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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 184, May 7, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 184, May 7, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.




       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 184.]
Saturday, May 7, 1853.
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                            Page
    Old Popular Poetry: "Adam Bell, Clym of the Clough,
      and William of Clowdesly," by J. Payne Collier                   445
    Witchcraft, by Rev. H. T. Ellacombe                                446
    Spring, &c., by Thomas Keightley                                   448
    Notes and Queries on Bacon's Essays, No. III., by
      P. J. F. Gantillon, B.A.                                         448
    Shakspeare Correspondence, by S. W. Singer, Cecil
      Harbottle, &c.                                                   449
    MINOR NOTES:--Local Rhymes, Norfolk--"Hobson's
      Choice"--Khond Fable--Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton,
      Bart.--Anagrams                                                  452

    Seal of William d'Albini                                           452
    Forms of Judicial Oath, by Henry H. Breen                          453
    MINOR QUERIES:--Passage in Boerhaave--Story of
      Ezzelin--The Duke--General Sir Dennis Pack--Haveringemere--Old
      Pictures of the Spanish Armada--Bell
      Inscription--Loselerius Villerius, &c.--The
      Vinegar Plant--Westminster Parishes--Harley Family--Lord
      Cliff--Enough--Archbishop Magee--Carpets
      at Rome--Nursery Rhymes--Gloves at Fairs--Mr.
      Caryl or Caryll--Early Reaping-machines                          453
      Self-Observer"--Jockey--Boyle Lectures                           456

    The Discovery and Recovery of MSS., by Kenneth R. H. Mackenzie     456
   "The Whippiad"                                                      457
    Spontaneous Combustion, by Shirley Hibberd                         458
    Major-General Lambert, by Edgar MacCulloch                         459
    The "Salt-peter-man," by J. Deck                                   460
    Metrical Psalms and Hymns, by J. Sansom                            460
    The Sign of the Cross in the Greek Church                          461
      Fluid--Photographic Tent--Mr. Wilkinson's simple
      Mode of levelling Cameras--Antiquarian Photographic
      Club                                                             462
    REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Erroneous Forms of
      Speech: Mangel Wurzel--The Whetstone--Charade--Parochial
      Libraries--Judge Smith--Church Catechism--Charade
      attributed to Sheridan--Gesmas and
      Desmas--Lode--Epitaphs imprecatory--Straw-bail--How
      to stain Deal--Detached Belfry Towers                            463

    Notes on Books, &c.                                                465
    Books and Odd volumes wanted                                       465
    Notices to Correspondents                                          466
    Advertisements                                                     466

       *       *       *       *       *



I have very recently become possessed of a curious printed fragment, which
is worth notice on several accounts, and will be especially interesting to
persons who, like myself, are lovers of our early ballad poetry. It is part
of an unknown edition of the celebrated poem relating to the adventures of
Adam Bell, Clym of the Clough, and William of Cloudesly.

There are (as many of your readers will be aware from Ritson's small
volume, _Pieces of Ancient Popular Poetry_, 8vo. 1791) two old editions of
_Adam Bell, &c._, one printed by William Copland, without date, and the
other by James Roberts in 1605. The edition by Copland must have preceded
that by Roberts by forty or fifty years, and may have come out between 1550
and 1560; the only known copy of it is among the Garrick Plays (at least it
was so when I saw it) in the British Museum. The re-impression by Roberts
is not very uncommon, and I think that more than one copy of it is at

When Copland printed the poem, he did not enter it at Stationers' Hall;
comparatively few of his publications, generally of a free, romantic, or
ludicrous character, were licensed, and he was three times fined for not
first obtaining the leave of the Company. Nevertheless, we do find an entry
of a "book" called "Adam Bell," &c., among the memoranda belonging to the
year 1557-8, but it was made at the instance, not of Copland, but of John
Kynge, in this form:

    "To John Kynge, to prynte this boke called Adam Bell, &c., and for his
    lycense he geveth to the howse"--

What sum he gave is not stated. Again, we meet with another notice of it in
the same registers, under the date of 1581-2, when John Charlwood was
interested in the undertaking. I mention these two entries principally
because neither Ritson nor Percy were acquainted with them; but they may be
seen among the extracts published by the Shakspeare Society in 1848 and
1849. {446}

No impressions by Kynge or Charlwood having come down to us, we have no
means of knowing whether they availed themselves of the permission granted
at Stationers' Hall; and, unless I am deceived, the fragment which
occasions this Note is not from the presses of either of them, and is of an
earlier date than the time of Copland; the type is much better, and less
battered, than that of Copland; at the same time it has a more antique
look, and in several respects, which I am about to point out, it furnishes
a better text than that given by Ritson from Copland's edition, or by Percy
with the aid of his folio manuscript. I am sorry to say that it only
consists of a single sheet; but this is nearly half the production, and it
comprises the whole of the second, and two pages of the third "fit." The
first line and the last of the portion in my hands, testify to the greater
antiquity and purity of the text there found; it begins--

 "These gates be shut so wonderly well;"

and it ends,

 "Tyll they came to the kynge's palays."

It is "_wonderous_ well" in Copland's impression, and palace is there spelt
"pallace," a more modern form of the word than _palays_. Just afterwards we
have, in my fragment,

 "Streyght comen from oure kyng,"

instead of Copland's

 "Streyght _come nowe_ from our king."

_Comen_ is considerably more ancient than "come nowe;" so that, without
pursuing this point farther, I may say that my fragment is not only an
older specimen of typography than Copland's impression, but older still in
its words and phraseology, a circumstance that communicates to it
additional interest. I subjoin a few various readings, most, if not all, of
them presenting a superior text than is to be met with elsewhere. Speaking
of the porter at the gate of Carlisle, we are told--

 "And to the gate faste he throng."

Copland's edition omits _faste_, and it is not met with in Percy. In
another place a rhyme is lost by an awkward transposition, "he saide" for
_sayd he_; and farther on, in Copland's text, we have mention of

 "The justice with a quest of squyers."

instead of "a quest of _swerers_," meaning of course the jury who had
condemned Cloudesly "there hanged to be." Another blunder committed by
Copland is the omission of a word, so that a line is left without its
corresponding rhyme:

 "Then Clowdysle cast hys eyen aside,
    And sawe his two bretheren _stande_
  At the corner of the market-place,
    With theyr good bowes bent in theyr hand."

