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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 04, November 24, 1849
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 04, November 24, 1849" ***

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NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 4.] SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 24, 1849 [Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

       *       *       *       *       * {49}

CONTENTS.

Our Progress and Prospects. 49

NOTES:--
Luther and Erasmus, by John Bruce. 50
Hallam's Middle Ages. 51
Adversaria I.--Writers of Notes on Fly-leaves. 51
Origin of Grog and Ancient Alms-Basins. 52
Dyce v. Warburton and Collier. 53
Food of the People, by J.T. Hammack. 54
Bishop Barnaby. 55
Trade Editions. 55
Dibdin's Typograph Antiquities, by Rev. Dr. Maitland. 56
Queries answered, II., by Bolton Corney. 56
Madoc's Expedition to America. 57

QUERIES:--
"Clouds" or Shrouds, in Shakspeare. 58
Medal of Pretender, by B. Nightingale. 58
Roger de Coverley. 59
Landed and Commercial Policy of England. 59
The Rev. Thomas Leman. 59
Gothic Architecture. 59
Katherine Pegg. 59
Queries on Mediæval Geography. 60
Myles Bloomfylde and William Bloomfield on Alchymy. 60
Thynne's Collection of Chancellors. 60
Cold Harbour. 60
Statistics of the Roman Catholic Church. 61
Incumbents of Church Livings. 61
Curse of Scotland, by Edward Hawkins. 61

MISCELLANEOUS:--
Notes of Book-Sales, Catalogues, &c. 61
Books and Odd Volumes wanted. 63
Notices to Correspondents. 63

       *       *       *       *       *

OUR PROGRESS AND PROSPECTS.

When we consulted our literary friends as to the form and manner in
which it would be most expedient to put forth our "NOTES AND QUERIES,"
more than one suggested to us that our paper should appear only once a
month, or at all events not more frequently than once a fortnight, on
the ground that a difficulty would be experienced in procuring materials
for more frequent publication. We felt, however, that if such a medium
of Inter-communication, as we proposed to establish was, as we believed,
really wanted, frequency of publication was indispensable. Nothing but a
weekly publication would meet what we believed to be the requirements of
literary men. We determined, therefore, to publish a Number every
Saturday; and the result has so far justified our decision, that the
object of our now addressing our readers is to apologise to the many
friends whose communications we are again unavoidably compelled to
postpone; and to explain that we are preparing to carry out such further
improvements in our arrangements as will enable us to find earlier
admission for all the communications with which we are favoured.

One other word. It has been suggested to us that in inviting Notes,
Comments, and Emendations upon the works of Macaulay, Hallam, and other
living authors, we may possibly run a risk of offending those eminent
men. We hope not. We are sure that this outght not to be the case. Had
we not recognised the merits of such works, and the influence they were
destined to exercise over men's minds, we should not have opened our
pages for the purpose of receiving, much less have invited, corrections
of the mistakes into which the most honest and the most able of literary
inquirers must sometimes fall. Only those who have meddled in historical
research can be aware of the extreme difficulty, the all but
impossibility, of ascertaining the exact or the whole truth, amidst the
numerous minute and often apparently contradictory facts which present
themselves to the notice of all inquirers. In this very number a
correspondent comments upon an inference drawn by Mr. Hallam from a
passage in Mabillon. In inserting such a communication we show the
respect we feel for Mr. Hallam, and our {50} sense of the services which
he has rendered to historical knowledge. Had we believed that if he has
fallen into a mistake in this instance, it had been not merely a
mistake, but a deliberate perversion of the truth, we should have
regarded both book and writer with indifference, not to say with
contempt. It is in the endeavour to furnish corrections of little
unavoidable slips in such good honest books--albeit imperfect as all
books must be--that we hope at once to render good service to our
national literature, and to show our sense of genius, learning, and
research which have combined to enrich it by the production of works of
such high character and last influence.

       *       *       *       *       *


NOTES

LATIN EPIGRAM AGAINST LUTHER AND ERASMUS.

Mr. Editor,--Your correspondent "Roterodamus" (pp. 27, 28) asks, I hope,
for the author of the epigram which he quotes, with a view to a life of
his great townsman, Erasmus. Such a book, written by some competent
hand, and in an enlarged and liberal spirit, would be a noble addition
to the literature of Europe. There is no civilised country that does not
feel an interest in the labours and in the fame of Erasmus. I am able to
answer your correspondents question, but it is entirely by chance. I
read the epigram which he quotes several years ago, in a book of a kind
which one would like to see better known in this country--a
typographical or bibliographical history of Douay. It is entitled,
"_Bibliographie Douaisienne, ou Catalogue Historique et Raisonné des
Livres imprimés à Douai depuis l'année 1563 jusqu'a nos jours, avec des
notes bibliographiques et littéraires; Par H.R. Duthilloeul. 8vo. Douai,
1842_." The 111th book noticed in the volume is entitled, "_Epigrammata
in Hæreticos. Authore Andrea Frusio, Societatis Jesu. Tres-petit in 8vo.
1596_." The book is stated to contain 251 epigrams, "aimed," says M.
Duthilloeul, "at the heretics and their doctrines. The author has but
one design, which is to render odious and ridiculous, the lives,
persons, and errors of the apostles of the Reformation." He quotes three
of the epigrams, the third being the one your correspondent has given
you. It has this title, "_De Lutheri et Erasmi differentia_," and is the
209th epigram in the book.

I have never met with a copy of the work of Frusius, nor do I know any
thing of him as an author. The learned writer who pours out a store of
curious learning in the pages of _Gentleman's Magazine_ is more likely
than any body that I know to tell you something about him.

Mons. Duthilloeul quotes another epigram from the same book upon the
_Encomium Moriæ_, but it is too long and too pointless for your pages.
He adds another thing which is more in your way, namely, that a former
possessor of the copy of the work then before him had expressed his
sense of the value of these "epigrammes dévotes" in the following
NOTE:--

    "_Nollem carere hoe libello auro nequidem contra pensitato_."

Perhaps some one who possesses or has access to the book would give us a
complete list of the persons who are the subjects of these defamatory
epigrams. And I may add, as you invite us to put our queries, Is not
Erasmus entitled to the distinction of being regarded as the author of
the work which the largest single edition has ever been printed and
sold? Mr. Hallam mentions that, "in the single year 1527, Colinæus
printed 24,000 copies of the _Colloquies_, all of which were sold." This
is the statement of Moreri. Bayle gives some additional information.
Quoting a letter of Erasmus as his authority, he says, that Colinæus,
who--like the Brussels and American reprinters of our day--was printing
the book at Paris from a Basle edition, entirely without the concurrence
of Erasmus, and without any view of his participation in the profit,
circulated a report that the book was about to be prohibited by the Holy
See. The curiosity of the public was excited. Every one longed to secure
a copy. The enormous edition--for the whole 24,000 was but one
impression--was published contemporaneously with the report. It was a
cheap and elegant book, and sold as fast as it could be handed over the
booksellers counter. As poor Erasmus had no pecuniary benefit {51} from
the edition, he ought to have the credit which arises from this proof of
his extraordinary popularity. The public, no doubt, enjoyed greatly his
calm but pungent exposure of the absurd practices which were rife around
them. That his humorous satire was felt by its objects, is obvious from
this epigram, as well as from a thousand other evidences.

JOHN BRUCE.

       *       *       *       *       *

HALLAMS MIDDLE AGES--ALLEGED IGNORANCE OF THE CLERGY.

Sir,--When reading Hallam's _History of the Middle Ages_ a short time
ago I was startled by the following passage which occurs amongst other
evidences of the ignorance of the clergy during the period subsequent to
the dissolution of the Roman Empire.

    "Not one priest in a thousand in Spain about the age of
    Charlemagne, could address a common letter of salutation to
    another."--_Hallam's Middle Ages_, vol. iii. p. 332.

And for this statement he refers to Mabillon, _De Re Diplomatica_, p.
52.

On referring to Mabillon, I find that the passage runs as follows:--

    "Christiani posthabitis scripturis sanctis, earumque
    interpretibus, Arabum Chaldæorumque libris evolvendis
    incumbentes, legem suam nesciebant, et linguam propriam non
    advertebant latinam, ita ut ex omni Christi collegio vix
    inveniretur unus in milleno hominum genere, qui salutatorias
    fratri posset rationabiliter dirigere litteras."

So that although Mabillon says that scarce one in a thousand could
address a _Latin_ letter to another, yet he by no means says that it was
on account of their general ignorance, but because they were addicting
themselves to other branches of learning. They were devoting all their
energies to Arabic and Chaldæan science, and in their pursuit of it
neglected other literature. A similar remark might be made of respecting
many distinguished members of the University to which I belong; yet who
would feel himself justified in inferring thence that Cambridge was sunk
in ignorance?

CANTAB.

