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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 179, April 2, 1853. - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 179, April 2, 1853. - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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  | Transcriber's Note: Italicized words, phrases, etc. are      |
  | surrounded by _underline charcters_. Greek transliterations  |
  | are surrounded by ~tildas~. Diacritical marks over           |
  | characters are bracketed: [=mt] indicates a macron over the  |
  | letters mt, [(y] indicates a breve over the y, etc. Archaic  |
  | spellings such as Ffurther and pseudonymes have been         |
  | retained.                                                    |



       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 179.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition, 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


NOTES:--                                                        Page
    Jack, by John Jackson                                        325
    Mythe _versus_ Myth, by Thomas Keightley                     326
    Witchcraft in 1638                                           326
    St. Augustin and Baxter, by E. Smirke                        327
    FOLK LORE:--Subterranean Bells--Welsh Legend of
      the Redbreast                                              328
    Johnsoniana                                                  328
    MINOR NOTES:--White Roses--Fifeshire Pronunciation
      --Original Letter--Erroneous Forms of Speech               329

    Eustache de Saint Pierre, by Henry H. Breen                  329
    Passage in Coleridge                                         330
    MINOR QUERIES:--Cann Family--Landholders in
      Lonsdale South of the Sands--Rotation of the Earth
      --Nelson and Wellington--Are White Cats deaf?--
      Arms in Dugdale's "Warwickshire," &c.--Tombstone
      in Churchyard--Argot and Slang--Priests'
      Surplices--John, Brother German to David II.--
      Scott, Nelson's Secretary--The Axe which beheaded
      Anne Boleyn--Roger Outlawe--"Berte au Grand
      Pied"--Lying by the Walls--Constables of France--
      St. John's Church, Shoreditch                              330
      --Ring, the Marriage--Amusive--Belfry Towers
      separate from the Body of the Church--An Easter-day
      Sun                                                        332

    Hamilton Queries, by Lord Braybrooke, &c.                    333
    The Wood of the Cross                                        334
    Edmund Chaloner, by T. Hughes                                334
    "Anywhen" and "Seldom-when:" unobserved Instances
      of Shakespeare's Use of the latter, S. W.
      Singer                                                     335
    Chichester: Lavant, by W. L. Nichols                         335
    Scarfs worn by Clergymen, by Rev. John Jebb, &c.             337
    Inscriptions in Books, by Russell Gole, George S. Master,
      &c.                                                        337
      Sir W. Newton's Explanations of his Process--Talc
      for Collodion Pictures                                     338
    REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Portrait of the Duke
      of Gloucester--Key to Dibdin's "Bibliomania"--High
      Spirits a Presage of Evil--Hogarth's Works--Town
      Plough--Shoreditch Cross and the painted Window in
      Shoreditch Church--Race for Canterbury--Lady High
      Sheriff--Burial of an unclaimed Corpse--Surname of
      Allan--The Patronymic Mac--Cibber's "Lives of
      the Poets"--Parallel Passages, No. 2.: Stars and
      Flowers--Schomberg's Epitaph--Pilgrimages to the
      Holy Land--Album--Gesmas and Desmas--"Quod
      fuit esse"--Straw Bail--Pearl--Sermons by Parliamentary
      Chaplains, &c.                                             338

    Notes on Books, &c.                                          345
    Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                 346
    Notices to Correspondents                                    346
    Advertisements                                               346

       *       *       *       *       *



I wish to note, and to suggest to students in ethnology, the Query, how
it comes to pass that John Bull has a peculiar propensity to call things
by his own name, his familiar appellative of _Jack_?

Of all the long list of abbreviations and familiar names with which
times past and present have supplied us, that which honest Falstaff
found most pleasing to his ears, "_Jack_ with my familiars!" is the
household word with which ours are most conversant. Were not _Jack_ the
Giant-killer, _Jack_ and the Bean-stalk, and Little _Jack_, the
intimates of our earliest days? when we were lulled to sleep by ditties
that told of _Jack_ Sprat and his accommodating wife (an instance of the
harmony in which those of opposite tastes may live in the bonds of
wedlock); of _Jack_, the bachelor who lived harmoniously with his
fiddle, and had a soul above the advice of his utilitarian friend; of
_Jack_ who, like Caliban, was to have a new master; of _Jack_[1] the
brother of Gill; and of the _Jack_ who was only remarkable for having a
brother, whose name, as a younger son, is not thought worthy of mention.
And were not our waking hours solaced by songs, celebrating the good
Jack[2], little _Jack_ Horner, and holding up to obloquy the bad Jack,
naughty _Jacky_ Green, and his treachery to the innocent cat? Who does
not remember the time when he played at _jack_-straws, fished for
_jack_-sharps, and delighted in a skip-_jack_, or _jack_-a-jumper, when
_jack_-in-a-box came back from the fair (where we had listened not
unmoved to the temptations of that eloquent vagabond cheap-_Jack_) and
popped up his nose before we could say _Jack_ {326} Robinson; and when
_Jack_-in-the-green ushered in May-day? While a halo of charmed
recollections encircles the memory of _Jack_-pudding, dear to the
Englishman as Jack Pottage and Jack Sausage (Jean Potage and Hans Wurst)
are to Frenchman and German.

Our childhood past, _Jack_ still haunts us at every turn and phase of
our existence. The smoke-_jack_ and bottle-_jack_, those revolutionary
instruments that threw the turnspit out of employment (and have
well-nigh banished him from the face of the earth), cook the _Jack_
hare, which we bring in in the pocket of our shooting-_jacket_. We wear
_jack_-boots, and draw them off with boot-_jacks_; prop up our houses
with _jack_-screws; wipe our hands on _jack_-towels; drink out of
black-_jacks_, and wear them on our backs too, at least our ancestors
did; while flap-_jacks_[3] gave a relish to their Lenten diet,
_jack_-of-the-clock[4] told them the hour; _Jack_ priests held rule over
them; and gentle exercise at the _jack_, at bowls, helped them to digest
their dinners. We ride upon _jack_-asses; _jacks_ flourish in our
fish-ponds; _jack_-a-lanterns and _jack_-snipes flit over our bogs, the
one scarcely less difficult to capture than the other; _jack_-daws
multiply in our steeples, and _jack_-herons still linger about our
baronial halls.

The four _jack_ knaves, _jack_-a-lents, _jack_-a-dandies,
_jack_-a-nasties, and _jacks_-in-office (_jack_-an-apeses every man
_jack_ of them), with that name fraught with mysterious terror, _Jack_
Ketch, are the scape-graces of this numerous family; and, at every
_Jack_ who would be the gentleman, at a saucy _Jack_ who attempts to
play the _jack_ with us, our indignation rises, like that of Juliet's
nurse. But, on the whole, _Jack_ is an honest fellow, who does his work
in this life, though he has been reproached with Tom's helping him to do
nothing; but let the house that Jack built vindicate him from this
calumny. _Jack_, we repeat, is an honest fellow, and is so more
especially, when as _Jack_-tar (Heaven protect him from _Jack_-sharks
both on sea and shore!) he has old Ocean beneath, and the union-_jack_
above him. Of black and yellow _jack_, who are foreigners, we make no
mention; neither of _Jack_-Spaniards, nor of _Jacko_ the monkey, whom we
detest; but, go where we will, _Jack_ meets us, and is master of all
trades, for that we hold to be the right, though, we are aware, not the
usual version of the saying. In short, with Merry _Andrews_, _Jerry_
Sneaks, _Tom_ Noddies, and Silly _Simons_, we may all have a casual
acquaintance; but _Jack_, sweet _Jack_, kind _Jack_, honest _Jack_,
_Jack_ still is our familiar.


     [Footnote 1: Jack and Gill were measures. "Wherefore," says
     Grumio, "be the Jacks fair within and the Gills fair without,"
     meaning the leathern jacks clean within, and the metal gills
     polished without.]

     [Footnote 2: His character has suffered by antiquarian
     research, which tells us that the song was made on a Colonel
     Horner, intrusted by the last Abbot of Wells with a pie,
     containing the title-deeds of the abbey, which he was to
     deliver to Henry VIII., and that he abstracted one for his own
     purposes, whereupon the abbot was hanged.]

     [Footnote 3: The old name for pancakes. Slap-_jacks_ is their
     present name in America.]

     [Footnote 4: The figure which struck the hour, as on the old
     clocks of St. Dunstan's, and of Carfax in Oxford.]

       *       *       *       *       *


When I first began to write on Mythology, I followed the Germans in
using _mythus_ for the Greek ~mythos~. I afterwards thought it
would be better to Anglicise it, and, strange to say, I actually found
that there was a rule in the English language without an exception. It
was this: Words formed from Greek disyllables in ~os~, whether
the penultimate vowel be long or short, are monosyllables made long by
_e_ final. Thus, not only does ~bôlos~ make _bole_, but ~polos~ _pole_,
~poros~ _pore_, ~skopos~ _scope_, ~tonos~ _tone_, &c.; so also ~gyros~,
_gyre_; ~thymos~, _thyme_; ~stylos~, _style_; ~kybos~, _cube_, &c.: I
therefore, without hesitation, made an English word _m[=y]the_. Mr.
Grote, in his _History of Greece_, has done the very same thing, and
probably on the same principles, quite independently of me; for, as I am
informed, he has never condescended to read my _Mythology of Greece and
Italy_, perhaps because it was not written in German. We have had no
followers, as far as I am aware, but Miss Lynn, in her classical novels,
and Mr. J. E. Taylor, in his translation of the _Pentamerone_, &c.

Meantime the English language had got another form of ~mythos~,
namely, _m[)y]th_, which I believe made its first appearance in Mr.
Cooley's _Maritime and Inland Discovery_, and so has the claim of
priority, if not of correctness. This form has been so generally
adopted, that it seems likely ere long to become a mere slang term. It
is used for every kind of fiction whatever; indeed, I have seen it
employed where the proper word would be _hoax_. Nay, to make matters
worse, it is actually used of persons. Mrs. Harris, for instance, has
been termed a _myth_, as also was Robin Hood, not long since, even in
"N. & Q."! I wonder how Apolodorus would have looked, if he had heard
Orion or Polyphemus called a ~mythos~!

Do I then expect the people of England to surrender their glorious
privilege of going wrong without let or hindrance, in matters of grammar
and etymology? Far from me be such folly and presumption. All I venture
to expect is, that men of learning and good sense will, when they are
speaking or writing about those venerable fictions which once commanded
the assent of polished nations, use the more dignified term _m[=y]the_,
and the adjective _mythic_, instead of the hybrid _mythical_, leaving
the poor unhappy little _m[)y]th_ to be bandied about at the popular
will and pleasure.


       *       *       *       *       *


I inclose you an extract from an old document in my possession, which
appears to be the examination of two witnesses against one Mary Shepherd
for witchcraft. The nature of the offence is not {327} specified.
Perhaps it may be interesting to some of your readers.

     _The Exa[=m] of Jone Coward of Wareham, taken upon Oath the 28
     March, 1638._

     Who sayth, y't about Midsomer last past one Mary Sheapheard of
     Wareham did pull of one of this Ex[=mt]'s stockings, and
     within 2 howers after this Ex[=nt] was taken in all her limbs
     that she could not stur hand or foot, where upon this Ex[=nt]
     considered that the fors'd Mary Sheapheard had done her that
     hurt, and forth w'th cryed out upon the sayd Mary Shep.
     (though the sayd M. Shep. was not present), where upon this
     Ex[=mt]'s mother went unto the house of M. Shep. to perswaed
     her to come downe to this Ex[=nt]; but the sayd M. Shep. would
     not. Whereupon this Ex[=nt]'s mother went unto the Mayor of
     the Town, who co[=m]anded the s'd M. Shep. to goe to this
     Exa[=nt]. At length the s'd Ma. Shep. accordingly did (and
     being co[=e]), she did wring this Ex[=nt] by the hande, and
     p'esently this Ex[=nt] recouered. Ffurther, the Ex[=nt]
     sayth, y't about ye 24 of July _next followinge_, this
     Ex[=nt] was taken in ye like manner ye second time, w'th
     her hands and feet wrested about, and so sent for the s'd M.
     Shep., who instantly pulled the Ex[=nt] by the hands, and
     p'esently the Ex[=nt] recovered again.


     Joane Coward de Warh[=a], spinster £xx,

     To appear and give evidence at the next assizes ag[=nt] Ma.

       *       *       *       *       *

     _The Ex[=am] of Ann Trew, single woman, of Wareham, taken upon
     Oath as afors'd._

     Who sayth, y't on ye 16th of March last past she saw Mary
     Shep. come into ye house of Joh. Gillingame, and likewise saw
     Ed. Gillingame come down bare-footed very well, without any
     lamnesse or sickness at all, and p'esently after ye sayd
     Mary Shep. had pulled on the legginge upon the legge of ye
     s'd Ed. Gill., he fell instantly both lame and sick. Further,
     the Ex[=nt] asked the s'd Ed. Gill. (in the time of his
     sickness) what Ma. Shep. did unto him, who answered, she did
     put her hand upon his thigh.

     ANN TREW.

     Anne Trew de Warh[=a], spinster £xx,

     To appear and give evidence at next assizes ag[=nt] M.

I should like to know if the effect of her supposed sorcery could be
attributed to mesmerism. The document in my possession appears to be
original, as Jone Coward's signature is in a different hand to that of
the examination.

J. C. M.


       *       *       *       *       *


I am not aware that any author has pointed out a remarkable coincidence
in the Confessions of St. Augustin and of Baxter:

     "Divers sins I was addicted to, and oft committed against my
     conscience, which, for the warning of others, I will here
     confess to my shame. I was much addicted to the excessive and
     gluttonous eating of apples and pears, which, I think, laid
     the foundation of the imbecility and flatulency of my
     stomach.... To this end, and to concur with naughty boys that
     gloried in evil, I have oft gone into other men's orchards and
     stolen the fruit, when I had enough at home.... These were my
     sins in my childhood, as to which conscience troubled me for a
     great while before they were overcome."

