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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 181, April 16, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 181, April 16, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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|                                                              |
| Transcriber's Note: Italicized words, phrases, etc. are      |
| surrounded by _underline characters_. Greek transliterations |
| are surrounded by ~tildes~. Diacritical marks over           |
| characters are bracketed: [=x] indicates a macron over the   |
| letter, [(x] indicates a breve. Archaic spellings and        |
| hypenation inconsistancies have been retained.               |



       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 181.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition, 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


NOTES:--                                                       Page
  "The Shepherd of Banbury's Weather-Rules," by
    W. B. Rye                                                   373
  Notes on several misunderstood Words, by the Rev. W.
    R. Arrowsmith                                               375
  Lord Coke                                                     376
  Shakspeare Correspondence, by C. Mansfield Ingleby,
    &c.                                                         377

  MINOR NOTES:--Alleged Cure for Hydrophobia--Epitaph
    at Mickleton--Charade attributed to Sheridan--
    Suggested Reprint of Hearne--Suggestions of Books
    worthy of being reprinted--Epigram all the Way from
    Belgium--Derivation of "Canada"--Railway Signals
    --A Centenarian Trading Vessel                              379
  Bishop Ken                                                    380
  MINOR QUERIES:--Canute's Reproof to his Courtiers
    --The Sign of the Cross in the Greek Church--Rev.
    Richard Midgley, Vicar of Rochdale, temp. Eliz.--
    Huet's Navigations of Solomon--Sheriff of Worcestershire
    in 1781--Tree of the Thousand Images--De
    Burgh Family--Witchcraft Sermons at Huntingdon--
    Consort--Creole--Shearman Family--Traitors' Ford
    --"Your most obedient humble Servant"--Version
    of a Proverb--Ellis Walker--"The Northerne Castle"
    --Prayer-Book in French--"Navita Erythræum," &c.
    --Edmund Burke--Plan of London--Minchin                     380

    Father"--Meaning of "the Litten" or "Litton"
    --St. James' Market House                                   382

  Grub Street Journal, by James Crossley                        383
  Stone Pillar Worship                                          383
  Autographs in Books                                           384
  Grindle                                                       384
  Roger Outlawe, by Dr. J. H. Todd, &c.                         385
  Prospectus to Cibber's "Lives of the Poets," by James
    Crossley                                                    386
  Pic-nic, by John Anthony, M.D., and Henry H. Breen            387
  Peter Sterry and Jeremiah White, by James Crossley            388

    Portraits--On some Points in the Collodion
    Process--Economical Iodizing Process                        388

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Bishop Juxon's Account
    of Vendible Books in England--Dutensiana--Vicars-Apostolic
    --Tombstone in Churchyard--"Her face is
    like," &c.--Annuellarius--Ship's Painter--True Blue
    --"Quod fuit esse"--Subterranean Bells--Spontaneous
    Combustion--Muffs worn by Gentlemen--
    Crescent--The Author of "The Family Journal"--
    Parochial Libraries--Sidney as a Christian Name--
    "Rather"--Lady High Sheriff--Nugget--Epigrams
    --Editions of the Prayer-Book--Portrait of Pope--
    Passage in Coleridge--Lowbell--Burn at Croydon               390

  Notes on Books, &c.                                            394
  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                   394
  Notices to Correspondents                                      394
  Advertisements                                                 395

       *       *       *       *       *



_The Shepherd of Banbury's Rules to judge of the Changes of the
Weather_, first printed in 1670, was long a favourite book with the
country gentleman, the farmer, and the peasant. They were accustomed to
regard it with the consideration and confidence which were due to the
authority of so experienced a master of the art of prognostication, and
dismissing every sceptical thought, received his maxims with the same
implicit faith as led them to believe that if their cat chanced to wash
her face, rainy weather would be the certain and inevitable result.
Moreover, this valuable little manual instructed them how to keep their
horses, sheep, and oxen sound, and prescribed cures for them when
distempered. No wonder, then, if it has passed through many editions.
Yet it has been invariably stated that _The Banbury Shepherd_ in fact
had no existence; was purely an imaginary creation; and that the work
which passes under his name, "John Claridge," was written by Dr. John
Campbell, the Scottish historian, who died in 1775. The statements made
in connexion with this book are curious enough; and it is with a view of
placing the matter in a clear and correct light that I now trouble you
with a Note, which will, I hope, tend to restore to this poor
weather-wise old shepherd his long-lost rank and station among the rural
authors of England.

I believe that the source of the error is to be traced to the second
edition of the _Biographia Britannica_, in a memoir of Dr. Campbell by
Kippis, in which, when enumerating the works of the learned Doctor,
Kippis says, "He was also the author of _The Shepherd of Banbury's
Rules_,--a favourite pamphlet with the common people." We next find the
book down to Campbell as the "author" in Watt's _Bibliotheca
Britannica_, which is copied both by Chalmers and Lowndes. And so the
error has been perpetuated, even up to the time of the publication of a
meritorious _History of Banbury_, by the late Mr. Alfred Beesley, in
1841. This writer thus speaks of the work:

    "The far-famed shepherd of Banbury is only an apocryphal
    personage. In 1744 there was published {374} _The Shepherd of
    Banbury's Rules to judge of the Changes of the Weather, grounded
    on forty Years' Experience. To which is added, a rational
    Account of the Causes of such Alterations, the Nature of Wind,
    Rain, Snow, &c., on the Principles of the Newtonian Philosophy.
    By John Claridge. London: printed for W. Bickerton, in the
    Temple Exchange, Fleet Street. Price 1s._ The work attracted a
    large share of public attention, and deserved it. A second
    edition appeared in 1748.... It is stated in Kippis's
    _Biographia Britannica_ that, the real author was Dr. John
    Campbell, a Scotchman."

In 1770 there appeared _An Essay on the Weather, with Remarks on "The
Shepherd of Banbury's Rules, &c."_: by John Mills, Esq., F.R.S. Mr.
Mills observes:

    "Who the shepherd of Banbury was, we know not; nor indeed have
    we any proof that the rules called his were penned by a real
    shepherd. Both these points are, however, immaterial; their
    truth is their best voucher.... Mr. Claridge published them in
    the year 1744, since which time they are become very scarce,
    having long been out of print."

Now all these blundering attempts at annihilating the poor shepherd may,
I think, be accounted for by neither of the above-mentioned writers
having a knowledge of the original edition, published in 1670, of the
real shepherd's book (the title of which I will presently give), which
any one may see in the British Museum library. It has on the title-page
a slight disfigurement of name, viz. John _Clearidge_; but it is
_Claridge_ in the Preface. The truth is, that Dr. John Campbell
_re-published_ the book in 1744, but without affixing his own name, or
giving any information of its author or of previous editions. The part,
however, which he bore in this edition is explained by the latter
portion of the title already given; and still more clearly in the
Preface. We find authorities added, to give weight to the shepherd's
remarks; and likewise additional rules in relation to the weather,
derived from the common sayings and proverbs of the country people, and
from old English books of husbandry. It may, in short, be called a
clever scientific commentary on the shepherd's observations. After what
has been stated, your readers will not be surprised to learn that one
edition of the work appears in Watt's very inaccurate book under
CLARIDGE, another under CLEARIDGE, and a third under CAMPBELL. I will
now speak of the original work: it is a small octavo volume of
thirty-two pages, rudely printed, with an amusing Preface "To the
Reader," in which the shepherd dwells with much satisfaction on his
peculiar vaticinating talents. As this Preface has been omitted in all
subsequent editions, and as the book itself is extremely scarce, I
conceive that a reprint of it in your pages may be acceptable to your
Folk-lore readers. The "Rules" are interlarded with scraps of poetry,
somewhat after the manner of old Tusser, and bear the unmistakeable
impress of a "plain, unlettered Muse." The author concludes his work
with a poetical address "to the antiquity and honour of shepheards." The
title is rather a droll one, and is as follows:

    "The Shepheard's Legacy: or John Clearidge his forty Years'
    Experience of the Weather: being an excellent Treatise, wherein
    is shewed the Knowledge of the Weather. First, by the Rising and
    Setting of the Sun. 2. How the Weather is known by the Moon. 3.
    By the Stars. 4. By the Clouds. 5. By the Mists. 6. By the
    Rainbow. 7. And especially by the Winds. Whereby the Weather may
    be exactly known from Time to Time: which Observation was never
    heretofore published by any Author. 8. Also, how to keep your
    Sheep sound when they be sound. 9. And how to cure them if they
    be rotten. 10. Is shewed the Antiquity and Honour of Shepheards.
    With some certain and assured Cures for thy Horse, Cow, and

        An Almanack is out at twelve months day,
        My Legacy it doth endure for aye.
        But take you notice, though 'tis but a hint,
        It far excels some books of greater print.

    London: printed and are to be sold by John Hancock, Junior, at
    the Three Bibles in Popes-head Ally, next Cornhill, 1670."

In the Preface he tells us that--

    "Having been importun'd by sundry friends (some of them being
    worthy persons) to make publique for their further benefit what
    they have found by experience to be useful for themselves and
    others, I could not deny their requests; but was willing to
    satisfie them, as also my own self, to do others good as well as
    myself; lest I should hide my talent in a napkin, and my skill
    be rak'd up with me in the dust. Therefore I have left it to
    posterity, that they may have the fruit when the old tree is
    dead and rotten. And because I would not be tedious, I shall
    descend to some few particular instances of my skill and
    foreknowledge of the weather, and I shall have done.

    "First, in the year 1665, at the 1st of January, I told several
    credible persons that the then frost would hold till March, that
    men could not plow, and so it came to pass directly.

    "2. I also told them that present March, that it would be a very
    dry summer, which likewise came to pass.

    "3. The same year, in November, I told them it would be a very
    open winter, which also came to pass, although at that time it
    was a great snow: but it lasted not a week.

    "4. In the year 1666, I told them that year in March, that it
    would be a very dry spring; which also came to pass.

    "5. In the year 1667, certaine shepheards ask'd my councel
    whether they might venture their sheep any more in the
    Low-fields? I told them they might safely venture them till
    August next; and they sped very well, without any loss.

    "6. I told them, in the beginning of September the same year,
    that it would be a south-west wind for two or {375} three months
    together, and also great store of rain, so that wheat sowing
    would be very difficult in the Low-fields, by reason of wet;
    which we have found by sad experience. And further, I told them
    that they should have not above three or four perfect fair days
    together till the shortest day.

    "7. In the year 1668, in March, although it was a very dry
    season then, I told my neighbours that it would be an
    extraordinary fruitful summer for hay and grass, and I knew it
    by reason there was so much rain in the latter end of February
    and beginning of March: for by that I ever judge of the summers,
    and I look that the winter will be dry and frosty for the most
    part, by reason that this November was mild: for by that I do
    ever judge of the winters.

    "Now, I refer you unto the book itself, which will sufficiently
    inform you of sundry other of my observations. For in the
    ensuing discourse I have set you down the same rules which I go
    by myself. And if any one shall question the truth of what is
    here set down, let them come to me, and I will give them further


    "Hanwell, near Banbury."

It appears, from inquiries made in the neighbourhood, that the name of
Claridge is still common at Hanwell, a small village near Banbury--that
"land o'cakes,"--and that last century there was a John Claridge, a
small farmer, resident there, who died in 1758, and who might have been
a grandson of the "far-famed," but unjustly defamed, "shepherd of

_Apropos_ of the "cakes" for which this flourishing town has long been
celebrated, I beg to inform your correspondent ERICA (Vol. vii., p.
106.) and J. R. M., M.A. (p. 310.) that there is a receipt "how to make
a very good Banbury cake," printed as early as 1615, in Gervase
Markham's _English Hus-wife_.

W. B. RYE.

       *       *       *       *       *


(_Continued from_ p. 353.)

_To miss_, to dispense with. This usage of the verb being of such
ordinary occurrence, I should have deemed it superfluous to illustrate,
were it not that the editors of Shakspeare, according to custom, are at
a loss for examples:

    "We cannot _miss_ him."

    _The Tempest_, Act I. Sc. 2. (where see Mr. Collier's note, and
    also Mr. Halliwell's, Tallis's edition).

    "All which things being much admirable, yet this is most, that
    they are so profitable; bringing vnto man both honey and wax,
    each so wholesome that we all desire it, both so necessary that
    we cannot _misse_ them."--_Euphues and his England._

    "I will have honest valiant souls about me;
    I cannot _miss_ thee."

    Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Mad Lover_, Act II. Sc. 1.

    "The blackness of this season cannot _miss_ me."

    The second _Maiden's Tragedy_, Act V. Sc. 1.

    "All three are to be had, we cannot _miss_ any of them."--Bishop
    Andrewes, "A Sermon prepared to be preached on Whit Sunday, A.D.
    1622," _Library of Ang.-Cath. Theology_, vol. iii. p. 383.

    "For these, for every day's dangers we cannot _miss_ the
    hand."--"A Sermon preached before the King's Majesty at
    Burleigh, near Oldham, A.D. 1614," _Id._, vol. iv. p. 86.

    "We cannot _miss_ one of them; they be necessary all."--_Id._,
    vol. i. p. 73.

It is hardly necessary to occupy further room with more instances of so
familiar a phrase, though perhaps it may not be out of the way to
remark, that _miss_ is used by Andrewes as a substantive in the same
sense as the verb, namely, in vol. v. p. 176.: the more usual form being
_misture_, or, earlier, _mister_. Mr. Halliwell, in his _Dictionary_,
most unaccountably treats these two forms as distinct words; and yet,
more unaccountably, collecting the import of _misture_ for the context,
gives it the signification of misfortune!! He quotes Nash's _Pierce
Pennilesse_; the reader will find the passage at p. 47. of the
Shakspeare Society's reprint. I subjoin another instance from vol. viii.
p. 288. of Cattley's edition of Foxe's _Acts and Monuments_:

    "Therefore all men evidently declared at that time, both how
    sore they took his death to heart; and also how hardly they
    could away with the _misture_ of such a man."

In Latin, _desidero_ and _desiderium_ best convey the import of this

_To buckle_, bend or bow. Here again, to their great discredit be it
spoken, the editors of Shakspeare (Second Part of _Hen. IV._, Act I. Sc.
1.) are at fault for an example. Mr. Halliwell gives one in his
_Dictionary_ of the passive participle, which see. In Shakspeare it
occurs as a neuter verb:

                    "... And teach this body,
    To bend, and these my aged knees to _buckle_,
    In adoration and just worship to you."
        Ben Jonson, _Staple of News_, Act II. Sc. 1.

    "For, certainly, like as great stature in a natural body is some
    advantage in youth, but is but burden in age: so it is with
    great territory, which, when a state beginneth to decline, doth
    make it stoop and _buckle_ so much the faster."--Lord Bacon, "Of
    the True Greatness of Great Britain," vol. i. p. 504. (Bohn's
    edition of the _Works_).

