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Title: Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society - Vol. 3 - Zoology
Author: Various
Language: English
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by the Posner Memorial Collection
(http://posner.library.cmu.edu/Posner/))



                                 JOURNAL

                                   OF

                             THE PROCEEDINGS

                                   OF

                           THE LINNEAN SOCIETY.


                                 ZOOLOGY.


                                VOL. III.



                                 LONDON:
                  LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, LONGMANS & ROBERTS,
                                   AND
                          WILLIAMS AND NORGATE.
                                  1859.



                      PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS,
                      RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET.



LIST OF PAPERS.

                                                                  Page
BAIKIE, Dr.

Extract of a Letter from Dr. Baikie to Sir John Richardson,
M.D., C.B., F.R. & L.S., dated 29th October, 1857, Rabba,
on the Qworra                                                       76

BATE, C. SPENCE, Esq., F.L.S.

On the Importance of an Examination of the Structure of the
Integument of Crustacea in the determination of doubtful
Species.--Application to the genus _Galathea_, with the
Description of a New Species of that Genus                           1

BELL, THOMAS, Esq., P.L.S.

Description of a new Genus of Crustacea, of the Family
Pinnotheridæ; in which the fifth pair of legs are reduced to an
almost imperceptible rudiment                                       27

DARWIN, CHARLES, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S., & F.G.S., and
WALLACE, ALFRED R., Esq.

On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the
Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of
Selection                                                           45

HANBURY, DANIEL, Esq., F.L.S.

Note on Two Insect-products from Persia                            178

HIGGINS, Rev. HENRY.

Death of the Common Hive Bee; supposed to be occasioned by
a parasitic Fungus                                                  29

HUXLEY, T. H., Esq., F.R.S., Professor of Natural
History, Government School of Mines.

On some points in the Anatomy of _Nautilus Pompilius_               36

KNOX, R., Esq., M.D., F.R.S.E.

Contributions to the Anatomy and Natural History of the Cetacea.    63

SMITH, FREDERICK, Esq., Assistant in the Zoological
Department in the British Museum.

Catalogue of Hymenopterous Insects collected at Celebes by
Mr. A. R. Wallace                                                    4

Catalogue of Hymenopterous Insects collected by Mr. A. R.
Wallace at the Islands of Aru and Key                              132

WALKER, FRANCIS, Esq., F.L.S.

Catalogue of the Dipterous Insects collected in the Aru Islands
by Mr. A. R. Wallace, with Descriptions of New Species              77

Catalogue of the Heterocerous Lepidoptera collected at Singapore
by Mr. A. R. Wallace, with Descriptions of New Species             183

Catalogue of the Heterocerous Lepidopterous Insects collected
at Malacca by Mr. A. R. Wallace, with Descriptions of New
Species                                                            196

WALLACE, ALFRED R., Esq., and DARWIN, CHARLES
Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S., & F.G.S.

On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the
Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of
Selection                                                           45

WASHINGTON, Captain.

Natural-History Extracts from the Journal of Captain Denham,
H.M. Surveying Vessel 'Herald,' 1857                                32

WETHERELL, JOHN W., Esq.

Notice of the occurrence of recent Worm Tracks in the Upper
Part of the London Clay Formation near Highgate                     31

INDEX                                                              199



JOURNAL OF THE PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

LINNEAN SOCIETY OF LONDON.

On the Importance of an Examination of the Structure of the Integument
of Crustacea in the determination of doubtful Species.--Application to
the genus _Galathea_, with the Description of a New Species of that
Genus. By SPENCE BATE, Esq., F.L.S.

[Read January 21, 1858.]


Of the various genera of Decapod Crustacea none are more interesting, or
more difficult of description, than those which constitute the family
Galatheadæ.

The interest attaching to these forms arises from the intermediate
position which they occupy in the natural arrangement of the class,
their structure placing them between the Macrura and Brachyura; in
accordance with which we find that, whilst Professor M.-Edwards classes
them among the Macrura, Professor Bell, in his work on the British
Crustacea, places them (more correctly, as we think) in the intermediate
group of Anomura.

This opinion is fully borne out both in the development of the animals
and in their structure in the adult state.

The early form of the larva bears, anteriorly, a resemblance to the
Brachyural type, whilst the caudal appendages assimilate to those of the
Macrura. The same conditions obtain in the young of Anomura. At the time
of birth, the larva, like that of the Brachyura, has only the two
gnathopoda developed, whilst the termination of the tail is like that
of a fish, as in the Macrura. In the adult, the internal antennæ possess
short flagella and complementary appendages, such as exist in the order
Brachyura, whilst the external antennæ have the long and slender
flagella proper to the Macrura. The _scale_, however, commonly appended
to the external antennæ in the latter order is wanting, a circumstance
which exhibits a relation to the Brachyura.

An examination of the legs shows that the coxæ are fused with the
thorax, as in the Brachyura, and not articulated with it as in the
Macrura, whilst, on the other hand, the posterior division and caudal
termination approach the Macrural type more nearly than that of the
Brachyura, the animal thus assuming a character intermediate between the
two orders.

But in the description of the several species of the genus _Galathea_, a
peculiar difficulty appears to arise, originating in the affinity which
they bear to each other. So close, in fact, is the approximation, that
the descriptions of the best writers will scarcely avail for the
distinction of the individual species without the assistance of figures.
This arises from the fact that the general characters, upon which the
descriptions are based, vary, in this genus, only in their comparative
degrees of development.

In the three species recognized in Professor Bell's work on the British
Crustacea, it will be found that each species retains the same
characters in greater or less degree.

_Galathea strigosa_ is peculiar for the spinous character of the
carapace and cheliform legs. Every spine, however, is repeated in both
the other species, only less developed. We find the rostrum furnished
with four lateral teeth on each side, a character which also exists in
each of the other species; and although close observation may detect a
slightly different arrangement in the relative position of these teeth,
the differences are not of sufficient importance to enable a naturalist
thence to derive a specific distinction, unless the peculiarity is
seconded by some more unqualified character less liable to be affected
by any peculiarity of condition.

In order to arrive at more certain results in the identification of
species, we think that the microscopic examination of the surface of the
integument will be found peculiarly useful.

This mode of examination of species may also be applied to a
considerable extent throughout the Crustacea generally with great
advantage; and if found valuable in recent, there can be no doubt that
it will prove of far greater importance in extinct forms, where parts
on which the identification of species visually rests are lost, and
fragments only of the animal obtainable.

It should be borne in mind that, as the structure in question undergoes
modifications more or less considerable in different parts of the
animal, it will always be advisable to compare the corresponding parts
with each other.

Applying this test to the known species of _Galathea,_ we perceive that
the structure of the integument upon the arms, independent of the
marginal spines, exhibits a squamiform appearance, but that the scales,
which characterise the structure, possess features peculiar to each
species.

In _Galathea strigosa_ the scales are convex, distant from each other,
smooth at the edge, and fringed with long hairs. In _G. squamifera_ they
are convex, closely placed, scalloped at the edge, and without hairs. In
_G. nexa_ the scales are obsolete, tufts of hair representing the
supposed edges. In _G. depressa_, n. sp., the scales are broad, less
convex than in _G. strigosa_ and _G. squamifera_, smooth, closely set,
and fringed with short hairs. In _G. Andrewsii_ they are small, distant,
very convex, tipped with red, and slightly furnished with hair.

As another instance of the practical application of the microscopical
examination of the surface, I would refer to two species of Amphipoda,
classed by Leach under the name of _Gammarus Locusta_, from his
inability to assign them any separate specific characters. In the
structure of their integuments, however, these two forms will be found
to exhibit widely different microscopical appearances.

Again, there exists in the same group three or four species, the
description of any one of which would apply to either of the others; and
it is probable they would never have been ranked as separate species had
not their habitats been geographically distant. Thus _Gammarus Olivii_,
M.-Ed., _G. affinis_, M.-E., _G. Kröyii_, Rathke, and _G. gracilis_, R.,
can only be specifically determined by a microscopic examination of the
integument.

The same may be said of other Amphipoda, such as _Urothoe inostratus_,
Dana, from South America, which so nearly resembles in form the _U.
elegans_ of the British shores.


GALATHEA DISPERSA, mihi.

_G._ rostro brevi, dentibus 4 utrinque ornato, 2 anterioribus minoribus;
pedibus anterioribus elongatis, sparse spiosus; chelarum digitis
parallelis.

Galathea with short rostrum, armed on each side with 4 teeth, the two
posterior being less important than the two anterior. The fingers of the
chelæ impinge through their whole length; outer margin of the hand
furnished with 3 or 4 small spines.

_Hab._ Trawling-ground, Plymouth, common; Moray Frith, Scotland.

This species unites _G. Andrewsii_ with _G. nexa_, and, I think, has
often been mistaken for the young of the latter; but _G. nexa_, so far
as my experience goes, is a species peculiar to the north of England,
whereas _G. dispersa_, I anticipate, will be found to be the most
universally dispersed, in deep water, of any of the species known. It
can always be detected from _G. nexa_ by the form of the hand and the
manner in which the fingers impinge: in _G. nexa_ the hand is broad
towards the extremity, and the fingers meet only at the apex; in _G.
dispersa_ the hand gradually narrows to the apex, and the fingers meet
each other through their whole length, the inner margin of the finger
being finely serrated, the thumb not.

It also may be distinguished from _G. Andrewsii_ by the breadth of the
hands, which are narrow and round in _G. Andrewsii_, and moderately
broad and flat in _G. dispersa_.

By an examination of the texture of the integument under a magnifying
power of low degree, the surface of _G. dispersa_ will be seen
distinctly to differ from that of any of the others; it is covered with
flat scales, fringed with short cilia. The length of the animal,
including the arms, is about 2-1/4 inches.



Catalogue of Hymenopterous Insects collected at Celebes by Mr. A. R.
WALLACE. By FREDERICK SMITH, Esq., Assistant in the Zoological
Department, British Museum. Communicated by W. W. SAUNDERS, Esq.,
F.R.S., F.L.S.

[Read April 15th, 1858.]


This collection of the Hymenoptera of Celebes is specially interesting,
as adding greatly to our knowledge of the geographical range of many
well-known species, while the additions made to the Fossorial group
contain many of great beauty and rarity. A new species belonging to the
tribe of Solitary Wasps, _Odynerus clavicornis_, is perhaps the most
interesting insect in the collection; this Wasp has clavate antennæ, the
flagellum being broadly dilated towards the apex, convex above and
concave beneath. I am not acquainted with any other insect belonging to
the Vespidious group which exhibits such an anomaly.


Fam. ANDRENIDÆ, _Leach._

Gen. SPHECODES, _Latr._

1. SPHECODES INSULARIS. _S._ niger, abdominis segmentis primo secundo et
tertio (basi) rubris; alis hyalinis.

_Male._ Length 3-1/2 lines. Head and thorax black, closely and strongly
punctured; the face below the antennæ with silvery-white pubescence; the
joints of the flagellum submoniliform; the mandibles ferruginous.
Thorax: the tegulæ pale rufo-testaceous, wings hyaline, the nervures
ferruginous; the metathorax coarsely rugose; the articulations of the
legs and the tarsi ferruginous. Abdomen: the first, second, and base of
the third segments red, the apical ones black, very finely and closely
punctured, with the apical margins of the segments smooth and shining; a
black spot in the middle of the basal segment.

_Hab._ Celebes.

Gen. NOMIA, _Latr._

1. NOMIA PUNCTATA. _N._ nigra nitida punctata, alis nigro-fuscis.

_Male._ Length 4-1/2 lines. Shining black: head and thorax coarsely
punctured, the metathorax ruggedly sculptured, truncate at the apex, the
truncation and sides smooth with a few fine punctures; the abdomen
closely and rather finely punctured, the apical margins of the segments
smooth and shining. The tips of the mandibles, the tarsi and apex of the
abdomen rufo-testaceous, the wings fuscous.

_Hab._ Celebes.

2. NOMIA FLAVIPES. _N._ nigra pedibus flavis, abdomine cinereo fasciato,
alis hyalinis.

_Female._ Length 3-1/4 lines. Black; the face and cheeks densely clothed
with short cinereous pubescence, the vertex thinly so; the margins of
the prothorax, mesothorax and scutellum with a line of pale ochraceous
pubescence, the disk of the thorax thinly covered with short pubescence
of the same colour, the emargination of the metathorax as well as its
sides with longer pubescence of the same colour; the base of the abdomen
and basal margin of the second and following segments covered with short
cinereous pubescence. The flagellum beneath fulvous; the mandibles
ferruginous. The legs reddish-yellow, with the coxæ and base of the
femora black; the wings hyaline; the tegulæ yellow, the nervures pale
testaceous.

_Hab._ Celebes.

3. NOMIA FORMOSA. _N._ capite thoraceque nigris; abdomine chalybeo;
marginibus apicalibus segmentorum cæruleo fasciatis.

_Female._ Length 5-1/2 lines. Head and thorax black and very closely
punctured; the face covered with griseous pubescence; the clypeus with a
central longitudinal carina. Thorax: the apical margin of the prothorax,
the margins of the scutellum, and the sides of the metathorax covered
with a dense short ochraceous pubescence; the disk of the thorax thinly
sprinkled with short black hairs; the posterior tibiæ obscurely
ferruginous; the tarsi ferruginous; the legs covered with bright
golden-yellow pubescence; wings subhyaline, the nervures ferruginous;
the tegulæ yellow with a fuscous stain in the middle. Abdomen obscurely
chalybeous, closely punctured, the two basal segments strongly so; the
apical margins of the segments with smooth shining narrow blue fasciæ.

_Male._ Closely resembling the female, but with the legs black; the
posterior femora incrassate, the tibiæ narrow at their base and broadly
dilated at their apex, which, as well as the calcaria, are pale
testaceous.

This species closely resembles a species from North China, _N.
chalybeata_, Westw. MS., from which it is readily distinguished by the
form of the fourth ventral segment, which is notched in the middle,
rounded, and then emarginate with the lateral angles rounded; in the
species from China the margin is arched, and fringed with fulvous
pubescence.

4. NOMIA HALIOTOIDES. _N._ nigra, pube cinerea tecta, abdominis
segmentis intermediis pube alba fasciatis.

_Female._ Length 4-1/2 lines. Black; head and thorax opake, and thinly
clothed with cinereous pubescence, that on the disk of the thorax and
margin of the scutellum slightly ochraceous. The flagellum fulvous
beneath, the mandibles ferruginous at their apex; the tarsi ferruginous,
wings hyaline, nervures fuscous, stigma testaceous. Abdomen shining,
delicately punctured; the basal margins of the second, third, and fourth
segments with a band of cinereous pubescence, attenuated in the middle.

_Hab._ Celebes.


Fam. DASYGASTRÆ.

1. MEGACHILE INCISA. _M._ nigra, rude et dense punctata, facie fulvo
pubescente; alis fuscis, segmentis abdominis marginibus multo depressis.

_Male._ Length 5-1/2 lines. Black; closely and strongly punctured, the
punctures confluent on the abdomen. The face clothed with fulvous
pubescence. The tarsi obscurely rufo-piceous, the claws ferruginous;
wings dark fuscous, their base hyaline. Abdomen: the apical margins of
the segments smooth, impunctate, their basal margins very deeply
depressed; a deep fovea at the tip of the apical segment; the head,
thorax, and abdomen clothed beneath with short cinereous pubescence.

_Hab._ Celebes.

2. MEGACHILE FULVIFRONS. _M._ nigra, delicatule punctata; facie dense
fulvo pubescente; thoracis lateribus abdomineque subtus fulvo
pubescentibus; fasciis marginalibus abdominis fulvis.

_Female._ Length 7 lines. Black; head and thorax closely punctured, the
abdomen delicately so and shining; the mandibles stout, with two acute
teeth at their apex, shining and covered with oblong punctures; the
face, sides of the thorax, and abdomen beneath, densely clothed with
fulvous pubescence; the apical margins of the segments of the abdomen
above with narrow fasciæ of short fulvous pubescence; the abdomen in
certain lights has a metallic tinge.

The _male_ is similarly clothed to the female, the margins of the
segments are deeply depressed, and that of the apical segment slightly
notched in the middle.

_Hab._ Celebes.

3. MEGACHILE TERMINALIS. _M._ nigra, capite thoraceque dense punctatis;
abdomine pube nigra vestito; segmentis duobus apicalibus pube alba
vestitis; alis fuscis.

_Female._ Length 9 lines. Black; the face with tufts of black pubescence
above the insertion of the antennæ; mandibles very stout, with an acute
tooth at their apex, the inner margin subdentate, and covered with fine
cinereous pubescence. Thorax with black pubescence at the sides of the
metathorax; the wings dark fuscous. Abdomen clothed with black
pubescence; the fifth and sixth segments clothed with ochraceous
pubescence above, that on the sixth nearly white.

_Hab._ Celebes.

This species resembles the _M. ornata_; but when viewed beneath, the
different colour of the pollen-brush at once separates them.

Gen. CERATINA, _Spin._

1. Ceratina viridis, _Guér. Icon. Reg. Ann._ 444. t. 73. f. 6.

_Hab._ India (Bengal, N. India), Ceylon, Celebes, China.

2. Ceratina hieroglyphica, _Smith_, _Cat. Hym. Ins._ ii. 226.

_Hab._ Northern India, Celebes, Philippine Islands, Hong Kong.


Fam. DENUDATÆ.

1. STELIS ABDOMINALIS. _S._ dense punctata, capite thoraceque nigris,
abdomine ferrugineo; alis nigro-fuscis violaceo iridescentibus.

_Male._ Length 5 lines. Head and thorax black, abdomen ferruginous; head
and thorax strongly punctured, the scutellum very strongly so; the sides
of the face and the anterior margin of the face fringed with white
pubescence. The posterior margin of the scutellum rounded; wings dark
brown with a violet iridescence. Abdomen ferruginous and closely
punctured.

_Hab._ Celebes.

2. COELIOXYS FULVIFRONS. _C._ nigra, rude punctata, facie pube fulva
vestita; alis fuscis cupreo iridescentibus.

_Male._ Length 6 lines. Black; the head and thorax with large confluent
punctures; the face clothed with fulvous pubescence. Thorax: a stout
tooth on each side of the scutellum at its base; wings dark brown with a
coppery effulgence, subhyaline at their base; beneath clothed with short
cinereous pubescence. Abdomen: elongate, conical; closely punctured,
with the apical and basal margins of the segments smooth; the apical
segment with a tooth on each side at its base and four at its apex;
beneath the margins of the segments fringed with pale pubescence; the
apical margin of the fourth segment notched in the middle; the fifth
entirely clothed with pale pubescence.

_Hab._ Celebes.


Fam. SCOPULIPEDES.

Gen. ANTHOPHORA, _Latr._

1. Anthophora zonata, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ i. 955. 19.

_Hab._ India, Ceylon, Malacca, Sumatra, Borneo, Philippine Islands, Hong
Kong, Shanghai, Celebes.

Gen. XYLOCOPA, _Latr._

1. Xylocopa fenestrata, _Fabr. Syst. Piez._ p. 339. 6. [Symbol: male].

_Hab._ India, Celebes.

2. Xylocopa æstuans, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 961. 53.

_Hab._ India, Java, Singapore, Celebes.

3. Xylocopa Dejeanii, _St. Farg. Hym._ ii. 209. 59.

_Hab._ Java, Borneo, Sumatra, Celebes.

4. Xylocopa collaris, _St. Farg. Hym._ ii. 189. 26.

_Hab._ India, Sumatra, Malacca, Borneo, Celebes.

5. XYLOCOPA NOBILIS. _X._ nigra, pube nigra induta; abdominis basi pube
flava, apice lateritio.

_Female._ Length 11 lines. Black; a narrow line of pale fulvous
pubescence on the margin of the thorax in front, a patch of the same
colour on each side of the metathorax, and the basal segment of the
abdomen covered above with similar pubescence; the apical margin of the
third and fourth segments, and the fifth and six entirely, covered with
bright brick-red pubescence; the wings black, with coppery iridescence.

_Hab._ Celebes.


Fam. SOCIALES.

1. APIS ZONATA. _A._ nigra, thoracis lateribus dense ochraceo
pubescentibus; alis fumatis; abdomine nitido, segmentis secundo tertio
quartoque basi niveo pubescentibus.

_Worker._ Length 8--8-1/2 lines. Black; the head and thorax opake, the
abdomen shining; the clypeus smooth and shining, the flagellum
rufo-piceous beneath; the anterior margin of the labrum narrowly, and
the apex of the mandibles, ferruginous; the face with a little fine
short cinereous pubescence above the insertion of the antennæ; the
vertex with long black pubescence; the eyes covered with short black
pubescence. Thorax: the sides with ochraceous pubescence; wings smoky,
the superior pair darkest at their anterior margin beyond the stigma.
Abdomen: a snow-white band at the basal margin of the second, third, and
fourth segments, the bands continued beneath, but narrower.

_Hab._ Celebes, Philippine Islands.

Specimens of this species denuded of their white bands would approach
the _A. unicolor_ of Latreille; but that insect is described as having
the anterior wings black; in the present species both pairs are of the
same smoky colour, not approaching black.


Fam. MUTILLIDÆ.

Gen. MUTILLA.

1. Mutilla sexmaculata, _Swed. Nov. Act. Holm._ viii. 286. 44. [Symbol:
female]. Mutilla fuscipennis, _Fabr. Syst. Piez._ 436. 35. [Symbol:
male].

_Hab._ India (Punjaub, &c.), China, Java, Celebes.

2. Mutilla unifasciata, _Smith_, _Cat. Hym._ pt. iii. p. 38.

_Hab._ India, Celebes.

3. Mutilla rufogastra, _St. Farg. Hym._ iii. 629. 51. [Symbol: male].

_Hab._ India, Celebes.

4. MUTILLA VOLATILIS. _M._ nigra, rude punctata et pubescens; capite
abdomineque nitidis, alis fusco-hyalinis.

_Male._ Length 5-6 lines. Black. Head and thorax very coarsely
punctured; head and disk of the thorax punctured; the metathorax opake,
with a central abbreviated channel and covered with large shallow
punctures; the eyes notched on their inner margin; wings fuscous and
iridescent; the tegulæ smooth and shining. Abdomen shining and rather
finely punctured; the basal segment narrow and campanulate; the margins
of the segments thickly fringed with silvery-white hair; the cheeks,
sides of the thorax, and beneath the legs and abdomen with scattered
long silvery-white hairs.

_Hab._ Celebes.


Fam. SCOLIADÆ, _Leach._

Gen. SCOLIA, _Fabr._

1. Scolia erratica, _Smith_, _Cat. Hym. Ins._ pt. iii. p. 88. 10. Scolia
verticalis, _Burm. Abh. Nat.-Ges. Halle_, i. 37. 61.

_Hab._ India, Sumatra, Celebes.

2. Scolia aurulenta, _Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins._ pt. iii. p. 102. 80. (nec
_Fabr._).

_Hab._ Philippine Islands, Celebes.

3. Scolia fimbriata, _Burm. Abh. Nat.-Ges. Halle_, i. p. 32. 24.

_Hab._ Java, Celebes.

4. Scolia dimidiata, _Guér. Voy. Coq. Zool._ ii. pt. 2. p. 248.

_Hab._ Senegal, Celebes.

5. SCOLIA TERMINATA. _S._ nigra, clypeo mandibulisque flavis, thorace
flavo variegato, alis hyalinis, abdomine flavo quinque-fasciato,
apicisque marginibus flavis.

_Male._ Length 5 lines. Black; the clypeus, labrum, and mandibles
yellow; the former with a triangular black spot in the middle; the
latter ferruginous at their apex. The posterior margin of the prothorax,
the tegulæ, a transverse curved line on the scutellum, and a spot on the
postscutellum yellow; the anterior and intermediate tarsi, tibiæ, and
knees, and the posterior tibiæ outside, yellow; a black line on the
intermediate tibiæ beneath, and the apical joints of the tarsi fuscous;
wings hyaline, the nervures ferruginous. Abdomen brightly prismatic; the
margins of all the segments with a narrow yellow fascia, those on the
second and third segments terminating at the sides in a large rounded
macula; the fascia very narrow or obliterated on the sixth segment; the
fasciæ on the second and third segments continued beneath.

_Hab._ Celebes.

6. SCOLIA AGILIS. _S._ nigra, mandibulis clypeoque flavis, alis
fulvo-hyalinis, abdomine prismatico flavo quadrifasciato.

_Male._ Length 8 lines. Black and punctured, with thin long griseous
pubescence; the vertex, disk of the thorax, and the abdomen shining; the
mandibles and clypeus yellow, the latter with a black bell-shaped spot
in the middle; wings fulvo-hyaline, the nervures ferruginous; the tibiæ
with a yellow line outside. Abdomen beautifully prismatic; the first and
three following segments with a yellow fascia on their apical margins,
the second and two following much attenuated in the middle, or the
fourth interrupted.

_Hab._ Celebes.

7. SCOLIA FULVIPENNIS. _S._ nigra, antennis capiteque supra basin
antennarum rubris, alis fulvo-hyalinis.

_Male._ Length 7 lines. Black; the antennæ and the head above their
insertion ferruginous, the scape black, the head coarsely punctured.
Thorax: coarsely punctured; the mesothorax with an abbreviated deeply
impressed line in the middle of its anterior margin; wings
fulvo-hyaline, the nervures ferruginous; the apex of the wings slightly
fuscous, the anterior pair with two submarginal cells and one recurrent
nervure. Abdomen: shining, punctured, and prismatic.

_Hab._ Celebes.

8. SCOLIA ALECTO. _S._ nigra, capite supra basin antennarum rubro; alis
nigris violaceo micantibus.

_Female._ Length 14 lines. Black and shining; head red above the
insertion of the antennæ, very smooth and glossy, with a few punctures
at the sides of and in front of the ocelli; antennæ black; the mandibles
with a fringe of ferruginous hairs on their inferior margin. Thorax:
smooth on the disk, which has a few scattered punctures at the sides;
the scutellum punctured and shining; the thorax in front and the
metathorax with black pubescence, the latter widely emarginate at the
verge of the truncation, the lateral angles produced; wings black with a
bright violet iridescence. Abdomen punctured, with the middle of the
second, third, and fourth segments smooth and shining in the middle; the
first segment with a smooth shining carina at its base slightly produced
forwards, the abdomen with a slight metallic lustre. The wings with one
marginal and three submarginal cells, and one recurrent nervure.

_Male._ Smaller than the female, and differs in having the clypeus red
and the red colour running down behind the eyes, the antennæ longer, and
the abdomen with a bright metallic iridescence.

_Hab._ Celebes.

9. SCOLIA MINUTA. _S._ nigra, abdomine iridescente, segmentorum
marginibus apicalibus flavo fasciatis, alis subhyalinis iridescentibus.

_Male._ Length 4 lines. Head and thorax black and shining, with
scattered pale pubescence; the mandibles and clypeus yellow, the latter
with an anchor-shaped black spot. Thorax: the posterior margin of the
prothorax and the anterior and intermediate tibiæ and tarsi yellow; a
minute yellow spot on the postscutellum yellow; the wings subhyaline,
the nervures fusco-ferruginous. Abdomen: the apical margins of the
segments with a narrow yellow border, the second and third uniting with
a lateral spot; the sixth segment immaculate; the apex pale testaceous.

_Hab._ Celebes.


Fam. POMPILIDÆ, _Leach_.

1. Pompilus analis, _Fabr. Syst. Piez._ p. 209. 42.

_Hab._ India, Java, Ceylon, Celebes.

2. POMPILUS SALTITANS. _P._ niger, pedibus subferrugineis, prothoracis
margine postica flava; alis flavo-hyalinis, apice fuscis, abdomine pilis
cinereis fasciato.

_Female._ Length 6 lines. Black and thinly covered with ashy pile. The
scape, labrum, mandibles and palpi ferruginous; the clypeus widely
emarginate anteriorly. The posterior margin of the prothorax angular and
with a yellow border; the scutellum prominent, covered on each side with
a dense silvery-white pile, the postscutellum with two spots of the
same; the wings flavo-hyaline, their apex with a broad dark-fuscous
border, the nervures ferruginous, the tegulæ yellow; the posterior wings
palest; legs pale ferruginous, the coxæ black with their tips pale; the
apical joints of the tarsi blackish, the spines of the legs black.
Abdomen: the first, second, and third segments with a fascia of
silvery-white pile at their basal margins; the apex of the abdomen
ferruginous.

_Hab._ Celebes.

3. POMPILUS CONTORTUS. _P._ niger, cinereo-pilosus, prothorace flavo
postice marginato; alis subhyalinis, marginibus apicalibus fuscis,
pedibus subferrugineis.

_Female._ Length 5-1/2 lines. Black; the head, thorax, and four basal
segments of the abdomen covered with ashy pile; the first and second
segments with their apical margins naked. The scape yellow in front; the
flagellum beneath, the labrum, mandibles and palpi ferruginous; the
joints of the antennæ arcuate, particularly the apical ones; the apex of
each joint is oblique, giving the antennæ a twisted appearance. Thorax:
the posterior margin of the prothorax angular and with a broad yellow
border; the scutellum compressed and prominent; wings subhyaline with a
broad fuscous border at their apex, the tegulæ yellow; legs pale
ferruginous, with their coxæ and trochanters black; the apical joints of
the tarsi fuscous. Abdomen with a yellow macula at the tip.

_Hab._ Celebes.

4. POMPILUS PILIFRONS. _P._ niger, facie argenteis pilis dense tecta;
thorace abdomineque flavo maculatis, alis subhyalinis, apice fuscis.

_Female._ Length 4-1/2 lines. Black; the face densely covered with
silvery-white pile; a narrow line at the inner orbits of the eyes, the
palpi and mandibles yellow; the latter ferruginous at their apex. The
posterior margin of the prothorax rounded and yellow; a minute yellow
spot on the mesothorax touching the scutellum, the thorax and abdomen
covered with a changeable silky pile; the wings subhyaline, their
nervures fuscous, a broad dark fuscous border at the apex of the
superior pair. A transverse spot on each side of the basal margin of the
second and third segments, and an emarginate fascia on that of the
fifth, yellow.

5. POMPILUS DECEPTOR. _P._ rufescenti-flavus; vertice nigro, alis
anticis apice fuscis.

_Male._ Length 6 lines. Pale reddish-yellow; the antennæ slightly dusky
above; a black transverse stripe on the vertex between the eyes, and
another issuing from it in the middle and passing beyond the ocelli.
Thorax: a black stripe on each side of the mesothorax over the tegulæ;
the wings subhyaline, the nervures ferruginous, the superior pair
fuscous at their apex. Abdomen immaculate.

Subgenus PRIOCNEMIS.

1. PRIOCNEMIS RUFIFRONS. _P._ niger; facie, antennis, tibiis tarsisque
ferrugineis, alis fulvo-hyalinis; abdominis segmento apicali flavo
unimaculato.

_Female._ Length 9-1/2 lines. Black; the face above the clypeus, as high
as the anterior ocellus, reddish-yellow; the extreme edge of the
clypeus, the labrum and base of the mandibles ferruginous; the antennæ
reddish-yellow. Thorax: fulvo-hyaline, with a dark fuscous border at the
apex; the knees, tibiæ and tarsi reddish-yellow; the two latter spinose.
Abdomen: gradually tapering to an acute point at the apex, the sixth
segment with an elongate red spot.

_Hab._ Celebes.

Subgenus AGENIA.

1. Agenia blanda, _Guér. Voy. Coq. Zool._ ii. pt. 2. p. 260.

2. AGENIA BIMACULATA. _A._ nigra, cinereo-pilosa, clypeo plagis duabus
flavis; antennarum articulis apicalibus, tibiis tarsisque anticis et
intermediis femoribusque posticis ferrugineis; alis subhyalinis,
nervuris nigris.

_Female._ Length 7 lines. Black, and covered with ashy pile; a large
macula on each side of the clypeus, the mandibles and palpi yellow; the
base and apex of the mandibles rufo-piceous; the flagellum pale
ferruginous, more or less fuscous above towards the base. Thorax: the
posterior margin of the prothorax arched; the anterior and intermediate
tibiæ and tarsi and the femora at their apex beneath, also the posterior
femora, pale ferruginous; the wings subhyaline, the nervures dark
fuscous. Abdomen: the apical margins of the segments obscurely and
narrowly rufo-piceous, the apex ferruginous.

_Hab._ Celebes.

Gen. MACROMERIS, _St. Farg._

1. Macromeris splendida, _St. Farg. Hym. iii._ 463. 1. [Symbol: male].

_Hab._ India, China, Malacca, Borneo, Java, Celebes.

Gen. MYGNIMIA, _Smith_.

1. Mygnimia iridipennis, _Smith, Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc._ ii. p. 98.

_Hab._ Celebes, Borneo.

This insect, a female, is 5 lines larger than _M. iridipennis_; but I
can point out no other distinction beyond a slight difference in the
colour of the wings: the specimen from Borneo has a metallic
bluish-green iridescence, the Celebes insect has a violet iridescence;
notwithstanding which I am inclined to regard them as one species.

2. MYGNIMIA FUMIPENNIS. _M._ aurantiaco-rubra, alis obscure fuscis.

_Female._ Length 9 lines. Orange-red; the anterior margin of the clypeus
entire; the labrum produced, its anterior margin widely emarginate; eyes
large, black and ovate. Thorax: the posterior margin of the prothorax
rounded; the mesothorax with a longitudinal fuscous stripe on each side,
widest anteriorly; the metathorax truncate; above, transversely striate;
the tibiæ and tarsi spinose; wings dark fuscous, with a pale
semitransparent macula at the base of the second discoidal cell and a
dark fuscous macula beyond; the insect entirely covered with a fine
orange-red downy pile.

_Hab._ Celebes.


Fam. SPHEGIDÆ.

1. SPHEX PRÆDATOR. _S._ niger, rude punctatus, facie pube fulva vestita;
alis fuscis cupreo iridescentibus.

_Male._ Length 10-1/2 lines. Black; the head and thorax opake. Abdomen
shining blue-black. The face with silvery pile on each side of the
clypeus, and sprinkled with erect black hairs. Thorax: the posterior
margin of the prothorax with a line of silvery pubescence; the
metathorax with a short light-brown pubescence at the apex, and thinly
clothed with black hairs; wings dark brown, with a brilliant violet
iridescence. Abdomen blue-black, smooth and shining.

_Hab._ Celebes.

2. AMMOPHILA INSOLATA. _A._ nigra, scapo mandibulis, pedibus,
abdominisque segmentis primo et secundo ferrugineis; alis subhyalinis.

_Female._ Length 8-1/2 lines. Black; the scape, the base of the
flagellum beneath, the anterior margin of the clypeus and the mandibles
ferruginous; the latter black at their apex. Thorax: the prothorax
smooth and shining; the meso- and metathorax above transversely
striated, the scutellum longitudinally so; the legs ferruginous, with
their coxæ black; a spot of silvery-white pubescence on each side of the
metathorax at its base, and two at its apex close to the insertion of
the petiole; the wings fulvo-hyaline with the nervures ferruginous.
Abdomen: the petiole and the following segment red, the base of the
third also slightly red; the three apical segments obscurely blue, with
a thin glittering pile.

The _male_ differs in having the legs black, their articulations only
being ferruginous; the head entirely black with the face densely covered
with silvery-white pile. The thorax is sculptured as in the other sex;
the petiole more elongate and slender, the basal joint black, the second
and the first segment ferruginous beneath; the rest of the abdomen blue.

_Hab._ Celebes.

Gen. PELOPÆUS, _Latr._

1. Pelopæus Madraspatanus, _Fabr. Syst. Piez._ p. 203. 3.

_Hab._ Malabar, Madras, Nepaul, Bengal, Celebes.

2. Pelopæus Bengalensis, _Dahlb. Syst. Nat._ i. 941. 2.

_Hab._ India, Philippine Islands, China, Isle of France, Celebes.

3. PELOPÆUS INTRUDENS. _P._ niger; clypeo bidentato, tibiis anticis et
intermediis, femorumque apice, femoribusque posticis basi,
trochanteribus, tibiarum dimidio basali, petioloque rufescenti-flavis;
alis fulvo-hyalinis.

_Female._ Length 11 lines. Black; the face with silvery pubescence; the
clypeus with two large blunt teeth at its apex, formed by a deep notch
in its anterior margin; the scape reddish-yellow in front. The meso- and
metathorax transversely striated; the wings fulvo-hyaline, the nervures
ferruginous; the anterior and intermediate tibiæ and the femora at their
apex, the posterior femora at their base, the trochanters, the tibiæ
with their basal half and the middle of the basal joint of the posterior
tarsi, reddish-yellow; the petiole of the abdomen of a paler yellow; the
abdomen smooth and shining. The male only differs in being rather
smaller.

_Hab._ Celebes.

Mr. Wallace says of this species, "A common house-wasp in Macassar;
builds mud cells on rafters."

_Note._--In describing the species of this genus collected by Mr.
Wallace at Borneo, I incorrectly gave that locality for _P. javanus_.
The insect mistaken for that species may be shortly characterized as P.
_benignus_, length 12 lines. Opake-black, with the petiole shining; the
metathorax transversely striated; the wings pale fulvo-hyaline, the
nervures ferruginous; the scape in front, the anterior and intermediate
tibiæ, the apex of the femora, and the basal joint of the tarsi
reddish-yellow; the posterior legs, with the trochanters and basal half
of the femora, yellow.

4. PELOPÆUS FLAVO-FASCIATUS. _P._ niger; capite thoraceque flavo
variegato; pedibus abdominisque basi ferrugineis; alis hyalinis, apice
fuscis, abdominisque segmento tertio fascia lata flava ornato.

_Female._ Length 9 lines. Black; the clypeus yellow; the mandibles and
scape ferruginous, the former black at their base, the latter yellow in
front; the sides of the face with a bright golden pile. Thorax: the
posterior margin of the prothorax, the tegulæ, scutellum, and a quadrate
spot on each side of the metathorax at its base yellow; the legs
ferruginous, with the coxæ, trachanters, and claw-joint of the tarsi
black; wings fulvo-hyaline, the nervures ferruginous, a fuscous spot at
the apex of the anterior pair; the meso- and metathorax transversely
striated, the latter with a yellow spot at the insertion of the petiole.
Abdomen: the petiole slightly curved upwards, the first segment
ferruginous; a broad yellow fascia at the apex of the third segment, the
apex of the fourth with a narrow obscure fascia; the abdomen covered
with a fine silky pile.

_Hab._ Celebes.


Fam. BEMBICIDÆ, _Westw._

1. Bembex trepanda, _Dahlb. Hym. Europ._ i. p. 181.

_Hab._ India, Celebes.


Fam. LARRIDÆ.

Genus LARRA, _Fabr._

1. Larra prismatica, _Smith, Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc._ ii. p. 103.

_Hab._ Malacca, Celebes.

Genus LARRADA, _Smith_.

1. Larrada aurulenta, _Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins._ pt. iv. 276. 6. Sphex
aurulenta, _Fabr. Mant._ i. 274. 10.

_Hab._ India, Java, Sumatra, Celebes, Philippine Islands, China, Cape of
Good Hope, Gambia.

2. Larrada exilipes, _Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins._ pt. iv. p. 278.

3. LARRADA ÆDILIS. _L._ nigra; facie argenteo-pilosa, alis subhyalinis,
articulis apicalibus tarsorum rufo-testaceis, abdomine lævi et nitido.

_Female._ Length 5-1/2 lines. Black; head and thorax subopake, the
abdomen shining; the face densely covered with silvery pile, the cheeks,
sides of the thorax and abdomen thinly so; the tips of the mandibles and
apical joints of the tarsi ferruginous, the latter obscurely so. The
metathorax transversely and rather finely rugose, the truncation more
strongly striated; the scutellum shining; the wings subhyaline, the
nervures ferruginous; the tibiæ with scattered spines, the tarsi
spinose.

4. LARRADA AURIFRONS. _L._ nigra; facie mesothoracis metathoracisque
lateribus aurato pubescentibus, abdominis marginibus segmentorum trium
basalium argentato piloso fasciatis; alis fuscis.

_Male._ Length 8 lines. Black; the face and outer orbits of the eyes
clothed with golden pile; the lateral margins of the mesothorax and the
metathorax thinly clothed with golden pile; wings dark fuscous with a
violet iridescence; the three basal segments of the abdomen with fasciæ
of silvery pile.

_Hab._ Celebes.

5. LARRADA PERSONATA. _L._ capite thoraceque nigris, abdomine
ferrugineo.

_Female._ Length 8-1/2 lines. Head, thorax, and legs black; the two
former closely punctured and thinly covered with short cinereous
pubescence; the metathorax with the punctures running into transverse
striæ in the middle; the sides of the thorax and the legs with a fine
silky silvery-white pile; the tibiæ and tarsi strongly spinose; wings
fusco-hyaline; abdomen entirely red, smooth and shining.

The _male_ is smaller, and has the four apical segments of the abdomen
black, the face, cheeks, and apical margins of the segments of the
abdomen with silvery pile.

_Hab._ Celebes.

This is probably merely a variety of _L. simillima_, wanting the black
apex to the abdomen; it very much resembles the L. _anathema_ of Europe.

6. LARRADA RUFIPES. _L._ nigra, mandibulis pedibusque rufis; alis
hyalinis, venis pallide testaceis; abdomine sericeo-piloso.

_Female._ Length 7 lines. Black; the head smooth and shining; the
clypeus, the cheeks, and face anteriorly covered with silvery pile; the
scape in front, the mandibles, and palpi ferruginous. Thorax: the sides
and beneath with a thin silvery-white pile; the legs ferruginous with
the coxæ black, the posterior pair red beneath; the thorax closely
punctured, the metathorax transversely striated; wings fulvo-hyaline,
the nervures pale-testaceous. Abdomen shining, very closely and
delicately punctured; thinly covered with a fine white silky pile, which
is very bright on the margins of the segments, which are slightly
rufo-piceous.

The _male_ closely resembles the female, and is similarly sculptured and
coloured.

_Hab._ Celebes.

7. LARRADA FESTINANS. _L._ nigra; facie abdominisque marginibus
segmentorum argentato-pilosis.

_Female._ Length 3 lines. Black; the face and cheeks thinly covered with
silvery pile. Thorax: the disk very closely punctured, the metathorax
rugose; the sides and the legs with a fine glittering sericeous pile,
the wings subhyaline, their apical margins fuscous, the nervures
fuscous. Abdomen smooth and sinning, covered with a thin silky pile, the
apical margins with bright silvery fasciæ, only observable in certain
lights.

The _male_ closely resembles the female, but has the face more silvery.

_Hab._ Celebes.

Genus MORPHOTA, _Smith_.

1. MORPHOTA FORMOSA. _M._ capite thoraceque nigris; abdomine rufo, apice
nigro, pilis argentatis ornato.

_Female._ Length 5 lines. Black, with the two basal segments of the
abdomen red; covered with a brilliant changeable silvery pile, most
dense on the face, cheeks, sides of the metathorax, and on the apical
margins of the abdominal segments. The mandibles ferruginous, with their
apex piceous. The vertex smooth, and having _three distinct ocelli_; the
head more produced behind the eyes than in _Larrada_. Thorax: the
prothorax subtuberculate at the sides; wings subhyaline and iridescent,
the nervures fuscous, the tegulæ pale testaceous behind. The apical
margin of the first segment of the abdomen rufo-fuscous.

_Hab._ Celebes.

The insects belonging to the genus _Morphota_ differ from those of
_Larrada_ in having three distinct ocelli, the vertex without any
depressions, and the head much less compressed than in _Larrada_; the
recurrent nervures are received nearer to the base and apex of the
second submarginal cell; the species have, in fact, a distinct habit,
and do not assimilate with the species of _Larrada_.

Genus TACHYTES, _Panz._

1. TACHYTES MOROSUS. _T._ niger, scutello abdomineque nitidis, facie
argenteo-pilosa; marginibus lateralibus abdominis segmentorum
argentatis.

_Female._ Length 4-1/2 lines. Black; the face covered with silvery pile;
the thorax finely and very closely punctured; the metathorax opake and
finely rugose, thinly covered with cinereous pubescence; the anterior
tarsi ciliated on the exterior, and the intermediate and posterior tibiæ
with a few dispersed spines; wings fusco-hyaline and iridescent, the
nervures fusco-ferruginous, the costal nervure black. Abdomen smooth and
shining; the apical margins of the intermediate segments slightly
depressed, with the sides sericeous.


Fam. CRABRONIDÆ.

Genus OXYBELUS, _Latr._

1. Oxybelus agilis, _Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins._ pt. iv. 387. 25.

_Hab._ India, Celebes.

GENUS CRABRO, _Latr._

1. CRABRO (RHOPALUM) AGILIS. _C._ obscuro-nigra, clypeo argentato,
capite, thorace abdomineque flavo variis.

_Female._ Length 4 lines. Black, opake; head larger than the thorax,
quadrate; the ocelli in a curve on the vertex; the clypeus and lower
portion of the cheeks with silvery pile; the scape, two basal joints of
the flagellum, the palpi, and the mandibles, yellow; the latter
rufo-piceous at their apex. The margin of the prothorax, the tubercles,
the scutellum, the tibiæ and tarsi, the anterior femora and the
intermediate pair at their apex yellow; the anterior femora black above;
the wings subhyaline and iridescent, the nervures testaceous. Abdomen:
with an elongate clavate petiole; the first segment with an oblique
yellow macula on each side, the third with a large lateral macula at its
base, and the following segments entirely yellow.

_Hab._ Celebes.

This species closely resembles the _C. Westermanni_ of Dahlbome, from
the Cape of Good Hope.

GENUS CERCERIS, _Latr._

1. Cerceris instabilis, _Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins._ pt. iv. 452. 74.

_Hab._ India, China, Celebes.

2. Cerceris unifasciata, _Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins._ pt. iv. 456. 84.

_Hab._ North China, Celebes.

3. Cerceris fuliginosa, _Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins._ pt. iv. 454. 79.

_Hab._ Celebes.

4. CERCERIS VARIPES. _C._ nigra, facie flavo varia; alis fuscis basi
hyalinis; pedibus variegatis; abdomine flavo maculato.

_Male._ Length 6 lines. Black; a line down the inner orbits of the eyes,
continued along the lower margins of the face, and uniting with the
clypeus, which as well as a line above it between the antennæ are
yellow; a spot on the scape in front, and the mandibles, yellow; the
latter rufo-piceous at their apex. Thorax: a spot on each side of the
prothorax, a minute one on the tegulæ; the postscutellum, the
intermediate and posterior coxæ and trochanters, the anterior tibiæ
behind, the femora beneath, and the intermediate and posterior tibiæ
yellow; the femora reddish above and at their articulations; the
posterior femora and tibiæ black, with the tarsi rufo-testaceous; the
anterior wings and the apex of the posterior pair brown, the base of the
anterior pair hyaline. Abdomen: the second and three following segments
with a short yellow stripe on each side.

_Hab._ Celebes.


Tribe VESPIDÆ.

Fam. EUMENIDÆ, _Westw_.

Genus ZETHUS, _Fabr._

1. Zethus cyanopterus, _Sauss. Mon. Guêpes Sol_. i. 23. 2.

Genus MONTEZUMIA, _Sauss._

1. Montezumia Indica, _Sauss. Mon. Guêpes Sol._ i. _supp._ 167. 59. t.
9. f. 4.

_Hab._ India, Celebes.

Genus RHYNCHIUM, _Spin._

1. Rhynchium hæmorrhoidale, _Sauss. Mon. Guêpes Sol._ i. 109. 12. Vespa
hæmorrhoidalis, _Fabr. Syst. Piez._ p. 259. 28.

_Hab._ India, Java, Cape of Good Hope, Celebes.

2. Rhynchium argentatum, _Sauss. Mon. Guêpes Sol._ i. 115. 22. Vespa
argentata, _Fabr. Syst. Piez._ p. 260. 39.

_Hab._ India, Celebes.

3. Rhynchium atrum, _Sauss. Mon. Guêpes Sol._ i. 109. 11.

_Hab._ India, Celebes.

4. Rhynchium parentissimum, _Sauss. Mon. Guêpes Sol._ p. 111. 14. Var.
_R. hæmorrhoidale?_

_Hab._ India, Java, Celebes.

Genus EUMENES.

1. Eumenes circinalis, _Fabr. Syst. Piez._ p. 286. 4.

_Hab._ India, Sumatra, Celebes.

2. Eumenes fulvipennis, _Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins._ pt. v. 24. 26.

_Hab._ Celebes.

3. EUMENES VINDEX. _E._ niger, flavo variegatus, alis subhyalinis
iridescentibus.

_Male._ Length 6 lines. Black; strongly punctured and shining; a minute
spot behind the eyes, another in their emargination, the clypeus, with
two minute spots above it, a spot at the base of the mandibles, and the
scape in front yellow. Thorax: a subinterrupted line on its anterior
margin, the tubercles, a spot on the tegulæ behind, and the legs yellow;
the coxæ, femora at their base, and the posterior tibiæ outside dusky;
wings light brown and iridescent, the anterior margin of the superior
pair darkest. Abdomen delicately punctured; the apical margin of the
first segment with a narrow yellow border slightly interrupted on each
side; the apical segments with a thin cinereous pile.

_Hab._ Celebes.

4. EUMENES ARCHITECTUS. _E._ niger, clypeo, prothoracis margine
postscutello abdominisque segmenti primi margine flavis.

_Female._ Length 6 lines. Black and closely punctured; a line behind the
eyes near their vertex, a spot between the antennæ and the clypeus,
yellow; the latter black at the apex, which is notched; the labrum and
mandibles reddish-yellow, the latter black at their base. Thorax: the
anterior margin yellow; the tubercles, tegulæ, postscutellum, an
interrupted line on each side of the metathorax, the tibiæ, tarsi, and
femora at their apex, yellow; the coxæ spotted with yellow and the
posterior tibiæ dusky; the wings fusco-hyaline; a black line across the
tegulæ. Abdomen: an ovate spot on each side of the petiole, its apical
margin, a transverse ovate spot on each side of the first segment, and
its posterior margin yellow; the following segments covered with a grey
silky pile.

_Male._ Differs from the female in having the clypeus entirely yellow,
the metathorax and abdomen entirely black; only the apical margin of the
petiole is yellow, it is also longer.

_Hab._ Celebes.

5. EUMENES FLORALIS. _E._ niger; clypeo flavo; thorace pedibusque
ferrugineo-flavo variegatis.

_Male._ Length 6-1/2 lines. Black; strongly punctured and shining; the
clypeus and a spot above yellow; a narrow abbreviated line behind the
eyes, a minute spot in their emargination, and the tips of the mandibles
orange-red; the flagellum fulvous beneath. Thorax: the anterior and
posterior margin of the prothorax, the tubercles, and a spot on the
tegulæ behind, a line on the postscutellum and the legs, orange-red, the
coxæ black, and the tarsi dusky; the wings slightly brownish with a
violet iridescence. Abdomen immaculate, with a minute spot on the
posterior border of the petiole; the third and following segments with a
fine cinereous pile.

_Hab._ Celebes.

Genus ODYNERUS, _Latr._

1. Odynerus ovalis, _Sauss. Mon. Guêpes Sol._ 215. 122. t. 19. f. 4.

_Hab._ India, China, Celebes.

2. ODYNERUS (ANCISTROCERUS) CLAVICORNIS. _O._ niger, flavo varius;
capite thoraceque fortiter, abdomine delicatule punctatis, antennis
clavatis.

_Male._ Length 4-1/2 lines. Black; head and thorax strongly punctured
and shining; a spot on the mandibles, the labrum, the clypeus, a spot
above, the scape in front, a line in the emargination of the eyes and a
spot behind them, yellow; the flagellum broadly clavate, the joints
transverse, the apex of the club and the terminal hook reddish-yellow,
the thickened part of the club concave beneath, the hook bent into the
cavity. Thorax: two spots on the anterior margin, a spot on the tegulæ
in front, and the legs, reddish-yellow, the coxæ dusky; the metathorax
coarsely rugose and deeply concave-truncate. Abdomen: the first segment
with a transverse carina at its base, in front of which is an
irregularly cut deep transverse channel forming a second carina in front
of the groove; the segments finely punctured, the first and second
segments with a yellow posterior border, the fourth and following
segments rufo-piceous.

_Hab._ Celebes.

3. ODYNERUS (LEIONOTUS) INSULARIS. _O._ niger, flavo et aurantio
variegatus; abdominis basi ferruginea.

_Male._ Length 6 lines. Black; the head and thorax strongly punctured;
the mandibles, clypeus, a line above extending to the anterior ocellus,
the emargination of the eyes, a spot at their vertex and a line at their
outer orbits, yellow; the antennæ reddish-yellow, with the scape pale
yellow in front and a narrow fuscous line above; the yellow marking more
or less stained orange. Thorax: the prothorax orange, its anterior
border, the tubercles, tegulæ, two spots on the scutellum and
postscutellum, the lateral margins of the metathorax and the legs,
yellow, the latter with reddish stains; wings subhyaline, the superior
pair with a fuscous cloud at their apex. The base of the abdomen and a
large macula on each side of the second segment ferruginous; the apical
margin of the segments with a yellow border, the first and second with a
minute notch in the middle; the first and second segments entirely
ferruginous beneath.

4. ODYNERUS FULVIPENNIS. _O._ niger, flavo varius, pedibus ferrugineis,
alis fulvo-hyalinis.

_Male._ Black; head and thorax closely and strongly punctured; the
clypeus and two spots above, a line along the lower margin of the sinus
of the eyes, a narrow line behind them, the scape in front, and the
mandibles yellow; the tips of the latter rufo-piceous; the antennæ and
legs ferruginous; an interrupted yellow line on the anterior margin of
the thorax; the wings fulvo-hyaline; the veins which enclose the
marginal and second and third submarginal cells fuscous, the rest pale
testaceous; a fuscous cloud in the marginal cell. Abdomen: the apical
margin of the second segment with a yellow fascia, the following
segments with red fasciæ.

_Hab._ Celebes.

Genus ICARIA, _Sauss._

1. Icaria ferruginea, _Sauss. Mon. Guêpes Soc._ p. 37. 15.

_Hab._ India, Celebes.

2. ICARIA PILOSA. _I._ nigra, rude punctata et densissime pubescens,
clypeo flavo, thorace, pedibus abdomineque ferrugineo variegatis; alis
subhyalinis, anticis apice fusco maculatis.

_Male._ Length 7-1/2 lines. Black; closely and strongly punctured; the
clypeus, a line on the mandibles, and the scape in front, yellow; tips
of the mandibles, the scape above, and the base of the flagellum
ferruginous. Thorax: the prothorax, scutellum and postscutellum,
ferruginous; the tegulæ and legs pale ferruginous, the coxæ black; wings
fusco-hyaline, with a dark cloud in the marginal cell extending to the
apex of the wing; a fainter cloud traverses the margin of the wing to
its base. Abdomen: the first, second and third segments with a
reddish-yellow fascia, that on the second segment continued beneath; a
longitudinal broad stripe of the same colour on each side of the second
segment; its apical margin serrated.

_Hab._ Celebes.

Genus POLISTES, _Latr._

1. Polistes sagittarius, _Sauss. Mon. Guêpes Soc._ p. 56. 12.

Various specimens from Greece and Celebes have the thorax more or less
ferruginous.

_Hab._ India, Celebes, China, Greece.

2. Polistes Picteti, _Sauss. Mon. Guêpes Soc._ 69. 28. t. 6. f. 8.

_Hab._ Ceram, Australia, Celebes.

3. Polistes fastidiosus, _Sauss. Mon. Guêpes Soc._ p. 60. 18.

_Hab._ Africa (Gambia), Celebes.

4. Polistes stigma, _Fabr. Syst. Piez._ p. 261. 41.

_Hab._ India, Ceram, Celebes.

5. Polistes Philippinensis, _Sauss. Mon. Guêpes Soc._ 58. 14 (var.).

_Hab._ Philippine Islands.

Genus VESPA, _Linn._

1. Vespa affinis, _Fabr. Syst. Piez._ p. 254. 6 (var. _V. cincta_?).

_Hab._ India, China, Singapore, Celebes.

2. VESPA FERVIDA. _V._ nigra, delicatule punctata; clypei margine
antica, macula pone oculos, margineque postica segmenti primi abdominis
flavis; alis fulvo-hyalinis.

_Female._ Length 13 lines. Black; closely and finely punctured; the
clypeus convex and strongly punctured, emarginate anteriorly, the
emargination with a yellow border; the eyes extending to the base of the
mandibles, which have three stout teeth at their apex and a narrow
yellow line at their inner margin. Thorax: the postscutellum yellow, and
a minute yellow spot on the outer margin of the tegulæ; the wings
rufo-hyaline, darkest along the anterior margin of the superior pair;
the nervures ferruginous, gradually becoming darker at the base of the
wings, the costal nervure black.

_Worker._ Length 9 lines. Very closely resembles the female, but in
addition to the yellow markings of that sex has the anterior margin of
the clypeus yellow, a narrow transverse line between the antennæ,
another along the lower margin of the notch of the eyes, an abbreviated
stripe behind them at the base of the mandibles, a spot beneath the
postscutellum and a narrow yellow line along the posterior margin of the
basal segment of the abdomen.

_Hab._ Celebes.


Fam. TENTHREDINIDÆ.

Genus TENTHREDO, _Linn._

1. TENTHREDO (ALLANTUS) PURPURATA. _T._ capite thoraceque
cæruleo-viridibus, abdomine purpureo, alis fuscis iridescentibus.

Size, length 4 lines. Head and thorax blue-green, abdomen purple; wings
dark fuscous with a violet iridescence; an oblique white line on each
side beneath the scutellum; legs and antennæ black.

_Hab._ Celebes.


Fam. ICHNEUMONIDÆ.

Genus MEGISCHUS, _Brullé._

1. Megischus indicus, _Westw. Trans. Ent. Soc._ new ser. i. 1851.

_Hab._ Philippine Islands, Celebes.

Genus MESOSTENUS, _Brullé._

1. MESOSTENUS ALBO-SPINOSUS. _M._ niger, albo varius, abdominis
segmentis albo marginatis, metathorace spinis duabus albis armato.

_Female._ Length 5-1/2 lines. Black; a half-circular spot on the
clypeus, a heart-shaped one above it, a spot at the base of the
mandibles, the orbits of the eyes, interrupted at their vertex,
yellowish white, the palpi of the same colour, and a broad incomplete
annulus on the antennæ beyond their middle. Thorax: the mesothorax with
two deeply impressed oblique lines inclined inwards and terminating at
an ovate spot in the middle of the disk, the scutellum and an oblique
line on each side a little before it, a horseshoe-shaped spot in the
middle of the metathorax, and a little below it on each side a conical
tooth, yellowish white; four spots beneath the wings, one on each side
of the metathorax, and the coxæ beneath, white; the legs ferruginous,
with the intermediate pair dusky behind, the posterior pair entirely so,
the femora being black; the wings hyaline, nervures fuscous. Abdomen:
punctured and with a white fascia on the margins of the three basal
segments; the two apical segments with very narrow fasciæ.

_Hab._ Celebes.

This species is closely allied to the _M. literatus_ of Brullé; but it
differs too much, I think, to be identical with it.

2. PIMPLA TRIMACULATA. _P._ flava, oculis, macula circa ocellos,
vittulis tribus mesothoracis setisque caudalibus nigris.

_Female._ Length 6 lines. Yellow; the antennæ fuscous above, also a
fuscous cloud at the apex of the anterior wings, the wings hyaline with
the nervures black; a spot on the scape within, and three longitudinal
stripes on the mesothorax, black; the latter slightly punctured
anteriorly; the metathorax smooth and shining, with three oblique carinæ
on each side, and a small subovate enclosed space in the middle of the
disk. Abdomen punctured, all the segments margined at their apex, and
each with a deeply impressed line at their extreme lateral margins; the
sixth segment with two minute black spots at its basal margin, the two
apical segments smooth and shining; the ovipositor black.

_Hab._ Celebes.

This species is closely allied to the _P. trilineata_ of Brullé.


Fam. BRACONIDÆ.

1. BRACON INSINUATOR. _B._ capite, thorace pedibusque ferrugineis;
antennis, tibiis tarsisque posticis et abdomine nigris; alis
nigro-fuscis, macula hyalina sub stigmate.

_Female._ Length 7-1/2 lines. Head and thorax smooth, shining, and
ferruginous, the legs ferruginous, with the posterior tibiæ and tarsi
black; the antennæ black, with the scape and following joint
ferruginous; wings dark brown, with their extreme base pale testaceous;
a hyaline stripe runs from the stigma across the first submarginal cell
and passes a little below it. Abdomen black, smooth, and shining, with
the lateral margins of the basal segment pale yellow-testaceous; this
segment has on each side a longitudinal carina, and between them is a
highly polished bell-shaped form; the second segment with deep oblique
depressions at the sides, and deeply longitudinally rugose-striate,
leaving the apical margin smooth and shining; the second segment is
similarly sculptured, and the third has a transverse groove at its base.

_Hab._ Celebes.

2. BRACON INTRUDENS. _B._ rufescenti-flavus, antennis setisque
caudalibus nigris; alis nigro-fuscis, basi fasciaque angusta transversa
flavis.

_Female._ Length 9 lines. Pale reddish-yellow; the eyes, flagellum, and
ovipositor black; the scape and the following segment yellow; the head
and thorax smooth and shining, both pubescent at the sides and beneath,
the legs covered with a similar pale pubescence; the face with an
upright horn between the antennæ, and a raised flattened plate in front
of it. Abdomen: the basal segment with the lateral margins raised, and
having on each side an elongate broad depression extending its entire
length; the three following with an oblique depression on each side at
the base of the segment; the third, fourth, and fifth segments
distinctly margined at their apex; the ovipositor the length of the
insect.

_Hab._ Celebes.

Genus AGATHIS, _Latr._

1. AGATHIS SCULPTURALIS. _A._ nigra, prothorace, pedibus anticis
mediisque ferrugineis; abdomine lævigato nitido.

_Male._ Length 5-1/2 lines. Black; the mouth, prothorax, anterior and
intermediate legs, ferruginous; the face with two teeth or horns between
or a little before the insertion of the antennæ, and another at the side
of each, close to their insertion. Thorax: the mesothorax with two
deeply impressed lines in front, running inwards, and uniting about the
middle, and with two or three deep transverse channels before their
junction; the lateral margins of the mesothorax deeply impressed; the
metathorax ruggedly sculptured; the posterior coxæ and femora closely
punctured; wings black with a hyaline spot in the first submarginal
cell. Abdomen very smooth and shining, with a deeply impressed line on
each side of the basal segment.