Sir W. Scott cites the above passages in his _Life of Dryden_, with
sharp comments on the rigid scruples of the Puritans:

     "How is it possible," he says, "to forgive Baxter for the
     affectation with which he records the enormities of his
     childhood?... Can any one read this confession without
     thinking of Tartuffe, who subjected himself to penance for
     killing a flea with too much anger?..."

It probably did not occur to the biographer, that no less illustrious a
saint than Augustin, to whom Puritanism can hardly be imputed, had made
a parallel confession of like early depravity many centuries before.
Enlarging on his own puerile delinquencies, and indeed on the wickedness
of children in general, he confesses that, in company with other
"naughty boys" ("nequissimi adolescentuli"), he not only stole apples,
but stole them for the mere pleasure of the thing, and when he "had
enough at home":

     "Id furatus sum quod mihi abundabat, et multo melius. Nec eâ
     re volebam frui quam furto appetebam; sed ipso furto et
     peccato. Arbor erat pirus in viciniâ vineæ nostræ pomis
     onusta, nec formâ nec sapore illecebrosis. Ad hanc excutiendam
     atque asportandam, nequissimi adolescentuli perreximus nocte
     intempestâ; et abstulimus inde onera ingentia, non ad nostras
     epulas, sed vel projicienda porcis, etiamsi aliquid inde
     comedimus.... Ecce cor meum, Deus meus, ecce cor meum, quod
     miseratus es in imo abyssi!"--_Confessionum_, lib. ii. cap.

In comparing the two cases, the balance of juvenile depravity is very
much against the great Doctor of Grace. He does not seem to have had
even a fondness for fruit to plead in extenuation of his larceny. He
robbed orchards by wholesale of apples, which, by his own admission, had
no attractions either of form or flavour to tempt him. Yet the two
anecdotes are so much alike, that one would be inclined to suspect one
story of being a mere recoction of the other if it were possible to
doubt the veracity of Richard Baxter.

The incident, however, is one too familiar in schoolboy life to make the
repetition of the story a matter of surprise. The property in an apple
growing within the reach of a boy's hand has from time immemorial been
in peril, and the law itself has not always regarded it as an object of
scrupulous protection. The old laws of the Rheingau, and (if I mistake
not) of some other states, warranted a wayfaring man in picking apples
from any tree, provided he did not exceed the number of three.


       *       *       *       *       *


_Subterranean Bells_ (Vol. vii., pp. 128. 200.).--In answer to J. J.
S.'s inquiry, I beg to state, that at Crosmere, near Ellesmere,
Shropshire, where there is one of a number of pretty lakes scattered
throughout that district, there is a tradition of a chapel having
formerly stood on the banks of the lake. And it is said that the belief
once was, that whenever the waters were ruffled by wind, the chapel
bells might be heard as singing beneath the surface. This, though
bearing on the subject of "submarine" or "subaqueous," rather than
"subterranean" bells, illustrates, I think, the tradition to which J. J.
S. refers.

J. W. M.

Hordley, Ellesmere.

_Welsh Legend of the Redbreast._--According to my old nurse (a
Carmarthenshire woman), the redbreast, like Prometheus, is the victim
~philanthrôpou tropou~. Not only the babes in the wood, but
mankind at large, are indebted to these deserving favourites. How could
any child help regarding with grateful veneration the little bird with
bosom red, when assured--

     "That far, far, far away is a land of woe, darkness, spirits
     of evil, and _fire_. Day by day does the little bird bear in
     his bill a drop of water to quench the flame. So near to the
     burning stream does he fly, that his dear little feathers are
     _scorched_: and hence he is named Bron-_rhuddyn_.[5] To serve
     little children, the robin dares approach the Infernal Pit. No
     good child will hurt the devoted benefactor of man. The robin
     returns from the land of _fire_, and therefore he feels the
     _cold_ of winter far more than his brother birds. He shivers
     in the brumal blast; hungry, he chirps before your door. Oh!
     my child, then, in gratitude throw a few crumbs to poor

Why, a Pythagorean would have eaten a peacock sooner than one of us
would have injured a robin.

R. P.

     [Footnote 5: Bron-rhuddyn = "breast-burnt," or

       *       *       *       *       *


I inclose you a transcript of a letter of Boswell's which I think worthy
of being permanently recorded, and am not aware of its having been
before in print.

                                      Edinburgh, 11th April, 1774.

     Dear Sir,

     When Mr. Johnson and I arrived at Inveraray after our
     expedition to the Hebrides, and there for the first time
     _after many days_ renewed our enjoyment of the luxuries of
     civilised life, one of the most elegant that I could wish to
     find was lying for me, a letter from Mr. Garrick. It was a
     pineapple of the finest flavour, which had a high zest indeed
     amongst the heath-covered mountains of Scotia. That I have not
     thanked you for it long ere now is one of those strange facts
     for which it is so difficult to account, that I shall not
     attempt it. The _Idler_ has strongly expressed many of the
     wonderful effects of the _vis inertiæ_ of the human mind. But
     it is hardly credible that a man should have the warmest
     regard for his friend, a constant desire to show it, and a
     keen ambition for a frequent epistolary intercourse with him,
     and yet should let months roll on without having resolution,
     or activity, or power, or whatever it be, to write a few
     lines. A man in such a situation is somewhat like Tantalus
     reversed. He recedes, he knows not how, from what he loves,
     which is full as provoking as when what he loves recedes from
     him. That my complaint is not a peculiar fancy, but deep in
     human nature, I appeal to the authority of St. Paul, who
     though he had not been exalted to the dignity of an apostle,
     would have stood high in fame as a philosopher and orator,
     "_What I would that do I not._" You need be under no concern
     as to your debt to me for the book which I purchased for you.
     It was long ago discharged; for believe me, I intended the
     book as a present. Or if you rather chuse that it should be
     held as an exchange with the epitaphs which you sent me, I
     have no objection. Dr. Goldsmith's death would affect all the
     club much. I have not been so much affected with any event
     that has happened of a long time. I wish you would give me,
     who am at a distance, and who cannot get to London this
     spring, some particulars with regards to his last appearances.
     Dr. Young has a fine thought to this purpose, that every
     friend who goes before us to the other side of the river of
     death, makes the passage to us the easier. Were our club all
     removed to a future world but one or two, _they_, one should
     think, would incline to follow. By all means let me be on your
     list of subscribers to Mr. Morrell's _Prometheus_. You have
     enlivened the town, I see, with a musical piece. The prologue
     is admirably fancied _arripere populum tributim_; though, to
     be sure, Foote's remark applies to it, that your prologues {329}
     have a culinary turn, and that therefore the motto to your
     collection of them should be, _Animus jamdudum in Patinis_. A
     player upon words might answer him, "Any Patinis rather than
     your Piety in Pattens." I wonder the wags have not been
     quoting upon you, "Whose erudition is a _Christmas tale_." But
     Mr. Johnson is ready to bruise any one who calls in question
     your classical knowledge and your happy application of it. I
     hope Mr. Johnson has given you an entertaining account of his
     Northern Tour. He is certainly to favour the world with some
     of his remarks. Pray do not fail to quicken him by word as I
     do by letter. Posterity will be the more obliged to his
     friends the more that they can prevail with him to write. With
     best compliments to Mrs. Garrick, and hoping that you will not
     punish me by being long silent, I remain faithfully yours,


    To David Garrick, Esq.,
    Adelphi, London.

W. P.

       *       *       *       *       *


_White Roses._--In an old newspaper, _The Weekly Journal, or British
Gazetteer_, of Saturday, June 15, 1723, I find the following paragraph:

     "Monday being the anniversary of the White Roses, some persons
     who had a mind to boast that they had bid defiance to the
     government, put them on early in the morning; but the mob not
     liking such doings, gathered about them, and demolished the
     wearers; which so terrified the crew, that not one of them
     afterwards would touch a white rose."

Can you, or any of your correspondents, explain this curious allusion?
Is it to the emblem of the House of York, or the badge of the Pretender?

E. G. B.

_Fifeshire Pronunciation._--I have observed, in various parts of
Fifeshire, a singular peculiarity in the pronunciation of certain words,
of which the following are specimens:


    Wrong,                          Vrang.
    Wright,                         Vricht (_gut._).
    Wretch,                         Vretch.
    Write, _v. a._                  Vrite.
    Write, or writing, _s._         Vreat.

This strange mode is not altogether confined to the most illiterate
portion of the people. My query is, Does this peculiarity obtain in any
other portion of Scotland?

A. R. X.


_Original Letter._--The following letter, written by the French general
at Guadaloupe, when it was taken in 1810, to his conqueror, is an
exquisite specimen of something more than that national politeness which
does not desert a Frenchman even in misfortune. I possess the original:

                         Au quartier général du Parc,
                            le 6 Février, 1810.

      A son Excellence

    Le Général Beckwith, Commandant en chef les forces de sa
    Majesté Britannique aux isles du Vent.

      Monsieur le Général,

    J'ai été prévenu que Votre Excellence se proposait de venir au
    Parc demain dans la matinée. J'ose espérer qu'elle voudra bien
    me faire l'honneur d'accepter le diner que lui offre un Général
    malheureux et vaincu, mais qu'il présente de tout coeur.

    Daignez, Monsieur le Général, agréer l'assurance de la haute
    considération avec laquelle

         J'ai l'honneur d'être,
           de votre Excellence,
             Le très-obéissant serviteur,


_Erroneous Forms of Speech._--Since you allow your correspondents to
correct such words as _teetotal_, I hope you will allow me to call the
attention of your agricultural readers to the corruption in the word
_mangold_, as they now write it. The word is in German _mangel wurzel_,
root of scarcity. It is wrong to use even such a name as this, in my
opinion, while we have the English name _beet_, which has the additional
advantage of being derived from the botanical name _Beta_. But if a new
name must be used, let it, at any rate, be the pure German _mangel_, and
not the mongrel _mangold_. Indeed, those who spell the word in the
latter way, ought in common consistency to write _reddishes_,
_sparrowgrass_, and _cowcumbers_ for radishes, asparagus, and cucumbers.

E. G. R.

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. vii., p. 10.)

MR. KING'S inquiry reminds me of two Queries on the same subject which I
sent you as far back as the end of 1851, or beginning of 1852. Those
Queries have not appeared in "N. & Q.," and I was led to suppose, either
that you had laid them aside for some future occasion, or had found
something objectionable in the form in which they were presented. The
following is a literal copy.

     "There are two circumstances connected with this event (the
     surrender of Calais), respecting which I am desirous of
     obtaining information. The first has reference to the
     individuals who offered themselves as victims to appease the
     exasperation of Edward III., after the obstinate siege of {330}
     that town in 1347. They are represented as _six_ of the
     principal citizens; Eustache de Saint Pierre was at their
     head, and the names of three others have come down to us, as
     Jean d'Aire, Jacques de Wissant, and Pierre de Wissant. Who
     were the other two?

     "The second point relates to the character of that occurrence.
     Some historians are of opinion that the devotedness of Saint
     Pierre and his associates was prompted by the most exalted
     sentiments of patriotism; while others assert that it was all
     a 'sham,' that Saint-Pierre was secretly attached to the cause
     of the English monarch, and that he was subsequently employed
     by him in some confidential negociations. To which of these
     opinions should the historical inquirer give his assent?"

I may add, in reply to MR. KING, that "the light thrown on the
subject, through M. de Bréquigny's labours," has been noticed in the
_Biographie Universelle_, sub voce _Saint-Pierre (Eustache de)_; and it
was the remarks in that work that first drew my attention to it. The
circumstances disclosed by Bréquigny are also commented upon by Lévesque
in his _La France sous les Valois_.


St. Lucia.

       *       *       *       *       *


De Quincy, in his "Suspiria de Profundis," Blackwood's _Magazine_, June,
1845, p. 748., speaking of the spectre of the Brocken, and of the
conditions under which that striking phenomenon is manifested, observes

     "Coleridge ascended the Brocken on the Whitsunday of 1799 with
     a party of English students from Goettingen, but failed to see
     the phantom; afterwards in England (and under the same three
     conditions) he saw a much rarer phenomenon, which he described
     in the following eight lines. I give them from a corrected
     copy. The apostrophe in the beginning must be understood as
     addressed to an ideal conception:

    "'And art thou nothing? Such thou art as when
      The woodman winding westward up the glen
      At wintry dawn, when o'er the sheep-track's maze
      The viewless snow-mist weaves a glist'ning haze,
      Sees full before him, gliding without tread,
      An image with a glory round its head:
      This shade he worships for its golden hues,
      And makes (not knowing) that which he pursues.'"

These lines are from "Constancy to an ideal Object;" but in the usual
editions of Coleridge's _Poems_, the last two lines are printed thus:

    "The enamour'd rustic worships its fair hues,
     Nor knows he makes the shadow he pursues."
      Coleridge's _Poetical Works_, vol. ii. p. 91., 1840.

Query: Which reading is the correct one? Coleridge refers to the
_Manchester Philosophical Transactions_ for a description of this
phenomenon; but, as the earlier volumes of these are scarce, perhaps
some of your correspondents would copy the description from the volume
which contains it, or furnish one from some authentic source.

J. M. B.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Cann Family._--Can any of your correspondents enlighten me as to the
origin of this family name; and if of foreign extraction, as I suspect,
in what county of England they first settled? There is a village in
Dorsetshire called Cann St. Rumbold. Possibly this may afford some clue.
Burke informs us that William Cann, Esq., was Mayor of Bristol in 1648,
and that his son, Sir Robert Cann, also Mayor, and afterwards M.P. for
that city, was knighted by Charles II. in 1662, and created a Baronet,
September 13th in the same year. The title became extinct in 1765, by
the death of Sir Robert Cann, the sixth Baronet. The first Baronet had
several brothers, some of whom most probably left issue, as I find a
respectable family of that name now, and for many years past, located in
Devonshire; but I am not aware if they are descended from the same



_Landholders in Lonsdale South of the Sands._--In his _History of
Lancashire_, Baines states (vol. i. chap. iv.) that a return of the
principal landholders in Lonsdale South of the Sands, in the time of
James I., has been kept; but he does not state where the return is
registered, nor whether it was in a private or public form. In fact, it
is impossible to make any reference to the return, from the brief
mention made of it by Baines.