The word I print in Italics is entirely wanting in Copland. It is curious
to see how Percy (_Reliques_, i. 157., ed. 1775) gets over the difficulty
by following no known copy of the original:

 "Then Cloudesle cast his eyen asyde,
    And saw hys brethren twaine
  At a corner of the market-place,
    Ready the justice for to slaine."

Cloudesly is made to exclaim, in all editions but mine, "I see comfort,"
instead of "I see _good_ comfort." However, it would perhaps be wearisome
to press this matter farther, and I have said enough to set a few of your
readers, zealous in such questions, rummaging their stores to ascertain
whether any text with which they are acquainted, tallies with that I have
above quoted.


       *       *       *       *       *


Observing that you have lately admitted some articles on witchcraft, it may
be interesting to make a note of two or three original papers, out of some
in my possession, which were given to me many years ago by an old general
officer, who served in the American war, and brought them with him to
England about 1776. I send exact copies from the originals.


Rectory, Clyst St. George.

Whereas several persons, being by authority co[=m]itted to Ipswich Goall
for fellony and witchcraft, and order being given that search should be
made carefully upon their bodyes, to see if there nothing appeared
preternaturall thereon: for that end, on July y^e 4^th, 1692, a Jurie of
one man and eight women were su[=m]oned to attend, and sworne to make
dilligent search, and to give a true account of what they found, viz^t.--

  Doctor Philemon Dance,
  Mrs. Joha[=n]a Diamond, midwife,
  Mrs. Grace Graves,
  Mrs. Mary Belcher,
  Mrs. Gennet Pengery,
  Ann Lovell,
  Francis Davis,
  Mary Browne,

Who, after search made in particular, give this account, viz^t.--Upon the
body of goodwife Estue they find three unnaturall teats, one under left
arme, and one on the back side of her sholder-blade, one near to her secret
parts on one thigh, which, being pricked throw with a pin, remained without
sense, and did not bleed.

2. Upon y^e veiwing and searching y^e body of Sarah Cloice, there was
nothing unnaturall appeared on her.

3. Upon searching y^e body of Mrs. Bradbury, there was nothing appeared
unnaturall on her, {447} only her brest were biger than usuall, and her
nipples larger than one y^t did not give suck, though her body was much
pined and wasted, yet her brests seemed full.

4. Upon y^e searching y^e body of y^e wife of Giles Cory, there was
severall darke moulds, one of which was upon one of her buttocks, and being
pricked with a pin, it was without sence, and did not bleed.

5. Upon y^e searching y^e body of Widow Hoer, nothing appeared on her
unnaturall, only her body verry much scratched, and on her head a strange
lock of haire, verry long, and differing in color from y^e rest on her
head, and matted or tangled together, which she said was a widow's lock,
and said, if it were cutt off she should die.

6. Upon searching y^e body of Rachell Clenton, there was found an
unnaturall teat on one side, something lower than just under her arme,
which teat having a pin thrust throw it she was not senceable of, till by
scratching her side, pricked her fingers with y^e pin y^t was then in y^e
teat; neither did y^e teat bleed.

There was also ordered, with ye foresaid Doct^r, four other men, viz^t, Mr.
Har. Symonds, Samuel Graves, Sen^r, Thomas Knewlton, and John Pinder, to
search y^e body of Giles Cory, and they returned y^t they, having searched
him, found nothing unnaturall upon him.

The truth of which I heare attest.
(Signed) THO^S WADE, J.P.

       *       *       *       *       *

  Province of Massachusettes Bay,
  New England, Essex.

Anno R. R. et Reginæ Gulielmi et Mariæ Angliæ, &c. quarto, annoqu Dom.

The Jurors for our Sov^n Lord and Ladye the King and Queen present--

That Abigail Barker, wife of Ebenezer Barker of Andiver, in the County of
Essex aforesaid, about two years since, at and in the town of Andiver
aforesaid, wickedly, maliciously, and felloniously, a covenant with the
Devill did make, and signed the Devill's Booke, and by the Devill was
baptized, and renounced her former Christian baptism; and gave herselfe up
to the Devill to serve him, and for the Devill to be her lord and master;
by which wicked and diabollicall couvenant, shee the said Abigaill Barker
is become a detestable witch, contrary to the peace of our Soveraigne Lord
and Lady the King and Queene, their crowne and dignity, and the law in that
case made and provided.

_Sep., '92._ The examination and confession of Abigail Barker, taken before
John Hawthorn, Esq., and other their Majesties Justices:

_Q._ How long have you been in the snare of the Devil?

_A._ Not above two yeares and a half.

_Q._ At what place were you first overtaken?

_A._ I am at present very much bewildered.--But a little after she said as
followes:--About two yeare and a half agoe she was in great discontent of
mynd, her husband being abroad, and she at home alone; at which tyme a
black man appeared to her, and brought a book with him, to which he put her
finger and made a black mark. She saith, her memory now failes her now more
than ordinary; but said she gave herself up to the Devil to serve him, and
he was her lord and master; and the Devil set a mark upon her legg, which
mark is black and blue, and she apprehends is a witch mark; and said that
she is a witch, and thinks that mark is the cause of her afflicting
persons, though she thought nothing of it then till afterwards she heard of
others having a mark upon them. She sayes, that some tyme after this the
black man carryed her singly upon a pole to 5-mile pond, and there were 4
persones more upon another pole, viz. Mistriss Osgood, Goody Wilson, Goody
Wardwell, Goody Tyler, and Hanneh Tyler. And when she came to the pond the
Devil made a great light, and took her up and dypt her face in the pond,
and she felt the water, and the Devil told her he was her lord and master,
and she must serve him for ever. He made her renounce her former baptisme,
and carryed her back upon the pole. She confesses she has afflicted the
persones that accused her, viz. Sprague, Lester, and Sawdy, both at home
and in the way comeing downe. The manner thus:--The Devil does it in her
shape, and she consents unto, and clinches her hands together, and sayes
the Devil cannot doe it in her shape without her consent. She sayes she was
at a meeting at Moses Tyler's house, in company with Mistriss Osgood, Goody
Wilson, Goody Tyler, and Hanah Tyler. She said the mark above was on her
left legg by her shin. It is about two yeare agoe since she was baptized.
She said that all this was true; and set her hand to the original as a true
confession. _Noate_, that before this her confession she was taken dumb,
and took Mr. Epps about the neck and pulled him down, thereby showing him
how the black man bowed her down; and for one houre's tyme could not open
her lips.

I, underwritten, being appointed by authority to take the above
examination, doe testify upon oath taken in court, that this is a true
coppy of the substance of it to the best of my knowledge.


6th July, 1692/3.