_Hab._ Celebes.

2. AGATHIS MODESTA. _A._ rufescenti-flava; antennis, vertice, tibiis
posticis apice, tarsisque nigris; alis fusco maculatis.

_Female._ Length 4 lines. Reddish-yellow: the antennæ and vertex, black.
The mesothorax with two deeply impressed longitudinal oblique lines, and
two parallel ones between them; the metathorax reticulated; wings
hyaline, with a dark fuscous stain crossing the anterior pair at the
base of the first submarginal cell, these hyaline to the middle of the
stigma, beyond which they are fuscous; a subhyaline spot at the apex of
the marginal cell, and another beneath it at the inferior margin of the
wing; the posterior tarsi dusky, and the tips of the tibiæ black.

_Hab._ Celebes.

3. AGATHIS NITIDA. _A._ nigra, nitida; facie, pectore, pedibus anticis
et intermediis, plaga infra alas, scutelloque pallide ferrugineis.

Length 4 lines. Black and shining; the face, mandibles, head beneath,
legs, pectus, sides of the thorax beneath the wings, the scutellum and
the basal half of the abdomen beneath, pale ferruginous; the mesothorax
with two longitudinal oblique lines on the disk, which have two parallel
ones between them; the metathorax coarsely rugose; the wings dark brown,
with the base of the stigma pale, and a hyaline spot beneath it. Abdomen
very smooth and shining, with the apical margins of the segments
narrowly rufo-piceous; the posterior legs incrassate and dark
rufo-piceous.


Fam. CHRYSIDIDÆ.

Genus HEDYCHRUM, _Latr._

1. HEDYCHRUM FLAMMULATUM. _H._ viridi-purpureo lavatum; capite
thoraceque fortiter, abdomine delicatule, punctatis; alis fuscis basi
hyalinis.

Length 3 lines. Bright green; the vertex, two oblique stripes on the
prothorax, meeting in the centre of its anterior margin, a broad
longitudinal stripe on the disk of the mesothorax, and the sides of the
scutellum and postscutellum deep purple. Abdomen: the middle of the
basal segment, the second and third segments at their base, broadly
purple; the apical margin of the third tinged with purple; wings
subfuscous, with their base hyaline. The head and thorax coarsely and
closely punctured, the abdomen finely so; the tarsi with the claws
unidentate.

_Hab._ Celebes.

Genus CHRYSIS, _Linn._

1. CHRYSIS PURPUREA. _C._ læte purpurea, capite, thorace abdominisque
basi rugosis punctatis, segmentis abdominis secundo et tertio delicatule
punctatis, apice quadridentato.

Length 3 lines. Bright purple; the head, thorax, and base of the abdomen
strongly and coarsely punctured, the rest of the abdomen finely
punctured; the disk of the thorax and apical margins of the segments of
the abdomen reflecting bright tints of green; the wings subhyaline, the
nervures dark fuscous; the apical margin of the third segment of the
abdomen with four teeth, the two central ones approximating, separated
by a deep notch, the lateral teeth more distant, separated from the
others by a wide emargination.

_Hab._ Celebes.

2. CHRYSIS INSULARIS. _C._ nigro-purpurea, violaceo et viridi lavata;
capite, thorace abdominisque basi rude punctatis.

Length 5 lines. Dark purple, with violet and green reflections; the
face, legs, and thorax beneath, green; wings slightly fuscous, and
iridescent; the head and thorax closely and coarsely punctured; the base
of the abdomen roughly punctured, the two following segments much more
finely so; the apical segment armed with six teeth, the outer ones
subacute.

_Hab._ Celebes.

3. CHRYSIS SUMPTUOSA. _C._ fortiter punctata, metallico-viridis auro
lavata; thoracis disco, abdominis segmentis secundo et tertio basi
purpureis; segmento apicali margine integro.

Length 3-1/4 lines. Golden-green; the thorax at the sides and
posteriorly with bright coppery effulgence; an oblong purple spot on the
disk of the thorax; the metathorax and its lateral teeth vivid green,
the vertex and prothorax splashed with gold. Abdomen: the basal segment
bright green, with a bright coppery or golden effulgence at the sides;
the second segment purple at the base, coppery at the apex, and with a
suffusion of green between these tints; the third segment is similarly
coloured, with the apical margin entire; the insect closely and strongly
punctured throughout.

_Hab._ Celebes.



Description of a new Genus of Crustacea, of the Family Pinnotheridæ; in
which the fifth pair of legs are reduced to an almost imperceptible
rudiment. By THOMAS BELL, Esq., Pres. L. S.

[Read June 3rd, 1858.]


Fam. PINNOTHERIDÆ, _Edwards_.

Genus AMORPHOPUS, _Bell_.

CHAR. GEN.:--Corpus subcylindricum. Testa semicircularis, margine
posteriore recto.--_Antennæ externæ minimæ_, articulo basali orbitam
subtus partim claudente.--_Antennularum fossulæ_ transversæ, continuæ,
et ab orbitis haud separatæ.--_Pedipalpi externi_ articulo quarto ovato,
palpo tri-articulato, ad angulum antico-interiorem articuli quarti
inserto.--Oris apertura antice arcuata.--_Orbitæ_ apertæ, margine
inferiore carente, superiore integro.--_Oculi_ transversim
positi.--_Pedes antici_ robusti, inæquales; _pedum paria secundum,
tertium et quartum_ longa, subcompressa; _par quintum_ exiguum,
simplicissimum, rudimentarium, in incisura articuli basalis paris quarti
insertum.--_Abdomen_ MARIS segmentis tertio cum quarto, et quinto cum
sexto coalitis; FOEMINÆ?

Sp. unica. _Amorphopus cylindraceus_, mihi.

_Description._--The body is nearly cylindrical, somewhat depressed, the
carapace very much curved from the point to the back, quite straight
from side to side; the anterior and lateral margins forming nearly a
semicircle, the posterior margin straight; the orbits are deeply cut in
the anterior margin of the carapace, looking upwards; the inferior
margin wanting; the oral aperture much arched anteriorly; the external
footjaws with the third articulation somewhat rhomboid, the fourth
irregularly oval, and the palpi three-jointed, inserted at its anterior
and inner angle. Epistome extremely small, transversely linear; the
external antennæ placed directly beneath the orbits, the basal joints
partly filling them beneath. The antennules folded transversely in large
open fossæ, which are scarcely at all separated from each other, and are
open to the orbits, the eyes lying transversely; the peduncles short and
thick; the sternum is semicircular, the segments separated by very deep
grooves; the abdomen very long and narrow, the first and second joint
transversely linear, the third and fourth united and forming a triangle
truncated anteriorly at the articulation of the portion formed by the
fifth and sixth joints united, and which with the seventh form a very
narrow and linear piece extending forwards to the posterior margin of
the oral aperture; the first pair of legs robust, unequal (the right
being the larger in the only specimen at present observed); the hand in
each as broad as it is long; that of the smaller conspicuously
tuberculated, that of the larger much less so; the former with the
fingers nearly meeting throughout their length, those of the latter only
at the tips; the second, third, and fourth pairs of legs are long,
somewhat compressed, the third joint tuberculated on the under side, the
third pair the longest; the fifth pair is reduced to a mere rudiment, in
the form of a minute tubercle inserted in a little notch at the base of
the first joint of the fourth pair, and scarcely discernible by the
naked eye.

_Observations._--The relation of this genus to the Pinnotheridæ is
tolerably obvious, in the smallness of the antennæ, the direction and
arrangement of the eyes, and particularly in the form of the oral
aperture, and of the external footjaws. I shall not, however, enter upon
the consideration of these relations, as I am about shortly to offer to
the Society a review and monograph of the whole of this family. The most
remarkable peculiarity in the genus is the apparent absence of the fifth
pair of legs, which can only be discovered to exist at all by
examination with the help of a lens. In this respect I doubt not that
the Fabrician genus _Hexapus_, adopted and figured by De Haan, will be
found to agree with it, although it is very remarkable that the
anomalous condition of this part never excited any particular attention
on the part of either of these distinguished naturalists; and De Haan
describes Fabricius's species, _Hexapus sexpes_, as if there were
nothing especial or abnormal in a Decapod having only six pairs of legs
besides the claws. Mr. White made a similar mistake on one occasion,
when he described an anomourous genus allied to _Lithodes_, in which the
fifth pair of legs were not visible; but when, at my suggestion, a more
careful examination was made, they were found, as was anticipated, in a
rudimentary form, concealed under the edge of the carapace. I believe
that I can discover even in De Haan's figure something like a little
tubercle at the base of the fourth leg, which is probably the
rudimentary representative of the fifth.



Death of the Common Hive Bee, supposed to be occasioned by a parasitic
Fungus. By the Rev. HENRY HIGGINS. Communicated by the President.

[Read June 3rd, 1858.]


On the 18th of March last, Timpron Martin, Esq., of Liverpool,
communicated to me some circumstances respecting the death of a hive of
bees in his possession, which induced me to request from him a full
statement of particulars. Mr. Martin gave me the following account:--

"In October last I had three hives of bees which I received into my
house. Each doorway was closed, and the hive placed upon a piece of
calico; the corners were brought over the top, leaving a loop by which
the hive was suspended from the ceiling. The hives were taken down about
the 14th of March; two were healthy, but all the bees in the third were
dead. There was a gallon of bees. The two hives containing live bees
were much smaller; but in each of them were dead ones. Under whatever
circumstances you preserve bees through the winter, dead ones are found
at the bottom, in the spring. The room, an attic, was dry; and I had
preserved the same hives in the same way during the winter of 1856. In
what I may call the dead hive there was an abundance of honey when it
was opened; and it is clear that its inmates did not die for want. It is
not a frequent occurrence for bees so to die; but I have known another
instance. In that case the hive was left out in the ordinary way, and
possibly cold was the cause of death. I think it probable that my bees
died about a month before the 14th of March, merely from the
circumstance that some one remarked about that time that there was no
noise in the hive. They might have died earlier; but there were
certainly live bees in the hive in January. I understand there was an
appearance of mould on some of the combs. There was ample ventilation, I
think; indeed, as the bees were suspended, they had more air than
through the summer when placed on a stand."

When the occurrence was first made known to me, I suggested that the
bees might probably have died from the growth of a fungus, and requested
some of the dead bees might be sent for examination. They were
transmitted to me in a very dry state; and a careful inspection with a
lens afforded no indications of vegetable growth. I then broke up a
specimen, and examined the portions under a compound microscope, using a
Nachet No. 4. The head and thorax were clean; but on a portion of the
sternum were innumerable very minute, linear, slightly curved bodies,
showing the well-known oscillatory or swarming motion. Notwithstanding
the agreement of these minute bodies with the characters of the genus of
_Bacterium_ of the Vibrionia, I regarded them as spermatia, having
frequently seen others undistinguishable from them under circumstances
inconsistent with the presence of _Confervæ_, as in the interior of the
immature peridia and sporangia of Fungals.

In the specimen first examined there were no other indications of the
growth of any parasite; but from the interior of the abdomen of a second
bee I obtained an abundance of well-defined globular bodies resembling
the spores of a fungus, varying in size from .00016 to .00012 in. Three
out of four specimens subsequently examined contained similar spores
within the abdomen. No traces of a mycelium were visible; the plants had
come to maturity, fruited, and withered away, leaving only the spores.

The chief question then remaining to be solved was as to the time when
the spores were developed; whether before or after the death of the
bees. In order, if possible, to determine this, I placed four of the
dead bees in circumstances favourable for the germination of the spores,
and in about ten days I submitted them again to examination. They were
covered with mould, consisting chiefly of a species of _Mucor_, and one
also of _Botrytis_ or _Botryosporium_. These fungi were clearly
extraneous, covering indifferently all parts of the insects, and
spreading on the wood on which they were lying. On the abdomen of all
the specimens, and on the clypeus of one of them, grew a fungus wholly
unlike the surrounding mould. It was white and very short, and
apparently consisted entirely of spores arranged in a moniliform manner,
like the fertile filaments of a stemless _Penicillium_. These spores
resembled those found in the abdomen of the Bees, and proceeded I think,
from them. The filaments were most numerous at the junction of the
segments. The spores did not resemble the globules in _Sporendonema
muscæ_ of the English Flora, neither were they apparently enclosed.

The Rev. M. J. Berkeley, to whom I sent some of the bees, procured, by
scraping the interior of the abdomen with a lancet, very minute, curved
linear bodies from 1/8000 to 1/10000 in. long, which he compares to
Vibrios. He also found mixed with them globular bodies, but no visible
stratum of mould.

From the peculiar position of the supposed spores within the abdomen of
the bees, and from the subsequent growth of a fungus unlike any of our
common forms of Mucedines, I think it probable that the death of the
bees was occasioned by the presence of a parasitic fungus.



Notice of the occurrence of recent Worm Tracks in the Upper Part of the
London Clay Formation near Highgate. By JOHN W. WETHERELL. Communicated
by JAMES YATES, Esq., M.A., F.L.S.

[Read June 3rd, 1858.]


The London clay is very tenacious, and near the surface is generally of
a brown colour, probably owing to the decomposition of the iron pyrites
which it contains. It abounds in selenite or sulphate of lime, and in
nodules which often contain organic remains. Fossil wood with _Teredo
antenautæ_ is also met with, and pyritous casts of univalve and bivalve
shells. Lower down the stratum becomes more compact and is of a bluish
or blackish colour, and its fossil contents are in a fine state of
preservation. During the last summer, while examining the London Clay in
the vicinity of Highgate in search of fossils, my attention was directed
to certain appearances in it which I could not account for. This led to
a further examination, when I found they were produced by the borings of
_Lumbrici_ or earth-worms. These appearances consisted of long tubes
passing nearly perpendicularly through the clay and terminating in
receptacles or _nidi_, each tube leading to a separate receptacle. As
these receptacles occurred in large numbers, I had an opportunity of
examining a great many of them with various results. In one instance, I
found a dead worm coiled up; in another, a portion of a worm protruding
into the lower part of the tube. Again, _nidi_ were found partially
filled with only the casts of worms, whilst others contained more or
less of a species of Conferva; and, lastly, I obtained some with the
cavities partially or wholly filled up. The receptacles varied in shape,
from a sphere to an oval, and were extremely thin and fragile. They also
varied in size from a pea to a nut. Externally they presented an
appearance so singularly contorted, that I could not help considering
they were moulded from the casts of worms. They did not appear to have
any attachment to the surrounding clay, except at the point of junction
with the tube; and the clay beneath them presented no unusual
appearance.

Internally they generally exhibited impressions of the worm; but
occasionally I detected some of the round and contorted appearances
which I have mentioned as being so conspicuous on the outside. I cannot
speak with precision as to the length of the tubes, as the clay when
examined had been broken up into large rough masses in digging for the
foundations of houses. The largest noticed was about three inches long,
and the general width one-eighth of an inch. They often run parallel to
each other, but at unequal distances. I now have to notice what I
consider a remarkable circumstance, namely, that all the tubes contained
a solid cylinder of clay, and in every instance where the worms occurred
under the circumstances above recorded, they were found to be dead.
Researches of this kind are calculated to throw a light on some of those
singular phenomena which geologists occasionally meet with in the older
rocks.

[_Mem._--Several specimens of clay, containing the worm-tubes as above
described, were exhibited to the meeting.]



Natural History--Extracts from the Journal of Captain Denham, H.M.
Surveying Vessel 'Herald,' 1857. Communicated by Captain WASHINGTON,
through the Secretary.

[Read June 3rd, 1858.]


We found upon the larger islands the small species of the Kangaroo,
bearing the native name Wallaby (_Halmaturus Billardierii_), which,
when mixed with other meats, affords a fine-flavoured soup.

On the islets are flocks of the Cape Banca goose, which Mr. Smith
informed me were only to be found in these straits in the vicinity of
Flinders Island, from Cape Banca to Cape Frankland (west about), and
that they are readily domesticated, and hatch from three to seven eggs,
and afford an acceptable dish. I obtained a live specimen, which Dr.
Rayner of this ship describes thus:--"_Cereopsis Novæ Hollandiæ_. Body
about the size of a common goose; bill short, vaulted, obtuse,
two-thirds of which is covered by an expanded cere of a pale
greenish-yellow colour, the tip of the bill being black, arcuated, and
truncated. Nostrils large, round, open, and situated in the middle of
the bill. Wings ample, third quill longest. Legs long, light dull-red,
and naked to a little above the knee. Feet black, webbed, the membrane
being deeply notched, great toe articulated to the metatarsus. Plumage
slate-grey, with black spots upon the wings and back. Wing-feathers
dusky black, and edged at the tip with pale grey. Irides light hazel."

We likewise obtained specimens of the following wildfowl:--

AVES.

  A BRONZE-WING PIGEON,   Phaps elegans.
  QUAIL,                  Corturnix pectoralis (_Gould_).
  OYSTER-CATCHER,         Hæmatophus fuliginosus.
  RING PLOVER,            Hiaticula bicincta.
  WILD DUCK,              Anas punctata (_Cuvier_).
  GREAT GULL,             Larus pacificus.
  LESSER GULL,            Xema Jamesonii.
  MUTTON BIRD,            Puffinus brevicaudus (_Brandt_).
  SOUTHERN GANNET,        Sulu australis (_Gould_).
  SMALL PENGUIN,          Spheniscus minor (_Temminck_).

The Mutton Bird we observed streaming from island to island; and I
learnt from Mr. Benvenuto Smith the following particulars of its habits
from his own observations.

The male birds come in from sea in the month of September, and prepare
the burrows for the reception of the hens. The hen bird does not make
her appearance till about the 25th November, when she lays and sits at
once.

The Mutton Bird lays but one egg; they are employed rearing the young
bird until the month of May, at which time the old birds leave the young
ones to shift for themselves; the young birds remain in the burrows till
they are starved down, and then set off to sea, and are not seen again
amongst the islands till September. The cock and hen sit alternately
night and day; and all the labour of providing for the young is equally
shared.

There are at this date about ninety people living on the small islands
in "Franklin Inlet" who make a livelihood by gathering the oil,
feathers, and eggs of the Mutton Bird.

Upwards of 2000 gallons of the oil are extracted from the birds
annually; and although 300,000 birds are known to be destroyed each
year, they appear undiminished in numbers. The oil burns well, and is of
a bright-red colour.

I was presented by Mr. Smith with two Paper Nautilus shells (_Argonauta
tuberculosa_) found on the shore of Flinders Island this season, a
circumstance which he has remarked occurs but every seventh year, when
many hundreds are thrown up: the shells are rarely obtained perfect, as
they are extremely fragile, and the sea fowl pick the fish out of them.

Our Botanic Collector, Mr. Milne, ascertained, from what he obtained
himself and from what we could contribute from our individual visits to
the islets, the existence of plants, which he believes to be indigenous,
belonging to the following families and genera, viz.

  Amentaceæ.         Umbelliferæ.
  Asteraceæ.         Graminaceæ.
  Rosaceæ.           Junceæ.
  Geraniaceæ.        Solanum.
  Euphorbiaceæ.      Geranium.
  Myrtaceæ.

Testing the chances of fish refreshment at this anchorage, we found
little encouragement for hook and line; but the two favouring
opportunities which the weather allowed for hawling the seine produced
as tabulated on opposite page.

We found the Reef Islands in this sound so abundant in rabbits since
Captain Stokes's forethought had set some loose upon them, that, in two
visits of four hours with but four guns, 100 brace were brought on
board.

I took care to follow my esteemed brother officers' example and the
system of introducing such productions, and obtained a dozen couple
alive for letting loose in Shark Bay.

[A coloured drawing of _Cereopsis Novæ Hollandiæ_ accompanied Captain
Denham's observations.]


                    |  Trawl-seine, |
                    |   or hook     |
          |How many |   and line.   |
          |hawls and| Depth | Nature|  Natural
          |  phase  |  of   |   of  |  History     | Common   |No. of|Pounds
Locality. |of [moon]| water.|bottom.|   Names.     |  Names.  |sorts.|weight.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
West side | 6 hawls |   with seine. |Mugil         |Mullet    |     23| 28|
          |         |       |       |              |          |       |   |
Flinders  | ... ... |  1/2  |... ...|Hemiramphus   |Gar-fish  |     10|  5|
Isl.      |         |       |       |              |          |       |   |
          |         |       |       |              |          |       |   |
Settlement|[moon] } |   1   | Sand  |{Platycephalus|Flat-head,|      3|  1|
          |         |fathom |       |              |small     |       |   |
          |         |       |       |              |          |       |   |
Bay       |14 days} |  on   |  and  |{Raia         |Sting Ray |      2| 29|
          |         |       |       |              |          |       |   |
H.W.F. &  |... ... }|a flat | weed  |{Iulis        |Small fish|Several|...|
C. [moon] |         |       |       |              |of the    |       |   |
X. 30.    |         |       |       |              |Basse     |       |   |
          |         |       |       |              |family    |       |   |
          |         |       |       |              |          |       |   |
Range 10  |  L.W.   |... ...|... ...|Labrax        |Basse     |      1|  1|
ft.       |         |       |       |              |          |       |   |
          |         |       |       |              |          |       |   |
East side | 7 hawls |  with seine   |{Myliobatis   |Ray       |     11|375|
of }      |         |    (mar.).    |              |          |       |   |
          |         |       |       |              |          |       |   |
Hummock } | [moon]  |... ...|... ...|{Mugil        |Mullet    |     20| 30|
          |         |       |       |              |          |       |   |
Island    | 26 days |1 to 3 | Sandy |Platycephalus |Flat-head |      3|  2|
centre    |         | fams. | beach |              |          |       |   |
          |         |       |       |              |          |       |   |
          |         |       |       |{Siphyracus   |Barracouta|      1|  1|
          |         |       |       |              |          |       |   |
Bay       | at 3/4  |... ...|... ...|{Scomberesox  |Saury     |     27| 17|
          |  flood  |       |       |              |          |       |   |
          |         |       |       |              |          |       |   |
          |         |       |       |{Sepioteuthis |Cuttlefish|Several|...|
          |         |       |       |              |          |       |   |
          |         |       |       |              |Total     |    ...|489|
          |         |       |       |              |          |       |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------



On some points in the Anatomy of _Nautilus pompilius_. By T. H. HUXLEY,
F.R.S., Professor of Natural History, Government School of Mines.

[Read June 3rd, 1858.]


Some time ago my friend Dr. Sinclair, of New Zealand, had the kindness
to offer me two specimens of the Pearly Nautilus which had been brought
to him from New Caledonia, preserved in Goadby's solution. I gladly
accepted the present, and looked forward to the dissection of the rare
animal with no little pleasure; but on proceeding to examine one of the
specimens, I found its anatomical value greatly diminished by the manner
in which a deposit from the solution had glued together some of the
internal viscera. Other parts of the Nautilus, however, were in a very
good state of preservation; and I have noted down such novel and
interesting peculiarities as they presented, in the hope that an account
of them will be acceptable to the Linnean Society.

Of the six apertures which, besides the genital and anal outlets, open
into the branchial cavity of _Nautilus pompilius_, one on each side lies
immediately above and in front of that fold of the inner wall of the
mantle which forms the lower root of the smaller and inner gill, and
encloses the branchial vein of that gill. The aperture is elongated and
narrow, with rather prominent lips. It measures about 1/8th of an inch.

The other two apertures are larger, and lie at a distance of 7/16ths of
an inch below and behind the other. They are in close juxta-position,
being separated only by a thin triangular fold of membrane, which
constitutes the inner lip of the one and the outer lip of the other.

The inner aperture is the larger, measuring 3/16ths of an inch in long
diameter, and having the form of a triangle with its base directed
posteriorly. The outer aperture is not more than 1/8th of an inch long.
The two apertures lie just above the edge of the fold of membrane which
runs from the inner root of the larger or outer branchia, across the
branchial cavity and beneath the rectum, to the other side.

These apertures lead into five sacs, which collectively constitute what
has been described as the pericardium. The sacs into which the superior
apertures open, by a short wide canal with folded walls, are situated on
each side of and above the rectum. Their inner boundaries are separated
by a space of not less than 5/8ths of an inch in width, in which lie
the vena cava and the oviduct. Each cavity has a rounded circumference,
and a transverse diameter of about half an inch. In a direction at right
angles to this diameter the dimensions vary with its state of
distension; but a quarter of an inch would be a fair average.

The anterior or outer wall of the cavity is formed by the mantle; the
posterior, inner, or visceral wall by a delicate membrane. The former
separates it from the branchial cavity; the latter from the fifth sac,
to be described by-and-by. I could find no natural aperture in the thin
inner wall, so that I conceive no communication can take place between
either of these sacs and the fifth sac.

Two irregular, flattened, brownish, soft plates depend from the
posterior wall of the sac into its cavity; their attached edges are
fixed along a line which is directed from behind obliquely forwards and
upwards.

The outer and smaller of the inferior apertures on each side leads into
a sac of similar dimensions and constitution to the preceding, but
having a less rounded outline in consequence of its being flattened in
one direction against its fellow of the opposite side, from which it is
separated only by a delicate membranous wall, whilst on another side it
is applied against the inferior wall of the superior sac, and is in like
manner separated from it only by a thin and membranous partition.

Like the upper sacs, each of these has two dark-brown, lamellar,
glandular masses depending from its membranous visceral wall.

A delicate, but broad, triangular membranous process, about 1/4th of an
inch long, hangs down freely from the visceral wall of the cavity just
behind the opening of the short canal which connects the sac with its
aperture.

The third and largest aperture on each side opens directly into a very
large fifth cavity, whose boundary is formed anteriorly by the visceral
walls of the sacs already described, and behind this by the mantle
itself as far as the horny band which marks and connects the insertion
of the shell-muscles.

In fact this cavity may be said to be co-extensive with the attached
part of the mantle,--the viscera, enclosed within their delicate
"peritoneal" membranous coat, projecting into and nearly filling it, but
nevertheless leaving a clear space between themselves and the delicate
posterior wall of the mantle.

A layer of the "peritoneal" membrane extends from the posterior edge of
the muscular expansion which lies between the shell-muscles and from the
upper wall of the dilatation of the vena cava, and passes upwards and
backwards like a diaphragm to the under surfaces of the gizzard and
liver. It is traversed by the aorta, to whose coats it closely adheres.

Along a line nearly corresponding with the horny band which proceeds
from the insertions of the shell-muscles and encircles the mantle below,
the pallial wall is produced inwards and forwards into a membranous fold
or ligament, which I will call the pallio-visceral ligament; and this
pallio-visceral ligament becoming attached to various viscera, divides
the great fifth chamber into an anterior inferior, and a posterior
superior portion, which communicate freely with one another.

Commencing with its extreme right-hand end, the ligament is inserted
into the line of reflection of the mantle, and then into the wall of the
oviduct, which becomes enclosed as it were within the ligament. The
latter then ends in a free edge on the inner side of the oviduct, and is
continued along it until it reaches the inferior surface of the apex of
the ovary, into which it is inserted.

The free edge is arcuated; and the rectum passes over it, but is in no
way connected with it.

Here, therefore, is one great passage of communication between the
anterior and posterior divisions of the fifth chamber.

On the left side, this aperture is limited by the heart, whose posterior
edge is, on the left side, connected by means of a ligamentous band with
the surface of the apex of the ovary; but on the right, for the greater
part of its extent, receives a process of the pallio-visceral ligament.
Between the ovario-cardiac ligament and this process lies the small oval
aperture already described by Professor Owen, which gives passage to the
siphonal artery. It constitutes the middle aperture of communication
between the two divisions of the fifth chamber.

The left-hand end of the ligament is inserted into the upper wall of the
dilated end of the vena cava; but between this point and the heart it
has a free arcuated edge, as on the right side.

Thus there are in reality three apertures of communication between the
two divisions of the fifth chamber, the middle, by far the smallest,
being alone hitherto known.

A delicate membranous band passes from the whole length of the middle
line of the rectum to the heart and to the ovary.

The singular "pyriform appendage" of the heart lies in the left process
of the ligament, its anterior edge nearly following the arcuated contour
of that process.

The siphuncular process of the mantle was broken in my specimen; but
its aperture appeared to communicate quite freely with the posterior
division of the fifth chamber.

Four sets of brownish, glandular-looking bodies depend into the anterior
division of the fifth chamber, from parts of the delicate septa dividing
this from the four small sacs, corresponding with the insertions of the
glandular bodies above described.

In fact, on distending the vena cava with air, it is found that the four
branchial arteries traverse these septa, and that the appendages in
question are diverticula of their walls. Consequently the anterior wall
of each branchial vein is produced into two glandular appendages, which
hang into one of the four smaller sacs, while the posterior wall is
produced into a single mass of appendages, which hangs into the anterior
division of the fifth chamber.

Although, as I believe, the five chambers do not communicate directly,
all the appendages must nevertheless be equally bathed with sea-water,
which enters by the apertures of the chambers.

An impacted yellowish-white concretionary matter filled the anterior
chamber; and a small quantity of it lay as a fine powder at the bottom
of the posterior one. In the latter, however, its presence might, by
possibility, have been accidental. My colleague, Dr. Percy, who kindly
undertook to examine this substance, informs me that he has been unable
to detect uric acid in it. The follicular appendages of the branchial
arteries present remarkable differences in their external appearance.
The eight which hang into the four anterior chambers are similar,
slightly festooned, but otherwise simple lamellæ; while the four which
depend into the posterior chambers are produced into a number of
papillary processes. This external difference is obvious enough: whether
it be accompanied by a corresponding discrepancy in minute structure I
am unable to say; for I have not as yet been able to arrive at any
satisfactory results from the microscopic examination of the altered
tissues, and, as will be seen below, the only observer who has had the
opportunity of examining the Nautilus in the fresh state has not noted
any difference of structure in the two sets of follicles.

One is naturally led to seek among other mollusks for a structure
analogous to the vast posterior aquiferous chamber of the Nautilus; and
it appears to me that something quite similar is offered by the
_Ascidioida_ and the _Brachiopoda_. In both cases, the viscera, inclosed
within a delicate tissue, project into a large cavity communicating
freely with the exterior by the cloacal aperture in the one case, and
by the funnel-shaped channels which have been miscalled "hearts" in the
other.

The rudimentary renal organs of the Ascidian are developed in the walls
of the cavity in question; and an aquiferous chamber of smaller
dimensions has the same relation to the kidney in Lamellibranchiata--in
Gasteropoda, Heteropoda, Pteropoda, and dibranchiate Cephalopoda. But
although such is likely enough to be the case, we do not know at present
that the aquiferous chambers in any of the last named mollusks attain an
extension similar to that which obtains in Nautilus.

On comparing the observations detailed above with the statements of
previous writers, I find that, in his well-known "Memoir on the Pearly
Nautilus" (1832), Professor Owen describes "on each side, at the roots
of the branchiæ," "a small mamillary eminence with a transverse slit
which conducts from the branchial cavity into the pericardium. There is,
moreover, a foramen at the lower part of the cavity (_o_, pl. 5)
permitting the escape of a small vessel; and by the side of this vessel
a free passage is continued between the gizzard and ovary into the
membranous tube or siphon that traverses the divisions of the shell,
thus establishing a communication between the interior of that tube and
the exterior of the animal."

The foramen here described is easily seen; but, as I have stated, there
are other modes of communication between the so-called pericardium and
the cavity with which the siphuncle communicates, of a far more
extensive nature.

With respect to the pericardium itself, Professor Owen states, "The
peritoneum, after lining the cavity which contains the crop and liver,
and enveloping those viscera, forms two distinct pouches at the bottom
of the pallial sac, in one of which, the left, is contained the gizzard,
and in the other the ovary; anterior to these, and on the ventral aspect
of the liver, is another distinct cavity, of a square shape, which
contains the heart and principal vessels, with the glandular appendages
connected therewith." This is what the author terms the pericardium.

As Van der Hoeven has pointed out, however, the gizzard lies to the
right and the ovary to the left. Moreover, the gizzard is superior to
the ovary, so as only to overlap it a little above; and I can find no
evidence of the existence of such distinct pouches as those described.

Professor Owen states that the branchiæ "arise by a common peduncle from
the inner surface of the mantle." My own observations, however, and Van
der Hoeven's figures, of both male and female, lead me to believe that
the peduncles of the branchiæ are perfectly distinct from one another.

The follicles of the branchial arteries are thus described in the
"Memoir on the Pearly Nautilus:"--"They are short and pyriform and
closely set together. To each of the branchial arteries are appended
three clusters of these glands, of which one is larger than the united
volume of both the others; and the larger cluster is situated on one
side of the vessel and the two smaller on the opposite side. Each of
these clusters is contained in a membranous receptacle proper to itself,
partitioned off, as it were, from the pericardium, but communicating
with it.... The two canals which form the communication between the
pericardium and the branchial cavity commence at the receptacle of the
lesser cluster attached to the superior branchial arteries, and
terminate at the papillæ before mentioned, which are situated at the
roots of the branchiæ. The pericardium and these receptacles of the
glands, when first laid open, were found filled with a coagulated
substance so closely compacted as to require a careful removal, bit by
bit, before the contained follicles and vessels could be brought into
view."

Like Valenciennes and Van der Hoeven, I have been unable to find any
communication between the four sacs in which the small double clusters
of follicles are contained, and the "pericardium;" and I hold it to be
certain that the other four sets of follicles are not contained in sacs
at all, but lie free in the "pericardium" or posterior chamber.

No notice is here taken of the widely different characters of the
anterior and posterior follicles; and the figure gives both a similar
structure.

Valenciennes ("Nouvelles Recherches sur le Nautile Flambé," 'Archives du
Muséum,' ii., 1841) pointed out the existence of three pairs of
apertures opening into the branchial sac, besides the genital and anal
openings; and he affirms that they open into as many closed sacs, which
communicate neither with one another nor with the cavity that contains
the heart. M. Valenciennes indicates the difference in the structure of
the anterior and posterior venous appendages. He seems to me to have
seen something of the part which I have described as the pallio-visceral
ligament; but I cannot clearly comprehend either his figure or his
description.

Van der Hoeven, in his 'Contributions to the Knowledge of the Animal of
_Nautilus pompilius_,' 1850, confirmed the statement of Valenciennes
with regard to the existence of three pairs of apertures; but he showed,
in opposition to him, that one of these pairs of apertures communicated
with the pericardium. The sacs into which the other two pairs open are,
according to this anatomist, blind. In the aperture of the anterior
blind sac he found a concretionary matter which he supposed to contain
uric acid, but chemical analysis did not confirm the supposition. Van
der Hoeven refers to some observations by Vrolik; but as these are in
Dutch, and have not, so far as I can find, been translated into either
French, German, or English, I know not what they may contain.

In his more recent essay, translated in 'Wiegmann's Archiv' for 1857,
under the title of "Beitrag zur Anatomie von _Nautilus pompilius_," Van
der Hoeven states that he has again found hard concretions in the
chamber enclosing the appendage of the anterior branchial artery, and
that these on chemical analysis yielded phosphate of lime and traces of
fat and albumen, but no uric acid.

Mr. Macdonald, in a valuable paper on the anatomy of _Nautilus
umbilicatus_, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1855, thus
describes the follicular appendages of the branchial arteries:--

"These follicles are subcylindrical in form, somewhat dilated at the
free extremity, to which is appended a folded and funnel-shaped process
of membrane, which expands rather suddenly, presenting a jagged and
irregular border. They open by a smooth and oval or slit-like, orifice
into the afferent pulmonary vessels, on each of which, as Professor Owen
has observed, they are disposed in three clusters. The outer membrane is
smooth and glassy, homogeneous in structure and sprinkled over with
minute rounded and transparent bodies, probably the nuclei of cells.
Beneath this layer, flat bundles of fibres, apparently muscular, are
traceable here and there, principally disposed in a longitudinal
direction, and sometimes branched. The lining membrane consists of a
loose epithelial pavement in many respects similar to that of the
uriniferous tubules of the higher animals, the cells containing, besides
the nuclei, numerous minute oil-globules, or a substance much resembling
concrete fatty matter. This membrane is thrown up into an infinite
number of papillæ and corrugations, so as to augment the extent of
surface considerably. The papillæ are more numerous at the inner part or
towards the attached end; and a circlet of longitudinally disposed folds
radiate from the bottom of the follicles, in which a number of small
pits or fenestrations are sometimes visible. The sides of these folds
are wrinkled transversely so as to present a median zigzag elevation.
The funnel-shaped membranous process above noticed is continuous with
the lining membrane, consisting of an extension of the same epithelial
pavement; but the cells are somewhat larger and more regular in form.
The cavity of each follicle, therefore, communicates with the exterior
through the centre of this process; and the aperture is thus guarded by
a kind of circular valve, permitting the escape of secreted matter, but
effectually preventing the entrance of fluid from without."

In his fig. 9, pl. xv., Mr. Macdonald depicts certain "crystalline
bodies often occurring within the follicles."

From what Mr. Macdonald states, one would be led to conclude that all
the follicles have the same structure; but I suspect this to be an
oversight.

[Illustration: _Nautilus pompilius._ Fig. 1.

Viewed from the left side and a little behind.

Two of the anterior chambers, and the fifth or posterior chamber, laid
open. Natural size.

_a._ Shell muscle. _b._ Ovary. _c._ Intestine. _d._ Heart; _d'._ its
pyriform appendage. _e._ Superior anterior chamber; _e'._ its follicles.
_f._ Inferior anterior chamber; _f'._ its follicles. _g._ Posterior
chamber; _g'._ Follicles. _h._ Cut ends of branchial arteries. _i._
Termination of vena cava. _k._ Pallio-visceral ligament.]

In the second edition of Professor Owen's Lectures on the Invertebrata
(1855), I find no mention of Valenciennes' discovery of the additional
four apertures; but the author states that "on each side, at the roots
of the anterior branchiæ, there is a small mamillary eminence with a
transverse slit, which conducts from the branchial cavity to one of the
compartments of the pericardium containing two clusters of venous
glands. There are also two similar, but smaller, slits, contiguous to
one another, near the root of the posterior branchia on each side, which
lead to and may admit sea-water into the compartments containing the
posterior cluster of the venous follicles." In this work the ovary is
not only described, but _figured_, on the right side of the gizzard. The
figure, however, rightly places the greater part of the ovary below that
organ.

[Illustration: _Nautilus pompilius._ Fig. 2.

Natural Size.

The pallio-visceral ligament seen from below: torn on the right side to
show the rectum and oviduct; cut through on the left side along the
dotted line close to _d'_ in the preceding figure.

_a._ Anus. _b._ Oviducal aperture. _c._ Heart. _d._ Left branchial
veins. _e._ Right branchial veins. _f._ Oviduct cut through. _g._ Ovary.
_h._ Rectum. _i._ Mantle. _k k k._ Pallio-visceral ligament; _k'._ its
torn portion. The oval "aperture for the siphonal artery" is seen to the
left of _c'_, and the right-hand style in _Fig._ 1 passes through it.]



On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of
Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection. By CHARLES DARWIN,
Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S., & F.G.S., and ALFRED WALLACE, Esq. Communicated by
Sir CHARLES LYELL, F.R.S., F.L.S., and J. D. HOOKER, Esq., M.D.,
V.P.R.S., F.L.S., &c.

[Read July 1st, 1858.]

London, June 30th, 1858.


MY DEAR SIR,--The accompanying papers, which we have the honour of
communicating to the Linnean Society, and which all relate to the same
subject, viz. the Laws which affect the Production of Varieties, Races,
and Species, contain the results of the investigations of two
indefatigable naturalists, Mr. Charles Darwin and Mr. Alfred Wallace.

These gentlemen having, independently and unknown to one another,
conceived the same very ingenious theory to account for the appearance
and perpetuation of varieties and of specific forms on our planet, may
both fairly claim the merit of being original thinkers in this important
line of inquiry; but neither of them having published his views, though
Mr. Darwin has for many years past been repeatedly urged by us to do so,
and both authors having now unreservedly placed their papers in our
hands, we think it would best promote the interests of science that a
selection from them should be laid before the Linnean Society.

Taken in the order of their dates, they consist of:--

1. Extracts from a MS. work on Species[A], by Mr. Darwin, which was
sketched in 1839, and copied in 1844, when the copy was read by Dr.
Hooker, and its contents afterwards communicated to Sir Charles Lyell.
The first Part is devoted to "The Variation of Organic Beings under
Domestication and in their Natural State;" and the second chapter of
that Part, from which we propose to read to the Society the extracts
referred to, is headed, "On the Variation of Organic Beings in a state
of Nature; on the Natural Means of Selection; on the Comparison of
Domestic Races and true Species."

2. An abstract of a private letter addressed to Professor Asa Gray, of
Boston, U.S., in October 1857, by Mr. Darwin, in which he repeats his
views, and which shows that these remained unaltered from 1839 to 1857.

3. An Essay by Mr. Wallace, entitled "On the Tendency of Varieties to
depart indefinitely from the Original Type." This was written at Ternate
in February 1858, for the perusal of his friend and correspondent Mr.
Darwin, and sent to him with the expressed wish that it should be
forwarded to Sir Charles Lyell, if Mr. Darwin thought it sufficiently
novel and interesting. So highly did Mr. Darwin appreciate the value of
the views therein set forth, that he proposed, in a letter to Sir
Charles Lyell, to obtain Mr. Wallace's consent to allow the Essay to be
published as soon as possible. Of this step we highly approved, provided
Mr. Darwin did not withhold from the public, as he was strongly inclined
to do (in favour of Mr. Wallace), the memoir which he had himself
written on the same subject, and which, as before stated, one of us had
perused in 1844, and the contents of which we had both of us been privy
to for many years. On representing this to Mr. Darwin, he gave us
permission to make what use we thought proper of his memoir, &c.; and in
adopting our present course, of presenting it to the Linnean Society, we
have explained to him that we are not solely considering the relative
claims to priority of himself and his friend, but the interests of
science generally; for we feel it to be desirable that views founded on
a wide deduction from facts, and matured by years of reflection, should
constitute at once a goal from which others may start, and that, while
the scientific world is waiting for the appearance of Mr. Darwin's
complete work, some of the leading results of his labours, as well as
those of his able correspondent, should together be laid before the
public.

We have the honour to be yours very obediently,

                                         CHARLES LYELL.
                                         JOS. D. HOOKER.

_J. J. Bennett, Esq.,_
  _Secretary of the Linnean Society._


I. _Extract from an unpublished Work on Species, by_ C. DARWIN, Esq.,
_consisting of a portion of a Chapter entitled, "On the Variation of
Organic Beings in a state of Nature; on the Natural Means of Selection;
on the Comparison of Domestic Races and true Species._"

De Candolle, in an eloquent passage, has declared that all nature is at
war, one organism with another, or with external nature. Seeing the
contented face of nature, this may at first well be doubted; but
reflection will inevitably prove it to be true. The war, however, is not
constant, but recurrent in a slight degree at short periods, and more
severely at occasional more distant periods; and hence its effects are
easily overlooked. It is the doctrine of Malthus applied in most cases
with tenfold force. As in every climate there are seasons, for each of
its inhabitants, of greater and less abundance, so all annually breed;
and the moral restraint which in some small degree checks the increase
of mankind is entirely lost. Even slow-breeding mankind has doubled in
twenty-five years; and if he could increase his food with greater ease,
he would double in less time. But for animals without artificial means,
the amount of food for each species must, _on an average_, be constant,
whereas the increase of all organisms tends to be geometrical, and in a
vast majority of cases at an enormous ratio. Suppose in a certain spot
there are eight pairs of birds, and that _only_ four pairs of them
annually (including double hatches) rear only four young, and that these
go on rearing their young at the same rate, then at the end of seven
years (a short life, excluding violent deaths, for any bird) there will
be 2048 birds, instead of the original sixteen. As this increase is
quite impossible, we must conclude either that birds do not rear nearly
half their young, or that the average life of a bird is, from accident,
not nearly seven years. Both checks probably concur. The same kind of
calculation applied to all plants and animals affords results more or
less striking, but in very few instances more striking than in man.

Many practical illustrations of this rapid tendency to increase are on
record, among which, during peculiar seasons, are the extraordinary
numbers of certain animals; for instance, during the years 1826 to 1828,
in La Plata, when from drought some millions of cattle perished, the
whole country actually _swarmed_ with mice. Now I think it cannot be
doubted that during the breeding-season all the mice (with the exception
of a few males or females in excess) ordinarily pair, and therefore that
this astounding increase during three years must be attributed to a
greater number than usual surviving the first year, and then breeding,
and so on till the third year, when their numbers were brought down to
their usual limits on the return of wet weather. Where man has
introduced plants and animals into a new and favourable country, there
are many accounts in how surprisingly few years the whole country has
become stocked with them. This increase would necessarily stop as soon
as the country was fully stocked; and yet we have every reason to
believe, from what is known of wild animals, that _all_ would pair in
the spring. In the majority of cases it is most difficult to imagine
where the checks fall--though generally, no doubt, on the seeds, eggs,
and young; but when we remember how impossible, even in mankind (so much
better known than any other animal), it is to infer from repeated casual
observations what the average duration of life is, or to discover the
different percentage of deaths to births in different countries, we
ought to feel no surprise at our being unable to discover where the
check falls in any animal or plant. It should always be remembered, that
in most cases the checks are recurrent yearly in a small, regular
degree, and in an extreme degree during unusually cold, hot, dry, or wet
years, according to the constitution of the being in question. Lighten
any check in the least degree, and the geometrical powers of increase in
every organism will almost instantly increase the average number of the
favoured species. Nature may be compared to a surface on which rest ten
thousand sharp wedges touching each other and driven inwards by
incessant blows. Fully to realize these views much reflection is
requisite. Malthus on man should be studied; and all such cases as those
of the mice in La Plata, of the cattle and horses when first turned out
in South America, of the birds by our calculation, &c., should be well
considered. Reflect on the enormous multiplying power _inherent and
annually in action_ in all animals; reflect on the countless seeds
scattered by a hundred ingenious contrivances, year after year, over the
whole face of the land; and yet we have every reason to suppose that the
average percentage of each of the inhabitants of a country usually
remains constant. Finally, let it be borne in mind that this average
number of individuals (the external conditions remaining the same) in
each country is kept up by recurrent struggles against other species or
against external nature (as on the borders of the Arctic regions, where
the cold checks life), and that ordinarily each individual of every
species holds its place, either by its own struggle and capacity of
acquiring nourishment in some period of its life, from the egg upwards;
or by the struggle of its parents (in short-lived organisms, when the
main check occurs at longer intervals) with other individuals of the
_same_ or _different_ species.

But let the external conditions of a country alter. If in a small
degree, the relative proportions of the inhabitants will in most cases
simply be slightly changed; but let the number of inhabitants be small,
as on an island, and free access to it from other countries be
circumscribed, and let the change of conditions continue progressing
(forming new stations), in such a case the original inhabitants must
cease to be as perfectly adapted to the changed conditions as they were
originally. It has been shown in a former part of this work, that such
changes of external conditions would, from their acting on the
reproductive system, probably cause the organization of those beings
which were most affected to become, as under domestication, plastic.
Now, can it be doubted, from the struggle each individual has to obtain
subsistence, that any minute variation in structure, habits, or
instincts, adapting that individual better to the new conditions, would
tell upon its vigour and health? In the struggle it would have a better
_chance_ of surviving; and those of its offspring which inherited the
variation, be it ever so slight, would also have a better _chance_.
Yearly more are bred than can survive; the smallest grain in the
balance, in the long run, must tell on which death shall fall, and which
shall survive. Let this work of selection on the one hand, and death on
the other, go on for a thousand generations, who will pretend to affirm
that it would produce no effect, when we remember what, in a few years,
Bakewell effected in cattle, and Western in sheep, by this identical
principle of selection?

To give an imaginary example from changes in progress on an island:--let
the organization of a canine animal which preyed chiefly on rabbits, but
sometimes on hares, become slightly plastic; let these same changes
cause the number of rabbits very slowly to decrease, and the number of
hares to increase; the effect of this would be that the fox or dog would
be driven to try to catch more hares: his organization, however, being
slightly plastic, those individuals with the lightest forms, longest
limbs, and best eyesight, let the difference be ever so small, would be
slightly favoured, and would tend to live longer, and to survive during
that time of the year when food was scarcest; they would also rear more
young, which would tend to inherit these slight peculiarities. The less
fleet ones would be rigidly destroyed. I can see no more reason to doubt
that these causes in a thousand generations would produce a marked
effect, and adapt the form of the fox or dog to the catching of hares
instead of rabbits, than that greyhounds can be improved by selection
and careful breeding. So would it be with plants under similar
circumstances. If the number of individuals of a species with plumed
seeds could be increased by greater powers of dissemination within its
own area (that is, if the check to increase fell chiefly on the seeds),
those seeds which were provided with ever so little more down, would in
the long run be most disseminated; hence a greater number of seeds thus
formed would germinate, and would tend to produce plants inheriting the
slightly better-adapted down[B].

Besides this natural means of selection, by which those individuals are
preserved, whether in their egg, or larval, or mature state, which are
best adapted to the place they fill in nature, there is a second agency
at work in most unisexual animals, tending to produce the same effect,
namely, the struggle of the males for the females. These struggles are
generally decided by the law of battle, but in the case of birds,
apparently, by the charms of their song, by their beauty or their power
of courtship, as in the dancing rock-thrush of Guiana. The most vigorous
and healthy males, implying perfect adaptation, must generally gain the
victory in their contests. This kind of selection, however, is less
rigorous than the other; it does not require the death of the less
successful, but gives to them fewer descendants. The struggle falls,
moreover, at a time of year when food is generally abundant, and perhaps
the effect chiefly produced would be the modification of the secondary
sexual characters, which are not related to the power of obtaining food,
or to defence from enemies, but to fighting with or rivalling other
males. The result of this struggle amongst the males may be compared in
some respects to that produced by those agriculturists who pay less
attention to the careful selection of all their young animals, and more
to the occasional use of a choice mate.


II. _Abstract of a Letter from_ C. DARWIN, Esq., _to_ Prof. ASA GRAY,
_Boston, U.S., dated Down, September 5th, 1857._

1. It is wonderful what the principle of selection by man, that is the
picking out of individuals with any desired quality, and breeding from
them, and again picking out, can do. Even breeders have been astounded
at their own results. They can act on differences inappreciable to an
uneducated eye. Selection has been _methodically_ followed in _Europe_
for only the last half century; but it was occasionally, and even in
some degree methodically, followed in the most ancient times. There must
have been also a kind of unconscious selection from a remote period,
namely in the preservation of the individual animals (without any
thought of their offspring) most useful to each race of man in his
particular circumstances. The "roguing," as nurserymen call the
destroying of varieties which depart from their type, is a kind of
selection. I am convinced that intentional and occasional selection has
been the main agent in the production of our domestic races; but however
this may be, its great power of modification has been indisputably shown
in later times. Selection acts only by the accumulation of slight or
greater variations, caused by external conditions, or by the mere fact
that in generation the child is not absolutely similar to its parent.
Man, by this power of accumulating variations, adapts living beings to
his wants--may be said to make the wool of one sheep good for carpets,
of another for cloth, &c.

2. Now suppose there were a being who did not judge by mere external
appearances, but who could study the whole internal organization, who
was never capricious, and should go on selecting for one object during
millions of generations; who will say what he might not effect? In
nature we have some _slight_ variation occasionally in all parts; and I
think it can be shown that changed conditions of existence is the main
cause of the child not exactly resembling its parents; and in nature
geology shows us what changes have taken place, and are taking place. We
have almost unlimited time; no one but a practical geologist can fully
appreciate this. Think of the Glacial period, during the whole of which
the same species at least of shells have existed; there must have been
during this period millions on millions of generations.

3. I think it can be shown that there is such an unerring power at work
in _Natural Selection_ (the title of my book), which selects exclusively
for the good of each organic being. The elder De Candolle, W. Herbert,
and Lyell have written excellently on the struggle for life; but even
they have not written strongly enough. Reflect that every being (even
the elephant) breeds at such a rate, that in a few years, or at most a
few centuries, the surface of the earth would not hold the progeny of
one pair. I have found it hard constantly to bear in mind that the
increase of every single species is checked during some part of its
life, or during some shortly recurrent generation. Only a few of those
annually born can live to propagate their kind. What a trifling
difference must often determine which shall survive, and which perish!

4. Now take the case of a country undergoing some change. This will tend
to cause some of its inhabitants to vary slightly--not but that I
believe most beings vary at all times enough for selection to act on
them. Some of its inhabitants will be exterminated; and the remainder
will be exposed to the mutual action of a different set of inhabitants,
which I believe to be far more important to the life of each being than
mere climate. Considering the infinitely various methods which living
beings follow to obtain food by struggling with other organisms, to
escape danger at various times of life, to have their eggs or seeds
disseminated, &c. &c., I cannot doubt that during millions of
generations individuals of a species will be occasionally born with some
slight variation, profitable to some part of their economy. Such
individuals will have a better chance of surviving, and of propagating
their new and slightly different structure; and the modification may be
slowly increased by the accumulative action of natural selection to any
profitable extent. The variety thus formed will either coexist with, or,
more commonly, will exterminate its parent form. An organic being, like
the woodpecker or misseltoe, may thus come to be adapted to a score of
contingences--natural selection accumulating those slight variations in
all parts of its structure, which are in any way useful to it during any
part of its life.

5. Multiform difficulties will occur to every one, with respect to this
theory. Many can, I think, be satisfactorily answered. _Natura non facit
saltum_ answers some of the most obvious. The slowness of the change,
and only a very few individuals undergoing change at any one time,
answers others. The extreme imperfection of our geological records
answers others.

6. Another principle, which may be called the principle of divergence,
plays, I believe, an important part in the origin of species. The same
spot will support more life if occupied by very diverse forms. We see
this in the many generic forms in a square yard of turf, and in the
plants or insects on any little uniform islet, belonging almost
invariably to as many genera and families as species. We can understand
the meaning of this fact amongst the higher animals, whose habits we
understand. We know that it has been experimentally shown that a plot of
land will yield a greater weight if sown with several species and genera
of grasses, than if sown with only two or three species. Now, every
organic being, by propagating so rapidly, may be said to be striving its
utmost to increase in numbers. So it will be with the offspring of any
species after it has become diversified into varieties, or subspecies,
or true species. And it follows, I think, from the foregoing facts, that
the varying offspring of each species will try (only few will succeed)
to seize on as many and as diverse places in the economy of nature as
possible. Each new variety or species, when formed, will generally take
the place of, and thus exterminate its less well-fitted parent. This I
believe to be the origin of the classification and affinities of organic
beings at all times; for organic beings always _seem_ to branch and
sub-branch like the limbs of a tree from a common trunk, the flourishing
and diverging twigs destroying the less vigorous--the dead and lost
branches rudely representing extinct genera and families.

This sketch is _most_ imperfect; but in so short a space I cannot make
it better. Your imagination must fill up very wide blanks.

C. DARWIN.


III. _On the Tendency of Varieties to depart indefinitely from the
Original Type._ By ALFRED RUSSELL WALLACE.

One of the strongest arguments which have been adduced to prove the
original and permanent distinctness of species is, that _varieties_
produced in a state of domesticity are more or less unstable, and often
have a tendency, if left to themselves, to return to the normal form of
the parent species; and this instability is considered to be a
distinctive peculiarity of all varieties, even of those occurring among
wild animals in a state of nature, and to constitute a provision for
preserving unchanged the originally created distinct species.

In the absence or scarcity of facts and observations as to _varieties_
occurring among wild animals, this argument has had great weight with
naturalists, and has led to a very general and somewhat prejudiced
belief in the stability of species. Equally general, however, is the
belief in what are called "permanent or true varieties,"--races of
animals which continually propagate their like, but which differ so
slightly (although constantly) from some other race, that the one is
considered to be a _variety_ of the other. Which is the _variety_ and
which the original _species_, there is generally no means of
determining, except in those rare cases in which the one race has been
known to produce an offspring unlike itself and resembling the other.
This, however, would seem quite incompatible with the "permanent
invariability of species," but the difficulty is overcome by assuming
that such varieties have strict limits, and can never again vary further
from the original type, although they may return to it, which, from the
analogy of the domesticated animals, is considered to be highly
probable, if not certainly proved.

It will be observed that this argument rests entirely on the assumption,
that _varieties_ occurring in a state of nature are in all respects
analogous to or even identical with those of domestic animals, and are
governed by the same laws as regards their permanence or further
variation. But it is the object of the present paper to show that this
assumption is altogether false, that there is a general principle in
nature which will cause many _varieties_ to survive the parent species,
and to give rise to successive variations departing further and further
from the original type, and which also produces, in domesticated
animals, the tendency of varieties to return to the parent form.

The life of wild animals is a struggle for existence. The full exertion
of all their faculties and all their energies is required to preserve
their own existence and provide for that of their infant offspring. The
possibility of procuring food during the least favourable seasons, and
of escaping the attacks of their most dangerous enemies, are the primary
conditions which determine the existence both of individuals and of
entire species. These conditions will also determine the population of a
species; and by a careful consideration of all the circumstances we may
be enabled to comprehend, and in some degree to explain, what at first
sight appears so inexplicable--the excessive abundance of some species,
while others closely allied to them are very rare.

The general proportion that must obtain between certain groups of
animals is readily seen. Large animals cannot be so abundant as small
ones; the carnivora must be less numerous than the herbivora; eagles and
lions can never be so plentiful as pigeons and antelopes; the wild asses
of the Tartarian deserts cannot equal in numbers the horses of the more
luxuriant prairies and pampas of America. The greater or less fecundity
of an animal is often considered to be one of the chief causes of its
abundance or scarcity; but a consideration of the facts will show us
that it really has little or nothing to do with the matter. Even the
least prolific of animals would increase rapidly if unchecked, whereas
it is evident that the animal population of the globe must be
stationary, or perhaps, through the influence of man, decreasing.
Fluctuations there may be; but permanent increase, except in restricted
localities, is almost impossible. For example, our own observation must
convince us that birds do not go on increasing every year in a
geometrical ratio, as they would do, were there not some powerful check
to their natural increase. Very few birds produce less than two young
ones each year, while many have six, eight, or ten; four will certainly
be below the average; and if we suppose that each pair produce young
only four times in their life, that will also be below the average,
supposing them not to die either by violence or want of food. Yet at
this rate how tremendous would be the increase in a few years from a
single pair! A simple calculation will show that in fifteen years each
pair of birds would have increased to nearly ten millions! whereas we
have no reason to believe that the number of the birds of any country
increases at all in fifteen or in one hundred and fifty years. With such
powers of increase the population must have reached its limits, and have
become stationary, in a very low years after the origin of each species.
It is evident, therefore, that each year an immense number of birds must
perish--as many in fact as are born; and as on the lowest calculation
the progeny are each year twice as numerous as their parents, it follows
that, whatever be the average number of individuals existing in any
given country, _twice that number must perish annually_,--a striking
result, but one which seems at least highly probable, and is perhaps
under rather than over the truth. It would therefore appear that, as far
as the continuance of the species and the keeping up the average number
of individuals are concerned, large broods are superfluous. On the
average all above _one_ become food for hawks and kites, wild cats and
weasels, or perish of cold and hunger as winter comes on. This is
strikingly proved by the case of particular species; for we find that
their abundance in individuals bears no relation whatever to their
fertility in producing offspring. Perhaps the most remarkable instance
of an immense bird population is that of the passenger pigeon of the
United States, which lays only one, or at most two eggs, and is said to
rear generally but one young one. Why is this bird so extraordinarily
abundant, while others producing two or three times as many young are
much less plentiful? The explanation is not difficult. The food most
congenial to this species, and on which it thrives best, is abundantly
distributed over a very extensive region, offering such differences of
soil and climate, that in one part or another of the area the supply
never fails. The bird is capable of a very rapid and long-continued
flight, so that it can pass without fatigue over the whole of the
district it inhabits, and as soon as the supply of food begins to fail
in one place is able to discover a fresh feeding-ground. This example
strikingly shows us that the procuring a constant supply of wholesome
food is almost the sole condition requisite for ensuring the rapid
increase of a given species, since neither the limited fecundity, nor
the unrestrained attacks of birds of prey and of man are here sufficient
to check it. In no other birds are these peculiar circumstances so
strikingly combined. Either their food is more liable to failure, or
they have not sufficient power of wing to search for it over an
extensive area, or during some season of the year it becomes very
scarce, and less wholesome substitutes have to be found; and thus,
though more fertile in offspring, they can never increase beyond the
supply of food in the least favourable seasons. Many birds can only
exist by migrating, when their food becomes scarce, to regions
possessing a milder, or at least a different climate, though, as these
migrating birds are seldom excessively abundant, it is evident that the
countries they visit are still deficient in a constant and abundant
supply of wholesome food. Those whose organization does not permit them
to migrate when their food becomes periodically scarce, can never attain
a large population. This is probably the reason why woodpeckers are
scarce with us, while in the tropics they are among the most abundant of
solitary birds. Thus the house sparrow is more abundant than the
redbreast, because its food is more constant and plentiful,--seeds of
grasses being preserved during the winter, and our farm-yards and
stubble-fields furnishing an almost inexhaustible supply. Why, as a
general rule, are aquatic, and especially sea birds, very numerous in
individuals? Not because they are more prolific than others, generally
the contrary; but because their food never fails, the sea-shores and
river-banks daily swarming with a fresh supply of small mollusca and
crustacea. Exactly the same laws will apply to mammals. Wild cats are
prolific and have few enemies; why then are they never as abundant as
rabbits? The only intelligible answer is, that their supply of food is
more precarious. It appears evident, therefore, that so long as a
country remains physically unchanged, the numbers of its animal
population cannot materially increase. If one species does so, some
others requiring the same kind of food must diminish in proportion. The
numbers that die annually must be immense; and as the individual
existence of each animal depends upon itself, those that die must be the
weakest--the very young, the aged, and the diseased,--while those that
prolong their existence can only be the most perfect in health and
vigour--those who are best able to obtain food regularly, and avoid
their numerous enemies. It is, as we commenced by remarking, "a struggle
for existence," in which the weakest and least perfectly organized must
always succumb.

