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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 182, April 23, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 182, April 23, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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|                                                                |
| Transcriber's Note: Italicized words, phrases, etc. are        |
| surrounded by _underline characters_. Greek transliterations   |
| are surrounded by ~tildes~. Overlines indicating abbreviations |
| are shown like this, D[=n]e, meaning a line over the letter n. |
| Archaic spellings and hyphenation inconsistencies have been    |
| left as originally printed.                                    |



       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 182.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                        Page
    Poetical Epithets of the Nightingale, by Cuthbert
      Bede, B.A.                                                   397
    On a Passage in Orosius, by E. Thomson                         399
    Notes on several Misunderstood Words, by Rev. W. R.
      Arrowsmith                                                   400
    A Work on the Macrocosm                                        402
    Dr. South's Latin Tract against Sherlock, by James
      Crossley                                                     402
    Shakspeare Correspondence, by C. Mansfield Ingleby,
      S. Singleton, &c.                                            403

    MINOR NOTES:--Robert Weston--Sonnet on the Rev.
      Joseph Blanco White--English and American Booksellers
      --Odd Mistake--Thomas Shakspeare--Early Winters              404

    Satirical Playing Cards, by T. J. Pettigrew                    405
    Movable Metal Types anno 1435, by George Stephens              405
    Portraits at Brickwall House                                   406

  MINOR QUERIES:--Christian Names--Lake of Geneva
    --Clerical Portrait--Arms: Battle-axe--Bullinger's
    Sermons--Gibbon's Library--Dr. Timothy Bright
    --Townley MSS.--Order of St. John of Jerusalem
    --Consecrated Roses, Swords, &c.--West, Kipling, and
    Millbourne--Font Inscriptions--Welsh Genealogical
    Queries--The Butler and his Man William--Longhi's
    Portraits of Guidiccioni--Sir George Carr--Dean
    Pratt--Portrait of Franklin--"Enquiry into the State
    of the Union"                                                  406

    in 1164--Roman Inscription found at Battle Bridge--
    Blow-shoppes--Bishop Hesketh--Form of Prayer for
    Prisoners                                                      409

    Edmund Spenser, and Spensers, or Spencers, of Hurstwood,
      by J. B. Spencer, &c.                                        410
    Throwing old Shoes for Luck, by John Thrupp                    411
    Orkneys in Pawn                                                412
    Hogarth's Pictures, by E. G. Ballard and W. D. Haggard         412
    Phantom Bells and Lost Churches                                413

    Collodion--Filtering Collodion--Photographic Notes
    --Colouring Collodion Pictures--Gutta Percha Baths             414

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Pilgrimages to the Holy
    Land--"A Letter to a Convocation Man"--King
    Robert Bruce's Coffin-plate--Eulenspiegel or Howleglas
    --Sir Edwin Sadleir--Belfry Towers separate from
    the Body of the Church--God's Marks--"The Whippiad"
    --The Axe that beheaded Anne Boleyn, &c.                       415

    Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                   417
    Notices to Correspondents                                      418
    Advertisements                                                 418

       *       *       *       *       *



Having lately been making some research among our British poets, as to
the character of the nightingale's song, I was much struck with the
great quantity and diversity of epithets that I found applied to the
bird. The difference of opinion that has existed with regard to the
quality of its song, has of course led the poetical adherents of either
side to couple the nightingale's name with that very great variety of
adjectives which I shall presently set down in a tabular form, with the
names of the poetical sponsors attached thereto. And, in making this the
subject of a Note, I am only opening up an old Query; for the character
of the nightingale's song has often been a matter for discussion, not
only for poets and scribblers, but even for great statesmen like Fox,
who, amid all the anxieties of a political life, could yet find time to
defend the nightingale from being a "most musical, most melancholy"

Coleridge's onslaught upon this line, in his poem of "The Nightingale,"
must be well known to all lovers of poetry; and his re-christening of
the bird by that epithet which Chaucer had before given it:

                 "'Tis the _merry_ nightingale,
    That crowds, and hurries, and precipitates,
    With fast thick warble, his delicious notes,
    As he were fearful that an April night
    Would be too short for him to utter forth
    His love-chant, and disburthen his full soul
    Of all its music!"

The fable of the nightingale's origin would, of course, in classical
times, give the character of melancholy to its song; and it is rather
remarkable that Æschylus makes Cassandra speak of the _happy_ chirp of
the nightingale, and the Chorus to remark upon this as a further proof
of her insanity. (Shakspeare makes Edgar say, "The _foul fiend_ haunted
poor Tom in the voice of a nightingale."--_King Lear_, Act III. Sc. 6.)

Tennyson seems to be almost the only poet who has thoroughly recognised
the great variety of epithets that may be applied to the nightingale's
song, through the very opposite feelings which it {398} seems to
possess the power to awaken. In his _Recollections of the Arabian
Nights_, he says,--

    "The living airs of middle night
     Died round the Bulbul as he sung;
     Not he; but something which possess'd
     The darkness of the world, _delight_,
     _Life_, _anguish_, _death_, _immortal love_,
     Ceasing not, mingled, unrepress'd,
     Apart from place, withholding time."

Again, in the _In Memoriam_:

    "Wild bird! whose warble, liquid, sweet,
       Rings Eden through the budded quicks,
       Oh, tell me where the senses mix,
     Oh, tell me where the passions meet,

    "Whence radiate? _Fierce extremes_ employ
       Thy spirit in the dusking leaf,
       And _in the midmost heart of grief
     Thy passion clasps a secret joy_."

With which compare these lines in _The Gardener's Daughter_:

    "Yet might I tell of meetings, of farewells,--
     Of that which came between, more sweet than each,
     In whispers, like the whispers of the leaves
     That tremble round a nightingale--_in sighs
     Which perfect Joy, perplexed for utterance,
     Stole from her sister Sorrow_."

But the most singular proof that, I think, I have met with, concerning
the diversity of opinion touching the song of the nightingale, is to be
found in the following example. When Shelley (_Prometheus Unbound_) is
describing the luxurious pleasures of the Grove of Daphne, he mentions
(in some of the finest lines he has ever written) "the _voluptuous_
nightingales, sick with sweet love," to be among the great attractions
of the place: while Dean Milman (_Martyrs of Antioch_), in describing
the very same "dim, licentious Daphne," is particular in mention that
everything there

    _Voluptuous_ to man's transgressions"

(even including the "winds, and flowers, and waters"); everything, in

    "_Save thou_, sweet _nightingale!_"

The question is indeed a case of "fierce extremes," as we may see by the
following table of epithets, which are taken from the British poets

    _Amorous._ Milton.
    _Artless._ Drummond of Hawthornden.
    _Attick_ ("Attica aedon"). Gray.
    _Beautiful._ Mackay.
    _Charmer._ Michael Drayton, Philip Ayres.
    _Charming._ Sir Roger L'Estrange.
    _Cheerful._ Philip Ayres.
    _Complaining._ Shakspeare.
    _Conqueror._ Ford
    _Dainty._ Carshaw, Giles Fletcher.
    _Darkling._ Milton.
    _Dear._ Ben Jonson, Drummond of Hawthornden.
    _Deep._ Mrs. Hemans.
    _Delicious._ Crashaw, Coleridge.
    _Doleful._ Shakspeare.
    _Dusk._ Barry Cornwall.
    _Enchanting._ Mrs. T. Welsh.
    _Enthusiast._ Crashaw.
    _Evening._ Chaucer.
    _Ever-varying._ Wordsworth.
    _Fervent._ Mrs. Hemans.
    _Fond._ Moore.
    _Forlorn._ Shakspeare, Darwin, Hood.
    _Full-hearted._ Author of _The Naiad_ (1816).
    _Full-throated._ Keats.
    _Gentle._ _The Spanish Tragedy_, Dunbar (Laureate to James IV.
       Scot.), Mrs Charlotte Smith.
    _Good._ Chaucer, Ben Jonson.
    _Gushing._ Campbell.
    _Hapless._ Milton.
    _Happy._ Keats, Mackay.
    _Harmless._ Crashaw, Browne.
    _Harmonious._ Browne.
    _Heavenly._[1] Chaucer, Dryden, Wordsworth.
    _Holy._ Campbell.
    _Hopeful._ Crashaw.
    _Immortal._ Keats.
    _Joyful._ Moore.
    _Joyous._ Keble.
    _Lamenting._ Shakspeare, Michael Drayton, Drummond of Hawthornden.
    _Light-foot._ Crashaw.
    _Light-winged._ Keats.
    _Liquid._ Milton, Bishop Heber, Tennyson.
    _Listening._ Crashaw, Thomson.
    _Little._ James I. Scot., Philip Ayres, Crashaw.
    _Lone._ Beattie, Mrs. Hemans, Miss London, Mrs. Fanny Kemble, Milman.
    _Lonely._ Countess of Winchilsea (1715), Barry Cornwall.
    _Loud._ Shelley.
    _Loved._ Mason.
    _Lovely._ Bloomfield.
    _Love-lorn._ Milton, Scott, Collins.
    _Lowly._ Mrs. Thompson. {399}
    _Lusty._ Chaucer.
    _Melancholy._ Milton, Milman.
    _Melodious._ Chris. Smart, Ld. Lyttelton, Southey.
    _Merry._ _Red Book of Ossory_, fourteenth century (quoted in
       "N. & Q.," Vol. ii., No. 54.), Chaucer, Dunbar, Coleridge.
    _Minstrel._ Mrs. Charlotte Smith.
    _Modest._ Keble.
    _Mournful._ Shakspeare, Theo. Lee, Pope, Lord Thurlow, Byron.
    _Musical._ Milton.
    _Music-panting._ Shelley.
    _Night-warbling._ Milton, Milman.
    _Pale._ Author of _Raffaelle and Fornarina_ (1826).
    _Panting._ Crashaw.
    _Passionate._ Lady E. S. Wortley.
    _Pensive._ Mrs. Charlotte Smith.
    _Piteous._ Ambrose Philips.
    _Pity-pleading_ (used ironically). Coleridge.
    _Plaintive._ Lord Lyttelton, Thomson, Keats, Hood.
    _Pleasant._ An old but unknown author, quoted in Todd's
    _Illustrations to Gower and Chaucer_, p. 291., ed. 1810.
    _Poor._ Shakspeare, Ford.
    _Rapt._ Hon. Julian Fane (1852).
    _Ravished._ Lilly.
    _Responsive._ Darwin.
    _Restless._ T. Lovell Beddoes (in _The Bride's Tragedy_, 1822).
    _Richly-toned._ Southey.
    _Sad._ Milton, Giles Fletcher, Drummond of Hawthornden, Graves,
       Darwin, Collins, Beattie, Byron, Mrs. Hemans, Mrs Fanny Kemble,
       Hood, T. L. Beddoes.
    _Shrill._ Chaucer, Crashaw.
    _Silver-sounding._ Richard Barnfield.
    _Single._[3] Southey.
    _Skilled._ Ford.
    _Sleepless._[4] Atherstone.
    _Sober-suited._ Thomson.
    _Soft._ Milton, James I. Scot., Crashaw, Mrs. Charlotte Smith, Byron.
    _Solemn._ Milton, Otway, Graingle.
    _Sole-sitting._ Thomson.
    _Sorrowing._ Shakspeare.
    _Soul-entrancing._ Bishop Heber.
    _Supple._ Crashaw.
    _Sweet._ Chaucer, James I. Scot., Milton, Spenser, Crashaw, Drummond,
       Richard Barnfield, Ambrose Philips, Shelley, Cowper, Thomson,
       Young, Darwin, Lord Lyttelton, Mrs. Charlotte Smith, Moore,
       Coleridge, Wordsworth, L. E. L., Milman, Hood, Tennyson, P. J.
       Bailey, Kenny, Hon. J. Fane.
    _Sweetest._ Milton, Browne, Thomson, Turnbull, Beattie.
    _Sweet-voiced._ Wither.
    _Syren._ Crashaw.
    _Tawny._ Cary.
    _Tender._ Crashaw, Turnbull.
    _Thrilling._ Hon. Mrs. Wrottesley (1847).
    _Tuneful._ Dyer, Grainger.
    _Unseen._ Byron.
    _Vaunting._ Bloomfield.
    _Voluptuous._ Shelley.
    _Wakeful._ Milton, Coleridge.
    _Wailing._ Miss Landon.
    _Wandering._ Mrs. Charlotte Smith, Hon. Mrs. Wrottesley.
    _Wanton._ Coleridge.
    _Warbling._ Milton, Ford, Chris. Smart, Pope, Smollett, Lord
       Lyttelton, Jos. Warton, Gray, Cowper.
    _Welcome._ Wordsworth.
    _Wild._ Moore, Tennyson, J. Westwood (1840).
    _Wise._ Waller.
    _Wondrous_. Mrs. Fanny Kemble.

In addition to these 109 epithets, others might be added of a fuller
character; such as "Queen of all the quire" (Chaucer), "Night-music's
king" (Richard Barnfield, 1549), "Angel of the spring" (Ben Jonson),
"_Music's best seed-plot_" (Crashaw), "Best poet of the grove"
(Thomson), "Sweet poet of the woods" (Mrs. Charlotte Smith), "Dryad of
the trees" (Keats), "Sappho of the dell" (Hood); but the foregoing list
of simple adjectives (which doubtless could be greatly increased by a
more extended poetical reading) sufficiently demonstrates the popularity
of the nightingale as a poetical embellishment, and would, perhaps, tend
to prove that a greater diversity of epithets have been bestowed upon
the nightingale than have been given to any other song-bird.


[Footnote 1: The epithets "heavenly," "holy," "solemn," &c., represent
the nightingale's song, as spoken of by Keats, as the bird's "plaintive
_anthem_;" by Mackay, as its

    "_Hymn_ of gratitude and love;"

and by Moore also, in his account of the Vale of Cashmere, as

    "The nightingale's _hymn_ from the Isle of Chenars."

In _A Proper New Boke of the Armony of Byrdes_ (quoted by Dibdin, _Top.
Antiq._, iv. 381.), of unknown date, though probably before 1580, the
nightingale is represented as singing its Te Deum:

        "Tibi Cherubin
         Et Seraphin
    Full goodly she dyd chaunt,
         With notes merely
    Voce Proeclamant."]

[Footnote 2: Chaucer (_Troilus and Creseide_) imagines the nightingale
to "stint" at the beginning of its song, and to be frightened at the
least noise.]

[Footnote 3: This, and the epithets of "sole-sitting" and "unseen,"
refer to the nightingale's love of solitary seclusion.]

[Footnote 4:

    "He slep no more than doth the nightingale."