The above Abigail Barker was examined before their Majesties Justices of
the Peace in Salem.

  (Atest.) JOHN HIGGINSON, Just. Peace.

Owned before the Grand Jury.

  (Atest.) ROBERT PAYNE, Foreman.

6th January, 1692. {448}

       *       *       *       *       *


Our ancestors had three verbs and three corresponding substantives to
express the growth of plants, namely, _spring_, _shoot_, and _sprout_,--all
indicative of rapidity of growth; for _sprout_, (Germ. _spriessen_) is akin
to _spurt_, and denotes quickness, suddenness. The only one of these which
remains in general use is _shoot_: for _sprout_ is now only appropriated to
the young growth from cabbage-stalks; and _spring_ is heard no more save in
_sprig_, which is evidently a corruption of it, and which now denotes a
small slip or twig as we say, sprigs of laurel, bay, thyme, mint, rosemary,

Of the original meaning of _spring_, I have met but one clear instance; it
is, however, an incontrovertible one, namely,

    "Whoso spareth the _spring_ (_i. e._ rod, switch), spilleth his
    children."--_Visions of Piers Plowman_, v. 2554., ed. Wright.

Perhaps this is also the meaning in--

                 "Shall, Antipholus,
  Even in the spring of love thy _love-springs_ rot?"
                  _Com. of Errors_, Act III. Sc. 2.

and in "Time's Glory"--

 "To dry the old oak's sap and cherish _springs_."
                  _Rape of Lucrece._

_Spring_ afterwards came to be used for underwood, &c. Perhaps it answered
to the present _coppice_, which is composed of the springs or shoots of the
growth which has been cut down:

 "The lofty high wood and the lower _spring_."
                  Drayton's _Muses' Elysium_, 10.

 "The lesser birds that keep the lower _spring_."
                  _Id._, note.

It was also used as equivalent to grove:

                 "Unless it were
  The nightingale among the thick-leaved _spring_."
                  Fletcher's _Faith. Shep._, v. 1.

where, however, it may be the coppice.

 "This hand Sibylla's golden boughs to guard them,
  Through hell and horror, to the Elysian _springs_."
                  Massinger's _Bondman_, ii. 1.

In the following place Fairfax uses _spring_ to express the "salvatichi
soggiorni," i. e. _selva_ of his original:

 "But if his courage any champion move
  Too try the hazard of this dreadful _spring_."
                  _Godf. of Bull._, xiii. 31.

and in

 "For you alone to happy end must bring
  The strong enchantments of the charmed _spring_."
                  _Id._, xviii. 2.

it answers to _selva_.

When Milton makes his Eve say--

                 "While I
  In yonder _spring_ of roses intermix'd
  With _myrtles_ find what to redress till noon."
                  _Par. Lost_, ix. 217.

he had probably in his mind the _cespuglio_ in the first canto of the
_Orlando Furioso_; for _spring_ had not been used in the sense of thickets,
clumps, by any previous English poet. I am of opinion that _spring_ occurs
for the last time in our poetry in the following lines of Pope:

 "See thy bright altars throng'd with prostrate kings,
  And heap'd with products of Sabæan _springs_."
                  _Messiah_, 93.

Johnson renders the last line--

 "Cinnameos cumulos, Nabathæi munera _veris_;"

and this is probably the sense in which the place has generally been
understood. But let any one read the preceding quotations, and reflect on
what a diligent student Pope was of the works of his predecessors, and
perhaps he will think with me.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., pp. 6. 80.)

Essay IX. p. 21. (note _a_). "They used the word 'præfiscini.'" See
_e. g._, Plaut. _Asin._, ii. 4. 84. (Weise):

 "Præfiscini hoc nunc dixerim: nemo etiam me adcusavit
  Merito meo."

(Leonida boasts of his integrity.)

Ditto, p. 22. (note _c_). "From the _Stichus_ of Plautus," ii. 1. 54.

Ditto, p. 23. "Which has the character of Adrian the Emperor." See _Hist.
Aug. Script._, i. 149., _ut supr._ (Spartian. _Vit. Hadrian._ cap. 15.)

Ditto p. 26. "It was well said." By whom?

Essay X. ditto. "A poor saying of Epicurus." Where recorded?

Ditto, p. 27. "It hath been well said, 'That the arch flatterer,'" &c. By
whom, and where?

Ditto, ditto. "It hath been well said, 'That it is impossible,'" &c. By
whom and where?

Ditto, ditto. "The poet's relation." Ovid. _Heroid._ xvi. 163.

Essay XI. p. 28. "Cum non sis qui fueris," &c. Whence?

Ditto, p 29. "Illi mors gravis incubat," &c. Seneca, _Thyest._ 401. (ed.
Lemaire), Act II. extrem.

Ditto, p. 31. "That was anciently spoken." By whom?

Ditto, ditto. "Tacitus of Galba." Tac. _Hist._, i. 49.

Ditto, ditto. "Of Vespasian." Tac. _Hist._, i. 50.

Essay XII. ditto. "Question was asked of Demosthenes." See Cic. _De Orat._,
III. 56. § 213.

Ditto, p. 32. "Mahomet's miracle." Where recorded?

Essay XIII. p. 33. "The desire of power," &c. Cf. Shaksp. _Hen. VIII._,
III. 2. "By that sin (ambition) fell the angels," &c. {449}

Essay XIII. p. 33. "Busbechius." In Busbequii _Legationes Turciæ Epist.
Quatuor_ (Hanoviæ, 1605), p. 133., we find this told of "Aurifex quidam
Venetus."--N. B. In the Index (_s. v._ Canis) of an edition of the same
work, printed in London for R. Daniel (1660), _for_ 206 _read_ 106.

Ditto, ditto (note _b_). Gibbon (_Miscellaneous Works_, iii., 544., ed.
1815) says, "B. is my old and familiar acquaintance, a frequent companion
in my post-chaise. His Latinity is eloquent, his manner is lively, his
remarks are judicious."

Ditto, p. 34. "Nicholas Machiavel." Where?

Ditto, p. 35. "Æsop's cock." See Phædrus, iii. 12.

Essay XV. p. 38. "Ille etiam cæcos," &c., Virg. _Georg_. i. 464.

Ditto, ditto. "Virgil, giving the pedigree," &c. _Æn_. iv. 178.

Ditto, p. 39. "That kind of obedience which Tacitus speaketh of." Bacon
quotes, from memory, Tac. _Hist_., ii. 39., "Miles alacer, qui tamen jussa
ducum interpretari, quam exsequi, mallet."

