and eloped with Elizabeth, wife of Sir Thomas
Hanmer. He had very poor health, and his reckless life frequently brought
him into pecuniary and other difficulties. He wrote numerous pamphlets, and
when he died Dr Johnson said of him, "Tom Hervey, though a vicious man, was
one of the genteelest men who ever lived." Another of the 1st earl's sons,
Felton (1712-1773), was also member for the family borough of Bury St
Edmunds. Having assumed the additional name of Bathurst, Felton's grandson,
Felton Elwell Hervey-Bathurst (1782-1819), was created a baronet in 1818,
and on his death a year later the title descended to his brother, Frederick
Anne (1783-1824), the direct ancestor of the present baronet. The 1st earl
died in January 1751, the title and estates descending to his grandson.

GEORGE WILLIAM HERVEY, 2nd earl of Bristol (1721-1775), the eldest son of
John, Lord Hervey of Ickworth, by his marriage with Mary (1700-1768),
daughter of Nicholas Lepell, was born on the 31st of August 1721. He served
for some years in the army, and in 1755 was sent to Turin as envoy
extraordinary. He was ambassador at Madrid from 1758 to 1761, filling a
difficult position with credit and dignity, and ranked among the followers
of Pitt. Appointed lord-lieutenant of Ireland in 1766, he never visited
that country during his short tenure of this office, and, after having
served for a short time as keeper of the privy seal, became groom of the
stole to George III. in January 1770. He died unmarried on the 18th or 20th
of March 1775, and was succeeded by his brother.

AUGUSTUS JOHN HERVEY, 3rd earl of Bristol (1724-1779), was born on the 19th
of May 1724, and entered the navy, where his promotion was rapid. He
distinguished himself in several encounters with the French, and was of
great assistance to Admiral Hawke in 1759, although he had returned to
England before the battle of Quiberon Bay in November 1759. Having served
with distinction in the West Indies under Rodney, his active life at sea
ceased when the peace of Paris was concluded in February 1763. He was,
however, nominally commander-in-chief in the Mediterranean in this year,
and was made vice-admiral of the blue in January 1778. Hervey was member of
parliament for Bury from 1757 to 1763, and after being for a short time
member for Saltash, again represented Bury from 1768 until he succeeded his
brother in the peerage in 1775. He often took part in debates in
parliament, and was a frequent contributor to periodical literature. Having
served as a lord of the admiralty from 1771 to 1775 he won some notoriety
as an opponent of the Rockingham ministry and a defender of Admiral Keppel.
In August 1744 he had been secretly married to Elizabeth Chudleigh
(1720-1788), afterwards duchess of Kingston (_q.v._), but this union was
dissolved in 1769. The earl died in London on the 23rd of December 1779,
leaving no legitimate issue, and having, as far as possible, alienated his
property from the title. He was succeeded by his brother. Many of his
letters are in the Record Office, and his journals in the British Museum.
Other letters are printed in the _Grenville Papers_, vols. iii. and iv.
(London, 1852-1853), and the _Life of Admiral Keppel_, by the Hon. T.
Keppel (London, 1852).

FREDERICK AUGUSTUS HERVEY, bishop of Derry (1730-1803), who now became 4th
earl of Bristol, was born on the 1st of August 1730, and educated at
Westminster school and Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, graduating in
1754. Entering the church he became a royal chaplain; and while waiting for
other preferment spent some time in Italy, whither he was led by his great
interest in art. In February 1767, while his brother, the 2nd earl, was
lord-lieutenant of Ireland, he was made bishop of Cloyne, and having
improved the property of the see he was translated to the rich bishopric of
Derry a year later. Here again he was active and philanthropic. While not
neglecting his luxurious personal tastes he spent large sums of money on
making roads and assisting agriculture, and his munificence was shared by
the city of Londonderry. He built splendid residences at Downhill and
Ballyscullion, which he adorned with rare works of art. As a bishop, Hervey
was industrious and vigilant; he favoured complete religious equality, and
was opposed to the system of tithes. In December 1779 he became earl of
Bristol, and in spite of his brother's will succeeded to a considerable
property. Having again passed some time in Italy, he returned to Ireland
and in 1782 threw himself ardently into the Irish volunteer movement,
quickly attaining a prominent position among the volunteers, and in great
state attending the convention held in Dublin in November 1783. Carried
away by his position and his popularity he talked loudly of rebellion, and
his violent language led the government to contemplate his arrest.
Subsequently he took no part in politics, spending his later years mainly
on the continent of Europe. In 1798 he was imprisoned by the French at
Milan, remaining in custody for eighteen months. He died at Albano on the
8th of July 1803, and was buried in Ickworth church. Varying estimates have
been found of his character, including favourable ones by John Wesley and
Jeremy Bentham. He was undoubtedly clever and cultured, but licentious and
eccentric. In later life he openly professed materialistic opinions; he
fell in love with the countess Lichtenau, mistress of Frederick William
II., king of Prussia; and by his bearing he gave fresh point to the saying
that "God created men, women and Herveys." In 1752 he had married Elizabeth
(d. 1800), daughter of Sir Jermyn Davers, Bart., by whom he had two sons
and three daughters. His elder son, Augustus John, Lord Hervey (1757-1796),
had predeceased his father, and he was succeeded in the title by his
younger son.

FREDERICK WILLIAM HERVEY, 5th earl and 1st marquess of Bristol (1769-1859),
was born on the 2nd of October 1769. He married Elizabeth Albana (d. 1844),
daughter of Clotworthy, 1st Baron Templetown, by whom he had six sons and
three daughters. In 1826 he was created marquess of Bristol and Earl
Jermyn, and died on the 15th of February 1859. He was succeeded by his son
Frederick William (1800-1864), M.P. for Bury St Edmunds 1830-1859, as 2nd
marquess; and by the latter's son Frederick William John (1834-1907), M.P.
for West Suffolk 1859-1864, as 3rd marquess. The latter's nephew, Frederick
William Fane Hervey (b. 1863), who succeeded as 4th marquess, served with
distinction in the royal navy, and was M.P. for Bury St Edmunds from 1906
to 1907.

See John, Lord Hervey, _Memoirs of the Reign of George II_., edited by J.W.
Croker (London, 1884); John Hervey, 1st earl of Bristol, _Diary_ (Wells,
1894); and _Letter Books of Bristol; with Sir T. Hervey's Letters during
Courtship and Poems during Widowhood_ (Wells, 1894). Also the articles in
the _Dictionary of National Biography_, vol. xxvi. (London, 1891).

BRISTOL, GEORGE DIGBY, 2ND EARL OF[1] (1612-1677), eldest son of the 1st
earl (see below), was born in October 1612. At the age of twelve he
appeared at the bar of the House of Commons and pleaded for his father,
then in the Tower, when his youth, graceful person and well-delivered
speech made a great [v.04 p.0576] impression. He was admitted to Magdalen
College, Oxford, on the 15th of August 1626, where he was a favourite pupil
of Peter Heylin, and became M.A. in 1636. He spent the following years in
study and in travel, from which he returned, according to Clarendon, "the
most accomplished person of our nation or perhaps any other nation," and
distinguished by a remarkably handsome person. In 1638 and 1639 were
written the _Letters between Lord George Digby and Sir Kenelm Digby, Knt.
concerning Religion_ (publ. 1651), in which Digby attacked Roman
Catholicism. In June 1634 Digby was committed to the Fleet till July for
striking Crofts, a gentleman of the court, in Spring Gardens; and possibly
his severe treatment and the disfavour shown to his father were the causes
of his hostility to the court. He was elected member for Dorsetshire in
both the Short and Long parliaments in 1640, and in conjunction with Pym
and Hampden he took an active part in the opposition to Charles. He moved
on the 9th of November for a committee to consider the "deplorable state"
of the kingdom, and on the 11th was included in the committee for the
impeachment of Strafford, against whom he at first showed great zeal. He,
however, opposed the attainder, made an eloquent speech on the 21st of
April 1641, accentuating the weakness of Vane's evidence against the
prisoner, and showing the injustice of _ex post facto_ legislation. He was
regarded in consequence with great hostility by the parliamentary party,
and was accused of having stolen from Pym's table Vane's notes on which the
prosecution mainly depended. On the 15th of July his speech was burnt by
the hangman by the order of the House of Commons. Meanwhile on the 8th of
February he had made an important speech in the Commons advocating the
reformation and opposing the abolition of episcopacy. On the 8th of June,
during the angry discussion on the army plot, he narrowly escaped assault
in the House; and the following day, in order to save him from further
attacks, the king called him up to the Lords in his father's barony of
Digby.

He now became the evil genius of Charles, who had the incredible folly to
follow his advice in preference to such men as Hyde and Falkland. In
November he is recorded as performing "singular good service," and "doing
beyond admiration," in speaking in the Lords against the instruction
concerning evil counsellors. He suggested to Charles the impeachment of the
five members, and urged upon him the fatal attempt to arrest them on the
4th of January 1642; but he failed to play his part in the Lords in
securing the arrest of Lord Mandeville, to whom on the contrary he declared
that "the king was very mischievously advised"; and according to Clarendon
his imprudence was responsible for the betrayal of the king's plan. Next
day he advised the attempt to seize them in the city by force. The same
month he was ordered to appear in the Lords to answer a charge of high
treason for a supposed armed attempt at Kingston, but fled to Holland,
where he joined the queen, and on the 26th of February was impeached.
Subsequently he visited Charles at York disguised as a Frenchman, but on
the return voyage to Holland he was captured and taken to Hull, where he
for some time escaped detection; and at last he cajoled Sir John Hotham,
after discovering himself, into permitting his escape. Later he ventured on
a second visit to Hull to persuade Hotham to surrender the place to
Charles, but this project failed. He was present at Edgehill, and greatly
distinguished himself at Lichfield, where he was wounded while leading the
assault. He soon, however, threw down his commission in consequence of a
quarrel with Prince Rupert, and returned to the king at Oxford, over whom
he obtained more influence as the prospect became more gloomy. On the 28th
of September 1643 he was appointed secretary of state and a privy
councillor, and on the 31st of October high steward of Oxford University.
He now supported the queen's disastrous policy of foreign alliances and
help from Ireland, and engaged in a series of imprudent and ill-conducted
negotiations which greatly injured the king's affairs, while his fierce
disputes with Rupert and his party further embarrassed them. On the 14th of
October 1645 he was made lieutenant general of the royal forces north of
the Trent, with the object of pushing through to join Montrose, but he was
defeated on the 15th at Sherburn, where his correspondence was captured,
disclosing the king's expectations from abroad and from Ireland and his
intrigues with the Scots; and after reaching Dumfries, he found his way
barred. He escaped on the 24th to the Isle of Man, thence crossing to
Ireland, where he caused Glamorgan to be arrested. Here, on this new stage,
he believed he was going to achieve wonders. "Have I not carried my body
swimmingly," he wrote to Hyde in irrepressible good spirits, "who being
before so irreconcilably hated by the Puritan party, have thus seasonably
made myself as odious to the Papists?"[2] His project now was to bring over
Prince Charles to head a royalist movement in the island; and having joined
Charles at Jersey in April 1646, he intended to entrap him on board, but
was dissuaded by Hyde. He then travelled to Paris to gain the queen's
consent to his scheme, but returned to persuade Charles to go to Paris, and
accompanied him thither, revisiting Ireland on the 29th of June once more,
and finally escaping to France on the surrender of the island to the
parliament. At Paris amongst the royalists he found himself in a nest of
enemies eager to pay off old scores. Prince Rupert challenged him, and he
fought a duel with Lord Wilmot. He continued his adventures by serving in
Louis XIV.'s troops in the war of the Fronde, in which he greatly
distinguished himself. He was appointed in 1651 lieutenant-general in the
French army, and commander of the forces in Flanders. These new honours,
however, were soon lost. During Mazarin's enforced absence from the court
Digby aspired to become his successor; and the cardinal, who had from the
first penetrated his character and regarded him as a mere adventurer,[3] on
his restoration to power sent Digby away on an expedition in Italy; and on
his return informed him that he was included in the list of those expelled
from France, in accordance with the new treaty with Cromwell. In August
1656 he joined Charles II. at Bruges, and desirous of avenging himself upon
the cardinal offered his services to Don John of Austria in the
Netherlands, being instrumental in effecting the surrender of the garrison
of St Ghislain to Spain in 1657. On the 1st of January 1657 he was
appointed by Charles II. secretary of state, but shortly afterwards, having
become a Roman Catholic--probably with the view of adapting himself better
to his new Spanish friends--he was compelled to resign office. Charles,
however, on account of his "jollity" and Spanish experience took him with
him to Spain in 1659, though his presence was especially deprecated by the
Spanish; but he succeeded in ingratiating himself, and was welcomed by the
king of Spain subsequently at Madrid.

By the death of his father Digby had succeeded in January 1659 to the
peerage as 2nd earl of Bristol, and had been made K.G. the same month. He
returned to England at the restoration, when he found himself excluded from
office on account of his religion, and relegated to only secondary
importance. His desire to make a brilliant figure induced a restless and
ambitious activity in parliament. He adopted an attitude of violent
hostility to Clarendon. In foreign affairs he inclined strongly to the side
of Spain, and opposed the king's marriage with Catherine of Portugal. He
persuaded Charles to despatch him to Italy to view the Medici princesses,
but the royal marriage and treaty with Portugal were settled in his
absence. In June 1663 he made an attempt to upset Clarendon's management of
the House of Commons, but his intrigue was exposed to the parliament by
Charles, and Bristol was obliged to attend the House to exonerate himself,
when he confessed that he had "taken the liberty of enlarging," and his
"comedian-like speech" excited general amusement. Exasperated by these
failures, in a violent scene with the king early in July, he broke out into
fierce and disrespectful reproaches, ending with a threat that unless
Charles granted his requests within twenty-four hours "he would do somewhat
that should awaken him out of his slumbers, and make him look better to his
own business." Accordingly on the 10th he impeached Clarendon in the Lords
of high treason, and on the charge being dismissed renewed [v.04 p.0577]
his accusation, and was expelled from the court, only avoiding the warrant
issued for his apprehension by a concealment of two years. In January 1664
he caused a new sensation by his appearance at his house at Wimbledon,
where he publicly renounced before witnesses his Roman Catholicism, and
declared himself a Protestant, his motive being probably to secure immunity
from the charge of recusancy preferred against him.[4] When, however, the
fall of Clarendon was desired, Bristol was again welcomed at court. He took
his seat in the Lords on the 29th of July 1667. "The king," wrote Pepys in
November, "who not long ago did say of Bristoll that he was a man able in
three years to get himself a fortune in any kingdom in the world and lose
all again in three months, do now hug him and commend his parts everywhere
above all the world."[5] He pressed eagerly for Clarendon's commital, and
on the refusal of the Lords accused them of mutiny and rebellion, and
entered his dissent with "great fury."[6] In March 1668 he attended prayers
in the Lords. On the 15th of March 1673 though still ostensibly a Roman
Catholic, he spoke in favour of the Test Act, describing himself as "a
Catholic of the church of Rome, not a Catholic of the court of Rome," and
asserting the unfitness of Romanists for public office. His adventurous and
erratic career closed by death on the 20th of March 1677.

Bristol was one of the most striking and conspicuous figures of his time, a
man of brilliant abilities, a great orator, one who distinguished himself
without effort in any sphere of activity he chose to enter, but whose
natural gifts were marred by a restless ambition and instability of
character fatal to real greatness. Clarendon describes him as "the only man
I ever knew of such incomparable parts that was none the wiser for any
experience or misfortune that befell him," and records his extraordinary
facility in making friends and making enemies. Horace Walpole characterized
him in a series of his smartest antitheses as "a singular person whose life
was one contradiction." "He wrote against popery and embraced it; he was a
zealous opposer of the court and a sacrifice for it; was conscientiously
converted in the midst of his prosecution of Lord Strafford and was most
unconscientiously a persecutor of Lord Clarendon. With great parts, he
always hurt himself and his friends; with romantic bravery, he was always
an unsuccessful commander. He spoke for the Test Act, though a Roman
Catholic; and addicted himself to astrology on the birthday of true
philosophy." Besides his youthful correspondence with Sir K. Digby on the
subject of religion already mentioned, he was the author of an _Apologie_
(1643, Thomason Tracts, E. 34 (32)), justifying his support of the king's
cause; of _Elvira ... a comedy_ (1667), printed in R. Dodsley's _Select
Collect. of Old English Plays_ (Hazlitt, 1876), vol. xv., and of _Worse and
Worse_, an adaptation from the Spanish, acted but not printed. Other
writings are also ascribed to him, including the authorship with Sir Samuel
Tuke of _The Adventures of Five Hours_ (1663). His eloquent and pointed
speeches, many of which were printed, are included in the article in the
_Biog. Brit._ and among the _Thomason Tracts_; see also the general
catalogue in the British Museum. The catalogue of his library was published
in 1680. He married Lady Anne Russell, daughter of Francis, 4th earl of
Bedford, by whom, besides two daughters, he had two sons, Francis, who
predeceased him unmarried, and John, who succeeded him as 3rd earl of
Bristol, at whose death without issue the peerage became extinct.

AUTHORITIES.--See the article in _Dict. Nat. Biog._; Wood's _Ath. Oxon._
(Bliss), iii. 1100-1105; _Biographia Brit._ (Kippis), v. 210-238; H.
Walpole's _Royal and Noble Authors_ (Park, 1806), iii. 191; _Roscius
Anglicanus_, by J. Downes, pp. 31, 36 (1789); Cunningham's _Lives of
Eminent Englishmen_ (1837), iii. 29; _Somers Tracts_ (1750), iii. (1809),
iv.; _Harleian Miscellany_ (1808), v., vi.; _Life_ by T. H. Lister (1838);
_State Papers_.

(P. C. Y.)

[1] _I.e._ in the Digby line; for the Herveys see above.

[2] _Clarendon State Papers_, ii. 201.

[3] _Mémoires du Cardinal de Retz_ (1859), app. iii. 437, 442.

[4] Pepys's _Diary_, iv. 51.

[5] _Ib._ vii. 199.

[6] _Ib._ 207; _Protests of the Lords_, by J.E.T. Rogers, i. 36.

BRISTOL, JOHN DIGBY, 1ST EARL OF[1] (1580-1653) English diplomatist, son of
Sir George Digby of Coleshill, Warwickshire, and of Abigail, daughter of
Sir Arthur Henningham, was born in 1580, and entered Magdalen College,
Oxford, in 1595 (M.A. 1605), becoming a member of the Inner Temple in 1598.
In 1605 he was sent to James to inform him of the safety of the princess
Elizabeth at the time of the Gunpowder Plot. He gained his favour, was made
a gentleman of the privy chamber and one of the king's carvers, and was
knighted in 1607. From 1610 to 1611 he was member of parliament for Heydon.
In 1611 he was sent as ambassador to Spain to negotiate a marriage between
Prince Henry and the infanta Anne, and to champion the cause of the English
merchants, for whom he obtained substantial concessions, and arranged the
appointment of consuls at Lisbon and Seville. He also discovered a list of
the English pensioners of the Spanish court, which included some of the
ministers, and came home in 1613 to communicate this important intelligence
to the king. In 1614 he again went to Spain to effect a union between the
infanta Maria and Charles, though he himself was in favour of a Protestant
marriage, and desired a political and not a matrimonial treaty. In 1616, on
the disgrace of Somerset, he was recalled home to give evidence concerning
the latter's connexions with Spain, was made vice-chamberlain and a privy
councillor, and obtained from James the manor of Sherborne forfeited by the
late favourite. In 1618 he went once more to Spain to reopen the
negotiations, returning in May, and being created Baron Digby on the 25th
of November. He endeavoured to avoid a breach with Spain on the election of
the elector palatine, the king's son-in-law, to the Bohemian throne; and in
March 1621, after the latter's expulsion from Bohemia, Digby was sent to
Brussels to obtain a suspension of hostilities in the Palatinate. On the
4th of July he went to Vienna and drew up a scheme of pacification with the
emperor, by which Frederick was to abandon Bohemia and be secured in his
hereditary territories, but the agreement could never be enforced. After
raising money for the defence of Heidelberg he returned home in October,
and on the 21st of November explained his policy to the parliament, and
asked for money and forces for its execution. The sudden dissolution of
parliament, however, prevented the adoption of any measure of support, and
entirely ruined Digby's plans. In 1622 he returned to Spain with nothing on
which to rely but the goodwill of Philip IV., and nothing to offer but
entreaties.

On the 15th of September he was created earl of Bristol. He urged on the
marriage treaty, believing it would include favourable conditions for
Frederick, but the negotiations were taken out of his control, and finally
wrecked by the arrival of Charles himself and Buckingham in March 1623. He
incurred their resentment, of which the real inspiration was Buckingham's
implacable jealousy, by a letter written to James informing him of
Buckingham's unpopularity among the Spanish ministers, and by his
endeavouring to maintain the peace with Spain after their departure. In
January 1624 he left Spain, and on arriving at Dover in March, Buckingham
and Charles having now complete ascendancy over the king, he was forbidden
to appear at court and ordered to confine himself at Sherborne. He was
required by Buckingham to answer a series of interrogatories, but he
refused to inculpate himself and demanded a trial by parliament. On the
death of James he was removed by Charles I. from the privy council, and
ordered to absent himself from his first parliament. On his demand in
January 1626 to be present at the coronation Charles angrily refused, and
accused him of having tried to pervert his religion in Spain. In March
1626, after the assembling of the second parliament, Digby applied to the
Lords, who supported his rights, and Charles sent him his writ accompanied
by a letter from Lord Keeper Coventry desiring him not to use it. Bristol,
however, took his seat and demanded justice against Buckingham (Thomason
Tracts, E. 126 (20)). The king endeavoured to obstruct his attack by
causing Bristol on the 1st of May to be himself brought to the bar, on an
accusation of high treason by the attorney-general. The Lords, however,
ordered that both charges should be investigated simultaneously. Further
proceedings were stopped by the dissolution of parliament on the 15th of
June; a prosecution was ordered by Charles in the Star Chamber, and Bristol
was sent to the [v.04 p.0578] Tower, where he remained till the 17th of
March 1628, when the peers, on the assembling of Charles's third
parliament, insisted on his liberation and restoration to his seat in the
Lords.

In the discussions upon the Petition of Right, Bristol supported the use of
the king's prerogative in emergencies, and asserted that the king besides
his legal had a regal power, but joined in the demand for a full acceptance
of the petition by the king after the first unsatisfactory answer. He was
now restored to favour, but took no part in politics till the outbreak of
the Scottish rebellion, when he warned Charles of the danger of attacking
with inadequate forces. He was the leader in the Great Council held at
York, was a commissioner to treat with the Scots in September 1640 at
Ripon, and advised strongly the summoning of the parliament. In February
1641 he was one of the peers who advocated reforms in the administration
and were given seats in the council. Though no friend to Strafford, he
endeavoured to save his life, desiring only to see him excluded from
office, and as a witness was excused from voting on the attainder. He was
appointed gentleman of the bedchamber on the king's departure for Scotland,
and on the 27th of December he was declared an evil counsellor by the House
of Commons, Cromwell on the 28th moving an address to the king to dismiss
him from his councils, on the plea that he had advocated the bringing up of
the northern army to overawe parliament in the preceding spring. There is
no evidence to support the charge, but Digby was regarded by the
parliamentary party with special hatred and distrust, of which the chief
causes were probably his Spanish proclivities and his indifference on the
great matter of religion, to which was added the unpopularity reflected
from his misguided son. On the 28th of March 1642 he was sent to the Tower
for having failed to disclose to parliament the Kentish petition. Liberated
in April, he spoke in the Lords on the 20th of May in favour of an
accommodation, and again in June in vindication of the king; but finding
his efforts ineffectual, and believing all armed rebellion against the king
a wicked violation of the most solemn oaths, he joined Charles at York, was
present at Edgehill and accompanied him to Oxford. On the 1st of February
1643 he was named with Lord Herbert of Raglan for removal from the court
and public office for ever, and in the propositions of November 1644 was
one of those excepted from pardon. In January he had endeavoured to
instigate a breach of the Independents with the Scots. Bristol, however,
was not in favour of continuing the war, and withdrew to Sherborne,
removing in the spring of 1644 to Exeter, and after the surrender of the
city retiring abroad on the 11th of July by order of the Houses, which
rejected his petition to compound for his estate. He took up his residence
at Caen, passing the rest of his life in exile and poverty, and
occasionally attending the young king. In 1647 he printed at Caen _An
Apology_, defending his support of the royal cause. This was reprinted in
1656 (Thomason Tracts, E. 897, 6). He died at Paris on the 16th of January
1653.

He is described by Clarendon as "a man of grave aspect, of a presence that
drew respect, and of great parts and ability, but passionate and
supercilious and too voluminous a discourser in council." His aim was to
effect a political union between England and Spain apart from the religious
or marriage questions--a policy which would probably have benefited both
English and European interests; but it was one understood neither in Spain
nor in England, and proved impracticable. He was a man of high character,
who refused to compound with falsehood and injustice, whose misfortune it
was to serve two Stuart sovereigns, and whose firm resistance to the king's
tyranny led the way to the great movement which finally destroyed it.
Besides his _Apology_, he was the author of several printed speeches and
poems, and translated _A Defence of the Catholic Faith_ by Peter du Moulin
(1610). He married Beatrix, daughter of Charles Walcot, and widow of Sir
John Dyve, and besides two daughters left two sons, George, who succeeded
him as 2nd earl of Bristol, and John, who died unmarried.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The best account of Bristol will be found in the scattered
notices of him in the _Hist. of England_ and of the _Civil War_, by S. R.
Gardiner, who also wrote the short sketch of his career in the _Dict. of
Nat. Biog._, and who highly eulogizes his character and diplomacy. For
lives, see _Biographia Britannica_ (Kippis), v. 199; Wood's _Ath. Oxon._
(Bliss), iii. 338; D. Lloyd's _Memoires_ (1668), 579; Collins's _Peerage_
(Brydges, 1812), v. 362; Fuller's _Worthies_ (Nichols, 1811), ii. 412; H.
Walpole's _Royal and Noble Authors_ (Park, 1806), iii. 49; also Clarendon's
_Hist of the Rebellion_, esp. vi. 388; _Clarendon State Papers_ and _Cal.
of Cl. State Papers_; _Old Parliamentary History_; _Cabala_ (1691;
letters); Camden Soc., _Miscellany_, vol. vi. (1871); _Defence of his
Spanish Negotiations_, ed. by S.R. Gardiner; _Somers Tracts_ (1809), ii.
501; _Thomason Tracts_ in Brit. Museum; _Hardwicke State Papers_, i. 494.
The MSS. at Sherborne Castle, of which a selection was transcribed and
deposited in the Public Record Office, were calendared by the Hist. MSS.
Commission in _Rep._ viii. app. i. p. 213 and 10th _Rep._ app. i. p. 520;
there are numerous references to Bristol in various collections calendared
in the same publication and in the _Cal. of State Papers, Dom. Series_; see
also _Harleian MSS._, Brit. Mus. 1580, art. 31-48, and _Add. MSS._ indexes
and calendars.

(P. C. Y.)

[1] _I.e._ in the Digby line; for the Herveys see above.

BRISTOL, a township of Hartford county, Connecticut, U.S.A., in the central
part of the state, about 16 m. S.W. of Hartford. It has an area of 27 sq.
m., and contains the village of Forestville and the borough of Bristol
(incorporated in 1893). Both are situated on the Pequabuck river, and are
served by the western branch of the midland division of the New York, New
Haven & Hartford railway, and by electric railway to Hartford, New Britain
and Terryville. Pop. (1890) 7382; (1900) 9643, including that of the
borough, 6268 (1910) 13,502 (borough, 9527). Among the manufactures of the
borough of Bristol are clocks, woollen goods, iron castings, hardware,
brass ware, silverplate and bells. Bristol clocks, first manufactured soon
after the War of Independence, have long been widely known. Bristol,
originally a part of the township of Farmington, was first settled about
1727, but did not become an independent corporation until the formation, in
1742, of the first church, known after 1744 as the New Cambridge Society.
In 1748 a Protestant Episcopal Church was organized, and before and during
the War of Independence its members belonged to the Loyalist party; their
rector, Rev. James Nichols, was tarred and feathered by the Whigs, and
Moses Dunbar, a member of the church, was hanged for treason by the
Connecticut authorities. Chippen's Hill (about 3 m. from the centre of the
township) was a favourite rendezvous of the local Loyalists; and a cave
there, known as "The Tories' Den," is a well-known landmark. In 1785 New
Cambridge and West Britain, another ecclesiastical society of Farmington,
were incorporated as the township of Bristol, but in 1806 they were divided
into the present townships of Bristol and Burlington.

BRISTOL, a city, county of a city, municipal, county and parliamentary
borough, and seaport of England, chiefly in Gloucestershire but partly in
Somersetshire, 118½ m. W. of London. Pop. (1901) 328,945. The Avon, here
forming the boundary between Gloucestershire and Somerset, though entering
the estuary of the Severn (Bristol Channel) only 8 m. below the city, is
here confined between considerable hills, with a narrow valley-floor on
which the nucleus of the city rests. Between Bristol and the Channel the
valley becomes a gorge, crossed at a single stride by the famous Clifton
Suspension Bridge. Above Bristol the hills again close in at Keynsham, so
that the city lies in a basin-like hollow some 4 m. in diameter, and
extends up the heights to the north. The Great Western railway, striking
into the Avon valley near Bath, serves Bristol from London, connects it
with South Wales by the Severn tunnel, and with the southern and
south-western counties of England. Local lines of this company encircle the
city on the north and the south, serving the outports of Avonmouth and
Portishead on the Bristol Channel. A trunk line of the Midland railway
connects Bristol with the north of England by way of Gloucester, Worcester,
Birmingham and Derby. Both companies use the central station, Temple Meads.

The nucleus of Bristol lies to the north of the river. The business centre
is in the district traversed by Broad Street, High Street, Wine Street and
Corn Street, which radiate from a centre close to the Floating Harbour. To
the south of this centre, connected with it by Bristol Bridge, an island is
formed between the Floating Harbour and the New Course of the Avon, [v.04
p.0579] and here are Temple Meads station, above Victoria Street, two of
the finest churches (the Temple and St Mary Redcliffe) the general hospital
and other public buildings. Immediately above the bridge the little river
Frome joins the Avon. Owing to the nature of the site the streets are
irregular; in the inner part of the city they are generally narrow, and
sometimes, with their ancient gabled houses, extremely picturesque. The
principal suburbs surround the city to the west, north and east.

_Churches, &c._--In the centre of Bristol a remarkable collection of
architectural antiquities is found, principally ecclesiastical. This the
city owes mainly to a few great baronial families, such as the earls of
Gloucester and the Berkeleys, in its early history, and to a few great
merchants, the Canyngs, Shipwards and Framptons, in its later career. The
see of Bristol, founded by Henry VIII. in 1542, was united to that of
Gloucester in 1836; but again separated in 1896. The diocese includes parts
of Gloucestershire and Wiltshire, and a small but populous [Sidenote:
Cathedral.] portion of Somerset. The cathedral, standing above the
so-called Canons' Marsh which borders the Floating Harbour, is pleasantly
situated on the south side of College Green. It has two western towers and
a central tower, nave, short transepts, choir with aisles, an eastern Lady
chapel and other chapels; and on the south, a chapter-house and cloister
court. The nave is modern (by Street, 1877), imitating the choir of the
14th century, with its curious skeleton-vaulting in the aisles. Besides the
canopied tombs of the Berkeleys with their effigies in chain mail, and
similarly fine tombs of the crosiered abbots, there are memorials to Bishop
Butler, to Sterne's Eliza (Elizabeth Draper), and to Lady Hesketh (the
friend of Cowper), who are all interred here. There is also here William
Mason's fine epitaph to his wife (d. 1767), beginning "Take, holy earth,
all that my soul holds dear." Of Fitz-Harding's abbey of St Augustine,
founded in 1142 (of which the present cathedral was the church), the
stately entrance gateway, with its sculptured mouldings, remains hardly
injured. The abbot's gateway, the vestibule to the chapter-house, and the
chapter-house itself, which is carved with Byzantine exuberance of
decoration, and acknowledged to be one of the finest Norman chambers in
Europe, are also perfect. On the north side of College Green is the small
but ornate Mayor's chapel (originally St Mark's), devoted to the services
of the mayor and corporation. It is mainly Decorated and Perpendicular. Of
the churches within the centre of the city, the following are found within
a radius of half-a-mile from Bristol Bridge. St Stephen's church, built
between 1450 and 1490, is a dignified structure, chiefly interesting for
its fan-traceried porch and stately tower. It was built entirely by the
munificence of John Shipward, a wealthy merchant. The tower and spire of St
John's (15th century) stand on one of the gateways of the city. This church
is a parallelogram, without east or west windows or aisles, and is built
upon a fine groined crypt. St James's church, the burial place of its
founder, Robert, earl of Gloucester, dates from 1130, and fine Norman work
remains in the nave. The tower is of the 14th century. St Philip's has an
Early English tower, but its external walls and windows are for the most
part debased Perpendicular. Robert FitzHamon's Norman tower of St Peter,
the oldest church tower in Bristol, still presents its massive square to
the eye. This church stands in Castle Street, which commemorates the castle
of Robert, earl of Gloucester, the walls of which were 25 ft. thick at the
base. Nothing remains of this foundation, but there still exist some walls
and vaults of the later stronghold, including a fine Early English cell.
Adjacent to the church is St Peter's hospital, a picturesque gabled
building of Jacobean and earlier date, with a fine court room. St Mary le
Port and St Augustine the Less are churches of the Perpendicular era, and
not the richest specimens of their kind. St Nicholas church is modern, on a
crypt of the date 1503, and earlier. On the island south of the Floating
Harbour are two of the most interesting churches in the city. Temple
church, with its leaning tower, 5 ft. off the perpendicular, retains
nothing of the Templars' period, but is a fine building of the Decorated
and Perpendicular periods. The church of St Mary Redcliffe, for grandeur of
proportion and elaboration of design and finish, is the first
ecclesiastical building in Bristol, and takes high rank among the parish
churches of England. It was built for the most part in the latter part of
the 14th century by William Canyng or Canynges (_q.v._), but the sculptured
north porch is externally Decorated, and internally Early English. The fine
tower is also Decorated, on an Early English base. The spire, Decorated in
style, is modern. Among numerous monuments is that of Admiral Penn (d.
1718), the father of the founder of Pennsylvania. The church exhibits the
rare feature of transeptal aisles. Of St Thomas's, in the vicinity, only
the tower (15th century) remains of the old structures. All Hallows church
has a modern Italian campanile, but is in the main of the 15th century,
with the retention of four Norman piers in the nave; and is interesting
from its connexion with the ancient gild of calendars, whose office it was
"to convert Jews, instruct youths," and keep the archives of the town.
Theirs was the first free library in the city, possibly in England. The
records of the church contain a singularly picturesque representation of
the ancient customs of the fraternity.

Among conventual remains, besides those already mentioned, there exist of
the Dominican priory the Early English refectory and dormitory, the latter
comprising a row of fifteen original windows and an oak roof of the same
date; and of St Bartholomew's hospital there is a double arch, with
intervening arcades, also Early English. These, with the small chapel of
the Three Kings of Cologne, Holy Trinity Hospital, both Perpendicular, and
the remains of the house of the Augustinian canons attached to the
cathedral, comprise the whole of the monastic relics.

There are many good specimens of ancient domestic architecture--notably
some arches of a grand Norman hall and some Tudor windows of Colston's
house, Small Street; and Canyng's house, with good Perpendicular oak roof.
Of buildings to which historic interest attaches, there are the Merchant
Venturers' almshouses (1699), adjoining their hall. This gild was
established in the 16th century. A small house near St Mary Redcliffe was
the school where the poet Chatterton received his education. His memorial
is in the churchyard of St Mary, and in the church a chest contains the
records among which he claimed to have discovered some of the manuscripts
which were in reality his own. A house in Wine Street was the birthplace of
the poet-laureate Robert Southey (1744).

_Public Buildings, &c._--The public buildings are somewhat overshadowed in
interest by the ecclesiastical. The council house, at the "Cross" of the
four main thoroughfares, dates from 1827, was enlarged in 1894, and
contains the city archives and many portraits, including a Van Dyck and a
Kneller. The Guildhall is close by--a modern Gothic building. The exchange
(used as a corn-market) is a noteworthy building by the famous architect of
Bath, John Wood (1743). Edward Colston, a revered citizen and benefactor of
the city (d. 1721), is commemorated by name in several buildings and
institutions, notably in Colston Hall, which is used for concerts and
meetings. A bank close by St Stephen's church claims to have originated in
the first savings-bank established in England (1812). Similarly, the city
free library (1613) is considered to be the original of its kind. The
Bristol museum and reference library were transferred to the corporation in
1893. Vincent Stuckey Lean (d. 1899) bequeathed to the corporation of
Bristol the sum of £50,000 for the further development of the free
libraries of the city, and with especial regard to the formation and
sustenance of a general reference library of a standard and scientific
character. The central library was opened in 1906. An art gallery,
presented by Sir William Henry Wills, was opened in 1905.

Among educational establishments, the technical college of the Company of
Merchant Venturers (1885) supplies scientific, technical and commercial
education. The extensive buildings of this institution were destroyed by
fire in 1906. University College (1876) forms the nucleus of the university
of Bristol (chartered 1909). Clifton College, opened in 1862 and
incorporated in 1877, includes a physical science school, with
laboratories, [v.04 p.0580] a museum and observatory. Colston's girls' day
school (1891) includes domestic economy and calisthenics. Among the many
charitable institutions are the general hospital, opened in 1858, and since
repeatedly enlarged; royal hospital for sick children and women, Royal
Victoria home, and the Queen Victoria jubilee convalescent home.

Of the open spaces in and near Bristol the most extensive are those
bordering the river in the neighbourhood of the gorge, Durdham and Clifton
Downs, on the Gloucestershire side (see CLIFTON). Others are Victoria Park,
south of the river, near the Bedminster station, Eastville Park by the
Frome, on the north-east of the city beyond Stapleton Road station, St
Andrew's Park near Montpelier station to the north, and Brandon Hill, west
of the cathedral, an abrupt eminence commanding a fine view over the city,
and crowned with a modern tower commemorating the "fourth centenary of the
discovery of America by John Cabot, and sons Lewis, Sebastian and Sanctus."
Other memorials in the city are the High Cross on College Green (1850), and
statues of Queen Victoria (1888), Samuel Morley (1888), Edmund Burke
(1894), and Edward Colston (1895), in whose memory are held annual Colston
banquets.