       *       *       *       *       *

ADVERSARIA

    [In our Prospectus we spoke of NOTES AND QUERIES becoming
    everybody's common-place book. The following very friendly
    letter from an unknown correspondent, G.J.K., urges us to carry
    out such an arrangement.

    "Sir,--I beg leave to forward you a contribution for your 'NOTES
    AND QUERIES,' a periodical which is, I conceive, likely to do a
    vast deal of good by bringing literary men of all shades of
    opinion into closer juxtaposition than they have hitherto been.

    "I would, however, suggest that in future numbers a space might
    be allotted for the reception of those articles (short of
    course), which students and literary men in general, transfer to
    their common-place books; such as notices of scarce or curious
    books, biographical or historical curiosities, remarks on
    ancient or obsolete customs, &c. &c. &c. Literary men are
    constantly meeting with such in the course of their reading, and
    how much better would it be if, instead of transferring them to
    a MS. book to be seen only by themselves, or perhaps a friend or
    two, they would forward them to a periodical, in which they
    might be enshrined in imperishable pica; to say nothing of the
    benefits such a course of proceeding would confer on those who
    might not have had the same facilities of gaining the
    information thus made public.

    "In pursuance of this suggestion, I have forwarded the inclosed
    paper, and should be happy, from time to time, to contribute
    such gleanings from old authors, &c. as I might think worth
    preserving.

    "G.J.K."

We readily comply with G.J.K.'s suggestion, and print, as the first of
the series, his interesting communication, entitled:]

1. _Writers of Notes on Fly-leaves, &c._

The Barberini Library at Rome contains a vast number of books covered
with marginal notes by celebrated writers, such as Scaliger, Allatius,
Holstentius, David Haeschel, Barbadori, and above all, Tasso, who has
annotated with his own hand more than fifty volumes. Valery, in his
_Voyages en Italie_, states that a Latin version of Plato is not only
annotated by the hand of Tasso, but also by his father, Bernardo; a fact
which sufficiently proves how deeply the language and philosophy of the
Greek writers were studied in the family. The remarks upon the _Divina
Commedia_, which, despite the opinion of Serassi, appear to be
authentic, attest the profound study which, from his youth, Tasso had
made of the great poets, and the lively admiration he displayed for
their works. There is also in existence a copy of the Venice edition of
the _Divina Commedia_ (1477), with autograph notes by Bembo.

Christina of Sweden had quite a mania for writing in her books. In the
library of the Roman College (at Rome) there are several books annotated
by her, amongst others a {52} Quintus Curtius, in which, as it would
appear, she criticises very freely the conduct of Alexander. "_He
reasons falsely in this case_," she writes on one page; and elsewhere,
"_I should have acted diametrically opposite; I should have pardoned_;"
and again, further on, "_I should have exercised clemency_;" an
assertion, however, we may be permitted to doubt, when we consider what
sort of clemency was exercised towards Monaldeschi. Upon the fly-leaf of
a Seneca (Elzevir), she has written, "_Adversus virtutem possunt
calamitates damna et injuriæ quod adversus solem nebulæ possunt_." The
library of the Convent of the Holy Cross of Jerusalem at Rome, possesses
a copy of the _Bibliotheca Hispanu_, in the first volume of which the
same princess has written on the subject of a book relating to her
conversion: [1] "_Chi l'ha scritta, non lo sa; chi lo sa, non l'ha mai
scritta_."

Lemontey has published some very curious _Memoirs_, which had been
entirely written on the fly-leaves and margins of a missal by J. de
Coligny, who died in 1686.

Racine, the French tragic poet, was also a great annotator of his books;
the Bibliothèque National at Paris possesses a Euripides and
Aristophanes from his library, the margins of which are covered with
notes in Greek, Latin, and French.

The books which formerly belonged to La Monnoie are now recognizable by
the anagram of his name. _A Delio nomen_, and also by some very curious
notes on the fly-leaves and margins written in microscopic characters.

G.J.K.

[Footnote 1: Conversion de la Reina de Suecia in Roma (1656).]

       *       *       *       *       *

ORIGIN OF WORD "GROG."

Mr. Vaux writes as follows:--Admiral Vernon was the first to require his
men to drink their spirits mixed with water. In bad weather he was in
the habit of walking the deck in a rough _grogram_ cloak, and thence had
obtained the nickname of _Old Grog_ in the Service. This is, I believe,
the origin of the name _grog_, applied originally to _rum_ and _water_.
I find the same story repeated in a quaint little book, called Pulleyn's
_Etymological Compendium_.

    [A.S. has communicated a similar explanation; and we are obliged
    to "An old LADY who reads for Pastime" for kindly furnishing us
    with a reference to a newly published American work, _Lifts for
    the Lazy_, where the origin of "Grog" is explained in the same
    manner.

    The foregoing was already in type when we received the following
    agreeable version of the same story.]

       *       *       *       *       *

ORIGIN OF WORD "GROG"--ANCIENT ALMS-BASINS.

Mr. Editor,--As a sailor's son I beg to answer your correspondent
LEGOUR'S query concerning the origin of the word "grog," so famous in
the lips of our gallant tars. Jack loves to give a pet nickname to his
favourite officers. The gallant Edward Vernon (a Westminster man by
birth) was not exempted from the general rule. His gallantry and ardent
devotion to his profession endeared him to the service, and some merry
wags of the crew, in an idle humour, dubbed him "Old Grogham." Whilst in
command of the West Indian station, and at the height of his popularity
on account of his reduction of Porto Bello with six men-of-war only, he
introduced the use of rum and water by the ship's company. When served
out, the new beverage proved most palatable, and speedily grew into such
favour, that it became as popular as the brave admiral himself, and in
honour of him was surnamed by acclamation "Grog."

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A.

P.S.--There are two other alms-basins in St. Margaret's worthy of note,
besides those I mentioned in your last number. One has the inscription,
"Live well, die never; die well and live ever. A.D. 1644 W.G." The other
has the appropriate legend, "Hee that gives too the poore lends unto
thee LORD." A third bears the Tudor rose in the centre. In an Inventory
made about the early part of the 17th century, are mentioned "one Bason
given by Mr. Bridges, of brasse." (The donor was a butcher in the
parish.) "Item, one bason, given by Mr. Brugg, of brasse." On the second
basin are the arms and crest of the Brewers' Company. Perhaps Mr. Brugg
was a member of it. One Richard Bridges was a churchwarden, A.D.
1630-32.

M.W.

7. College Street. Nov. 17.

       *       *       *       *       * {53}

DYCE VERSUS WARBURTON AND COLLIER--AND SHAKSPEARE'S MSS.

In Mr. Dyce's _Remarks on Mr. J.P. Collier's and Mr. C. Knight's
Editions of Shakspeare_, pp. 115, 116, the following note occurs:--

    "_King Henry IV., Part Second_, act iv. sc. iv.

        "As humorous as winter, and as sudden
         As _flaws_ congealed in the spring of day."

    "Alluding," says Warburton, "to the opinion of some
    philosophers, that the vapours being congealed in air by cold,
    (which is most intense towards the morning,) and being
    afterwards rarified and let loose by the warmth of the sun,
    occasion those sudden and impetuous guests of wind which are
    called flaws."--COLLIER.

    "An interpretation altogether wrong, as the epithet here applied
    to 'flaws' might alone determine; '_congealed_ gusts of wind'
    being nowhere mentioned among the phenomena of nature except in
    Baron Munchausen's _Travels_. Edwards rightly explained 'flaws,'
    in the present passage, 'small blades of ice.' I have myself
    heard the word used to signify both _thin cakes of ice_ and the
    _bursting of those cakes_."--DYCE.

Mr. Dyce may perhaps have heard the world _floe_ (plural _floes_)
applied to _floating sheet-ice_, as it is to be found so applied
extensively in Captain Parry's _Journal of his Second Voyage_; but it
remains to be shown whether such a term existed in Shakspeare's time. I
think it did not, as after diligent search I have not met with it; and,
if it did, and then had the same meaning, _floating sheet-ice_, how
would it apply to the illustration of this passage?

That the uniform meaning of _flaws_ in the poet's time was _sudden gust
of wind_, and figuratively sudden gusts of passion, or fitful and
impetuous action, is evident from the following passages:--

  "Like a red morn, that ever yet betoken'd
  Wreck to the seamen, tempest to the field,
  Sorrow to shepherds, woe unto the birds,
  _Gust_ and foul _flaws_ to herdsmen and to herds."
    _Venus and Adonis._

  "Like a great sea-mark standing every _flaw_."
    _Coriolanus_, act v. sc. iii.

  "--patch a wall to expel the winter's _flaw_."
    _Hamlet_, act v. sc. i.

  "Like to the glorious sun's transparent beams
  Do calm the fury of this mad-bred _flaw_."
    _3d Pt. Henry VI._, act iii. sc. i.

  "--these _flaws_ and starts (impostors to true
  fear)."
    _Macbeth_, act iv. sc. iv.