Now it is clear that what takes place among the individuals of a species
must also occur among the several allied species of a group,--viz. that
those which are best adapted to obtain a regular supply of food, and to
defend themselves against the attacks of their enemies and the
vicissitudes of the seasons, must necessarily obtain and preserve a
superiority in population; while those species which from some defect of
power or organization are the least capable of counteracting the
vicissitudes of food, supply, &c., must diminish in numbers, and, in
extreme cases, become altogether extinct. Between these extremes the
species will present various degrees of capacity for ensuring the means
of preserving life; and it is thus we account for the abundance or
rarity of species. Our ignorance will generally prevent us from
accurately tracing the effects to their causes; but could we become
perfectly acquainted with the organization and habits of the various
species of animals, and could we measure the capacity of each for
performing the different acts necessary to its safety and existence
under all the varying circumstances by which it is surrounded, we might
be able even to calculate the proportionate abundance of individuals
which is the necessary result.

If now we have succeeded in establishing these two points--1st, _that
the animal population of a country is generally stationary, being kept
down by a periodical deficiency of food, and other checks_; and, 2nd,
_that the comparative abundance or scarcity of the individuals of the
several species is entirely due to their organization and resulting
habits, which, rendering it more difficult to procure a regular supply
of food and to provide for their personal safety in some cases than in
others, can only be balanced by a difference in the population which
have to exist in a given area_--we shall be in a condition to proceed to
the consideration of _varieties_, to which the preceding remarks have a
direct and very important application.

Most or perhaps all the variations from the typical form of a species
must have some definite effect, however slight, on the habits or
capacities of the individuals. Even a change of colour might, by
rendering them more or less distinguishable, affect their safety; a
greater or less development of hair might modify their habits. More
important changes, such as an increase in the power or dimensions of the
limbs or any of the external organs, would more or less affect their
mode of procuring food or the range of country which they inhabit. It
is also evident that most changes would affect, either favourably or
adversely, the powers of prolonging existence. An antelope with shorter
or weaker legs must necessarily suffer more from the attacks of the
feline carnivora; the passenger pigeon with less powerful wings would
sooner or later be affected in its powers of procuring a regular supply
of food; and in both cases the result must necessarily be a diminution
of the population of the modified species. If, on the other hand, any
species should produce a variety having slightly increased powers of
preserving existence, that variety must inevitably in time acquire a
superiority in numbers. These results must follow as surely as old age,
intemperance, or scarcity of food produce an increased mortality. In
both cases there may be many individual exceptions; but on the average
the rule will invariably be found to hold good. All varieties will
therefore fall into two classes--those which under the same conditions
would never reach the population of the parent species, and those which
would in time obtain and keep a numerical superiority. Now, let some
alteration of physical conditions occur in the district--a long period
of drought, a destruction of vegetation by locusts, the irruption of
some new carnivorous animal seeking "pastures new"--any change in fact
tending to render existence more difficult to the species in question,
and tasking its utmost powers to avoid complete extermination; it is
evident that, of all the individuals composing the species, those
forming the least numerous and most feebly organized variety would
suffer first, and, were the pressure severe, must soon become extinct.
The same causes continuing in action, the parent species would next
suffer, would gradually diminish in numbers, and with a recurrence of
similar unfavourable conditions might also become extinct. The superior
variety would then alone remain, and on a return to favourable
circumstances would rapidly increase in numbers and occupy the place of
the extinct species and variety.

The _variety_ would now have replaced the _species_, of which it would
be a more perfectly developed and more highly organized form. It would
be in all respects better adapted to secure its safety, and to prolong
its individual existence and that of the race. Such a variety _could
not_ return to the original form; for that form is an inferior one, and
could never compete with it for existence. Granted, therefore, a
"tendency" to reproduce the original type of the species, still the
variety must ever remain preponderant in numbers, and under adverse
physical conditions _again alone survive_. But this new, improved, and
populous race might itself, in course of time, give rise to new
varieties, exhibiting several diverging modifications of form, any of
which, tending to increase the facilities for preserving existence,
must, by the same general law, in their turn become predominant. Here,
then, we have _progression and continued divergence_ deduced from the
general laws which regulate the existence of animals in a state of
nature, and from the undisputed fact that varieties do frequently occur.
It is not, however, contended that this result would be invariable; a
change of physical conditions in the district might at times materially
modify it, rendering the race which had been the most capable of
supporting existence under the former conditions now the least so, and
even causing the extinction of the newer and, for a time, superior race,
while the old or parent species and its first inferior varieties
continued to flourish. Variations in unimportant parts might also occur,
having no perceptible effect on the life-preserving powers; and the
varieties so furnished might run a course parallel with the parent
species, either giving rise to further variations or returning to the
former type. All we argue for is, that certain varieties have a tendency
to maintain their existence longer than the original species, and this
tendency must make itself felt; for though the doctrine of chances or
averages can never be trusted to on a limited scale, yet, if applied to
high numbers, the results come nearer to what theory demands, and, as we
approach to an infinity of examples, become strictly accurate. Now the
scale on which nature works is so vast--the numbers of individuals and
periods of time with which she deals approach so near to infinity, that
any cause, however slight, and however liable to be veiled and
counteracted by accidental circumstances, must in the end produce its
full legitimate results.

Let us now turn to domesticated animals, and inquire how varieties
produced among them are affected by the principles here enunciated. The
essential difference in the condition of wild and domestic animals is
this,--that among the former, their well-being and very existence depend
upon the full exercise and healthy condition of all their senses and
physical powers, whereas, among the latter, these are only partially
exercised, and in some cases are absolutely unused. A wild animal has to
search, and often to labour, for every mouthful of food--to exercise
sight, hearing, and smell in seeking it, and in avoiding dangers, in
procuring shelter from the inclemency of the seasons, and in providing
for the subsistence and safety of its offspring. There is no muscle of
its body that is not called into daily and hourly activity; there is no
sense or faculty that is not strengthened by continual exercise. The
domestic animal, on the other hand, has food provided for it, is
sheltered, and often confined, to guard it against the vicissitudes of
the seasons, is carefully secured from the attacks of its natural
enemies, and seldom even rears its young without human assistance. Half
of its senses and faculties are quite useless; and the other half are
but occasionally called into feeble exercise, while even its muscular
system is only irregularly called into action.

Now when a variety of such an animal occurs, having increased power or
capacity in any organ or sense, such increase is totally useless, is
never called into action, and may even exist without the animal ever
becoming aware of it. In the wild animal, on the contrary, all its
faculties and powers being brought into full action for the necessities
of existence, any increase becomes immediately available, is
strengthened by exercise, and must even slightly modify the food, the
habits, and the whole economy of the race. It creates as it were a new
animal, one of superior powers, and which will necessarily increase in
numbers and outlive those inferior to it.

Again, in the domesticated animal all variations have an equal chance of
continuance; and those which would decidedly render a wild animal unable
to compete with its fellows and continue its existence are no
disadvantage whatever in a state of domesticity. Our quickly fattening
pigs, short-legged sheep, pouter pigeons, and poodle dogs could never
have come into existence in a state of nature, because the very first
step towards such inferior forms would have led to the rapid extinction
of the race; still less could they now exist in competition with their
wild allies. The great speed but slight endurance of the race horse, the
unwieldy strength of the ploughman's team, would both be useless in a
state of nature. If turned wild on the pampas, such animals would
probably soon become extinct, or under favourable circumstances might
each lose those extreme qualities which would never be called into
action, and in a few generations would revert to a common type, which
must be that in which the various powers and faculties are so
proportioned to each other as to be best adapted to procure food and
secure safety,--that in which by the full exercise of every part of his
organization the animal can alone continue to live. Domestic varieties,
when turned wild, _must_ return to something near the type of the
original wild stock, _or become altogether extinct_.

We see, then, that no inferences as to varieties in a state of nature
can be deduced from the observation of those occurring among domestic
animals. The two are so much opposed to each other in every circumstance
of their existence, that what applies to the one is almost sure not to
apply to the other. Domestic animals are abnormal, irregular,
artificial; they are subject to varieties which never occur and never
can occur in a state of nature: their very existence depends altogether
on human care; so far are many of them removed from that just proportion
of faculties, that true balance of organization, by means of which alone
an animal left to its own resources can preserve its existence and
continue its race.

The hypothesis of Lamarck--that progressive changes in species have been
produced by the attempts of animals to increase the development of their
own organs, and thus modify their structure and habits--has been
repeatedly and easily refuted by all writers on the subject of varieties
and species, and it seems to have been considered that when this was
done the whole question has been finally settled; but the view here
developed renders such an hypothesis quite unnecessary, by showing that
similar results must be produced by the action of principles constantly
at work in nature. The powerful retractile talons of the falcon- and the
cat-tribes have not been produced or increased by the volition of those
animals; but among the different varieties which occurred in the earlier
and less highly organized forms of these groups, _those always survived
longest which had the greatest facilities for seizing their prey_.
Neither did the giraffe acquire its long neck by desiring to reach the
foliage of the more lofty shrubs, and constantly stretching its neck for
the purpose, but because any varieties which occurred among its
antitypes with a longer neck than usual _at once secured a fresh range
of pasture over the same ground as their shorter-necked companions, and
on the first scarcity of food were thereby enabled to outlive them_.
Even the peculiar colours of many animals, especially insects, so
closely resembling the soil or the leaves or the trunks on which they
habitually reside, are explained on the same principle; for though in
the course of ages varieties of many tints may have occurred, _yet those
races having colours best adapted to concealment from their enemies
would inevitably survive the longest_. We have also here an acting cause
to account for that balance so often observed in nature,--a deficiency
in one set of organs always being compensated by an increased
development of some others--powerful wings accompanying weak feet, or
great velocity making up for the absence of defensive weapons; for it
has been shown that all varieties in which an unbalanced deficiency
occurred could not long continue their existence. The action of this
principle is exactly like that of the centrifugal governor of the steam
engine, which checks and corrects any irregularities almost before they
become evident; and in like manner no unbalanced deficiency in the
animal kingdom can ever reach any conspicuous magnitude, because it
would make itself felt at the very first step, by rendering existence
difficult and extinction almost sure soon to follow. An origin such as
is here advocated will also agree with the peculiar character of the
modifications of form and structure which obtain in organized
beings--the many lines of divergence from a central type, the increasing
efficiency and power of a particular organ through a succession of
allied species, and the remarkable persistence of unimportant parts such
as colour, texture of plumage and hair, form of horns or crests, through
a series of species differing considerably in more essential characters.
It also furnishes us with a reason for that "more specialized structure"
which Professor Owen states to be a characteristic of recent compared
with extinct forms, and which would evidently be the result of the
progressive modification of any organ applied to a special purpose in
the animal economy.

We believe we have now shown that there is a tendency in nature to the
continued progression of certain classes of _varieties_ further and
further from the original type--a progression to which there appears no
reason to assign any definite limits--and that the same principle which
produces this result in a state of nature will also explain why domestic
varieties have a tendency to revert to the original type. This
progression, by minute steps, in various directions, but always checked
and balanced by the necessary conditions, subject to which alone
existence can be preserved, may, it is believed, be followed out so as
to agree with all the phenomena presented by organized beings, their
extinction and succession in past ages, and all the extraordinary
modifications of form, instinct, and habits which they exhibit.

Ternate, February, 1858.


FOOTNOTES:

[A] This MS. work was never intended for publication, and therefore was
not written with care.--C. D. 1858.

[B] I can see no more difficulty in this, than in the planter improving
his varieties of the cotton plant.--C. D. 1858.



Contributions to the Anatomy and Natural History of the Cetacea. By R.
KNOX, Esq., M.D., F.R.S.E. Communicated by the Secretary.

[Received Oct. 6, 1857.]


Part I. THE DOLPHINS.

The dissection of the Cetacea, and more especially of the larger kinds,
is attended with great difficulty, and not unfrequently entails heavy
expenses on those who attempt it. For these reasons I have thought that
zoologists might be pleased to have, even now, submitted to them the
results of numerous dissections made many years ago, when, not stinted
in means, and having the aid of excellent assistants, I attempted the
dissection even of the gigantic Arctic Rorqual, the largest, perhaps, of
all living beings. Certain of the details have been from time to time
laid before the public, but in an extremely scattered and incomplete
form, and without the illustrations (artistic), which explain so much
better than any verbal description. The greater part is still before me
in manuscript. It is my intention in the following contributions to
endeavour to connect them together, adding to those already published
many facts I find in MSS. The original drawings, made by my brother and
by Messrs. Edward Forbes and Henry Goodsir (who were at that time my
students and assistants), are still in my possession.

_Determination of Species._--The determination of species as regards the
_Cetacea_ is one of much difficulty; Cuvier met this difficulty by an
appeal to anatomy. The number of vertebræ composing the vertebral column
(exclusive of the cephalic) seemed to me a tolerably secure guide in the
determination of species,--being aware, however, that some doubted the
method, believing that the number of the vertebræ might vary, first,
with the individual, secondly with the age of the specimen. I still
continue to be of my original opinion, that the number of vertebræ
comprising the vertebral column, properly so called, may safely be
trusted in determining the species of the Cetacea; and with this view I
drew up the following Table, excepting from it the genus _Dugong_, which
I have never considered to be a Cetacean:--

_Tabular View of the Number of the Vertebræ in certain Cetacea._

(Cephalic vertebræ excluded.)

---------------------------------------------------------------------
|                              Authorities.                         |
|                 ---------------------------------------------------
|  SPECIES.       |  CUVIER. RUDOLPHI.   KNOX. J. HUNTER.   HUNTER  |
|                 |                                       (Glasgow.)|
---------------------------------------------------------------------
|                 |         |         |        |        |           |
|1. MYSTICETUS.   |         |         |        |        |           |
|Skeleton of the  |         |         |        |        |           |
|foetus (the      |         |         |        |        |           |
|cervical reckoned|         |         |        |        |           |
|as 7) of the     |         |         |        |        |           |
|_Mysticetus_     |         |         |        |        |           |
|_borealis_,      |         |         |        |        |           |
|Greenland        |         |         |   48   |        |           |
|                 |         |         |        |        |           |
|Adult            |         |         |        |        |           |
|_Mysticetus_,    |         |         |        |        |           |
|Whale of         |         |         |        |        |           |
|Commerce.        | unknown |         |        |        |           |
|                 |         |         |        |        |           |
|_B. Mysticetus_  |         |         |        |        |           |
|_australis_, True|         |         |        |        |           |
|Whale of the Cape|         |         |        |        |           |
|Seas             |   59    |         |        |        |           |
|                 |         |         |        |        |           |
|2. BALÆNOPTERA.  |         |         |        |        |           |
|Gigantic Northern|         |         |        |        |           |
|Rorqual          |         |         |   65   |        |           |
|                 |         |         |        |        |           |
|Specimen of      |         |         |        |        |           |
|Rorqual described|         |         |        |        |           |
|by Rudolphi      |         |   54    |        |        |           |
|                 |         |         |        |        |           |
|_B. rostrata_ of |         |         |        |        |           |
|Fabricius; on the|         |         |        |        |           |
|authority of Van |         |         |        |        |           |
|Beneden: A.      |         |         |        |        |           |
|Rorqual          |         |         |        |        |    48     |
|                 |         |         |        |        |           |
|Great Whale at   |         |         |        |        |           |
|Antwerp. Van     |         |         |        |        |           |
|Beneden. Species |         |         |        |        |           |
|not stated       |         |         |        |        | 61 or 62. |
|                 |         |         |        |        |           |
|The lesser       |         |         |        |        |           |
|Rorqual of the   |         |         |        |        |           |
|North            |         |         |   48   |   46   |    46     |
|                 |         |         |        |        |           |
|Great Rorqual of |         |         |        |        |           |
|the Cape         |   52    |         |        |        |           |
|                 |         |         |        |        |           |
|3. PHYSETER.     |         |         |        |        |           |
|Sperm Whale or   |         |         |        |        |           |
|Cachalot         |   60    |         |        |        |           |
|                 |         |         |        |        |           |
|4. DELPHINUS.    |         |         |        |        |           |
|_D. Delphis_     |   67    |         |        |        |           |
|                 |         |         |        |        |           |
|_D. Delphis._ In |         |         |        |        |           |
|my museum        |         |         |   81   |        |           |
|                 |         |         |        |        |           |
|_D. Delphis._ In |         |         |        |        |           |
|the Museum of Dr.|         |         |        |        |           |
|R. Hunter,       |         |         |        |        |           |
|Glasgow          |         |         |        |        |    90     |
|                 |         |         |        |        |           |
|_D. Delphis._    |         |         |        |        |           |
|Dissected by John|         |         |        |        |           |
|Hunter           |         |         |        |   60   |           |
|                 |         |         |        |        |           |
|_D. Phocæna_     |   66    |         |   65   |   51   |           |
|                 |         |         |        |        |           |
|_D. Ebsenii._ Van|         |         |        |        |           |
|Beneden          |         |         |        |        |    90     |
---------------------------------------------------------------------

In a late number of the 'Bulletins of the Royal Academy of Brussels' I
find some valuable remarks in respect of these points by M. Van Beneden.
He praises, and deservedly, no doubt, the exertions of M. Eschricht to
collect a proper Museum of the Cetacea. It appears, according to M.
Eschricht, that at no age whatever do we find in true whales (meaning, I
presume, the _Mysticetus borealis_ and _australis_) any distinct
vertebræ in the cervical region as in other mammals. A fusion of all
into one bone or cartilage seems to take place even in the youngest
foetus. In the foetus examined by me of this species (a specimen removed
from the uterus of a true _Mysticetus_ killed in the Greenland seas), I
do not recollect the precise appearance of the cervical vertebræ; but
the skeleton is in existence, and shall be referred to. To the skeleton
of the Rorqual now in the Museum at Antwerp, and which seems to me of
the same species as the one I dissected in Scotland (and of which the
skeleton, prepared with infinite care by my brother and myself, was
presented by me to the Town Council of Edinburgh, and is now preserved
in the Zoological Gardens of the same city), he gives the following
vertebræ:--

  Skeleton of the Rorqual at Antwerp--Cervical  7
  Dorsal                                       14-15
  Lumbar                                       15
  Caudal                                       25[C]
                                               --------
  Total                                        61 or 62

In the skeleton of the Great Rorqual now in the Zoological Gardens at
Edinburgh, and originally dissected and prepared by my brother and
myself, these vertebræ are--

  Cervical             7
  Dorsal              15
  Lumbar and Caudal   43
                      --
  Total               65

In that of the Lesser Rorqual I dissected in 1830, the skeleton of which
I think is still preserved in the Museum of the University of Edinburgh,
we found--

         Vertebræ.
  Cervical       7
  Dorsal        11
  Lumbar        13
  Caudal        17
                --
  Total         48

The specimen was that of a young animal, and of the same species, I
believe, as the one described by Mr. Hunter and Fabricius; it is a
distinct species, and not merely the young of the Great Rorqual.

I shall return to the Dugong, as not being a Cetacean, in a future
Section: its skeleton has been examined in a masterly way by De
Blainville, an anatomist and observer of the highest order, since the
time I wrote and published my Memoir on the Dugong.

The first great step in the anatomy of the Cetacea is unquestionably due
to Cuvier; but his dissections were almost confined to the genus
_Delphinus_, or the common Porpoise of our coasts. I repeated all his
dissections, and found them, as they almost always were, scrupulously
exact; but when I came to examine Cetacea with whalebone instead of
teeth, I was surprised to find how different, in fact, the anatomy of
the two great families was. Scarcely in any great natural family do we
find Cuvier's favourite theory of anatomical and physiological
co-relations so entirely at fault as in the Cetacea. The teeth or
whalebone, as natural-history characters, lead to no results; the whole
structure of the interior defies all _à-priori_ reasoning. The brain in
whalebone-whales does not fill the interior of the cranium; so that the
capacity of the one is no measure of the solid bulk of the other. Their
food is various, having no relation to the teeth or buccal appendages;
vascular structures surround the spinal marrow, and extend in the
_Balænopteræ_ into the cavity of the cranium, which seem to be without
any analogy in other mammals, or, at the least, a very obscure one, and
whose functions are wholly unknown.

Cetacea might with some propriety be divided into whales with whalebone,
and whales with teeth. Those with whalebone have rudimentary teeth in
both jaws in the foetal state. Fossil Cetacea exist, and they seem to
have been of both kinds, but, no doubt, were generically and
specifically distinct from the recent. Judging from the remains of those
I have seen, I am inclined to think that those with teeth were of a
stronger and firmer build in the skeleton than those called recent; that
the neck was longer, and the caudal portion of the column shorter than
in the recent kinds, and that they approached the Saurians in form.
There is a remarkable want of symmetry in the crania of some of the
Cetacea; but most remarkable is the cranium of the Narwhal. Of this fact
I have already spoken, in the article published in the Transactions of
the Royal Society of Edinburgh.

_Delphinus Phocæna. Dissection of a small Cetacean sent to me from
Orkney in the month of May 1835._--This species is said to abound on the
coasts, and to furnish a kind of fishery to the inhabitants. On
dissection we found 81 vertebræ, exclusive of the cephalic. The species
must be quite distinct from those previously and subsequently examined
by myself and many others, in which the number of vertebræ ranged from
61 to 66. It is also, I think, distinct from the specimen I saw in Dr.
R. Hunter's Museum in Glasgow, in which the number of vertebræ was 90,
exclusive of the cephalic in all the cases. Thus it stands with regard
to the Cetacea called Porpoises and Dolphins.

In certain species of _Delphinus_ the vertical column is composed of 61
vertebræ, in others of 65, in others of 66, in others of 81, in others
of 90.

The specimen I now describe was, no doubt, that of a young animal; and
the skeleton was prepared, consequently, as a natural one. This method
has the advantage of security against the loss of any important osseous
structures, which too frequently happens when the bones require to be
macerated. The bones contained little oil, and weighed, head included,
only 7-1/4 lbs.; the whole animal, when entire, weighed 14 stone, or 196
lbs.; the skeleton therefore was about a twenty-fourth part of the whole
weight. It was a female. The external nostrils terminated in a single
orifice of a semilunar shape, with the concavity turned towards the
snout. Measurements of young animals have not the importance of those of
the adult; but I give them here because I think that the specimen,
although young, had nearly attained its full growth:--

                                                   ft.  in.
  Total length over the dorsum                      6   5-2/8
  Total length lateral surface                      6  11-2/8
  Total length abdominal surface                    6  11-2/8
  From the snout to the nostrils                    0  11-4/8
  From the nostrils to the dorsal fin               1   6-4/8
  Base of the dorsal fin                            0  11
  From dorsal fin to foot of tail                   3   0-2/8
  Breadth of pectoral limb                          0   4-4/8
  From the snout to the organs of generation        3   9-4/8
  Circumference anterior to the arm                 2   9
  Circumference anterior to dorsal fin              3   2-4/8
  Circumference posterior to dorsal fin             2  10
  Circumference at setting on of the tail           0   8-4/8
  Length of pectoral limb                           0  10
  Breadth of tail                                   1   2
  Greatest height of the dorsal fin                 0   9

From the notes taken at the time, I find that my brother remarks that
the Dolphin of Orkney differed a good deal in shape from those found in
the Forth and seas in the South of Scotland. There were, moreover, 16
more vertebræ than in the skeleton of the Common Porpoise of authors.
The teeth generally weighed 2-1/2 grains each.

Further, the muscles of the tongue, intrinsic as well as extrinsic, were
extremely well developed. The isthmus faucium was 3 inches long. All
this part was extremely glandular. A well-marked muscular gullet
followed, composed of two layers of muscular fibres,--one circular
internally, and one longitudinal externally. These latter sent a slip to
the base of the arytænoid cartilages. The mucous membrane of the gullet
had no true epidermic covering, and in this respect differed remarkably
from the first gastric compartment, from which a cuticular lining could
be peeled off, as strong as that from the sole of the foot in man. The
larynx presented that organization so well described by the illustrious
Cuvier, and which I believe to be peculiar to the whales with teeth. It
differs very much, as I explained long ago, in its arrangement from that
of Whalebone Whales,--a fact of which I think Cuvier was not aware. The
cricoid cartilage was imperfect in form; the hyo-epiglottic muscles very
strong. The proper arytænoid were present, and strong, but did not
extend so high as in man; the thyro-arytænoid muscles were very fully
developed. In the interior of the larynx there were no projections nor
ventricles, no cuneiform cartilages, nor cornicula laryngis. The rings
of the trachea formed complete circles.

_Stomach._--The cuticular lining is limited to the first cavity or
compartment. It is in the second compartment that is found the curious
glandular arrangement first, I believe, described by me in the
'Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.' This structure is most
probably not limited to the second compartment. There are four distinct
compartments in the stomach of this animal. A dilated duodenum follows,
6 inches in length. It is possible that this may have been in some
instances mistaken for a stomach. The valvulæ conniventes commence with
the jejunum; these are longitudinal, and extend to within about 6 inches
of the anus, terminating at a point where the intestine seems enlarged.
The length of the intestines, large and small, was 90 feet;
circumference generally about 2 inches. Thousands and tens of thousands
of parasitical worms were found in the stomach, but none in the
intestine. In the stomach also we found four mandibles of the
cuttlefish, but no remains of anything in the intestines, and no
parasites.

_Heart and Vessels._--The heart weighed exactly one pound. The
Eustachian valve was small, that of Thebesius imperfect. The aorta
proceeded for about 3 inches of its course before giving off any
branches. At a point corresponding to the 15th or 16th lumbar vertebra
the vessel divided into the common iliacs. The _art. sacri media_, its
continuation, continued its course protected by the V-bones, and giving
off branches corresponding to the intervertebral spaces.

_Brain and Nervous System._--The erectile tissue surrounding the spinal
cord and origin of the spinal nerves in the Cetacea did not extend into
the interior of the cranium. The entire encephalic mass weighed 2-1/2
lbs.: cerebrum, 2 lbs.; cerebellum, 1/4; pons and medulla, 1/4 = 2-1/2.
Compared with a drawing of Camper of the _Delphinus Phocæna_, the brain
was found to differ remarkably, in being much broader in the line of the
middle and posterior lobes. In no animal did I ever find the fibrous
structure of the brain so well marked; and this extended to the
cerebellum[D]. I give here some measurements of the brain, which may be
of use to future observers. The brain is short from before backwards,
but broad transversely:--

  Antero-posterior diameter                 5-2/8  inches.
  Breadth                                   8      inches.
  Greatest breadth of the cerebellum        4      inches.
  Length of the cerebellar hemisphere       4-6/8  inches.
  Depth of ditto                            3-2/8  inches.
  Weight of the encephalic mass             2-1/2  lbs.
  Depth of the interhemispherical fissure   1-2/8  inches.
  Length of the corpus callosum             1-7/8  inches.
  Weight of cerebrum                        2    }
  Weight of cerebellum                      0-1/4}  = 2-1/2 lbs.
  Weight of the pons and med. oblongata     0-1/4}

_Nerves._--The 7th pair was found to be unexpectedly large and firm,
including both portions. The anterior roots of the spinal nerves were
far more numerous than the posterior or dorsal.

_Muscles._--The panniculus carnosus, strong and fleshy, extended nearly
over the whole trunk. The recti abdominis were powerful, and attached
inferiorly in this way:--A portion runs to the pelvic bones; a much
stronger to a strong aponeurosis, situated between the anus and the root
of the tail.

The erector muscles of the spine (sacrolumbalis, longissimus dorsi and
multifidus spinæ) weighed fully 16 lbs. They had but slender costal
attachments; but their spinal (small delicate tendons) were innumerable.
The scaleni were very large; and the vessels held the same relation to
them as in man. The serratus magnus was comparatively small. The larger
rhomboid had no spinal attachment; the minor rhomboid seemed to be the
larger of the two. The pectorals were comparatively small. The adipose
tissue appeared to be wholly confined to the subcutaneous region. The
muscles were of a deep brown colour, full of blood, with a short, dark,
and well-flavoured fibre: when cooked, they had a strong resemblance in
flavour and taste to the flesh of the hare.


Part II. THE BALÆNA WHALES, OR WHALES WITH WHALEBONE.

In February 1834 a young whale of the family of Balæna Whales was caught
near the Queensferry, in the Firth of Forth. One much larger had been
seen some time before, but escaped. I purchased it for dissection,
although I was aware that it was impossible for me, during the hurry of
the winter session, to devote much time to it. But I had able assistants
(Mr. Henry Goodsir, Mr. Edward Forbes, and my brother), from whom I
expected a good deal of aid. Some very beautiful drawings of this whale,
made for me by Mr. Edward Forbes and by my brother, are still in my
possession.

It was easy to see, by the dorsal fin and by the numerous plaits or
folds on the abdominal surface of the throat and chest, before any
dissection, that the specimen was a young Balænopterous whale, differing
in a great many points from the true whale or _Mysticetus_: for, 1st,
the form of the head was entirely different; 2nd, it had a dorsal fin;
and, 3rd, occupying the lower surface of the throat and thorax were
numerous folds of the integuments. To this class of whales I have been
in the habit of giving the name of Rorqual, to distinguish them from the
other class of Whalebone Whales, the _Mysticetus_ both _borealis_ and
_australis_.

It appears from my notes, that at that time M. G. Cuvier considered the
species I now describe as identical with the Great Rorqual I had
described about two years previously; but I felt convinced then, as now,
that they form distinct species, and in this opinion some continental
anatomists seem to coincide.

Being persuaded that there was some inaccuracy in former drawings of the
species, I had the specimen suspended and drawn with great care by Mr.
Edward Forbes. This position explained the mechanism of the mouth,
showing its great size, even in the short Balæna Whales; its great
capacity in the _Mysticetus_ had never been doubted.

As to the species, the conclusion I arrived at was, that the specimen
belonged to that termed by Fabricius _rostrata_, and that individuals of
the species had been seen by John Hunter, Sir James Watson, and
Fabricius.

  _Measurements._                                       ft.  in.

  Total length of the specimen                                9  11
  Circumference immediately behind the pectoral extremities   5   2
  Circumference where the folds or rugæ terminated            4   8-1/4
  Ditto of the tail at its origin                             1   5-1/2
  Length from the back fin to the setting on of the tail      2  10
  Length from the snout to the ear                            3   0
  Length from snout to nostrils                               1   4
  Length of lower jaw                                         2   3
  Length of arm; inner side                                   1   3
  Length from the angle of the mouth to the arm               1   3
  Length from snout to arm                                    2   9
  Length of tail in depth                                     0  11
  Length of back fin at the base                              0   8
  Height of back fin                                          0   8-1/2
  From top to tip of tail                                     2   8-1/2
  Stomach:--1st compartment, in length                        1   2
            2nd compartment, in length                        1   4
            3rd compartment, in length                        0   8
            4th compartment, in length                        0   7
            5th compartment, in length                        0   3
  Spleen weighed 4 ounces; its length  was                    0   5
  Liver, 9 lbs.
  Small intestines, length                                   20   0
  Large intestines, length                                    2   4
  Kidney, weight 2-1/4 lbs.
  Brain (including 2 inches of spinal marrow), 3-1/2 lbs.
  Cerebellum, pons, and 2 inches of spinal marrow, 3/4 lb.
  Great hemisphere of the brain measured 3 inches in
    length, in breadth, 6-1/2; at the base, 8 inches.
  Tuber annulare                                              0   1-2/8
  Olfactory nerves, in length                                 0   1-1/2
  Ditto, breadth                                              0   2-1/2
  Skeleton:--Length of cranium                                2  11
             Greatest breadth between the orbits              1   3
             Length of vertebral column                       7   8

When we compare the skeleton of this Rorqual with the Gigantic Rorqual I
also dissected, we find as follows:--

                       _R. giganteus._   _R. minor._

  Cervical         vertebræ  7          vertebræ  7
  Dorsal                    15                   11
  Lumbar, sacral, caudal    43                   30
                            --                   --
                            65                   48

These differences must be specific.

At the extremity of the snout in either jaw there were 8 strong
bristles, being the only vestiges of hair found on the external surface.
The mouth was of great size; the tongue large and tolerably free, and of
a pale rose or vermilion colour. The baleen, where deepest, measured
about 4 inches; there were 370 plates on each side; but anteriorly and
posteriorly these plates were reduced to mere bristles.

The isthmus faucium allowed the closed hand to pass through it; through
this isthmus I do not believe that any water ever passes into the
pharynx, unless it be accidentally, as in man. The "spout" of the
Whalebone Whale is composed, no doubt, of the pulmonary vapour, and not
of any water received into the pharynx from the mouth.

The stomach seemed composed of five compartments externally, but
presented only four when laid open, the fifth being manifestly the
duodenum. In the intestines no remains of food were found, but abundance
of intestinal worms, and a substance strongly resembling the human
meconium. There was an ilio-cæcal valve as distinct as in man. In the
rectum the folds of the mucous membrane were transverse.

_Organs of Respiration_.--The external nostrils were double; and the
cavities of the nostrils provided with the remarkable cartilages and
muscular apparatus I discovered and described in the anatomy of the
Great Rorqual. In this specimen they were about 4 inches in length, but
of as many feet in the large Rorqual. The mode of breathing in the
Rorquals does not differ much from that in man, with the exception of
the apparatus of the protruding cartilages, which in man are
rudimentary.

The _Olfactory Nerves_ were quite as large as in other mammals; and in
this respect the Balæna Whales are quite unlike the Dolphins[E].

The trachea communicated, near its upper part, with a sac or pouch; the
lungs were each composed of a single lobe. The rings of the trachea were
mostly deficient anteriorly. In the heart the foetal arrangements had
wholly disappeared. The dura mater seemed divisible into three layers,
the external being vascular. A remarkable vascular substance connected
with this layer covers the back part of the brain and cerebellum,
extending into the spinal canal, and even into the chest. At the base of
the brain the vascular plexus was about 2 inches in thickness. It is, as
is well known, a sort of erectile tissue, of whose functions we are
wholly ignorant. It is not confined to this course, but extends to the
neck, and, passing through the foramina intervertebralia, fills the
intercostal spaces exterior to the pleura.

There was evidently a canal in the centre of the spinal marrow. Wherever
the nerves of the lungs and stomach were traced, they terminated in
loops. We did not observe in the Great Rorqual any tracheal pouch like
that in the smaller; but it may have escaped notice: if absent in the
Great Rorqual, it would be another proof of the distinctness of the
species.

The doubts raised by M. St. Hilaire, as to the Whale being a mammal in
the true sense of the term, were set aside long ago by an appeal to
facts. The young of the Whale tribe suckle like the young of all
mammals; nevertheless I showed, in 1834, that the lactiferous glands in
the _Balænopteræ_ differ in structure from the same organs in most
mammals.

I do not find in my notes anything to add to the description of the
Great Rorqual already published in the 'Transactions of the Royal
Society of Edinburgh' for 1827, to which I beg leave to refer the
reader.

A single remark must be added regarding the nature of the vascular
plexus which, in the Cetacea, surrounds the spinal marrow, and extends
into the chest. On selecting the artery which seemed to form the plexus,
which was, if I rightly recollect, in this instance an intercostal
artery, and dissecting it under water, I found, to my surprise, that the
artery, so long as I followed it, never gave off any branches, but
continued of the same calibre throughout, making innumerable
flexuosities or turnings. Thus, on a plexiform mass of this kind being
cut across, the first impression is, that a great number of arterial
branches or arteries have been divided, whilst in fact the entire plexus
seems to be formed of one artery.

As was to be expected of animals so much withdrawn from human
observation, there is but little to say on the natural history of the
Cetacea properly so called. Their food, no doubt, is various, and seems
to have little or no relation to the character of their dentition. The
enormous Cachalot, with its vast teeth implanted only in one jaw, is
generally understood to prey chiefly on the Cuttlefish. The food of the
true Whale, or _Mysticetus_, is well known to be the Clio and other
smaller Mollusca, with which certain regions of the ocean abound; the
same, or similar, is probably the food of the more active and restless
Rorquals, found in both hemispheres. The Dolphins, or Toothed Whales,
generally prey, no doubt, on fishes of various kinds; yet, even as
regards these, it has been proved by my esteemed friend, the late Mr.
Henry Goodsir, that some of the largest, following in the wake of the
herring shoals, prey not on these, but on the various microscopic food
(the Entomostraca and other marine animals) which I was the first to
prove to be the natural food of many excellent gregarious freshwater
fish, as the Vendace, Early Loch Leven Trout, the Brown Trout of the
Highland and Scottish lakes generally, and of the Herring itself[F]. It
is scarcely necessary to add, that the complex apparatus connected with
the exterior nostrils of the Dolphins is wholly wanting in the Balæna
Whales,--a fact of which M. Cuvier was not aware when he wrote his
celebrated Treatise on Comparative Anatomy.

_Appendix_.--Since writing the above, I have received an answer to a
letter I addressed to my friend, John Goodsir, Esq., Professor of
Anatomy in the University of Edinburgh. The request contained in my
letter to Mr. Goodsir was, to examine for me the skeleton of a foetal
_Mysticetus_ now in the University Museum. The foetus from which this
skeleton was prepared was removed from the uterus of the mother, killed
in the North Seas by the seamen of a whaling ship, by one of my former
students, Mr. R. Auld, who presented the specimen to me. The point at
issue was the composition of the cervical vertebræ in the true or
Greenland Whale, the _Balæna Mysticetus_. M. Van Beneden, to whose
memoir I have referred in the commencement of this, says, on the
authority of Eschricht, that at no age whatever do we find in true
Whales (meaning, I presume, the _Mysticetus borealis_ and _australis_)
any distinct vertebræ in the cervical region, as in other mammals. A
fusion of all into one bone or cartilage seems to take place even in the
youngest foetus. Now, I had enjoyed the rare opportunity of dissecting
the foetus of the _Mysticetus_, and I knew that the skeleton, prepared
with the greatest care, was still preserved in the Museum of the
University of Edinburgh. I wrote to Mr. Goodsir to re-examine this point
for me, for I did not find in my notes any confirmation of the
observations of Eschricht. Mr. Goodsir's reply to my note is as
follows:--

                                             "University, Edinburgh,
                                                 Sept. 30, 1857.

"MY DEAR SIR,

"In the skeleton of the foetal _Mysticetus_ now in the University
Museum, the bodies of the axis and atlas have shrivelled up together,
having evidently consisted of cartilage only; but the bodies of the five
posterior cervical vertebræ are beautifully distinct, having well-formed
osseous centres, which give them more of the configuration of the
succeeding vertebral bodies than they present in their compressed form
in the adult.

"The neural arches in the cervical region of this skeleton are five in
number; the two anterior, which are distinctly those of the atlas and
axis, have an osseous nodule on each side, where the transverse
processes pass off. The third arch belongs to the third vertebra, the
fourth and fifth to the sixth and seventh. These three arches are
cartilaginous, and present no osseous centres. It is impossible to
determine from the preparation whether the arches of the fourth and
fifth vertebræ had been cut away in dissecting the parts, or whether
they have shrivelled up in drying; but as the skeleton was very
carefully prepared, and as these two arches are deficient (at least
laterally) in the adult _Mysticetus_, I presume that the cartilaginous
matrices were at least extremely delicate in the foetus.

"I believe I have stated all the facts, afforded by this skeleton, which
bear upon your questions. They appear to me to afford no support to the
views to which they refer.

                                            "Yours very sincerely,
                                          (Signed)        "JOHN GOODSIR."

The conclusion I arrived at is this,--that the actual number of cervical
vertebræ in the _Mysticetus_ is, as in most other mammals, seven, and
that, notwithstanding their earlier fusion, they are originally quite
distinct.

FOOTNOTES:

[C] It is stated that some of the last of these are of wood. The
skeleton in Edinburgh is perfect.

[D] "The substance of the brain is more visibly fibrous than I ever saw
it in any other animal, the fibres passing from the ventricles as from a
centre to the circumference, which fibrous texture is also continued
through the cortical substance."--HUNTER, "On Whales," 'Animal Economy,'
Palmer's edit. p. 373.

[E] In his paper "On the Structure of Whales" (Phil. Trans. 1787),
Hunter remarks that the organ of smell "is peculiar to the large and
small Whalebone Whales." He further remarks, that, "in those that have
olfactory nerves, the lateral ventricles are not continued into them as
in many quadrupeds;" and he notices "the want of the olfactory nerves in
the genus of the Porpoise."--'Anim. Economy,' Palmer's edit. pp. 372,
373, 376.

[F] See Memoirs in the 'Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh'
for 1832.



Extract of a Letter from Dr. BAIKIE to Sir JOHN RICHARDSON, M.D., C.B.,
F.R. & L.S., dated 29th October, 1857, Rabba, on the Qworra.

[Read January 21st, 1858.]


"In natural history my collection is advancing, especially in skins and
skeletons of birds. I am collecting skulls of all the domesticated
animals, and skeletons of the sheep and goats. I have got a few fish,
including a prettily-marked _Diodon_ or _Tetraodon_, probably new, and a
_Myletes_ which I did not meet with formerly. The _Siluridæ_ are the
most abundant fishes; and one species closely resembles the
_Hypophthalmus_, figured by Rüppell in his 'Fishes of the Nile and Red
Sea.' I have not met with another Polypterus. I shall get a
_Lepidosiren_ in the river, and have heard of an electrical fish, I
believe a _Malopteruris_, such as I formerly found. I enclose two scales
of a fish which is said to grow to the length of 5 feet, but of which I
have specimens half that size only,--also a sketch of a curious fish
2-1/2 feet, which I put into spirits; it has neither ventral nor anal
fins, a very peculiar caudal, and a slender head, while the dorsal
extends along the whole back; eyes very small; teeth numerous and hard,
but not sharp." He adds, in a postscript, that he had got the
_Lepidosiren_. He had collected 700 species of plants, and numerous
fine fruits, which he says "will rejoice Sir William Hooker's heart."

Dr. Baikie's postscript, however, mentions that his vessel had been
wrecked about twelve miles above Lagos, and that she sunk in a few
minutes after she struck. He does not say what was the fate of his
collections, but states that all the party had fever from fatigue and
sleeping in swamps after the wreck.--J. R.



Catalogue of the Dipterous Insects collected in the Aru Islands by Mr.
A. R. WALLACE, with Descriptions of New Species. By FRANCIS WALKER.


ARU ISLAND.


Fam. MYCETOPHILIDÆ, _Haliday_.

Gen. SCIARA, _Meigen_.

Div. A. _a., Meig_. vi. 305.

1. SCIARA SELECTA, n. s. _Mas_. Nigra, cinereo-tomentosa, antennis sat
validis, pedibus piceis, alis cinereis, venis costalibus crassis.

_Male_. Black, with cinereous tomentum; antennæ rather stout; legs
piceous; wings greyish; veins black; radial and cubital veins thick;
radial vein extending to the fork of the subapical. Length of the body
1-3/4 line; of the wings 4 lines.


Fam. BIBIONIDÆ, _Haliday_.

Gen. PLECIA, _Hoffmansegg_.

2. Plecia dorsalis, _Walk_. See Vol. I. p. 5.


Fam. CULICIDÆ, _Haliday_.

3. CULEX SCUTELLARIS, n. s. _Mas_. Nigro-fuscus, capite thoraceque
argenteo trivittatis, scutello rufescente; abdominis segmentis argenteo
fasciatis, genubus et tarsorum posticorum fasciis niveis; alis
subcinereis, venis nigris ciliatis.

_Male_. Blackish brown. Head and thorax with three silvery stripes, the
middle one very distinct; scutellum reddish; pectus with silvery gloss;
abdomen with silvery bands, which are narrow above, broad beneath;
femora pale towards the base; knees snow-white; hind tarsi with 5 broad
snow-white bands; middle tarsi with the first and second joints white at
the base; wings slightly greyish; veins black, fringed. Length of the
body 3 lines; of the wings 5 lines.


Fam. TIPULIDÆ.

Gen. MEGISTOCERA, _Wied_.

4. Megistocera tuscana, _Wied. Auss. Zweist._ 1. 55. 1. Inhabits also
Java.

Gen. GYNOPLISTIA, _Westw_.

5. GYNOPLISTIA JURGIOSA, n. s. _Mas. et Foem._ Nigra, capite rufescente,
alis cinereis, plagis costalibus nigro-fuscis.--_Mas_. Abdomine
ochraceo, apice nigro, femoribus basi testaceis.--_Foem._ Abdomine atro
fasciis albidis apice luteo.

_Male and Female._ Black. Head reddish; antennæ testaceous at the base;
thorax testaceous in front; wings greyish, blackish-brown along the
costa, and with three subcostal blackish-brown patches, the third
continued along the veins towards the hind border. _Male_. Abdomen
ochraceous, black at the tip; femora testaceous at the base; halteres
testaceous. _Female._ Abdomen deep black, with whitish bands on the
sutures; tip luteous. Length of the body 5-6 lines; of the wings 9-10
lines.


Fam. STRATIOMIDÆ, _Haliday_.

Gen. PTILOCERA, _Wied_.

6. Ptilocera quadridentata. See Vol. 1. p. _7_.

7. MASSICYTA INFLATA, n. s. _Foem._ Nigra, capite viridi maculis nigris,
antennis basi ferrugineis, pectoris callis duobus scutelloque testaceis,
abdomine basi sordide albido lineis tribus nigris, fasciis duabus
cano-tomentosis, segmentis tertio quartoque apice ferrugineis, tibiis
basi tarsisque albidis, alis subcinereis fusco marginatis, stigmate
nigricante, halteribus testaceis.

_Female._ Black. Head dull green, with several black spots; mouth
testaceous; antennæ dark ferruginous towards the base; two pectoral
calli and the scutellum testaceous; abdomen at the base dingy-whitish
and semihyaline, and with three black lines; third and fourth segments
with hoary bands, their hind borders ferruginous; tibiæ towards the
base, and tarsi, whitish; hind tibiæ with the two colours most
distinctly marked; wings grey, with broad brownish borders; stigma
blackish; veins black; halteres testaceous. Length of the body 6 lines;
of the wings 11 lines.

8. MASSICYTA CERIOÏDES, n. s. _Foem._ Nigra, capite testaceo maculis
nigris, antennis basi ferrugineis, pectoris callis duobus, thoracis
vittis duabus interruptis, scutello abdominisque fasciis tribus
viridibus, segmento abdominali secundo maculis duabus testaceis, tarsis
albis, alis nigricanti-fuscis, halteribus viridibus.

_Female._ Black. Head testaceous, with some black spots on the vertex.
Antennæ dark ferruginous towards the base. An interrupted stripe on each
side of the thorax, two pectoral calli, the scutellum, and the hind
borders of the second, third, and fourth abdominal segments green.
Abdomen testaceous at the base beneath; first band interrupted, having
before it two testaceous spots. Knees lurid; tarsi white. Wings blackish
brown; stigma and veins black; halteres apple-green. Length of the body
5-6 lines; of the wings 10-12 lines.

Gen. SALDUBA, n. g.

_Male. Corpus_ angustum, sublineare. _Caput_ transversum; vertex
angustus. _Oculi_ magni. _Antennæ_ capite transverso valde longiores;
articuli primo ad septimum breves; flagellum longum, lanceolatum,
subarcuatum. _Thorax_ longus, subcompressus; scutellum inerme. _Abdomen_
planum, thorace paullo longius. _Pedes_ graciles; postici longi. _Alæ_
angustæ.

_Male._ Body narrow, nearly linear. Head slightly transverse, nearly as
broad as the thorax; vertex narrow. Eyes large. Antennæ shorter than the
thorax; joints from the first to the seventh short; flagellum long,
lanceolate, slightly curved. Thorax long, slightly increasing in breadth
from the head to the base of the wings. Abdomen nearly flat and linear,
a little longer than the thorax. Legs slender; hind pair long. Wings
narrow; veins complete, distinctly marked; first cubital areolet rather
short, divided from the second by the oblique first cubital rim; discal
areolet large, hexagonal; subanal and anal veins united at some distance
from the border.

9. SALDUBA DIPHYSOIDES, n. s., _Mas._ Nigra, ore flavo, thorace vittis
quatuor subauratis, abdominis apice cinereo, pedibus albidis, femoribus
posticis apices versus tibiisque posticis nigris, alis cinereis, venis
stigmateque nigris, halteribus testaceis.

_Male._ Black. Mouth yellow; thorax with four stripes of slightly gilded
tomentum; tip of the abdomen with cinereous tomentum; legs whitish, hind
femora towards the tips and hind tibiæ black; wings greyish, veins and
stigma black; halteres testaceous. Length of the body 4-1/2 lines; of
the wings 8 lines.

Gen. STRATIOMYS.

10. STRATIOMYS CONFERTISSIMA, n. s. _Foem._ Nigra, subtus ferruginea,
capite fulvo, antennis basi fulvis, thorace vittis quatuor subauratis,
scutelli margine fulvo, ventre piceo basi testaceo, pedibus fulvis nigro
fasciatis; alis subcinereis, venis stigmateque nigris, halteribus
testaceis.

_Female._ Black, ferruginous beneath. Head, antennæ at the base, border
of the scutellum, and legs tawny; antennæ a little shorter than the
breadth of the head; thorax with four slightly gilded stripes; abdomen
beneath piceous, testaceous at the base; femora and tibiæ with broad
black bands; wings greyish, stigma and veins black; halteres testaceous.
Length of the body 4 lines; of the wings 7-1/2 lines.

11. STRATIOMYS NEXURA, n. s. _Mas et Foem._ Nigra, antennis basi fulvis,
capite transverso brevioribus, abdominis lateribus, ventre, tibiis,
tarsis halteribusque fulvis, alis limpidis, venis testaceis. _Mas._
Thorace atro piloso. _Foem._ Thorace nigro-æneo angustiore.

_Male and female._ Black. Head rather prominent; antennæ tawny towards
the base, shorter than the breadth of the head; spines of the scutellum,
abdomen beneath, tibiæ, tarsi, and halteres tawny; wings limpid, veins
testaceous. _Male._ Thorax deep black, pilose; abdomen tawny along each
side. _Female._ Head shining; thorax æneous black, narrower than that of
the male; abdomen with the tawny stripes much narrower than those of the
male. Length of the body 3-1/2 lines; of the wings 6-1/2 lines.

Gen. CLITELLARIA, _Meigen._

12. Clitellaria bivittata, _Fabr._ See Vol. I. p. 7.

Gen. GABAZA, n. g.

_Foem. Corpus_ breve, latum. _Caput_ transversum, thorace paullo
angustius; facies valde obliqua. _Antennæ_ capite transverso breviores;
articuli breves, transversi; arista longa, gracilis, filiformis.
_Scutellum_ prominens, spinis duabus minutis. _Abdomen_ transversum,
thorace multo latius. _Pedes_ graciles, breviusculi. _Alæ_ sat angustæ;
venæ tenues.

_Female._ Body short, broad. Head transverse, a little narrower than the
thorax; face very oblique. Antennæ shorter than the breadth of the head;
joints short, transverse; arista slender, filiform, longer than the
preceding part, which is lanceolate. Scutellum prominent, armed with two
minute spines. Abdomen transverse, much broader than the thorax. Legs
slender, somewhat short. Wings rather narrow; veins feeble, in structure
like those of _Stratiomys_.

13. GABAZA ARGENTEA, n. s. _Foem._ Nigra, antennis fulvis, arista alba,
thorace abdomineque argenteo-tomentosis, tarsis albido-testaceis, alis
limpidis, venis pallidis.

_Female._ Coal-black. Antennæ tawny, arista white; thorax and abdomen
with bright silvery tomentum; tarsi whitish testaceous; wings limpid,
veins pale. Length of the body 2 lines; of the wings 3-1/2 lines.

Gen. SARGUS, _Fabr._

14. Sargus metallinus, _Fabr._ See Vol. I. p. 110.

15. SARGUS COMPLENS, n. s. _Foem._ Rufescente-fulvus, capitis vertice
nigro, antennis testaceis, abdomine fasciis latis abbreviatis piceis,
tarsis posticis basi tibiisque posticis nigris, alis cinereis, basi
subluridis, apud costam exteriorem nigro-fuscis.

_Female._ Reddish tawny. Head black above, testaceous beneath; antennæ
testaceous; abdomen with four broad abbreviated piceous bands; legs
tawny, hind tibiæ black with a tawny apical mark, hind tarsi black
towards the base; wings greyish, slightly lurid towards the base,
blackish-brown about the exterior part of the costa, veins black, tawny
towards the base; halteres testaceous, tawny towards the tips. Length of
the body 6 lines; of the wings 14 lines.

16. SARGUS ROGANS, n. s. _Mas et Foem._ Capitis vertice nigro, antennis
pedibusque testaceis, tibiis tarsisque posticis nigris, alis subcinereis
apice obscurioribus. _Mas._ Luteo-testaceus. _Foem._ Ferrugineus.

_Male and Female._ Head black above; antennæ and legs testaceous; hind
tibiæ and hind tarsi black; wings greyish, darker towards their tips;
veins black, tawny towards the base. _Male._ Lutescent testaceous.
_Female._ Ferruginous; wings darker than those of the male. Length of
the body 5 lines; of the wings 10 lines.

Gen. NERUA, n. g.

_Foem. Corpus_ longiusculum, sublineare. _Caput_ transversum, thorace
non latius. _Antennæ_ breves; articulus tertius rotundus; arista
apicalis, longa, tenuis, setiformis. _Thorax_ productus. _Scutellum_
spinis quatuor longiusculis. _Abdomen_ depressum, sublineare, thorace
vix latius, non longius. _Pedes_ graciles, non longi. _Alæ_ angustæ;
venæ bene determinatæ.

_Female._ Body rather long, nearly linear. Head transverse, not broader
than the thorax. Antennæ short; third joint round; arista apical, long,
slender, setiform. Thorax long. Abdomen flat, thin, nearly linear,
hardly broader and not longer than the thorax. Legs slender, not long.
Wings narrow; veins distinctly marked, in structure like those of
_Clitellaria_.

This genus may be distinguished from _Culcua_ by the shape of the
abdomen.

17. NERUA SCENOPINOÏDES, n. s. _Foem._ Atra, nitens, antennis fulvis,
scutelli spinis pedibusque albis, alis nigro-cinereis, postice
pallidioribus, venis nigris, halteribus testaceis.

_Female._ Coal-black, shining; antennæ tawny; thorax slightly tomentose;
spines of the scutellum and legs white; wings blackish grey, paler
towards the hind border, veins black; halteres testaceous. Length of the
body 3 lines; of the wings 5 lines.

Gen. ADRAGA, n. g.

_Mas. Corpus_ sublineare. _Caput_ thorace non latius. _Oculi_ connexi.
_Antennæ_ brevissimæ; articulus tertius rotundus; arista apicalis,
gracilis, setiformis. _Thorax_ sutura transversa bene determinata.
_Scutellum_ prominens, trigonum, marginatum. _Abdomen_ thorace paullo
brevius, non latius. _Pedes_ breviusculi, validi, non dilatati. _Alæ_
mediocres.

_Male_. Body nearly linear, rather thick. Head not broader than the
thorax. Eyes connected. Antennæ very short; third joint round; arista
apical, long, slender, setiform. Thorax with the transverse suture very
distinct. Scutellum prominent, triangular, with a border. Abdomen a
little shorter and not broader than the thorax. Legs stout, rather
short, not dilated. Wings moderately broad; veins in structure like
those of _Clitellaria_.

18. ADRAGA UNIVITTA, n. s. _Mas._ Nigra, subtilissime punctata, antennis
piceis, thorace vitta cinerea, tarsis posterioribus albis, alis
nigricantibus.

_Male_. Coal-black, hardly shining; antennæ piceous; thorax and abdomen
very minutely punctured; thorax with a stripe of cinereous tomentum;
posterior tarsi white; wings blackish, veins black. Length of the body 3
lines; of the wings 5 lines.

Gen. OBRAPA, n. g.

_Foem. Corpus_ breve, latum, crassum, convexum. _Caput_ transversum,
thorace angustius. _Antennæ_ breves; articulus tertius rotundus; arista
apicalis, gracilis, setiformis. _Thorax_ sutura transversa bene
determinata. _Abdomen_ transversum, thorace paullo latius, valde
brevius. _Pedes_ breviusculi, validi; antici subdilatati. _Alæ_
mediocres.

_Female._ Body short, broad, thick, convex. Head transverse, narrower
than the thorax. Antennæ short; third joint round; arista apical,
slender, setiform. Thorax with the transverse suture very distinct.
Scutellum large, prominent, with a marginal suture. Abdomen transverse,
a little broader than the thorax, and not more than half its length.
Legs stout, rather short, the fore pair slightly dilated. Wings
moderately broad, veins rather irregular; discal areolet large,
quadrilateral; externo-medial veins, subanal vein, and anal vein very
slight; subanal vein and anal vein united at some distance from the
border.

19. OBRAPA PERILAMPOÏDES, n. s. _Foem._ Atra, nitens, subtilissime
punctata, capite glabro, antennis piceis, tarsis posterioribus albidis,
alis limpidis, venis albidis basi nigris, halteribus niveis.

_Female._ Deep black, shining, very minutely punctured; head smooth;
antennæ piceous; posterior tarsi whitish, with black tips; wings limpid,
veins whitish, black towards the base; halteres snow-white. Length of
the body 2-1/2 lines; of the wings 5 lines.

20. OBRAPA CELYPHOÏDES, n. s. _Foem._ Atra, nitens, subtilissime
punctata, capite glabro, antennis piceis, tarsis albidis, alis
nigro-cinereis, venis nigris, halteribus niveis.

_Female._ Deep black, very minutely punctured. Head smooth; antennæ
piceous; tarsi whitish; wings blackish cinereous, veins black; halteres
snow-white. Length of the body 2 lines; of the wings 4 lines.


Fam. TABANIDÆ, _Leach_.

Gen. TABANUS, _Linn._

21. TABANUS RECUSANS, n. s. _Foem._ Piceus, cinereo-subtomentosus, callo
nigro angusto, antennis rufis apice nigris, humeris rufescentibus,
abdomine basi glaucescente, tibiis obscure ferrugineis, alis
nigro-fuscis, apice margineque postico cinereis.

_Female._ Piceous, slightly covered with cinereous tomentum. Callus of
the head black, long, slender, entire; antennæ red, black towards the
tips, angle of the third joint very small; thorax reddish on each side
in front of the forewings; abdomen with glaucous tomentum towards the
base; tibiæ mostly dark ferruginous; wings blackish-brown, cinereous
towards the tips and along the hind border; veins black; forebranch of
the cubital vein simple, very slightly undulating, its tip, like that of
the radial vein, clouded with blackish-brown. Length of the body 6-1/2
lines; of the wings 12 lines.


Fam. ASILIDÆ, _Leach_.

Subfam. DASYPOGONITES, _Walk._

Gen. DASYPOGON, _Fabr._

22. DASYPOGON INOPINUS, n. s. _Foem._ Piceus, facie aurata, mystace
parvo albo, antennis ferrugineis, apices versus nigris, capite
transverso longioribus, articulo tertio lineari, pectore fasciis tribus
canis, abdominis segmentis ferrugineo fasciatis, alis luridis, apud
costam nigro-fuscis, halteribus testaceis.

_Female._ Piceous. Face flat, brightly gilded; epistoma not prominent;
mystax with a few white bristles; mouth black; antennæ ferruginous,
black towards the tips, longer than the breadth of the head; third joint
linear, longer than the first and the second together; pectus with three
hoary bands; abdomen subclavate, nearly twice the length of the thorax;
a ferruginous band on the hind border of each segment; legs mostly
ferruginous; wings lurid, blackish-brown towards the costa, veins black;
halteres testaceous. Length of the body 8 lines; of the wings 14 lines.

23. DASYPOGON HONESTUS, n. s. Lutescente-fulvus, capite, antennis,
pedibus alisque nigris, thorace vitta schistacea nigro marginata
vittisque duabus lateralibus cinereis, pectore postico nigro, abdomine
----?, tibiis tarsisque posticis fulvis.

Luteous-tawny. Head, antennæ, hind part of the pectus, and legs black,
shining; mystax with very few bristles; antennæ almost as long as the
breadth of the head, third joint long, slender, linear; thorax with a
slate-coloured blackish-bordered stripe, a short slate-coloured stripe
on each side; abdomen wanting; hind tibiæ and tarsi tawny; wings
blackish, veins black. Length of the body 4? lines; of the wings 7
lines.

Subfam. LAPHRITES, _Walk._

Gen. LAPHRIA, _Fabr._

24. Laphria scapularis, _Wied. Auss. Zweifl._ 1. 516. 29. Inhabits also
Java.

25. Laphria aurifacies, _Macq._ See Vol. I. p. 10.

26. LAPHRIA GLORIOSA, n. s. _Mas et Foem._ Aurata, capite pectoreque
albis, abdomine purpureo, guttis lateralibus albis, basi viridi,
lateribus pedibusque cyaneis, alis fuscis basi cinereis, halteribus
testaceis.

_Male and Female._ Head and pectus with white tomentum and hairs; mystax
with a few black bristles; mouth and antennæ black; third joint of the
latter linear, conical at the tip, longer than the first and the second
together; thorax with cupreous-gilded tomentum; abdomen purple, green at
the base, blue and with a row of white dots along each side; legs blue;
wings brown, cinereous towards the base, veins black; halteres
testaceous. _Male._ Legs very thick and pilose. Length of the body 9
lines; of the wings 16 lines.

27. LAPHRIA SOCIA, n. s. _Foem._ Cyaneo-viridis, capite aurato,
antennarum articulo tertio longissimo subfusiformi, thoracis tomento
subaurato, vitta media nuda, pectore argenteo, abdomine purpureo-cyaneo
basi viridi maculis lateralibus argenteis, alis nigro-cinereis basi
cinereis.

_Female._ Bluish-green. Head brightly gilded, hind part silvery; mystax
with six long black bristles; third joint of the antennæ very elongate
subfusiform; thorax with slightly gilded tomentum, excepting a broad
bare middle stripe; pectus with silvery tomentum; abdomen purplish-blue,
green towards the base, with spots of silvery tomentum along each side;
hind borders of the ventral segments white; wings grey, blackish-grey
for almost half the length from the tips and along three-fourths of the
length of the hind border, veins black; halteres ferruginous. Length of
the body 8-1/2 lines; of the wings 16 lines.

28. LAPHRIA CONSOBRINA, n. s. _Foem._ Purpurea, capite aurato, pectore
argenteo, abdomine viridi-cyaneo, maculis lateralibus argenteis, alis
nigricantibus basi cinereis.

_Female._ Purple. Head brightly gilded, hind part silvery, underside
with white hairs; mystax with six long black bristles; pectus with
silvery tomentum; abdomen greenish blue, with spots of silvery tomentum
along each side; hind borders of the ventral segments white; wings
slightly grey, blackish for full half the length from the tips and along
full three-fourths of the length of the hind border, veins black;
halteres ferruginous, with black tips. Length of the body 7-1/2 lines;
of the wings 14 lines.