    Chaucer, _Cant. Pil._]

       *       *       *       *       *


In King Alfred's version of Orosius, book ii. chap. iv. p. 68.,
Barrington, we have an account of an unsuccessful attempt made by one of
Cyrus the Great's officers to swim across a river "mid twam tyncenum,"
with two _tynkens_. What was a _tyncen_? That was the question nearly a
hundred years ago, when Barrington was working out his translation; and
the only answer to be found then was contained in the great dictionary
published by Lye and Manning, but is not found now in Dr. Bosworth's
second edition of his Dictionary: "Tynce, _a tench_."

How the Persian nobleman was to be supported by two little fishes, which
were more likely to land their passenger at the bottom of the river than
on the opposite bank, we are left to guess. But, before we proceed with
the experiment, let us see that we have got the fishes. That tench was
in the Gyndis we have no authority for denying; but, if its Anglian or
Saxon name was such as the dictionary exhibits, we have no trace of it
{400} in the text of Alfred; for under no form of declension,
acknowledged in grammar, will _tynce_ ever give _tyncenum_. We have no
need, then, to spend time in calculating the chance of success, when we
have not the means of making the experiment.

As either _tync_ or _tynce_ would give _tyncum_, not _tyncenum_, the
latter must come out of _tyncen_ (query, _tynkin_ or _tunkin_, a little
tun, a barrel, or a cask?). Such was the form in which the question
presented itself to my mind, upon my first examination of the passage
three or four years ago, but which was given up without sufficient
investigation, owing to an impression that if such had been the meaning,
it was so simple and obvious that nobody could have missed it.

An emergency, which I need not explain here, has within these few days
recalled my attention to the subject; and I have no reason to be
ashamed, or to make a secret, of the result.

_Tyncen_, the diminutive of _tunne_, is not only a genuine Anglo-Saxon
word, but the type of a class, of whose existence in that language no
Saxonist, I may say no Teutonist, not even the perspicacious and
indefatigable Jacob Grimm himself, seems to be aware. The word is
exactly analogous to Ger. _tönnchen_, from _tonne_, and proves three
things:--1. That our ancestors formed diminutives in _cen_, as well as
their neighbours in _ken_, _kin_, _chen_; 2. That the radical vowel was
modified: for _y_ is the _umlaut_ of _u_; 3. That these properties of
the dialect were known to Alfred the Great when he added this curious
statement to the narrative of Orosius.


       *       *       *       *       *


(_Continued from_ p. 376.)

_Imperseverant_, undiscerning. This word I have never met with but
twice,--in Shakspeare's _Cymbeline_, with the sense above given; and in
Bishop Andrewes' Sermon preached before Queen Elizabeth at Hampton
Court, A.D. 1594, in the sense of unenduring:

     "For the Sodomites are an example of impenitent wilful sinners; and
     Lot's wife of _imperseverant_ and relapsing righteous
     persons."--_Library of Ang.-Cath. Theology_, vol. ii. p. 62.

_Perseverant_, discerning, and _persevers_, discerns, occur respectively
at pp. 43. and 92. of Hawes's _Pastime of Pleasure_ (Percy Society's
edition). The noun substantive _perseverance_=discernment is as common a
word as any of the like length in the English language. To omit the
examples that might be cited out of Hawes's _Pastime of Pleasure_, I
will adduce a dozen other instances; and if those should not _be enough_
to justify my assertion, I will undertake to heap together two dozen
more. Mr. Dyce, in his _Critique of Knight and Collier's Shakspeare_,
rightly explains the meaning of the word in _Cymbeline_; and quotes an
example of _perseverance_ from _The Widow_, to which the reader is
referred. Mr. Dyce had, however, previously corrupted a passage in his
edition of Rob. Greene's _Dramatic Works_, by substituting,
"perceivance" for _perseverance_, the word in the original quarto of the
_Pinner of Wakefield_, vol. ii. p. 184.:

    "Why this is wondrous being blind of sight,
     His deep _perseuerance_ should be such to know us."

I subjoin the promised dozen:

     "For his dyet he was verie temperate, and a great enemie of excesse
     and surfetting; and so carelesse of delicates, as though he had had
     no _perseuerance_ in the tast of meates," &c.--"The Life of
     Ariosto," Sir John Harington's Translation of _Orlando Furioso_, p.

     "In regarde whereof they are tyed vnto these duties: First by a
     prudent, diligent, and faithfull care to obserue by what things the
     state may be most benefited; and to haue _perseuerance_ where such
     marchandize that the state most vseth and desireth may be had with
     greatest ease," &c.--_The Trauailer_, by Thomas Palmer: London,

     "There are certain kinds of frogs in Egypt, about the floud of
     Nilus, that have this _percewerance_, that when by chance they
     happen to come where a fish called Varus is, which is great a
     murtherer and spoiler of frogs, they use to bear in their mouths
     overthwart a long reed, which groweth about the banks of Nile; and
     as this fish doth gape, thinking to feed upon the frog, the reed is
     so long that by no means he can swallow the frog; and so they save
     their lives."--"The Pilgrimage of Kings and Princes," chap. xliii.
     p. 294. of Lloyd's _Marrow of History_, corrected and revised by R.
     C., Master of Arts: London, 1653.

     "This fashion of countinge the monthe endured to the ccccl yere of
     the citie, and was kepte secrete among the byshops of theyr
     religion tyl the time that C. Flauius, P. Sulpitius Auarrio, and P.
     Sempronius Sophuilongus, then beinge Consuls, against the mynde of
     the Senatours disclosed all their solemne feates, published th[=e]
     in a table that euery man might haue perseuera[=u]ce of them."--_An
     Abridgemente of the Notable Worke of Polidore Vergile, &c._, by
     Thomas Langley, fol. xlii.

     "And some there be that thinke men toke occasion of God to make
     ymages, whiche wylling to shewe to the grosse wyttes of men some
     _perceiueraunce_ of hymselfe, toke on him the shape of man, as
     Abraham sawe him and Jacob also."--_Id._, fol. lxi.

In this passage, as in others presently to be alleged, "notification"
seems to be the drift of the word.

     "Of this vnreuerent religi[=o], Mahomete, a noble ma[=n]e, borne in
     Arabie, or, as some report, in Persie, was authour: and his father
     was an heathen idolater, and his mother an Ismaelite; wherfore she
     had more _perceuerance_ of the Hebrues law."--_Id._, fol. cxlii.

     "Where all feelyng and _perseuer[=a]ce_ of euill is awaie, nothyng
     there is euill or found a misse. As if a manne {401} be fallen into
     a sound slepe, he feleth not the hardenesse or other incommoditie of
     his cabon or couche."--"The Saiynges of Publius, No. 58.," _The
     Precepts of Cato, &c., with Erasmus Annotations_: London, 1550.

     "Wherfore both Philip and Alexander (if ye dead haue anie
     _perceuerance_) woulde not that the rootes (rooters) out of them
     and theyre issue, but rather that the punnishers of those traitors,
     should enioye the kingdom of Macedone."--"The XVI Booke of
     Justine," fol. 86., Golding's Translation of the _Abridgement of
     the Historyes of Trojus Pompeius_: London, 1578.

     "And morouer bycause his setting of vs here in this world is to
     aduaunce vs aloft, that is, to witte to the heauenly life, whereof
     he giueth vs some _perceyuerance_ and feeling afore hande."--Io.
     Calvin. "Sermon XLI., on the Tenth Chap. of Job," p. 209.,
     Golding's Translation: London, 1574.

     "And so farre are wee off from being able to atteine to such
     knowledge through our owne power, that we flee it as much as is
     possible, and blindfold our own eyes, to the intent we might put
     away all _perceyuerance_ and feeling of God's judgement from
     vs."--_Id._, "Sermon XLII.," p. 218.

     "For (as I haue touched already) God of his goodnesse doth not
     vtterly barre vs from hauing any _perceyuerance_ at all of his
     wisdome: but it behoueth vs to keepe measure."--_Id._, "Sermon
     XLIII.," p. 219.

I shall not cite any more from Golding, but simply observe that the word
occurs again and again in his translations. The remaining three examples
exhibit the noun in a somewhat different sense, viz. "notification," or
"means of discerning:"

     "The time most apt in all the yeare, and affoording greatest
     _perseuerance_ for the finding out of the heads of wells and
     fountaines, are the moneths of August or September."--_The First
     Booke of the Countrie Farme_, p. 8., by Stevens and Liebault,
     translated by Svrflet, and edited by G. Markham: London, 1616.

     "He may also gather some _perceiuerance_ by the other markes before
     specified; that is to say, by the prints of his foote vpon the
     grasse, by the carriages of his head, his dung, gate," &c.--_Id._,
     booke vii. p. 685.

    "And this lyfe to men is an high _perseveraunce_,
     Or a lyght of faythe wherby they shall be saved."

     "God's Promises," by John Bale; Dodsley's _Old Plays_ (Collier's
     edition), vol. i. Part II. Act I.

By-the-bye, as a specimen of the value of this edition, take the
following passage of this very play:

     "O perfyght keye of David, and hygh scepture of the kyndred of
     Jacob; whych openest and no man _speareth_, that speakest and no
     man openeth."--Act VII. p. 40.

On the word _speareth_ the commentator treats his reader to a note; in
which he informs him that _speareth_ means "asketh," and in proof of
this cites one passage from Chaucer, and two from Douglas's _Virgil_. It
might almost appear to be upbraiding the reader with stupidity to
mention that _speareth_ signifieth "bolteth, shutteth;" and that
"speaketh" is a misprint for _speareth_. This verb was a favourite with
Bale. One word more closes my budget for the present.

_More_, a root. Still in use in Gloucestershire, once of frequent
occurrence. To the examples alleged by Richardson, in his _Dictionary_,
add the following:

    "I se it by ensaunple
     In somer tyme on trowes;
     Ther some bowes ben leved,
     And some bereth none,
     There is a meschief in the _more_
     Of swiche manere bowes."
         _The Vision of Piers Ploughman_, edited by Thomas
            Wright, vol. ii. p. 300.

At p. 302. you find the sentiment in Latin:

     "Sicut cum videris arborem pallidam et marcidam, intelligis
     quod _vitium habet in radice_"--"a meschief in the _more_."

The Glossary of the editor is silent.

    "It is a ful trie tree, quod he,
     Trewely to telle;
     Mercy is the _more_ therof,
     The myddul stok is ruthe;
     The leves ben lele wordes,
     The lawe of holy chirche;
     The blosmes beth buxom speche,
     And benigne lokynge;
     Pacience hatte the pure tree," &c.
                         _Id._, vol. ii. p. 330.

    "It groweth in a gardyn, quod he,
     That God made hymselve,
     Amyddes mannes body,
     The _more_ is of that stokke,
     Herte highte the herber,
     That it inne groweth."
                   _Id._, vol. ii. p. 331.

There should not be any comma, or other stop, at body, because the sense
is--"The root of that stock is amid man's body."

Mr. Wright's Glossary refers to these last two instances as follows:

     "_More_ (A.-S.) 330, 331., the main or larger part, body (?)"

At p. 334. we meet with the word again:

     "On o _more_ thei growed."

And again, at p. 416.:

     "And bite a-two the _mores_."

May I, in passing, venture to inquire of the editor on what authority he
explains _waselede_ (p. 476.) to be "the pret. of _waselen_ (A.-S.) to
become dirty, dirty oneself?"

    "This Troilus withouten rede or lore,
     As man that hath his joies eke forlore,
     Was waiting on his lady evermore,
     As she that was sothfast croppe and _more_,
     Of all his lust or joyes here tofore."
              Chaucer's _Troilus and Creseide_, b.v.

Afterwards, in the same book, a few stanzas further on, he joins "crop"
and "root" together.

     "Last of all, if these thinges auayle not the cure, I do commend
     and allow above all the rest, that you take the iuyce of Celendine
     rootes, making them cleane from the earth that doth vse to hang to
     the _moores_."--_The Booke of Falconrie_, by George Turbervile,
     1611, p. 236.

     "Chiefely, if the _moare_ of vertue be not cropped, but dayly
     rooted deepelyer."--_The Fyrste Booke of the Nobles or of
     Nobilitye_, translated from Laurence Humfrey.

The next and last example from the "Second Booke" of this interesting
little volume I will quote more at large:

     "Aristotle mencioneth in his Politikes an horrible othe vsed in
     certaine states, consistinge of the regimente of fewe nobles, in
     maner thus: I will hate the people, and to my power persecute them.
     Which is the _croppe_ and _more_ of al sedition. Yet too much
     practised in oure liues. But what cause is there why a noble man
     should eyther despise the people? or hate them? or wrong them?
     What? know they not, no tiranny maye bee trusty? Nor how yll
     gard[=e] of c[=o]tinuance, feare is? Further, no more may nobilitie
     misse the people, then in man's body, the heade, the hande. For of
     trueth, the common people are the handes of the nobles, sith them
     selues bee handlesse. They labour and sweate for them, with
     tillinge, saylinge, running, toylinge: by sea, by l[=a]d, with
     h[=a]ds, w't feete, serue them. So as w'oute theyr seruice, they
     nor eate, nor drink, nor are clothed, no nor liue. We reade in ye
     taleteller Esope, a doue was saued by the helpe of an ant. A lyon
     escaped by the benefit of a mowse. We rede agayne, that euen ants
     haue theyr choler. And not altogether quite, the egle angered the
     bytle bee."

The reader will notice in this citation another instance of the verb
_miss_, to dispense with. I have now done for the present; but should
the collation of sundry passages, to illustrate the meaning of a word,
appear as agreeable to the laws of a sound philology, as conducive to
the integrity of our ancient writers, and as instructive to the public
as brainspun emendations, whether of a remote or modern date, which
now-a-days are pouring in like a flood--to corrupt long recognised
readings in our idolised poet Shakspeare, in order to make his
phraseology square with the language of the times and his readers'
capacities--I will not decline to continue endeavours such as the
present essay exhibits with a view to stem and roll back the tide.


Broad Heath, Presteign, Herefordshire.

       *       *       *       *       *


I intended to have contributed a series of papers to "N. & Q." on the
brute creation, on plants and flowers, &c.; and in a Note on the latter
subject I promised to follow it up. However, as circumstances have
changed my intentions, I think it may be well to mention that I have in
hand a work on Macrocosm, or World of Nature around us, which shall be
published in three separate parts or volumes. The first shall be devoted
to the Brute Creation; the second shall be an Herbal, with a Calendar of
dedicated Flowers prefixed; the third shall contain Chapters on the
Mineral Kingdom: in the last I shall treat of the symbolism of stones,
and the superstitions respecting them. I purpose in each case, as far as
possible, to go to the fountain-head, and shall give copious extracts
from such writers as St. Ildefonso of Toledo, St. Isidore of Seville,
Vincent of Beauvais, St. Basil, Origen, Epiphanius, and the Christian

As the work I have sketched out for myself will require time to mature,
I shall publish very shortly a small volume, containing a breviary of
the former, which will give some idea of the manner in which I shall
treat the proposed subject.