Perhaps some one of your Lancashire correspondents may be acquainted
with the sources of the learned historian's information. If so, it would
much oblige your correspondent to be directed to them, as also to any of
the Lancashire genealogical authorities referring to the district of
Lonsdale South of the Sands.


_Rotation of the Earth._--Has the experiment which about two years ago
was much talked of, for demonstrating the rotation of the earth by means
of a pendulum, been satisfactorily carried out and proved? And if so,
where is the best place for finding an account of it? The diagram by Mr.
Little in the _Illustrated London News_ does not seem to explain the
matter very fully.


_Nelson and Wellington._--The following statement has been going the
round of the American newspapers since the death of the Duke of
Wellington. Is it true?--"Lord Nelson was the eighteenth in descent from
King Edward I., and {331} the Duke of Wellington was descended from the
same monarch."


_Are White Cats deaf?_--White cats are reputed to be "hard of hearing."
I have known many instances, and in all stupidity seemed to accompany
the deafness. Can any instances be given of white cats possessing the
function of hearing in anything like perfection?


_Arms in Dugdale's "Warwickshire," &c._--In Dugdale's _Warwickshire_
(1656), p. 733. fig. 21., is a coat of arms from the Prior's Lodgings at
Maxstoke, viz. Or, fretty of ten pieces sa. with a canton gu. And in
Shaw's _Hist. of Staffordshire_, vol. i. p. *210., is the notice of a
similar coat from Armitage Church, near Rugeley, extracted out of
_Church Notes_, by Wyrley the herald, taken about 1597: viz. "Rugeley as
before, impaling O. fretty of ... S. with a canton G. Query if ..."

Dugdale gives another coat, p. 111. fig. 12., from the windows of
Trinity Church, Coventry; viz. Arg. on a chev. sa. three _stars_ of the
first. There is a mitre over this coat.

Can any of the correspondents of "N. & Q." assign the family names to
these arms? Does the mitre necessarily imply a bishop or mitred abbot;
and, if not, does it belong to John de Ruggeley, who was Abbot of
Merevale (not far from Coventry) temp. Hen. VI., one branch of whose
family bore--Arg. on a chev. sa. three _mullets_ of the first. I may
observe that this John was perhaps otherwise connected with Coventry;
for Edith, widow of Nicholas de Ruggeley, his brother, left a legacy,
says Dugd., p. 129., to an anchorite mured up at Stivichall Church, a
member of St. Michael's Church, Coventry.

The same coat (_i. e._ with the mullets) is assigned by Dugd., p. 661.
fig. 12., to the name of Knell.

J. W. S. R.

_Tombstone in Churchyard._--Does any one know of a legible inscription
older than 1601?

A. C.

_Argot and Slang._--I shall be much obliged by learning from any
correspondent the etymons of _argot_ (French) and _slang_, as applied to
language; and when did the latter term first come into use?



_Priests' Surplices._--Will some of the readers of "N. & Q." favour me
with a decision or authority on the following point? Does a priest's
surplice differ from that worn by a lay vicar, or vicar choral? I have
been an old choir-boy; and some few years since, as a boy, used to
remark that the priests' surplices worn at St. Paul's, the Chapel Royal,
and Westminster Abbey, were, as a sempstress would term it, _gaged_, or
stitched down in rows over the shoulders some seven or eight times at
the distance of about half an inch from each other. In the cathedral
churches of Durham, York, Hereford, Worcester, Gloucester, and Oxford, I
have remarked their almost universal adoption; but, to the best of my
belief, I have never seen such a description of vestment in use among
parochial clergymen, above half-a-dozen times, and I am desirous of
knowing if the _gaged_ surplice is peculiar to cathedrals and collegiate
churches (I have even seen canons residentiary in them, habited in the
lay vicar's surplice), or is the surplice used by choristers,
undergraduates, and vicars choral, which, according to my early
experience, is one without needlework, the correct officiating garment;
the latter is almost universally used at funerals, where the officiating
priest seldom wears either his scarf or hood, and presents anything but
a dignified appearance when he crowns this _négligée_ with one of our
grotesque chimney-pot hats, to the exclusion of the more appropriate
college cap.


_John, Brother German to David II._--Can any of your readers solve the
problem in Scotch history, who was John, brother german to King David
II., son of Robert Bruce? David II., in a charter to the Priory of
Rostinoth, uses these words: "Pro salute animæ nostræ, etc., ac ob
benevolentiam et affectionem specialem quam erga dictum prioratum devote
gerimus eo quod ossa celebris memoriæ Johannis fratris nostri germani
ibidem (the Priory) humata quiescunt dedimus, etc., viginti marcas
sterlingorum, etc." Dated at Scone, "in pleno parliamento nostro tento
ibidem decimo die Junii anno regni sexto decimo."

The expression "celebris memoriæ" might almost be held to indicate that
John had lived to manhood, but is perhaps only a style of royalty;
nevertheless, the passage altogether seems to lead to the inference,
that the person had at least survived the age of infancy. King Robert's
bastard son, Sir Robert Bruce, had a grant of the lands of Finhaven, in
the neighbourhood of Rostinoth.[6]


     [Footnote 6: Dr. Jamieson has a note on King David II.,
     brother, in his edition, of Barbour's Bruce; but does not
     quote the words of the charter so fully as they are here
     given.--_The Bruce and Wallace_, 4to., Edin. 1820, vol. i. p.

_Scott, Nelson's Secretary._--Can any of your readers give me
information as to the pedigree and family of John Scott, Esq., public
secretary to Lord Nelson? He was killed at Trafalgar on board the
Victory; and dying while his sons were yet very young, his descendants
possess little knowledge on the subject to which I have alluded. He was,
I _think_, born at Fochabers, near Gordon Castle, where his mother is
known to have died.


_The Axe which beheaded Anne Boleyn._--A friend of mine has excited my
curiosity by stating, that in his school-boy readings of the history of
England, he learned that the axe which deprived Henry VIII.'s second
wife (Anne Boleyn) of her head was preserved as a relic in the Northgate
Street of Kent's ancient citie, Canterbury. I have written to friends
living in that locality for a confirmation of such a strange fact; but
they plead ignorance. Can any of your numerous readers throw any light
relative to this subject upon the benighted mind of


_Roger Outlawe._--A friend of mine in Germany has met with some ancient
rolls, said to have been from the Irish Court of Common Pleas, chiefly
of the time of Edward III., and headed thus:

     "Communia placita apud Dublin coram fratre Rogero Outlawe
     priore hospitii sancti Johannis de Jerusalem in hibernia
     tenens locum Johannis Darcy le Cosyn Justiciarii hiberniæ apud
     Dublin die pasche in viiij mense anno B. Etii post ultimum
     conquestum hiberniæ quarto."

Can any person state who this _Roger Outlawe_ was? And is it not
singular that a prior of a religious and military establishment should
be qualified to sit as _locum tenens_ of a judge in a law court?


Clyst St. George.

"_Berte au Grand Pied._"--I should be glad to know what is the history
or legend of the goose-footed queen, whose figure Mr. Laing, in his
_Norway_, p. 70. 8vo. edition, says is on the portals of four French



_Lying by the Walls._--What is the origin of the phrase "Lying by the
walls," an euphemism for _dead_? It was very commonly used in this
county some years ago. Instead of saying "Poor M. or N. is _dead_," they
always said "Poor M. or N. _lies by the walls_."

R. P.

St. Ives, Hunts.

_Constables of France_ (Vol. vi., pp. 128. 254.).--Has no person been
appointed to fill that high office since the death of the Duc de Luynes,
in 1621?

A. S. A.


_St. John's Church, Shoreditch._--The church of St. John, within the
priory of Holywell, Shoreditch, and the chapel adjoining it, built by
Sir Thomas Lovel, treasurer of the household to King Henry VII., knight
of the most noble Order of the Garter, &c.

Is there any better or other account of this priory, church, and chapel
than that given in the _Monasticon_? Judging by the statement copied by
Mr. Lysons from the original entry in the books of the College of Arms,
the chapel must have been a splendid building. Sir Thomas Lovel was
buried there on the 8th June, 1525, "in a tombe of whyte marbell which
both hit and the chappell were founded by hym, and it stondeth on the
southe syde of the quyre of the saide churche." At his funeral there
were present the Bishop of London, Lord St. John, Sir Richard Wyngfield,
and many others, nobles and gentlemen. The Abbot of Waltham, the Prior
of St. Mary Spital, four orders of friars, the Mayor and all the
aldermen of London, the gentlemen of the Inns of Court, the Lord
Steward, and all the clerks of London, &c., also attended. What a
contrast to the present condition of the place, now a scavenger's yard,
once the apparently last resting-place of the councillor of a mighty
sovereign! "They that did feed delicately, that were brought up in
scarlet, embrace dunghills. The holy house where our fathers worshipped
is laid waste."


P. S.--Part of the chapel is now to be found under the floor of the "Old
King John," Holywell Lane. The stone doorway into the porter's lodge of
the priory still exists; but, from the accumulation of earth, the crown
of the arch is six feet below the ground. I took a sketch of it, and
some other remains of the priory, also under ground, about ten years

W. S. H.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Sir John Thompson._--What are the crest, arms, motto, and supporters of
Sir John Thompson, Bart., created Baron Haversham, of Haversham and
Newport Pagnel, about the eighth year of William III.?

R. P. D.

     [Or, on a fesse indented az. three etoiles ar.; on a canton of
     the second, a sun in his glory, ppr.--Crest, an arm, erect,
     vested gu. cuff ar. holding in the hand ppr. five ears of
     wheat or. Motto, "In lumine luce."--Robson's _British Herald_,
     vol. ii. _s. v._; and for the plate, vol. iii. pl. 50.]

_Ring, the Marriage._--When and how did the use of the ring, in the
marriage ceremony, originate? Is it of Christian origin; or is it
derived from the Jews, or from the Greeks or Romans?


     [Brand quotes Vallancey and Leo Modena for the use of the
     marriage ring among the Jews (_Popular Antiq._, vol. ii. p.
     103. edit. 1849). Wheatly, however, has given the most
     detailed account of its origin:--"The reason," he says, "why a
     ring was pitched upon for the pledge rather than anything else
     was, because anciently the ring was a _seal_, by which all
     orders were signed, and things of value secured (Gen. xxxviii.
     18., Esther iii. 10. 12., 1 Maccab. vi. 15.); and therefore
     the delivery of it was a sign that the person to whom {333} it was
     given was admitted into the highest friendship and trust (Gen.
     xli. 42.). For which reason it was adopted as a ceremony in
     marriage to denote that the wife, in consideration of her
     being espoused to the man, was admitted as a sharer in her
     husband's counsels, and a joint-partner in his honour and
     estate: and therefore we find that not only the _ring_, but
     the _keys_ also were in former times delivered to her at the
     marriage. That the ring was in use among the old Romans, we
     have several undoubted testimonies (Juvenal, _Sat._ vi. ver.
     26, 27.; Plin. _Hist. Nat._, lib. iii. c. i.; Tertull.
     _Apol._, c. vi. p. 7. A.). Pliny, indeed, tells us, that in
     his time the Romans used an iron ring without any jewel; but
     Tertullian hints, that in the former ages it was a ring of
     gold."--_Rational Illustration of the Common Prayer_, p. 390.
     edit. 1759.]

_Amusive._--Is this word peculiar to Thomson, or is it made use of by
other poets? Its meaning does not appear to be very definite. In the
_Spring_ it is applied to the rooks, with their "ceaseless caws
amusive;" in the _Summer_ to the thistledown, which "amusive floats;"
and in the _Autumn_, the theory of the supposed cause of mountain
springs is called an "amusive dream." Thomson seems to have been partial
to these kind of adjectives, "effusive," "diffusive," "prelusive," &c.


     [A reference to Richardson's _Dictionary_ will show that,
     however fond Thomson may have been of this word, it is not one
     peculiar to him. Whitehead says:

        "To me 'twas given to wake _th' amusive_ reed,"

     and Chandler, in his _Travels in Greece_, speaks of the wind
     "murmuring _amusively_ among the pines."]

_Belfry Towers separate from the Body of the Church._--At Mylor, near
Falmouth, there is an old tower for the bells (where they are rung every
Sunday), separate from the church itself, which has a very low tower.
Are there many other instances of this? I do not remember to have seen

J. S. A.

     [If our correspondent will refer to the last edition of the
     _Glossary of Architecture_, s. v. _Campanile_, he will learn
     that though bell towers are generally attached to the church,
     they are sometimes unconnected with it, as at Chichester
     cathedral, and are sometimes united merely by a covered
     passage, as at Lapworth, Warwickshire. There are several
     examples of detached bell-towers still remaining, as at
     Evesham, Worcestershire; Berkeley, Gloucestershire; Walton,
     Norfolk; Ledbury, Herefordshire; and a very curious one
     entirely of timber, with the frame for the bells springing
     from the ground, at Pembridge, Herefordshire. At Salisbury a
     fine early English detached campanile, 200 feet in height,
     surmounted by a timber turret and spire, stood near the
     north-west corner of the cathedral, but was destroyed by

_An Easter-day Sun._--In that verse of Sir John Suckling's famous
_Ballad upon a Wedding_, wherein occurs the simile of the "little mice,"
what is the meaning of the allusion to the Easter-day sun?--

    "But oh! she dances such a way,
     No sun upon an Easter-day
           Is half so fine a sight!"


     [It was formerly a common belief that the sun danced on
     Easter-day: see Brand's _Popular Antiquities_, vol. i. p. 161.
     _et seq._ So general was it, that Sir Thomas Browne treats on
     it in his _Vulgar Errors_, vol. ii. p. 87. ed. Bohn.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. vii., p. 285.)