This species much resembles _L. socia_, but may be distinguished by the
difference of colour, and more especially by the more undulating first
branch vein, by the much less oblique third externo-medial vein, and by
the subanal vein, which is united to the anal vein much nearer the
border.

29. LAPHRIA SODALIS, n. s. _Mas._ Cyanea, capite aurato, antennarum
articulo tertio fusiformi, thoracis lateribus purpureo-viridibus,
pectore ventreque argenteis, abdomine maculis lateralibus argenteis,
alis cinereis, apice posticeque nigricantibus.

_Male._ Blue. Head brightly gilded, vertex and hind part silvery,
underside with white hairs; mystax with four long black bristles, and
with several gilded bristles; third joint of the antennæ
elongate-fusiform; sides of the thorax varied with green and purple;
abdomen with spots of silvery tomentum along each side, underside and
pectus silvery; wings grey, black towards the tips and along half the
length of the hind border; halteres white. Length of the body 7 lines;
of the wings 13 lines.

The veins of this species are hardly different from those of _L.
consobrina_ in structure, excepting the third externo-medial, which is
united to the fourth nearer the border.

30. LAPHRIA COMES, n. s. _Mas et Foem._ Viridi-cyanea, capite aurato,
antennarum articulo tertio fusiformi, pectore ventrisque lateribus
argenteis, abdomine viridi (mas) aut purpureo-cyaneo (foem.) maculis
lateralibus argenteis, alis nigricantibus basi cinereis.

_Male and Female._ Greenish blue. Head brightly gilded, hind part
silvery; mystax with six long black bristles; third joint of the antennæ
elongate-fusiform; pectus with silvery tomentum; abdomen green in the
male, purplish-blue in the female, with silvery spots along each side,
underside with two silvery stripes; wings blackish, grey at the base and
along the costa for more than one-third of the length, veins and
halteres black. Length of the body 6--6-1/2 lines; of the wings 11-12
lines.

This may be only a small variety of _L. consobrina_; but the wings are
not darker towards the costa as in that species, and the first
branch-vein is much more straight.

31. LAPHRIA CONSORS, n. s. _Mas et Foem._ Viridis (mas) aut cyanea
(foem.), capite aurato, antennarum articulo tertio brevifusiformi,
pectore argenteo, abdomine æneo-viridi (mas) aut cyaneo-purpureo
(foem.) maculis lateralibus argenteis, alis nigricantibus, basi
cinereis.

_Male and Female._ Green (male) or blue (female). Head gilded, hind part
silvery; mystax with a few black bristles; third joint of the antennæ
short-fusiform; pectus silvery; abdomen æneous-green in the male,
bluish-purple in the female, with silvery spots along each side; wings
blackish, grey at the base and along the costa for more than one-third
of the length; veins and halteres black. Length of the body 4-1/2--5
lines; of the wings 8-9 lines.

The straight and not oblique third externo-medial vein distinguishes
this species from all the preceding _Laphriæ_.

32. LAPHRIA GERMANA, n. s. _Foem._ Cyanea, facie aurata, antennarum
articulo tertio longissime subfusiformi, abdominis maculis lateralibus
pectoreque argenteis, alis cinereis, basi subcinereis, halteribus albis.

_Female._ Blue. Head gilded in front, vertex and hind part silvery;
mystax with six black bristles; third joint of the antennæ very long,
subfusiform; pectus silvery; abdomen purplish blue, shorter than in the
preceding species, with silvery spots along each side; wings grey,
slightly grey towards the base; halteres white. Length of the body 3-1/2
lines; of the wings 7 lines.

33. LAPHRIA FLAGRANTISSIMA, n. s. _Mas._ Rufescente-cervina, capite
aurato, antennis pedibusque rufescentibus, thorace vittis tribus
latissimis (lateralibus abbreviatis) pectoreque nigricantibus, alis
lutescentibus, plaga postica interiore fasciaque latissima exteriore
nigricantibus.

_Male._ Reddish fawn colour. Head gilded; mystax with numerous gilded
bristles; mouth lanceolate, very stout; antennæ reddish, third joint
long, lanceolate, abruptly acuminated at the tip; thorax with three very
broad blackish stripes; disk of the pectus black; abdomen with the
segments darker towards the base, underside black towards the tip; legs
reddish, stout; tarsi with black bands beneath; wings somewhat luteous,
with a large blackish patch on the hind border near the base, and with a
very broad blackish band near the tip; halteres testaceous. Length of
the body 11 lines; of the wings 22 lines.

34. LAPHRIA JUSTA, n. s. _Mas._ Lutea, capite aurato, ore, antennis
apice, thoracis maculis duabus posticis, pectore, abdominis fasciis
latis femoribusque nigris, alis cinereis, apud costam luridis.

_Male._ Luteous. Head gilded; mystax with numerous gilded bristles;
mouth short, black; antennæ reddish tawny, third joint lanceolate, black
except at the base; thorax with the disk somewhat darker, two large
black spots hindward; pectus black; abdomen linear, with a broad black
band on the fore border of each segment; femora black above except at
the tips, hind femora black also beneath; wings greyish, slightly
clouded with dark grey, lurid along the costa for three-fourths of the
length; halteres testaceous. Length of the body 8 lines; of the wings 14
lines.

35. LAPHRIA MANIFESTA, n. s. _Mas et Foem._ Fulva, capite argenteo (mas)
aut pallide aurato (foem.), antennis apice nigris, thoracis disco et
abdominis maculis subtrigonis subæneo-ferrugineis, scutello
quadrisetoso, alis subcinereis.

_Male and Female._ Tawny. Head silvery in the male, pale-gilded in the
female; mystax with several slender bristles; mouth lanceolate; third
joint of the antennæ very elongate-subfusiform, black towards the tip;
disk of the thorax and nearly triangular dorsal spots of the abdomen
ferruginous with a slight æneous tinge; pectus testaceous, slightly
silvery; wings slightly greyish; veins black, testaceous at the base,
where the wings also have a testaceous tinge; halteres testaceous.
Length of the body 4-1/2--5 lines; of the wings 8-9 lines.

36. LAPHRIA APERTA, n. s. _Foem._ Testacea, capite subargenteo, antennis
abdominisque apice nigris, alis nigricantibus basi limpidis, halteribus
albidis.

_Female._ Testaceous. Head with whitish slightly silvery tomentum;
mystax with very few bristles; antennæ black, third joint long, linear,
conical at the tip; thorax with a very indistinct darker stripe; abdomen
black towards the tip; wings blackish, limpid towards the base; veins
black, testaceous at the base; halteres whitish. Length of the body 4
lines; of the wings 7 lines.

37. LAPHRIA DECLARATA, n. s. _Mas._ Fulva, capite albo, facie argentea
micante, antennis tibiisque posticis nigris, thorace atro, alis
cinereis, venis nigris, halteribus testaceis.

_Male._ Tawny, slender. Head white, face brilliant silvery; mystax with
four bristles; mouth black, short, slender; eyes flat in front; antennæ
black, almost as long as the breadth of the head; third joint long,
slender, lanceolate; thorax deep black; scutellum reddish tawny; hind
tibiæ black, with tawny tips; wings greyish, veins black; discal veinlet
and third externo-medial vein forming one straight line, as in the genus
_Atomosia_; halteres testaceous. Length of the body 3-1/2 lines; of the
wings 6 lines.

Subfam. ASILITES, _Walk._

Gen. TRUPANEA, _Macq._

38. TRUPANEA CONTRADICENS, n. s. _Mas et Foem._ Nigricans,
cinereo-subtomentosa, thoracis vittis pectoreque cano-tomentosis,
pedibus nigris, tibiis rufis apice nigris, alis fusco-cinereis, areola
radiali schistaceo vittata. _Mas._ Capite subaurato, barba
testaceo-albida, abdominis segmentis lutescente marginatis. _Foem._
Capite barbaque albidis, abdomine stylato, segmentis cano marginatis.

_Male and Female._ Blackish. Antennæ and legs black; thorax slightly
covered with cinereous tomentum; stripes, pectus, and underside of the
abdomen hoary; tibiæ red, with black tips; wings brownish grey; radial
areolet with a slate-coloured stripe. _Male._ Head slightly gilded;
mystax with a few black bristles and many gilded bristles; beard
testaceous-whitish; sides of the abdomen and hind borders of the
segments lutescent. _Female._ Head and beard whitish; mystax with many
black bristles and a few white bristles; abdomen with an apical style,
more than one-third of the length of the preceding part, sides and hind
borders of the segments hoary. Length of the body 12-14 lines; of the
wings 14-18 lines.

Gen. ASILUS, _Linn._

39. Asilus longistylus, _Wied. Auss. Zweifl._ 1. 433. 13. Inhabits also
Java.

Gen. OMMATIUS, _Illiger._

40. OMMATIUS NOCTIFER, n. s. _Mas._ Niger, capite aurato, thoracis
incisuris, scutello, pectore, segmentorum abdominalium marginibus
ventreque canis, tibiis fulvis apice nigris, alis cinereis costa
apiceque nigricantibus, halteribus ferrugineis.

_Male._ Black. Head gilded; mystax with a few black and several gilded
bristles; sutures of the thorax, scutellum, sides, pectus, hind borders
of the abdominal segments, and underside hoary; tibiæ tawny, with black
tips; wings cinereous, blackish along the costa and towards the tips,
veins black; halteres ferruginous. Length of the body 6--6-1/2 lines; of
the wings 11-12 lines.

41. OMMATIUS LUCIFER, n. s. _Mas._ Æneo-niger, capite argenteo, pectore
albido, abdominis segmentis ferrugineo marginatis, pedibus testaceis,
femoribus nigro-vittatis, tarsis nigris, alis limpidis apice
nigricantibus costa atra apud medium incrassata, halteribus testaceis.

_Male._ Bronze-black. Head silvery in front; mystax with a few black and
a few whitish bristles; pectus whitish; hind borders of the abdominal
segments ferruginous; legs testaceous; femora striped with black; tarsi
black, ferruginous at the base; wings limpid, blackish at the tips;
costa deep black, incrassated in the middle; halteres testaceous. Length
of the body 6 lines; of the wings 11 lines.

42. OMMATIUS RETRAHENS, n. s. _Foem._ Cinereo-niger, facie argentea,
pectore albido, pedibus testaceis, tarsis, femoribus tibiisque apice
femoribusque posticis nigris, alis limpidis apice subcinereis,
halteribus testaceis.

_Female._ Cinereous-black. Head silvery white in front; mystax with very
few white and black bristles; pectus whitish; legs testaceous; tips of
the anterior femora and of the middle tibiæ black; hind femora and hind
tarsi black; anterior tarsi and hind tibiæ black, testaceous towards the
base; wings limpid, slightly cinereous towards the tips; veins black;
halteres testaceous. Length of the body 4 lines; of the wings 7 lines.

Gen. LEPTOGASTER, _Meigen._

43. LEPTOGASTER FERRUGINEUS, n. s. _Mas._ Ferrugineus, pectore albo,
abdomine nigro, segmentorum marginibus ventreque testaceis, pedibus
fulvis, femoribus apice nigris, tibiis piceo vittatis, tibiis posticis
tarsisque nigris basi testaceis, alis sublimpidis, halteribus testaceis
apice piceis.

_Male._ Ferruginous. Head pale, gilded in front, hind side and pectus
white; mouth and antennæ tawny, the latter blackish towards the tips;
abdomen black; hind borders of the segments and under side testaceous;
legs tawny; anterior femora with a testaceous band before the tips,
which are black; hind femora and anterior tibiæ striped with piceous,
the latter black towards the tips; tarsi and hind tibiæ black,
testaceous at the base; wings very slightly greyish, veins black;
halteres testaceous, piceous towards the tips. Length of the body 7
lines; of the wings 10 lines.

44. LEPTOGASTER LONGIPES, n. s. _Mas._ Ferrugineus, pectore albido,
abdomine piceo, segmentis apice fulvescentibus, pedibus anterioribus
fulvescentibus, posticis piceis longissimis, femoribus posticis basi
testaceis, alis subcinereis basi obscurioribus costa venisque nigris,
halteribus testaceis apice nigris.

_Male._ Ferruginous. Head testaceous in front; mouth and antennæ black;
pectus whitish; abdomen piceous, hind borders of the segments somewhat
tawny; legs somewhat tawny; hind legs piceous, very long, their femora
testaceous at the base; wings slightly greyish, darker towards the base,
costa and veins black; halteres testaceous, with black knobs. Length of
the body 4 lines; of the wings 8 lines.

45. LEPTOGASTER ALBIMANUS, n. s. _Mas._ Niger, capite antico pectoreque
albis, antennis basi ferrugineis, abdominis segmentis cano fasciatis,
femoribus, tibiis tarsisque basi albis, femoribus posticis luteo
fasciatis, alis limpidis, halteribus albidis apice piceis.

_Male._ Black. Head in front and the pectus white; antennæ ferruginous
at the base; abdomen long, a hoary band on the hind border of each
segment; femora, tibiæ, and tarsi white at the base; hind legs long,
rather stout; hind femora with a luteous band; wings limpid, veins
black; halteres whitish, with piceous knobs. Length of the body 5 lines;
of the wings 7 lines.


Fam. LEPTIDÆ, _Westw._

Gen. LEPTIS, _Fabr._

46. Leptis ferruginosa, _Wied._ See Vol. I. p. 118.

Gen. CHRYSOPILA, _Macq._

47. CHRYSOPILA VACILLANS, n. s. _Mas et Foem._ Lutescens, capite nigro,
thorace subvittato, abdominis segmentis nigro fasciatis, alis
sublimpidis apud costam flavescentibus, venis fusco latissime
marginatis, stigmate nigro-fusco.

_Male and Female._ Lutescent. Head of the female black, shining; thorax
with two brown bands which are paler and indistinct hindward; abdomen
with a broad black band on each segment; tarsi blackish towards the
tips; wings nearly limpid, yellowish along the costa, veins exteriorly
with very broad brownish borders, stigma blackish brown. Length of the
body 3-1/2 lines; of the wings 6 lines.


Fam. BOMBYLIDÆ, _Leach._

Subfam. THEREVITES, _Walk._

48. THEREVA CONGRUA, n. s. _Mas._ Nigra, glaucescente albo tomentosa,
albo pilosa, capite argenteo, thorace trivittato et bilineato, pedibus
nigris, femoribus albis, alis cinereis stigmate elongato venisque
nigris.

_Male._ Black, with glaucous-white tomentum and with white hairs. Head
silvery in front; thorax with three blackish brown stripes, the middle
one with a dark stripe on each side, broader and more distinct than the
lateral pair; abdomen beneath and legs black, femora white; wings grey,
with an elongated black stigma and black veins; halteres black. Length
of the body 5 lines; of the wings 8 lines.

Subfam. BOMBYLITES, _Walk._

Gen. ANTHRAX, _Fabr._

49. ANTHRAX PELOPS, n. s. _Mas._ Ferruginea, thoracis margine rufo
piloso, pectore abdomineque nigris, abdomine fasciis duabus, maculis
duabus apicalibus, plagaque ventrali subtrigona argenteis, alis
cinereis, basi costaque nigris.

_Male._ Closely allied to _A. Tantalus_. Dark ferruginous. Head above,
antennæ, pectus, abdomen, and legs black; thorax bordered with red
hairs; pectus with a silvery dot on each side; abdomen with red hairs on
each side at the base, with two silvery bands, with two silvery apical
spots, and with a ventral, nearly triangular, silvery patch; wings
cinereous, black at the base and along five-sixths of the length of the
costa, veins and halteres black. Length of the body 8 lines; of the
wings 18 lines.

50. Anthrax semiscita, _Walk._ See Vol. I. p. 118.

51. Anthrax degenera, _Walk._ See Vol. I. p. 15.

Gen. GERON, _Meigen._

52. GERON SIMPLEX, n. s. _Mas._ Ater, antennis pedibusque nigris, alis
subcinereis, halteribus fulvis.

_Male._ Deep black. Eyes bright red; proboscis a little longer than the
thorax; antennæ and legs black; wings slightly greyish, veins black;
halteres tawny. Length of the body 2-1/2 lines; of the wings 5 lines.


Fam. EMPIDOÆ, _Leach._

Gen. HYBOS, _Fabr._

53. HYBOS BICOLOR, n. s. _Mas._ Fulvus, ore antennisque testaceis,
abdomine, femoribus posticis apice tibiisque anticis piceis, tarsis
anterioribus ferrugineis, alis obscure cinereis.

_Male._ Tawny. Mouth and antennæ testaceous; abdomen, hind femora at the
tips, and fore tibiæ piceous, anterior tarsi ferruginous; wings dark
grey, veins black. Length of the body 3-1/2 lines; of the wings 7 lines.


Fam. DOLICHOPIDÆ, _Leach._

Gen. Psilopus, _Meigen._

54. Psilopus æneus, _Fabr. Syst. Antl._ 268. 9.

Inhabits also Java.

55. PSILOPUS BENEDICTUS, n. s. _Mas et Foem._ Aureo-viridis, facie
pectoreque argenteis, antennis testaceis apice nigris, thorace vittis
tribus cupreis, abdomine fasciis cupreo-purpureis, maculis lateralibus
albidis, pedibus testaceis tibiis posticis tarsisque nigris, alis
subcinereis, costam versus et apud venas transversas nigro-fuscis,
halteribus testaceis. _Foem._ Vertice cyaneo-purpureo, abdomine fasciis
cyaneis.

_Male and Female._ Golden green. Face silvery; antennæ testaceous, black
towards the tips, arista full as long as the thorax; thorax with three
cupreous stripes; pectus silvery; abdomen with cupreous purple bands and
with whitish spots along each side; legs testaceous, tarsi and hind
tibiæ black; wings slightly greyish, blackish brown along the costa and
about the transverse veins, veins black, fore branch of the præbrachial
vein curved inward, discal transverse vein undulating; halteres
testaceous. _Female._ Vertex bluish purple; abdomen with blue bands.
Length of the body 4--4-1/2 lines; of the wings 7-8 lines.

56. PSILOPUS LUCIGENA, n. s. _Mas._ Aureo-viridis, facie pectoreque
argenteis, antennis tarsisque nigris, thorace vittis tribus
rufo-cupreis, abdomine fasciis cupreo-purpureis, femoribus
lutescentibus, tibiis piceis, femoribus anticis apice nigricantibus,
alis nigris apice albis, halteribus fulvis apice nigris.

_Male._ Golden green. Face and pectus silvery; antennæ black, arista
longer than the thorax; thorax with three broad reddish cupreous
stripes; abdomen with broad cupreous purple bands; femora lutescent,
tibiæ piceous, fore femora blackish towards the tips, tarsi black;
wings black, tips snow-white, fore branch of the præbrachial vein
slightly curved inward, discal transverse vein much curved outward;
halteres tawny, with black tips. Length of the body 4-1/2 lines; of the
wings 9 lines.

57. Psilopus flavicornis, _Wied. Auss. Zweifl._ 11. 227. 31.

Inhabits also Sumatra.

58. PSILOPUS TERMINIFER, n. s. _Mas._ Aureo-viridis, vertice
cyaneo-purpureo, facie pectoreque argenteis, antennis, pedibus
halteribusque testaceis, abdomine apicem versus atro fasciis duabus
cupreis, alis subcinereis apice nigris.

_Male._ Golden-green, slender. Vertex bluish-purple; face and pectus
silvery; antennæ testaceous, arista about half the length of the body;
fourth and fifth segments of the abdomen deep black with a cupreous band
on the hind border of each segment, tip blue; legs and halteres
testaceous; wings greyish, paler along the hind border, tips black, fore
branch of the præbrachial vein slightly curved inward, discal transverse
vein slightly undulating. Length of the body 3 lines; of the wings 5
lines.

59. PSILOPUS ORCIFER, n. s. _Foem._ Purpureus, facie pectoreque
subcinereis, antennis, pedibus halteribusque nigris, abdomine
cyaneo-viridi segmentorum marginibus posticis purpureis, alis
nigricantibus margine postico cinereo. _Var._ Viridis, vertice cyaneo,
abdominis segmentis basi nigris.

_Female._ Purple, rather stout. Face and pectus slightly cinereous;
antennæ, legs, and halteres black; abdomen bluish-green, hind borders of
the segments purple; wings blackish, cinereous along the hind border,
fore branch of the præbrachial vein forming an obtuse angle, discal
transverse vein very undulating. _Var._ Green. Vertex blue; abdominal
segments black at the base. Length of the body 2-1/2 lines; of the wings
5 lines.

60. PSILOPUS EGENS, n. s. _Mas et Foem._ Purpureus, facie pectoreque
cyaneo-viridi cinereo subtomentosis, antennis, pedibus halteribusque
nigris, metathorace viridi, abdomine cyaneo, suturis nigris, alis
cinereis.

_Male and Female._ Purple. Face and pectus slightly covered with
cinereous tomentum, the latter bluish-green; antennæ black, arista much
more than half the length of the body; metathorax green; abdomen blue,
sutures black; legs and halteres black; wings grey, fore branch of the
præbrachial vein much curved inward, discal transverse vein straight;
length of the body 2-1/2--2-3/4 lines; of the wings 5 lines.

Gen. DOLICHOPUS, _Latr._

61. DOLICHOPUS TRIGONIFER, n. s. _Foem._ Cupreo-viridis, facie argentea,
antennis, pedibus halteribusque testaceis, pectore, ventre abdominisque
maculis lateralibus trigonis albidis, abdomine purpureo marginibus
posticis nigris, tarsis posterioribus nigricantibus, alis cinereis.

_Female._ Cupreous green. Face silvery; antennæ, legs, and halteres
testaceous; pectus, abdomen beneath, and triangular spots on each side
whitish; abdomen purple, hind borders of the segments black; posterior
tarsi blackish; wings grey, veins black, præbrachial vein forming a
right angle at its flexure, between which and the border it is much
curved inward, discal transverse vein very slightly curved outwards.
Length of the body 3 lines; of the wings 5 lines.

This species resembles the _Psilopi_ in the structure of the præbrachial
vein.

Gen. DIAPHORUS, _Meigen._

62. DIAPHORUS RESUMENS, n. s. _Mas et Foem._ Obscure viridis (mas) aut
niger (foem.), facie pectoreque albidis, antennis piceis, abdomine
nigro-cupreo basi obscure testaceo, pedibus anterioribus tibiisque
posticis basi obscure testaceis, pedibus posticis nigris, alis
nigricantibus apud marginem posticum pallidioribus, halteribus
testaceis.

_Male and Female._ Dark green (male) or black (female). Face and pectus
whitish; antennæ piceous; abdomen cupreous-black, dull testaceous
towards the base; hind legs black, hind tibiæ towards the base and
anterior legs dull testaceous; wings blackish, paler along the hind
border, veins black, præbrachial vein and discal transverse vein
straight; halteres testaceous. Length of the body 2 lines; of the wings
3-1/2 lines.


Fam. SYRPHIDÆ, _Leach._

Gen. CERIA, _Fabr._

63. CERIA SMARAGDINA, n. s. _Foem._ Saturate metallico-viridis,
subtilissime punctata, faciei lateribus cupreis, antennis nigris, arista
nivea, thorace bivittato, abdomine æneo-viridi, tarsis nigris, alis
dimidio costali nigro, halteribus testaceis.

_Female._ Deep metallic green, very finely punctured. Head blue in
front, sides of the face cupreous-purple; mouth, antennæ, and tarsi
black; arista snow-white; thorax with two almost contiguous darker
stripes; abdomen æneous green, with the exception of the petiole, which
is very thick; wings slightly greyish, costal half black; halteres
testaceous. Length of the body 7 lines; of the wings 14 lines.

64. CERIA RELICTA, n. s. _Mas._ Nigra, faciei lateribus, thoracis
maculis quatuor humeralibus, pectoris fasciis duabus lateralibus,
scutello, abdominis maculis duabus basalibus fasciisque duabus flavis,
tibiis flavescentibus apice piceis, alis apud costam nigris, halteribus
testaceis.

_Male._ Black. Head yellow beneath, and in front with the exception of a
black stripe on the disk of the face; arista white; thorax with two
yellow spots on each side in front; scutellum yellow; pectus with an
oblique yellow band on each side; abdomen not petiolated, with a tumid
yellow spot on each side at the base, hind borders of the third and
fourth segments yellow; femora at the tips and tibiæ yellow, the latter
piceous towards the tips, tarsi piceous; wings greyish-black towards the
costa, excepting a lurid costal streak which extends along half the
length from the base; halteres testaceous. Length of the body 6 lines;
of the wings 11 lines.

65. CERIA RELICTA, n. s. _Foem._ Nigra, faciei lateribus abdominisque
fasciis duabus flavis, antennis ferrugineo variis, pedibus fulvis, alis
cinereis costam versus nigris, halteribus stramineis.

_Female._ Black. Head yellow, beneath and in front with the exception of
a black stripe on the disk of the face; first and third joints of the
antennæ somewhat ferruginous, arista white; thorax with two indistinct
yellowish marks on the transverse suture, hind border of the scutellum
and hind borders of the second and third abdominal segments yellow; legs
tawny, tibiæ paler towards the base; wings green, black for nearly half
the breadth from the costa; halteres straw-colour. Length of the body 6
lines; of the wings 11 lines.

This may prove to be the female of _C. relictura_, notwithstanding its
great difference from that species in the marks of the thorax and of the
abdomen, and in the colour of the legs.

Gen. MICRODON, _Meig._

66. MICRODON FULVICORNIS, n. s. _Mas._ Niger, aureo-subpubescens,
antennis, abdomine, pedibus halteribusque fulvis, femoribus nigris,
tibiis nigro vittatis, alis fuscis postice cinereis.

_Male._ Black. Head with gilded pubescence, cinereous behind and
beneath; antennæ tawny, second joint above towards the tip and third
joint piceous; thorax slightly covered with gilded tomentum; pectus with
cinereous tomentum; abdomen with gilded tomentum towards the tip; legs
tawny, femora mostly black, tibiæ with black stripes; wings cinereous,
dark-brown about the costa, veinlet which bisects the subapical areolet
incomplete, as it is also in the following species; halteres tawny.
Length of the body 6 lines; of the wings 12 lines.

67. MICRODON APICALIS, n. s. _Mas et Foem._ Niger, aureo-pubescens,
thorace abdomineque fasciatis, pedibus halteribusque fulvis, alis
nigro-fuscis postice obscure cinereis.

_Male and Female._ Black, with gilded tomentum, which forms two bands on
the thorax, and one on each side of the pectus; abdomen with three
gilded tomentose bands, the third subapical, first segment ferruginous
beneath; legs tawny, femora at the base and coxæ black; wings
blackish-brown, dark cinereous hindward; halteres tawny. Length of the
body 5-6 lines; of the wings 10-12 lines.

Gen. GRAPTOMYZA, _Wied._

68. GRAPTOMYZA TIBIALIS, n. s. _Mas._ Testacea, vertice pectorisque
fasciis duabus piceis, antennis supra nigris, abdominis lateribus
fasciis duabus subtrigonis apiceque nigris, alis cinereis.

_Male._ Testaceous. Vertex and mouth piceous; epistoma with a piceous
line on each side; third joint of the antennæ black above; abdomen black
along each side and at the tip, and with two black bands which are
angular in front; wings cinereous. Length of the body 3-1/2 lines; of
the wings 6 lines.

Gen. ERISTALIS, _Latr._

69. Eristalis splendens, _Leguillon, Voy. aut. du Monde_; _Macq. Dipt.
Exot._ 11. 2. 49. 28.

Inhabits also Solomon's Islands.

70. ERISTALIS RESOLUTUS, n. s. _Mas et Foem._ Niger, capite antice albo,
thorace vittis duabus fasciaque pectorisque disco cinereis, scutello
fulvo, abdomine fasciis interruptis æneo-viridibus, tibiis basi
fulvescentibus, alis fuscis (mas) aut obscure fuscis (foem.) basi
cinereis, halteribus testaceis.

_Male and Female._ Black. Head shining, with white tomentum beneath and
on each side of the face; third joint of the antennæ piceous, arista
simple; thorax with two cinereous stripes and with one cinereous band,
somewhat chalybeous towards the scutellum, which is tawny; the band
continued on each side of the pectus, whose disk is cinereous; abdomen
with an interrupted æneous-green band on the second segment, third and
fourth segments æneous-green, each with three large black spots; tibia
somewhat tawny towards the base; wings brown (male) or dark brown
(female), cinereous towards the base; halteres testaceous. Length of the
body 6 lines; of the wings 10 lines.

71. ERISTALIS CONDUCTUS, n. s. _Foem._ Niger, faciei lateribus albis,
antennis, scutello, abdominis fasciis pedibusque testaceis, thorace
antico albido, alis subcinereis apice obscurioribus.

_Female_. Black. Head shining, with white tomentum behind, beneath and
on each side of the face; antennæ, scutellum, and legs testaceous,
arista simple; thorax whitish in front, the whitish part continued in a
short band on each side of the pectus; abdomen testaceous at the base
and beneath, and with three testaceous bands; hind tibiæ with black
tips; wings slightly greyish, darker towards the tips, cubital vein much
less bent than usual; halteres testaceous. Length of the body 3-1/2
lines; of the wings 6 lines.

72. ERISTALIS SUAVISSIMUS, n. s. _Foem._ Fulvus, capite testaceo vertice
nigro, thorace vittis quinque testaceis, abdomine nigro maculis sex
lutescentibus, segmentorum marginibus posticis æneis, pedibus nigris
testaceo fasciatis, alis sublimpidis punctis duobus costalibus nigris.

_Female_. Tawny. Head with testaceous tomentum, vertex black, shining;
antennæ testaceous, arista simple; thorax with five testaceous stripes;
pectus with two oblique testaceous bands on each side; abdomen black,
with six somewhat luteous spots, the basal pair larger and darker than
the middle pair, which are larger than the hind pair, apical segment
with two testaceous points, hind borders of the segments æneous above,
testaceous beneath; legs black, tibiæ at the base and tarsi testaceous;
wings nearly limpid, costa with two black points; halteres testaceous.
Length of the body 5-1/2 lines; of the wings 10 lines.

73. ERISTALIS MUSCOÏDES, n. s. _Mas._ Cyaneo-viridis subchalybeus,
capitis callo antennisque fulvis, faciei lateribus albo tomentosis,
thorace subvittato, abdomine nigro maculis æneo-viridibus, pedibus
nigris, alis subcinereis, halteribus albis.

_Male._ Bluish-green, with a slight chalybeous tinge. Face with white
tomentum along each side, middle callus tawny, shining; antennæ pale
tawny, arista plumose; thorax with three indistinct black stripes, the
lateral pair oblique, callus on each side beneath pale tawny; abdomen
black, second segment with a broad interrupted bluish green band, third
segment with four æneous-green streaks, fourth segment also with four
streaks which are united on the hind border, ventral segments whitish on
each side; legs black; femora bluish black towards the base; wings
slightly cinereous; halteres white. Length of the body 4 lines; of the
wings 8 lines.

Gen. HELOPHILUS, _Meigen._

74. Helophilus quadrivittatus, _Wied. Auss. Zweifl._ 11. 168. 22.
(Eristalis).

Inhabits also Hindostan.

75. HELOPHILUS MESOLEUCUS, n. s. _Foem._ Niger, faciei lateribus niveo
tomentosis, thorace vittis quatuor canis, scutello, abdominis fascia
antica latissima interrupta basique lutescentibus, alis cinereis, venis
basi halteribusque fulvis.

_Female._ Black. Face with snow-white tomentum on each side; thorax with
four hoary stripes; pectus with a cinereous disk; scutellum pale
luteous; abdomen pale luteous at the base, and with a broad interrupted
pale luteous band on the second segment, third and fourth segments
somewhat chalybeous, the former livid along the fore border, under side
with two lateral abbreviated pale luteous stripes; hind femora thick;
wings grey, veins towards the base, and halteres, tawny. Length of the
body 6-1/2 lines; of the wings 12 lines.

Gen. XYLOTA, _Meigen._

76. XYLOTA VENTRALIS, n. s. _Foem._ Nigro-chalybea, capite albido
tomentoso, scutello fulvo, vittis duabus ventralibus latis abbreviatis
testaceis, pedibus piceo et testaceo variis, alis fuscis basi cinereis,
halteribus testaceis.

_Female._ Blackish chalybeous. Head with whitish tomentum, excepting the
callus on the vertex and another on the front; mouth and antennæ black;
scutellum tawny; abdomen beneath with two very broad testaceous stripes
extending from the base to two-thirds of the length; legs dingy
testaceous, femora and hind tibiæ partly piceous, hind femora thick,
piceous, slightly chalybeous, armed with spines beneath; wings dark
brown, cinereous towards the base; halteres testaceous. Length of the
body 4-1/2 lines; of the wings 8 lines.

Gen. ORTHONEURA, _Macq._

77. ORTHONEURA BASALIS, n. s. _Foem._ Chalybeo-nigra, nitens,
cano-subtomentosa, antennis ferrugineis basi fulvis articulo tertio
elongato, tarsis posterioribus piceis, tarsis anticis tibiisque
anterioribus fulvis, his nigro fasciatis, alis subcinereis fusco
fasciatis, halteribus testaceis.

_Female._ Chalybeous-black, very shining, partly and slightly covered
with hoary tomentum; antennæ tawny, third joint ferruginous, long,
linear, tawny at the base; anterior tibiæ tawny with a black band, fore
tarsi tawny, hinder tarsi piceous; wings greyish, with a subapical brown
band which is abbreviated hindward, veins towards the base and halteres
testaceous; alulæ whitish. Length of the body 3-1/2 lines; of the wings
6 lines.

Gen. SYRPHUS, _Fabr._

78. Syrphus ægrotus, _Fabr._ See Vol. I. p. 124.

79. Syrphus ericetorum, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ iv. 287. 34. Inhabits also
Sierra Leone, Hindostan, and Java.


Fam. MUSCIDÆ, _Latr._

Subfam. TACHINIDES, _Walk._

Gen. MASICERA, _Macq._

80. MASICERA NOTABILIS, n. s. _Mas._ Nigra, longiuscula, capite
abdominisque fasciis albis, frontalibus atris, pectore cano, scutelli
margine postico abdominisque lateribus ferrugineis, alis cinereis, venis
fusco marginatis.

_Male._ Black, rather long, with long stout bristles; head white,
silvery, with white hairs behind and beneath, frontalia deep black,
widening slightly to the face, facialia without bristles, epistoma not
prominent; eyes bare; palpi ferruginous at the tips; antennæ extending
to the epistoma, third joint slightly widening towards the tip, nearly
four times the length of the second, arista slender, very much longer
than the third joint; pectus and sides of the thorax hoary, hind border
of the scutellum ferruginous; abdomen fusiform, much longer than the
thorax, with a broad slightly interrupted white band on the fore border
of each segment, sides of the second and third segments slightly
ferruginous; wings grey, veins black bordered with brown, præbrachial
vein forming a slightly acute angle at its flexure, near which it is
much curved inward, and is thence straight to its tip, discal transverse
vein curved inward, parted by less than its length from the border, and
by rather more than half its length from the flexure of the præbrachial;
alulæ white; halteres testaceous. Length of the body 6 lines; of the
wings 12 lines.

81. MASICERA? TENTATA, n. s. Nigra, cinereo-tomentosa, capite argenteo
frontalibus atris, antennarum articulo tertio basi rufo, thorace
quadrivittato, abdomine?, pedibus longiusculis, alis nigricantibus
postice cinereis.

Black, with cinereous tomentum and with moderately stout bristles. Head
silvery with white hairs behind and beneath, frontalia deep black,
slightly widening towards the face, facialia without bristles, epistoma
not prominent; antennæ extending nearly to the epistoma; third joint
cinereous, slender, linear, red towards the base, rounded at the tip,
more than four times the length of the second; arista slender, much
longer than the third joint; thorax with four slender black stripes;
scutellum not cinereous; abdomen wanting; legs rather long and slender;
wings blackish, cinereous hindward and at the tips, veins black,
præbrachial vein forming a very obtuse angle at its flexure, from whence
it is almost straight to its tip, discal transverse vein slightly
undulating, parted by much less than its length from the border, and by
a little less than its length from the flexure of the præbrachial; alulæ
large, yellowish white; halteres piceous. Length of the body 4? lines;
of the wings 7 lines.

82. MASICERA SOLENNIS, n. s. _Foem._ Nigra, breviuscula,
cinereo-tomentosa, capite albo, frontalibus atris, thorace
quadrivittato, scutelli margine postico ferrugineo, abdomine
subtessellato, alis cinereis.

_Female._ Black, rather short, with cinereous tomentum. Head white, with
white hairs behind and beneath, frontalia deep black, widening towards
the face, facialia without bristles, epistoma not prominent; eyes bare;
antennæ almost reaching the epistoma, third joint cinereous, linear,
rounded at the tip, more than four times the length of of the second,
arista slightly stout towards the base, much longer than the third
joint; thorax with four slender black stripes; scutellum ferruginous
along the hind border; abdomen short-conical, with three broad
interrupted cinereous bands; legs rather short; wings grey, veins black,
præbrachial vein forming a slightly obtuse angle at its flexure, from
whence it is almost straight to its tip, discal transverse vein nearly
straight, parted by much less than its length from the border and by a
little less than its length from the flexure of the præbrachial; alulæ
cinereous. Length of the body 3 lines; of the wings 5 lines.

83. MASICERA SIMPLEX, n. s. _Foem._ Nigra, capite albo, frontalibus
atris, thorace cinereo-tomentoso quadrivittato, abdomine fasciis
cinereis late interruptis, alis cinereis.

_Female._ Black, with stout bristles. Head white, with white hairs
beneath, frontalia deep black, linear, face oblique, facialia without
bristles, epistoma not prominent; eyes bare; antennæ almost reaching the
epistoma, third joint cinereous, linear, rather broad, almost truncated
at the tip, about four times the length of the second, arista slender,
very much longer than the third joint; thorax and pectus with cinereous
tomentum, the former with four slender black stripes; abdomen shining,
subelliptical, a little longer than the thorax, with a widely
interrupted cinereous band on the fore border of each segment; legs
stout; wings cinereous; veins black; præbrachial vein forming a very
obtuse angle at its flexure, from whence it is straight to its tip,
discal transverse vein almost straight, parted by hardly less than its
length from the border, and by very much more than its length from the
flexure of the præbrachial; alulæ white. Length of the body 3-1/2 lines;
of the wings 6 lines.

84. MASICERA GUTTATA, n. s. _Foem._ Nigra, capite albo, frontalibus
atris, thoracis vittis tribus pectoreque cinereis, abdomine guttis
lateralibus albis, alis cinereis.

_Female._ Black, with short slight bristles. Head white, frontalia deep
black, widening slightly towards the epistoma, face oblique, facialia
without bristles, epistoma not prominent; antennæ reaching the epistoma,
third joint linear, slightly truncated at the tip, full four times the
length of the second, arista slender; thorax with three cinereous
stripes; pectus cinereous; abdomen elongate-oval, a little longer than
the thorax, a row of white dots along each side on the fore borders of
the segments; wings cinereous, a little darker along the costa towards
the base, veins black, præbrachial vein forming a very obtuse angle at
its flexure, from whence it is almost straight to its tips; discal
transverse vein straight, parted by more than its length from the border
and by nearly twice its length from the flexure of the præbrachial;
alulæ whitish. Length of the body 2-1/2 lines; of the wings 4 lines.

Gen. EURYGASTER, _Macq._

85. EURYGASTER TENTANS, n. s. _Foem._ Nigra, latiuscula, cinereo
tomentosa, capite albo, frontalibus atris, thorace vittis quatuor
nigris, scutelli margine postico ferrugineo, abdomine subtessellato,
alis cinereis apud costam subfuscis.

_Female._ Black, rather broad, with cinereous tomentum. Head white, with
white hairs behind and beneath, frontalia deep black, narrow, widening
towards the face, which is oblique, facialia with bristles along more
than one-third of the length from the frontalia, epistoma not prominent;
eyes pubescent, palpi ferruginous; antennæ extending to the epistoma,
third joint cinereous, hardly widening from the base to the tip, which
is somewhat truncated, arista slender, very much longer than the third
joint; thorax with four indistinct black stripes; scutellum ferruginous
hindward; abdomen conical, not longer than the thorax, with three broad,
slightly interrupted, cinereous bands, second segment indistinctly
ferruginous on each side; legs stout; wings grey, slightly brownish in
front, veins black, testaceous towards the base, præbrachial vein
forming an obtuse angle at its flexure, hardly curved inward from thence
to its tip, discal transverse vein very slightly undulating, parted by
much less than its length from the border and from the flexure of the
præbrachial; alulæ whitish. Length of the body 4-1/2 lines; of the wings
8 lines.

86. EURYGASTER DECIPIENS, n. s. _Foem._ Nigra, aureo-tomentosa, capite
antico argenteo frontalibus atris, antennis ferrugineis, thorace vittis
quatuor nigris, abdomine fulvo subtessellato vitta basali nigra, pedibus
fulvis, alis cinereis.

_Female._ Black, stout, with gilded tomentum. Head silvery white in
front and beneath, frontalia deep black, widening slightly towards the
upright face, the bristles on each side hardly extending to the
facialia, epistoma not prominent; eyes bare; antennæ ferruginous,
extending to the epistoma, third joint linear, somewhat truncated at the
tip, more than four times the length of the second joint, arista
slender, much longer than the third joint; thorax with numerous long
bristles, with four slight black stripes; pectus cinereous; abdomen
tawny, conical, not longer than the thorax, with short stout bristles,
and with three broad, slightly gilded, somewhat interrupted bands, a
short black stripe at the base; legs tawny, stout, tibiæ darker than the
femora, tarsi piceous; wings grey, somewhat darker in front, veins
black, præbrachial vein forming a right angle at its flexure, near which
it is much curved inward, discal transverse vein nearly straight, parted
by more than half its length from the border, and by a little less than
its length from the flexure of the præbrachial; alulæ slightly
cinereous. Length of the body 4 lines; of the wings 7 lines.

87. EURYGASTER PHASIOÏDES, n. s. _Mas._ Nigra, cano-tomentosa, capite
albo frontalibus atris, antennis, scutello, abdomine femoribusque
fulvis, abdomine fasciis duabus posticis albidis vittaque nigra, alis
cinereis basi albis, costa plagaque nigricantibus.

_Male._ Black, with hoary tomentum. Head white, frontalia deep black,
widening towards the upright face, facialia with bristles along more
than half the length from the epistoma, which is not prominent; eyes
bare; palpi testaceous; antennæ tawny, extending to the epistoma, third
joint linear, slightly rounded at the tip, more than four times the
length of the second joint, arista slender, much longer than the third
joint; thorax with four very slender black stripes; abdomen tawny,
short-oval, not longer than the thorax, with a black stripe which does
not extend to the tip, third and fourth segments with a white band along
each fore border; legs very stout, femora tawny; wings cinereous, white
and with testaceous veins at the base, blackish along the costa, and
with a broad black band which is abbreviated hindward, præbrachial vein
forming an obtuse angle at its flexure, from whence it is very slightly
curved inward to its tip, discal transverse vein nearly straight, parted
by much less than its length from the border, and by hardly less than
its length from the flexure of the præbrachial; alulæ whitish. Length of
the body 3-1/2 lines; of the wings 6 lines.

Subfam. DEXIDES, _Walk._

Gen. RUTILIA, _Desv._

88. Rutilia plumicornis, _Guérin, Macq. Dipt. Exot._ 11. 3. 82. 3. Pl.
9. f. 8.

Inhabits also Offak, New Guinea.

89. RUTILIA ANGUSTIPENNIS, n. s. _Foem._ Nigro-viridis, capite cinereo
frontalibus atris, thoracis lateribus subpurpurascentibus, scutello
purpureo, abdomine viridi basi purpureo, tibiis ferrugineis, alis
angustis lanceolatis obscure fuscis basi nigris.

_Female._ Blackish-green. Head cinereous, frontalia deep black, widening
much towards the face, epistoma very prominent, arista stout, bare;
thorax with almost obsolete stripes, purplish along each side; scutellum
mostly purple; abdomen dark green, purple at the base; legs black, tibiæ
ferruginous; wings narrow, lanceolate, dark brown, black towards the
base, præbrachial vein forming a much rounded angle at its flexure, near
which it is slightly curved inward, and is thence straight to its tip,
discal transverse vein very slightly undulating, parted by less than
half its length from the border, and by much more than half its length
from the flexure of the præbrachial; alulæ dark brownish cinereous.
Length of the body 8 lines; of the wings 16 lines.

Gen. DEXIA, _Meigen._

90. DEXIA PECTORALIS, n. s. _Foem._ Testacea, capite pectoreque albis
frontalibus atris, antennis fulvis, thorace cinereo vittis quatuor
nigris, abdomine fulvo apicem versus spinoso fasciis duabus nigris,
pedibus longis tibiis tarsisque nigris, alis cinereis venis subfusco
late marginatis.

_Female._ Testaceous. Head white, frontalia deep black, widening towards
the face, facialia without bristles, epistoma prominent; antennæ tawny,
not reaching the epistoma, third joint of the antennæ long, linear,
arista plumose; thorax cinereous, with four black stripes, of which the
inner pair are much narrower than the outer pair; scutellum tawny
hindward; pectus white; abdomen tawny, with a few spines towards the
tip, hind borders of the third and fourth segments and tips black; legs
long, black, coxæ and femora testaceous; wings grey, veins very broadly
bordered with pale brown, præbrachial vein forming a slightly obtuse
angle at its flexure, between which and its tip it is slightly curved
inward, discal transverse vein undulating, parted by about half its
length from the border, and by a little less than its length from the
flexure of the præbrachial; alulæ cinereous. Length of the body 4 lines;
of the wings 9 lines.

Gen. PROSENA, _St.-Farg._

91. PROSENA ARGENTATA, n. s. _Mas et Foem._ Testacea (mas) aut nigra
(foem.), capite thoraceque argenteis, antennis fulvis, abdomine longo
fasciis vittaque nigris (mas) aut breviore fasciis cinereis lateribusque
basi testaceis (foem.), pedibus nigris femoribus testaceis, alis
subfuscescentibus (mas) aut cinereis (foem.).

_Male and Female._ Head and thorax with bright silvery tomentum,
facialia without bristles, epistoma slightly prominent; eyes bare; mouth
black, testaceous towards the base, full as long as the thorax; antennæ
tawny, not reaching the epistoma, arista plumose; legs black, coxæ and
femora testaceous; wings grey, veins black. _Male._ Testaceous. Pectus
mostly white; abdomen elongate-conical, with slight whitish reflexions,
dorsal stripe and hind borders of the segments black; legs long; wings
brownish towards the costa and about the veins, præbrachial vein forming
a slightly obtuse angle at its flexure, between which and its tip it is
very slightly curved inward, discal transverse vein hardly undulating,
parted by less than half its length from the border, and by less than
its length from the flexure of the præbrachial. Length of the body 5
lines; of the wings 10 lines. _Female_. Black. Pectus silvery; scutellum
deep black; abdomen conical, with broad cinereous bands, first and
second segments with broad interrupted testaceous bands, a testaceous
mark on each side of the third segment at the base; legs rather long,
femora with black tips; præbrachial vein forming a right angle at its
flexure, curved inward from thence to its tip, discal transverse vein
curved inward near its hind end, parted by less than its length from the
border and from the flexure of the præbrachial. Length of the body 3-1/2
lines; of the wings 7 lines.

Subfam. SARCOPHAGIDES, _Walk._

Gen. SARCOPHAGA, _Meigen._

92. SARCOPHAGA COMPTA, n. s. _Foem._ Nigra, cinereo-tomentosa, capite
aurato subtus fulvo piloso, thorace vittis tribus nigris, abdomine
tessellato, alis obscure cinereis.

_Female._ Black, with cinereous tomentum. Head gilded in front, clothed
behind and beneath with tawny hairs, frontalia deep black, hardly
widening towards the face; thorax with three black very distinctly
marked stripes, the middle one dilated on the scutellum; abdomen
distinctly tessellated with six large cinereous excavated spots; wings
grey, præbrachial vein forming a right angle at its flexure, near which
it is much curved inward, and is thence straight to its tip, discal
transverse vein hardly undulating, parted by much less than its length
from the border, and by little more than half its length from the
flexure of the præbrachial; alulæ white. Length of the body 5 lines; of
the wings 10 lines.

93. SARCOPHAGA INVARIA, n. s. _Mas et Foem._ Nigra, cinereo-tomentosa,
capite _maris_ albo, thorace vittis quinque nigris, abdomine tessellato,
alis cinereis.

_Male and Female._ Black, with cinereous tomentum. Thorax with five
black stripes, the lateral pair incomplete; abdomen distinctly
tessellated, the spots being much excavated; wings grey, præbrachial
vein forming a right angle at its flexure, near which it is much curved
inward, and is thence straight to its tip, discal transverse vein hardly
undulating, parted by much less than its length from the border, and by
rather more than half its length from the flexure of the præbrachial;
alulæ white. _Male_. Head silvery white, frontalia deep black, linear;
tomentum of the thorax and of the abdomen more whitish than that of the
female. _Female_. Frontalia slightly widening towards the face. Length
of the body 4--4-1/2 lines; of the wings 8 lines.

Subfam. MUSCIDES, _Walk._

Gen. IDIA, _Meigen._

94. Idia australis, _Walk. Cat. Dipt._ pt. 4. 809.

Inhabits also Australia.

95. IDIA ÆQUALIS, n. s. _Foem._ Ænea, capite subtuberculato, thoracis
lateribus pectoreque albido-testaceis lineis duabus lateralibus æneis,
abdomine fulvo fasciis tribus æneis, pedibus testaccis tibiis apice
femoribusque æneis, alis cinereis apice nigricantibus.

_Female._ Æneous-whitish, testaceous beneath. Head with minute tubercles
on each side of the front, frontalia piceous, linear; thorax with an
æneous stripe on each side in a line with the base of the wings, and
with numerous points between these lines and the disk; abdomen pale
tawny, with three æneous bands on the hind borders of the segments; legs
testaceous, tibiæ towards the tips and femora æneous; wings greyish,
with blackish tips, præbrachial vein forming an obtuse and much-rounded
angle at its flexure, from whence it is almost straight to its tip,
discal transverse vein parted by about half its length from the border
and by about its length from the flexure of the præbrachial; alulæ very
slightly cinereous; halteres testaceous. Length of the body 3-1/2 lines;
of the wings 6 lines.

Gen. MUSCA, _Linn._

96. MUSCA GLORIOSA, n. s. (genus Silbomyia, _Macq._) _Foem._
Cyaneo-viridis, capite lætissime aurato frontalibus atris, antennis
pedibusque nigris, thorace vittis quatuor cupreis, pectore maculis
quatuor albis, abdomine viridi-cyaneo, vitta tenui purpurea, alis
cinereis apud costam nigris, alulis albis.

_Female._ Golden green. Head brilliantly gilded, frontalia deep black,
widening towards the face; a brilliantly-gilded lanceolate streak
between the antennæ, which are black; epistoma piceous, slightly
prominent; thorax with four cupreous stripes; pectus with four white
tomentose spots; abdomen greenish blue with a very slender purple
stripe; legs black, femora blackish green; wings grey, black for full
one-third of the breadth from the costa, præbrachial vein forming a very
obtuse angle at its flexure, from whence it is nearly straight to its
tip, discal transverse vein very slightly undulating, parted by less
than half its length from the border, and by more than half its length
from the flexure of the præbrachial; alulæ pure white. Length of the
body 6 lines; of the wings 12 lines.

97. MUSCA OPULENTA, N. S. (genus Silbomyia, _Macq._) _Foem._
Aureo-viridis, Capite Aurato, Frontalibus atris, antennis piceis,
thorace vittis quatuor subobsoletis cupreis, pectore maculis duabus
albis, alis cinereis apud costam nigris, alulis albis.

_Female._ Golden green. Head brightly gilded, frontalia deep black,
linear, epistoma piceous, slightly prominent; antennæ piceous; thorax
with four almost obsolete cupreous stripes; pectus with a spot of white
tomentum on each side; abdomen with a very indistinct cupreous stripe;
tibiæ and tarsi black; wings grey, black along the costa, præbrachial
vein forming a right angle at its flexure, near which it is slightly
curved inward, and is thence straight to its tip, discal transverse vein
undulating, parted by more than half its length from the border and from
the flexure of the præbrachial; alulæ white. Length of the body 4-1/2
lines; of the wings 8 lines.

98. MUSCA MACULARIS, n. s. (genus Chrysomyia? _Desv._) _Mas et Foem._
Aureo-viridis, capite argenteo antice aurato frontalibus atris, antennis
pedibusque nigris, thorace vittis tribus cupreis vix conspicuis,
scutello cyaneo, pectore maculis quatuor lateralibus albo tomentosis,
abdomine viridi-cyaneo maculis quatuor lateralibus albis, alis cinereis
basi nigricantibus, alulis nigricantibus.

_Male and Female._ Golden green. Head brightly gilded, white behind;
antennæ, tibiæ, and tarsi black; thorax with three indistinct cupreous
stripes; scutellum blue; pectus with two white tomentose spots on each
side; abdomen greenish blue with two transverse white spots on each
side; femora blackish-green; wings grey, blackish at the base,
præbrachial vein forming a slightly obtuse angle at its flexure, nearly
straight from thence to its tip, discal transverse vein curved outward
towards its fore end, parted by about half its length from the border,
and by much less than its length from the flexure of the præbrachial;
alulæ blackish. _Female._ Head with a silvery white vertex, frontalia
deep black, linear. Length of the body 56 lines; of the wings 10-12
lines.

99. MUSCA MARGINIFERA, n. s. (genus Lucilia, _Desv._) _Foem._
Viridi-cyanea, capite albido frontalibus atris, antennis pedibusque
nigris, abdominis segmentis purpureo marginatis, alis cinereis basi
subnigricantibus, alulis cinereis.

_Female._ Greenish-blue. Head whitish, frontalia deep black, linear,
face and third joint of the antennæ cinereous; abdomen with a purple
band on the hind border of each segment; legs black; wings grey, almost
blackish at the base, præbrachial vein forming a hardly obtuse angle at
its flexure, between which and its tip it is hardly curved inward,
discal transverse vein nearly straight, parted by about half its length
from the border, and by more than half its length from the flexure of
the præbrachial; alulæ cinereous. Length of the body 4-1/2 lines; of the
wings 9 lines.

100. MUSCA BENEDICTA, n. s. (genus Pyrellia, _Desv._) _Mas._
Aureo-viridis, capite albo, antennis pedibusque nigris, alis cinereis
basi subluridis venis basi fulvis, alulis testaceo-cinereis. _Var._?
Abdominis apice purpureo.

_Male._ Golden green. Head white in front; antennæ and legs black; wings
cinereous, slightly lurid towards the base, veins tawny towards the
base, præbrachial vein curved at the flexure, almost straight from
thence to the tip, discal transverse vein slightly undulating, parted by
full half its length from the border, and by little less than its length
from the flexure of the præbrachial; alulæ cinereous with a testaceous
tinge. _Var._? or a distinct species: darker; abdomen purple at the tip.
Length of the body 3 lines; of the wings 6 lines.

101. MUSCA OBTRUSA, n. s. (genus Pyrellia, _Desv._) _Mas et Foem._
Purpureo-cyanea, antennis pedibusque nigris, alis cinereis, alulis
obscurioribus.

Very nearly allied to _M. refixa_ and to _M. perfixa_, but differing
slightly in the veins of the wings. _Male and Female._ Blue, more or
less mingled with purple. Head black, slightly cinereous in front;
antennæ and legs black; wings grey, veins black, præbrachial vein
forming an almost angular curve at its flexure, nearly straight from
thence to its tip, discal transverse vein very slightly undulating,
parted by little more than half its length from the border, and by about
its length from the flexure of the præbrachial; alulæ dark cinereous.
Length of the body 2-1/2--3 lines; of the wings 5-6 lines.

102. Musca domestica, _Linn._ See Vol. I. p. 128.

103. MUSCA OBSCURATA, n. s. _Foem._ Nigra, subcinerascens, capite
postico albo, thorace vittis quatuor angustis nigris, abdomine
tessellato, alis obscure cinereis apud costam nigricantibus, alulis
testaceo-cinereis.

_Female._ Black, slightly covered with cinereous tomentum. Head white
behind; thorax with four slender black stripes; abdomen distinctly
tessellated with four rows of cinereous reflecting spots; wings very
dark grey, blackish towards the costa, præbrachial vein forming a
somewhat rounded and very slightly obtuse angle at its flexure, hardly
curved inward from thence to its tip, discal transverse vein slightly
undulating, parted by less than half its length from the body, and by
more than half its length from the flexure of the præbrachial; alulæ
cinereous, with a testaceous tinge. Length of the body 3-1/2 lines; of
the wings 7 lines.

104. MUSCA PATIENS, n. s. _Foem._ Nigra, cinereo-tomentosa, frontalibus
antennisque piceis, thorace vittis quatuor tenuissimis nigris, abdomine
tessellato, alis cinereis.

_Female._ Black, with cinereous tomentum. Head whitish behind, frontalia
piceous, linear; antennæ piceous; thorax with four very slender black
stripes; abdomen tessellated; wings grey, veins black, præbrachial vein
forming an obtuse and somewhat rounded angle at its flexure, from whence
it is hardly curved inward to its tip, discal transverse vein
undulating, parted by less than half its length from the border, and by
more than half its length from the flexure of the præbrachial; alulæ
slightly cinereous, with testaceous borders. Length of the body 3 lines;
of the wings 6 lines.

105. MUSCA ERISTALOÏDES, n. s. (genus Pollenia? _Desv._) _Mas et Foem._
Aureo tomentosa, crassa, subtus testacea, capite antico albo frontalibus
antice rufis, antennis piceis basi rufis, thorace vittis tribus
abbreviatis fulvis, scutello cyaneo, abdomine cyaneo basi fasciisque
duabus albis, pedibus fulvis, tibiis tarsisque nigris, alis cinereis
apud costam fuscescentibus. _Var. mas._ Minor, thorace vittis tribus
nigris.

_Male and Female._ Body thick; head white; frontalia of the female
piceous, linear, red in front; epistoma prominent; proboscis long; palpi
whitish; antennæ piceous, red at the base; thorax with gilded tomentum,
and with three tawny bands which are abbreviated hindward, scutellum
blue; pectus testaceous; abdomen blue, white at the base and with two
white bands on the 3rd and 4th segments, 1st segment with a transverse
blue spot on each side; legs tawny, tibiæ and tarsi black; wings grey,
blackish along the exterior part of the costa, præbrachial vein forming
a right but rounded angle at its flexure, near which it is curved inward
and is thence straight to its tip, discal transverse vein slightly
undulating, parted by a little more than half its length from the
border, and by much more than half its length from the flexure of the
præbrachial; alulæ testaceous. _Var. Male._ Smaller; thorax with three
black stripes; abdomen with only one white band, which is on the 4th
segment. Length of the body 4-5 lines; of the wings 8-10 lines.

Gen. BENGALIA, _Desv._

106. BENGALIA SPISSA, n. s. _Mas et Foem._ Fulva, capite nigro antice
albo, antennis testaceis, pectore fasciis duabus obliquis albidis,
pedibus nigris femoribus basi coxisque fulvis, alis cinereis.

_Male and Female._ Tawny. Head black, with silvery tomentum in front,
epistoma not prominent; palpi black; antennæ testaceous; pectus with an
oblique whitish band on each side; legs black, femora towards the base
and coxæ tawny; wings grey, veins black, testaceous towards the base,
præbrachial vein forming an obtuse and rounded angle at its flexure,
which is very near the border of the wing, straight from thence to its
tip, discal transverse vein straight, parted by much less than its
length from the border, and by very much more than its length from the
flexure of the præbrachial; alulæ testaceous. Length of the body 3-1/2
lines; of the wings 7 lines.

Subfam. ANTHOMYIDES, _Walk._

Gen. ARICIA, _Macq._

107. ARICIA SIGNIFICANS, n. s. _Mas et Foem._ Fulva, subtus testacea,
capite nigro argenteo-tomentoso, antennis testaceis, thorace vittis
tribus albidis, abdominis apice piceo, alis cinereis.

_Male and Female._ Tawny, testaceous beneath. Head black, with silvery
tomentum, vertex much broader in the female than in the male; palpi
tawny; antennæ testaceous; thorax with three whitish stripes in the
disk, and with one on each side; abdomen piceous at the tip; tarsi
blackish towards the tips; wings cinereous, veins black, tawny towards
the base, discal transverse vein hardly undulating, parted by more than
its length from the præbrachial transverse, and by less than its length
from the border; alulæ pale cinereous, with testaceous borders. Length
of the body 4 lines; of the wings 7 lines.

108. ARICIA CANIVITTA, n. s. _Foem._ Fulva, subtus testacea, capite
nigro, facie argentea, palpis antennisque testaceis, thoracis disco,
abdominis plagis duabus trigonis pedibusque nigris, thorace vitta cana,
alis cinereis.

_Female._ Tawny, testaceous beneath. Head black, face silvery; palpi and
antennæ testaceous; disk of the thorax blackish, with a broad hoary
stripe; disk of the scutellum piceous; second and third segments of the
abdomen with triangular black bands; legs black, coxæ and trochanters
testaceous; wings grey, veins black, discal transverse vein hardly
curved inward, parted by more than half its length from the border, and
by a little less than its length from the præbrachial transverse; alulæ
pale cinereous, with testaceous borders. Length of the body 3-1/2 lines,
of the wings 7 lines.

Gen. ANTHOMYIA, _Meigen._

109. ANTHOMYIA PROCELLARIA, n. s. _Mas._ Nigra, subtus albida, capite
argenteo, thorace fasciis duabus (prima interrupta) albis, abdomine
vitta tenui fasciisque interruptis albidis, alis cinereis, halteribus
testaceis.

Nearly allied to _A. pluvialis_ and to _A. tonitrui. Male._ Black,
whitish beneath. Head silvery; thorax with two whitish bands, the first
interrupted in the middle, widened on each side; scutellum elongate;
abdomen with a slender whitish stripe, and with interrupted whitish
bands, which are widened on each side; wings grey, veins black, discal
transverse vein nearly straight, parted by less than half its length
from the border and by hardly less than its length from the præbrachial
transverse; alulæ grey, with testaceous borders; halteres testaceous.
Length of the body 3 lines; of the wings 6 lines.