_Harbour and Trade._--Bristol harbour was formed in 1809 by the conversion
of the Avon and a branch of the Frome into "the Float," by the cutting of a
new channel for the Avon and the formation of two basins. Altogether the
water area, at fixed level, is about 85 acres. Four dry docks open into the
floating harbour. In 1884 the Avonmouth and Portishead docks at the river
entrance were bought up by the city; and the port extends from Hanham Mills
on the Avon to the mouth of the river, and for some distance down the
estuary of the Severn. The city docks have a depth of 22 ft., while those
at Avonmouth are accessible to the largest vessels. In 1902 the
construction of the extensive Royal Edward dock at Avonmouth was put in
hand by the corporation, and the dock was opened by King Edward VII. in
1908. It is entered by a lock 875 ft. long and 100 ft. wide, with a depth
of water on the sill of 46 ft. at ordinary spring, and 36 ft. at ordinary
neap tides. The dock itself has a mean length of 1120 ft. and a breadth of
1000 ft., and there is a branch and passage connecting with the old dock.
The water area is about 30 acres, and the dock is so constructed as to be
easily capable of extension. Portishead dock, on the Somerset shore, has an
area of 12 acres. The port has a large trade with America, the West Indies
and elsewhere, the principal imports being grain, fruit, oils, ore, timber,
hides, cattle and general merchandise; while the exports include machinery,
manufactured oils, cotton goods, tin and salt. The Elder Dempster, Dominion
and other large steamship companies trade at the port.

The principal industries are shipbuilding, ropewalks, chocolate factories,
sugar refineries, tobacco mills and pipe-making, glass works, potteries,
soaperies, shoe factories, leather works and tanneries, chemical works, saw
mills, breweries, copper, lead and shot works, iron works, machine works,
stained-paper works, anchors, chain cables, sail-cloth, buttons. A
coalfield extending 16 m. south-east to Radstock avails much for Bristol
manufactures.

The parliamentary borough is divided into four divisions, each returning
one member. The government of the city is in the hands of a lord mayor, 22
aldermen and 66 councillors. The area in 1901 was 11,705 acres; but in 1904
it was increased to 17,004 acres.

_History._--Bristol (Brigstow, Bristou, Bristow, Bristole) is one of the
best examples of a town that has owed its greatness entirely to trade. It
was never a shire town or the site of a great religious house, and it owed
little to its position as the head of a feudal lordship, or as a military
post. Though it is near both British and Roman camps, there is no evidence
of a British or Roman settlement. It was the western limit of the Saxon
invasion of Britain, and about the year 1000 a Saxon settlement began to
grow up at the junction of the rivers Frome and Avon, the natural
advantages of the situation favouring the growth of the township. Bristol
owed much to Danish rule, and during the reign of Canute, when the wool
trade with Ireland began, it became the market for English slaves. In the
reign of Edward the Confessor the town was included in the earldom of Sweyn
Godwinsson, and at the date of the Domesday survey it was already a royal
borough governed by a reeve appointed by the king as overlord, the king's
geld being assessed at 110 marks. There was a mint at the time of the
Conquest, which proves that Bristol must have been already a place of some
size, though the fact that the town was a member of the royal manor of
Baston shows that its importance was still of recent growth. One-third of
the geld was paid to Geoffrey de Coutances, bishop of Exeter, who threw up
the earthworks of the castle. He joined in a rebellion against William II.,
and after his death the king granted the town and castle, as part of the
honour of Gloucester, to Robert FitzHamon, whose daughter Mabel, marrying
Earl Robert of Gloucester in 1119, brought him Bristol as her dowry. Earl
Robert still further strengthened the castle, probably with masonry, and
involved Bristol in the rebellion against Stephen. From the castle he
harried the whole neighbourhood, threatened Bath, and sold his prisoners as
slaves to Ireland. A contemporary chronicler describes Bristol castle as
"seated on a mighty mound, and garrisoned with knights and foot soldiers or
rather robbers and raiders," and he calls Bristol the stepmother of
England.

The history of the charters granted to Bristol begins about this time. A
charter granted by Henry II. in 1172 exempted the burgesses of Bristol from
certain tolls throughout the kingdom, and confirmed existing liberties.
Another charter of the same year granted the city of Dublin to the men of
Bristol as a colony with the same liberties as their own town.

As a result probably of the close connexion between Bristol and Ireland the
growth of the wool trade was maintained. Many Bristol men settled in
Dublin, which for a long time was a Bristol beyond the seas, its charters
being almost duplicates of those granted to Bristol. About this time
Bristol began to export wool to the Baltic, and had developed a wine trade
with the south of France, while soap-making and tanning were flourishing
industries. Bristol was still organized manorially rather than municipally.
Its chief courts were the weekly hundred court and the court leet held
three times a year, and presided over by the reeve appointed by the earl of
Gloucester. By the marriage of Earl John with the heiress of Earl William
of Gloucester, Bristol became part of the royal demesne, the rent payable
to the king being fixed, and the town shook off the feudal yoke. The
charter granted by John in 1190 was an epoch in the history of the borough.
It provided that no burgess should be impleaded without the walls, that no
non-burgess should sell wine, cloth, wool, leather or corn in Bristol, that
all should hold by burgage tenure, that corn need not be ground at the
lord's mill, and that the burgesses should have all their reasonable gilds.
At some uncertain date soon after this a commune was established in Bristol
on the French model, Robert FitzNichol, the first mayor of Bristol, taking
the oath in 1200. The mayor was chosen, not, like the reeve whom he had
displaced, by the overlord, but by the merchants of Bristol who were
members of the merchant gild. The first documentary evidence of the
existence of the merchant gild appears in 1242. In addition, there were
many craft gilds (later at least twenty-six were known to exist), the most
important being the gilds of the weavers, tuckers and fullers, and the Gild
of the Kalendars of Bristol, which devoted itself to religious, educational
and social work. The mayor of Bristol was helped by two assistants, who
were called provosts until 1267, and from 1267 to 1311 were known as
stewards, and after that date as bailiffs. Before this time many religious
houses had been founded. Earl Robert of Gloucester established the
Benedictine priory of St James; there were Dominican and Franciscan
priories, a monastery of Carmelites, and an abbey of St Augustine founded
by Robert FitzHardinge.

In the reign of John, Bristol began the struggle to absorb the neighbouring
manor of Bedminster, the eastern half of which was held by the Templars by
gift of Earl Robert of Gloucester, and the western half, known as
Redcliffe, was sold by the same earl to Robert FitzHardinge, afterwards
Lord Berkeley. The [v.04 p.0581] Templars acquiesced without much
difficulty, but the wealthy owners of the manor of Redcliffe, who had their
own manorial courts, market, fair and quay, resisted the union for nearly
one hundred years. In 1247 a new course was cut for the river Frome which
vastly improved the harbour, and in the same year a stone bridge was built
over the Avon, bringing Temple and Redcliffe into closer touch with the
city. The charter granted by Henry III. in 1256 was important. It gave the
burgesses the right to choose coroners, and as they already farmed the geld
payable to the king, Bristol must have been practically independent of the
king. The growing exclusiveness of the merchant gild led to the great
insurrection of 1312. The oligarchical party was supported by the
Berkeleys, but the opposition continued their rebellion until 1313, when
the town was besieged and taken by the royal forces. During the reign of
Edward III. cloth manufacture developed in Bristol. Thomas Blanket set up
looms in 1337, employing many foreign workmen, and in 1353 Bristol was made
one of the Staple towns, the office of mayor of the staple being held by
the mayor of the town.

The charter of 1373 extended the boundaries of the town to include
Redcliffe (thus settling the long-standing dispute) and the waters of the
Avon and Severn up to the Steep and Flat Holmes; and made Bristol a county
in itself, independent of the county courts, with an elected sheriff, and a
council of forty to be chosen by the mayor and sheriff. The town was
divided into five wards, each represented by an alderman, the aldermen
alone being eligible for the mayoralty. This charter (confirmed in 1377 and
1488) was followed by the period of Bristol's greatest prosperity, the era
of William Canyng, of the foundation of the Society of Merchant Venturers,
and of the voyages of John and Sebastian Cabot. William Canyng (1399-1474)
was five times mayor and twice represented Bristol in parliament; he
carried on a huge cloth trade with the Baltic and rebuilt St Mary
Redcliffe. At the same time cloth was exported by Bristol merchants to
France, Spain and the Levant. The records of the Society of Merchant
Venturers began in 1467, and the society increased in influence so rapidly
that in 1500 it directed all the foreign trade of the city and had a lease
of the port dues. It was incorporated in 1552, and received other charters
in 1638 and 1662. Henry VII. granted Bristol a charter in 1499 (confirmed
in 1510) which removed the theoretically popular basis of the corporation
by the provision that the aldermen were to be elected by the mayor and
council. At the dissolution of the monasteries the diocese of Bristol was
founded, which included the counties of Bristol and Dorset. The voyages of
discovery in which Bristol had played a conspicuous part led to a further
trade development. In the 16th century Bristol traded with Spain, the
Canaries and the Spanish colonies in America, shared in the attempt to
colonize Newfoundland, and began the trade in African slaves which
flourished during the 17th century. Bristol took a great share in the Civil
War and was three times besieged. Charles II. granted a formal charter of
incorporation in 1664, the governing body being the mayor, 12 aldermen, 30
common councilmen, 2 sheriffs, 2 coroners, a town clerk, clerk of the peace
and 39 minor officials, the governing body itself filling up all vacancies
in its number. In the 18th century the cloth trade declined owing to the
competition of Ireland and to the general migration of manufactures to the
northern coalfields, but the prosperity of the city was maintained by the
introduction of manufactures of iron, brass, tin and copper, and by the
flourishing West Indian trade, sugar being taken in exchange for African
slaves.

The hot wells became fashionable in the reign of Anne (who granted a
charter in 1710), and a little later Bristol was the centre of the
Methodist revival of Whitefield and Wesley. The city was small, densely
populated and dirty, with dark, narrow streets, and the mob gained an
unenviable notoriety for violence in the riots of 1708, 1753, 1767 and
1831. At the beginning of the 19th century it was obvious that the
prosperity of Bristol was diminishing, comparatively if not actually, owing
to (1) the rise of Liverpool, which had more natural facilities as a port
than Bristol could offer, (2) the abolition of the slave trade, which
ruined the West Indian sugar trade, and (3) the extortionate rates levied
by the Bristol Dock Company, incorporated in 1803. These rates made
competition with Liverpool and London impossible, while other tolls were
levied by the Merchant Venturers and the corporation. The decline was
checked by the efforts of the Bristol chamber of commerce (founded in 1823)
and by the Municipal Reform Act of 1835. The new corporation, consisting of
48 councillors and 16 aldermen who elected the mayor, being themselves
chosen by the burgesses of each ward, bought the docks in 1848 and reduced
the fees. In 1877-1880 the docks at the mouth of the river at Avonmouth and
Portishead were made, and these were bought by the corporation in 1884. A
revival of trade, rapid increase of population and enlargement of the
boundaries of the city followed. The chief magistrate became a lord mayor
in 1899.

See J. Corry, _History of Bristol_ (Bristol, 1816); J. Wallaway,
_Antiquities_ (1834); J. Evans, _Chronological History of Bristol_ (1824);
Bristol vol. of _Brit. Archaeol. Inst._; J.F. Nicholl and J. Taylor,
_Bristol Past and Present_ (Bristol and London, 1882); W. Hunt, _Bristol_,
in "Historic Towns" series (London, 1887); J. Latimer, _Annals of Bristol_
(various periods); G.E. Weare, _Collectanea relating to the Bristol Friars_
(Bristol, 1893); Samuel Seyer, _History of Bristol and Bristol Charters_
(1812); _The Little Red Book of Bristol_ (1900); _The Maior's Kalendar_
(Camden Soc., 1872); _Victoria County History, Gloucester_.

BRISTOL, a borough of Bucks county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., on the Delaware
river, opposite Burlington, New Jersey, 20 m. N.E. of Philadelphia. Pop.
(1890) 6553; (1900) 7104 (1134 foreign-born); (1910) 9256. It is served by
the Pennsylvania railway. The borough is built on level ground elevated
several feet above the river, and in the midst of an attractive farming
country. The principal business houses are on Mill Street; while Radcliffe
Street extends along the river. Among Bristol's manufacturing
establishments are machine shops, rolling mills, a planing mill, yarn,
hosiery and worsted mills, and factories for making carpets, wall paper and
patent leather. Bath Springs are located just outside the borough limits;
though not so famous as they were early in the 18th century, these springs
are still well known for the medicinal properties of their chalybeate
waters. Bristol was one of the first places to be settled in Pennsylvania
after William Penn received his charter for the province in 1681, and from
its settlement until 1725 it was the seat of government of the county. It
was laid out in 1697 and was incorporated as a borough in 1720; the present
charter, however, dates only from 1851.

BRISTOL, the shire-township of Bristol county, Rhode Island, U.S.A., about
15 m. S.S.E. of Providence, between Narragansett Bay on the W. and Mount
Hope Bay on the E., thus being a peninsula. Pop. (1900) 6901, of whom 1923
were foreign-born; (1905; state census) 7512; (1910) 8565; area 12 sq. m.
It is served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford, and the Rhode Island
Suburban railways, and is connected with the island of Rhode Island by
ferry. Mount Hope (216 ft.), on the eastern side, commands delightful views
of landscape, bay and river scenery. Elsewhere in the township the surface
is gently undulating and generally well adapted to agriculture, especially
to the growing of onions. A small island, Hog Island, is included in the
township. The principal village, also known as Bristol, is a port of entry
with a capacious and deep harbour, has manufactories of rubber and woollen
goods, and is well known as a yacht-building centre, several defenders of
the America's Cup, including the "Columbia" and the "Reliance," having been
built in the Herreshoff yards here. At the close of King Philip's War in
1676, Mount Hope Neck (which had been the seat of the vanquished sachem),
with most of what is now the township of Bristol, was awarded to Plymouth
Colony. In 1680, immediately after Plymouth had conveyed the "Neck" to a
company of four, the village was laid out; the following year, in
anticipation of future commercial importance, the township and the village
were named Bristol, from the town in England. The township became the
shire-township in 1685, passed under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts in
1692, and in 1747 was annexed to Rhode Island. During the War of
Independence the village was bombarded by the British on the 7th of October
1775, but [v.04 p.0582] suffered little damage; on the 25th of May 1778 it
was visited and partially destroyed by a British force.

BRISTOL, a city of Sullivan county, Tennessee, and Washington county,
Virginia, U.S.A., 130 m. N.E. of Knoxville, Tennessee, at an altitude of
about 1700 ft. Pop. (1880) 3209; (1890) 6226; (1900) 9850 (including 1981
negroes); (1910) 13,395, of whom 7148 were in Tennessee and 6247 were in
Virginia. Bristol is served by the Holston Valley, the Southern, the
Virginia & South-Western, and the Norfolk & Western railways, and is a
railway centre of some importance. It is near the great mineral deposits of
Virginia, Tennessee, West Virginia, Kentucky and North Carolina; an
important distributing point for iron, coal and coke; and has tanneries and
lumber mills, iron furnaces, tobacco factories, furniture factories and
packing houses. It is the seat of Sullins College (Methodist Episcopal,
South; 1870) for women, and of the Virginia Institute for Women (Baptist,
1884), both in the state of Virginia, and of a normal college for negroes,
on the Tennessee side of the state line. The Tennessee-Virginia boundary
line runs through the principal street, dividing the place into two
separate corporations, the Virginia part, which before 1890 (when it was
chartered as a city) was known as Goodson, being administratively
independent of the county in which it is situated. Bristol was settled
about 1835, and the town of Bristol, Tennessee, was first incorporated in
1856.

BRISTOW, BENJAMIN HELM (1832-1896), American lawyer and politician, was
born in Elkton, Kentucky, on the 20th of June 1832, the son of Francis
Marion Bristow (1804-1864), a Whig member of Congress in 1854-1855 and
1859-1861. He graduated at Jefferson College, Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, in
1851, studied law under his father, and was admitted to the Kentucky bar in
1853. At the beginning of the Civil War he became lieutenant-colonel of the
25th Kentucky Infantry; was severely wounded at Shiloh; helped to recruit
the 8th Kentucky Cavalry, of which he was lieutenant-colonel and later
colonel; and assisted at the capture of John H. Morgan in July 1863. In
1863-1865 he was state senator; in 1865-1866 assistant United States
district-attorney, and in 1866-1870 district-attorney for the Louisville
district; and in 1870-1872, after a few months' practice of law with John
M. Harlan, was the (first appointed) solicitor-general of the United
States. In 1873 President Grant nominated him attorney-general of the
United States in case George H. Williams were confirmed as chief justice of
the United States,--a contingency which did not arise. As secretary of the
treasury (1874-1876) he prosecuted with vigour the so-called "Whisky Ring,"
the headquarters of which was at St Louis, and which, beginning in 1870 or
1871, had defrauded the Federal government out of a large part of its
rightful revenue from the distillation of whisky. Distillers and revenue
officers in St Louis, Milwaukee, Cincinnati and other cities were
implicated, and the illicit gains--which in St Louis alone probably
amounted to more than $2,500,000 in the six years 1870-1876--were divided
between the distillers and the revenue officers, who levied assessments on
distillers ostensibly for a Republican campaign fund to be used in
furthering Grant's re-election. Prominent among the ring's alleged
accomplices at Washington was Orville E. Babcock, private secretary to
President Grant, whose personal friendship for Babcock led him to
indiscreet interference in the prosecution. Through Bristow's efforts more
than 200 men were indicted, a number of whom were convicted, but after some
months' imprisonment were pardoned. Largely owing to friction between
himself and the president, Bristow resigned his portfolio in June 1876; as
secretary of the treasury he advocated the resumption of specie payments
and at least a partial retirement of "greenbacks"; and he was also an
advocate of civil service reform. He was a prominent candidate for the
Republican presidential nomination in 1876. After 1878 he practised law in
New York City, where he died on the 22nd of June 1896.

See _Memorial of Benjamin Helm Bristow_, largely prepared by David Willcox
(Cambridge, Mass., privately printed, 1897); _Whiskey Frauds_, 44th Cong.,
1st Sess., Mis. Doc. No. 186; _Secrets of the Great Whiskey Ring_ (Chicago,
1880), by John McDonald, who for nearly six years had been supervisor of
internal revenue at St Louis,--a book by one concerned and to be considered
in that light.

BRISTOW, HENRY WILLIAM (1817-1889), English geologist, son of Major-General
H. Bristow, who served in the Peninsular War, was born on the 17th of May
1817. He was educated at King's College, London, under John Phillips, then
professor of geology. In 1842 he was appointed assistant geologist on the
Geological Survey, and in that service he remained for forty-six years,
becoming director for England and Wales in 1872, and retiring in 1888. He
was elected F.R.S. in 1862. He died in London on the 14th of June 1889. His
publications (see _Geol. Mag._, 1889, p. 384) include _A Glossary of
Mineralogy_ (1861) and _The Geology of the Isle of Wight_ (1862).

BRITAIN (Gr. [Greek: Pretanikai nêsoi, Brettania]; Lat. _Britannia_, rarely
_Brittania_), the anglicized form of the classical name of England, Wales
and Scotland, sometimes extended to the British Isles as a whole
(_Britannicae Insulae_). The Greek and Roman forms are doubtless attempts
to reproduce a Celtic original, the exact form of which is still matter of
dispute. Brittany (Fr. _Bretagne_) in western France derived its name from
Britain owing to migrations in the 5th and 6th century A.D. The
personification of Britannia as a female figure may be traced back as far
as the coins of Hadrian and Antoninus Pius (early 2nd century A.D.); its
first appearance on modern coins is on the copper of Charles II. (see
NUMISMATICS).

In what follows, the archaeological interest of early Britain is dealt
with, in connexion with the history of Britain in Pre-Roman, Roman, and
Anglo-Saxon days; this account being supplementary to the articles ENGLAND;
ENGLISH HISTORY; SCOTLAND, &c.

PRE-ROMAN BRITAIN

Geologists are not yet agreed when and by whom Britain was first peopled.
Probably the island was invaded by a succession of races. The first, the
Paleolithic men, may have died out or retired before successors arrived.
During the Neolithic and Bronze Ages we can dimly trace further
immigrations. Real knowledge begins with two Celtic invasions, that of the
Goidels in the later part of the Bronze Age, and that of the Brythons and
Belgae in the Iron Age. These invaders brought Celtic civilization and
dialects. It is uncertain how far they were themselves Celtic in blood and
how far they were numerous enough to absorb or obliterate the races which
they found in Britain. But it is not unreasonable to think that they were
no mere conquering caste, and that they were of the same race as the
Celtic-speaking peoples of the western continent. By the age of Julius
Caesar all the inhabitants of Britain, except perhaps some tribes of the
far north, were Celts in speech and customs. Politically they were divided
into separate and generally warring tribes, each under its own princes.
They dwelt in hill forts with walls of earth or rude stone, or in villages
of round huts sunk into the ground and resembling those found in parts of
northern Gaul, or in subterranean chambered houses, or in hamlets of
pile-dwellings constructed among the marshes. But, at least in the south,
market centres had sprung up, town life was beginning, houses of a better
type were perhaps coming into use, and the southern tribes employed a gold
coinage and also a currency of iron bars or ingots, attested by Caesar and
by surviving examples, which weigh roughly, some two-thirds of a pound,
some 2-2/3 lb, but mostly 1-1/3 lb. In religion, the chief feature was the
priesthood of Druids, who here, as in Gaul, practised magical arts and
barbarous rites of human sacrifice, taught a secret lore, wielded great
influence, but, at least as Druids, took ordinarily no part in politics. In
art, these tribes possessed a native Late Celtic fashion, descended from
far-off Mediterranean antecedents and more directly connected with the
La-Tène culture of the continental Celts. Its characteristics were a
flamboyant and fantastic treatment of plant and animal (though not of
human) forms, a free use of the geometrical device called the "returning
spiral," and much skill in enamelling. Its finest products were in bronze,
but the artistic impulse spread to humbler work in wood and pottery. The
late Celtic age was one which genuinely delighted in beauty of form and
detail. In this it resembled the middle ages rather than the Roman empire
or the present day, and it resembled [v.04 p.0583] them all the more in
that its love of beauty, like theirs, was mixed with a feeling for the
fantastic and the grotesque. The Roman conquest of northern Gaul (57-50
B.C.) brought Britain into definite relation with the Mediterranean. It was
already closely connected with Gaul, and when Roman civilization and its
products invaded Gallia Belgica, they passed on easily to Britain. The
British coinage now begins to bear Roman legends, and after Caesar's two
raids (55, 54 B.C.) the southern tribes were regarded at Rome, though they
do not seem to have regarded themselves, as vassals. Actual conquest was,
however, delayed. Augustus planned it. But both he and his successor
Tiberius realized that the greater need was to consolidate the existing
empire, and absorb the vast additions recently made to it by Pompey, Caesar
and Augustus.

ROMAN BRITAIN

I. _The Roman Conquest._--The conquest of Britain was undertaken by
Claudius in A.D. 43. Two causes coincided to produce the step. On the one
hand a forward policy then ruled at Rome, leading to annexations in various
lands. On the other hand, a probably philo-Roman prince, Cunobelin (known
to literature as Cymbeline), had just been succeeded by two sons,
Caractacus (_q.v._) and Togodumnus, who were hostile to Rome. Caligula, the
half-insane predecessor of Claudius, had made in respect to this event some
blunder which we know only through a sensational exaggeration, but which
doubtless had to be made good. An immediate reason for action was the
appeal of a fugitive British prince, presumably a Roman partisan and victim
of Cunobelin's sons. So Aulus Plautius with a singularly well equipped army
of some 40,000 men landed in Kent and advanced on London. Here Claudius
himself appeared--the one reigning emperor of the 1st century who crossed
the waves of ocean,--and the army, crossing the Thames, moved forward
through Essex and captured the native capital, Camulod[=u]num, now
Colchester. From the base of London and Colchester three corps continued
the conquest. The left wing, the Second Legion (under Vespasian, afterwards
emperor), subdued the south; the centre, the Fourteenth and Twentieth
Legions, subdued the midlands, while the right wing, the Ninth Legion,
advanced through the eastern part of the island. This strategy was at first
triumphant. The lowlands of Britain, with their partly Romanized and partly
scanty population and their easy physical features, presented no obstacle.
Within three or four years everything south of the Humber and east of the
Severn had been either directly annexed or entrusted, as protectorates, to
native client-princes.

A more difficult task remained. The wild hills and wilder tribes of Wales
and Yorkshire offered far fiercer resistance. There followed thirty years
of intermittent hill fighting (A.D. 47-79). The precise steps of the
conquest are not known. Legionary fortresses were established at Wroxeter
(for a time only), Chester and Caerleon, facing the Welsh hills, and at
Lincoln in the northeast. Monmouthshire, and Flintshire with its lead
mines, were early overrun; in 60 Suetonius Paulinus reached Anglesea. The
method of conquest was the establishment of small detached forts in
strategic positions, each garrisoned by 500 or 1000 men, and it was
accompanied by a full share of those disasters which vigorous barbarians
always inflict on civilized invaders. Progress was delayed too by the great
revolt of Boadicea (_q.v._) and a large part of the nominally conquered
Lowlands. Her rising was soon crushed, but the government was obviously
afraid for a while to move its garrisons forward. Indeed, other needs of
the empire caused the withdrawal of the Fourteenth Legion about 67. But the
decade A.D. 70-80 was decisive. A series of three able generals commanded
an army restored to its proper strength by the addition of Legio II.
Adiutrix, and achieved the final subjugation of Wales and the first
conquest of Yorkshire, where a legionary fortress at York was substituted
for that at Lincoln.

The third and best-known, if not the ablest, of these generals, Julius
Agricola, moved on in A.D. 80 to the conquest of the farther north. He
established between the Clyde and Forth a frontier meant to be permanent,
guarded by a line of forts, two of which are still traceable at Camelon
near Falkirk, and at Bar Hill. He then advanced into Caledonia and won a
"famous victory" at Mons Graupius (sometimes, but incorrectly, spelt
Grampius), probably near the confluence of the Tay and the Isla, where a
Roman encampment of his date, Inchtuthill, has been partly examined (see
GALGACUS). He dreamt even of invading Ireland, and thought it an easy task.
The home government judged otherwise. Jealous possibly of a too brilliant
general, certainly averse from costly and fruitless campaigns and needing
the Legio II. Adiutrix for work elsewhere, it recalled both governor and
legion, and gave up the more northerly of his nominal conquests. The most
solid result of his campaigns is that his battlefield, misspelt Grampius,
has provided to antiquaries, and through them to the world, the modern name
of the Grampian Hills.

What frontier was adopted after Agricola's departure, whether Tweed or
Cheviot or other, is unknown. For thirty years (A.D. 85-115) the military
history of Britain is a blank. When we recover knowledge we are in an
altered world. About 115 or 120 the northern Britons rose in revolt and
destroyed the Ninth Legion, posted at York, which would bear the brunt of
any northern trouble. In 122 the second reigning emperor who crossed the
ocean, Hadrian, came himself to Britain, brought the Sixth Legion to
replace the Ninth, and introduced the frontier policy of his age. For over
70 m. from Tyne to Solway, more exactly from Wallsend to Bowness, he built
a continuous rampart, more probably of turf than of stone, with a ditch in
front of it, a number of small forts along it, one or two outposts a few
miles to the north of it, and some detached forts (the best-known is on the
hill above Maryport) guarding the Cumberland coast beyond its western end.
The details of his work are imperfectly known, for though many remains
survive, it is hard to separate those of Hadrian's date from others that
are later. But that Hadrian built a wall here is proved alike by literature
and by inscriptions. The meaning of the scheme is equally certain. It was
to be, as it were, a Chinese wall, marking the definite limit of the Roman
world. It was now declared, not by the secret resolutions of cabinets, but
by the work of the spade marking the solid earth for ever, that the era of
conquest was ended.

[Illustration]

But empires move, though rulers bid them stand still. Whether the land
beyond Hadrian's wall became temptingly peaceful or remained in vexing
disorder, our authorities do not say. We know only that about 142 Hadrian's
successor, Antoninus Pius, acting through his general Lollius Urbicus,
advanced from the Tyne and Solway frontier to the narrower isthmus between
Forth and Clyde, 36 m. across, which Agricola had fortified before him.
Here he reared a continuous rampart with a ditch in front of it, fair-sized
forts, probably a dozen in number, built either close behind it or actually
abutting on it, and a connecting road running from end to end. An ancient
writer states that the rampart was built of regularly laid sods (the same
method which had probably been employed by Hadrian), and excavations in
1891-1893 have verified the statement. The work still survives visibly,
though in varying preservation, except in the agricultural districts near
its two ends. Occasionally, as on Croyhill (near Kilsyth), at Westerwood,
and in the covers of Bonnyside (3 m. west of Falkirk), wall and ditch and
even road can be distinctly traced, and the sites of many of the forts are
plain to practised eyes. Three of these forts have been excavated. All
three show the ordinary features of Roman _castella_, though they differ
more than one would expect in forts built at one time by one general. Bar
Hill, the most completely explored, covers three acres--nearly five times
as much as the earlier fort of Agricola on the same site. It had ramparts
of turf, barrack-rooms of wood, and a headquarters building, storehouse and
bath in stone: it stands a few yards back from the wall. Castle Cary covers
nearly four acres: its ramparts contain massive and well-dressed masonry;
its interior buildings, though they agree in material, do not altogether
agree in plan with those of Bar Hill, and its north face falls in line with
the frontier wall. Rough Castle, near Falkirk, is very much smaller; it is
remarkable for the astonishing [v.04 p.0584] strength of its turf-built and
earthen ramparts and ravelins, and for a remarkable series of defensive
pits, reminiscent of Caesar's _lilia_ at Alesia, plainly intended to break
an enemy's charge, and either provided with stakes to impale the assailant
or covered over with hurdles or the like to deceive him. Besides the dozen
forts on the wall, one or two outposts may have been held at Ardoch and
Abernethy along the natural route which runs by Stirling and Perth to the
lowlands of the east coast. This frontier was reached from the south by two
roads. One, known in medieval times as Dere Street and misnamed Watling
Street by modern antiquaries, ran from Corbridge on the Tyne past
Otterburn, crossed Cheviot near Makendon Camps, and passed by an important
fort at Newstead near Melrose, and another at Inveresk (outside of
Edinburgh), to the eastern end of the wall. The other, starting from
Carlisle, ran to Birrens, a Roman fort near Ecclefechan, and thence, by a
line not yet explored and indeed not at all certain, to Carstairs and the
west end of the wall. This wall was in addition to, and not instead of, the
wall of Hadrian. Both barriers were held together, and the district between
them was regarded as a military area, outside the range of civilization.

The work of Pius brought no long peace. Sixteen years later disorder broke
out in north Britain, apparently in the district between the Cheviots and
the Derbyshire hills, and was repressed with difficulty after four or five
years' fighting. Eighteen or twenty years later (180-185) a new war broke
out with a different issue. The Romans lost everything beyond Cheviot, and
perhaps even more. The government of Commodus, feeble in itself and vexed
by many troubles, could not repair the loss, and the civil wars which soon
raged in Europe (193-197) gave the Caledonians further chance. It was not
till 208 that Septimius Severus, the ablest emperor of his age, could turn
his attention to the island. He came thither in person, invaded Caledonia,
commenced the reconstruction of the wall of Hadrian, rebuilding it from end
to end in stone, and then in the fourth year of his operations died at
York. Amid much that is uncertain and even legendary about his work in
Britain, this is plain, that he fixed on the line of Hadrian's wall as his
substantive frontier. His successors, Caracalla and Severus Alexander
(211-235), accepted the position, and many inscriptions refer to building
or rebuilding executed by them for the greater efficiency of the frontier
defences. The conquest of Britain was at last over. The wall of Hadrian
remained for nearly two hundred years more the northern limit of Roman
power in the extreme west.

II. _The Province of Britain and its Military System._--Geographically,
Britain consists of two parts: (1) the comparatively flat lowlands of the
south, east and midlands, suitable to agriculture and open to easy
intercourse with the continent, i.e. with the rest of the Roman empire; (2)
the district consisting of the hills of Devon and Cornwall, of Wales and of
northern England, regions lying more, and often very much more, than 600
ft. above the sea, scarred with gorges and deep valleys, mountainous in
character, difficult for armies to traverse, ill fitted to the peaceful
pursuits in agriculture. These two parts of the province differ also in
their history. The lowlands, as we have seen, were conquered easily and
quickly. The uplands were hardly subdued completely till the end of the 2nd
century. They differ, thirdly, in the character of their Roman occupation.
The lowlands were the scene of civil life. Towns, villages and country
houses were their prominent features; troops were hardly seen in them save
in some fortresses on the edge of the hills and in a chain of forts built
in the 4th century to defend the south-east coast, the so-called Saxon
Shore. The uplands of Wales and the north presented another spectacle. Here
civil life was almost wholly absent. No country town or country house has
been found more than 20 m. north of York or west of Monmouthshire. The
hills were one extensive military frontier, covered with forts and
strategic roads connecting them, and devoid of town life, country houses,
farms or peaceful civilized industry. This geographical division was not
reproduced by Rome in any administrative partitions of the province. At
first the whole was governed by one _legatus Augusti_ of consular standing.
Septimius Severus made it two provinces, Superior and Inferior, with a
boundary which probably ran from Humber to Mersey, but we do not know how
long this arrangement lasted. In the 5th century there were five provinces,
Britannia Prima and Secunda, Flavia and Maxima Caesariensis and (for a
while) Valentia, ruled by _praesides_ and _consulares_ under a _vicartus_,
but the only thing known of them is that Britannia Prima included
Cirencester.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Plan of Housesteads (Borcovicium) on Hadrian's
Wall.]

The army which guarded or coerced the province consisted, from the time of
Hadrian onwards, of (1) three legions, the Second at Isca Silurum
(Caerleon-on-Usk, _q.v._), the Ninth at Ebur[=a]cum (_q.v._; now York), the
Twentieth at Deva (_q.v._; now Chester), a total of some 15,000 heavy
infantry; and (2) a large but uncertain number of auxiliaries, troops of
the second grade, organized in infantry cohorts or cavalry _alae_, each 500
or 1000 strong, and posted in _castella_ nearer the frontiers than the
legions. The legionary fortresses were large rectangular enclosures of 50
or 60 acres, surrounded by strong walls of which traces can still be seen
in the lower courses of the north and east town-walls of Chester, in the
abbey gardens at York, and on the south side of Caerleon. The auxiliary
_castella_ were hardly a tenth of the size, varying generally from three to
six acres according to the size of the regiment and the need for stabling.
Of these upwards of 70 are known in England and some 20 more in Scotland.
Of the English examples a few have been carefully excavated, notably
Gellygaer between Cardiff and Brecon, one of the most perfect specimens to
be found anywhere in the Roman empire of a Roman fort dating from the end
of the 1st century A.D.; Hardknott, on a Cumberland moor overhanging Upper
Eskdale; and Housesteads on Hadrian's wall. In Scotland excavation has been
more active, in particular at the forts of Birrens, Newstead near Melrose,
Lyne near Peebles, Ardoch between Stirling and Perth, and Castle Cary,
Rough Castle and Bar Hill on the wall of Pius. The internal arrangements of
all these forts follow one general plan. But in some of them the internal
buildings are all of stone, while in [v.04 p.0585] others, principally (it
seems) forts built before 150, wood is used freely and only the few
principal buildings seem to have been constructed throughout of stone.

We may illustrate their character from Housesteads, which, in the form in
which we know it, perhaps dates from Septimius Severus. This fort measures
about 360 by 600 ft. and covers a trifle less than 5 acres. Its ramparts
are of stone, and its north rampart coincides with the great wall of
Hadrian. Its interior is filled with stone buildings. Chief among these
(see fig. 1), and in the centre of the whole fort, is the Headquarters, in
Lat. _Principia_ or, as it is often (though perhaps less correctly) styled
by moderns, _Praetorium_. This is a rectangular structure with only one
entrance which gives access, first, to a small cloistered court (x. 4),
then to a second open court (x. 7), and finally to a row of five rooms (x.
8-12) containing the shrine for official worship, the treasury and other
offices. Close by were officers' quarters, generally built round a tiny
cloistered court (ix., xi., xii.), and substantially built storehouses with
buttresses and dry basements (viii.). These filled the middle third of the
fort. At the two ends were barracks for the soldiers (i.-vi.,
xiii.-xviii.). No space was allotted to private religion or domestic life.
The shrines which voluntary worshippers might visit, the public bath-house,
and the cottages of the soldiers' wives, camp followers, &c., lay outside
the walls. Such were nearly all the Roman forts in Britain. They differ
somewhat from Roman forts in Germany or other provinces, though most of the
differences arise from the different usage of wood and of stone in various
places.

Forts of this kind were dotted all along the military roads of the Welsh
and northern hill-districts. In Wales a road ran from Chester past a fort
at Caer-hyn (near Conway) to a fort at Carnarvon (Segontium). A similar
road ran along the south coast from Caerleon-on-Usk past a fort at Cardiff
and perhaps others, to Carmarthen. A third, roughly parallel to the shore
of Cardigan Bay, with forts at Llanio and Tommen-y-mur (near Festiniog),
connected the northern and southern roads, while the interior was held by a
system of roads and forts not yet well understood but discernible at such
points as Caer-gai on Bala Lake, Castle Collen near Llandrindod Wells, the
Gaer near Brecon, Merthyr and Gellygaer. In the north of Britain we find
three principal roads. One led due north from York past forts at Catterick
Bridge, Piers Bridge, Binchester, Lanchester, Ebchester to the wall and to
Scotland, while branches through Chester-le-Street reached the Tyne Bridge
(Pons Aelius) at Newcastle and the Tyne mouth at South Shields. A second
road, turning north-west from Catterick Bridge, mounted the Pennine Chain
by way of forts at Rokeby, Bowes and Brough-under-Stainmoor, descended into
the Eden valley, reached Hadrian's wall near Carlisle (Luguvallium), and
passed on to Birrens. The third route, starting from Chester and passing up
the western coast, is more complex, and exists in duplicate, the result
perhaps of two different schemes of road-making. Forts in plenty can be
detected along it, notably Manchester (Mancunium or Mamucium), Ribchester
(Bremetennacum), Brougham Castle (Brocavum), Old Penrith (Voreda), and on a
western branch, Watercrook near Kendal, Waterhead near the hotel of that
name on Ambleside, Hardknott above Eskdale, Maryport (Uxellod[=u]num), and
Old Carlisle (possibly Petriana). In addition, two or three cross roads,
not yet sufficiently explored, maintained communication between the troops
in Yorkshire and those in Cheshire and Lancashire. This road system bears
plain marks of having been made at different times, and with different
objectives, but we have no evidence that any one part was abandoned when
any other was built. There are signs, however, that various forts were
dismantled as the country grew quieter. Thus, Gellygaer in South Wales and
Hardknott in Cumberland have yielded nothing later than the opening of the
2nd century.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Hadrian's Wall.

From _Social England_, by permission of Cassell & Co., Ltd.]

