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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 180,  April 9, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 180,  April 9, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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| Transcriber's Note: Italicized words, phrases, etc. are      |
| surrounded by _underline characters_. Greek transliterations  |
| are surrounded by ~tildes~. Hebrew transliterations appear   |
| like ¤this¤.| Diacritical marks over characters are          |
| bracketed: [=x] indicates a macron over the letter, [(x]     |
| indicates a breve. Archaic spellings have been retained.     |



       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

No. 180.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition, 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


NOTES:--                                                      Page
  Rigby Correspondence                                         349
  Isthmus of Darien                                            351
  Notes on several misunderstood Words                         352

  FOLK LORE:--Drills presaging Death--Beltane in
    Devonshire--Touching for King's Evil                       353
  Gaffer or Gammer, &c., by Thos. Keightley                    354

  MINOR NOTES:--Search for MSS.--Clifton of Normanton
    --The Three per Cent. Consols                              354

  Wolves nursing Children, by Gilbert N. Smith                 355
  "The Luneburg Table"--Queen Elizabeth's Love of
    Pearls                                                     355

  MINOR QUERIES:--St. Dominic--"Will" and "shall"
    --Sir John Fleming--Deal, how to stain--Irish
    Characters on the Stage--Arms on King Robert
    Bruce's Coffin-plate--Chaucer's Prophetic View of
    the Crystal Palace--Magistrates wearing their Hats in
    Court--Derby Municipal Seal--Sir Josias Bodley--
    Sir Edwin Sadler--The Cross given by Richard I. to
    the Patriarch of Antioch--Lister Family--Family of
    Abrahall, Eborall, or Ebrall--Eulenspiegel: Murner's
    Visit to England--Aged 116--Annuellarius                   356

    Theatre of Honour and Nobility"--List of Bishops of
    Norwich--"A Letter to a Convocation Man"--
    Nicholas Thane--Churchwardens, Qualification of--
    Sir John Powell--S. N.'s "Antidote," &c.--Beads            358

  Broad Arrow                                                  360
  English Comedians in the Netherlands                         360
  The Sweet Singers                                            361
  Edmund Spenser                                               362
  Lamech killing Cain, by Francis Crossley, &c.                362

    Notes--On some Difficulties in Photographic Practice
    --Mr. Weld Taylor's cheap Iodizing Process                 363

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Somersetshire Ballad--
    Family of De Thurnham--Major. General Lambert--
    Loggerheads--Grafts and the Parent Tree--The
    Lisle Family--The Dodo in Ceylon--Thomas Watson,
    Bishop of St. David's, 1687 to 1699--Etymology of Fuss
    --Palindromical Lines--Nugget--Hibernis ipsis Hiberniores
    --The Passame Sares (mel. Passamezzo)
    Galliard--Swedish Words current in England--Gotch
    --Passage in Thomson: "Steaming"--The Word
    "Party"--Curious Fact in Natural Philosophy--Lowbell
    --Life and Correspondence of S. T. Coleridge--
    Coniger, &c.--Cupid Crying--Westminster Assembly
    of Divines, &c.                                            364

  Notes on Books, &c.                                          369
  Books and Odd volumes wanted                                 370
  Notices to Correspondents                                    370
  Advertisements                                               371

       *       *       *       *       *



    [We are enabled, by the kindness of their possessor, to lay
    before our readers copies of the following characteristic
    letters from the well-known Richard Rigby, Esq., who was for so
    many years the leader of the Bedford party in the House of
    Commons. They were addressed to Robert Fitzgerald, Esq., a
    member of the House of Commons in Ireland, and Judge of the
    Court of Admiralty in that country.]

_Mr. Rigby to Mr. R. Fitzgerald._

    Woburn Abbey, Wednesday, 11th Dec., 1765.

  Dear little Bob,

I am impatient to know if you had resolution enough to attend his
Excellency last Sunday, as I advised, and if you had, what was the
result of the audience....

I arrived here last night, and find the Duke and Duchess, Marquis and
Marchioness, all in perfect health. With my love to the Provost[1], tell
him the chancellorship answers the intention to the utmost of his
desire: we are wonderfully pleased with it. Tell him also that I do not
find the defalcation amongst our friends to be as was represented in
Dublin. Stanley is not, but has refused to be, ambassador to Berlin;
Lord North is not, but has refused to be, vice-treasurer. The parliament
meets on Tuesday: the ministers of the House of Commons, who are to be
rechose, can get nobody who is in Parliament to read the king's speech
for them at the Cockpit the night before. They, I believe, are in a
damned dilemma: how much that makes for us time must show. Cooper is
bribed to be Secretary of the Treasury, by 500l. a-year for his life,
upon the 4-1/2 per cents, in the Leeward Islands, the same that Pitt's
pension is upon. He remains for the present, however, at Bath. Calcraft
will run Cooper hard at Rochester, against both Admiralty and Treasury.
Wish Col. Draper joy for me of his red riband: he will have it next week
with Mitchell, who returns to the {350} King of Prussia. The poor young
prince cannot live. I have time for no more.

    Adieu, yours ever,
          R. R.
I expect to hear fully from you very shortly.

               *       *       *

    St. James's Place, 1st Feb., 1766.

  Dear little Bob,

Though you are a little villain for never sending me a word of news from
Sir Lucius Pery, Flood, Lucas, and the rest of the friends to your
enslaved country, yet I will inform you that yesterday, in the House of
Commons, upon a question of no moment, only for fixing a day for the
hearing a contested election, the ministry were run within 11: the
numbers 137 and 148. Twenty rats in the Speaker's chamber, and in all
the cupboards in the neighbourhood. Monday next is the day for deciding
the American question; and do not be surprised if there is an end of the
present ministry in less than a week. As soon as I know who are to be
their successors, you shall hear from me again.

If you are in want of such another patriot to second Lucas, Pitt is at
your service. He seems likely to want a place.

    Yours ever,
          R. R.

               *       *       *

    St. James's Place, 14th Nov., 1766.

  Dear little Bob,

I have not wrote to you this age, nor have I anything very pleasant to
say to you now. Our Parliament is met in a very acquiescing disposition.
The Opposition is sickly, and my great friend, who would naturally give
it most strength and energy, is tired of it as much as he is of the
Court. Lord Chatham seems, by all that has yet appeared, to have adopted
all Grenville's plan of pacific measures; and as he formerly told us he
had borrowed a majority, he seems now to have borrowed a system. The
world has it, that we are joined to the ministry, and, as matters stand,
I wish there was more truth in that report than there is; but I have not
the smallest expectation of a place, I assure you. Tell this or not, as
you like. The Duke of Bedford says he sees no ground to oppose upon: he
disapproves of mere factious opposition; that no good can arise from
such conduct either to ourselves or the public.

I have been at the House only the first day, nor do I know when I shall
go again. I cannot stomach giving my silent approbation to Conway's
measures, be they good or bad. In this damned situation of affairs you
will not expect I should write long letters; but I could not avoid
giving you a hint to let you know the true state of things. Adieu, my
dear friend.

    Yours ever,
          R. R.

               *       *       *

    St. James's Place, 2nd May, 1767.

  Dear Bob,

The East India business is in a way of being settled,--400,000l. to be
paid by the company for three years, and no addition of term to be given
for their charter. It remains for the General Court of Proprietors to
consent to this next Wednesday, which, if they do, the Parliament will
confirm it on Friday. We had some good warm talk upon it yesterday in
the House. Conway and Beckford and I sparred a good deal, and I am vain
enough to think I did not come off with the worst of it. Conway said,
_inter alia_, that Lord Chatham's health was too bad to have any
communication of business. The world seems to agree that he is mad, and
his resignation is talked of,--God knows with what truth. The American
business is next Tuesday. I do not see much prospect of a junction
taking place where I have been labouring for it. We remain upon civil
terms with each other, and no more....

My heart's love to all friends in Dublin: tell them it is every day more
and more my opinion that this Lieutenant never means to set his foot in
that kingdom, and I have good reasons for what I say.

Adieu, my dear little fellow.

    I am ever yours,
          R. R.

               *       *       *

    St. James's Place, 30th May, 1767.

  Dear Fitz,

I have received your several letters, and am much obliged to you for
them. I wish I could send you something real in the political way, as
you call it, in return; but there is as little reality as stability in
our politics. Dyson has carried his persecuting bill against the East
India Company through the House of Commons, in spite of the Secretary of
State and Chancellor of the Exchequer, both of whom helped us to make up
a miserable minority of 84 against 151. Charles went at one o'clock in
the morning, when the House was up, to dinner with a set of our friends,
at Sir Lau. Dundass's, and there talked a big language of resigning the
seals the next day. The next day came, and we rallied the majority upon
this state of independence with great success, both Charles himself,
Wedderburn, and I; and he invited himself, Charles I mean, to dine with
us again that day at Lord Gower's. Again the same language of
resignation; but the spirit has subsided since, and we hear no more of
it. If Conway and he will take such usage, the Court will certainly let
them keep their places; for where can it find better tools? The East
India Company pursue the bill, with the council and evidence, to the
House of Lords, where matters run much nearer; for on the same day we
were so beat in the House of Commons, Lord Gower's motions in the House
of Lords, touching America, were rejected only by a majority of {351}
three, two of which were the king's brothers. The Duke of York was
absent. If we should succeed in that House, so as to reject this bill,
possibly the ministry may break to pieces; otherwise I rather think it
will hobble lamely on, through the summer, with universal discontent
attending it. Chatham is certainly as ill as ever; and, notwithstanding
all reports to the contrary, Lord Holland has not been sent to by the
Court. He is arrived at his house in Kent, and comes, but of his own
accord, to town to the birthday. On that day, the clerks, Watts, and I
go down to Lynch's for five or six days: I wish you was of the party. It
would have been very kind indeed in Mr. Harvey, the six-clerk, to have
tipped so soon. Your Lord Lieutenant says he is to go. God help the poor
man if he does. I am sorry for your account of the disorders in the
college. I do not like anything that may throw reflexion on Andrews, and
I will press him to come homewards. Adieu, my dear Bob.

    Most faithfully yours,
          R. R.

               *       *       *

    Pay Office, 2nd May, 1769.

  Dear Bob,

After I wrote to you last Saturday morning, I went to the House, where I
found a petition presented from fifteen tailors or tinkers, freeholders
of Middlesex, against Lutterell. The opposition wanted a call of the
House for Wednesday fortnight. We insisted on hearing it next Monday,
and divided 94 against 49. This business retards the prorogation till
this day or to-morrow se'nnight: but we are adjourned till Monday; so
nothing but hearing this nonsense remains. Wilkes' stock falls very fast
every day, and upon this measure there was such difference of opinion
amongst his friends, that Sawbridge and Townsend would not attend on
Saturday. Serjeant Whitacre has desired to be Lutterell's counsel
gratis, in order to deliver his opinion at the bar of the House on the
legality of Lutterell's seat; and says he shall insist, if the House
should be of opinion that Lutterell is not duly elected, that he himself
is, as having been next upon the poll of those who were capable of
receiving votes.

No news yet of your secretary. Some people are impatient to hear his
report of the state of parties, and their several dispositions to
support government, on your side the water. He must certainly be a most
competent judge, after so long a residence there, and after such open
and frank discourse as every man there would naturally hold with him
upon critical matters. Some better judges than him, lately arrived from
Ireland, make no scruple in declaring there will be a majority of forty
against the Castle at the opening the session. Adieu, my dear little
Bob: my love to the Provost.

    Yours ever,
          R. R.

P.S.--I shall get the Journals of the House of Commons for you

               *       *       *

    Lawford, Saturday Evening, 4th Nov., 1769.

  Dear little Bob,

It would be ungrateful in the present company here not to take some
notice of you, just as they had finished the last bottle of an excellent
hogshead of Burgundy, which you sent into my cellar, I believe, seven
years ago. What has come since we will avoid mentioning. A few bottles,
however, of the former were reserved for the divine Charlotte, and she,
and Caswell, and I have this day finished them; and the last glass went
off to your health. Sister Charlotte wishes you public and private
happiness during this bustling winter, and hopes that you are not
determined to forsake the English part of your family for ever. I
received your letter of the 24th here two days ago, and should most
undoubtedly desire you to send me your votes, if I had not already
engaged my old friend at the Secretary's office to do it; but I beg
early intelligence of your parliamentary proceedings, about which I am
very anxious. I do not believe there is the smallest foundation for
believing that Junius is Wedderburn. I had, a few days ago, great reason
to guess at the real Junius: but my intelligence was certainly false;
for sending to inquire in a more particular manner, I discovered the
person hinted at to be dead. He was an obscure man; and so will the real
Junius turn out to be, depend upon it. Are Shannon and Ponsonby and
Lanesborough still stout against Augmentation? or must the friends to
the measure form a plan that they like themselves? A letter from Colonel
Hall, of the 20th regiment, this evening, informs me that General Harvey
is come from Ireland, and is very impatient to see me: if his business
is to consult me upon the utility of this military plan, I am already
fully convinced of it: but nobody knows less than I do how to get it
through your House of Commons,--I only hope by any means rather than a
message from the king. Perhaps the measure is taken, and I am writing
treason against the understanding of our own ministers. God forbid! but
I do not approve of letting down the dignity and power of the chief
governors of Ireland lower than they are already fallen, to quarrel with
a mountebank at a custard feast. Adieu, my dear little fellow.

    Yours ever, most sincerely,
          R. R.

    [Footnote 1: T. Andrews, Provost of Trin. Col., Dublin.]

       *       *       *       *       *


As public attention is now much directed to the canal across the Isthmus
of Darien, one end of which is proposed to communicate with the harbour
which was the site of the ill-fated attempt {352} at colonisation by
the Scotch about 150 years ago, the subjoined extract, giving an account
of that harbour, by (apparently) one of the Scotch colonists, may be
interesting to your readers. It is taken from a paper printed in
_Miscellanea Curiosa_, vol. iii. p. 413., 2nd edit., entitled "Part of a
Journal kept from Scotland to New Caledonia in Darien, with a short
Account of that Country, communicated [to the Royal Society] by Dr.
Wallace, F.R.S.":

    "The 4th [November] we came into the great harbour of Caledonia.
    It is a most excellent one; for it is about a league in length
    from N.W. to S.E. It is about half a mile broad at the mouth,
    and in some places a mile and more farther in. It is large
    enough to contain 500 sail of ships. The greatest part of it is
    landlocked, so that it is safe, and cannot be touched by any
    wind that can blow the harbour; and the sea makes the land that
    lies between them a peninsula. There is a point of the peninsula
    at the mouth of the harbour that may be fortified against a
    navy. This point secures the harbour, so that no ship can enter
    but must be within reach of their guns. It likewise defends half
    of the peninsula; for no guns from the other side of the harbour
    can touch it, and no ship carrying guns dare enter for the
    breastwork at the point. The other side of the peninsula is
    either a precipice, or defended against ships by shoals and
    breaches, so that there remains only the narrow neck that is
    naturally fortified; and if thirty leagues of a wilderness will
    not do that, it may be artificially fortified in twenty ways. In
    short, it may be made impregnable; and there are bounds enough
    within it, if it were all cultivated, to afford 10,000 hogsheads
    of sugar every year. The soil is rich, the air good and
    temperate; the water is sweet, and every thing contributes to
    make it healthful and convenient."