Many correspondents of "N. & Q." have evinced great interest in the line
I intend to enter upon. (See Vol. i., pp. 173. 457.; Vol. iv., p. 175.;
Vol. vi., pp. 101. 272. 462. 518.) Their Queries have produced no
satisfactory result. I myself made a Query in my "Chapter on Flowers,"
some months ago, respecting Catholic floral directories, and two works
in particular, about which I was most anxious, and which were quoted in
_The Catholic Florist_, London, 1851, and I have received no answer. Mr.
Oakley, indeed, wrote to me to say that he "only edited it, and wrote a
preface," and that he forwarded my Query "to the compiler:" the latter
personage, however, has not favoured me with a reply.

In spite of all these discouragements, I have taken the step of bringing
my contemplated work before the readers of "N. & Q.," and I shall
gratefully acknowledge any communications relative to legends,
folk-lore, superstitions, symbolism, &c. bearing on the subjects
proposed. As I intend inserting a bibliographical list of the chief
works which come under the scope of each volume, I might receive much
valuable assistance on this point, especially as regards Oriental and
other foreign books, which might escape my researches. As regards the
brute creation, I have gotten, with the kind assistance of the editor of
"N. & Q.," Hildrop's famous reply to Father Bougeant; and I have sent to
Germany for Dr. Kraus's recent work on the subject.


       *       *       *       *       *


None of South's compositions are more striking or characteristic than
his two English tracts against Sherlock, his _Animadversions on
Sherlock's Vindication of the Trinity_, 1693-94, 4to., {403} and his
_Tritheism charged on Sherlock's new Notion of the Trinity_, 1694, 4to.
For caustic wit and tremendous power of vituperation, I scarcely know
any controversial works which surpass, or even equal them. South looked
upon Sherlock with profound scorn as a Sciolist, and hated him most
cordially as a heretic and a political renegade. He accordingly gives
him no quarter, and seems determined to draw blood at every stroke. Mrs.
Sherlock is of course not forgotten, and one of the happiest passages in
the _Tritheism charged_ is the well-known humorous illustration of
Socrates and Xantippe, p. 129. It is somewhat curious that,
notwithstanding these two works of South have attracted so much notice,
it seems to be quite unknown that he also published a Latin tract
against Sherlock, in further continuation of the controversy, in which
the attack is carried on with equal severity. The title of the tract in
question is, _Decreti Oxoniensis Vindicatio in Tribus ad
Modestum ejusdem examinatorem modestioribus Epistolis a Theologo
Transmarino_. Excusa Anno Domini 1696, 4to., pp. 92. The tract, of which
I have a copy, is anonymous, but it is ascribed to South in the
following passages in _The Agreement of the Unitarians with the Catholic
Church_, part i. 1697, 4to., which is included in vol. v. of the 4to.
_Unitarian Tracts_, and evidently written by one who had full
information on the subject. His expressions (p. 62.) are--"Dr. South, in
his Latin Letters, under the name of a Transmarine Divine;" and a little
further on, "Dr. South, in two (English) books by him written, and in
three Latin letters, excepts against this (Sherlock's) explication of
the Trinity." In confirmation of this ascription, I may observe that the
Latin tract is contained in an extensive collection of the tracts in the
Trinitarian Controversy formed by Dr. John Wallis, which I possess, and
in which he has written the names of the authors of the various
anonymous pieces. He took, as is well known, a leading part in the
controversy, and published himself an anonymous pamphlet (not noticed by
his biographers), also in defence of Oxford decrees. On the title-page
of the Latin tract he has written "By Dr. South." I have likewise
another copy in a volume which belonged to Stephen Nye, one of the
ablest writers in the controversy, and who ascribes it in the list of
contents in the fly-leaf, in his handwriting, to Dr. South. These
grounds would appear to be sufficient to authorise our including this
tract in the list of South's works, though, from the internal evidence
of the tract itself alone, I should scarcely have felt justified in
ascribing it to him.


       *       *       *       *       *


_Parallel Passages._--

                        "You leaden messengers,
    That ride upon the violent wings of fire,
    Fly with false aim; _move_ the _still-piecing_ air,
    That sings with piercing,--do not touch my lord!"
            _All's Well that Ends Well_, Act III. Sc. 2.

                           "the elements,
    Of whom your swords are tempered, may as well
    _Wound_ the loud winds, or with bemock'd at stabs
    Kill the _still-closing_ waters, as diminish
    One dowle that's in my plume."
                       _The Tempest_, Act III. Sc. 3.

There can be little doubt that the clever corrector of  MR. COLLIER'S
folio had the last of these passages in view when he altered the word
_move_ of the first, into _wound_ of the second: but in this instance he
overshot the mark, in not perceiving the nice and subtle distinction
which exists between them. The first implies possibility: the second

In the second, the mention of, to "wound the loud wind, or kill the
still-closing water," is to set forth the absurdness of the attempt; but
in the first passage there is a direct injunction to a possible act:
"Fly with false aim, move the still-piecing air." To say "_wound_ the
still-piecing air" would be to direct to be done, in one passage, that
which the other passage declares to be absurd to expect!

If it were necessary to disturb _move_ at all, the word _cleave_ would
be, all to nothing, a better substitution than _wound_.

Whether the annotating of MR. COLLIER'S folio be a real or a
pseudo-antique, it is impossible to deny that its executor must have
been a clever, as he was certainly _a slashing_ hitter. It cannot,
therefore, be wondered that he should sometimes reach the mark: but that
these corrections should be received with that blind and superstitious
faith, so strangely exacted for them, can scarcely be expected. Indeed,
it is to be regretted that they have been introduced to the public with
such an uncompromising claim to authority; as the natural repugnance
against _enforced_ opinion may endanger the success of the few
suggestive emendations, to be found amongst them, which are really new
and valuable.

A. E. B.


P.S.--With reference to the above Note, which, although not before
printed, has been for some time in the Editor's hands, I have observed
in a Dublin paper of Saturday, April 9th, a very singular coincidence;
viz. the recurrence of the self-same misprint corrected by Malone, but
retained by Messrs. Collier and Knight in their respective editions of
Shakspeare. Had the parallel expressions _still-closing_,
_still-piecing_, which I have compared in the above paper, been noticed
by these {404} editors, they would no more have hesitated in accepting
Malone's correction than they would object to the same correction in the
misprint I am about to point out; viz.

     "Two planks were pointed out by the witnesses, viz. one with a knot
     in it, and another which was piered with strips of wood,"
     &c.--_Saunders's Newsletter_, April 9th, 3rd page, 1st col.

_The Passage in "King Henry VIII.," Act III. Sc. 2._ (Vol. vii., pp. 5.
111. 183.).--Is an old Shakspearian to talk rashly in "N. & Q." without
being called to account? "If 'we can,'" says MR. SINGER, "'by no means
part with _have_,' we must interpolate _been_ after it, to make it any
way intelligible, to the marring of the verse." Now, besides the passage
in the same scene--

                        ----"my loyalty,
    Which ever has, and ever shall be growing,"

pointed out by your Leeds correspondent, there is another equally in
point in _All's Well that Ends Well_, Act II. Sc. 5., which, being in
prose, settles the question as to whether the omission of the past
participle after the auxiliary was customary in Shakspeare's time. It is
Lafeu's farewell to Parolles:

     "Farewell, Monsieur: I have spoken better of you, than you have or
     will deserve at my hand; but we must do good against evil."

Either this is "unintelligible," and "we must interpolate" _deserved_,
or (the only possible alternative) all three passages are free from MR.
SINGER'S objection.



_On a Passage in "Macbeth."_--Macbeth (Act I. Sc. 7.) says:

                           "I have no spur
    To prick the sides of my intent, but only
    Vaulting ambition, which o'erleaps itself,
    And falls on the other."

Should not the third line be--

    "Vaulting ambition, which o'erleaps _its sell_!"

_Sell_ is saddle (Latin, _sella_; French, _selle_), and
is used by Spenser in this sense.

"O'erleaping _itself_" is manifest nonsense; whereas the whole passage
has evident reference to horsemanship; and to "vault" is "to carry one's
body cleverly over anything of a considerable height, resting one hand
upon the thing itself,"--exactly the manner in which some persons mount
a horse, resting one hand on the pommel of the saddle.

It would then be perfectly intelligible, thus--

    "Vaulting ambition, which o'erleaps its saddle (sell),
    And falls on the other (side of the horse)."

Does MR. COLLIER'S "New Text," or any other old copy, prove this?



       *       *       *       *       *


_Robert Weston._--I copy the following from a letter of R. L. Kingston
to Dr. Ducarel in Nichols's _Literary History_, vol. iii. p. 629.:

     "Robert Weston was Lord of Manor of Kilmington in Devon, and
     divided his estate among four daughters, reserving to the eldest
     son the royalties of his courts. In his will or deed of settlement
     is this clause:--'That the Abbot of Newnhams, near Axminster, had
     nothing to do in the highway any further than to his land of
     Studhays, and that he should stand without the court gate of his
     land of Studhays, and take his right ear in his left hand, and put
     his right arm next to his body under his left across, and so cast
     his reap-hook from him; and so far he shall come.'"


_Sonnet on the Rev. Joseph Blanco White._--Some years ago, I copied the
following sonnet from a newspaper. Can you say where it first made its
appearance? After the annexed testimony of Coleridge, it is needless to
say anything in its praise.


    Mysterious Night! When our first parent knew
      Thee from report divine, and heard thy name,
      Did he not tremble for this lovely frame,
    This glorious canopy of light and blue?
    Yet 'neath a curtain of translucent dew,
      Bathed in the rays of the great setting flame,
      Hesperus, with the host of heaven, came,
    And lo! Creation widen'd in man's view.

    Who could have thought such darkness lay conceal'd
      Within thy beams, O Sun! Or who could find,
    Whilst fly, and leaf, and insect, stood reveal'd,
      That to such countless orbs thou mad'st us blind?
    Why do we then shun death with anxious strife?
    If light can thus deceive--wherefore not life?"

Coleridge is said to have pronounced this "The finest and most grandly
conceived in our language; at least, it is only in Milton's and in
Wordsworth's sonnets that I recollect any rival."


_English and American Booksellers._--It is rather curious to note, that
whilst English booksellers are emulously vying with one another to
publish editions of _Uncle Toms_, _Queechys_, _Wide Wide Worlds_, &c.,
they neglect to issue English works which the superior shrewdness of
{405} Uncle Sam deems worthy of reprinting. Southey's _Chronicle of the
Cid_, which was published by Longman in 1808, and not since printed in
England, was brought out in a very handsome octavo form at Lowell, U.
S., in 1846. And this, the "first American edition," as it is called on
the title-page, can be readily procured from the booksellers in London;
whereas the English original is not to be met with. In like manner,
Macaulay's _Essays_ were collected and published first in America; and
so with Praed's _Poems_, and many others. Uncle Sam has lately
announced collections of Dr. Maginn's and De Quincey's scattered Essays,
for which we owe him our most grateful acknowledgments.

J. M. B.

Tunbridge Wells.

_Odd Mistake._--

     "One of the houses on Mount Ephraim formerly belonged to _Judge
     Jeffries_, a man who has rendered his name infamous in the annals
     of history _by the cruelty and injustice he manifested in presiding
     at the trial of King Charles I._"--_Descriptive Sketches of
     Tunbridge Wells_, by John Britton, F.S.A., p. 59.

Voilà comment on fait l'histoire!

J. M. B.

Tunbridge Wells.

_Thomas Shakspeare._--In the year 1597 there resided in Lutterworth in
Leicestershire, only distant from Stratford-upon-Avon, the birth-town of
Shakspeare, a very few miles, one _Thomas Shakspeare_, who appears to
have been employed by William Glover, of Hillendon in Northamptonshire,
gentleman, as his agent to receive for him and give an acquittance for a
considerable sum of money.

Having regard to the age in which this Thomas Shakspeare lived, coupled
with his place of residence, is it not probable he was a relative of the
great Bard?


_Early Winters._--I heard it mentioned, when in St. Petersburg very
lately, that they have never had so early a commencement of winter as
this last year since the French were at Moscow.

I find in accounts of the war, that the winter _commenced_ then (1812)
on November 7, N. S., with deep snow. Last year (1852) it commenced at
St. Petersburg on October 16, N. S., as noted in my diary, with snow,
which has remained on the ground ever since, accompanied at times with
_very_ severe frost.

Query: Can November 7, N. S., be the correct date? If it is, this last
winter's commencement must be unprecedented; as I have always heard it
remarked, that the winter began unusually early the year the French were
at Moscow.

I may mention as a note, that by the last accounts from Russia, they say
the ice in the Gulf of Finland was four and a half feet thick.

J. S. A.

Old Broad Street.

       *       *       *       *       *



I have lately been much interested in a pack of cards, complete
(fifty-two) in their number and suits, engraved in the time of the
Commonwealth at the Hague, and representing the chief personages and the
principal events of that period. I have been able, by reference to
historical authorities, and, in particular, to the Ballads and
Broadsides in the British Museum, forming the collection presented to
the nation by George III., to explain the whole pack, with the exception
of two. These are "Parry, Father and Sonne," and "Simonias slandering
the High Priest, to get his Place." The former simply represents two
figures, without any thing to offer a clue to any event; the latter
gives the representation of six Puritans, forming an assembly, who are
being addressed by one of the body. I cannot find any notice of
Simonias, or to whom such a name has been applied, in any of the
Commonwealth tracts with which I am acquainted. Probably some of your
readers can help me in this matter. Of these cards I can find no notice:
they are not mentioned by Singer, and appear to have escaped the
indefatigable research of Mr. Chatto. They were purchased at the Hague,
more than thirty years since, for thirty-three guineas, and are
exceedingly curious: indeed they form a bundle of Commonwealth tracts.
All the principal persons of the time figure in some characteristic
representation, and the private scandal is also recognised in them.
Thus, Oliver is to be found under a strong conflict with Lady Lambert;
Sir Harry Mildmay solicits a citizen's wife, for which his own corrects
him; and he is also being beaten by a footboy,--which event is alluded
to in Butler's _Posthumous Works_. General Lambert, of whom your pages
have given some interesting information, is represented as "The Knight
of the Golden Tulip," evidently in reference to his withdrawal with a
pension to Holland, where he is known to have ardently cultivated
flowers, and to have drawn them in a very superior manner. I hope this
communication may enable me to complete my account of these cards, the
explanation of which may probably throw light upon some of the stirring
events of that extraordinary period of our history.


Saville Row.