And again, as a transitive verb:

    "Sear trees, standing or felled, belong to the lessee, and you
    have a special replication in the book of 44 E. III., that the
    wind did but rend them and _buckle_ them."--_Case of Impeachment
    of Waste_, vol. i. p. 620.

_On the hip_, at advantage. A term of wrestling. So said Dr. Johnson at
first; but, on second {376} thoughts, referred it to _venery_, with
which Mr. Dyce consents: both erroneously. Several instances are adduced
by the latter, in his _Critique of Knight and Collier's Shakspeare_; any
one of which, besides the passage in _The Merchant of Venice_, should
have confuted that origin of the phrase. The hip of a chase is no term
of woodman's craft: the haunch is. Moreover, what a marvellous
expression, to say, A hound has a chase _on_ the hip, instead of _by_.
Still more prodigious to say, that a hound _gets_ a chase _on_ the hip.
One would be loth to impute to the only judicious dramatic commentator
of the day, a love of contradiction as the motive for quarrelling with
Mr. Collier's note on this idiom. To the examples alleged by Mr. Dyce,
the three following may be added; whereof the last, after the opinion of
Sir John Harington, rightly refers the origin of the metaphor to

    "The Divell hath them _on the hip_, he may easily bring them to
    anything."--_Michael and the Dragon_, by D. Dike, p. 328.
    (_Workes_, London, 1635).

    "If he have us at the advantage, _on the hip_ as we say, it is
    no great matter then to get service at our hands."--Andrewes, "A
    Sermon preached before the King's Majesty at Whitehall, 1617,"
    _Library of Ang.-Cath. Theology_, vol. iv. p. 365.

    "Full oft the valiant knight his hold doth shift,
     And with much prettie sleight, the same doth slippe;
     In fine he doth applie one speciall drift,
     Which was to get the Pagan on the _hippe_:
     And hauing caught him right, he doth him lift,
     By nimble sleight, and in such wise doth trippe:
     That downe he threw him, and his fall was such,
     His head-piece was the first that ground did tuch."
       Sir John Harington's Translation of _Orlando
          Furioso_, Booke xlvi. Stanza 117.

In some editions, the fourth line is printed "_namely_ to get," &c.,
with other variations in the spelling of the rest of the stanza.


(_To be continued._)

       *       *       *       *       *


Turning over some old books recently, my attention was strongly drawn to
the following:

    "The Lord Coke, his Speech and Charge, with a Discouerie of the
    Abuses and Corruptions of Officers. 8vo. Lond. N. Butter, 1607."

This curious piece appears to have been published by one R. P.[1], who
describes himself, in his dedication to the Earl of Exeter, as a "poore,
dispised, pouertie-stricken, hated, scorned, and vnrespected souldier,"
of which there were, doubtless, many in the reign of James the Pacific.
Lord Coke, in his address to the jury at the Norwich Assizes, gives an
account of the various plottings of the Papists, from the Reformation to
the Gunpowder Treason, to bring the land again under subjection to Rome,
and characterises the schemes and the actors therein as he goes along in
the good round terms of an out-and-out Protestant. He has also a fling
at the Puritans, and all such as would disturb the church and hierarchy
as by law established. But the most remarkable part of the book is that
which comes under the head of "A Discouerie of the Abuses and Corruption
of Officers;" and believing an abstract might interest your readers, and
furnish the antiquary with a reference, I herewith present you with a
list of the officials and others whom my Lord Coke recommends the
_Jurie_ to present, assuring them, at the same time, that "by God's
grace they, the offenders, shall not goe unpunished for their abuses;
for we have," says he, "a COYFE, which signifies a _scull_, whereby, in
the execution of justice, wee are defended against all oppositions, bee
they never so violent."

1. The first gentleman introduced by Lord Coke to the Norwich jury is
the _Escheator_, who had power to demand upon what tenure a poor yeoman
held his lands, and is an officer in great disfavour with the judge. He
gives some curious instances of his imposition, and concludes by
remarking that, for his rogueries, he were better described by striking
away the first syllable of his name, the rest truly representing him a

2. _The Clarke of the Market_ comes in for his share of Lord Coke's
denouncements. "It was once," he says, "my hap to take a clarke of the
market in his trickes; but I aduanst him higher than his father's sonne,
by so much as from the ground to the toppe of the pillorie" for his

3. "A certaine ruffling officer" called a _Purveyor_, who is
occasionally found _purveying money_ out of your purses, and is
therefore, says Lord Coke, "on the highway to the gallowes."

4. As the next officer is unknown in the present day, I give his
character _in extenso_:

    "There is also a Salt-peter-man, whose commission is not to
    break vp any man's house or ground without leaue. And not to
    deale with any house, but such as is vnused for any necessarie
    imployment by the owner. And not to digge in any place without
    leauing it smooth and leuell: in such case as he found it. This
    Salt-peter-man vnder shew of his authoritie, though being no
    more than is specified, will make plaine and simple people
    beleeue, that hee will without their leaue breake vp the floore
    of their dwelling house, vnlesse they will compound with him to
    the contrary. Any such fellow, if you can meete with all, let
    his misdemenor be presented, that he may be taught better to
    vnderstand his office: For by their abuse the country is
    oftentimes troubled."

5. There is another troublesome fellow called a _Concealor_, who could
easily be proved no better {377} than a _cosioner_, and whose
pretensions are to be resisted.

6. A _Promoter_, generally both a beggar and a knave. This is the modern
informer, "a necessarie office," says Lord Coke, "but rarely filled by
an honest man."

7. The _Monopolitane_ or _Monopolist_; with these the country was
overrun in James' reign. "To annoy and hinder the public weale, these
for their own benefit have sold their lands, and then come to beggarie
by a _starch_, _vinegar_, or _aqua vitæ_ monopoly, and justly too," adds
his lordship.

8. Lord Coke has no objection to those _golden fooles_, the _Alcumists_,
so long as they keep to their _metaphisicall_ and _Paracelsian_ studies;
but _science is felony committed by any comixture to multiply either
gold or silver_; the alchymist is therefore a suspected character, and
to be looked after by the jury.

9. Vagrants to be resolutely put down, the Statute against whom had
worked well.

10. The stage-players find no favour with this stern judge, who tells
the jury that as they, the players, cannot perform without leave, it is
easy to be rid of them, remarking, _that the country is much troubled by

11. Taverns, Inns, Ale-houses, Bowling Allies, and such like thriftless
places of resort for tradesmen and artificers, to be under strict

12. Gallants, or riotous young gents, to be sharply looked after, and
their proceedings controlled.

13. Gentlemen with greyhounds and birding-pieces, who would elude the
_statutes against gunnes_, to be called to account "for the
shallow-brain'd idlenesse of their ridiculous foolery."

14. The statute against _ryotous expence in apparel_ to be put in force
against _unthriftie infractors_.

There is room here for a few Queries, but I content myself with asking
for a further reference to No. 4., "The Salt-peter-man."

J. O.

   [Footnote 1: No doubt the author of an ultra-Protestant poem,
   entitled _Times Anatomie, made by Robert Prickett, a Souldier_.
   Imprinted, 1606.]

       *       *       *       *       *


_Dogberry's Losses or Leases._--_Much Ado about Nothing_, Act IV. Sc.

    "_Dogberry._ A rich fellow enough, go to: and a fellow that hath
    had losses; and one that hath two gowns, and everything handsome
    about him."

I can quite sympathise with the indignation of some of my cotemporaries
at the alteration by MR. PAYNE COLLIER'S mysterious corrector, of
"losses" into "leases." I am sorry to see a reading which we had
cherished without any misgiving as a bit of Shaksperian quaintness, and
consecrated by the humour of Gray and Charles Lamb, turned into a clumsy
misprint. But we must look at real probabilities, not at fancies and
predilections. I am afraid "leases" is the likelier word. It has also a
special fitness, which has not been hitherto remarked. Many of the
wealthy people of Elizabeth's reign, particularly in the middle class,
were "fellows that had had leases." It will be recollected that
extravagant leases or fines were among the methods by which the
possessions of the church were so grievously dilapidated in the age of
the Reformation. Those who had a little money to invest, could not do so
on more advantageous terms than by obtaining such leases as the
necessity or avarice of clerical and other corporations induced them to
grant; and the coincident fall in the value of money increased the gain
of the lessees, and loss of the corporations, to an extraordinary
amount. Throughout Elizabeth's reign parliament was at work in
restraining this abuse, by the well-known "disabling acts," restricting
the power of bishops and corporations to lease their property. The last
was passed, I think, only in 1601. And therefore a "rich fellow" of
Dogberry's class was described, to the thorough comprehension and
enjoyment of an audience of that day, as one who "had _had_ leases."


May I be allowed a little space in the pages of "N. & Q." to draw MR.
COLLIER'S attention to some passages in which the old corrector appears
to me to have corrupted, rather than improved, the text? Possibly on
second thoughts MR. COLLIER may be induced to withdraw these readings
from the text of his forthcoming edition of our great poet. I give the
pages of MR. COLLIER'S recent volume, and quote according to the old

_Two Gentlemen of Verona_, Act II. Sc. 2., p. 21.:

    "That I, unworthy body, as I _can_,
     Should censure thus a _loving_ gentleman."

_Can_ for _am_ spoils the sense; it was introduced unnecessarily to make
a perfect rhyme, but such rhymes as _am_ and _man_ were common in
Shakspeare's time. _Loving_ for _lovely_ is another modernism; _lovely_
is equivalent to the French _aimable_. "Saul and Jonathan were _lovely_
and pleasant in their lives," &c. The whole passage, which is indeed
faulty in the old copies, should, I think, be read thus:

                       "'Tis a passing shame
          That I, unworthy body that I am,
          Should censure _on a_ lovely _gentleman_.

    _Jul._ Why not on Proteus as _on_ all the rest?

    _Luc._ Then thus,--of many good I think him best."

_Thus_ crept in after _censure_ from the next line but one. In Julia's
speech, grammar requires _on_ for _of_.

_Measure for Measure_, Act IV. Sc. 5., p. 52.:

    "For my authority bears _such_ a credent bulk," &c.

Fols. "_of_ a credent bulk," read "_so_ credent bulk."

_Much Ado about Nothing_, Act IV. Sc. 1., p 72.:

    "Myself would on the _hazard_ of reproaches
     Strike at thy life."

When fathers kill their children, they run the risk not merely of being
reproached, but of being hanged; but this reading is a mere
sophistication by some one who did not understand the true reading,
_rearward_. Leonato threatens to take his daughter's life _after having_
reproached her.

_Taming of the Shrew_, p. 145.:

    "O, yes, I saw sweet beauty in her face,
     Such as the daughter of _Agenor's race_," &c.

"The daughter of Agenor's race" for "the daughter of Agenor" is awkward,
but there is a far more decisive objection to this alteration. To
compare the beauty of Bianca with the beauty of Europa is a legitimate
comparison; but to compare the beauty of Bianca with Europa herself, is
of course inadmissible. Here is another corruption introduced in order
to produce rhyming couplet; restore the old reading, "the daughter of
Agenor _had_."

_The Winter's Tale_, Act IV. Sc. 2., p. 191.:

    "If, &c., let me be _enrolled_, and any name put in the book of

We have here an abortive attempt to correct the nonsensical reading of
the old copies, _unrolled_; but if _enrolled_ itself makes sense, it
does so only by introducing tautology. Besides, it leads us away from
what I believe to be the true reading, _unrogued_.

_King John_, Act V. Sc. 7., p. 212.:

    "Death, having prey'd upon the outward parts,
     Leaves them _unvisited_; and his siege is now
     Against the mind."

How could death prey upon the king's outward parts without visiting
them? Perhaps, however, we have here only a corruption of a genuine
text. Query, "_ill_-visited."

_Troilus and Cressida_, Act I. Sc. 3., p. 331.:

    "And, with an accent tun'd in self-same key,
     Replies to chiding fortune."

This, which is also Hanmer's reading, certainly makes sense. Pope read
_returns_. The old copies have _retires_. I believe Shakspeare wrote
"_Rechides_ to chiding fortune." This puzzled the compositor, who gave
the nearest common word without regard to the sense.

_Troilus and Cressida_, Act V. Sc. 1., p. 342.--The disgusting speeches
of Thersites are scarcely worth correcting, much less dwelling upon; but
there can be little doubt that we should read "male _harlot_" for "male
_varlet_;" and "preposterous _discoverers_" (not discolourers) for
"preposterous discoveries."

_Coriolanus_, Act V. Sc. 5., p. 364.:

    "I... holp to reap the fame
     Which he did _ear_ all his."

To _ear_ is to _plough_. Aufidius complains that he had a share in the
harvest, while Coriolanus took all the ploughing to himself. We have
only, however, to transpose _reap_ and _ear_, and this nonsense is at
once converted into excellent sense. The old corrector blindly copied
the blunder of a corrupt, but not sophisticated, manuscript. This has
occurred elsewhere in this collection.

_Antony and Cleopatra_, Act I. Sc. 5., p. 467.:

    "And soberly did mount an _arm-girt_ steed."

This reading was also conjectured by Hanmer. The folios read
_arme-gaunt_. This appears to me a mere misprint for _rampaunt_, but
whether _rampaunt_ was Shakspeare's word, or a transcriber's
sophistication for _ramping_, is more than I can undertake to determine.
I believe, however, that one of them is the true reading. At one period
to _ramp_ and to _prance_ seem to have been synonymous. Spenser makes
the horses of night "fiercely _ramp_," and Surrey exhibits a _prancing_

This communication is, I am afraid, already too long for "N. & Q.;" I
will therefore only add my opinion, that, though the old corrector has
reported many bad readings, they are far outnumbered by the good ones in
the collection.

W. N. L.

_Mr. Collier's "Notes and Emendations:" Passage in "The Winter's
Tale."_--At p. 192. of MR. PAYNE COLLIER'S new volume, he cites a
passage in _The Winter's Tale_, ending--

                    "... I should blush
    To see you so attir'd, sworn, I think
    To show myself a glass."

The MS. emendator, he says, reads _so worn_ for _sworn_; and adds:

    "The meaning therefore is, that Florizel's plain attire was 'so
    worn,' to show Perdita, as in a glass, how simply she ought to
    have been dressed."

Now MR. COLLIER, in this instance, has not, according to his usual
practice, alluded to any commentator who has suggested the same
emendation. The inference would be, that this emendation is a novelty.
This it is not. It has been before the world for thirty-four years, and
its merits have failed to give it currency. At p. 142. of Z. Jackson's
miscalled _Restorations_, 1819, we find this emendation, with the
following note:

    "_So worn_, i. e. _so reduced_, in your external appearance,
    that I should think you intended to remind me of my own
    condition; for, by looking at you thus attired, I behold myself,
    as it were, reflected in a glass, habited in robes becoming my
    obscure birth, and equally obscure fortune."