Ditto, ditto. "As Machiavel noteth well." Where?

Ditto, p. 40. "As Tacitus expresseth it well." Where?

Ditto, p. 41. "Lucan," i. 181.

Ditto, ditto. "Dolendi modus, timendi non item." Whence?

Ditto, ditto. "The Spanish proverb." What is it? Cf. "A bow long bent at
last waxeth weak;" and the Italian, "L'arco si rompe se sta troppo teso."
(Ray's _Proverbs_, p. 81., 4th edit., 1768.)

Ditto, p. 43. "The poets feign," &c. See _Iliad_, i. 399.

Ditto, ditto (note _y_). "The myth is related in the _Works and Days of
Hesiod_," vv. 47-99., edit. Göttling.

Ditto, p. 44. "Sylla nescivit." Sueton. _Vit. Cæs._, 77.

Ditto, p. 45. "Galba." Tac. _Hist_., i. 5.

Ditto, ditto. "Probus." Bacon seems to have quoted from memory, as we find
in Vopiscus (_Hist. Aug. Script., ut supr._, vol. ii. 679. 682.), as one of
the _causæ occidendi_, "Dictum ejus grave, Si unquam eveniat salutare,
Reip. brevi milites necessarios non futuros."

Ditto, ditto. "Tacitus saith." _Hist_., i. 28.


(_To be continued._)

       *       *       *       *       *


_The Passage in King Henry VIII., Act III. Sc._ 1. (Vol. vii., pp. 5. 111.
183. 494.).--MR. INGLEBY has done perfectly right to "call me to account"
for a rash and unadvised assertion, in saying that we must interpolate
_been_ in the passage in _King Henry VIII._, Act III. Sc. 2., after _have_;
for even that would not make it intelligible. So far I stand corrected. The
passages, however that are cited, are not parallel cases. In the first we
have the word _loyalty_ to complete the sense:

 "    .    .    .    .    .   My loyalty,
  Which ever has [been] and ever shall be growing."

In the second, the word _deserved_ is clearly pointed out as being
understood, from the occurrence of _deserve_ after _will_:

"I have spoken better of you than you have [deserved] or will deserve at my

I will assist MR. INGLEBY'S position with another example from _Rich. II._,
Act V. Sc. 5.:

 "    .    .    .    .    .   like silly beggars,
  Who sitting in the stocks, refuge their shame,
  That many have [sat] and others must sit there."

And even from a much later writer, Bolingbroke:

    "This dedication may serve for almost any book that has, is, or shall
    be published."

Where we must supply _been_ after _has_. But in the passage I attempted,
and I think successfully, to set right, admitting that custom would allow
of the ellipsis of the participle _been_, after the auxiliary _have_, to
what can "am, have, and will be" possibly refer?

 "    .    .    .    .    .   I do professe
  That for your highness' good, I euer labour'd
  More then mine owne, that am, haue, and will be."

What? Add _true_ at the end of the line, and it mars the verse, but make
the probable correction of _true_ for _haue_, and you get excellent sense
without any ellipsis. I am as averse to interpolation or alteration of the
text, when sense can by any rational supposition be made of it, as my
opponent, or any true lover of the poet and the integrity of his language,
can possibly be; but I see nothing rational in refusing to correct an
almost self-evident misprint, which would redeem a fine passage that
otherwise must always remain a stumbling-block to the most intelligent
reader. We have all I trust but one object, _i. e._ to free the text of our
great poet from obvious errors occasioned by extremely incorrect printing
in the folios, and at the same time to strictly watch over all attempts at
its corruption by unnecessary meddling. This, and not the displaying of our
own ingenuity in conjectures, ought to be our almost sacred duty; at least,
I feel conscious that it is mine.


 "That one may smile, and smile, and be a villain."

The notable quotation of this line by the Earl of Derby, in the Lords, on
Monday evening, April 25, has once more reminded me of my unanswered Query
respecting it, Vol. vi., p. 270.

On the 26th February (Vol. vii., p. 217.) MR. COLLIER was good enough to
say, that his only {450} reason for not answering it was, that he had not
then within his reach the copy of "N. & Q." wherein it had been proposed;
politely adding, that if I would reprint the Query, he would at once answer

Supposing, however, that MR. COLLIER'S absence from his library would be
only temporary, I deemed it less troublesome to the Editor of "N. & Q." to
wait until MR. COLLIER could refer to the Query, as already printed.

Two months have since elapsed, and I now no longer hesitate to ask the
Editor for an opportunity of again referring to it, trusting that a
sufficient excuse will be found in the importance of the subject, as
affecting the fundamental sense of a passage in Shakspeare.

A. E. B.


_Mr. J. Payne Collier's "Notes and Emendations."_--There can be no doubt
that many of these emendations are rational and judicious; but I cannot
help thinking, _on the whole_, that MR. COLLIER has rather overrated their
value, and placed too implicit faith in the infallibility of his unknown
guide. At all events, there is not a shadow of authority given for any one
of the corrections, and we have therefore a full right to try them, as the
lawyers would say, "upon the merits;" or, in other words, to treat them as
mere speculative alterations, and to adopt or reject them, as may appear
advisable in each particular case. It is difficult to conjecture what can
have been the position in life, or the occupation of this mysterious
annotator. That his pursuits were not purely literary, I think is plain:
first, from the very circumstance of his not authenticating any of his
notes, which a literary inquirer would certainly have done; and, secondly,
from the very minute attention which is paid to the _business_ of the scene
and the movements of the actors. These considerations, coupled with the
fact of his frequently striking out whole passages of the text (which a
literary enthusiast would _not_ have done), would at first lead us to
suppose that the writer was a theatrical manager, and that the alterations
were made to suit either the fancies, or perhaps the peculiar
qualifications of certain performers. But in this case one can hardly
suppose that the remarks would have extended to more than a certain number
of plays, which were most frequently acted. Thus much, however, appears
certain, that the commentaries are rather those of an _habitual play-goer_,
than of a studious critic; and it will be easy to show that a great portion
of the new readings he proposes are really changes _for the worse_, while a
still larger number are at least unnecessary! I shall content myself with
only a few instances, on this occasion, as I am unwilling to encroach too
far on your space; but I can easily multiply them, if I am encouraged to
renew the subject.