       *       *       *       *       *


A vellum MS. has lately come into my possession, containing the Service
for the Dead, Prayers, &c., with the tones for chanting, &c., in Latin,
written for a German Order, apparently about the year 1430.

This tome, which is in small 4to., is very remarkable and valuable on
account of the binding. This is red leather, stamped with double lines
forming lozenges, and powdered with additional stamps, Or, a lion, a
fleur-de-lys, an eagle, and a star. The whole is on the plain leather,
without any gilding.

But in addition hereto, a full inscription runs along each back, at top
and bottom and each side, stamped with _movable metal types_ applied by
hand, {406} without gold, as is done by the bookbinder to this day in
blind stamping.

The legend on the first back is as follows:

     _At top._--"DIEZ . PUCHLE[=I]
     _Continued to the right._--IST . S. . MARGRETEN .
     _At the bottom._--SCHUEST . AB[=T] . ZU .
     _Continued to the left._--S. . KATHERE[=I] . ZU . MUR."

That is,--

     "Diez puchlein ist schwester Margreten, sehuest abtisse zu
     Sankt Katherein zu Mur."

The legend on the last back is,--

    _At top._--"NACH . CRIST .
    _Continued to the right._--GEPURT . MCCCCXXXV .
    _At bottom._--UVART . GEPUN
    _Continued to the left._--D[=E] . DIEZ . PUCH ... K."

That is,--

    "Nach Crist gepurt MCCCCXXXV uvart gepunden diez puch ... k."

The whole inscription will therefore be, in English,--


    BIRTH, 1435,
    DEN THIS BOOK ... K.

A letter or two is illegible, from the injury made by the clasp, before
the last K. Both the clasps are torn away, perhaps from their having
been of some precious metal. Has this K anything to do with Köster?

Can any particulars be given of the abbess, monastery, and town

Is any other specimen of movable _metal_ types known of so early a date?



       *       *       *       *       *


Among the pictures at Brickwall House, Northiam, Sussex, are the
following portraits by artists whose names are not mentioned either in
Bryan, or Pilkington, or Horace Walpole's notices of painters. I shall
be thankful for any information respecting them.

    1. A full-length portrait in oils (small size) on canvas (29 inches
    by 24) of a gentleman seated, dressed in a handsome loose gown, red
    slippers, and on his head a handsome, but very peculiar velvet cap;
    on the ground, near him, a squirrel; and on a table by his side, a
    ground plan of some fortification. "John Sommer _pinxit_, 1700."

N. B.--The late Capt. Marryatt, and subsequently another gentleman,
guessed it to be a portrait of Wortley Montague from the peculiar dress;
but the fortification would seem to indicate a military personage. The
picture is well painted.

    2. A half-length portrait in oils (small size) on canvas (20-1/2
    inches by 17), of an old lady seated; a landscape in the background.
    A highly finished and excellent picture; the lace in her cap is most
    elaborate. "T. Vander Wilt, 1701."

N. B.--I conclude this is the artist's name, though possibly it may be
the subject's.

    3. A pair of portraits (Kit Kat size), of John Knight of Slapton,
    Northamptonshire, aged seventy-two; and Catherine his wife, aged
    thirty-seven. "Lucas Whittonus _pinxit_, 1736."

N. B.--Inferior portraits by some provincial artist. I conclude Lucas is
the surname, and Whittonus indicates his locality; if so, what place?

Whilst on this subject, I would add another Query respecting a picture
in this house: a very highly finished portrait (small size) by Terburgh,
of a gentleman standing, in black gown, long brown wig, and a book on a
table by him. "Andries de Græff. Obiit lxxiii., MDCLXXIIII."

Can you tell me anything about this old gentleman?

T. F.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Christian Names._--Can any of your correspondents inform me when it
became a common practice to have more than one Christian name? Lord Coke
says (_Co. Litt. 3 a_):

     "And regularly it is requisite that the purchaser be named by the
     name of baptism and his surname, and that special heed be taken to
     the name of baptism; _for that a man cannot have two names of
     baptism as he may have divers surnames._"

And further on he says:

     "If a man be baptized by the name of Thomas, and after, at his
     confirmation by the bishop, he is named John, he may purchase by
     the name of his confirmation.... And this doth agree with our
     ancient books, where it is holden that a man may have divers names
     at divers times, _but not divers Christian names_."

It appears, then, that during the first half of the seventeenth century
a man could not have two Christian names.

Also, at what period did the custom arise of using as Christian names
words which are properly surnames?


_Lake of Geneva._--The chronicler Marius (in the second volume of _Dom
Bouquet_) mentions that, in the reign of the sons of Clotaire, an
earthquake or landslip, in the valley of the Upper Rhone, enlarged the
Lemannus, or Genevese Lake, by thirty miles of length and twenty of
breadth, destroying towns and villages. Montfaucon, in his _Monumens de
la Monarchie_, i. p. 63., {407} states that the Lake of Geneva was
formed on this occasion: absurdly, unless he means that upon this
occasion its limits were extended to Geneva, having previously
terminated further east. What vestiges of this catastrophe are now

A. N.

_Clerical Portrait._--May I request the assistance of "N. & Q." in
discovering the name of a reverend person whose portrait I have recently
met with in my parish? The individual from whom I procured it could give
me no other history of it, but that he had bought it at the sale of the
effects of a respectable pawnbroker in the village many years ago.

Afterwards I learned from another resident in the parish that he well
remembered visiting the shop of the same broker, in company with another
gentleman still living, when this identical portrait was the subject of
conversation, and the broker went into his private room and brought out
a book, conceived to be a magazine, from which he read a description of
the person of whom this was the portrait, to the following effect, viz.,
"That he was born of obscure parentage in the parish of Glemham,
Suffolk; that he was sent to school, and afterwards became a great man
and a dignitary of the church, if not a bishop; and became so wealthy
that he gave a large sum for the repairs of Norwich Cathedral."

These are the only particulars which I have yet ascertained as to the
portrait, for neither of the gentlemen who were present at this
transaction with the broker, though they agree in the circumstances
which I have above narrated, can remember _the name_ of my great

I look, however, with confidence to the wide range of your
correspondents, and hope to receive some clue which may guide me to the
wished-for discovery.

The portrait is an oil painting, a fine full florid face, with a long
wig of black curly hair resting on the shoulders, gown and band, date
probably from Queen Anne to George II.

J. T. A.

_Arms: Battle-axe._--With some quarterings of Welsh arms in Bisham
(Marlow) of Hobey, is one of three battle-axes. The same appear near
Denbigh, supposed taken in with a L. R. from Vaughan. Query, What family
or families bore three battle-axes?

A. C.

_Bullinger's Sermons._--Will some of your correspondents kindly give me
some information regarding a volume of sermons by Henry Bullinger, which
I have reason to believe is of rather rare occurrence? It is
_Festorum dierum Domini et Servatoris nostri Jesu Christi
Sermones Ecclesiastici: Heinrycho Bullingero, Authore._ There is a
vignette, short preface (on title-page), with a Scripture motto, Matt.
xvii. Date is, "Tiguri apud Christoph. Froschoverum a. MDLVIII."
I believe there is a copy in the University Library, Cambridge.


Monkstown, Dublin.

_Gibbon's Library._--Matthews, in his _Diary of an Invalid_, says, when
visiting Gibbon's house at Lausanne, "His library still remains; but it
is buried and lost to the world. It is the property of Mr. Beckford, and
lies locked up in an uninhabited house at Lausanne" (1st edit. 1820, p.
319.). This was written about 1817. Was the library ever transferred to
Fonthill or to Bath, or does it still remain at Lausanne?

J. H. M.

_Dr. Timothy Bright._--Can any of your correspondents inform me whether
this gentleman, author of a _Treatise on Melancholy_, an edition of
Fox's _Martyrs_, &c., was an ancestor of the Rev. Henry Bright, prebend
of Worcester Cathedral, and instructor of Samuel Butler, author of

H. A. B.

_Townley MSS._--I request to know, where are the Townley MSS.?* They
are quoted by Nicolas in the Scope and Grosvenor Rolls? Also, where are
the MSS. often referred to in the _History of the House of Yvery_ as
then penes the Earl of Egmont; and also a folio of Pedigrees by Camden


    [* For a notice of the Townley MSS., see "N. & Q.," Vol. iv., p.

_Order of St. John of Jerusalem._--1. Who were the members of the
British Language of St. John of Jerusalem, when Elizabeth took away
their property?

2. What members of the British Language were present when, in 1546, the
English commander Upton attacked and defeated the famous Corsair Dragut
at Tarschien in Malta? Also, what members of it were present when the
Chevalier Repton, Grand Prior of England in 1551, was killed, after
signally defeating the Turks in another attack which they made on the

3. What became of the records of the Language?

N.B.--Some of them, belonging to the Irish branch of it, were lately
bought of a Jew by a private gentleman in the Grand Duchy of Baden. They
are supposed to have been deposited for security at Heidersheim near
Fribourg, which was the chief seat of the German Language of the Order.

R. L. P.

Wartensee, Lake of Constance.

_Consecrated Roses, Swords, &c._--Where will any account be found of the
origin of the custom, which has long prevailed at Rome, of the Pope's
blessing, on the eve at certain festivals, roses and {408} other
articles, and which were afterwards frequently presented to sovereigns
and potentates as tokens of friendship and amity?


_West, Kipling, and Millbourne._--In 1752 there was a firm of West and
Kipling in Holborn: the Christian name of West was Thomas; and there is
reason to believe that he had two sons, Francis and Thomas. A George
Millbourne, Esq., of Spring Gardens, married a cousin of Thomas West,
the partner of Kipling: these facts are referred to in the will of a
lady proved A.D. 1764. Can any reader of "N. & Q." furnish me with
materials or references from which I may gather information of these
families of West and Millbourne? The smallest contribution will be
thankfully received by

F. S.

_Font Inscriptions._--I would request the favour of any such of ancient
date. A collection of them would be interesting. I can give three.

At Lullington, Somerset, on a Norman font, in characters of that date:

     "In hoc Fontu sacro pereunt delicta lavacro."

At Bourn, Lincoln:

     "Su[=p] o[=m]e no[=m] I H C est no[=m] q[=d]e."

At Melton Mowbray:

     "Sancta Trinitas misere nobis."


_Welsh Genealogical Queries_.--Can JOHN AP WILLIAM AP JOHN (Vol. vii.,
p. 292.), or some other reader, enlighten me as to who the following
personages were, or where a pedigree of them is to be found:

    1. Gwladys, da. of Ithel ap Rhys ap Morgan, of Ewias ap Morgan Hîr
    ap Testyn ap Gwrgant, of 4th royal tribe, who ma. Madog ap
    Griffith.--Burke's _Landed Gentry_, "Hughes of Gwerclas."

    2. Beatrix, da. of Eignion ap David ap Myles ap Griffith ap Owen,
    lord of Bromfield; and Honet ap Jago ap Ydwall, prince of Wales, who
    ma. William Belward, baron of Malpas.

    3. Gwernwy, cousin of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, called prince of the 14th
    royal tribe, whose grand-da. Hunydd ma. Meredith ap Bleddyn.--_V.
    Burke_, as above.

    4. Gwentlian, wife of the above Gwernwy, da. of Rhys ap Morgan.

    5. Griffin, son of Wenovewyn, whose da. ma. Fulke Fitzwarine, a
    baron, 1295--1314.--_V._ Burke's _Extinct Peerage_.

    6. Gladys, da. of Rygwallon, prince of Wales, said by Sir Wm. Segar
    to be wife of Walter FitzOther, ancestor of Lords Windsor; and what
    authority is there for this match?--_V. Collins_, &c.

As these Queries are not of general interest, I inclose a stamped
envelope for the answers.

E. H. Y.

_The Butler and his Man William._--These mythological personages, the
grotesque creation of Mr. Grosvenor Bedford's fertile imagination, are
frequently referred to and dilated on in the letters addressed to him by
Southey (_Life of Southey_, by his Son, vol. ii. p. 335., &c.), when
urging Mr. Bedford to write a Pantagruelian romance on their lives and
adventures, which however was never accomplished. What therefore is the
meaning of the following paragraph, which appears at the conclusion of
the review of volume ii. of Southey's _Life_, contained in the _Gent.'s
Mag._ for April, 1850, p. 359.?

     "We will only add, that with respect to the _Butler_ mentioned at
     p. 335., the editor seems but imperfectly informed. His portrait,
     and that of his _man William_, are now hanging on the walls of our
     study. His Life is on our table. He himself has long since returned
     to the 'august abode' from which he came."

J. M. B.

Tunbridge Wells.

_Longhi's Portraits of Guidiccioni._--The Count Alessandro Cappi of
Ravenna is about to publish an elaborate life of his fellow-townsman
_Luca Longhi_, with very copious illustrations from that painter's

He has ransacked Italy in vain for a portrait of Monsignor Giovanni
Guidiccioni, President of Romagna, painted by Luca Longhi in 1540. This
portrait possesses more than ordinary interest, since (to use the words
of Armenini, author of _Veri Precetti della Pittura_) "fu predicato per
maraviglioso in Roma da Michelangelo Buonarrotti." Count Cappi,
supposing that the picture may have found its way to England, hopes by
the publication of this notice to discover its whereabouts. Any
correspondent who shall be kind enough to furnish him, through this
journal, with the desired information, may be assured of his "più vera

W. G. C.

_Sir George Carr._--Wanted, pedigree and arms, wife's name and family,
of Sir George Carr, who was joint clerk of the council of Munster from
1620 to 1663, or thereabouts. Sir George had two sons at least, William
and Thomas; William was alive in 1673. Whom did he marry, and what
family had he?

Y. S. M.


_Dean Pratt._--DR. HESSEY will feel obliged to any reader of "N. & Q."
who can answer the following questions.

At what College of what University did Dr. Samuel Pratt, Dean of
Rochester, receive his education, and by whom was he ordained?

He was born in 1658, left Merchant Taylors' school (where he passed his
early years) in 1677, and was created D.D. by royal mandate, at
Cambridge, in 1697, but no college is attached to his {409} name in the
list of Cambridge graduates. Still, if he was of neither university, it
seems difficult to account for his having had the successive preferments
of Chaplain to the Princess of Denmark, Almoner to the Duke of
Gloucester, Clerk of the Closet to the Queen, and in 1706 Dean of
Rochester. He died in 1728, aged seventy-one.

Merchant Taylors'.