On reference to the Peerages of Sir Harris Nicolas and Wood, I feel no
doubt that the father of Lord Spencer Hamilton, as TEE BEE remarks, was
the fifth Duke of Hamilton, and not the third, as Collins (edition
Brydges) states, who misled me. Perhaps the perplexity, if any, arose
from Anne Duchess of Hamilton, the inheritress of the ducal
honours by virtue of the patent of 1643, after the deaths of her father
and uncle _s. p. m._, having obtained a _life dukedom_ for her husband,
William Earl of Selkirk, and, subsequently to his decease, having
surrendered all her titles in favour of their eldest son, James Earl of
Arran, who was in 1698 made Duke of Hamilton, with the same precedency
of the original creation of 1643, as if he had succeeded thereto.

Sir William Hamilton, the ambassador, married first, Jan. 25, 1752, the
only child of Hugh Barlow, Esq., of Lawrenny in Pembrokeshire, with whom
he got a large estate: she died at Naples, Aug. 25, 1782, and was buried
in Wales. His second lady was Emma Harte, a native of Hawarden in
Flintshire; where her brother, then a bricklayer working for the late
Sir Stephen Glynne, was pointed out to me forty years ago. In Wood's
_Peerage_ it is stated that Sir W. Hamilton's second marriage took place
at London, Sept. 6, 1794: he died in April, 1803, and was buried in
Slebech Church.

I well remember Single-speech Hamilton, who was a fried of the family,
dining with my father when I was a little boy; and I still retain the
impression of his having been a tall and thin old gentleman, very much
out of health. He left a treatise called _Parliamentary Logick_,
published in 1808. The brief memoir of the author prefixed to the work,
makes no mention of him as a member of the House of Hamilton; but it is
said that he derived his name of Gerard from his god-mother Elizabeth,
daughter of Digby, Lord Gerard of Bromley, widow of James, fourth Duke
of Hamilton, who fell in the duel with Lord Mohun, which looks as if
some affinity was recognised. {334} The same authority tells us that
William Gerard Hamilton was the only child of a Scotch advocate, William
Hamilton, by Hannah Hay, one of the sisters of David Bruce, the
Abyssinian traveller; and that he removed to London, and practised with
some reputation at the English bar. Mr. W. G. Hamilton died, unmarried,
in July, 1796, æt. sixty-eight.


TEE BEE has, by his Queries about Sir W. Hamilton, recalled some most
painful reminiscences connected with our great naval hero. According to
the statement in the _New General Biographical Dictionary_, Sir William
Hamilton was married to _his first wife_ in the year 1755; but although
it is asserted that she brought her husband 5000l. a-year, her name is
not given. She died in 1782, and in 1791 "he married Emma Harte, the
fascinating, mischievous, and worthless Lady Hamilton." Pettigrew, in
his _Memoirs of Nelson_, says, that this marriage took place at St.
George's, Hanover Square, _on the 6th of September_, 1791. TEE BEE will
find a full account of Lady H. in the above-mentioned work of Pettigrew.

F. S. B.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 177.)

I never heard of our Lord's cross having been made of _elder_ wood. The
common idea, legend, or tradition, that prevailed formerly was, that the
upright beam of the cross was made of _cedar_, the cross-beam of
_cypress_, the piece on which the inscription was written of _olive_,
and the piece for the feet of palm.

The legend concerning the wood of the cross is very curious, and may be
analysed as follows:--When Adam fell sick, he sent his son Seth to the
gate of the garden of Eden to beg of the angel some drops of the oil of
mercy that distilled from the tree of life. The angel replied that none
could receive this favour till five thousand years had passed away. He
gave him, however, a cutting from the tree, and it was planted upon
Adam's grave. It grew into a tree with three branches. The rod of Moses
was afterwards cut from this tree. Solomon had it cut down to make of it
a pillar for his palace. The Queen of Sheba, when she went to visit
Solomon, would not pass by it, as she said it would one day cause the
destruction of the Jews. Solomon then ordered it to be removed and
buried. The spot where it was buried was afterwards dug for the pool of
Bethsaida, and the mysterious tree communicated the power of healing to
the waters. As the time of the Passion of Christ approached, the wood
floated on the surface of the water, and was taken for the upright beam
of the cross. See this curious legend at greater length in the _Gospel
of Nicodemus_; the _Legenda Aurea_ at the feasts of the Discovery and
Exaltation of the Cross; Curzon's _Monasteries of the Levant_, p. 163.;
and Didron's _Iconography_, p. 367., Bohn's edition.

I think, however, that I can explain the origin of the question put to
RUBI by his poor parishioner as to the cross having been made of _elder_
wood. His question may have sprung from a corruption of an old tradition
or legend regarding not our Saviour, but Judas his betrayer. Judas is
said to have hanged himself on an _elder_ tree. Sir John Maundeville, in
his description of Jerusalem, after speaking of the Pool of Siloe, adds,

     "And fast by is still the elder tree on which Judas hanged
     himself for despair, when he sold and betrayed our Lord."--P.
     175., Bohn's edit.

To return to the wood of the cross. In Sir John Maundeville's time a
spot was pointed out at Jerusalem as the spot where the tree grew:

     "To the west of Jerusalem is a fair church, where the tree of
     the cross grew."--P. 175.

and he speaks of the wood of this tree as having once been used as a
bridge over the brook Cedron (p. 176.). Henry Maundrell describes a
Greek convent that he visited, about half an hour's distance from

     "That which most deserves to be noted in it, is the reason of
     its name and foundation. It is because there is the earth that
     nourished the root, that bore the tree, that yielded the
     timber, that made the cross. Under the high altar you are
     shown a hole in the ground where the stump of the tree
     stood."--P. 462.

These are some of the legendary traditions regarding the history and
site of the wood of the cross, up to the time of the Passion of Christ.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vi., p. 292.)

I have been waiting for several months in expectation of seeing some
satisfactory reply to URSULA'S Query. It seems, however, that, in common
with myself, your numerous correspondents are quite at a nonplus. Wood,
in his _Athenæ Oxoniensis_, vol. ii. p. 163., mentions this Edmund
Chaloner as being about nineteen (URSULA says twenty-one) years old at
the death of his father, James Chaloner, in 1660. Wood, Granger, as also
Burke in his _Extinct Baronetage_, represent James as being the fourth
son of Sir Thomas Chaloner of Gisborough, in the county of York, and
this appears to be the general impression as to his parentage. In a
_History of Cheshire_, however, written, I believe, by Cowdray, and
published in 1791, the author claims him as a native of that county, and
makes him to be of much {335} humbler birth and descent than any of his
other biographers. Hear him in his own words:

     "Our succeeding (Cheshire) collectors form a family harmonic
     trio, a father, son, and grandson, of the surname of Chaloner,
     and of the several Christian names, Thomas, Jacob, and
     _James_. Thomas was an arms-painter in Chester about 1594; he
     knew the value of learning sufficiently to give his son a
     better education than he received himself. And this son
     followed the same occupation in Chester, and made collections,
     about the year 1620. But it was _James_, the grandson, who
     reflected the greatest credit upon his family, by a very
     concise, accurate, and sensible account of the Isle of Man,
     printed at the end of King's _Vale Royal_, in 1656. He laid
     the foundation of a learned education in our much honoured
     college (Brazennoze); and when the parliament invested Lord
     Fairfax with the Seignory of Man, he was one of his lordship's
     three commissioners for settling the affairs of that island.
     The antiquarian collections of all the three Chaloners are

Without specially binding myself to either one of these conflicting
testimonies, I may be allowed to suggest that, apart from any proof to
the contrary, the inference that he was a native of Chester is a
perfectly fair and legitimate one. His _Short Treatise of the Isle of
Man_, which was the only work he ever sent to press, was printed at the
end of that famous Cheshire work, the _Vale Royal of England_, in 1656,
and was illustrated with engravings by Daniel King, the editor of that
work, himself a Cheshire man. Independent of this, his biographer Wood
informs us that he was "a singular lover of antiquities," and that he
"made collections of arms, monuments, &c., in Staffordshire, Salop, and
_Chester_," the which collections are now, I believe, in the British
Museum.* He made no collections for Yorkshire, nor yet for London, where
he is stated by Wood to have been born. One thing is certain, James
Chaloner of Chester was living at the time this treatise was written,
and was, moreover, a famous antiquary, and a collector for this, his
native county; but whether he was, _de facto_, the regicide, or merely
his cotemporary, I leave it to older and wiser heads to determine.



     *[In the _Harleian Collection_, No. 1927., will be found "A
     paper Book in 8vo., wherein are contained, Poems, Impreses,
     and other Collections in Prose and Verse; written by Thomas
     Chaloner and Randle Holme, senior, both Armes-Painters in
     Chester, with other Notes of less value."--ED.]

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 38.)

MR. FRASER'S remark about the word _anywhen_ has brought to my mind two
passages in Shakspeare which have been always hitherto rendered obscure
by wrong printing and wrong pointing. The first occurs in _Measure for
Measure_, Act IV. Sc. 2., where the Duke says:

    "This is a gentle provost: _seldom-when_
     The steeled gaoler is the friend of men."

Here the compound word, signifying _rarely_, _not often_, has been
always printed as two words; and MR. COLLIER, following others,
has even placed a comma between _seldom_ and _when_.

The other passage occurs in the Second Part of _King Henry IV._, Act IV.
Sc. 4.; where Worcester endeavours to persuade the king that Prince
Henry will leave his wild courses. King Henry replies:

    "'Tis _seldom-when_ the bee doth leave her comb
      In the dead carrion."

Here also the editors have always printed it as two words; and, as
before, MR. COLLIER here repeats the comma.

That the word was current with our ancestors, is certain; and I have no
doubt that other instances of it may be found. We have a similar
compound in Chaucer's _Knight's Tale_, v. 7958.:

    "I me rejoyced of my lyberté,
     That _selden-tyme_ is founde in mariage."

Palsgrave, too, in his _Eclaircissement de la Langue Françoise_, 1530,

    "_Seldom-what_, Gueres souvent."

_Seldom-when_, as far as my experience goes, seems to have passed out of
use where archaisms still linger; but _anywhen_ may be heard any day and
every day in Surrey and Sussex. Those who would learn the _rationale_ of
these words will do well to consult Dr. Richardson's most excellent
_Dictionary_, under the words AN, ANY, WHEN, and SELDOM.

This is at least a step towards MR. FRASER'S wish of seeing _anywhen_
legitimatised; for what superior claim had _seldom-when_ to be enshrined
and immortalised in the pages of the poet of the world?


Manor Place, South Lambeth.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 269.)

Your correspondent C. affirms, as a mark of the Roman origin of
Chichester, that "the little stream that runs through it is called the
Lavant, _evidently from lavando_!" Now nobody, as old Camden says, "has
doubted the _Romanity_ of Chichester;" but I am quite sure that the
members of the Archæological Institute (who meet next summer upon the
banks of this same _Lavant_) would decidedly demur to so singular a
proof of it.

C. is informed that, in the fourth volume of the _Archæologia_, p. 27.,
there is a paper by the Hon. Daines Barrington, on the term _Lavant_,
which, it appears, is commonly applied in Sussex to all brooks which are
dry at some seasons, as is the case with the Chichester river.

     "From the same circumstance," it is added, "the sands between
     Conway and Beaumaris in Anglesey, are called the _Lavant
     sands_, because they are dry when the tide ebbs; as are also
     the sands which are passed at low water between Cartmell and
     Lancaster, for the same reason."

To trace the origin of the term _Lavant_, we must, I conceive, go back
to a period more remote than the Roman occupation; for that remarkable
people, who conquered the inhabitants of Britain, and partially
succeeded in imposing Roman appellations upon the greater towns and
cities, never could change the aboriginal names of the rivers and
mountains of the country. "Our hills, forests, and rivers," says Bishop
Percy, "have generally retained their old Celtic names." I venture,
therefore, to suggest, that the British word for river, _Av_, or _Avon_,
which seems to form the root of the word _Lavant_, may possibly be
modified in some way by the prefix, or postfix, so as to give, to the
compound word, the signification of an _intermittent_ stream.

The fact that, amidst all the changes which have passed over the face of
our country, the primitive names of the grander features of nature still
remain unaltered, is beautifully expressed by a great poet recently lost
to us:

                  "Mark! how all things swerve
    From their known course, or vanish like a dream;
    Another language spreads from coast to coast;
    Only, perchance, some melancholy stream,
    And some indignant hills old names preserve,
    When laws, and creeds, and people all are lost!"
                   Wordsworth's _Eccles. Sonnets_, xii.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 269.)

The mention of the distinction between the broad and narrow scarf,
alluded to by me (Vol. vii., p. 215.), was made above thirty years ago,
and in Ireland. I have a distinct recollection of the statement as to
what _had_ been the practice, then going out of use. I am sorry that I
cannot, in answer to C.'s inquiry, recollect who the person was who made
it. Nor am I able to specify instances of the partial observance of the
distinction, as I had not till long after learned the wisdom of "making
a note:" but I had occasion to remark that dignitaries, &c. frequently
wore wider scarfs than other clergymen (not however that the narrower
one was ever that slender strip so improperly and servilely adopted of
late from the corrupt custom of Rome, which has curtailed all
ecclesiastical vestments); so that when the discussion upon this subject
was revived by others some years ago, it was one to which my mind had
been long familiar, independently of any ritual authority.