    C. T. W.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Mechal_ is from the mint of Thomas Heywood; but, like many other words
of the same stamp, it continued a private token of the party who issued
it, and never, as far as I am aware, became current coin. Four times, at
least, it occurs in his works; and always in that sense only which its
etymon indicates, to wit, "adulterous." In his "Challenge for Beauty:"

                              "... her own tongue
    Hath publish'd her a _mechall_ prostitute."
      Dilke's _Old English Plays_, vol. vi. p. 421.

In his "Rape of Lucrece:"

              "... that done, straight murder
    One of thy basest grooms, and lay you both
    Grasp'd arm in arm in thy adulterate bed,
    Men call in witness of that _mechall_ sin."
             _Old English Drama_, vol. i. p. 71.

--where the editor's note is--"probably derived from the French word
_méchant_, wicked." In his "English Traveller:"

                  "... Yet whore you may;
    And that's no breach of any vow to heaven:
    Pollute the nuptial bed with _michall_ sin."
        Dilke's _Old English Plays_, vol. i. p. 161.

This misprint the editor corrects to _mickle_: professing, however, as
he well might, distrust of his amendment. Nares discards Dilke's guess,
and says, "If a right reading, it must be derived from _mich_, truant,
adulterous." Whereby to correct one error he commits another, assigning
to _mich_ a sense that it never bears. If haply any doubt should remain
as to what the true reading in the above passage is, a reference to
Heywood's _Various History concerninge Women_ will at once assoil it. In
that part of his fourth book which treats of adulteresses (p. 195.),
reciting the very story on which his play was founded, and calling it "a
moderne historie lately happening, and in mine owne knowledge," he
continues his narrative thus:

    "With this purpose, stealing, softly vp the stayres, and
    listening at the doore, before hee would presume to knocke, hee
    might heare a soft whispering, which sometimes growing lowder,
    hee might plainely distinguish two voyces (hers, and that
    gentleman's his supposed friend, whom the maide had before
    nominated), where hee might euidently vnderstand more than
    protestations passe betwixt them, namely, the _mechall_ sinne

Mr. Halliwell, in his compilation of _Archaic and Provincial Words_,
gives _Mechall_, wicked, adulterous, with a note of admiration at
Dilke's conjecture; and a reference to Nares, in v. _Michall_. Mr. H.
neither adduces any authority for his first sense, "wicked," nor can
adduce one.

_To lowt_, to mock or contemn. A verb of very common occurrence, but, as
might be expected, quite unknown to the commentators on Shakspeare,
though its meaning was guessed from the context. As it would be tedious
and unnecessary to write all the instances that occur, let the following

    "To the holy bloud of Hayles,
     With your fyngers and nayles,
       All that ye may scratche and wynne;
     Yet it woulde not be seen,
     Except you were shryven,
       And clene from all deadly synne.
     There, were we flocked,
      _Lowted_ and mocked;
        For, now, it is knownen to be
     But the bloud of a ducke,
     That long did sucke
       The thrifte, from every degre."

    "The Fantassie of Idolatrie," Foxe's _Acts and
    Monuments_, vol. v. p. 406. (Cattley's edition.)

    "Pride is it, to vaunt princely robes, not princely virtues.
    Pride is it to _lowte_ men of lower sort or pore {353} lasers,
    as is some men's guise."--_The Third Booke of Nobilitye_; writte
    in Latine by Laurence Humfrey, late Englished, 1563.

    "Among serving men also, above all other, what wicked and
    detestable oaths are there heard! If there be any of that sort
    which fear God, and love his word, and therefore abstain from
    vain oaths, how doth his company _lout_ him! Look what an ass is
    among a sort of apes, even the very same is he among his
    fellows."--_The Invective against Swearing_, p. 361.; Works of
    Thomas Becon (Parker Society).

Samson was accounted of the Philistines for a fool, but he would rather
die than suffer that opprobry unrevenged (Judic. xvi.).

    "David was _lowted_ of Michol Saul's daughter, but she was made
    therefore barren all her life."--2 Reg. vi.

And same page, a little _above_:

    "He that calleth his brother fool, that is to say, contemn him,
    mock him, or, as men call it now-a-days, _lowting_ of a man,
    committeth such murder as is worthy hell-fire and eternal
    damnation."--_A Declaration of the Ten Commandments_, ch. ix. p.
    373.; Early Writings of Bishop Hooper (Parker Society).

    "Renowned Talbot doth expect my ayde, And I am _lowted_ by a
    traitor villaine And cannot help the noble Cheualier."

    The First Part of _Henry VI._, Actus Quartus, Scena Prima (First
    Folio Shakspeare).

Where I would note, by the way, that in three copies of the folio 1632,
now by me, it is printed "_at_ traitor," although two of these folios
have different title-pages; that which appears to be the later
impression bears under the portrait these words: "London, printed by
Thos. Cotes, for Robert Allot, and are to be sold _at his shop_ at the
signe of the Blacke Beare, in Paul's Church-yard, 1632." The other wants
the words "at his shop," as described in MR. COLLIER'S edition.

The mention of MR. COLLIER'S name is a hint that reminds me to advertise
him of a mistake he lies under, in supposing that the Duke of
Devonshire's copy of the Play of _King Richard II._ in 4to., dated 1605,
is unique (_vid._ Collier's _Shakspeare_, vol. iv. p. 105.,
Introduction); as there is another in the Philosophical Institute at
Hereford, presented by the late Edward Evans, Esq., of Eyton Hall, in
the same county.

But to return. Mr. Halliwell, in his work above quoted, furnishes
another instance of the verb _lowt_, from Hall's _History of King Henry
IV._, which the reader may consult for himself. I will merely add, that
the interpretation there propounded is plausible but unsound, the
context only giving aim to his conjecture.

(_To be continued._)

       *       *       *       *       *


_Drills presaging Death._--In Norfolk, agricultural labourers generally
believe that if a drill go from one end of a field to the other without
depositing any seed--an accident which may result from the tubes and
coulters clogging with earth--some person connected with the farm will
die before the year expires, or before the crop then sown is reaped. It
is a useful superstition, as it causes much attention to be paid to make
the drill perform its work correctly. Still it is remarkable that such a
superstition should have arisen, considering the recent introduction of
that machine into general use. I should be glad to learn from other
readers of "N. & Q." whether this belief prevails in other parts of
England where the drill is generally used.

    E. G. R.

_Beltane in Devonshire._--Seeing that the ancient superstition of the
Beltane fire is still preserved in Scotland, and is lighted on the 1st
of May, the origin of which is supposed to be an annual sacrifice to
Baal, I am induced to state that a custom, evidently derived from the
same source, is, or was a few years since, annually observed in the wild
parts of Devonshire. At the village of Holne, situated on one of the
Spurs of Dartmoor, is a field of about two acres, the property of the
parish, and called the Ploy (_Play_) Field. In the centre of this stands
a granite pillar (Menhir) six or seven feet high. On May morning, before
daybreak, the young men of the village assemble there, and then proceed
to the Moor, where they select a ram lamb (doubtless with the consent of
the owner), and after running it down, bring it in triumph to the Ploy
Field, fasten it to the pillar, cut its throat, and then roast it whole,
skin, wool, &c. At midday a struggle takes place, at the risk of cut
hands, for a slice, it being supposed to confer luck for the ensuing
year on the fortunate devourer. As an act of gallantry, in high esteem
among the females, the young men sometimes fight their way through the
crowd to get a slice for their chosen amongst the young women, all of
whom, in their best dresses, attend the _Ram Feast_, as it is called.
Dancing, wrestling, and other games, assisted by copious libations of
cider during the afternoon, prolong the festivity till nightfall.

The time, the place (looking east), the mystic pillar, and the ram,
surely bear some evidence in favour of the Ram Feast being a sacrifice
to Baal.


_Touching for King's Evil._--The following passage bearing upon the
custom of touching for the King's Evil, and its antiquity, is extracted
from Laing's translation of Snorro Sturleson's _Heimskringla_. King Olaf
the Rich, afterwards Saint, had fled to Russia on being driven out of
his kingdom by {354} Knut the Great. Ingigerd, Queen of Russia, desired
a widow to take her son, who "had a sore boil upon his neck," to King
Olaf, "the best physician here, and beg him to lay his hands on thy
lad." The king was unwilling to do so, saying that he was not a
physician; but at last consented:

    "Then the king took the lad, laid his hands upon his neck, and
    felt the boil for a long time, until the boy made a very wry
    face. Then the king took a piece of bread, laid it in the figure
    of the cross upon the palm of his hand, and put it into the
    boy's mouth. He swallowed it down, and from that time all the
    soreness left his neck, and in a few days he was quite well....
    Then first came Olaf into the repute of having as much healing
    power in his hands as is ascribed to men who have been gifted by
    nature with healing by the touch."

Laing asks in a note:

    "Is the touching for the King's Evil ... connected with this
    royal saint's healing by the touch?"--_The Heimskringla_, vol.
    ii. p. 297., 8vo.: London, 1844.


       *       *       *       *       *


These two venerable words were used by our ancestors. Every one has
heard of Gammer Gurton; Gaffer Gingerbread was also famous in, as well
as I can remember, a portion of the literature which amused my
childhood. In _Joseph Andrews_, Fielding styles the father of Pamela
"Gaffer Andrews:" and, for aught I know, the word may be still in use in
Wilts and Somerset.

Unde derivantur _Gaffer_ and _Gammer_? Lye said they were _quasi_
good-father and good-mother; Somner, that they were the Anglo-Saxon
_Gefæder_ and _Gemeder_, i. e. godfather and godmother; Webster derives
the former from the Hebrew _geber_, man, the latter from the
Scandinavian _gamel_, old. Having a fondness for simplicity, I go less
learnedly to work. I have observed little children, when commencing to
speak, to say "ganpa" and "gamma" for grandpapa and grandmamma: whence I
conjecture that, in the olden time, ere we had Pa's and Ma's, the little
aspirants used to say "ganfa'er" and "gamma'er," which easily became
_Gaffer_ and _Gammer_. I am confirmed in this view by a friend to whom I
mentioned it, and who told me that his own children always called his
father _gaffer_, a word entirely of their own formation.

There is a term now coming a little into use, which is I believe of pure
Irish origin, namely, _old fogie_. Indeed, I have heard it used rather
disrespectfully of those mature old warriors, whom it pleases the wisdom
of our government to send out in the command of our fleets and armies.
The word, as I said, is of Irish, or rather of Dublin birth. The _old
fogies_ are the inmates of the Royal or Old Men's Hospital, the Irish
Chelsea. I think, then, that it must be plain to every one that the term
is nothing more than a good-humoured corruption or diminutive of _old

This leads me to the simple origin of a word which seems to have posed
all our etymologists--it has done so to Richardson at least--namely,
"PETTIFOGGER, a low, tricky attorney." According to my view,
_pettifogger_ is neither more nor less than _pettifolker_, i. e. one
whose practice lies among the _petty folk_, small tradesmen,
day-labourers, and such like. This derivation, too, has simplicity in
its favour.


       *       *       *       *       *


_Search for MSS._--A proposal was made some time ago in "N. & Q." by MR.
MACKENZIE, that some systematic effort should be made for the recovery
of ancient MSS. I have heard nothing more of it, but am sure that, if a
beginning were made, it would receive warm support from the friends of
literature. There is, however, a kindred search which can be prosecuted
nearer home, with more certain success and more important results. I
mean a continued search among the numerous MSS. in which so much of our
unknown history is buried. Might not a systematic examination of these
be instituted, with the help of the "division of labour" principle, so
that important portions of the great mass should be accurately described
and indexed, valuable papers abridged for publication, and thus given to
the world entire? Much is being done, no doubt, here and there; but
surely much more would be accomplished by united and systematised
labour. How much light might be thrown on a given period of our history
by such a study of all the records, correspondence, &c. relating to it.
Is there none of our existing societies within whose scope such an
undertaking would fall, or might not different societies unite for the
purpose? The books, of course, should be sold to the public. I leave the
hint to the judgment of your readers.


_Clifton of Normanton._--Following the excellent example of DR. TODD, of
Trin. Coll. Dublin, I send you from the fly-leaves of an old English
Bible (C. Barker, London, 1599, small 4to.), for the information of any
one connected, some of the particulars inscribed on the leaves, relating

    "Thomas Clifton of Normanton, in the county of Darby, who had
    issue by his first wife three sonnes and four daughters; and by
    his second wife, two sonnes and one daughter."

The names of his wives are not mentioned. The details of births,
marriages, and deaths extend from 1586 to 1671, and some of the branches
of {355} the family went to Rotterdam and Amsterdam, and
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Zachary Clifton was at the Universities of Utrecht
and Leyden (at which latter university "hee co[=m]enct M'r. of Arts,
March 5, 1654"), and in 1659 was ordained minister of the gospel at
Wisborough Green in Sussex. Many other particulars are given. The Bible
is in the library of Sir Robert Taylor's Institution, Oxford, and is in
excellent preservation, having been recently carefully repaired.

    J. M.


_The Three per Cent. Consols._--In Jerdan's _Autobiography_, vol. iii.,
published in 1852, we read this anecdote:

    "At a City dinner, so political that the three Consuls of France
    were drunk, the toast-master, quite unacquainted with Bonaparte,
    Cambacères, and Lebrun, hallooed out from behind the chair,
    'Gentlemen, fill bumpers! The chairman gives the Three per Cent.

In _Merrie England in the Olden Time_, vol. ii. p. 70. (published ten
years before), will be found the following note:

    "This eminent professor (toast-master Toole), whose sobriquet is
    'Lungs,' having to shout the health of the 'three present
    Consuls,' at my Lord Mayor's feast, proclaimed the health of the
    'Three per Cent. Consols!'"

The _latter_ version is the _correct_ one. It was the three foreign
Consuls who were present among this annual gathering of grandees that
was given; not Bonaparte, Cambacères, and Lebrun. The after-dinner organ
of Toole might easily, on hearing the toast, mistake "present" for "per
cent.," and "Consuls" (in the City, too) for "Consols."


       *       *       *       *       *



At the meeting of the Cambrian Archæological Society, Lord Cawdor in the
chair, I read a letter on this subject from the resident at Lucknow,
Colonel Sleeman, to whom India is indebted for the suppression of
Thuggee, and other widely extended benefits. Though backed by such good
authority, the letter in question was received with considerable
incredulity, although Colonel Sleeman represents that he has with him
one of these wolf-nurtured youths.

Since reading the letter, I have received from the Colonel's brother a
more full account, printed in India, and containing additional cases,
which I should have no objection to print in the pages of "N. & Q." In
the meantime, further information from Indian experience, where mothers
so often expose their children, would be thankfully received.

I appended my letter, for want of a better opportunity, and at the
request of several members, to a paper on the doctrine of the Myth, read
at the time; observing, that if the account is credible, perhaps Niebuhr
may have been precipitate in treating the nurture of the founders of
Rome as fabulous, and consigning to the Myth facts of infrequent
occurrence. There is both danger and the want of philosophy in rejecting
the marvellous, merely as such.

Nor is the invention of Lupa, for the name of the mother of the Roman
twins, by any means satisfactory. May not the mysteries of Lycanthropy
have had their origin in such a not infrequent fact, if Col. Sleeman may
be trusted, as the rearing of infants by wolves?