_Portrait of Franklin._--I have heard of a story to the effect that when
Franklin left England, he presented a portrait of himself, by West, to
Thurlow. I am exceedingly anxious to know if there is any foundation for
this, as during the last week I saw in a shop near the chapel here, a
portrait of the philosopher which I rather suspect to be the one alluded

H. G. D.


"_Enquiry into the State of the Union._"--A book of much importance has
fallen into my hands, entitled--

     "An Enquiry into the State of the Union of Great Britain. The past
     and present State of the public Revenues. By the _Wednesday's_ Club
     in _Friday Street_. London: printed for A. and W. Bell, at the
     Cross Keys, Cornhill; J. Watts, in Bow Street, Covent Garden: and
     sold by B. Barker and C. King, in Westminster Hall; W. Mears and J.
     Brown, without Temple Bar; and W. Taylor, in Paternoster Row.

Can any of your correspondents throw a light upon this _Wednesday's_
Club, in Friday Street? Was it a real club or fictitious?

By so doing you would greatly oblige me, and afford important
information to this office.


National Debt Office.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Bishop of Oxford in 1164._--Among the names of the bishops who signed
the Constitutions of Clarendon I see "Bartholomeus Oxoniensis
Episcopus." How is this signature accounted for? There are no other
signatures of suffragan or inferior bishops attached.



     [Clearly a misprint for Bartholomeus _Exoniensis_ Episcopus, the
     celebrated Bartholomew Iscanus, the opponent of Thomas à Becket.
     Our correspondent should have given the title of the work where he
     found the signatures, as they are not appended to the
     "Constitutions" in Matthew Paris, Spelman, or Wilkins.]

_Roman Inscription found at Battle Bridge._--I shall be very much
obliged if any one of your numerous readers or correspondents will be so
kind as to furnish me with an authentic copy of the inscription on the
Roman stone which in July 1842 was found at Battle Bridge, St. Pancras,
and also state where the original stone is to be seen. The account of
the discovery of the stone is mentioned in a paragraph which appeared in
_The Times_ newspaper of the 30th July, 1842, in the following manner:

     "ANTIQUITIES DISCOVERED.--A Roman inscription has within these few
     days past been discovered at Battle Bridge, otherwise, by an absurd
     change of denomination, known as King's Cross, New Road, St.
     Pancras. This discovery appears fully to justify the conjectures of
     Stukeley and other antiquaries, that the great battle between the
     Britons under Boadicea and the Romans under Suetonius Paulinus took
     place at this spot. Faithful tradition, in the absence of all
     decisive evidence, still pointed to the place by the appellation of
     Battle Bridge. The inscription, which in parts is much obliterated,
     bears distinctly the letters 'LEG. XX.' The writer of this notice
     has not yet had an opportunity personally to examine it, but speaks
     from the information of an antiquarian friend. The twentieth
     legion, it is well known, was one of the four which came into
     Britain in the reign of Claudius, and contributed to its
     subjugation: the vexillation of this legion was in the army of
     Suetonius Paulinus when he made that victorious stand in a
     fortified pass, with a forest in his rear, against the insurgent
     Britons. The position is sketched by Tacitus, and antiquaries well
     know that on the high ground above Battle Bridge there are vestiges
     of Roman works, and that the tract of land to the north was
     formerly a forest. The veracity of the following passage of Tacitus
     is therefore fully confirmed:--'Deligitque locum artis
     faucibus, et a tergo sylva clausum; satis cognito, nihil hostium,
     nisi in fronte, et apertam planitiem esse, sine metu insidiarum.'
     He further tells us that the force of Suetonius was composed of
     'Quartadecima legio cum _vexillariis vicessimariis_ et e proximis

S. R.

     [A sketch of this fragment of stone, discovered by Mr. E. B. Price,
     is given in the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for August, 1842, p. 144.]


     "Wild bores, bulls, and falcons bredde there in times paste; now,
     for lakke of woodde, blow-shoppes decay there."--Leland's _Itin._,
     Hearne's edit., vol. vii. p. 42.

What is the meaning of _blow-shoppe_?

J. B.

     [Leland appears to refer to blacksmiths' forges, which decayed for
     lack of wood.]

_Bishop Hesketh_ (Vol. vii., p 209.).--There is evidently an error in
your note respecting the death of Bishop Hesketh, but it is one common
to all the lists of Manx bishops to which I have access. You state that
he died in 1510: it is certain that he was living in 1520.

He was a son of Robert Hesketh, of Rufford, co. Lanc., and his brother
Richard Hesketh, "learned in the lawe," and who is stated by Kimber to
have been Attorney-General to King Hen. VIII., {410} by his will, dated
15th August, 1520, appointed his "trusty brethren Hugh, bishopp of
Manne, and Thomas Hesketh, esquier," executors, and proceeded:

     "I wyll that the said Bishopp shall haue a goblett of syluer w't a
     couir, and my said brothir Thomas to haue a pouncid bool of syluer,
     a counterpoynt, and a cordyn gemnete bedde w't the hangings, a
     paire of fustyan blanketts, and a paire of shetys, and a fether
     bedde that lyeth uppon the same bedde, for their labours."

So that the vacancy, if there really was any, between his death and the
consecration of Bishop Stanley, is much less than is generally supposed.

H. A.

     [Our authority for the date of Bishop Hesketh's death was Bishop
     Hildesley's MS. list of the Manx bishops, which he presented to the
     British Museum, and which appears to have been carefully compiled.
     His words are, "Huan Hesketh died 1510, and was buried in his
     cathedral of St. Germans in Peel." It is clear, however, there is
     an error somewhere, which did not escape the notice of William
     Cole, the Cambridge antiquary; for in his MS. Collections, vol.
     xxvi. p. 24., he has the following entry:--"Huan Hesketh was living
     13 Henry VIII., 1531, at which time Thomas Earl of Derby appointed,
     among others, Sir Hugh Hesketh, Bishop of Man, to be one of his
     executors. (See Collins's _Peerage_, vol. ii. p. 33.) Wolsey was
     appointed supervisor of the will, and is in it called Lord
     Chancellor: he was so made 1516, which proves that he was alive
     after 1510. The will of Richard Hesketh, Esq.--to be buried in his
     chapel at Rufford: executors, Hugh Hesketh, Bishop of Man, his
     brother; and Thomas Hesketh, Esq.--was proved Nov. 13, 1520. (In
     _Reg. Manwaring_, 3.) He continued bishop, I presume, forty-three
     years, from 1487 to 1530. It is plain he was so thirty-four

_Form of Prayer for Prisoners._--

     "It is not, perhaps, generally known, that we have a form of prayer
     for prisoners, which is printed in the Irish Common Prayer-Book,
     though not in ours. Mrs. Berkeley, in whose preface of prefaces to
     her son's poems I first saw this mentioned, regrets the omission;
     observing, that the very fine prayer for those under sentence of
     death, might, being read by the children of the poor, at least keep
     them from the gallows. The remark is just."--Southey's _Omniana_,
     vol. i. p. 50.

What Irish Common Prayer-Book is here meant? I have the books issued by
the late Ecclesiastical History Society, but do not see the service
among them. Could the prayer referred to be transferred to "N. & Q.;" or
where is the said Irish Prayer-Book to be found?



     [The Book of Common Prayer according to the use of the Church of
     Ireland, we believe, may frequently be met with. An edition in
     folio, 1740, is in the British Museum, containing "The Form of
     Prayer for the Visitation of Prisoners, treated upon by the
     Archbishops and Bishops, and the rest of the Clergy of Ireland, and
     agreed upon by Her Majesty's License in their Synod, holden at
     Dublin in the Year 1711." We are inclined to think that Mrs.
     Berkeley must have intended its beautiful exhortation--not the
     prayer--for the use of the poor. See "N. & Q.," Vol. vi., p. 246.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. vii., pp. 303. 362.)

Without entering on the question as to possible connexion of the poet
with the family above mentioned, the discussion may be simplified by
solving a difficulty suggested by CLIVIGER (p. 362.), arising from
Hurstwood Hall (_another estate in Hurstwood_) having been possessed by
Townley, and by explaining, 1st, The identity of the tenement once owned
by Spencers; 2ndly, The seeming cause of Whitaker's silence; and, 3rdly,
The certainty of possession by the Spencers.

I. The former estate of the Spencers in Hurstwood is a tenement which
was purchased by the late Rev. John Hargreaves from the representatives
of William Ormerod, of Foxstones, in Cliviger, in 1803, and which had
been conveyed in 1690, by John Spencer, then of Marsden, to Oliver
Ormerod of Hurstwood, and his son Laurence; the former of these being
youngest son, by a second marriage, of Peter Ormerod of Ormerod, and
co-executor of his will in 1650. So much for the locality.

II. As for Dr. Whitaker's silence, I know, from correspondence with him
(1808-1816), that, from an irregularity in the Prerogative Office, he
was not aware of this will, and uninformed as to this second marriage,
or the connexion of this purchaser's family with the parent house; and I
think it as probable that he was as unaware of the ancient possession of
the purchased tenement by Spencers, as it is certain that this theory as
to the connexion of the poet with it was _then_ unknown. If otherwise,
he would doubtless have extended his scale, and included it.

III. As to the certainty of possession by Spencers, I have brief
extracts from deeds as to this tenement as follows:--

1677. Indenture of covenants for a fine, between _John Spencer the
elder_, and Oliver Ormerod of Cliviger, and note of fine.

1687. Will of same _John Spencer_, late of Hurstwood, mentioning
possession of this tenement as the inheritance of his
_great-grandfather_, _Edmund Spencer_.

1689. Family arrangements of _John Spencer_ (the son) as to same
tenement, then in occupation of "Oliver Ormeroyde" before mentioned.

1690. Conveyance from _John Spencer_ to O. and L. O., as before

In _Gentleman's Magazine_, August, 1842 (pp. 141, 142.), will be found
numerous notices of these Spen_c_ers or Spen_s_ers, with identified
localities from registers.

I think that this explanation will solve the difficulty suggested by
CLIVIGER. On the main question I have not grounds sufficient for an
opinion, but add a reference to _Gentleman's Magazine_, March, 1848, p.
286., for a _general objection_ by MR. CROSSLEY, President of the
Chetham Society, who is well acquainted with the locality.


I was about to address some photographic Queries to the correspondents
of "N. & Q." when a note caught my attention relating to Edmund Spenser
(in the Number dated March 26.). The Mr. F. F. Spenser mentioned therein
was related to me, being my late father's half-brother. I regret to say
that he died very suddenly at Manchester, Nov. 2, 1852. During his
lifetime, he took much pains to clear up the doubts about the locality
of the poet's retirement, and his relatives in the North; and has made
out a very clear case, I imagine. On a visit to Yorkshire in 1851, I
spent a few days with him, and took occasion to urge the necessity of
arranging the mass of information he had accumulated on the subject;
which I have no doubt he would have done, had not his sudden death
occurred to prevent it. These facts may be of some interest to
biographers of the poet, and with this object I have ventured to trouble
you with this communication.


11. Montpellier Road, Blackheath.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ii., p. 196.; Vol. v., p. 413.; Vol. vii., pp. 193. 288.)

I do not know whether you will permit me to occupy a small portion of
your valuable space in an attempt to suggest an origin of the custom of
throwing an old shoe after a newly married bride.

Your correspondents assume that the old shoe was thrown after the bride
_for luck_, and for luck only. I doubt whether it was so in its origin.

Among barbarous nations, all transfers of property, all assertions and
relinquishments of rights of dominion, were marked by some external
ceremony or rite; by which, in the absence of written documents, the
memory of the vulgar might be impressed. When, among Scandinavian
nations, land was bought or sold, a turf was delivered by the trader to
the purchaser: and among the Jews, and probably among other oriental
nations, a shoe answered the same purpose.

In Psalm lx., beginning with "O God, thou hast cast me off," there
occurs the phrase, "Moab is my washpot, over Edom have I cast out my
shoe." Immediately after it occurs the exclamation, "O God! who has cast
us off!" A similar passage occurs in Psalm cix.

By this passage I understand the Psalmist to mean, that God would
thoroughly cast off Edom, and cease to aid him in war or peace. This
interpretation is consistent with the whole tenor of the Psalm.

The receiving of a shoe was an evidence and symbol of asserting or
accepting dominion or ownership; the giving back a shoe, the symbol of
rejecting or resigning it.

Among the Jews, the brother of a childless man was bound to marry his
widow: or, at least, he "had the refusal of her," and the lady could not
marry again till her husband's brother had formally rejected her. The
ceremony by which this rejection was performed took place in open court,
and is mentioned in Deut. xxv. If the brother publicly refused her, "she
loosed his shoe from off his foot, and spat in his face;" or, as great
Hebraists translate it, "spat before his face." _His_ giving up the shoe
was a symbol that _he_ abandoned all dominion over her; and _her_
spitting before _him_ was a defiance, and an assertion of independence.
This construction is in accordance with the opinions of Michaelis, as
stated in his _Laws of Moses_, vol. ii. p. 31.

This practice is still further illustrated by the story of Ruth. Her
nearest kinsman refused to marry her, and to redeem her inheritance: he
was publicly called on so to do by Boaz, and as publicly refused. And
the Bible adds, "as it was the custom in Israel concerning changing,
that a man plucked off his shoe and delivered it to his neighbour," the
kinsman plucked off his shoe and delivered it to Boaz as a public
renunciation of Ruth, of all dominion over her, and of his right of

These ceremonies were evidently not unknown to the early Christians.
When the Emperor Wladimir made proposals of marriage to the daughter of
Raguald, she refused him, saying, "That she would not take off her shoe
to the son of a slave."

There is a passage in _Gregory of Tours_ (c. 20.) where, speaking of
espousals, he says, "The bridegroom having given a ring to the fiancée,
presents her with a shoe."

From Michelet's _Life of Luther_ we learn, that the great reformer was
at the wedding of Jean Luffte. After supper, he conducted the bride to
bed, and told the bridegroom that, according to common custom, he ought
to be master in his own house _when_ his wife was not there: and for a
symbol, he took off the husband's shoe, and put it upon the head of the
bed--"afin qu'il prit ainsi la domination et gouvernement."

I would suggest for the consideration of your correspondents that the
throwing a shoe after a bride was a symbol of renunciation of dominion
and authority over her by her father or guardian; and the receipt of the
shoe by the bridegroom, even if accidental, was an omen that that
authority was transferred to him.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., pp. 105. 183.)