Gen. CÆNOSIA, _Meigen._

110. CÆNOSIA LUTEICORNIS, n. s. _Mas._ Cana, capite antennisque pallide
luteis, abdomine basi testaceo maculis octo nigris, pedibus
halteribusque testaceis, alis sublimpidis apice nigris.

_Male._ Hoary. Head pale luteous, frontalia darker, widening towards the
face; palpi white; antennæ pale luteous, extending to the epistoma,
third joint long, slender, linear, arista plumose for half the length
from the base; abdomen testaceous towards the base, with four dorsal
black spots and with two black spots on each side towards the tip; legs
testaceous; wings nearly limpid, with a black apical spot, discal
transverse vein nearly straight, parted by less than its length from the
border and by very much more than its length from the præbrachial
transverse; alulæ white; halteres testaceous. Length of the body 3
lines; of the wings 5 lines.

Subfam. HELOMYZIDES, _Fallen._

Gen. COELOPA, _Meigen._

111. COELOPA INCONSPICUA, n. s. _Foem._ Cinerea, antennis piceis,
pectore antico, abdomine pedibusque fulvis, his nigro variis, alis
cinereis, halteribus testaceis.

_Female._ Cinereous, flat. Antennæ piceous; fore part of the pectus,
abdomen and legs tawny, the latter with diffuse blackish bands; wings
grey, veins black, with the usual structure, tawny towards the base;
halteres testaceous. Length of the body 2 lines; of the wings 3-1/2
lines.

Gen. XARNUTA, _Walk._

112. Xarnuta leucotelus, _Walk._ See Vol. I. p. 28.

Gen. HELOMYZA, _Fallen_.

113. HELOMYZA PICIPES, n. s. _Foem._ Fulva, capite, antennis
femoribusque nigris, abdominis segmentis nigro marginatis, tibiis
tarsisque piceis, alis cinereis apud costam luridis vena discali
transversa fusco subnebulosa, halteribus testaceis. _Var._ Thoracis
vitta lata abdomineque piceis.

_Female._ Tawny. Head and antennæ black, arista plumose; thorax with two
slender, darker, almost obsolete stripes; hind borders of the abdominal
segments black; legs piceous, femora black, coxæ tawny; wings grey, with
a lurid tinge towards the costa, discal transverse vein straight,
slightly clouded with brown, parted by about half its length from the
border, and by more than twice its length from the præbrachial
transverse; halteres testaceous. _Var._ Thorax with a broad piceous
stripe; abdomen piceous. Length of the body 3 lines; of the wings 6
lines.

114. HELOMYZA ATRIPENNIS, n. s. _Mas._ Fulva, scutello nigro, pectore
piceo, abdomine ferrugineo, alis nigris postice cinereis.

_Male._ Tawny. Antennæ pale tawny, arista plumose; thorax with two
slender, darker, almost obsolete stripes; scutellum black; pectus
piceous; abdomen ferruginous; wings black, cinereous along the hind
border for more than half its length from the base, veins as in the
preceding species. Length of the body 2-1/2 lines; of the wings 5 lines.

115. HELOMYZA RESTITUTA, n. s. _Foem_. Testacea, abdomine punctis sex
nigris, alis cinereis apice nigricantibus venis transversis nigricante
nebulosis.

_Female._ Testaceous. Third, fourth, and fifth segments of the abdomen
with two black points on each fore border; wings grey, with a slight
lurid tinge towards the costa, blackish at the tips, transverse veins
clouded with blackish, veins with the usual structure. Length of the
body 2-1/2 lines; of the wings 5 lines.

Gen. DRYOMYZA, _Fallen._

116. DRYOMYZA SEMICYANEA, n. s. _Foem._ Ferruginea, vertice piceo,
antennis fulvis, thorace cyanescente, abdomine cyaneo basi ferrugineo,
pedibus testaceis, alis subcinereis apud costam luridis.

_Female._ Ferruginous. Vertex piceous, face slightly covered with
whitish tomentum; antennæ tawny, arista very minutely pubescent; thorax
tinged with blue; abdomen blue, tawny at the base; legs testaceous;
wings greyish, lurid along the costa, veins tawny, præbrachial vein
forming a very slight angle where it joins the discal transverse, with a
slight curve from thence to its tip, præbrachial transverse stout,
slightly clouded, discal transverse straight, upright, parted by much
less than half its length from the border and by a little more than its
length from the præbrachial transverse; halteres testaceous. Length of
the body 3-1/2--4-1/2 lines; of the wings 7-9 lines.

Gen. SEPEDON, _Latr._

117. SEPEDON COSTALIS, n. s. _Mas._ Cinerea, capite testaceo guttis
quatuor nigris, antennis nigris basi testaceis arista alba, abdomine
pedibusque fulvis femoribus posticis denticulatis, alis
fuscescenti-cinereis, costa testacea.

_Male._ Cinereous. Head testaceous, with a black dot on each side above
and two more towards the mouth; antennæ black, testaceous at the base,
second joint very long, arista white; thorax with four slender
indistinct darker lines, pectus hoary; abdomen and legs tawny, tarsi
piceous, hind femora denticulated; wings brownish cinereous, slightly
testaceous along the costa; halteres testaceous. Length of the body
4-1/2 lines; of the wings 8 lines.

Subfam. LAUXANIDES, _Walk._

Gen. LAUXANIA, _Latr._

118. LAUXANIA DUPLICANS, n. s. _Foem._ Nigro-cyanea, antennis piceis,
articulo tertio longissimo, tarsis basi albidis, tibiis intermediis
sordide albidis, alis limpidis.

_Female._ Blackish-blue, shining. Antennæ piceous, third joint very
long, reddish beneath, arista bare; legs black, tarsi whitish towards
the base, middle tibiæ dingy whitish; wings limpid, veins pale, discal
transverse vein white, parted by a little less than its length from the
border and by nearly twice its length from the præbrachial transverse;
halteres white. Length of the body 2--2-1/2 lines; of the wings 3-4
lines.

119. LAUXANIA MINUENS, n. s. _Foem._ Nigra, nitens, antennis longis
arista nuda, tarsis albidis, alis sublimpidis, halteribus albis.

_Female._ Black, shining. Third joint of the antennæ long, arista bare;
tarsi whitish; wings very slightly greyish, veins pale, of the usual
structure; halteres white. Length of the body 1-1/4 line; of the wings
2-1/2 lines.

Gen. LONCHÆA, _Fallen._

120. LONCHÆA? INOPS, n. s. _Mas et Foem._ Nigra, nitens, antennis piceis
arista plumosa, scutello ferrugineo, tibiis, tarsis halteribusque
fulvis, alis subcinereis.

_Male and Female._ Black, shining. Antennæ piceous, third joint short,
arista plumose; scutellum somewhat ferruginous; tibiæ;, tarsi, and
halteres tawny; wings slightly greyish, veins pale, discal transverse
vein parted by much less than its length from the border and by nearly
twice its length from the flexure of the præbrachial. Length of the body
1-1/2 line; of the wings 3 lines.

Subfam. ORTALIDES, _Haliday._

Gen. LAMPROGASTER, _Macq._

121. LAMPROGASTER QUADRILINEA, n. s. _Mas et Foem._ Cyaneo-viridis;
capite pedibusque nigris; antennis piceis, basi rufis; thorace vittis
quatuor albidis; abdomine purpureo-cyaneo; alis limpidis, litura basali,
fasciis duabus (prima abbreviata, secunda interrupta) strigaque costali
apicali nigris.

_Male and Female._ Bluish green. Head black; proboscis red at the tip;
antennæ piceous, red at the base; thorax with two whitish stripes on
each side; abdomen purplish blue; legs black, tarsi with pale tomentum
towards the base; wings limpid, two black streaks, one basal including a
limpid dot, the other apical, first band oblique, extending from the
costa to the disk, second widely interrupted in the middle, its hind
part occupying the discal transverse vein; veins black, testaceous along
the costa; præbrachial vein forming a slight angle at its junction with
the discal transverse, the latter parted by not more than one-fourth of
its length from the border, and by more than its length from the
præbrachial transverse. Length of the body 3-1/2--4-1/2 lines; of the
wings 7-9 lines.

122. LAMPROGASTER MARGINIFERA, n. s. _Foem._ Testacea; capite maculis
duabus fasciaque nigro-æneis; thoracis disco nigro-æneo, vittis tribus
testaceis, vittis duabus lateralibus albidis, scutelli margine testaceo;
abdominis dorso nigro-æneo; alis limpidis, fasciis plurimis fuscis.

_Female._ Testaceous. Head with two blackish æneous spots on the vertex,
and with a blackish æneous band in front; mouth and antennæ tawny; disk
of the thorax blackish æneous, with three testaceous stripes which are
united in front, the middle one slender, the lateral pair united on the
border of the scutellum, a whitish stripe on each side; abdomen blackish
æneous above; wings limpid, with eight or nine irregular brown bands;
veins black, testaceous along the costa; discal transverse vein parted
by much less than its length from the border, and by about its length
from the præbrachial transverse. Length of the body 4 lines; of the
wings 9 lines.

123. LAMPROGASTER DELECTANS, n. s. _Foem._ Ferruginea; capite testaceo,
postice albido, vertice luteo fasciis duabus nigris, vittis quatuor
anticis antennisque nigris; thorace vittis septem et metathoracis fascia
albidis; abdomine cyaneo-viridi, basi discoque fulvis; pedibus
nigricantibus, femoribus testaceis apice nigris; alis sublimpidis,
costa, striga obliqua subcostali guttaque marginali nigricantibus.

_Female._ Ferruginous. Head testaceous, whitish behind; vertex luteous,
blackish in front and behind; fore part with four blackish stripes;
antennæ blackish; thorax with seven whitish stripes, the middle one
broad, the inner pair very slender, the second pair broad, the third
pair lateral; abdomen bluish green, slightly varied with purple, base
and fore part of the disk tawny; legs blackish; femora testaceous, with
black tips; wings nearly limpid, with a slight lurid tinge in the discal
areolet, blackish along the costa, and with a blackish oblique streak
which extends from the costa along the præbrachial transverse vein; a
blackish dot on the hind end of the discal transverse vein; veins black,
discal transverse vein parted by about one-fourth of its length from the
border, and by a little more than its length from the præbrachial
transverse which is very oblique; alulæ white; halteres testaceous, with
black knobs. Length of the body 5 lines; of the wings 9 lines.

124. LAMPROGASTER SCUTELLARIS, n. s. _Mas._ Subcinereo-nigra; oculis
albido submarginatis; thorace vittis tribus cinereis, vittis duabus
lateralibus, scutelli subquadrati margine, tibiis intermediis tarsisque
albidis; alis nigricantibus, fasciis duabus integris duabusque
macularibus incompletis albidis.

_Male._ Black, with a slight cinereous tinge; eyes partly bordered with
whitish; third joint of the antennæ elongate-conical; arista plumose,
the bristles few; thorax with three indistinct cinereous stripes, and
with two whitish lateral stripes; scutellum nearly quadrate, with a
whitish border; middle tibiæ, knees and tarsi whitish, the latter with
black tips; wings blackish, whitish at the base, and with four whitish
bands, first and third bands entire, second and fourth macular, very
irregular and incomplete; veins black; discal transverse vein straight,
parted by about one-fourth of its length from the border, and by hardly
more than its length from the præbrachial transverse. Length of the body
2 lines; of the wings 4 lines.

This species has some resemblance to the genus _Platystoma_, and differs
rather from the characters of _Lamprogaster_; it and the two following
species, which are still more aberrant, will probably be considered as
three new genera.

125. LAMPROGASTER CELYPHOÏDES, n. s. _Mas et Foem._ Atra, nitens,
brevis, lata; capite, antennis pedibusque testaceis; abdomine
nigro-cyaneo; alis limpidis, strigis transversis subcostalibus
fuscescentibus.

_Male and Female._ Deep black, shining, short, broad. Head testaceous,
face transverse; antennæ testaceous, third joint elongate-conical;
arista bare; abdomen blackish blue, second segment very large, third and
following not visible; legs testaceous; wings limpid, with four
transverse pale brown subcostal streaks; discal transverse vein parted
by less than half its length from the border, and by less than its
length from the flexure of the præbrachial; halteres testaceous. Length
of the body 2--2-1/2 lines; of the wings 4-1/2 lines.

126. LAMPROGASTER TETYROÏDES, n. s. _Mas._ Atra, nitens, brevissima,
latissima; capite transverso, subruguloso; thorace scitissime punctato;
abdomine cyaneo; tarsis flavis; alis nigris albido punctatis apud
marginem posticum obscure cinereis.

_Male._ Deep black, shining, very short and broad. Head transverse,
slightly rugulose; third joint of the antennæ conical; arista thinly
plumose; thorax very finely punctured; scutellum almost semicircular;
abdomen blue, smooth; tarsi yellow; wings black, dark grey towards the
hind border, with whitish points towards the costa; discal transverse
vein parted by about its length from the border and by more than its
length from the præbrachial transverse. Length of the body 2-1/2 lines;
of the wings 5 lines.

Gen. PLATYSTOMA, _Latr._

127. PLATYSTOMA FUSIFACIES, n. s. _Mas et Foem._ Cinerea; capite postice
et apud oculos albo; vertice pallide luteo (mas) aut rufo (foem.); facie
plana, fusiformi, subargentea; antennis piceis; thoracis vittis tribus
pectoreque canis; abdomine conico punctis albis; alis limpidis, guttis
transversis interioribus fasciisque exterioribus nigricantibus.

_Male and Female._ Cinereous. Head white hindward and about the eyes,
black and shining towards the mouth; vertex pale luteous in the male,
red in the female; face flat, fusiform, somewhat silvery; antennæ
piceous, third joint long, slender, linear, arista plumose; thorax with
three hoary stripes, the middle one much broader than the lateral pair;
pectus hoary; abdomen conical, with numerous white points; wings limpid,
with blackish dots towards the base, and with four exterior blackish
bands, two of which are dilated towards the costa, and there contain
some limpid dots; veins black, discal transverse vein straight, parted
by about one-fourth of its length from the border, and by more than its
length from the præbrachial transverse; halteres whitish. Length of the
body 3-1/2-5 lines; of the wings 8-10 lines.

128. PLATYSTOMA MULTIVITTA, n. s. _Mas._ Cinerea; capite postice et apud
oculos albo, vertice luteo, facie et antennis fulvis; thoracis vittis
octo pectoreque canis; abdominis segmentis cano fasciatis; ventre
ferrugineo; pedibus nigris; alis limpidis, fasciis quatuor strigisque
interioribus nigricantibus.

_Male._ Cinereous. Head white behind and about the eyes, vertex luteous;
face and antennæ tawny, third joint of the latter long, slender, linear;
arista very slightly plumose; thorax with eight hoary stripes; pectus
hoary; abdomen with a hoary band on the fore border of each segment;
legs black; wings limpid, with four blackish bands, and with some
blackish marks nearer the base; two blackish streaks between the first
and second bands; veins black; discal transverse vein straight, parted
by one-fourth of its length from the border, and by very much more than
its length from the præbrachial transverse; halteres black. Length of
the body 4 lines; of the wings 8 lines.

Gen. DACUS, _Fabr_.

129. DACUS EXPANDENS, n. s. _Foem._ Fulvus, latiusculus; antennarum
articulo tertio piceo angusto lineari longissimo; abdomine vitta tenui
nigricante; alis limpidis, costa vittaque postica fuscescentibus.

_Female._ Tawny, rather broad, very slightly covered with hoary
tomentum, which forms stripes on the thorax and indistinct bands on the
abdomen; third joint of the antennæ piceous, slender, linear, very long;
arista bare; abdomen with a slender blackish stripe; wings limpid,
brownish along the costa, and with a short oblique brownish stripe
extending from the base to the interior border; veins black, discal
transverse vein oblique, parted by full one-fourth of its length from
the border, and by more than its length from the præbrachial transverse;
halteres testaceous. Length of the body 4 lines; of the wings 8 lines.

130. DACUS PECTORALIS, n. s. _Foem._ Cinereo-niger; capite fulvo, facie
guttis duabus nigris; antennarum articulo tertio piceo angusto lineari
longissimo; callis duabus humeralibus, fasciis duabus obliquis
pectoralibus lateralibus, scutello tarsisque testaceis; thoracis vittis
tribus abdominisque una canis; pedibus fulvis piceo cinctis; alis
limpidis, costa vittaque postica fuscescentibus.

_Female._ Black, slightly covered with cinereous tomentum. Head tawny,
with two small black dots on the face; third joint of the antennæ
piceous, slender, linear, very long, arista bare; thorax with three
indistinct hoary stripes; humeral calli, an oblique band on each side of
the pectus, scutellum and tarsi, testaceous; abdomen with one hoary
stripe; legs tawny, with diffuse piceous bands; wings limpid, brownish
along the costa, and with a short oblique brownish stripe, extending
from the base to the interior border; veins black; discal transverse
vein parted by less than one-fourth of its length from the border, and
by a little more than its length from the præbrachial transverse;
halteres testaceous. Length of the body 3-3/4 lines; of the wings 7-1/2
lines.

131. DACUS LATIFASCIA, n. s. _Foem._ Niger; capite postice et apud
oculos albido; antennarum articulo tertio vix longo; thoracis fascia,
metathorace pectorisque fasciis duabus obliquis canis; abdomine cyaneo;
femoribus albidis apice nigris; alis albo-limpidis, costa atra, fasciis
duabus latissimis nigris; halteribus testaceis.

_Female._ Black. Head whitish behind and about the eyes; third joint of
the antennæ linear, round at the tip, hardly long, arista plumose;
thorax with a band on the hind border of the scutum; metathorax and an
oblique band on each side of the pectus hoary; abdomen blue; coxæ and
femora whitish, the latter with black tips; wings limpid white, deep
black along the costa, and with two very broad black bands; veins black;
discal transverse vein very oblique, parted by about one-sixth of its
length from the border, and by little more than half its length from the
præbrachial transverse; halteres testaceous. Length of the body 4 lines;
of the wings 8 lines.

132. DACUS MUTILLOÏDES, n. s. _Foem._ Rufescens; capite nigro, postice
et apud oculos albo; antennarum articulo tertio angusto lineari
longissimo; thoracis vittis tribus, pectoris fasciis duabus obliquis
lateralibus abdominisque fasciis duabus (secunda interrupta) albis,
abdominis dimidio postico nigro-æneo; pedibus piceis; alis sublimpidis,
costæ apice venisque transversis nigro nebulosis; halteribus albidis.

_Female_. Reddish. Head black, white behind and about the eyes and on
the grooves of the face; antennæ black, reddish at the base, third joint
slender, linear, very long, arista bare, rather stout; thorax with three
whitish stripes; pectus with a more distinct oblique white band on each
side; metathorax whitish; abdomen æneous, pubescent, finely punctured,
reddish and slightly contracted towards the base, with two white bands,
the second widely interrupted; oviduct long, lanceolate; legs piceous;
wings nearly limpid, clouded with black at the tip of the costa and on
the præbrachial transverse vein, hardly clouded on the discal transverse
vein; veins black; discal transverse vein straight, parted by about
one-fourth of its length from the border, and by much more than its
length from the præbrachial transverse; halteres whitish. Length of the
body 5 lines; of the wings 8 lines.

133. DACUS LONGIVITTA, n. s. _Mas._ Æneo-viridis, subpubescens,
subtilissime punctatus; capite nigro apud oculos albido, epistomate
ferrugineo, antennarum articulo tertio longo lineari; thorace
subvittato; pedibus nigris, femoribus ferrugineis; alis subcinereis,
costa vittaque apud venam præbrachialem nigris; halteribus piceis.

_Male._ Æneous green, with slight hoary tomentum, very finely punctured.
Head black, whitish about the eyes; epistoma ferruginous, prominent;
antennæ black, ferruginous at the base, third joint long, linear,
conical at the tip; arista bare; thorax with an indistinct broad hoary
stripe; abdomen compressed, nearly linear; legs black; femora
ferruginous; wings slightly greyish, black along the costa and with a
black stripe which extends along the præbrachial vein to the discal
transverse vein; veins black; discal transverse vein straight, oblique,
parted by a little more than half its length from the border, and by
very much more than its length from the præbrachial transverse; halteres
piceous. Length of the body 4-6 lines; of the wings 5-7 lines.

134. DACUS LATIVENTRIS, n. s. _Foem._ Nigro-viridis, subtilissime
punctatus; capite piceo apud oculos albido; antennis fulvis, articulo
tertio sublanceolato; abdomine brevi, lato; pedibus nigris, femoribus
anticis fulvis; alis subcinereis, costa vittaque apud venam
præbrachialem nigris, vena discali transversa nigricante nebulosa;
halteribus albidis.

_Female._ Blackish green, very minutely punctured. Head piceous, whitish
about the eyes; epistoma ferruginous, slightly prominent; antennæ tawny,
third joint rather long, somewhat lanceolate, arista bare; abdomen
nearly round, broader than the thorax; legs black, fore femora tawny;
wings very slightly greyish, black along the costa to the tip of the
præbrachial vein, with a black stripe along the præbrachial vein to the
discal transverse vein, and with a blackish tinge about the discal
transverse vein and along the adjoining part of the hind border; veins
black, discal transverse straight, vein parted by less than half its
length from the border, and by very much more than its length from the
præbrachial transverse; halteres whitish. Length of the body 2 lines; of
the wings 4 lines.

135. DACUS OBTRUDENS, n. s. _Mas._ Nigro-viridis, subtilissime
punctatus; capite nigro apud oculos albido; antennis piceis basi
rufescentibus, articulo tertio lineari longissimo; abdomine lineari
maculis duabus lateralibus testaceis; pedibus nigris, femoribus apice
tarsisque posticis basi fulvis; alis subcinereis, costa, apice maculaque
apud venam transversam discalem nigricantibus; halteribus albis.

_Male._ Dark green, very minutely punctured. Head black, whitish about
the eyes, ferruginous towards the epistoma; antennæ piceous, reddish
towards the base; third joint linear, very long, arista bare; abdomen
linear, compressed, with a testaceous spot on each side before the
middle; legs black, femora tawny towards the tips, hind tarsi tawny at
the base; wings slightly greyish, blackish along the costa and at the
tips, and about the transverse veins; veins black, tawny at the base;
discal transverse vein straight, oblique, parted by about half its
length from the border, and by a little more than its length from the
præbrachial transverse; halteres white. Length of the body 4 lines; of
the wings 7 lines.

136. DACUS POMPILOIDES, n. s. _Mas._ Niger; capite albido, epistomate
ferrugineo; antennis piceis basi rufis, articulo tertio longo lineari;
abdomine nigro-cyaneo; pedibus piceis; alis subcinereis, striga costali
basali, fascia tenui postice abbreviata et triente apicali strigam
subcineream includente nigricantibus; halteribus albis.

_Male._ Black. Head with whitish tomentum, epistoma ferruginous,
prominent; antennæ piceous, red at the base, third joint long, linear,
arista bare; abdomen linear, blackish blue, longer than the thorax; legs
piceous; wings slightly greyish, with a blackish costal streak extending
from the base, with a slender blackish band which is abbreviated
hindward, and with more than one-third of the apical part blackish and
including a slightly greyish streak; veins black, discal transverse vein
straight, oblique, parted by a little less than its length from the
border and by about its length from the præbrachial transverse;
halteres white. Length of the body 3-1/2 lines; of the wings 6 lines.


Gen. BREA, n. g.

Platystomæ affinis. _Facies_ lata. _Antennæ_ breves; articulus tertius
longiconicus; arista nuda. _Femora_ intermedia incrassata, denticulata.

Allied to _Platystoma_. Face broad; antennæ short, third joint
elongate-conical; arista bare; middle femora incrassated, denticulated
beneath.

137. BREA DISCALIS, n. s. _Mas_. Nigra; capite testaceo apud oculos
albido, fronte ochracea; antennis piceis basi rufescentibus; thorace
vitta lata cana; abdomine fulvo, disco nigro cupreo; pedibus fulvis,
femoribus anticis apice tibiisque anticis basi nigris; alis sublimpidis,
fascia media lata postice abbreviata guttam limpidam subcostalem
includente lineaque transversa exteriore nigricantibus; halteribus
testaceis.

_Male_. Black. Head testaceous, whitish about the eyes, front
ochraceous; antennæ piceous, reddish at the base; thorax with a broad
hoary stripe; abdomen tawny, with a blackish cupreous disk; legs tawny,
fore femora at the tips and fore tibiæ at the base black; wings nearly
limpid, with a broad middle blackish band, which is abbreviated hindward
and includes a limpid dot by the costa, and has beyond it a blackish
transverse line; veins black, testaceous towards the base; discal
transverse vein straight, upright, parted by half its length from the
border, and by much more than its length from the præbrachial
transverse; halteres testaceous. Length of the body 4 lines; of the
wings 7 lines.

138. BREA CONTRARIA, n. s. _Mas et Foem._ Nigra; capite fulvo apud
oculos albido, fronte ochracea; antennis rufescentibus; thorace vitta
cana; abdomine purpureo apice cyaneo; pedibus nigris, femoribus anticis
tarsisque testaceis; alis sublimpidis, fascia lata media postice
abbreviata, guttis interioribus lineaque transversa exteriore
nigricantibus.

_Male and Female._ Black. Head tawny, whitish about the eyes; antennæ
reddish; thorax with a hoary stripe; sides and pectus also hoary;
abdomen purple, blue towards the tip; legs black; tarsi and fore femora
testaceous; wings nearly limpid, with a broad blackish middle band which
is abbreviated hindward, with some interior blackish dots, and with an
exterior transverse blackish line; veins black; discal transverse vein
straight, parted by less than half its length from the border, and by
less than its length from the præbrachial transverse; halteres black.
Length of the body 3--3-1/2 lines; of the wings 6-7 lines.


Gen. ADRAMA, n. g.

_Mas. Corpus_ longiusculum. _Caput_ thorace vix latius, setis duabus
posticis erectis. _Antennæ_ sat longæ; articulus tertius linearis,
apice conicus; arista pubescens. _Abdomen_ sublineare, thorace longius
et angustius. _Pedes_ mediocres; femora posteriora spinis minutis
armata. _Alæ_ sat longæ.

_Male._ Body rather long. Head transverse, hardly broader than the
thorax, with two erect setæ on the hind part of the vertex; face
vertical; epistoma slightly prominent. Antennæ nearly reaching the
epistoma; third joint long, linear, conical at the tip; arista
pubescent. Abdomen almost linear, longer and narrower than the thorax.
Legs moderately long and slender; posterior femora with minute spines
beneath. Wings rather long; discal transverse vein straight, upright,
parted by hardly half its length from the border, and by rather more
than its length from the præbrachial transverse.

139. ADRAMA SELECTA, n. s. _Mas._ Testacea; capite guttis tribus nigris;
thorace disco antico vittisque duabus posterioribus nigris; tibiis
tarsisque anticis piceis, tibiis posticis subpiceis; alis
subfuscescentibus, fascia lata limpida nigricante marginata postice
abbreviata.

_Male._ Testaceous. Head with a black dot above the antennæ and one on
each side of the epistoma; thorax with the fore part of the disk black,
and with two hindward black stripes; fore tibiæ and fore tarsi piceous;
hind tibiæ somewhat piceous; wings slightly brownish, with two blackish
bands, the first on the præbrachial transverse vein, abbreviated
hindward, the second on the discal transverse vein, abbreviated in
front, intermediate space limpid, veins testaceous, black towards the
tips; halteres pale testaceous. Length of the body 4-1/2 lines; of the
wings 8 lines.

Gen. ORTALIS, _Fallen_.

140. ORTALIS PROMPTA, n. s. _Foem._ Nigro-viridis; capite piceo apud
oculos albido; antennis rufescentibus; thorace vitta abdomineque fasciis
cinereis; pedibus nigris; alis limpidis, vittis tribus nigris, prima
postice abbreviata, secunda tertiaque latis; halteribus albidis.

_Female._ Blackish green. Head piceous, whitish about the eyes; epistoma
somewhat prominent; antennæ reddish, third joint somewhat lanceolate,
piceous towards the tip; arista bare; thorax with a cinereous stripe;
sides and pectus also cinereous; abdomen with two cinereous bands; legs
black; wings limpid white, slightly cinereous towards the base, with
three black bands, the first abbreviated hindward, the second and third
very broad; veins black, discal transverse vein curved inward, parted by
much less than its length from the border and by a little less than its
length from the præbrachial transverse; halteres whitish. Length of the
body 3-1/2 lines; of the wings 6 lines.

141. ORTALIS COMPLENS, n. s. _Mas et Foem._ Nigro-viridis; capite
antennisque testaceis, articulo tertio brevi, arista plumosa; abdomine
atro; pedibus testaceis, femoribus nigris; alis albo limpidis, strigis
duabus apiceque nigro-cinereis, fasciis tribus satis nigricantibus;
halteribus albis. _Mas._ Vertice luteo postice nigro, femoribus apice
testaceis, alarum fasciis subconnexis. _Foem._ Vertice nigro, tibiis
nigris, posticis basi testaceis.

_Male and Female._ Blackish green. Head testaceous; antennæ testaceous,
third joint short, conical; arista plumose; abdomen deep black; legs
testaceous; femora black; wings limpid white, with three broad blackish
stripes, the second emitting a branch from its outer side to the costa,
a streak connected with the outer side of the third band, and the tips
blackish cinereous; discal transverse vein straight, parted by much less
than its length from the border, and by a little more than its length
from the præbrachial transverse; halteres white. _Male._ Vertex luteous,
black hindward; femora with testaceous tips; bands of the wings partly
connected. _Female._ Vertex black; tibiæ black, the hind pair testaceous
towards the base. Length of the body 1-1/2--2 lines; of the wings 3-4
lines.

Gen. TRYPETA, _Meigen_.

142. TRYPETA MULTISTRIGA, n. s. _Foem._ Testacea; thorace pectoreque
nigro-strigatis; abdomine maculis quatuor lateralibus anterioribus
fascia lata apiceque nigris; femoribus posterioribus nigro vittatis;
alis nigricantibus basi marginali maculis guttisque albis.

_Female._ Testaceous. Third joint of the antennæ short, conical; arista
plumose; thorax with black bristles on each side, with eight black
streaks, four in front, of which the middle pair are very short, four
hindward, the middle pair short, the outer pair connected in front of
the scutellum, two lateral black streaks; pectus with a black
interrupted streak on each side; disk also black; abdomen with two
transverse black spots on each side towards the base, and with a broad
black band; oviduct black, flat, lanceolate, obtuse at the tip;
posterior femora striped with black; wings blackish, limpid for a space
from the base along the costa and along the hind border, and with twelve
white marks of various size, four discal, eight marginal; discal
transverse vein nearly straight, parted by one-fourth of its length from
the border, and by about its length from the præbrachial transverse.
Length of the body 3-1/2 lines; of the wings 6 lines.

143. TRYPETA DORSIGUTTA, n. s. _Mas._ Atra; capite piceo vitta testacea,
subtus albo; antennis testaceis; thorace cinereo punctis lateralibus
albis, pectore albido; abdominis segmentis testaceo marginatis; tibiis
albido fasciatis, tarsis albidis; alis albo-limpidis, strigis basalibus
fasciisque duabus latis nigricantibus, prima antice furcata; halteribus
albis.

_Male._ Deep black. Head piceous, with cinereous tomentum, white behind
and beneath, a testaceous stripe on the vertex; antennæ testaceous,
black at the base, third joint conical, white at the base, arista
plumose; thorax with cinereous tomentum, white points along each side;
pectus whitish; hind borders of the abdominal segments testaceous with
cinereous tomentum; tibiæ with a dingy whitish band; tarsi dingy
whitish; wings limpid white, with several blackish marks towards the
base and with two broad blackish bands, the first forked in front;
discal transverse vein nearly straight, parted by less than its length
from the border, and by more than twice its length from the præbrachial
transverse; halteres white. Length of the body 2-1/2 lines; of the wings
4 lines.

144. TRYPETA BASALIS, n. s. _Mas._ Nigra, nitens; capite antennisque
fulvis, vertice maculis duabus piceis; abdomine basi pedibusque
testaceis; alis limpidis, striga basali, fasciis tribus costaque apicali
nigricantibus; halteribus testaceis.

_Male._ Black, slender, shining. Head tawny, with two elongated piceous
spots on the vertex; antennæ tawny, third joint linear, rather long,
arista bare; abdomen nearly fusiform, testaceous at the base; legs
testaceous; wings limpid, with a blackish oblique streak extending from
the base, with three blackish bands, and with a blackish costal streak
extending round the tip, first and third bands slender, second broad,
abbreviated like the first hindward; discal transverse vein straight,
parted by about one-fourth of its length from the border, and by less
than its length from the præbrachial transverse; halteres testaceous.
Length of the body 1-1/2 line; of the wings 3 lines.

145. TRYPETA IMPLETA, n. s. _Foem._ Cinerea; capite albido; antennarum
articulo tertio albido apice nigro; thorace vitta fusca, scutello
albido, abdomine nigro; pedibus albidis nigro fasciatis; alis albis,
maculis plurimis nigricantibus ex parte confluentibus; halteribus
albidis.

_Female._ Cinereous. Head whitish; third joint of the antennæ short,
conical, whitish, blackish at the tip, arista plumose; thorax with a
brown stripe; scutellum whitish; abdomen black; legs whitish, with black
bands; wings white, with many blackish spots, some of them confluent;
discal transverse vein straight, parted by much less than its length
from the border, and by a little less than its length from the
præbrachial transverse; halteres whitish. Length of the body 1-1/2 line;
of the wings 3 lines.

146. TRYPETA SUBOCELLIFERA, n. s. _Mas._ Cana; antennis albidis; thorace
guttis fuscis, scutelli margine albido; abdomine fusco apicem versus
cano maculis fuscis; pedibus albidis fusco fasciatis; alis limpidis,
maculis nigricantibus pallido signatis ex parte confluentibus.

_Male._ Hoary. Antennæ whitish, third joint short, conical, arista
plumose; thorax with some slight brown dots; scutellum brown, hind
borders of the scutellum white; abdomen brown, hind borders of the
segments and apical part cinereous, the latter with brown dots; legs
whitish, with brown bands; wings limpid, with several blackish dots
containing pale marks, some of them confluent and forming a middle band;
discal transverse vein straight, enclosed in a pale streak, parted by
much less than its length from the border and by much more than its
length from the præbrachial transverse; halteres whitish. Length of the
body 1-1/2 line; of the wings 3 lines.

Subfam. ACHIIDES, _Walk._

Gen. ACHIAS, _Fabr._

147. ACHIAS LONGIVIDENS, n. s. _Mas et Foem._ Viridi-cinerea; capite
testaceo fasciis duabus vittisque tribus anticis nigris; antennis
nigris; thorace vittis quatuor purpureo-nigris, pectore ferrugineo;
abdomine viridi-fulvo; pedibus piceis; alis limpidis, costa
lurido-nigricante, vena transversa discali fusco nebulosa; halteribus
testaceis apice nigris. _Mas._ Oculis longissime petiolatis, scutello
viridi, femoribus basi fulvis. _Foem._ Oculis subpetiolatis, scutello
nigro-purpureo.

_Male and Female._ Greenish cinereous. Head with two black bands on the
vertex and with four black stripes in front; antennæ black, third joint
linear, very long, arista plumose; thorax with four purplish black
stripes, middle pair abbreviated hindward and having behind them a spot
of the same hue, lateral pair interrupted; pectus ferruginous; abdomen
tawny, with bright green reflections, testaceous beneath; legs piceous;
wings limpid, blackish, and with a lurid tinge along the costa, whence a
short oblique blackish streak proceeds by the præbrachial transverse
vein; discal transverse vein clouded with brown, hardly curved, parted
by less than one-third of its length from the border, and by much more
than its length from the præbrachial transverse, which is very oblique;
halteres testaceous, with black tips. _Male._ Head with the fore black
band interrupted; eyes with very long petioles, the latter about
three-fourths of the length of the body; scutellum green; femora tawny
towards the base. _Female._ Eyes with short petioles, extending a little
beyond the sides of the thorax; scutellum blackish purple. Length of the
body 5-6 lines; of the wings 12-13 lines.

148. ACHIAS LATIVIDENS, n. s. _Foem._ Viridi-cinerea; capite testaceo,
vittis tribus anticis nigris, oculis subpetiolatis; antennis nigris;
thorace vittisquatuor purpureo-nigris, scutello cyaneo basi viridi,
pectore fulvo; abdomine viridi-fulvo; pedibus nigris, femoribus basi
luteis, tibiis luteo fasciatis; alis subcinereis, vitta costali
nigricante interrupta lurida strigata, vena transversa discali fusco
nebulosa; halteribus testaceis apice nigris.

_Female._ Greenish cinereous. Head testaceous, with three black stripes
on the face; eyes very slightly petiolated; antennæ black; thorax with
four purplish black stripes; scutellum blue, green at the base; pectus
tawny; abdomen tawny, with bright green reflections; legs black; femora
luteous towards the base; tibiæ with indistinct luteous bands; wings
slightly greenish, with a blackish interrupted costal stripe containing
luteous streaks; discal transverse vein clouded with brown; veins in
structure like those of the preceding species; halteres testaceous, with
black tips. Length of the body 6 lines; of the 13 lines.

This species at first sight seems like a variety of the preceding one,
but the petioles of the eyes are shorter and thicker, the costal stripes
of the wings are interrupted, and the shade on the discal transverse
vein is more diffuse.

149. ACHIAS AMPLIVIDENS, n. s. _Foem._ Fulva, subtus testacea; oculis
extantibus non petiolatis; thorace submetallico, vittis quinque
cinereis; abdomine purpureo basi testaceo, tibiis tarsisque nigris; alis
subcinereis, costa nigro-fusca, venis transversis nigro-fusco nebulosis.

_Female._ Tawny, testaceous beneath. Head testaceous; eyes very
prominent, but hardly petiolated; antennæ tawny; thorax slightly
metallic, with five cinereous stripes, which are abbreviated hindward,
the inner pair slender; abdomen purple, testaceous at the base; legs
black; coxæ and femora testaceous, the latter with black tips; wings
slightly greyish, costal stripe brown, blackish towards the tip;
præbrachial transverse vein clouded with blackish, discal transverse
vein clouded with a much paler hue than that of the præbrachial
transverse vein, in structure like those of the two preceding species;
halteres testaceous, with black tips. Length of the body 4-1/2 lines; of
the wings 9 lines.

Subfam.----?

Gen. POLYARA, n. g.

_Mas._ _Corpus_ longiusculum. _Caput_ transversum; facies lata, plana,
non obliqua. _Palpi_ lati. _Antennæ_ parvæ; articulus tertius
longiconicus; arista plumosa. _Thorax_ oblongo-subquadratus. _Abdomen_
sublineare, thorace multo longinus et angustius. _Pedes_ breves, tenues.
_Alæ_ latiusculæ; venæ optime determinatæ; venæ duæ transversæ inter
venas radialem et cubitalem; vena præbrachialis apicem versus valde
flexa.

_Male._ Body rather long. Head transverse, a little broader than the
thorax; face broad, flat, vertical. Palpi broad. Antennæ small; third
joint elongate-conical, not extending more than half the length to the
epistoma; arista plumose. Thorax oblong-subquadrate. Abdomen nearly
linear, much longer and more slender than the thorax. Legs short, rather
slender; fore femora somewhat setose beneath. Wings rather broad, flat
in repose; veins very strongly marked; a transverse vein between the
cubital and mediastinal veins; two transverse veins between the radial
and cubital veins; cubital vein slightly angular between the præbrachial
transverse vein and the tip of the wing; præbrachial vein much curved
towards its tip.

The structure of the wing veins in this genus is very peculiar, and it
does not agree well with any of the established subfamilies of
_Muscidæ_.

150. POLYARA INSOLITA, n. s. _Mas._ Testacea; faciei sulcis albidis;
abdomine lutescente fulvo; alis subcinereis, nigricante-fusco
submarginatis et subfasciatis.

_Male._ Testaceous, paler beneath. Facial grooves for the antennæ
whitish; thorax with some almost obsolete stripes, the middle pair
approximate, slender, somewhat more distinct than the others; abdomen
somewhat lutescent-tawny; wings slightly greyish, irregularly
blackish-brown along the costa, brown at the tips, and with a brown band
which is indistinct in front but much darker on the discal transverse
vein; præbrachial vein largely bordered with brown; veins black,
testaceous towards the base, discal transverse vein straight, parted by
about one-sixth of its length from the border, and by rather less than
half its length from the præbrachial transverse; alulæ very small.
Length of the body 5-1/2 lines; of the wings 10 lines.

Subfam. SEPSIDES, _Walk._

Gen. ANGITULA, n. g.

_Foem._ _Corpus_ convexum, glaberrimum, nitidissimum. _Caput_
subrotundum; epistoma valde prominens. _Antennæ_ epistoma non
attingentes; articulus tertius longiusculus, linearis, apice conicus;
arista subpubescens. _Thorax_ anticus valde productus et attenuatus;
scutellum bispinosum; metathorax magnus, declivis. _Abdomen_
longi-subfusiforme; segmentum primum gibbosum. _Pedes_ longi, graciles;
coxæ anticæ longissimæ. _Alæ_ longæ, angustæ; alulæ obsoletæ.

_Female._ Body convex, very smooth and shining. Head nearly round; front
subquadrate; face short; epistoma very prominent. Mouth short. Antennæ
not reaching the epistoma; third joint linear, rather long, conical at
the tip; arista somewhat pubescent. Thorax much produced and attenuated
in front; scutellum armed with two spines; metathorax slanting, well
developed. Abdomen elongate-subfusiform, longer and much more slender
than the thorax; first segment gibbous above. Legs long, slender,
without bristles; fore coxæ very long. Wings long, narrow; discal
transverse vein straight, upright, parted by less than half its length
from the border, and by nearly twice its length from the præbrachial
transverse.

151. ANGITULA LONGICOLLIS, n. s. _Foem._ Nigro-ænea; capite subtus
albido, frontis disco rufescente, fascia albida; antennis piceis basi
rufis; pedibus nigris, femoribus basi coxisque anticis albidis; alis
limpidis, costa nigra.

_Female._ Æneous black. Head whitish beneath, front with a reddish disk,
face whitish. Antennæ piceous, first and second joints red; legs black,
bare; femora towards the base and fore coxæ whitish; wings limpid, with
a black costal line extending to the tip of the præbrachial vein; veins
and halteres black. Length of the body 5 lines; of the wings 8 lines.

Gen. SEPSIS, _Fallen_.

152. SEPSIS BASIFERA, n. s. _Mas et Foem._ Nigra; thorace nigro-æneo;
tarsis, femoribus basi pedibusque anticis testaceis; alis limpidis,
costa basi nigra. _Mas._ Metatarsis intermediis dilatatis, alis apice
vix nigricantibus. _Foem._ Alis apice nigris.

_Male and Female._ Black, shining. Thorax æneous black; pectus
cinereous; tarsi, femora at the base, and fore legs, pale testaceous;
wings limpid; costa at the base and veins black. _Male._ Basal joint of
the intermediate tarsi dilated; wings hardly blackish at the tips.
_Female._ Wings black at the tips. Length of the body 2--2-1/2 lines; of
the wings 3--3-1/2 lines.

Gen. CALOBATA, _Fabr._

153. Calobata albitarsis, _Wied. Auss. Zweifl._ 71. 544. 22. Inhabits
also Java and Australia.

154. Calobata indica, _Desv. Ess. Myod._ 737. 4. (Nerius). Inhabits also
Hindostan.

155. Calobata Abana, _Walk. Cat. Dipt._ pt. 4. 1054.

156. CALOBATA SEPSOIDES, n. s. _Foem._ Nigra; antennis ferrugineis,
articulo tertio conico brevi, arista nuda; pedibus testaceis nigricante
subnotatis, femoribus anticis nigris basi testaceis, tibiis anticis
nigris, tarsis anticis niveis, posticis albidis; alis subcinereis,
fasciis duabus indistinctis fuscescentibus.

_Female._ Black, shining. Antennæ ferruginous, third joint short,
conical, arista bare; pectus slightly covered with cinereous tomentum;
legs testaceous, with a few very indistinct blackish marks; fore femora
black, testaceous towards the base; fore tibiæ black; fore tarsi
snow-white, black at the base; hind tarsi whitish; wings greyish, with
two almost obsolete brownish bands; discal transverse vein parted by
less than its length from the border and by about four times its length
from the præbrachial transverse. Length of the body 5 lines; of the
wings 7 lines.

Gen. CARDIACEPHALA, _Macq._

157. CARDIACEPHALA DEBILIS, n. s. _Foem._ Testacea, gracilis; thorace
linea transversa interrupta nigra; pedibus anticis parvis, posterioribus
longis, tarsis albis brevissimis, tibiis anterioribus piceis; alis
limpidis apice cinereis, fascia lata pallide lutea.

_Female._ Testaceous, slender. Vertex somewhat luteous; third joint of
the antennæ conical, very short, arista bare; thorax attenuated in
front, with a transverse interrupted black line hindward; abdomen longer
than the thorax, lanceolate hindward; fore legs short, posterior legs
long; tarsi white, very short; anterior tibiæ piceous; middle femora
rather thicker than the hind pair; wings limpid, grey towards the tips,
with a pale luteous middle band; veins testaceous, cubital and
præbrachial converging towards the tips of the wings, discal transverse
vein straight, parted by less than its length from the border and by
about thrice its length from the præbrachial transverse. Length of the
body 3-1/2 lines; of the wings 5 lines.

Subfam. PSILIDES, _Walk._

Gen. LISSA, _Meigen_.

158. LISSA CYLINDRICA, n. s. _Mas._ Cyanea, gracilis, cylindrica;
antennis piceis basi albidis, arista plumosa; abdomine piceo basi
apiceque cyaneis; pedibus albidis, femoribus posterioribus nigris apice
albidis, femoribus posticis subtus spinosis, tibiis posticis nigris;
alis subcinereis apice subfuscis; halteribus albidis apice nigris.

_Male._ Blue, slender, cylindrical. Head broader than the thorax;
antennæ whitish, third joint piceous, arista plumose; abdomen piceous,
slightly increasing in breadth to the tip, blue at the base and at the
tip, hind borders of the first and second segments whitish; legs
whitish, posterior femora black, whitish at the base and towards the
tips, hind femora spinose beneath, hind tibiæ black; wings slightly
greyish, brownish towards the tips; veins black, præbrachial and
perbrachial very near together for more than half their length, discal
transverse vein straight, parted by more than its length, and by about
four times its length from the præbrachial transverse; halteres whitish,
with black tips. Length of the body 3-1/2 lines; of the wings 5 lines.

Gen. NERIUS, _Fabr._

159. Nerius duplicatus, _Wied. Auss. Zweifl._ 11. 553. 8. Inhabits also
Java.

Subfam. OSCINIDES, _Haliday_.

Gen. OSCINIS, _Fabr._

160. OSCINIS LINEIPLENA, n. s. _Mas._ Fusca; capite subtus testaceo apud
oculos albo, vitta frontali alba; thorace pectoreque lineis sex albidis;
abdomine sordide testaceo, pedibus albidis, tibiis tarsisque apice
femoribusque anticis nigris; alis subcinereis, halteribus albidis.

_Male._ Brown. Head testaceous in front and beneath, white about the
eyes, with a white stripe on the front; thorax and pectus with six
whitish stripes on each, thorax with an indistinct middle testaceous
stripe; abdomen dull testaceous; legs whitish; tibiæ and tarsi at the
tips and fore femora black; wings greyish; veins black, discal
transverse vein oblique, parted by more than its length from the border,
and by full twice its length from the præbrachial transverse; halteres
whitish. Length of the body 2 lines; of the wings 3 lines.

161. OSCINIS NOCTILUX, n. s. _Mas._ Atra; capite pallide flavo subtus
albo; antennis luteis, arista nuda; scutello, maculis duabus
pectoralibus abdominisque apice albis; tibiis tarsisque intermediis
testaceis; alis nigricantibus postice cinereis, halteribus niveis.

_Male._ Black. Head pale yellow, black hindward, white beneath; antennæ
pale luteous, third joint very short, arista bare; scutellum white;
pectus with a white spot on each side; abdomen white at the tip; middle
legs with testaceous tibiæ and tarsi; hind wings blackish, cinereous
hindward; halteres snow-white. Length of the body 3/4 line; of the wings
1-1/2 line.

Subfam. GEOMYZIDES, _Fallen_.

Gen. DROSOPHILA, _Fallen_.

162. DROSOPHILA? FINIGUTTA, n. s. _Mas._ Fulva; capite antice testaceo,
antennis testaceis, articulo tertio conico; abdomine maculis quatuor
apicalibus nigris, tarsis nigris; alis cinereis venis nigris.

_Male._ Tawny. Head testaceous in front; antennæ testaceous, third joint
conical; abdomen with two black spots on each side at the tip; legs
testaceous; tarsi black; wings grey; veins black, discal transverse vein
straight, parted by full half its length from the border and by full
twice its length from the præbrachial transverse; halteres testaceous.
Length of the body 1-1/2 line; of the wings 3 lines.

163. DROSOPHILA? MELANOSPILA. _Foem._ Testacea; antennarum articulo
tertio conico, arista plumosa; thoracis disco abdominisque guttis duabus
apicalibus atris; tarsis piceis; alis subcinereis.

_Female._ Testaceous. Vertex luteous; third joint of the antennæ
conical; arista plumose; disk of the thorax and a dot on each side of
the tip of the abdomen deep black; tarsi piceous; wings slightly
greyish; veins black, discal transverse vein straight, parted by about
half its length from the border and by twice its length from the
præbrachial transverse. Length of the body 1 line; of the wings 2 lines.

164. DROSOPHILA? IMPARATA. _Foem._ Pallide testacea; pedibus
pallidioribus; alis subcinereis, venis pallidis.

_Female._ Pale testaceous, with a few bristles. Legs paler than the
body; wings slightly greyish; veins pale, discal transverse vein
straight, parted by about twice its length from the border and by more
than twice its length from the præbrachial transverse. Length of the
body 3/4 line; of the wings 1-1/2 line.

Subfam. HYDROMYZIDES, _Haliday_.

Gen. EPHYDRA, _Fallen_.

165. EPHYDRA? TACITURNA, n. s. _Foem._ Atra, nitens, antennis nigris,
arista plumosa, abdomine nigro-cupreo, pedibus nigro-piceis, alis
nigricantibus, venis nigris.

_Female._ Deep black, shining. Antennæ black, third joint linear, rather
long, arista plumose; legs blackish-piceous; wings blackish; veins
black, discal transverse vein straight, parted by a little more than its
length from the border. Length of the body 1-1/2 line; of the wings
2-1/2 lines.


Fam. PHORIDÆ, _Haliday_.

Gen. PALLURA, n. g.

_Mas._ _Corpus_ latiusculum, pubescens. _Os_ retractum. _Oculi_
pubescentes. _Antennæ_ brevissimæ; arista longissima. _Scutellum_
magnum, conicum. _Abdomen_ subellipticum, thorace non longius. _Pedes_
latiusculi, pubescentes, non setosi. _Alæ_ amplæ, venis æqualibus.

_Male._ Body rather broad, pubescent. Proboscis small, withdrawn; eyes
pubescent; antennæ very short, arista very long; scutellum large,
conical, very prominent, extending beyond the base of the abdomen;
abdomen nearly elliptical, not longer than the thorax; legs rather
broad, pubescent, without bristles; wings rather long and broad; veins
of equal size, costal vein ending at rather before half the length of
the wing, radial ending at somewhat in front of the tip of the wing,
cubital ending at hardly in front of the tip, præbrachial ending at a
little behind the tip, pobrachial ending on the hind border at half the
length of the wing, discal transverse vein straight, parted by more than
twice its length from the border and from the præbrachial transverse.

166. PALLURA INVARIA. _Mas._ Lutea, immaculata, alis cinereis basi
luteis, apice nigricantibus, venis nigris robustis.

_Male._ Luteous, of one colour. Wings grey, luteous at the base,
blackish towards the tips; veins black, robust. Length of the body 3
lines; of the wings 6 lines.


Fam. HIPPOBOSCIDÆ, _Leach_.

Gen. ORNITHOMYIA, _Leach_.

167. Ornithomyia parva?, _Macq. Hist. Nat. Dipt._ 11. 2. 279. 3.


KEY ISLAND.


Fam. ASILIDÆ, _Leach_.

Subfam. LAPHRITES, _Walk._

Gen. LAPHRIA, _Fabr._

1. LAPHRIA PARADISIACA, n. s. _Mas._ Cuprea, aureo pilosa, capite
pectoreque argenteis albo pilosis, mystace subaurato setis nonnullis
nigris, abdomine apice purpureo subtus albido piloso, pedibus
cyaneo-purpureis albido pilosis, femoribus cyaneo-viridibus, alis
nigricantibus basi cinereis, halteribus albidis nigro notatis.

_Male._ Cupreous, with gilded hairs. Head and pectus silvery, with white
hairs; mystax slightly gilded, with a few long black bristles; antennæ
and mouth black; abdomen purple at the tip, underside clothed with long
whitish hairs, silvery white at the base, the following segments
bordered with silvery white; legs blue and purple, thickly clothed with
long whitish hairs, femora bluish-green, fore tibiæ with pale gilded
down beneath, hind tibiæ with a black bristly apical tuft beneath; wings
blackish, grey towards the base; halteres whitish, marked with black.
Length of the body 11 lines; of the wings 20 lines.

2. LAPHRIA PLACENS, n. s. _Mas._ Cyanea, capite aurato, mystace setis
paucis longis nigris; antennis nigris, articulo tertio fusiformi;
pectore albido, abdomine angusto, femoribus intus tibiisque purpureis;
alis nigricantibus basi cinereis, halteribus piceis.

_Male._ Blue. Head gilded in front, whitish behind; mystax with a few
long black bristles; proboscis and antennæ black, third joint of the
latter fusiform; pectus whitish; abdomen cylindrical, much narrower than
the thorax, and about twice its length; femora on the inner side and
tibiæ purple, tarsi black; wings blackish, cinereous towards the base;
halteres piceous. Length of the body 4-1/2 lines; of the wings 8 lines.

Subfam. ASILITES, _Walk._

Gen. ASILUS, _Linn._

3. ASILUS SUPERVENIENS, n. s. _Mas._ Cinereous, capite subaurato,
mystace aurato setis paucis nigris, thorace vittis tribus latissimis
nigris, abdomine fulvescenti-cinereo, pedibus rufescentibus, femoribus
nigro vittatis, tarsis nigris, alis cinereis apice nigricantibus,
halteribus testaceis.

_Male._ Cinereous. Head slightly gilded, pale cinereous, and clothed
with pale hairs behind; mystax composed of gilded bristles, above which
there are a few shorter black bristles; antennæ black, third joint
elongate-fusiform, arista much longer than the third joint; thorax with
three very broad hardly divided black stripes; abdomen with a slight
fawn-coloured tinge, tip black, sexualia very small; legs reddish,
femora striped above with black, tarsi black, reddish at the base; wings
cinereous, blackish towards the tips; halteres testaceous. Length of the
body 8 lines; of the wings 14 lines.

Gen. OMMATIUS, _Illiger_.

4. Ommatius noctifer, _Walk._ See page 88.


Fam. EMPIDÆ, _Leach_.

Gen. HYBOS, _Fabr._

5. HYBOS DEFICIENS, n. s. _Mas._ Niger, thorace fulvo globoso macula
dorsali nigra, abdomine basi fulvo, pedibus anterioribus testaceis,
femoribus posticis subtus spinosis, alis cinereis apice obscurioribus,
stigmate venisque nigris, halteribus testaceis, apice piceis.

_Male._ Black. Thorax and pectus tawny, the former globose, with a black
dorsal spot; abdomen tawny at the base; anterior legs testaceous, hind
femora spinose beneath; wings grey, darker at the tips; stigma and veins
black; halteres testaceous, with piceous tips. Length of the body 2
lines; of the wings 4 lines.


Fam. SYRPHIDÆ, _Leach_.

Gen. ERISTALIS, _Latr._

6. Eristalis resolutus, _Walk._ See p. 95.

Gen. BACCHA, _Fabr._

7. BACCHA PURPURICOLA, n. s. _Foem._ Purpureo-fulva; capite chalybeo;
antennis rufis; pedibus fulvis; tibiis posticis apice tarsisque posticis
basi piceis; alis nigricantibus, apud costam obscurioribus, spatio
apicali subcostali cinereo; halteribus testaceis.

_Female._ Tawny, tinged with purple. Head chalybeous; antennæ red; legs
tawny, hind tibiæ piceous towards the tips, hind tarsi piceous towards
the base; wings blackish, darker along the costa, cinereous towards the
tips with the exception of the costa; halteres testaceous. Length of the
body 5-1/2 lines; of the wings 9 lines.


Fam. MUSCIDÆ, _Latr._

Subfam. SARCOPHAGIDES, _Walk._

Gen. SARCOPHAGA, _Meigen_.

8. SARCOPHAGA BASALIS, n. s. _Mas._ Nigra, subaureo tomentosa; capite
aurato; thorace vittis tribus nigris; abdomine albido tessellato; alis
cinereis; venis lurido marginatis; alulis testaceis.

_Male._ Black, with slightly gilded tomentum. Head gilded; frontalia
deep black, hardly widening in front; thorax with three black stripes,
an indistinct blackish line on each side of the middle stripe; abdomen
tessellated with white; wings grey; veins bordered with a lurid hue,
especially towards the costa; præbrachial vein forming a slightly acute
angle at its flexure, near which it is much curved inward, and is thence
straight to its tip; discal transverse vein slightly curved inward near
its hind end, parted by a little more than half its length from the
border and from the præbrachial transverse; alulæ testaceous. Length of
the body 5-1/2 lines; of the wings 9 lines.

Subfam. MUSCIDES, _Walk._

Gen. IDIA, _Meigen_.

9. Idia xanthogaster, _Wied. Auss. Zweifl._ 11. 349. 2. Inhabits also
Hindostan and Java.

10. Idia testacea, _Macq. Hist. Nat. Dipt._ 77. 246. 3. Inhabits also
Mauritius.

Gen. MUSCA, _Linn._

11. Musca obtrusa, _Walk._ See p. 105.

Subfam. ANTHOMYIDES, _Walk._

Gen. ARICIA, _Macq._

12. ARICIA VICARIA, n. s. _Foem._ Fulva, subtus testacea; capite nigro,
apud oculos albo; antennis testaceis; alis cinereis, apud costam
luridis.

_Female._ Tawny, testaceous beneath. Head black, white about the eyes;
antennæ testaceous; abdomen clothed with short black bristles; legs
testaceous, tarsi piceous; wings grey, with a lurid tinge towards the
costa; veins black, discal transverse vein nearly straight, parted by
about its length from the border, and by a little more than its length
from the præbrachial transverse; alulæ slightly testaceous; halteres
testaceous. Length of the body 3-1/2 lines; of the wings 6 lines.

13. ARICIA SQUALENS, n. s. _Foem._ Nigra, cinereo tomentosa; facie
argentea; antennis testaceis; thorace vittis nigris vittisque duabus
lateralibus latis testaceis; abdomine obscure testaceo; pedibus piceis;
femoribus nigris; tibiis anticis testaceis; alis cinereis; apud costam
subluridis; venis halteribusque testaceis.

_Female._ Black, with cinereous tomentum. Face silvery white; antennæ
pale testaceous, third joint long, linear, extending to the epistoma;
thorax with black stripes, and on each side with a broad testaceous
stripe; abdomen dull testaceous; legs piceous; femora black, fore tibiæ
testaceous; wings grey, with a lurid tinge towards the costa; veins
testaceous, discal transverse vein very slightly curved inward, parted
by much less than its length from the border, and by a little more than
its length from the præbrachial transverse; alulæ whitish; halteres
testaceous. Length of the body 3 lines; of the wings 6 lines.

Subfam. ORTALIDES, _Haliday_.

Gen. LAMPROGASTER, _Macq._

14. LAMPROGASTER VENTRALIS, n. s. _Foem._ Testaceo-cinerea; capite apud
oculos albo, vertice luteo, facie pallide fulva; thorace lineis septem
indistinctis nigricantibus; abdomine fusco maculis dorsalibus canis,
subtus cavo lateribus ferrugineis; pedibus nigris, tibiis ferrugineo
fasciatis; alis limpidis basi subtestaceis, fasciis incompletis
guttisque fuscis apud costam nigricantibus.

_Female._ Cinereous, with a testaceous tinge. Head white about the eyes,
vertex luteous; face pale tawny, with white grooves for the antennæ;
antennæ tawny, small; arista slightly plumose at the base; thorax with
seven indistinct blackish lines; abdomen brown, with dorsal hoary nearly
triangular spots, under side marsupial-like or with a pouch, ferruginous
on each side; legs black, each tibia with a ferruginous band; wings
limpid, slightly testaceous at the base, with brown dots and bands, the
latter abbreviated hindward, blackish towards the costa; veins black,
testaceous towards the base; discal transverse vein straight, parted by
about one-third of its length from the border and by much more than its
length from the præbrachial transverse; alulæ cinereous; halteres
testaceous. Length of the body 5 lines; of the wings 10 lines.

Gen. TRYPETA, _Meigen_.

15. TRYPETA RORIPENNIS, n. s. _Foem._ Fusca; capite nigro, facie alba;
antennis nigris rufo-fasciatis; thorace vittis quatuor canis; abdominis
segmentis testaceo marginatis; pedibus nigris, tarsis halteribusque
testaceis; alis nigris, punctis plurimis albis.

_Female._ Brown. Head black; face white; antennæ black, third joint red,
linear, rather long, black towards the tip; arista plumose; thorax with
four hoary stripes; abdominal segments with testaceous hind borders;
legs black, tarsi testaceous; wings black, with very numerous white
points, a few of which are rather larger than the others; discal
transverse vein straight, parted by less than its length from the
border, and by more than twice its length from the præbrachial
transverse; halteres testaceous. Length of the body 2 lines; of the
wings 4 lines.



Catalogue of Hymenopterous Insects collected by Mr. A. R. WALLACE at the
Islands of Aru and Key. By FREDERICK SMITH, Esq., Assistant in the
Zoological Department, British Museum. Communicated by W. W. SAUNDERS,
Esq., F.R.S., V.P.L.S.

[Read December 3rd, 1858.]