Jackson's emendations are invariably bad; but whatever may be thought of
the sense of Florizel being _so worn_ (instead of his dress), it is but
fair to give a certain person his due. The passage has long seemed to me
to have this meaning:

    "But that we are acquiescing in a custom, I should blush to see
    you, who are a prince, attired like a swain; and still more
    should I blush to look at myself in the glass, and see a peasant
    girl pranked up like a princess."

_& more_, in MS., might very easily have been mistaken for _sworn_ by
the compositor. Accordingly, I would read the complete passage thus:

                  "... But that our feasts
    In every mess have folly, and the feeders
    Digest it with a custom, I should blush
    To see you so attir'd, and more, I think,
    To show myself a glass."



       *       *       *       *       *


_Alleged Cure for Hydrophobia._--From time to time articles have
appeared in "N. & Q." as to the cure of hydrophobia, a specific for
which seems still to be a desideratum.

In the _Miscellanea Curiosa_ (vol. iii. p. 346.) is a paper on Virginia,
from the Rev. John Clayton, rector of Crofton in Wakefield, in which he
states the particulars of several cures which he had effected of persons
bitten by mad dogs. His principal remedy seems to have been the
"volatile salt of amber" every four hours, and in the intervals, "Spec.
Pleres Archonticon and Rue powdered ana gr. 15." I am not learned enough
to understand what these drugs are called in the modern nomenclature of

C. T. W.

_Epitaph at Mickleton._--The following inscription is copied from a
monument on the north wall of the chancel of Mickleton Church, co.

            "_The Ephitath of John Bonner._

        Heare lyeth in tomed John Bonner by name,
    Sonne of Bonner of Pebworth, from thence he came.
          The :17: of October he ended his daies,
     Pray God that wee leveing may follow his wayes.
                   1618 by the yeare.
      Scarce are such Men to be found in this shere.
          Made and set up by his loveing frend
        Evens his kindesman and [so I] doe end.
      John Bonner, Senior. Thomas Evens, Junior.

The words in brackets are conjectural, the stone at that point being
much corroded.


_Charade attributed to Sheridan._--You have given a place to enigmas in
"N. & Q.," and therefore the following, which has been attributed to R.
B. Sheridan, may be acceptable. Was he the author?

    "There is a spot, say, Traveller, where it lies,
     And mark the clime, the limits, and the size,
     Where grows no grass, nor springs the yellow grain,
     Nor hill nor dale diversify the plain;
     Perpetual green, without the farmer's toil,
     Through all the seasons clothes the favor'd soil,
     Fair pools, in which the finny race abound,
     By human art prepar'd, enrich the ground.
     Not India's lands produce a richer store,
     Pearl, ivory, gold and silver ore.
       Yet, Britons, envy not these boasted climes,
     Incessant war distracts, and endless crimes
     Pollute the soil:--Pale Avarice triumphs there,
     Hate, Envy, Rage, and heart-corroding Care,
     With Fraud and Fear, and comfortless Despair.
     There government not long remains the same,
     Nor they, like us, revere a monarch's name.
     Britons, beware! Let avarice tempt no more;
     Spite of the wealth, avoid the tempting shore;
     The daily bread which Providence has given,
     Eat with content, and leave the rest to heaven."


_Suggested Reprint of Hearne._--It has often occurred to me to inquire
whether an association might not be formed for the republication of the
works edited by Tom Hearne? An attempt was made some years ago by a
bookseller; and, as only Robert of Gloucester and Peter Langtoft
appeared, "Printed for Samuel Bagster, in the Strand, 1810," we must
infer that the spirited publisher was too far in advance of the age, and
that the attempt did not pay. Probably it never would _as a bookseller's
speculation_. But might not a society like the Camden be formed for the
purpose with some probability, in these altered times and by such an
improved method of proceeding, of placing these curious and valuable
volumes once more within reach of men of ordinary means? At present the
works edited by Hearne are rarely to be met with in catalogues, and when
they do occur, the prices are almost fabulous, quite on the scale of
those affixed to ancient MSS.


_Suggestions of Books worthy of being reprinted._--Fabricius,
_Bibliotheca Latina Mediæ et Infimæ Ætatis_, 6 vols. 8vo. (Recommended
in _The Guardian_ newspaper.)

J. M.

_Epigram all the way from Belgium._--Should you think the following
epigram, written in the travellers' book at Hans-sur-Lesse, in Belgium,
worth preserving, it is at your service:

    "Old Euclid may go to the wall,
       For we've solved what he never could guess,
     How the fish in the river are _small_,
       But the river they live in is _Lesse_."

H. A. B.

_Derivation of "Canada."_--I send you a cutting from an old newspaper,
on the derivation of this word:

    "The name of Canada, according to Sir John Barrow, originated in
    the following circumstances. When the Portuguese, under Gasper
    Cortcreal, in the year 1500, first ascended the great river St.
    Lawrence, they believed it was the strait of which they were in
    search, and through which a passage might be discovered into the
    Indian Sea. But on arriving at the point whence they could
    clearly ascertain it was not a strait but a river, they, with
    all the emphasis of disappointed hopes, exclaimed repeatedly
    'Canada!'--Here nothing; words which were remembered and
    repeated by the natives on seeing Europeans arrive in 1534, who
    naturally conjectured that the word they heard employed so often
    must denote the name of the country."


St. Lucia.

_Railway Signals._--An effective communication from the guard to the
engineman, for the prevention of railway accidents, seems to be an
important desideratum, which has hitherto baffled the ingenuity of
philosophers. The only proposed plan likely to be adopted, is that of a
cord passing below the foot-boards, and placing the valve of the steam
whistle under the control of the guard. The trouble attending this
scheme, and the liability to neglect and disarrangement, render its
success doubtful. What I humbly suggest is, that the guard should be
provided with an independent instrument which would produce a sound
sufficiently loud to catch the ear of the engineman. Suppose, for
instance, that the mouth-piece of a clarionet, or the windpipe of a
duck, or a metallic imitation, were affixed to the muzzle of an air-gun,
and the condensed air discharged through the confined aperture; a shrill
sound would be emitted. Surely, then, a small instrument might be
contrived upon this principle, powerful enough to arrest the attention
of the engineer, if not equal to the familiar shriek of the present

It is hoped that this hint will be followed up; that your publication
will sustain its character by thus providing a medium of
intercommunication for these worthies, who can respectively lay claim to
the titles of men of science and men of _letters_, and that some
experimenter "when found will make a _note_"--a stunning one.

T. C.

_A Centenarian Trading Vessel._--There is a small smack now trading in
the Bristol Channel, in excellent condition and repair, and likely to
last for many years, called the "Fanny," which was built in 1753. This
vessel belongs to Porlock, in the port of Bridgewater, and was
originally built at Aberthaw in South Wales. Can any of your readers
refer to any other _trading_ vessel so old as this?


       *       *       *       *       *



At what place, and by what bishop, was he ordained, in 1661? His
ordination probably took place in the diocese of Oxford, London,
Winchester, or Worcester. The discovery of it has hitherto baffled much

Jon Ken, an elder brother of the Bishop, was Treasurer of the East India
Company in 1683. Where can anything be learned of him? Is there any
mention of him in the books of the East India Company? Was he the Ken
mentioned in Roger North's _Lives of the Norths_, as one of the
court-rakes? When did he die, and where was he buried? This Jon Ken
married Rose, the daughter of Sir Thomas Vernon, of Coleman Street, and
by her is said (by Hawkins) to have had a daughter, married to the
Honorable Christopher Frederick Kreienberg, Hanoverian Resident in
London. Did M. Kreienberg die in this country, or can anything be
ascertained of him or his wife?

The Bishop wrote to James II. a letter of intercession on behalf of the
rebels in 1685. Can this letter be found in the State-Paper Office, or

In answer to a sermon preached by Bishop Ken, on 5th May, 1687, one F.
I. R., designating himself "a most loyal Irish subject of the _Company
of Jesuits_," wrote some "Animadversions." Could this be the "fath. Jo.
Reed," a _Benedictine_, mentioned in the Life of A. Wood, under date of
July 21, 1671? Father Reed was author of _Votiva Tabula_. Can any one
throw any light on this?

J. J. J.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Canute's Reproof to his Courtiers._--Opposite the Southampton Docks, in
the Canute Road, is the Canute Hotel, with this inscription in front:
"Near this spot, A.D. 1028, Canute reproved his courtiers." The building
is of very recent date.

Query, Is there any and what authority for the statement?


_The Sign of the Cross in the Greek Church._--The members of the Greek
Church sign themselves with the sign of the cross in a different manner
from those of the Western Church. What is the difference?

J. C. B.

_Reverend Richard Midgley, Vicar of Rochdale, temp. Eliz._--Dr. T. D.
Whitaker mentions, in a note in his _Life of Sir George Radcliffe,
Knt._, p. 4., 4to. 1810, that at an obscure inn in North Wales he once
met with a very interesting account of Midgley in a collection of lives
of pious persons, {381} made about the time of Charles I.; but adds,
that he had forgotten the title, and had never since been able to obtain
the book. Can any reader of "N. & Q." identify this "collection," or
furnish any particulars of Midgley not recorded by Brook, Calamy, or

F. R. R.

_Huet's Navigations of Solomon._--Can you or any of your readers inform
me if the treatise referred to in the accompanying extract was ever
published? and, if so, what was the result as to the assertions there

_The History of the Commerce and Navigation of the Ancients. Written in
French by Monsieur Huet, Bishop of Avranches. Made English from the
Paris Edition. London: Printed for B. Lintot, between the Temple Gates,
in Fleet Street, and Mears, at the Lamb, without Temple Bar._ 1717.

    "2dly. It is here we must lay down the most important remark, in
    point of commerce; and I shall undeniably establish the truth of
    it in a treatise which I have begun concerning the navigations
    of Solomon, that the Cape of Good Hope was known, often
    frequented, and doubled in Solomon's time, and so it was
    likewise for many years after; and that the Portuguese, to whom
    the glory of this discovery has been attributed, were not the
    first that found out this place, but mere secondary
    discoverers."--P. 20.



_Sheriff of Worcestershire in 1781._--Will any one of your
correspondents inform me who was sheriff of Worcestershire in the year
1781*, and give his arms, stating the source of his knowledge on these
points, to much oblige


    [* John Darke of Breedon, Esq. See Nash's _Worcestershire_,
    Supplement, p. 102.--ED.]

_Tree of the Thousand Images._--Father Huc, in his journey to Thibet,
gives an account of a singular tree, bearing this title, and of which
the peculiarity is that its leaves and bark are covered with
well-defined characters of the Thibetian alphabet. The tree seen by MM.
Huc and Gabet appeared to them to be of great {385} age, and is said by
the inhabitants to be the only one of its kind known in the country.
According to the account given by these travellers, the letters would
appear to be formed by the veins of the leaves; the resemblance to
Thibetian characters was such as to strike them with astonishment, and
they were inclined at first to suspect fraud, but, after repeated

observations, arrived at the conclusion that none existed. Do botanists
know or conjecture anything about this tree?

C. W. G.

_De Burgh Family._--I shall feel much obliged for references to the
early seals of the English branch of the family of De Burgh, descended
from Harlowen De Burgh, and Arlotta, mother of William the Conqueror,
especially of that English branch whose armorial bearings were--Or a
cross gules: also for information whether the practice, in reference to
the spelling of names, was such as to render _Barow_, of the latter part
of the fifteenth century, Aborough some fifty years afterwards.

E. D. B.

_Witchcraft Sermons at Huntingdon._--In an article on Witchcraft in the
_Retrospective Review_ (vol. v. p. 121.), it is stated that, in 1593--

    "An old man, his wife and daughter, were accused of bewitching
    the five children of a Mr. Throgmorton, several servants, the
    lady of Sir Samuel Cromwell, and other persons.... They were
    executed, and their goods, which were of the value of forty
    pounds, being escheated to Sir S. Cromwell, as lord of the
    manor, he gave the amount to the mayor and aldermen of
    Huntingdon, for a rent-charge of forty shillings yearly, to be
    paid out of their town lands, for an annual lecture upon the
    subject of witchcraft, to be preached at their town every
    Lady-Day, by a doctor or bachelor of divinity, of Queen's
    College, Cambridge."

Is this sum yet paid, and the sermon still preached, or has it fallen
into disuse now that it is unpopular to believe in witchcraft and
diabolic possession? Have any of the sermons been published?


Bottesford, Kirton in Lindsey.

_Consort._--A former correspondent applied for a notice of Mons.
Consort, said to have been a mystical impostor similar to the famous
Cagliostro. I beg to renew the same inquiry.

A. N.

_Creole._--This word is variously represented in my Lexicons. Bailey
says, "The descendant of an European, born in America," and with him
agree the rest, with the exception of the _Metropolitana_; that
Encyclopædia gives the meaning, "The descendant of an European and an
American Indian." A friend advocating the first meaning derives the word
from the Spanish. Another friend, in favour of the second meaning,
derives it originally from ~kerannumi~, _to mix_; which word is
fetched, perhaps far-fetched, from ~keras~, the horn in which
liquors are _mixed_. Light on this word would be acceptable.


_Shearman Family._--Is there a family named _Shearman_ or _Sherman_ in
Yorkshire, or in the city of York? What are their arms? Is there any
record of any of that family settling in Ireland, in the county or city
of Kilkenny, about the middle of the seventeenth century, or at an
earlier period in Cork? Are there any genealogical records of them? Was
Robert Shearman, warden of the hospital of St. Cross in Winchester, of
that family? Was Roger Shearman, who signed the Declaration {382} of
American Independence, a member of same? Is there any record of three
brothers, Robert, Oliver, and Francis Shearman, coming to England in the
army of William the Conqueror?



_Traitors' Ford._--There is a place called Traitors' Ford on the borders
of Warwickshire and Oxfordshire, near the source of the little river
Stour, about two miles from the village of Whichford, in the former
county. What is the origin of the name? There is no notice of it in
Dugdale's _Warwickshire_, nor is it mentioned in the older maps of the
county of Warwick. The vicinity to the field of Edge-Hill would lead one
to suppose it may be connected with some event of the period of the
Civil Wars.


"_Your most obedient humble Servant._"--In Beloe's _Anecdotes of
Literature_, vol. ii. p. 93., mention is made of a poem entitled _The
Historie of Edward the Second, surnamed Carnarvon_. The author, Sir
Francis Hubert, in 1629, when closing the dedication of this poem to his
brother, Mr. Richard Hubert, thus remarks:

    "And so, humbly desiring the Almighty to blesse you both in
    soule, body, and estate, I rest not your _servant_, according to
    the _new_, and fine, but false phrase of the time, but in honest
    old English, your loving brother and true friend for ever."

Query, At what time, and with whom did this very common and most
unmeaning term in English correspondence have its origin?

W. W.


_Version of a Proverb._--What, and where to be found, is the true
version of "Qui facit per alium, facit per se?"