  "Falling in the _flaws_ of her own youth, hath
  blistered her report."
    _Meas. for Meas._, act ii. sc. iii.

So far for the poet's acceptation of its meaning.

Thus also Lord Surrey:--

    "And toss'd with storms, with _flaws_, with wind, with weather."

And Beaumont and Fletcher, in _The Pilgrim_:--

  "What _flaws_, and whirles of weather,
  Or rather storms, have been aloft these three days."

Shakspeare followed the popular meteorology of his time, as will appear
from the following passage from a little ephemeris then very frequently
reprinted:--

    "_De Repentinis Ventis_.

    "8. Typhon, Plinio, Vortex, aliis Turbo, et vibratus Ecnephias,
    de _nube gelida_ (ut dictum est) abruptum aliquid sæpe numero
    secum voluit, ruinamque suam illo pondere aggravat: quem
    _repentinum flatum_ à nube prope terram et mare depulsum,
    definuerunt quidam, ubi in gyros rotatur, et proxima (ut
    monuimus) verrit, suáque vi sursum raptat."--MIZALDUS,
    _Ephemeridis Æris Perpetuus: seu Rustica tempestatum
    Astrologia_, 12º Lutet. 1584.

I have sometimes thought that Shakspeare may have written:--

  "As flaws cong_est_ed in the spring of day."

It is an easy thing to have printed cong_eal_ed for that word, and
_congest_ occurs in _A Lover's Complaint_. Still I think change
unnecessary.

Has the assertion made in _An Answer to Mr. Pope's Preface to
Shakspeare_, by a Strolling Player, 1729, respecting the destruction of
the poet's MSS. papers, been ever verified? If that account is
authentic, it will explain the singular dearth of all autograph remains
of one who must have written so much. As the pamphlet is not common, I
transcribe the essential passage:--

    "How much it is to be lamented that _Two large Chests_ full of
    this GREAT MAN'S _loose papers_ and _Manuscripts_ in the hands
    of an ignorant _Baker of_ WARWICK (who married one of the
    descendants from Shakspear), were carelessly scattered and
    thrown about as Garret Lumber and Litter, to {54} the particular
    knowledge of the late _Sir William Bishop_; till they were all
    consum'd in the general Fire and Destruction of that Town."

S.W.S.

Mickleham, Nov. 14. 1849.

    [We cannot insert the interesting Query which our correspondent
    has forwarded on the subject of the disappearance of
    Shakespeare's MSS. without referring to the ingenious suggestion
    upon that subject so skilfully brought forward by the Rev.
    Joseph Hunter in his _New Illustrations of the Life, Studies,
    and Writings of Shakspeare_, vol. i. p. 105.:--"That the entire
    disappearance of all manuscripts of Shakspeare, so entire that
    no writing of his remains except his name, and only one letter
    ever addressed to him, is in some way connected with the
    religious turn which his posterity took, in whose eyes there
    would be much to be lamented in what they must, I fear, have
    considered a prostitution of the noble talents which had been
    given him."]

       *       *       *       *       *

FOOD OF THE PEOPLE.--BILLS OF FARE IN 1683--HUMBLE PIE.

The food of the people must always be regarded as an important element
in estimating the degree of civilization of a nation, and its position
in the social scale. Mr. Macaulay, in his masterly picture of the state
of England at the period of the accession of James II., has not failed
to notice this subject as illustrative of the condition of the working
classes of that day. He tells us that meat, viewed relatively with
wages, was "so dear that hundreds of thousands of families scarcely knew
the taste of it.... The great majority of the nation lived almost
entirely on rye, barley, and oats." (_Hist. Eng._ vol. i. p. 418., 4th
ed.)

It is not uninteresting to inquire (and having found, it is worth making
a note of) what sort of fare appeared on the tables of the upper and
middle classes,--who, unlike their poorer neighbours, were in a
condition to gratify their gastronomic preferences in the choice and
variety of their viands,--with the view of determining whether the
extraordinary improvement which has taken place in the food of the
labouring population has been equally marked in that of the wealthier
orders.

Pepys, who was unquestionably a lover of good living, and never tired of
recording his feastings off "brave venison pasty," or "turkey pye," has
given in his _Diary_ many curious notices of the most approved dishes of
his day. The following "Bills of fare" of the period referred to speak,
however, directly to the point; they are taken from a work entitled,
_The accomplisht Lady's Delight, in Preserving, Physick, Beautifying,
and Cookery_. London, printed for B. Harris, 1683.

    "_A Bill of fare for a Gentleman's House about Candlemas._

    "1. A Pottage with a Hen. 2. A _Chatham_-pudding. 3. A Fricacie
    of Chickens. 4. A leg of mutton with a Sallet. Garnish your
    dishes with Barberries.

    "_Second Course._ 1. A chine of Muton. 2. A chine of Veal. 3.
    Lark-pye. 4. A couple of Pullets, one larded. Garnished with
    orange slices.

    "_Third Course._ 1. A dish of Woodcocks. 2. A couple of Rabbits.
    3. A dish of Asparagus. 4. A Westphalia Gammon.

    "_Last Course._ 1. Two orange tarts, one with herbs. 2. A Bacon
    Tart. 3. An apple Tart. 4. A dish of Bon-chriteen pears. 5. A
    dish of Pippins. 6. A dish of Pearmains.

    "_A Banquet for the same Season._

    "1. A dish of Apricots. 2. A dish of marmalade of Pippins. 3. A
    dish of preserved Cherries. 4. A whole red Quince. 5. A dish of
    dryed sweet-meats.

    "_A Bill of Fare upon an extraordinary Occasion._

    "1. A collar of brawn. 2. A couple of Pullets boyled. 3. A bisk
    of Fish. 4. A dish of Carps. 5. A grand boyled Meat. 6. A grand
    Sallet. 7. A venison pasty. 8. A roasted Turkey. 9. A fat pig.
    10. A powdered Goose. 11. A haunch of Venison roasted. 12. A
    Neats-tongue and Udder roasted. 13. A Westphalia Ham boyled. 14.
    A Joll of Salmon. 15. Mince pyes. 16. A Surloyn of roast beef.
    17. Cold baked Meats. 18. A dish of Custards.

    "_Second Course._ 1. Jellies of all sorts. 2. A dish of
    Pheasants. 3. A Pike boyled. 4. An oyster pye. 5. A dish of
    Plovers. 6. A dish of larks. 7. A Joll of Sturgeon. 8. A couple
    of Lobsters. 9. A lamber pye. 10. A couple of Capons. 11. A dish
    of Partridges. 12. A fricacy of Fowls. 13. A dish of Wild Ducks.
    14. A dish of cram'd chickens. 15. A dish of stewed oysters. 16.
    A Marchpane. 17. A dish of Fruits. 18. An umble pye."

The fare suggested for "Fish days" is no less various and abundant;
twelve dishes are enumerated for the first course, and sixteen for the
second. Looking at the character of these viands, some of which would
not discredit the genius of a Soyer or a Mrs. Glasse, {55} it seems
pretty evident that in the article of food the labouring classes have
been the greatest gainers since 1687.

Few things are more suggestive of queries--as everybody knows from
experience--than the products of culinary art. I will not, however,
further trespass on space which may be devoted to a more dignified
topic, than by submitting the following.

_Query._--Does the phrase "to eat humble pie," used to signify a forced
humiliation, owe its origin to the "umble pye" specified above?

J.T. HAMMACK

       *       *       *       *       *

BISHOP BARNABY.

Mr. Editor,--Legour asks, why the people in Suffolk call a lady-bird
"Bishop Barnaby?"

I give the following from the late Major Moor's _Suffolk Words_.

    "Bishop-Barney. The golden bug. See Barnabee. In Tasser's _Ten
    Unwelcome Guests in the Dairy_, he enumerates 'the Bishop that
    burneth' (pp. 142. 144.), in an ambiguous way, which his
    commentator does not render at all clear. I never heard of this
    calumniated insect being an unwelcome guest in the dairy; but
    Bishop-Barney, or Burney, and Barnabee, or Burnabee, and
    Bishop-that-burneth, seem, in the absence of explanation to be
    nearly related--in sound at any rate. Under _Barnabee_ it will
    be seen that _burning_ has some connection with the history of
    this pretty insect."

    "Barnabee," writes the Major, "the golden-bug, or lady-bird;
    also Bishop-Barney: which see. This pretty little, and very
    useful insect, is tenderly regarded by our children. One
    settling on a child is always sent away with this sad
    valediction:--

      "Gowden-bug, gowden-bug, fly away home,
      Yar house is bahnt deown and yar children all gone."

To which I add another nursery doggerel less sad:--

  "Bishop, Bishop-Barnabee,
  Tell me when your wedding be,
  If it be to-morrow day
  Take your wings and fly away."

The Major adds, "It is sure to fly off on the third repetition."