Besides these detached forts and their connecting roads, the north of
Britain was defended by Hadrian's wall (figs. 2 and 3). The history of this
wall has been given above. The actual works are threefold. First, there is
that which to-day forms the most striking feature in the whole, the wall of
stone 6-8 ft. thick, and originally perhaps 14 ft. high, with a deep ditch
in front, and forts and "mile castles" and turrets and a connecting road
behind it. On the high moors between Chollerford and Gilsland its traces
are still plain, as it climbs from hill to hill and winds along perilous
precipices. Secondly, there is the so-called "Vallum," in reality no
_vallum_ at all, but a broad flat-bottomed ditch out of which the earth has
been cast up on either side into regular and continuous mounds that
resemble ramparts. Thirdly, nowhere very clear on the surface and as yet
detected only at a few points, there are the remains of the "turf wall,"
constructed of sods laid in regular courses, with a ditch in front. This
turf wall is certainly older than the stone wall, and, as our ancient
writers mention two wall-builders, Hadrian and Septimius Severus, the
natural inference is that Hadrian built his wall of [v.04 p.0586] turf and
Severus reconstructed it in stone. The reconstruction probably followed in
general the line of Hadrian's wall in order to utilize the existing ditch,
and this explains why the turf wall itself survives only at special points.
In general it was destroyed to make way for the new wall in stone.
Occasionally (as at Birdoswald) there was a deviation, and the older work
survived. This conversion of earthwork into stone in the age of Severus can
be paralleled from other parts of the Roman empire.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Section of Hadrian's Wall.]

The meaning of the _vallum_ is much more doubtful. John Hodgson and Bruce,
the local authorities of the 19th century, supposed that it was erected to
defend the wall from southern insurgents. Others have ascribed it to
Agricola, or have thought it to be the wall of Hadrian, or even assigned it
to pre-Roman natives. The two facts that are clear about it are, that it is
a Roman work, no older than Hadrian (if so old), and that it was not
intended, like the wall, for military defence. Probably it is
contemporaneous with either the turf wall or the stone wall, and marked
some limit of the civil province of Britain. Beyond this we cannot at
present go.

III. _The Civilization of Roman Britain._--Behind these formidable
garrisons, sheltered from barbarians and in easy contact with the Roman
empire, stretched the lowlands of southern and eastern Britain. Here a
civilized life grew up, and Roman culture spread. This part of Britain
became Romanized. In the lands looking on to the Thames estuary (Kent,
Essex, Middlesex) the process had perhaps begun before the Roman conquest.
It was continued after that event, and in two ways. To some extent it was
definitely encouraged by the Roman government, which here, as elsewhere,
founded towns peopled with Roman citizens--generally discharged
legionaries--and endowed them with franchise and constitution like those of
the Italian municipalities. It developed still more by its own automatic
growth. The coherent civilization of the Romans was accepted by the
Britons, as it was by the Gauls, with something like enthusiasm. Encouraged
perhaps by sympathetic Romans, spurred on still more by their own
instincts, and led no doubt by their nobles, they began to speak Latin, to
use the material resources of Roman civilized life, and in time to consider
themselves not the unwilling subjects of a foreign empire, but the British
members of the Roman state. The steps by which these results were reached
can to some extent be dated. Within a few years of the Claudian invasion a
_colonia_, or municipality of time-expired soldiers, had been planted in
the old native capital of Colchester (Camulod[=u]num), and though it served
at first mainly as a fortress and thus provoked British hatred, it came
soon to exercise a civilizing influence. At the same time the British town
of Verulamium (St Albans) was thought sufficiently Romanized to deserve the
municipal status of a _municipium_, which at this period differed little
from that of a _colonia_. Romanized Britons must now have begun to be
numerous. In the great revolt of Boadicea (60) the nationalist party seem
to have massacred many thousands of them along with actual Romans. Fifteen
or twenty years later, the movement increases. Towns spring up, such as
Silchester, laid out in Roman fashion, furnished with public buildings of
Roman type, and filled with houses which are Roman in fittings if not in
plan. The baths of Bath (Aquae Sulis) are exploited. Another _colonia_ is
planted at Lincoln (Lindum), and a third at Gloucester (Glevum) in 96. A
new "chief judge" is appointed for increasing civil business. The
tax-gatherer and recruiting officer begin to make their way into the hills.
During the 2nd century progress was perhaps slower, hindered doubtless by
the repeated risings in the north. It was not till the 3rd century that
country houses and farms became common in most parts of the civilized area.
In the beginning of the 4th century the skilled artisans and builders, and
the cloth and corn of Britain were equally famous on the continent. This
probably was the age when the prosperity and Romanization of the province
reached its height. By this time the town populations and the educated
among the country-folk spoke Latin, and Britain regarded itself as a Roman
land, inhabited by Romans and distinct from outer barbarians.

The civilization which had thus spread over half the island was genuinely
Roman, identical in kind with that of the other western provinces of the
empire, and in particular with that of northern Gaul. But it was defective
in quantity. The elements which compose it are marked by smaller size, less
wealth and less splendour than the same elements elsewhere. It was also
uneven in its distribution. Large tracts, in particular Warwickshire and
the adjoining midlands, were very thinly inhabited. Even densely peopled
areas like north Kent, the Sussex coast, west Gloucestershire and east
Somerset, immediately adjoin areas like the Weald of Kent and Sussex where
Romano-British remains hardly occur.

The administration of the civilized part of the province, while subject to
the governor of all Britain, was practically entrusted to local
authorities. Each Roman municipality ruled itself and a territory perhaps
as large as a small county which belonged to it. Some districts belonged to
the Imperial Domains, and were administered by agents of the emperor. The
rest, by far the larger part of the country, was divided up among the old
native tribes or cantons, some ten or twelve in number, each grouped round
some country town where its council (_ordo_) met for cantonal business.
This cantonal system closely resembles that which we find in Gaul. It is an
old native element recast in Roman form, and well illustrates the Roman
principle of local government by devolution.

In the general framework of Romano-British life the two chief features were
the town, and the _villa_. The towns of the province, as we have already
implied, fall into two classes. Five modern cities, Colchester, Lincoln,
York, Gloucester and St Albans, stand on the sites, and in some fragmentary
fashion bear the names of five Roman municipalities, founded by the Roman
government with special charters and constitutions. All of these reached a
considerable measure of prosperity. None of them rivals the greater
municipalities of other provinces. Besides them we trace a larger number of
country towns, varying much in size, but all possessing in some degree the
characteristics of a town. The chief of these seem to be cantonal capitals,
probably developed out of the market centres or capitals of the Celtic
tribes before the Roman conquest. Such are Isurium Brigantum, capital of
the Brigantes, 12 m. north-west of York and the most northerly
Romano-British town; Ratae, now Leicester, capital of the Coritani;
Viroconium, now Wroxeter, near Shrewsbury, capital of the Cornovii; Venta
Silurum, now Caerwent, near Chepstow; Corinium, now Cirencester, capital of
the Dobuni; Isca Dumnoniorum, now Exeter, the most westerly of these towns;
Durnovaria, now Dorchester, in Dorset, capital of the Durotriges; Venta
Belgarum, now Winchester; Calleva Atrebatum, now Silchester, 10 m. south of
Reading; Durovernum Cantiacorum, now Canterbury; and Venta Icenorum, now
Caistor-by-Norwich. Besides these country towns, Londinium (London) was a
rich and important trading town, centre of the road system, and the seat of
the finance officials of the province, as the remarkable objects discovered
in it abundantly prove, while Aquae Sulis (Bath) was a spa provided with
splendid baths, and a richly adorned temple of the native patron deity, Sul
or Sulis, whom the Romans called Minerva. Many smaller places, too, for
example, Magna or Kenchester near Hereford, Durobrivae or Rochester in
Kent, another Durobrivae near Peterborough, a site of uncertain name near
Cambridge, another of uncertain name near Chesterford, exhibited some
measure of town life.

As a specimen we may take Silchester, remarkable as the one town in the
whole Roman empire which has been completely [v.04 p.0587] and
systematically uncovered. As we see it to-day, it is an open space of 100
acres, set on a hill with a wide prospect east and south and west, in shape
an irregular hexagon, enclosed in a circuit of a mile and a half by the
massive ruins of a city wall which still stands here and there some 20 ft.
high (fig. 4). Outside, on the north-east, is the grassy hollow of a tiny
amphitheatre; on the west a line of earthworks runs in wider circuit than
the walls. The area within the walls is a vast expanse of cultivated land,
unbroken by any vestige of antiquity; yet the soil is thick with tile and
potsherd, and in hot summers the unevenly growing corn reveals the remains
of streets beneath the surface. Casual excavations were made here in 1744
and 1833; more systematic ones intermittently between 1864 and 1884 by the
Rev. J.G. Joyce and others; finally, in May 1890, the complete uncovering
of the whole site was begun by Mr G.E. Fox and others. The work was carried
on with splendid perseverance, and the uncovering of the interior was
completed in 1908.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--General Plan of Silchester (Calleva Atrebatum).]

The chief results concern the buildings. Though these have vanished wholly
from the surface, the foundations and lowest courses of their walls survive
fairly perfect below ground: thus the plan of the town can be minutely
recovered, and both the character of the buildings which make up a place
like Calleva, and the character of Romano-British buildings generally,
become plainer. Of the buildings the chief are:--

1. _Forum._--Near the middle of the town was a rectangular block covering
two acres. It comprised a central open court, 132 ft. by 140 ft. in size,
surrounded on three sides by a corridor or cloister, with rooms opening on
the cloister (fig. 5). On the fourth side was a great hall, with rooms
opening into it from behind. This hall was 270 ft. long and 58 ft. wide;
two rows of Corinthian columns ran down the middle, and the clerestory roof
may have stood 50 ft. above the floor; the walls were frescoed or lined
with marble, and for ornament there were probably statues. Finally, a
corridor ran round outside the whole block. Here the local authorities had
their offices, justice was administered, traders trafficked, citizens and
idlers gathered. Though we cannot apportion the rooms to their precise
uses, the great hall was plainly the basilica, for meetings and business;
the rooms behind it were perhaps law courts, and some of the rooms on the
other three sides of the quadrangle may have been shops. Similar municipal
buildings existed in most towns of the western Empire, whether they were
full municipalities or (as probably Calleva was) of lower rank. The
Callevan Forum seems in general simpler than others, but its basilica is
remarkably large. Probably the British climate compelled more indoor life
than the sunnier south.

2. _Temples._--Two small square temples, of a common western-provincial
type, were in the east of the town; the _cella_ of the larger measured 42
ft. sq., and was lined with Purbeck marble. A third, circular temple stood
between the forum and the south gate. A fourth, a smaller square shrine
found in 1907 a little east of the forum, yielded some interesting
inscriptions which relate to a gild (_collegium_) and incidentally confirm
the name Calleva.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--Plan of Forum, Basilica and surroundings,
Silchester.]

3. _Christian Church._--Close outside the south-east angle of the forum was
a small edifice, 42 ft. by 27 ft., consisting of a nave and two aisles
which ended at the east in a porch as wide as the building, and at the west
in an apse and two flanking chambers. The nave and porch were floored with
plain red tesserae: in the apse was a simple mosaic panel in red, black and
white. Round the building was a yard, fenced with wooden palings; in it
were a well near the apse, and a small structure of tile with a pit near
the east end. No direct proof of date or use was discovered. But the ground
plan is that of an early Christian church of the "basilican" type. This
type comprised nave and aisles, ending at one end in an apse and two
chambers resembling rudimentary transepts, and at the other end in a porch
(_narthex_). Previous to about A.D. 420 the porch was often at the east end
and the apse at the west, and the altar, often movable, stood in the
apse--as at Silchester, perhaps, on the mosaic panel. A court enclosed the
whole; near the porch was a laver for the ablutions of intending
worshippers. Many such churches have been found in other countries,
especially in Roman Africa; no other satisfactory instance is known in
Britain.

4. _Town Baths._--A suite of public baths stood a little east of the forum.
At the entrance were a peristyle court for loungers and a latrine: hence
the bather passed into the Apodyterium (dressing-room), the Frigidarium
(cold room) fitted with a cold bath for use at the end of the bathing
ceremony, and a series of hot rooms--the whole resembling many modern
Turkish baths. In their first form the baths of Silchester were about 160
ft. by 80 ft., but they were later considerably extended.

5. _Private Houses._--The private houses of Silchester are of two types.
They consist either of a row of rooms, with a corridor along them, and
perhaps one or two additional rooms at one or both ends, or of three such
corridors and rows of rooms, forming three sides of a large square open
yard. They are detached houses, standing each in its own garden, and not
forming terraces or rows. The country houses of Roman Britain have long
been recognized as embodying these (or allied) types; now it becomes plain
that they were the normal types throughout Britain. They differ widely from
the town houses of Rome and Pompeii: they are less unlike some of the
country houses of Italy and Roman Africa; but their real parallels occur in
Gaul, and they may be Celtic types modified to Roman use--like Indian
bungalows. Their internal fittings--hypocausts, frescoes, mosaics--are
everywhere Roman; those at Silchester are average specimens, and, except
for one mosaic, not individually striking. The largest Silchester house,
with a special annexe for baths, is usually taken to be a guest-house or
inn for travellers between London and the west (fig. 6). Altogether, the
town probably did not contain more than seventy or eighty houses of any
size, and large spaces were not built over at all. This fact and the
peculiar character of the houses must have given to Silchester rather the
appearance of a village with scattered cottages, each in its own plot
facing its own way, than a town with regular and continuous streets.

6. _Industries._--Shops are conjectured in the forum and elsewhere, [v.04
p.0588] but were not numerous. Many dyers' furnaces, a little silver
refinery, and perhaps a bakery have also been noticed.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--Plan of supposed Inn and Baths at Silchester.]

7. _Streets, Roads, &c._--The streets were paved with gravel: they varied
in width up to 28½ ft. They intersect regularly at right angles, dividing
the town into square blocks, like modern Mannheim or Turin, according to a
Roman system usual in both Italy and the provinces: plainly they were laid
out all at once, possibly by Agricola (Tac. _Agr._ 21) and most probably
about his time. There were four chief gates, not quite symmetrically
placed. The town-walls are built of flint and concrete bonded with
ironstone, and are backed with earth. In the plans, though not in the
reports, of the excavations, they are shown as built later than the
streets. No traces of meat-market, theatre or aqueduct have come to light:
water was got from wells lined with wooden tubs, and must have been scanty
in dry summers. Smaller objects abound--coins, pottery, window and bottle
and cup glass, bronze ornaments, iron tools, &c.--and many belong to the
beginnings of Calleva, but few pieces are individually notable. Traces of
late Celtic art are singularly absent; Roman fashions rule supreme, and
inscriptions show that even the lower classes here spoke and wrote Latin.
Outside the walls were the cemeteries, not yet explored. Of suburbs we have
as yet no hint. Nor indeed is the neighbourhood of Calleva at all rich in
Roman remains. In fact, as well as in Celtic etymology, it was "the town in
the forest." A similar absence of remains may be noticed outside other
Romano-British towns, and is significant of their economic position. Such
doubtless were most of the towns of Roman Britain--thoroughly Romanized,
peopled with Roman-speaking citizens, furnished with Roman appurtenances,
living in Roman ways, but not very large, not very rich, a humble witness
to the assimilating power of the Roman civilization in Britain.

The country, as opposed to the towns, of Roman Britain seems to have been
divided into estates, commonly (though perhaps incorrectly) known as
"villas." Many examples survive, some of them large and luxurious
country-houses, some mere farms, constructed usually on one of the two
patterns described in the account of Silchester above. The inhabitants were
plainly as various--a few of them great nobles and wealthy landowners,
others small farmers or possibly bailiffs. Some of these estates were
worked on the true "villa" system, by which the lord occupied the "great
house," and cultivated the land close round it by slaves, while he let the
rest to half-free _coloni_. But other systems may have prevailed as well.
Among the most important country-houses are those of Bignor in west Sussex,
and Woodchester and Chedworth in Gloucestershire.

The wealth of the country was principally agrarian. Wheat and wool were
exported in the 4th century, when, as we have said, Britain was especially
prosperous. But the details of the trade are unrecorded. More is known of
the lead and iron mines which, at least in the first two centuries, were
worked in many districts--lead in Somerset, Shropshire, Flintshire and
Derbyshire; iron in the west Sussex Weald, the Forest of Dean, and (to a
slight extent) elsewhere. Other minerals were less notable. The gold
mentioned by Tacitus proved scanty. The Cornish tin, according to present
evidence, was worked comparatively little, and perhaps most in the later
Empire.

Lastly, the roads. Here we must put aside all idea of "Four Great Roads."
That category is probably the invention of antiquaries, and certainly
unconnected with Roman Britain (see ERMINE STREET). Instead, we may
distinguish four main groups of roads radiating from London, and a fifth
which runs obliquely. One road ran south-east to Canterbury and the Kentish
ports, of which Richborough (Rutupiae) was the most frequented. A second
ran west to Silchester, and thence by various branches to Winchester,
Exeter, Bath, Gloucester and South Wales. A third, known afterwards to the
English as Watling Street, ran by St Albans Wall near Lichfield
(Letocetum), to Wroxeter and Chester. It also gave access by a branch to
Leicester and Lincoln. A fourth served Colchester, the eastern counties,
Lincoln and York. The fifth is that known to the English as the Fosse,
which joins Lincoln and Leicester with Cirencester, Bath and Exeter.
Besides these five groups, an obscure road, called by the Saxons Akeman
Street, gave alternative access from London through Alchester (outside of
Bicester) to Bath, while another obscure road winds south from near
Sheffield, past Derby and Birmingham, and connects the lower Severn with
the Humber. By these roads and their various branches the Romans provided
adequate communications throughout the lowlands of Britain.

IV. _The End of Roman Britain._--Early in the 4th century it was necessary
to establish a special coast defence, reaching from the Wash to Spithead,
against Saxon pirates: there were forts at Brancaster, Borough Castle (near
Yarmouth), Bradwell (at the mouth of the Colne and Blackwater), Reculver,
Richborough, Dover and Lymme (all in Kent), Pevensey in Sussex, Porchester
near Portsmouth, and perhaps also at Felixstowe in Suffolk. After about
350, barbarian assaults, not only of Saxons but also of Irish (Scoti) and
Picts, became commoner and more terrible. At the end of the century Magnus
Maximus, claiming to be emperor, withdrew many troops from Britain and a
later pretender did the same. Early in the 5th century the Teutonic
conquest of Gaul cut the island off from Rome. This does not mean that
there was any great "departure of Romans." The central government simply
ceased to send the usual governors and high officers. The Romano-British
were left to themselves. Their position was weak. Their fortresses lay in
the north and west, while the Saxons attacked the east and south. Their
trained troops, and even their own numbers, must have been few. It is
intelligible that they followed a precedent set by Rome in that age, and
hired Saxons to repel Saxons. But they could not command the fidelity of
their mercenaries, and the Saxon peril only grew greater. It would seem as
if the Romano-Britons were speedily driven from the east of the island.
Even Wroxeter on the Welsh border may have been finally destroyed before
the end of the 5th century. It seems that the Saxons though apparently
unable to maintain their hold so far to the west, were able to prevent the
natives from recovering the lowlands. Thus driven from the centres of
Romanized life, from the region of walled cities and civilized houses, into
the hills of Wales and the north-west, the provincials underwent an
intelligible change. The Celtic element, never quite extinct in those hills
and, like most forms of barbarism, reasserting itself in this wild age--not
without reinforcement from Ireland--challenged the remnants of Roman
civilization and in the end absorbed them. The Celtic language reappeared;
the Celtic art emerged from its shelters in the west to develop in new and
medieval fashions.

AUTHORITIES.--The principal references to early Britain in classical
writers occur in Strabo, Diodorus, Julius Caesar, the elder Pliny, Tacitus,
Ptolemy and Cassius Dio, and in the lists of the Antonine Itinerary
(probably about A.D. 210-230; ed. Parthey, 1848), the _Notitia Dignitatum_
(about A.D. 400; ed. Seeck, 1876), and the Ravennas (7th-century
_rechauffé_; ed. Parthey 1860). The chief passages are collected in
Petrie's _Monumenta Hist. Britann._ (1848), and (alphabetically) in
Holder's _Altkeltische Sprachschatz_ (1896-1908). The Roman inscriptions
have been collected by Hübner, _Corpus Inscriptionum Latin._ vii. (1873),
and in supplements by Hübner and Haverfield in the periodical _Ephemeris
epigraphica_; see also Hübner, _Inscript. Britann. Christianae_ (1876, now
out of date), and J. Rhys on Pictish, &c., inscriptions, _Proceedings Soc.
Antiq. Scotland_, xxvi., xxxii.

Of modern works the best summary for Roman Britain and for Caesar's
invasions is T.R. Holmes, _Ancient Britain_ (1907), who cites numerous
authorities. See also Sir John Evans, _Stone Implements, [v.04 p.0589]
Bronze Implements_, and _Ancient British Coins_ (with suppl.); Boyd
Dawkins, _Early Man in Britain_ (1880); J. Rhys, _Celtic Britain_ (3rd ed.,
1904). For late Celtic art see J.M. Kemble and A.W. Franks' _Horae Ferales_
(1863), and Arthur J. Evans in _Archaeologia_, vols. lii.-lv. Celtic
ethnology and philology (see CELT) are still in the "age of discussion."
For ancient earthworks see A. Hadrian Allcroft, _Earthwork of England_
(1909).

For Roman Britain see, in general, Prof. F. Haverfield, _The Romanization
of Roman Britain_ (Oxford, 1906), and his articles in the _Victoria County
History_; also the chapter in Mommsen's _Roman Provinces_; and an article
in the _Edinburgh Review_, 1899. For the wall of Hadrian see John Hodgson,
_History of Northumberland_ (1840); J.C. Bruce, _Roman Wall_ (3rd ed.,
1867); reports of excavations by Haverfield in the _Cumberland
Archaeological Society Transactions_ (1894-1904); and R.C. Bosanquet,
_Roman Camp at Housesteads_ (Newcastle, 1904). For the Scottish Excavations
see _Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland_, xx.-xl., and
especially J. Macdonald, _Bar Hill_ (reprint, Glasgow, 1906). For other
forts see R.S. Ferguson, _Cumberland Arch. Soc. Trans._ xii., on Hardknott;
and J. Ward, _Roman Fort of Gellygaer_ (London, 1903). For the Roman
occupation of Scotland see Haverfield in _Antonine Wall Report_ (1899); J.
Macdonald, _Roman Stones in Hunterian Mus._ (1897); and, though an older
work, Stuart's _Caledonia Romana_ (1852). For Silchester, _Archaeologia_
(1890-1908); for Caerwent (ib. 1901-1908); for London, Charles Roach Smith,
_Roman London_ (1859); for Christianity in Roman Britain, _Engl. Hist.
Rev._ (1896); for the villages, Gen. Pitt-Rivers' _Excavations in Cranborne
Chase, &c._ (4 vols., 1887-1908), and _Proc. Soc. of Ant._ xviii. For the
end of Roman Britain see _Engl. Hist. Rev._ (1904); Prof. Bury's _Life of
St Patrick_ (1905); Haverfield's _Romanization_ (cited above); and P.
Vinogradoff, _Growth of the Manor_ (1905), bk. i.

(F. J. H.)

ANGLO-SAXON BRITAIN

1. _History._--The history of Britain after the withdrawal of the Roman
troops is extremely obscure, but there can be little doubt that for many
years the inhabitants of the provinces were exposed to devastating raids by
the Picts and Scots. According to Gildas it was for protection against
these incursions that the Britons decided to call in the Saxons. Their
allies soon obtained a decisive victory; but subsequently they turned their
arms against the Britons themselves, alleging that they had not received
sufficient payment for their services. A somewhat different account,
probably of English origin, may be traced in the _Historia Brittonum_,
according to which the first leaders of the Saxons, Hengest and Horsa, came
as exiles, seeking the protection of the British king, Vortigern. Having
embraced his service they quickly succeeded in expelling the northern
invaders. Eventually, however, they overcame the Britons through treachery,
by inducing the king to allow them to send for large bodies of their own
countrymen. It was to these adventurers, according to tradition, that the
kingdom of Kent owed its origin. The story is in itself by no means
improbable, while the dates assigned to the first invasion by various
Welsh, Gaulish and English authorities, with one exception all fall within
about a quarter of a century, viz. between the year 428 and the joint reign
of Martian and Valentinian III. (450-455).

For the subsequent course of the invasion our information is of the most
meagre and unsatisfactory character. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
the kingdom of Sussex was founded by a certain Ella or Ælle, who landed in
477, while Wessex owed its origin to Cerdic, who arrived some eighteen
years later. No value, however, can be attached to these dates; indeed, in
the latter case the story itself is open to suspicion on several grounds
(see WESSEX). For the movements which led to the foundation of the more
northern kingdoms we have no evidence worth consideration, nor do we know
even approximately when they took place. But the view that the invasion was
effected throughout by small bodies of adventurers acting independently of
one another, and that each of the various kingdoms owes its origin to a
separate enterprise, has little probability in its favour. Bede states that
the invaders belonged to three different nations, Kent and southern
Hampshire being occupied by Jutes (_q.v._), while Essex, Sussex and Wessex
were founded by the Saxons, and the remaining kingdoms by the Angli
(_q.v._). The peculiarities of social organization in Kent certainly tend
to show that this kingdom had a different origin from the rest; but the
evidence for the distinction between the Saxons and the Angli is of a much
less satisfactory character (see ANGLO-SAXONS). The royal family of Essex
may really have been of Saxon origin (see ESSEX), but on the other hand the
West Saxon royal family claimed to be of the same stock as that of
Bernicia, and their connexions in the past seem to have lain with the
Angli.

We need not doubt that the first invasion was followed by a long period of
warfare between the natives and the invaders, in which the latter gradually
strengthened their hold on the conquered territories. It is very probable
that by the end of the 5th century all the eastern part of Britain, at
least as far as the Humber, was in their hands. The first important check
was received at the siege of "Mons Badonicus" in the year 517 (_Ann.
Cambr._), or perhaps rather some fifteen or twenty years earlier. According
to Gildas this event was followed by a period of peace for at least
forty-four years. In the latter part of the 6th century, however, the
territories occupied by the invaders seem to have been greatly extended. In
the south the West Saxons are said to have conquered first Wiltshire and
then all the upper part of the Thames valley, together with the country
beyond as far as the Severn. The northern frontier also seems to have been
pushed considerably farther forward, perhaps into what is now Scotland, and
it is very probable that the basin of the Trent, together with the central
districts between the Trent and the Thames, was conquered about the same
time, though of this we have no record. Again, the destruction of Chester
about 615 was soon followed by the overthrow of the British kingdom of
Elmet in south-west Yorkshire, and the occupation of Shropshire and the
Lothians took place perhaps about the same period, that of Herefordshire
probably somewhat later. In the south, Somerset is said to have been
conquered by the West Saxons shortly after the middle of the 7th century.
Dorset had probably been acquired by them before this time, while part of
Devon seems to have come into their hands soon afterwards.

The area thus conquered was occupied by a number of separate kingdoms, each
with a royal family of its own. The districts north of the Humber contained
two kingdoms, Bernicia (_q.v._) and Deira (_q.v._), which were eventually
united in Northumbria. South of the Humber, Lindsey seems to have had a
dynasty of its own, though in historical times it was apparently always
subject to the kings of Northumbria or Mercia. The upper basin of the Trent
formed the nucleus of the kingdom of Mercia (_q.v._), while farther down
the east coast was the kingdom of East Anglia (_q.v._). Between these two
lay a territory called Middle Anglia, which is sometimes described as a
kingdom, though we do not know whether it ever had a separate dynasty.
Essex, Kent and Sussex (see articles on these kingdoms) preserve the names
of ancient kingdoms, while the old diocese of Worcester grew out of the
kingdom of the Hwicce (_q.v._), with which it probably coincided in area.
The south of England, between Sussex and "West Wales" (eventually reduced
to Cornwall), was occupied by Wessex, which originally also possessed some
territory to the north of the Thames. Lastly, even the Isle of Wight
appears to have had a dynasty of its own. But it must not be supposed that
all these kingdoms were always, or even normally, independent. When history
begins, Æthelberht, king of Kent, was supreme over all the kings south of
the Humber. He was followed by the East Anglian king Raedwald, and the
latter again by a series of Northumbrian kings with an even wider
supremacy. Before Æthelberht a similar position had been held by the West
Saxon king Ceawlin, and at a much earlier period, according to tradition,
by Ella or Ælle, the first king of Sussex. The nature of this supremacy has
been much discussed, but the true explanation seems to be furnished by that
principle of personal allegiance which formed such an important element in
Anglo-Saxon society.

2. _Government._--Internally the various states seem to have been organized
on very similar lines. In every case we find kingly government from the
time of our earliest records, and there is no doubt that the institution
goes back to a date anterior to the invasion of Britain (see OFFA;
WERMUND). The royal title, however, was frequently borne by more than one
person. Sometimes we find one supreme king together with a number of
under-kings (_subreguli_); sometimes again, especially in the smaller
kingdoms, Essex, Sussex and Hwicce, we meet with two [v.04 p.0590] or more
kings, generally brothers, reigning together apparently on equal terms.
During the greater part of the 8th century Kent seems to have been divided
into two kingdoms; but as a rule such divisions did not last beyond the
lifetime of the kings between whom the arrangement had been made. The kings
were, with very rare exceptions, chosen from one particular family in each
state, the ancestry of which was traced back not only to the founder of the
kingdom but also, in a remoter degree, to a god. The members of such
families were entitled to special wergilds, apparently six times as great
as those of the higher class of nobles (see below).

The only other central authority in the state was the king's council or
court (_þeod_, _witan_, _plebs_, _concilium_). This body consisted partly
of young warriors in constant attendance on the king, and partly of senior
officials whom he called together from time to time. The terms used for the
two classes by Bede are _milites_ (_ministri_) and _comites_, for which the
Anglo-Saxon version has _þegnas_ and _gesiðas_ respectively. Both classes
alike consisted in part of members of the royal family. But they were by no
means confined to such persons or even to born subjects of the king.
Indeed, we are told that popular kings like Oswine attracted young nobles
to their service from all quarters. The functions of the council have been
much discussed, and it has been claimed that they had the right of electing
and deposing kings. This view, however, seems to involve the existence of a
greater feeling for constitutionalism than is warranted by the information
at our disposal. The incidents which have been brought forward as evidence
to this effect may with at least equal probability be interpreted as cases
of profession or transference of personal allegiance. In other respects the
functions of the council seem to have been of a deliberative character. It
was certainly customary for the king to seek their advice and moral support
on important questions, but there is nothing to show that he had to abide
by the opinion of the majority.

For administrative purposes each of the various kingdoms was divided into a
number of districts under the charge of royal reeves (_cyninges gerefa_,
_praefectus_, _praepositus_). These officials seem to have been located in
royal villages (_cyninges tun_, _villa regalis_) or fortresses (_cyninges
burg_, _urbs regis_), which served as centres and meeting-places (markets,
&c.) for the inhabitants of the district, and to which their dues, both in
payments and services had to be rendered. The usual size of such districts
in early times seems to have been 300, 600 or 1200 hides.[1] In addition to
these districts we find mention also of much larger divisions containing
2000, 3000, 5000 or 7000 hides. To this category belong the shires of
Wessex (Hampshire, Wiltshire, Berkshire, &c.), each of which had an earl
(_aldormon_, _princeps_, _dux_) of its own, at all events from the 8th
century onwards. Many, if not all, of these persons were members of the
royal family, and it is not unlikely that they originally bore the kingly
title. At all events they are sometimes described as _subreguli_.

3. _Social Organization._--The officials mentioned above, whether of royal
birth or not, were probably drawn from the king's personal retinue. In
Anglo-Saxon society, as in that of all Teutonic nations in early times, the
two most important principles were those of kinship and personal
allegiance. If a man suffered injury it was to his relatives and his lord,
rather than to any public official, that he applied first for protection
and redress. If he was slain, a fixed sum (_wergild_), varying according to
his station, had to be paid to his relatives, while a further but smaller
sum (_manbot_) was due to his lord. These principles applied to all classes
of society alike, and though strife within the family was by no means
unknown, at all events in royal families, the actual slaying of a kinsman
was regarded as the most heinous of all offences. Much the same feeling
applied to the slaying of a lord--an offence for which no compensation
could be rendered. How far the armed followers of a lord were entitled to
compensation when the latter was slain is uncertain, but in the case of a
king they received an amount equal to the wergild. Another important
development of the principle of allegiance is to be found in the custom of
heriots. In later times this custom amounted practically to a system of
death-duties, payable in horses and arms or in money to the lord of the
deceased. There can be little doubt, however, that originally it was a
restoration to the lord of the military outfit with which he had presented
his man when he entered his service. The institution of thegnhood, _i.e._
membership of the _comitatus_ or retinue of a prince, offered the only
opening by which public life could be entered. Hence it was probably
adopted almost universally by young men of the highest classes. The thegn
was expected to fight for his lord, and generally to place his services at
his disposal in both war and peace. The lord, on the other hand, had to
keep his thegns and reward them from time to time with arms and treasure.
When they were of an age to marry he was expected to provide them with the
means of doing so. If the lord was a king this provision took the form of a
grant, perhaps normally ten hides, from the royal lands. Such estates were
not strictly hereditary, though as a mark of favour they were not
unfrequently re-granted to the sons of deceased holders.

The structure of society in England was of a somewhat peculiar type. In
addition to slaves, who in early times seem to have been numerous, we find
in Wessex and apparently also in Mercia three classes, described as
_twelfhynde_, _sixhynde_ and _twihynde_ from the amount of their wergilds,
viz. 1200, 600 and 200 shillings respectively. It is probable that similar
classes existed also in Northumbria, though not under the same names.
Besides these terms there were others which were probably in use
everywhere, viz. _gesiðcund_ for the two higher classes and _ceorlisc_ for
the lowest. Indeed, we find these terms even in Kent, though the social
system of that kingdom seems to have been of an essentially different
character. Here the wergild of the _ceorlisc_ class amounted to 100
shillings, each containing twenty silver coins (_sceattas_), as against 200
shillings of four (in Wessex five) silver coins, and was thus very much
greater than the latter. Again, there was apparently but one _gestiðcund_
class in Kent, with a wergild of 300 shillings, while, on the other hand,
below the _ceorlisc_ class we find three classes of persons described as
_laetas_, who corresponded in all probability to the _liti_ or freedmen of
the continental laws, and who possessed wergilds of 80, 60 and 40 shillings
respectively. To these we find nothing analogous in the other kingdoms,
though the poorer classes of Welsh freemen had wergilds varying from 120 to
60 shillings. It should be added that the differential treatment of the
various classes was by no means confined to the case of wergilds. We find
it also in the compensations to which they were entitled for various
injuries, in the fines to which they were liable, and in the value attached
to their oaths. Generally, though not always, the proportions observed were
the same as in the wergilds.

The nature of the distinction between the _gesiðcund_ and _ceorlisc_
classes is nowhere clearly explained; but it was certainly hereditary and
probably of considerable antiquity. In general we may perhaps define them
as nobles and commons, though in view of the numbers of the higher classes
it would probably be more correct to speak of gentry and peasants. The
distinction between the _twelfhynde_ and _sixhynde_ classes was also in
part at least hereditary, but there is good reason for believing that it
arose out of the possession of land. The former consisted of persons who
possessed, whether as individuals or families, at least five hides of
land--which practically means a village--while the latter were landless,
_i.e._ probably without this amount of land. Within the _ceorlisc_ class we
find similar subdivisions, though they were not marked by a difference in
wergild. The _gafolgelda_ or _tributarius_ (tribute-payer) seems to have
been a ceorl who possessed at least a hide, while the _gebur_ was without
land of his own, and received his outfit as a loan from his lord.

4. _Payments and Services._--We have already had occasion to refer to the
dues which were rendered by different classes of the population, and which
the reeves in royal villages had to collect and superintend. The payments
seem to have varied greatly according to the class from which they were
due. Those [v.04 p.0591] rendered by landowners seem to have been known as
_feorm_ or _fostor_, and consisted of a fixed quantity of articles paid in
kind. In Ine's Laws (cap. 70) we find a list of payments specified for a
unit of ten hides, perhaps the normal holding of a _twelfhynde_ man--though
on the other hand it may be nothing more than a mere fiscal unit in an
aggregate of estates. The list consists of oxen, sheep, geese, hens, honey,
ale, loaves, cheese, butter, fodder, salmon and eels. Very similar
specifications are found elsewhere. The payments rendered by the
_gafolgelda_ (_tributarius_) were known as _gafol_ (_tributuni_), as his
name implies. In Ine's Laws we hear only of the _hwitel_ or white cloak,
which was to be of the value of six pence per household (hide), and of
barley, which was to be six pounds in weight for each worker. In later
times we meet with many other payments both in money and in kind, some of
which were doubtless in accordance with ancient custom. On the other hand
the _gebur_ seems not to have been liable to payments of this kind,
presumably because the land which he cultivated formed part of the demesne
(_inland_) of his lord. The term _gafol_, however, may have been applied to
the payments which he rendered to the latter.

The services required of landowners were very manifold in character.
Probably the most important were military service (_fird_, _expeditio_) and
the repairing of fortifications and bridges--the _trinoda necessitas_ of
later times. Besides these we find reference in charters of the 9th century
to the keeping of the king's hunters, horses, dogs and hawks, and the
entertaining of messengers and other persons in the king's service. The
duties of men of the _sixhynde_ class, if they are to be identified with
the _radcnihtas_ (_radmanni_) of later times, probably consisted chiefly in
riding on the king's (or their lord's) business. The services of the
peasantry can only be conjectured from what we find in later times.
Presumably their chief duty was to undertake a share in the cultivation of
the demesne land. We need scarcely doubt also that the labour of repairing
fortifications and bridges, though it is charged against the landowners,
was in reality delegated by them to their dependents.

5. _Warfare._--All classes are said to have been liable to the duty of
military service. Hence, since the ceorls doubtless formed the bulk of the
population, it has been thought that the Anglo-Saxon armies of early times
were essentially peasant forces. The evidence at our disposal, however,
gives little justification for such a view. The regulation that every five
or six hides should supply a warrior was not a product of the Danish
invasions, as is sometimes stated, but goes back at least to the beginning
of the 9th century. Had the fighting material been drawn from the
_ceorlisc_ class a warrior would surely have been required from each hide,
but for military service no such regulation is found. Again, the fird
(_fyrd_) was composed of mounted warriors during the 9th century, though
apparently they fought on foot, and there are indications that such was the
case also in the 7th century. No doubt ceorls took part in military
expeditions, but they may have gone as attendants and camp-followers rather
than as warriors, their chief business being to make stockades and bridges,
and especially to carry provisions. The serious fighting, however, was
probably left to the _gesiðcund_ classes, who possessed horses and more or
less effective weapons. Indeed, there is good reason for regarding these
classes as essentially military.

The chief weapons were the sword and spear. The former were two-edged and
on the average about 3 ft. long. The hilts were often elaborately
ornamented and sometimes these weapons were of considerable value. No
definite line can be drawn between the spear proper and the javelin. The
spear-heads which have been found in graves vary considerably in both form
and size. They were fitted on to the shaft, by a socket which was open on
one side. Other weapons appear to have been quite rare. Bows and arrows
were certainly in use for sporting purposes, but there is no reason for
believing that they were much used in warfare before the Danish invasions.
They are very seldom met with in graves. The most common article of
defensive armour was the shield, which was small and circular and
apparently of quite thin lime-wood, the edge being formed probably by a
thin band of iron. In the centre of the shield, in order to protect the
hand which held it, was a strong iron boss, some 7 in. in diameter and
projecting about 3 in. It is clear from literary evidence that the helmet
(_helm_) and coat of chain mail (_byrne_) were also in common use. They are
seldom found in graves, however, whether owing to the custom of heriots or
to the fact that, on account of their relatively high value, they were
frequently handed on from generation to generation as heirlooms. Greaves
are not often mentioned. It is worth noting that in later times the heriot
of an "ordinary thegn" (_medema þegn_)--by which is meant apparently not a
king's thegn but a man of the _twelfhynde_ class--consisted of his horse
with its saddle, &c. and his arms, or two pounds of silver as an equivalent
of the whole. The arms required were probably a sword, helmet, coat of mail
and one or two spears and shields. There are distinct indications that a
similar outfit was fairly common in Ine's time, and that its value was much
the same. One would scarcely be justified, however, in supposing that it
was anything like universal; for the purchasing power of such a sum was at
that time considerable, representing as it did about 16-20 oxen or 100-120
sheep. It would hardly be safe to credit men of the _sixhynde_ class in
general with more than a horse, spear and shield.