In the first place, I differ from MR. COLLIER entirely as to the famous
passage from _Henry VIII._, p. 324., which he brings so prominently forward
as to give it special notice in his Introduction. To me, I confess, the

 "To steal from spiritual _labour_ a brief span,"

appears quite tame and poor in comparison with

 "To steal from spiritual _leisure_ a brief span,"

and, moreover, destroys all the poetry of the thought. Nor can I see the
slightest difficulty in the _sense_ of the original passage. The king means
to say that Wolsey cannot steal from the _little leisure_ afforded him by
his spiritual labours "a brief span, to keep his earthly audit:" and surely
this is much more poetical than the substituted passage.

In p. 323., from the same play, we have--

 "to the sharp'st _kind_ of justice,"

transformed to "sharp'st _knife_ of justice:" but I cannot assent to this
change. The obvious meaning of the poet is, that the contempt of the world,
"_shutting all doors_" against the accused, is a sharper _kind_ of justice
than any which the law could inflict: but, to be given up to "the sharp'st
_knife_ of justice" could only mean, being consigned to the public
executioner,--which was just what Katherine was deprecating.

In p. 325. the lines relating to Wolsey's foundations at Ipswich and Oxford
are printed thus in the folio--

                 "one of which fell with him,
  Unwilling to outlive the good that did it:"

that is, unwilling to outlive the virtues which prompted it,--a passage
teeming with poetical feeling: but the commentator has ruthlessly altered
it to--

 "Unwilling to outlive the _good man_ did it;"

which, I submit, not only destroys all the poetry, but is decidedly _not

The next passage I would notice is from _Much Ado about Nothing_, p. 76.
How, I would ask, can the phrase--

 "And sorrow wag,"

be a misprint for "call sorrow joy?" No compositor, or scribe either, could
possibly be misled by any sound from the "reader" into such a mistake as
that! The words "and sorrow wag," I admit, are not sense; but the
substitution of "call sorrow joy" strikes me as bald and common-place in
the extreme, and there is no pretence for its having any authority. If,
then, we are to have a mere fanciful emendation, why not "bid sorrow wag?"
This would be doing far less violence to the printed text, for it would
only require the alteration of two letters in the word "and;" while it
would preserve the Shakspearian character of the passage. "Wag" is a
favourite expression in {451} the comedies of the Bard, and occurs
repeatedly in his works. The passage would then run thus--

 "If such a one will smile and stroke his beard,
  _Bid sorrow wag_--cry hem! when he should groan."

In p. 73. we find--

 "Soul-tainted flesh," &c.

substituted for "_foul_ tainted flesh;" and we are told that the critics
have been all wrong, who supposed that Shakspeare intended any "metaphor
from the kitchen!" If so, what meaning can be attached to the line--

 "And salt too little which may season give?"

If that is not a metaphor from the kitchen, I know not what could be? I
still believe that "foul tainted flesh" is the correct reading. The
expression "_soul_-tainted flesh" is not intelligible. It should rather be
"_soul-tainting_ flesh." The _soul_ may be tainted by the _flesh_: but how
the _flesh_ can be _soul-tainted_, I cannot understand.

Turning further back, to p. 69., we find it asserted, quite dogmatically,
that the word "truths" of the folios ought to be "proofs;" but no reason
whatever is offered for the change. I cannot help thinking that "seeming
_truths_" is much the most poetical expression, while in "seeming _proofs_"
there is something like redundancy,--to say nothing of the phrase being
infinitely more common-place!

In the play of the _Tempest_, p. 4., the beautiful passage--

                 "he being thus _lorded_
  Not only with what my revenue yielded," &c.,

is degraded into "he being thus _loaded_," &c. Can there be a moment's
doubt that "lorded" was the word used by Shakspeare? It is completely in
his style, which was on all occasions to coin verbs out of substantives, if
he could. "He being thus _lorded_," i. e. _ennobled_ "with what my revenue
yielded," is surely a far superior expression to "being thus _loaded_,"--as
if the poet were speaking of a costermonger's donkey!

Again, in p. 10.:

 "Wherefore _this_ ghastly looking?"

or, this ghastly appearance? Who will venture to say, that the substitution
of "_thus ghastly_ looking" is not decidedly a change for the worse?

In the Merchant of Venice, p. 118.:

 "and leave itself _unfurnished_,"

is altered to "leave itself _unfinished_!" I confess I cannot see the
slightest warrant for this change. The words--

                 "having made one,
  Methinks IT should have power to steal _both his_,"

distinctly show that the author was alluding to the _eye_ only, and not to
the _portrait_ and how could the eye (already _made_) describe itself as
_unfinished_? Surely the sense is _unfurnished_, that is, _unfurnished_
with its companion, or probably with the other accessories required to
complete the portrait.

P. 119. has the line--

 "And swearing 'til my very _roof_ was dry,"

transmogrified into--

 "And swearing 'til my very _tongue_ was dry."

Now, why "this lame and impotent conclusion?" What can be a more common
expression than the "roof of the mouth?" and it is just the part which is
most affected by a sensation of dryness and pricking, after any excitement
in speaking, whereas the _tongue_ is not the member that suffers!

In _As You Like It_, p. 127., in the line--

 "Mistress dispatch you with your _safest haste_,"

the last two words are made "fastest haste," which, to say the least, are
tautology, and are like talking, of the "highest height", or the the
"deepest depth!" Surely, the original form of words, "Dispatch you with
your _safest haste_;" that is, with as much haste as is consistent with
your personal safety--is much more dignified and polished address from the
duke to a _lady_, and at the same time more poetical!

In p. 129.,

 "The constant _service_ of the antique world,"

is converted into

 "The constant _favour_ of the antique world:"

in which line I cannot discover any sense. If I might hazard a guess, I
should suggest that the error is in the _second_ word, "service," and that
it ought to be "servants:"

 "When _servants_ sweat for duty, not for meed."

In the _Taming of the Shrew_, p. 143., the substitution of "_Warwickshire_
ale" for "sheer ale" strikes me as very far-fetched, and wholly
unnecessary. There is no defect of sense in the term "_sheer_ ale." Sly
means to say, he was "fourteen pence on the score for ale alone:" just as
one speaks of "sheer nonsense," _i. e._ nothing but nonsense, "sheer
buffoonery," "sheer malice," &c. Why should Sly talk of being in debt for
_Warwickshire_ ale at Wincot? If he kind been drinking ale from
Staffordshire, or Derbyshire, or Kent, he might possibly have named the
county it came from; but to talk of _Warwickshire_ ale within a few miles
of Stratford-on-Avon seems absurd. It is as if a man came from Barclay and
Perkins's, and talked of having been drinking "_London_ porter."