"Burnt down," continues the Major, "gives great scope to our country
euphonic twang, altogether inexpressible in type; _bahnt deeyown_ comes
as near to it as my skill in orthography will allow."

Ray, in his _South and East Country Words_, has this:--

    "Bishop, the little spotted beetle, commonly called the lady-cow
    or lady-bird. I have heard this insect in other places called
    golden-knop, and doubtless in other countries it hath other
    names. (_E. W._ p. 70) Golden-bugs the common Suffolk name."

J.G.
Southwold, Nov. 16. 1849.

       *       *       *       *       *

TRADE EDITIONS--COTTLE'S LIFE OF COLERIDGE.

Sir,--In the 2nd vol. of Mr. Collier's valuable and interesting
_Extracts from the Registers of the Stationers' Company_, p. 28, is the
following entry:--

    "Thos. Dason. Licensed unto him the praise of follie; to print
    not above xv° of any impression, with this condition, that any
    of the Company may laie on with him, reasonablie at every
    impression, as they think good, and that he shall gyve
    reasonable knowledge before to them as often as he shall print
    it."

This is both curious and important information as being, in all
probability, the earliest recorded instance of a custom still kept up
amongst booksellers, and which now passes under the designation of a
"Trade edition;" the meaning of which being, that the copyright, instead
of being the exclusive property of one person, is divided into shares
and held by several. There are Trade editions of such voluminous authors
as Shakspeare, Gibbon, Hume, and Robertson, for instance; and Alison's
_Europe_, if published half a century back, might in all probability
have been added to the list. The difference between the ancient and the
modern usage appears to be this, that formerly when the type was set up
for an edition "any of the company may laie on, (these two last words
are still technically used by printers for supplying type with paper,)
reasonablie at every impression," &c.; in other words, may print as many
copies from the type "as they think good;" whereas now, the edition is
first printed, and then the allotment of the copies, and the actual cost
of them is made, according to the number of shares.

If this is a "Note" worth registering, it is much at your service,
whilst for a "Query," I should be very glad to be informed, when a very
able review, the date of which I neglected {56} to make at the time,
appeared in the _Times_ newspaper, of the 2nd edition of Cottle's _Life
of Coleridge_.

With many good wishes for the success of your register,

I remain, &c.

JOHN MILAND.

       *       *       *       *       *

DIBDIN'S TYPOGRAPHICAL ANTIQUITIES.

Sir,--I am very glad to have elicited the information contained in your
number just published respecting the copy of Borde's work in the Chetham
Library. As I have a great respect for Mr. Ames, I must remark that he
had no share in the blunder, and whenever a new edition of his work is
undertaken, it will be well to look rather curiously into the
enlargements of Dibdin. In the mean time this information naturally
leads to another Query--or rather, to more than one--namely, "_Had_ Mr.
Bindley's copy this unique imprint? and what became of it at the sale
of his books? or is it only one of the imaginary editions which give
bibliographers so much trouble?" Perhaps some one of your correspondents
may be able to give information.

Yours, &c.

S.R. MAITLAND.

       *       *       *       *       *


QUERIES ANSWERED, NO. 2

MADOC THE SON OF OWEN GWYNED.

The student who confines himself to a single question, may fairly expect
a prompt and precise answer. To ask for general information on a
particular subject, may be a less successful experiment. Who undertakes
extensive research except for an especial purpose? Who can so far
confide in his memory as to append his name to a list of authorities
without seeming to prove his own superficiality? I throw out these ideas
for consideration, just as they arise; but neither wish to repress the
curiosity of _querists_, nor to prescribe bounds to the communicative
disposition of _respondents_.

Did Madoc, son of Owen Gwynedd, prince of Wales, discover America?
Stimulated by the importance of the question, and accustomed to admire
the spirit of maritime enterprise, at whatever period it may have been
called into action, I have sometimes reflected on this debatable
point--but can neither affirm nor deny it.

I advise the _student_, as a preliminary step to the inquiry, to attempt
a collection of all the accessible evidence, historical and
ethnographic, and to place the materials which pertain to each class in
the order of time. The historical evidence exists, I believe
exclusively, in the works of the chroniclers and bards of Wales; and the
ethnographic evidence in the narratives of travellers in America. The
opinions of modern writers, the gifted author of _Madoc_ not excepted,
he is at liberty to consider as _hors-d'oeuere_--to be passed on, or
tasted, _à plaisir_. As an exemplification of this plan, I submit some
short extracts, with critical remarks:--

    "Madoc another of Owen Gwyneth his sonnes left the land
    [North-Wales] in contention betwixt his brethren, and prepared
    certaine ships with men and munition, and sought adventures by
    seas, sailing west, and leaving the coast of Ireland so far
    north, that he came to a land unknowen, where he saw manie
    strange things."--CARADOC OF LLANCARVAN, _continued--The
    historie of Cambria_, 1584. 4º. p. 227.

    [The history of Caradoc ends with A.D. 1156. The continuation,
    to the year 1270, is ascribed by Powel, the editor of the
    volume, to the monks of Conway and Stratflur.]

    Carmina Meredith filii Rhesi [Meredydd ab Rhys] mentionem
    facientia de Madoco filio Oweni Gwynedd, et de suâ navigatione
    in terras incognitas. Vixit hic Meredith circiter annum Domini
    1477.

      Madoc wyf, mwyedic wedd,
      Iawn genau, Owen Gwynedd;
      Ni fynnum dir, fy enaid oedd,
      Na da mawr, ond y moroedd.

    _The same in English._

      Madoc I am the sonne of Owen Gwynedd
      With stature large, and comely grace adorned;
      No lands at home nor store of wealth me please,
      My minde was whole to searche the ocean seas.

    "These verses I received of my learned friend M. William
    Camden." _Richard Hakluyt_, 1589.

    [The eulogy of Meredydd ab Rhys is very indefinite, but deserves
    notice on account of its early date. He "flourished," says W.
    Owen, "between A.D. 1430 and 1460."]

    "This land must needs be some part of that countrie of which the
    Spaniardes affirme themselves to be the first finders sith
    Hannos time; ... Whereupon it is manifest, that that countrie
    was long before by Brytaines discouered, afore either Columbus
    or Americus Vespatius lead anie Spaniardes thither. Of the viage
    and returne of this Madoc there be _manie fables fained_, as the
    common people doo use in distance of place {57} and length of
    time rather to augment than to diminish: but sure it is, that
    there he was."--HUMFREY LHOYD, _Additions to the Historie of
    Cambria_, p. 228.

    [Lhoyd, who translated the history of Caradoc, and made
    considerable additions to it, died in 1568. He mentions the
    second voyage of Madoc, but cites no authority.]

    "This Madoc arriving in that westerne countrie, unto the which
    he came, in the year 1170, left most of his people there: and
    returning backe for more of his owne nation, acquaintance and
    freends, to inhabite that faire and large countrie: went thither
    againe with ten sailes, as I find noted by Gutyn Owen. I am of
    opinion that the land, wherevnto he came, was some part of
    Mexico:" etc.--David Powel, S.T.P., note in _The historie of
    Cambria_, 1584. 4°. p. 229.

    [The learned Powel relies on the authority of the poet Gutyn
    Owen. "He wrote," says W. Owen, "between A.D. 1460 and
    1490"--three centuries after the event in question!]

    _Ethnographic evidence._

    "They came [anno 1536] to part of the West Indies about Cape
    Breton, shaping their course thence north-eastwards, vntill they
    camme to the Island of Penguin," etc.--The voyage of master
    Hore, in _The principall navigations_, etc. 1589. Fol.

    [Antiquaries consider the mention of _Cape Breton_ and _Penguin
    Island_ as evidence. It cannot prove much, as the particulars
    were not committed to writing till about half-a-century after
    the voyage.]

    "There is also another kinde of foule in that countrey [between
    the Gulf of Mexico and Cape Breton] ... they have white heads,
    and therefore the country men call them _penguins_ (which
    seemeth to be a Welsh nanme). And _they have also in use divers
    other Welsh words, a matter worthy the noting_."--The relation
    of David Ingram, 1568. in _The principall navigations_, etc.
    1589. Fol.

    [This narrative was compiled from answers to certain
    _queries_--perhaps twenty years after the events related.]

    "Afterwards [anno 1669] they [The Doeg Indians] carried us to
    their town, and entertained us civilly for four months; and I
    did converse with them of many things in the British tongue, and
    _did preach to them three times a week in the British tongue_,"
    etc. Rev. Morgan Jones, 1686.--_British Remains_, 1777. 8°.

    [The editor omits to state how he procured the manuscript. The
    paper whence the above is extracted is either decisive of the
    question at issue, or a forgery.]

The _student_ may infer, even from these imperfect hints, that I
consider the subject which he proposes to himself as one which deserves
a strict investigation--provided the collections hereafter described
have ceased to be in existence.