6. _Agriculture and Village Life._--There is no doubt that a fairly
advanced system of agriculture must have been known to the Anglo-Saxons
before they settled in Britain. This is made clear above all by the
representation of a plough drawn by two oxen in one of the very ancient
rock-carvings at Tegneby in Bohuslän. In Domesday Book the heavy plough
with eight oxen seems to be universal, and it can be traced back in Kent to
the beginning of the 9th century. In this kingdom the system of
agricultural terminology was based on it. The unit was the _sulung_
(_aratrum_) or ploughland (from _sulh_, "plough"), the fourth part of which
was the _geocled_ or _geoc_ (_jugum_), originally a yoke of oxen. An
analogy is supplied by the _carucata_ of the Danelagh, the eighth part of
which was the _bouata_ or "ox-land." In the 10th century the _sulung_ seems
to have been identified with the hide, but in earlier times it contained
apparently two hides. The hide itself, which was the regular unit in the
other kingdoms, usually contained 120 acres in later times and was divided
into four _girda_ (_virgatae_) or yardlands. But originally it seems to
have meant simply the land pertaining to a household, and its area in early
times is quite uncertain, though probably far less. For the acre also there
was in later times a standard length and breadth, the former being called
_furhlang_ (_furlong_) and reckoned at one-eighth of a mile, while the
_aecerbraedu_ or "acre-breadth" (chain) was also a definite measure. We
need not doubt, however, that in practice the form of the acre was largely
conditioned by the nature of the ground. Originally it is thought to have
been the measure of a day's ploughing, in which case the dimensions given
above would scarcely be reached. Account must also be taken of the
possibility that in early times lighter teams were in general use. If so
the normal dimensions of the acre may very well have been quite different.

The husbandry was of a co-operative character. In the 11th century it was
distinctly unusual for a peasant to possess a whole team of his own, and
there is no reason for supposing the case to have been otherwise in early
times; for though the peasant might then hold a hide, the hide itself was
doubtless smaller and not commensurate in any way with the ploughland. The
holdings were probably not compact but consisted of scattered strips in
common fields, changed perhaps from year to year, the choice being
determined by lot or otherwise. As for the method of cultivation itself
there is little or no evidence. Both the "two-course system" and the
"three-course system" may have been in use; but on the other hand it is
quite possible that in many cases the same ground was not sown more than
once in three years. The prevalence of the co-operative principle, it may
be observed, was doubtless due in large measure to the fact that the
greater part of England, especially towards the east, was settled not in
scattered farms or hamlets but in compact villages with the cultivated
lands lying round them.

[v.04 p.0592] The mill was another element which tended to promote the same
principle. There can be little doubt that before the Anglo-Saxons came to
Britain they possessed no instrument for grinding corn except the quern
(_cweorn_), and in remote districts this continued in use until quite late
times. The grinding seems to have been performed chiefly by female slaves,
but occasionally we hear also of a donkey-mill (_esolcweorn_). The mill
proper, however, which was derived from the Romans, as its name (_mylen_,
from Lat. _molina_) indicates, must have come into use fairly early. In the
11th century every village of any size seems to have possessed one, while
the earliest references go back to the 8th century. It is not unlikely that
they were in use during the Roman occupation of Britain, and consequently
that they became known to the invaders almost from the first. The mills
were presumably driven for the most part by water, though we have a
reference to a windmill as early as the year 833.

All the ordinary domestic animals were known. Cattle and sheep were
pastured on the common lands appertaining to the village, while pigs, which
(especially in Kent) seem to have been very numerous, were kept in the
woods. Bee-keeping was also practised. In all these matters the invasion of
Britain had brought about no change. The cultivation of fruit and
vegetables on the other hand was probably almost entirely new. The names
are almost all derived from Latin, though most of them seem to have been
known soon after the invasion, at all events by the 7th century.

From the considerations pointed out above we can hardly doubt that the
village possessed a certain amount of corporate life, centred perhaps in an
ale-house where its affairs were discussed by the inhabitants. There is no
evidence, however, which would justify us in crediting such gatherings with
any substantial degree of local authority. So far as the limited
information at our disposal enables us to form an opinion, the
responsibility both for the internal peace of the village, and for its
obligations to the outside world, seems to have lain with the lord or his
steward (_gerefa_, _villicus_) from the beginning. A quite opposite view
has, it is true, found favour with many scholars, viz. that the villages
were orginally settlements of free kindreds, and that the lord's authority
was superimposed on them at a later date. This view is based mainly on the
numerous place-names ending in _-ing_, _-ingham_, _-ington_, &c., in which
the syllable _-ing_ is thought to refer to kindreds of cultivators. It is
more probable, however, that these names are derived from persons of the
_twelfhynde_ class to whom the land had been granted. In many cases indeed
there is good reason for doubting whether the name is a patronymic at all.

The question how far the villages were really new settlements is difficult
to answer, for the terminations _-ham_, _-ton_, &c. cannot be regarded as
conclusive evidence. Thus according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (ann. 571)
Bensington and Eynsham were formerly British villages. Even if the first
part of Egonesham is English--which is by no means certain--it is hardly
sufficient reason for discrediting this statement, for Canterbury
(_Cantwaraburg_) and Rochester (_Hrofes ceaster_) were without doubt Roman
places in spite of their English names. On the whole it seems likely that
the cultivation of the land was not generally interrupted for more than a
very few years; hence the convenience of utilizing existing sites of
villages would be obvious, even if the buildings themselves had been burnt.

7. _Towns._--Gildas states that in the time of the Romans Britain contained
twenty-eight cities (_civitates_), besides a number of fortresses
(_castetta_). Most of these were situated within the territories eventually
occupied by the invaders, and reappear as towns in later times. Their
history in the intervening period, however, is wrapped in obscurity.
Chester appears to have been deserted for three centuries after its
destruction early in the 7th century, and in most of the other cases there
are features observable in the situation and plan of the medieval town
which suggest that its occupation had not been continuous. Yet London and
Canterbury must have recovered a certain amount of importance quite early,
at all events within two centuries after the invasion, and the same is
probably true of York, Lincoln and a few other places. The term applied to
both the cities and the fortresses of the Romans was _ceaster_ (Lat.
_castra_), less frequently the English word _burg_. There is little or no
evidence for the existence of towns other than Roman in early times, for
the word _urbs_ is merely a translation of _burg_, which was used for any
fortified dwelling-place, and it is improbable that anything which could
properly be called a town was known to the invaders before their arrival in
Britain. The Danish settlements at the end of the 9th century and the
defensive system initiated by King Alfred gave birth to a new series of
fortified towns, from which the boroughs of the middle ages are mainly
descended.

8. _Houses._--Owing to the fact that houses were built entirely of
perishable materials, wood and wattle, we are necessarily dependent almost
wholly upon literary evidence for knowledge of this subject. Stone seems to
have been used first for churches, but this was not before the 7th century,
and we are told that at first masons were imported from Gaul. Indeed wood
was used for many churches, as well as for most secular buildings, until a
much later period. The walls were formed either of stout planks laid
together vertically or horizontally, or else of posts at a short distance
from one another, the interstices being filled up with wattlework daubed
with clay. It is not unlikely that the houses of wealthy persons were
distinguished by a good deal of ornamentation in carving and painting. The
roof was high-pitched and covered with straw, hay, reeds or tiles. The
regular form of the buildings was rectangular, the gable sides probably
being shorter than the others. There is little evidence for partitions
inside, and in wealthy establishments the place of rooms seems to have been
supplied by separate buildings within the same enclosure. The windows must
have been mere openings in the walls or roof, for glass was not used for
this purpose before the latter part of the 7th century. Stoves were known,
but most commonly heat was obtained from an open fire in the centre of the
building. Of the various buildings in a wealthy establishment the chief
were the hall (_heall_), which was both a dining and reception room, and
the "lady's bower" (_brydbur_), which served also as a bedroom for the
master and mistress. To these we have to add buildings for the attendants,
kitchen, bakehouse, &c., and farm buildings. There is little or no evidence
for the use of two-storeyed houses in early times, though in the 10th and
11th centuries they were common. The whole group of buildings stood in an
enclosure (_tun_) surrounded by a stockade (_burg_), which perhaps rested
on an earthwork, though this is disputed. Similarly the homestead of the
peasant was surrounded by a fence (_edor_).

9. _Clothes._--The chief material for clothing was at first no doubt wool,
though linen must also have been used and later became fairly common. The
chief garments were the coat (_roc_), the trousers (_brec_), and the cloak,
for which there seem to have been a number of names (_loða_, _hacele_,
_sciccing_, _pad_, _hwitel_). To these we may add the hat (_haet_), belt
(_gyrdel_), stockings (_hosa_), shoes (_scoh_, _gescy_, _rifeling_) and
gloves (_glof_). The _crusene_ was a fur coat, while the _serc_ or _smoc_
seems to have been an undergarment and probably sleeveless. The whole
attire was of national origin and had probably been in use long before the
invasion of Britain. In the great bog-deposit at Thorsbjaerg in Angel,
which dates from about the 4th century, there were found a coat with long
sleeves, in a fair state of preservation, a pair of long trousers with
remains of socks attached, several shoes and portions of square cloaks, one
of which had obviously been dyed green. The dress of the upper classes must
have been of a somewhat gorgeous character, especially when account is
taken of the brooches and other ornaments which they wore. It is worth
noting that according to Jordanes the Swedes in the 6th century were
splendidly dressed.

10. _Trade._--The few notices of this subject which occur in the early laws
seem to refer primarily to cattle-dealing. But there can be no doubt that a
considerable import and export trade with the continent had sprung up quite
early. In Bede's time, if not before, London was resorted to by many
merchants both by land and by sea. At first the chief export trade was
[v.04 p.0593] probably in slaves. English slaves were to be obtained in
Rome even before the end of the 6th century, as appears from the well-known
story of Gregory the Great. Since the standard price of slaves on the
continent was in general three or four times as great as it was in England,
the trade must have been very profitable. After the adoption of
Christianity it was gradually prohibited by the laws. The nature of the
imports during the heathen period may be learned chiefly from the graves,
which contain many brooches and other ornaments of continental origin, and
also a certain number of silver, bronze and glass vessels. With the
introduction of Christianity the ecclesiastical connexion between England
and the continent without doubt brought about a large increase in the
imports of secular as well as religious objects, and the frequency of
pilgrimages by persons of high rank must have had the same effect. The use
of silk (_seoluc_) and the adoption of the mancus (see below) point to
communication, direct or indirect, with more distant countries. In the 8th
century we hear frequently of tolls on merchant ships at various ports,
especially London.

11. _Coinage._--The earliest coins which can be identified with certainty
are some silver pieces which bear in Runic letters the name of the Mercian
king Æthelred (675-704). There are others, however, of the same type and
standard (about 21 grains) which may be attributed with probability to his
father Penda (d. 655). But it is clear from the laws of Æthelberht that a
regular silver coinage was in use at least half a century before this time,
and it is not unlikely that many unidentified coins may go back to the 6th
century. These are fairly numerous, and are either without inscriptions or,
if they do bear letters at all, they seem to be mere corruptions of Roman
legends. Their designs are derived from Roman or Frankish coins, especially
the former, and their weight varies from about 10 to 21 grains, though the
very light coins are rare. Anonymous gold coins, resembling Frankish
trientes in type and standard (21 grains), are also fairly common, though
they must have passed out of use very early, as the laws give no hint of
their existence. Larger gold coins (_solidi_) are very rare. In the early
laws the money actually in use appears to have been entirely silver. In
Offa's time a new gold coin, the _mancus_, resembling in standard the Roman
solidus (about 70 grains), was introduced from Mahommedan countries. The
oldest extant specimen bears a faithfully copied Arabic inscription. In the
same reign the silver coins underwent a considerable change in type, being
made larger and thinner, while from this time onwards they always bore the
name of the king (or queen or archbishop) for whom they were issued. The
design and execution also became remarkably good. Their weight was at first
unaffected, but probably towards the close of Offa's reign it was raised to
about 23 grains, at which standard it seems to have remained, nominally at
least, until the time of Alfred. It is to be observed that with the
exception of Burgred's coins and a few anonymous pieces the silver was
never adulterated. No bronze coins were current except in Northumbria,
where they were extremely common in the 9th century.

Originally _scilling_ ("shilling") and _sceatt_ seem to have been the terms
for gold and silver coins respectively. By the time of Ine, however,
_pending_, _pen(n)ing_ ("penny"), had already come into use for the latter,
while, owing to the temporary disappearance of a gold coinage, _scilling_
had come to denote a mere unit of account. It was, however, a variable
unit, for the Kentish shilling contained twenty _sceattas_ (pence), while
the Mercian contained only four. The West Saxon shilling seems originally
to have been identical with the Mercian, but later it contained five pence.
Large payments were generally made by weight, 240-250 pence being reckoned
to the pound, perhaps from the 7th century onwards. The mancus was equated
with thirty pence, probably from the time of its introduction. This means
that the value of gold relatively to silver was 10:1 from the end of Offa's
reign. There is reason, however, for thinking that in earlier times it was
as low as 6:1, or even 5:1. In Northumbria a totally different monetary
system prevailed, the unit being the _tryms_, which contained three
_sceattas_ or pence. As to the value of the bronze coins we are without
information.

The purchasing power of money was very great. The sheep was valued at a
shilling in both Wessex and Mercia, from early times till the 11th century.
One pound was the normal price of a slave and half a pound that of a horse.
The price of a pig was twice, and that of an ox six times as great as that
of a sheep. Regarding the prices of commodities other than live-stock we
have little definite information, though an approximate estimate may be
made of the value of arms. It is worth noticing that we often hear of
payments in gold and silver vessels in place of money. In the former case
the mancus was the usual unit of calculation.

12. _Ornaments._--Of these the most interesting are the brooches which were
worn by both sexes and of which large numbers have been found in heathen
cemeteries. They may be classed under eight leading types: (1) circular or
ring-shaped, (2) cruciform, (3) square-headed, (4) radiated, (5) S-shaped,
(6) bird-shaped, (7) disk-shaped, (8) cupelliform or saucer-shaped. Of
these Nos. 5 and 6 appear to be of continental origin, and this is probably
the case also with No. 4 and in part with No. 7. But the last-mentioned
type varies greatly, from rude and almost plain disks of bronze to
magnificent gold specimens studded with gems. No. 8 is believed to be
peculiar to England, and occurs chiefly in the southern Midlands, specimens
being usually found in pairs. The interiors are gilt, often furnished with
detachable plates and sometimes set with brilliants. The remaining types
were probably brought over by the Anglo-Saxons at the time of the invasion.
Nos. 1 and 3 are widespread outside England, but No. 2, though common in
Scandinavian countries, is hardly to be met with south of the Elbe. It is
worth noting that a number of specimens were found in the cremation
cemetery at Borgstedterfeld near Rendsburg. In England it occurs chiefly in
the more northern counties. Nos. 2 and 3 vary greatly in size, from 2½ to 7
in. or more. The smaller specimens are quite plain, but the larger ones are
gilt and generally of a highly ornamental character. In later times we hear
of brooches worth as much as six mancusas, _i.e._ equivalent to six oxen.

Among other ornaments we may mention hairpins, rings and ear-rings, and
especially buckles which are often of elaborate workmanship. Bracelets and
necklets are not very common, a fact which is rather surprising, as in
early times, before the issuing of a coinage, these articles (_beagas_)
took the place of money to a large extent. The glass vessels are finely
made and of somewhat striking appearance, though they closely resemble
contemporary continental types. Since the art of glass-working was unknown,
according to Bede, until nearly the end of the 7th century, it is probable
that these were all of continental or Roman-British origin.

13. _Amusements_.--It is clear from the frequent references to dogs and
hawks in the charters that hunting and falconry were keenly pursued by the
kings and their retinues. Games, whether indoor or outdoor, are much less
frequently mentioned, but there is no doubt that the use of dice (_taefl_)
was widespread. At court much time was given to poetic recitation, often
accompanied by music, and accomplished poets received liberal rewards. The
chief musical instrument was the harp (_hearpe_), which is often mentioned.
Less frequently we hear of the flute (_pipe_) and later also of the fiddle
(_fiðele_). Trumpets (_horn_, _swegelhorn_, _byme_) appear to have been
used chiefly as signals.

14. _Writing._--The Runic alphabet seems to have been the only form of
writing known to the Anglo-Saxons before the invasion of Britain, and
indeed until the adoption of Christianity. In its earliest form, as it
appears in inscriptions on various articles found in Schleswig and in
Scandinavian countries, it consisted of twenty-four letters, all of which
occur in abecedaria in England. In actual use, however, two letters soon
became obsolete, but a number of others were added from time to time, some
of which are found also on the continent, while others are peculiar to
certain parts of England. Originally the Runic alphabet seems to have been
used for writing on wooden boards, though none of these have survived. The
inscriptions which have come down to us are engraved partly on memorial
stones, [v.04 p.0594] which are not uncommon in the north of England, and
partly on various metal objects, ranging from swords to brooches. The
adoption of Christianity brought about the introduction of the Roman
alphabet; but the older form of writing did not immediately pass out of
use, for almost all the inscriptions which we possess date from the 7th or
following centuries. Coins with Runic legends were issued at least until
the middle of the 8th century, and some of the memorial stones date
probably even from the 9th. The most important of the latter are the column
at Bewcastle, Cumberland, believed to commemorate Alhfrith, the son of
Oswio, who died about 670, and the cross at Ruthwell, Dumfriesshire, which
is probably about a century later. The Roman alphabet was very soon applied
to the purpose of writing the native language, _e.g._ in the publication of
the laws of Æthelberht. Yet the type of character in which even the
earliest surviving MSS. are written is believed to be of Celtic origin.
Most probably it was introduced by the Irish missionaries who evangelized
the north of England, though Welsh influence is scarcely impossible.
Eventually this alphabet was enlarged (probably before the end of the 7th
century) by the inclusion of two Runic letters for _th_ and _w_.

15. _Marriage._--This is perhaps the subject on which our information is
most inadequate. It is evident that the relationships which prohibited
marriage were different from those recognized by the Church; but the only
fact which we know definitely is that it was customary, at least in Kent,
for a man to marry his stepmother. In the Kentish laws marriage is
represented as hardly more than a matter of purchase; but whether this was
the case in the other kingdoms also the evidence at our disposal is
insufficient to decide. We know, however, that in addition to the sum paid
to the bride's guardian, it was customary for the bridegroom to make a
present (_morgengifu_) to the bride herself, which, in the case of queens,
often consisted of a residence and considerable estates. Such persons also
had retinues and fortified residences of their own. In the Kentish laws
provision is made for widows to receive a proportionate share in their
husbands' property.

16. _Funeral Rites._--Both inhumation and cremation were practised in
heathen times. The former seems to have prevailed everywhere; the latter,
however, was much more common in the more northern counties than in the
south, though cases are fairly numerous throughout the valley of the
Thames. In _Beowulf_ cremation is represented as the prevailing custom.
There is no evidence that it was still practised when the Roman and Celtic
missionaries arrived, but it is worth noting that according to the
tradition given in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Oxfordshire, where the custom
seems to have been fairly common, was not conquered before the latter part
of the 6th century. The burnt remains were generally, if not always,
enclosed in urns and then buried. The urns themselves are of clay, somewhat
badly baked, and bear geometrical patterns applied with a punch. They vary
considerably in size (from 4 to 12 in. or more in diameter) and closely
resemble those found in northern Germany. Inhumation graves are sometimes
richly furnished. The skeleton is laid out at full length, generally with
the head towards the west or north, a spear at one side and a sword and
shield obliquely across the middle. Valuable brooches and other ornaments
are often found. In many other cases, however, the grave contained nothing
except a small knife and a simple brooch or a few beads. Usually both
classes of graves lie below the natural surface of the ground without any
perceptible trace of a barrow.

17. _Religion._--Here again the information at our disposal is very
limited. There can be little doubt that the heathen Angli worshipped
certain gods, among them Ti (Tig), Woden, Thunor and a goddess Frigg, from
whom the names Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday are derived. Ti was
probably the same god of whom early Roman writers speak under the name Mars
(see TÝR), while Thunor was doubtless the thunder-god (see THOR). From
Woden (_q.v._) most of the royal families traced their descent. Seaxneat,
the ancestor of the East Saxon dynasty, was also in all probability a god
(see ESSEX, KINGDOM OF).

Of anthropomorphic representations of the gods we have no clear evidence,
though we do hear of shrines in sacred enclosures, at which sacrifices were
offered. It is clear also that there were persons specially set apart for
the priesthood, who were not allowed to bear arms or to ride except on
mares. Notices of sacred trees and groves, springs, stones, &c., are much
more frequent than those referring to the gods. We hear also a good deal of
witches and valkyries, and of charms and magic; as an instance we may cite
the fact that certain (Runic) letters were credited, as in the North, with
the power of loosening bonds. It is probable also that the belief in the
spirit world and in a future life was of a somewhat similar kind to what we
find in Scandinavian religion. (See TEUTONIC PEOPLES, §6.)

The chief primary authorities are Gildas, _De Excidio Britanniae_, and
Nennius, _Historia Britonum_ (ed. San-Marte, Berlin, 1844); Th. Mommsen in
_Mon. Germ. Hist., Auct. Antiquiss._, tom. xiii. (Berlin, 1898); Bede,
_Hist. Eccl._ (ed. C. Plummer, Oxford, 1896); the _Saxon Chronicle_ (ed. C.
Plummer, Oxford, 1892-1899); and the _Anglo-Saxon Laws_ (ed. F. Liebermann,
Halle, 1903), and Charters (W. de G. Birch, _Cartularium Saxonicum_,
London, 1885-1893). Modern authorities: Sh. Turner, _History of the
Anglo-Saxons_ (London, 1799-1805; 7th ed., 1852); Sir F. Palgrave, _Rise
and Progress of the English Commonwealth_ (London, 1831-1832); J.M. Kemble,
_The Saxons in England_ (London, 1849; 2nd ed., 1876); K. Maurer,
_Kritische Überschau d. deutschen Gesetzgebung u. Rechtswissenschaft_,
vols. i.-iii. (Munich, 1853-1855); J.M. Lappenberg, _Geschichte von
England_ (Hamburg, 1834); _History of England under the Anglo-Saxon Kings_
(London, 1845; 2nd ed., 1881); J.R. Green, _The Making of England_ (London,
1881); T. Hodgkin, _History of England from the Earliest Times to the
Norman Conquest_ (vol. i. of _The Political History of England_) (London,
1906); F. Seebohm, _The English Village Community_ (London, 1883); A.
Meitzen, _Siedelung und Agrarwesen d. Westgermanen, u. Ostgermanen, &c._
(Berlin, 1895); Sir F. Pollock and F.W. Maitland, _History of English Law_
(Cambridge, 1895; 2nd ed., 1898); F.W. Maitland, _Domesday Book and Beyond_
(Cambridge, 1897); F. Seebohm, _Tribal Custom in Anglo-Saxon Law_ (London,
1903); P. Vinogradoff, _The Growth of the Manor_ (London, 1905); H.M.
Chadwick, _Studies on Anglo-Saxon Institutions_ (Cambridge, 1905); _The
Origin of the English Nation_ (_ib._, 1907); M. Heyne, _Über die Lage und
Construction der Halle Heorot_ (Paderborn, 1864); R. Henning, _Das deutsche
Haus_ (_Quellen u. Forschungen_, 47) (Strassburg, 1882); M. Heyne,
_Deutsche Hausaltertümer_, i., ii., iii. (Leipzig, 1900-1903); G. Baldwin
Brown, _The Arts in Early England_ (London, 1903); C.F. Keary, _Catalogue
of Anglo-Saxon Coins in the British Museum_, vol. i. (London, 1887); C.
Roach Smith, _Collectanea Antiqua_ (London, 1848-1868); R.C. Neville,
_Saxon Obsequies_ (London, 1852); J.Y. Akerman, _Remains of Pagan Saxondom_
(London, 1855); Baron J. de Baye, _Industrie anglo-saxonne_ (Paris, 1889);
_The Industrial Arts of the Anglo-Saxons_ (London, 1893); G. Stephens, _The
Old Northern Runic Monuments_ (London and Copenhagen, 1866-1901); W.
Vietor, _Die northumbrischen Runensteine_ (Marburg, 1895). Reference must
also be made to the articles on Anglo-Saxon antiquities in the _Victoria
County Histories_, and to various papers in _Archaeologia_, the
_Archaeological Journal_, the _Journal of the British Archaeological
Society_, the _Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries_, the _Associated
Architectural Societies' Reports_, and other antiquarian journals.

(H. M. C.)

[1] The hide (_hid_, _hiwisc_, _familia_, _tributarius_, _cassatus_,
_manens_, &c.) was in later times a measure of land, usually 120 acres. In
early times, however, it seems to have meant (1) household, (2) normal
amount of land appertaining to a household.

BRITANNICUS, son of the Roman emperor Claudius by his third wife
Messallina, was born probably A.D. 41. He was originally called Claudius
Tiberius Germanicus, and received the name Britannicus from the senate on
account of the conquest made in Britain about the time of his birth. Till
48, the date of his mother's execution, he was looked upon as the heir
presumptive; but Agrippina, the new wife of Claudius, soon persuaded the
feeble emperor to adopt Lucius Domitius, known later as Nero, her son by a
previous marriage. After the accession of Nero, Agrippina, by playing on
his fears, induced him to poison Britannicus at a banquet (A.D. 55). A
golden statue of the young prince was set up by the emperor Titus.
Britannicus is the subject of a tragedy by Racine.

Tacitus, _Annals_, xii. 25, 41, xiii. 14-16; Suetonius, _Nero_, 33; Dio
Cassius lx. 32, 34; works quoted under NERO.

BRITISH CENTRAL AFRICA, the general name given to the British protectorates
in South Central Africa north of the Zambezi river, but more particularly
to a large territory lying between 8° 25' S. on Lake Tanganyika and 17° 6'
S. on the river Shiré, near its confluence with the Zambezi, and between
36° 10' E. (district of Mlanje) and 26° 30' E. (river Luengwe-Kafukwe).
Originally the term "British Central Africa" was applied by Sir H.H.
Johnston to all the territories under British [v.04 p.0595] influence north
of the Zambezi which were formerly intended to be under one administration;
but the course of events having prevented the connexion of Barotseland (see
BAROTSE) and the other Rhodesian territories with the more direct British
administration north of the Zambezi, the name of British Central Africa was
confined officially (in 1893) to the British protectorate on the Shiré and
about Lake Nyasa. In 1907 the official title of the protectorate was
changed to that of Nyasaland Protectorate, while the titles "North Eastern
Rhodesia" and "North Western Rhodesia" (Barotseland) have been given to the
two divisions of the British South Africa Company's territory north of the
Zambezi. The western boundary, however, of the territory here described has
been taken to be a line drawn from near the source of the Lualaba on the
southern boundary of Belgian Congo to the western source of the Luanga
river, and thence the course of the Luanga to its junction with the
Luengwe-Kafukwe, after which the main course of the Kafukwe delimits the
territory down to the Zambezi. Thus, besides the Nyasaland Protectorate and
North Eastern Rhodesia, part of North Western Rhodesia is included, and for
the whole of this region British Central Africa is the most convenient
designation.

_Physical Features._--Within these limits we have a territory of about
250,000 sq. m., which includes two-thirds of Lake Nyasa, the south end of
Lake Tanganyika, more than half Lake Mweru, and the whole of Lake
Bangweulu, nearly the whole courses of the rivers Shiré and Luangwa (or
Loangwa), the whole of the river Chambezi (the most remote of the
headwaters of the river Congo), the right or east bank of the Luapula (or
upper Congo) from its exit from Lake Bangweulu to its issue from the north
end of Lake Mweru; also the river Luanga and the whole course of the Kafue
or Kafukwe.[1] Other lesser sheets of water included within the limits of
this territory are the Great Mweru Swamp, between Tanganyika and Mweru,
Moir's Lake (a small mountain tarn--possibly a crater lake--lying between
the Luangwa and the Luapula), Lake Malombe (on the upper Shiré), and the
salt lake Chilwa (wrongly styled Shirwa, being the Bantu word _Kilwa_),
which lies on the borders of the Portuguese province of Moçambique. The
southern border of this territory is the north bank of the Zambezi from the
confluence of the Kafukwe to that of the Luangwa at Zumbo. Eastwards of
Zumbo, British Central Africa is separated from the river Zambezi by the
Portuguese possessions; nevertheless, considerably more than two-thirds of
the country lies within the Zambezi basin, and is included within the
subordinate basins of Lake Nyasa and of the rivers Luangwa and
Luengwe-Kafukwe. The remaining portions drain into the basins of the river
Congo and of Lake Tanganyika, and also into the small lake or half-dried
swamp called Chilwa, which at the present time has no outlet, though in
past ages it probably emptied itself into the Lujenda river, and thence
into the Indian Ocean.

As regards orographical features, much of the country is high plateau, with
an average altitude of 3500 ft. above sea-level. Only a very minute portion
of its area--the country along the banks of the river Shiré--lies at
anything like a low elevation; though the Luangwa valley may not be more
than about 900 ft. above sea-level. Lake Nyasa lies at an elevation of 1700
ft. above the sea, is about 350 m. long, with a breadth varying from 15 to
40 m. Lake Tanganyika is about 2600 ft. above sea-level, with a length of
about 400 m. and an average breadth of nearly 40 m. Lake Mweru and Lake
Bangweulu are respectively 3000 and 3760 ft. above sea-level; Lake Chilwa
is 1946 ft. in altitude. The highest mountain found within the limits
previously laid down is Mount Mlanje, in the extreme south-eastern corner
of the protectorate. This remarkable and picturesque mass is an isolated
"chunk" of the Archean plateau, through which at a later date there has
been a volcanic outburst of basalt. The summit and sides of this mass
exhibit several craters. The highest peak of Mlanje reaches an altitude of
9683 ft. (In German territory, near the north end of Lake Nyasa, and close
to the British frontier, is Mount Rungwe, the altitude of which exceeds
10,000 ft.) Other high mountains are Mounts Chongone and Dedza, in
Angoniland, which reach an altitude of 7000 ft., and points on the Nyika
Plateau and in the Konde Mountains to the north-west of Lake Nyasa, which
probably exceed a height of 8000 ft. There are also Mounts Zomba (6900 ft.)
and Chiradzulu (5500 ft.) in the Shiré Highlands. The principal plateaus or
high ridges are (1) the Shiré Highlands, a clump of mountainous country
lying between the river Shiré, the river Ruo, Lake Chilwa and the south end
of Lake Nyasa; (2) Angoniland--a stretch of elevated country to the west of
Lake Nyasa and the north-west of the river Shiré; (3) the Nyika Plateau,
which lies to the north of Angoniland; and (4) the Nyasa-Tanganyika
Plateau, between the basin of the river Luangwa, the vicinity of Tanganyika
and the vicinity of Lake Mweru (highest point, 7000-8000 ft.). Finally may
be mentioned the tract of elevated country between Lake Bangweulu and the
river Luapula, and between Lake Bangweulu and the basin of the Luangwa; and
also the Lukinga (Mushinga) or Ugwara Mountains of North Western Rhodesia,
which attain perhaps to altitudes of 6000 ft.

The whole of this part of Africa is practically without any stretch of
desert country, being on the whole favoured with an abundant rainfall. The
nearest approach to a desert is the rather dry land to the east and
north-east of Lake Mweru. Here, and in parts of the lower Shiré district,
the annual rainfall probably does not exceed an average of 35 in.
Elsewhere, in the vicinity of the highest mountains, the rainfall may
attain an average of 75 in., in parts of Mount Mlanje possibly often
reaching to 100 in. in the year. The average may be put at 50 in. per
annum, which is also about the average rainfall of the Shiré Highlands,
that part of British Central Africa which at present attracts the greatest
number of European settlers.

_Geology._--The whole formation is Archean and Primary (with a few modern
plutonic outbursts), and chiefly consists of granite, felspar, quartz,
gneiss, schists, amphibolite and other Archean rocks, with Primary
sandstones and limestones in the basin of Lake Nyasa (a great rift
depression), the river Shiré, and the regions within the northern watershed
of the Zambezi river. Sandstones of Karroo age occur in the basin of the
Luangwa (N.E. Rhodesia). There are evidences of recent volcanic activity on
the summit of the small Mlanje plateau (S.E. corner of the protectorate:
here there are two extinct craters with a basaltic outflow), and at the
north end of Lake Nyasa and the eastern edge of the Tanganyika plateau.
Here there are many craters and much basalt, or even lava; also hot
springs.

_Metals and Minerals._--Gold has been found in the Shiré Highlands, in the
hills along the Nyasa-Zambezi waterparting, and in the mountainous region
west of Lake Nyasa; silver (galena, silver-lead) in the hills of the
Nyasa-Zambezi waterparting; lead in the same district; graphite in the
western basin of Lake Nyasa; copper (pyrites and pure ore) in the west
Nyasa region and in the hills of North Western and North Eastern Rhodesia;
iron ore almost universally; mica almost universally; coal occurs in the
north and west Nyasa districts (especially in the Karroo sandstones of the
Rukuru valley), and perhaps along the Zambezi-Nyasa waterparting; limestone
in the Shiré basin; malachite in south-west Angoniland and North Western
Rhodesia; and perhaps petroleum in places along the Nyasa-Zambezi
waterparting. (See also RHODESIA.)

_Flora_.--No part of the country comes within the forest region of West
Africa. The whole of it may be said to lie within the savannah or park-like
division of the continent. As a general rule, the landscape is of a
pleasing and attractive character, well covered with vegetation and fairly
well watered. Actual forests of lofty trees, forests of a West African
type, are few in number, and are chiefly limited to portions of the Nyika,
Angoniland and Shiré Highlands plateaus, and to a few nooks in valleys near
the south end of Tanganyika. Patches of forest of tropical luxuriance may
still be seen on the slopes of Mounts Mlanje and Chiradzulu. On the upper
plateaus of Mount Mlanje there are forests of a remarkable conifer
(_Widdringtonia whytei_), a relation of the cypress, which in appearance
resembles much more the cedar, and is therefore wrongly styled the "Mlanje
cedar." This tree is remarkable as being the most northern form of a group
of yew-like conifers confined otherwise to South Africa (Cape Colony).
Immense areas in the lower-lying plains are covered by long, coarse grass,
sometimes reaching 10 ft. in height. Most of the West African forest trees
are represented in British Central Africa. A full list of the known flora
has been compiled by Sir W. Thiselton-Dyer and his assistants at Kew, and
is given in the first and second editions of Sir H. H. Johnston's work on
British Central Africa. Amongst the principal vegetable products of the
country interesting for commercial purposes may be mentioned tobacco
(partly native varieties and partly introduced); coffee (wild coffee is
said to grow in some of the mountainous districts, but the actual coffee
cultivated by the European settlers has been introduced from abroad);
rubber--derived chiefly from the various species of _Landolphia_, _Ficus_,
_Clitandra_, _Carpodinus_ and _Conopharygia_, and from other apocynaceous
plants; the _Strophanthus_ pod (furnishing a valuable drug); ground-nuts
(_Arachis_ and _Voandzeia_); the cotton plant; all African cultivated
cereals (_Sorghum_, _Pennisetum_, maize, rice, wheat--cultivated chiefly by
Europeans--and _Eleusine_); and six species of palms--the oil palm on the
north-west (near Lake Nyasa, at the south end of Tanganyika and on the
Luapula), the _Borassus_ and _Hyphaene_, _Phoenix_ (or wild date), _Raphia_
and the coco-nut palm. The last named was introduced by Arabs and
Europeans, and is found on Lake Nyasa and on the lower Shiré. Most of the
European vegetables have been introduced, and thrive exceedingly well,
especially the potato. The mango has also been introduced from India, and
has taken to the Shiré Highlands as to a second home. Oranges, lemons and
limes have been planted by Europeans and Arabs in a few districts. European
fruit trees do not ordinarily flourish, though apples are grown to some
extent at Blantyre. The vine hitherto has proved a failure. Pineapples give
the best result [v.04 p.0596] among cultivated fruit, and strawberries do
well in the higher districts. In the mountains the native wild brambles
give blackberries of large size and excellent flavour. The vegetable
product through which this protectorate first attracted trade was coffee,
the export of which, however, has passed through very disheartening
fluctuations. In 1905-1906, 773,919 lb of coffee (value £16,123) were
exported; but during this twelve months the crop of cotton--quite a newly
developed product, rose to 776,621 lb, from 285,185 lb in 1904-1905. An
equally marked increase in tobacco and ground-nuts (_Arachis_) has taken
place. Beeswax is a rising export.

_Fauna._--The fauna is on the whole very rich. It has affinities in a few
respects with the West African forest region, but differs slightly from the
countries to the north and south by the absence of such animals as prefer
drier climates, as for instance the oryx antelopes, gazelles and the
ostrich. There is a complete blank in the distribution of this last between
the districts to the south of the Zambezi and those of East Africa between
Victoria Nyanza and the Indian Ocean. The giraffe is found in the Luanga
valley; it is also met with in the extreme north-east of the country. The
ordinary African rhinoceros is still occasionally, but very rarely, seen in
the Shiré Highlands, The African elephant is fairly common throughout the
whole territory. Lions and leopards are very abundant; the zebra is still
found in great numbers, and belongs to the Central African variety of
Burchell's zebra, which is completely striped down to the hoofs, and is
intermediate in many particulars between the true zebra of the mountains
and Burchell's zebra of the plains. The principal antelopes found are the
sable and the roan (_Hippotragus_), five species of _Cobus_ or waterbuck
(the puku, the Senga puku, the lechwe, Crawshay's waterbuck and the common
waterbuck); the pallah, tsessébe (_Damaliscus_), hartebeest, brindled gnu
(perhaps two species), several duykers (including the large _Cephalophus
sylvicultrix_), klipspringer, oribi, steinbok and reedbuck. Among
tragelaphs are two or more bushbucks, the inyala, the water tragelaph
(_Limnotragus selousi_), the kudu and Livingstone's eland. The only buffalo
is the common Cape species. The hyaena is the spotted kind. The hunting dog
is present. There are some seven species of monkeys, including two baboons
and one colobus. The hippopotamus is found in the lakes and rivers, and all
these sheets of water are infested with crocodiles, apparently belonging to
but one species, the common Nile crocodile.