That the Orkney and Zetland Islands were transferred by Denmark to
Scotland in 1468, in pledge for payment of part of the dower of the
Princess of Denmark, who was married to James III., King of Scotland,
under right of redemption by Denmark, is an admitted historic fact; but
it is asserted by the Scottish, and denied by the Danish historians,
that Denmark renounced her right of redemption of these Islands. The
question is fully discussed, with references to every work and passage
treating of the matter, in the first introductory note to the edition of
_The General Grievances and Oppressions of the Isles of Orkney and
Shetland_, published at Edinburgh, 1836. And the writer of the note is
led to the conclusion that there was no renunciation, and that Denmark
still retains her right of redemption. Mr. Samuel Laing, in his _Journal
of a Residence in Norway_, remarks, that the object of Torfæus'
historical work, _Orcades, seu Rerum Orcadensium Historiæ libri tres_,
compiled by the express command of Christian V., King of Denmark, was to
vindicate the right of the Danish monarch to redeem the mortgage of the
sovereignty of these islands; and he adds, that in 1804, Bonaparte, in a
proclamation addressed to the army assembled at Boulogne for the
invasion of England, descanted on the claim of Denmark to this portion
of the British dominions. In a note he has the farther statement, that
in 1549 an assessment for paying off the sum for which Orkney and
Zetland were pledged was levied in Norway by Christian III. (_Vide_
Laing's _Norway_, 1837, pp. 352, 353.) From the preceding notice, it
would appear, that Denmark never renounced her right of redemption, now
merely a matter of antiquarian curiosity. And it is pertinent to
mention, that the connexion of Orkney and Zetland was with Norway, not
Denmark. I observe in the Catalogue of MSS., in the Cottonian Library in
the British Museum (Titus C. VII. art. 71. f. 134.), "Notes on King of
Denmark's Demand of the Orcades, 1587-8," which may throw some light on
the matter.

In the historical sketch given by Broctuna, Kenneth II., King of
Scotland, is said to have taken the Orkneys from the Picts A.D. 838; and
that they remained attached to that kingdom till 1099, when Donald Bain,
in recompense of aid given to him by Magnus, King of Norway, gifted all
the Scotch isles, including the Orkneys, to Norway. This is not what is
understood to be the history of Orkney.

In the middle of the ninth century, Harold Harfager, one of the reguli
of Norway, subdued the other petty rulers, and made himself king of the
whole country. The defeated party fled to Orkney, and other islands of
the west: whence, betaking themselves to piracy, they returned to ravage
the coast of Norway. Harold pursued them to their places of refuge, and
conquered and colonised Orkney about A.D. 875. The Norwegians at that
time destroyed or expelled the race then inhabiting these islands. They
are supposed to have been Picts, and to have received Christianity at an
earlier date, but it is doubtful if there were Christians in Orkney at
that period: however, Depping says expressly, that Earl Segurd, the
second Norwegian earl, expelled the Christians from these isles. I may
remark, that the names of places in Orkney and Zetland are Norse, and
bear descriptive and applicable meanings in that tongue; but hesitate to
extend these names beyond the Norwegian colonisation, and to connect
them with the Picts or other earlier inhabitants. No argument can be
founded on the rude and miserable subterraneous buildings called Picts'
houses, which, if they ever were habitations, or anything else than
places of refuge, must have belonged to a people in a very low grade of
civilisation. Be this as it may, Orkney and Zetland remained under the
Norwegian dominion from the time of Harold Harfager till they were
transferred to Scotland by the marriage treaty in 1468, a period of
about six hundred years. What cannot easily be accounted for, is the
discovery of two Orkney and Zetland deeds of the beginning of the
fifteenth century prior to the transfer, written not in Norse, but in
the Scottish language.

R. W.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 339.)

The numerous and interesting inquiries of AN AMATEUR respecting a
catalogue of Hogarth's works has brought to my recollection the
discovery of one of them, which I was so fortunate as to see in its
original situation. About the year 1815 I was invited by a friend, who
was an artist, to visit a small public-house in Leadenhall Street, to
see a picture by Hogarth: it was "The Elephant," since, I believe,
pulled down, being in a ruinous condition. In the tap-room, on the wall,
almost obscured by the dirt and smoke, and grimed by the rubbing of
numberless foul jackets, was an indisputable picture by the renowned
Hogarth. It represented the meeting of the committee of the {413} South
Sea Company, and doubtless the figures were all portraits. It was
painted in his roughest manner; but every head was stamped with that
character for which he stood unrivalled. I have since heard that, when
the house was pulled down, this picture was sold as one of the lots, in
the sale of furniture, and bought by a dealer. It was painted on the
wall, like a fresco; and how to remove it was the difficulty. On
sounding the wall it was found to be lath and plaster, with timber
framework (the usual style of building in the reign of Elizabeth). It
was therefore determined to cut it out in substance, which was
accordingly performed; and by the help of chisels, thin crowbars, and
other instruments, it was safely detached. The plaster was then removed
from the back down to the priming, and the picture was backed with
strong canvas. It was then cleaned from all its defilement, and, on
being offered for sale at a good price, was bought by a nobleman, whose
name I have not heard, and is now in his collection.

I do not know whether your correspondent has heard of Hogarth's portrait
of Fielding. The story, as I have heard or read it, is as
follows:--Hogarth and Garrick sitting together after dinner, Hogarth was
lamenting there was no portrait of Fielding, when Garrick said, "I think
I can make his face."--"Pray, try my dear Davy," said the other. Garrick
then made the attempt, and so well did he succeed, that Hogarth
immediately caught the likeness, and exclaimed with exultation, "Now I
have him: keep still, my dear Davy." To work he went with pen and ink,
and the likeness was finished by their mutual recollections. This sketch
has been engraved from the original drawing, and is preserved among
several original drawings and prints in the _illustrated_ copy of
Lysons's _Environs_, vol. i. p. 544., in the King's Library, British

While I am writing about unnoticed pictures by what may be called
_erratic_ artists, I may mention that in the parlour of the "King's
Head," corner of New Road and Hampstead Road, on the panel of a
cupboard, is a half-length of a farmer's boy, most probably the work of
G. Morland, who visited this house on his way to Hampstead, and probably
paid his score by painting this picture; which is well known to have
been his usual way of paying such debts.


Agreeably to the suggestion of AN AMATEUR, I beg to send you the
following list of pictures, from a catalogue in my possession:

     CATALOGUE of the Pictures and Prints, the property of the late Mrs.
     Hogarth, deceased, sold by Mr. Greenwood, the Golden Head,
     Leicester Square, Saturday, April 24, 1790.

_Pictures by Mr. Hogarth._

    41. Two portraits of Ann and Mary Hogarth.
    42. A daughter of Mr. Rich the comedian, finely coloured.
    43. The original portrait of Sir James Thornhill.
    44. The heads of six servants of Mr. Hogarth's family.
    45. His own portrait--a head.
    46. A ditto--a whole-length painting.
    47. A ditto, Kit Kat, with the favourite dog, exceeding fine.
    48. Two portraits of Lady Thornhill and Mrs. Hogarth.
    49. The first sketch of the Rake's Progress.
    50. A ditto of the altar of Bristol Church.
    51. The Shrimp Girl--a sketch.
    52. Sigismunda.
    53. A historical sketch, by Sir James Thornhill.
    54. Two sketches of Lady Pembroke and Mr. John Thornhill.
    55. Three old pictures.
    56. The bust of Sir Isaac Newton, terra cotta.
    57. Ditto of Mr. Hogarth, by Roubilliac.
    58. Ditto of the favourite dog, and cast of Mr. Hogarth's hand.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., pp. 128. 200. 328.)

In a little brochure entitled _Christmas, its History and Antiquity_,
published by Slater, London, 1850, the writer says that--

     "In Berkshire it is confidently asserted, that if any one watches
     on Christmas Eve he will hear _subterranean bells_; and in the
     mining districts the workmen declare that at this sacred season
     high mass is performed with the greatest solemnity on that evening
     in the mine which contains the most valuable lobe of ore, which is
     supernaturally lighted up with candles in the most brilliant
     manner, and the service changed by unseen choristers."--P. 46.

The poet Uhland has a beautiful poem entitled _Die Verlorne Kirche_.
Lord Lindsay says:

     "I subjoin, in illustration of the symbolism, and the peculiar
     emotions born of Gothic architecture, _The Lost Church_ of the poet
     Uhland, founded, I apprehend, on an ancient tradition of the
     Sinaitic peninsula."--_Sketches of Christian Art._

I give the first stanza of his translation:

    "Oft in the forest far one hears
     A passing sound of distant bells;
     Nor legends old, nor human wit,
     Can tell us whence the music swells.
     From the _Lost Church_ 'tis thought that soft
     Faint ringing cometh on the wind:
     Once many pilgrims trod the path,
     But no one now the way can find."

See also _Das Versunkene Kloster_, by the same sweet poet,

    "Ein Kloster ist versunken
     Tief in den wilden See."

After Port Royal (in the West Indies) was submerged, at the close of the
seventeenth century, sailors in those parts for many years had {414}
stories of anchoring in the chimneys and steeples, and would declare
they heard the church bells ringing beneath the water, agitated by the
waves or spirits of the deep.

The case of the Round Towers seen in Lough Neagh, I need not bring
forward, as no sound of bells has ever been heard from them.

There is one _lost church_ so famous as to occur to the mind of every
reader, I mean that of the Ten Tribes of Israel. After the lapse of
thousands of years, we have here an historical problem, which time,
perhaps, will never solve. We have a less famous, but still most
interesting, instance of a lost church in Greenland. Soon after the
introduction of Christianity, about the year 1000, a number of churches
and a monastery were erected along the east coast of Greenland, and a
bishop was ordained for the spiritual guidance of the colony. For some
four hundred years an intercourse was maintained between this colony and
Norway and Denmark. In the year 1406 the last bishop was sent over to
Greenland. Since then the colony _has not been heard of_. Many have been
the attempts to recover this lost church of East Greenland, but hitherto
in vain.

I could send you a Note on a cognate subject, but I fear it would occupy
too much of your space,--that of _Happy Isles_, or _Islands of the
Blessed_. The tradition respecting these happy isles is very
wide-spread, and obtains amongst nearly every nation of the globe; it
is, perhaps, a relic of a primeval tradition of Eden. Some have caught
glimpses of these isles, and some more favoured mortals have even
landed, and returned again with senses dazzled at the ravishing sights
they have seen. But in every case after these rare favours, these mystic
lands have remained invisible as before, and the way to them has been
sought for in vain. Such are the tales told with reverent earnestness,
and listened to with breathless interest, not only by the Egyptians,
Greeks, and Romans of old, but by the Irishman, the Welshman, the
Hindoo, and the Red Indian of to-day.


       *       *       *       *       *


_Photographic Collodion_ (Vol. vii., p. 314.).--In a former
communication I pointed out the wide differences in the various
manipulations prescribed for making the photographic _gun cotton_ by
several photographers: differences most perplexing to persons of small
leisure, and who are likely to lose half the opportunities of a
photographic season, whilst puzzling over these diversities of
proceeding. Suffer me now to entreat some one to whom all may look up
(perhaps your kind and experienced correspondent DR. DIAMOND will do
this service, so valuable to young photographers) to clear up the
differences I will now "make a note of," viz. as to the amount of dry
photographic gun cotton to be used in forming the prepared collodion.

On comparing various authors, and _reducing_ their directions to a
standard of _one ounce of ether_, I find the following differences:
viz., DR. DIAMOND (Vol. vi., p. 277.) prescribes _about_ three grains of
gun cotton; Mr. Hennah (_Directions, &c._, p. 5.) about seven grains;
the Count de Montizon (_Journ. of Phot. Soc._, p. 23.) eight grains;
whilst Mr. Bingham (_Supplement to Phot. Manip._, p. 2.) directs about
_thirty-four_ grains! in each case to a single ounce of ether.

These differences are too wide to come within even Mr. Archer's "long
range," that "the proportions ... must depend entirely upon the strength
and the thickness required ... the skill of the operator and the season
of the year." (Archer's _Manual_, p. 17.)


_Filtering Collodion._--Count de Montizon, in his valuable paper on the
collodion process, published in the second number of the _Journal of the
Photographic Society_, objects to filtration on the ground that the
silver solution is often injured by impurities contained in the paper.
It may be worth while to state, that lime, and other impurities, may be
removed by soaking the filter for a day or two, before it is used, in
water acidulated with nitric acid; after which it should be washed with
hot water and dried.


_Photographic Notes_ (Vol. vii., p. 363.).--I wish to correct an error
in my communication in "N. & Q." of April 9: in speaking of "a more
_even_ film," I meant a film more _evenly sensitive_. I am sorry I have
misled MR. SHADBOLT as to my meaning. I have very rarely any "spottings"
in my pictures; but I always drop the plates once or twice into the
bath, after the two minutes' immersion, to wash off any loose particles.
I also drain off all I can of the nitrate of silver solution before
placing the glass in the camera, and for three reasons:--1. Because it
saves material; 2. Because the lower part of dark frame is kept free
from liquid; 3. Because a "flowing sheet" of liquid must interfere
somewhat with the passage of light to the film, and consequently with
the sharpness of the picture. I think it is clear, from MR. SHADBOLT'S
directions to MR. MERITT, that it is no very easy thing to cement a
glass bath with marine glue.


_Colouring Collodion Pictures_ (Vol. vii., p. 388.).--In your impression
of April 16, there is a typographical error of some importance relative
to lifting the collodion in and out of the bath: "The plate, after being
plunged in, should be allowed to repose quietly from twenty to thirty
_minutes_," &c. This should be _seconds_. The error arose, in all {415}
probability, from my having used the contractions 20" to 30".

It may appear somewhat droll for any one to answer a question on which
he has _not_ had experience; but I beg to offer as a _suggestion_ to
 PHOTO, that if he wishes to use collodion pictures for the purpose of
dissolving views, he should first copy them in the camera as transparent
objects so as to _reverse_ the light and shade, then varnish them with
DR. DIAMOND'S solution of amber in chloroform, when they will bear the
application of transparent colours ground in varnish, such as are used
for painting magic-lantern slides.


_Gutta Percha Baths_ (Vol. vii., p. 314.).--In "N. & Q." for March 26, I
ventured to recommend to H. HENDERSON gutta percha, as a material for
nitrate of silver baths. I did this from a knowledge that hundreds of
them were in use, but chiefly because I have found them answer so well.
In the same Number the Editor gives MR. HENDERSON very opposite advice;
and, had I seen his opinion before my notes appeared, I should certainly
have kept them back. But it is, I think, a matter of some importance,
especially to beginners, to have it settled, whether gutta percha has
the effect of causing "unpleasant markings" in collodion pictures or
not. With all due deference to the Editor's opinion, I do not believe
that gutta percha baths are injurious to the finished picture. I have
never any markings in my glass positives now, but what may be traced
with certainty to some unevenness in the film or dirtiness on the glass.
And I hope that the number of beginners who are using gutta percha
baths, and who are troubled with these unpleasant markings (as all
beginners are, whether they use glass or gutta percha), will not,
without some very careful experiments, lay the fault upon the gutta
percha. In the Number for April 2, the Editor thanks me for what he is
pleased to call "the very beautiful specimen of _my skill_." This was a
small glass positive, which I sent him in accordance with an offer of
mine in a former note. Now, _that_ was rendered sensitive in a gutta
percha bath, which I have had in use for months; and I think I may
appeal to the Editor as to the absence of all unpleasant markings in it.
Probably it may be a good plan for those who make the baths for
themselves to adopt the following simple method of cleaning them at
first. Fill the bath with water, changing it every day for a week or so.
Then wash it with strong nitric acid, and wash once or twice afterwards.
Always keep the nitrate of silver solution in the bath, with a cover
over it. Never filter, unless there is a great deal of extraneous matter
at the bottom. If glass baths are used, cemented together with
sealing-wax, &c., I imagine they might be as objectionable as gutta
percha. The number of inquiries for a diagram of my head-rest, &c., from
all parts of the kingdom--Glasgow, Paisley, Manchester, Leicester,
Leeds, Newcastle, Durham, &c. &c.--proves the very large number of
photographic subscribers "N. & Q." possesses. I think, therefore, it
cannot but prove useful to discuss in its pages the question of the
advantage or disadvantage of gutta percha.