    "With respect to this extraordinary occurence in the history of
    Wales, I have collected a multitude of evidences, in conjunction
    with Edward Williams, the bard, to prove that Madog must have
    reached the American continent; for the descendants of him and
    his followers exist there as a nation to this day; and the
    present position of which is on the southern branches of the
    Missouri river, under the appellations of Padoucas, White
    Indians, Civilized Indians, and Welsh Indians."--_William Owen_,
    F.A.S. 1803.

The title prefixed to this paper would be a misnomer, if I did not add a
list of books which it may be desirable to consult:--

    _On the Scandinavian discoveries._--Mémoires de la société
    royale des antiquaires du Nord. 1836-1839. _Copenhague._ 8°. p.
    27.--Historia Vinlandiæ Antiquæ, seu partis Americæ
    septentrionalis--per Thormodum Terfæum. _Haviniæ_, 1705. 8°.
    1715. 8°--Antiquitates Americanæ, sive scriptores
    septentrionales rerum Ante-Columbianarum in America. _Hafniæ_,
    1837. 4°.

    _On the Welsh discoveries._--The historie of Cambria, now called
    Wales--continued by David Powel. _London_, 1584. 4°. The
    Myvyrian archaiology of Wales, _London_, 1801-7. 8°. 3 vol.
    British remains, by the Rev. N. Owen, A.M. _London_, 1777. 8°.
    The Cambrian biography, by William Owen, F.A.S. _London_, 1803.
    8°. Biblithèque Américaine, par H. Ternaux. _Paris_, 1837. 8°.
    The principall navigations, voiages and discoveries of the
    English nation--by Richard Hakluyt, M.A. _London_, 1589. fol.

BOLTON CORNEY.

       *       *       *       *       *

MADOC--HIS EXPEDITION TO AMERICA.

Dr. Plott, in his account, and Lord Monboddo, _Origin and Progress of
Language_, refer to the _Travels of Herbert_ (17th century), lib. iii.
cap. ult., for a full history of this supposed discovery. They derived
it from Meredyth ap Rhys, Gatty Owen, and Cynfyn ap Gronow, A.D.
1478-80. See also _Atheneaum_, Aug. 19. 1848.--Professor Elton's address
at the meeting of the British Association, on this and the earlier
Icelandic discovery.

The belief in the story has been lately renewed. See _Archæologia
Cambrens_, 4. 65., and _L'Acadie_, by Sir J.E. Alexander, 1849. I will
only observe that in Dr. Plott's account, Madoc was directed by the
_best compass_, and this in 1170! See M'Culloch's _Dictionary of
Commerce_.

ANGLO-CAMBRIAN.

       *       *       *       *       * {58}

MADOC'S EXPEDITION.

A traveller informs us that Baron A. von Humboldt urges further search
after this expedition in the Welsh records. He thinks the passage is in
the _Examin Critique_.

       *       *       *       *       *


QUERIES

"CLOUDS" OR SHROUDS, IN SHAKESPEARE.

I quite agree with your correspondent D.N.R., that there never has been
an editor of Shakespeare capable of doing him full justice. I will go
farther and say, that there never will be an editor capable of doing him
any thing like justice. I am the most "modern editor" of Shakespeare,
and I am the last to pretend that I am at all capable of doing him
justice: I should be ashamed of myself if I entertained a notion so
ridiculously presumptuous. What I intended was to do him all the justice
in my power, and that I accomplished, however imperfectly. It struck me
that the best mode of attempting to do him any justice was to take the
utmost pains to restore his text to the state in which he left it; and
give me leave, very humbly, to say that this is the chief recommendation
of the edition I superintended through the press, having collated every
line, syllable, and letter, with every known old copy. For this purpose
I saw, consulted and compared every quarto and every folio impression in
the British Museum, at Oxford, at Cambridge, in the libraries of the
Duke of Devonshire and Lord Ellesmere, and in several private
collections. If my edition have no other merit, I venture to assert that
it has this. It was a work of great labour, but it was a work also of
sincere love. It is my boast, and my only boast, that I have restored
the text of Shakespeare, as nearly as possible, to the integrity of the
old copies.

When your correspondent complains, therefore, that in "Hen. IV. Part 2,"
Act III. sc. 1., in the line,

  "With deafening clamours in the slippery clouds,"

the word _shrouds_ is not substituted by editors of Shakespeare for
"clouds," the answer is, that not a single old copy warrants the merely
fanciful emendation, and that it is not at all required by the sense of
the passage. In the 4to of 1600, and in the folio of 1623, the word is
"clouds;" and he must be a very bold editor (in my opinion little
capable of doing justice to any author), who would substitute his own
imaginary improvement, for what we have every reason to believe is the
genuine text. _Shrouds_ instead of "clouds" is a merely imaginary
improvement, supported by no authority, and (as, indeed, your
correspondent shows) without the merit of originality. I am for the text
of Shakespeare as he left it, and as we find it in the most authentic
representations of his mind and meaning.

J. PAYNE COLLIER.

       *       *       *       *       *

MEDAL OF THE PRETENDER.

Sir,--Possibly some one of your literary correspondents, who may be
versed in the, what D'Israeli would call _Secret_ History of the
Jacobite Court, will endeavour to answer a "Query" relative to the
following rare medal:--

    _Obv._ A ship of war bearing the French flag; on the shore a
    figure in the dress of a Jesuit (supposed to represent Father
    Petre) seated astride of a _Lobster_, holding in his arms the
    young Prince of Wales, who has a little windmill on his head.
    Legend: "Allons mon Prince, nous sommes en bon chemin." In the
    exergue, "Jacc: Franç: Eduard, supposé. 20 Juin, 1688."

    _Rev._ A shield charged with a windmill, and surmounted by a
    Jesuit's bonnet; two rows of Beads or Rosaries, for an order or
    collar, within which we read "Honny soit qui _non_ y pense;" a
    _Lobster_ is suspended from the collar as a badge. Legend: "Les
    Armes et l'Ordre du pretendu Prince de Galles."

The difficulty in the above medal is _the Lobster_, though doubtless it
had an allusion to some topic or scandal of the day; whoever can
elucidate it will render good service to Medallic History, for hitherto
it has baffled all commentators and collectors of medals. The windmill
(indicative of the poplar fable that the Prince was the son of a
miller), and the Roman Catholic symbols, are well understood.

There is an engraving of this medal in Van Loon's _Histoire Metallique
des Pays Bas_. It is also imperfectly engraved in Edwards' _Medallic
History of England_, for the Jesuit is represented kneeling on the
shore, and Pinkerton, who furnished the text, calls it "a boy kneeling
on the shore." The medal is so rare that probably the artist could
obtain only a rubbed or mutilated impression to engrave from. My
description is from a {59} specimen, in my own collection, as fine as
the day it was minted.

I may add that both Van Loon and Pinkerton have engraved the legend in
the collar erroneously, "honi soit qui _bon_ y pense;" it should be
"_non_."

B. NIGHTINGALE.

       *       *       *       *       *

ROGER DE COVERLEY.

In the _Spectator's_ description of Sir Roger de Coverley it is said,
"that his great-grandfather was the inventor of that famous country
dance which is called after him." To the tune, as printed in Chappell's
_English Melodies_, is appended a note to the effect that it was called
after "Roger of Coverley" (Cowley, near Oxford).

Can any one inform me--

I. Where any notice of that Roger is to be found?

II. What is the etymon of "Cowley" (Temple Cowley and Church Cowley)?

III. If any notice of the tune is to be met with earlier than 1695, when
it was printed by H. Playford in his _Dancing Master_?

W.

       *       *       *       *       *

HISTORY OF LANDED AND COMMERCIAL POLICY OF ENGLAND--HISTORY OF EDWARD
II.

Who was the author of the two following works?--"Remarks upon the
History of the Landed and Commercial Policy of England, from the
Invasion of the Romans to the Accession of James I. 2 vols. London:
printed for E. Brooke, in Bell Yard, Temple Bar, MDCCLXXXV."

"The History of the Life, Reign, and Death of Edward II, King of England
and Lord of Ireland, with the Rise and Fall of his great Favourites,
Gaveston and the Spencers. Written by E.F. in the year 1627, and printed
verbatim from the original. London: Printed by J.C. for Charles Harper,
at the Flower-de-Luce in Fleet St.; Samuel Crouch, at the Princes' Arms,
in Pope's head Alley in Cornhill; and Thomas Fox, at the Angel in
Westminster Hall, 1680. (a portrait of Ed. II.)" In the 1st vol. Harl.
Miscell. it is said that the above was found with the papers of the
first Lord Falkland, and is attributed to him. My copy has Faulconbridge
inserted in MS. over the F., and a book plate of Earl Verney, motto
"_Prodesse quam conspici_," with an escutcheon of pretence.

ANGLO-CAMBRIAN

       *       *       *       *       *

THE REVEREND THOMAS LEMAN.