In p. 144., I submit, with great deference, that turning "Aristotle's
checks" into "Aristotle's ethics" is the very reverse of an improvement.
What can be more intelligible than the line--

 "And so devote to Aristotle's _checks_;"

that is, to the checks which Aristotle's rules impose upon profligacy? The
idea is more poetical, {452} and the line runs more smoothly; while the
altered line is prosaic in comparison, and the metre is not correct.

My dwindling space warns me that I must very soon pause; but these examples
can be extended _ad infinitum_, should another opportunity be afforded me.

The instances of alterations simply _unnecessary_ are too numerous to be
recorded here. I have already a list of forty odd, selected from only eight


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Local Rhymes, Norfolk._--

 "Halvergate hares, Reedham rats,
  Southwood swine, and Cantley cats;
  Acle asses, Moulton mules,
  Beighton bears, and Freethorpe fools."

Z. E. R.

"_Hobson's Choice._"--I, the other day, in a paper of 1737, came upon the
inclosed, if of interest sufficient for insertion in "N. & Q.:"

    "Upon the mention of Mr. Freeman being appointed one of the four horse
    carriers to the university of Cambridge, we had the following
    paragraph:--'This was the office that _old Hobson_ enjoyed, in which he
    acquired so large a fortune as enabled him to leave the town that
    ever-memorable legacy the conduit, that stands on the Market Hill, with
    an estate to keep it perpetually in repair. The same person gave rise
    to the well-known adage, 'Hobson's choice--this or none;' founded upon
    his management in business. He used to keep, it seems, hackney horses,
    that he let out to young gentlemen of the university, with whose
    characters being well acquainted, he suited his beast to its rider, who
    upon a dislike was sure to receive that answer from him, 'This or

J. W. G. G.

_Khond Fable._--The following is a free version of a fable current among
the Khonds of Oriosa, of whom a very interesting account is given by
Captain Macpherson in the _Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society_ for 1852:

    "A mosquito was seated on the horn of a bull, and fearing that his
    weight might be oppressive to the quadruped, he politely accosted him,
    begging that, if he felt any inconvenience, he would mention it, and
    professing himself ready, in that case, to remove to some other
    position. The bull replied, 'O mosquito, so far are you from oppressing
    me with your weight, that I was not even aware of your existence.'"

The moral of this is common enough, but is the fable found elsewhere in a
similar _form_?

J. C. R.

_Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, Bart._--As those who have read the deeply
interesting memoirs of Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton are aware, he was placed at
a school in Donnybrook in the year 1802, and shortly after "entered" the
University of Dublin. His success in that seat of learning, where able
competitors were many in number, was brilliant; for "on the 14th of April
in the same year [1807], he received his thirteenth premium, and also the
highest honour of the university,--the gold medal. With these distinctions,
and the four silver medals from the Historical Society, he prepared to
return to England." In fact, so high did his character stand, that a
proposal was made to him by the electors (which, however, he deemed it
prudent to decline) to come forward as a candidate for the representation
of the university in the imperial parliament, and good grounds were given
him to expect a triumphant return.

Now, this man was doubtless an honour to the "silent(?) sister" in Ireland;
and, as an Irishman, I feel some little degree of pride in our having
educated him so well for his subsequent career. With surprise, then, do I
find, on referring to the _Dublin University Calendar_ for the present
year, the name of a "Mr. _John Powell_ Buxton" in the list of gold
medallists. The editor appears to be sadly ignorant of the proper person,
and cannot lay the blunder at the printer's door, having very unaccountably
repeated it from year to year. I have taken the trouble of examining many
volumes of the _Calendar_.


_Anagrams._--I beg to forward the following:

 "Antonius B. Magliabechius"

(He was the librarian at Florence, about the end of the sixteenth century).
This name makes--

 "Is unus Bibliotheca magna."

In the poems of some Jesuit father (Bacchusius, I think) the following
rather offensive one is mentioned, on the celebrated father Costerus:

 "Petrus Costerus Jesuita!"

_i. e._

 "Vere tu es asinus: ita!"


       *       *       *       *       *



A few years since there was published a _History of the Parish of
Attleburgh, in Norfolk_, by the then rector, Dr. Barrett. It is a very
handsome volume in quarto, and reflects great credit upon the learning and
taste of the reverend editor.

What I wish more particularly to allude to is an engraving of the seal of
William de Albini, who was called "William with the Strong Hand;" of whom
Dugdale records, that having distinguished himself at a tournament
appointed by a queen of France, then a widow, she became so enamoured of
him that she offered him marriage. But he, having plighted his troth to
Adeliza, widow to {453} King Henry I. of England, refused her. In revenge
for this refusal, the queen of France inveigled him into a den in the
garden, where was a fierce lion. Being in this danger, he rolled his mantle
about his arm, and putting his hand into the mouth of the beast, pulled out
his tongue by the root; followed the queen to her palace, and gave it to
one of her maids to present to her. Returning to England with the fame of
this glorious exploit, he was forthwith advanced to the earldom of Arundel,
and for his arms the lion given him.

Amongst the many illustrations in Dr. Barrett's book is the seal of this
William de Albini, representing a knight on horseback, in the usual style
of such knightly seals; but in front of the knight is a young lion, and
under the feet of the horse some sort of animal of the lizard kind.

In elucidation of this seal, there is a long and elaborate note, with
remarks by Mr. Hawkins of the British Museum, with a view of showing that
the device on this seal alludes to the story of his combat with the lion.

The attempt to establish this point appears to me amusing; for there seems
nothing on the face of the seal different from the usual seals of royal and
knightly rank in ancient times.

It strikes me, that the true interpretation of this device, and the
introduction of the lion and the lizard-like animal under the horse's feet,
may be found in the 13th verse of Psalm xci.:

    "Thou shalt go upon the lion and adder: the young lion and the dragon
    shalt thou tread under thy feet."

I should like to learn from some of your correspondents, whether this
Psalm, or this portion of it, was used in the solemnities attendant on the
installation of a knight, which would tend much to confirm my conjecture.


       *       *       *       *       *


The forms of an oath are different among different denominations of
Christians. The Roman Catholics of the Continent swear by raising the hand;
the Scotch Presbyterians follow the same practice. The Protestants of the
Church of England are sworn on the Gospels; so also are the Irish Roman
Catholics. The Quakers reject every form of oath, and confine themselves to
a simple affirmation. Upon these points I beg leave to submit the following

1. What form of judicial oath was first sanctioned by the professors of
Christianity as a body? It is stated in Haydn's _Dictionary of Dates_, that
"oaths were taken on the Gospels so early as A.D. 528." How were they taken
before then?