Edingthorpe Rectory, North Walsham.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Pilgrimages to the Holy Land_ (Vol. v., p. 289.).--I beg to inform W.
M. R. E. (Vol. vii., p. 341.) that, though I have never met with a
printed copy of the "Itinerary to the Holy Land" of _Gabriele
Capodilista_ (the Perugia edition of 1472, mentioned by Brunet, being
undoubtedly a book of very great rarity, and perhaps the only one ever
printed), I have in my possession a very beautiful manuscript of the
work on vellum, which appears to have been presented by the author to
the nuns of St. Bernardino of Padua. It is a small folio; and the first
page is illuminated in a good Italian style of the fifteenth century. It
is very well written in the Venetian dialect, and commences thus:

     "Venerabilibus ac Devotissimis D[=n]e Abbatissæ et
     Monialibus Ecclesiæ Sancti Bernardini de Padua salut[=e] in
     D[=NO].--Ritrovandomi ne li tempi in questa mia opereta descripti,
     Io Gabriel Capodelista Cavalier Padoano dal su[=m]o Idio inspirato
     et dentro al mio cor concesso fermo proposito di vistare
     personalmente el Sanctissimo loco di Jerusalem," &c.

This MS., which was formerly in the library of the Abbati Canonici, I
purchased, with others, at Venice in 1835.

If W. M. R. E. has any wish to see it, and will communicate such wish to
me through the medium of the publisher of "N. & Q.," I shall be happy to
gratify his curiosity. I do not know whether there is any MS. of
Capodilista's Itinerary in the British Museum.


"_A Letter to a Convocation Man_" (Vol vii., p. 358.).--The authorship
of the tract concerning which MR. FRASER inquires, is assigned to Sir
Bartholomew Shower, not by the Bodleian Catalogue only, but also by Sir
Walter Scott, in his edition of the Somers' _Tracts_ (vol. ix. p. 411.),
as well as by Dr. Watt, in his _Bibliotheca Britannica_. The only
authorities for ascribing it to Dr. Binckes which I have been able to
discover, are Dr. Edmund Calamy, in his _Life and Times_ (vol. i. p.
397.), and the Rev. Thomas Lathbury, in his _History of the Convocation
of the Church of England_ (p. 283.); but neither of those authors gives
the source from which his information is {416} derived: and Mr.
Lathbury, who appears perfectly unaware that the tract had ever been
ascribed to Sir Bartholomew Shower, a lawyer, remarks: "It is worthy of
observation that the author of the _letter_ professes to be a lawyer,
though such was not the case, Dr. Binckes being a clergyman." Dr.
Kennett also, in his _Ecclesiastical Synods_, p. 19., referred to by Mr.
Lathbury, speaking of Archbishop Wake's reply, says: "I remember one
little prejudice to it, that it was wrote by a divine, whereas the
argument required an able lawyer; and the very writer of the _Letter to
a Convocation Man_ suggesting himself to be of that profession, there
was the greater equity, there should be the like council of one side as
there had been of the other."--It has occurred to me that the mistake of
assigning the tract to Dr. Binckes may possibly have been occasioned by
the circumstance that another tract, with the following title, published
in 1701, has the initials W. B. at the end of it,--_A Letter to a
Convocation Man, by a Clergyman in the Country_. I have examined both
tracts, and they are quite different, and leave no appearance of having
proceeded from the same hand.



_King Robert Bruce's Coffin-plate_ (Vol vii., p. 356.) was a modern
forgery, but not discovered to be so, of course, until after publication
of the beautiful engraving of it in the _Transactions of the Scottish
Society of Antiquaries_, which was made at the expense of, and presented
to the Society by, the barons of the Exchequer.

I believe that a notice of the forgery was published in a subsequent


_Eulenspiegel or Howleglas_ (Vol. vii., p. 357.).--The following extract
from my note-book may be of use:

     "The German Rogue, or the Life and Merry Adventures, Cheats,
     Stratagems, and Contrivances of Tiel Eulenspiegle.

    'Let none Eulenspiegle's artifices blame,
     For Rogues of every country are the same.'

     London, printed in the year MDCCIX. The only copy of this edition I
     ever saw was one which had formerly belonged to Ritson, and which I
     purchased of Thomas Rodd, but afterwards relinquished to my old
     friend Mr. Douce."

This copy, therefore, is no doubt now in the Bodleian. I have never
heard of any other.

While on the subject of Eulenspiegel, I would call your correspondent's
attention to some curious remarks on the Protestant and Romanist
versions of it in the _Quarterly Review_, vol. xxi. p. 108.

I may also take this opportunity of informing him that a very cleverly
illustrated edition of it was published by Scheible of Stuttgart in
1838, and that a passage in the _Hettlingischen Sassenchronik_
(Caspar Abel's Sammlung, p. 185.), written in 1455, goes to prove that
Dyll Ulnspiegel, as the wag is styled in the Augsburgh edition of 1540,
is no imaginary personage, inasmuch as under the date of 1350 the
chronicler tells of a very grievous pestilence which raged through the
whole world, and that "dosulfest sterff Ulenspeygel to Möllen."

I am unable to answer the Query respecting Murner's visit to England.
The most complete account of his life and writings is, I believe, that
prefixed by Scheible to his edition of Murner's _Narrenbeschwörung_, and
his satirical dissertation _Ob der König von England ein Lügner sey,
oder der Luther_.


_Sir Edwin Sadleir_ (Vol. vii., p. 357.).--Sir Edwin Sadleir, of Temple
Dinsley, in the county of Hertford, Bart., was the third son of Sir
Edwin Sadleir (created a baronet by Charles II.), by Elizabeth, daughter
of Sir Walter Walker, Knt., LL.D. His elder brothers having died in
infancy, he succeeded, on his father's death in 1672, to his honour and
estates, and subsequently married Mary, daughter and coheiress of John
Lorymer, citizen and apothecary of London, and widow of William Croone,
M.D. This lady founded the algebra lectures at Cambridge, and also
lectures in the College of Physicians and the Royal Society. (See
Chauncy's _Historical Antiquities of Hertfordshire_, folio edit., 397,
or 8vo. edit., ii. 179, 180.; Ward's _Lives of the Gresham Professors_,
322. 325.; Sir Ralph Sadler's _State Papers_, ii. 610.; Weld's _History
of the Royal Society_, i. 289.) In the Sadler State Papers, Sir Edwin
Sadleir is stated to have died 30th September, 1706: but that was the
date of Lady Sadleir's death; and, according to Ward, Sir Edwin Sadleir
survived her. He died without issue, and thereupon the baronetcy became



_Belfry Towers separate from the Body of the Church_ (Vol. vii., p.
333.).--The tower of the parish church of Llangyfelach, in
Glamorganshire, is raised at some little distance from the building. In
the legends of the place, this is accounted for by a belief that the
devil, in his desire to prevent the erection of the church, carried off
a portion of it as often as it was commenced; and that he was at length
only defeated by the two parts being built separate.


In addition to the bell towers unconnected with the church, noticed in
"N. & Q." (Vol. vii., p. 333.), I beg to call the attention of J. S. A.
to those of Woburn in Bedfordshire, and Henllan in Denbighshire. The
tower of the former church stands at six yards distance from it, and is
a small square building with large buttresses and four pinnacles: it
{417} looks picturesque, from being entirely covered with ivy. The
tower, or rather the steeple, at Henllan, near Denbigh, is still more
remarkable, from its being built on the top of a hill, and looking down
upon the church, which stands in the valley at its foot.


_God's Marks_ (Vol. vii., p. 134.).--These are probably the "yellow
spots" frequently spoken of in old writings, as appearing on the
finger-nails, the hands, and elsewhere, before death. (See Brand's
_Popular Ant._, vol. iii. p. 177., Bohn's edit.) In Denmark they were
known under the name _Döding-knib_ (dead man's nips, ghost-pinches), and
tokened the approaching end of some friend or kinsman. Another Danish
name was _Dödninge-pletter_ (dead man's spots); and in Holberg's _Peder
Paars_ (book i. song, 4.) _Dödning-knæp_. See S. Aspach, _Dissertatio de
Variis Superstitionibus_, 4to., Hafniæ, 1697, p. 7., who says they are
of scorbutic origin; and F. Oldenburg, _Om Gjenfærd ellen Gjengangere_,
8vo., Kjöbenhavn, 1818, p. 23.



"_The Whippiad_" (Vol. vii., p. 393.).--The mention of _The Whippiad_ by
B. N. C. brought to my recollection a MS. copy of that satire in this
library, and now lying before me, with the autograph of "Snelson, Trin.
Coll. Oxon., 1802." There are notes appended to this copy of the verses,
and not knowing where to look in _Blackwood's Magazine_ for the satire,
or having a copy at hand in order to ascertain if the notes are printed
there also, or whether they are only to be found in the MS., perhaps
your correspondent B. N. C. will have the goodness to state if the
printed copy has notes, because, if there are none, I would copy out for
the "N. & Q." those that are written in the MS., as no doubt they would
be found interesting and curious by all who value whatever fell from the
pen of the highly-gifted Reginald Heber.

Perhaps the notes may be the elucidations of some college cotemporary,
and not written by Heber.

J. M.

Sir R. Taylor's Library, Oxford.

_The Axe that beheaded Anne Boleyn_ (Vol. vii., p. 332.).--In Britton
and Brayley's _Memoirs of the Tower of London_, they mention (in
describing the Spanish Armoury) the axe which tradition says beheaded
Anne Boleyn and the Earl of Essex; but a foot-note is added from Stow's
_Chronicle_, stating that the _hangman_ cut off the head of Anne with
one stroke of his _sword_.



_Palindromical Lines_ (Vol. vii., pp. 178. 366.).--Besides the
_habitats_ already given for the Greek inscription on a font, I have
notes of the like at Melton Mowbray; St. Mary's, Nottingham; in the
private chapel at Longley Castle; and at Hadleigh. At this last place,
it is noted in a church book to be taken out of Gregory Nazienzen (but I
never could find it), and a reference is made to Jeremy Taylor's _Great
Exemplar_, "Discourse on Baptism," p. 120. sect. 17.

It may be worth noticing that this Gregory was, for a short time, in the
fourth century, bishop of Constantinople; and in the Moslemised
cathedral of St. Sophia, in that city, according to Grelot, quoted in
Collier's _Dictionary_, the same words--with the difference that "sin"
is put in the plural, _sic_:


were written in letters of gold over the place at the entrance of the
church, between two porphyry pillars, where stood two urns of marble
filled with water, the use of which, when it was a Christian temple,
must be well known. The Turks now use them for holding drinking water,
and have probably done so since the time when the church was turned into
a mosque, after the conquest of Constantinople by Mahomet II., in the
fifteenth century. What could induce  ZEUS (p. 366.) to call this
inscription "sotadic?" It may more fitly be called holy.


Clyst St. George.

These lines also are to be found on the marble basins for containing
holy water, in one of the churches at Paris.


The Greek inscription mentioned by Jeremy Taylor is on the font in
Rufford Church.

H. A.

_Heuristisch_ (Vol. vii., p. 237.).--In reply to H. B. C. of the U. U.
Club, I beg to give the explanation of the word _heuristisch_, with its
cognate terms, from Heyse's _Allgemeines Fremdwörterbuch_, 10th edition,
Hanover, 1848:

    "Heuréka, gr. (von heuriskein, finden), ich hab' es gefunden,
    gefunden! Heuristik, _f._ die Erfindungskunst; _heuristisch_,
    erfindungskünstlich, erfinderisch; heuristische Methode,
    entwickelnde Lehrart, welche den Schüler zum Selbstfinden der
    Lehrsätze anleitet."

J. M.


       *       *       *       *       *




    VIEWS OF ARUNDEL HOUSE IN THE STRAND, 1646. London, published by T.
      Thane, Rupert Street, Haymarket. 1792.
    PICKERING'S STATUTES AT LARGE. 8vo. Edit. Camb. From 46 Geo III.
      cap. 144. (Vol. XLVI. Part I.) to 1 Wm. IV.
    EUROPEAN MAGAZINE. Nos. for May, 1817; January, February, May,
      June, 1818; April, June, July, October, and December, 1819.
      III. and IV.
    THE LAWYER AND MAGISTRATE'S MAGAZINE, complete or single Volumes,
      _circa_ 1805-1810.{418}
      Parts 9. to end.
    BAYLE'S DICTIONARY. English Version, by  DE MAIZEAUX. London, 1738.
      Vols. I. and II.
    SWIFT'S (DEAN) WORKS. Dublin; G. Faulkner. 19 volumes. 1768. Vol. I.
    ARCHÆOLOGIA. Vols. III., IV., V., VIII. Boards.
    THE TRUTH TELLER. A Periodical.
      THE CHURCH. 8vo. Belfast, 1840.

*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names._

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to
be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES." 186. Fleet

       *       *       *       *       *


_E. P._ Schiller's _Wallenstein_ and _Ghost-Seer_, Goethe's _Faust_, and
Kant's _Philosophy_, have been translated into English.

_RECNAC._ We cannot undertake to tell our Correspondent what is the
distinction between Epic and Ballad Poetry.

_Y. S. M._, who writes respecting _Fees for searching Parish Registers_,
is referred to our _4th Vol._, _p. 473._, _and our 5th Vol._, _pp. 36.

_S. A. S. (Bridgewater)._ Will our Correspondent repeat his Query
respecting _Loselerius Vilerius_?

_QUESOR._ Lord Bacon's _History of Henry VII._ was first published in

_W. B._ The mercury does not lose its power by use, but should when it
becomes oxydized, be strained by squeezing it through wash-leather.