Mr. Editor,--Amongst the later authorities on subjects of British-Roman
antiquity, the Rev. Thomas Leman is constantly referred to, and in terms
of great commendation.

Can you inform me whether that gentleman published any work or made an
avowed communication of any of his researches? His name is not found in
the Index to the _Archæologia_.

Mr. Leman contributed largely to Mr. Hatcher's edition of _Richard of
Cirencester_; but it is one of the unsatisfactory circumstances of this
work that these contributions, and whatever may have been derived from
the late Bishop of Cloyne, are merely acknowledged in general terms, and
are not distinguished as they occur.

I believe the MS. of the work was all in Mr. Hatcher's handwriting; some
of your readers may possibly have the means of knowing in what way he
used the materials thus given, or to what extent they were adapted or
annotated by himself.

A.T.
Coleman Street, Nov. 13.

       *       *       *       *       *

GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE.

Sir,--Will any of your readers favour me with an account of the origin,
as well as the date of introduction, of the term "_Gothic_," as applied
to the Pointed Styles of Ecclesiastical Architecture?

This Query is, of course, intimately connected with the much-disputed
question of the origin of the Pointed Style itself. But yet I imagine
that the _application_ of the term "_Gothic_" may be found to be quite
distinct, in its origin, from the first rise of the Pointed Arch. The
invention of the Pointed Arch cannot, surely, be attributed to the
_Goths_; whence then the origin and the _meaning_ of the term _Gothic_?

R. VINCENT.
Winchester, Nov. 12.

       *       *       *       *       *

KATHERINE PEGG.

Sir,--I think you may safely add Pepys's _Diary_ to the list of books in
illustration of which you are willing to receive both Queries and
Answers. There is not a passage in the _Diary_ that does not deserve to
be understood. {60}

At vol. iv. p. 435. of the new edition is the following entry:--

    "7 May, 1668. Here [at the King's Theatre] I did kiss the pretty
    woman newly come, called Pegg, that was Sir Charles Sedley's
    mistress, a mighty pretty woman, and seems (but is not) modest."

On this Lord Braybrooke has the following note:--

    "Pegg must have been Margaret Hughes, Prince Rupert's mistress,
    who had probably before that time lived with Sir Charles
    Sedley."

And then follows some account of Mrs. Hughes. But, _query_, was the
"Pegg" of the _Diary_, Peg Hughes? was she not rather as I belived her
to have been, Katherine Pegg, by whom king Charles II. had a son,
Charles Fitz-Charles, created Earl of Plymouth, 29th July, 1675, died
1680?

Katherine Pegg has escaped Lord Braybrooke. Can any of your
correspondents tell me who she was?

PETER CUNNINGHAM

       *       *       *       *       *

QUERIES IN MEDIÆVAL GEOGRAPHY.

What are the modern names of "Watewich," "Portum Pusillum," "Mare de
Saham," "Perpessa," and "Northmuth?" They are not to be found in
Ferrario's _Lexicon_ (a geographical dictionary so defective that it has
not even the Latin name for Aix-la-Chapelle), nor in Baudrand's _Lexicon
Geographicum_ (a good dictionary for the mediæval Latin names in France,
but not so perfect as the _Index Geographicum_ attached to the volumes
of Bouquet), nor in Martiniere's _Grande Dictionnarie Geographique_, nor
in the Index to Wright's _Courthand_, a miserable and imperfect
compilation.

    [These Queries are addressed to our correspondents in a very
    flattering review of "NOTES AND QUERIES" which appeared in the
    _Morning Herald_ of the 16th of November, and we shall be very
    glad to receive such answers to all or any of them as it may be
    in the power of any of our friends to supply.]

       *       *       *       *       *

MYLES BLOOMFYLDE AND WILLIAM BLOMEFIELD'S METRICAL WRITINGS ON ALCHYMY.

Sir,--I have had intrusted to me a MS. metrical book on Alchymy,
"written by me Myles Bloomefylde, late of Bury Saynes Edmunde in ye
Countye of Suffolke, Physytione;" but I can find no account of the
author. Worton, Ritson, and Tanner, mention a "William Blomefield, born
at Bury. Bachelor in Physic and a Monk of Bury," who wrote _inter alia_
a metrical work called _Bloomefield's Blossoms, or the Camp of
Philosophy_.

Were there two metrical writers on alchymy of the name Bloomfield, temp.
Eliz. and connected with Bury?

BURIENSIS.

    [The following Note by Park, which first appeared in the Edition
    of Wharton published in 1840, iii., p. 83., coupled with the
    fact that William Blomefield is described as a Bachelor of
    Physic, would seem to show that there is but one writer, whose
    proper name is not William, but Myles: "From Ashmole's _Notes on
    Theatrum Chemicum_, 1652. p. 478., it seems doubtful whether his
    name was not Myles."]

       *       *       *       *       *

THYNNE'S COLLECTION OF CHANCELLORS.

Mr. Editor,--Can any of your correspondents inform me who was the
"streict laced" gaoler of the records, alluded to in the following
passage in the _Collection of Chancellors of England_, by Francis
Thynne, inserted in Holinshed (ed. 1808) iv. 351.

    "John, Chancellor of England in the time of king Henrie the
    second, but what he was or in what yeare of king Henrie he lived
    I doo not know, and therefore leave it to _him that both can and
    ought to give life_ to these persons whom he imprisoneth in the
    east castell of London; not doubting but in time he will doo his
    countrie good, and correct other men; though _now he be so
    streict laced_, as that he will not procure anie furtherance of
    other men's trauels."

[Greek: S.]

       *       *       *       *       *

COLD HARBOUR

Mr. Editor,--In examining the Ordnance Survey of Kent, I was quite
surprised at the recurrence of the name "Cold Harbour;" and again, in
Wyld's Map of London in 1550.

I believe the point has been explained before, but perhaps some of your
readers could give some information as to its origin.

G.H.B.

Nov. 8. 1849.

    [The Society of Antiquaries was a good deal occupied, we
    scarcely know whether we may say interested, in the question
    raised by our correspondent, during the last session: and
    considerable {61} information upon the subject will be found in
    the published _Proceedings_ of the Society, and in the last part
    of the _Archæologia_. We should like to know whether there are
    _Cold Harbours_ in _every_ county in England. Mr. Hartshorne
    published a long list in his _Salopia Antiqua_. If our
    correspondents can give us any addition to that list, they will
    be acceptable. We are aware that there are several in Kent.]

       *       *       *       *       *

STATISTICS OF THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH.

Mr. Editor,--If any reader of your valuable and much-needed periodical
can, through its medium, supply me with the title of some recent and
authentic work containing _Statistics_ of the Roman Catholic
Church--e.g. the number of its members, or reputed members, in the
different European States; the number and temporalities of its sees,
clergy, &c.--he will confer on me a great obligation; one which it will
be a pleasure to me to repay to some other "Querist," should it lie
within my power to supply any desired information, in my turn. Your
faithful servant,

E.E.

       *       *       *       *       *

INCUMBENTS OF CHURCH LIVINGS.

Sir,--perhaps some of the readers of your useful publication could
inform me where I can find the _name_ and _birth-place_ of incumbents of
church livings prior to 1680, and the patrons of them. Your well-wisher,

L.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE CURSE OF SCOTLAND--WHY IS THE NINE OF DIAMONDS SO CALLED?

I shall be obliged to any of your correspondents who will inform me why
the Nine of Diamonds is called the curse of Scotland. I have heard two
causes assigned. One, that the Duke of Cumberland, on the field after
the battle of Culloden, wrote upon the back of this card a very cruel
and inhuman order for the destruction of the persons and property of the
rebels. This cannot be true, for I have in my possession a print
entitled "Britons Association against the Pope's Bulls." In it the young
Pretender or prince is represented attempting to lead across the Tweed a
herd of bulls laden with curses, excommunications, indulgences, &c. &c.
&c. On the ground before them lies the Nine of Diamonds. This print is
dated Oct. 21. 1745, some months previous to the battle of Culloden.

The other cause assigned is, that the nine lozenges with which the
saltire is charged in the armorial bearings of the Earl of Stair, are so
arranged as to resemble the nine of diamonds, which was called the curse
of Scotland, from the active part taken by that Earl in promoting the
Union, which was most unpopular in Scotland. I cannot positively deny
that the card in question owes its evil name to this cause, but I am not
aware that the Earl of Stair was so conspicuously active as to occasion
his being peculiarly selected as an object of popular aversion on that
account. He was indeed a commissioner for drawing up the articles of the
union, and he was sent ambassador to the court of Louis XIV. chiefly for
the purpose of watching the proceedings of the Jacobites; these
circumstances may have added to the odium which attached to his name
from the part which was taken by his predecessor, who was Secretary for
Scotland, and was charged with having exceeded his authority in ordering
the massacre of Glencoe.

EDW. HAWKINS.