The Rectory, Tregwynfrid, Tenby, S. W.

       *       *       *       *       *


In the _Travels_ of Hentzner, who resided some time in England in the
reign of Elizabeth, as tutor to a young German nobleman, there is given
(as most of your readers will doubtless remember) a very interesting
account of the "Maiden Queen," and the court which she then maintained
at "the royal palace of Greenwich." After noticing the appearance of the
presence-chamber,--"the floor, after the English fashion, strewed with
hay,"--the writer gives a descriptive portrait of her Majesty. He

    "Next came the Queen, in her sixty-fifth year, as we were told,
    very majestic; her face oblong, fair, but wrinkled; her eyes
    small, but black and pleasant; her nose a little hooked; her
    lips narrow, and her teeth black (a defect the English seem
    subject to, from their too great use of sugar). She had in her
    ears two _pearls_, with very rich drops.[2] She wore false hair,
    and that red."

Then comes the passage to which I beg to call especial attention,
and on which I have to invite some information:

    "Upon her head a small crown, _reported to be made of some of
    the gold of the celebrated Luneburg table_."

What was this table? The work from which I quote (_Recollections of
Royalty_, vol. ii. p. 119.) has a note hereon, merely remarking that,
"at this distance of time, it is difficult to say what this was." If,
anything, however, can be gleaned on the subject, some of the readers of
"N. & Q." in some one of the "five _quarters_" of the world will
assuredly be able to answer this Query.

    J. J. S.

Middle Temple.

P.S.--Since the above was written, I find that Elizabeth's christening
gift from the Duchess of Norfolk was a cup of gold, fretted with
_pearls_; that noble lady being (says Miss Strickland) "completely
unconscious of the chemical antipathy between the acidity of wine and
the misplaced pearls." Elizabeth seems thus to have been rich in those
gems from her infancy upwards, and to have retained a passionate taste
for them long after their appropriateness as ornaments for her had

    [Footnote 2: With respect to the rich pearl earrings above
    mentioned, it may not be uninteresting to remark, that Elizabeth
    seems to have been particularly fond of pearls, and to have
    possessed the same taste for them from youth to even a later
    period than "her sixty-fifth year." The now faded wax-work
    effigy preserved in Westminster Abbey (and which lay on her
    coffin, arrayed in royal robes, at her funeral, and caused, as
    Stowe states, "such a general sighing, groaning, and weeping, as
    the like hath not being seen or known in the memory of man")
    exhibits large round Roman _pearls_ in the stomacher; a carcanet
    of large round _pearls_, &c. about her throat; her neck
    ornamented with long strings of _pearls_; her high-heeled
    shoe-bows having in the centre large _pearl_ medallions. Her
    earrings are circular _pearl_ and ruby medallions, with large
    pear-shaped _pearl_ pendants. This, of course, represents her as
    she dressed towards the close of her life. In the Tollemache
    collection at Ham House is a miniature of her, however, when
    about twenty, which shows the same taste as existing at that
    age. She is here depicted in a black dress, trimmed with a
    double row of _pearls_. Her point-lace ruffles are looped with
    _pearls_, &c. Her head-dress is decorated in front with a jewel
    set with _pearls_, from which three pear-shaped _pearls_ depend.
    And, finally, she has large _pearl_-tassel earrings. In the
    Henham Hall portrait (engraved in vol. vii. of Miss Strickland's
    _Lives of the Queens of England_), the ruff is confined by a
    collar of _pearls_, rubies, &c., set in a gold filagree pattern,
    with large pear shaped _pearls_ depending from each lozenge. The
    sleeves are ornamented with rouleaus, wreathed with _pearls_ and
    bullion. The lappets of her head-dress also are adorned at every
    "crossing" with a large round _pearl_. Her gloves, moreover,
    were always of white kid, richly embroidered with _pearls_, &c.
    on the backs of the hands. A poet of that day asserts even that,
    at the funeral procession, when the royal corpse was rowed from
    Richmond, to lie in state at Whitehall,--

    "Fish wept their eyes of _pearl_ quite out,
     And swam blind after,"

    doubtless intending, most loyally, to provide the departed
    sovereign with a fresh and posthumous supply of her favorite

       *       *       *       *       *


_St. Dominic._--Was St. Dominic, the founder of the Dominican order, a
descendant of the noble family of the Guzmans? Machiavelli wrote a
treatise to prove it; but in the _Biographie Universelle_ it is stated
(I know not on what authority) that Cardinal Lambertini, afterwards
Benedict XIV., having summoned that lawyer to produce the originals,
Machiavelli deferred, and refused at last to obey the order: and
further, that Cuper the Bollandist wrote on the same subject to some
learned men at Bologna, who replied that the pieces cited in
Machiavelli's dissertation had been forged by him, and written in the
old style by a modern hand.


_"Will" and "shall."_--Can you refer me to any grammar, or other work,
containing a clear and definite rule for the distinctive use of these
auxiliaries? and does not a clever contributor to "N. & Q." make a
mistake on this point at Vol. vi., p. 58., 1st col., 16th line?

    W. T. M.

Hong Kong.

_Sir John Fleming._--What was the coat of arms borne by Sir John
Fleming, or Le Fleming, of St. George's Castle, co. Glamorgan, A.D.
1100? Where is it to be found sculptured or figured? And does any modern
family of the name of Fleming, or Le Fleming, claim descent from the


_Deal, how to stain._--I should be much obliged if some one of your
correspondents would inform me what is the best composition for giving
plain deal the appearance of oak for the purpose of church interiors?



_Irish Characters on the Stage._--Could any of your correspondents
inform me of the names of any old plays (besides those of Shadwell) in
which Irishmen are introduced? and which of the older dramatists have
enrolled this character among their _dramatis personæ_? Was Shakspeare
an Irishman?


_Arms on King Robert Bruce's Coffin-plate._--Can any of your heraldic
readers give me any information as to whom the arms found on King Robert
Bruce's coffin-plate in 1818 belonged? They are a cross inter four
mullets pierced of the field. They are not the arms given in Nisbet to
the families of Bruce; neither does Sir. Wm. Jardine, in his report to
the Lords of the Exchequer on the finding of the king's tomb, take any
notice of them further than to mention their discovery.


_Chaucer's Prophetic View of the Crystal Palace_ (Vol. iii., p. 362.).--

    "Chaucer it seems drew continually, through Lydgate and Caxton,
    from Guido di Colonna, whose Latin _Romance of the Trojan War_
    was, in turn, a compilation from Dares, Phrygius, Ovid, and
    Statius. Then Petrarch, Boccacio, and the Provençal poets, are
    his benefactors; the _Romaunt of the Rose_ is only judicious
    {357} translation from William of Lorris and John of Meun;
    _Troilus and Creseide_, from Lollius of Urbino; _The Cock and
    the Fox_, from the Lais of Marie; _The House of Fame, from the
    French or Italian_: and poor Gower he uses as if he were only a
    brick-kiln or stone quarry, out of which to build his
    house."--_Representative Men; Shakspeare or the Poet_, by R. W.

From what sources in the French or Italian is "The House of Fame" taken?
And ought not an attack on Chaucer's claim to be the original author of
that beautiful poetical vision to be grounded, especially by an
American, on some better evidence than bare assertion?

    AN OXFORD B. C. L.

_Magistrates wearing Hats in Court._--What authority is there for
magistrates wearing their hats in a court of justice, and is it an old


West Chillington, Hurst, Sussex.

_Derby Municipal Seal._--What is the origin and meaning of the "buck in
the park," on the seal now in use at the Town Hall, Derby?*

    B. L.

    [* Edmondson gives the arms, as painted in the Town Hall, as
    "Ar. on a mount vert, a _stag_ lodged within park-pales and
    gate, all proper. The seal, which is very ancient, has not any
    park-pales; and the stag is there represented as lodged in a

_Sir Josias Bodley._--Was Sir Josias Bodley, as stated by Harris in
Ware's _Writers of Ireland_, a younger brother of Sir Thomas Bodley, the
founder of the Bodleian Library? Who did Sir Josias Bodley marry; where
did he live after his employment in Ireland ceased, and where did he
die? Any information relating to him and his descendants will be most
gratefully received.

    Y. L.

_Sir Edwin Sadler._--In the Appendix to the _Cambridge University
Commission Report_, p. 468., we find that nothing is known of Sir E.
Sadler, the husband of Dame Mary Sadler, foundress of the "Algibræ"
Lectures in that university. Can any of your correspondents throw any
light on this?

    P. J. F. GANTILLON, B.A.

_The Cross given by Richard I. to the Patriarch of Antioch._--The "hero
of Acre," Sir Sidney Smith, received from the hands of the Archbishop of
Cyprus, in the name of a grateful people, a cross of which the tradition
was, that it had been given by King Richard Coeur de Lion to the
Patriarch of Antioch, when he went to Palestine on the third Croisade.
This gift was preserved by Sir Sidney with the care due to a relique so
venerable in its associations; and it was bequeathed by him to the
Convent of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, at Paris, as successors
of the Templars, from whose Order it originally came. He directed that
it should be worn by the grand masters in perpetuity. In the
biographical memoirs of Sir Sidney Smith, published a few years ago, the
cross is stated to be preserved in the house of the Order at Paris.
Perhaps some member of the Order residing there would take the trouble
to give some description of this interesting relique, and would say
whether its style and character are consistent with the tradition of its
antiquity? I am not at all acquainted with the evidence on which the
tradition rests; but any particulars relating to such a relique must be
interesting to the countrymen of the illustrious admiral, and would much
oblige his godson,



P.S.--_Apropos_ of Sir Sydney Smith, may I be allowed to suggest that,
in the decoration of _The St. Jean d'Acre_, recently launched, some
personal _souvenir_ might be introduced that would visibly connect his
memory with the stately vessel whose name commemorates the scene of his
greatest victory.

_Lister Family._--In a communication relating to Major-General Lambert
(Vol. vii, p. 269.), LORD BRAYBROOKE mentions his marriage with Frances,
daughter of Sir William Lister, of Thornton in Craven. I imagine that
this lady was sister to Sir Martin Lister, physician to King Charles I.,
of whose (Sir Martin's) descendants I shall be glad of any information.

Sir Martin Lister married Susanna, daughter of Sir Alexander Temple,
widow of Sir Gifford Thornhurst. This lady, by her first husband
(Thornhurst), had issue a daughter, who married Mr. Jennings, and became
the mother of three celebrated women; of whom one was Sarah, duchess of
Marlborough, wife of the great duke.

Had Sir Martin Lister any issue by her? and, if so, can their
descendants be traced?

Mr. Lister, of Burwell Park, Lincolnshire, is probably descended from
Sir Martin (if he left issue), or is of kin to him, through Dr. Martin
Lister, physician to Queen Anne, who, if not a son or grandson, was
certainly his nephew.

My mother's great-grandmother was a Lister, a daughter of Dr. Martin

Any information through the pages of "N. & Q." will be appreciated.

    R. B. A.

Walthamstow, Essex.

_Family of Abrahall, Eborall, or Ebrall._--I shall be obliged if any of
your readers can give me some information relative to this family, or
refer me to any work containing an account of it, more particularly as
regards the first settlers in England. The arms are--Azure, three
hedgehogs or.


_Eulenspiegel--Murner's Visit to England._--Are any of your
correspondents acquainted with the history and literature of the German
tales {358} which go under the name of _Till Eulenspiegel_? I am
searching to find out which are the English translations, but have only
succeeded to trace two. The oldest is a very curious black-letter volume
in small 4to. in the British Museum, C. 21. c/5, formerly in the
possession of Mr. Garrick, as appears from Bishop Percy ("Dissertation
on the Origin of the British Stage," _Reliques_, vol. i. p. 134., ed.
1812). It is entitled, "Here begynneth a merye Jest of a man that was
called Howleglas, and of many marucylous thinges and Jestes that he dyd
in his lyfe, in Eastlande and in many other places." Colophon:
"Imprynted at London in Tamestrete at the Vintre on the thre Craned
wharfe by Wylliam Copland."

Of the second I have only a reference of the title: _The German Rogue,
or the Life of Till Eulenspiegel_, 1709.

I am also anxious to learn whether there are any more notices about the
visit of Thomas Murner, the author of the German _Eulenspiegel_, in
England, besides that in a letter of Thomas More to Cardinal Wolsey in
the _State Papers_, vol. i. p. 125.


_Aged 116._--When your correspondents were all in a state of excitement
about the old Countess of Desmond, I ventured to ask for proof that some
person had, within the age of registers, insurance offices, and legal
proof, ever lived to 150, or even to within twenty or thirty years of
that age. No answer was given, no such proof offered; all our clever
actuaries were silent. The newspapers now report one such mitigated

    "_Singular Longevity._--The Irish papers announce the recent
    death of Mrs. Mary Power, widow of J. Power, Esq., and aunt of
    the late Right Hon. R. L. Sheil, at the Ursuline Convent, Cork,
    at the advanced age of 116 years."

If this story be true, there can be no difficulty in proving it. The
lady was not an obscure person, whose antecedents are unknown. Will some
one connected with the Ursuline Convent, or Mr. Sheil's family,
obligingly tell us where the lady was born, and produce the register of
her birth--give us, in brief, _legal_ evidence that she was born in the
year 1737.

    A. I.

_Annuellarius._--Can any of your numerous readers inform me what the
meaning of the word _annuellarius_ is? It occurs in a section of the
constitutions of one of our cathedral churches:

    "Item, quod nullus quicq' sit qui aliqui alii servit nisi tantum
    Ep[=i] servus sit, in Vicarior' Choralium Annuellarior' vel
    Choristarum numerum in Eccl[=i]a Cath. ... deinceps eligatur."

    P. S.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Boyer's "Great Theatre of Honour and Nobility,"_ 4to. London, 1729.--At
the end of the preface to this work, a copy of which is in my
possession, the following advertisement occurs:

    "Although this volume exceeds by one-fourth part the number of
    sheets proposed for subscription, nevertheless it shall be
    delivered to the subscribers without enhancing the price; and
    their coats of arms shall be inserted in the second volume; as
    well as theirs who shall purchase this, provided thay take care
    to send them, with their blazon, to any one of the booksellers
    named in the title-page."

I want to know whether Boyer ever published this second volume; and
shall be much obliged to any correspondent of "N. & Q." who will
enlighten me on the subject.

    S. I. TUCKER.

    [Only the first volume has been published. According to the
    original prospectus, now before us, the work was to have made
    two volumes, divided into six parts. So that the volume of 1729,
    consisting of three parts, is half of what Boyer originally
    proposed to publish.]

_List of Bishops of Norwich._--Where can I find a list of the bishops of
Norwich, with their coats of arms, from an early date?


    [In Blomefield's _History of Norfolk_, edit. 1739, fol., vol.
    ii. pp. 330-430.]

"_A Letter to a Convocation Man._"--Who, I am desirous of knowing, was
the author of _A Letter to a Convocation Man, concerning the Rights,
Powers, and Privileges of that Body_, published about 1697, which
occasioned Wake's book of _The Authority of Christian Princes over their
Ecclesiastical Synods asserted_? Atterbury says, in the Preface of his
_Rights, Powers, and Privileges of an English Convocation_:

    "If at least I were not prevented by some abler hand, particular
    by the author of that letter which first gave rise to this
    debate; and who, it was expected, would have appeared once more
    upon it, and freed what he had advanced from all exceptions."