_Ellis Walker._--Can any reader of "N. & Q." give any information as to
Ellis Walker, who made a _Poetical Paraphrase of the Enchiridion of
Epictetus_? He dedicates it to "his honoured uncle, Mr. Samuel Walker of
York," and speaks of having taken Epictetus for his companion when he
fled from the "present troubles in Ireland." My edition is printed in
London, 1716, but of what edition is not mentioned; but I presume the
work to have been of earlier date, probably in 1690-1, as indeed I find
it to have been, by inserted addresses to the author, of date in the
latter year. Any information as to the translator will oblige.

A. B. R.


"_The Northerne Castle._"--Pepys, in his _Diary_, 14th September, 1667,
says, "To the King's playhouse, to see _The Northerne Castle_, which I
think I never did see before." Is anything known of this play and its
authorship? or was it _The Northern Lass_, by Richard Brome, first
published in 1632? Perhaps Pepys has quoted the second title of some

J. Y.

_Prayer-Book in French._--Can any of your readers give some satisfactory
information respecting the earliest translations of the English
Prayer-Book into French? By whom, when, for whom, were they first made?
Does any copy still exist of one (which I have seen somewhere alluded
to) published before Dean Durel's editions? By what authority have they
been put forth? Is there any information to be found collected by any
writer on this subject?

O. W. J.

_"Navita Erythræum," &c._--Running the risk of being smiled at for my
ignorance, I wish to have a reference to the following lines:

    "Navita Erythræum pavidus qui navigat æquor,
     In proræ et puppis summo resonantia pendet
     Tintinnabula; eo sonitu prægrandia Cete,
     Balenas, et monstra marina a navibus arcet."


_Edmund Burke._--Can any of your correspondents tell me when and where
he was married?

B. E. B.

_Plan of London._--Is there any good plan of London, showing its present
extent? The answer is, None. What is more, there never was a decent plan
of this vast metropolis. There is published occasionally, on a small
sheet of paper, a wretched and disgraceful pretence to one, bedaubed
with paint. Can you explain the cause of this? Every other capital in
Europe has handsome plans, easy to be obtained: nay more, almost every
provincial town, whether in this country or on the Continent, possesses
better engraved and more accurate plans than this great capital can
pretend to. Try and use your influence to get this defect supplied.

L. S. W.

_Minchin._--Could any of your Irish correspondents give me any
information with regard to the sons of Col. Thomas Walcot (c. 1683), or
the families of Minchin and Fitzgerald, co. Tipperary, he would much


       *       *       *       *       *


_Leapor's "Unhappy Father."_--Can you tell me where the scene of this
play, a tragedy by Mary Leapor, is laid, and the names of the _dramatis
personæ_? It is to be found in the second volume of _Poems_, by Mary
Leapor, 8vo. 1751. This authoress was the daughter of a gardener in
Northamptonshire, and the only education she received consisted in being
taught reading and writing. She was born in 1722, and died in 1746, at
the early age of twenty-four. Her poetical {383} merit is commemorated
in the Rev. John Duncombe's poem of the _Feminead_.


    [The scene, a gentleman's country house. The _dramatis personæ_:
    Dycarbas, the unhappy father; Lycander and Polonius, sons of
    Dycarbas, in love with Terentia; Eustathius, nephew of Dycarbas,
    and husband of Emilia; Leonardo, cousin of Eustathius; Paulus,
    servant of Dycarbas; Plynus, servant to Eustathius; Timnus,
    servant to Polonius; Emilia, daughter of Dycarbas; Terentia, a
    young lady under the guardianship of Dycarbas; Claudia, servant
    to Terentia.]

_Meaning of "The Litten" or "Litton."_--This name is given to a small
piece of land, now pasture, inclosed within the moat of the ancient
manor of Marwell, formerly Merewelle, in Hants, once the property of the
see of Winchester. It does not appear to have been ever covered by
buildings. What is the meaning or derivation of the term? Does the name
exist in any other place, as applied to a piece of land situated as the
above-described piece? I have spelt it as pronounced by the bailiff of
the farm.

W. H. G.


   [Junius and Ray derive it from the Anglo-Saxon lictun,
   _coemiterium_, a burying-place. Our correspondent, however, will
   find its etymology discussed in the _Gentleman's Magazine_, vol.
   lxxviii. pp. 216. 303. and 319.]

_St. James' Market House._--In a biography of Richard Baxter, the
Nonconformist divine, about 1671:

    "Mr. Baxter came up to London, and was one of the Tuesday
    lecturers at Pinner's Hall, and a Friday lecturer at Fetter
    Lane; but on Sundays he for some time preached only
    occasionally, and afterwards more statedly in St. James's Market

Where was the Market House situate?

P. T.

    [Cunningham, in his _Handbook of London_, under the head of St.
    James' Market, Jermyn Street, St. James', tells us that "here,
    in a room over the Market House, preached Richard Baxter, the
    celebrated Nonconformist. On the occasion of his first Sermon,
    the main beam of the building cracked beneath the weight of the
    congregation." We recollect the old market and Market House,
    which must have stood on the ground now occupied by Waterloo

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. vii., pp. 108. 268.)

REGINENSIS has been referred by F. R. A. to Drake's _Essays_ for an
account of this journal. Drake's account is, however, very incorrect.
The _Grub Street Journal_ did not terminate, as he states, on the 24th
August, 1732, but was continued in the original folio size to the 29th
Dec., 1737; the last No. being 418., instead of 138., as he incorrectly
gives it. He appears to have supposed that the 12mo. abridgment in two
volumes contained all the essays in the paper; whereas it did not
comprise more than a third of them. He mentions as the principal writers
Dr. Richard Russel and Dr. John Martyn. Budgell, however, in _The Bee_
(February, 1733) says, "The person thought to be at the head of the
paper is Mr. R--l (Russel), a nonjuring clergyman, Mr. P--e (Pope), and
some other gentlemen." Whether Pope wrote in it or not, it seems to have
been used as a vehicle by his friends for their attacks upon his foes,
and the war against the Dunces is carried on with great wit and spirit
in its pages. It is by far the most entertaining of the old newspapers,
and throws no small light upon the literary history of the time. I have
a complete series of the journal in folio, as well as of the
continuation, in a large 4to. form, under the title of _The Literary
Courier of Grub Street_, which commenced January 5, 1738, and appears to
have terminated at the 30th No., on the 27th July, 1738. I never saw
another complete copy. _The Grub Street Journal_ would afford materials
for many curious and amusing extracts. One very entertaining part of it
is the "Domestic News," under which head it gives the various and often
contradictory accounts of the daily newspapers, with a most humorous
running commentary.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. v., p. 122.)

SIR JAMES EMERSON TENNENT, in his learned and curious Note on stone
worship in Ireland, desires information as to the present existence of
worship of stone pillars in Orkney. When he says it continued till a
late period, I suppose he must allude to the standing stone at Stenness,
perforated by a hole, with the sanctity attached to promises confirmed
by the junction of hands through the hole, called the promise of Odin.
Dr. Daniel Wilson enters into this fully in _Præhistoric Annals of
Scotland_, pp. 99, 100, 101. It has been told myself that if a lad and
lass promised marriage with joined hands through the hole, the promise
was held to be binding. Whence the sanctity attached to such a promise I
could not ascertain to be known, and I did not hear of any other
superstition connected with this stone, which was destroyed in 1814. In
the remote island of North Ronaldshay is another standing stone,
perforated by a hole, but there is no superstition of this nature
attached to it. At the Yule time the inhabitants danced about it, and
when there were yule dancings in neighbouring houses, they began the
dancing at the stone, and danced from the stone all the road to what was
called to {384} me the dancing-house. The sword dance, with a great
deal of intricate crossing, and its peculiar simple tune, still exists
in Orkney, but is not danced with swords, though I heard of clubs or
sticks having been substituted. There are found in these islands the two
circles of stones at Stenness, and single standing stones. One of these,
at Swannay in Birsay, is said by tradition to have been raised to mark
the spot where the procession rested when carrying the body of St.

Magnus after his murder in Egilshay in 1110, from that island to
Christ's Kirk in Birsay, where it was first interred. Here is a date and
a purpose. The single standing stones, in accordance with SIR JAMES'S
opinion, and to use nearly his expressions, are said to mark the
burial-places of distinguished men, to commemorate battles and great
events, and to denote boundaries; and these, and still more the circles,
are objects of respect as belonging to ages gone by, but principally
with the educated classes, and there is no superstition remaining with
any. Such a thing as the swathing stone of South Inchkea is not known to
have existed. The stones in the two circles, and the single standing
stones, are all plain; but there was found lately a stone of the
sculptured symbolical class, inserted to form the base of a window in
St. Peter's Kirk, South Ronaldshay, and another of the same class in the
island of Bressay, in Zetland. The first is now in the Museum of
Scottish Antiquaries in Edinburgh; and the Zetland stone, understood to
be very curious, is either there or in Newcastle, and both are forming
the subject of antiquarian inquiry.

W. H. F.

       *       *       *       *       *


(_Continued from_ Vol. vii., p. 255.)

The following are probably trifling, but may be considered worth
recording. Facing the title-page to _The Works of Mr. Alexander Pope_,
London, W. Bowyer, for Bernard Lintot, &c., 1717, 8vo., no date at end
of preface, is in (no doubt) his own hand:

    "To the Right Honorable the Lord Viscount Bolingbroke, from his
    ever-oblig'd, most faithfull, and affectionate servant, ALEX.

Cranmer's _Bible_, title gone, but at end, Maye 1541:

    "This Bible was given to me by my ffather Coke when I went to
    keepe Christmas with him at Holckam, anno Domini 1658. WILL.

Sir William Cobbe of Beverley, York, knight, married Winifred, sixth
daughter of John (fourth son of the chief justice), who was born 9th
May, 1589.

This copy has, before Joshua and Psalms, a page of engravings, being the
"seconde" and "thyrde parte;" also before the New Testament, the
well-known one of Henry VIII. giving the Bible, but the space for
Cromwell's arms is left blank or white. Cromwell was executed July 1540;
but do his arms appear in the 1540 impressions?

Cranmer's quarterings are, 1 and 4, Cranmer; 2, six lions r.; 3, fusils
of Aslacton. In the _Gent. Mag._, vol. lxii. pp. 976. 991., is an
engraving of a stone of Cranmer's father, with the fusils on his right,
and Cranmer on his left. The note at p. 991. calls the birds cranes, but
states that Glover's Yorkshire and other pedigrees have pelicans; and
Southey (_Book of the Church_, ii. p. 97.) states that Henry VIII.
altered the cranes to pelicans, telling him that he, like them, should
be ready to shed his blood. The engraving, however, clearly represents
drops of blood falling, and those in the Bible appear to be pelicans

This Bible has the days of the month in MS. against the proper psalms,
and where a leaf has been repaired, "A.D. 1608, per me Davidem Winsdon

A. C.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., pp. 107. 307.)

I think I can supply I. E. with another example of the application of
this name to a place. A few miles east or south-east of Exeter, on the
borders of a waste tract of down extending from Woodbury towards the
sea, there is a village which is spelt on the ordnance map, and is
commonly called, _Greendale_. In strictness there are, I believe, two
Greendales, an upper and a lower Greendale. A small stream, tributary to
the Clyst river, flows past them.

Now this place formerly belonged to the family of Aumerle, or Alba
Marla, as part of the manor of Woodbury. From that family it passed to
William Briwere, the founder of Tor Abbey, and was by him made part of
the endowment of that monastery in the reign of Richard I. In the two
cartularies of that house, of which abstracts will be found in Oliver's
_Monasticon_, there are many instruments relating to this place, which
is there called Grendel, Grindel, and Gryndell. In none of them does the
name of Greendale occur, which appears to be a very recent form. Even
Lysons, in his _Devonshire_, does not seem to be aware of this mode of
spelling it, but always adopts one of the old ways of writing the word.

I have not seen the spot very lately, but, according to the best of my
recollection, it has not now any feature in keeping with the
mythological character of the fiend of the moor and fen. The
neighbouring district of down and common land would not be an
inappropriate habitat for such a personage. It has few trees of any
pretension to age, and is still covered in great part with a dark and
scanty vegetation, which is sufficiently dreary except at those seasons
when the brilliant colours of the blooming heath and dwarf furze give it
an aspect of remarkable beauty.

Whether the present name of Greendale be a mere corruption of the
earliest name, or be not, in fact, a restoration of it to its original
meaning, is a matter which I am not prepared to discuss. As a general
rule, a sound etymologist will not hastily desert an obvious and trite
explanation to go in search of a more recondite import. He will not have
recourse to the devil for the solution of a _nodus_, till he has
exhausted more legitimate sources of assistance.

The "N. & Q." have readers nearer to the spot in question than I am, who
may, perhaps, be able to throw some light on the subject, and inform us
whether Greendale still possesses the trace of any of those natural
features which would justify the demoniacal derivation proposed by I. E.
It must not, however, be forgotten that three centuries and a half of
laborious culture bestowed upon the property by the monks of Tor, must
have gone far to exorcise and reclaim it.

E. S.

Some years ago I asked the meaning of _Grindle_ or _Grundle_, as applied
to a deep, narrow watercourse at Wattisfield in Suffolk. The Grundle
lies between the high road and the "Croft," adjoining a mansion which
once belonged to the Abbots of Bury. The clear and rapid water was
almost hidden by brambles and underwood; and the roots of a row of fine
trees standing in the Croft were washed bare by its winter fury. The
bank on that side was high and broken; the bed of the Grundle I observed
to lie above the surface of the road, on the opposite side of which the
ground rises rapidly to the table land of clay. My fancy instantly
suggested a river flowing through this hollow, and the idea was
strengthened by the appearance of the landscape. The village stands on
irregular ground, descending by steep slopes into narrow valleys and
contracted meadows. I can well imagine that water was an enemy or
"fiend" to the first settlers, and I was told that in winter the Grundle
is still a roaring brook.

I find I have a Note that "in Charters, places bearing the name Grendel
are always connected with water."

F. C. B.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 332.)

MR. ELLACOMBE will find some account of this personage, who was Prior of
Kilmainham, and for several years served the office of Lord Justice of
Ireland, in Holinshed's _Chronicles of Ireland_, sub anno 1325, _et
seq._: also in "The Annals of Ireland," in the second volume of Gibson's
_Camden_, 3rd edition, sub eod. anno. He was nearly related to the lady
Alice Kettle, and her son William Utlawe, al. Outlaw; against whom that
singular charge of sorcery was brought by Richard Lederede, Bishop of
Ossory. The account of this charge is so curious that, for the benefit
of those readers of "N. & Q." who may not have the means of referring to
the books above cited, I am tempted to extract it from Holinshed:

    "In these daies lived, in the Diocese of Ossorie, the Ladie
    Alice Kettle, whome the Bishop ascited to purge hir selfe of the
    fame of inchantment and witchcraft imposed unto hir, and to one
    Petronill and Basill, hir complices. She was charged to have
    nightlie conference with a spirit called Robin Artisson, to
    whome she sacrificed in the high waie nine red cocks, and nine
    peacocks' eies. Also, that she swept the streets of Kilkennie
    betweene compleine and twilight, raking all the filth towards
    the doores of hir sonne William Outlaw, murmuring and muttering
    secretlie with hir selfe these words:

    "'To the house of William my sonne
     Hie all the wealth of Kilkennie towne.'