Nov. 12. 1849

    [We would add to Mr. Hawkins's Query, another, viz.: What is the
    earliest known instance of the card in question being so
    designated? For it is clear, if such was the case before the
    Union, the second explanation is as little satisfactory as the
    first.]

       *       *       *       *       *

NOTES OF BOOK SALES--CATALOGUES, ETC.

The collectors of British portraits--and there are doubtless many such
among our readers--will shortly have such an opportunity of enriching
their portfolios as rarely presents itself. Messrs. Sotheby and Co.
commence, on the 3rd of December, the sale of the second portion of the
important and valuable stock of prints belonging to the well-known and
eminent printsellers, Messrs. W. and G. Smith, whose shop in Lisle
Street, Leicester Square, has been for so many years the favourite
resort of all who were in search of the rare and curious in calcographic
art. Messrs. Sotheby describe the present Sale as "comprising one of the
most numerous and interesting collections of British Historical
Portraits ever offered for sale;" and the following Lots, which exhibit
specimens of the rarities it contains, justify their statement.

33 ARCHIBALD EARL OF ARGYLL, by _Loggan, first state, before the
inscription round the oval_, VERY FINE AND RARE.

56 SIR WM. ASHURST, _Lord Mayor of London, 1694, after Linton, by R.
White_, VERY FINE AND RARE. {62}

59 SLINGSBY BETHELL, ONE OF THE SHERIFFS OF LONDON, &c. 1680, _whole
length, W. Sherwin sculpt., sold by S. Lee, at the Feathers in Lumbert
Street_, VERY FINE AND EXTREMELY RARE.

130 SIR RICHARD RAINSFORD, _Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench,
mezzotint after Claret, R. Tompson excudit_, MOST BRILLIANT AND VERY
RARE.

160 JAMES THE FORTH, KING OF SCOTLAND, _holding a flower in his hand,
sold by Compton Holland_, EXTREMELY FINE AND VERY RARE.

176 FREDERICK KING OF BOHEMIA, _half length, standing under an arch,
four Latin lines beneath, no engraver's name_, VERY FINE AND EXTREMELY
RARE.

184 CHARLES LEWIS, COUNT PALATINE OF THE RHINE, son of the King of
Bohemia, on horseback, with a view of London beyond him; circles
containing the dates of the births of his brothers and sisters at the
top on the left, eight English lines beneath: _a most interesting and
rare print_, BRILLIANT IMPRESSION, AND IN THE MOST PERFECT CONDITION.

328 SIR JOHN FENWICK, _of Fenwick Castle, in the Country of
Northumberland, executed in 1696, on suspicion of being engaged in a
plot to assassinate William III., after Wissing, by White_, VERY FINE
AND EXTREMELY RARE.

244 THOMAS CARTWRIGHT, _Bishop of Chester, after Soust, by Becket_, VERY
FINE AND RARE.

262 JOHN DOLBEN, BISHOP OF ROCHESTER, JOHN FELL, BISHOP OF OXFORD, AND
DR. RICHARD ALLESTRY, _called by Charles II_. CHIPLEY, CHOPLEY, CHEPLEY,
_from the picture in Christchurch Hall, by Sir P. Lely, D. Loggan
excudit_, BRILLIANT PROOF, AND EXTREMELY RARE.

304 SIR HENRY CHAUNCEY, _the historian of Hertfordshire, by J. Suvage,
fine and rare_.

365 GEORGE GORDAN, MARQUIS OF HUSTLEY, by _Sauvè_, FINE AND EXTREMELY
RARE.

374 ROBERT SIDNEY, EARL OF LEICESTER, by _Simon Passe, sold by Sudbury
and Humble_, VERY FINE AND RARE.

375 ROBERT BERTIE, EARL OF LINDSEY, after _Geldorp_, by _Voerst_,
BRILLIANT AND VERY RARE.

558 ISAAC MILERS, by _Vertue, first state, before the alterations of the
arms and inscription, very fine and rare; and the same, in the ordinary
state_.

661 THOMAS THYNN OF LONG LEATE, _murdered in Pall Mall 1682, after
Kneller, by White_, VERY FINE AND RARE.

662 THOMAS THYNN, _mezzotint after Lely, sold by A. Browne_, VERY FINE
AND RARE.

997 LOUISE DUCHESS OF PORTSMOUTH, _with her son as Cupid, after Gascar,
by Baudet_, VERY FINE AND EXTREMELY RARE, _from Mr. Ord's collection, at
the sale of which it produced 8£. 12s. 6d._

1000 LOUISE DUCHESS OF PORTSMOUTH, _reclining on a couch, oblong
mezzotint_, FINE PROOF BEFORE AND LETTERS, AND EXTREMELY RARE.

1048 _Hobson and the Cambridge Carrier, Author of "Hobson's Choice," by
J. Payne, two states, very fine and rare_.

1201 JOHN FREDERICK, Elector of Saxony, playing at chess with Ernest
Duke of Brunswick, at the moment when Charles V. sent the warrant for
his execution, A MOST CURIOUS AND INTERESTING HISTORICAL PRINT, AND
EXTREMELY RARE.

1209 ERASMUS, _sitting with a book before him_, by F. HOGENBERG, _H.
COCK excudebat_, 1555, VERY FINE AND RARE, &C.

We have also received:--

    "A Catalogue of English and Foreign Theology, including some of
    the rarest works of our early English Divines; nearly a complete
    series of the Fathers of the Church; the various Councils and
    most important Ecclesiastical Historians, Liturgical writers,
    &c." issued by Leslie, of 58. Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn,
    which is one which will greatly interest all readers of the
    peculiar class to whom it is more particularly addressed.

The same may be said of the excellent "Catalogue of Old and New Books
(Part CIV)," just delivered by Petheramm of 94. High Holborn: which, in
addition to theological works, exhibits many valuable productions in
historical and general literature.

Bernard Quarritch's "Catalogue of Foreign Books and Classics, selling at
16. Castle Street, Leicester Square," well deserves the attention of
philologists. It is rich, not only in works illustrative of the Oriental
languages and literature, but also in those of Germany and Scandinavia.
Indeed, it is one which should be looked into by all students of foreign
literature.

Some curious articles, more especially in early Italian and French
literature, and on the subject of Alchymy, Astrology, Magic, &c., will
be found in a "Catalogue of Interesting and Rare Books on sale, by
George Bumstead, No. 205. High Holborn."

William Nield, 46. Burlington Arcade is, we believe a new candidate for
the favours of the purchasers of old books. His first Catalogue contains
some curious Articles in the departments of Demonology and Witchcraft; a
few varieties belonging to the "Marprelate" class such as "Penri's
Exhortation;" and a fine collection of Classical Music.

Lastly, let us mention what cannot but interest many reader of "NOTES
AND QUERIES," that Mr. Lumley, of 56. Chancery Lane, having purchased
the stock of Society of Antiquaries' publications has divided the
volumes of the Archælogia, and has just put forth a Catalogue of the
separate papers, which are for sale, and of which he says very truly,
"their value cannot be disputed," and they are "now for the first time
offered thus to the Public."

       *       *       *       *       * {63}

BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES WANTED TO PURCHASE.

BURNEY'S TREATISE ON MUSIC (not his History).

GRAY'S ELEGY (PROFESSOR YOUNG OF GLASGOW'S CRITISCISM OF).

LIFE OF HON. ROBERT PRICE, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. London.
1734.

FLORES BERNARDI.

REGNORUM, PROVINCIARUM, CIVITATUMQUE NOMINA LATINA (CORONELLI, POTIUS
ALPHONSUS LASOR A VAREA). Fol. 2 Vols. Venet. 1716. Or the 2nd Vol.
only.

BUDDEN'S DISCOURSE FOR PARENTS' HONOUR AND AUTHORITIE. 8vo. 1666.

THE TWO WOLVES IN LAMB'S SKINS, OR OLD ELI'S LAMENTATION OVER HIS TWO
SONS. 8vo. 1716.

AVERELL'S FOUR NOTABLE HISTORIES, ETC. 4to. 1590.

NATURE, A POEM. Folio. 1736.

BARNEFIELD'S PLOWMAN'S COMPLAINT. 4to. 1580.

GILL'S INSTRUCTIONS FOR CHILDREN, in Verse. 1709.

JERMIN'S FATHER'S INSTITUTION OF HIS CHILD. 1658.

PASSIONAEL EPTE DAT LEVENT DER HELLIG N. Folio. Basil. MDXXII.

Odd Volumes

SOUTHEY'S COWPER. Vols. X. XII. XIII. XIV.

CAIRN'S EDITION OF GOLDSMITH'S MISCELLANEOUS WORKS. Edinburgh. 1801.
Vol. III.

SHAKSPEARE'S DRAMATIC WORKS.--The _Fourth_ Volume of WHITTINGHAM'S
Edition, in 7 vols. 24mo. Chiswick. 1814.