_PROTOSULPH._ The gilding would have been wasted. Our observations
respecting blowing on the glass apply equally when the protosulphate is
used. That developing solution will keep. Stains may be removed from the
finger by cyanide of potassium; but this must be used cautiously, as it
is very poisonous.

A few complete sets of "_NOTES AND QUERIES_," _Vols. i._ to _vi._, price
Three Guineas, may now be had; for which early application is desirable.

"_NOTES AND QUERIES_" is published at noon on Friday, so that the
Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and
deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday.

       *       *       *       *       *


In 8vo., price 10s. 6d., the Third Edition of

THE DARK AGES; a Series of ESSAYS intended to illustrate the State of
RELIGION and LITERATURE in the 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th Centuries. By
the REV. S. R. MAITLAND, F.R.S. and F.S.A., some time Librarian to the
late Archbishop of Canterbury, and Keeper of the MSS. at Lambeth.

RIVINGTONS. St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place;

Of whom may be had, by the same Author,

    3. ERUVIN; ESSAYS on Subjects connected with the NATURE, HISTORY,
         and DESTINY of MAN. Second Edition. 5s.

       *       *       *       *       *


Now ready, in 12mo., price 6s. 6d., the Second Edition of

from the German of Putz, by the REV. R. B. PAUL, M.A., and edited by the

Also, by the same Editors,


     "The leading characteristic of these Handbooks is their exceeding
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     the very latest period, and present us with the results of the most
     recent investigations of the critics and antiquaries by whom they
     have been discussed."--_Dublin Review._

RIVINGTONS. St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place.

       *       *       *       *       *


Now ready, in 12mo., price 3s.

EURIPIDIS BACCHÆ, with ENGLISH NOTES, from the German of SCHÖNE. By the
REV. HENRY BROWNE, M.A., Canon of Waltham in the Cathedral Church, and
Chaplain to the Lord Bishop of Chichester. (Forming a New Volume of

Recently published in this Series, edited by the late REV. T. K. ARNOLD,

    2. ---- HECUBA. With ENGLISH NOTES. 3s.
    4. ---- OEDIPUS TYRANNUS. 4s.
    5. ---- PHILOCTETES. 3s.
    6. ---- AJAX, 3s.
    7. ---- ANTIGONE. 4s.

*** The last five with English Notes, translated from the German of


*** With English Notes by PROFESSOR FELTON.

RIVINGTONS, St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place.

       *       *       *       *       *

Now ready, Fourth Edition, enlarged, with numerous Illustrations and
Diagrams, price 1s. in wrappers, cloth gilt 1s. 6d.

A PRACTICAL MANUAL of PHOTOGRAPHY. With the latest Improvements in the
Collodion Process, and Microscopic and Stereoscopic Pictures, &c.
Published by CLARK, 17. Warwick Lane, London: and sold by all
Booksellers. Upon receipt of 18 Postage Stamps a Copy can be forwarded

       *       *       *       *       *

On May 2nd will be published, Part I. of MR. PARKER'S NEW MAGAZINE, THE
NATIONAL MISCELLANY. A New Monthly Periodical of General Literature.

On the Second of May it is designed to commence the publication of a New
Monthly Periodical, to be entitled THE NATIONAL MISCELLANY. As its name
imports, it will be a Magazine of General Literature, giving itself free
range over every subject likely to be of general interest.

THE NATIONAL MISCELLANY is an attempt to supply high-principled and
high-toned Literature of a secular kind, which may be safely taken up by
thoughtful persons when their more serious reading is over, and which
may also indirectly act for good on those who thrust all religious works

It will be issued in Shilling Monthly Parts, and the type and paper will
be of a superior kind.

All communications and books for review must be addressed to the Editor,
under cover to Mr. Parker, 377. Strand.

London: JOHN HENRY PARKER, 377. Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *


This day, 2 vols. post 8vo., 18s.

HYPATIA; or New Foes with and Old Face. By CHARLES KINGSLEY, Jun.,
Rector of Eversley. Reprinted from "Fraser's Magazine."

London: JOHN W. PARKER & SON, West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

This day is published, price 6s. 6d.


     "Deum timeto: regem honorato: virtutem colito disciplinis
     bonis operam dato."--_Stat. Acad. Cantab._


Sold in London by LONGMAN & CO.; F. & J. RIVINGTON; WHITTAKER & CO.;
LAUGHTON, Liverpool.

       *       *       *       *       *

Polarizing Apparatus, Object-glasses, and Eye-pieces. S. STRAKER
supplies any of the above of the first quality, and will forward by post
free a new priced List of Microscopes and Apparatus.


       *       *       *       *       *{419}

PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions
may be seen at BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be
procured Apparatus of every Description, and pure Chemicals for the
practice of Photography in all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, price 1s., free by Post 1s. 4d.,

Translated from the French.

Sole Agents in the United Kingdom for VOIGHTLANDER & SON'S celebrated
Lenses for Portraits and Views.

General Depôt for Turner's, Whatman's, Canson Frères, La Croix, and
other Talbotype Papers.

Pure Photographic Chemicals.

Instructions and Specimens in every Branch of the Art.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining
Instantaneous Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds,
according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the
choicest Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO PHOTOGRAPHERS.--Pure Chemicals, and every requisite for the practice
of Photography, according to the instructions of Le Gray, Hunt,
Brébisson, and other writers, may be obtained, wholesale and retail, of
WILLIAM BOLTON (formerly Dymond & Co.), Manufacturer of pure Chemicals
for Photographic and other purposes. Lists may be had on application.

Improved Apparatus for iodizing paper in vacuo, according to Mr.
Stewart's instructions.


       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's,
Turner's, Sanford's, and Canson Frères' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's
Process. Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--Collodion (Iodized with the Ammonio-Iodide Of Silver).--J.
B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, were the first in England who
published the application of this agent (see _Athenæum_, Aug. 14th).
Their Collodion (price 9d. per oz.) retains its extraordinary
sensitiveness, tenacity, and colour unimpaired for months: it may be
exported to any climate, and the Iodizing Compound mixed as required. J.
B. HOCKIN & CO. manufacture PURE CHEMICALS and all APPARATUS with the
latest Improvements adapted for all the Photographic and Daguerreotype
processes. Cameras for Developing in the open Country. GLASS BATHS
adapted to any Camera. Lenses from the best Makers. Waxed and Iodized
Papers, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *


               *       *       *

Established 1824.

               *       *       *

FIVE BONUSES have been declared: at the last in January, 1852, the sum
of 131,125l. was added to the Policies, producing a Bonus varying with
the different ages from 24-1/2 to 55 per cent. on the Premiums paid
during the five years, or from 5l. to 12l. 10s. per cent. on the
Sum assured.

The small share of Profit divisible in the future among Shareholders
being now provided for, the ASSURED will hereafter derive all the
benefits obtainable from a Mutual Office, WITHOUT ANY LIABILITY OR RISK

POLICIES effected before the 30th June next, will be entitled, at the
next Division, to one year's additional share of Profits over later

On Assurances for the whole of Life only one half of the Premiums need
be paid for the first five years.

INVALID LIVES may be Assured at rates proportioned to the risk.

Claims paid _thirty_ days after proof of death, and all Policies are
_Indisputable_ except in cases of fraud.

Tables of Rates and forms of Proposal can be obtained of any of the
Society's Agents, or of

GEORGE H. PINCKARD, Resident Secretary.

_99. Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, London._

       *       *       *       *       *


Incorporated by Charter of Queen Anne, A.D. 1706.


    G. Baillie, Esq.
    The Hon. F. Byng.
    R. H. Coote, Esq.
    J. E. Davies, Esq.
    G. De Morgan, Esq.
    W. Everett, Esq.
    G. Ogle, Esq.
    M. B. Peacock, Esq.
    C. Phillips, Esq.
    J. Round, Esq.
    The Rt. Hon. Sir E. Ryan.
    T. Thompson. M.D., F.R.S.

_Physician._--Francis Boott, M.D., 24. Gower Street, Bedford Square.
_Solicitor._--Charles Rivington, Esq., Fenchurch Buildings.
_Bankers._--Messrs. Goslings & Sharpe, Fleet Street.

This Society has been established nearly a century and a half, and is
the oldest Life Assurance Institution in existence. Its principles are
essentially those of Mutual Assurance, and the whole of the profits are
divided among the Members.

Assurances are granted, if desired, without participation in Profits, at
reduced rates of Premium, and upon every contingency depending on human

The Tables of Mortality, deduced from the Society's own experience,
having satisfied the Directors that the Rates of Premium on Single Lives
might be reduced with perfect safety, a new Table has accordingly been
prepared, and the terms upon which Assurances are now effected with this
Office are shown in the subjoined extract:--

   Age.  | With Profits. | Without Profits.
         |  £  s.  d.    |  £  s.  d.
   15    |  1  15  3     |  1  11  9
   20    |  1  19  7     |  1  15  8
   25    |  2   4  2     |  1  19  9
   30    |  2   9  9     |  2   4  9
   35    |  2  16 10     |  2  11  2
   40    |  3   5  0     |  2  18  6
   45    |  3  15  9     |  3   8  2
   50    |  4   9  9     |  4   0  9
   55    |  5   8  9     |  4  17 10
   60    |  6  15  0     |  6   1  6

Prospectuses and every information may be obtained at the Office.


       *       *       *       *       *

contains designs and prices of upwards of ONE HUNDRED different
Bedsteads: also of every description of Bedding, Blankets, and Quilts.
And their new warerooms contain an extensive assortment of Bed-room
Furniture, Furniture Chintzes, Damasks, and Dimities, so as to render
their Establishment complete for the general furnishing of Bed-rooms.

HEAL & SON, Bedstead and Bedding Manufacturers, 196. Tottenham Court

       *       *       *       *       *

LONDON. Founded A.D. 1842

       *       *       *       *       *


    H. E. Bicknell, Esq.
    W. Cabell, Esq.
    T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq. M.P.
    G. H. Drew, Esq.
    W. Evans, Esq.
    W. Freeman, Esq.
    F. Fuller, Esq.
    J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
    T. Grissell, Esq.
    J. Hunt, Esq.
    J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
    E. Luens, Esq.
    J. Lys Seager, Esq.
    J. B. White, Esq.
    J. Carter Wood, Esq.


W. Whately, Esq., Q.C.: L. C. Humfrey, Esq., Q.C.: George Drew, Esq.

_Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.

_Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application
to suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed
in the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l. with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

    Age    £ s.  d.
    17     1 14  4
    22     1 18  8
    27     2  4  5
    32     2 10  8
    37     2 18  6
    42     3  8  2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions.
BUILDING SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment,
exemplified in the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies,
&c. With a Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life
Assurance. By ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life
Assurance Society, 3. Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

X., in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all
Climates, may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior
Gold London-made Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver
Cases, 8, 6, and 4 guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12,
10, and 8 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior
Lever, with Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's
Pocket Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 Guineas. Every Watch
skilfully examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers,
2l., 3l., and 4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory,
the Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen.


       *       *       *       *       *{420}



               *       *       *

An Exhibition of Photographic Pictures

By the best English and Continental Artists will be opened at the
The Collection will include a great variety of new and important
Pictures recently taken by eminent Photographers, and some of the best
specimens from the late Exhibition at the Society of Arts.--Admission

               *       *       *


(_By Licence of the Patentee._)

MR. PHILIP DELAMOTTE begs to announce that he has concluded an
arrangement with the Patentee, Mr. H. F. Talbot, which enables him to
take Portraits by the newly-discovered Collodion Process. The advantages
which this process offers are,--Excellence of Likeness, great
Convenience, and the opportunity of Multiplying copies of the same
Portrait to any extent. These Portraits have the appearance of beautiful
mezzotint engravings, with the superior accuracy which Sun-painting must
insure. One moment suffices to obtain the likeness, and no constrained
position is required. Hence a happy expression of face is instantly
caught, and young children may be taken without difficulty. To those who
wish for several copies of the same Portrait, the Calotype offers every
facility, as an unlimited number of impressions may be printed, by the
agency of the sun, from the glass plate. These will all be exactly equal
to the first, and may be had at a moderate cost.


MR. DELAMOTTE will be happy to photograph Artist' Paintings and Statues,
and supply two or more impressions as may be desired. He also undertakes
to photograph, under the superintendence of the Artist, the Life Model,
Costume, or any required object, and to deliver the negative plate.


MR. DELAMOTTE is ready to enter into engagements to photograph Buildings
and Engineering Works of all kinds, either in progress or when
completed. In illustration of the advantages to be derived by Engineers
from Photography, MR. DELAMOTTE begs to refer to Mr. Fenton's Views of
Mr. Vignolles' Bridge across the Dnieper at Kieff, and to his own views
of the Progress of the Crystal Palace at Sydenham.


MR. DELAMOTTE has made arrangements which enable him to take
photographic views of Country Mansions, Ancient Castles and Ruins,
Villas, Cottages, Bridges or Picturesque Scenery of any description, and
to supply as many copies as may be desired.


MR. DELAMOTTE will be happy to receive commissions to take photographic
views of Churches--either Exterior or Interiors--Rectories or
School-houses. He will also be willing to make special arrangements for
Portraits of Clergymen, when several copies of the same portrait are


MR. DELAMOTTE gives lessons in every branch of the Photographic Art, but
more especially in the Collodion Process, which he undertakes to teach,
together with the best method of Printing, in Six Lessons.

For Terms apply to MR. PHILIP DELAMOTTE, Photographic Institution, 168.
New Bond Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, price 10s. 6d.



_Containing Four Pictures._


Parts I. and II. are now reprinted and _good_ impressions of the
pictures are guaranteed. Part IV. will be ready in May.

*** The Publisher apologizes for the long delay in issuing Part III. and
reprinting the two former Parts. Photographers will readily understand
why no quantity of good impressions could have been printed during the
last four months.

               *       *       *

Now ready, price 16s.


By GEORGE SHAW, Esq. (of Queen's College, Birmingham).



These Pictures are of large size, and are very carefully printed.

*** Should this Number meeting with the approbation of the Public,
Professor Shaw will continue the Series.

               *       *       *

Nearly ready,




Illustrated with a Photographic Picture taken by the Collodion Process,
and a Diagram of Six Colours, with its result in a Photographic

This Manual will contain much practical information of a valuable

               *       *       *

Preparing for Publication, in Parts, price One Guinea each,


Exhibited in a Series of Photographic Views taken by PHILIP DELAMOTTE.

This Work will be found of much service to Engineers and Architects, and
all who are interested in the Crystal Palace.

*** Some of these Views may be had for the Stereoscope.

               *       *       *

Preparing for Publication,


By HUGH OWEN, ESQ. (of Bristol.)

               *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the
Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the
Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London: and published by GEORGE
BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the
West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street
aforesaid.--Saturday, April 23. 1853.

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