    "At the first conviction, they abjured and did penance; but
    shortlie after, they were found in relapse, and then was
    Petronill burnt at Kilkennie: the other twaine might not be
    heard of. She, at the hour of hir death, accused the said
    William as privie to their sorceries, whome the bishop held in
    durance nine weeks; forbidding his keepers to eat or to drinke
    with him, or to speake to him more than once in the daie. But at
    length, thorough the sute and instance of Arnold le Powre, then
    seneschall of Kilkennie, he was delivered, and after corrupted
    with bribes the seneschall to persecute the bishop: so that he
    thrust him into prison for three moneths. In rifling the closet
    of the ladie, they found a wafer of sacramentall bread, having
    the divel's name stamped thereon insteed of Jesus Christ's; and
    a pipe of ointment, wherewith she greased a staffe, upon which
    she ambled and gallopped thorough thicke and thin when and in
    what maner she listed. This businesse about these witches
    troubled all the state of Ireland the more; for that the ladie
    was supported by certeine of the nobilitie, and lastlie conveied
    over into England; since which time it could never be understood
    what became of hir."

Roger Outlawe, the Prior of Kilmainham, was made Lord Justice for the
first time in 1327. The Bishop of Ossory was then seeking his revenge on
Arnold le Powre, for he had given information against him as being--

    "Convented and convicted in his consistorie of certeine
    hereticall opinions; but because the beginning of Powres
    accusation concerned the justice's kinsman, and the bishop was
    mistrusted to prosecute his owne wrong, and the person of the
    man, rather than the fault, a daie was limited for the
    justifieing of the bill, the partie being apprehended and
    respited thereunto. This dealing the bishop (who durst not
    stirre out of {386} Kilkennie to prosecute his accusation) was
    reputed parciall: and when by meanes hereof the matter hanged in
    suspense, he infamed the said prior as an abettor and favourer
    of Arnold's heresie. The Prior submitted himselfe to the trial."

Proclamation was made, "That it should be lawful for anie man ... to
accuse, &c. the Lord Justice; but none came." In the end, six
inquisitors were appointed to examine the bishops and other persons, and

    "All with universal consent deposed for the Prior, affirming
    that (to their judgements) he was a zelous and a faithfull child
    of the Catholike Church. In the meane time, Arnold le Powre, the
    prisoner, deceased in the castell; and because he stood
    unpurged, long he laie unburied."

In 1332, William Outlawe is said to have been Prior of Kilmainham, and
lieutenant of John Lord Darcie, Lord Justice.

This Bishop of Ossorie, Richard Lederede, was a minorite of London: he
had a troubled episcopate, and was long in banishment in England. I have
met with his name in the Register of Adam de Orlton, Bishop of
Winchester, where he is recorded as assisting that prelate in some of
his duties, A.D. 1336. He died however peaceably in his see, and was a
benefactor to his cathedral. (See Ware's _History of Ireland_.)

W. H. G.


    [It may be added, that much information respecting both Roger
    Outlawe and the trial of Alice Kyteler would be found in the
    interesting volume published by the Camden society in 1842,
    under the editorship of Mr. Wright, entitled _Proceedings
    against Dame Alice Kyteler, prosecuted for Sorcery in 1324_.]

Your correspondent H. T. ELLACOMBE asks who this Roger Outlawe was, and
expresses his surprise that a prior of a religious house should "sit as
_locum tenens_ of a judge in a law court."

But the words "tenens locum Johannis Darcy le cosyn justiciarii
Hiberniæ" do not imply that Outlawe sat as _locum tenens_ of a judge in
a law court. For this Sir John Darcy was Lord Justice, or Lord
Lieutenant (as we would now say), of Ireland, and Roger Outlawe was his
_locum tenens_.

Nothing, however, was more common at that period than for ecclesiastics
to be judges in law courts; and it happens that this very Roger was Lord
Chancellor of Ireland in 1321 to 1325, and again, 1326--1330: again,
1333: again (a fourth time), 1335: and a fifth time in 1339: for even
then, as now, we were cursed in Ireland by perpetual changes of
administration and of law officers, so that we have scarcely had any
uniform practice, and our respect for law has been proportionally small.

Sir John Darcy was Lord Justice, or Lord Lieutenant, in 1322, in 1324,
in 1328 (in which year Roger Outlawe was his _locum tenens_ during his
absence), in 1322, and on to 1340.

Roger Outlawe was Lord Justice, either in his own right or as _locum
tenens_ for others, in 1328, 1330, and 1340, in which last year he died
in office. His death is thus recorded in Clyn's _Annals_ (edited by Dean
Butler for the Irish Archæological Society), p. 29.:

    "Item die Martis, in crastino beatæ Agathæ virginis, obiit
    frater Rogerus Outlawe, prior hospitalis in Hibernia, apud Any,
    tunc locum justiciarii tenens: et etiam Cancellarius Domini
    Regis, trium simul functus officio. Vir prudens et graciosus,
    qui multas possessiones, ecclesias, et redditus ordini suo
    adquisivit sua industria, et regis Angliæ gratia speciali et

To this day, in the absence of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, _Lords
Justices_ are appointed.


Trin. Coll., Dublin.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. v., pp. 25. 65.; Vol. vii., p. 341.)

I am obliged to DR. RIMBAULT for noticing, what had escaped me, that
this Prospectus has been reprinted in the _Censura Literaria_, vol. vi.
p. 352. With respect to my ground for attributing it to Johnson, it
will, I think, be obvious enough to any one who reads my remarks, that
it was on the internal evidence alone, on which, as every one is aware,
many additions have been made to his acknowledged compositions. Your
correspondent C., with whom I always regret to differ, is so far at
variance with me as to state it as his opinion that "nothing can be less
like Johnson's peculiar style," and refers me to a note, with which I
was perfectly familiar, to show--but which I must say I cannot see that
it does in the slightest degree--"that it is impossible that Johnson
could have written this Prospectus." Another correspondent, whose
communication I am unable immediately to refer to, likewise recorded his
dissent from my conclusion. Next follows DR. RIMBAULT, whom I understand
to differ from me also, and who says (but where is the authority for the
statement?) "Haslewood believed it to have been the production of
Messrs. Cibber and Shields." I have every respect for Haslewood as a
diligent antiquary, but I confess I do not attach much weight to his
opinion on a question of critical taste or nice discrimination of style.
I had, as I have observed, assigned the Prospectus to Dr. Johnson on the
internal evidence alone; but since it appeared in "N. & Q." I have
become aware of an important corroboration of my opinion in a copy of
Cibber's _Lives_ which formerly belonged to Isaac Reed, and which I have
recently purchased. At the beginning of the first volume he has pasted
in the Prospectus, and under it is the following note in his {387}
handwriting: "The above advertisement was written or revised by Dr.
Johnson.--J. R." Reed's general correctness and capacity of judging in
literary matters are too well known to render it necessary for me to
enlarge upon them; and with this support I am quite content to leave the
point in issue between your correspondents and myself to the decision of
that part of your readers who take an interest in similar literary

It will be observed that I have confined myself in my remarks to the
Prospectus exclusively. The authorship of the _Lives_ themselves is
another question, and a very curious one, and not, by any means, as your
correspondent C. appears to think, "settled." Perhaps I may, on a future
occasion, trouble you with some remarks upon the _Lives_ in detail,
endeavouring to assign the respective portions to the several


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 23.)

As I consider that the true origin of _pic-nic_ remains yet to be
discovered, permit me to try and trace the word through France into
Italy, and to endeavour to show that the land with the "fatal gift of
beauty" was its birthplace; and that when the Medici married into
France, the august ladies probably imported, together with fans, gloves,
and poisons, a pastime which, under the name of _pique-nique_, became,
as Leroux says in his _Dictionnaire Comique_, "un divertissement fort à
la mode à Paris."

I will not occupy space by quoting the article "at length" from Leroux,
but the substance is this:--Persons of quality, of both sexes, who
wished to enjoy themselves, and feast together, either in the open air
or in the house of one of the number, imposed upon each one the task of
bringing some particular article, or doing some particular duty in
connexion with the feast. And to show how stringent was the expression
_pique-nique_ in imposing a specific task, Leroux quotes "considérant
que chacun avait besoin de ses pièces, prononça un _arrêt_ de
pique-nique." (_Rec. de Pièc. Com._)

Thus, I think Leroux and also Cotgrave show that the word _pique-nique_
involves the idea of a task, or particular office, undertaken by each
individual for the general benefit.

Let us now go to Italian, and look at the word _nicchia_. Both from
Alberti and from Baretti we find it to bear the meaning of "a charge, a
duty, or an employment;" and if before this word we place the adjective
_piccola_, we have _piccola nicchia_, "a small task, or trifling service
to be performed." Now I think no one can fail to see the identity of the
_meanings_ of the expressions _piccola nicchia_ and _pique-nique_; but
it remains to show how the words themselves may be identical. Those who
have been in the habit of reading much of the older Italian authors
(subsequent to Boccacio) will bear me out in my statement of the
frequency of contraction of words in familiar use: the plays,
particularly, show it, from the dialogues in Machiavelli or Goldoni to
the libretto of a modern opera; so much as to render it very probable
that _piccola nicchia_ might stand as _picc' nicc'_, just as we
ourselves have been in the habit of degrading _scandalum magnatum_ into
_scan. mag._ It only remains now to carry this _picc' nicc'_ into
France, and, according to what is usual in Gallicising Italian words, to
change the _c_ or _ch_ into _que_, to have what I started with, viz. the
_divertissement_ concerning which Leroux enlarges, and in which, I am
afraid, it may be said I have followed his example.

However, I consider the _Decameron_ of Boccacio as a probable period
where the temporary queen of the day would impose the _arrêt_ of
_pique-nique_ upon her subjects; and when I look over the engravings of
the manners and customs of the Italians of the Middle Ages, all
indicating the frequency of the _al fresco_ banquets, and find that
subsequently Watteau and Lancret revel in similar amusements in France,
where the personages of the _fête_ manifestly wear Italian-fashioned
garments; and when we are taught that such parties of pleasure were
called _pique-niques_, I think it is fair to infer that the expression
is a Gallicised one from an Italian phrase of the same signification.

I do not know if it will be conceded that I have proved my case
_positively_, but I might go so far _negatively_ as to show that in no
other European language can I find any word or words which, having a
similar sound, will bear an analysis of adaptation; and though there is
every probability that the custom of _pic-nic_ing obtained in preference
in the sunny south, there are few, I think, that would rush for an
explanation into the Eastern languages, on the plea that the Crusaders,
being in the habit of _al fresco_ banquetting, might have brought home
the expression _pic-nic_.


Washwood, Birmingham.

This word would seem to be derived from the French. Wailly, in his
_Nouveau Vocabulaire_, describes it as "repas où chacun paye son écot,"
a feast towards which each guest contributes a portion of the expense.
Its etymology is thus explained by Girault-Duvivier, in his _Grammaire
des Grammaires_:

    "_Pique-nique_, plur. des _pique-nique_: des repas où ceux qui
    _piquent_, qui _mangent_, font signe de la tête qu'ils paieront.

    "Les Allemands, dit M. Lemare, ont aussi leur _picknick_, qui a
    le même sens que le nôtre. _Picken_ signifie _piquer_,
    _becqueter_, et _nicken_ signifie _faire signe de la {388} tête_.
    _Pique-nique_ est donc, comme _passe-passe_, un composé de deux
    verbes; Il est dans l'analogie de cette phrase, 'Qui touche,


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. iii., p. 38.)

Your correspondent's inquiry with respect to the missing MSS. of Peter
Sterry, which were intended to form a second volume of his posthumous
works, published without printer's name in 1710, 4to., and of which MSS.
a list is given in vol. i., does not seem to have led to any result. As
I feel equal interest with himself in every production of Sterry, I am
tempted again to repeat the Query, in the hope of some discovery being
made of these valuable remains. I have no doubt the editor of the
"Appearance of God to Man," and the other discourses printed in the
first volume, was R. Roach, who edited Jeremiah White's _Persuasion to
Moderation_, Lond., 1708, 8vo.; and afterwards published _The Great
Crisis_, and _The Imperial Standard of Messiah Triumphant_, 1727, 8vo.;
and probably Sterry's MSS. may be found if Roach's papers can be traced.
It is curious that a similar loss of MSS. seems to have occurred with
regard to several of the works of Jeremiah White, who, like Sterry, was
a chaplain of Cromwell (how well that great man knew how to select
them!), and, like Sterry, was of that admirable Cambridge theological
school which Whichcot, John Smith, and Cudworth have made so renowned.
Neither of these distinguished men have yet, that I am aware of, found
their way into any biographical dictionary. White is slightly noticed by
Calamy (vol. ii. p. 57.; vol. iv. p. 85.). Sterry, it appears, died on
Nov. 19, 1672. White survived him many years, and died in the
seventy-eighth year of his age, 1707. Of the latter, there is an
engraved portrait; of the former, none that I know of; nor am I aware of
the burial-place of either. The works which I have met with of Sterry
are his seven sermons preached before Parliament, &c., and published in
different years; his _Rise, Race, and Royalty of the Kingdom of God in
the Soul of Man_, 1683, 4to.; his _Discourse of the Freedom of the Will_
(a title which does not by any means convey the character of the book),
Lond., 1675, fol.; and the 4to. before mentioned, being vol. i. of his
_Remains_, published in 1710. Of White I only knew a Funeral Sermon on
Mr. Francis Fuller; his _Persuasion to Moderation_, above noticed, which
is an enlargement of part of his preface to Sterry's _Rise, &c._; and
his _Treatise on the Restoration of all Things_, 1712, 8vo., which has
recently been republished by Dr. Thom. To his _Persuasion_ is appended
an advertisement:

    "There being a design of publishing the rest of Mr. White's
    works, any that have either Letters or other Manuscripts of his
    by them are desired to communicate them to Mr. John Tarrey,
    distiller, at the Golden Fleece, near Shadwick Dock."

This design, with the exception of the publication of _The Restoration_,
seems to have proved abortive. White entertained many opinions in common
with Sterry, which he advocates with great power. He does not however,
like his fellow chaplain, soar into the pure empyrean of theology with
unfailing pinions. Sterry has frequently sentences which Milton might
not have been ashamed to own. His _Discourse of the Freedom of the Will_
is a noble performance, and the preface will well bear a comparison with
Cudworth's famous sermon on the same subject.