_Inhabitants._--The human race is represented by only one indigenous native
type--the Negro. No trace is anywhere found of a Hamitic intermixture
(unless perhaps at the north end of Lake Nyasa, where the physique of the
native Awankonde recalls that of the Nilotic negro). Arabs from Zanzibar
have settled in the country, but not, as far as is known, earlier than the
beginning of the 19th century. As the present writer takes the general term
"Negro" to include equally the Bantu, Hottentot, Bushman and Congo Pygmy,
this designation will cover all the natives of British Central Africa. The
Bantu races, however, exhibit in some parts signs of Hottentot or Bushman
intermixture, and there are legends in some mountain districts, especially
Mount Mlanje, of the former existence of unmixed Bushman tribes, while
Bushman stone implements are found at the south end of Tanganyika. At the
present day the population is, as a rule, of a black or chocolate-coloured
Negro type, and belongs, linguistically, entirely and exclusively to the
Bantu family. The languages spoken offer several very interesting forms of
Bantu speech, notably in the districts between the north end of Lake Nyasa,
the south end of Lake Tanganyika, and the river Luapula. In the more or
less plateau country included within these geographical limits, the Bantu
dialects are of an archaic type, and to the present writer it has seemed as
though one of them, Kibemba or Kiwemba, came near to the original form of
the Bantu mother-language, though not nearer than the interesting Subiya of
southern Barotseland. Through dialects spoken on the west and north of
Tanganyika, these languages of North Eastern Rhodesia and northern
Nyasaland and of the Kafukwe basin are connected with the Bantu languages
of Uganda. They also offer a slight resemblance to Zulu-Kaffir, and it
would seem as though the Zulu-Kaffir race must have come straight down from
the countries to the north-east of Tanganyika, across the Zambezi, to their
present home. Curiously enough, some hundreds of years after this southward
migration, intestine wars and conflicts actually determined a
north-eastward return migration of Zulus. From Matabeleland, Zulu tribes
crossed the Zambezi at various periods (commencing from about 1820), and
gradually extended their ravages and dominion over the plateaus to the
west, north and north-east of Lake Nyasa. The Zulu language is still spoken
by the dominating caste in West Nyasaland (see further ZULULAND:
_Ethnology_; RHODESIA: _Ethnology_; and YAOS). As regards foreign settlers
in this part of Africa, the Arabs may be mentioned first, though they are
now met with only in very small numbers. The Arabs undoubtedly first
_heard_ of this rich country--rich not alone in natural products such as
ivory, but also in slaves of good quality--from their settlements near the
delta of the river Zambezi, and these settlements may date back to an early
period, and might be coeval with the suggested pre-Islamite Arab
settlements in the gold-bearing regions of South East Africa. But the Arabs
do not seem to have made much progress in their penetration of the country
in the days before firearms; and when firearms came into use they were for
a long time forestalled by the Portuguese, who ousted them from the
Zambezi. But about the beginning of the 19th century the increasing power
and commercial enterprise of the Arab sultanate of Zanzibar caused the
Arabs of Maskat and Zanzibar to march inland from the east coast. They
gradually founded strong slave-trading settlements on the east and west
coasts of Lake Nyasa, and thence westwards to Tanganyika and the Luapula.
They never came in great numbers, however, and, except here and there on
the coast of Lake Nyasa, have left no mixed descendants in the population.
The total native population of all British Central Africa is about
2,000,000, that of the Nyasaland Protectorate being officially estimated in
1907 at 927,355. Of Europeans the protectorate possesses about 600 to 700
settlers, including some 100 officials. (For the European population of the
other territories, see RHODESIA.) The Europeans of British Central Africa
are chiefly natives of the United Kingdom or South Africa, but there are a
few Germans, Dutchmen, French, Italians and Portuguese. The protectorate
has also attracted a number of Indian traders (over 400), besides whom
about 150 British Indian soldiers (Sikhs) are employed as the nucleus of an
armed force.[2]

_Trade and Communications._--The total value of the trade of the
protectorate in the year 1899-1900 was £255,384, showing an increase of 75%
on the figures for the previous year, 1898-1899. Imports were valued at
£176,035, an increase of 62%, and exports at £79,449, an increase of 109%.
In 1905-1906 the imports reached £222,581 and the exports £56,778. The
value of imports into the Rhodesian provinces during the same period was
about £50,000, excluding railway material, and the exports £18,000. The
principal exports are (besides minerals) coffee, cotton, tobacco, rubber
and ivory. A number of Englishmen and Scotsmen (perhaps 200) are settled,
mainly in the Shiré Highlands, as coffee planters.

From the Chinde mouth of the Zambezi to Port Herald on the lower Shiré
communication is maintained by light-draught steamers, though in the dry
season (April-November) steamers cannot always ascend as far as Port
Herald, and barges have to be used to complete the voyage. A railway runs
from Port Herald to Blantyre, the commercial capital of the Shiré
Highlands. The "Cape to Cairo" railway, which crossed the Zambezi in 1905
and the Kafukwe in 1906, reached the Broken Hill mine in 1907, and in 1909
was continued to the frontier of Belgian Congo. There are regular services
by steamer between the ports on Lakes Nyasa and Tanganyika. The African
trans-continental telegraph line (founded by Cecil Rhodes) runs through the
protectorate, and a branch line has been established from Lake Nyasa to
Fort Jameson, the present headquarters of the Chartered Company in North
Eastern Rhodesia.

_Towns._--The principal European settlement or town is Blantyre (_q.v._),
at a height of about 3000 ft. above the sea, in the Shiré Highlands. This
place was named after Livingstone's birthplace, and was founded in 1876 by
the Church of Scotland mission. The government capital of the protectorate,
however, is Zomba, at the base of the mountain of that name. Other
townships or sites of European settlements are Port Herald (on the lower
Shiré), Chiromo (at the junction of the Ruo and the Shiré), Fort Anderson
(on Mount Mlanje), Fort Johnston (near the outlet of the river Shiré from
the south end of Lake Nyasa), Kotakota and Bandawe (on the west coast of
Lake Nyasa), Likoma (on an island off the east coast of Lake Nyasa),
Karonga (on the north-west coast of Lake Nyasa), Fife (on the
Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau), Fort Jameson (capital of N.E. Rhodesia, near the
river Luangwa), Abercorn (on the south end of Lake Tanganyika), Kalungwisi
(on the east coast of Lake Mweru) and Fort Rosebery (near the Johnston
Falls on the Luapula [upper Congo]).

_Administration._--The present political divisions of the country [v.04
p.0597] are as follows:--The Nyasaland Protectorate, _i.e._ the districts
surrounding Lake Nyasa and the Shiré province, are administered directly
under the imperial government by a governor, who acts under the orders of
the colonial office. The governor is assisted by an executive council and
by a nominated legislative council, which consists of at least three
members. The districts to the westward, forming the provinces of North
Eastern and North Western Rhodesia, are governed by two administrators of
the British South Africa Chartered Company, in consultation with the
governor of Nyasaland and the colonial office.

_History._--The history of the territory dealt with above is recent and
slight. Apart from the vague Portuguese wanderings during the 16th and 17th
centuries, the first European explorer of any education who penetrated into
this country was the celebrated Portuguese official, Dr F.J.M. de Lacerda e
Almeida, who journeyed from Tete on the Zambezi to the vicinity of Lake
Mweru. But the real history of the country begins with the advent of David
Livingstone, who in 1859 penetrated up the Shiré river and discovered Lake
Nyasa. Livingstone's subsequent journeys, to the south end of Tanganyika,
to Lake Mweru and to Lake Bangweulu (where he died in 1873), opened up this
important part of South Central Africa and centred in it British interests
in a very particular manner. Livingstone's death was soon followed by the
entry of various missionary societies, who commenced the evangelization of
the country; and these missionaries, together with a few Scottish settlers,
steadily opposed the attempts of the Portuguese to extend their sway in
this direction from the adjoining provinces of Moçambique and of the
Zambezi. From out of the missionary societies grew a trading company, the
African Lakes Trading Corporation. This body came into conflict with a
number of Arabs who had established themselves on the north end of Lake
Nyasa. About 1885 a struggle began between Arab and Briton for the
possession of the country, which was not terminated until the year 1896.
The African Lakes Corporation in its unofficial war enlisted volunteers,
amongst whom were Captain (afterwards Sir F.D.) Lugard and Mr (afterwards
Sir) Alfred Sharpe. Both these gentlemen were wounded, and the operations
they undertook were not crowned with complete success. In 1889 Mr
(afterwards Sir) H.H. Johnston was sent out to endeavour to effect a
possible arrangement of the dispute between the Arabs and the African Lakes
Corporation, and also to ensure the protection of friendly native chiefs
from Portuguese aggression beyond a certain point. The outcome of these
efforts and the treaties made was the creation of the British protectorate
and sphere of influence north of the Zambezi (see AFRICA; § 5). In 1891
Johnston returned to the country as imperial commissioner and
consul-general. In the interval between 1889 and 1891 Mr Alfred Sharpe, on
behalf of Cecil Rhodes, had brought a large part of the country into treaty
with the British South Africa Company, These territories (Northern
Rhodesia) were administered for four years by Sir Harry Johnston in
connexion with the British Central Africa protectorate. Between 1891 and
1895 a long struggle continued, between the British authorities on the one
hand and the Arabs and Mahommedan Yaos on the other, regarding the
suppression of the slave trade. By the beginning of 1896 the last Arab
stronghold was taken and the Yaos were completely reduced to submission.
Then followed, during 1896-1898, wars with the Zulu (Angoni) tribes, who
claimed to dominate and harass the native populations to the west of Lake
Nyasa. The Angoni having been subdued, and the British South Africa Company
having also quelled the turbulent Awemba and Bashukulumbwe, there is a
reasonable hope of the country enjoying a settled peace and considerable
prosperity. This prospect has been, indeed, already realized to a
considerable extent, though the increase of commerce has scarcely been as
rapid as was anticipated. In 1897, on the transference of Sir Harry
Johnston to Tunis, the commissionership was conferred on Mr Alfred Sharpe,
who was created a K.C.M.G. in 1903. In 1904 the administration of the
protectorate, originally directed by the foreign office, was transferred to
the colonial office. In 1907, on the change in the title of the
protectorate, the designation of the chief official was altered from
commissioner to governor, and executive and legislative councils were
established. The mineral surveys and railway construction commenced under
the foreign office were carried on vigorously under the colonial office.
The increased revenue, from £51,000 in 1901-1902 to £76,000 in 1905-1906,
for the protectorate alone (see also RHODESIA), is an evidence of
increasing prosperity. Expenditure in excess of revenue is met by grants in
aid from the imperial exchequer, so far as the Nyasaland Protectorate is
concerned. The British South Africa Company finances the remainder. The
native population is well disposed towards European rule, having, indeed,
at all times furnished the principal contingent of the armed force with
which the African Lakes Company, British South Africa Company or the
British government endeavoured to oppose Arab, Zulu or Awemba aggression.
The protectorate government maintains three gunboats on Lake Nyasa, and the
British South Africa Company an armed steamer on Lake Tanganyika.

Unfortunately, though so rich and fertile, the land is not as a rule very
healthy for Europeans, though there are signs of improvement in this
respect. The principal scourges are black-water fever and dysentery,
besides ordinary malarial fever, malarial ulcers, pneumonia and bronchitis.
The climate is agreeable, and except in the low-lying districts is never
unbearably hot; while on the high mountain plateaus frost frequently occurs
during the dry season.

See _Narrative of an Expedition to the Zambezi_, &c., by David and Charles
Livingstone (1865); _Last Journals of David Livingstone_, edited by the
Rev. Horace Waller (1874); L. Monteith Fotheringham, _Adventures in
Nyasaland_ (1891); Henry Drummond, _Tropical Africa_ (4th ed., 1891); Rev.
D.C. Scott, _An Encyclopaedic Dictionary of the Mang'anja Language, as
spoken in British Central Africa_ (1891); Sir H.H. Johnston, _British
Central Africa_ (2nd ed., 1898); Miss A. Werner, _The Natives of British
Central Africa_ (1906); John Buchanan, _The Shiré Highlands_ (1885); Lionel
Décle, _Three Years in Savage Africa_ (1898); H.L. Duff, _Nyasaland under
the Foreign Office_ (1903); J.E.S. Moore, _The Tanganyika Problem_ (1904);
articles on North Eastern and North Western Rhodesia (chiefly by Frank
Melland) in the _Journal of the African Society_ (1902-1906); annual
_Reports_ on British Central Africa published by the Colonial Office;
various linguistic works by Miss A. Werner, the Rev. Govan Robertson, Dr R.
Laws, A.C. Madan, Father Torrend and Monsieur E. Jacottet.

(H. H. J.)

[1] The nomenclature of several of these rivers is perplexing. It should be
borne in mind that the Luanga (also known as the Lunga) is a tributary of
the Luengwe-Kafukwe, itself often called Kafue, and that the Luangwa (or
Loangwa) is an independent affluent of the Zambezi (_q.v._).

[2] The organized armed forces and police are under the direction of the
imperial government throughout British Central Africa, and number about 880
(150 Sikhs, 730 negroes and 14 British officers).

BRITISH COLUMBIA, the western province of the Dominion of Canada. It is
bounded on the east by the continental watershed in the Rocky Mountains,
until this, in its north-westerly course, intersects 120° W., which is
followed north to 60° N., thus including within the province a part of the
Peace river country to the east of the mountains. The southern boundary is
formed by 49° N. and the strait separating Vancouver Island from the state
of Washington. The northern boundary is 60° N., the western the Pacific
Ocean, upon which the province fronts for about 600 m., and the coast strip
of Alaska for a further distance of 400 m. Vancouver Island and the Queen
Charlotte Islands, as well as the smaller islands lying off the western
coast of Canada, belong to the province of British Columbia.

_Physical Features._--British Columbia is essentially a mountainous
country, for the Rocky Mountains which in the United States lie to the east
of the Great Basin, on running to the north bear toward the west and
approach the ranges which border the Pacific coast. Thus British Columbia
comprises practically the entire width of what has been termed the
Cordillera or Cordilleran belt of North America, between the parallels of
latitude above indicated. There are two ruling mountain systems in this
belt--the Rocky Mountains proper on the north-east side, and the Coast
Range on the south-west or Pacific side. Between these are subordinate
ranges to which various local names have been given, as well as the
"Interior Plateau"--an elevated tract of hilly country, the hill summits
having an accordant altitude, which lies to the east of the Coast Range.
The several ranges, having been produced by successive foldings of the
earth's crust in a direction parallel to the border of the Pacific Ocean,
have a common trend which is south-east and north-west. Vancouver Island
and the Queen Charlotte Islands are remnants of still another mountain
range, which runs parallel to the coast but is now almost entirely
submerged beneath the waters of the Pacific. The province might be said to
consist of a series of parallel mountain ranges with long narrow valleys
lying between them.

The Rocky Mountains are composed chiefly of palaeozoic sediments ranging in
age from the Cambrian to the Carboniferous, with subordinate infolded areas
of Cretaceous which hold coal. The average height of the range along the
United States boundary is 8000 ft., but the range culminates between the
latitudes of 51° and 53°, the highest peak in the Canadian Rockies being
Mount Robson, 13,700 [v.04 p.0598] ft., although the highest peak in
British Columbia is Mount Fairweather on the International Boundary, which
rises to 15,287 ft. Other high peaks in the Rocky Mountains of Canada are
Columbia, 12,740 ft.; Forbes, 12,075; Assiniboine, 11,860; Bryce. 11,686;
Temple, 11,626; Lyell, 11,463. There are a number of passes over the Rocky
Mountains, among which may be mentioned, beginning from the south, the
South Kootenay or Boundary Pass, 7100 ft.; the Crow's Nest Pass, 5500 (this
is traversed by the southern branch of the Canadian Pacific railway and
crosses great coal fields); the Kicking Horse or Wapta Pass, 5300 (which is
traversed by the main line of the Canadian Pacific railway); the Athabasca
Pass, 6025; the Yellow Head Pass, 3733 (which will probably be used by the
Grand Trunk Pacific railway); the Pine River Pass, 2850; and the Peace
River Pass, 2000, through which the Peace river flows.

The Coast Range, sometimes called the Cascade Range, borders the Pacific
coast for 900 m. and gives to it its remarkable character. To its partially
submerged transverse valleys are due the excellent harbours on the coast,
the deep sounds and inlets which penetrate far inland at many points, as
well as the profound and gloomy fjords and the stupendous precipices which
render the coast line an exaggerated reproduction of that of Norway. The
coast is, in fact, one of the most remarkable in the world, measuring with
all its indentations 7000 m. in the aggregate, and being fringed with an
archipelago of innumerable islands, of which Vancouver Island and the Queen
Charlotte Islands are the largest.

Along the south-western side of the Rocky Mountains is a very remarkable
valley of considerable geological antiquity, in which some seven of the
great rivers of the Pacific slope, among them the Kootenay, Columbia,
Fraser and Finlay, flow for portions of their upper courses. This valley,
which is from 1 to 6 m. in width, can be traced continuously for a length
of at least 800 m. One of the most important rivers of the province is the
Fraser, which, rising in the Rocky Mountains, flows for a long distance to
the north-west, and then turning south eventually crosses the Coast Range
by a deep canton-like valley and empties into the Strait of Georgia, a few
miles south of the city of Vancouver. The Columbia, which rises farther
south in the same range, flows north for about 150 m., crossing the main
line of the Canadian Pacific railway at Donald, and then bending abruptly
back upon its former course, flows south, recrossing the Canadian Pacific
railway at Revelstoke, and on through the Arrow Lakes in the Kootenay
country into the United States, emptying into the Pacific Ocean at Astoria
in the state of Oregon. These lakes, as well as the other large lakes in
southern British Columbia, remain open throughout the winter. In the
north-western part of the province the Skeena flows south-west into the
Pacific, and still farther to the north the Stikine rises in British
Columbia, but before entering the Pacific crosses the coast strip of
Alaska. The Liard, rising in the same district, flows east and falls into
the Mackenzie, which empties into the Arctic Ocean. The headwaters of the
Yukon are also situated in the northern part of the province. All these
rivers are swift and are frequently interrupted by rapids, so that, as
means of communication for commercial purposes, they are of indifferent
value. Wherever lines of railway are constructed, they lose whatever
importance they may have held in this respect previously.

At an early stage in the Glacial period British Columbia was covered by the
Cordilleran glacier, which moved south-eastwards and north-westwards, in
correspondence with the ruling features of the country, from a
gathering-ground situated in the vicinity of the 57th parallel. Ice from
this glacier poured through passes in the coast ranges, and to a lesser
extent debouched upon the edge of the great plains, beyond the Rocky
Mountain range. The great valley between the coast ranges and Vancouver
Island was also occupied by a glacier that moved in both directions from a
central point in the vicinity of Valdez Island. The effects of this glacial
action and of the long periods of erosion preceding it and of other
physiographic changes connected with its passing away, have most important
bearings on the distribution and character of the gold-bearing alluviums of
the province.

_Climate._--The subjoined figures relating to temperature and precipitation
are from a table prepared by Mr R.F. Stupart, director of the
meteorological service. The station at Victoria may be taken as
representing the conditions of the southern part of the coast of British
Columbia, although the rainfall is much greater on exposed parts of the
outer coast. Agassiz represents the Fraser delta and Kamloops the southern
interior district. The mean temperature naturally decreases to the
northward of these selected stations, both along the coast and in the
interior, while the precipitation increases. The figures given for Port
Simpson are of interest, as the Pacific terminus of the Grand Trunk Pacific
railway will be in this vicinity.

  +----------------+-----------------------------+----------------+
  |                |                             |    Absolute    |
  |                |       Mean Temp., Fahr.     |  Temperature.  |
  +----------------+----------+----------+-------+--------+-------+
  |                |  Coldest |  Warmest |Average|Highest.|Lowest.|
  |                |   Month. |   Month. |Annual.|        |       |
  +----------------+----------+----------+-------+--------+-------+
  | Victoria[1]    |Jan. 37.5°|July 60.3°| 48.8° |   90°  |   -1° |
  | Agassiz[2]     |Jan. 33.0°|Aug. 64.7°| 48.9° |   97°  |  -13° |
  | Kamloops[3]    |Jan. 24.2°|Aug. 68.5°| 47.1° |  101°  |  -27° |
  | Port Simpson[4]|Jan. 34.9°|Aug. 56.9°| 45.1° |   88°  |  -10° |
  +----------------+----------+----------+-------+--------+-------+

  +--------------+-----------------------------+
  |              |                             |
  |              |      Rainfall--Inches.      |
  +--------------+----------+----------+-------+
  |              |  Wettest |  Driest  |Average|
  |              |   Month. |  Month.  |Annual.|
  +--------------+----------+----------+-------+
  | Victoria     |Dec.  7.98|July   .4 | 37.77 |
  | Agassiz      |Dec.  9.43|July  1.55| 66.85 |
  | Kamloops     |July  1.61|April  .37| 11.46 |
  | Port Simpson |Oct. 12.42|June  4.37| 94.63 |
  +--------------+----------+----------+-------+

[1] 48° 24' N., 123° 19' W., height 85 ft.

[2] 49° 14' N., 121° 31' W., height 52 ft.

[3] 50° 41' N., 120° 29' W., height 1193 ft.

[4] 54° 34' N., 130° 26' W., height 26 ft.

_Fauna._--Among the larger mammals are the big-horn or mountain sheep
(_Ovis canadensis_), the Rocky Mountain goat (_Mazama montana_), the
grizzly bear, moose, woodland caribou, black-tailed or mule deer,
white-tailed deer, and coyote. All these are to be found only on the
mainland. The black bear, wolf, puma, lynx, wapiti, and Columbian or coast
deer are common to parts of both mainland and islands. Of marine mammals
the most characteristic are the sea-lion, fur-seal, sea-otter and
harbour-seal. About 340 species of birds are known to occur in the
province, among which, as of special interest, may be mentioned the
burrowing owl of the dry, interior region, the American magpie, Steller's
jay and a true nut-cracker, Clark's crow (_Picicorvus columbianus_). True
jays and orioles are also well represented. The gallinaceous birds include
the large blue grouse of the coast, replaced in the Rocky Mountains by the
dusky grouse. The western form of the "spruce partridge" of eastern Canada
is also abundant, together with several forms referred to the genus
_Bonasa_, generally known as "partridges" or ruffed grouse. Ptarmigans also
abound in many of the higher mountain regions. Of the _Anatidae_ only
passing mention need be made. During the spring and autumn migrations many
species are found in great abundance, but in the summer a smaller number
remain to breed, chief among which are the teal, mallard, wood-duck,
spoon-bill, pin-tail, buffle-head, red-head, canvas-back, scaup-duck, &c.

_Area and Population._--The area of British Columbia is 357,600 sq. m., and
its population by the census of 1901 was 190,000. Since that date this has
been largely increased by the influx of miners and others, consequent upon
the discovery of precious metals in the Kootenay, Boundary and Atlin
districts. Much of this is a floating population, but the opening up of the
valleys by railway and new lines of steamboats, together with the
settlements made in the vicinity of the Canadian Pacific railway, has
resulted in a considerable increase of the permanent population. The white
population comprises men of many nationalities. There is a large Chinese
population, the census of 1901 returning 14,201. The influx of Chinamen
has, however, practically ceased, owing to the tax of $500 per head imposed
by the government of the dominion. Many Japanese have also come in. The
Japanese are engaged chiefly in lumbering and fishing, but the Chinese are
found everywhere in the province. Great objection is taken by the white
population to the increasing number of "Mongolians," owing to their
competition with whites in the labour markets. The Japanese do not appear
to be so much disliked, as they adapt themselves to the ways of white men,
but they are equally objected to on the score of cheap labour; and in
1907-1908 considerable friction occurred with the Dominion government over
the Anti-Japanese attitude of British Columbia, which was shown in some
rather serious riots. In the census of 1901 the Indian population is
returned at 25,488; of these 20,351 are professing Christians and 5137 are
pagans. The Indians are divided into very many tribes, under local names,
but fall naturally on linguistic grounds into a few large groups. Thus the
southern part of the interior is occupied by the Salish and Kootenay, and
the northern interior by the Tinneh or Athapackan people. On the coast are
the Haida, Tsimshian, Kwakiatl, Nootka, and about the Gulf of Georgia
various tribes related to the Salish proper. There is no treaty with the
Indians of British Columbia, as with those of the plains, for the
relinquishment of their title to the land, but the government otherwise
assists them. There is an Indian superintendent at Victoria, and under him
are nine agencies throughout the province to attend to the
Indians--relieving their sick and destitute, supplying them with seed and
implements, settling their disputes and administering justice. The Indian
fishing stations and burial grounds are reserved, and other land has been
set apart for them for agricultural and pastoral purposes. A number of
schools have been established for their education. They were at one time a
dangerous element, but are now quiet and peaceable.

The chief cities are Victoria, the capital, on Vancouver Island; and
Vancouver on the mainland, New Westminster on the Fraser and Nanaimo on
Vancouver Island. Rossland and Nelson in West Kootenay, as well as Fernie
in East Kootenay and Grand Forks in the Boundary district, are also places
of importance.

_Mining._--Mining is the principal industry of British Columbia. The
country is rich in gold, silver, copper, lead and coal, and has also iron
deposits. From 1894 to 1904 the mining output increased from $4,225,717 to
$18,977,359. In 1905 it had reached $22,460,295. The principal minerals, in
order of value of output, are gold, copper, coal, lead and silver. Between
1858--the year of the placer discoveries on the Fraser river and in the
Cariboo district--and 1882, the placer yields were much heavier than in
subsequent years, running from one to nearly four million dollars annually,
but there was no quartz mining. Since 1899 placer mining has increased
considerably, although the greater part of the return has been from lode
mining. The Rossland, the Boundary and the Kootenay districts are the chief
centres of vein-mining, yielding auriferous and cupriferous sulphide ores,
as well as large quantities of silver-bearing lead ores. Ores of copper and
the precious metals are being prospected and worked also, in several places
along the coast and on Vancouver Island. The mining laws are liberal, and
being based on the experience gained in the adjacent mining centres of the
Western States, are convenient and effective. The most important smelting
and reducing plants are those at Trail and Nelson in the West Kootenay
country, and at Grand Forks and Greenwood in the Boundary district. There
are also numerous concentrating plants. Mining machinery of the most modern
types is employed wherever machinery is required.

The province contains enormous supplies of excellent coal, most of which
are as yet untouched. It is chiefly of Cretaceous age. The producing
collieries are chiefly on Vancouver Island and on the western slope of the
Rockies near the Crow's Nest Pass in the extreme south-eastern portion of
the provinces. Immense beds of high grade bituminous coal and
semi-anthracite are exposed in the Bulkley Valley, south of the Skeena
river, not far from the projected line of the Grand Trunk Pacific railway.
About one-half the coal mined is exported to the United States.

_Fisheries._--A large percentage of the commerce is derived from the sea,
the chief product being salmon. Halibut, cod (several varieties), oolachan,
sturgeon, herring, shad and many other fishes are also plentiful, but with
the exception of the halibut these have not yet become the objects of
extensive industries. There are several kinds of salmon, and they run in
British Columbia waters at different seasons of the year. The quinnat or
spring salmon is the largest and best table fish, and is followed in the
latter part of the summer by the sockeye, which runs in enormous numbers up
the Fraser and Skeena rivers. This is the fish preferred for canning. It is
of brighter colour, more uniform in size, and comes in such quantities that
a constant supply can be reckoned upon by the canneries. About the mouth of
the Fraser river from 1800 to 2600 boats are occupied during the run. There
is an especially large run of sockeye salmon in the Fraser river every
fourth year, while in the year immediately following there is a poor run.
The silver salmon or cohoe arrives a little later than the sockeye, but is
not much used for packing except when required to make up deficiencies. The
dog-salmon is not canned, but large numbers are caught by the Japanese, who
salt them for export to the Orient. The other varieties are of but little
commercial importance at present, although with the increasing demand for
British Columbia salmon, the fishing season is being extended to cover the
runs of all the varieties of this fish found in the waters of the province.

Great Britain is the largest but not the only market for British Columbia
salmon. The years vary in productiveness, 1901 having been unusually large
and 1903 the smallest in eleven years, but the average pack is about
700,000 cases of forty-eight 1-lb tins, the greater part of all returns
being from the Fraser river canneries, the Skeena river and the Rivers
Inlet coming next in order. There are between 60 and 70 canneries, of which
about 40 are on the banks of [v.04 p.0600] the Fraser river. There is
urgent need for the enactment of laws restricting the catch of salmon, as
the industry is now seriously threatened. The fish oils are extracted
chiefly from several species of dog-fish, and sometimes from the basking
shark, as well as from the oolachan, which is also an edible fish.

The fur-seal fishery is an important industry, though apparently a
declining one. Owing to the scarcity of seals and international
difficulties concerning pelagic sealing in Bering Sea, where the greatest
number have been taken, the business of seal-hunting is losing favour.
Salmon fish-hatcheries have been established on the chief rivers frequented
by these fish. Oysters and lobsters from the Atlantic coast have been
planted in British Columbia waters.

_Timber._--The province is rich in forest growth, and there is a steady
demand for its lumber in the other parts of Canada as well as in South
America, Africa, Australia and China. The following is a list of some of
the more important trees--large leaved maple (_Acer macrophyllum_), red
alder (_Alnus rubra_), western larch (_Larix occidentalis_), white spruce
(_Picea alba_), Engellmann's spruce (_Picea Engelmanii_), Menzies's spruce
(_Picea sitchensis_), white mountain pine (_Pinus monticola_), black pine
(_Pinus murrayana_), yellow pine (_Pinus ponderosa_), Douglas fir
(_Pseudotsuga Douglasii_), western white oak (_Quercus garryana_), giant
cedar (_Thuya gigantea_), yellow cypress or cedar (_Thuya excelsa_),
western hemlock (_Tsuga mertensiana_). The principal timber of commerce is
the Douglas fir. The tree is often found 300 ft. high and from 8 to 10ft.
in diameter. The wood is tough and strong and highly valued for ships'
spars as well as for building purposes. Red or giant cedar, which rivals
the Douglas fir in girth, is plentiful, and is used for shingles as well as
for interior work. The western white spruce is also much employed for
various purposes. There are about eighty sawmills, large and small, in the
province. The amount of timber cut on Dominion government lands in 1904 was
22,760,222 ft., and the amount cut on provincial lands was 325,271,568 ft.,
giving a total of 348,031,790 ft. In 1905 the cut on dominion lands
exceeded that in 1904, while the amount cut on provincial lands reached
450,385,554 ft. The cargo shipments of lumber for the years 1904 and 1905
were as follows:--

                                 1904.                 1905.
                                  Ft.                   Ft.
  United Kingdom               7,498,301            13,690,869
  South America               15,647,808            13.332,993
  Australia                   10,045,094            11,596,482
  South Africa                 2,517,154             7,093,681
  China and Japan              4,802,426             4,787,784
  Germany                                              983,342
  Fiji Islands                   308,332                29,949
  France                       1,308,662
                               ---------             ----------
                              42,199,777            51,515,100

There is a very large market for British Columbia lumber in the western
provinces of Canada.

_Agriculture._--Although mountainous in character the province contains
many tracts of good farming land. These lie in the long valleys between the
mountain ranges of the interior, as well as on the lower slopes of the
mountains and on the deltas of the rivers running out to the coast. On
Vancouver Island also there is much good farming land. The conditions are
in most places best suited to mixed farming; the chief crops raised are
wheat, oats, potatoes and hay. Some areas are especially suited for cattle
and sheep raising, among which may be mentioned the Yale district and the
country about Kamloops. Much attention has been given to fruit raising,
especially in the Okanagan valley. Apples, plums and cherries are grown, as
well as peaches, apricots, grapes and various small fruits, notably
strawberries. All these are of excellent quality. Hops are also cultivated.
A large market for this fruit is opening up in the rapidly growing
provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan.

_Imports and Exports._--For the year ending June 30th 1905 the total
exports and imports (showing a slight gradual increase on the two preceding
years) were valued at $16,677,882 and $12,565,019 respectively. The exports
were classified as follows:--Mines, $9,777,423; fisheries, $2,101,533;
forests, $1,046,718; animals, $471,231; agriculture, $119,426;
manufactures, $1,883,777; miscellaneous, $1,106,643; coin and bullion,
$171,131.

_Railways._--The Pacific division of the Canadian Pacific railway enters
British Columbia through the Rocky Mountains on the east and runs for about
500 m. across the province before reaching the terminus at Vancouver. A
branch of the same railway leaves the main line at Medicine Hat, and
running to the south-west, crosses the Rocky Mountains through the Crow's
Nest Pass, and thus enters British Columbia a short distance north of the
United States boundary. This continues across the province, running
approximately parallel to the boundary as far as Midway in what is known as
the Boundary district. The line has opened up extensive coal fields and
crosses a productive mining district. On Vancouver Island there are two
railways, the Esquimalt & Nanaimo railway (78 m.) connecting the coal
fields with the southern ports, and the Victoria & Sydney railway, about 16
m. in length. The Great Northern has also a number of short lines in the
southern portion of the province, connecting with its system in the United
States. In 1905 there were 1627m. of railway in the province, of which 1187
were owned or controlled by the Canadian Pacific railway.

_Shipping._--The Canadian Pacific Railway Company has two lines of mail
steamer running from Vancouver and Victoria: (l) the Empress line, which
runs to Japan and China once in three weeks, and (2) the Australian line to
Honolulu, Fiji and Sydney, once a month. The same company also has a line
of steamers running to Alaska, as well as a fleet of coasting steamers.

_Government._--The province is governed by a lieutenant-governor, appointed
by the governor-general in council for five years, but subject to removal
for cause, an executive council of five ministers, and a single legislative
chamber. The executive council is appointed by the lieutenant-governor on
the advice of the first minister, and retains office so long as it enjoys
the support of a majority of the legislature. The powers of the
lieutenant-governor in regard to the provincial government are analogous to
those of governor-general in respect of the dominion government.

The British North America Act (1867) confederating the colonies, defines
the jurisdiction of the provincial legislature as distinguished from that
of the federal parliament, but within its own jurisdiction the province
makes the laws for its own governance. The act of the legislature may be
disallowed, within one year of its passage, by the governor-general in
council, and is also subject to challenge as to its legality in the supreme
court of Canada or on appeal to the juridical committee of the privy
council of the United Kingdom. British Columbia sends three senators and
seven members to the lower house of the federal parliament, which sits at
Ottawa.

_Justice._--There is a supreme court of British Columbia presided over by a
chief justice and five puisne judges, and there are also a number of county
courts. In British Columbia the supreme court has jurisdiction in divorce
cases, this right having been invested in the colony before confederation.

_Religion and Education._--In 1901 the population was divided by creeds as
follows: Church of England, 40,687; Methodist, 25,047; Presbyterian,
34,081; Roman Catholic, 33,639; others, 40,197; not stated, 5003; total,
178,654. The educational system of British Columbia differs slightly from
that of other provinces of Canada. There are three classes of
schools--common, graded and high--all maintained by the government and all
free and undenominational. There is only one college in the province, the
"McGill University College of British Columbia" at Vancouver, which is one
of the colleges of McGill University, whose chief seat is at Montreal. The
schools are controlled by trustees selected by the ratepayers of each
school district, and there is a superintendent of education acting under
the provincial secretary.

_Finance._--Under the terms of union with Canada, British Columbia receives
from the dominion government annually a certain contribution, which in 1905
amounted to $307,076. This, with provincial taxes on real property,
personal property, income tax, sales of public land, timber dues, &c.,
amounted in the year 1905 to $2,920,461. The expenditure for the year was
$2,302,417. The gross debt of the province in 1905 was $13,252,097, with
assets of $4,463,869, or a net debt of $8,788,228. These assets do not
include new legislative buildings or other public works. The income tax is
on a sliding scale. In 1899 a fairly close estimate was made of the capital
invested in the province, which amounted to $307,385,000 including timber,
$100,000,000; railways and telegraphs, $47,500,000; mining plant and
smelters, $10,500,000; municipal assessments, $45,000,000; provincial
assessments, $51,500,000; in addition to private wealth, $280,000,000.
There are branch offices of one or more of the Canadian banks in each of
the larger towns.

[Illustration]

_History._--The discovery of British Columbia was made by the Spaniard
Perez in 1774. With Cook's visit the geographical exploration of the coast
began in 1778. Vancouver, in 1792-1794, surveyed almost the entire coast of
British Columbia with much of that to the north and south, for the British
government. The interior, about the same time, was entered by Mackenzie and
traders of the N.W. Company, which in 1821 became amalgamated with the
Hudson's Bay Company. For the next twenty-eight years the Hudson's Bay
Company ruled this immense territory with beneficent despotism. In 1849
Vancouver Island was proclaimed a British colony. In 1858, consequent on
the discovery of gold and the large influx of miners, the mainland
territory was erected into a colony under the name of British Columbia, and
in 1866 this was united with the colony of Vancouver Island, under the same
name. In 1871 British Columbia entered the confederation and became part of
the Dominion of Canada, sending three senators and six (now seven) members
to the House of Commons of the federal parliament. One of the conditions
under which the colony entered the dominion was the speedy construction of
the Canadian Pacific railway, and in 1876 the non-fulfilment of this
promise and the apparent indifference of the government at Ottawa to the
representations of British Columbia created [v.04 p.0601] strained
relations, which were only ameliorated when the construction of a
transcontinental road was begun. In subsequent years the founding of the
city of Vancouver by the C.P.R., the establishment of the first Canadian
steamship line to China and Japan, and that to Australia, together with the
disputes with the United States on the subject of pelagic sealing, and the
discovery of the Kootenay and Boundary mining districts, have been the
chief events in the history of the province.

AUTHORITIES.--Cook's _Voyage to the Pacific Ocean_ (London, 1784);
Vancouver, _Voyage of Discovery to the Pacific Ocean_ (London, 1798); H.H.
Bancroft's works, vol. xxxii., _History of British Columbia_ (San
Francisco, 1887); Begg's _History of British Columbia_ (Toronto, 1894);
Gosnell, _Year Book_ (Victoria, British Columbia, 1897 and 1903); _Annual
Reports British Columbia Board of Trade_ (Victoria); _Annual Reports of
Minister of Mines and other Departmental Reports of the Provincial and
Dominion Governments; Catalogue of Provincial Museum_ (Victoria); _Reports
Geological Survey of Canada_ (from 1871 to date); _Reports of Canadian
Pacific (Government) Surveys_ (1872-1880); _Reports of Committee of Brit.
Assn. Adv. Science on N.W. Tribes_ (1884-1895); Lord, _Naturalist in
Vancouver Island_ (London, 1866); _Bering Sea Arbitration_ (reprint of
letters to _Times_), (London, 1893); _Report of Bering Sea Commission_
(London, Government, 1892); A. Métin, _La Colombie Britannique_ (Paris,
1908). See also various works of reference under CANADA.

(G. M. D.; M. ST J.; F. D. A.)