I hope C. will understand my real object in interfering in this subject.
It is solely that I may do a little (what others, I hope, can do more
effectually) towards correcting the very injurious, and, I repeat,
inadequate statement of the _Quart. Review_ for June, 1851, p. 222.
However trifling the matter may be in itself, it is no trifling matter
to involve a considerable portion of the clergy, and among them many who
are most desirous to uphold both the letter and the spirit of the Church
of England, and to resist all real innovation, in a charge of
lawlessness. Before the episcopal authority, there so confidently
invoked, be interposed, let it be _proved_ that this is not a badge of
the clerical order, common to all the churches of Christendom, and
actually recognised by the rules, in every respect so truly Catholic, of
our own Church. The matter does not, I apprehend, admit of demonstration
one way or the other, at least till we have fresh evidence. But to me,
as to many others, analogies seem all in favour of the scarf being such
a badge; and not only this, but the very regulation of our royal
ecclesiastical authorities. The injunctions of Queen Elizabeth, in 1564,
seem to mark the tippet as a distinction between clergymen and laymen,
who otherwise, in colleges and choirs at least, would have none. I also
am strongly of opinion that the tippets mentioned in the 58th and 74th
English canons are the two scarfs referred to: the silken tippet (or
broad scarf) being for such priests or deacons as hold certain offices,
or are M.A., LL.B., or of superior degree; the plain tippet (or narrow
scarf) being for all ministers who are non-graduates (Bachelors of Arts
were not anciently considered as graduates, but rather as candidates for
a degree, as they are still styled in many places abroad); so that _all_
in orders may have tippets. This notion is confirmed by the fact, that
the scarf was frequently called a _tippet_ in Ireland within memory. And
in a letter, discussing this very subject, in the _Gentleman's Mag._
(for 1818, part ii. p. 218.[7]), the testimony of one is given who had
for upwards of fifty years considered the two words as identical, and
had heard them in his youth used indiscriminately by aged clergymen. It
is notorious that in Ireland, time out of mind, _tippets_ have been more
generally worn than _hoods_ in parish churches there. I am not sure
(though I lay no stress on the conjecture) whether this may not have
been in {337} consequence of the option apparently given by the Canons
of wearing _either_ hood or tippet.

It is not correct to restrict the _customary_ use of the scarf to
doctors, prebendaries, and chaplains. In some cathedrals the immemorial
custom has been to assign it to minor canons and clerical vicars also.
At Canterbury, indeed, the minor canons, except otherwise qualified, do
not wear it. (But is not this an exception? Was it always so? And, by
the way, can any cathedral member of old standing testify as to the
customary distinction in his church between the two scarfs, either as to
size or materials?) The very general use of it in towns cannot be

I may add, that Bishop Jebb used to disapprove of its disuse by country
clergymen. In his Charge he requests that "all beneficed clergymen" of
his diocese "who are _Masters of Arts_, or of any superior degree, and
who by chaplaincies or otherwise are entitled to the distinction, may
with their surplices wear scarfs or _tippets_." This apparently was his
construction of the Canons.


     [Footnote 7: See also p. 315.; and 1819, part i. p. 593.]

The narrow scarf, called the stole or orarium, is one of the most
ancient vestments used by the Christian clergy, representing in its
mystical signification the yoke of Christ. Though it may be true that
its use is not enjoined by any modern rubric or canon, custom, I think,
fully warrants the clergy in wearing it. What other sanction than custom
is there for the use of bands?

E. H. A.

A great deal of very interesting matter bearing upon this question, both
in an ecclesiastical and antiquarian point of view, though no definite
conclusion is arrived at, will be found in a pamphlet by G. A. French,
entitled _The Tippets of the Canons Ecclesiastical_.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 127.)

The following were lines much used when I was at school, and I believe
are still so now:

    "This book is mine
     By right divine;
     And if it go astray,
     I'll call you kind
     My desk to find
     And put it safe away."

Another inscription of a menacing kind was,--

    "This book is one thing,
     My fist is another;
     Touch this one thing,
     You'll sure feel the other."

A friend was telling me of one of these morsels, which, considering the
circumstances, might be said to have been "insult added to injury;" for
happening one day in church to have a book alight on his head from the
gallery above, on opening it to discover its owner, he found the
following positive sentence:

    "This book doant blong to you,
     So puttem doon."


The following salutary advice to book-borrowers might suitably take its
position in the collection already alluded to in "N. & Q.":

    "Neither blemish this book, or the leaves double down,
     Nor lend it to each idle friend in the town;
     Return it when read; or if lost, please supply
     Another as good, to the mind and the eye.
     With right and with reason you need but be friends,
     And each book in my study your pleasure attends."

O. P.


Is not this curious warning worthy of preservation in your columns? It
is copied from a black-letter label pasted to the inside of an old book

    "Steal not this booke, my honest friende,
     For fear ye gallows be ye ende;
     For if you doe, the Lord will say,
     'Where is that booke you stole away?'"

J. C.

To the collection of inscriptions in books commenced by
BALLIOLENSIS, allow me to add the following:

    "Hic liber est meus,
     Testis et est Deus;
     Si quis me quærit,
     Hic nomen erit."

In French books I have seen more than once,--

    "Ne me prend pas;
     On te pendra."

An on the fly-leaf of a Bible,--

    "Could we with ink the ocean fill,
     Were ev'ry stalk on earth a quill,
     And were the skies of parchment made,
     And ev'ry man a scribe by trade,
       To tell the love of God alone
         Would drain the ocean dry.
       Nor could the scroll contain the whole,
         Though stretch'd from sky to sky."


Welsh-Hampton, Salop.

I beg to subjoin a few I have met with. Some monastic library had the
following in or over its books:

    "Tolle, aperi, recita, ne lædas, claude, repone."

The learned Grotius put in all his books,--

    "Hugonis Grotii et amicorum."

In an old volume I found the following:

    "Hujus si quæris dominum cognoscere libri,
     Nomen subscriptum perlege quæso meum."


       *       *       *       *       *


_Head-rests._--The difficulty I have experienced in getting my children
to sit for their portraits in a steady position, with the ordinary
head-rests, has led me to design one which I think may serve others as
well as myself; and I therefore will describe it as well as I can
without diagrams, for the benefit of the readers of "N. & Q." It is
fixed to the ordinary shifting upright piece of wood which in the
ordinary rest carries the semicircular brass against which the head
rests. It is simply a large oval ring of brass, about an inch and a half
broad, and sloping inwards, which of the following size I find fits the
back of the head of all persons from young children upwards:--five
inches in the highest part in front, and about four inches at the back.
It must be lined with velvet, or thin vulcanised India rubber, which is
much better, repelling grease, and fitting quite close to the ring. This
is carried forward by a piece of semicircular brass, like the usual
rest, and fixes with a screw as usual. About half the height of the ring
is a steel clip at each side, like those on spectacles, but much
stronger, about half an inch broad, which moving on a screw or rivet,
after the sitter's head is placed in the ring, are drawn down, so as to
clip the head just above the ears. A diagram would explain the whole,
which has, at any rate, simplicity in its favour. I find it admirable.
Ladies' hair passing through the ring does not prevent steadiness, and
with children the steel clips are perfect. I shall be happy to send a
rough diagram to any one, manufacturers or amateurs.


Edingthorpe Rectory.

_Sir W. Newton's Explanations of his Process._--In reply to MR. JOHN
STEWART'S Queries, I beg to state,

First, That I have hitherto used a paper made by Whatman in 1847, of
which I have a large quantity; it is not, however, to be procured now,
so that I do not know what paper to recommend; but I get a very good
paper at Woolley's, Holborn, opposite to Southampton Street, for
positives, at two shillings a quire, and, indeed, it might do for

Secondly, I prefer making the iodide of silver in the way which I have

Thirdly, Soft water is better for washing the iodized paper; if,
however, spring water be made use of, _warm_ water should be added, to
raise it to a temperature of sixty degrees. I think that sulphate or
bicarbonate of lime would be injurious, but I cannot speak with any
certainty in this respect, or to muriate of soda.

Fourthly, The iodized paper should keep good for a year, or longer; but
it is always safer not to make more than is likely to be used during the

Fifthly, If I am going out for a day, I generally excite the paper
either the last thing the night before, or early the following morning,
and develope them the same night; but with care the paper will keep for
two or three days (if the weather is not hot) before exposure, but of
course it is always better to use it during the same day.


6. Argyle Street.

_Talc for Collodion Pictures._--Should any of your photographic friends
wish to transmit collodion pictures through the post, I would suggest
that thin plates of talc be used instead of glass for supporting the
film; I find this substance well suited to the purpose. One of the many
advantages of its use (though I fear not to be appreciated by your
archæological and antiquarian section) is, that portraits, &c., taken
upon talc can be cut to any shape with the greatest ease, shall I say
suitable for a locket or brooch?

W. P.

Headingley, Leeds.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Portrait of the Duke of Gloucester_ (Vol. vii., p. 258.).--I beg to
inform MR. WAY that he will find an engraving of "The most hopefull and
highborn Prince, Henry Duke of Gloucester, who was borne at Oatlandes
the eight of July, anno 1640: sould by Thos. Jenner at the South entry
of the Exchange," in a very rare pamphlet, entitled:

     "The Trve Effigies of our most Illustrious Soveraigne Lord,
     King Charles, Queene Mary, with the rest of the Royall
     Progenie: also a Compendium or Abstract of their most famous
     Genealogies and Pedegrees expressed in Prose and Verse: with
     the Times and Places of their Births. Printed at London for
     John Sweeting, at the Signe of the Angell, in Pope's Head
     Alley, 1641, 4to."

For Henry Duke of Gloucester, see p. 16.:

    "What doth Kingdomes happifie
     But a blesst Posteritie?
     This, this Realme, Earth's Goshen faire,
     Europe's Garden, makes most rare,
     Whose most royall Princely stemme
     (To adorne theire Diadem)
     Two sweet May-flowers did produce,
     Sprung from Rose and Flower-de-Luce."

[Greek: Phi].

Richmond, Surrey.

_Key to Dibdin's "Bibliomania_" (Vol. vii., p. 151.).--There are some
inaccuracies in the list of names {339} furnished by W. P., which may
be corrected on the best authority, namely, that of Dr. Dibdin himself,
as put forth in his "new and improved edition" of the _Bibliomania_,
with a supplement, "including a key to the assumed characters in the
drama," 8vo., 1842. According to this supplement we are to interpret as

    Alfonso       Mr. Morell.
    Gonzalo       Mr. Jessop.
    Narcottus     William Templeman, Esq., of Hare Hatch, Berkshire.
    Nicas         Mr. Shaclewell.
    Philemon      Mr. Jacobs?
    Pontevallo    John Dent, Esq.

A complete "key" is not furnished; but there is reason, I think, to
doubt a few of the other names in W. P.'s list. Moreover, in the edition
of 1842, several other pseudonymes are introduced, which do not appear
in the list; namely, that of Florizel, for Joseph Haslewood; Antigonus;
Baptista; Camillo; Dion; Ferdinand; Gonsalvo; Marcus; and Philander;
respecting whom some of your readers may possibly enlighten us further.
As to the more obvious characters of Atticus, Prospero, &c., see the
_Literary Reminiscences_, vol. i. p. 294.

[Greek: Mu].

_High Spirits a Presage of Evil_ ("N. & Q." _passim_).--In a case lately
detailed in the newspapers, a circumstance is mentioned which appears to
me to come under the above heading.

In the inquiry at the coroner's inquest, on Feb. 10, 1853, concerning
the death of Eliza Lee, who was supposed to have been murdered by being
thrown into the Regent's Canal, on the evening of the 31st of January,
by her paramour, Thomas Mackett,--one of the witnesses, Sarah Hermitage,
having deposed that the deceased left her house in company with the
accused at a quarter-past ten o'clock in the evening of the 31st, said
as follows:

     "Deceased appeared in particularly good spirits, and wanted to
     sing. Witness's husband objected; but she would insist upon
     having her way, and she sang 'I've wander'd by the

The deceased met with her death within half an hour after this.


_Hogarth's Works._--Observing an inquiry made in Vol. vii., p. 181. of
"N. & Q." about a picture described in Mrs. Hogarth's sale catalogue of
her husband's effects in 1790, made by Mr. Haggard, I am induced to ask
whether a copy of the catalogue, as far as it relates to the pictures,
would not be a valuable article for your curious miscellany? It appears
from all the lives of Hogarth, that he early in life painted small
family portraits, which were then well esteemed. Are any of them known,
and where are they to be seen? Were they mere portraits, or full-length?
Are any of them engraved? I had once a picture, of about that date,
which represented a large house with a court-yard, and a long garden
wall, with a road and iron gate, something like the old wall and road of
Kensington Gardens, with the master, mistress, and dog walking in front
of the house, and evidently portraits. I always suspected it might be by
Hogarth; but I am very sorry to say I parted with it at auction for a
few shillings. It was (say) two feet square: the figures were about four
inches in height, and dressed in the then fashion. I would further ask
if any oil painting or sketches are known of the minor engravings, such
as "The Laughing Audience," "The Lecture," "The Doctors," &c.?


_Town Plough_ (Vol. vi., p. 462.; Vol. vii., p. 129.).--In Vol vi., p.
462., GASTRON notices the Town Plough; and it is again noticed by S. S.
S. (Vol. vii., p. 129.) as never having been seen by him mentioned in
ancient churchwardens' accounts.

Not ten years since there was in the belfry of Caston Church,
Northamptonshire, a large clumsy-looking instrument, the use of which
was not apparent at first sight, being a number of rough pieces of
timber, put together as roughly. On nearer inspection, however, it
turned out to be a plough, worm-eaten and decayed, I should think at
least three times as large and heavy as the common ploughs of the time
when I saw the one in question. I have often wondered at the rudeness
and apparent antiquity of that plough, and whether on "Plough Monday" it
had ever made the circuit of the village to assist in levying

I have only for a week or two been in the possession of "N. & Q." when
having accidentally, and for the first time, met with the Number for
that week, I could not resist the temptation of becoming the owner of
the complete series. Under these circumstances, you will excuse me if I
am asking a question which may have been answered long since. What is
the origin of Plough Monday? May there not be some connexion with the
Town Plough? and that the custom, which was common when I was a boy, of
going round for contributions on that day, may not have originated in
collecting funds for the keeping in order, and purchasing, if necessary,
the Town Plough?


_Shoreditch Cross and the painted Window in Shoreditch Church_ (Vol.
vii., p. 38.).--I beg to acquaint your correspondent J. W. B. that
although I had long searched for an engraving of Shoreditch Cross, my
labour was lost. The nearest approach to it will be found in a modern
copy of a plan of London, taken in the time of Elizabeth, in which its
position is denoted to be on the west side of Kingsland Road; but, from
records to {340} which I have access, I believe that the cross stood on
the opposite side, between the pump and the house of Dr. Burchell. Most
likely its remains were demolished when the two redoubts were erected at
the London ends of Kingsland and Hackney Roads, to fortify the entrance
to the City, in the year 1642.