    W. FRASER.

    [According to the Bodleian Catalogue, it was written by Sir
    Bartholomew Shower; but we have seen it attributed to William
    Binkes, the Prolocutor to the Convocation of 1705.]

_Nicholas Thane._--Dr. Browne Willis, in his _History of the Town of
Buckingham_, published London, 1755, says (p. 49.):

    "About the year 1545, as we are told in the _Peerage of
    England_, in the account of the Earl of Pomfret's family, his
    ancestor Richard Fermour of Easton Neston in Northamptonshire,
    Esq., had his estate seized on and taken away from him upon his
    having incurred a _præmunire_, by relieving one Nicholas Thane,
    an obnoxious Popish priest, who had been committed a close
    prisoner to the gaol in the town of Buckingham."

Can any of your readers inform me what crime or offence this "obnoxious
priest" had been guilty of, as to be committed a "close prisoner;" and
that {359} Richard Fermour, Esq., who had relieved him during his
incarceration, should, for this apparently simple act of charity, have
incurred a _præmunire_, for which he was subjected to so heavy a fine as
the forfeiture of his estate? I should be glad of any further
particulars respecting him, or to be referred to any work in which an
account of him is recorded; and also to be informed by whom the _Peerage
of England_, quoted by Dr. Willis, was compiled, when published, and
whether it contains a more copious account of this reprehensible


Camden Town.

    [Richard Fermor was a merchant of the staple at Calais, and
    having acquired a considerable fortune, located himself at
    Easton Neston, co. Northampton. Being a zealous Romanist he
    refused to conform to the Reformed faith, and thus rendered
    himself obnoxious to the court; and being accused of
    administering relief to Nicholas Thane, formerly his confessor,
    who was then a prisoner in Buckingham Castle for denying the
    supremacy of the king, he was committed to the Marshalsea in
    July, 1540, and was afterwards arraigned in Westminster Hall,
    though nothing could be proved against him, except that he had
    sent 8d. and a couple of shirts to the imprisoned priest. He was
    adjudged to have incurred a _præmunire_, whereby all his lands
    and goods became forfeited, and the rapacious monarch enforced
    the sentence with the most unrelenting severity. See Baker's
    _Hist. of Northamptonshire_, vol. ii. p. 142.; Collins's
    _Peerage_, edit. Brydges, vol. iv. p. 199.; and Lipscomb's
    _Buckinghamshire_, vol. ii. p. 570.]

_Churchwardens, Qualification of._--Can any of your correspondents give
the title and price of any work which will define the qualifications
requisite for filling the office of churchwarden? The case on which the
question has arisen is that of a country parish divided into two
townships, each township naming a warden. One of these is a dissenter,
and seldom or never attends church; the other is said not to be a
householder. Both of these are, by many of the parishioners, considered
ineligible, owing to these circumstances. Should any one send the
required information, you would oblige by allowing it to appear in the
next Number of "N. & Q.," where it would be sure to be seen, and
thankfully acknowledged by

    B. B. F. F. T. T.

    [Our correspondent will find the required information in
    Prideaux's _Churchwarden's Guide_, 5th edit. 1850, price 6s.,
    who has devoted sect. ii. "to the persons liable to be chosen to
    the office of churchwarden, and the persons disqualified and
    exempt from serving that office." (Pp. 4-17.) Consult also
    Cripps's _Practical Treatise on the Law relating to the Church
    and the Clergy_, 8vo. 1850, pp. 176-201., price 26s.]

_Sir John Powell._--In Vol. vii., p. 262., of "N. & Q." is an inquiry
respecting Sir John Powell, and an answer given, in which there must
surely be some mistake, or there must have been two Sir John Powells.

I beg to give the following extract from Britton's _History and
Antiquities of the Abbey Church of Gloucester_:

    "A full-length marble statue, in judicial robes, erected by John
    Snell, Esq., to the memory of his uncle, Judge Powell, who in
    1685 represented this city, his native place, in parliament. He
    was successively a Justice of Common Pleas and the King's Bench,
    and was one of the Judges who tried the seven Bishops, and
    joined in the declaration against the King's dispensing power.
    For this, James II. deprived him of his office, July 2, 1688;
    but William III. created him, first a Baron of the Exchequer,
    then a Judge in the Common Pleas, and on June 18, 1702, advanced
    him to the King's Bench, where he sat till his death, June 14,

I will add, that on the floor near the above monument are inscribed the
names, &c., of various members of his family.

Sir John Powell is traditionally said to have lived at an old house
called Wightfield in this county, which certainly belonged, at one time,
to the above John Snell, who had married the judge's niece, and from
whose descendants it was purchased by the grandfather of the present

Allow me to ask, by-the-bye, if the place, as spelt in your paper,
should not be Langharne, or more correctly still, Llangharne?

    F. S.


    [There were not only two, but three judges of the name of
    Powell, who were cotemporaries, viz.--

    1. Sir John Powell, mentioned in "N. & Q." (Vol. vii., p. 262.),
    whose burial-place should have been printed Llangharne, as our
    correspondent suggests. He was made a Judge of the Common Pleas
    on April 26, 1686, and a Judge of the King's Bench on April 16,
    1687. He was removed on June 29, 1688, on consequence of the
    resolution he displayed on the trial of the seven bishops; but
    was restored to the Bench, as a Judge of the Common Pleas, in
    May, 1689, and continued to sit till his death in 1696.

    2. Sir Thomas Powell became a Baron of the Exchequer on April
    22, 1687, and was transferred into the King's Bench in June,
    1688, to take the seat there left vacant by the removal of the
    above Sir John Powell. He himself was removed in May, 1689.

    3. Sir John Powell, or, as he was then called, John Powell,
    junior, was made a Baron of the Exchequer on November 10, 1691,
    removed into the Common Pleas on October 29, 1695, and into the
    King's Bench in June, 1702, where he sat till his death in 1713.
    He it was who was buried at Gloucester.

    Britton has evidently, as Chalmers and Noble had done before
    him, commingled and confused the histories of the two Sir

_S. N.'s "Antidote," &c._--I have just purchased an old book, in small
quarto, of which the title is--

    "An Antidote or Soveraigne Remedie against the pestiferous
    Writings of all English Sectaries, and in {360} particular
    against Dr. Whitaker, Dr. Fulke, Dr. Bilson, Dr. Reynolds, Dr.
    Sparkes, and Dr. Field, the chiefe upholders, some of
    Protestancy, some of Puritanisme; divided into three Parts, &c.,
    &c., &c. By S. N., doctour of divinity. Permissu superiorum,

Who is the author S. N., and what other particulars are known respecting



    [Sylvester Norris is the author. There is an edition published
    in 1622, 4to.]

_Beads._--When was the use of beads, for the purpose of counting
prayers, first introduced into Europe?

    C. W. G.

   [For the repose of a bishop, by Wilfrid's _Canons of Cealcythe_,
   A.D. 816, can. X., seven belts of paternosters were to be said;
   the prayers being numbered probably by studs fixed on the girdle.
   But St. Dominic invented the rosary, which contains ten lesser
   beads representing Ave Marias, to one larger standing for a

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. iv., p. 412.)

With reference to my Note, ascribing a Celtic origin to this symbol, I
have just met with somewhat of a curious coincidence, to say the least
of it. In Richardson's _Travels in the Sahara, &c._, vol. i. p. 420.,
speaking of the camel, he says:

    "The camels have all public and private marks, the former for
    their country, the latter for their owner; and, strange enough,
    the public mark of the Ghadames camel is the English broad R."
    &c. [Arrow, he should have said.]

Now, the Celtic [Symbol: Arrow pointing up] (as before mentioned) is
typical of superior holiness, &c. &c.; and it is singular that a city of
Marabouts (saints or holy men, such as the Ghadamsee are described to
be) should have adopted this symbol as their public (or government)
mark. The population of Ghadames is a strange medley of Arabs,
Touaricks, negroes, half-breeds of all kinds, &c., and whence their
claim to superior sanctity does not appear.

That Celtic tribes once sojourned in Northern Africa is attested by
Druidical remains in Morocco and elsewhere. Mr. Richardson mentions the
frequent occurrence of pyramidal stones in the Sahara, incidentally,
without specifying whether they are rocks _in sitû_, or supposed to be
the work of man's hand. The language of Ghadames is one of the Berber
dialects; and according to Mr. Urquhart (_Pillars of Hercules_, vol. i.
p. 383.), these, or some of them, are said to contain so much of the
Celtic element, that Highlanders from the garrison of Gibraltar, and the
natives about Tangier, can mutually understand each other.

The above, however, are mere speculations; and I would suggest that,
previous to further research as to the origin of the broad arrow, it
would be as well to ascertain how long it has been used as "the King's
mark." I should incline to believe that the earliest mark upon
government stores was the royal cipher--ER (with a crown above) perhaps.
On old guns of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth, we find the rose and crown,
but no broad arrow; more frequently Elizabeth's bear her cipher. A few
articles I have seen of William III. are stamped with [Symbol: WR, no
space between letters] (with a crown above): no broad arrow. Nor do I
remember having ever seen it upon anything older than George III. This,
however, is a question which may interest some gentleman of the Ordnance
Department, and induce him to make research where success is most likely
to reward his trouble, viz. in the Tower, in the Royal Arsenal at
Woolwich, or amongst the ancient records in the Ordnance Office; for I
presume there be such.

P. C. S. S. (Vol. iv., p. 371.) says that "he always understood" the
broad arrow represented the "Pheon" in the arms of the Sydney family;
but, as he quotes no authority, we are at liberty to doubt the adoption
and perpetuation of a bearing appertaining to any particular
master-general of ordnance as a "king's mark," howsoever illustrious or
distinguished he might be.

    A. C. M.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ii., pp. 184. 459.; Vol. iii., p. 21.; Vol. vii., p. 114.)

Returning to this question, I will communicate a few extracts from the
Gerechtsdagboeken (Minutes of the Council) of the city of Leyden:--

    _Sept. 30, 1604._--"Die van de Gerechte opt voorschryven van
    Zÿne Ex'e en versouc van Jan Woodtss, Engelsman, hebben
    toegelaten ende geconsenteert dat hy geduyrende deze aenstaende
    jaermarct met zyn behulp zal mogen speelen zeecker eerlick
    camerspel tot vermaeckinge van der gemeente, mits van yder
    persoen (comende om te bezien) nyet meer te mogen nemen nochte
    genyeten dan twaelf penn., ende vooral betaelen tot een
    gootspenning aen handen van Jacob van Noorde; bode metter roede,
    vier guld. om ten behouve van de armen verstrect te worden."


    The magistrates, on the command of his Excellence, and on the
    request of John Woodtss, an Englishman, have permitted and
    consented that he, with his company, during the approaching
    fair, may play certain decent pieces for the amusement of the
    people, provided he take no more than twelve pennings from each
    person coming to see, and, above all, pay to Jacob van Noorde
    four guilders, to be applied to the use of the poor.

{361} And again:

    _Jan. 6, 1605._--"Op't versouck aen die van de Gerechte gedaen
    by de Engelsche Comedyanten om te mogen spelen: staet
    geappostilleert. Die van de Gerechte deser stadt Leyden gesien
    in haer vergaderinge opt Raedthuys der voors. stede, de
    _favorable brieven_ van Recommandatie ende testimoniael vanden
    _Forst_ van _Brandenburch_ van de X Augustij des
    jaers XVI'c vier, mitsgaders t consent by Zyne Ex'ie van
    _Nassau_ verleent den xxij Decembris laest verleden, Es
    disponerende opt versouc int blanc van dezen, hebben voor zoo
    veel in hem is, de Engelsche Commedianten ende musicyns toonders
    in dezen, conform haer versouc toegelaten binnen deser stede te
    mogen spelen en haer consten doen ouffenen ende vertoonen ter
    gewoenlycke plaetse te weten opten groten hoff onder de
    bibliotecque, dewelcke hem toonders mits dezen ten eynde
    voorseyt, belast wert te werden ingeruymt, Ende dit al voor den
    tyt van veertien dagen eerstcomende, en mits, voor den
    jegenwoordige _gracieuse toelatinge_, gevende ten behouve van de
    gemeene huysarmen dezer stede een somme van twaelf gulden van xl
    groot tstuck. Aldus, gedaen opten vi January XVI'c e[=n] vyff.
    My jegenwoordich en is get. J. van Hout."


    On the request to the magistrates of the English comedians to be
    allowed to perform, was decided: The magistrates of this city of
    Leyden, having seen in their assembly in the Town-House of the
    aforesaid city, the favourable letters of recommendation and
    testimonial of the Prince of Brandenberg of the 10th Aug., 1604,
    as well as the consent granted by his Excellence of Nassau, the
    22nd of Dec. last, have permitted the English comedians and
    musicians, according to their request, to perform and exercise
    and exhibit their arts in the accustomed place, namely, in the
    great court under the library; and this for the space of
    fourteen days, provided they, for this _gracious_ permission,
    give twelve guilders of forty groats a-piece to the poor of this
    city. Done on the 6th Jan., 1605. Me present; and signed "J. van


Constanter has communicated the following lines of G. A. Brederode,
confirming the statements of Heywood and Tieck:

    "Ick mach soo langh oock by geen reden-ryckers zijn:
     Want dit volckje wil steets met allen menschen gecken,
     En sy kunnen als d'aep haer afterst niet bedecken;
       Sy seggen op haer les, soo stemmigh en soo stijf,
       Al waer gevoert, gevult met klap-hout al haer lijf!
     Waren 't _de Engelsche_, of andere uytlandtsche
     Die men hoort singen, en soo lustigh siet dantse
       Dat sy suyse-bollen, en draeyen als een tol:
       Sy spreken 't uyt eaer geest, dees leeren 't uyt een rol.
     't Isser weer na (seyd ick) als 't is, sey Eelhart schrander,
     Dat verschil is te groot, besiet men 't een by 't ander!
       D'uytheemsche die zijn wuft, dees raden tot het goedt,
       En straffen alle het quaet bedecklelijck en soet."


    To stay with rhetoricians I've no mind:
    The fool they'll play with men of every kind,
    And, like the ape, exhibit what's behind.
    With gests so stiff their lesson they repeat,
    You'd swear with staves their bodies were replete!
    Heard you the _men_ from merry _England_ sing?
    Saw you their jolly dance, their lusty spring?
    How like a top they spin, and twirl, and turn?
    And from the heart they speak--ours from a roll must learn....
                                  --_From the Navorscher._

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. v., p. 372.)

A. N. asks for some historical notices of the above fanatics: as he may
not be satisfied with Timperley's meagre allusion, allow me to refer him
to the _Memoirs of the Lord Viscount Dundee_: London, 1714. The author
of this, "An Officer of the Army," speaking of the stiff-necked
Presbyterians, says:

    "At this time (1681), about thirty of these deluded people left
    their families and business, and went to the hills, where they
    lived in rocks and caves for some weeks. John Gib, sailor in
    Borrowstowness, Walter Ker, in Trafritham, ---- Gemmison, in
    Linlithgow, were their chief leaders. They called themselves the
    _Sweet Singers_ of Israel, eat nothing that there was salt in or
    paid tax to the king, blotted the name of king out of their
    Bibles, and cohabited all together. When a party of dragoons
    took them at the Ouffins, in Tweeddale, they were all lying on
    their faces, and jumped up in a minute, and called out with an
    audible voice, that God Almighty would consume the party with
    fire from heaven, for troubling the people of God. On the road,
    as they went to Edinburgh, when any of their relations or
    acquaintances came to visit them, they spit at them, and threw
    themselves on their faces, and bellowed like beasts, whereof his
    Highness (the Duke of York, then in Scotland) being informed,
    ordered them immediately to be set at liberty."