BRITISH EAST AFRICA, a term, in its widest sense, including all the
territory under British influence on the eastern side of Africa between
German East Africa on the south and Abyssinia and the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
on the north. It comprises the protectorates of Zanzibar, Uganda and East
Africa. Apart from a narrow belt of coastland, the continental area belongs
almost entirely to the great plateau of East Africa, rarely falling below
an elevation of 2000 ft., while extensive sections rise to a height of 6000
to 8000 ft. From the coast lowlands a series of steps with intervening
plateaus leads to a broad zone of high ground remarkable for the abundant
traces of volcanic action. This broad upland is furrowed by the eastern
"rift-valley," formed by the subsidence of its floor and occupied in parts
by lakes without outlet. Towards the west a basin of lower elevation is
partially occupied by Victoria Nyanza, drained north to the Nile, while
still farther inland the ground again rises to a second volcanic belt,
culminating in the Ruwenzori range. (See ZANZIBAR, and for Uganda
protectorate see UGANDA.) The present article treats of the East Africa
protectorate only.

[Illustration]

_Topography._--The southern frontier, coterminous with the northern
frontier of German East Africa, runs north-west from the mouth of the Umba
river in 4° 40' S. to Victoria Nyanza, which it strikes at 1° S.,
deviating, however, so as to leave Mount Kilimanjaro wholly in German
territory. The eastern boundary is the Indian Ocean, the coast line being
about 400 m. On the north the protectorate is bounded by Abyssinia and
Italian Somaliland; on the west by Uganda. It has an area of about 240,000
sq. m., and a population estimated at from 2,000,000 to 4,000,000,
including some 25,000 Indians and 3000 Europeans. Of the Europeans many are
emigrants from South Africa; they include some hundreds of Boer families.

The first of the parallel zones--the coast plain or "Temborari"--is
generally of insignificant width, varying from 2 to 10 m., except in the
valleys of the main rivers. The shore line is broken by bays and branching
creeks, often cutting off islands from the mainland. Such are Mvita or
Mombasa in 4° 4' S., and the larger islands of Lamu, Manda and Patta (the
Lamu archipelago), between 2° 20' and 2° S. Farther north the coast becomes
straighter, with the one indentation of Port Durnford in 1° 10' S., but
skirted seawards by a row of small islands. Beyond the coast plain the
country rises in a generally well defined step or steps to an altitude of
some 800 ft., forming the wide level plain called "Nyika" (uplands),
largely composed of quartz. It contains large waterless areas, such as the
Taru desert in the Mombasa district. The next stage in the ascent is marked
by an intermittent line of mountains--gneissose or schistose--running
generally north-north-west, sometimes in parallel chains, and representing
the primitive axis of the continent. Their height varies from 5000 to 8000
ft. Farther inland grassy uplands extend to the eastern edge of the
rift-valley, though varied with cultivated ground and forest, the former
especially in Kikuyu, the latter between 0° and 0° 40' S. The most
extensive grassy plains are those of Kapte or Kapote and Athi, between 1°
and 2° S. The general altitude of these uplands, the surface of which is
largely composed of lava, varies from 5000 to 8000 ft. This zone contains
the highest elevations in British East Africa, including the volcanic pile
of Kenya (_q.v._) (17,007 ft.), Sattima (13,214 ft.) and Nandarua (about
12,900 ft.). The Sattima (Settima) range, or Aberdare Mountains, has a
general elevation of fully 10,000 ft. To the west the fall to the
rift-valley is marked by a line of cliffs, of which the best-defined
portions are the Kikuyu escarpment (8000 ft.), just south of 1° S., and the
Laikipia escarpment, on the equator. One of the main watersheds of East
Africa runs close to the eastern wall of the rift-valley, separating the
basins of inland drainage from the rivers of the east coast, of which the
two largest wholly within British East Africa are the Sabaki and Tana, both
separately noticed. The Guaso Nyiro rises in the hills north-west of Kenya
and flows in a north-east direction. After a course of over 350 m. the
river in about 1° N., 39° 30' E. is lost in a marshy expanse known as the
Lorian Swamp.

The rift-valley, though with a generally level floor, is divided by
transverse ridges into a series of basins, each containing a lake without
outlet. The southernmost section within British East Africa is formed by
the arid Dogilani plains, drained south towards German territory. At their
north end rise the extinct volcanoes of Suswa (7800 ft.) and Longonot
(8700), the latter on the ridge dividing off the next basin--that of Lake
Naivasha. This is a small fresh-water lake, 6135 ft. above the sea,
measuring some 13 m each way. Its basin is closed to the north by the ridge
of Mount Buru, beyond which is the basin of the [v.04 p.0602] still smaller
Lakes Nakuro (5845 ft.) and Elmenteita (5860 ft.), followed in turn by that
of Lakes Hannington and Baringo (_q.v._). Beyond Baringo the valley is
drained north into Lake Sugota, in 2° N., some 35 m. long, while north of
this lies the much larger Lake Rudolf (_q.v._), the valley becoming here
somewhat less defined.

On the west of the rift-valley the wall of cliffs is best marked between
the equator and 1° S., where it is known as the Mau Escarpment, and about
1° N., where the Elgeyo Escarpment falls to a longitudinal valley separated
from Lake Baringo by the ridge of Kamasia. Opposite Lake Naivasha the Mau
Escarpment is over 8000 ft. high. Its crest is covered with a vast forest.
To the south the woods become more open, and the plateau falls to an open
country drained towards the Dogilani plains. On the west the cultivated
districts of Sotik and Lumbwa, broken by wooded heights, fall towards
Victoria Nyanza. The Mau plateau reaches a height of 9000 ft. on the
equator, north of which is the somewhat lower Nandi country, well watered
and partly forested. In the treeless plateau of Uasin Gishu, west of
Elgeyo, the land again rises to a height of over 8000 ft., and to the west
of this is the great mountain mass of Elgon (_q.v._). East of Lake Rudolf
and south of Lake Stefanie is a large waterless steppe, mainly volcanic in
character, from which rise mountain ranges. The highest peak is Mount
Kanjora, 6900 ft. high. South of this arid region, strewn with great lava
stones, are the Rendile uplands, affording pasturage for thousands of
camels. Running north-west and south-east between Lake Stefanie and the
Daua tributary of the Juba is a mountain range with a steep escarpment
towards the south. It is known as the Goro Escarpment, and at its eastern
end it forms the boundary between the protectorate and Abyssinia.
South-east of it the country is largely level bush covered plain, mainly
waterless.

[_Geology._--The geological formations of British East Africa occur in four
regions possessing distinct physiographical features. The coast plain,
narrow in the south and rising somewhat steeply, consists of recent rocks.
The foot plateau which succeeds is composed of sedimentary rocks dating
from Trias to Jurassic. The ancient plateau commencing at Taru extends to
the borders of Kikuyu and is composed of ancient crystalline rocks on which
immense quantities of volcanic rocks--post-Jurassic to Recent--have
accumulated to form the volcanic plateau of Central East Africa.

The formations recognized are given in the following table:--

  _Sedimentary._

               (  1. Alluvium and superficial sands.
  Recent       <  2. Modern lake deposits, living coral rock.
               (  3. Raised coral rock, conglomerate of Mombasa Island.

  Pleistocene  (  4. Gravels with flint implements.
               (  5. Glacial beds of Kenya

  Jurassic        6. Shales and limestones of Changamwe.

  Karroo       (  7. Flags and sandstones.
               (  8. Grits and shales of Masara and Taru.

  Carboniferous?  9. Shales of the Sabaki river.

  Archaean     ( 10. Schists and quartzites of Nandi.
               ( 11. Gneisses, schists, granites.

  _Igneous and Volcanic._

  Recent        Active, dormant and extinct volcanoes.

  Post-Jurassic ( Kibo and volcanoes of the rift-valley.
  to Pleistocene( Kimawenzi, Kenya and plateau eruptions.

_Archaean._--These rocks prevail in the districts of Taru, Nandi and
throughout Ukamba. A course gneiss is the predominant rock, but is
associated with garnetiferous mica-schists and much intrusive granite.
Hornblende schists and beds of metamorphic limestone are rare. Cherty
quartzites interbedded with mylonites occur on the flanks of the Nandi
hills, but their age is not known.

_Carboniferous?_--From shales on the Sabaki river Dr Gregory obtained
fish-scales and specimens of _Palaeanodonta Fischeri._

_Karroo._--The grits of Masara, near Rabai mission station and Mombasa,
have yielded specimens of _Glossopteris browniana_ var. _indica_, thus
indicating their Karroo age.

_Jurassic._--Shales and limestones of this age are well seen along the
railway near Changamwe. They contain gigantic ammonites. According to Dr
Waagen the ammonites show a striking analogy to forms from the Acanthicus
zone of East India. Belemnites are plentiful.

_Pleistocene._--These are feebly represented by some boulder beds on the
higher slopes of Kilimanjaro and Kenya. They show that in Pleistocene times
the glaciers of Kilimanjaro and Kenya extended much farther down the
mountain slopes.

_Recent._--The ancient and more modern lake deposits have so far yielded no
mammalian or other organic remains of interest.

_Igneous and Volcanic._--A belt of volcanic rocks, over 150,000 sq. m. in
area, extends from beyond the southern to beyond the northern territorial
limits. They belong to an older and a newer set. The older group commenced
with a series of fissure eruptions along the site of the present
rift-valley and parallel with it. From these fissures immense and repeated
flows of lava spread over the Kapte and Laikipia plateaus. At about the
same time, or a little later, Kenya and Kimawenzi, Elgon and Chibcharagnani
were in eruption. The age of these volcanic outbursts cannot be more
definitely stated than that they are post-Jurassic, and probably extended
through Cretaceous into early Tertiary times. This great volcanic period
was followed by the eruptions of Kibo and some of the larger volcanoes of
the rift-valley. The flows from Kibo include nepheline and leucite basanite
lavas rich in soda felspars. They bear a close resemblance to the Norwegian
"Rhombenporphyrs." The chain of volcanic cones along the northern lower
slopes of Kilimanjaro, those of the Kyulu mountains, Donyo Longonot and
numerous craters in the rift-valley region, are of a slightly more recent
date. A few of the volcanoes in the latter region have only recently become
extinct; a few may be only dormant. Donyo Buru still emits small quantities
of steam, while Mount Teleki, in the neighbourhood of Lake Rudolf, was in
eruption at the close of the 19th century.]

_Climate, Flora and Fauna._--In its climate and vegetation British East
Africa again shows an arrangement of zones parallel to the coast. The coast
region is hot but is generally more healthy than the coast lands of other
tropical countries, this being due to the constant breeze from the Indian
Ocean and to the dryness of the soil. The rainfall on the coast is about 35
in. a year, the temperature tropical. The succeeding plains and the outer
plateaus are more arid. Farther inland the highlands--in which term may be
included all districts over 5000 ft. high--are very healthy, fever being
almost unknown. The average temperature is about 66° F. in the cool season
and 73° F. in the hot season. Over 7000 ft. the climate becomes distinctly
colder and frosts are experienced. The average rainfall in the highlands is
between 40 and 50 in. The country bordering Victoria Nyanza is typically
tropical; the rainfall exceeds 60 in. in the year, and this region is quite
unsuitable to Europeans. The hottest period throughout the protectorate is
December to April, the coolest, July to September. The "greater rains" fall
from March to June, the "smaller rains" in November and December. The
rainfall is not, however, as regular as is usual in countries within the
tropics, and severe droughts are occasionally experienced.

In the districts bordering Victoria Nyanza the flora resembles that of
Uganda (_q.v._). The characteristic trees of the coast regions are the
mangrove and coco-nut palm. Ebony grows in the scrub-jungle. Vast forests
of olives and junipers are found on the Mau escarpment; the cotton, fig and
bamboo on the Kikuyu escarpment; and in several regions are dense forests
of great trees whose lowest branches are 50 ft. from the ground. Two
varieties of the valuable rubber-vine, _Landolphia florida_ and _Landolphia
Kirkii_, are found near the coast and in the forests. The higher mountains
preserve distinct species, the surviving remnants of the flora of a cooler
period.

The fauna is not abundant except in large mammals, which are very numerous
on the drier steppes. They include the camel (confined to the arid northern
regions), elephant (more and more restricted to unfrequented districts),
rhinoceros, buffalo, many kinds of antelope, zebra, giraffe, hippopotamus,
lion and other carnivora, and numerous monkeys. In many parts the
rhinoceros is particularly abundant and dangerous. Crocodiles are common in
the larger rivers and in Victoria Nyanza. Snakes are somewhat rare, the
most dangerous being the puff-adder. Centipedes and scorpions, as well as
mosquitoes and other insects, are also less common than in most tropical
countries. In some districts bees are exceedingly numerous. The birds
include the ostrich, stork, bustard and secretary-bird among the larger
varieties, the guinea fowl, various kinds of spur fowl, and the lesser
bustard, the wild pigeon, weaver and hornbill. By the banks of lakes and
rivers are to be seen thousands of cranes, pelicans and flamingoes.

_Inhabitants._--The white population is chiefly in the Kikuyu uplands, the
rift-valley, and in the Kenya region. The whites are mostly agriculturists.
There are also numbers of Indian settlers in the same districts. The
African races include representatives of various stocks, as the country
forms a borderland between the Negro and Hamitic peoples, and contains many
tribes of doubtful affinities. The Bantu division of the negroes is
represented chiefly in the south, the principal tribes being the Wakamba,
Wakikuyu and Wanyika. By the north-east shores of Victoria Nyanza dwell the
Kavirondo (_q.v._), a race remarkable among the tribes of the protectorate
for their nudity. Nilotic tribes, including the Nandi (_q.v._), Lumbwa, Suk
and Turkana, are found in the north-west. Of Hamitic strain are the Masai
(_q.v._), a race of cattle-rearers speaking a Nilotic language, who occupy
part of the uplands bordering on the eastern rift-valley. A branch of the
Masai which has adopted the settled life of agriculturists is known as the
Wakuafi. The Galla section of the Hamites is represented, among others, by
Borani living [v.04 p.0603] south of the Goro Escarpment (though the true
Boran countries are Liban and Dirri in Abyssinian territory), while Somali
occupy the country between the Tana and Juba rivers. Of the Somali tribes
the Herti dwell near the coast and are more or less stationary. Further
inland is the nomadic tribe of Ogaden Somali. The Gurre, another Somali
tribe, occupy the country south of the lower Daua. Primitive hunting tribes
are the Wandorobo in Masailand, and scattered tribes of small stature in
various parts. The coast-land contains a mixed population of Swahili, Arab
and Indian immigrants, and representatives of numerous interior tribes.

_Provinces and Towns._--The protectorate has been divided into the
provinces of Seyyidie (the south coast province, capital Mombasa); Ukamba,
which occupies the centre of the protectorate (capital Nairobi); Kenya, the
district of Mt. Kenya (capital Fort Hall); Tanaland, to the north of the
two provinces first named (capital Lamu); Jubaland, the northern region
(capital Kismayu); Naivasha (capital Naivasha); and Kisumu (capital
Kisumu); each being in turn divided into districts and sub-districts.
Naivasha and Kisumu, which adjoin the Victoria Nyanza, formed at first the
eastern province of Uganda, but were transferred to the East Africa
protectorate on the 1st of April 1902. The chief port of the protectorate
is Mombasa (_q.v._) with a population of about 30,000. The harbour on the
south-west side of Mombasa island is known as Kilindini, the terminus of
the Uganda railway. On the mainland, nearly opposite Mombasa town, is the
settlement of freed slaves named Freretown, after Sir Bartle Frere.
Freretown (called by the natives Kisaoni) is the headquarters in East
Africa of the Church Missionary Society. It is the residence of the bishop
of the diocese of Mombasa and possesses a fine church and mission house.
Lamu, on the island of the same name, 150 m. north-east of Mombasa, is an
ancient settlement and the headquarters of the coast Arabs. Here are some
Portuguese ruins, and a large Arab city is buried beneath the sands. The
other towns of note on the coast are Malindi, Patta, Kipini and Kismayu. At
Malindi, the "Melind" of _Paradise Lost_, is the pillar erected by Vasco da
Gama when he visited the port in 1498. The harbour is very shallow.
Kismayu, the northernmost port of the protectorate, 320 m. north-east of
Mombasa, is the last sheltered anchorage on the east coast and is
invaluable as a harbour of refuge. Flourishing towns have grown up along
the Uganda railway. The most important, Nairobi (_q.v._), 327 m. from
Mombasa, 257 from Port Florence, was chosen in 1907 as the administrative
capital of the protectorate. Naivasha, 64 m. north-north-west of Nairobi,
lies in the rift-valley close to Lake Naivasha, and is 6230 ft. above the
sea. It enjoys an excellent climate and is the centre of a European
agricultural settlement. Kisumu or Port Florence (a term confined to the
harbour) is a flourishing town built on a hill overlooking Victoria Nyanza.
It is the entrepôt for the trade of Uganda.

_Communications._--Much has been done to open up the country by means of
roads, including a trunk road from Mombasa, by Kibwezi in the upper Sabaki
basin, and Lake Naivasha, to Berkeley Bay on Victoria Nyanza. But the most
important engineering work undertaken in the protectorate was the
construction of a railway from Mombasa to Victoria Nyanza, for which a
preliminary survey was executed in 1892, and on which work was begun in
1896. The line chosen roughly coincides with that of the road, until the
equator is reached, after which it strikes by a more direct route across
the Mau plateau to the lake, which it reaches at Port Florence on Kavirondo
Gulf. The railway is 584 m. long and is of metre (3.28 ft.) gauge, the
Sudan, and South and Central African lines being of 3 ft. 6 in. gauge. The
Uganda railway is essentially a mountain line, with gradients of one in
fifty and one in sixty. From Mombasa it crosses to the mainland by a bridge
half a mile long, and ascends the plateau till it reaches the edge of the
rift-valley, 346 m. from its starting point, at the Kikuyu Escarpment,
where it is 7600 ft. above the sea. It then descends across ravines bridged
by viaducts to the valley floor, dropping to a level of 6011 ft., and next
ascending the opposite (Mau) escarpment to the summit, 8321 ft. above
sea-level--the highest point on the line. In the remaining 100 m. of its
course the level sinks to 3738 ft., the altitude of the station at Port
Florence. The railway was built by the British government at a cost of
£5,331,000, or about £9500 per mile. The first locomotive reached Victoria
Nyanza on the 26th of December 1901; and the permanent way was practically
completed by March 1903, when Sir George Whitehouse, the engineer who had
been in charge of the construction from the beginning, resigned his post.
The railway, by doing away with the carriage of goods by men, gave the
final death-blow to the slave trade in that part of East Africa. It also
facilitated the continued occupation and development of Uganda, which was,
previous to its construction, an almost impossible task, owing to the
prohibitive cost of the carriage of goods from the coast--£60 per ton. The
two avowed objects of the railway--the destruction of the slave trade and
the securing of the British position in Uganda--have been attained;
moreover, the railway by opening up land suitable for European settlement
has also done much towards making a prosperous colony of the protectorate,
which was regarded before the advent of the line as little better than a
desert (see below, _History_). The railway also shows a fair return on the
capital expenditure, the surplus after defraying all working expenses being
£56,000 in 1905-1906 and £76,000 in 1906-1907.

Mombasa is visited by the boats of several steamship companies, the German
East Africa line maintaining a fortnightly service from Hamburg. There is
also a regular service to and from India. A cable connecting Mombasa with
Zanzibar puts the protectorate in direct telegraphic communication with the
rest of the world. There is also an inland system of telegraphs connecting
the chief towns with one another and with Uganda.

_Agriculture and other Industries._--In the coast region and by the shores
of Victoria Nyanza the products are tropical, and cultivation is mainly in
the hands of the natives or of Indian immigrants. There are, however,
numerous plantations owned by Europeans. Rice, maize and other grains are
raised in large quantities; cotton and tobacco are cultivated. The coco-nut
palm plantations yield copra of excellent quality, and the bark of the
mangrove trees is exported for tanning purposes. In some inland districts
beans of the castor oil plant, which grows in great abundance, are a
lucrative article of trade. The sugar-cane, which grows freely in various
places, is cultivated by the natives. The collection of rubber likewise
employs numbers of people.

Among the European settlers in the higher regions much attention is devoted
to the production of vegetables, and very large crops of potatoes are
raised. Oats, barley, wheat and coffee are also grown. The uplands are
peculiarly adapted for the raising of stock, and many of the white settlers
possess large flocks and herds. Merino sheep have been introduced from
Australia. Ostrich farms have also been established. Clover, lucerne,
ryegrass and similar grasses have been introduced to improve and vary the
fodder. Other vegetable products of economic value are many varieties of
timber trees, and fibre-producing plants, which are abundant in the scrub
regions between the coast and the higher land bordering the rift-valley.
Over the greater part of the country the soil is light reddish loam; in the
eastern plains it is a heavy black loam. As a rule it is easily cultivated.
While the majority of the African tribes in the territory are not averse
from agricultural labour, the number of men available for work on European
holdings is small. Moreover, on some of the land most suited for
cultivation by white men there is no native population.

In addition to the fibre industry and cotton ginning there are factories
for the curing of bacon. Native industries include the weaving of cloth and
the making of mats and baskets. Stone and lime quarries are worked, and
copper is found in the Tsavo district. Diamonds have been discovered in the
Thika river, one of the headstreams of the Tana.

_Trade._--The imports consist largely of textiles, hardware and
manufactured goods from India and Europe; Great Britain and India between
them supplying over 50% of the total imports. Of other countries Germany
has the leading share in the trade. The exports, which include the larger
part of the external trade of Uganda, are chiefly copra, hides and skins,
grains, potatoes, rubber, ivory, chillies, beeswax, cotton and fibre. The
retail trade is largely in the hands of Indians. The value of the exports
rose from £89,858 in 1900-1901 to £234,664 in 1904-1905, in which year the
value of the imports for the first time exceeded £500,000. In 1906-1907 the
volume of trade was £1,194,352, imports being valued at £753,647 and
exports at £440,705. The United States takes 33% of the exports, Great
Britain coming next with 15%.

_Government._--The system of government resembles that of a British crown
colony. At the head of the administration is a governor, who has a deputy
styled lieutenant-governor, provincial commissioners presiding over each
province. There are also executive and legislative councils, unofficial
nominated members serving on the last-named council. In the "ten-mile
strip" (see below, _History_), the sultan of Zanzibar being territorial
sovereign, the laws of Islam apply to the native and Arab population. The
extra-territorial jurisdiction granted by the sultan to various Powers was
in 1907 transferred to Great Britain. Domestic slavery formerly existed;
but on the advice of the British government a decree was issued by the
sultan on the 1st of August 1890, enacting that no one born after that date
could be a slave, and this was followed in 1907 by a decree abolishing the
legal status of slavery. In the rest of the protectorate slavery is not
recognized in any form. Legislation is by ordinances made by the governor,
with the assent of the legislative council. The judicial system is based on
Indian models, though in cases in which Africans are concerned regard is
had to [v.04 p.0604] native customs. Europeans have the right to trial by
jury in serious cases. There is a police force of about 2000 men, and two
battalions of the King's African Rifles are stationed in the protectorate.
Revenue is derived chiefly from customs, licences and excise, railway
earnings, and posts and telegraphs. Natives pay a hut tax. Since the
completion of the Uganda railway, trade, and consequently revenue, has
increased greatly. In 1900-1901 the revenue was £64,275 and the expenditure
£193,438; in 1904-1905 the figures were: revenue £154,756, expenditure
£302,559; in 1905-1906 the totals were £270,362 and £418,839, and in
1906-1907 (when the railway figures were included for the first time)
£461,362 and £616,088. The deficiencies were made good by grants-in-aid
from the imperial exchequer. The standard coin used is the rupee (16d.).

Education is chiefly in the hands of the missionary societies, which
maintain many schools where instruction is given in handicrafts, as well as
in the ordinary branches of elementary education. There are Arab schools in
Mombasa, and government schools for Europeans and Indians at Nairobi.

_History._--From the 8th century to the 11th Arabs and Persians made
settlements along the coast and gained political supremacy at many places,
leading to the formation of the so-called Zenj empire. The history of the
coast towns from that time until the establishment of British rule is
identified with that of Zanzibar (_q.v._). The interior of what is now
British East Africa was first made known in the middle of the 19th century
by the German missionaries Ludwig Krapf and Johannes Rebmann, and by Baron
Karl von der Decken (1833-1865) and others. Von der Decken and three other
Europeans were murdered by Somali at a town called Bardera in October 1865,
whilst exploring the Juba river. The countries east of Victoria Nyanza
(Masailand, &c.) were, however, first traversed throughout their whole
extent by the Scottish traveller Joseph Thomson (_q.v._) in 1883-1884. In
1888 Count S. Teleki (a Hungarian) discovered Lakes Rudolf and Stefanie.

The growth of British interests in the country now forming the protectorate
arises from its connexion with the sultanate of Zanzibar. At Zanzibar
British influence was very strong in the last quarter of the 19th century,
and the seyyid or sultan, Bargash, depended greatly on the advice of the
British representative, Sir John Kirk. In 1877 Bargash offered to Mr
(afterwards Sir) William Mackinnon (1823-1893), chairman of the British
India Steam Navigation Company, a merchant in whom he had great confidence,
or to a company to be formed by him, a lease for 70 years of the customs
and administration of the whole of the mainland dominions of Zanzibar
including, with certain reservations, rights of sovereignty. This was
declined owing to a lack of support by the foreign office, and concessions
obtained in 1884 by Mr (afterwards Sir) H.H. Johnston in the Kilimanjaro
district were, at the time, disregarded. The large number of concessions
acquired by Germans in 1884-1885 on the East African coast aroused,
however, the interest of those who recognized the paramount importance of
the maintenance of British influence in those regions. A British claim,
ratified by an agreement with Germany in 1886, was made to the districts
behind Mombasa; and in May 1887 Bargash granted to an association formed by
Mackinnon a concession for the administration of so much of his mainland
territory as lay outside the region which the British government had
recognized as the German sphere of operations. By international agreement
the mainland territories of the sultan were defined as extending 10 m.
inland from the coast. Mackinnon's association, whose object [Sidenote: A
chartered company formed.] was to open up the hinterland as well as this
ten-mile strip, became the Imperial British East Africa Company by a
founder's agreement of April 1888, and received a royal charter in
September of the same year. To this company the sultan made a further
concession dated October 1888. On the faith of these concessions and the
charters a sum of £240,000 was subscribed, and the company received formal
charge of their concessions. The path of the company was speedily beset
with difficulties, which in the first instance arose out of the aggressions
of the German East African Company. This company had also received a grant
from the sultan in October 1888, and its appearance on the coast was
followed by grave disturbances among the tribes which had welcomed the
British. This outbreak led to a joint British and German blockade, which
seriously hampered trade operations. It had also been anticipated, in
reliance on certain assurances of Prince Bismarck, emphasized by Lord
Salisbury, that German enterprise in the interior of the country would be
confined to the south of Victoria Nyanza. Unfortunately this expectation
was not realized. Moreover German subjects put forward claims to coast
districts, notably Lamu, within the company's sphere and in many ways
obstructed the company's operations. In all these disputes the German
government countenanced its own subjects, while the British foreign office
did little or nothing to assist the company, sometimes directly
discouraging its activity. Moreover, the company had agreed by the
concession of October 1888 to pay a high revenue to the sultan--Bargash had
died in the preceding March and the Germans were pressing his successor to
give them a grant of Lamu--in lieu of the customs collected at the ports
they took over. The disturbance caused by the German claims had a
detrimental effect on trade and put a considerable strain on the resources
of the company. The action of the company in agreeing to onerous financial
burdens was dictated partly by regard for imperial interests, which would
have been seriously weakened had Lamu gone to the Germans.

By the hinterland doctrine, accepted both by Great Britain and Germany in
the diplomatic correspondence of July 1887, Uganda would fall within Great
Britain's "sphere of influence"; but German public opinion did not so
regard the matter. German maps assigned the territory to Germany, while in
England public opinion as strongly expected British influence to be
paramount. In 1889 Karl Peters, a German official, led what was practically
a raiding expedition into that country, after running a blockade of the
ports. An expedition under F.J. Jackson had been sent by the company in the
same year to Victoria Nyanza, but with instructions to avoid Uganda. In
consequence of representations from Uganda, and of tidings he received of
Peters's doings, Jackson, however, determined to go to that country. Peters
retired at Jackson's approach, claiming, nevertheless, to have made certain
treaties which constituted "effective occupation." Peters's treaty was
dated the 1st of March 1890: Jackson concluded another in April. Meantime
negotiations were proceeding in Europe; and by the Anglo-German agreement
of the 1st of July 1890 Uganda was assigned to the British sphere. To
consolidate their position in Uganda--the French missionaries there were
hostile to Great Britain--the company sent thither Captain F.D. Lugard, who
reached Mengo, the capital, in December 1890 and established the authority
of the company despite French intrigues. In July 1890 representatives of
the powers assembled at Brussels had agreed on common efforts for the
suppression of the slave trade. The interference of the company in Uganda
had been a material step towards that object, which they sought to further
and at the same time to open up the country by the construction of a
railway from Mombasa to Victoria Nyanza. But their resources being
inadequate for such an undertaking they sought imperial aid. Although Lord
Salisbury, then prime minister, paid the highest tribute to the company's
labours, and a preliminary grant for the survey had been practically agreed
upon, the scheme was wrecked in parliament. At a later date, however, the
railway was built entirely at government cost (_supra_, §
_Communications_). Owing to the financial strain imposed upon it the
company decided to withdraw Captain Lugard and his forces in August 1891;
and eventually the British government assumed a protectorate over the
country (see UGANDA).

Further difficulties now arose which led finally to the extinction of the
company. Its pecuniary interests sustained a severe [Sidenote: The company
and the crown.] blow owing to the British government--which had taken
Zanzibar under its protection in November 1890--declaring (June 1892) the
dominions of the sultan within the free trade zone. This act extinguished
the treaties regulating all tariffs and duties with foreign powers, and
gave free trade all along the coast. The result for the company was that
dues were now swept away without compensation, and the company was left
saddled with the payment of the rent, and with the cost, in addition, of
administration, [v.04 p.0605] the necessary revenue for which had been
derived from the dues thus abolished. Moreover, a scheme of taxation which
it drew up failed to gain the approval of the foreign office.

In every direction the company's affairs had drifted into an _impasse_.
Plantations had been taken over on the coast and worked at a loss, money
had been advanced to native traders and lost, and expectations of trade had
been disappointed. At this crisis Sir William Mackinnon, the guiding spirit
of the company, died (June 1893). At a meeting of shareholders on the 8th
of May 1894 an offer to surrender the charter to the government was
approved, though not without strong protests. Negotiations dragged on for
over two years, and ultimately the terms of settlement were that the
government should purchase the property, rights and assets of the company
in East Africa for £250,000. Although the company had proved unprofitable
for the shareholders (when its accounts were wound up they disclosed a
total deficit of £193,757) it had accomplished a great deal of good work
and had brought under British sway not only the head waters of the upper
Nile, but a rich and healthy upland region admirably adapted for European
colonization. To the judgment, foresight and patriotism of Sir William
Mackinnon British East Africa practically owes its foundation. Sir William
and his colleagues of the company were largely animated by humanitarian
motives--the desire to suppress slavery and to improve the condition of the
natives. With this aim they prohibited the drink traffic, started
industrial missions, built roads, and administered impartial justice. In
the opinion of a later administrator (Sir C. Eliot), their work and that of
their immediate successors was the greatest philanthropic achievement of
the latter part of the 19th century.

On the 1st of July 1895 the formal transfer to the British crown of the
territory administered by the company took place at Mombasa, the foreign
office assuming responsibility for its administration. The territory,
hitherto known as "Ibea," from the initials of the company, was now styled
the East Africa protectorate. The small sultanate of Witu (_q.v._) on the
mainland opposite Lamu, from 1885 to 1890 a German protectorate, was
included in the British protectorate. Coincident with the transfer of the
administration to the imperial government a dispute as to the succession to
a chieftainship in the Mazrui, the most important Arab family on the coast,
led to a revolt which lasted ten months and involved much hard fighting. It
ended in April 1896 in the flight of the rebel leaders to German territory,
where they were interned. The rebellion marks an important epoch in the
history of the protectorate as its suppression definitely substituted
European for Arab influence. "Before the rebellion," says Sir C. Eliot,
"the coast was a protected Arab state; since its suppression it has been
growing into a British colony."

From 1896, when the building of the Mombasa-Victoria Nyanza railway was
begun, until 1903, when the line was [Sidenote: A white man's country.]
practically completed, the energies of the administration were largely
absorbed in that great work, and in establishing effective control over the
Masai, Somali, and other tribes. The coast lands apart, the protectorate
was regarded as valuable chiefly as being the high road to Uganda. But as
the railway reached the high plateaus the discovery was made that there
were large areas of land--very sparsely peopled--where the climate was
excellent and where the conditions were favourable to European
colonization. The completion of the railway, by affording transport
facilities, made it practicable to open the country to settlers. The first
application for land was made in April 1902 by the East Africa Syndicate--a
company in which financiers belonging to the Chartered Company of South
Africa were interested--which sought a grant of 500 sq. m.; and this was
followed by other applications for considerable areas, a scheme being also
propounded for a large Jewish settlement.

During 1903 the arrival of hundreds of prospective settlers, chiefly from
South Africa, led to the decision to entertain no more applications for
large areas of land, especially as questions were raised concerning the
preservation for the Masai of their rights of pasturage. In the carrying
out of this policy a dispute arose between Lord Lansdowne, foreign
secretary, and Sir Charles Eliot, who had been commissioner since 1900. The
foreign secretary, believing himself bound by pledges given to the
syndicate, decided that they should be granted the lease of the 500 sq. m.
they had applied for; but after consulting officials of the protectorate
then in London, he refused Sir Charles Eliot permission to conclude leases
for 50 sq. m. each to two applicants from South Africa. Sir Charles
thereupon resigned his post, and in a public telegram to the prime
minister, dated Mombasa, the 21st of June 1904, gave as his reason:--"Lord
Lansdowne ordered me to refuse grants of land to certain private persons
while giving a monopoly of land on unduly advantageous terms to the East
Africa Syndicate. I have refused to execute these instructions, which I
consider unjust and impolitic."[1]

On the day Sir Charles sent this telegram the appointment of Sir Donald W.
Stewart, the chief commissioner of Ashanti, to succeed him was announced.
Sir Donald induced the Masai whose grazing rights were threatened to remove
to another district, and a settlement of the land claims was arranged. An
offer to the Zionist Association of land for colonization by Jews was
declined in August 1905 by that body, after the receipt of a report by a
commissioner sent to examine the land (6000 sq. m.) offered. Sir Donald
Stewart died on the 1st of October 1905, and was succeeded by Colonel Hayes
Sadler, the commissioner of Uganda. Meantime, in April 1905, the
administration of the protectorate had been transferred from the foreign to
the colonial office. By the close of 1905 considerably over a million acres
of land had been leased or sold by the protectorate authorities--about half
of it for grazing purposes. In 1907, to meet the demands of the increasing
number of white inhabitants, who had formed a Colonists' Association[2] for
the promotion of their interests, a legislative council was established,
and on this council representatives of the settlers were given seats. The
style of the chief official was also altered, "governor" being substituted
for "commissioner". In the same year a scheme was drawn up for assisting
the immigration of British Indians to the regions adjacent to the coast and
to Victoria Nyanza, districts not suitable for settlement by Europeans.

In general the relations of the British with the tribes of the interior
have been satisfactory. The Somali in Jubaland have given some trouble, but
the Masai, notwithstanding their warlike reputation, accepted peaceably the
control of the whites. This was due, in great measure, to the fact that at
the period in question plague carried off their cattle wholesale and
reduced them for years to a state of want and weakness which destroyed
their warlike habits. One of the most troublesome tribes proved to be the
Nandi, who occupied the southern part of the plateau west of the Mau
escarpment. They repeatedly raided their less warlike neighbours and
committed wholesale thefts from the railway and telegraph lines. In
September 1905 an expedition was sent against them which reduced the tribe
to submission in the following November; and early in 1906 the Nandi were
removed into a reserve. The majority of the natives, unaccustomed to
regular work, showed themselves averse from taking service under the white
farmers. The inadequacy of the labour supply was an early cause of trouble
to the settlers, while the labour regulations enforced led, during
1907-1908, to considerable friction between the colonists and the
administration.

For several years after the establishment of the protectorate the northern
region remained very little known and no attempt was made to administer the
district. The natives were frequently raided by parties of Gallas and
Abyssinians, and in the absence of a defined frontier Abyssinian government
posts were pushed south to Lake Rudolf. The Abyssinians also made
themselves masters of the Boran country. After long negotiations an
agreement as to the boundary line between the lake and [v.04 p.0606] the
river Juba was signed at Adis Ababa on the 6th of December 1907, and in
1908-1909 the frontier was delimited by an Anglo-Abyssinian commission,
Major C.W. Gwynn being the chief British representative. Save for its
north-eastern extremity Lake Rudolf was assigned to the British, Lake
Stefanie falling to Abyssinia, while from about 4° 20' N. the Daua to its
junction with the Juba became the frontier.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The most comprehensive account of the protectorate to the
close of 1904, especially of its economic resources, is _The East Africa
Protectorate_, by Sir Charles Eliot (London, 1905). The progress of the
protectorate is detailed in the _Reports_ by the governor issued annually
by the British government since 1896, and in _Drumkey's Year Book for East
Africa_ (Bombay), first issued in 1908. The _Précis of Information_
concerning the British East Africa Protectorate (issued by the War Office,
London, 1901) is chiefly valuable for its historical information. The work
of the Imperial British East Africa Company is concisely and
authoritatively told from official documents in _British East Africa or
Ibea_, by P.L. McDermont (new ed., London, 1895). Another book, valuable
for its historical perspective, is _The Foundation of British East Africa_,
by J.W. Gregory (London, 1901). Bishop A.R. Tucker's _Eighteen Years in
Uganda and East Africa_ (London, 1908) contains a summary of missionary
labours. Of the works of explorers _Through Masai Land_, by Joseph Thomson
(London, 1886), is specially valuable. For the northern frontier see Capt.
P. Maud's report in _Africa No. 13_ (1904). For geology see, besides
Thomson's book, _The Great Rift Valley_, by J.W. Gregory (London, 1896);
_Across an East African Glacier_, by Hans Meyer (London and Leipzig, 1890);
and _Report relating to the Geology of the East Africa Protectorate_, by
H.B. Muff (Colonial Office, London, 1908). For big game and ornithology see
_On Safari_, by A. Chapman (London, 1908). The story of the building of the
Uganda railway is summarized in the _Final Report of the Uganda Railway
Committee, Africa, No. 11_ (1904), published by the British government.

(F. R. C.)

[1] See _Correspondence relating to the Resignation of Sir C. Eliot,
Africa, No. 8_ (1904).

[2] The Planters and Farmers' Association, as this organization was
originally called, dates from 1903.

BRITISH EMPIRE, the name now loosely given to the whole aggregate of
territory, the inhabitants of which, under various forms of government,
ultimately look to the British crown as the supreme head. The term "empire"
is in this connexion obviously used rather for convenience than in any
sense equivalent to that of the older or despotic empires of history.