This Collection of Hymenoptera is the most important contribution which
has been made to the Aculeata through the exertions of Mr. Wallace; in
point of geographical distribution, it adds much to our knowledge. In
the Aru, Key, and neighbouring islands, we meet with the extreme range
of the Australian insect-fauna; and as might be expected, it is found
amongst the Vespidious Group, and in one or two instances in the
Formicidæ. The latter, being frequently conveyed from one island to
another, can perhaps scarcely be considered indicative of natural
geographical distribution. Of the forty-six species of the Formicidous
Group, only six were previously known to science. Of the genus
_Podomyrma_ here established, one species only, from Adelaide, was
previously known; it is one of the most distinct and remarkable genera
in the family. The _Pompilidæ_ are species of great beauty, some closely
resembling those of Australia in the banding and maculation of their
wings; amongst the _Vespidæ_ will be found some of the most elegant and
beautiful forms in the whole of that protean family of Hymenoptera.


Fam. ANDRENIDÆ.

Gen. PROSOPIS.

1. PROSOPIS MALACHISIS. _P._ nigro-cæruleo-viridis, nitida et delicatulè
punctata; alis hyalinis.

_Female._ Length 4-1/2 lines. Deep blue-green, with tints of purple in
certain lights, particularly on the head, the clypeus with a central
longitudinal ridge, its anterior margin slightly emarginate; the
flagellum rufo-piceous beneath, the ocelli white. Thorax: the wings
hyaline and brilliantly iridescent; the legs dark rufo-piceous with a
bright purple tinge. Abdomen delicately punctured, the head and thorax
more strongly so; the latter with a semicircular enclosed space at its
base, which is smooth and shining.

_Hab._ Key Island.

Gen. NOMIA.

1. NOMIA CINCTA. _N._ nigra, capite thoraceque punctatis, pedibus
ferrugineis; segmentis abdominis apice fulvo-testaceo late fasciatis.

_Female._ Length 5 lines. Black: the two basal joints of the flagellum,
the apical margin of the clypeus, the labrum, mandibles, and legs
ferruginous; the wings fulvo-hyaline, the nervures ferruginous, the
tegulæ more or less rufo-testaceous; the sides of the metathorax with
tufts of pale fulvous pubescence and the floccus on the posterior femora
of the same colour, the tibiæ and tarsi with short ferruginous
pubescence. Abdomen shining, the apical margins of the segments broadly
fulvo-testaceous, very bright, having a golden lustre.

_Hab._ Key Island.

2. NOMIA LONGICORNIS. _N._ nigra, lucida et delicatulè punctata, facie
pube brevi griseâ tectâ, femorum posticorum flocco pallido, tibiis
externè fusco-pubescentibus; maris antennis, capite thoraceque
longioribus.

_Male._ Length 4 lines. Brassy, with tints of green on the clypeus,
metathorax, and thorax beneath; the head and thorax very closely and
finely punctured; the clypeus produced and highly polished; the
mandibles rufo-testaceous, the antennæ as long as the head and thorax.
Thorax: the wings hyaline and splendidly iridescent, the tegulæ and the
tarsi rufo-testaceous. Abdomen closely punctured, the apical margins of
the segments smooth and shining; the head and thorax above with a pale
fulvous pubescence, that on the sides of the metathorax and legs pale
and glittering; the abdomen has a pale scattered glittering pubescence.

_Hab._ Aru.

3. NOMIA DENTATA. _N._ nigra et punctata, facie metathoracisque
lateribus cinereo-pubescentibus, postscutello medio unidentato. _Mas._
antennis filiformibus longitudine thoracis.

_Female._ Length 5 lines. Black; head and thorax rather finely
punctured; the face covered with short cinereous pubescence; the clypeus
naked and much produced, the anterior margin and the tips of the
mandibles ferruginous; the cheek with long whitish pubescence. Thorax:
the sides of the metathorax, the floccus on the posterior femora and the
postscutellum with whitish pubescence, the latter produced in the middle
into a blunt tooth; the legs fusco-ferruginous, with the anterior tibiæ
and apical joints of the tarsi brighter; wings hyaline and iridescent.
Abdomen shining and punctured, the apical margins of the two basal
segments broadly depressed, and more finely and closely punctured than
the rest; the apical margins of the second, third, and fourth segments
pale testaceous; the apical margins of the two basal segments narrowly
fringed with white pubescence, usually more or less interrupted in the
middle.

_Male._ Resembles the female very closely, but has the face much more
pubescent; the antennæ filiform and longer than the head and thorax; the
scutellum armed at its posterior lateral angles with an acute tooth; the
metathorax truncate and slightly concave, its base with short
longitudinal grooves, the lateral margins fringed with long pubescence.

_Hab._ Aru.

Subfam. DASYGASTRÆ.

Gen. MEGACHILE, _Latr._

1. MEGACHILE LATERITIA. _M._ nigra, abdomine pube ferrugineâ vestito,
alis fuscis.

_Female._ Length 8 lines. Black; head and thorax very closely and finely
punctured; the mandibles with a single blunt tooth at their apex; the
anterior margin of the clypeus transverse. Thorax: the wings brown, the
posterior pair palest, their base subhyaline. Abdomen clothed with
bright brick-red pubescence above and beneath; the basal segment with
bright yellow pubescence above.

_Hab._ Aru.

2. MEGACHILE SCABROSA. _M._ nigra, metathorace anticè rudè scabrato,
abdomine subtùs nigro-pubescente.

_Female._ Length 5-1/2 lines. Black; the clypeus, mesothorax anteriorly,
and the posterior tibiæ outside coarsely rugose, the roughness on the
thorax consisting of transverse little elevated points; the face with a
thin griseous pubescence; the anterior margin of the clypeus fringed
with fulvous hairs; the cheeks have a long pale fulvous pubescence.
Thorax: the wings hyaline, the nervures black. Abdomen smooth and
shining, with black pubescence beneath; beneath, the apical margins of
the segments with a fringe of very short white pubescence.

_Hab._ Aru.

3. MEGACHILE INSULARIS. _M._ nigra, nitida, delicatulè punctata, facie
pube pallidè fulvâ vestitâ, abdomine subtùs pube lætè ferrugineâ
vestito, alis hyalinis.

_Female._ Length 5-1/2 lines. Black; the head and thorax finely and
closely punctured, the abdomen delicately so; the face clothed with pale
fulvous pubescence, the mandibles with two blunt teeth at their apex;
the clypeus shining and strongly punctured. Thorax: the wings subhyaline
with a slight cloud at their apex; the basal joint of the posterior
tarsi with a dense dark ferruginous pubescence within. Abdomen: the four
basal segments with transverse impressed lines in the middle; beneath,
clothed with bright ferruginous pubescence; the abdomen has an obscure
æneous tinge above.

_Hab._ Aru.

Gen. CROCISA, _Jurine_.

1. Crocisa nitidula, _Fabr. Syst. Piez._ p. 386. 2.

_Hab._ Aru; Key Island; Australia; Amboyna.

Gen. ALLODAPE, _St.-Farg._

1. ALLODAPE NITIDA. _A._ nitida nigra, clypeo flavo, alis hyalinis,
abdomine ad apicem punctato.

_Female._ Length 3 lines. Black and shining; the clypeus yellow,
produced in front; the sides of the face depressed; the ocelli
prominent and reddish. Thorax very smooth and shining; the wings
colourless and iridescent, their extreme base yellowish, the nervures
and stigma brown, the tegulæ pale testaceous-yellow; the posterior tibiæ
with a scopa of glittering white hairs, the tarsi ferruginous and with
glittering hairs. Abdomen, from the third segment to the apex, gradually
more and more strongly and closely punctured.

_Hab._ Aru.

Gen. XYLOCOPA, _Latr._

1. Xylocopa æstuans, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ i. p. 961. 53 [Symbol: female];
_St.-Farg. Hym._ ii. p. 193. 36 [Symbol: male] [Symbol: female].

_Hab._ Aru; India; Singapore; Celebes.

Gen. SAROPODA, _Latr._

1. Saropoda bombiformis, _Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins._ p. 2. p. 318. 6.

_Hab._ Aru; Australia (Richmond River).

Gen. ANTHOPHORA, _Latr._

1. Anthophora zonata, _Linn. Syst. Nat._

_Hab_. Aru Island; Celebes; Ceylon; India; Borneo; Hong-Kong; Shanghai;
Philippine Islands.

2. ANTHOPHORA ELEGANS. _A._ nigra, pube capitis thoracisque nigrâ,
abdomine fasciis quatuor lætè cæruleis ornato; tibiis posticis
ferrugineo-pubescentibus.

_Female._ Length 6 lines. Black; the labrum, a narrow line down the
middle and another on each side of the clypeus, a minute spot above it,
and the scape in front testaceous yellow, the base of the mandibles of a
paler colour; the flagellum fulvous beneath. Thorax: the pubescence
black; wings subhyaline, the nervures dark rufo-fuscous, tegulæ
obscurely testaceous. Abdomen with four fasciæ of brilliant blue, which
is changeable, with pearly tints in different lights; the posterior
tibiæ densely clothed outside with fulvo-ferruginous pubescence; the
pubescence inside is black.

_Hab._ Key Island.

Gen. TRIGONA, _Jurine_.

1. Trigona læviceps, _Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins., Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc._
ii. p. 51. 8.

_Hab._ Aru; Singapore; India.


Fam. FORMICIDÆ.

Gen. FORMICA.

1. Formica virescens, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ ii. p. 355. 23 [Symbol: male]
[Symbol: female] [Symbol: Mercury].--Lasius virescens, _Fabr. Syst.
Piez._ p. 417. 8.

2. Formica gracilipes, _Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins., Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc._
ii. p. 55. 13 [Symbol: Mercury].

3. FORMICA FRAGILIS. _F._ pallidè testacea, elongata et gracilis, capite
posticè angustato; thorace medio compresso, pedibus elongatis; squamâ
incrassatâ triangulatâ.

_Worker._ Length 3-1/2 lines. Pale rufo-testaceous, smooth and slightly
shining; antennæ elongate, longer than the body, the flagellum slender
and filiform, the scape nearly as long as the head and thorax; head
oblong, narrowed behind the eyes into a kind of neck, the sides parallel
before the eyes, which are black and round, the clypeus slightly
emarginate anteriorly, the mandibles finely serrated on their inner
margin and terminating in a bent acute tooth. Thorax elongate, narrowest
in the middle, the prothorax forming a neck anteriorly; legs elongate
and very slender. Abdomen ovate, the node of the petiole incrassate, and
viewed sideways is triangular or wedge-shaped.

_Hab._ Aru.

This is one of those remarkable forms which recede so greatly from the
normal type of _Formica_ as apparently to indicate a generic
distinction; but in those exotic species of which we have obtained all
the forms, we find many which approach closely to the present insect,
which is probably only the small worker of some already described
species. No one would venture, without the authority of the personal
observation of some competent naturalist, to unite all the forms of any
exotic species of _Formica_.

4. FORMICA FLAVITARSUS. _F._ nigra, elongata et gracilis; thorace
posticè compresso, pedibus elongatis, tarsis flavis.

_Worker._ Length 4 lines. Black and subopake; head elongate, narrowed
behind, the clypeus truncate anteriorly, the mandibles pale ferruginous;
antennæ elongate and slender, the flagellum filiform and pale
rufo-testaceous; the thorax and legs elongate, the latter slender with
their tarsi pale rufo-testaceous. Abdomen ovate, the scale of the
petiole incrassate and slightly notched above.

_Hab._ Aru.

5. FORMICA COXALIS. _F._ nigra, nitida; flagello, coxis et abdomine
subtùs pallidè testaceis.

_Worker major._ Length 5 lines. Black and very delicately roughened with
a fine transverse waved striation only perceptible under a good
magnifying power. Head large, much wider than the thorax, oblong-ovate
with a deep emargination behind; the clypeus slightly produced and
truncate anteriorly, the angles of the truncation rounded, and with a
central shining carina; the flagellum, except the tarsal joint, pale
rufo-testaceous. Thorax elongate, compressed behind, the coxæ pale
rufo-testaceous. Abdomen ovate, the scale of the petiole incrassate,
somewhat wedge-shaped when viewed sideways, the abdomen sparingly
sprinkled with long pale hairs.

6. FORMICA CORDATA. _F._ pallidè rufa; abdomine fusco, capite cordato.

_Worker._ Length 2 lines. Pale rufo-testaceous; the head heart-shaped;
the eyes black, the flagellum fusco-ferruginous with the basal joints
pale; the mandibles ferruginous. Thorax narrow, deeply strangulated at
the base of the metathorax. Abdomen more or less fuscous, the node of
the petiole narrow and pointed above; the entire insect is smooth and
shining.

_Hab._ Aru.

The _worker minor_ is rather smaller and has the abdomen darker, in all
the specimens received, but in other respects agrees with the above.

7. FORMICA OCULATA. _F._ pallidè ferruginea; capite oblongo, oculis
magnis, thorace compresso.

_Worker._ Length 2-1/2 lines. Pale ferruginous, with the vertex and apex
of the abdomen black; the head oblong, the sides nearly parallel, with
the anterior margin truncate; the mandibles with fine acute teeth on
their inner margin; the antennæ inserted wide apart about the middle of
the head; the eyes very large and ovate, placed backwards on the sides
of the head, reaching to the posterior margin of the vertex, forming as
it were its posterior lateral angles. The thorax narrow and compressed
behind; abdomen ovate, entirely smooth and shining.

_Hab._ Aru.

8. FORMICA MUTILATA. _F._ nigra; capite oblongo, truncato anticè et
sanguineo, antennis tarsisque rufo-testaceis.

_Worker._ Length 2-3/4 lines. Black and shining; the head truncate
anteriorly, the antennæ inserted wide apart, about the middle, the face
blood-red before their insertion and deeply striated longitudinally,
behind the antennæ the head is black, smooth, and shining; the eyes
ovate and placed backwards on the sides of the head. Thorax rounded in
front and strangulated between the meso- and metathorax, the latter
obliquely truncate; legs rather short and stout, the femora compressed,
the anterior pair broadly dilated, the base and apex of the femora, the
tibiæ, and tarsi rufo-testaceous, the tibiæ with a darker stain behind.
Abdomen oblong-ovate, the apical margins of the segments narrowly pale
testaceous; the scale of the petiole compressed, with its superior
margin rounded.

_Hab._ Aru.

This is a very singular insect in many respects, and closely resembles
in form the _Formica truncata_ of Spinola.

9. FORMICA QUADRICEPS. _F._ nigra, nitida; capite anticè obliquè
truncato, thorace posticè compresso.

_Worker._ Length 3-1/2 lines. Shining black; head oblong-quadrate,
slightly narrowed anteriorly, with the sides nearly straight, the
posterior angles rounded, and very slightly emarginate behind; the head
obliquely truncate from the base of the clypeus; the truncation as well
as the mandibles obscurely ferruginous; the apex of the flagellum and
the apical joints of the tarsi pale rufo-testaceous. Thorax rounded
anteriorly, compressed behind, with the metathorax abruptly truncate.
The scale of the petiole narrow, incrassate, its anterior margin
slightly curved, its posterior margin straight; the abdomen ovate.

_Worker minor._ About 3 lines long, very like the larger _worker_, the
head being truncate in front; but it is, in proportion to the thorax,
narrower; the latter is compressed and abruptly truncate; in other
respects it agrees with the _worker major_.

_Hab._ Aru.

10. FORMICA LÆVISSIMA. _F._ nigra nitida lævissima, sparsè pilosa;
squamâ oblongâ subdepressâ.

_Worker._ Length 4 lines. Jet-black, very smooth and shining; head wider
than the thorax, slightly emarginate behind, the sides slightly rounded;
the anterior margin of the clypeus rounded, the mandibles striated and
obscurely ferruginous; the scape with a few glittering silvery-white
hairs. Thorax not quite so wide as the head anteriorly, narrowed behind,
with the disk somewhat flattened, slightly convex, a deep strangulation
between the meso- and metathorax, the latter obliquely rounded; the legs
and abdomen sprinkled with glittering white hairs. The node of the
petiole incrassate, very slightly elevated; viewed sideways, broadly
wedge-shaped; the abdomen ovate.

_Hab._ Aru.

11. FORMICA NITIDA. _F._ capite abdomineque nigris, antennis thoraceque
pedibusque rufo-testaceis lævissimis et lucidis.

_Worker._ Length 4 lines. Head and abdomen shining black; the flagellum,
thorax, legs, and scale of the petiole rufo-testaceous; the legs palest;
the scape fuscous, with its base pale; the head large, wider than the
abdomen, and emarginate behind; the clypeus and mandibles obscurely
ferruginous. Thorax compressed, not strangulated in the middle. The
scale of the petiole narrow, with its margin rounded above; abdomen
ovate, and sprinkled with a few erect pale hairs.

_Hab._ Aru.

12. FORMICA SCRUTATOR. F. nigerrima, mandibulis tarsorumque articulo
apicali pallidè ferrugineis, thorace medio profundè coarctato.

_Worker._ Length 1-1/2--2 lines. Shining black; the mandibles pale,
ferruginous, with their inner margins finely denticulate; the eyes
placed rather forwards on the sides of the head, the latter emarginate
behind. Thorax deeply strangulated in the middle; the metathorax
elevated and obliquely truncate behind. Abdomen ovate; the scale of the
petiole sub-incrassate, with its margin rounded above; the insect very
thinly covered with a fine cinereous pile.

_Hab._ Aru.

13. FORMICA ANGULATA. F. nigra nitida; flagello capite anticè pedibusque
obscurè ferrugineis, metathorace angulato.

_Worker._ Length 3 lines. Shining black; head of moderate size; the
clypeus and mandibles obscure ferruginous; the flagellum
fusco-ferruginous, with the tip pale testaceous. Thorax rounded
anteriorly and compressed behind; the scutellum prominent, forming a
small tubercle; the metathorax obliquely truncate, the margin of the
truncation elevated, so that when viewed sideways the metathorax forms
an obtuse angular shape. Abdomen ovate, the node of the peduncle
elevated, incrassate, rounded anteriorly, and flat behind.

_Hab._ Aru.

Gen. POLYRHACHIS, _Smith_.

1. Formica sericata, _Guér. Voy. Coq. Zool._ ii. 203; _Atlas Ins._ pl.
8. f. 2, 2 _a_, _b_, _c_, _d_, [Symbol: Mercury]. (Polyrhachis sericata,
_Smith, Append. Cat. Form._ p. 200.)

_Hab._ Aru; New Hebrides.

2. Formica sexspinosa, _Latr. Hist. Nat. Fourm._ p. 126, pl. iv. f. 21
[Symbol: Mercury]. (Polyrhachis sexspinosa, _Smith, Cat. Form._ p. 56.
3.)

_Hab._ Aru; India; Philippine Islands.

3. POLYRHACHIS MARGINATUS. _P._ niger; antennis, palpis pedibusque
ferrugineis; thoracis marginibus recurvis, metathorace petiolique
squamulâ bidentatis.

_Worker._ Length 2-1/2 lines. Black; the antennæ and legs ferruginous;
the head and thorax rugose; the prothorax transverse, its anterior
margin slightly curved, with the lateral angles produced forwards and
very acute; the thorax narrowed to the metathorax, which is armed with
two divergent acute spines. Abdomen velvety black and globose; the scale
of the petiole produced laterally into long, bent, acute spines, which
curve backwards to the shape of the abdomen.

_Hab._ Aru.

4. POLYRHACHIS HOSTILIS. _P._ niger, longitudinaliter striatus, thoracis
marginibus expansis, metathorace squamulâque petioli spinis duabus
crassis acutis curvatis.

_Worker._ Length 3 lines. Black; the head and thorax longitudinally
striated, the abdomen very finely and evenly so; the prothorax
transverse, wider than the head, the anterior and lateral margins
recurved, the latter acute at their anterior angles, and rounded at the
posterior ones; the lateral margins of the mesothorax recurved, a deep
notch between the meso- and metathorax; the latter with a long, stout,
curved, acute spine on each side. The scale of the petiole produced
above on each side, into a long, curved, stout, acute spine, which
curves backwards round the sides of the abdomen.

_Hab._ Aru.

5. POLYRHACHIS LONGIPES. _P._ niger; flagelli dimidio apicali tibiisque
anticis pallidè ferrugineis, prothorace petiolique squamulâ bidentatis.

_Worker._ Length 3 lines. Black; the head and thorax finely rugose; the
antennæ elongate, longer than the insect; the apical half of the
flagellum pale ferruginous. Thorax rounded above, the sides not
margined; two spines on the thorax anteriorly, two on the metathorax,
and two on the scale of the petiole; the legs elongate, with the
anterior tibiæ ferruginous. Abdomen globose, sometimes rufo-fuscous, or
the base obscurely rufous.

_Hab._ Aru.

6. POLYRHACHIS SERRATUS. _P._ niger; capite thoraceque rugosis, abdomine
densè punctato, squamâ petioli transversâ, margine superno serratâ.

_Worker._ Length 2 lines. Black, with the antennæ and legs ferruginous.
Thorax oblong-quadrate or very slightly narrowed towards the metathorax,
slightly convex above, not margined at the sides, the divisions not
perceptible; the head and thorax rugose and pubescent. Abdomen globose,
shining, and closely punctured; the scale of the petiole transverse
above, produced into an acute spine on each side, the upper margin
finely serrated, the lateral margins narrowed to their base, and having
two or three small sharp spines.

_Hab._ Aru.

7. POLYRHACHIS SCUTULATUS. _P._ niger, fortiter politus et lucidus,
metathorace petiolique squamulâ dente longo curvato acuto in latere
utroque, pedibus nigro-ferrugineis.

_Worker._ Length 2-3/4 lines. Black and very smooth and shining; the
legs dark ferruginous. Thorax: the disk expanded, slightly convex above,
with the margins acute and curving upwards; the anterior margin
transverse, rather wider than the head, with the lateral angles slightly
curved forwards, and very acute; the lateral margins of the prothorax
curved backwards and inwards; the margins of the mesothorax are rounded;
the pro- and mesothorax highly polished above, forming an
escutcheon-shaped disk; the metathorax opake, and sprinkled with a few
short glittering hairs, armed posteriorly with two long very acute
spines, divergent and directed backwards. Abdomen globose; the scale of
the petiole with two long curved acute spines, directed backwards to the
curve of the abdomen.

_Hab._ Aru.

8. POLYRHACHIS MUCRONATUS. _P._ lævis, nitidus, niger; thorace spinis
duabus crassis compressis acutis posticè armato.

_Worker._ Length 2-1/2 lines. Black, smooth, and shining, very
delicately and indistinctly aciculate; the antennæ beneath and the tibiæ
and femora obscurely ferruginous, the anterior and intermediate tibiæ
brightest; the apex of the mandibles ferruginous. Thorax transverse in
front, or very slightly curved, with the lateral angles acute; the
thorax is rounded above, and not margined at the sides; the metathorax
armed with two long, stout, acute compressed spines; the spines
divergent, as well as two on the scale of the petiole, which are long
and very acute. Abdomen globose.

_Hab._ Aru.

9. POLYRHACHIS GEOMETRICUS. _P._ niger; antennarum apice, tibiis
tarsorumque apice ferrugineis, thorace circulariter striato.

_Worker._ Length 2 lines. Black; the apical joints of the flagellum, the
anterior legs, the anterior and intermediate tibiæ, and the apical
joints of the tarsi pale ferruginous; the extreme base of the anterior
tarsi black. Thorax rounded above, not margined, gradually narrowed
posteriorly; the prothorax of the same width as the head, its lateral
angles toothed; the disk with a circular striation. Abdomen globose and
pubescent; the scale of the petiole compressed, its superior margin
rounded, and with four minute teeth.

_Hab._ Aru.

10. POLYRHACHIS IRRITABILIS. _P._ niger, pube pallidè aureâ vestitus;
thorace quadridentato, petioli squamulâ bidentatâ.

_Female._ Length 6-1/2 lines. Black, and densely clothed with short pale
golden pubescence; all parts of the insect sprinkled with erect
cinereous hairs; the mandibles shining black, the palpi pale testaceous;
the head elongate, the eyes placed high on the sides of the head,
ferruginous and very prominent. Thorax elongate-ovate; the prothorax
with a short, stout, acute tooth on each side, slightly curved and
directed forwards; the metathorax with a similar tooth on each side
directed backwards; the wings subhyaline, the nervures fuscous; the legs
fusco-ferruginous, the femora and coxæ brightest. Abdomen ovate; the
scale incrassate, armed above with two stout acute teeth.

_Hab._ Aru.

This is probably the female of _P. sexspinosus_.

11. POLYRHACHIS LÆVISSIMUS. _P._ niger, lævis nitidusque; metathorace
bispinoso, petioli squamulâ quadrispinosâ, pedibus ferrugineis.

_Worker._ Length 2-3/4 lines. Black, very smooth and shining; the legs
ferruginous, with the coxæ, articulations, and the tarsi black. The
thorax not flattened above, or margined at the sides; the division
between the pro- and mesothorax distinct, that between the meso- and
metathorax not discernible, the latter with two erect acute spines; the
scale of the petiole with four short acute spines. Abdomen globose.

_Hab._ Aru.

This species is very like _P. mucronatus_; on close examination,
however, it is seen to be very distinct: it may be at once distinguished
by its larger head, which is wider than the thorax, rounded behind the
eyes, and widely emarginate behind.

12. POLYRHACHIS BELLICOSUS. _P._ capite abdomineque nigris, thorace
femoribusque rufis, thorace quadrispinoso, petioli squamulâ bihamatâ.

_Worker_. Length 3-1/2 lines. Black, with the scale of the petiole,
thorax, coxæ, and femora blood-red. Thorax: the lateral margins raised
above, with two slightly curved divergent spines in front, and two
stout, acute, long curved spines in the middle, directed backwards; the
scale of the petiole forming a long erect pedestal, which terminates
above in two much bent acute hooks, directed backwards, and being as
high as the basal segment of the abdomen; the spines and hooks black at
the apex. Abdomen ovate.

_Hab._ Aru.

13. POLYRHACHIS HECTOR. _P._ niger et vestitus pube pallidè aureâ;
prothorace petiolique squamulâ bispinosis, pedibus ferrugineis.

_Worker._ Length 3 lines. Black; the apex of the scape and the legs
ferruginous; the extreme base of the tibiæ and the tarsi black; a stout
acute spine on each side of the prothorax, directed forwards; the thorax
flattened above, its lateral margins raised; the divisions of the
segments very distinctly impressed; the pale golden pubescence on the
abdomen thinner than on the head and thorax. The scale of the petiole
angled at the sides towards its summit, the angles dentate, the upper
margin straight, and at each lateral angle an acute spine, directed
backwards, and curved to the shape of the abdomen; the spines parallel.

_Hab._ Aru.

14. POLYRHACHIS RUFOFEMORATUS. _P._ niger, lævis, nitidus; femoribus
abdominisque squamulâ ferrugineis.

_Worker._ Length 3-1/2 lines. Black; head oblong; the eyes placed high
at the sides near the vertex, the front very prominent, with two
elevated carinæ in the middle, at the outside of which the antennæ are
inserted. Thorax: the divisions strongly marked, flattened above with
the sides elevated; the prothorax with an acute spine on each side
anteriorly; the coxæ and femora ferruginous, with the apex of the latter
more or less fuscous. Abdomen: the base and the scale ferruginous, the
latter angled at the sides and emarginate above.

_Hab._ Aru.

Gen. PONERA, _Latr._

1. Ponera rugosa, _Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. Proc. Linn. Soc._ ii. 66. 5.

_Hab._ Aru. Borneo.

2. PONERA SCULPTURATA. _P._ nitida nigra; capite, thorace abdominisque
segmentis primo et secundo profundè striatis, nodo spinis duabus acutis
armato; pedibus abdomineque apice ferrugineis.

_Worker._ Length 5 lines. Black and shiny, the legs obscurely
ferruginous as well as the mandibles; the head strongly and evenly
striated longitudinally. The prothorax with a circular striation above;
behind, the thorax is compressed, the sides being obliquely striated,
the striæ uniting and crossing the central ridge of the thorax. The node
of the petiole and basal segment of the abdomen with a curved striation,
the second segment longitudinally striated and depressed at its base,
which is smooth and shining; the basal half of the third segment is
longitudinally striated.

_Hab._ Aru.

This species is at first sight very like the _P. geometrica_ from
Singapore; but the striation of the abdomen alone will serve to
distinguish it.

3. PONERA PARALLELA. _P._ nigra, opaca; antennis, mandibulis, pedibus
abdominisque apice ferrugineis.

_Worker._ Length 3-1/4 lines. Opake black; the antennæ thick and
scarcely as long as the thorax, their apex and the mandibles bright
ferruginous; the legs somewhat obscure ferruginous, with the
articulations much brighter; the head a little wider than the thorax and
subovate; the thorax, node of the petiole, and the abdomen of nearly
equal width, the abdomen being slightly the widest; the node of the
petiole nearly quadrate; the apical margin of the first segment and base
of the second slightly depressed.

_Hab._ Aru.

4. PONERA QUADRIDENTATA. _P._ atro-fusca; antennis, facie anticè,
antennis, mandibulis, tibiis tarsisque ferrugineis; alis subhyalinis.

_Female._ Length 3-1/2 lines. Nigro-fuscous; the antennæ with a carina
between their base, the face anteriorly, the mandibles, the legs, and
the abdomen at its apex and beneath, ferruginous; the femora and coxæ
above, fuscous; the head subquadrate with the angles rounded; the eyes
small and placed forwards on the sides of the head towards the base of
the mandibles, the latter with four strong teeth on their inner margin.
Thorax oblong-ovate with the metathorax truncate; the wings
fusco-hyaline, the stigma large and black. Abdomen: the second segment
slightly narrowed at its base, the node of the petiole incrassate and
compressed, its upper margin rounded. The insect entirely covered with a
short downy cinereous pile, the abdomen having also a number of
scattered erect glittering hairs.

_Hab._ Aru.

Gen. ECTATOMMA, _Smith_.

1. ECTATOMMA RUGOSA. _E._ fusco-brunnea; capite, thorace, nodoque
rugosis; abdomine delicatulè aciculato.

_Worker._ Length 4 lines. Obscure fusco-ferruginous, the antennæ and
legs bright ferruginous; the head, thorax, and node of the petiole
coarsely rugose; the eyes very prominent and glassy; the mandibles
longitudinally but very delicately striated, their inner margin
edentate; the thorax slightly narrowed behind. Abdomen very delicately
aciculate.

_Male._ Length 3-1/2 lines. Of the same colour, and sculptured like the
worker; the head rounded behind the eyes and narrowed before them; the
eyes very large, prominent and ovate; the ocelli very bright and
prominent; antennæ elongate and slender, the scape short, not longer
than the second joint of the flagellum. Thorax: the scutellum prominent,
forming a rounded tubercle, the metathorax elongate and oblique. Abdomen
aciculate as in the worker, but much more deeply strangulated between
the first and second segments; the petiole rugose and clavate.

_Hab._ Aru.

Gen. ODONTOMACHUS, _Latr._

1. Odontomachus simillimus, _Smith, Cat. Form._ p. 80. 11 [Symbol:
female].

_Hab._ Aru. Ceylon.

2. ODONTOMACHUS TYRANNICUS. _O._ capite thoraceque nigris, antennis
abdomineque ferrugineis, margine interno mandibulorum serratulo.

_Worker._ Length 7 lines. Head oblong, narrowed behind, posteriorly
deeply emarginate; the mandibles rufo-piceous, brightest at their apex,
which is armed with two long teeth which are bent abruptly inwards,
their tips black; the anterior portion of the head striated obliquely
from the centre; the head, behind the anterior sulcation, very smooth
and shining and having a deep longitudinal central depression. Thorax
transversely striated, the articulations of the legs and the tarsi
ferruginous. Abdomen smooth, shining, and ferruginous; the node of the
petiole incrassate, cylindric, and tapering upwards into a very acute
spine.

_Hab._ Aru.

3. ODONTOMACHUS MALIGNUS. _O._ ferrugineus; capite suprà obliquè
striato; margine interno mandibulorum confertim serrato; metathorace
transversim striato; squamâ unispinosâ; abdomine lævissimo.

_Worker._ Length 7 lines. Ferruginous; the flagellum and legs palest;
head much narrowed behind, the posterior margin deeply emarginate;
mandibles smooth and shining, their inner margin strongly serrated,
their apex abruptly bent or elbowed, and armed with two stout teeth; the
face anteriorly evenly striated obliquely; the head behind the anterior
sulcation very delicately striated obliquely. The prothorax smooth and
shining, the meso- and metathorax transversely striated. Abdomen very
smooth and shining; the node of the petiole incrassate and tapering
upwards into an acute spine.

_Hab._ Aru.

This species most closely resembles _O. maxillaris_ from Brazil; but
its smooth polished prothorax alone would distinguish it; its head is
much broader anteriorly, and less elongate.

Gen. PSEUDOMYRMA, _Guér._

1. PSEUDOMYRMA LÆVICEPS. _P._ nigra, lævis et nitida; antennis,
mandibulis, tibiis anterioribus, tarsisque rufo-fulvis.

_Worker._ Length 2-1/4 lines. Black and shining; head very smooth and
slightly emarginate behind, the eyes large and ovate; the mandibles and
antennæ rufo-fulvous. Thorax with the sides flattened, the disk slightly
convex; a deep strangulation between the meso- and metathorax, the
latter rounded above and oblique behind; the trochanters, articulations
of the legs, and the tarsi rufo-fulvous. Abdomen thinly covered with a
fine cinereous pile; the first node of the petiole somewhat
oblong-ovate, the second subglobose, the petiole of the first node
short.

_Hab._ Aru.

Gen. PODOMYRMA, _Smith_.

_Head_ oblong in the _female_, rather wider than the thorax; in the
_worker_ subovate and much wider; _eyes_ small, ovate and placed about
the middle at the sides of the head; _antennæ_ geniculated, the scape
about two thirds of the length of the flagellum which is clavate, the
club three-jointed; the _mandibles_ stout and dentate; the _labial
palpi_ 3-jointed; the _maxillary palpi_ 4-jointed. _Thorax_,
oblong-ovate in the _female_, in the _worker_ transverse in front and
narrowed behind with the metathorax bidentate; the anterior wings with
one elongate marginal cell and two submarginal cells, the second
extending to the apex of the wing; the legs stout, the femora
incrassate; abdomen ovate, the peduncle with two nodes.

The insects included in this genus are undoubtedly most nearly allied to
those belonging to the genus _Myrmecina_; but, excepting that they agree
in having the same number of joints in the palpi, they have little
resemblance to each other. With the exception of the genus _Myrmecia_,
these are the largest insects in the subfamily Myrmicidæ; and all the
species are distinguished by their remarkably thickened femora and
margined thorax: we are unacquainted with the males.

1. PODOMYRMA FEMORATA. _P._ ferruginea; capite oblongo, obliquè striato,
thorace abdomineque lævibus nitidis; alis subhyalinis fusco-nebulosis;
femoribus valdè incrassatis, basi tenuissimis, femoribus posticis infrà
compressis.

_Female._ Length 8 lines. Rufo-testaceous; the mandibles and anterior
margin of the face black, the inner margin of the mandibles rufo-piceous
and armed with six short stout teeth, the apical tooth largest. The head
oblong, slightly narrowed posteriorly and emarginate behind,
longitudinally striated, the striæ diverging from the centre at the
anterior ocellus; at half the distance between the posterior ocelli and
the margin of the vertex the striæ are transverse. Thorax smooth and
shining, with scattered fulvous hairs; the wings fusco-hyaline, with a
dark fuscous stain occupying the marginal cell and traversing the course
of all the nervures; the legs with the femora much incrassated, the
posterior pair compressed beneath into a flattened process or keel.
Abdomen ovate, smooth, shining, and with a scattered fulvous pubescence;
the first node of the petiole rounded in front, narrowed and truncate
behind, with a large compressed tooth beneath; the second node
subglobose.

_Worker major._ Length 4 lines. Ferruginous, entirely smooth and
shining; the thorax, legs, and abdomen more or less obscure, the femora
being usually rufo-piceous; the mandibles striated with their margins
black. Thorax nearly flat above, very slightly convex with the sides
margined, the anterior margin slightly rounded, the lateral angles
produced into small acute spines; a deep strangulation at the base of
the metathorax, a little before which the lateral margins are produced
into an angular tooth, the metathorax with two short acute spines; the
femora thickly incrassate. Abdomen ovate.

_Hab._ Aru.

2. PODOMYRMA STRIATA. _P._ ferruginea; capite thoraceque
longitudinaliter striatis, femoribus valdè incrassatis, basi
tenuissimis.

_Worker._ Length 3 lines. Rufo-ferruginous with the abdomen obscure,
becoming blackish at the apex, the head coarsely striated, with a
central portion from the insertion of the antennæ to the hinder margin
of the vertex delicately so; the mandibles striated, with the teeth on
their inner margin black. Thorax rugose-striate, the anterior lateral
angles dentate, the metathorax without spines; the femora thickly
incrassate and greatly attenuated at their base. Abdomen ovate, smooth
and shining; the nodes of the petiole rugose.

_Hab._ Aru.

This species resembles _P. femorata_, but is easily distinguished by its
striated head and thorax; the latter is similarly flattened above and
margined at the sides; the femora are also thickened precisely as in
that species.

3. PODOMYRMA LÆVIFRONS. _P._ obscurè ferruginea; capite abdomineque
lævissimis lucidisque; thorace longitudinaliter striato; femoribus medio
valdè incrassatis, basi tenuissimis.

_Worker._ Length 2-1/2 lines. Head and abdomen smooth, shining black, in
some examples fusco-ferruginous; the antennæ, legs, and thorax
ferruginous, the latter longitudinally striated; the thorax margined at
the sides, the disk slightly convex, the anterior margin slightly
rounded, with the lateral angles armed with short acute spines, the
thorax deeply strangulated posteriorly, the metathorax not spined; the
femora thickly swollen in the middle and very slender at their base and
apex. Abdomen ovate, the first node of the petiole oblong, the second
globose.

_Hab._ Aru.

There is considerable variation in intensity of colouring in examples of
this species, the thorax and legs being sometimes pale ferruginous; in
the specimen described they are dark; every shade of gradation occurs in
different individuals.

4. PODOMYRMA BASALIS. _P._ fusco-ferruginea; abdominis basi pallidè
testacea; femoribus medio incrassatis, basi tenuibus.

_Worker._ Length 3 lines. Obscurely ferruginous, the scape of the
antennæ, the base of the femora and the tibiæ pale ferruginous; the base
of the abdomen pale testaceous; the head and thorax with deep coarse
longitudinal furrows; the flagellum blackish-brown towards its apex,
with the extreme tip pale. Thorax: the anterior margin slightly rounded
with the lateral angles very acute; the femora very thickly incrassate
in the middle; the apex of the tibiæ ferruginous. Abdomen smooth and
shining; the basal half pale testaceous, the apical half and the
following segments black; the nodes of the petiole rugose; the first
node elongate, with a short acute tooth at the base above, and a blunt
one beneath.

_Hab._ Aru.

Gen. MYRMICA, _Latr._

1. MYRMICA PARALLELA. _M._ rufo-fulva; antennis pedibusque pallidè
testaceis; abdomine fusco-ferrugineo; capite thoraceque longitudinaliter
striatis.

_Worker._ Length 1 line. Head and thorax ferruginous and longitudinally
and evenly striated; antennæ and legs pale rufo-testaceous. Thorax
margined at the sides, the disk slightly convex, the anterior margin
transverse, the lateral angles acute; the metathorax with two short
spines; abdomen dark fusco-ferruginous, the nodes of the petiole
subrugose; club of the antennæ 3-jointed.

_Hab._ Aru.

2. MYRMICA SCABROSA. _M._ nigra; capite thoraceque scabrosis,
metathorace bispinoso, abdomine ovato lævi.

_Worker._ Length 1 line. Black; the head, thorax, and nodes of the
petiole roughened; the mandibles, flagellum and tarsi rufo-testaceous;
the lateral angles of the prothorax acute, the sides narrowed slightly
to the base of the metathorax, the spines on the latter acute; nodes of
the petiole globose. Abdomen ovate, smooth and shining; club of the
antennæ 3-jointed.

_Hab._ Aru.

3. MYRMICA THORACICA. _M._ capite abdomineque nigris; antennis,
mandibulis thorace pedibusque flavis.

_Worker._ Length 3/4 line. Head and abdomen jet-black; the antennæ,
thorax, and legs of a clear honey-yellow; the mandibles of a more
obscure yellow; the anterior margin of the thorax transverse, the
lateral angles acute, narrowed from thence to the base of the
mesothorax, the disk anteriorly slightly convex; the metathorax armed
with two acute spines. Abdomen nearly round, and very smooth and
shining; the first node of the petiole vertical anteriorly, and
gradually rounded behind, the second node transverse, its anterior
margin straight, the angles rounded, the sides narrowed towards the
abdomen; the club of the antennæ 3-jointed.

_Hab._ Aru.

The singular form of the thorax of this species, as well as the
construction of the nodes of the petiole, appear to indicate an
uncharacterized division of the genus _Myrmica_.

4. MYRMICA SUSPICIOSA. _M._ rufo-testacea, lævis, tota nitidissima nuda;
mandibulis, antennis, pedum articulationibus tarsisque palles-centibus;
metathoracis spinis minutissimis.

_Worker._ Length 1 line. Rufo-testaceous and very smooth and shining;
the antennæ as long as the insect; the flagellum, mandibles, tarsi, and
articulations of the legs pale testaceous. The thorax narrowed
anteriorly into a short neck, behind which it is dilated, the sides
being rounded, the meso- and metathorax narrower and of nearly equal
width, the spines of the metathorax minute and slender. The first node
of the petiole somewhat wedge-shaped, the second globose, the abdomen
very smooth and shining; club of the antennæ 3-jointed.

_Hab._ Aru.

I can detect no specific difference between this and _Myrmica lævigata_,
taken by myself in the neighbourhood of London; but it is not uncommonly
met with in hothouses, near to which I captured my specimen. I believe
_M. lævigata_ is identical with _OEcophthora pusilla_, the House-Ant of
Madeira.

5. MYRMICA MELLEA. _M._ capite thoraceque flavis; abdomine pallidè
fusco.

_Worker._ Length 1-3/4 line. Head, antennæ, thorax, and legs
honey-yellow and very smooth and shining; thorax strangulated at the
base of the metathorax, which is not spined; the first node of the
abdomen is oblique anteriorly, and vertical behind, the second node
subglobose. Abdomen: the base honey-yellow, the apical margin of the
first segment, and the following segments entirely, pale fuscous; the
club of the antennæ 2-jointed.

_Hab._ Aru.

6. MYRMICA CARINATA. _M._ obscurè fusco-ferruginea; thorace rufo-fulvo;
capite thoraceque carinis irregularibus; metathorace spinis duabus
longis armato.

_Worker._ Length 1-1/4 lines. Head and abdomen black, with more or less
of an obscure ferruginous tinge, particularly at the vertex and base of
the abdomen; the thorax and nodes of the petiole ferruginous; the legs
rufo-piceous, with the tarsi and articulations ferruginous, the antennæ
and mandibles ferruginous; the head and thorax with irregular distant
longitudinal carinæ; the sides of the thorax rugose; the spines on the
metathorax long and acute; the abdomen very smooth and shining; the club
of the antennæ 3-jointed.

_Hab._ Aru.

Gen. CREMATOGASTER, _Lund_.

1. Crematogaster obscura, _Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins., Journ. Proc. Linn.
Soc._ ii. 76. 4 [Symbol: Mercury].

_Hab._ Aru; Borneo.

2. CREMATOGASTER ELEGANS. _C._ pallidè rufo-testaceus; abdomine
nigerrimo nitido; thorace bispinoso.

_Worker._ Length 3/4 line. Entirely pale rufo-testaceous, excepting the
eyes and abdomen which are jet black; the nodes of the petiole pale,
smooth, and shining. Head about the same width as the abdomen. The
lateral angles of the anterior margin of the prothorax acute, the
metathorax armed with two long acute spines. Abdomen heart-shaped, its
apex acute.

_Hab._ Aru.

3. CREMATOGASTER INSULARIS. _C._ niger, lævis et nitidus; antennis
tarsisque pallidè testaceis; thorace spinis duabus acutis armato.

_Worker._ Length 1-1/4 line. Black, smooth and shining; the vertex,
thorax and nodes of the peduncle with an obscure ferruginous tinge; the
antennæ, tarsi, and articulations of the legs pale rufo-testaceous; the
spines which arm the metathorax stout, elongate, and acute, with their
apex pale testaceous. Abdomen heart-shaped and very acute at the apex.

_Hab._ Aru.

Gen. SOLENOPSIS, _Westw._

1. SOLENOPSIS CEPHALOTES. _S._ pallidè ferruginea; capite maximè in
medio sulcato, abdomine apice fusco.

_Worker major._ Length 2-1/2 lines. Pale ferruginous, with the anterior
part of the face darker, the mandibles incrassate and very dark
fusco-ferruginous; head very large and divided by a deep longitudinal
channel, emarginate behind, nearly quadrate; the eyes small and placed
forwards on the sides of the head. The metathorax truncate, not spined.
Abdomen ovate, truncate at the base, its apex fuscous; the first node of
the petiole compressed, its margin rounded above, the second node
incrassate and subglobose; club of the antennæ 2-jointed.

_Worker minor._ Length 1-1/2 line. Of the same colour as the _worker
major_, but with the head of the ordinary size and slightly narrowed
behind, the mandibles of the same colour as the head; the legs and
antennæ longer, as well as the petiole of the abdomen; the body is very
smooth and shining, the club of the antennæ 2-jointed.

_Hab._ Aru.

Subfam. CRYPTOCERIDÆ, _Smith_.

Gen. MERANOPLUS, _Smith_.

1. MERANOPLUS SPINOSUS. _M._ castaneo-rufus; abdomine nigro, thorace
sexspinoso; abdomine ovato.

_Worker._ Length 1-1/2 line. Head and thorax rugose; the antennæ and
tarsi rufo-testaceous; the eyes rather prominent, the groove above them
at the sides of the head extending backwards to the vertex. Thorax: the
anterior margin curved forwards, the lateral angles produced into a
bifurcate process on each side, behind the processes, slightly narrowed
to the base of a long curved tooth; the posterior margin emarginate with
a long sharp spine at each angle of the emargination; the node of the
petiole globose. Abdomen black, smooth and shining.

_Hab._ Aru.


Fam. MUTILLIDÆ, _Leach_.

Gen. MUTILLA, _Linn._

1. Mutilla Sibylla, _Smith, Proc. Linn. Soc._ ii. 86. 11 [Symbol:
female].

_Hab._ Aru; Borneo; Celebes.

2. MUTILLA MANIFESTA. _M._ capite abdomineque nigris, thorace
sanguineo-rubro, maris alis nigro-fuscis.

_Female._ Length 4-3/4 lines. Head black and rugose. The thorax
blood-red and coarsely rugose, its anterior margin widest and straight,
the sides gradually narrowed to the apex in a slight curve; the lateral
margins have two teeth not wide apart. Abdomen black, rugose, and
slightly shining, with black pubescence above; on the under surface it
is glittering silvery-white; the legs and sides of the thorax have a
similar pubescence.

_Male._ The same size as the female, and the same colour; the eyes
notched. The thorax oblong-quadrate, the posterior lateral angles acute;
the tegulæ large and red; the wings dark brown, with their extreme base
hyaline. Abdomen shining black, the first and second segments strongly
punctured, the rest much more finely and not very closely so.

_Hab._ Aru.

3. MUTILLA CARINATA. _M._ capite thoraceque metallico-purpureis viridi
tinctis, pedibus ferrugineis, abdomine nigro, basi pallido fasciatâ,
segmento secundo ad apicem fasciâ bilobatâ ornato.

_Female._ Length 4-1/4 lines. The head and thorax of a metallic purple
tint with shades of green and copper; the scape of the antennæ, the
mandibles, palpi, and legs ferruginous; the head and thorax closely and
strongly punctured. The abdomen velvety black; the base truncate, the
truncation smooth and shining; its margin carinate; the upper surface of
the basal segment yellowish-white, a broad bilobed fascia of the same
colour at the apical margin of the second segment; the apex ferruginous.
_Male._ The head and thorax metallic green, strongly and closely
punctured; abdomen black and shining, much more finely punctured than
the thorax; wings light brown, with their base and extreme apex hyaline;
the legs ferruginous.

_Hab._ Aru.

4. MUTILLA NIGRA. _M._ nigra et punctata, abdomine lævi et nitido,
delicatulè punctato, alis fuscis, basi hyalinis.

_Male._ Length 6-1/2 lines. Black; head and thorax closely and strongly
punctured; the eyes slightly notched; the face with silvery-white
pubescence, the mandibles shining, the palpi black. Thorax: the
metathorax densely clothed with yellowish-white pubescence; the legs
with glittering white hairs, the calcaria white; wings brown with their
base hyaline. Abdomen smooth and shining, delicately and sparingly
punctured, with a few silvery hairs at the sides.

_Hab._ Aru.

5. MUTILLA EXILIS. _M._ nigra et punctata; abdomine lævigato, nitido;
alis subhyalinis; facie et metathorace pube argentatâ vestitis.

_Male._ Length 6-1/2 lines. Black; head and thorax strongly punctured;
the eyes emarginate, the face with glittering silvery-white pubescence,
the cheek thinly sprinkled with silvery hairs; the palpi testaceous.
Thorax: the metathorax densely clothed with silvery pubescence, beneath,
at the sides, and also the legs with scattered silvery hairs, the
calcaria white; the tegulæ shining; the wings subhyaline with the
nervures dark fuscous. Abdomen shining black, smooth, and very
delicately and sparingly punctured, the apical margins of the segments
very thinly fringed with glittering silvery hairs.

_Hab._ Aru.


Tribe FOSSORES, _Latr._

Fam. SCOLIADÆ, _Leach_.

Gen. MYZINE.

1. MYZINE TENUICORNIS. _M._ nigra, alis hyalinis, abdomine nitido
flavoque variegato.

_Male._ Length 7 lines. Black; the head and thorax very closely
punctured, thinly clothed with griseous pubescence, that on the face,
thorax beneath, and on the coxæ most dense and glittering; antennæ more
slender than is usual in this genus, and tapering to their apex, the
joints slightly subarcuate; the mandibles bidentate at their apex and
with a yellow spot at their base. Thorax: the posterior margin of the
prothorax, a spot beneath the wings, the tegulæ, and the postscutellum
yellow; the anterior and intermediate tibiæ ferruginous and more or less
dusky above, the posterior pair ferruginous beneath. Abdomen shining,
the margins of the segments deeply depressed; a small ovate spot on each
side of the first segment, the second and three following segments with
a narrow stripe on each side in the middle, yellow; the yellow markings
obscure; the apical segment coarsely rugose; beneath, the segments are
closely and strongly punctured.

_Hab._ Aru.

Gen. SCOLIA, _Fabr._

Division I. The anterior wings with two submarginal cells and two
recurrent nervures.

1. Scolia grossa, _Burm. Abh. Nat. Ges. Halle_, i. p. 23. (Tiphia
grossa, _Fabr. Syst. Piez._ p. 232. 4.)

_Hab._ Aru; Java.

The specimens of this species received from Aru are only 9 lines in
length; I have examined others from Celebes, Borneo, India, and Java,
showing every difference between 9 lines and 18 lines.

Division II. Anterior wings with two submarginal cells and one recurrent
nervure.

2. SCOLIA NITIDA. _S._ nitida, aterrima; alis æneo et violaceo splendidè
micantibus.

_Female._ Length 11 lines. Shining jet-black, the abdomen with prismatic
tints. The flagellum fusco-ferruginous beneath, the mandibles
ferruginous at their apex; the wings dark brown with a splendid lustre
of coppery and golden tints mixed with shades of violet. The head with a
few punctures behind the ocelli; the thorax with scattered punctures;
the metathorax finely but not closely punctured; the disk of the
mesothorax impunctate; the abdomen with fine scattered punctures; the
apical segment opake, rugose, and with its apical margin pale
testaceous; the abdomen beneath with strong distant punctures.

_Hab._ Aru.

3. SCOLIA FULGIDIPENNIS. _S._ nitida, nigra; abdomine prismatico, alis
fuscis viride et violaceo micantibus.

_Female._ Length 12-13 lines. Jet-black, shining; head very smooth, the
hinder margin of the vertex finely punctured, the face with a few fine
scattered punctures; the flagellum obscurely rufo-fuscous. Thorax finely
punctured, the disk of the mesothorax impunctate; wings dark brown with
a splendid green iridescence, with violet tints towards their base; the
legs thickly spinose and pubescent; the calcaria simple. Abdomen with
scattered fine punctures; the apical segment densely clothed with black
pubescence; beneath, with strong scattered punctures.

_Male._ Rather smaller than the female, much more closely punctured, and
not so shining and smooth; the face with a transverse arched carina
above the insertion of the antennæ, which enters the emargination of the
eyes; the clypeus strongly punctured; in other respects resembling the
female.

_Hab._ Aru.

This species belongs to Guérin's division Liacos, of which _S.
dimidiata_ is the type; the third discoidal cell is petiolated, the
petiole entering the second submarginal about the middle.

4. SCOLIA INSULARIS. _S._ nitida nigra; abdomine prismatico, alis
obscurè fuscis cupreo submicantibus.

_Male._ Length 7-9 lines. Shining black; head punctured, the vertex most
finely and distinctly so. Thorax punctured, the disk of the mesothorax
impunctate, the punctures wide apart on the scutellum and metathorax;
the wings dark brown with a coppery iridescence, which has a remarkable
dimness as if breathed upon. The basal segment of the abdomen strongly
and closely punctured; the following segments more finely and distantly
punctured, particularly the second and third segments.

_Hab._ Key Island.

5. SCOLIA QUADRICEPS. _S._ nitida nigra; foeminæ capite magno
subquadrato, alis fuscis cupreo iridescentibus.

_Female._ Length 6-8 lines. Black and shining; head subquadrate, smooth
and shining, as wide as the thorax, with a few punctures at the sides of
the face and between the antennæ. Thorax finely punctured, with the disk
of the mesothorax impunctate; wings dark brown with a rich coppery
iridescence. Abdomen with a fine prismatic lustre, closely and strongly
punctured towards the apex and at the extreme base, the second segment
and the middle of the third with only a few very fine scattered
punctures.

_Hab._ Aru.

This species also belongs to the division Liacos; the petiolated cell is
small and oblong-quadrate; the male exactly resembles the female, except
that its head is smaller and narrower than the thorax; the abdomen is
rather more strongly punctured.

Gen. POMPILUS, _Fabr._

1. POMPILUS DUBIUS. _P._ niger, pilis mutabili-sericeis tectus; alis
subhyalinis, apice nebuloso.

_Female._ Length 4-1/4 lines. Black and covered with a thin changeable
silvery pile, which is most dense on the sides of the metathorax and
base of the segments of the abdomen. The vertex emarginate behind, the
eyes very large, their inner orbits emarginate, reaching high on the
sides of the head nearly to the margin of the vertex; the clypeus
emarginate in front, the labrum produced. Thorax: the prothorax
subelongate, narrowed anteriorly; the wings subhyaline, their apex
clouded; the intermediate and posterior tibiæ with a double row of
spines; all the tarsi simple; the calcaria stout and elongate. Abdomen
shining, with the margins of the segments slightly depressed.

_Hab._ Aru.

Subgen. AGENIA, _Schiödte_.

1. Agenia blanda, _Guér. Voy. Coq. Zool._ pt. 2. ii. p. 260.

_Hab._ Celebes; India; Singapore; Malacca; Borneo; Key Island.

2. AGENIA CALLISTO. _A._ nigra, pilis sericeis vestita; facie thoraceque
subtùs pube argentato-albâ densè: vestitis; alis fasciis duabus
angustis.

_Female._ Length 8 lines. Black; the face, clypeus, and cheeks with a
dense silvery-white pile; the tips of the mandibles obscurely
ferruginous, the palpi black. Thorax with a brilliant silvery-white pile
on the sides, beneath, and on the coxæ; the metathorax transversely
rugose; the wings hyaline; the anterior pair with a narrow fuscous
fascia at the apex of the externo-medial cell, and a second rather
broader at the base of the marginal cell, which does not quite cross the
wing; the apex of the wing fuscous. Abdomen petiolated, smooth and
shining, with a beautiful glossy pile, which is most dense at the sides;
the apical segment longitudinally subcarinated in the middle above.

_Hab._ Aru.

3. AGENIA JUCUNDA. _A._ nitida nigra; facie metathorace abdomineque pube
sericeâ vestitis; antennis, pedibus, abdominisque marginibus apicalibus
ferrugineis; alis hyalinis.

_Female._ Length 5-1/2 lines. Black; head, pro- and mesothorax, as well
as the scutellum, glassy-smooth and shining; the face covered with
silvery-white pile; the antennæ, tips of the mandibles, and the legs
ferruginous; the palpi elongate and pale rufo-testaceous. Thorax: the
wings hyaline and iridescent, the nervures very slender and pale
rufo-testaceous, the stigma fuscous; the metathorax rounded behind,
transversely rugose, and covered with silvery-white pile. Abdomen
petiolated; the apical margins of the second and following segments
ferruginous, the apical segment entirely so; the ferruginous band on
each segment produced in the middle into an angular shape; on the
abdomen beneath they are similarly produced; the basal segment entirely
ferruginous, with a black spot on each side.

_Hab._ Aru.

4. AGENIA ALTHEA. _A._ nigra; facie pube argentato-albâ vestitâ, thorace
abdomineque sericeo pubescentibus; alis hyalinis, venis nigris.

_Female._ Length 5 lines. Black; the face silvery; the anterior margin
of the clypeus rounded and narrowly smooth and shining; tips of the
mandibles ferruginous; the mandibles elongate and pale rufo-testaceous.
Thorax: the metathorax finely transversely rugose, the sides with bright
silvery-white pubescence; the coxæ, the thorax beneath and on the sides,
with fine silky sericeous pile; the anterior tibiæ and tarsi, and all
the femora at their apex beneath, ferruginous; wings hyaline and
iridescent, nervures black; the outer margin of the tegulæ testaceous.
Abdomen shining, and with a fine silvery sericeous pile; the apical
margins of the segments narrowly rufo-piceous; the terminal segment with
an elongate, smooth, shining space, which extends to the apex, which is
testaceous.

_Hab._ Aru.

5. AGENIA ALCYONE. _A._ nigra, pilis sericeis cinereis vestita; antennis
pedibusque ferrugineis, alis hyalinis; abdomine petiolato; marginibus
apicalibus segmentorum flavis.

_Male._ Length 7 lines. Black; the antennæ, tips of the mandibles, and
the legs ferruginous; the scape in front, a narrow line on the inner
orbit of the eyes, and the anterior portion of the clypeus yellow; the
antennæ fuscous above towards their base. Thorax: the femora beneath
towards their base, the trochanters and coxæ, except their apex, black;
the apical joints of the intermediate and posterior tarsi fuscous; wings
hyaline, the nervures fusco-ferruginous, the tegulæ reddish-yellow.
Abdomen petiolated; the apical margins of the segments with
reddish-yellow fasciæ; beneath, the margins of the segments are
rufo-piceous, not fasciated.

_Hab._ Aru.

6. AGENIA AMALTHEA. _A._ nigra, pilis tenuibus cinereis sericeis
vestita; antennis anticè pedibusque anticis et intermediis anticè
ferrugineis; abdomine petiolato; alis hyalinis bifasciatis.

_Female._ Length 6 lines. Black; the face densely covered with silvery
pile; the antennæ in front, the anterior margin of the clypeus and the
tips of the mandibles ferruginous; palpi elongate and pale
rufo-testaceous. Thorax: the posterior margin of the prothorax narrowly,
the tegulæ, the anterior and intermediate femora in front, the posterior
pair towards their apex beneath, the anterior tibiæ and tarsi, the
intermediate and posterior tibiæ more or less beneath, and their tarsi,
ferruginous; the tarsi sometimes dusky above; the wings hyaline, a
narrow fuscous fascia at the apex of the externo-medial cell, and a
broad one crossing at, and being the width of, the second and third
submarginal cells; tips of the wings milky-white; the metathorax rounded
posteriorly, transversely finely rugose and densely covered with short
silvery-white pubescence at the sides and apex. Abdomen petiolated,
smooth and shining, with the apex and the margins of the segments
narrowly rufo-piceous.

_Hab._ Aru.

Gen. PRIOCNEMIS, _Schiödte_.

1. PRIOCNEMIS PULCHERRIMUS. _P._ lætè ruber; alis flavo-hyalinis, apice
latè fusco, abdominis lateribus nigris.

_Female._ Length 7-1/2 lines. Bright red; the anterior margin of the
clypeus with a minute tooth in the centre; the tips of the mandibles
fuscous. The metathorax slightly striated transversely, and with a
central as well as a lateral longitudinal groove; the wings
flavo-hyaline, their apex with a fuscous cloud, which commences at the
base of the first discoidal cell, the extreme tips pale; the tibiæ and
tarsi with short slender spines; the extreme apex of the joints of the
posterior tarsi black. Abdomen: the short petiole of the basal segment,
and the sides of the second, third, and fourth segments black, leaving a
red line down the middle of each; beneath, the second, third, and base
of the fourth segments black.

_Hab._ Aru.

2. PRIOCNEMIS FERVIDUS. _P._ capite, antennis, thorace pedibusque
ferrugineis; abdomine nigro; alis fuscis basi subhyalinis.

_Female._ Length 9 lines. Ferruginous, with the abdomen black; the
anterior margin of the clypeus rounded. The metathorax transversely
rugose; the pectus, and coxæ at their base within, black; wings brown,
with a violet iridescence, their base rufo-hyaline; the intermediate and
posterior tibiæ with a double row of spines, all the tarsi spinose.
Abdomen shining black, with the extreme apex slightly ferruginous.

_Hab._ Aru.

Gen. MACROMERIS, _St.-Farg._

1. MACROMERIS IRIDIPENNIS. _M._ cæruleo-nigra; abdomine iridescente,
alis cæruleo-violaceoque splendidè micantibus; pedibus mutieis,
simplicibus.

_Female._ Length 12 lines. Blue-black; abdomen with a changeable
iridescent pile; head and thorax with a black velvety pubescence; the
metathorax very finely rugose and opake; the legs simple; the posterior
tibiæ villose within; the wings very dark brown, with a splendid violet
and blue iridescence.