A more detailed account of these Gibbites will be found in the curious
Presbyterian biographies "collected by, and printed for Patrick Walker,
in the Bristo-Port of Edinburgh," the early part of last century. In
that entitled "Some remarkable Passages in the Life, &c. of Mr. Daniel
Cargill:" 12mo. Edin. 1732, A. N. will find the original story of the
crazy skipper and his band of "three men and twenty-six women," whom
worthy Mr. Cargill endeavoured unsuccessfully to reclaim. From this it
would appear that the _sweet singers_ went far greater lengths than
above described, and that Gib, after the dispersion of his followers,
took himself off to America, "where," says the aforesaid Patrick, "he
was much admired by the blind {362} Indians for his familiar converse
with the devil." For the further information of your correspondent, I
would add that Walker's account of the Gibbites is very well condensed
in that more accessible book _Biographia Scoticana_, better known as the
_Scots Worthies_, where the deluded Gib figures under the head of "God's
Justice exemplified in his Judgments upon Persecutors."

    J. O.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 303.)

Mr. F. F. Spenser published the results of his researches relative to
Spenser in the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for August, 1842; and towards the
end of his communication promised to record "many further interesting
particulars," through the same medium, but failed to do so. Mr. Craik
has made special reference to Mr. F. F. Spenser's paper in a little work
upon which he must have bestowed a vast deal of labour, and which
contains the completest investigation of all that has been discovered
concerning the life, works, and descendants of the poet that I have met
with: I refer to _Spenser and his Poetry_: by George L. Craik, M.A.: 3
vols. London, 1845. The appendix to vol. iii., devoted to an account of
the descendants of Spenser, among other interesting matter, contains the
history of the family descended from Sarah Spenser, a sister of Edmund
Spenser, which is still represented. To which I may add that Spenser's
own direct descendants are living in the city of Cork, and, I regret to
say, in reduced circumstances. This should not be. A pension might well
be bestowed on the descendants of Spenser, the only one of our four
great poets whose posterity is not extinct.

    J. M. B.

Tunbridge Wells.

I have read with much curiosity and surprise a paragraph engrafted into
"N. & Q." (Vol. vii., p. 33.) from _The Times_ newspaper, June 16, 1841,
announcing that a Mr. F. F. Spenser, of Halifax, had ascertained that
the ancient residence of his own family, at Hurstwood, near Burnley,
Lancashire, was the identical spot where the great Elizabethan poet,
Edmund Spenser, is said to have retired, when driven by academical
disappointments to his relations in the north of England.

I confess all this appears to me very like a hoax, there is such a
weight of negative testimony against it. Dr. Whitaker, the learned
historian of Whalley, describes Hurstwood Hall as a strong and
well-built old house, bearing on its front, in large characters, the
name of "Barnard Townley," its founder, and that it was for several
descents the property and residence of a family branched out from the
parent stock of Townley, in the person of John Townley, third son of Sir
Richard Townley, of Townley--died Sept. 1562. His son, Barnard Townley,
died 1602, and married Agnes, daughter and coheiress of George Ormeroyd,
of Ormeroyd, who died 1586.

It must be remembered that Hurstwood is in the immediate neighbourhood
of Dr. Whitaker's ancient patrimonial estate of Holme; and he must have
been familiar with all the traditionary history of that locality. Yet he
is silent on this subject, and does not allude either to the occasional
residence of the poet Spenser in those parts, or to the family of
Spensers, who are stated in this paragraph to have resided at Hurstwood
about four hundred years.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 305.)

Sir John Maundeville says:

    "Also, seven miles from Nazareth is Mount Cain, under which is a
    well; and beside that well Lamech, Noah's father, slew Cain with
    an arrow. For this Cain went through briars and bushes, as a
    wild beast; and he had lived from the time of Adam, his father,
    unto the time of Noah; and so he lived nearly two thousand
    years. And Lamech was blind for old age."--_Travels_, chap. x.,
    Bohn's _Early Travels in Palestine_, p. 186.

To which is appended the following note by Mr. Thomas Wright, the

    "This legend arose out of an interpretation given to Gen. iv.
    23, 24. See, as an illustration, the scene in the _Coventry
    Mysteries_, pp. 44. 46.


J. W. M. will find this question discussed at length in the
_Dictionnaire de Bayle_, art. "Lamech," and more briefly in _Pol.
Synopsis Criticorum_, Gen. iv. 23.

The subject has been engraved by Lasinio in his _Pitture a fresco del
Campo Santo di Pisa_ (tom. xvii.), after the original fresco by
Buonamico Buffalmacco, whose name is so familiar to readers of the

    F. C. B.

Bayle relates this legend in his account of Lamech as follows:

    "There is a common tradition that Lamech, who had been a great
    lover of hunting, continued the sport even when, by reason of
    his great age, he was almost blind. He took with him his son,
    Tubal-Cain, who not only served him as a guide, but also
    directed him where and when he ought to shoot at the beast. One
    day, as Cain was hid among the thickets, Lamech's guide seeing
    something move in that place, gave him notice of it; whereupon
    Lamech shot an arrow, and slew Cain. He was extremely concerned
    at it, and beat his guide so much as to leave him dead upon the

One of the frescos of the Campo Santo at Pisa gives the whole subject,
from the offering of Abel's and Cain's sacrifice, to the death of the
young man {363} by the hand of Lamech, painted by Pietre da Orvieto
about 1390. In one corner of the fresco, Cain is depicted as a wild and
shaggy figure, crouched in a thicket, at which Lamech, at the suggestion
of his guide, shoots an arrow. Below, the homicide is represented as
murdering the cause of his error by blows on the head inflicted with his


The following note upon the name of Lamech may perhaps serve to throw a
little light upon the difficult passage in Genesis iv. 23,
24.--_Lamech_, in Celtic _Lamaich_, or _Laimaig_, means a slinger of
stones; and Lamech being dextrous in the use of that weapon the sling,
wantonly slew two young men, and boasted of the bloody deed to his two
wives, Adah and Zillah, blasphemously maintaining that as Cain for one
murder should be avenged sevenfold, so he, for his wanton act, would be
avenged seventy and seven fold upon whoever should slay him. It may be
considered strange that the name of Lamech should be Celtic, and that it
should signify a slinger; but I am strengthened in my opinion by
reference to the Hebrew alphabet, in which the letter _l_ is called
_lamed_; but why it is so named the Hebrews cannot say. Now, if any one
examines the Hebrew ¤lamed¤ he will perceive that it is by no
means a rude representation of a human arm, holding a sling with a stone
in it. The word _Lamech_ is derived from _lam_, the hand; and the
termination signifies dexterity in shooting or discharging missiles

It is curious to notice that the remaining names in the passage of
Scripture are Celtic: thus Cain is compounded of _cend_, first, and
_gein_, offspring,--pronounced _Kayean_, _i. e._ first begotten. Adah
means a fair complexioned, red-haired woman; and Zillah, peace, from
_siotlad_, pronounced _shieta_.


       *       *       *       *       *


_Photographic Notes._--G. H. P. has communicated (Vol. vii., p. 186.) a
very excellent paper in reference to our numerous failures in the
collodion process; but the remedies he proposes are not, as he is aware,
infallible. He gives the recommendation you find in every work on the
subject, viz. to lift the plate up and down in the bath to allow
evaporation of ether. I have made experiments day after day to ascertain
the value of this advice, and I am convinced, as far as my practice
goes, that you gain nothing by it; indeed, I am sure that I much oftener
get a more even film when the plate is left in the bath for about two
minutes without lifting it out. I should be glad of other photographers'
opinion on the point.

I have never found any benefit, but much the contrary, from re-dipping
the plate in the bath; and I may observe the same of mixing a drop or
two of silver solution with the developing fluid.

I think with G. H. P. that the developing solution should be weak for

I omitted, in my description of a new head-rest, to say that it is
better to have all the parts in metal; and that the hole, through which
the arm runs, should be a square mortice instead of a round one, as is
usual. A screw at the side sets it fast; the lower portion of the
upright piece being round, and sliding up and down in a tube of metal,
as it does in the best rests, allowing the sitter to be placed in
different positions. All this is very difficult to describe, but a
slight diagram would explain it easily, which I would willingly, as I
have before said, send to any one thinking it worth writing to me for.

    J. L. SISSON.

Edingthorpe Rectory.

_On some Difficulties in Photographic Practice._--Being desirous to have
a glass bath for the silver, I was glad to find you had given (in
"Notices to Correspondents") directions for making one, viz. two parts
best red sealing-wax to one part of Jeffries' marine glue. I tried this,
but found the application of it to the glass impossible, as it set
immediately. Now, can you afford room for the means by which this may be
remedied; as my wish to substitute glass for gutta percha remains?

Now I am addressing you, may I offer one or two hints which may be of
service to beginners? If, after what has been considered a sufficient
washing of the glass, after the hypo., during the drying, crystals from
hypo. remaining appear, and which would most certainly destroy the
picture, I have found that by _breathing well_ over these parts, and
immediately repeating the washing, all ill effects are thoroughly
prevented. To substitute hot water instead of breathing does not destroy
the hyposulphite, and therefore will not do.

When the plate shall be dry after the washing process, if a leaden, dim,
grey appearance occurs, I have found that by tenderly rubbing it with
fine cotton, and applying with a good-sized camel's hair pencil a
varnish of about 8-10ths spirits of turpentine and 2-10ths mastic
varnish, and then, before this gets dry, putting on the black varnish,
the grey effect will have been removed.

I have found the protonitrate of iron, as also the protosulphate, and
not seldom the pyrogallic, so difficult of application, that I have
stained and spoiled very good pictures. I have therefore used, and with
perfect success, a tray of gutta percha a little longer than the glass
(say one-fourth of an inch), and one-fourth of an inch deep; sliding
from one end the glass into the tray (supplied immediately before using
it), by which means the glass is all covered at once.

I think the REV. MR. SISSON'S suggestion, viz. to send you some of our
specimens with collodion, {364} a very proper one, if not declined on
your own part, and shall, for one, feel great pleasure in acting in
accordance with it.

You will, I trust, pardon any foregoing hints for beginners, as I well
know that I have lost several pictures by hypo-crystals, and very many
by the difficulty in developing.



P.S.--I always find collodion by DR. DIAMOND'S formula capital, and with
it from five to ten seconds is time enough.

_Mr. Weld Taylor's cheap Iodizing Process._--I have no doubt MR. WELD
TAYLOR will be kind enough to explain to me two difficulties I find in
his cheap iodizing process for paper.

In the first place, whence arises the caustic condition of his solution,
unless it be through the decomposition of the cyanide of potassium which
is sometimes added? and if such caustic condition exists, does it not
cause a deposition of oxide of silver together with the iodide, thereby
embrowning the paper?

Why does the caustic condition of the solution require a larger dose of
nitrate of silver, and does not this larger quantity of nitrate of
silver more than outbalance the difference between the new process and
the old, as regards price? I pay 1s. 3d. for an ounce of iodide of
potassium of purest quality; the commoner commercial quality is cheaper.


       *       *       *       *       *


_Somersetshire Ballad_ (Vol. vii., p. 236.).--

    "Go vind the vicar of Taunton Deane," &c.

S. A. S. will find the above in _The Aviary, or Magazine of British
Melody_, a square volume published about the middle of last century; or
in a volume bearing the running title--_A Collection of diverting Songs,
Airs, &c._, of about the same period--both extensive depôts of old song;
the first containing 1344, and the last, as far as my mutilated copy
goes, extending to nearly 500 pages quarto.

    J. O.

_Family of De Thurnham_ (Vol. vii., p. 261.).--In reply to ~Theta~.
I send a few notes illustrative of the pedigree, &c. of the De
Thurnhams, lords of Thurnham, in Kent, deduced from Dugdale, public
records, and MS. charters in my possession, namely, the MS. Rolls of
Combwell Priory, which was founded by Robert de Thurnham the elder; from
which it appears that Robert de Thurnham, who lived tempore Hen. II.,
had two sons, Robert and Stephen. Of these, Robert married Joan,
daughter of William Fossard, and died 13 John, leaving a daughter and
sole heir Isabel, for whose marriage Peter de Maulay had to pay 7000
marks, which were allowed him in his accounts for services rendered to
the crown. Stephen, the other son, married Edelina, daughter of Ralph de
Broc, and, dying circiter 16 John, was buried in Waverley Abbey, Surrey.
He seems to have left five daughters and coheirs; viz. Mabilia, wife of
Ralph de Gatton, and afterwards of Thomas de Bavelingeham; Alice, wife
of Adam de Bending; Alianore, wife of Roger de Leybourne; Beatrice, wife
of Ralph de Fay; and Alienore, wife of Ralph Fitz-Bernard. Dugdale and
the Combwell Rolls speak of only four daughters, making no mention of
the wife of Ralph Fitz-Bernard; but an entry on the Fine Rolls would
seem almost necessarily to imply that she was one of the five daughters
and coheiresses. If not a _daughter_, she was in _some way_ coheiress
with the daughters; which is confirmed by an entry in _Testa de Nevill_:
and, by a charter temp. Edw. I., I find Roger de Northwood, husband of
Bona Fitz-Bernard, in possession of the manor of Thurnham, with every
appearance of its having been by inheritance of his wife. With this
explanation, I have ventured to include Alianore, wife of Ralph
Fitz-Bernard, as among the daughters and coheiresses of Stephen de
Thurnham. The issue of all of these marriages, after a few years,
terminated in female representatives--among them the great infanta
Juliana de Leybourne--mingling their blood with the Denes, Towns,
Northwoods, Wattons, &c., and other ancient families of Kent.

I have two beautiful seals of Sir Stephen de Thurnham temp. John,--a
knight fully caparisoned on horseback, but not a trace of armorial
bearings on his shield; nor, in truth, could we expect to find any such
assigned to him at that early period.

    L. B. L.

_Major-General Lambert_ (Vol. vii., pp. 237. 269.).--Lambert did not
survive his sentence more than twenty-one years. His trial took place in
1661, and he died during the hard winter of 1683.

The last fifteen years of his life were spent on the small fortified
island of St. Nicholas, commonly called Drake's Island, situated in
Plymouth Sound, at the entrance to the Hamoaze.

Lambert's wife and two of his daughters were with him on this island in
1673. (See "N. & Q.," Vols. iv. and v.)