The land surface of the earth is estimated to extend over about 52,500,000
sq. m. Of this area the British empire occupies [Sidenote: Extent.] nearly
one-quarter, extending over an area of about 12,000,000 sq. m. By far the
greater portion lies within the temperate zones, and is suitable for white
settlement. The notable exceptions are the southern half of India and
Burma; East, West and Central Africa; the West Indian colonies; the
northern portion of Australia; New Guinea, British Borneo and that portion
of North America which extends into Arctic regions. The area of the
territory of the empire is divided almost equally between the southern and
the northern hemispheres, the great divisions of Australasia and South
Africa covering between them in the southern hemisphere 5,308,506 sq. m.,
while the United Kingdom, Canada and India, including the native states,
cover between them in the northern hemisphere 5,271,375 sq. m. The
alternation of the seasons is thus complete, one-half of the empire
enjoying summer, while one-half is in winter. The division of territory
between the eastern and western hemispheres is less equal, Canada occupying
alone in the western hemisphere 3,653,946 sq. m., while Australasia, South
Africa, India and the United Kingdom occupy together in the eastern
hemisphere 6,925,975 sq. m. As a matter of fact, however, the eastern
portions of Australasia border so nearly upon the western hemisphere that
the distribution of day and night throughout the empire is, like the
alternations of the seasons, almost complete, one-half enjoying daylight,
while the other half is in darkness. These alternations of time and of
seasons, combined with the variety of soils and climates, are calculated to
have an increasingly important effect upon the material and industrial, as
well as upon the social and political developments of the empire. This will
become evident in considering the industrial productions of the different
divisions, and the harvest seasons which permit the summer produce of one
portion of the empire to supply the winter requirements of its other
markets, and conversely.

[Illustration]

The empire contains or is bounded by some of the highest mountains, the
greatest lakes, and the most important rivers of the world. Its climates
may be said to include all the known climates of the world; its soils are
no less various. In the prairies of central Canada it possesses some of the
most valuable wheat-producing land; in the grass lands of the interior of
Australia the best pasture country; and in the uplands of South Africa the
most valuable gold- and diamond-bearing beds which exist. The United
Kingdom at present produces more coal than any other single country except
the United States. The effect of climate throughout the empire in modifying
the type of the Anglo-Saxon race has as yet received only partial
attention, and conclusions regarding it are of a somewhat empiric nature.
The general tendency in Canada is held to be towards somewhat smaller size,
and a hardy active habit; in Australia to a tall, slight, pale development
locally known as "cornstalkers," characterized by considerable nervous and
intellectual activity. In New Zealand the type preserves almost exactly the
characteristics of the British Isles. The South African, both Dutch and
British, is readily recognized by an apparently sun-dried, lank and hard
habit of body. In the tropical possessions of the empire, where white
settlement does not take place to any considerable extent, the individual
alone is affected. The type undergoes no modification. It is to be observed
in reference to this interesting aspect of imperial development, that the
multiplication and cheapening of channels of communication and means of
travel throughout the empire will tend to modify the future accentuation of
race difference, while the variety of elements in the vast area occupied
should have an important, though as yet not scientifically traced, effect
upon the British imperial type.

The white population of the empire[1] reached in 1901 a total of over
53,000,000, or something over one-eighth of its entire [Sidenote:
Population.] population, which, including native races, is estimated at
about 400,000,000. The white population includes some French, Dutch and
Spanish peoples, but is mainly of Anglo-Saxon race. It is distributed
roughly as follows:--

  United Kingdom and home dependencies  41,608,791
  Australasia                            4,662,000
  British North America                  5,500,000
  Africa (Dutch and British)             1,000,000[2]
  India                                    169,677
  West Indies and Bermuda                  100,000
                                        ----------
                                        53,040,468

The native population of the empire includes types of the principal black,
yellow and brown races, classing with these the high-type races of the
East, which may almost be called white. The native population of India,
mainly high type, brown, was returned at the census of 1901 as 294,191,379.
The population of India is divided into 118 groups on the basis of
language. These may, however, be collected into the following principal
groups:--

  (A) Malayo-Polynesian.
  (B) Indo-Chinese:
      i. Mon-Khmer.
      ii. Tibeto-Burman.
      iii. Siamese-Chinese.
  (C) Dravido-Mu[n.][d.][=a]:
      i. Mu[n.][d.][=a] (Kolarian).
      ii. Dravidian.
  (D) Indo-European.
      Indo-Aryan sub-family.
  (E) Semitic.
  (F) Hamitic.
  (G) Unclassed, e.g. Gipsy.

_Eastern Colonies_


  Ceylon, high type, brown and mixed            3,568,824
  Straits Settlements, brown, mixed and Chinese   570,000
  Hong-Kong, Chinese and brown                    306,130
  North Borneo, mixed brown and Sarawak           700,000
                                                ---------
                                                5,144,954

[v.04 p.0607] Of the various races which inhabit these Eastern dependencies
the most important are the 2,000,000 Sinhalese and the 954,000 Tamil that
make up the greater part of the population of Ceylon. The rest is made up
of Arabs, Malays, Chinese (in the Straits Settlements and Hong-Kong),
Dyaks, Eurasians and others.

_West Indies._

The West Indies, including the continental colonies of British Guiana and
Honduras, and seventeen islands or groups of islands, have a total coloured
population of about 1,912,655. The colonies of this group which have the
largest coloured populations are:--

  Jamaica--Chiefly black, some brown and yellow    790,000
  Trinidad and Tobago--Black and brown             250,000
  British Guiana--Black and brown                  286,000
                                                 ---------
                                                 1,326,000

The populations of the West Indies are very various, being made up largely
of imported African negroes. In Jamaica these contribute four-fifths of the
population. There are also in the islands a considerable number of imported
East Indian coolies and some Chinese. The aboriginal races include American
Indians of the mainland and Caribs. With these there has been intermixture
of Spanish and Portuguese blood, and many mixed types have appeared. The
total European population of this group of colonies amounts to upwards of
80,000, to which 15,000 on account of Bermuda may be added.

_Africa._

  Chiefly black, estimated
  South                                          5,211,329
  Central                                        2,000,000

The aboriginal races of South Africa were the Bushmen and Hottentots. Both
these races are rapidly diminishing in numbers, and in British South Africa
it is expected that they will in the course of the twentieth century become
extinct. Besides these primitive races there are the dark-skinned negroids
of Bantu stock, commonly known in their tribal groups as Kaffirs, Zulu,
Bechuana and Damara, which are again subdivided into many lesser groups.
The Bantu compose the greater part of the native population. There are also
in South Africa Malays and Indians and others, who during the last two
hundred years have been introduced from Java, Ceylon, Madagascar,
Mozambique and British India, and by intermarriage with each other and with
the natives have produced a hybrid population generally classed together
under the heading of the Mixed Races. These are of all colours, varying
from yellow to dark brown. The tribes of Central Africa are as yet less
known. Many of them exhibit racial characteristics allied to those of the
tribes of South Africa, but with in some cases an admixture of Arab blood.

_East Africa._


  Protectorate--Black and brown:
      Natives  (estimated)                     4,000,000
      Asiatics (estimated)                        25,000
  Zanzibar--Black and brown                      200,000
  Uganda                                       3,200,000
                                               ---------
                           Total               7,425,000

_West Africa._

                                                Estimated.
  Nigeria (including Lagos)--Black and brown   15,000,000
  Gold Coast and hinterland--Chiefly black      2,700,000
  Sierra Leone                   "     "        1,000,000
  Gambia                         "     "          163,000
                                               ----------
                                               18,863,000

From east to west across Africa the aboriginal nations are mostly of the
black negroid type, their varieties being only imperfectly known. The
tendency of some of the lower negroid types has been to drift towards the
west coast, where they still practise cannibalistic and fetish rites. On
the east coast are found much higher types approaching to the Christian
races of Abyssinia, and from east to west there has been a wide admixture
of Arab blood producing a light-brown type. In Uganda and Nigeria a large
proportion of the population is Arab and relatively light-skinned.

_Australasia_.

  Australia--Black, very low type                      200,000
             Chinese and half castes, yellow            50,000
  New Zealand--Maoris, brown, Chinese and half castes   53,000
  Fiji--Polynesian, black and brown                    121,000
  Papua--Polynesian, black and brown                   400,000
                                                       -------
                                                       824,000

The native races of Australia and the Polynesian groups of islands are
divided into two main types known as the dark and light Polynesian. The
dark type, which is black, is of a very low order, and in some of the
islands still retains its cannibal habits. The aboriginal tribes of
Australia are of a low-class black race, but generally peaceful and
inoffensive in their habits. The white Polynesian races are of a very
superior type, and exhibit, as in the Maoris of New Zealand,
characteristics of a high order. The natives of Papua (New Guinea) are in a
very low state of civilization. The estimate given of their numbers is
approximate, as no census has been taken.

_Canada._

  Indians--Brown                                     100,000

The only coloured native races of Canada are the Red Indians, many in
tribal variety, but few in number.

_Summary_.

  Native Populations:
  India                                          294,191,379
  Ceylon and Eastern Colonies                      5,144,954
  West Indies                                      1,912,655
  South Africa                                     5,211,329
  British Central Africa                           2,000,000
  East Africa                                      7,425,000
  West Africa                                     18,863,000
  Australasia and Islands                            824,000
  Canada                                             100,000
                                                 -----------
                                                 335,672,317
  White populations                               53,040,468
                                  Total          388,712,785

This is without taking into account the population of the lesser crown
colonies or allowing for the increase likely to be shown by later censuses.
Throughout the empire, and notably in the United Kingdom, there is among
the white races a considerable sprinkling of Jewish blood.

The latest calculation of the entire population of the world, including a
liberal estimate of 650,000,000 for peoples not brought under any census,
gives a total of something over 1,500,000,000. The population of the empire
may therefore be calculated as amounting to something more than one-fourth
of the population of the world.

It is a matter of first importance in the geographical distribution of the
empire that the five principal divisions, the United [Sidenote: Divisions.]
Kingdom, South Africa, India, Australia and Canada are separated from each
other by the three great oceans of the world. The distance as usually
calculated in nautical miles: from an English port to the Cape of Good Hope
is 5840 m.; from the Cape of Good Hope to Bombay is 4610; from Bombay to
Melbourne is 5630; from Melbourne to Auckland is 1830; from Auckland to
Vancouver is 6210; from Halifax to Liverpool is 2744. From a British port
direct to Bombay by way of the Mediterranean it is 6272; from a British
port by the same route to Sydney 11,548 m. These great distances have
necessitated the acquisition of intermediate ports suitable for coaling
stations on the trade routes, and have determined the position of many of
the lesser crown colonies which are held simply for military and commercial
purposes. Such are the Bermudas, Gibraltar, Malta, Aden, Ceylon, the
Straits Settlements, Labuan, Hong-Kong, which complete the [v.04 p.0608]
chain of connexion on the eastern route, and such on other routes are the
lesser West African stations, Ascension, St. Helena, the Mauritius and
Seychelles, the Falklands, Tristan da Cunha, and the groups of the western
Pacific. Other annexations of the British empire have been rocky islets of
the northern Pacific required for the purpose of telegraph stations in
connexion with an all-British cable.

For purposes of political administration the empire falls into the three
sections of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, with the
dependencies of the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man; the Indian empire,
consisting of British India and the feudatory native states; and the
colonial empire, comprising all other colonies and dependencies.

In the modern sense of extension beyond the limits of the United Kingdom
the growth of the empire is of comparatively [Sidenote: Growth.] recent
date. The Channel Islands became British as a part of the Norman
inheritance of William the Conqueror. The Isle of Man, which was for a
short time held in conquest by Edward I. and restored, was sold by its
titular sovereign to Sir William Scrope, earl of Wiltshire, in 1393, and by
his subsequent attainder for high treason and the confiscation of his
estates, became a fief of the English crown. It was granted by Henry IV. in
1406 to Sir John Stanley, K.C., ancestor of the earls of Derby, by whom it
was held till 1736, when it passed to James Murray, 2nd duke of Atholl, as
heir-general of the 10th earl. It was inherited by his daughter Charlotte,
wife of the 3rd duke of Atholl, who sold it to the crown for £70,000 and an
annuity of £2000. With these exceptions and the nominal possession taken of
Newfoundland by Sir Humphrey Gilbert in 1583, all the territorial
acquisitions of the empire have been made in the 17th and subsequent
centuries.

The following is a list of the British colonies and dependencies (other
than those belonging to the Indian empire) together with a summary
statement of the date and method of their acquisition. Arranged in
chronological order they give some idea of the rate of growth of the
empire. The dates are not, however, in all cases those in which British
sovereignty was established. They indicate in some instances only the first
definite step, such as the building of a fort, the opening of a trading
station, or other act, which led later to the incorporation in the empire
of the country indicated. In the case of Australian states or Canadian
provinces originally part of other states or provinces the date is that,
approximately, of the first settlement of British in the district named;
_e.g._ there were British colonists in Saskatchewan in the last half of the
18th century, but the province was not constituted until 1905. Save where
otherwise stated, British authority has been continuous from the first date
mentioned in the table. Reference should be made to the articles on the
various colonies.

Name.                           Date.     Method of Acquisition.

Newfoundland                    1583     Possession taken by Sir H. Gilbert
                                           for the crown.

                 _17th Century._

Barbados                      1605-1625  Settlement.
Bermudas                        1609         "
Gambia                       c. 1618         "   A second time in 1816.
St Christopher                  1623         "   Did not become wholly
                                                   British until 1713.
Novia Scotia                    1628         "   Ceded to France 1632;
                                           recovered 1713.
Nevis                           1628         "
Montserrat                      1632         "
Antigua                         1632         "
Honduras                        1638         "
St Lucia                        1638         "    Finally passed to Great
                                           Britain in 1803.
Gold Coast                   c. 1650     Settlement. Danish forts bought
                                           1850, Dutch forts 1871. Northern
                                           Territories added 1897.
St Helena                       1651     Settled by East India Co.
                                           Government vested in British
                                           crown 1833.
Jamaica                         1655     Conquest.
Bahamas                         1666     Settlement.
Virgin Islands               1666-1672   Settlement and conquest.
N.W. Territories of Canada      1669     Settlement under royal charter of
                                           Hudson's Bay Co. Purchased from
                                           imp. gov. 1869, and transferred
                                           to Canada 1870.
Turks and Caicos Is.            1678     Settlement.

                 _18th Century._
Gibraltar                       1704     Capitulation.
New Brunswick                   1713     Cession.
Prince Edward Is.               1758     Conquest.
Ontario                       1759-1790  With New Brunswick and Nova
Quebec                        1759-1790  Scotia constituted Dominion of
                                           Canada 1867. Prince Edward Is.
                                           enters the confederation 1873.
                                           In 1880 all British possessions
                                           (other than Newfoundland) in
                                           North America annexed to the
                                           Dominion.
Dominica                        1761     Conquest.
St Vincent                      1762     Capitulation.
Grenada                         1762          "
Tobago                          1763     Cession. Afterwards in French
                                           possession. Reconquered 1803.
Falkland Is.                    1765     Settlement. Reoccupied 1832.
Saskatchewan                    1766     Settlement. Separation from N.W.
                                           Territories of Canada 1905.
Pitcairn I.                     1780     Settlement.
Straits Settlements         1786 to 1824  Settlement and cession. Vested
                                           (1858) in crown by E.I. Co.
                                           Transferred from Indian to
                                           colonial possessions 1867.
                                           Malacca in British occupation
                                           1795-1818.
Sierra Leone                    1787     Settlement.
Alberta                        c. 1788   Separated from N. W. Territories
                                           of Canada 1905.
New South Wales                 1788     Settlement.
Ceylon                          1795     Capitulation.
Trinidad                        1797          "
Malta                           1800          "

              _19th Century._

British Guiana                  1803     Capitulation.
Tasmania                        1803     Settlement.
Cape of Good Hope               1806     Capitulation. Present limits not
                                           attained until 1895. First
                                           British occupation 1795-1803.
Seychelles                      1806     Capitulation.
Mauritius                       1810          "
Manitoba                        1811     Settlement by Red River or Selkirk
                                           colony. Created province of
                                           Canada 1870.
Ascension and Tristan da Cunha  1815     Military occupation.
B. Columbia and Vancouver Island  1821   Settlement under Hudson's Bay Co.
                                           Entered Canadian confederation
                                           1871.
Natal                           1824     Settlement. Natal Boers submit
                                           1843.
Queensland                      1824     Separated from New South Wales
                                           1859.
West Australia                  1826     Settlement.
Victoria                        1834     Separated from New South Wales
                                           1851.
South Australia                 1836     Settlement.
New Zealand                     1840     Settlement and treaty.
Hong-Kong                       1841     Treaties. Kowloon on the mainland
                                           added in 1860; additional area
                                           leased 1898.
Labuan                          1846     Cession. Incorporated in Straits
                                           Settlements 1906.
Lagos                           1861     Cession. South Nigeria amalgamated
                                           with Lagos, under style of
                                           Colony and Protectorate of
                                           Southern Nigeria 1906.
Basutoland                      1868     Annexation.
Fiji                            1874     Cession.
[v.04 p.0609]
W. Pacific Islands, including   1877     High commission created by order
  including Union, Ellice,                 in council, giving jurisdiction
  Gilbert, Southern Solomon,               over islands not included in
  and other groups                         other colonial governments, nor
                                           within jurisdiction of other
                                           civilized powers. Protectorates
                                           over all these islands by 1900.
Federated Malay States        1874-1895  Treaty.
Cyprus                          1878     Occupied by treaty.
North Borneo                    1881     Treaty and settlement under royal
                                           charter. Protectorate assumed
                                           1888.
Papua                           1884     Protectorate declared.
Nigeria                       1884-1886  Treaty, conquest and settlement
                                           under royal charter. Chartered
                                           Co.'s territory transferred to
                                           crown, and whole divided into
                                           North and South Nigeria 1900.
Somaliland                    1884-1886  Occupation and cession.
                                         Protectorate declared 1887.
Bechuanaland                  1885-1891  Protectorate declared. Southern
                                           portion annexed to Cape Colony
                                           1895.
Zululand                        1887     Annexation. Incorporated in Natal
                                           1897.
Sarawak                         1888     Protectorate declared.
Brunei                          1888           "          "
British East Africa             1888     Treaty, conquest and settlement
                                         under royal charter. Transferred
                                         to crown 1895.
Rhodesia                      1888-1893  Treaty, conquest and settlement
                                         under royal charter.
Zanzibar                        1890     Protectorate declared.
Uganda                        1890-1896  Treaty and protectorate.
Nyasaland                       1891     Protectorate declared.
Ashanti                         1896     Military occupation.
Wei-hai-wei                     1898     Lease from China.
Pacific Islands--
  Christmas, Fanning,           1898     Annexed for purposes of projected
  Penrhyn, Suvarov                       Pacific cable.
  Choiseul and Isabel Is.       1899     Cession.
    (Solomon Group)
  Tonga and Niué                1900     Protectorate declared.
Orange Free State               1900     Annexation. Formerly British
                                           1848-1854.
Transvaal and Swaziland         1900     Annexation. Formerly British
                                           1877-1881.

                               _20th Century._
Kelantan, Trengganu, &c.        1909     Cession from Siam.

In the Pacific are also Bird Island, Bramble Cay, Cato Island, Cook
Islands, Danger Islands, Ducie Island, Dudosa, Howland Island, Jarvis
Island, Kermadec Islands, Macquarie Island, Manihiki Islands, Nassau
Island, Palmerston Island, Palmyra Island, Phoenix Group, Purdy Group,
Raine Island, Rakaanga Island, Rotumah Island, Surprise Island, Washington
or New York Island, Willis Group and Wreck Reef.

In the Indian Ocean there are, besides the colonies already mentioned,
Rodriguez, the Chagos Islands, St Brandon Islands, Amirante Islands,
Aldabra, Kuria Muria Islands, Maldive Islands and some other small groups.

In certain dependencies the sovereignty of Great Britain is not absolute.
The island of Cyprus is nominally still part of the Turkish empire, but in
1878 was handed over to Great Britain for occupation and administration;
Great Britain now making to the Porte on account of the island an annual
payment of £5000. The administration is in the hands of an official styled
high commissioner, who is invested with the powers usually conferred on a
colonial governor. In Zanzibar and other regions of equatorial Africa the
native rulers retain considerable powers; in the Far East certain areas are
held on lease from China.

Egypt, without forming part of the British empire, came under the military
occupation of Great Britain in 1882. "By right of conquest" Great Britain
subsequently claimed a share in the administration of the former Sudan
provinces of Egypt, and an agreement of the 19th of January 1899
established the joint sovereignty of Great Britain and Egypt over what is
now known as the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.

The Indian section of the empire was acquired during the 17th-19th
centuries under a royal charter granted to the East India Company by Queen
Elizabeth in 1600. It was transferred to the imperial government in 1858,
and Queen Victoria was proclaimed empress under the Royal Titles Act in
1877. The following list gives the dates and method of acquisition of the
centres of the main divisions of the Indian empire. They have, in most
instances, grown by general process of extension to their present
dimensions.

  Name.                 Date.     Method of Acquisition.

  Madras                1639      By treaty and subsequent conquest.
                         to         Fort St George, the foundation
                        1748        of Madras was the first territorial
                                    possession of the E.I. Co. in India.
                                    It was acquired by treaty with its
                                    Indian ruler. Madras was raised into
                                    a presidency in 1683; ceded to France
                                    1746; recovered 1748.

  Bombay                1608      Treaty and cession. Trade first
                         to         established 1608. Ceded to British
                        1685        crown by Portugal 1661. Transferred
                                    to E.I. Co. 1668. Presidency removed
                                    from Surat 1687.

  Bengal                1633      Treaty and subsequent conquests. First
                         to         trade settlement established by
                        1765        treaty at Pipli in Orissa 1633.
                                    Erected into presidency by separation
                                    from Madras 1681. Virtual sovereignty
                                    announced by E.I. Co., as result of
                                    conquests of Clive, 1765.

  United Provinces      1764      By conquests and treaty through
    of Agra and Oudh     to         successive stages, of which the
                        1856        principal dates were 1801-3-14-15.
                                    In 1832 the nominal sovereignty of
                                    Delhi, till then retained by the
                                    Great Mogul, was resigned into the
                                    hands of the E.I. Co. Oudh, of which
                                    the conquest may be said to have
                                    begun with the battle of Baxar in
                                    1764, was finally annexed in 1856.

  Central Provinces   1802-1817   By conquest and treaty.
  Eastern Bengal      1825-1826   Conquest and cession. The Bengal
    and Assam                       portion of the province by
                                    separation from Bengal in 1905.
  Burma               1824-1852   Conquest and cession.
  Punjab                1849      Conquest and annexation. Made into
                                    distinct province 1859.
  N.-W. Frontier        1901      Subdivision.
    Province
  Ajmere and Merwara    1818      By conquest and cession.
  Coorg                 1834      Conquest and annexation.
  British Baluchistan 1854-1876   Conquest and treaty.
  Andaman Islands       1858      Annexation.

The following is a list of some of the principal Indian states which are
more or less under the control of the British government:--

1. In direct political relations with the governor-general in council.

  Hyderabad.
  Baroda.
  Mysote.
  Kashmir.

2. Under the Rajputana agency.

  Udaipur.
  Jodhpur.
  Bikanir.
  Jaipur (and feudatories).
  Bharatpur.
  Dholpur.
  Alwar.
  Tonk.

3. Under the Central Indian agency.

  Indore.
  Rewa.
  Bhopal.
  Gwalior.

4. Under the Bombay government.

  Cutch.
  Kolhapur (and dependencies).
  Khairpur (Sind).
  Bhaunagar.

[v.04 p.0610] 5. Under the Madras government.

  Travancore.
  Cochin.

6. Under the Central Provinces government.

  Bastar.

7. Under the Bengal government.

  Kuch Behar.
  Sikkim.

8. Under United Provinces government.

  Rampur.
  Garhwal.

9. Under the Punjab government.

  Patiala.
  Bahawalpur.
  Jind.
  Nabha.
  Kapurthala.
  Mandi.
  Sirmur (Nahan).
  Faridkot.
  Chamba.

10. Under the government of Burma.

  Shan states.
  Karen states.

In addition to these there are British tracts known as the Upper Burma
frontier and the Burma frontier. There is also a sphere of British
influence in the border of Afghanistan. The state of Nepal, though
independent as regards its internal administration, has been since the
campaign of 1814-15 in close relations with Great Britain. It is bound to
receive a British resident, and its political relations with other states
are controlled by the government of India. All these native states have
come into relative dependency upon Great Britain as a result of conquest or
of treaty consequent upon the annexation of the neighbouring provinces. The
settlement of Aden, with its dependencies of Perim and Sokotra Island,
forms part of the government of Bombay.

This vast congeries of states, widely different in character, and acquired
by many different methods, holds together under [Sidenote: Administration.]
the supreme headship of the crown on a generally acknowledged triple
principle of self-government, self-support and self-defence. The principle
is more fully applied in some parts of the empire than in others; there are
some parts which have not yet completed their political evolution; some
others in which the principle is temporarily or for special reasons in
abeyance; others, again--chiefly those of very small extent, which are held
for purposes of the defence or advantage of the whole--to which it is not
applicable; but the principle is generally acknowledged as the structural
basis upon which the constitution of the empire exists.

In its relation to the empire the home section of the British Isles is
distinguished from the others as the place of origin of the British race
and the residence of the crown. The history and constitutional development
of this portion of the empire will be found fully treated under separate
headings. (See ENGLAND; WALES; IRELAND; SCOTLAND; UNITED KINGDOM; ENGLISH
HISTORY; INDIA; AFRICA; AUSTRALIA; CANADA; &c.)

It is enough to say that for purposes of administration the Indian empire
is divided into nine great provinces and four minor commissionerships. The
nine great provinces are presided over by two governors (Bombay and
Madras), five lieut.-governors (Bengal, Eastern Bengal and Assam, United
Provinces [Agra and Oudh], the Punjab and Burma), a chief commissioner (the
Central Provinces) and an agent to the governor-general (the N.-W. Frontier
Province). The four minor commissionerships are presided over each by a
chief commissioner. Above these the supreme executive authority in India is
vested in the viceroy in council. The council consists of six ordinary
members besides the existing commander-in-chief. For legislative purposes
the governor-general's council is increased by the addition of fifteen
members nominated by the crown, and has power under certain restrictions to
make laws for British India, for British subjects in the native states, and
for native Indian subjects of the crown in any part of the world. The
administration of the Indian empire in England is carried on by a secretary
of state for India assisted by a council of not less than ten members. The
expenditure of the revenues is under the control of the secretary in
council.

The colonial empire comprises over fifty distinct governments. It is
divided into colonies of three classes and dependencies; these, again, are
in some instances associated for administrative purposes in federated
groups. The three classes of colonies are crown colonies, colonies
possessing representative institutions but not responsible government, and
colonies possessing representative institutions and responsible government.
In crown colonies the crown has entire control of legislation, and the
public officers are under the control of the home government. In
representative colonies the crown has only a veto on legislation, but the
home government retains control of the public officers. In responsible
colonies the crown retains a veto upon legislation, but the home government
has no control of any public officer except the governor.

In crown colonies--with the exception of Gibraltar and St Helena, where
laws may be made by the governor alone--laws are made by the governor with
the concurrence of a council nominated by the crown. In some crown
colonies, chiefly those acquired by conquest or cession, the authority of
this council rests wholly on the crown; in others, chiefly those acquired
by settlement, the council is created by the crown under the authority of
local or imperial laws. The crown council of Ceylon may be cited as an
example of the first kind, and the crown council of Jamaica of the second.

In colonies possessing representative institutions without responsible
government, the crown cannot (generally) legislate by order in council, and
laws are made by the governor with the concurrence of the legislative body
or bodies, one at least of these bodies in cases where a second chamber
exists possessing a preponderance of elected representatives. The Bahamas,
Barbados, and Bermuda have two legislative bodies--one elected and one
nominated by the crown; Malta and the Leeward Islands have but one, which
is partly elected and partly nominated.

Under responsible government legislation is carried on by parliamentary
means exactly as at home, with a cabinet responsible to parliament, the
crown reserving only a right of veto, which is exercised at the discretion
of the governor in the case of certain bills. The executive councils in
those colonies, designated as at home by parliamentary choice, are
appointed by the governor alone, and the other public officers only
nominally by the governor on the advice of his executive council.

Colonial governors are classed as governors-general; governors;
lieut.-governors; administrators; high commissioners; and commissioners,
according to the status of the colony and dependency, or group of colonies
and dependencies, over which they preside. Their powers vary according to
the position which they occupy. In all cases they represent the crown.

As a consequence of this organization the finance of crown colonies is
under the direct control of the imperial government; the finance of
representative colonies, though not directly controlled, is usually
influenced in important departures by the opinion of the imperial
government. In responsible colonies the finance is entirely under local
control, and the imperial government is dissociated from either moral or
material responsibility for colonial debts.

In federated groups of colonies and dependencies matters which are of
common interest to a given number of separate governments are by mutual
consent of the federating communities adjudged to the authority of a common
government, which, in the case of self-governing colonies, is voluntarily
created for the purpose. The associated states form under the federal
government one federal body, but the parts retain control of local matters,
and exercise all their original rights of government in regard to these.
The two great self-governing groups of federated colonies within the empire
are the Dominion of Canada and the Commonwealth of Australia. In South
Africa unification was preferred to federation, the then self-governing
colonies being united in 1910 into one state--the Union of South Africa.
India, of which the associated provinces are under the control of the
central government, may be given as an example of the practical federation
of dependencies. Examples [v.04 p.0611] of federated crown colonies and
lesser dependencies are to be found in the Leeward Island group of the West
Indies and the federated Malay States.

This rough system of self-government for the empire has been evolved not
without some strain and friction, by the recognition through the
vicissitudes of three hundred years of the value of independent initiative
in the development of young countries. Queen Elizabeth's first patent to
Sir Walter Raleigh permitted British subjects to accompany him to America,
"with guarantee of a continuance of the enjoyment of all the rights which
her subjects enjoyed at home."

This guarantee may presumably have been intended at the time only to assure
the intending settlers that they should lose no rights of British
citizenship at home by taking up their residence in America. Its mutual
interpretation in a wider sense, serving at once to establish in the colony
rights of citizenship equivalent to those enjoyed in England, and to
preserve for the colonist the status of British subject at home and abroad,
has formed in application to all succeeding systems of British colonization
the unconscious charter of union of the empire.

The first American colonies were settled under royal grants, each with its
own constitution. The immense distance in time which in those days
separated America from Great Britain secured them from interference by the
home authorities. They paid their own most moderate governing expenses, and
they contributed largely to their own defence. From the middle of the 17th
century their trade was not free, but this was the only restriction from
which they suffered. The great war with France in the middle of the 18th
century temporarily destroyed this system. That war, which resulted in the
conquest of Canada and the delivery of the North American colonies from
French antagonism, cost the imperial exchequer £90,000,000. The attempt to
avert the repetition of such expenditure by the assertion of a right to tax
the colonies through the British parliament led to the one great rupture
which has marked the history of the empire. It has to be noted that at home
during the latter half of the 17th century and the earlier part of the 18th
century parliamentary power had to a great extent taken the place of the
divine right of kings. But parliamentary power meant the power of the
English people and taxpayers. The struggle which developed itself between
the American colonies and the British parliament was in fact a struggle on
the part of the people and taxpayers of one portion of the empire to resist
the domination of the people and taxpayers of another portion. In this
light it may be accepted as having historically established the fundamental
axiom of the constitution of the empire, that the crown is the supreme head
from which the parts take equal dependence.

The crown requiring advice in the ordinary and constitutional manner
receives it in matters of colonial administration from the secretaries of
state for the colonies and for India. After the great rupture separate
provision in the home government for the administration of colonial affairs
was at first judged to be unnecessary, and the "Council[3] of Trade and
Plantations," which up to that date had supplied the place now taken by the
two offices of the colonies and India, was suppressed in 1782. There was a
reaction from the liberal system of colonial self-government, and an
attempt was made to govern the colonies simply as dependencies.

In 1791, not long after the extension of the range of parliamentary
authority in another portion of the empire, by the creation in 1784 of the
Board of Control for India, Pitt made the step forward of granting to
Canada representative institutions, of which the home government kept the
responsible control. Similar institutions were also given at a later period
to Australia and South Africa. But the long peace of the early part of the
19th century was marked by great colonial developments; Australia, Canada
and South Africa became important communities. Representative institutions
controlled by the home government were insufficient, and they reasserted
the claim for liberty to manage their own affairs.

Fully responsible government was granted to Canada in 1840, and gradually
extended to the other colonies. In 1854 a separate secretary of state for
the colonies was appointed at home, and the colonial office was established
on its present footing. In India, as in the colonies, there came with the
growing needs of empire a recognition of the true relations of the parts to
each other and of the whole to the crown. In 1858, on the complete
transference of the territories of the East India Company to the crown, the
board of control was abolished, and the India Council, under the presidency
of a secretary of state for India, was created. It was especially provided
that the members of the council may not sit in parliament.

Thus, although it has not been found practicable in the working of the
British constitution to carry out the full theory of the direct and
exclusive dependence of colonial possessions on the crown, the theory is
recognized as far as possible. It is understood that the principal sections
of the empire enjoy equal rights under the crown, and that none is
subordinate to another. The intervention of the imperial parliament in
colonial affairs is only admitted theoretically in so far as the support of
parliament is required by the constitutional advisers of the crown. To
bring the practice of the empire into complete harmony with the theory it
would be necessary to constitute, for the purpose of advising the crown on
imperial affairs, a council in which all important parts of the empire
should be represented.

The gradual recognition of the constitutional theory of the British empire,
and the assumption by the principal [Sidenote: Imperialism.] colonies of
full self-governing responsibilities, has cleared the way for a movement in
favour of a further development which should bring the supreme headship of
the empire more into accord with modern ideas.

It was during the period of domination of the "Manchester school," of which
the most effective influence in public affairs was exerted for about thirty
years, extending from 1845 to 1875, that the fullest development of
colonial self-government was attained, the view being generally accepted at
that time that self-governing institutions were to be regarded as the
preliminary to inevitable separation. A general inclination to withdraw
from the acceptance of imperial responsibilities throughout the world gave
to foreign nations at the same time an opportunity by which they were not
slow to profit, and contributed to the force of a reaction of which the
part played by Great Britain in the scramble for Africa marked the
culmination. Under the increasing pressure of foreign enterprise, the value
of a federation of the empire for purposes of common interest began to be
discussed. Imperial federation was openly spoken of in New Zealand as early
as 1852. A similar suggestion was officially put forward by the general
association of the Australian colonies in London in 1857. The Royal
Colonial Institution, of which the motto "United Empire" illustrates its
aims, was founded in 1868. First among leading British statesmen to
repudiate the old interpretation of colonial self-government as a
preliminary to separation, Lord Beaconsfield, in 1872, spoke of the
constitutions accorded to the colonies as "part of a great policy of
imperial consolidation." In 1875 W. E. Forster, afterwards a member of the
Liberal government, made a speech in which he advocated imperial federation
as a means by which it might become practicable to "replace dependence by
association." The foundation of the Imperial Federation League--in 1884,
with Forster for its first president, shortly to be succeeded by Lord
Rosebery--marked a distinct step forward. The Colonial Conferences of 1887
and subsequent years (the title being changed to Imperial Conference in
1907), in which colonial opinion was sought and accepted in respect of
important questions of imperial organization and defence, and the
enthusiastic loyalty displayed by the colonies towards the crown on the
occasion of the jubilee manifestations of Queen Victoria's reign, were
further indications of progress in the same direction. Coincidently with
this development, the achievements of Sir George Goldie and Cecil Rhodes,
who, the one in West Africa and the other in South Africa, added between
them to the empire in a space of less than twenty years a dominion of
greater extent than the whole of British [v.04 p.0612] India, followed by
the action of a host of distinguished disciples in other parts of the
world, effectually stemmed the movement initiated by Cobden and Bright. A
tendency which had seemed temporarily to point towards a complacent
dissolution of the empire was arrested, and the closing years of the 19th
century were marked by a growing disposition to appreciate the value and
importance of the unique position which the British empire has created for
itself in the world. No stronger demonstration of the reality of imperial
union could be needed than that which was afforded by the support given to
the imperial forces by the colonies and India in the South African War. It
remained only to be seen by what process of evolution the further
consolidation of the empire would find expression in the machinery of
government. A step in this direction was taken in 1907, when at the
Colonial Conference held in London that year it was decided to form a
permanent secretariat to deal with the common interests of the
self-governing colonies and the mother-country. It was further decided that
conferences, to be called in future Imperial Conferences, between the home
government and the governments of the self-governing dominions, should be
held every four years, and that the prime minister of Great Britain should
be _ex officio_ president of the conference. No executive power was,
however, conferred upon the conference.

The movement in favour of tariff reform initiated by Mr Chamberlain
(_q.v._) in 1903 with the double object of giving a preference to colonial
goods and of protecting imperial trade by the imposition in certain cases
of retaliative duties on foreign goods, was a natural evolution of the
imperialist idea, and of the fact that by this time the trade-statistics of
the United Kingdom had proved that trade with the colonies was forming an
increasingly large proportion of the whole. In spite of the defeat of the
Unionist party in England in 1906, and the accession to power of a Liberal
government opposed to anything which appeared to be inconsistent with free
trade, the movement for colonial preference, based on tariff reform,
continued to make headway in the United Kingdom, and was definitely adopted
by the Unionist party. And at the Imperial Conference of 1907 it was
advocated by all the colonial premiers, who could point to the progress
made in their own states towards giving a tariff preference to British
goods and to those of one another.

The question of self-government is closely associated with the question of
self-support. Plenty of good land and the liberty to manage their own
affairs were the causes assigned by Adam Smith for the marked prosperity of
the British colonies towards the end of the 18th century. The same causes
are still observed to produce the same effects, and it may be pointed out
that, since the date of the latest of Adam Smith's writings, upwards of
6,000,000 sq. m. of virgin soil, rich with possibilities of agricultural,
pastoral and mineral wealth, have been added to the empire. In the same
period the white population has grown from about 12,000,000 to 53,000,000,
and the developments of agricultural and industrial machinery have
multiplied, almost beyond computation, the powers of productive labour.

It is scarcely possible within this article to deal with so widely varied a
subject as that of the productions and industry of the [Sidenote: The
imperial factor in industry and trade.] empire. For the purposes of a
general statement, it is interesting to observe that concurrently with the
acquisition of the vast continental areas during the 19th century, the
progress of industrial science in application to means of transport and
communication brought about a revolution of the most radical character in
the accepted laws of economic development. Railways did away with the old
law that the spread of civilization is necessarily governed by facilities
for water carriage and is consequently confined to river valleys and
sea-shores. Steam and electricity opened to industry the interior of
continents previously regarded as unapproachable. The resources of these
vast inland spaces which have lain untouched since history began became
available to individual enterprise, and over a great portion of the earth's
surface were brought within the possessions of the British empire. The
production of raw material within the empire increased at a rate which can
only be appreciated by a careful study of figures, and by a comparison of
the total of these figures with the total figures of the world. The
tropical and temperate possessions of the empire include every field of
production which can be required for the use of man. There is no main
staple of human food which is not grown; there is no material of textile
industry which is not produced. The British empire gives occupation to more
than one-third of the persons employed in mining and quarrying in the
world. It may be interesting, as an indication of the relative position in
this respect of the British empire to the world, to state that at present
it produces one-third of the coal supply of the world, one-sixth of the
wheat supply, and very nearly two-thirds of the gold supply. But while
these figures may be taken as in themselves satisfactory, it is far more
important to remember that as yet the potential resources of the new lands
opened to enterprise have been barely conceived, and their wealth has been
little more than scratched. Population as yet has been only very sparsely
sprinkled over the surface of many of the areas most suitable for white
settlement. In the wheat lands of Canada, the pastoral country of
Australasia, and the mineral fields of South Africa and western Canada
alone, the undeveloped resources are such as to ensure employment to the
labour and satisfaction to the needs of at least as many millions as they
now contain thousands of the British race. In respect of this promise of
the future the position of the British empire is unique.