       *       *       *       *       *


_Colouring Collodion Portraits._--I shall be obliged if any brother
photographer will kindly inform me, through the medium of "N. & Q.," the
best method of colouring collodion portraits and views in a style
similar to the hyalotypes shown at the Great Exhibition.

We country photographers are much indebted to DR. DIAMOND for the
valuable information we have obtained through his excellent papers in
"N. & Q.," and perceiving he is shortly about to give us the benefit of
his experience in a compact form, under the modest title of
_Photographic Notes_, I suggest that, if one of his Notes should contain
the best method of colouring collodion proofs, so as to render them
applicable for dissolving views, &c., he will be conferring a benefit on
many of your subscribers; and, as one of your oldest, allow me to
subscribe myself


_On some Points in the Collodion Process._--In your impression of this
day's date (Vol. vii., p. 363.), the Rev. J. L. SISSON desires the
opinion of other photographers relative to lifting the plate with the
film of collodion up and down several times in the bath of nit. silv.
solution; and as my experience on this point is diametrically opposed to
his own, I venture to state it with the view of eliciting a discussion.

The _evenness_ of the film is not at all dependent upon this practice;
but its sensibility to light appears to be considerably increased.

The plate, after being plunged in, should be allowed to repose quietly
from twenty to thirty minutes, _and then rapidly_ slid in and out
several times, until the liquid flows off in one continuous and even
_sheet_ of liquid; and this also has a beneficial effect in washing off
any little particles of collodion, dust, oxide, or any foreign matter
which, if adherent, would form centres of chemical action, and cause
spottiness in the negative.

I find that the plate is more sensitive also, if not exposed before all
the exciting fluid that can be _drained off_ is got rid of; that is,
while still quite moist, but without any _flowing_ liquid.

As to redipping the plate before development, it is, I believe, _in
general_ useless; but when the plate has got _very_ dry it may be dipped
again, but should be then _well drained_ before the developing solution
is applied.

MR. F. MAXWELL LYTE (p. 364.) quotes the price of the purest iodide of
potassium at 1s. 3d. per oz. I should be glad to know where it can
be obtained, as I find the price constantly varies, and upon the last
occasion I paid 4s. per oz., and I think never less than 1s. 8d.

MR. L. MERRITT will probably succeed in applying the cement for a glass
bath thus:--Place the pieces of glass upon wood of any kind in an oven
with the door open until he can only just handle them; then, with a roll
of the cement, melting the end in the flame of a spirit-lamp, apply it
as if for sealing a letter. This should be done as quickly as possible.
The glasses may then be passed over the flame of the lamp (in contact
with it), so as to raise the temperature, until the cement is quite soft
and nearly boiling (this can be done without heating the parts near the
fingers); and while hot the two separate pieces should be applied by
putting one down on a piece of wood covered with flannel, and pressing
the other with any wooden instrument: metal in contact would cause an
instantaneous fracture.

MR. MERRITT's difficulty with the developing solutions depends most
probably in the case of the pyrogallic acid mixture not having enough
acetic acid. The protonitrate of iron, if made according to DR.
DIAMOND's formula, does _not_ require any acetic acid, and flows quite
readily; but the protosulphate solution requires a bath, and the same
solution may be used over and over again.


London, April 9, 1853.

_Economical Iodizing Process._--MR. MAXWELL LYTE is probably as good a
judge as myself, as to where any weak point or difficulty is found in
iodizing paper with the carbonate of potass: if any chemical is likely
to be the cause of unusual activity, it is the carbonic acid, and not
the cyanide of potash. I still continue to use that formula, and have
not iodized paper with any other: though I have made some variations
which may perhaps be of use. I found that the nitrate of potash is
almost the same in its effects as the carbonate. I would as soon use the
one as the other; but the state I conceive to be the most effective, is
the diluted liquor potassæ: that would be with iodine about the same
state as the iodide of potash, but hitherto I have not tried it, though
mean to do so.

I am not quite certain as to whether, theoretically, this position is
right; but I find in iodide of potash, and in the above formula, that
the iodine is absorbed in greater quantities by the silver, than the
alkaline potash by the nitric acid. Thus, by using a solution for some
time, it will at last contain but very little iodine at all, and not
enough for the purpose of the photographer; hence it requires renewing.
And I have lately observed that paper is much more effective, in every
way, if it is floated on free iodine twice before it is used in the
camera, viz. once when it is made, and again when it is dry: the last
time containing a little bromine water and glacial acetic acid. It
appears to me that the paper will absorb its proper dose of iodine
better when dry, and the glacial acetic acid will set free any small
amount of alkaline potash there may be on the surface; so that it will
not embrown on applying gallic acid. By using the ammonio-nitrate of
silver in iodizing, and proceeding as above, I find it all I can wish as
far as regards the power of my camera. With this paper I can use an
aperture of half an inch diameter, and take anything in the shade and
open air in five or six minutes, in the sun in less time. The yellow
colour also comes off better in the hypo. sulph.

I think MR. MAXWELL LYTE has made a mistake as to the price he quotes:
about here I cannot get any iodide of potash under 2s. per ounce, and
the five grains to the ounce added to the common dose of nitrate of
silver is hardly worth speaking of; it would amount, in fact, to about
fifteen grains in a quire of Whatman's paper,--no great hardship,
because many use much higher doses of silver for iodizing; forty grains
to the ounce is not uncommonly used, but I believe twenty-five grains
quite enough.

I presume, in SIR WM. NEWTON's mode of treating positives, the acid of
the alum decomposes the alkali of the hypo. sulph. And it would be, I
suppose, better for the picture, if its state were entirely neutral when
put away or framed; but if alum is added, acid must remain, since SIR
WM. says it combines with the size. What I should imagine is, that the
idea is good; but experience can only decide if the picture is better
put away in an acid condition. I should think there are more available
acids for the purpose, for alum has an injurious effect upon colour; and
a positive is nothing but colour, the organic matter of the paper
stained as it were by the silver: for, after all its washings and
application of re-agents, no silver can possibly remain in the paper.
The safest state therefore of putting away ought to be ascertained and
decided upon; as it is no use doing them if they fade, or even lose
their tones.


N.B.--The iodized ammonio-nitrate paper will not bear exposure to the
sun; it will keep any {390} length of time, but should be kept in a
paper, and away from any considerable degree of light.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Bishop Juxon's Account of Vendible Books in England_ (Vol. vi., pp.
515. 592.).--The following note in Wilson's _History of the Merchant
Taylors' School_, p. 783., solves the Query respecting the authorship of
this bibliographical work.

    "_The Catalogue of Books in England alphabetically digested_,
    printed at London, 1658, 4to., is ascribed to Bishop Juxon in
    Osborne's _Catalogue_ for 1755, p. 40. But, as Mr. Watts, the
    judicious librarian of Sion College, has observed to me, this is
    no authority, the Epistle Dedicatory bearing internal evidence
    against it. The author's name was _William London_, whence arose
    the mistake!"



_Dutensiana_ (Vol. vi., p. 376.; Vol. vii., p. 26.).--The following
statement, extracted from Quérard's _France Littéraire_, sub voce
Dutens, will account for the discrepancies mentioned by your
correspondents with reference to the works of Louis Dutens.

Dutens published three volumes of _Memoirs_, which he afterwards
committed to the flames, out of consideration for certain living
characters. He then published, in three volumes, his _Mémoires d'un
Voyageur qui se repose_, the two first containing the author's life, and
the third being the _Dutensiana_.

Your correspondent W. (Vol. vi., p. 376.) says that Dutens published at
Geneva, in six volumes 4to., with prefaces, the entire works of
Leibnitz. This statement is thus qualified by the _Biographie

    "L. Dutens est l'Editeur de _Leibnitii opera omnia_, mais c'est
    à tort que quelques bibliographes lui attribuent les
    _Institutions Leibnitiennes_. Cet ouvrage est de l'Abbé

The same correspondent inquires whether Dutens was not also the author
of _Correspondence inteceptée_: and SIR W. C. TREVELYAN (Vol. vii., p.
26.) says he had seen a presentation copy of it, although it is not
included in the list of Dutens' _Works_ given by Lowndes.

This is explained by the fact that the work, originally published under
the title of _Correspondence interceptée_, was afterwards embodied in
the _Mémoires d'un Voyageur_. Lowndes seems to have had no knowledge of
it as a separate publication.


St. Lucia.

_Vicars-Apostolic_ (Vol. vii., pp. 309, 310.).--Allow me to correct an
error or two in my list of the vicars-apostolic, which appeared in your
178th Number, p 309. The three archpriests were _appointed_ to their
office, not _consecrated_.

P. 309.--_Northern District._ Bishop Witham was consecrated 1703, not
1716. He was _translated_ from the Midland to the Northern District in

P. 310.--In the list of the present Roman Catholic prelates in England
and Wales, the bishops--from Archbishop Wiseman to Bishop Hendren
inclusive--were _translated_ in 1850, not _consecrated_.

J. R. W.


_Tombstone in Churchyard_ (Vol. vii., p. 331.).--In Ecclesfield
churchyard is the following inscription, cut in bold capitals, and as
legible as when the slab was first laid down:

    "Here lieth the bodie of Richard Lord, late Vicar of
    Ecclesfield, 1600."

If, however, A. C.'s Query be not limited to slabs in the open air, he
will probably be interested by the following, copied by me from the
floors of the respective churches, which are all in this neighbourhood.
The first is from the unused church of St. John at Laughton-le-Morthing,
near Roche Abbey, and is, according to Mr. Hunter, one of the earliest
specimens of a monumental inscription in the vernacular:

    "Here lyeth Robt. Dinningto' and Alis his wyfe. Robert dyed [=i]
    y'e fest of San James M'mo ccc iiij'xx xiij'mo. Alis dyed o'
    Tisday [=i] Pas. Woke, a'o D[=n]i M'o ccc'mo xxx'o whose saules
    God assoyl for is m'cy. Ame'."

The next three are partly pewed over; but the uncovered parts are
perfectly legible. The first two are from Tankersley, the third from

    "Hic jacet d[=n]s Thomas Toykyl ... die mensis Aprilis anno
    d[=n]i M. cccc. lxxxx. sc[=d]o...."

    " ... Mensis Octob. an[=o] dni Milli[=m]o cccc. xxx. quinto."

    " ... An[=o] d[=n]i Millesimo cccc. xxxx. vi. cuius ai[=e] deus

Also in Ecclesfield Church is a slab bearing the dates 1571, and J. W.
1593; and the remains of two others, with dates "M'o ccccc'o xix'o," and
"M'o ccccc'o xxx'o vi'o."


Ecclesfield Hall, Sheffield.

"_Her face is like," &c._ (Vol. vii., p. 305.).--

    "Her face is like the milky way i' the sky,--
     A meeting of gentle lights without a name."

These lines are from Act III. of Sir John Suckling's tragedy of
_Brennoralt_, and are uttered by a lover contemplating his _sleeping_
mistress; a circumstance which it is important to mention, as the truth
and beauty of the comparison depend on it.

B. R. I.

_Annuellarius_ (Vol. vii., p. 358.).--_Annuellarius_, sometimes written
_Annivellarius_, is a chantry priest, so called from his receiving the
_annualia_, or yearly stipend, for keeping the anniversary, or saying
continued masses for one year for the soul of a deceased person.

J. G.


_Ship's Painter_ (Vol. vii., p. 178.).--Your correspondent J. C. G. may
find a rational derivation of the word _painter_, the rope by which a
boat is attached to a ship, in the Saxon word _punt_, a boat. The
corruption from _punter_, or boat-rope, to _painter_, seems obvious.

J. S. C.

_True Blue_ (Vol. iii., _passim_).--The occurrence of this expression in
the following passage in Dryden, and its application to the Order of the
Garter, seem to have escaped the notice of the several correspondents
who have addressed you on the subject. I quote from _The Flower and the
Leaf_, Dryden's version of one of Chaucer's tales:

    "Who bear the bows were knights in Arthur's reign,
     Twelve they, and twelve the peers of Charlemain;
     For bows the strength of brawny arms imply,
     Emblems of valour and of victory.
     Behold an order yet of newer date,
     Doubling their number, equal in their state;
     Our England's ornament, the Crown's defence,
     In battle brave, protectors of their prince;
     Unchang'd by fortune, to their sovereign _true_,
     _For which_ their manly legs are bound with _blue_.
     These of the Garter call'd, of faith unstain'd.
     In fighting fields the laurel have obtain'd,
     And well repaid the honors which they gain'd."


St. Lucia.

"_Quod fuit esse_" (Vol. vii., pp. 235. 342.).--In one of Dr. Byrom's
Common-place Books now in the possession of his respected descendant,
Miss Atherton, of Kersal Cell, is the following arrangement and
translation of this enigmatical inscription, probably made by the Doctor

    "Quod fuit esse quod est quod non fuit esse quod esse
     Esse quod est non esse quod est non est erit esse.
              Quod fuit esse quod,
              Est quod non fuit esse quod,
              Esse esse quod est,
              Non esse quod est non est
              Erit esse.

    What was John Wiles is what John Wiles was not,
    The mortal Being has immortal got.
    The Wiles that was but a non Ens is gone,
    And now remains the true eternal John."

I take this opportunity of mentioning that my friend, the Rev. Dr.
Parkinson, Canon of Manchester, and Principal of St. Bees, is at present
engaged in editing, for the Chetham Society, the Diary and unpublished
remains of Dr. Byrom; and he will, I am sure, feel greatly indebted to
any of your correspondents who will favour him with an addition to his
present materials. O. G. ("N. & Q.," Vol. vii., p. 179. art. Townshend)
seems to have some memoranda relating to Byrom, and would perhaps be
good enough to communicate them to Dr. Parkinson.


I have seen the above thus paraphrased:

    "What we have been, and what we are,
      The present and the time that's past,
     We cannot properly compare
      With what we are to be at last.

    "Tho' we ourselves have fancied Forms,
      And Beings that have never been;
     We into something shall be turn'd,
      Which we have not conceived or seen."

C. H. (a Subscriber.)

_Subterranean Bells_ (Vol. vii., pp. 128. 200. 328.).--In a most
interesting paper by the Rev. W. Thornber, A.B., Blackpool, published in
the _Proceedings of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire_,
1851-2, there is mention of a similar tradition to that quoted by your
correspondent J. J. S.

Speaking of the cemetery of Kilgrimol, two miles on the south shore from
Blackpool, the learned gentleman says:

    "The ditch and cross have disappeared, either obliterated by the
    sand, or overwhelmed by the inroads of the sea; but, with
    tradition, the locality is a favourite still. The _superstitio
    loci_ marks the site: 'The church,' it says, 'was swallowed up
    by an earthquake, together with the Jean la Cairne of Stonyhill;
    but on Christmas eve every one, since that time, on bending his
    ear to the ground, may distinguish clearly its bells pealing
    most merrily.'"