_Loggerheads_ (Vol. v., p. 338.; and Vol. vii., pp. 192-3.).--Your
correspondent CAMBRENSIS, whose communication on this subject I have
read with much interest, will excuse my correcting him in one or two
minor points of his narrative. The little wayside inn at Llanverres,
rendered famous by the genius of the painter Wilson, is still standing
in its original position, on the _left_-hand of the road as you pass
through that village to Ruthin. Woodward, who was landlord of the inn at
the time Wilson frequented it, survived his friend about {365} sixteen
years, leaving six children (two sons and four daughters), none of whom
however, as CAMBRENSIS surmises, succeeded him as landlord. His widow
shortly afterwards married Edward Griffiths, a man many years her
Junior, and who, at the period CAMBRENSIS alludes to, and for a lone
time previous, was "mine host" of the "Loggerheads." Griffiths died
about three years ago, after amassing a large property by mining
speculations in the neighbourhood. There are, I believe, several fine
paintings by Wilson in the new hall of Colomendy, now the residence of
the relict of Col. Garnons. The old house, where Wilson lived, was taken
down about thirty years ago, to make way for the present structure.

    T. HUGHES.


_Grafts and the Parent Tree_ (Vol. vii., p. 261.).--In reply to J. P. of
this town, I beg to say that the belief, that "the graft perishes when
the parent tree decays," is merely one among a host of superstitions
reverently cherished by florists. The fact is, that grafts, after some
fifteen years, wear themselves out. Of course there cannot be wanting
many examples of the almost synchronous demise of parent and graft. From
such cases, no doubt, the myth in question took its rise.



_The Lisle Family_ (Vol. vii., pp. 236. 269.).--MR. GARLAND'S Query has
induced me to inquire, through the same channel, whether anything is
known about a family of this name, some of whom are buried at Thruxton
in Hampshire. There are four monuments in the church, two of which are
certainly, the others probably, erected to members of the family. The
first is a very fine brass (described in the Oxford _Catalogue of
Brasses_), inscribed to Sir John Lisle, Lord of Boddington in the Isle
of Wight, who died A.D. 1407. The next in date, and I suppose of much
the same period, is an altar-tomb under an arch, which seems to have led
into a small chantry. On this there are no arms, and no inscription. The
tomb is now surmounted by the figure of a Crusader, which once lay
outside the church, and is thought to be one of the Lisles, and the
founder of the original church. On the north side of the

chancel two arches looked into what was once a chantry chapel. In the
eastern arch is an altar-tomb, once adorned with shields, which are now
torn off. This chantry stood within the memory of "the oldest
inhabitant;" but it was pulled down by the owner of the land
appertaining to the chantry, and of its materials was built the church
tower. One of its windows forms the tower window, and its battlements
and pinnacles serve their old purpose in their new position. A modern
vestry occupies part of the site of the chantry, and shows one side the
altar-tomb I have last mentioned. This side has been refaced in Jacobian
style, and the arms of Lisle and Courtenay, and one other coat (the same
which occur on the brass), form part of the decoration. Two figures
belonging to this later work lie now on the altar-tomb, and many more
are remembered to have existed inside the chantry. The mixture of this
late Jacobian work with the old work of the chantry is very curious, and
can be traced all over what remains of it. The initials T. L. appear on
shields under the tower battlements.

I should be glad to find that these Lisles would throw any light on the
subject of MR. GARLAND'S inquiry; and if they do not, perhaps some of
your readers can give some information about them.

The coat of arms of this family is--Or, on a chief gules, three lioncels
rampant of the first.

    R. H. C.

_The Dodo in Ceylon_ (Vol. vii., p. 188.).--The bird which SIR J.
EMERSON TENNENT identifies with the dodo is common on Ceylonese
sculpture. The natives say it is now extinct, and call it the
_Hangsiya_, or sacred goose; but whether deemed sacred for the same
reason as the Capitoline goose, or otherwise, I must leave the author of
_Eleven Years in Ceylon_ to explain, he being the person in this country
most conversant with Ceylonese mythology.

I now wish to call SIR EMERSON'S attention to a coincidence that may be
worthy his notice in connexion with his forthcoming work on Ceylon.

If he will take the trouble to examine the model of the Parthenon, in
the Elgin Marble room of the British Museum, he cannot fail, to be
struck with its resemblance to the beautiful building he visited at
Polonaroowa, called the Jaitoowanarama. The dimensions of the respective
buildings I cannot at present ascertain; but the ground-plans are
precisely similar, and each was roofless. But the most striking
resemblance is in the position and altitude of the statues: that of the
gigantic Bhoodho is precisely similar, even in the posture of the right
arm and hand, to that of Minerva, the masterpiece of Phidias. On
consulting his notes, he may find the height of the statues to
correspond. That of Phidias was thirty-nine feet.

    OL. MEM. JU.

Glen Tulchan.

_Thomas Watson, Bishop of St. David's, 1687-99_ (Vol. vii., p.
234.).--This harshly-treated prelate died at Great Wilbraham, near
Cambridge, on June 3, 1717, æt. eighty years; and, from a private letter
written at the time, seems to have been buried in haste in the chancel
of that church, "but without any service," which may perhaps imply that
there was not a funeral sermon, and the ordinary ceremony at a prelate's
burial. It is, however, {366} intimated that he died excommunicated. In
Paulson's _History of Holderness_ is a notice of Bishop Watson, and of
his relatives the Medleys, who are connected with my family by marriage;
but the statement that the bishop "died in the Tower" is incorrect (vol.
i. Part II. p. 283.; vol. ii. Part I. p. 47.; Part II. p. 542., 4to.,

    F. R. R.

Milnrow Parsonage.

He died in retirement at Wilburgham, or Wilbraham, in the county of
Cambridge, June 3, 1717, ætat. eighty.--See Gough's _Camden_, vol. ii.
p. 140., and _Gentleman's Magazine_, vols. lix. and lx.

Bishop Gobat was born in 1799, at Cremine, in the perish of Grandval, in
Switzerland. His name is not to be found in the list of graduates of
either Oxford or Cambridge. His degree of D. D. was probably bestowed on
him by the Archbishop of Canterbury.



_Etymology of Fuss_ (Vol. vii., p. 180.).--

    "FUSS, _n. s._, a low, cant word, Dr. Johnson says. It is,
    however, a regularly-descended northern word: Sax. >fus<,
    prompt, eager; Su. Goth. and Cimbr. _f u s_, the same;
    hence the Sax. >fysan<, to hasten, and the Su. Goth. _f
    y s a_, the same."--Todd's _Johnson_.

Richardson gives the same etymology, referring to Somner. Webster says,
"allied, perhaps, to Gr. ~physaô~, to blow or puff."


A reference to the word in Todd's _Johnson's Dictionary_ will show, and
I think satisfactorily, that its origin is _fus_ (Anglo-Saxon), prompt
or eager; hence _fysan_, to hasten. The quotation given is from Swift.

    C. I. R.

_Palindromical Lines_ (Vol. vii., p. 178.).--The sotadic inscription,


is stated (_Gentleman's Magazine_, vol. xl. p. 617.) to be on a font at
Sandbach in Cheshire, and (_Gentleman's Magazine_, vol. lxiii. p. 441.)
to be on the font at Dulwich in Surrey, and also on the font at Harlow
in Essex.


_Nugget_ (Vol. vi., pp. 171. 281.; Vol. vii., pp. 143. 272.).--FURVUS is
persuaded that the word _nugget_ is of home growth, and has sprung from
a root existing under various forms throughout the dialects at present
in use. The radical appears to be _snag_, _knag_, or _nag_ (_Knoge_,
Cordylus, cf. _Knuckle_), a protuberance, knot, lump; being a term
chiefly applied to knots in trees, rough pieces of wood, &c., and in its
derivatives strongly expressive of (so to speak) misshapen _lumpiness_.

Every one resident in the midland counties must be acquainted with the
word _nog_, applied to the wooden ball used in the game of "shinney,"
the corresponding term of which, _nacket_, holds in parts of Scotland,
where also a short, corpulent person is called a _nuget_.

So, in Essex, _nig_ signifies a piece; a _snag_ is a well-known word
across the Atlantic; _nogs_ are ninepins in the north of England; a
_noggin_ of bread is equivalent to a _hunch_ in the midland counties;
and in the neighbourhood of the Parret and Exe the word becomes _nug_,
bearing (besides its usual acceptation) the meaning of _knot_, _lump_.

This supposed derivation is by no means weakened by the fact, that
miners and others have gone to the "diggins" from parts at no great
distance from the last-mentioned district; and we may therefore,
although the radical is pretty generally diffused over the kingdom,
attribute its better known application to _them_.

It is no objection that the word, in many of its forms, is used of rough
pieces of _wood_, as instances show that it merely refers to a _rudis
indigestaque moles_ characteristic of any article in question.


St. James's.

_Hibernis ipsis Hiberniores_ (Vol. vii., p. 260.).--This, which is no
doubt the proper form, will be found in Southey's _Naval History of
England_, vol. iv. p. 104., applied to "those of old English race who,
having adopted the manners of the land, had become more Irish than the
Irishry." The expression originally was applied to these persons in some
proclamation or act of parliament, which I think is quoted in the
_History of England_ in Lardner's _Cabinet Cyclopædia_: but that work
has so bad an index as to make it very difficult to find any passage one
may want. Probably Southey would mention the source whence he had it, in
his collections for his _Naval History_ in his Commonplace Book.

    E. G. R.

_The Passame Sares (mel. Passamezzo) Galliard_ (Vol. vi., pp. 311. 446.;
Vol. vii., p. 216.).--Will you allow me to correct a mistake into which
both the correspondents who have kindly answered my questions respecting
this galliard seem to have fallen, perhaps misled by an ambiguity in my

My inquiry was not intended to refer to _galliards in general_, the
tunes of which, I am well aware, must have been very various, but to
this _one_ galliard in particular; and was made with the view of
ascertaining whether the air is ever played _at the present day_ during
the representation of the Second Part of _King Henry IV._

    C. FORBES.


_Swedish Words current in England_ (Vol. ii., p. 231.).--I beg to inform
your correspondent that the following words, which occur in his list,
are pure Anglo-Saxon, bearing almost the same meaning {367} which he
has attributed to them:--_wÿrm_; _by_, _bya_, to inhabit, _becc_;
_dioful_; _dobl_, equivalent to _doalig_: _goepung_, a heap; _lacan_;
_loppe_; _nebb_; _smiting_, contagion; _stæth_, a fixed basis.

_Eldon_ is Icelandic, from _elldr_, fire: hence we have "At slá elld úr
tinnu," to strike fire from flint; which approaches very near to a
tinder-box. _Ling_, Icel., the heath or heather plant: _ljung_ I take to
be the same word. _Gat_, Icel. for way or opening; hence _strand-gata_,
the opening of the strand or creek. _Tjarn_, _tiorn_, Icel., well
exemplified in Malham Tarn in Craven.

    C. I. R.

_Gotch_ (Vol. vi., p. 400.).--The _gotch cup_, described by W. R., must
have been known in England before the coming of the present royal
family, as it is given in Bailey's _Dictionary_ (1730) as a south
country word: it is not likely to have become provincial in so short a
time, nor its origin, if German, to have escaped the notice of old
~Philologos~. The A.-S. verb _geotan_ seems to have had the sense of to
cast metals, as _giessen_ has in German. In Bosworth's _Anglo-Saxon
Dictionary_ is _leadgota_, a plumber. In modern Dutch this is
_lootgieter_. Thus, from _geotan_ is derived _ingot_ (Germ. _einguss_),
as well as the following words in Halliwell's _Dictionary: yete_, to
cast metals (_Pr. Parv._), _belleyetere_ and _bellyatere_, a
bell-founder (_Pr. Parv._); _geat_, the hole through which melted metal
runs into a mould; and _yote_, to pour in. Grose has _yoted_, watered, a
west country word.

    E. G. R.

_Passage in Thomson: "Steaming"_ (Vol. vii., pp. 87. 248.).--This word,
and not _streaming_, is clearly the true reading (as is remarked by the
former correspondents), and is so printed in the editions to which I am
able to refer. The object of my Note is to point out a parallel passage
in Milton, and to suggest that _steaming_ would there also be the proper

    "Ye mists and exhalations, that now rise,
     From hill or _streaming_ lake, dusky or gray,
     Till the sun paint your fleecy skirts with gold,
     In honour to the world's great Author, rise."
                     _Paradise Lost_, Book v.


    [The reading is _steaming_ in the 1st edition of _Paradise
    Lost_, 1667.--ED.]

_The Word "Party"_ (Vol. vii., pp. 177. 247.).--The use of this word for
a particular person is earlier than Shakspeare's time. It no doubt
occurs in most of our earliest writers; for it is to be found in
Herbert's _Life of Henry VIII._, in his translation of the "Centum
Gravamina" presented to Pope Adrian in 1521, the 55th running thus:

    "That, if one of the marryed couple take a journey either to the
    warres, or to perform a vow, to a farre countrey, they permit
    the _party_ remaining at home, if the other stay long away, upon
    a summe of money payd, to cohabite with another, not examining
    sufficiently whether the absent party were dead."

It may also be found in Exodus xxii. 9., where, though it occurs in the
plural, it refers to two individuals:

    "For all manner of trespass, whether it be for ox, for ass, for
    sheep, for raiment, or for any manner of lost thing, which
    another challengeth to be his, the cause of both _parties_ shall
    come before the judges; and whom the judges shall condemn, _he_
    shall pay double unto his neighbour."


Clyst St. George.

_Curious Fact in Natural Philosophy_ (Vol. vii., p. 206.).--In reply to
ELGINENSIS I send you a quotation from Dr. Golding Bird's _Natural
Philosophy_ in explanation of this well-known phenomenon:

    "One very remarkable phenomenon connected with the escape of a
    current of air under considerable pressure, must not be passed
    over silently. M. Clement Desormes (_Ann. de Phys. et Chim._,
    xxxvi. p. 69.) has observed, that when an opening, about an inch
    in diameter, is made in the side of a reservoir of compressed
    air, the latter rushes out violently; and if a plate of metal or
    wood, seven inches in diameter, be pressed towards the opening,
    it will, after the first repulsive action of the current of air
    is overcome, be apparently attracted, rapidly oscillating within
    a short distance of the opening, out of which the air continues
    to emit with considerable force. This curious circumstance is
    explained on the supposition, that the current of air, on
    escaping through the opening, expands itself into a thin disc,
    to escape between the plate of wood or metal, and side of the
    reservoir; and on reaching the circumference of the plate, draws
    after it a current of atmospheric air from the opposite side....
    The plate thus balanced between these currents remains near the
    aperture, and apparently attracted by the current of air to
    which it is opposed."

Dr. G. B. then describes the experiment quoted by ELGINENSIS as "a
similar phenomenon, and apparently explicable on similar principles."
(Bird's _Nat. Phil._, p. 118.)


_Lowbell_ (Vol. vii., p. 272.).--I may add to the explanation of this
word given by M. H., that _low_, derived from the Saxon _loeg_, is
still commonly used in Scotland for a flame; hence the derivation of
_lowbell_, for a mode of birdcatching by night, by which the birds,
being awakened by the bell, are lured by the light into nets held by the
fowlers. In the ballad of _St. George for England_, we have the
following lines:

    "As timorous larks amazed are
     With light and with a _lowbell_."

The term _lowbelling_ may therefore, from the noise, be fitly applied to
the rustic _charivari_ described by H. T. W. (Vol. vii., p. 181.) as
practised in Northamptonshire.