It is not too much to say that trade has been at once the most active cause
of expansion and the most potent bond of union in the development of the
empire. Trade with the tropical and settlement in the temperate regions of
the world formed the basis upon which the foundations of the empire were
laid. Trading companies founded most of the American and West Indian
colonies; a trading company won India; a trading company colonized the
north-western districts of Canada; commercial wars during the greater part
of the 18th century established the British command of the sea, which
rendered the settlement of Australasia possible. The same wars gave Great
Britain South Africa, and chartered companies in the 19th century carried
the British flag into the interior of the African continent from south and
east and west. Trading companies developed Borneo and Fiji. The bonds of
prosperous trade have kept the Australasian colonies within the empire. The
protection of colonial commerce by the imperial navy is one of the
strongest of material links which connect the crown with the outlying
possessions of the empire.

The trade of the empire, like the other developments of imperial public
life, has been profoundly influenced by the variety of [Sidenote: Imperial
trade policy.] local conditions under which it has flourished. In the early
settlement of the North American colonies their trade was left practically
free; but by the famous Navigation Act of 1660 the importation and
exportation of goods from British colonies were restricted to British
ships, of which the master and three-fourths of the mariners were English.
This act, of which the intention was to encourage British shipping and to
keep the monopoly of British colonial trade for the benefit of British
merchants, was followed by many others of a similar nature up to the time
of the repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846 and the introduction of free trade
into Great Britain. The Navigation Acts were repealed in 1849. Thus for
very nearly two hundred years British trade was subject to restrictions, of
which the avowed intention was to curtail the commercial intercourse of the
empire with the world. During this period the commercial or mercantile
system, of which the fallacies were exposed by the economists of the latter
half of the 18th century, continued to govern the principles of British
trade. Under this system monopolies were common, and among them few were
more important than that of the East India Company. In 1813 the trade of
India was, however, thrown open to competition, and in 1846, after the
introduction of free trade at home, the principal British colonies which
had not yet at that date received the grant of responsible government were
specially empowered to abolish differential duties upon foreign trade. A
first result of the commercial emancipation of the [v.04 p.0613] colonies
was the not altogether unnatural rise in the manufacturing centres of the
political school known as the Manchester school, which was disposed to
question the value to Great Britain of the retention of colonies which were
no longer bound to give her the monopoly of their commercial markets. An
equally natural desire on the part of the larger colonies to profit by the
opportunity which was opened to them of establishing local manufactures of
their own, combined with the convenience in new countries of using the
customs as an instrument of taxation, led to something like a reciprocal
feeling of resentment, and there followed a period during which the policy
of Great Britain was to show no consideration for colonial trade, and the
policy of the principal colonies was to impose heavy duties upon British
trade. By a gradual process of better understanding, largely helped by the
development of means of communication, the antagonistic extreme was
abandoned, and a tendency towards a system of preferential duties within
the empire displayed itself.

At the Colonial Conference held in London in 1887 a proposal was formally
submitted by the South [Sidenote: Colonial preference.] African delegate
for the establishment within the empire of a preferential system, imposing
a duty of 2% upon all foreign goods, the proceeds to be directed to the
maintenance of the imperial navy. To this end it was requested that certain
treaties with foreign nations which imposed restrictions on the trade of
various parts of the empire with each other should be denounced. Some years
later, a strong feeling having been manifested in England against any
foreign engagement standing in the way of new domestic trade arrangements
between a colony and the mother-country, the German and Belgian treaties in
question were denounced (1897). Meanwhile, simultaneously with the movement
in favour of reciprocal fiscal advantages to be granted within the empire
by the many local governments to each other, there was a growth of the
perception that an increase of the foreign trade of Great Britain, carried
on chiefly in manufactured goods, was accompanied by a corresponding
enlargement of the home markets for colonial raw material, and consequently
that injury to the foreign trade of Great Britain, while as yet it so
largely outweighed the trade between the United Kingdom and the colonies,
must necessarily react upon the colonies. This view was definitely
expressed at the Colonial Conference at Ottawa in 1894, and was one of the
factors which led to the relinquishment of the demand that in return for
colonial concessions there should be an imposition on the part of Great
Britain of a differential duty upon foreign goods. Canada was the first
important British colony to give substantial expression to the new imperial
sentiment in commercial matters by the introduction in 1897 of an imperial
tariff, granting without any reciprocal advantage a deduction of 25% upon
customs duties imposed upon British goods. The same advantage was offered
to all British colonies trading with her upon equal terms. In later years
the South African states, Australia and New Zealand also granted
preferential treatment to British goods. Meanwhile in Great Britain the
system of free imports, regarded as "free trade" (though only one-sided
free trade), had become the established policy, customs duties being only
imposed for purposes of revenue on a few selected articles, and about half
the national income was derived from customs and excise. In most of the
colonies customs form of necessity one of the important sources of revenue.
It is, however, worthy of remark that in the self-governing colonies, even
those which are avowedly protectionist, a smaller proportion of the public
revenue was derived from customs and excise than was derived from these
sources in the United Kingdom. The proportion in Australasia before
federation was about one quarter. In Canada it is more difficult to
estimate it, as customs and excise form the principal provision made for
federal finance, and note must therefore be taken of the separate sources
of revenue in the provinces. With these reservations it will still be seen
that customs, or, in other words, a tax upon the movements of trade, forms
one of the chief sources of imperial revenue.

The development of steam shipping and electricity gave to the movements of
trade a stimulus no less remarkable than that given by the introduction of
railroads and industrial machinery to production and manufactures. Whereas
at the beginning of the 19th century the journey to Australia occupied
eight months, and business communications between Sydney and London could
not receive answers within the year, at the beginning of the 20th century
the journey could be accomplished in thirty-one days, and telegraphic
despatches enabled the most important business to be transacted within
twenty-four hours. For one cargo carried in the year at the beginning of
the 19th century at least six could now be carried by the same ship, and
from the point of view of trade the difference of a venture which realizes
its profits in two months, as compared with one which occupied a whole
year, does not need to be insisted on. The increased rapidity of the voyage
and the power of daily communication by telegraph with the most distant
markets have introduced a wholly new element into the national trade of the
empire, and commercial intercourse between the southern and the northern
hemispheres has received a development from the natural alternation of the
seasons, of which until quite recent years the value was not even
conceived. Fruit, eggs, butter, meat, poultry and other perishable
commodities pass in daily increasing quantities between the northern and
the southern hemispheres with an alternate flow which contributes to raise
in no inconsiderable degree the volume of profitable trade. Thus the butter
season of Australasia is from October to March, while the butter season of
Ireland and northern Europe is from March to October. In three years after
the introduction of ice-chambers into the steamers of the great shipping
lines, Victoria and New South Wales built up a yearly butter trade of
£1,000,000 with Great Britain without seriously affecting the Irish and
Danish markets whence the summer supply is drawn. These facilities,
combined with the enormous additions made to the public stock of land and
labour, contributed to raise the volume of trade of the empire from a total
of less than £100,000,000 in the year 1800 to a total of nearly
£1,500,000,000 in 1900. The declared volume of British exports to all parts
of the world in 1800 was £38,120,120, and the value of British imports from
all parts of the world was £30,570,605; total, £68,690,725. As in those
days the colonies were not allowed to trade with any other country this
must be taken as representing imperial trade. The exact figures of the
trade of India, the colonies, and the United Kingdom for 1900 were:
imports, £809,178,209; exports, £657,899,363; total, £1,467,077,572.

A question of sovereign importance to the continued existence of the empire
is the question of defence. A country of which [Sidenote: Imperial
defence.] the main thoroughfares are the oceans of the world demands in the
first instance a strong navy. It has of late years been accepted as a
fundamental axiom of defence that the British navy should exceed in
strength any reasonable combination of foreign navies which could be
brought against it, the accepted formula being the "two-power standard,"
_i.e._ a 10% margin over the joint strength of the two next powers. The
expense of maintaining such a floating armament must be colossal, and until
within the decade 1890-1900 it was borne exclusively by the taxpayers of
the United Kingdom. As the benefits of united empire have become more
consciously appreciated in the colonies, and the value of the fleet as an
insurance for British commerce has been recognized, a desire has manifested
itself on the part of the self-governing colonies to contribute towards the
formation of a truly imperial navy. In 1895 the Australasian colonies voted
a subsidy of £126,000 per annum for the maintenance of an Australasian
squadron, and in 1897 the Cape Colony also offered a contribution of
£30,000 a year to be used at the discretion of the imperial government for
naval purposes. The Australian contribution was in 1902 increased to
£240,000, and that of the Cape to £50,000, while Natal voted £35,000 a year
and Newfoundland £3000. But apart from these comparatively slight
contributions, and the local up-keep of colonial fortifications,--and the
beginning in 1908-1909 of an Australian torpedo-boat flotilla provided by
the Commonwealth,--the whole cost of the imperial navy, on which ultimately
the security of the empire rested, remained to be [v.04 p.0614] borne by
the taxpayers in the British islands. The extent of this burden was
emphasized in 1909 by the revelations as to the increase of the German (and
the allied Austrian) fleet. At this crisis in the history of the two-power
standard a wave of enthusiasm started in the colonies, resulting in the
offer of "Dreadnoughts" from New Zealand and elsewhere; and the British
government called an Imperial Conference to consider the whole question
afresh.

Land defence, though a secondary branch of the great question of imperial
defence, has been intimately connected with the development and internal
growth of the empire. In the case of the first settlement of the American
colonies they were expected to provide for their own land defence. To some
extent in the early part of their career they carried out this expectation,
and even on occasion, as in the taking of Louisburg, which was subsequently
given back at the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle as the price of the French
evacuation of Madras, rendered public service to the empire at large. In
India the principle of local self-defence was from the beginning carried
into practice by the East India Company. But in America the claim of the
French wars proved too heavy for local resources. In 1755 Great Britain
intervened with troops sent from home under General Braddock, and up to the
outbreak of the American War the cost of the defence of the North American
colonies was borne by the imperial exchequer. To meet this expense the
imperial parliament took upon itself the right to tax the American
colonies. In 1765 a Quartering Act was passed by which 10,000 imperial
troops were quartered in the colonies. As a result of the American War
which followed and led to the loss of the colonies affected, the imperial
authorities accepted the charge of the land defences of the empire, and
with the exception of India and the Hudson Bay territories, where the
trading companies determined to pay their own expenses, the whole cost of
imperial defence was borne, like the cost of the navy, by the taxpayers of
the United Kingdom. This condition of affairs lasted till the end of the
Napoleonic Wars. During the thirty years' peace which followed there came
time for consideration. The fiscal changes which towards the middle of the
19th century gave to the self-governing colonies the command of their own
resources very naturally carried with them the consequence that a call
should be made on colonial exchequers to provide for their own governing
expenses. Of these defence is obviously one of the most essential.
Coincidently, therefore, with the movements of free trade at home, the
renunciation of what was known as the mercantile system and the
accompanying grants of constitutional freedom to the colonies, a movement
for the reorganization of imperial defence was set on foot. In the decade
which elapsed between 1846 and 1856 the movement as regards the colonies
was confined chiefly to calls made upon them to contribute to their own
defence by providing barracks, fortifications, &c., for the accommodation
of imperial troops, and in some cases paying for the use of troops not
strictly required for imperial purposes. In 1857 the Australian colonies
agreed to pay the expenses of the imperial garrison quartered in Australia.
This was a very wide step from the imperial attempt to tax the American
colonies for a similar purpose in the preceding century. Nevertheless, in
evidence given before a departmental committee in 1859, it was shown that
at that time the colonies of Great Britain were free from almost every
obligation of contributing either by personal service or money payment
towards their own defence, and that the cost of military expenditure in the
colonies in the preceding year had amounted in round figures to £4,000,000.
A committee of the House of Commons sat in 1861 to consider the question,
and in 1862 it was resolved, without a division, that "colonies exercising
the right of self-government ought to undertake the main responsibility of
providing for their own internal order and security, and ought to assist in
their own external defence." The decision was accepted as the basis of
imperial policy. The first effect was the gradual withdrawing of imperial
troops from the self-governing colonies, together with the encouragement of
the development of local military systems by the loan, when desired, of
imperial military experts. A call was also made for larger military
contributions from some of the crown colonies. The committee of 1859 had
emphasized in its report the fact that the principal dependence of the
colonies for defence is necessarily upon the British navy, and in 1865,
exactly 100 years after the Quartering Act, which had been the cause of the
troubles that led to the independence of the United States, a Colonial
Naval Defence Act was passed which gave power to the colonies to provide
ships of war, steamers, and volunteers for their own defence, and in case
of necessity to place them at the disposal of the crown. In 1868 the
Canadian Militia Act gave the fully organized nucleus of a local army to
Canada. In the same year the imperial troops were withdrawn from New
Zealand, leaving the colonial militia to deal with the native war still in
progress. In 1870 the last imperial troops were withdrawn from Australia,
and in 1873 it was officially announced that military expenditure in the
colonies was almost "wholly for imperial purposes." In 1875 an imperial
officer went to Australia to report for the Australian government upon
Australian defence. The appointment in 1879 of a royal commission to
consider the question of imperial defence, which presented its report in
1882, led to a considerable development and reorganization of the system of
imperial fortifications. Coaling stations were also selected with reference
to the trade routes. In 1885 rumours of war roused a very strong feeling in
connexion with the still unfinished and in many cases unarmed condition of
the fortifications recommended by the commission of 1879. Military activity
was stimulated throughout the empire, and the Colonial Defence Committee
was created to supply a much-felt need for organized direction and advice
to colonial administrations acting necessarily in independence of each
other. The question of colonial defence was among the most important of the
subjects discussed at the colonial conference held in London in 1887, and
it was at this conference that the Australasian colonies first agreed to
contribute to the expense of their own naval defence. From this date the
principle of local responsibility for self-defence has been fully accepted.
India has its own native army, and pays for the maintenance within its
frontiers of an imperial garrison. Early in the summer of 1899, when
hostilities in South Africa appeared to be imminent, the governments of the
principal colonies took occasion to express their approval of the South
African policy pursued by the imperial government, and offers were made by
the governments of India, the Australasian colonies, Canada, Hong-Kong, the
Federal Malay states, some of the West African and other colonies, to send
contingents for active service in the event of war. On the outbreak of
hostilities these offers, on the part of the self-governing colonies, were
accepted, and colonial contingents upwards of 30,000 strong were among the
most efficient sections of the British fighting force. The manner in which
these colonial contingents were raised, their admirable fighting qualities,
and the service rendered by them in the field, disclosed altogether new
possibilities of military organization within the empire, and in subsequent
years the subject continued to engage the attention of the statesmen of the
empire. Progress in this field lay chiefly in the increased support given
in the colonial states to the separate local movements for self-defence;
but in 1909 a scheme was arranged by Mr Haldane, by which the British War
Office should co-operate with the colonial governments in providing for the
training of officers and an interchange of views on a common military
policy.

The important questions of justice, religion and instruction will be found
dealt with in detail under the headings of separate [Sidenote: Justice,
&c.] sections of the empire. Systems of justice throughout the empire have
a close resemblance to each other, and the judicial committee of the privy
council, on which the self-governing colonies and India are represented,
constitutes a supreme court of appeal (_q.v._) for the entire empire. In
the matter of religion, while no imperial organization in the strict sense
is possible, the progress made by the Lambeth Conferences and otherwise
(see ANGLICAN COMMUNION) has done much to bring the work of the Church of
England in different parts of the world into a co-operative system.
Religion, of which the forms are infinitely varied, is however everywhere
free, [v.04 p.0615] except in cases where the exercise of religious rites
leads to practices foreign to accepted laws of humanity. It is perhaps
interesting to state that the number of persons in the empire nominally
professing the Christian religion is 58,000,000, of Mahommedans 94,000,000,
of Buddhists 12,000,000, of Hindus 208,000,000, of pagans and others
25,000,000. Systems of instruction, of which the aim is generally similar
in the white portions of the empire and is directed towards giving to every
individual the basis of a liberal education, are governed wholly by local
requirements. Native schools are established in all settled communities
under British rule.

LITERATURE.--In recent years the subject of British imperialism has
inspired a growing literature, and it is only possible here to name a
selected number of the more important works which may usefully be consulted
on different topics: Sir C.P. Lucas, _Historical Geography of the British
Colonies_ (1888, et seq.); H.E. Egerton, _Short History of British Colonial
Policy_ (1897); H.J. Mackinder, _Britain and the British Seas_ (1902); Sir
J.R. Seeley, _Expansion of England_ (1883); _Growth of British Policy_
(1895); Sir Charles Dilke, _Greater Britain_ (1869), _Problems of Greater
Britain_ (1890), _The British Empire_ (1899); G.R. Parkin, _Imperial
Federation_ (1892); Sir John Colomb, _Imperial Federation, Naval and
Military_ (1886); Sir G.S. Clarke, _Imperial Defence_ (1897); Sidney
Goldmann and others, _The Empire and the Century_ (1905); J.L. Garvin,
_Imperial Reciprocity_ (1903); J.W. Welsford, _The Strength of a Nation_
(1907); _Compatriots Club Essays_ (1906); Sir H. Jenkyns, _British Rule and
Jurisdiction beyond the Seas_ (1902); Bernard Holland, _Imperium et
libertas_ (1901); (for an anti-imperialist view) J.A. Hobson, _Imperialism_
(1902). See also the Reports of the various colonial conferences,
especially that of the Imperial Conference of 1907; and for trade
statistics, J. Holt Schooling's _British Trade Book_. For the tariff reform
movement in England see the articles FREE TRADE and PROTECTION.

(F. L. L.)

[1] The census returns for 1901 from the various parts of the empire were
condensed for the first time in 1906 into a blue-book under the title of
_Census of the British Empire, Report with Summary_.

[2] The white population of British South Africa according to the census of
1904 was 1,132,226.

[3] Or "Board," as it became in 1605.

BRITISH HONDURAS, formerly called BALIZE, or BELIZE, a British crown colony
in Central America; bounded on the N. and N.W. by the Mexican province of
Yucatan, N.E. and E. by the Bay of Honduras, an inlet of the Caribbean Sea,
and S. and W. by Guatemala. (For map, see CENTRAL AMERICA.) Pop. (1905)
40,372; area, 7562 sq. m. The frontier of British Honduras, as defined by
the conventions of 1859 and 1893 between Great Britain and Guatemala,
begins at the mouth of the river Sarstoon or Sarstun, in the Bay of
Honduras; ascends that river as far as the rapids of Gracias à Dios; and
thence, turning to the right, runs in a straight line to Garbutt's Rapids,
on the Belize river. From this point it proceeds due north to the Mexican
frontier, where it follows the river Hondo to its mouth in Chetumal Bay.

British Honduras differs little from the rest of the Yucatan peninsula. The
approach to the coast is through the islets known as cays, and through
coral reefs. It is both difficult and dangerous. For some miles inland the
ground is low and swampy, thickly covered with mangroves and tropical
jungle. Next succeeds a narrow belt of rich alluvial land, not exceeding a
mile in width, beyond which, and parallel to the rivers, are vast tracts of
sandy, arid land, called "pine ridges," from the red pines with which they
are covered. Farther inland these give place, first, to the less elevated
"broken ridges," and then to what are called "cahoon ridges," with a deep
rich soil covered with myriads of palm trees. Next come broad savannas,
studded with clumps of, trees, through which the streams descending from
the mountains wind in every direction. The mountains themselves rise in a
succession of ridges parallel to the coast. The first are the Manatee
Hills, from 800 to 1000 ft. high; and beyond these are the Cockscomb
Mountains, which are about 4000 ft. high. No less than sixteen streams,
large enough to be called rivers, descend from these mountains to the sea,
between the Hondo and Sarstoon. The uninhabited country between Garbutt's
Rapids and the coast south of Deep river was first explored in 1879, by
Henry Fowler, the colonial secretary of British Honduras; it was then found
to consist of open and undulating grasslands, affording fine pasturage in
the west and of forests full of valuable timber in the east. Its elevation
varies from 1200 to 3300 ft. Auriferous quartz and traces of other minerals
have been discovered, but not in sufficient quantity to repay the cost of
mining. The geology, fauna and flora of British Honduras do not materially
differ from those of the neighbouring regions (see CENTRAL AMERICA).

Although the colony is in the tropics, its climate is subtropical. The
highest shade temperature recorded is 98° F., the lowest 50°. Easterly
sea-winds prevail during the greater part of the year. The dry season lasts
from the middle of February to the middle of May; rain occurs at intervals
during the other months, and almost continuously in October, November and
December. The annual rainfall averages about 81½ in., but rises in some
districts to 150 in. or more. Cholera, yellow fever and other tropical
diseases occur sporadically, but, on the whole, the country is not
unhealthy by comparison with the West Indies or Central American states.

_Inhabitants._--British Honduras is a little larger than Wales, and has a
population smaller than that of Chester (England). In 1904 the inhabitants
of European descent numbered 1500, the Europeans 253, and the white
Americans 118. The majority belong to the hybrid race descended from negro
slaves, aboriginal Indians and white settlers. At least six distinct racial
groups can be traced. These consist of (1) native Indians, to be found
chiefly in forest villages in the west and north of the colony away from
the sea coast; (2) descendants of the English buccaneers, mixed with
Scottish and German traders; (3) the woodcutting class known as "Belize
Creoles," of more or less pure descent from African negroes imported, as
slaves or as labourers, from the West Indies; (4) the Caribs of the
southern districts, descendants of the population deported in 1796 from St
Vincent, who were of mixed African and Carib origin; (5) a mixed population
in the south, of Spanish-Indian origin, from Guatemala and Honduras; and
(6) in the north another Spanish-Indian group which came from Yucatan in
1848. The population tends slowly to increase; about 45% of the births are
illegitimate, and males are more numerous than females. Many tracts of
fallow land and forest were once thickly populated, for British Honduras
has its ruined cities, and other traces of a lost Indian civilization, in
common with the rest of Central America.

_Natural Products._---For more than two centuries British Honduras has been
supported by its trade in timber, especially in mahogany, logwood, cedar
and other dye-woods and cabinet-woods, such as lignum-vitae, fustic,
bullet-wood, santa-maria, ironwood, rosewood, &c. The coloured inhabitants
are unsurpassed as woodmen, and averse from agriculture; so that there are
only about 90 sq. m. of tilled land. Sugar-cane, bananas, cocoanut-palms,
plantains, and various other fruits are cultivated; vanilla, sarsaparilla,
sapodilla or chewing-gum, rubber, and the cahoon or coyol palm, valuable
for its oil, grow wild in large quantities. In September 1903 all the pine
trees on crown lands were sold to Mr B. Chipley, a citizen of the United
States, at one cent (½ d.) per tree; the object of the sale being to secure
the opening up of undeveloped territory. Unsuccessful attempts have been
made to establish sponge fisheries on a large scale.

_Chief Towns and Communications._--Belize (pop. in 1904, 9969), the capital
and principal seaport, is described in a separate article. Other towns are
Stann Creek (2459), Corosal (1696), Orange Walk (1244), Punta Gorda (706),
the Cayo (421), Monkey River (384) and Mullins River (243). All these are
administered by local boards, whose aggregate revenue amounts to some
£7000. Telegraph and telephone lines connect the capital with Corosal in
the north, and Punta Gorda in the south; but there are no railways, and few
good roads beyond municipal limits. Thus the principal means of
communication are the steamers which ply along the coast. Mail steamers
from New Orleans, Liverpool, Colon and Puerto Cortes in Honduras, regularly
visit Belize.

_Commerce and Finance._--Between 1901 and 1905 the tonnage of vessels
accommodated at the ports of British Honduras rose from 300,000 to 496,465;
the imports rose from £252,500 to £386,123; the exports from £285,500 to
£377,623. The exports consist of the timber, fruit and other vegetable
products already mentioned, besides rum, deerskins, tortoiseshell, turtles
and sponges, while the principal imports are cotton goods, hardware, beer,
wine, spirits, groceries and specie. The sea-borne trade is mainly shared
by Great Britain and the United States. On the 14th of October 1894, the
American gold dollar was adopted as the standard coin, in place of the
Guatemalan dollar; and the silver of North, South and Central America
ceased to be legal tender. Government notes are issued to the value of 1,
2, 5, 10, 50 and 100 dollars, and there is a local currency of one cent
bronze pieces, and of 5, 10, 25 and 50 cent silver pieces. The British
sovereign and half sovereign are legal tender. In 1846 the government
savings bank was founded in Belize; branches were afterwards opened in the
principal towns; and in 1903 the British Bank of Honduras was established
at Belize. The revenue, chiefly derived from customs, rose from £60,150 in
1901 to £68,335 in 1905. The expenditure, in which the cost of police [v.04
p.0616] and education are important items, rose, during the same period,
from £51,210 to £61,800. The public debt, amounting in 1905 to £34,736,
represents the balance due on three loans which were raised in 1885, 1887,
and 1891, for public works in Belize. The loans are repayable between 1916
and 1923.

_Constitution and Administration._--From 1638 to 1786 the colonists were
completely independent, and elected their own magistrates, who performed
all judicial and executive functions. The customs and precedents thus
established were codified and published under the name of "Burnaby's Laws,"
after the visit of Admiral Sir W. Burnaby, in 1756, and were recognized as
valid by the crown. In 1786 a superintendent was appointed by the home
government, and although this office was vacant from 1790 to 1797, it was
revived until 1862. An executive council was established in 1839, and a
legislative assembly, of three nominated and eighteen elected members, in
1853. British Honduras was declared a colony in 1862, with a lieutenant
governor, subject to the governor of Jamaica, as its chief magistrate. In
1870 the legislative assembly was abolished, and a legislative council
substituted--the constitution of this body being fixed, in 1892, at three
official and five unofficial members. In 1884 the lieutenant governor was
created governor and commander-in-chief, and rendered independent of
Jamaica. He is assisted by an executive council of three official and three
unofficial members. For administrative purposes the colony is divided into
six districts--Belize, Corosal, Orange Walk, the Cayo, Stann Creek and
Toledo. The capital of the last named is Punta Gorda; the other districts
take the names of their chief towns. English common law is valid throughout
British Honduras, subject to modification by local enactments, and to the
operation of the _Consolidated Laws of British Honduras_. This collection
of ordinances, customs, &c., was officially revised and published between
1884 and 1888. Appeals may be carried before the privy council or the
supreme court of Jamaica,

_Religion and Education._--The churches represented are Roman Catholic,
Anglican, Wesleyan, Baptist and Presbyterian; but none of them receives
assistance from public funds. The bishopric of British Honduras is part of
the West Indian province of the Church of England. Almost all the schools,
secondary as well as primary, are denominational. School fees are charged,
and grants-in-aid are made to elementary schools. Most of these, since
1894, have been under the control of a board, on which the religious bodies
managing the schools are represented.

_Defence._--The Belize volunteer light infantry corps, raised in 1897,
consists of about 200 officers and men; a mounted section, numbering about
40, was created in 1904. For the whole colony, the police Dumber about 120.
There is also a volunteer fire brigade of 335 officers and men.

_History._--"His Majesty's Settlement in the Bay of Honduras," as the
territory was formerly styled in official documents, owes, its origin, in
1638, to log-wood cutters who had formerly been buccaneers. These were
afterwards joined by agents of the Chartered Company which exploited the
pearl fisheries of the Mosquito coast. Although thus industriously
occupied, the settlers so far retained their old habits as to make frequent
descents on the logwood establishments of the Spaniards, whose attempts to
expel them were generally successfully resisted. The most formidable of
these was made by the Spaniards in April 1754, when, in consequence of the
difficulty of approaching the position from the sea, an expedition,
consisting of 1500 men, was organized inland at the town of Peten. As it
neared the coast, it was met by 250 British, and completely routed. The
log-wood cutters were not again disturbed for a number of years, and their
position had become so well established that, in the treaty of 1763 with
Spain, Great Britain, while agreeing to demolish "all fortifications which
English subjects had erected in the Bay of Honduras," insisted on a clause
in favour of the cutters of logwood, that "they or their Workmen were not
to be disturbed or molested, under any pretext whatever, in their said
places of cutting and loading logwood." Strengthened by the recognition of
the crown, the British settlers made fresh encroachments on Spanish
territory. The Spaniards, asserting that they were engaged in smuggling and
other illicit practices, organized a large force, and on the 15th of
September 1779, suddenly attacked and destroyed the establishment at
Belize, taking the inhabitants prisoners to Mérida in Yucatan, and
afterwards to Havana, where most of them died, The survivors were liberated
in 1782, and allowed to go to Jamaica. In 1783 they returned with many new
adventurers, and were soon engaged in cutting woods. On the 3rd of
September in that year a new treaty was signed between Great Britain and
Spain, in which it was expressly agreed that his Britannic Majesty's
subjects should have "the right of cutting, loading, and carrying away
logwood in the district lying between the river Wallis or Belize and Rio
Hondo, taking the course of these two rivers for unalterable boundaries."
These concessions "were not to be considered as derogating from the rights
of sovereignty of the king of Spain" over the district in question, where
all the English dispersed in the Spanish territories were to concentrate
themselves within eighteen months. This did not prove a satisfactory
arrangement; for in 1786 a new treaty was concluded, in which the king of
Spain made an additional grant of territory, embracing the area between the
rivers Sibun or Jabon and Belize. But these extended limits were coupled
with still more rigid restrictions. It is not to be supposed that a
population composed of so lawless a set of men was remarkably exact in its
observance of the treaty. They seem to have greatly annoyed their Spanish
neighbours, who eagerly availed themselves of the breaking out of war
between the two countries in 1796 to concert a formidable attack on Belize.
They concentrated a force of 2000 men at Campeachy, which, under the
command of General O'Neill, set sail in thirteen vessels for Belize, and
arrived on the 10th of July, 1798. The settlers, aided by the British sloop
of war "Merlin," had strongly fortified a small island in the harbour,
called St George's Cay. They maintained a determined resistance against the
Spanish forces, which were obliged to retire to Campeachy. This was the
last attempt to dislodge the British.

The defeat of the Spanish attempt of 1798 has been adduced as an act of
conquest, thereby permanently establishing British sovereignty. But those
who take this view overlook the important fact that, in 1814, by a new
treaty with Spain, the provisions of the earlier treaty were revived. They
forget also that for many years the British government never laid claim to
any rights acquired in virtue of the successful defence; for so late as
1817-1819 the acts of parliament relating to Belize always refer to it as
"a settlement, for certain purposes, under the protection of His Majesty."
After Central America had attained its independence (1819-1822) Great
Britain secured its position by incorporating the provisions of the treaty
of 1786 in a new treaty with Mexico (1826), and in the drafts of treaties
with New Granada (1825) and the United States of Central America (1831).
The territories between the Belize and Sarstoon rivers were claimed by the
British in 1836. The subsequent peaceful progress of the country under
British rule; the exception of Belize from that provision of the
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (_q.v._) of 1850 which forbade Great Britain and the
United States to fortify or colonize any point on the Central American
mainland; and the settlement of the boundary disputes with Guatemala in
1859, finally confirmed the legal sovereignty of Great Britain over the
whole colony, including the territories claimed in 1836. The Bay Islands
were recognized as part of the republic of Honduras in 1859. Between 1849,
when the Indians beyond the Hondo rose against their Mexican rulers, and
1901, when they were finally subjugated, rebel bands occasionally attacked
the northern and north-western marches of the colony. The last serious raid
was foiled in 1872.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.--For all statistical matter relating to the colony, see the
annual reports to the British Colonial Office (London). For the progress of
exploration, see _A Narrative of a Journey across the unexplored Portion of
British Honduras_, by H. Fowler (Belize, 1879); and "An Expedition to the
Cockscomb Mountains," by J. Bellamy, in _Proceedings of the Royal
Geographical Society_, vol. xi. (London, 1889). A good general description
is given in the _Handbook of British Honduras_, by L.W. Bristowe and P.B.
Wright (Edinburgh, 1892); and the local history is recounted in the
_History of British Honduras_, by A.R. Gibbs (London, 1883); in _Notes on
Central America_, by E.J. Squier (New York, 1855); and in _Belize or
British Honduras_, a paper read before the Society of Arts by Chief Justice
Temple (London, 1847).

(K. G. J.)

BRITOMARTIS ("sweet maiden"), an old Cretan goddess, later identified with
Artemis. According to Callimachus (_Hymn to Diana_, 190), she was a nymph,
the daughter of Zeus and Carme, and a favourite companion of Artemis. Being
pursued by Minos, king of Crete, who was enamoured of her, she sprang from
a rock into the sea, but was saved from drowning by falling into some
fishermen's nets. She was afterwards made a goddess by Artemis under the
name of Dictynna ([Greek: diktuon], "a [v.04 p.0617] net"). She was the
patroness of hunters, fishermen and sailors, and also a goddess of birth
and health. The centre of her worship was Cydonia, whence it extended to
Sparta and Aegina (where she was known as Aphaea) and the islands of the
Mediterranean. By some she is considered to have been a moon-goddess, her
flight from Minos and her leap into the sea signifying the revolution and
disappearance of the moon (Pausanias ii. 30, iii. 14; Antoninus Liberalis
40).

BRITON-FERRY, a seaport in the mid-parliamentary division of
Glamorganshire, Wales, on the eastern bank of the estuary of the Neath
river in Swansea Bay, with stations on the Great Western and the Rhondda &
Swansea Bay railways, being 174 m. by rail from London. Pop. of urban
district (1901) 6973. A tram-line connects it with Neath, 2 m. distant, and
the Vale of Neath Canal (made in 1797) has its terminus here. The district
was formerly celebrated for its scenery, but this has been considerably
marred by industrial development which received its chief impetus from the
construction in 1861 of a dock of 13 acres, the property of the Great
Western Railway Company, and the opening up about the same time of the
mining districts of Glyncorrwg and Maesteg by means of the South Wales
mineral railway, which connects them with the dock and supplies it with its
chief export, coal. Steel and tinplates are manufactured here on a large
scale. There are also iron-works and a foundry.

The name La Brittone was given by the Norman settlers of the 12th century
to its ferry across the estuary of the Neath (where Archbishop Baldwin and
Giraldus crossed in 1188, and which is still used), but the Welsh name of
the town from at least the 16th century has been Llansawel.

BRITTANY, or BRITANNY (Fr. _Bretagne_), known as Armorica (_q.v._) until
the influx of Celts from Britain, an ancient province and duchy of France,
consisting of the north-west peninsula, and nearly corresponding to the
departments of Finistère, Côtes-du-Nord, Morbihan, Ille-et-Vilaine and
Lower Loire. It is popularly divided into Upper or Western, and Lower or
Eastern Brittany. Its greatest length between the English Channel and the
Atlantic Ocean is 250 kilometres (about 155 English miles), and its
superficial extent is 30,000 sq. kilometres (about 18,630 English sq. m.).
It comprises two distinct zones, a maritime zone and an inland zone. In the
centre there are two plateaus, partly covered with _landes_, unproductive
moorland: the southern plateau is continued by the Montagnes Noires, and
the northern is dominated by the Monts d'Arrée. These ranges nowhere exceed
1150 ft. in height, but from their wild nature they recall the aspect of
high mountains. The waterways of Brittany are for the most part of little
value owing to their torrent-like character. The only river basin of any
importance is that of the Vilaine, which flows through Rennes. The coast is
very much indented, especially along the English Channel, and is rocky and
lined with reefs and islets. The mouths of the rivers form deep estuaries.
Thus nature itself condemned Brittany to remain for a long time shut out
from civilization. But in the 19th century the development of railways and
other means of communication drew Brittany from its isolation. In the 19th
century also agriculture developed in a remarkable manner. Many of the
_landes_ were cleared and converted into excellent pasturage, and on the
coast market-gardening made great progress. In the fertile districts
cereals too are cultivated. Industrial pursuits, except in a few seaport
towns, which are rather French than Breton, have hitherto received but
little attention.

The Bretons are by nature conservative. They cling with almost equal
attachment to their local customs and their religious superstitions. It was
not till the 17th century that paganism was even nominally abolished in
some parts, and there is probably no district in Europe where the popular
Christianity has assimilated more from earlier creeds. Witchcraft and the
influence of fairies are still often believed in. The costume of both sexes
is very peculiar both in cut and colour, but varies considerably in
different districts. Bright red, violet and blue are much used, not only by
the women, but in the coats and waistcoats of the men. The reader will find
full illustrations of the different styles in Bouet's _Breiz-izel, ou vie
des Breions de l'Armorique_ (1844). The Celtic language is still spoken in
lower Brittany. Four dialects are pretty clearly marked (see the article
CELT: _Language_, "_Breton_," p. 328). Nowhere has the taste for marvellous
legends been kept so green as in Brittany; and an entire folk-literature
still flourishes there, as is manifested by the large number of folk-tales
and folk-songs which have been collected of late years.

The whole duchy was formerly divided into nine bishoprics:--Rennes, Dol,
Nantes, St Malo and St Brieuc, in Upper Brittany and Tréguier, Vannes,
Quimper and St Pol de Léon in Lower.

_History._--Of Brittany before the coming of the Romans we have no exact
knowledge. The only traces left by the primitive populations are the
megalithic monuments (dolmens, menhirs and cromlechs), which remain to this
day in great numbers (see STONE MONUMENTS). In 56 B.C. the Romans destroyed
the fleet of the Veneti, and in 52 the inhabitants of Armorica took part in
the great insurrection of the Gauls against Caesar, but were subdued
finally by him in 51. Roman civilization was then established for several
centuries in Brittany.

In the 5th century numbers of the Celtic inhabitants of Britain, flying
from the Angles and Saxons, emigrated to Armorica, and populated a great
part of the peninsula. Converted to Christianity, the new-comers founded
monasteries which helped to clear the land, the greater part of which was
barren and wild. The Celtic immigrants formed the counties of Vannes,
Cornouaille, Léon and Domnonée. A powerful aristocracy was constituted,
which owned estates and had them cultivated by serfs or villeins. The Celts
sustained a long struggle against the Frankish kings, who only nominally
occupied Brittany. Louis the Pious placed a native chief Nomenoë at the
head of Brittany. There was then a fairly long period of peace; but Nomenoë
rebelled against Charles the Bald, defeated him, and forced him, in 846, to
recognize the independence of Brittany. The end of the 9th century and the
beginning of the 10th were remarkable for the invasions of the Northmen. On
several occasions they were driven back--by Salomon (d. 874) and afterwards
by Alain, count of Vannes (d. 907)--but it was Alain Barbetorte (d. 952)
who gained the decisive victory over them.

In the second half of the 10th century and in the 11th century the counts
of Rennes were predominant in Brittany. Geoffrey, son of Conan, took the
title of duke of Brittany in 992. Conan II., Geoffrey's grandson,
threatened by the revolts of the nobles, was attacked also by the duke of
Normandy (afterwards William I. of En