Bury, Lancashire.

_Spontaneous Combustion_ (Vol. vii., p. 286.).--I presume H. A. B.'s
question refers to the human body only, because the possibility of
spontaneous combustion in several other substances is, I believe, not
disputed. On that of the human body Taylor says:

    "The hypothesis of those who advocate _spontaneous_ combustion,
    is, it appears to me, perfectly untenable. So far as I have been
    able to examine this subject, there is not a single
    well-authenticated instance of such an event occurring: in the
    cases reported which are worthy of any credit, a candle or some
    other ignited body has been at hand, and the accidental ignition
    of the clothes was highly probable, if not absolutely certain."

He admits that, under certain circumstances, the human body, though in
general "highly difficult of combustion," may acquire increased
combustible properties. But this is another question {392} from that of
the possibility of its purely spontaneous combustion. (See Taylor's
_Medical Jurisprudence_, pages 424-7. edit. 1846.)

W. W. T.

_Muffs worn by Gentlemen_ (Vol. vi., _passim_; Vol. vii., p. 320.).--The
writer of a series of papers in the _New Monthly Magazine_, entitled
"Parr in his later Years," thus (vol. xvi. p. 482.) describes the
appearance of that learned Theban:

    "He had on his dressing-gown, which I think was flannel, or
    cotton, and the skirts dangled round his ankles. Over this he
    had drawn his great-coat, buttoned close; and his hands, for he
    had been attacked with erysipelas not long before, were kept
    warm in a _silk muff_, not much larger than the poll of a common

In an anonymous poetical pamphlet (_Thoughts in Verse concerning
Feasting and Dancing_, 12mo. London, 1800), is a little poem, entitled
"The Muff," in the course of which the following lines occur:

    "A time there was (that time is now no more,
     At least in England 'tis not now observ'd!)
     When muffs were worn by _beaux_ as well as belles.
     Scarce has a century of time elaps'd,
     Since such an article was much in vogue;
     Which, when it was not on the arm sustain'd,
     Hung, pendant by a silken ribbon loop
     From button of the coat of well-dress'd beau.
     'Tis well for manhood that the use has ceased!
     For what to _woman_ might be well allow'd,
     As suited to the softness of her sex,
     Would seem effeminate and wrong in _man_."



_Crescent_ (Vol. vii., p. 235.).--In Judges, ch. viii. ver. 21., Gideon
is recorded to have taken away from Zeba and Zalmunna, kings of Midian,
"the ornaments that were on their camels' necks." The marginal
translation has "ornaments like the moon;" and in verse 24. it is stated
that the Midianites were _Ishmaelites_. If, therefore, it be borne in
mind that Mohammed was an Arabian, and that the Arabians were
Ishmaelites, we may perhaps be allowed to infer that the origin of the
use of the crescent was not as a symbol of Mohammed's religion, but that
it was adopted by his countrymen and followers from their ancestors, and
may be referred to at least as far back as 1249 B.C., when Zeba and
Zalmunna were slain, and when it seems to have been the customary
ornament of the Ishmaelites.

W. W. T.

_The Author of "The Family Journal"_ (Vol. vii., p. 313.).--The author
of the very clever series of papers in the _New Monthly Magazine_, to
which MR. BEDE refers, is Mr. Leigh Hunt. The particular one in which
Swift's Latin-English is quoted, has been republished in a charming
little volume, full of original thinking, expressed with the felicity of
genius, called _Table Talk_, and published in 1851 by Messrs. Smith and
Elder, of Cornhill.


_Parochial Libraries_ (Vol. vi., p. 432. &c.).--I fear that there is
little doubt that these collections of books have very often been
unfairly dispersed. It is by no means uncommon, in looking over the
stock of an old divinity bookseller, to meet with works with the names
of parochial libraries written in them. I have met with many such: they
appear chiefly to have consisted of the works of the Fathers, and of our
seventeenth century divines. As a case in point, I recollect, about ten
years since, being at a sale at the rectory of Reepham, Norfolk,
consequent upon the death of the rector, and noticing several works with
the inscription "Reepham Church Library" written inside: these were sold
indiscriminately with the rector's books. At this distance of time I
cannot recollect the titles of many of the works; but I perfectly
remember a copy of Sir H. Savile's edition of _Chrysostom_, 8 vols.
folio; _Constantini Lexicon_, folio; and some pieces of Bishop Andrewes.
These were probably intended for the use of the rector, as in the case
reported by your correspondent CHEVERELLS (Vol. vii., p. 369.).

I may also mention having seen a small parochial library of old divinity
kept in the room over the porch in the church of Sutton Courtenay, near
Abingdon, Berks. With the history and purpose of this collection I am


Great Malvern.

_Sidney as a Christian Name_ (Vol. vii., pp. 39. 318.).--Lady Morgan the
authoress was, before her marriage, Miss _Sidney_ Owenson. See Chambers'
_Encyclop. of Eng. Lit._, ii. 580.


_"Rather"_ (Vol. vii., p. 282.).--The root of the word _rather_ is
Celtic, in which language _raith_ means "inclination," "on account of,"
"for the sake of," &c. Thus, in the line quoted from Chaucer,

    "What aileth you so _rathè_ for to arise,"

it clearly signifies "what aileth you that you _so incline_ to arise,"
and so on, in the various uses to which the comparative of the word is
put: as, I had rather do so and so, _i. e._ "I feel _more inclined_;" I
am rather tired, _i. e._ "I am fatigued _on account of_ the walk," &c. I
am glad that you are come, the rather that I have work for you to do,
_i. e._ "_more on account of_ the work which I have for you to do, or
_for the sake_ of the work," &c. Any obscurity that is attached to the
use of the word, has arisen from the abuse of it, or rather from its
right signification being not properly understood.


_Lady High Sheriff_ (Vol. vii., pp. 236. 340.).--Another instance may be
seen in Foss's _Judges of England_, vol. ii. p. 51.--In speaking of
Reginald de Cornhill, who held the Sheriffalty of Kent from 5 Richard I.
to 5 Henry III., he says:

    "His seat at Minster, in the Isle of Thanet, acquired the name
    of 'Sheriff's Court,' which it still retains; and he himself,
    discontinuing his own name, was styled Reginald le Viscount,
    even his widow being designated Vicecomitessa Cantii."

D. S.

_Nugget_ (Vol. vi., p. 171.; Vol. vii., pp. 143. 272.).--Nugget _may_ be
derived from the Persian, but it is also used in Scotland, and means a
lump,--a nugget of sugar, for instance. And as Scotchmen are to be found
everywhere, its importation into Australia and California is easily
accounted for.

R. S. N.

_Epigrams_ (Vol. vii., p. 180.).--I beg to confirm the statement of
SCRAPIANA as to the reading John instead of Thomas in the line

    "'Twixt Footman John and Dr. Toe."

It may not be generally known that this epigram came from the pen of
Reginald Heber, late Bishop of Calcutta, who was then a commoner of
Brazenoze College, and who wrote that extremely clever satire called
_The Whippiad_ of which the same Dr. Toe (the Rev. Henry Halliwell, Dean
and Tutor) was the hero. _The Whippiad_ was printed for the first time a
few years ago, in _Blackwood's Magazine_.

I fancy the other facetious epigram given by SCRAPIANA has no connexion
with this, but was merely inserted on the same page as being "similis

B. N. C.

_Editions of the Prayer-Book_ (Vol. vii., p. 91.).--The following small
addition is offered to MR. SPARROW SIMPSON's list:

1592.  fol.    Deputies of Chr. Barker.  Trinity College, Dublin.
1607.  4to.    Robert Barker.  Trin. Coll., Dublin.
1611.  folio.  Robert Barker.  Marsh's Library, Dubl.
1632.  8vo.    R. Barker and the assignes of John Bill.  Trin. Coll.,
1634.  4to.    Same Printers.  Trin. Coll., Dublin.
1634.  12mo.   Same Printers.  Marsh's Library.
1638.  4to.    Same Printers.  Trin. Coll., Dublin.
1639.  4to.    Same Printers.  Trin. Coll., Dublin.
1616.          There is a Latin version, in Dr. Mockett's _Doctrina et
                 Politeia Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ_. 4to. Londoni. Marsh's
                 Library, Dublin.



_Portrait of Pope_ (Vol. vii., p. 294.).--Dr. Falconer's portrait of
Pope could not have been painted by _Joseph_ Wright of Derby, as that
celebrated artist was only fourteen when Pope died; consequently, the
anecdote told of the painter, and of his meeting the poet at dinner,
must apply to the artist named by Dr. Falconer, and of course correctly,
_Edward_ Wright.

S. D. D.

_Passage in Coleridge_ (Vol. vii., p. 330.).--The paper referred to by
Coleridge will be found in the _Transactions of the Manchester Literary
and Philosophical Society_, vol. iii. p. 463. It is the "Description of
a Glory," witnessed by Dr. Haygarth on Feb. 13th, 1780, when "returning
to Chester, and ascending the mountain which forms the eastern boundary
of the Vale of Clwyd." As your correspondent asks for a copy of the
description, the volume being scarce, I will give the following extract:

    "I was struck with the peculiar appearance of a very white
    shining cloud, that lay remarkably close to the ground. The sun
    was nearly setting, but shone extremely bright. I walked up to
    the cloud, and my shadow was projected into it; when a very
    unexpected and beautiful scene was presented to my view. The
    head of my shadow was surrounded, at some distance, by a circle
    of various colours; whose centre appeared to be near the
    situation of the eye, and whose circumference extended to the
    shoulders. The circle was complete, except what the shadow of my
    body intercepted. It resembled, very exactly, what in pictures
    is termed a _glory_, around the head of our Saviour and of
    saints: not, indeed, that luminous radiance which is painted
    close to the head, but an arch of concentric colours. As I
    walked forward, this _glory_ approached or retired, just as the
    inequality of the ground shortened or lengthened my shadow."

A plate "by the writer's friend, Mr. Falconer," accompanies the paper.

In my copy of the _Transactions_, the following MS. note is attached to
this paper:

    "See Juan's and De Ulloa's _Voyage to South America_, book vi.
    ch. ix., where phænomena, nearly similar, are described."

I. H. M.

_Lowbell_ (Vol. vii., pp. 181. 272.).--This is also surely a Scotch
word, _low_ meaning a light, a flame.

    "A smith's hause is aye lowin."--_Scots. Prov._

R. S. N.

_Burn at Croydon_ (Vol. vii., p. 283.).--This seems to be of the same
nature as the "nailburns" mentioned by Halliwell (_Arch. Dict._). In
Lambarde's _Perambulation of Kent_, p. 221., 2nd edit., mention is made
of a stream running under ground. But it seems very difficult to account
for these phenomena, and any geologist who would give a satisfactory
explanation of these _burns_, _nailburns_, subterraneous streams, and
those which in Lincolnshire are termed "blow wells," would confer a
favour on several of your readers.

E. G. R.

       *       *       *       *       *{394}



Our learned, grave, and potent cotemporary, _The Quarterly Review_, has,
in the number just issued, a very pleasant gossiping article on _The Old
Countess of Desmond_. The writer, who pays "N. & Q." a passing
compliment for which we are obliged, although he very clearly
establishes the fact of the existence of a Countess of Desmond, who was
well known and remarkable for her _extreme_ longevity, certainly does
not prove that the old Countess actually lived to the great age of 140

The publisher of _Men of the Time, or Sketches of Living Notables_, has
just put forth a new edition of what will eventually become a valuable
and interesting little volume. There are so many difficulties in the way
of making such a book accurate and complete, that it is no wonder if
this second edition, although it contains upwards of sixty additional
articles, has yet many omissions. Its present aspect is too political.
Men of the pen are too lightly passed over, unless they are professed
journalists; many of the greatest scholars of the present day being
entirely omitted. This must and doubtless will be amended.

It is with great regret that we have to announce the death of one whose
facile pen and well-stored memory furnished many a pleasant note to our
readers,--J. R. of Cork, under which signature that able scholar, and
kindly hearted gentleman, MR. JAMES ROCHE, happily designated by Father
Prout the "Roscoe of Cork," was pleased to contribute to our columns.
_The Athenæum_ well observes that "his death will leave a blank in the
intellectual society of the South of Ireland, and the readers of 'N. &
Q.' will miss his genial and instructive gossip on books and men."

_The Photographic Society_ is rapidly increasing. The meeting on the 7th
for the exhibition and explanation of cameras was a decided failure,
from the want of due preparation; but that failure will be fully
compensated by the promised exhibition of them in the rooms of the
_Society of Arts_. While on the subject of Photography, we may call the
attention of our readers to a curious paper on Photographic Engraving,
in _The Athenæum_ of Saturday last, by a gentleman to whom the art is
already under so much obligation, Mr. Fox Talbot.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_Wellington, his Character, his Actions, and his
Writings_, by Jules Maurel, is well described by its editor, Lord
Ellesmere, as "among the most accurate, discriminating, and felicitous
tributes which have evaluated from any country in any language to the
memory of the great Duke."--_Temple Bar, the City Golgotha, a Narrative
of the Historical Occurrences of a Criminal Character associated with
the present Bar_, by a Member of the Inner Temple. A chatty and
anecdotical history of this last remaining gate of the city, under
certainly its most revolting aspect. The sketch will doubtless be
acceptable, particularly to London antiquaries.

       *       *       *       *       *




---- Vols. III., IV., V., VIII. In Boards.

BAYLE'S DICTIONARY. English Version, by DE MAIZEAUX. London, 1738. Vols.
I. and II.




SWIFT'S (DEAN) WORKS. Dublin: G. Faulkner. 19 Volumes. 1768. Vol. I.



ARCHÆOLOGIA. Vols. III., IV., V., VIII. Boards.






CHURCH. 8vo. Belfast, 1840.



GARDENERS CHRONICLE, 1838 to 1852, all but Oct. to Dec. 1851.






by SAMUEL HORSLEY, Lord Bishop of Rochester. 1799. First Edition, in


*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names._

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to
be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet

       *       *       *       *       *


CANTAB. _The line_

    "Music has charms to soothe a savage breast,"

_is from Congreve's _Mourning Bride_, Act I. Sc. I._

J. L. S. _We will endeavour to ascertain the value of the copy of
_Naunton_, and tell our Correspondent when we write to him._

C. GONVILLE. _We hope this Correspondent has received the letter
forwarded to him on Saturday or Monday last. His letter has been sent

E. P., Jun. _The best account of Nuremburg Tokens is Snelling's _View of
the Origin, Nature and Use of Jettons or Counters_. London, 1769,

NEMO. _Thanks to its excellent Index, we are enabled, by Cunningham's
_Handbook of London_, to inform him that Vanburgh was buried in the
family vault of the Vanburghs in St. Stephen's, Walbrook._

C. M. J. _will find the reference to "Language given to man," &c., in
_Vol. vi., p. 575._, in an article on South and Talleyrand._

PHOTOSULPH, _who asks whether, when using the developing solution, it is
necessary to blow upon the glass, is informed that it is not necessary;
but that, when there is a hesitation in the flowing of the fluid,
blowing gently on the glass promotes it, and the warmth of the breath
sometimes causes a more speedy development._

X. A. _We cannot enter into any discussion respecting lenses. We have
more than once fully recognised the merits of those manufactured by Mr.
Ross: but never having used one of them, we could not speak of them from
our own experience. We do not hold ourselves responsible for the
opinions of our Correspondents._

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the County
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them
to their Subscribers on the Saturday._

       *       *       *       *       *{395}

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining
Instantaneous Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds,
according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the
choicest Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO PHOTOGRAPHERS.--Pure Chemicals, and every requisite for the practice
of Photography, according to the instructions of Le Gray, Hunt,
Brébisson, and other writers, may be obtained, wholesale and retail, of
WILLIAM BOLTON, (formerly Dymond & Co.), Manufacturer of pure Chemicals
for Photographic and other purposes. Lists may be had on application.