The best accounts that I have seen of the painted window are in Dr.
Denne's _Register of Benefactions_ to the parish, compiled in 1745, and
printed in 1778; and Dr. Hughson's _History of London_, vol. iv. pp.
436, 437.


_Race for Canterbury_ (Vol. vii., pp. 219. 268.).--It is probable that
the lines

    "The man whose place they thought to take,
     Is still alive, and still _a Wake_,"

are erroneously _written_ on the print referred to; but I have no doubt
of having seen a print of which (with the variation of "ye think" for
"they thought") is the genuine engraved motto.

B. C.

_Lady High Sheriff_ (Vol. vii., p. 236.).--There is a passage in
Warton's _History of English Poetry_ (Vol. i. p. 194., Tegg's edition)
which will in part answer the Query of your correspondent W. M. It is in
the form of a note, appended to the following lines from the metrical
romance of _Ipomydon_:

    "They come to the castelle yate
     The porter was redy there at,
     The porter to theyme they gan calle,
     And prayd hym go in to the halle,
     And say thy lady gent and fre,
     That comen ar men of ferre contrè,
     And if it plese hyr, we wolle hyr pray,
     That we myght ete with hyr to-day."

On this passage Warton remarks:

     "She was lady, by inheritance, of the signory. The female
     feudatories exercised all the duties and honours of their
     feudal jurisdiction in person. In Spenser, where we read of
     the _Lady of the Castle_, we are to understand such a
     character. See a story of a _Comtesse_, who entertains a
     knight in her castle with much gallantry. (_Mém. sur l'Anc.
     Chev._, ii. 69.) It is well known that anciently in England
     ladies were sheriffs of counties."

To this note of Warton's, Park adds another, which I also give as being
more conclusive on the subject. It is as follow:

     ["Margaret, Countess of Richmond, was a justice of peace. Sir
     W. Dugdale tells us that Ela, widow of William, Earl of
     Salisbury, executed the sheriff's office for the county of
     Wilts, in different parts of the reign of Henry III. (See
     _Baronage_, vol. i. p. 177.) From Fuller's _Worthies_ we find
     that Elizabeth, widow of Thomas Lord Clifford, was sheriffess
     of Westmoreland for many years; and from Pennant's _Scottish
     Tour_ we learn that for the same county Anne, the celebrated
     Countess of Dorset, Pembroke and Montgomery, often sat in
     person as sheriffess. Yet Riston doubted of facts to
     substantiate Mr. Warton's assertion. See his Obs. p. 10., and
     reply in the _Gent. Mag. 1782_, p. 573.--PARK."]

T. C. S.

I can answer part of W. M.'s Query, by a reference to a personage who
could not have been very far from being the first instance of the kind
(Query, was she?).

     "About this time (1202) Gerard de Camville, his old and
     faithful adherent, was restored by John to the possession of
     the honours of which he had been deprived by King Richard; and
     it is a remarkable circumstance that, on the death of the said
     Gerard, in the eighteenth year of the king's reign, his widow,
     Nichola Camville (who is described by an ancient historian as
     being 'a martial woman of great courage and address') had the
     sheriffalty of the county of Lincoln committed to her; which
     honourable and important trust was continued to her by a grant
     of Henry III.," &c.

The above quotation is taken from Bailey's _Annals of Nottinghamshire_,
now publishing in Numbers (Part III. p. 107.). Should I be wrong in
asking correspondents to contribute towards a list of ladies holding the
above honorable post?


St. James's.

_Burial of an unclaimed Corpse_ (Vol. vii., p. 262.).--E. G. R.'s
question is easily answered. The parish of Keswick proved that some
years before they had buried a body found on a piece of land. This was
evidence of reputation that at the time of the burial the land was in
Keswick, otherwise the parishioners would not have taken on themselves
this work of uncalled-for benevolence. The fact of their having incurred
an expense, which, unless the land was in their parish, would have been
the burden of Markshall, satisfied the commissioner that the land must
have belonged to Keswick. I have no doubt this was the reason, though I
never heard of the question in connexion with Keswick and Markshall.
Battersea Rise, I heard when a boy, had formerly belonged to Clapham,
and been given to Battersea for the same reason as E. G. R. states to
have been the cause of Markshall losing its territory to Keswick.

J. H. L.

_Surname of Allan_ (Vol. vii., p. 205.).--I think A. S. A. will find
that this name was introduced into Britain from Normandy. It occurs in
early Norman times as a personal name, and afterwards as a patronymic.
Thus Alan, the son of Flathald, who had the castle of Oswestry granted
him by the Conqueror, had a son, William Fitz-Alan, ancestor of the
great baronial house of Arundel. In the _Hundred Rolls_, temp. Edward
I., it is very common under the orthographies of _fil. Alan_, {341}
_fil. Alain_, _Alayn_, _Aleyn_, _Aleyne_, _Aleynes_, _Aleynys_, &c.
Allen has always remained a baptismal name, and hence it is probable
that there is no more affinity between the numerous families now bearing
it as a surname, than between the various Thompsons, Williamses, and
others of this class. The MacAllans of Scotland may have a separate
Celtic source, though it is far likelier that this name (like MacEdward,
MacGeorge, and numerous others) is the English appellative with the
patronymic Mac prefixed.



_The Patronymic Mac_ (Vol. vii., p. 202.).--The present Earl of Stair
has collected and printed, under the title of _Almacks Extraordinary_, a
list of seven hundred Scotch and Irish surnames with the prefix "Mac;"
and a highly esteemed correspondent promises me a _supplementary_ list
of "a few hundreds" of such appellatives, which must therefore be in the
aggregate upwards of a thousand in number. I hope to include all these
in my forthcoming _Dictionary of British Surnames_.



_Cibber's "Lives of the Poets_" (Vol. v., p. 25.).--When MR. CROSSLEY
inserted in your pages, at great length, the _original_
prospectus of Cibber's _Lives_, he was not aware that it had been
_reprinted_ before. Such, however, is the case, as may be seen by
turning to the sixth volume of Sir Egerton Brydges' _Censura Literaria_,
ed. 1808, p. 352. It was communicated to the columns of that work by
that diligent antiquary in literary matters, Joseph Haslewood.
MR. CROSSLEY says, "It is rather extraordinary that none of Dr.
Johnson's biographers appear to have been aware that the prospectus of
Cibber's _Lives_ was furnished by Johnson." Where is there the slightest
_proof_ that Johnson wrote one line of it? Haslewood believed it to have
been the production of Messrs. Cibber and Shiels. Does MR. CROSSLEY
ground his claim for Johnson merely upon a fancied
resemblance in _style_?


_Parallel Passages, No. 2.--Stars and Flowers_ (Vol. vii., p.
151.).--Other parallels on this subject are given in "N. & Q." (Vol.
iv., p. 22.), to which may be added the following:

    "Silently, one by one, on the infinite meadows of heaven,
     Blossom'd the lovely stars, the forget-me-nots of the angels."
            Longfellow's _Evangeline_, Part I. iii. p. 187. of
            the Liverpool edition.


_Schomberg's Epitaph_ (Vol. vii., p. 13.).--I find this entry in my
note-book:--The following inscription is written on a black slab of
marble, affixed to the wall of the choir of St. Patrick's Cathedral. The
remains of the duke were removed to this cathedral immediately after the
battle of the Boyne; and on the 10th July, 1690, they were deposited
under the altar. The relatives of this great man having neglected to
raise any monument to his memory, Dean Swift undertook and caused the
above slab to be erected, having first vainly applied to the connexions
of the deceased. His sword is in the possession of the society of the
"Friendly Brothers," Dublin.

The following is the inscription on the slab:

     "Hic infra situm est corpus Frederici Ducis de Schonberg ad
     Bubindam occisi A.D. 1690. Decanus et Capitulum
     maximopere etiam atque etiam petierunt, ut hæredes Ducis,
     monumentum in memoriam parentis erigendum curarent. Sed
     postquam per epistolas, per amicos, diu ac sæpe orando nil
     profecere, hunc demum lapidem statuerunt; saltem ut scias
     hospes ubinam terrarum Schonbergenses cineres delitescunt.

     "Plus potuit fama virtutis apud alienos quam sanguinis
     proximitas apud suos, A.D. 1731."



_Pilgrimages to the Holy Land_ (Vol. v., p. 289.).--There is still
another book to be added to the curious list of old pilgrimages to the
Holy Land, furnished by your correspondent PEREGRINE A. I derive my
knowledge of it from Brunet's _Manuel_, sub voce CAPODILISTA (GABRIELE),
where it is described as follows:

     "Itinerario di Terra Santa, e del Monte Sinai." (Without date
     or printer) 4to.

It is a journal of a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, made in the year 1458
by a Padua nobleman, accompanied by a relative, Antonio Capodilista, a
canon of the same place, and several other noble personages. It is one
of the earliest productions of the press at Perugia, and the date
assigned to it by M. Brunet is 1472, but by Vermiglioli 1473 or 1474.
The latter authority, in his _Principi della Stampa in Perugia_, calls
it "Veramente un prezioso cimelio di tipografia e bibliografia." I am
anxious to know where a copy of this very rare work is deposited, as I
have been told that there is none at the British Museum.

W. M. R. E.

_Album_ (Vol. vii., p. 235.).--The origin and the earliest notice of
this kind of friendly memorial book is to be traced to the registers of
the deceased that were formerly kept in every church and monastery. Such
a book was called the _album_, _i. e._ the blank book, in which the
names of the friends and benefactors to the church or monastery were
recorded, that they might be prayed for at their decease, and on their
anniversaries. The earliest writer belonging to this country who uses
the word is the Venerable Beda, who in his {342} preface to his prose
life of St. Cuthbert, written previous to the year 721, reminds Bishop
Eadfrith that his name was registered in the album at Lindisfarne, "in
albo vestræ sanctæ congregationis." (_Bedæ Opera Minora_, p. 47., ed.
Stevenson.) Elsewhere Beda calls this book "the annal" (_Hist. Eccles._,
lib. iv. c. 14.). At a later period it was called, both in England and
abroad, the _Liber Vitæ, or Book of Life_, a name borrowed from St. Paul
(Philippians, iv. 3.).

The earliest specimen of an English album, and perhaps the most elegant
one that this or any other country ever produced, may be seen in the
British Museum (_Cotton MSS._, Domitian VII.). It is the Album, or Book
of Life, of the monastery of Durham. Nor need we add that this album
affords a relief to the eye wearied with looking over the pages of a
modern album, and to the mind sick of the endless but monotonous
repetition of imaginary ruins, love sonnets, and moss roses.


_Gesmas and Desmas_ (Vol. vii., p. 238.).--For the information of your
correspondent A. B. R., I copy the passage referred to by you in the
disputed Gospel of Nicodemus, formerly called the Acts of Pontius
Pilate. The extract is from an English version, printed for William
Hone, Ludgate Hill, 1820:

     "But one of the two thieves who were crucified with Jesus,
     whose name was _Gestas_, said to Jesus, If thou art the
     Christ, deliver thyself and us."--vii. 10.

     "But the thief who was crucified on his right hand, whose name
     was _Dimas_, answering, rebuked him, and said, Dost not thou
     fear God, who art condemned to this punishment? We indeed
     receive rightly and justly the demerit of our actions; but
     this Jesus, what evil hath he done?"--vi. 11.

     "After this, groaning, he said to Jesus, Lord, remember me
     when Thou comest into Thy kingdom."--vi. 12.

It thus appears the names have been differently received: here they
appear GESTAS the _im_penitent, and DIMAS the penitent.

I have a fine old engraving, nineteen inches by fourteen, bearing date
"Greg. Huret, Lugd. inv. et sculp. 1664;" published in Paris, _cum priv.

The three crosses, with their inscriptions (each in Hebrew, Greek, and
Latin), appear.

The Latin on the cross of the thief on the right hand of our Lord (and,
from the expression of countenance, confessed the penitent) is
_DISMAS_ LATRO: the other is _GESTAS_ LATRO.

W. C. H.


"_Quod fuit esse_" (Vol. vii., p. 235.).--Allow me to suggest the
following meaning of the epitaph in Lavenham churchyard, which is the
subject of A. B. R.'s Query. The word _est_ has evidently been omitted
in the third line: with this restored, the lines will read as a couple
of hexameters:

    "Quod fuit esse, quod est; quod non fuit esse, quod esse;
     Esse quod (est), non esse; quod est, non est, erit, esse."

And the literal meaning, will be: "What was existence, is that which
lies here; that which was not existence, is that which is existence; to
be what is now, is not to be; that which is now, is not existence, but
will be hereafter."

This, perhaps, is as enigmatical as the original: but the following
lines will render the meaning plainer, though it is difficult to
preserve the brevity of the Latin in an English version:

    All that I really was lies here in dust;
    That which was death before is life, I trust.
    To be what _is_, is not, I ween, to _be_;
    _Is_ not, but _will be_ in eternity.

H. C. K.

---- Rectory, Hereford.

I think your correspondent A. B. R. is not quite correct in his version
of the epitaph of which he inquires the sense. It is evidently intended
for two hexameter verses, and, as I have heard it, runs thus:

    "Quod fuit esse, quod est; quod non fuit esse, quod esse;
     Esse quod est, non esse; quod est, non est, erit, esse."

I inclose a similar epitaph in another churchyard (the _locale_ of which
I do not know), which may serve to elucidate its meaning:

    "That which a Being was, what is it? show:
     That being which it was, it is not now.
     To be what 'tis is not to be, you see;
     That which now is not shall a Being be."