COOPER'S (C.P.) ACCOUNT OF THE MOST IMPORTANT PUBLIC RECORDS. 8vo.
1832.--The First Volume of

LIVY.--Vol. I. of Crevier's Edition. 6 vols. 4to. Paris. 1739.

Letters stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to Mr. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS.

_The matter is so generally understood with regard to the management of
periodical works, that it is hardly necessary for the Editor to say
that_ HE CANNOT UNDERTAKE TO RETURN MANUSCRIPTS; _but on one point he
wishes to offer a few words of explanation to his correspondents in
general, and particularly to those who do not enable him to communicate
with them except in print. They will see, on a very little reflection,
that it is plainly his interest to take all he can get, and make the
most, and the best of everything; and therefore he begs them to take for
granted that their communications are received, and appreciated, even if
the succeeding Number bears no proof of it. He is convinced that the
want of specific acknowledgment will only be felt by those who have no
idea of the labour and difficulty attendant on the hurried management of
such a work, and of the impossibility of sometimes giving an explanation
when there really is one which would quite satisfy the writer, for the
delay or non-insertion of his communication. Correspondents in such
cases have no reason, and if they understood an editor's position they
would feel that they have no right, to consider themselves undervalued;
but nothing short of personal experience in editorship would explain to
them the perplexities and evil consequences arising from an opposite
course_.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Surely_ MELANION _is too hard upon our correspondents and too_ exigeant
_towards ourselves. He would place us in a singular position. He should
consider that we have not opened lists for all comers to tilt against
each other. We invite_ litterateurs _to a_ re-union, _in which they may
give and receive mutual help and aid; but, in order to do so, they must
tolerate each others' little peculiarities, and not espy offence in
them_.

_The Index so kindly offered by_ MELANION _is declined with many
thanks_.

_Answers to several outstanding Queries in our next_.

COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVED.--_W.--A Subscriber--F.G.S.--Rev. L.B.
Larking.--J.J.S.--J. Britton.--T.G.--V.--S.W.S.--C.B.--R.J.S.--
Melanion.--W.L.--C.A.H.--Anglo-Cambrian--T. De Sternberg.--Q.X.Z.--
A.J.E.--Q.D.--F.F.B.--Scotus.--R.D.--P.--Cecil Moore.--A Hapless
Hunter.--E.--C.H.D.--Q.Q.--P.C.S.S.--J.R.P.--X.X.X.--G.J.K.--F.R.A_.

BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES WANTED.--_We believe that this will prove one of
the most useful divisions of our weekly Sheet. Gentlemen who may be
unable to meet with any book or volume of which they are in want may,
upon furnishing name, date, size, &c., have it inserted in this List_
free of cost. _Persons having such volumes to dispose of are requested
to send reports of price, &c., to Mr. Bell, our Publisher_.

_We have received many complaints of a difficulty in procuring our
paper. Every Bookseller and Newsvendor will supply it_ if ordered, _and
gentlemen residing in the country may be supplied regularly with the
Stamped Edition by giving their orders direct to the publisher_, Mr.
GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street, _accompanied by a Post Office order for
a quarter_ (4s. 4d.). _All communications should be addressed_ To the
Editor of "NOTES and QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Vols. I. and II. 8vo. Price 28s. cloth.

THE JUDGES OF ENGLAND; from
the time of the Conquest.

By Edward Foss, F.S.A.

"It supplies what was much wanted--a regular and progressive account of
English legal institutions. The result is a correction of many errors,
an addition of much new information, and a better general view of our
strictly legal history than any other jurist, historian, or biographer
had heretofore attempted to give."--_Examiner._

LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, and LONGMANS.

       *       *       *       *       * {64}

Just published, Part II., containing 10 Plates, 5s. Plain, 7s. 6d.,
coloured, to be completed in three or four Parts.

ANTIQUARIAN GLEANINGS in the NORTH of ENGLAND: being Examples of Antique
Furniture, Plate, Church Decorations, Objects of Historical Interest,
&c. Drawn and Etched by W.B. SCOTT.

"A collection of Antiquarian Relics, chiefly in the Decorative branch of
Art, preserved in the Northern Counties, portrayed by a very competent
hand. Many of the objects possess considerable interest; such as the
chair of the Venerable Bede, Cromwell's sword and watch, and the
grace-cup of Thomas à Becket. All are drawn with that distinctness which
makes them available for the Antiquarian, for the Artist who is studying
Costume, and for the study of Decorative Art."--_Spectator._

8vo. cloth, price 12s., with a Coloured Plate of King Alfred's Jewel.

THE LIFE and TIMES of ALFRED the GREAT. By the Rev. J.A. GILES, D.C.L.,
late Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, Author of "The History of
the Ancient Britons," &c.

"A useful volume, as collecting into one view all the facts that are
known respecting the Life of Alfred, exhibiting the various opinions on
disputed points, and containing a very fair, sensible summing up by the
biographer."--_Spectator._

Two vols., 8vo, 30s.

HISTORY of the ANCIENT BRITONS, from the Earliest Period to the Invasion
of the Saxons Compiled from the Original Authorities. By the Rev. J.A.
GILES, D.C.L., late Fellow of C.C.C., Oxford.

"The longer and more important passages are full and clear in matter,
always well presented, often in a masterly mode.... Dr. Giles is in
thorough possession of his materials and of his intention, which
produces the clearness that arises from mastery: and he exhibits the
same general _bon hommie_ and chronicler disposition for minute and
picturesque narrative which we noted in his life of Becket, with more of
a critical spirit."--_Spectator._

8vo. price 1s. 6d., with two Plates.

A DESCRIPTION OF THE ROMAN THEATRE lately discovered at Verulam. By R.
GROVE LOWE, Esq. Read at the meeting of the St. Alban's Architectural
Society, April 12, 1848.

8vo. sewed 1s.

ON SOME ROMAN SEPULCHRAL REMAINS discovered in the Churchyard of St.
Stephen, near St. Alban's, Herts, A.D. 1848. Read at a meeting of the
St. Alban's Architectural Society, June 20, 1848. By MATTHEW HOLBECHE
BLOXAM. Published for the Society by GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street;
WILLIAM LANGLEY, St. Alban's; and JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford and London.

       *       *       *       *       *

ARISTOTLE'S ETHICS. Literally translated into English. 8vo. bds. 5s.;
published at 10s. 6d. Oxford, 1846.

ANCIENT GREECE. The History of the Manners and Customs of Ancient
Greece. By J.A. ST. JOHN, 3 vols. 8vo. boards, 15s.; published at 1l.
11s. 6d. 1842.

TRAVELS IN THE MOREA. By W.M. LEAKE, F.R.S., with a Map and Plates. 3
vols. 8vo. bds. 18s.; published at 2l. 5s. 1830.

CALDERON DE LA BARCA, Las Comedias de. Por J.J. KEIL. Portrait, 4 vols,
royal 8vo. sewed, 1l. 5s. Leipsique, 1828.

EDWARD STIBBS, 331. Strand, where also can be had on application his
Catalogues of Second Hand Books in all languages and subjects, viz.
Classics and Philology, Divinity, English and General Literature.

       *       *       *       *       *

TRACTS FOR THE CHRISTIAN SEASONS. The First Part of a New Series of
Tracts for the Christian Seasons will be published on Saturday, December
1, containing a Tract for each Sunday in Advent. These Tracts illustrate
the Teaching of the Church, follow the order of the Christian Year, and
neither exceed nor fall short of the Teaching of the Prayer Book.

The First Series is now complete in 4 vols. fcap. 8vo. and may be
ordered of all booksellers in the country. Oxford: JOHN HENRY PARKER;
and 337. Strand, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PICKERING'S LIBRARY EDITIONS.

BUNYAN'S PILGRIM'S PROGRESS, 8vo. 10s. 6d.

GEORGE HERBERT'S COMPLETE WORKS. 2 vols. 8vo. 21s.

TAYLOR'S HOLY LIVING AND DYING. 2 vols. 8vo. 21s.

The above Works are beautifully printed in large type, by Whittingham,
and are kept in appropriate bindings.

WILLIAM PICKERING, 177. Piccadilly.

       *       *       *       *       *

BOOKS OF REFERENCE

1. BIBLIOTHECA AUCTORUM CLASSICORUM. A complete Catalog of Classics.
8vo., 8s.

2. BIBLIOTHECA ZOOLOGICA ET PALÆONTOLOGICA, 8vo. 1845. 12s.

3. BIBLIOTHECA MEDICO-CHIRURGICA. 8vo. 1847. 7s. 6d.

4. BIBLIOGRAPHIE BIOGRAPHIQUE. A reference to 27,000 works on Biography.
4to. boards. 2l. 10s.

WILLIAMS and NORGATE will be happy to ANSWER ALL QUERIES respecting
German Books, and things relating thereunto, as far as their experience
and extensive works of reference enable them to do.

WILLIAMS and NORGATE, 14. Henrietta Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186 Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, November 24, 1849.





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