_Male._ Very closely resembling the female, but rather smaller; the
anterior and intermediate femora more incrassate, and all the femora
with a simple row of teeth or serrations on their inferior margins.

_Hab._ Aru.

Although this species of _Macromeris_ is very similar in colour to the
_M. violacea_ of St.-Fargeau, the femora are not so thick as in that
species, not in fact much more so than in the female; and the row of
teeth beneath is a strong specific character.

Gen. SALIUS, _Fabr._

1. SALIUS MALIGNUS. _S._ niger, pube cinereâ sericeâ vestitus; alis
fuscis, albo fasciatis.

_Female._ Length 9 lines. Black, and covered with a fine thin ashy pile;
the scape in front, and the anterior margin of the clypeus narrowly,
obscure yellow; the mandibles ferruginous at their apex, which has a
single notch; the palpi pale rufo-testaceous. Thorax: the prothorax with
a slightly interrupted narrow fascia a little before its posterior
margin, and the scutellum, yellow; the anterior femora broadly dilated,
and, as well as the anterior tibiæ, ferruginous within; the intermediate
tibiæ ferruginous at their apex in front, and the posterior pair with a
yellowish-white spot at their base outside; the calcaria pale
testaceous, the claws ferruginous, the anterior tarsi entirely so, but
more or less obscure; the posterior tibiæ slightly spinose; the anterior
wings brown, with a white fascia crossing at the first discoidal cell,
and a second at the apex of the third submarginal, the extreme base and
the anterior margin of the externo-medial cell hyaline. Abdomen: the
apical margins of the segments with a little bright silvery pile.

_Hab._ Aru.

Gen. MYGNIMIA, _Smith_.

1. MYGNIMIA ASPASIA. _M._ cæruleo-nigra; capite thoraceque pube
holosericeâ vestitis; alis fulvo-hyalinis; abdomine pilis iridescentibus
vestito.

_Female._ Length 14 lines. Black, with shades of blue in certain lights;
the abdomen with bright tints of blue and violet, caused by fine
iridescent changeable pile; the legs have a similar pile, very bright on
the femora within; the head and thorax with a short black velvety
pubescence; the wings flavo-hyaline; the nervures pale ferruginous; the
extreme base of the wings blackish, their apical margins with a narrow
fuscous border. The legs spinose; the posterior tibiæ with a double row
of strong serrations.

Gen. SPHEX, _Fabr._

1. SPHEX ARGENTATA, _Dahlb. Hym. Eur._ i. 25. 1.

_Hab._ Aru; Celebes; Sumatra; India; Greece; Africa; East Florida.

2. SPHEX SERICEA, _Fabr. Syst. Piez._ 211. 19.

_Hab._ Aru; Malacca; Borneo; Java; Philippine Islands.

3. SPHEX AURIFRONS. _S._ niger; facie pube aureâ vestitâ, alis
flavo-hyalinis apice fuscis, abdomine pilis sericeo-aureis vestito.

_Female._ Black; the face densely clothed with golden pubescence, the
head having a number of scattered long golden-yellow hairs. Thorax
thinly covered with long yellow pubescence, which is most dense at the
sides of the metathorax; the tibiæ, tarsi, and posterior femora
ferruginous; the claw-joint of the tarsi black; the tibiæ and tarsi with
black spines; the wings fulvo-hyaline, their apex with a narrow fuscous
border, the nervures ferruginous. Abdomen covered with a fine, thin,
golden-reflecting pile; the apical margins of the segments
rufo-testaceous, the testaceous margin produced in the middle into a
triangular shape, most conspicuously so on the segments beneath.

_Hab._ Aru.

4. SPHEX NITIDIVENTRIS. _S._ niger; abdomine nigro-cæruleo, lævigato,
nitido; alis fuscis.

_Female._ Length 12 lines. Black; the face with silvery pubescence, and
thinly covered with long black hairs; the clypeus with a central
longitudinal carina at the base, which terminates at the middle, from
whence to the anterior margin is a broad, smooth, shining space. Thorax
shining and finely punctured; the metathorax opake and covered with
long, loose, black pubescence; the legs shining, the posterior tibiæ
with shining grey pile within; wings brown, darkest at their base.
Abdomen blue, and very smooth and shining, oblong-ovate; the apical
segment vertical.

_Hab._ Aru.

5. SPHEX SEPICOLA. _S._ niger; facie pube aureâ vestitâ; alis
subhyalinis apice fuscis; abdomine nitido.

_Female._ Length 9 lines. Black; the face densely clothed with golden
pubescence, the cheeks with iridescent pile, with a long, loose,
scattered pale yellow pubescence on the head and thorax; the mandibles
smooth, shining black. The disk of the thorax with an obscure chalybeous
tint, shining and finely punctured; the metathorax opake and finely
rugose; the wings subhyaline, their apical margins fuscous, the nervures
fusco-ferruginous. Abdomen with a slender subelongate petiole, and with
a thin, silky, grey pile; the apical margins of the segments narrowly
and obscurely rufo-piceous.

_Male._ Rather smaller than the female, more slender and more pubescent,
the pubescence on the face paler.

_Hab._ Aru.

6. SPHEX GRATIOSA. _S._ capite thoraceque nigris, abdomine cæruleo, alis
fusco-hyalinis.

_Male._ Length 10 lines. Head and thorax black; the face densely clothed
with pale golden pubescence; the labrum and mandibles highly polished,
very smooth and shining; a thin pale pubescence is scattered over the
head, pro- and mesothorax, the latter obscurely chalybeous above,
shining, and finely and closely punctured, with an abbreviated, deeply
impressed line in the middle anteriorly; the posterior margin of the
prothorax covered with shining silvery pubescence; the metathorax
opake, and clothed with black pubescence; wings fusco-hyaline, the
anterior pair darkest towards their base, the nervures dark
fusco-ferruginous, nearly black. Abdomen smooth, shining dark blue;
beneath, the margins of the segments have a bright, glittering,
pale-golden pile.

Gen. PELOPOEUS, _Latr._

1. PELOPOEUS LABORIOSUS. _P._ niger; scapo anticè, pedibus petioloque
rufescenti-flavis, alis hyalinis fulvo tinctis.

_Female._ Length 12 lines. Black, with black pubescence on the head and
thorax; the face with a fine cinereous pile; the scape yellow in front;
the mandibles smooth and shining. Thorax: the legs pale ferruginous, the
posterior femora darkest; the coxæ, the anterior and intermediate
trochanters, and base of the femora black; wings fulvo-hyaline, the
nervures ferruginous; the metathorax obliquely striated. Abdomen
slightly shining at the base, with the petiole reddish-yellow.

_Hab._ Aru.

Gen. LARRADA, _Smith_.

1. LARRADA MODESTA. _L._ nigra; abdomine pilis argentatis fasciato; alis
hyalinis.

_Female._ Length 6-1/2 lines. Black; the face covered with silvery down;
the mandibles smooth, shining, black, and fringed beneath with fulvous
hairs, the cheeks silvery. Thorax slightly shining, closely and
delicately punctured; the metathorax opake and transversely striated;
wings subhyaline, with a fuscous border at their apex, the nervures
black. Abdomen slightly shining; the apical margins of the first,
second, and third segments with fascia of silvery pile, which is very
brilliant in certain lights.

_Male_ closely resembles the female, but has an additional fascia on the
abdomen.

_Hab._ Aru.

Gen. LARRA, _Fabr._

1. LARRA SIMILLIMA. _L._ nigra, pulchre prismatica, maculis fasciisque
variis flavis ornata.

_Female._ Length 6-1/2 lines. Black; the abdomen with tints of blue
violet; the thorax slightly prismatic; the labrum, clypeus, an angular
scape above, an abbreviated line on the inner orbits of the eyes, the
scape in front, and the antennæ beneath, yellow; the cheeks with a
silvery reflexion. The thorax beneath, and the metathorax, with a
shining white silvery pile; the anterior and intermediate femora and
tibiæ beneath yellow; the tarsi pale ferruginous, and more or less
fuscous above; wings subhyaline, the nervures fuscous; a spot on the
lateral posterior angles of the metathorax, two ovate spots on the
scutellum, and a line on the postscutellum yellow. Abdomen: the basal
segment with a broadly interrupted fascia a little before its apical
margin; the second and fourth segments with a narrow yellow fascia at
their apical margins, which is widened laterally; beneath, the second
and third segments with a yellow spot on each side.

The _Male_ differs from the female in having a large quadrate black spot
on the clypeus, and a spot at the base of the labrum; there is also a
narrow yellow line on the posterior margin of the prothorax; and the
third segment of the abdomen has a yellow fascia: it is also rather
smaller.

_Hab._ Aru.

This insect very closely resembles _Larra prismatica_, from Borneo,
Malacca, and Celebes, of which it may be a variety.

Gen. BEMBEX, _Fabr._

1. Bembex melancholieca, _Smith, Cat. Hym._ pt. iv. p. 328; _Proc. Linn.
Soc._ ii. p. 105.

_Hab._ Aru; Sumatra; Borneo.

Many of the specimens from Aru are less highly coloured than those of
Sumatra or Borneo: the yellow markings on the abdomen are frequently
much obliterated in the females; others are as highly coloured as any
examples I have seen.

Gen. PISON, _Spin._

1. PISON NITIDUS. _P._ nitidus, niger, distinctè punctatus; alis
subhyalinis, venis fuscis; segmentis abdominalibus apice depressis.

_Female._ Length 5 lines. Black and shining; the head and thorax
strongly punctured; the face beneath, the antennæ, the clypeus, cheeks,
and the sides of the segments of the abdomen covered with a silvery
down; the palpi pale testaceous; the mandibles obscurely ferruginous at
their apex. The metathorax transversely striated behind, with a central
longitudinal impressed line above, which is transversely striated, and
terminates in a deep fovea just beyond the verge of the posterior
inclined truncation; the wings subhyaline; the nervures dark fuscous;
the first recurrent nervure received at the apex of the first
submarginal cell, and the second at the base of the third submarginal.
Abdomen shining, and more delicately punctured than the thorax; the
margins of the segments deeply depressed.

_Hab._ Aru, Key Island.

Gen. GORYTES, _Latr._

1. GORYTES CONSTRICTUS. _G._ niger; clypei lateribus flavis; collari,
tuberculis postscutelloque flavis; segmentorum abdominis marginibus
apicalibus flavis constrictis, pedibusque flavo variegatis.

_Female._ Length 6 lines. Black; the head and thorax very closely
punctured and opake, the head slightly shining on the vertex; the
antennæ beneath and the apical half of the mandibles ferruginous, the
latter black at their tips; the clypeus yellow at the sides, and
coarsely rugose in front. Thorax: the metathorax coarsely
longitudinally rugose, with cinereous pubescence at the sides; the
antennæ and intermediate tibiæ, the tarsi, and articulations of the legs
reddish-yellow; wings subhyaline, with a fuscous cloud in the marginal
cell, which passes beyond to the apex of the wings; the nervures
fusco-ferruginous; the tegulæ ferruginous. Abdomen shining, covered with
a thin, fine, cinereous pile, and with the margins of the segments
constricted; the apical margins of the segments with narrow yellow
fasciæ, that on the fourth abbreviated on each side, on the fifth it is
obsolete; beneath, the second segment is opake, finely punctured, and
pilose; the following segments smooth, shining, and with five scattered
punctures.

The _Male_ strongly resembles the female, but is smaller and less
variegated with yellow; the face covered with silvery down; the scape
and base of the flagellum ferruginous beneath; the clypeus yellow,
except its extreme base. The thorax black, with the legs rufo-piceous;
the tibiæ and tarsi pale ferruginous, variegated with yellow; the sides
of the thorax beneath the wings longitudinally striated in both sexes,
most conspicuously so in the male. The abdomen with three narrow
interrupted fasciæ.

_Hab._ Aru.

2. GORYTES VAGUS. _G._ niger; clypeo maculis duabus flavis notato;
postscutello et segmentis primo et secundo fasciâ apicali flavis, fasciâ
in segmento primo subinterrupto.

_Female._ Length 6 lines. Black; the head finely punctured and shining;
the anterior margin of the clypeus emarginate in the middle, and more
deeply so on each side; on each side of the clypeus, at its base, is an
oblique yellow spot, and anteriorly it is roughly punctured; the
mandibles roughened at their base, their apical half smooth, shining,
and ferruginous, with their apex black. Thorax subopake, very closely
punctured, and slightly shining; the metathorax coarsely longitudinally
rugose-striate; the postscutellum yellow; wings subhyaline and
iridescent, the nervures fusco-ferruginous; a dark fuscous cloud
occupies the marginal cell. Abdomen smooth and shining, with a slightly
interrupted fascia a little before the apical margin of the basal
segment; the second segment has a fascia at its apical margin; both are
yellowish white; the first is gradually widened towards the sides of the
segment, the second abruptly widened, with the angle of the widened
portion pointed inwards; beneath the abdomen is glossy, with the basal
segment closely punctured and subopake; the margins of abdominal
segments slightly constricted.

_Hab._ Key Island.

Gen. TRYPOXYLON, _Latr._

1. TRYPOXYLON EXIMIUM. _T._ nigrum; clypeo argentato-pubescente;
abdominis segmentis secundo tertio quartoque basi rubris; alis
hyalinis.

_Female._ Length 8-1/2 lines. Black, smooth, and shining; the head and
thorax very delicately punctured; the face and clypeus below the
insertion of the antennæ densely covered with silvery-white pubescence;
the anterior margin of the clypeus rounded and much produced, with a
slight curving upwards at its margin; the mandibles yellow, with their
apex ferruginous; the palpi pale testaceous; the inner orbits of the
eyes very deeply notched. Thorax: the metathorax, the sides, and beneath
with a thin silvery-white pubescence, most dense on the former; the
metathorax not distinctly enclosed at its base, but with two shallow
impressed lines, which mark the form of the usual enclosed space; a
central longitudinal channel extends from its base to the apex, slightly
subinterrupted in the middle; the wings hyaline and iridescent, the
nervures dark fuscous; the anterior and intermediate tibiæ in front,
their tarsi, the apical joints of the posterior pair, and the base of
the tibiæ very pale ferruginous; the claw-joint of the intermediate and
posterior tarsi fuscous above; the calcaria pale testaceous. Abdomen,
the second, third, and base of the fourth segment more or less
ferruginous; the apex of the basal petiolated joint ferruginous beneath.

_Hab._ Aru and Key Island.

Gen. CRABRO, _Fabr._

1. CRABRO SOLITARIUS. _C._ niger; abdomine petiolato; scapo flagellique
articulo ultimo, collari, tuberculis, postscutelli maculis duabus
flavis; pedibus petioloque basi ferrugineis.

_Female._ Length 5 lines. Black and opake; the head large, quadrate, and
wider than the thorax; the ocelli in a curve on the vertex; the clypeus
covered with silvery pubescence, carinated in the middle, and slightly
produced; the scape and basal joint of the flagellum pale yellow.
Thorax: an interrupted line on the collar, the tubercles, a spot beneath
the wings, and two minute ones on the postscutellum yellow; the disk of
the thorax longitudinally delicately rugose; the metathorax oliquely
striated, with an enclosed space at its base, and having a central
longitudinal channel, the side covered with thin silvery pubescence; the
wings hyaline and iridescent, the nervures fuscous; the legs
ferruginous, variegated with yellow. Abdomen: the basal petiolated
segment ferruginous, with its apical half black above; the apical
segment with an angular shape at its base, which is smooth and shining,
with its lateral margins carinate, the extreme apex ferruginous; beneath
smooth and shining, with the apical margins rufo-piceous.

_Hab._ Aru.

This species would, according to the views of some Hymenopterists,
belong to the genus _Rhopalum_ of Kirby.


Group SOLITARY WASPS.

Fam. EUMENIDÆ, _Westw._

Gen. EUMENES, _Latr._

1. Eumenes arcuata, _Fabr. Syst. Piez._ 287. 11.

_Hab._ Key Island; coast of New Guinea (Triton Bay); Australia.

Gen. PACHYMENES, _Sauss._

1. PACHYMENES VIRIDIS. _P._ lætè viridis; facie pube argentato-albâ
tectâ; alis hyalinis.

_Female._ Length 8 lines. Bright green; the head, thorax, and basal
segment of the abdomen rugose, the rest of the abdomen finely and very
closely punctured; the clypeus thinly covered with a fine silvery-white
pubescence, its apex produced and truncate. Thorax: the metathorax
rounded behind, a deep longitudinal impressed line in the middle, and
with fine silvery down at the sides and behind; the wings subhyaline,
with a fuscous stain along the anterior margin of the superior pair; the
legs rufo-piceous; the coxæ, femora, and tibiæ more or less tinged with
green.

_Hab._ Aru.

Gen. RHYNCHIUM, _Spin._

1. Rhynchium mirabile, _Sauss. Mon. Guêpes Sol._ 106. 6, t. 14. f. 5
[Symbol: female].

_Hab._ Aru; Tasmania.

The _Male_ of this fine species closely resembles the female; it is
black, with a transverse spot above the insertion of the antennæ, an
abbreviated narrow line behind the eyes, another on the lower margin of
their emargination; the scape in front and the clypeus yellow, the
latter notched at its apex; a minute yellow spot at the base of the
mandibles; the antennæ, tibiæ, apex of the femora, and the tarsi
ferruginous; the basal joint of the intermediate and posterior tarsi
dusky; the intermediate femora deeply excavated or hollowed beneath; the
prothorax yellow above; the metathorax truncate, transversely striated
with several minute teeth on the lateral margins; the wings hyaline,
tinted with yellow, their apical margins slightly clouded; the apical
margins of all the segments of the abdomen bordered with yellow, that on
the first segment narrowest. The only particulars in which the female
apparently differs from Saussure's description, is that the second
fascia on the abdomen is _widest at the sides_, and there are _three
little teeth_ on each side of the margins of the metathorax.

The _Female_ is also in the Paris Museum.

2. Rhynchium superbum, _Sauss. Mon. Guêpes Sol._ p. 113. 18.

_Hab._ Aru: New Holland.

Our example of this species slightly differs in coloration from the
description of Saussure. He says, "black, with the vertex, the front,
the prothorax, and the border of all the segments of the abdomen, except
the first, yellow; the wings yellow;" in the Aru specimen, the sinus of
the eyes, a spot above the clypeus, a reversed crescent-shaped spot
crossing the ocelli, two oblique spots behind them, and a broad elongate
stripe behind the eyes yellow. These slight differences cannot
characterize more than a variety; in every other particular they exactly
correspond.

Gen. ODYNERUS, _Latr._

1. ODYNERUS PETIOLATUS. _O._ niger; clypeo apiculato; capite, thorace
abdomineque flavo variis; abdomine petiolato; alis subhyalinis.

_Female._ Length 7-1/2 lines. Black; head and thorax strongly punctured;
two confluent spots between the antennæ, a line on the inner orbits of
the eyes, terminating in their emargination, an oblong spot behind them,
a spot at the base of the mandibles, the scape in front, and the clypeus
yellow; the latter with a large black spot in the middle, and with its
anterior margin prolonged into an acute point; the mandibles
ferruginous, with their base and margins black; the flagellum fulvous
beneath. Thorax: an interrupted line on the collar, a spot beneath the
wings, the outer margin of the tegulæ, two spots on the scutellum, two
longitudinal curved lines on the metathorax, extending from the base to
the apex, yellow; the yellow lines on the metathorax curving inwards.
The tibiæ, tarsi, and apex of the femora ferruginous; the intermediate
and posterior tibiæ with a fuscous line outside, a spot on the coxæ
outside, a stripe at the apex of the anterior femora beneath, another on
the intermediate pair, and a line on the anterior tibiæ, behind, yellow;
wings subhyaline, their margins fuscous. Abdomen petiolated; a fascia on
the apical margins of all the segments, and the petiole, yellow; the
third and following fasciæ narrowest; all the fasciæ continued beneath
the abdomen.

_Hab._ Aru.

2. ODYNERUS AGILIS. _O._ niger; capite thoraceque distinctè, abdomine
delicatulè punctatis; pedibus ferrugineis; abdominis segmentis duobus
basalibus flavo fasciatis; alis subhyalinis.

_Male._ Length 6 lines. Black; the scape in front, a line on the inner
margin of the eyes, terminating in their emargination, an abbreviated
line behind them, and the clypeus yellow; the latter deeply emarginate,
forming two teeth. Thorax: a line in the middle of the anterior margin
of the prothorax, two spots on the verge of the emargination of the
metathorax, and a fascia on the apical margins of the first and second
segments of the abdomen yellow; the legs ferruginous; the wings
subhyaline, the anterior margin of the superior pair fuscous; the outer
margin of the tegulæ yellowish.

_Hab._ Aru.

3. ODYNERUS MULTIPICTUS. _O._ niger, flavo maculatus et punctatus;
pedibus flavis, alis hyalinis.

_Female._ Length 4 lines. Black; the head and thorax strongly punctured,
the abdomen finely and distantly so; the clypeus, a spot above it, the
inner and outer orbits of the eyes, and the scape in front yellow; the
clypeus deeply emarginate in front; the mandibles ferruginous, with a
yellow spot at their base. Thorax: the prothorax in front, the tegulæ
and two spots beneath the wings, the scutellum, and sides of the
metathorax yellow; the legs yellow, with ferruginous stains; the femora
with a black or dark stain above; wings hyaline, with a fuscous stain
along the anterior border of the superior pair. Abdomen: a yellow fascia
on the apical margins of the two basal segments; the three following
segments with very narrow yellow borders, and the apical segment
entirely reddish-yellow.

_Hab._ Aru.

4. ODYNERUS MODESTUS. _O._ niger; abdominis segmentis duobus basalibus
flavo fasciatis; tibiis tarsisque femigineis; alis hyalinis; abdominis
segmento primo basi transversim bicarinato.

_Female._ Length 4 lines. Black; head and thorax coarsely punctured; the
vertex swollen; the scape of the antennæ, a spot between them, and the
clypeus yellow; the latter with a transverse black spot in the middle,
deeply notched in front, and having a carina on each side, in a line
with the angle or tooth of the emargination; the flagellum ferruginous
towards the apex beneath; wings hyaline, with a fuscous cloud in the
marginal cell; the tibiæ and tarsi ferruginous. Abdomen: the base
truncate, with an oblique space above the truncation, the margin of both
defined by an elevated ridge or carina; a narrow fascia on the apical
margin of the basal segment, and a broader one on the second; the latter
continued beneath the abdomen.

_Hab._ Aru.

This species is undoubtedly allied to _O. Sichellii_ of Saussure; but,
beside differing in the colour of its legs, and of the bands of the
abdomen, it wants the strong tubercle at the base of the second segment
of the latter.

Gen. ALASTOR, _St.-Farg._

1. ALASTOR UNIFASCIATUS. _A._ niger; maculâ inter antennas, abdominisque
margine apicali et segmento secundo flavis; alis fuscis.

_Female._ Length 6-1/2 lines. Black; the head and thorax strongly
punctured; the face, sides of the clypeus, cheeks, and base of the
mandibles with a fine silky silvery-white pubescence; the clypeus
convex, its anterior margin emarginate; from each angle of the
emargination a shining carina runs more than halfway up the clypeus; a
minute spot between the antennæ, and two on the anterior margin of the
prothorax, yellow; the wings fuscous, palest at their posterior
margins. Abdomen finely and closely punctured; the third segment
strongly so; a broad yellow fascia on the apical margin of the second
segment.

_Hab._ Aru.

2. ALASTOR APICATUS. _A._ niger; abdominis segmentis primo et secundo
aurantiaco-rubris; alis fuscis.

_Male._ Length 5-1/2 lines. Black; the head and thorax strongly
punctured; a spot between the antennæ, the scape in front, and the
clypeus yellow; the latter with a large black spot at its base,
anteriorly deeply emarginate; wings fuscous; the tegulæ with a
rufo-testaceous spot at their outer margins; the tarsi and articulations
of the legs ferruginous. Abdomen bright orange-red, with the third and
following segments black; the base rugose, the second segment finely
punctured, the rest much more strongly so.

_Hab._ Aru.


Group SOCIAL WASPS.

Fam. VESPIDÆ, _Steph._

1. ISCHNOGASTER IRIDIPENNIS. _I._ rufescenti-fuscus flavo varius;
vertice et metathorace nigris, alis subhyalinis et pulcherrimè
iridescentibus.

_Male._ Length 7-1/4 lines. Head yellow, above the insertion of the
antennæ black; antennæ black, with the scape, basal joint of the
antennæ, and the mandibles ferruginous; the flagellum obscurely
ferruginous beneath; the clypeus produced at the apex into an acute
tooth. Thorax pale ferruginous; the metathorax black, with a ferruginous
spot on each side in front; the scutellum with a reddish-brown spot in
the middle, the postscutellum yellow and subinterrupted in the middle;
the sides of the thorax yellow anteriorly, the yellow portion with two
black spots; the legs slightly variegated with yellow; wings subhyaline
and brilliantly iridescent, the marginal cell with a fuscous cloud.
Abdomen brown; the petiole pale testaceous at its apex and ferruginous
beneath, longer than the head and thorax; the second segment has a
yellow macula on each side, and, beneath, a smaller spot on each side in
a line with the side spots; the first segment has its basal portion
yellow beneath, and a blackish spot in the centre rather behind the
middle.

_Hab._ Aru.

This species in many particulars agrees with the _I. nitidipennis_ of
Saussure, but differs in too many, I think, to be considered the same
species; the second recurrent nervure is straight at the upper
extremity, then curved towards the margin of the wing, and again
straight at its lower extremity; the third submarginal cell is much
wider than the fourth.

Gen. ICARIA, _Sauss._

1. Icaria maculiventris, _Sauss. Mon. Guêpes Soc._ p. 23. 1.--Rhopalidia
maculiventris, _Guér. Voy. Coq. Zool._ ii. pt. 2. _Ins_. p. 267, pl. 9.
fig. 8.

_Hab._ Aru; New Guinea.

2. ICARIA NIGRA. _I._ nigra; clypeo anticè angulato; metathorace concavo
et transversim striato; alis hyalinis.

_Female._ Length 6 lines. Black, punctured and opake; the clypeus
terminating in a sharp-pointed angle; the base and apex of the mandibles
rufo-piceous; the scape ferruginous in front; the face with a thin,
fine, griseous pubescence. Thorax slightly margined in front; an obscure
testaceous spot on each side of the postscutellum, the metathorax
concave and transversely striated; wings hyaline. Abdomen with a short
petiole to the basal segment, which is very short and campanulate; at
its posterior margin are two minute, obscure, pale spots; beneath, the
margins of the apical segments are rufo-piceous.

_Hab._ Aru.

3. ICARIA FASCIATA. _I._ nigra; clypei margine antico, maculis duabus
postscutelli flavis; segmentis abdominis ad apicem flavo angustè
fasciatis.

_Female._ Length 5 lines. Black; the clypeus angular in front, its
anterior margin and a spot on the mandibles yellow; the antennæ
rufo-testaceous beneath. Thorax: the anterior margin of the prothorax
slightly rebordered; the anterior coxæ with a spot in front and two
spots on the postscutellum yellow; the anterior and intermediate tibiæ
beneath, the tarsi beneath and the claw-joint entirely, ferruginous;
wings hyaline with a fuscous stain along the anterior margin of the
superior pair; the metathorax oblique and slightly concave, with an
acute stout tooth on each side. Abdomen: the basal segment campanulate,
the petiole short; a narrow yellow fascia on the apical margin of all
the segments.

_Hab._ Aru.

4. ICARIA BRUNNEA. _I._ rufescenti-fusca; coxis femoribusque obscuris;
alis hyalinis.

_Female._ Length 3-1/2 lines. Reddish-brown; head and thorax punctured,
the abdomen finely rugose; the clypeus and mandibles pale ferruginous,
the former with a darker spot in the middle, the anterior margin
angular. The anterior margin of the prothorax slightly rebordered; the
wings hyaline and iridescent, with a fuscous stain along the anterior
margin of the superior pair; the metathorax abruptly truncate. Abdomen:
the basal margin of the third and following segments black.

_Hab._ Aru.

5. ICARIA GRACILIS. _I._ nigra flavo variegata; abdominis segmento
basali elongato, gracili et petiolato; alis hyalinis.

_Female._ Length 7 lines. Black; the scape in front, the sides and
apical margin of the clypeus, and a spot at the base of the mandibles
yellow; the cheeks reddish-yellow; the antennæ ferruginous; the head
covered with short griseous pubescence. Thorax with obscure ferruginous
tints and a short griseous pubescence, most dense on the sides and
beneath; the anterior margin of the prothorax, the tegulæ, scutellum and
postscutellum, a broad stripe on each side of the metathorax, the coxæ,
and the anterior and intermediate femora, at their apex beneath, yellow;
the scutellum with a ferruginous stain in the middle, the postscutellum
with a black stain, the coxæ ferruginous above, the tibiæ and tarsi
ferruginous beneath; wings hyaline, with a fuscous stain along the
anterior margin of the superior pair. Abdomen: a yellow fascia on the
apical margin of the first and second segments; that on the following
segments rufo-testaceous.

_Hab._ Aru.

6. ICARIA UNICOLOR. _I._ rufescenti-fusca, tenuiter cinereo-pubescens.

_Female._ Length 5 lines. Reddish-brown, covered with a thin cinereous
pubescence; the clypeus acutely angular anteriorly; the metathorax
oblique and delicately striated transversely; wings fusco-hyaline; the
petiole of the abdomen long, the segment campanulated and narrow.

_Hab._ Key Island.

Gen. POLISTES, _Latr._

1. Polistes tepidus, _Fabr. Syst. Piez._ p. 271. 7.

_Hab._ Aru; Key Island; Solomon Islands; New Guinea; Australia.

2. Polistes diabolicus, _Sauss. Mon. Guêpes Soc._ 68. 26, t. 6. f. 7.

_Hab._ Aru; Java; Timor.

3. Polistes stigma, _Fabr. Syst. Piez._ p. 261. 41.

_Hab._ Aru; Celebes; Ceram; India.

_Var._ The specimens from Aru differ from the typical ones in wanting
the two longitudinal yellow lines on the metathorax, which is entirely
black. Saussure has a variety with the metathorax black between the
lines; of two examples from Celebes, one has the yellow lines entire,
the other has them abbreviated at half their length.

4. POLISTES NIGRIFRONS. _P_. capite thoraceque nigris, flavo et
ferrugineo variegatis; abdomine ferrugineo, segmentis basi nigris,
marginibus apicalibus flavis.

_Female._ Length 8 lines. Head and thorax black; the anterior margin of
the clypeus angular and narrowly rufo-testaceous; the mandibles, palpi,
and antennæ ferruginous; the scape, and flagellum above, except the
basal joint, fuscous; the outer orbits of the eyes with a narrow yellow
line. The anterior margin of the prothorax slightly rebordered, the
posterior margin ferruginous; the outer margin of the tegulæ
reddish-yellow; wings subhyaline with a fusco-ferruginous stain along
the anterior margins of the superior pair; the metathorax finely
striated transversely, and with two yellow stripes running upwards
halfway from the base, the posterior margin of the pectus, tips of the
coxæ, the femora at their base and apex, the tibiæ and tarsi beneath,
ferruginous; tips of the femora, and tibiæ above, yellowish. Abdomen
ferruginous, with the base of the second and following segments black;
the first and three following segments with a yellow fascia on their
apical margins; beneath, the two basal segments entirely ferruginous.

_Hab._ Aru.

This species is closely allied to the _P. fastidiosus_ of Saussure, and,
notwithstanding the difference in colouring, may possibly, I think, be
an extreme variety of that species.

5. POLISTES ELEGANS. _P._ ferrugineus; capite thoraceque flavo variis;
segmentis abdominis flavo marginatis.

_Female._ Length 8 lines. Ferruginous; the clypeus, mandibles, cheeks,
and the face, as high as the middle of the emargination of the eyes,
yellow. Thorax: the margins of the prothorax, two longitudinal stripes
on the mesothorax, the scutellum, postscutellum, and sides of the
metathorax broadly, yellow; the legs beneath, the coxæ and the sides of
the thorax spotted with yellow; the intermediate and posterior coxæ
spotted with ferruginous or fusco-ferruginous; the metathorax finely
striated transversely; the wings hyaline with the nervures ferruginous.
Abdomen: the first and three following segments with yellow marginal
fasciæ, that on the fourth usually more or less obliterated.

_Hab._ Aru; Key Island.


Fam. EVANIDÆ, _Leach_.

Gen. FOENUS, _Fabr._

1. FOENUS GRACILIS. _F._ niger, facie lateribusque thoracis argenteo
pilosis; pedibus anticis et intermediis pallidè rufo-testaceis, tibiis
posticis basi tarsisque albis; abdomine subtùs rufo-testaceo.

_Female._ Length 6 lines. Black; subopake; the face, sides of the thorax
and beneath with silvery pubescence; the mandibles, palpi, and scape in
front rufo-testaceous. Thorax: the anterior and intermediate legs
rufo-testaceous, the femora having a darker stain above; the posterior
legs black, with the base of the tibiæ and the tarsi white. Abdomen
rufo-testaceous beneath; the ovipositor white at its apex.

_Hab._ Aru.

Gen. STENOPHASMUS.

Head globose; antennæ longer than the body, and very slender and
setaceous; the prothorax forming a slender neck; the anterior wings with
one marginal and three submarginal cells; the femora slightly
incrassate, not denticulate; the tarsi 5-jointed. Abdomen petiolated,
the petiole as long as the abdomen; the ovipositor as long as the
petiole and abdomen united.

This genus is founded on the examination of a single individual, which
in general appearance exactly resembles the smaller species of the genus
_Megischus_; on examination, however, it will be found that it differs
from that genus in the neuration of the anterior wings; its femora are
not denticulate, in which character it differs from both _Megischus_ and
_Stephanus_; with the latter genus it agrees in having 5-jointed tarsi.

1. STENOPHASMUS RUFICEPS. _S._ niger; capite et antennarum basi rufis;
ovipositore tarsisque pallidè testaceis; petiolo abdominis cylindrico;
alis subhyalinis.

_Female._ Length 5 lines. Black, slightly shining; head globose, red and
sprinkled with white hairs, and delicately striated transversely. Thorax
sprinkled with white pubescence above, the sides more thickly clothed
with the same; above, the thorax is transversely rugose, on the
metathorax becoming more regularly striate; the metathorax has a central
longitudinal carina and also one on each side; the legs sprinkled with
erect white hairs; the tarsi pale rufo-testaceous with the claw-joint
black; wings subhyaline, with a broad light-fuscous stain along the
centre of the anterior pair; a hyaline streak crosses them at the base
of the stigma. Abdomen: the petiole as long as the thorax, narrowest at
the base of the abdomen; it is rugose at the base; the ovipositor pale
testaceous.

_Hab._ Aru.


Fam. ICHNEUMONIDÆ, _Leach_.

Gen. ICHNEUMON.

1. ICHNEUMON INSULARIS. _I._ niger; capite thoraceque albo variegatis;
abdominis segmentorum primo, secundo tertioque albo maculatis.

Length 7-1/2 lines. Black; the orbits of the eyes, the face before the
antennæ, the mandibles and palpi yellowish-white; the flagellum with the
joints from the 14th to 25th white. Thorax: a line on each side before
the tegulæ, a spot beneath the wings, two at the sides of the pectus,
the anterior coxæ in front, and a narrow line on each side of the
scutellum yellowish-white; the anterior and intermediate legs and a spot
beneath the posterior tibiæ rufo-testaceous; the wings hyaline, the
nervures black. Abdomen: a minute spot at the lateral apical margins of
the three basal segments, and a large central one on the two apical
segments, white.

_Hab._ Key Island.

Gen. CRYPTUS, _Fabr._

1. CRYPTUS SCUTELLATUS. _C._ ferrugineus; tibiis posticis tarsisque albo
annulatis; scutello tuberculato.

_Female._ Length 5 lines. Ferruginous; the face testaceous-yellow, an
elongate black spot on the vertex enclosing the ocelli and extending to
the insertion of the antennæ; the latter black, with the scape
ferruginous in front. Thorax: the scutellum elevated, forming a
compressed tubercle, its side view wedge-shaped; the wings hyaline the
nervures black, the base of the wings yellowish; the apical joints of
the intermediate tarsi, the tips of the posterior femora, the extreme
base of the tibiæ, their apical half, and the tarsi black; the
intermediate portion of the tibiæ yellow; the apical segment of the
abdomen black.

_Hab._ Aru.

Gen. MESOSTENUS, _Grav._

1. MESOSTENUS PICTUS. _M._ niger; capite thoraceque flavo striatis et
punctatis; pedibus flavis nigro et ferrugineo lavatis; segmentis
abdominalibus flavo marginatis; alis hyalinis.

_Female._ Length 8 lines. Black; a large ovate spot on the cheeks
touching the mandibles, the labrum, palpi, inner orbits of the eyes, and
from the 7th to the 10th joints of the antennæ yellowish-white. Thorax:
an ovate spot in the middle of the disk of the mesothorax, the tegulæ, a
spot beneath them, two larger spots beneath the wings, the scutellum, a
spot on the postscutellum uniting with another at the base of the
metathorax, a trilobed spot at its apex, and a subovate one on each side
yellowish-white; the coxæ white with black stains on the intermediate
and posterior pairs; the femora white beneath, the anterior and
intermediate pairs with a black line above, the posterior pair
ferruginous above; the tibiæ and tarsi whitish beneath, stained more or
less fusco-ferruginous above; wings hyaline. Abdomen: all the segments
with yellowish-white fasciæ on their apical margins, the fasciæ
continued beneath; the ovipositor about the length of the abdomen, the
valves broadest at their apex.

_Hab._ Aru.

2. MESOSTENUS AGILIS. _M._ niger; antennis medio albis; thorace
pedibusque albo variegatis; abdominis marginibus fasciis albis.

_Female._ Length 5 lines. Black; the joints of the antennæ, from the 6th
to 13th, white, the vertex also white. Thorax: a spot in the middle of
the disk of the mesothorax, the scutellum, a spot on the postscutellum,
two beneath the wings, the apex of the metathorax, and a spot on each
side white; the legs white, the anterior pair slightly fuscous above;
the intermediate femora and tibiæ beneath, and the tarsi above, black;
the posterior femora above and beneath the tibiæ, except their extreme
base and the base and apex of the tarsi, black; wings hyaline, the
nervures black. Abdomen: the apical margins of the segments, excepting
the fourth and fifth, with white fasciæ, the second and third fasciæ
attenuated in the middle.

_Hab._ Aru.

3. MESOSTENUS ALBOPICTUS. _M._ niger, albo varius; alis hyalinis.

_Female._ Length 7 lines. Black; the clypeus, mandibles, palpi, the
joints of the antennæ from the sixth to the thirteenth, and a broad
stripe at the inner orbits of the eyes white. Thorax: an ovate spot on
each side of the prothorax above, a similar spot in the middle of the
mesothorax, the tegulæ, scutellum and postscutellum, a T-shaped spot
reversed on the metathorax, a large quadrate one on its sides, three
irregular-shaped maculæ beneath the wings, and the anterior and
intermediate legs white, the legs with a black line above; the posterior
legs have a large spot on the coxæ behind, the trochanters, the tibiæ,
and tarsi white, the tibiæ black at their apex, and the femora palish at
their base outside; the wings hyaline and iridescent, with the nervures
black. The abdomen beneath, and the apical margins of the segments
above, white.

_Male._ Rather smaller than the female, but only differs otherwise in
the colour of the legs, the anterior and intermediate pairs being
entirely yellowish-white, excepting the intermediate tibiæ and tarsi,
which are slightly fuscous above; the posterior femora are ferruginous,
the tibiæ and tarsi white, with the base and apex of the two former
black as well as the apical joint of the tarsi.

_Hab._ Key Island.

Gen. PIMPLA, _Fabr._

1. PIMPLA OCHRACEA. _P._ ochracea; antennis ferrugineis; facie luteâ;
alis hyalinis, apice fuscis.

_Female._ Length 5 lines. Entirely ochraceous, with the face and scape
in front yellow; the body beneath is pale ochraceous; the antennæ
ferruginous, above dusky; the eyes emarginate within; the tarsi have the
tips of the claws black; the wings flavo-hyaline, with the apex of the
anterior pair fuscous, the nervures black, becoming yellow at the base
of the wings. The head, thorax, legs and base of the abdomen smooth and
shining; the abdomen, except at the base, finely punctured; a transverse
impressed row of punctures a little before the apical margin of each
segment, and the space between impunctate.

_Hab._ Aru.

2. PIMPLA BRACONOIDES. _P._ rufo-flava; antennis tarsisque et abdominis
dimidio posteriori nigris; alis fuscis, dimidio basali flavis.

_Female._ Length 6 lines. Ferruginous; the posterior tarsi and the
fourth and following segments of the abdomen black; the head is reddish
yellow, the eyes brown; the scape and two or three of the basal joints
of the flagellum ferruginous, the rest fuscous; the basal half of the
wings flavo-hyaline, the apical half fuscous; the stigma yellow, with a
subhyaline macula beneath, and two other similar irregular-shaped spots.
The abdomen with two longitudinal carinæ on the basal segment, and a
transverse curved impressed line on the other segments.

_Hab._ Key Island.

This species might at first sight be mistaken for a species of the genus
_Bracon_. The male only differs from the female in having the abdomen
black, with only the basal segment yellow; the wings are only very
slightly yellow at their base; it is also rather smaller.

3. PIMPLA PENETRANS. _P._ flavo-ferruginea; flagello fusco; alis
flavo-hyalinis, apice fuscis.

_Female._ Length 4-1/4 lines. Reddish yellow, smooth, and shining; the
face testaceous, with slight fuscous stains; the scape and two or three
of the basal joints of the flagellum yellow in front; the wings hyaline,
with a yellowish tinge; the nervures black, except the costal nervure,
which is ferruginous towards the base, the apex of the wings slightly
clouded; the posterior tibiæ fuscous above. Abdomen: the segments with
slightly impressed oblique depressions, the ovipositor shorter than the
abdomen, and black.

The _Male_ only differs in having the abdomen rather more slender.

_Hab._ Aru.

4. PIMPLA FERRUGINEA. _P._ flavo-ferruginea; antennis supra fuscis; alis
hyalinis.

_Female._ Length 5-1/2 lines. Ferruginous, with the head and thorax
beneath yellow-testaceous; the coxæ also are of the same colour; the
flagellum slightly fuscous above; the wings flavo-hyaline, the nervures
black; the two basal segments of the abdomen shining, the third and the
following segments subopake; the ovipositor as long as the abdomen.

_Hab._ Key Island.

5. PIMPLA PLAGIATA. _P._ flavo-rufa; antennis strigisque tribus
mesothoracis nigris; alis hyalinis, apice cellulæ marginalis fusco
unimaculato.

_Female._ Length 5-1/2 lines. Yellow, the legs with ferruginous stains;
the antennæ black, with the scape yellow in front; the head with a large
ovate black spot behind the ocelli. Thorax finely punctured on the disk
of metathorax, which has three longitudinal broad black stripes, a
narrow black line on the posterior margin of both the scutellum and
postscutellum; wings hyaline, the nervures black, with a dark fuscous
spot at the apex of the marginal cell. Abdomen reddish-yellow, with the
apical margins of the segments yellow; the ovipositor black, and shorter
than the abdomen.

_Hab._ Aru.

Gen. RHYSSA, _Grav._

1. RHYSSA MACULIPENNIS. _R._ rufescenti-flava; antennis et vertice
nigris; alis hyalinis, plaga nigro-fusca.

_Male._ Length 9 lines. Ferruginous; the head of a yellow testaceous,
with the vertex and antennæ black; the scape ferruginous in front; the
mandibles black. Thorax: the mesothorax and scutellum transversely
rugose, the former with two deeply impressed lines in front, which
converge inwards, and meet in the middle of the disk; wings hyaline,
with a yellow tinge on the anterior pair, the nervures black; a black
stripe crosses the middle of the marginal cell, and terminates at the
inferior margin of the discoidal cell; the legs ferruginous, with the
posterior tarsi black. Abdomen smooth, shining, ferruginous.

_Hab._ Aru.

2. RHYSSA VESTIGATOR. _R._ ferruginea; antennis, mesothorace,
metathoracisque basi nigris; abdomine lineari, nitido et lævi; alis
hyalinis, apice subfuscato.

_Male._ Length 9 lines. Head testaceous-yellow, with the vertex
ferruginous; the antennæ fusco-ferruginous. Thorax black, with the
prothorax, a large oblique spot beneath the wings, the scutellum, and
metathorax yellow, the base of the latter black; the mesothorax and
scutellum rugose; the metathorax smooth and shining; the legs
ferruginous, with the anterior coxæ in front and the posterior pair
behind yellow; the posterior coxæ black beneath; wings hyaline, faintly
clouded at their apical margins. Abdomen elongate, linear, glossy,
smooth, and shining, ferruginous, with the base and lateral margins
blackish.

_Hab._ Aru.

Gen. BRACON, _Fabr._

1. BRACON BASALIS. _B._ capite, thorace, pedibus anticis et intermediis,
femoribus posticis ferrugineis; tibiis tarsisque et abdomine nigris,
segmento basali flavo; alis fusco-hyalinis.

_Female._ Length 4-1/4 lines. The head, scape in front, thorax, anterior
and intermediate legs, the posterior coxæ, trochanters, and femora, and
the first segment of the abdomen, and a semicircular spot in the middle
of the base of the second, yellow-ferruginous; the antennæ, the
posterior tibiæ and tarsi, fuscous; abdomen shining black; the thorax
smooth and shining; the wings fusco-hyaline. The basal segment of the
abdomen with a longitudinal impressed line on each side, the second
segment with an oblique depression, the third with an impressed line,
curved forwards and extending to the lateral margins; the base of the
segment has a row of short, deeply impressed striæ; the ovipositor
shorter than the abdomen.

_Hab._ Aru.

2. BRACON ALBO-MARGINATUS. _B._ capite, thorace pedibusque ferrugineis;
abdomine nigris annulis albo-marginatis; alis fusco-hyalinis.

_Female._ Length 4-1/2 lines. Head, thorax, and legs ferruginous,
smooth, and shining; antennæ and abdomen black, the latter smooth and
shining, the posterior margins of the third and following segments with
a narrow bluish-white fascia; the posterior tarsi slightly fuscous; the
wings fusco-hyaline; the ovipositor a little longer than the abdomen.

_Hab._ Aru.

3. BRACON NIGRIPENNIS. _B._ thorace, pedibus anticis et intermediis,
femoribusque posticis ferrugineis; tibiis tarsisque posticis et abdomine
nigris; alis nigro-fuscis; capite luteo-testaceo.

_Female._ Length 9 lines. Head testaceous, the antennæ black. Thorax,
anterior and intermediate legs, the posterior coxæ, trochanters and
femora, the tegulæ, extreme base of the wings, and the base of the
stigma ferruginous; the thorax smooth and shining; the wings
brown-black, with a small hyaline spot in the first submarginal cell.
Abdomen longitudinally aciculate, a central carina at the base of the
first segment, the second segment with an oblique impressed line running
from the lateral angles of its basal margin, and meeting in the centre
of its posterior margin; the margins of all the segments constricted;
the ovipositor shorter than the abdomen.

_Hab._ Aru.

4. BRACON EXOLETUS. _B._ niger; capite, thorace, pedibus anterioribus et
intermediis ferrugineis; alis subhyalinis.

_Female._ Length 5 lines. Head, scape of the antennæ, thorax, anterior
and intermediate legs, ferruginous; flagellum and tips of the mandibles
black. Thorax smooth and shining; wings fusco-hyaline, the nervures dark
brown; the posterior legs fusco-ferruginous. Abdomen rugose and
subopake; the basal segment black in the middle, with the base and
lateral margins ferruginous, the sides deeply channeled; the second
segment with an arrow-headed shining space in the middle of its base;
the ovipositor shorter than the abdomen.

_Hab._ Aru.

5. BRACON ABDOMINALIS. _B._ rufo-flavus; antennis fuscis; alis
subhyalinis; abdomine ovato.

_Female._ Length 3 lines. Reddish yellow; head and thorax smooth and
shining; the head narrower than the thorax; wings fusco-hyaline; abdomen
ovate, broader than the thorax, the first and second segments rugose,
with deep sculptured impressions; the second segment has an ovate
shining space in the middle at its basal margin; the third segment is
deeply depressed and sculptured at the base, leaving a transverse arched
space at its apex, the width of the entire segment; the following
segments have their margins very deeply depressed.

_Hab._ Aru.

6. BRACON NITIDUS. _B._ niger; capite, thorace pedibusque et abdominis
segmento primo ferrugineis, totis nitidissimis.

_Female._ Length 4 lines. Ferruginous, with the flagellum, second and
following segments shining black; the thorax smooth and shining, with
the scutellum prominent; the wings subhyaline, their apical margins
clouded, their extreme base yellowish, the nervures dark brown, the
stigma black. Abdomen: the second and third segments with deeply
impressed oblique lines on each side, and the basal margins of the
following segments depressed.

_Hab._ Aru.

7. BRACON PALLIFRONS. _B._ niger; thorace pedibusque anticis et
intermediis ferrugineis; alis fuscis.

_Female._ Length 6 lines. Head obscure, testaceous yellow; the eyes
brown; the antennæ black. Thorax and the anterior and intermediate legs
ferruginous; an ovate black spot on the metathorax; and the posterior
legs black, with the articulations obscurely ferruginous; wings dark
fuscous, with the nervures and stigma black, the base of the latter
yellowish, and a hyaline streak beneath it, which crosses the first
submarginal cell. Abdomen black and shining; the first segment with some
coarse striae at the apex; the second with a central forked carina and
an oblique one on each side running inwards to the apex of the segment;
between the carinæ are a number of deep grooves; the lateral margins of
the three basal segments carinated; the third segment has a row of short
deep striæ at its base; the ovipositor longer than the body.

_Hab._ Aru.

8. BRACON INTRUDENS. _B._ niger; thorace, pedibus anticis intermediisque
et abdominis segmento basali ferrugineis; alis hyalinis.

_Female._ Length 5 lines. Black; the thorax, anterior and intermediate
legs, the articulations of the posterior pair, and the base of the
abdomen ferruginous, entirely smooth and shining; the wings subhyaline,
the nervures fusco-ferruginous, an irregular fuscous stain at the base
of the first submarginal cell, extending beyond it. Abdomen: the basal
segment margined at the sides; the second segment with an oblique deeply
impressed line running inwards, not quite meeting or extending to the
apical margin.

_Hab._ Aru.

Gen. AGATHIS, _Latr._

1. AGATHIS FUMIPENNIS. _A._ ferruginea; capite, abdominis apice
tarsisque posticis nigris; alis obscurè fuscis.

_Female._ Length 4 lines. Reddish-yellow; the head, apical joint of the
intermediate tarsi, the apex of the posterior tibiæ, and the third and
following segments of the abdomen black; the thorax and legs with a
thin, short, pale fulvous pubescence; the head and abdomen smooth and
shining; the head produced before the eyes into a kind of beak,
rufo-piceous anteriorly. Thorax narrowed before the wings, which are
dark fuscous, with a hyaline irregular mark below the stigma, crossing
the submarginal cell; the anterior margin of the anterior wings
pubescent; the metathorax broad, margined laterally, with a central
forked carina, and a crooked one on each side; the posterior legs
incrassate. Abdomen with the sides of the upper surface carinated.

_Hab._ Aru.


Fam. CHRYSIDIDÆ, _Leach_.

Gen. STILBUM, _Spin._

1. Stilbum splendidum, _Fabr. Syst. Piez._ p. 170. 1.

_Hab._ Aru; Senegal; Java; Bengal.

2. Stilbum amethystinum, _Fabr. Syst. Piez._ p. 176. 32.

_Hab._ Aru; Australia.

Fabricius includes this insect in the genus _Chrysis_; the typical
specimen, however, proves that it belongs to the more modern genus
_Stilbum_: it is very distinct from _S. splendidum_, being much more
strongly and coarsely punctured; and the teeth which arm the apical
segment are differently disposed on the margin.


Fam. TENTHREDINIDÆ, _Leach_.

Gen. ORYSSUS, _Fabr._

1. ORYSSUS MACULIPENNIS. _O._ niger, punctatus; pedibus ferrugineis;
alis fuscis fasciâ hyalinâ ante cellulam marginalem sitâ.

_Female._ Length 5-1/2 lines. Black; the head rugose, the front coarsely
so, with a row of transverse tubercles running from the vertex along the
inner orbits of the eyes, and crossing the front at half their length;
the cheeks with a cinereous down, and a line of silvery-white pubescence
or down, along the outer orbits of the eyes. Thorax coarsely punctured;
the mesothorax with a central longitudinal smooth elevation; wings
fuscous, with a broad transverse hyaline fascia before the base of the
marginal cell, the tips of the wings hyaline; the legs ferruginous, with
the coxæ and trochanters black; the posterior tibiæ with a double row of
serrations outside. Abdomen shining and closely punctured; the base and
apex coarsely so.

_Hab._ Aru.

Gen. XYPHIDRIA, _Latr._

1. XYPHIDRIA RUFIPES. _X._ nigra; mandibulis, antennarum scapo,
pedibusque ferrugineis; alis hyalinis et iridescentibus.

_Female._ Length 4 lines. Black and shining; the vertex highly polished;
the front from the posterior ocelli forwards closely punctured and
opake; the mandibles, scape, and basal joint of the flagellum
ferruginous. The thorax anteriorly punctured and opake, posteriorly
shining, and with a few punctures at the base of the scutellum; wings
hyaline and iridescent, the nervures black, the extreme base of the
wings and the tegulæ pale testaceous; the legs pale ferruginous, with
the claws of the tarsi darker. Abdomen: the base of the segments
depressed and very delicately and closely punctured, subopake; the
apical half highly polished and shining; beneath obscurely rufo-piceous.

_Hab._ Aru.

Gen. TREMEX, _Jurine_.

1. TREMEX INSIGNIS. _T._ nigro-purpureus; abdominis fasciis basalibus
albis; alis nigris cupreo nitentibus.

_Female._ Length 11 lines. Obscure steel-blue, with shades of green,
purple and violet; the head and thorax punctured; the prothorax with an
oblique smooth shining space on each side; the wings very dark brown,
with a brilliant coppery effulgence. The base of the abdomen opake,
velvety, purple-black; the first segment with a transverse
cream-coloured fascia in the middle, the second very slightly whitish at
its base; the rest of the abdomen is highly polished, and has a
scattered, short, black pubescence.

_Hab._ Aru.



Note on Two Insect-products from Persia. By DANIEL HANBURY, Esq., F.L.S.

[Read December 16th, 1858.]


In the month of June last, my friend Professor Guibourt, of Paris, laid
before the Académie des Sciences[G] some account of a remarkable
substance called _Tréhala_, the cocoon of a Curculionidous insect found
in Persia, where, as well as in other parts of the East, it enjoys some
celebrity as the basis of a mucilaginous drink administered to the sick.

Specimens of this substance, as well as of another insect-product of
Persia, together with the insects themselves, were presented a few years
ago to the British Museum by W. K. Loftus, Esq., who obtained them while
engaged by the British Government on the question of the Turco-Persian
boundaries.

The precise determination of the species of these insects being a matter
of doubt, they have at my request been lately examined by M. Jekel, of
Paris, an entomologist with whom the family of _Curculionidæ_ has long
been an especial study. One of these insects M. Jekel has identified
with a species of wide distribution; the other proving undescribed, he
has drawn up a description of it, which, accompanied by a figure, I have
the honour to lay before the Linnean Society. To this, I venture to add
a few observations upon the productions to which I have alluded.

The first of these is _Tréhala_ or _Tricala_, under which name it formed
part of the Collection of Materia Medica sent by M. Della Sudda, of
Constantinople, to the Paris Exhibition of 1855, and since deposited in
the Ecole de Pharmacie in Paris.

_Tréhala_ (fig. 2) consists of cocoons of an ovoid or globular form,
about 3/4 of an inch in length; their inner surface is composed of a
smooth, hard, dusky layer, external to which is a thick, rough,
tuberculated coating of a greyish-white colour and earthy appearance.
Some of the cocoons have attached to them the remains of the tomentose
stalk of the plant upon which they were formed; others have portions of
a tomentose spiny leaf built into them; and, more rarely, one finds
portions of the flowering heads of the plant, a species of _Echinops_,
similarly enclosed. Many of the cocoons are open at one end and empty;
others have a longitudinal aperture, originally closed by the stalk of
the plant, and still contain the insect; a few are entirely closed.
Specimens of this insect, extracted from the cocoons sent to Paris, were
examined in 1856 by my friend Mr. W. Wilson Saunders, who pronounced
them to be _Larinus maculatus_ of Faldermann,--a determination also
arrived at by M. Jekel from specimens presented by Mr. Loftus to the
British Museum. Respecting these latter, one of which is represented in
fig. 1, M. Jekel makes the following remarks:--

    "LARINUS MACULATUS, _Faldermann, Faun. Transcauc._ ii. p. 228, 449,
    tab. 6. f. 10, et iii. p. 198.--_Schönh. Gen. et Sp. Curcul._ iii.
    p. 112 et vii. 2. p. 7.--_Hochhuth, Bull. Moscou_, 1847, No. 2. p.
    538 (var. [Greek: gamma]).

    "Var. [Greek: gamma]. _Larin. Onopordinis_, Sch. _loc. cit._ iii. p.
    111 (excl. synon.).

    "Of this species, Mr. Loftus captured several specimens, all of
    small size: from some of them the pollinosity had been rubbed off,
    as is represented in the figure by Mr. Ford (_vide_ fig. 1), which
    shows only a part of the inferior layer of tomentum and the greyish
    ground of the dorsal and lateral maculæ; the latter, being the most
    densely coloured in fresh specimens, are always the most persistent.
    These belong to Schönherr's var. [Greek: gamma], which that author
    formerly regarded as the _Larinus Onopordinis_, Fabr. Others of Mr.
    Loftus's specimens, which are very fresh, belong to var. [Greek:
    beta]; none to the typical variety, which is often larger in size.

    "This species has a very extended habitat: I have received it from
    European Turkey (Frivaldski), Beyrouth, Caucasus, Persia (Dupont),
    &c. &c.; and it is recorded by Schönherr as also found in Barbary
    and Portugal.

    "This is the insect which proceeds from the rough chalky-looking
    nidus figured by Mr. Ford. (_Vide_ fig. 2.)"

The entomological question being so far disposed of, I may be permitted
a few remarks upon the properties which have obtained for _Tréhala_ a
place among drugs and dietetic substances.

The first author who gives any account of the substance is Father Ange,
who, in his 'Pharmacopoea Persica[H],' describes it in the following
terms:--"Est autem istud medicamentum veluti _tragea_ ex nucleo pistacii
integro confecta; nam revera saccharum istud exterius corrugatum et
agglomeratum adhæret cuidam nucleo, in quo non fructus, sed vermiculus
quidam nigricans Persice _C-hezoukek_ bombycis instar reconditur et
moritur."

Father Ange also states that the substance is called in Persian _Schakar
tigal_ ([Persian script]), literally _Sugar of nests_; but his Arabic
names, _Schakar el ma-ascher_ ([Arabic script]) and _Saccar el aschaar_,
apply to an entirely different substance, namely to a saccharine matter
exuded, after the punctures of an insect, from the stems of _Calotropis
procera_, R. Br.[I], of which plant he gives a quaint but tolerably
characteristic description.

Mr. Loftus, who obtained the specimens which he presented to the British
Museum, at Kirrind in Persia, in September, 1851, gives as the Persian
name of the cocoons _Shek roukeh_--a term, probably, the same as the
"_C-hezoukek_" (a misprint?) of Father Ange, but the signification of
which I have not been able to discover.

Another notice of the same substance, with a figure, is briefly given in
Dr. Honigberger's 'Thirty-five Years in the East' (Lond. 1852, vol. ii.
pp. 305-6), where we read that _Manna teeghul_ or _Shukure teeghal_,
which are certain insect-nests of a hard texture, rough on the outside,
smooth within, about half an inch in length, and of a whitish colour,
are imported into Lahore from Hindostan.

M. Bourlier published in 1857 an interesting note on the same
substance[J], which has been followed by M. Guibourt's communication to
the Académie des Sciences, and still later by a memoir on the chemical
history of Tréhala, by M. Marcellin Berthelot, also presented to the
Academy[K].

From the investigations of M. Guibourt, it appears that the cocoons are
composed of a large proportion of starch (identical with that found in
the stem of the _Echinops_, upon which the insect forms its nest), of
gum, a peculiar saccharine matter, a bitter principle, besides earthy
and alkaline salts.

The saccharine principle, which has been especially examined by M.
Berthelot, and named by him _Tréhalose_, is a body analogous to
cane-sugar, but possessing distinctive properties, which separate it
from that and all other varieties of sugar.

M. Bourlier states that _Tréhala_, which is abundant in the shops of the
Jew drug-dealers of Constantinople, is frequently used by the Arab and
Turkish physicians in the form of a decoction, which is regarded by them
as of peculiar efficacy in diseases of the respiratory organs.

The second insect-product to which I would draw attention, is a
saccharine substance resembling dark honey. Mr. Loftus, who obtained it
near Kirrind, 13th July, 1851, and whose specimen is in the British
Museum, states that it is exuded from a species of thistle when pierced
by a Rhynchophorous insect; but he fails to inform us for what purposes
it is used by the inhabitants.

Mr. Loftus having also presented the Museum with excellent specimens
both of the plant and insect, I am able to state that the former is
_Echinops persicus_, Fisch., and the latter a new species of _Larinus_,
to which M. Jekel has applied the name _Larinus mellificus_, and of
which he has drawn up the following description:--

    "LARINUS MELLIFICUS, _Jekel_ (fig. 3). Breviter ovatus, convexus,
    niger, nitidus; infra subtiliter, lateribus thoracis margineque
    elytrorum intus medio versus angulariter ampliata, apicem occupante
    griseo-cinerascenti tomentosis; rostro leviter punctato, basi
    utrinque bicanaliculato cum elevatione media lata subcariniformi;
    thorace subconico antice tubulato, supra confertim sat rude
    punctato, lateribus subrugoso; elytris striato-punctatis,
    interstitiis latis, planis, transversim subtilissime rugulosis, cum
    abdomine tenuissime alutaceis, punctis majoribus remotioribus
    impressis; pectore, lateribus, pedibusque rugoso-punctatis,
    femoribus infra fortiter oblique costato-rugosis; tibiis intus,
    anticis fortius crenulatis. Long. (rostr. excl.) 16-18, lat. elytr.
    8-9 mill.