    J. S. C.

_Life and Correspondence of S. T. Coleridge_ (Vol. vii., p.
282.).--There can be but one opinion and feeling as to the want which
exists for a really good biography of this intellectual giant; but there
will be many dissentients as to the proposed biographer, whose life of
Hartley Coleridge cannot be regarded as a happy example of this class of
composition. A life from the pen of Judge Coleridge, the friend of
Arnold and Whateley, is, we think, far more to be desired.


_Coniger, &c._ (Vol. vii., pp. 182. 241.).--At one extremity, the
picturesque range of hills which forms the noble background of Dunster
Castle, co. Somerset, is terminated by a striking conical eminence,
well-wooded, and surmounted by an embattled tower, erected as an object
from the castle windows. This eminence bears the name of _The Coniger_,
and is now a pheasant preserve. Mr. Hamper, in an excellent notice of
Dunster and its antiquities, in the _Gentleman's Magazine_, October,
1808, p. 873., says:

    "The _Conygre_, or rabbit-ground, was a common appendage to

Savage, however, in his _History of the Hundred of Carhampton_, p. 440.,
is of opinion that

    "_Coneygar_ seems to be derived from the Anglo-Saxon _Cyning_,
    King; and the Moeso-Gothic _Garas_, the same as the Latin
    _Domus_, a house, that is, the king's house or residence. Mr.
    Hamper has some notion that _Conygre_ means a rabbit-ground,
    &c., but Mr. H. does not go high enough for his etymology;
    besides, how does it appear that a rabbit-ground was at any time
    an appendage to manor-houses? There is no authority for the

I give you this criticism on Mr. Hamper _valeat quantum_, but am
disposed to think he is right. At all events there are no vestiges of
any building on the Coniger except the tower aforesaid, which was
erected by the present Mr. Luttrell's grandfather.


In the Irish language, _Cuinicear_, pronounced "Keenèkar," is a
rabbit-warren. _Cuinin_ is the diminutive of _cu_, a dog of any sort;
and from the Celtic _cu_, the Greeks took their word ~kyôn~, a
dog. I am of opinion that the origin of rabbit is in the Celtic word
_rap_, i. e. a creature that digs and burrows in the ground.


_Cupid crying_ (Vol. i., p. 172.).--I had no means (for reasons I need
not now specify) of referring to my 1st Vol. of "N. & Q." until
yesterday, for the pretty epigram given in an English dress by RUFUS and
as the writer in the _Athenæum_, whose communication you quote on the
same subject (Vol. i., p. 308.), observes "that the translator has taken
some liberties with his text," I make no apology for sending you a much
closer rendering, which hits off with great happiness the point and
quaintness of the original, by a septuagenarian, whose lucubrations have
already been immortalised in "N. & Q."

                "DE CUPIDINE.

    Cur natum cædit Venus? arcum perdidit, arcum
      Nunc quis habet? Tusco Flavia nata solo:
    Qui factum? petit hæc, dedit hic, nam lumine formæ
      Deceptus, matri se dari crediderat."

                "CUPID CRYING.

    Wherefore does Venus beat her boy?
      He has mislaid or lost his bow:--
    And who retains the missing toy?
      Th' Etrurian Flavia. How so?
    She ask'd: he gave it; for the child,
      Not e'en suspecting any other,
    By beauty's dazzling light beguil'd,
      Thought he had given it to his mother."

    F. T. J. B.

_Westminster Assembly of Divines_ (Vol. vii., p. 260.).--Dr. Lightfoot's
interesting and valuable "Journal of the Assembly of Divines," from
January 1, 1643, to December 31, 1644, will be found in the last volume
of the edition of his _Works_, edited by Pitman, and published at
London, 1825, in 13 vols. 8vo. I believe a few copies of the 13th volume
were printed to be sold separately.

The MS. Journal in three thick folio volumes, preserved in Dr.
Williams's library, Redcross Street, London, is attributed to Dr. Thomas

A MS. Journal, by Geo. Gillespie, from Feb. 2, 1644, to Oct. 25, 1644,
in 2 vols., is in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh.

The Rev. W. M. Hetherington published a tolerably impartial _History of
the Westminster Assembly_, Edinburgh, 1843, 12mo.

The most important work, as throwing light upon the proceedings of the
Assembly, is the _Letters and Journals of Robert Baillie_. The only
complete edition of these interesting documents is that edited by David
Laing, Esq., and published in 3 vols. royal 8vo., 1841-2.


MR. STANSBURY will find the "Journal of the Assembly of Divines," by
Lightfoot, in the new edition of his _Works_, vol. xiii. pp. 5. _et
seq._ Some further light is thrown upon the subject by a parliamentary
paper, printed "for the service of both Houses and the Assembly of
Divines." A copy of it is preserved in our University library (Ff. xiv.
25.). I have referred to both these documents in _A History of the
Articles, &c._, pp. 208-9.


St. Catharine's Hall, Cambridge.

The Journal kept by Lightfoot will be found in the 13th volume of his
_Works_, as edited by the Rev. J. R. Pitman: London, 1825, 8vo. It
should be studied by all those who desire to see a revived Convocation.

    S. R. M.

_Epigrams_ (Vol. vii., pp. 175. 270.).--"Suum cuique" being a
principle which holds good with regard to literary property as well as
to property of every other description, I can inform your correspondent
BALLIOLENSIS that the epigram on Dr. Toe, which he says was "represented
to have proceeded from the pen of Thomas Dunbar, of Brasenose," was in
reality the production of my respected neighbour, the Rev. William
Bradford, M.A., rector of Storrington, Sussex. It was written by that
gentleman when he was an undergraduate of St. John's College, Oxford.
BALLIOLENSIS may rely upon the accuracy of this information, as I had it
from Mr. Bradford's own lips only yesterday. The correct version of the
epigram is that given by SCRAPIANA, p. 270.


Ashington, Sussex.

"_God and the world_" (Vol. vii., pp. 134. 297.).--These lines are
found, as quoted by W. H., in Coleridge's _Aids to Reflection_, p. 87.,
ed. 1831. Coleridge gives them as the words of a sage poet of the
preceding generation (meaning, I suppose, the generation preceding that
of Archbishop Leighton, a passage from whose works he has introduced as
an aphorism just before). I have often wondered who this poet was, and
whether the last line were really a quotation from _Macbeth_, or whether
Shakspeare and the unknown poet had both but borrowed a popular saying.
I also had my suspicions that Coleridge himself might have patched the
verses a little; and the communication of your correspondent RT.,
tracing the lines in their original form to the works of Fulke Greville
Lord Brooke, now verifies his conjecture. It may be worth while to point
out another instance of this kind of manufacture by the same skilful
hand. In the first volume of _The Friend_ (p. 215., ed. 1818), Coleridge
places at the head of an essay a quotation of two stanzas from Daniel's
_Musophilus_. The second, which precedes in the original that which
Coleridge places first, is thus given by him:

    "_Since writings_ are the veins, the arteries,
     And undecaying life-strings of those hearts,
     That still shall pant and still shall exercise
     _Their mightiest powers when Nature none imparts;
     And the strong constitution of their praise
     Wear out the infection of distemper'd days_."

Daniel wrote as follows (vol. ii. p. 373., ed. 1718):

    "_For these lines_ are the veins, the arteries
     And undecaying life-strings of those hearts,
     That still shall pant and still shall exercise
     _The motion spirit and nature both imparts,
     And still with those alive so sympathize,
     As nourish'd with their powers, enjoy their parts_."

    C. W. G.

_Skating Problem_ (Vol. vii., p. 284.).--The Query of your correspondent
recalls the one said to have been put by King James to the members of
the Royal Society: "How is it," said the British Solomon, "that if two
buckets of water be equipoised in a balance, and a couple of live bream
be put into one of them, the bucket containing the fish does not
overweigh the other?" After some learned reasons had been adduced by
certain of the philosophers, one of them said, "Please your Majesty,
that bucket would be heavier by the exact weight of the fish." "Thou art
right," said the sapient king; "I did not think there had been so much
sense among you." Now, although I do not mean to say that A SKATER
propounds for elucidation what he knows to be a fallacy, yet I do assert
that he is mistaken as to the fact alleged. He recommends any one who is
"incredulous" to make the trial--in which case, the experimenter would
undoubtedly find himself in the water! I advise an appeal to common
sense and philosophy: the former will show that a person in skates is
not lighter than another; the latter, that ice will not fracture less
readily beneath the weight of an individual raised on a pair of steel
edges, than one on a pair of flat soles--_all other circumstances being
the same_; the reverse, indeed, would be the fact. The true explanation
of the "problem" is to be found in the circumstance, that "a skater,"
rendered confident by the ease with which he _glides_ over ice on which
_he_ could _not stand_, will often also "stand" securely on ice which
would break under the restless feet of a person in his shoes only. This
has always appeared to be the obvious reason for the apparent anomaly to
one who is


_Parochial Libraries_ (Vol. vi., p. 432.).--Let me add to the list of
parochial libraries that at Wendlebury, Oxon, the gift of Robert
Welborn, rector, cir. 1760. It consists of about fifty volumes in folio,
chiefly works of the Fathers, and, if I remember rightly, Benedictine
editions. It was originally placed in the north transept of the church,
but afterwards removed to the rectory. I believe that the books were
intended for the use of the rector, but were to be lent to the
neighbouring clergy on a bond being given for their restoration. After
many years of sad neglect, this library was put into thorough order a
few years ago by the liberality of the Rev. Jacob Ley, student of Ch.


       *       *       *       *       *



BOOKS RECEIVED.--_Reynard the Fox, after the German Version of Goethe,
with Illustrations, by J. Wolf._ Part IV. carries us on to _The Trial_,
which is very ably rendered.--_Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography,
by various Writers_, edited by W. Smith. This Sixth Part, extending from
_Cinabi_ to _Cyrrhestica_, contains {370} numerous interesting
articles, such as _Constantinople_, which gives us an outline of
Byzantine History, and _Corinth_, _Crete_, _Cyrene, &c._--Mr. Darling's
_Cyclopædia Bibliographica_ has now reached its Seventh Part, and which
extends from Dr. Abernethy Drummond to Dr. John Fawcett.--_The Journal
of Sacred Literature_, No. VII., containing articles on _The Scythian
Dominion in Asia_; _Modern Contributions to the Study of Prophecy_;
_Heaven, Hell, Hades_; _Nature of Sin and its earliest Development_;
_Life and Epistles of St. Paul_; _Slavery and the Old Testament_;
_Biblical Criticism_; _Memphitic New Testament_; and its usual variety
of Correspondence, Minor Notices, &c.--_Gentleman's Magazine for April_,
which commences with an article on Mr. Collier's _Notes and Emendations
to the Text of Shakspeare's Plays_.--Mr. Akerman, although the number of
subscribers is not sufficient to cover the expenses, continues his
_Remains of Pagan Saxondum_. The Fourth Part just issued contains
coloured plates, the full size of the respective objects, of a _Fibula
from a Cemetery_ at Fairford, Gloucester; and of _Fibulæ, Tweezers, &c._
from Great Driffield, Yorkshire.

       *       *       *       *       *






CHURCH. 8vo. Belfast, 1840.



GARDENERS' CHRONICLE, 1838 to 1852, all but Oct. to Dec. 1851.






BY SAMUEL HORSLEY, Lord Bishop of Rochester. 1799. First Edition, in


ATHENÆUM JOURNAL, 1847 to 1851 inclusive.

a Society of Gentlemen. Pp. 32. 8vo. With a Plan and Eight Plates. No
date, circa annum 1770?

MEMOIRS OF THE ROSE, by MR. JOHN HOLLAND. 1 Vol. 12mo. London, 1824.

PSYCHE AND OTHER POEMS, by MRS. MARY TIGHE. Portrait. 8vo. 1811.

*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names._

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to
be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet

       *       *       *       *       *


W. S. G. _is thanked. We have not inserted the two Folk Lore articles he
has sent, inasmuch as they are already recorded in Brand._

W. S. D. _The saying_ "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb," _made so
popular by its application to Sterne's "Maria," is from a French
proverb_ "A brebis tondue Dieu mesure le vent," _which, in a somewhat
older form, is to be found in Gruter's_ Florilegium: _Francfort, 1611_,
p. 353., _and in St. Estienne's_ Premices, _published in 1594.--See our_
1st Vol., pp. 211. 236. 325. 357. 418.

C. M. I. _We propose to insert some articles on Shakspeare in our next
or following Number._

M. A. _and_ J. L. S. _are referred to our_ No. 172., p. 157.

PHOTOGRAPHY. _Dr. Diamond's_ Photographic Notes _are preparing for
immediate publication in a separate form. We may take this opportunity
of explaining that_ DR. D. _is_ only an amateur, _and has nothing to do
with Photography as a profession. We are the more anxious to make this
known, since, in consequence of holding an important public office, Dr.
Diamond has but little leisure for pursuing his researches._

J. B. S. _will find what he requires at_ p. 277. _of our last volume._

C. B. (Birmingham). _If the hyposulphite of soda is not thoroughly
removed from a Photograph, it will soon become covered with reddish
spots, and in a short time the whole picture may disappear. If cyanide
of potassium has been used, it is requisite that the greatest care
should be used to effect its removal entirely._

W. L. (Liverpool). _A meniscus lens of the diameter of four inches
should have a focal length of twenty inches, and will produce perfect
landscape pictures fourteen inches square. It is said they will cover
fifteen inches; but fourteen they do with great definition. We strongly
advise_ W. L. _to purchase a good article. It is a bad economy not to go
to a_ first-rate _maker at once._

J. M. S. (Manchester). _You will find, for a screen to use in the open
air, that the white cotton you refer to will be far too light. "Linsey
woolsey" forms an admirable screen, and by being left loose upon a
stretcher it may be looped up so as to form drapery, &c. If you cannot
depend upon the collodion you purchase in your city, pray use your
ingenuity, and make some according to the formulary given in_ Vol. vi.,
p. 277., _and you will be rewarded for your trouble._

C. E. F. _The various applications to your bath which you have used have
destroyed it in all probability past use. All solutions containing
silver will precipitate it in the form of a white powder, upon the
addition of common salt; and from this chloride the pure metal is again
readily obtained. The collodion of some makers always acts in the manner
you describe; and we have known it remedied by the addition of about one
drachm of spirits of wine to the ounce of collodion. Spirits of wine
also added to the nitrate bath--two drachms of spirits of wine to six
ounces of the aqueous solution--is sometimes very beneficial. When
collodion is inert, and the colour remains a pale milk and water blue
after the immersion, a few drops of saturated solution of iodide of
silver may be added, as it indicates a deficiency of the iodide. Should
the collodion then be turbid, a small lump of iodide of potassium may be
dropped into the bottle, which by agitation will soon effect a
clearance; when this is done, the fluid may be poured off from the
excess of iodide which remains undissolved._

ALEX. RAE (Banff). _You shall have a private reply at our earliest
leisure. The questions you ask would almost comprise a Treatise on

H. N. (March 30th). _1st. You will find the opacity you complain of
completely removed by the use of the amber varnish, as recommended by_
DR. DIAMOND, _unless it proceeds from light having acted generally upon
your sensitive collodion in the bath, or during the time of its exposure
in the camera; in which case there is no cure for it.--2ndly. A greater
intensity in negatives will be produced without the nitric acid, but
with an addition of more acetic acid the picture is more brown and never
so agreeable as a positive. 3rd. The protonitrate of iron used pure
produces a picture as delicate, and having all the brilliancy of a
Daguerreotype, without its unpleasant metallic reflexion--the fine metal
being deposited of a dead white; and combined with the pyrogallic acid
solution in the proportion of one part to six or ten, produces pictures
of a most agreeable ivory-like colour.--4th. The protonitrate of iron,
when mixed with the pyrogallic acid solution, becomes of a fine violet
blue; but after some minutes it darkens. It should only be mixed
immediately before using. The colour of the protonitrate of iron will
vary, even using the same chemicals. The cheap nitrate of barytes of
commerce answers exceedingly well in most cases; but a finer silver
surface is obtained by the use of the purified.--5th. We have generally
succeeded in obtaining portraits in an ordinary room, the sitter being
placed opposite and near the window: of course, a glass-house is much
better, the roof of which should be of violet glass, ground on the inner
side. This glass can be bought, made especially for the purpose, at_
11d. _the square foot. It obstructs no chemical rays of light, and is
most pleasant to the eyes, causing no fatigue from the great body of
light admitted._

_A few compete sets of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. _to_ vi., _price
Three Guineas, may now be had; for which early application is

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them
to their Subscribers on the Saturday._

       *       *       *       *       *{371}

A LITERARY CURIOSITY.--A Fac-simile of a very Remarkably Curious,
Interesting, and Droll Newspaper of Charles II.'s Reign. Sent Free by
Post on receipt of Three Postage Stamps.