2. Did the practice of swearing on the Gospels prevail in England before
the Reformation? If not, at what period was it introduced?

3. When was that form of oath first adopted by the Irish; and was its
adoption a voluntary proceeding on their part, or enforced by legislative

4. Was the practice of raising the hand in use in Scotland before the

5. At what period was the latter form adopted by the Continental
Christians, in lieu of the more solemn oath on the Gospels?

6. Are there now, or have there been at any former period, any forms of
judicial oath in use among Christians, other than the forms above


St. Lucia.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Passage in Boerhaave._--Will any of our readers kindly oblige me by the
_exact word_ of a passage in Boerhaave, of which I cite the following from

    "The only malady inherent in the human frame, is the decay of old age."


7. Charlotte Street, Bedford Square.

_Story of Ezzelin._--Where is the story to be found from which Fuseli
derived the subject for his remarkable picture of Ezzelin (Braccioferro)
musing over the body of Meduna? It was engraved by J. R. Smith, and
published by Jas. Birchel, 473. Strand, May, 1781. What has become of the
original picture?


_The Duke._--Can any of your readers tell me whether Sir Arthur Wellesley's
speech in the House of Commons upon Mr. Paull's charge against his brother,
was the first he made in Parliament?



_General Sir Dennis Pack._--This gallant officer, who, in command of the
light division of the Duke's army, distinguished himself in nearly every
battle of the Peninsula, and finally at Waterloo, was descended from a
younger son of Simon, son of Sir Christopher Pack, Alderman and Lord Mayor
of London. The family was originally from Leicestershire. Sir Christopher,
having advanced money for the reduction of the Irish rebels of 1641,
received a grant of land in the county of Westmeath; and his younger son,
Simon, settled in Ireland about that period. From this Simon descended
Thomas Pack, Esq., of Ballinakill in the Queen's County, grandfather of Sir
Dennis Pack.

As I have in the press a _History of the Cathedral of St. Canice_,
Kilkenny, which latter contains a monument and a fine bust of Sir Dennis
Pack by Chantrey, and of which his father the Rev. Thomas {454} Pack, D.D.,
was dean, any information which will enable me to complete the pedigree
between Simon Pack and the above-named Thomas will be thankfully received.



_Haveringemere._--Gervase of Tilbury, in the 4th book of his _Otia
Imperialia_, sect. 88., mentions a certain pond or mere lying near the
confines of Wales, and named Haveringemere, of which the peculiarity is,
that if a person passing over it in a boat utters, in a loud voice, certain
opprobrious words, a commotion arises in the waters and sinks the boat. The
words, as printed in the edition of Leibnitz (Leibnitii _Scriptores
Brunsvicenses_, tom. i. p. 990.), are "_Prout haveringemere_ aut
_allethophe cunthefere_;" which he explains to mean, "_Phrut_ tibi, mare,
et omnibus qui te transfretant." He adds with great simplicity: "Et satis
mirandum, quod aquæ hujus modi concipiunt indignationes." It is plain that
we ought to read, "Phrut Haveringemere, and alle thai that on thee fere"
(_i. e._ ferry). _Phrut_ or _prut_ is a word of contempt, of which Mr.
Halliwell gives an instance, _s. v._ Prut, from an Harleian MS.: "And seyth
_prut_ for thy cursing prest." Is anything known of this mere at the
present day, and is there any remnant of this old superstition? Gervase
wrote his book anno 1211.

C. W. G.

_Old Pictures of the Spanish Armada._--At Beddington Hall, famous for its
fine banqueting-hall, in which Queen Elizabeth feasted, I have heard that
there used to be one or more pictures of the Spanish Armada, presented by
Elizabeth herself to the family resident there. Can any reader of "N. & Q."
inform me whether these pictures (if more than one) are still in existence:
if so, where they are, and whether they are to be seen? A large gilt lock,
also presented by Queen Elizabeth, still remains on one of the doors of the
said banqueting-hall.

J. S. A.

Old Broad Street.

_Bell Inscription._--The following inscription occurs on two bells formerly
belonging to St. Sepulchre's Church, Cambridge. I should be glad of an


C. W. G.

_Loselerius Villerius, &c._--I wish to know who was Loselerius Villerius,
who edited an edition of the Greek Testament, with the Vulgate and Beza's
Latin version (I think) in parallel columns. This edition seems to have
been successful, as I have a copy of the third edition. The title-page of
my copy is missing, but the dedication to Henry Earl of Huntingdon is dated
"London, vi cal. Nov. 1573." Any information about Loselerius would be
acceptable. I should also be glad to know whether the edition is considered
at all valuable.

Whilst upon this subject, let me ask whether there is any list of editions
of the Bible that can be looked upon as in any way complete? I have had
occasion to refer to the Duke of Sussex's catalogue, but have there been
unable to find all that I required. There is, for instance, in a friend's
possession, a Bible which his family traditions maintain to be of great
rarity. I find it catalogued nowhere, and should be glad to know if it is
really so great a curiosity. It is a fine folio, profusely illustrated. I
subjoin a copy of the title-page:

    "The Holy Bible, containing the Old and New Testaments, &c., with most
    profitable Annotations on all the hard Places, and other Things of
    great Importance; which Notes have never before been set forth with
    this new Translation, but are now placed in due order, with great Care
    and Industry. A Amsterdam, printed for Stephen Swart, at the Crowned
    Bible, on the West Side of the Exchange. 1679."

S. A. S.


_The Vinegar Plant._--Is it indigenous or imported? Some botanists and
_savans_ who have examined the subject take the former view. I should be
inclined to take the latter, for the following among other reasons:--First,
because it is known that many specimens of it _have been so introduced_
from various quarters. Secondly, because in all the attempts to produce it
that I have heard of, including some experiments made by myself, in no
instance has a specimen been procured by means of any of the moulds that
are of spontaneous growth in this country, which has entirely resembled the
vinegar plant, or which has been so efficient in the production of vinegar.
Thirdly, because in tropical and warm climates abnormal variations of
vegetable productions are much more likely to originate, and to become
naturalised, than in this country. If imported, perhaps some of your
correspondents could say where it was originally brought from.


_Westminster Parishes._--What are the names of the respective parishes in
the city of Westminster in 1630; how far back do their records extend; and
what charge would be made for a search in them? I wish to trace a family
whose ancestor was born in that city, but in what parish I am ignorant.
Were any churches in _Westminster_, as distinguished from _London_,
destroyed in the Great Fire?