Improved Apparatus for iodizing paper in vacuo, according to Mr.
Stewart's instructions.


       *       *       *       *       *

TO PHOTOGRAPHERS.--MR. PHILIP DELAMOTTE begs to announce that he has now
made arrangements for printing Calotypes in large or small quantities,
either from Paper or Glass Negatives. Gentlemen who are desirous of
having good impressions of their works, may see specimens of Mr.
Delamotte's Printing at his own residence, 38. Chepstow Place,
Bayswater, or at

MR. GEORGE BELL'S, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, price 1s., free by Post 1s. 4d.,

Translated from the French.

Sole Agents in the United Kingdom for VOIGHTLANDER & SON'S celebrated
Lenses for Portraits and Views.

General Depôt for Turner's, Whatman's, Canson Frères', La Croix, and
other Talbotype Papers.

Pure Photographic Chemicals.

Instructions and Specimens in every Branch of the Art.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS., Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--Collodion (Iodized with the Ammonio-Iodide of Silver).--J.
B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, were the first in England who
published the application of this agent (see _Athenæum_, Aug. 14th).
Their Collodion (price 9d. per oz.) retains its extraordinary
sensitiveness, tenacity, and colour unimpaired for months: it may be
exported to any climate, and the Iodizing Compound mixed as required. J.
B. HOCKIN & CO. manufacture PURE CHEMICALS and all APPARATUS with the
latest Improvements adapted for all the Photographic and Daguerreotype
processes. Camera for Developing in the open Country. GLASS BATHS
adapted to any Camera. Lenses from the best Makers. Waxed and Iodized
Papers, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions
may be seen at BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be
procured Apparatus of every Description, and pure Chemicals for the
practice of Photography in all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
Makers, and Operative Chemist, 153. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO PHOTOGRAPHERS.--To be sold, a Second-hand Achromatic Portrait Lens by
Lerebour, 2-1/4 aperture, 7 inches focal length. Price 3l. 10s.

Apply to THOS. EGLEY, Bookseller, 35. Upper Berkeley Street West, Hyde
Park Square, where also Specimens of its performance may be seen.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's,
Turner's, Sanford's, and Canson Frères' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's
Process. Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


Founded A.D. 1842.

               *       *       *


H. E. Bicknell, Esq.
W. Cabell, Esq.
T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq. M.P.
G. H. Drew, Esq.
W. Evans, Esq.
W. Freeman, Esq.
F. Fuller, Esq.
J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
T. Grissell, Esq.
J. Hunt, Esq.
J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
E. Lucas, Esq.
J. Lys Seager, Esq.
J. B. White, Esq.
J. Carter Wood, Esq.


W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.: L. C. Humfrey, Esq., Q.C.: George Drew, Esq.

_Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.

_Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application
to suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed
in the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

    Age    £  s.  d.
    17     1  14  4
    22     1  18  8
    27     2   4  5
    32     2  10  8
    37     2  18  6
    42     3   8  2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
BUILDING SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment,
exemplified in the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies,
&c. With a Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life
Assurance. By ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life
Assurance Society, 3. Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

X., in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all
Climates, may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior
Gold London-made Patent Levers. 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver
Cases, 8, 6, and 4 guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12,
10, and 8 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior
Lever, with Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's
Pocket Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch
skilfully examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers,
2l., 3l.and 4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen, 65. CHEAPSIDE.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, with Frontispiece, 12mo., price 2s. 6d.

THE VICAR and his DUTIES; being Sketches of Clerical Life in a
Manufacturing Town Parish. By the REV. ALFRED GATTY, Vicar of


Edinburgh: R. GRANT & SON.

       *       *       *       *       *

Now ready, Two New Volumes (price 28s. cloth) of

THE JUDGES OF ENGLAND and the Courts at Westminster. By EDWARD FOSS,

    Volume Three, 1272--1377.
    Volume Four, 1377--1485.

Lately published, price 28s. cloth,

    Volume One, 1066--1199.
    Volume Two, 1199--1272.

"A book which is essentially sound and truthful, and must therefore take
its stand in the permanent literature of our country."--_Gent. Mag._

London: LONGMAN & CO.

       *       *       *       *       *

Polarizing Apparatus, Object-glasses, and Eye-pieces. S. STRAKER
supplies any of the above of the first quality, and will forward by post
free a new priced List of Microscopes and Apparatus.


       *       *       *       *       *

SAVE FIFTY PER CENT. by purchasing your WATCHES direct from the

                                              £ s.  d.
  Gold Watches, extra jewelled, with all
    the recent improvements                   3 15  0
  Ditto, with the three-quarter plate
    movement, and stouter cases               4 10  0
  Silver Watches, with same movements
    as the Gold                               2  0  0
  Ditto, with the lever escapement, eight
    holes jewelled                            2 15  0

And every other description of Watch in the same proportion.

A written warranty for accurate performance is given with every Watch,
and twelve months allowed.

Handsome morocco cases for same, 2s. extra.

Emigrants supplies with Watches suitable for Australia.--Merchants,
Captains, and the Trade supplied in any quantities on very favourable

                                              £ s. d.
  Gentlemen's fine Gold Albert Chains         1 10  0
  Ladies' ditto. Neck ditto                   1 15  0

Sent carefully packed, post free, and registered, on receipt of
Post-Office or Banker's Order, payable to


Wholesale Watch Manufacturer, 27. City Road, near Finsbury Square,

       *       *       *       *       *

WANTED, for the Ladies' Institute, 83. Regent Street, Quadrant, LADIES
of taste for fancy work,--by paying 21s. will be received as members,
and taught the new style of velvet wool work, which is acquired in a few
easy lessons. Each lady will be guaranteed constant employment and ready
cash payment for her work. Apply personally to Mrs. Thoughey. N.B.
Ladies taught by letter at any distance from London.

       *       *       *       *       *

contains designs and prices of upwards of ONE HUNDRED different
Bedsteads: also of every description of Bedding, Blankets, and Quilts.
And their new warerooms contain an extensive assortment of Bed-room
Furniture, Furniture Chintzes, Damasks, and Dimities, so as to render
their Establishment complete for the general furnishing of Bed-rooms.

HEAL & SON, Bedstead and Bedding Manufacturers, 196. Tottenham Court

       *       *       *       *       *{396}


              *       *       *

THE CAMDEN SOCIETY is instituted to perpetuate, and render accessible,
whatever is valuable, but at present little known, amongst the materials
for the Civil, Ecclesiastical, or Literary History of the United
Kingdom; and it accomplishes that object by the publication of
Historical Documents, Letters, Ancient Poems, and whatever else lies
within the compass of its designs, in the most convenient form, and at
the least possible expense consistent with the production of useful

The Subscription to the Society is 1l. per annum, which becomes due in
advance on the first day of May in every year, and is received by
SECRETARIES. Members may compound for their future Annual Subscriptions,
by the payment of 10l. over and above the Subscription for the current
year. The compositions received have been funded in the Three per Cent.
Consols to an amount exceeding 900l. No Books are delivered to a
Member until his Subscription for the current year has been paid. New
Members are admitted at the Meetings of the Council held on the First
Wednesday in every month.

              *       *       *

The Publications for the past year (1851-2) were:

   J. Y. AKERMAN, Esq., Sec. S.A.

   in the Cottonian Library by J. GOUGH NICHOLS, Esq., F.S.A.

   54. PROMPTORIUM: An English and Latin Dictionary of Words in Use
   during the Fifteenth Century, compiled chiefly from the
   Promptorium Parvulorum. By ALBERT WAY, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. Vol.
   II. (M. to R.) (In the Press.)

Books for 1852-3.

   Expenses of John of Brabant, 1292-3; 2. Household Accounts of
   Princess Elizabeth, 1551-2; 3. Requeste and Suite of a
   True-hearted Englishman, by W. Cholmeley, 1553; 4. Discovery of
   the Jesuits' College at Clerkenwell, 1627-8; 5. Trelawny Papers;
   6. Autobiography of Dr. William Taswell.--Now ready for delivery
   to all Members not in arrear of their Subscription.

   56. THE VERNEY PAPERS. A Selection from the Correspondence of the
   Verney Family during the reign of Charles I. to the year 1639.
   From the Originals in the possession of Sir Harry Verney, Bart.
   To be edited by JOHN BRUCE, ESQ., Trea. S.A. (Will be ready

   Wars. To be edited by the REV. T. T. LEWIS, M.A. (Will be ready

               *       *       *

The following Works are at Press, and will be issued from time to time,
as soon as ready:

in the years 1289, 1290, with Illustrations from other and coeval
Documents. To be edited by the REV. JOHN WEBB, M.A., F.S.A.

REGULÆ INCLUSARUM: THE ANCREN REWLE. A Treatise on the Rules and Duties
of Monastic Life, in the Anglo-Saxon Dialect of the Thirteenth Century,
addressed to a Society of Anchorites, being a translation from the Latin
Work of Simon de Ghent, Bishop of Salisbury. To be edited from MSS. in
the Cottonian Library, British Museum, with an Introduction, Glossarial
Notes, &c., by the REV. JAMES MORTON, B.D., Prebendary of Lincoln.

THE DOMESDAY OF ST. PAUL'S: a Description of the Manors belonging to the
Church of St. Paul's in London in the year 1222. By the VEN. ARCHDEACON

Anglo-Norman Poet of the latter end of the Twelfth Century. Edited, from
the unique MS. in the Royal Library at Paris, by M. LE ROUX DE LINCY,
Editor of the Roman de Brut.

Communications from Gentlemen desirous of becoming Members may be
addressed to the Secretary, or to Messrs. Nichols.

WILLIAM J. THOMS, Secretary. 25. Parliament Street, Westminster.

       *       *       *       *       *


   1. Restoration of King Edward IV.
   2. Kyng Johan, by Bishop Bale.
   3. Deposition of Richard II.
   4. Plumpton Correspondence.
   5. Anecdotes and Traditions.
   6. Political Songs.
   7. Hayward's Annals of Elizabeth.
   8. Ecclesiastical Documents.
   9. Norden's Description of Essex.
  10. Warkworth's Chronicle.
  11. Kemp's Nine Daies Wonder.
  12. The Egerton Papers.
  13. Chronica Jocelini de Brakelonda.
  14. Irish Narratives, 1641 and 1690.
  15. Rishanger's Chronicle.
  16. Poems of Walter Mapes.
  17. Travels of Nicander Nucius.
  18. Three Metrical Romances.
  19. Diary of Dr. John Dee.
  20. Apology for the Lollards.
  21. Rutland Papers.
  22. Diary of Bishop Cartwright.
  23. Letters of Eminent Literary Men.
  24. Proceedings against Dame Alice Kyteler.
  25. Promptorium Parvulorum: Tom. I.
  26. Suppression of the Monasteries.
  27. Leycester Correspondence.
  28. French Chronicle of London.
  29. Polydore Vergil.
  30. The Thornton Romances.
  31. Verney's Notes of the Long Parliament.
  32. Autobiography of Sir John Bramston.
  33. Correspondence of James Duke of Perth.
  34. Liber de Antiquis Legibus.
  35. The Chronicle of Calais.
  36. Polydore Vergil's History, Vol. I.
  37. Italian Relation of England.
  38. Church of Middleham.
  39. The Camden Miscellany, Vol. I.
  40. Life of Ld. Grey of Wilton.
  41. Diary of Walter Yonge, Esq.
  42. Diary of Henry Machyn.
  43. Visitation of Huntingdonshire.
  44. Obituary of Rich. Smyth.
  45. Twysden on the Government of England.
  46. Letters of Elizabeth and James VI.
  47. Chronicon Petroburgense.
  48. Queen Jane and Queen Mary.
  49. Bury Wills and Inventories.
  50. Mapes de Nugis Curialium.
  51. Pilgrimage of Sir R. Guylford.

       *       *       *       *       *



ADVERTISEMENTS intended for insertion in the Present Year's New and
must be forwarded to the Publisher before the 20th April, after which
day none can be received.

_50. Albermarle Street, London, April 2nd, 1853._

       *       *       *       *       *




JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *



(The Horticultural Part edited by PROF. LINDLEY)

Of Saturday, April 9, contains Articles on

Agricultural statistics
Barley, skinless
Bean, Wilmot's kidney
Books reviewed
Calendar, horticultural
---- agricultural
Cedar and Deodar
Celery, Cole's Crystal White
Cineraria, culture of
Conifers hurt by frost, by Mr. Cheetham
Deodar and Cedar
Drainage, land
Emigration, Hursthouse on
Fire at Windsor Castle
Fish spawn
Flowers, select florist, by Mr. Edwards
Fruits, names of
---- to preserve
Heating, by Mr. Lucas (with engravings)
Horses and oxen, comparative merits of, for agricultural purposes
Laudanum or opium
Oxen and horses
Pig feeding
Plants, effect of the winter on, by Mr. Henderson
Plums, American, by Mr. Rivers
----, Huling's superb, by Mr. Hogg
Potato tubers
Poultry Book, by Wingfield and Johnson, rev.
Preserving fruits
Rhododendron Dalhousiæ
Royal Botanic Garden, Kew
Societies, proceedings of the Horticultural, National Floricultural,
  Agricultural of England
Soil, robbers of, by Mr. Goodiff
Statistics, agricultural
Tecoma grandiflora
Tree, stem-roots of
Vines, stem-roots of
Windsor Castle, fire at
Winter, effects of

               *       *       *

to the above, the Covent Garden, Mark Lane, Smithfield, and Liverpool
prices, with returns from the Potato, Hop, Hay, Coat, Timber, Bark,
Wool, and Seed Markets, and a _complete Newspaper, with a condensed
account of all the transactions of the week_.

ORDER of any Newsvender. OFFICE, for Advertisements, 5. Upper Wellington
Street, Covent Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the
Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the
Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE
BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the
West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street
aforesaid.--Saturday, April 16. 1853.

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