Q. S.

_Straw Bail_ (Vol. vii., p. 85.).--In connexion with, though not as a
reply to, MR. CURTIS'S Query touching the origin of the expression "A
man of straw," I beg to bring under notice a phrase I heard for the
first time a few days ago, but which may nevertheless be well known to
others. A seaman, talking to me of a strike for wages among the crew of
a ship, said that the captain, as the rate of wages had not been raised,
had manned his ship with a "lot of straw-yarders." On my asking the
meaning of the expression, I was told that a "straw-yarder" was a man
about the docks who had never been to sea, and knew little or nothing of
the duties of a seaman.


_Pearl_ (Vol. vi., p. 578.; Vol. vii., pp. 18. 166.).--In the Old
German, _merikrioz_ is pearl; and in the Ang.-Sax. it is
_meregreot_,--the latter from _mere_, sea, and _greot_, grit, sand, or
_grot_, an {343} atom. These are so similar to the Greek _margaritas_,
and the _margarita_ of the sister language (Latin), that we may be
excused believing they have a common origin; more especially as we find
the first syllable (at least?) in almost all the cognate Indo-Germanic
or Indo-European languages: Latin, _mare_; Celt., _mor_; Gothic,
_marei_; Sax., _mære_ or _mere_; Old Germ., _meri_; Slavon., _more_ and
_morze_; Swed., _mar_; Iceland, _mar_; Esthon., _merri_; Lett.,

Among modern languages, we have,--Span., _margarita_; Ital., _margarita_
and _maugherita_; Fr., _marguerite_, but used only in the proverb, "Il
ne faut pas jeter les marguerites devant les pourceaux." Johnson,
Webster, and Halliwell give _margarite_ as an English word. Probably all
derived from the Latin.

At the same time, although not occurring (as far as I am aware) in
either Greek or Latin, the word _pearl_ is found in some shape in most
of the same Indo-Germanic languages: thus, Ital. and Span., _perla_;
Low. Lat., _perla_; French, _perle_; Eng., _pearl_; Dan., _paarl_;
Swed., _perla_ or _p[)a]rla_; Bohem., _perle_; Ang.-Sax., _pearl_ and
_pærl_; Low. Sax., _berel_. Webster says the word _pearl_ may be
radically the same as _beryl_. In the Celtic we find, Irish, _pearla_,
and Welsh _perlyn_.

The Germans derive _pearl_ from _beer_, a berry, making thus _berle_ or
_beerlein_; as in Latin _bacca_ also means a pearl.

Some of your correspondents can, no doubt, inform us whether any
analogous words to _pearl_ and _margarita_ exist in the Sanscrit?

A. C. M.


_Sermons by Parliamentary Chaplains_ (Vol. vii., p. 34.).--On the day of
Thanksgiving, 19th July, 1648, Mr. Obadiah Sedgwick was ordered to
preach before the House, and his sermon to be printed. Where can a copy
of it be seen?


St. Neot's.

_Etymological Traces of the Social Position of our Ancestors_ (Vol.
vii., pp. 13, 14.).--Your correspondent may find the passage to which he
wishes to refer again, in one of the back volumes of Dickens's
_Household Words_, in an article with the title of "History in Words."

Another correspondent, in the succeeding page of the same Number, will
obtain the information he requires by consulting Dunlop's _History of

W. L. N.

_Tuebeuf_ (Vol. vii., p. 207.).--J. E. J. will find Tuboeuf is a town
in France, in the department of Mayenne. On May 9, 1194, Richard I.
sailed from England on his expedition against Philip II. of France; and
he was accompanied by Master Eustace, Dean of Salisbury, for the purpose
of his conducting such business of the Great Seal as might be necessary
while the king remained abroad. The Doncaster Charter appears to have
been sealed on the 22nd of the same month of May, and I shall feel
obliged if J. E. J. will give me a copy of Eustace's title, and the date
and place, as they appear on the document. The addition to his name in
other charters is "tunc gerentis vices cancellarii." He himself became
Chancellor and Bishop of Ely on the death of Longchamp.


Street-End House, near Canterbury.

"_Goe, soule, the bodies guest_" (Vol. vii., p. 175.).--Your
correspondent is mistaken in thinking that his "additions" are a new
discovery. Both stanzas were printed, with slight variations from this
copy, by Sir H. Nicolas, at the end of his edition of Davison's
_Poetical Rhapsody_, 1826, pp. 413--415.; and both are mentioned by Mr.
Hannah, when he says (p. 103.):

     "In E (the mark by which Mr. H. designates that copy in
     Nicolas), one stanza is interpolated after line 36, and a
     second at the end."

As I entirely agree with Sir H. Nicolas that the lines in question are
"a wanton interpolation," I think Mr. Hannah was perfectly justified
in contenting himself with this acknowledgment of their existence.


_Bells versus Storms_ (Vol. vi., p. 508.).--While returning my
acknowledgments to your correspondents the REV. H. T. ELLACOMBE and W.
S. G., I would briefly refer to the subject again, which may be of
interest to some of our readers.

Dr. Fuller says:

     "That bells are no effectual charm against lightning. The
     frequent firing of abbey churches by lightning confuteth the
     proud motto commonly written on the bells in their steeples,
     wherein each intitled itself to a six-fold efficacy.

        'Men's death I tell, by doleful knell,
         Lightning and thunder, I break asunder,
         On Sabbath all, to church I call,
         The sleepy head, I raise from bed,
         The winds so fierce, I do disperse,
         Men's cruel rage, I do assuage.'"

     "It has anciently been reported," observes Lord Bacon, "and is
     still received, that extreme applauses and shouting of people
     assembled in multitudes, have so rarefied and broken the air,
     that birds flying over have fallen down, the air not being
     able to support them; and it is believed by some that great
     ringing of bells in populous cities hath chased away thunder,
     and also dissipated pestilent air. All which may be also from
     the concussion of the air, and not from the sound."

W. W.


The following note in connexion with the baptism of bells may be
interesting, as it shows the manner of working, at that time.

Among the _Centum Gravamina_ offered to Pope Adrian in 1521 by the Princes
of Germany, as given in Herbert's _Henry VIII._, p. 139., this is the

     "That suffragans used to baptize bels under pretence of
     driving away divels and tempests; and for this purpose did
     invite many rich godfathers, who were to touch the rope while
     the bell was exorcised, and its name invoked (unto which all
     the people must answer). And that a banquet was used to be
     made thereupon, at the cost of the layicks, amounting in
     little towns to a hundred florins, whither the godfathers were
     to come, and bring great gifts, &c., whereas they desired that
     the said bels might be baptized not onely by suffragans, but
     by any priest, with holy water, salt, herbs, without such


Clyst St. George.

Will MR. GOLE oblige me and your readers with a reference to the _Golden
Legend_, from which he has sent a quotation bearing on bells and storms.


Clyst St. George.

_Exercise Day_ (Vol. vii., p. 205.).--The extract from the borough
chamberlain's accounts, referred to by your correspondent
LEICESTRIENSIS, relates rather to a religious assembly or meeting
established by authority in the reign of Elizabeth, and designed as a
check on the growing tendency towards Puritanism, which marked that
period. In this diocese (at that time the diocese of Chester) Bishop
Downham instituted a "monthly exercise," which was confirmed by his
successor Dr. Chadderton, in an injunction bearing date Sept. 1, 1585.
(See Appendix to Strype's _Annals_, vol. i.) It is there decreed that
all parsons, vicars, curates, and schoolmasters shall resort to this
exercise, there either to speak or write; and certain penalties are
enforced on any neglect of its observance. In the churchwardens'
accounts of this parish is an entry of similar import to that quoted by
LEICESTRIENSIS: "1656, Pd. for minister diner at the exercise day,
00.00.06," the only perceptible difference being in the degree of
hospitality extended to the clergy by their entertainers.



_The Iron Mask_ (Vol. v., p. 474.; Vol. vii., p. 234.).--Your
correspondent A. S. A. asks with much complacency, "What authority MR.
JAMES CORNISH has for asserting (Vol. v., p. 474.) that the mysterious
secret of the _Masque de fer_ has ever been satisfactorily explained?"
MR. JAMES CORNISH does not make statements of historical facts without
authority: he therefore begs to refer A. S. A. to Delort, _Histoire de
l'Homme au Masque de fer_, Paris, 1825; and to _The True History of the
State Prisoner, commonly called "The Iron Mask," &c._, by the Hon.
George Agar Ellis: London, 1826.

I repeat "my sanguine" expectations that "Junius" will yet be
"unearthed." "Matthias" made an equal boast with the "mighty shade,"
that he would be for ever unknown.

Your Journal "N. & Q." has left no doubt about the author of _The
Pursuits of Literature_.


_Shakspeare's Use of the Word "Delighted"_ (Vol. ii., pp. 113. 139. 200.
&c.).--The following passage from Douce's _Illustrations_ has not been
referred to by any of your contributors on this point; to some it may be

     "With respect to the much contested and obscure expression of
     _bathing the delighted spirit in fiery floods_, Milton appears
     to have felt less difficulty in its consideration than we do
     at present; for he certainly remembered it when he made Comus

                          "' ... one sip of this
        Will _bathe_ the drooping _spirits in delight_
        Beyond the bliss of dreams.'"

W. T. M.

Hong Kong.

_Samuel Daniel_ (Vol. vi., p. 603.).--A copy of an original letter of
Samuel Daniel, sent to Lord Keeper Egerton with a present of his _Works
newly augmented_, 1601, is printed in _Censura Literaria_, ed. 1808,
vol. vi. p. 391.

John Daniel, who published _Songs for the Lute, Viol, and Voice_, 1606,
is supposed to have been the brother of the poet, and the publisher of
his works in 1623. He was of Christ Church, Oxford; and took his degree
of Bachelor of Music in 1604. At the commencement of the reign of
Charles I., he was one of the court musicians, and his name occurs among
the "Musicians for the Lutes and Voices," in a privy seal, dated Dec.
20, 1625, exempting the musicians belonging to the court from the
payment of subsidies.

John Daniel's _Songs_ were "printed by T. E. for Thomas Adams, at the
Signe of the White Lyon, Paule's Church Yard, folio, 1606." They are
dedicated, in rhyme, to "Mrs. Anne Greene, the worthy Daughter to Sir
William Greene, of Milton, Knight."


_English Bishops deprived by Queen Elizabeth_, 1559 (Vol. vi., pp. 100.
203.; Vol. vii., p. 260.).--I regret that I am unable to furnish A. S.
A. with any additional information respecting the Marian bishops. None
of the authorities I used give the dates he requires. Possibly, Mr.
Charles Butler's _Historical Memoires of the English, Irish, and
Scottish Catholics_, 4 vols. 8vo., 1822, might answer his Queries.

I have ascertained from Calamy's _Life and Times_ (vol. i. p. 409.),
that Thomas White, the {345} deprived Bishop of Peterborough, died in
London, May 30, 1698; and that Robert Frampton, the deprived Bishop of
Gloucester, died May 25, 1708 (vol. ii. p. 119.).


"_Jenny's Bawbee_" (Vol. vii., p. 207.).--This is a very old song, a
fragment of which (all we have) appeared in David Herd's _Collection of
Ancient and Modern Scottish Songs_, 2 vols. 12mo., Edinb. 1776. As it is
very short, I quote it:

    "An' a' that e'er my Jenny had,
     My Jenny had, my Jenny had,
     A' that e'er my Jenny had,
             Was ae bawbee.

    "There's your plack, and my plack,
     An' your plack, an' my plack,
     An' my plack, an' your plack,
            An' Jenny's bawbee.

    "We'll put it a' in the pint-stoup,
     The pint-stoup, the pint-stoup,
     We'll put it in the pint-stoup,
             And birle't a' three."

There is a capital song founded upon this rude fragment, by the late Sir
Alexander Boswell. It was published anonymously in 1803, and commences

    "I met four chaps yon birks amang,
     Wi hinging lugs and faces lang;
     I spier'd at neebour Bauldy Strang,
                 Wha's they I see?

    "Quo' he, Ilk cream-fac'd pawky chiel
     Thought he was cunning as the diel,
     And here they cam' awa to steal
               Jenny's bawbee."

Copies of this latter song may be seen in Johnson's _Scottish Musical
Museum_, edit. 1839, vol. v. p. 435.; and in Graham's _Songs of
Scotland_, 1848, vol. ii. p. 48.


The old Scotch ballad with the above title, on which Sir Alexander
Boswell, Bart., founded his humorous song, with the same name, may be
found in _The Book of Scottish Songs_, recently published in _The
Illustrated London Library_, p. 229.

J. K. R. W.

_Irish Convocation_ (Vol. vi., p. 317.).--I am unable to answer W.
FRASER'S Queries as to when the Irish Convocation last met, and
where their deliberations are recorded; but that gentleman will find
some account of its nature and constitution in a recently published
pamphlet, entitled _The Jerusalem Chamber_, by the Rev. H. Caswall,
M.A., pp. 39, 40.

J. C. B.

_Spontaneous Combustion_ (Vol. vii., p. 286.).--Is there such a thing;
meaning, I presume, of the _human body_? One of the latest and best
authenticated cases is given in _The Abstainer's Journal_ (Glasgow), No.
III., March, 1853, p. 54. In the narrative is included the official
medical report from the _Journal of Medical Science_, Dec. 1852.


_Do the Sun's Rays put out the Fire?_ (Vol. vii., p. 285.).--

     "Why does the sun, shining, on a fire, make it dull, and often
     put it out?

     "1st. Because the air (being rarefied by the sunshine) flows
     more slowly to the fire; and

     "2ndly. The chemical action of the sun's rays is detrimental
     to combustion.

     "The sun's rays are composed of three parts; lighting,
     heating, and actinic or chemical rays. These latter interfere
     with the process of combustion."

The above is an extract from Rev. Dr. Brewer's _Guide to the Scientific
Knowledge of Things Familiar_, 6th edition, p. 50., which may perhaps
prove interesting to C. W. B. At p. 58. of the same book, H. A. B. will
find, I think, an answer in the affirmative to his Query (Vol. vii., p.
286.): "Is there such a thing as spontaneous combustion?"

C---- S. T. P.

W---- Rectory.