    "Patria--Persia, prope Kirrind, ubi _Echinopsidis_ speciem
    frequentat, cujus plantæ caules ab hoc insecto puncti materiam
    quamdam saccharinam sudant." _W. K. Loftus_, Mus. Brit.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.

_Larinus maculatus_, Falderm.]

[Illustration: Fig. 2.

The cocoons of _Larinus maculatus_, called in Turkish _Tréhala_.]

[Illustration: Fig. 3.

_Larinus mellificus_, Jekel.]

Very similar to _L. Onopordinis_, but proportionably more elongate and
less convex; rostrum and thorax longer; pilosity of the body underneath
much thinner and shorter; thighs thicker, more clavate, the anterior
evidently costate-rugose underneath; without whitish marks on the
elytra, and without that layer of light-brown earth-like pollinose
transudation which is often wanting in rubbed specimens of _Larinus
Onopordinis_. The freshest specimens have the griseous margin of the
elytra, which parts from the base under the shoulder, obliquely and
angularly ampliate interiorly towards the middle, where it reaches the
second stria. This griseous pilosity fills all the tips of the elytra,
leaving bare only the sutures, an angular notch behind the middle (which
forms with that apical part of the suture a kind of hook on each
elytron), and two round spots, one submarginal fronting the tip of the
notch, the other larger, discoidal, behind the foot of the notch, much
above the tip.

FOOTNOTES:

[G] Comptes Rendus, 21 Juin, 1858, p. 1213.

[H] Pharmacopoea Persica ex idiomate Persico in Latinum conversa. Lutet.
Paris., 1681, p. 361.

[I] This saccharine substance is noticed by Avicenna as _Zuccarum
alhusar_ (Lib. ii. Tract. ii. cap. 756, ed. Valgr. Venet. 1564), and
also by Matthiolus (Comm. in Lib. ii. Diosc. cap. 75). It is likewise
referred to by Endlicher (Enchiridion Botanicum, p. 300), Royle
(Illustr. of the Bot. of the Himalayan Mountains, vol. i. p. 275), Merat
and De Lens (Dict. de Matière Médicale, l. i. p. 467), &c.

[J] Revue Pharmaceutique de 1856, par Dorvault, p. 37.

[K] Comptes Rendus, 28 Juin 1858, p. 1276.



Catalogue of the Heterocerous Lepidoptera collected at Singapore by Mr.
A. R. WALLACE, with Descriptions of New Species. By FRANCIS WALKER,
Esq., F.L.S.

[Read Feb. 17, 1859.]


Fam. URANIIDÆ, _Westwood_.

Gen. NYCTALEMON, _Dalman_.

1. Nyctalemon Hector, _White, Walk. Cat. Lep. Het._ vii. 1771.

Inhabits also Borneo.


Fam. AGARISTIDÆ, _Swainson_.

Gen. EUSEMIA, _Dalman_.

2. Eusemia maculatrix, _Westwood, Cat. Orient. Ent._ 67, pl. 33. f. 1.

Inhabits also Hindostan and Java.

3. Eusemia mollis, _Walk. Cat. Lep. Het._ vii. 1774.

Inhabits also Hindostan.


Fam. ZYGÆNIDÆ, _Leach_.

Gen. SYNTOMIS, _Illiger_.

4. SYNTOMIS ANNOSA, n. s. _Foem._ Cinereo-fusca; capite, antennis apice,
humeris abdominisque maculis lateralibus albis; alis maculis quatuor
vitreis.

_Female._ Cinereous brown. Head white. Antennæ serrated, white towards
the tips. Thorax with a large white spot on each side in front. Abdomen
somewhat compressed towards the base, with white spots along each side.
Wings long, with the discal areolets from the base to beyond the middle
mostly vitreous, but having the veins bordered with brown. Length of the
body 9 lines; of the wings 22 lines.

5. SYNTOMIS CHLOROLEUCA, n. s. _Foem._ Nigro-viridis; fronte, antennis
apice, humeris abdominisque fasciis duabus dorsalibus fasciisque
ventralibus albis; alis purpureo-nigris, anticis maculis quatuor
vitreis, posticis macula una vitrea.

_Female._ Blackish-green. Front, antennæ towards the tips, and two
humeral spots white. Antennæ simple. Abdomen with a white band at the
base, and with another on the fifth segment, and with white ventral
bands. Wings purplish-black; fore wings with four vitreous spots; the
fore one of the interior pair not one-third of the size of the hind one,
which is very long; the fore one of the exterior pair much narrower than
the hind one, and accompanied at its inner end by an elongated vitreous
point; hind wings with an elongated vitreous spot. Length of the body
4-1/2 lines; of the wings 12 lines.

6. SYNTOMIS XANTHOMELA, n. s. _Mas._ Nigra; fronte, thoracis margine
antico abdominisque fasciis ochraceis; antennis apice albis, abdominis
fasciculo pallide cinereo; alis anticis maculis quinque vitreis,
posticis maculis duabus vitreis.

_Male._ Black. Front, fore borders of the thorax and hind borders of the
abdominal segments ochraceous; dorsal tuft pale cinereous, rather large.
Antennæ simple, white towards the tips. Fore wings with five vitreous
spots, of which the basal one is small and round, and the other four
large and elongated; the exterior pair intersected by the black veins.
Hind wings with two vitreous spots, of which one is basal and the other
discal. Length of the body 4 lines; of the wings 9 lines.


Fam. LITHOSIIDÆ.

Gen. NYCTEMERA, _Hübner_.

7. NYCTEMERA MUNDIPICTA, n. s. _Mas et Foem._ Fusca; capite thoraceque
albo vittatis; abdomine albo guttis dorsalibus fuscis; alis anticis basi
albo venosis, fascia exteriore obliqua postice abbreviata alba, posticis
albis fusco marginatis. _Foem._ Thorace fascia postica lutea, abdomine
fusco fasciis albis; alis anticis fascia latiore vix abbreviata.

_Male._ Brown. Head and thorax with white lines. Antennæ moderately
pectinated. Pectus with black spots, luteous on each side. Abdomen
white, with brown dorsal dots; tip luteous. Legs white. Fore wings with
white veins towards the base, and with an exterior oblique white band,
which is narrower hindward, and ends at some distance from the interior
border. Hind wings white, with a broad brown border. _Female?_ Larger.
Antennæ slightly pectinated. Thorax with a slight luteous band in front,
and another hindward. Abdomen brown, with a white band on the hind
border of each segment; under side white, with brown spots along each
side. Fore wings with the band much broader, hardly straightened
hindward, and ending very near the interior border. Length of the body
5-6 lines; of the wings 16-20 lines.

Gen. CYCLOSIA, _Hübner_.

8. CYCLOSIA SUBMACULANS, n. s. _Mas._ Nigra, velutina, squamis nonnullis
cyaneis, subtus albo cyaneoque fasciata; alis anticis purpureo-nigris,
punctis paucis exterioribus, alis posticis fuscis, punctis
submarginalibus albis; alis quatuor subtus fuscis, guttis exterioribus
et submarginalibus albis.

_Male._ Black, with a few metallic blue specks, and with metallic
bluish-white pectoral spots and ventral bands. Antennæ slightly
pectinated. Wings velvety, rather long, brown beneath, with an exterior
and a submarginal row of white dots; fore wings purplish-black, with a
few exterior and submarginal white points; hind wings brown, with
submargiual white points. Length of the body 9 lines; of the wings 28
lines.

9. CYCLOSIA NIVIPETENS, n. s. _Mas._ Cinereo-nigra; antennis
cyaneo-nigris subpectinatis; alis anticis fascia lata submarginali alba.

_Male._ Cinereous-black. Antennæ bluish-black. Fore wings with a broad,
submarginal, upright, white band, which is much narrower hindward, and
is intersected by the black veins. Length of the body 7 lines; of the
wings 22 lines.

Gen. PIDORUS, _Walk._

10. PIDORUS CONSTRICTUS, n. s. _Mas._ Cyaneo-niger, subtus testaceus;
antennis pectinatis corpore vix brevioribus; thoracis margine antico
coccineo; alis angustis, anticis fascia exteriore subrecta subobliqua
flavo-alba, posticis cinereo-nigris.

_Male._ Bluish-black, testaceous beneath. Antennæ moderately pectinated,
hardly shorter than the body. Thorax crimson along the fore border.
Wings narrow, somewhat testaceous beneath towards the base; fore wings
with a slightly oblique, hardly curved, yellowish-white exterior band;
hind wings cinereous-black. Length of the body 5 lines; of the wings 16
lines.

Gen. HYPSA, _Hübner_.

11. Hypsa silvandra, _Cram. Pap. Exot._ iv. 155, pl. 369. f. D
(Phalæna).

Inhabits also Hindostan, China, and Australia.

12. Hypsa egens, _Walk. Cat. Lep. Het._ 11. 453. 12.

Inhabits also Hindostan and Java.

Gen. SETINA, _Schranck_.

13. SETINA BIPUNCTATA, n. s. _Mas._ Flava; alis anticis punctis duobus
basalibus guttaque discali nigris.

_Male._ Yellow, closely allied to _S. apicalis_ (Cat. Lep. Het. 521).
Fore wings black along the costa towards the base, where there are two
black points; a small black dot at the tip of the discal areolet. Hind
wings a little paler than the fore wings. Length of the body 3 lines; of
the wings 8 lines.

Gen. BIZONE, _Walk._

14. Bizone hamata, _Walk. Cat. Lep. Het._ 88. 5493.

Inhabits also China.

Gen. DEIOPEIA, _Stephens_.

15. DEIOPEIA DETRACTA, n. s. _Foem._ Pallide lutea; thorace guttis
nigris; alis sat angustis nigro guttatis, fimbria pallida nitente; alis
anticis nigro transverse quadristrigatis.

_Female._ Pale luteous. Thorax with six black dots. Wings narrower than
in the other species of this genus, with black dots, of which the most
part are towards the exterior border, where they form two irregular
lines, and are somewhat confluent on the under side; fringe whitish,
shining. Fore wings with four short transverse various black streaks, of
which the first and the second form an interrupted line. Length of the
body 5 lines; of the wings 14 lines.

Gen. DARANTASIA, n. g.

_Foem. Corpus_ sat robustum. _Proboscis_ distincta. _Palpi_ porrecti,
breves, caput non superantes; articulus tertius longiconicus, acutus,
secundi dimidio non longior. _Antennæ_ setaceæ, simplices, gracillimæ.
_Abdomen_ subconicum, alas posticas superans; sexualia sat magna.
_Pedes_ breves, nudi, sat validi, calcaribus robustis sat longis. _Alæ_
breviusculæ, sat angustæ; anticæ apud costam convexæ, apice rotundatæ,
margine exteriore perobliquo.

Allied to _Lemyra_ (Cat. Lep. Het. vii. 1690).

_Female._ Body rather stout. Proboscis moderately long. Palpi porrect,
short, not extending beyond the head; third joint elongate-conical,
acute, about half the length of the second. Antennæ setaceous, simple,
very slender, full half the length of the body. Abdomen nearly conical,
extending somewhat beyond the hind wings; anal appendages rather large.
Legs short, bare, rather stout; spurs stout, rather long. Wings rather
short and narrow; fore wings convex along the costa, rounded at the
tips, extremely oblique along the exterior border.

16. DARANTASIA CUNEIPLENA, n. s. _Mas._ Nigra; corpore subtus, capite,
thoracis fasciis duabus anticis maculaque postica abdominisque fasciis
posticis luteis; pedibus luteis, tibiis supra nigris; alis anticis luteo
octo-strigatis, posticis luteo strigatis.

_Male._ Black, mostly luteous beneath. Head luteous. Thorax with two
luteous bands in front, and with a luteous spot hindward. Abdomen with
luteous bands hindward. Legs luteous; tibiæ black above. Fore wings with
eight wedge-shaped luteous streaks, of which three are near the base,
two subcostal, two hindward, and one submarginal and transverse. Hind
wings with three luteous streaks, of which the first and second are
connected exteriorly, and the third is short, broad, and submarginal.
Length of the body 3-1/2 lines; of the wings 8 lines.


Fam. LIPARIDÆ, _Boisduval_.

Gen. ARTAXA, _Walk._

17. ARTAXA VARIANS, _Walk. Cat. Lep. Het._ iv. 796.

Inhabits also West Africa, Hindostan, and China.

Gen. PANTANA, _Walk._

18. PANTANA BICOLOR, _Walk. Cat. Lep. Het._ iv. 820.

_Note._--_P. dispar_, a native of Hindostan, and _P. ampla_, a native of
China, may be varieties of this species.


Fam. NOTODONTIDÆ, _Stephens_.

Gen. DARABITTA, n. g.

_Foem._ _Corpus_ vix robustum. _Proboscis_ brevis. _Palpi_ longiusculi,
oblique ascendentes, non pilosi. _Antennæ_ validæ, subcompressæ,
breviusculæ, simplices. _Abdomen_ conicum, alas posticas non superans.
_Pedes_ squamosi, læves, brevinusculi, sat graciles, calcaribus longis.
_Alæ_ latiusculæ, non longæ; anticæ apud costam rectæ, apice
subrotundatæ, margine exteriore vix convexo.

This genus hardly belongs to the _Notodontidæ_; but its precise
situation seems to be uncertain. _Female._ Body hardly stout. Proboscis
short. Palpi rather long and slender, not pilose, obliquely ascending,
rising a little higher than the vertex; third joint elongate-conical,
less than half the length of the second. Antennæ stout, bare, slightly
compressed, little longer than the thorax; joints few. Abdomen conical,
not extending beyond the hind wings. Legs squamous, smooth, rather short
and slender; spurs long. Wings rather broad, not long; fore wings
straight along the costa, slightly rounded at the tips; exterior border
hardly convex, very slightly oblique.

19. DARABITTA STRIGICOSTA, n. s. _Foem._ Rufa, vix cinerascens; alis
anticis linea submarginali e punctis nigris, lineolis tribus costalibus
obliquis albis, prima angulata, secunda tertiaque connexis.

_Female._ Red, with a slight cinereous tinge, more cinereous beneath.
Antennæ pale. Fore wings with three white oblique costal streaks; first
streak forming an outward angle; second connected in the disk with the
third, which is oblique in the contrary direction; a row of submarginal
black points. Length of the body 3 lines; of the wings 8 lines.


Fam. LIMACODIDÆ, _Duponchel_.

Gen. MIRESA, _Walk._

20. MIRESA CURVIFERA, n. s. _Mas._ Rufa, crassa, brevis; antennis late
pectinatis; alis anticis linea exteriore arcuata nivea, spatio contiguo
exteriore obscuriore.

_Male._ Red, thick, short. Palpi porrect, extending a little beyond the
head. Antennæ shorter than the thorax, broadly pectinated except towards
the tips. Abdomen short, obtuse, not extending beyond the hind wings.
Legs short. Wings not broad. Fore wings straight along the costa,
rounded at the tips, darker on the exterior side of a curved transverse
bright white line, which is somewhat beyond the middle; exterior border
rather oblique. Hind wings a little paler than the fore wings. Length of
the body 4-1/2 lines; of the wings 12 lines.


Fam. SATURNIIDÆ, _Walk._

Gen. ATTACUS, _Linn._

21. ATTACUS ATLAS, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 808.

Inhabits also Hindostan, Ceylon, China, and Borneo.


Fam. BOMBYCIDÆ.

Gen. BOMBYX, _Linn._

22. BOMBYX SUBNOTATA. _Mas._ Ferruginea, crassa; antennis late
pectinatis; abdominis apice laminis lateralibus fimbriatis; alis anticis
margine exteriore subundulato subexciso, macula subtus costali
subapicali flava.

_Male._ Ferruginous, thick, pilose. Mouth obsolete. Antennæ broadly
pectinated. Abdomen much more slender than the thorax, not extending
beyond the hind wings; anal lateral appendages fringed. Legs short,
stout. Fore wings rounded at the tips, extremely oblique along the
exterior border, which is slightly angular in the middle and slightly
excavated on each side; under side with a yellow costal spot near the
tip. Hind wings with the interior border densely fringed towards the
tip. Length of the body 7 lines; of the wings 16 lines.


Fam. LEUCANIDÆ, _Guénée_.

Gen. MYTHIMNA, _Hübner_.

23. MYTHIMNA INDUCENS, n. s. _Foem._ Lateritio-rufa, subtus albida;
palporum articulo tertio brevissimo; abdomine rufescenti-cano; alarum
anticarum puncto discali nigro, lineis duabus nigricantibus subarcuatis
indistinctis, alis posticis rufescenti-canis.

_Female._ Brick-red colour, mostly whitish beneath. Palpi obliquely
ascending, not rising to the height of the vertex; third joint extremely
small, less than one-sixth of the length of the second. Abdomen
reddish-hoary, extending but little beyond the hind wings. Legs stout,
squamous; spurs moderately long. Fore wings very slightly convex along
the costa, rectangular at the tips; exterior border slightly oblique,
nearly straight; two slender, indistinct, slightly curved, blackish
lines, having between them a more distinct black discal point. Hind
wings reddish-hoary, the reddish tinge most prevalent towards the
exterior border. Length of the body 7 lines; of the wings 18 lines.


Fam. GONOPTERIDÆ, _Guénée_.

Gen. ANOMIS, _Hübner_.

24. ANOMIS MUTILATA, n. s. _Mas._ Rufa, robusta, subtus
rufescenti-cinerea; palpis longis subascendentibus; abdomine latiusculo;
alarum anticarum lineis tribus indistinctis angulosis nigricantibus,
orbiculari alba punctiformi, margine exteriore postico perobliquo
subexcavato.

_Male._ Red, stout, reddish cinereous beneath. Palpi long, obliquely
ascending; third joint slender, linear, obtuse at the tip, a little
shorter than the second. Antennæ stout, with extremely short setæ.
Abdomen rather broad, extending a little beyond the hind wings. Fore
wings with three blackish, indistinct, slightly diffuse, zigzag lines,
which are slightly bordered hindward with pale yellow; orbicular mark
white, punctiform; exterior border slightly angular, hardly oblique, and
slightly truncated on the fore half, extremely oblique and with two
slight excavations on the hind half; fringe partly white. Hind wings not
paler than the fore wings. Length of the body 7 lines; of the wings 18
lines.

Gen. THALATTA, _Walk._

25. Thalatta aurigutta, _Walk. Cat. Lep. Het._ xv. 1793.


Fam. HYPOGRAMMIDÆ, _Guénée_.

Gen. BRIARDA, _Walk._

26. BRIARDA PLAGIFERA, n. s. _Mas._ Ferrugineo-cinerea; capite
thoraceque antico nigricantibus; tibiis ciliatis; alis sat angustis
subdenticulatis, anticarum fascia basali, macula discali maculaque
costali exteriore nigricantibus, lineis exteriore et submarginali fuscis
duplicatis denticulatis subnebulosis; alis posticis pallide cinereis,
semihyalinis, fusco latissime marginatis.

_Male._ Cinereous, tinged with ferruginous. Head and fore part of the
thorax blackish. Palpi obliquely ascending; third joint linear, conical
at the tip, about half the length of the second. Antennæ hardly setose.
Abdomen extending a little beyond the hind wings. Legs rather stout;
tibiæ fringed; spurs very long. Wings rather narrow, slightly
denticulated. Fore wings slightly rounded at the tips, very oblique
along the exterior border; a blackish band near the base, abbreviated
hindward; a large blackish spot on the reniform mark, and a diffuse
blackish spot near the tip of the costa; exterior and submarginal lines
brown, double, denticulated, with the space along their borders somewhat
clouded. Hind wings pale cinereous, semihyaline, with very broad brown
borders. Length of the body 9 lines; of the wings 22 lines.


Fam. CATEPHIDÆ, _Guénée_.

Gen. STEIRIA, _Walk._

27. STEIRIA PHRYGANEOIDES, n. s. _Mas._ Pallide cinerea, rufescente
conspersa; palpis longis vix ascendentibus; alis sat angustis
denticulatis; alarum anticarum squamis nonnullis nigris fuscisque,
marginibus exteriore et interiore non conspersis, reniformi magna; alis
posticis pallide cinereis, fusco late marginatis.

_Male._ Pale cinereous, thickly speckled with ferruginous red. Palpi
long, hardly ascending, almost straight; third joint linear, obtuse at
the tip, rather shorter than the second. Antennæ bare. Abdomen conical,
extending rather beyond the hind wings; apical tuft small. Legs rather
long and slender, almost bare; spurs very long. Wings rather narrow;
exterior border denticulated. Fore wings with the speckles mostly
confluent in the disk, mostly wanting along the interior and exterior
borders; several black and brown speckles, some of which border the
large reniform mark. Hind wings pale cinereous, with a broad brown
border. Length of the body 8 lines; of the wings 20 lines.


Fam. OPHIDERIDÆ, _Guénée_.

Gen. OPHIDERES, _Boisduval_.

28. Ophideres Salaminia, _Cram. Pap. Exot._ 71. 117, pl. 174. fig. A.

Inhabits also Hindostan, Ceylon, Java, and China.

29. Ophideres discrepans, _Walk. Cat. Lep. Het._ xiii. 1227.

30. Ophideres smaragdipicta, _Walk. Cat. Lep. Het._ xiii. 1229.


Fam. PHYLLODIDÆ, _Guénée_.

Gen. LYGNIODES, _Guénée_.

31. Lygniodes endoleuca, _Guén. Noct._ iii. 124.

Inhabits also Java.


Fam. EREBIDÆ, _Guénée_.

Gen. SYPNA, _Guénée_.

32. Sypna subsignata, _Walk. Cat. Lep. Het._ xiv. 1261.


Fam. OMMATOPHORIDÆ, _Guénée_.

Gen. PATULA, _Guénée_.

33. Patula macrops, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 225 (Noctua).

Inhabits also West and South Africa, Madagascar, Hindostan, and Ceylon.

Gen. ARGIVA, _Hübner_.

34. Argiva hieroglyphica, _Drury, Ins. Exot._ 11. 3, pl. 2. f. 1
(Noctua).

Inhabits also Madagascar, Hindostan, and Ceylon.


Fam. OPHIUSIDÆ, _Guénée_.

Gen. CÆCILA, _Walk._

35. Cæcila complexa, _Walk. Cat. Lep. Het._ xv. 1825.

Gen. OPHISMA, _Guénée_.

36. Ophisma Umminia, _Cram. Pap. Exot._ 111. 137, pl. 267. f. 7
(Noctua).

Inhabits also Java and Sumatra.

Gen. ACHÆA, _Hübner_.

37. Achæa mercatoria, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 111. 2, 62. 175. (Noctua).

Inhabits also Hindostan and Java.


Fam. THERMESIDÆ, _Guénée_.

Gen. THERMESIA, _Hübner_.

38. THERMESIA? RECUSATA, n. s. _Mas._ Rufescenti-cinerea, robusta,
nigricante conspersa, capite thoraceque antico fuscis; palpis
longissimis ascendentibus subarcuatis; antennis subsetosis, alis linea
exteriore recta obliqua nigricante extus diffusa, linea interiore tenui
subarcuata nigricante, linea submarginali e punctis lineaque marginali
nigris.

_Male._ Reddish cinereous, stout, with blackish speckles. Head and fore
part of the thorax brown. Frontal tuft acute. Palpi very long, slightly
curved, nearly vertical; third joint linear, acute, shorter than the
second. Antennæ slightly setose. Abdomen hardly extending beyond the
hind wings. Wings with the speckles here and there confluent; lines
blackish; interior line slender, slightly curved; exterior line
straight, oblique, diffuse on the outer side, extending almost to the
tips of the fore wings; submarginal line represented by points; marginal
line slightly undulating. Fore wings rectangular at the tips; exterior
border slightly bent; its fore part not oblique; orbicular and reniform
marks indistinct. Length of the body 6 lines; of the wings 16 lines.

Gen. HYPERNARIA, _Guénée_.

39. HYPERNARIA DIFFUNDENS, n. s. _Foem._ Cinerea, robusta, fusco
conspersa; palporum articulo secundo extus fusco, tertio aciculari
longissimo, alarum lineis interiore et exteriore vagis dentatis lineaque
media recta sat obliqua squamis fuscis, punctis marginalibus atris, alis
anticis acutis, orbiculari punctiformi atra, litura reniformi angusta
fusco marginata extus excavata.

_Female._ Cinereous, stout, speckled with brown. Palpi very slightly
curved; second joint brown on the outer side; third acicular, a little
shorter than the second. Antennæ minutely setose. Abdomen not extending
beyond the hind wings. Wings with the interior and exterior lines
angulose, diffuse, composed of brown speckles; middle line more oblique,
straight, slender, double, obsolete towards the costa of the fore wings,
bordered with diffuse angular streaks of brown speckles; marginal points
deep black. Fore wings acute; orbicular mark black, punctiform; reniform
narrow, brown, bordered, excavated on the outer side; exterior border
slightly convex. Length of the body 10 lines; of the wings 22 lines.

Gen. UGIA, _Walk._

40. Ugia disjungens, _Walk. Cat. Lep. Het._ xv. 1860.


Fam. PLATYDIDÆ, _Guénée_.

Gen. MASCA, _Walk._

41. Masca abactalis, _Walk. Cat. Lep. Het._ xvi. 9.


Fam. HYPENIDÆ, _Herr.-Schæffer_.

Gen. HYPENA, _Schranck_.

42. Hypena ruralis, _Walk. Cat. Lep. Het._ xvi. 65.

Inhabits also Ceylon.

Gen. MACNA, _Walk._

43. Macna pomalis, _Walk. Cat. Lep. Het._ xvi. 78.


Fam. MARGARODIDÆ, _Guénée_.

Gen. MARGARODES, _Guénée_.

44. Margarodes Amphitritalis, _Guén. Delt. et Pyral._ 307, 327.

Inhabits also Hindostan.

Gen. NEURINA, _Guénée_.

45. Neurina Procopialis, _Cram. Pap. Exot._ iv. 152, pl. 368. f. E.
(Phalæna Pyralis Procopia.)

Inhabits also Hindostan and Java.


Fam. ENNOMIDÆ, _Guénée_.

Gen. BULONGA, n. g.

_Corpus_ gracile. _Proboscis_ brevissima. _Palpi_ breves, porrecti,
angulati. _Antennæ_ simplices. _Abdomen_ conicum. _Pedes_ graciles,
nudi, calcaribus non longis, tibiis anticis brevissimis. _Alæ_ sat latæ;
anticæ acutæ, margine exteriore sat obliquo; posticæ abdomen superantes.

Body slender. Proboscis very short. Palpi as long as the breadth of the
head; second joint obliquely ascending; third porrect, rather shorter
than the second, with which it forms an obtuse angle. Antennæ simply
filiform. Abdomen conical. Legs slender, bare; spurs rather short; fore
tibiæ very short. Wings rather broad; fore wings rectangular at the
tips; costa hardly convex; exterior border rather oblique. Hind wings
with the interior angle prominent, acute.

46. BULONGA SCHISTACEARIA, n. s. _Foem._ Glauco-cinerea, alis
nitentibus, linea marginali nigra fimbria interlineata, anticis fusco
quadrilineatis, posticis trilineatis.

_Female._ Glaucous-cinereous, paler beneath. Head and palpi reddish.
Wings shining; marginal line black; fringe pale cinereous, including a
darker line. Fore wings with four straight oblique brown lines; second
line broader than the first, apparent also on the hind wings; third
narrower and darker than the others, blackish, and still more distinct
on the hind wings, where it is bordered with whitish on the outer side;
fourth more indistinct than the others, still more indistinct on the
hind wings. Length of the body 6 lines; of the wings 16 lines.


Fam. AMPHIDASYDÆ, _Guénée_.

Gen. DARISTANE, n. g.

_Mas._ _Corpus_ robustum. _Proboscis_ brevissima. _Palpi_ validi, breves
obtusi, oblique ascendentes; articulus tertius minimus. _Antennæ_
setaceæ, simplices. _Abdomen_ conicum, alas posticas non superans.
_Pedes_ validi, breviusculi; tibiæ anticæ brevissimæ, posteriores
latissimae, calcaribus longis. _Alæ_ breviusculæ, sat latæ; anticæ
acutæ.

_Male._ Body robust. Proboscis very short. Palpi short, stout, obtuse,
obliquely ascending; third joint very small. Antennæ setaceous, simple.
Abdomen conical, not extending beyond the hind wings. Legs stout, rather
short; tibiæ pilose; fore tibiæ very short; posterior tibiæ very broad,
especially the middle pair. Wings rather short, moderately broad. Fore
wings straight along the costa, acutely rectangular at the tips;
exterior border rather oblique.

47. DARISTANE TIBIARIA, n. s. _Mas._ Cinerea, nitens, alis nigro
conspersis, fascia media rufescente non bene determinata, anticis costa
albida nigro punctata.

_Male._ Cinereous, shining, a little paler beneath. Wings speckled with
black; an indistinct oblique reddish middle band; costa of the fore
wings whitish, with black points. Length of the body 5 lines; of the
wings 12 lines.


Fam. PALYADÆ, _Guénée_.

Gen. EUMELEA, _Duncan_.

48. Eumelea Rosaliata, _Cram. Pap. Exot._ iv. 152, pl. 368. f. F.
(Phalæna Geometra Rosalia.)

Inhabits also Amboyna.


Fam. EPHYRIDÆ, _Guénée_.

Gen. EPHYRA, _Duponchel_.

49. EPHYRA QUADRISTRIARIA, n. s. _Foem._ Rufescens, subtus flava, alis
flavis rufescente conspersis, fascia exteriore perobliqua rufescente,
anticis acutis, lituris duabus costalibus obliquis fuscis.

_Female._ Reddish, yellow beneath. Proboscis short. Palpi short,
slightly ascending; third joint linear, obtuse, a little shorter than
the second. Antennæ short, stout, setaceous. Abdomen not extending
beyond the hind wings. Legs bare, rather long and slender; spurs long.
Wings yellow, with reddish speckles, and with a straight reddish band,
which extends from beyond the middle of the interior border of the hind
wings to the tips of the fore wings. Fore wings acute, with two oblique
brown costal marks; exterior border rather oblique. Length of the body 4
lines; of the wings 12 lines.

Gen. ANISODES, _Guénée_.

50. ANISODES EXPUNCTARIA, n. s. _Foem._ Luteo-cervina, palpis longis
angulatis, antennis breviusculis, alis ferrugineo subconspersis, linea
media fusca undulata valde indistincta, lineis interiore et exteriore e
punctis nigris, punctis marginalibus nigris.

_Female._ Pale luteous fawn colour. Proboscis short. Palpi long,
slightly decumbent; third joint a little shorter than the second, with
which it forms an obtuse angle. Antennæ simple, short. Wings minutely
and indistinctly sprinkled with ferruginous; a brown, diffuse,
undulating, very indistinct middle line, which is obsolete in the hind
wings; interior and exterior lines indicated by widely separated black
points; marginal points black. Fore wings rectangular at the tips;
exterior border slightly oblique. Length of the body 6 lines; of the
wings 8 lines.


Fam. ACIDALIDÆ, _Guénée_.

Gen. SYNEGIA, _Guénée_.

51. Synegia botydaria, _Guén. Uran. et Phal._ i. 423. 694.

Inhabits also Borneo.

Gen. DRAPETODES, _Guénée_.

52. Drapetodes mitaria, _Guén. Uran. et Phal._ i. 424. 695.

Inhabits also Hindostan.

Gen. TIMANDRA, _Duponchel_.

53. TIMANDRA AJAIA, n. s. _Mas._ Glaucescenti-cinerea; antennis setosis,
alis linea perobliqua fusca antice abbreviata, linea marginali nigra,
anticis valde acutis, reniformi tenui fusca.

_Male._ Cinereous, with a glaucous tinge. Proboscis short. Palpi very
short, obliquely ascending; third joint extremely small. Antennæ setose,
somewhat shorter than the body. Wings with a straight, very oblique,
brown line, which extends from the middle of the interior border of the
hind wings towards the tip of the fore wings, on approaching which it is
obsolete; marginal line black. Fore wings very acute; exterior border
extremely oblique; reniform mark brown, very slender. Hind wings
extending beyond the abdomen. Length of the body 6 lines; of the wings
17 lines.

Gen. ZANCLOPTERYX, _Herr.-Schæffer_.

54. Zanclopteryx saponaria, _Herr.-Schæffer, Guén. Uran. et Phal._ 11.
16, 915.

Inhabits also Ceylon.


Fam. MICRONIDÆ, _Guénée_.

Gen. MICRONIA, _Guénée_.

55. Micronia rectinervata, _Guén. Uran. et Phal._ 11. 27, 933.


Fam. ZERENIDÆ.

Gen. STALAGMIA, _Guénée_.

56. Stalagmia guttaria, _Guér. Icon. Regn. Anim. Ins._ pl. 90 (Phalæna).



Catalogue of the Heterocerous Lepidopterous Insects collected at Malacca
by Mr. A. R. WALLACE, with Descriptions of New Species. By FRANCIS
WALKER.


Fam. SPHINGIDÆ, _Leach_.

Gen. MACROGLOSSA, _Ochsenheimer_.

1. Macroglossa Passalus, _Drury, Exot. Ins._ ii. 52, pl. 29. f. 2
(Sphinx).

Inhabits also Hindostan and Java.

2. Macroglossa corythus, _Boisd. MSS._; _Walk. Cat. Lep. Het._ viii. 92.
14.

Inhabits also Hindostan, Ceylon, and Java.


Fam. AGARISTIDÆ, _Swainson_.

Gen. EUSEMIA, _Dalman_.

3. Eusemia maculatrix, _Westw._ (See Singapore Sp. No. 2.)

4. Eusemia mollis, _Walk._ (See Singapore Sp. No. 3.)

5. EUSEMIA SUBDIVES, n. s. _Mas._ Atra, antennis subpectinatis, abdomine
fasciis luteis, alis anticis fascia exteriore recta non obliqua
testacea; posticis ochraceis atro marginatis.

_Male._ Deep black. Antennæ slightly pectinated, slightly hooked at the
tips. Abdomen with a luteous band on the hind border of each segment.
Fore wings with an upright, straight, testaceous exterior band, which
does not extend to the interior border. Hind wings bright ochraceous,
with a deep black border, which is irregular on the inner side and is
joined in front to a black spot, the latter, on the under side,
containing a white curved line. Length of the body 9 lines; of the wings
28 lines.


Fam. LITHOSIIDÆ, _Stephens_.

Gen. NYCTEMERA, _Hübner_.

6. Nyctemera tripunctaria, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 864. 226 (Geometra).

Inhabits also Hindostan and China.

Gen. EUSCHEMA, _Hübner_.

7. Euschema subrepleta, _Walk. Cat. Lep. Het._ xi. 406. 3.

Inhabits also Ceylon and Borneo.


Fam. LIPARIDÆ, _Boisduval_.

Gen. PANTANA.

8. Pantana bicolor, _Walk._ (See Singapore Sp. No. 17.)


Fam. ORTHOSIDÆ, _Guénée_.

Gen. CAREA, _Walk._

9. Carea varipes, _Walk. Cat. Lep. Het._ x. 475.


Fam. HYBLÆIDÆ, _Guénée_.

Gen. HYBLÆA, _Fabr._

10. Hyblæa tortricoides, _Guén. Noct._ ii. 391.

Inhabits also Borneo.

11. Hyblæa erycinoides, _Walk. Cat. Lep. Het._ xv. 1792.


Fam. PHYLLODIDÆ, _Guénée_.

Gen. LYGNIODES, _Guénée_.

12. Lygniodes endoleuca, _Guén._ (See Singapore Sp. No. 30.)


Fam. OPHIUSIDÆ, _Guénée_.

Gen. OPHIUSA, _Ochsenheimer_.

13. Ophiusa fulvotænia, _Guén. Noct._ iii. 272. 1710.

Inhabits also Hindostan, Ceylon, Java, and Sumatra.


Fam. THERMESIDÆ, _Guénée_.

Gen. COTUZA, _Walk._

14. COTUZA CONFIRMATA, n. s. _Mas._ Cinereo-ferruginea, robusta, dense
vestita, subtus alba; palpis latis compressis oblique ascendentibus;
articulo tertio minimo, antennis plus dimidio basali subpectinatis, alis
linea, media recta perobliqua nigro-fusca antice angulosa et retracta,
linea exteriore e denticulis nigro-fuscis albido terminatis, fimbria
apice alba, alis anticis subhamatis, linea interiore nigro-fusca
undulata orbiculari nigra punctiformi, reniformi et litura costali albis
nigro marginatis.

_Male._ Cinereous-ferruginous, stout, densely pilose, white beneath.
Palpi broad, compressed, obliquely ascending, not rising higher than the
head; third joint obtuse, extremely short. Antennæ slightly pectinated
to nearly two-thirds of the length, bare from thence to the tips.
Abdomen not extending beyond the hind wings. Legs white; tibiæ
ferruginous above. Wings ample; a blackish brown, straight, very oblique
line, which is zigzag, and retracted towards the costa of the fore
wings; exterior line composed of blackish-brown, very acute,
whitish-pointed angles; fringe white exteriorly. Fore wings slightly
hooked, with an interior undulating blackish-brown line; orbicular mark
black, punctiform; reniform white, black-bordered, forming a triangular
spot and an anterior point; a small exterior white costa, with mark.
Length of the body 11 lines; of the wings 28 lines.


Fam. ACIDALIDÆ, _Guénée_.

Gen. ZANCLOPTERYX, _Herr.-Schæff._

15. Zanclopteryx saponaria, _Herr.-Schæff._ (See Singapore Species, No.
54.)



INDEX.



                          Page

Achæa mercatoria, _Fabr._  191

Achias longividens, _Walk._  121
  latividens, _Walk._  121
  amplividens, _Walk._  122

Achiides, _Walk._  121

Acidalidæ, _Guénée_  195, 198

Adraga, _Walk._  82
  univitta, _Walk._  82

Adrama, _Walk._  117
  selecta, _Walk._  118

Agaristidæ, _Swainson_  183, 196

Agathis fumipennis, _Sm._  176
  modesta, _Sm._  25
  nitida, _Sm._  26
  sculpturalis, _Sm._  25

Agenia, Alcyone, _Sm._  155
  Althea, _Sm._  154
  Amalthea, _Sm._  155
  bimaculata, _Sm._  13
  blanda, _Guér._  13, 154
  Callisto, _Sm._  154
  jucunda, _Sm._  154

Alastor apicatus, _Sm._  166
  unifasciatus, _Sm._  165

Allodape nitida, _Sm._  134

Ammophila insolata, _Sm._  14

Amorphopus, _Bell_  27
  cylindraceus, _Bell_  27

Amphidasydæ, _Guénée_  193

Anas punctata, _Cuvier_  33

Andrenidæ, _Leach_  5, 132

Angitula, _Walk._  123
  longicollis, _Walk._  123

Anisodes expunctaria, _Walk._  194

Anomis mutilata, _Walk._  189

Anthomyia procellaria, _Walk._  108

Anthomyides, _Walk._  107, 130

Anthophora elegans, _Sm._  135
  zonata, _Linn._  8, 135

Anthrax degenera, _Walk._  90
  pelops, _Walk._  90
  semiscita, _Walk._  90

Apis zonata, _Sm._  8

Argiva hieroglyphica, _Drury_  191

Argonauta tuberculosa  34

Aricia canivitta, _Walk._  107

Aricia significans, _Walk._  107
  squalens, _Walk._  130
  vicaria, _Walk._  130

Artaxa varians, _Walk._  189

Asilidæ, _Leach_  83, 128

Asilites, _Walk._  87

Asilus longistylus, _Wied._  88
  superveniens, _Walk._  128

Attacus Atlas, _Linn._  188


Baccha purpuricola, _Walk._  129

Bee, death of the Common Hive Bee occasioned by a parasitic fungus  29

Bembex melancholica, _Sm._  160
  trepanda, _Dahlb._  15

Bembicidæ, _Westw._  15

Bengalia spissa, _Walk._  107

Bibionidæ, _Haliday_  77

Bizone hamata, _Walk._  186

Bombilidæ, _Leach_  90

Bombyx subnotata, _Walk._  188

Bombycidæ  188

Bombylites, _Walk._  90

Bracon abdominalis, _Sm._  175
  albo-marginatus, _Sm._   174
  basalis, _Sm._  174
  exoletus, _Sm._  175
  insinuator, _Sm._  24
  intrudens, _Sm._  24, 176
  nigripennis, _Sm._  175
  nitidus, _Sm._  175
  pallifrons, _Sm._  176

Braconidæ  24

Brea, _Walk._  117
  contraria, _Walk._  117
  discalis, _Walk._  117

Briarda plagifera, _Walk._  189

Bulonga, _Walk._  193
  schistacearia, _Walk._  193


Coelyoxys fulvifrons, _Sm._  7

Calobata Abana, _Walk._  124
  albitarsis, _Wied._  124
  indica, _Desv._  124
  sepsoides, _Walk._  124

Cardiacephala debilis, _Walk._  124

Carea varipes, _Walk._  197
Catephidæ, _Guénée_  190

Ceratina hieroglyphica, _Sm._  7
  viridis, _Guér._  7

Cerceris fuliginosa, _Sm._  19
  instabilis, _Sm._  18
  unifasciata, _Sm._  19
  varipes, _Sm._  19

Cereopsis Novæ Hollandiæ  33

Cerea relicta, _Walk._  93, 94
  smaragdina, _Walk._  93

Cetacea, _R. Knox_ on the Anatomy and Natural History of the  63

Chrysididæ  26, 177

Chrysis insularis, _Sm._  26
  purpurea, _Sm._  26
  sumptuosa, _Sm._  27

Chrysopila vacillans, _Walk._  89

Clitellaria bivittata, _Fabr._  80

Cæcila complexa, _Walk._  191

Cælopa inconspicua, _Walk._  108

Cænosia luteicornis, _Walk._  108

Coturnix pectoralis, _Gould_  33

Cotuza confirmata, _Walk._  197

Crabro (Rhopalum) agilis, _Sm._  18
  solitarius, _Sm._  162

Crabronidæ  18

Crematogaster elegans, _Sm._  149
  insularis, _Sm._  149
  obscura, _Sm._  149

Crocisa nitidula, _Fabr._  134

Cryptoceridæ, _Sm._  150

Cryptus scutellatus, _Sm._  170

Culex scutellaris, _Walk._  77

Culicidæ, _Haliday_  185

Cyclosia nivipetens, _Walk._  185
  submaculans, _Walk._  185


Dacus expandens, _Walk._  114
  latifascia, _Walk._  114
  lativentris, _Walk._  115
  longivitta, _Walk._  115
  mutilloides, _Walk._  115
  obtrudens, _Walk._  116
  pectoralis, _Walk._  114
  pompiloides, _Walk._  116

Darabitta, _Walk._  187
  strigicosta, _Walk._  187

Darantasia, _Walk._  186
  cuneiplena, _Walk._  186

Daristane, _Walk._  193
  tibiaria, _Walk._  194

Dasygastræ, _Sm._  6, 134

Dasypogon inopinus, _Walk._  83
  honestus, _Walk._  83

Dasypogonites, _Walk._  83

Deiopeia detracta, _Walk._  186

Denudata  7

Dexia pectoralis, _Walk._  101

Dexides, _Walk._  101

Diaphorus resumens, _Walk._  93

Diodon  76

Dolichopidæ, _Leach_  91

Dolichopus trigonifer, _Walk._  92

Delphinis  63

Drapetodes mitaria, _Guér._  195

Drosophila? finigutta, _Walk._  126
  ? imperata, _Walk._  126
  ? melanospila, _Walk._  126

Dryomyza semicyanea, _Walk._  109


Ectatomma rugosa, _Sm._  143

Empidæ, _Leach_  91, 129

Ennomidæ, _Guén._  193

Ephydra? taciturna, _Walk._  127

Ephyra quadristriaria, _Walk._  194

Ephyridæ, _Guénée_  194

Erebidæ, _Guéneé_  191

Eristalis conductus, _Walk._  95
  muscoïdes, _Walk._  96
  resolutus, _Walk._  95, 129
  splendens, _Leguillon_  95
  suavissimus, _Walk._  95

Evanidæ, _Leach_  169

Eumelea Rosaliata, _Cram._  194

Eumenes architectus, _Sm._  20
  arcuata, _Fabr._  163
  circinalis, _Fabr._  20
  floralis, _Sm._  20
  fulvipennis, _Sm._  20
  vindex, _Sm._  20

Eumenidæ, _Westw._  19, 163

Eurygaster decipiens, _Walk._  100
  phasioïdes, _Walk._  100
  tentans, _Walk._  99

Euschema subrepleta, _Walk._  196

Eusemia maculatrix, _Westw._  183, 196
  mollis, _Walk._  183, 196
  subdives, _Walk._  196


Foenus gracilis, _Sm._  169

Formica angulata, _Sm._  139
  cordata, _Sm._  137
  coxalis, _Sm._  136
  flavitarsus, _Sm._  136
  fragilis, _Sm._  136
  gracilipes, _Sm._  136
  lævissima, _Sm._  138
  mutilata, _Sm._  137
  nitida, _Sm._  138
  oculata, _Sm._  137
  quadriceps, _Sm._  137
  scrutator, _Sm._  138
  sericata, _Guér._  139
  sexspinosa, _Latr._  139
  virescens, _Fabr._  135

Formicidæ  135


Gabaza, _Walk._  80
  argentea, _Walk._  80

Galathea Andrewsii, _Sp. Bate_  3
  depressa, _Sp. Bate_  3
  dispersa, _Sp. Bate_  3
  nexa  3
  squamifera, _Sp. Bate_  3
  strigosa  2

Gammarus affinis, _M.-Ed._  3
  Kröyii, _Rathke_  3
  Locusta, _Leach_  3
  Olivii, _M.-Ed._  3

Geomyzides, _Fallen_  126

Geron simplex, _Walk._  90

Gonopteridæ, _Guénée_  189

Gorytes constrictus, _Latr._  160
  vagus, _Sm._  161

Graptomyza tibialis, _Walk._  95

Gynoplistia jurgiosa, _Walk._  78


Hæmatophis fuliginosus  33

Halmaturus Billardierii  32

Hedychrum flammulatum, _Sm._  26

Helomyza atripennis, _Walk._  109
  picipes, _Walk._  109
  restituta, _Walk._  109

Helomyzides, _Fallen_  108

Helophilus mesoleucus, _Walk._  96
  quadrivittatus, _Wied._  96

Hiaticula bicincta  33

Hippoboscidæ, _Leach_  127

Hybos bicolor, _Walk._  91
  deficiens, _Walk._  129

Hyblæa tortricoïdes, _Guén._  197

Hyblæidæ, _Guéneé_  197

Hydromyzides, _Haliday_  127

Hypena ruralis, _Walk._  192

Hypenidæ, _Herr Schæff._  192

Hypernaria diffundens, _Guén._  192

Hypogrammidæ, _Guénée_  189

Hypsa egens, _Walk._  185
  silvandra, _Cram._  185


Icaria brunnea, _Sm._  167
  fasciata, _Sm._  167
  ferruginea, _Sauss._  22
  gracilis, _Sm._  167
  maculiventris, _Sm._  167
  nigra, _Sm._  16
  pilosa, _Sm._  22
  unicolor, _Sm._  168

Ichneumon insularis, _Sm._  170

Ichneumonidæ, _Leach_  23, 170

Idia æqualis, _Walk._  103
  australis, _Walk._  103
  testacea, _Macq._  130
  xanthogaster, _Wied._  130

Ischnogaster iridipennis, _Sm._  166


Lamprogaster celyphoïdes, _Walk._  112
  delectans, _Walk._  111
  marginifera, _Walk._  111
  quadrilinea, _Walk._  111
  scutellaris, _Walk._  112
  tetyroïdes, _Walk._  112
  ventralis, _Walk._  131

Laphria aperta, _Walk._  87
  aurifacies, _Macq._   84
  comes, _Walk._  85
  consobrina, _Walk._  84
  consors, _Walk._  85
  declarata, _Walk._  87
  flagrantissima, _Walk._  86
  germana, _Walk._  86
  gloriosa, _Walk._  84
  justa, _Walk._  86
  manifesta, _Walk._  87
  paradisiaca, _Walk._  128
  placens, _Walk._  128
  scapularis, _Wied._  84
  socia, _Walk._  84
  sodalis, _Walk._  85

Laphrites, _Walk._  128

Larinus maculatus, _Falderm._  179
  mellificus, _Jekel_  181

Larra prismatica, _Sm._  16
  simillima, _Sm._  159

Larrada ædilis, _Sm._  16
  aurifrons, _Sm._  16
  aurulenta, _Sm._  16
  exilipes, _Sm._  16
  festinans, _Sm._  17
  personata, _Sm._  16
  modesta, _Sm._  159
  rufipes, _Sm._  17

Larridæ  16

Larus pacificus  33

Lauxania duplicans, _Walk._  110
  minuens, _Walk._  110

Lauxanides, _Walk._  110

Lepidosiren  76

Leptidæ, _Westw._  89

Leptis ferruginosa, _Wied._  89

Leptogaster albimanus, _Walk._  89
  ferrugineus, _Walk._  89
  longipes, _Walk._  89

Leucanidæ, _Guénée_  188

Limacodidæ, _Duponchel_  188

Liparidæ, _Boisduval_  187, 197

Lissa cylindrica, _Walk._  125

Lithosiidæ, _Stephens_  184, 196

Lonchæa inops, _Walk._  110

Lygnioides endoleuca, _Guén._  190, 197


Macna pomalis, _Walk._  192

Macroglossa corythus, _Boisd._  196
  Passalus, _Drury_  196

Macromeris iridipennis, _Sm._  156
  splendida, _St. Farg._  13

Malopteruris  76

Margarodes amphitritalis, _Guén._  193

Margarodidæ, _Guéneé_  193

Masca abactalis, _Walk._  192

Masicera guttata, _Walk._  99
  notabilis, _Walk._  97
  simplex, _Walk._  99
  solennis, _Walk._  98
  tentata, _Walk._  98

Massicyta cerioïdes, _Walk._  78
  inflata, _Walk._  78

Megachile fulvifrons, _Sm._  6
  incisa, _Sm._  6
  insularis  134
  lateritia  134
  scabrosa  134
  terminalis, _Sm._  7

Megischus indicus, _Westw._  23

Megistocera tuscana, _Wied._  78

Meranoplus spinosus, _Sm._  150

Mesostenus agilis, _Sm._  171
  albopictus, _Sm._  172
  albo-spinosus, _Sm._  23
  pictus, _Sm._  171

Microdon apicalis, _Walk._  94
  fulvicornis, _Walk._  94

Micronia rectinervata, _Guén._  195

Micronidæ, _Guénée_  195

Miresa curvifera, _Walk._  188

Montezumia indica, _Sauss._  19

Morphota formosa, _Sm._  17

Musca benedicta, _Walk._  105
  domestica, _Linn._  105
  eristaloïdes, _Walk._  106
  gloriosa, _Walk._  104
  macularis, _Walk._  104
  marginifera, _Walk._  105
  obscurata, _Walk._  105
  obtrusa, _Walk._  105, 130
  opulenta, _Walk._  104
  patiens, _Walk._  106

Muscidæ, _Latr._  97, 129

Muscides, _Walk._  103, 130

Mutilla carinata, _Sm._  150
  exilis, _Sm._  151
  manifesta, _Sm._  150
  nigra, _Sm._  151
  rufogastra, _Sm._   9
  sexmaculata, _Swed. N. A. Holm._   9
  Sibylla, _Sm._   150
  unifasciata, _Sm._   9
  volatilis, _Sm._   9

Mutillidæ, _Leach_    9, 150

Mycetophilidæ, _Haliday_   77

Mygnimia aspasia, _Sm._   157
  fumipennis, _Sm._   13
  iridipennis, _Sm._   13

Myrmica carinata, _Sm._   148
  mellea, _Sm._   148
  parallela, _Sm._   147
  scabrosa, _Sm._   147
  suspiciosa, _Sm._   148
  thoracica, _Sm._    148

Mysticetus   70

Mythymna inducens, _Walk._   188

Myzine tenuicornis, _Sm._   151


Nautilus pompilius, _T. H. Huxley_ on the anatomy of   36

Nerius duplicatus, _Wied._   125

Nerua, _Walk._   81
  scenopinoïdes, _Walk._   8

Neurina procopialis, _Cram._   193

Nomia cincta, _Sm._   132
  dentata, _Sm._   133
  flavipes, _Sm._   5
  formosa, _Sm._    5
  haliotoïdes, _Sm._   6
  longicornis, _Sm._   133
  punctata, _Sm._   5

Notodontidæ, _Stephens_   187

Nyctalemon Hector, _White_   183

Nyctemera mundipicta, _Walk._   184
  tripunctaria, _Linn._   196


Obrapa, _Walk._   82
  celyphoïdes, _Walk._   83
  perilampoïdes, _Walk._   82

Odontomachus malignus, _Sm._   144
  simillimus, _Sm._   144
  tyrannicus, _Sm._   144

Odynerus agilis, _Sm._   164
  (Ancistrocerus) clavicornis, _Sm._   21
  fulvipennis, _Sm._   22
  (Leionotus) insularis, _Sm._   21
  modestus, _Sm._   165
  multipictus, _Sm._   165
  petiolatus, _Sm._   164

Ommatius lucifer, _Walk._   88
  noctifer, _Walk._   88, 129
  retrahens, _Walk._   88

Ommatophoridæ, _Guénée_   191

Ophideres discrepans, _Walk._   190
  Salaminia, _Cram._   190
  smaragdipicta, _Walk._   190

Ophideridæ, _Guénée_   190

Ophisma Umminia, _Cram._   191

Ophiusa fulvotænia, _Guén._   197

Ophiusidæ, _Guénée_   191, 197

Ornithomyia parva, _Macq._   127

Ortalides, _Haliday_   111-131

Ortalis prompta, _Walk._   118
  complens, _Walk._   118

Orthoneura basalis, _Walk._   97

Orthosidæ, _Guénée_   197

Oscinides, _Haliday_    125

Oscinis lineiplena, _Walk._   125
  noctilux, _Walk._   126

Oxybelus agilis, _Sm._   18

Oxyssus maculipennis, _Sm._   177


Pachymenes viridis, _Sm._   163

Pallura, _Walk._   127
  invaria, _Walk._   127

Palyadæ, _Guénée_   194

Pantana bicolor, _Walk._   187, 197

Patula macrops, _Linn._   191

Pelopæus bengalensis, _Dahlb._   14
  flavo-fasciatus, _Sm._   15
  intrudens, _Sm._   15
  laboriosus, _Sm._   154
  madraspatanus, _Fabr._   14

Phaps elegans   33

Phoridæ, _Haliday_   127

Phyllodidæ, _Guénée_   190, 197

Pidorus constrictus, _Walk._  185

Pimpla braconoïdes, _Sm._  172
  ferruginea, _Sm._  173
  ochracea, _Sm._  172
  penetrans, _Sm._  173
  plagiata, _Sm._  173
  trimaculata, _Sm._  24

Pinnotheridæ, _M. Ed._  27

Pison nitidus, _Sm._  160

Platydidæ, _Guénée_  192

Platystoma fusifacies, _Walk._  113
  multivitta, _Walk._  113

Plecia dorsalis, _Walk._  77

Podomyrma, _Sm._  145
  basalis, _Sm._  147
  lævifrons, _Sm._  146
  femorata, _Sm._  145
  striata  146

Polistes diabolicus, _Sauss._  168
  elegans, _Sm._  169
  fastidiosus, _Sauss._  22
  nigrifrons, _Sm._  168
  philippinensis, _Sauss._  22
  Picteti, _Sauss._  22
  sagittarius, _Sauss._  22
  stigma, _Sauss._  22
  tepidus, _Fabr._  168

Polyara, _Walk._  122
  insolita, _Walk._  123

Polypterus  76

Polyrhachis bellicosus, _Sm._  142
  geometricus, _Sm._  141
  Hector, _Sm._  142
  irritabilis, _Sm._  141
  lævissimus, _Sm._  141
  longipes, _Sm._  140
  marginatus, _Sm._  139
  mucronatus, _Sm._  140
  hostilis, _Sm._  139
  rufofemoratus, _Sm._  142
  scutulatus, _Sm._  140
  serratus, _Sm._  140

Pompilidæ, _Leach_  11

Pompilus analis, _Fabr._  11
  contortus, _Sm._  12
  deceptor, _Sm._  12
  dubius, _Sm._  153
  pilifrons, _Sm._  12
  saltitans, _Sm._  11

Ponera parallela, _Sm._  143
  quadridentata, _Sm._  143
  rugosa, _Sm._  142
  sculpturata, _Sm._  142

Priocnemis fervidus, _Sm._  156
  pulcherrimus, _Sm._  156
  rufifrons, _Sm._  120

Prosena argentata, _Walk._  102

Prosopis malachisis, _Sm._  132

Pseudomyrma læviceps, _Sm._  145

Psilides, _Walk._  125

Psilopus æneus, _Fabr._  91
  benedictus, _Walk._  91
  egens, _Walk._  92
  lucigena, _Walk._  91
  orcifer, _Walk._  92
  planicornis, _Wied._  92
  terminifer, _Walk._  92

Ptilocera quadridentata, _Walk._  78

Puffinus brevicaudus, _Brandt_  33


Rhynchium argentatum, _Sauss._  19
  atrum, _Sauss._  19
  hæmorrhoidale, _Sauss._  19
  mirabile, _Sauss._  163
  parentissimum, _Sauss._  19
  superbum, _Sauss._  163

Rhyssa maculipennis, _Sm._  173
  vestigator, _Sm._  174

Rutilia angustipennis, _Walk._  101
  plumicornis, _Guérin_  101


Salduba, _Walk._  79
  diphysoïdes, _Walk._  79

Salius malignus, _Sm._  157

Sarcophaga basalis, _Walk._  129
  compta, _Walk._  102
  invaria, _Walk._  103

Sarcophagides, _Walk._  102

Sargus complens, _Walk._  81
  metallinus, _Fabr._  80
  vagans, _Walk._  11

Saropoda bombiformis, _Sm._  135

Saturniidæ, _Walk._  188

Sciara selecta, _Walk._  77

Scolia agilis, _Sm._  10
  Alecto, _Sm._  10
  aurenta, _Sm._  9
  erratica, _Sm._  9
  fulgidipennis, _Sm._  152
  fulvipennis, _Sm._  10
  grossa, _Burm._  152
  insularis, _Sm._  153
  minuta, _Sm._  11
  nitida, _Sm._  152
  quadriceps, _Sm._  153
  terminata, _Sm._  10

Scoliadæ, _Leach_  151

Scopulipedes, _Sm._  8

Sepedon costalis, _Walk._  110

Sepsides, _Walk._  123

Sepsis basifera, _Walk._  124

Setina bipunctata, _Walk._  185

Siluridæ  76

Solenopsis cephalotes, _Sm._  149

Sphegidæ  14

Spheniscus minor, _Temminck_  33

Sphex argentata, _Dahl._  157
  aurifrons, _Sm._  157
  gratiosa, _Sm._  158
  nitidiventris, _Sm._  158
  prædator, _Sm._  14
  sepicola, _Sm._  158
  sericea, _Fabr._  157

Sphingidæ, _Leach_  196

Stalagmia guttaria, _Guérin_  196

Steiria phryganeoïdes, _Walk._   190

Stelis abdominalis, _Sm._  7

Stenophasmus, _Sm._  169
  ruficeps, _Sm._  170

Stilbum amethystinum, _Fabr._  177
  splendidum, _Fabr._  177

Stratiomidæ, _Haliday_  78

Stratiomys confertissima, _Walk._  79
  nexura, _Walk._  80

Sulu australis, _Gould_  33

Synegia botydaria, _Guénée_  195

Syntomis annosa, _Walk._  183
  chloroleuca, _Walk._  183
  xanthomela, _Walk._  184

Sypna subsignata, _Walk._  191

Syrphidæ, _Leach_  93, 129

Syrphus ægrotus, _Fabr._  99
  ericetorum, _Fabr._  99


Tabanidæ, _Leach_  83

Tabanus recusans, _Walk._  83

Tachinides, _Walk._  97

Tachytes morosus, _Sm._  18

Tenthredinidæ  23, 177

Tenthredo (Allantus) purpurata, _Sm._  23

Thalatta aurigutta, _Walk._  189

Thereva congrua, _Walk._  90

Therevites, _Walk._  90

Thermesia? recusata, _Walk._  191

Thermesidæ, _Guénée_  191, 197

Timandra Ajaia, _Walk._  195

Tipulidæ  78

_Tréhala_  178

Tremex insignis, _Sm._  178

Trigona læviceps, _Sm._  135

Trupanea contradicens, _Walk._  87

Trypeta basalis, _Walk._  120
  dorsigutta, _Walk._  119
  impleta, _Walk._  120
  multistriga, _Walk._  119
  roripennis, _Walk._  131
  subocellifera, _Walk._  120

Trypoxylon eximium, _Sm._  161


Vespa affinis, _Fabr._  23
  fervida, _Sm._  23

Vespidæ, _Stephens_  19, 166


Ugia disjungens, _Walk._  192

Uraniidæ, _Walk._  183

Urothoe elegans  3
  inostratus, _Dana_  3


Worm-tracks, notice of in London Clay  31


Xarnuta leucotelus, _Walk._  108

Xema Jamesonii  33

Xylocopa æstuans, _Linn._  8, 135
  collaris, _St. Farg._  8
  Dejeanii, _St. Farg._  8
  fenestrata, _Fabr._  8
  nobilis, _Sm._  8

Xylota ventralis, _Walk._  96

Xyphidria rufipes, _Sm._  177


Zanclopteryx saponaria, _H. Schæff._  195, 198

Zerenidæ  196

Zethus cyanopterus, _Sauss._  19

Zygænidæ, _Leach_  183



THE END


Printed by TAYLOR and FRANCIS, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street.



Transcriber's Notes:

1. Chrysophila changed to Chrysopila in the index to match the text
referred to.
2. Stenophasimis changed to Stenophasmus in the index to match the text
refered to.
3. A number of words occur throughout the book in accented and
non-accented forms. These were left as in the original text.





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