       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, price 1s., free by Post 1s. 4d.,

Translated from the French.

Sole Agents in the United Kingdom for VOIGHTLANDER & SON'S celebrated
Lenses for Portraits and Views.

General Depôt for Turner's, Whatman's, Canson Frères', La Croix, and
other Talbotype Papers.

Pure Photographic Chemicals.

Instructions and Specimens in every Branch of the Art.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions
may be seen at BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be
procured Apparatus of every Description, and pure Chemicals for the
practice of Photography in all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--Collodion (Iodized with the Ammonio-Iodide of Silver).--J.
B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, were the first in England who
published the application of this agent (see _Athenæum_, Aug. 14th).
Their Collodion (price 9d. per oz.) retains its extraordinary
sensitiveness, tenacity, and colour unimpaired for months: it may be
exported to any climate, and the Iodizing Compound mixed as required. J.
B. HOCKIN & CO. manufacture PURE CHEMICALS and all APPARATUS with the
latest Improvements adapted for all the Photographic and Daguerreotype
processes. Cameras for Developing in the open Country. GLASS BATHS
adapted to any Camera. Lenses from the best Makers. Waxed and Iodized
Papers, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO PHOTOGRAPHERS.--MR. PHILIP DELAMOTTE begs to announce that he has now
made arrangements for printing Calotypes in large or small quantities,
either from Paper or Glass Negatives. Gentlemen who are desirous of
having good impressions of their works, may see specimens of Mr.
Delamotte's Printing at his own residence, 38. Chepstow Place.
Bayswater, or at MR. GEORGE BELL'S, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

X., in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all
Climates, may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 55. CHEAPSIDE. Superior
Gold London-made Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver
Cases, 8, 6, and 4 guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12,
10, and 8 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior
Lever, with Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's
Pocket Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch
skilfully examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers,
2l., 3l., and 4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory,
the Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,


       *       *       *       *       *

TO PHOTOGRAPHERS.--Pure Chemicals, and every requisite for the practice
of Photography, according to the instructions of Le Gray, Hunt,
Brébisson, and other writers, may be obtained, wholesale and retail, of
WILLIAM BOLTON (formerly Dymond & Co.), Manufacturer of pure Chemicals
for Photographic and other purposes. Lists may be had on application.

Improved Apparatus for iodizing paper in vacuo, according to Mr.
Stewart's instructions.


       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's,
Turner's, Sanford's, and Canson Frères' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's
Process. Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining
Instantaneous Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds,
according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the
choicest Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *



Founded A.D. 1842.

               *       *       *


H. E. Bicknell, Esq.
W. Cabell, Esq.
T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq. M.P.
G. H. Drew, Esq.
W. Evans, Esq.
W. Freeman, Esq.
F. Fuller, Esq.
J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
T. Grissell, Esq.
J. Hunt, Esq.
J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
E. Lucas, Esq.
J. Lys Seager, Esq.
J. B. White, Esq.
J. Carter Wood, Esq.


W. Whateley, Esq. Q.C.; L. C. Humfrey, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq.

_Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.

_Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application
to suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed
in the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

    Age    £  s.  d.
    17     1  14  4
    22     1  18  8
    27     2   4  5
    32     2  10  8
    37     2  18  6
    42     3   8  2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
BUILDING SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment,
exemplified in the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies,
&c. With a Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life
Assurance. By ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life
Assurance Society, 3. Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *




               *       *       *

During the last Ten Years, this Society has issued more than _Four
Thousand One Hundred and Fifty Policies_--

Covering Assurances to the extent of _One Million Six Hundred and
Eighty-seven Thousand Pounds, and upwards_--

Yielding Annual Premiums amounting to _Seventy-three Thousand Pounds_.

This Society is the only one possessing Tables for the Assurance of
Diseased Lives.

Healthy Lives Assured at Home and Abroad at lower rates than at most
other Offices.

A Bonus of 50 per cent. on the premiums paid was added to the policies
at last Division of Profits.

Next Division in 1853--in which all Policies effected before 30th June,
1853, will participate.

               *       *       *

Agents wanted for vacant places.

Prospectuses, Forms of Proposal, and every other information, may be
obtained of the Secretary at the Chief Office, or on application to any
of the Society's Agents in the country.

    F. G. P. NEISON, Actuary.
    C. DOUGLAS SINGER, Secretary.

       *       *       *       *       *

UNITED KINGDOM LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY; established by Act of Parliament
in 1834.--8. Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, London.


    Earl of Courtown
    Earl Leven and Melville
    Earl of Norbury
    Earl of Stair
    Viscount Falkland
    Lord Elphinstone
    Lord Belhaven and Stenton
    Wm. Campbell, Esq., of Tillichewan


    _Chairman._--Charles Graham, Esq.
    _Deputy-Chairman._--Charles Downes, Esq.

    H. Blair Avarne, Esq.
    E. Lennox Boyd, Esq., F.S.A., _Resident_.
    C. Berwick Curtis, Esq.
    William Fairlie, Esq.
    D. Q. Henriques, Esq.
    J. G. Henriques, Esq.
    F. C. Maitland, Esq.
    William Railton, Esq.
    F. H. Thomson, Esq.
    Thomas Thorby, Esq.


_Physician._--Arthur H. Hassall, Esq., M.D., 8. Bennett Street, St.

_Surgeon._--F. H. Thomson, Esq., 48. Berners Street.

The Bonus added to Policies from March, 1834, to December 31, 1847, is
as follows:--

         |         |   Sum added to       |
  Sum    |   Time  |     Policy.          |     Sum
Assured. | Assured.|----------------------|   payable
         |         | In 1841. | In 1848.  |  at Death.
    £    |         | £  s. d. | £  s.  d. | £   s.  d.
   5000  |14 years |683 6  8  |787 10  0  |6470 16  8
  *1000  | 7 years | -  -     |157 10  0  |1157 10  0
    500  | 1 year  | -  -     | 11  5  0  | 511  5  0

*EXAMPLE.--At the commencement of the year 1841, a person aged thirty
took out a Policy for 1000l., the annual payment for which is 24l. 1s.
8d.; in 1847 he had paid in premiums 168l. 11s. 3d.; but the profits
being 2-1/4 per cent. per annum on the sum insured (which is 22l. 10s.
per annum for each 1000l.) he had 157l. 10s. added to the Policy, almost
as much as the premiums paid.

The Premiums, nevertheless, are on the most moderate scale, and only
one-half need be paid for the first five years, when the Insurance is
for Life. Every information will be afforded on application to the
Resident Director.

       *       *       *       *       *{372}

THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE for APRIL contains:--1. The Text of
Shakspeare's Plays. 2. Mrs. Hamilton Gray's History of Rome. 3. Lares
and Penates (with Engravings). 4. Jacques van Artevelde. 5. Literary
Relics of James Thomson and Allan Ramsey. 6. A Word upon Wigs. 7. The
Income Tax. 8. Paris after Waterloo. 9. Correspondence of Sylvanus
Urban: Concealed Lands; Richard of Cirencester; Artifice of a Condemned
Malefactor; Billingsgate and Whittington's Conduit. With Notes of the
Month; Review of New Publications; Reports of Archæological Societies,
Historical Chronicle, and OBITUARY; including Memoirs of the Earl of
Belfast, Bishop Kaye, Bishop Broughton, Sir Wathen Waller, Rear-Admiral
Austen, William Peter, Esq., the late Provost of Eton, John Philip
Dyott, &c. &c. Price 2s. 6d.

NICHOLS & SONS, 25. Parliament Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Demy 8vo., 8s.


Author of the "Religious History of the Slavonic Nations," &c. Fcap. 1s.

Being the New Volume of READING for TRAVELLERS.

Illustrations. Demy 8vo., 18s.

THE DIARY OF MARTHA BETHUNE BALIOL, from 1753 to 1754. Post 8vo. 9s.

Forming the New Volume of Chapman & Hall's Series.

THE DELUGE. BY VISCOUNT MAIDSTONE. Dedicated to the Electors of
Westminster. Second Edition. Price 2s. 6d.

London: CHAPMAN & HALL, 193. Piccadilly.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, fcap. 8vo., price 5s. in cloth.

BAPTIST VON HIRSCHER, D.D., Dean of the Metropolitan Church of Freiburg,
Breisgau, and Professor of Theology in the Roman Catholic University of
that City. Translated and edited with Notes and Introduction by the Rev.
ARTHUR CLEVELAND COXE, M.A., Rector of St. John's Church, Hartford,
Connecticut, U.S.

    "The following work will be found a noble apology for the
    position assumed by the Church of England in the sixteenth
    century, and for the practical reforms she then introduced into
    her theology and worship. If the author is right, then the
    changes he so eloquently urges upon the present attention of his
    brethren ought to have been made _three hundred years ago_; and
    the obstinate refusal of the Council of Trent to make such
    reforms in conformity with Scripture and Antiquity, throws the
    whole burthen of the sin of schism upon Rome, and not upon our
    Reformers. The value of such admissions must, of course, depend
    in a great measure upon the learning, the character, the
    position, and the influence of the author from whom they
    proceed. The writer believes, that questions as to these
    particulars can be most satisfactorily answered."--_Introduction
    by Arthur Cleveland Coxe._

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford; and 377. Strand, London

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, price One Penny,

of his Personal Exertions for the Agricultural and Social Improvement of

This interesting Memoir, forming one of the Number of CHAMBERS'S
circulation of Fifty Thousand Copies.

W. & R. CHAMBERS, Edinburgh; W. S. ORR & CO., Amen Corner, London; D. N.
CHAMBERS, Glasgow; J. M'GLASHAN, Dublin; and sold by all Booksellers.

       *       *       *       *       *

On 1st of April, price 1s., No. IV. New Series.



Morgan on the Trinity of Plato and of Philo-Judæus.
Greek Hymnology.
Montalembert's Catholic Interests. Second Notice.
Illustrations of the State of the Church during the Great Rebellion.
Reviews and Notices.
Notices to Correspondents.

Now ready, price 1s., Part V. of

CONCIONALIA; Outlines of Sermons for Parochial Use throughout the Year.
By the REV. HENRY THOMPSON, M.A., Cantab., Curate of Wrington, Somerset.
It contains Sermons for the First, Second, Third, and Fourth Sundays
after Easter; the Annunication of the Blessed Virgin Mary; St. Mark's
Day. To be continued monthly.

London: J. MASTERS, Aldersgate Street, and New Bond Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

8vo., price 12s.

A MANUAL OF ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY, from the First to the Twelfth
Century inclusive. By the Rev. E. S. FOULKES, M.A., Fellow and Tutor of
Jesus College, Oxford.

    The main plan of the work has been borrowed from Spanheim, a
    learned, though certainly not unbiassed, writer of the
    seventeenth century: the matter compiled from Spondanus and
    Spanheim, Mosheim and Fleury, Gieseler and Döllinger, and
    others, who have been used too often to be specified, unless
    when reference to them appeared desirable for the benefit of the
    reader. Yet I believe I have never once trusted to them on a
    point involving controversy, without examining their
    authorities. The one object that I have had before me has been
    to condense facts, without either garbling or omitting any that
    should be noticed in a work like the present, and to give a fair
    and impartial view of the whole state of the case.--_Preface._

    "An epitomist of Church History has a task of no ordinary
    greatness.... He must combine the rich faculties of condensation
    and analysis, of judgment in the selection of materials, and
    calmness in the expression of opinions, with that most excellent
    gift of faith, so especially precious to Church historians,
    which implies a love for the Catholic cause, a reverence for its
    saintly champions, an abhorrence of the misdeeds which have
    defiled it, and a confidence that its 'truth is great, and will

    "And among other qualifications which may justly be attributed
    to the author of the work before us, this last and highest is
    particularly observable. He writes in a spirit of manly faith,
    and is not afraid of facing 'the horrors and uncertainties,'
    which, to use his own words, are to be found in Church
    history."--_From the Scottish Ecclesiastical Journal, May,

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford; and 377. Strand, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cheaper Editions, 3s. 6d.


Familiar Explanations of Appearances and Principles in Natural


Selections from the Works of the best English Poets, with Specimens of
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Sketches and Essays on the Progress of English Literature.


A Selection of the Lives of the most Eminent Men of all Nations.

London: JOHN W. PARKER & SON, West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

This Day, 2 vols. post 8vo., 18s.

HYPATIA; or New Foes with an Old Face. By CHARLES KINGSLEY, Jun., Rector
of Eversley. Reprinted from "Fraser's Magazine."

By the same Author,

THE SAINT'S TRAGEDY, Cheaper Edition, 2s.

YEAST; A PROBLEM. Reprinted from "Fraser's Magazine." Cheaper Edition,

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Editio Auctior et Emendatior.

Cantabrigiæ: apud J. DEIGHTON.


       *       *       *       *       *

3 vols. 8vo. price 2l. 8s.

ARCHITECTURE. The Fifth Edition enlarged, exemplified by 1700 Woodcuts.

    "In the Preparation of this the Fifth Edition of the Glossary of
    Architecture, no pains have been spared to render it worthy of
    the continued patronage which the work has received from its
    first publication.

    "The Text has been considerably augmented, as well by the
    additions of many new Articles, as by the enlargement of the old
    ones, and the number of Illustrations has been increased from
    eleven hundred to seventeen hundred.

    "Several additional Foreign examples are given, for the purposes
    of comparison with English work, of the same periods.

    "In the present Edition, considerably more attention has been
    given to the subject of Mediæval Carpentry, the number of
    Illustrations of 'Open Timber Roofs' has been much increased,
    and most of the Carpenter's terms in use at the period have been
    introduced with authorities."--_Preface to the Fifth Edition._

JOHN HENRY PARKER. Oxford; and 377. Strand, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 15. Stonefield Street, in the
Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the
Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE
BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the
West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street
aforesaid.--Saturday, April 9. 1853.

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