_Dover Castle_ (Vol. vii., p. 254.).--The "j cenovectorum cum j rota
ferro ligata" was a wheel-barrow. In the _Promptorum Parvulorum_ occurs
(p. 25.) "barowe cenovectorum."

E. G. R.

_Quotations wanted_ (Vol. vii., p. 40.).--"And if he read little, he had
need have much cunning to seem to know that he doth not." From Lord
Bacon.--_Bacon's Essays: Of Studies_, p. 218. 12mo., 1819.

[Greek: Omega].

       *       *       *       *       *



If any of the readers of Mr. Hudson Turner's volume on Domestic
Architecture have been under the apprehension that the death of that
able antiquary would necessarily lead, if not to the abandonment of that
work, to its being completed in a more imperfect manner than Mr. Turner
would have completed it, we can assure them that such apprehension is
entirely groundless. We have now before us the second part, entitled
_Some Account of Domestic Architecture in England from Edward I. to
Richard II., with Notices of Foreign Examples, and numerous
Illustrations of existing Remains from original Drawings. By the Editor
of the Glossary of Architecture._ The editing of the work is indeed most
creditable to Mr. Parker, who, though he modestly confesses that if he
had not known that he could safely calculate upon much valuable
assistance from others more competent than himself, he would never have
ventured to undertake it at all, had already given proof of his fitness
for the task by the _Glossary of Architecture_ with which his name has
been so long and so honourably connected. The work, which supplies a
deficiency which the architectural student has {346} long felt, is
produced in the same handsome style, and with the same profuseness of
illustration, as its predecessor, and will be found valuable not only to
archæologists who study history in brick and stone, but also to those
who search in the memorials of bygone ages for illustrations of manners
and customs, and of that greater subject than all, the history of our
social progress.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_History of England from the Peace of Utrecht
to the Peace of Versailles_, 1713--1783, by Lord Mahon, vol. ii.
1720--1740. This second volume of the new and cheaper edition of Lord
Mahon's work extends from the accession of Walpole and Townshend to
office in 1720, to the Declaration of War against Spain in 1739, and
contains a valuable appendix of original papers.--_The Annals of Roger
de Hoveden, from_ A.D. 732 _to_ A.D. 1201, _translated from the Latin,
with Notes and Illustrations_, by Henry T. Riley. Vol. I. A.D. 732 to
A.D. 1180, is a new volume of the valuable series of Translations of
Early English Chronicles, which is to give so important a character to
Bohn's _Antiquarian Library_.--_Thomas à Becket and other Poems_, by
Patrick Scott. Notices of new poems scarcely fall within our vocation,
but Mr. Scott is a true poet, and we cannot refuse to praise the present
volume, and more especially the little poem which owes its origin to the
notice of the opening of the coffin of Lady Audrey Leigh in our 156th
Number.--_The Family Shakspeare, &c._, by Thomas Bowdler, Vol. V. This
fifth volume contains Troilus and Cressida, Coriolanus, Julius Cæsar,
Antony and Cleopatra, and Cymbeline.

       *       *       *       *       *



by SAMUEL HORSELY, Lord Bishop of Rochester. 1799. First Edition, in


ATHENÆUM JOURNAL, 1847 to 1851 inclusive.

a Society of Gentlemen. Pp. 32. 8vo. With a Plan and Eight Plates. No
date, circa annum 1770?

MEMOIRS OF THE ROSE, by MR. JOHN HOLLAND. 1 Vol. 12mo. London, 1824.

PSYCHE AND OTHER POEMS, by MRS. MARY TIGHE. Portrait. 8vo. 1811.



THE HISTORY OF SHENSTONE, by the REV. H. SAUNDERS. 4to. London, 1794.


*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names._

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to
be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet

       *       *       *       *       *


_We hope next week, in addition to many other interesting articles, to
lay before our readers a copy of a remarkable and inedited Proclamation
of Henry VIII. on the subject of the Translation of the Scriptures; and
some specimens of the_ Rigby Correspondence.

HERCULES. _The custom (which we hope does not very generally obtain) of
sending green ribbons, called willows, tied round bridal cards, to
rejected suitors of the bride, is no doubt derived from that alluded to
by Shakspeare and Herrick, and especially Fuller, who tell us the willow
"is a sad tree, whereof such as have lost their love make their mourning

ROBIN HOOD. _A Subscriber would be obliged by_ H. K. (Vol. vi., p. 597.)
_giving a precise reference to the Act of the Scotch Parliament
prohibiting "the plays and personages of Robin Hood." &c._

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY _will find the proverb "When Our Lord falls in Our
Lady's lap," &c., in our Number for the_ 12th Feb., p. 157.

VIATOR. _The imprecatory Epitaph referred to has already appeared in our

W. A. C. _is thanked. The rhymes have, however, been already frequently
printed by Brockett, Brand, &c._

B. L. (Manchester). _The ordinary use of arms by the English nobility is
supposed to date from about the year 1146. The arms on the shield of
Geoffrey de Mandeville in the Temple Church have been considered among
the earliest examples of heraldic bearings in England. He died in 1144._

HY. CE. _Our Correspondent is probably correct. The lines are not in the
reprint of the_ Musarum Deliciæ: _so we amend our reply to_ DAVID BROWN
_in_ No. 177., _by stating that the lines_

    "That same man, that runneth awaie,
     May again fight, an other daie"--

_are from Udall's translation of the Apothegms of Erasmus._

Does a Corpse passing make a Right of Way? A. S. _will find an elaborate
answer to this Query in our_ 3rd Vol., p. 519. _He is also referred to_
pp. 477. _and_ 507. _of the same volume, and_ pp. 124. 240., Vol. iv.

A. B. Mosaic _is so named from the tesselated pavements of the Romans,
which being worked in a regular and mechanical manner, were called_ Opus
musivum, opera quæ ad amussim facta sunt. _Hence the Italian_ musaico,
_the French_ mosaique, _and our English_ mosaic. _See_ "N. & Q.," Vol.
iii., pp. 389. 469. 521.

C. GONVILLE. _How can we forward a letter to this Correspondent?_

M. C. _The answer to Mr. Canning's famous riddle is "Cares--Caress."_

BROOKTHORPE. _The epitaph,_

    "If Heaven is pleased," _&c.,_

_is sometimes said to have been written on Burnet, and at others on
Coleman the Jesuit. See our_ 5th Vol., pp. 58. 137., _&c._

PHOTOGRAPHIC NOTES AND QUERIES. _Several articles are necessarily
postponed until next week, when we will also give Replies to several
Correspondents. We hope by that time to be able to report upon the new

THE REV. J. L. SISSON _is thanked for the very beautiful specimen of his
skill which he has forwarded to us. We hope to write to him in the
course of a day or two._

_Errata._--P. 284. col. 1. lines 27. 28. for "built a new house on a
pinnacle, on which," read "built a new house, on a pinnacle _of_ which."
Line 31., dele full-stop after "yreret," and insert colon. P. 288. col.
2. l. 28. for "trull" read "hull," _i. e._ "hurl."

_A few complete sets of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. _to_ vi., _price
Three Guineas, may now be had; for which early application is

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them
to their Subscribers on the Saturday._

       *       *       *       *       *

TO PHOTOGRAPHERS.--MR. PHILIP DELAMOTTE begs to announce that he has now
made arrangements for printing Calotypes in large or small quantities,
either from Paper or Glass Negatives. Gentlemen who are desirous of
having good impressions of their works, may see specimens of Mr.
Delamotte's Printing at his own residence, 38. Chepstow Place,
Bayswater, or at

MR. GEORGE BELL'S, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


ALFRED ALLCHIN begs to inform Photographers, that he can supply them
with pure Chemicals for Photographic purposes.


       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's,
Turner's, Sanford's, and Canson Frères' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's
Process. Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       * {347}

TO PHOTOGRAPHERS.--Pure Chemicals, with every requisite for the practice
of Photography, according to the instructions of Le Gray, Hunt,
Brébisson, and other writers, may be obtained, wholesale and retail, of
WILLIAM BOLTON, (formerly Dymond & Co.), Manufacturer of pure Chemicals
for Photographic and other purposes. Lists may be had on application.

Improved Apparatus for iodizing paper in vacuo, according to Mr.
Stewart's instructions.


       *       *       *       *       *


Founded A.D. 1842.

    H. E. Bicknell, Esq.
    W. Cabell, Esq.
    T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq. M.P.
    G. H. Drew, Esq.
    W. Evans, Esq.
    W. Freeman, Esq.
    F. Fuller, Esq.
    J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
    T. Grissell, Esq.
    J. Hunt, Esq.
    J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
    E. Lucas, Esq.
    J. Lys Seager, Esq.
    J. B. White, Esq.
    J. Carter Wood, Esq.


W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; L. C. Humfrey, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq.

_Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.

_Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


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     37        2 18  6
     42        3  8  2


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PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions
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Translated from the French.

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       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--Collodion (Iodized with the Ammonio-Iodide of Silver)--J.
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published the application of this agent (see _Athenæum_, Aug. 14th).
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(The Horticultural Part edited by PROF. LINDLEY)

Of Saturday, March 26, contains Articles on

    Agricultural statistics
    Beet, sugar, by Mr. Sinclair
    ---- large and small, by Prof. Sullivan
    Bignonia Tweediana
    Boiler incrustations
    Boronia serrulata
    Calceolaria pavonia
    Calendar, horticultural
    ---- agricultural
    Cloches, by Mr. Gilbert
    Cyclamens, to increase
    Drainage, suburban, by Mr. Marshall
    ---- deep and shallow, by Mr. Hunt
    ---- Nene Valley
    Farm practice
    Fruit, changing names of
    Heating public buildings
    Ireland, Locke on, rev.
    Irrigation, Mr. Mechi's
    Larch, treatment of
    Level, bottle, by Mr. Lucas (with engraving)
    Major's Landscape Gardening
    Manure, Stothert's
    Mint, bottled
    Nitrate of soda, by Dr. Pusey
    Oaks, Mexican
    Onion maggot
    Pampas grass, by Mr. Gorrie
    Peaches, select
    Pears, select
    Plum, Huling's superb, by Mr. Rivers
    Potatoes in Cornwall
    ---- in tan
    Rain gauges, large and small
    Schools, union
    Sewage of Milan, by Captain Smith
    Societies, proceedings of the Linnean, Entomological, National,
      Floricultural, Royal Dublin
    Steam culture
    Temperature, ground
    Trade memoranda
    Trees, to transplant
    Trout, artificial breeding of
    Vegetable lists, by Mr. Fry
    Vines, stem-roots of, by Mr. Harris
    Vine mildew
    Warner's (Mrs.) Garden
    Winter in South Devon

to the above, the Covent Garden, Mark Lane, Smithfield, and Liverpool
prices, with returns from the Potato, Hop, Hay, Coal, Timber, Bark,
Wool, and Seed Markets, and _a complete Newspaper, with a condensed
account of all the transactions of the week_.

ORDER of any Newsvender. OFFICE for Advertisements, 5. Upper Wellington
Street, Covent Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

J. T. GODDARD, Astronomical Telescope Maker, 2. Jesse Cottage, Whitton,
near Isleworth, Middlesex: of whom Photographical View and Portrait
Combinations may be obtained as follows:

                                                         £ s. d.
    The lenses, 2-1/4 diameter, for portraits and views  2 17  6
    Ditto, for views only                                1 17  6
    Ditto, 3-1/4 diameter, for portraits and views       6  0  0
    Ditto, 3-1/4 diameter, for views only                3 17  6

The above are mounted with rack and pinnion, and two stops; where rack
and pinnion is not required, deduct 8s. 6d. to 10s.

Achromatic Lenses of long focus to order.

       *       *       *       *       *

ELGIN MARBLES.--Arundel Society, established 1849, for promoting the
Knowledge of Art. Casts from MR. CHEVERTON'S reductions of the Theseus
and Ilissus in the Elgin Collection, may be had by application at
MESSRS. COLNAGHI'S, 14. Pall Mall East, price 1l. 1s. (to Members
12s. 6d.) each.

Electro-Bronze Copies of the Theseus may be had at MESSRS. ELKINGTON'S,
22. Regent Street, price 10l. 10s. (to Members 9l. 9s.)

MR. CHEVERTON obtained a Prize Medal for the Theseus at the Great
Exhibition, 1851.

Annual Subscription to the Society 1l. 1s., entitling Members to all
Engravings and Books published. Payable at Coutts' Bank, or 14. Pall
Mall East.


       *       *       *       *       * {348}


Immediately, fcap. 8vo.


     "I am much mistaken in my estimate of M. Maurel's work, if it
     do not take rank now and hereafter among the most accurate,
     discriminating, and felicitous tributes which have emanated
     from any country in any language to the memory of the Duke of
     Wellington."--_Lord Ellesmere's Preface_.

To be followed by



Volumes already published--















JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street;

And to be obtained at all Booksellers, and Railway Stations.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE QUARTERLY REVIEW, No. CLXXXIV., is just published.



JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

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PEACE. Post 8vo. 3s. 6d.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

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Notes, Analyses, Life, Introduction, and Index. Post 8vo. 5s.

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HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

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Henry II.; with THE ACTS OF KING STEPHEN, &c. Translated and edited by
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London: JAMES DARLING, 81. Great Queen Street, Lincoln's-Inn Fields.

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Just published, in 8vo., price 15s. cloth,

GOETHE'S FAUST: With Copious English Notes, Grammatical, Philological,
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*** The Grammatical Notes contain the whole of the Text, in German and
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       *       *       *       *       *

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Historical and Critical View of the Speculative Philosophy of Europe in
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upon the Roman Knights. By W. IHNE, Ph. D.

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       *       *       *       *       *

On April 1st, Part IV., price 1s., with a beautiful engraving,

REYNARD THE FOX; after the German Version of GOETHE. With Illustrations
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       *       *       *       *       *


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CENTURY; from the newly-discovered "Philosophumena;" or, the Greek Text
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Just published, pp. 720, plates 24, price 21s.

A HISTORY of INFUSORIAL ANIMALCULES, living and fossil, with
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BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the
West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street
aforesaid.--Saturday, April 2. 1853.

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