Y. S. M


_Harley Family._--Can any reader of your invaluable miscellany give an
account of Thomas Harley, citizen of London, who died in the year 1670,
ætat. fifty-six? The Thomas Harley referred to possessed good estate in the
county of Leicester, {455} particularly at Osgathorpe, Walton-on-Wolds,
Snibston, and Heather. He founded a hospital at Osgathorpe, and endowed the
same at 60l. for the maintenance and support of six clergymen's widows.
Moreover he also erected a free-school, which he endowed with 60l. a year.
He married Mary, widow of William Kemp, citizen of London. His daughter,
and sole heiress, married into the family of Bainbrigge of Lockington Hall,
county of Leicester; which alliance carried with it the estate of Thomas
Harley into that family.

The arms of Thomas Harley are: Crest, a lion's head rampant; shield, Or,
bend cotized sable.

Is the foregoing family a branch of that of Herefordshire, now ennobled; or
does it come down from one of the name anterior to the time when such
earldom was made patent, viz. from Sir Richard Harley, 28 Edward I.: whose
armorial bearings, according to one annalist, is mentioned as _Or, bend
cotized sable_?

Brian de Harley, son of Sir Robert Harley, in the reign of Henry IV.,
changed his crest; which was a buck's head proper, to a lion rampant,
gules, issuing out of a tower, triple towered proper.



_Lord Cliff._--In 1645, James Howell published his _Epistolæ Ho-Elianæ_;
amongst the letters was one on Wines, addressed to the Right Hon. Lord
Cliff. Who was he? The letter is dated Oct. 7, 1634.

Y. S. M


_Enough._--Was this word always pronounced as at present, _enuf_? I am
inclined to think not; for Waller, in his poem "On a War with Spain,"
rhymes it with _bough_:

 "Let the brave generals divide that bough,
  Our great Protector hath such wreaths _enough_."

And again, in his "Answer to Sir John Suckling's Verses," he couples it
with _plough_, in those anti-Malthusian lines:

 "The world is of a large extent we see,
  And must be peopled: children there must be!--
  So must bread too; but since there are _enough_
  Born to that drudgery, what need we plough?"

When did the change of pronunciation take place? Perhaps some reader of "N.
& Q." can also give the etymology of the word.


_Archbishop Magee._--In a committee of the House of Lords, 1825, Lord
Holland asked Archbishop Magee: "Does your grace really think that there is
any person capable of holding such a monstrous opinion, as that the Roman
Catholic religion is idolatrous?" The Archbishop calmly fixed his eyes on
Lord Holland's countenance, and replied "My Lord, _some have sworn to
it_."--I only quote so much of the anecdote (which your readers will find
in Archbishop Magee's _Works_, vol. i. p. 67., 1842) as my purpose

As reported in _The Times_, on April 18, 1853, Lord Lansdown, speaking of
an old committee in the House of Lords, said:

    "During those two days, a right reverend prelate was examined; and he
    was required to state upon oath whether the Creed of St. Athanasius was
    necessary to salvation. The reply was, 'He would not say whether it was
    that, but a great many persons had sworn that it was.'"

Some correspondent may be able to state whether these two extracts pertain
or not to one and the same occurrence, and which is the true version.


_Carpets at Rome._--In a cutting from a newspaper or periodical, apparently
of the year 1790, narrating an accident that happened to Lady Augusta
Clavering, daughter of the Duke of Argyle (whilst staying at Rome) by her
muslin dress catching fire, it is said:

    "Fortunately, the gentlemen did not lose their presence of mind; and
    there happening to be a carpet in the room, _a thing very uncommon in
    that that country_, they covered her with it," &c.

Can any of your readers oblige me by informing me whether it is a fact,
that the luxury of a carpet was _very uncommon_ at Rome at the period
referred to; and when carpets were first introduced at Rome?

L. A. M.

Great Yarmouth.

_Nursery Rhymes._--Can you or any of your correspondents tell me where I
shall find an account of the origin of our common nursery rhymes? Is there
not reason to believe that many of them are of great antiquity?



_Gloves at Fairs._--I think that I have read that at some large fair it was
customary to hang out on the town-hall a large gilt glove, as a token of
freedom from arrest for debt during the period that the fair lasted. Can
any of your correspondents inform me if such was the case, and where? In
Halliwell's _Dictionary_, "hoisting the glove" is said to be practised at
Lammas Fair, in Devonshire: but why? In the east of England certain village
fairs are called _Gants_,--Mattishall Gant, &c. Forby derives this from
A.-S. _gan_, to go; but may it not have some reference to the French
_gants_, gloves?

E. G. R.

_Mr. Caryl or Caryll._--Every one knows that the _Rape of the Lock_ was
written at the request of _Mr. Caryl_, stated by Pope to have been private
secretary to James II.'s queen before the {456} Revolution. It also appears
in the Prolegomena to the _Life of James_, that two royal warrants issued
at St. Germains by the abdicated monarch and his son the Pretender in 1701
and 1707, are counter-signed _Caryll_ as Secretary of State. Is there any
doubt that this is the same person; and if not, is there any account of
when and on what terms he returned to England? where he must have been
again domiciled in 1711, and some years after, during which period he
corresponded with Pope. His family was settled near East Grinstead, in


_Early Reaping-machines._--Have the former Numbers of "N. & Q." contained
an account of the invention of a reaping-machine in the last century,
similar in design and construction to the one lately invented in America? A
friend of mine has in his possession a work, entitled _The Complete Farmer,
or a General Dictionary of Husbandry_; containing the various methods of
improving the land, &c., together with great variety of new discoveries and
improvements, the 4th edition, by a society of gentlemen. There is no date
on the title-page; but from internal evidence, I am led to think that the
work was not published before 1780. If it be thought desirable, I shall be
happy to send an extract from the work, giving an account of the machine,
or, if drawings be admitted into the pages of "N. & Q.," the work might be
sent to the Editor.

H. D. W.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

"_Diary of a Self-Observer._"--

"Augustine's _Confessions_ may be in some degree compared with the _Private
Diary of a Self-Observer_ (_Geheimes Tagebuch von einem Beobachter seiner
selbst_) which has in our own days been read with so great eagerness and
sympathy. Not as if the celebrated author of the latter work did not in
many ways deserve a preference above the African bishop," &c.--Schröckh's
_Kirchengeschichte_, xv. 376.: Leipzig, 1790.

What is the book here meant, and by whom was it written?

J. C. R.

    [This _Diary_ is by the celebrated John Caspar Lavater, author of
    _Essays on Physiognomy_. In 1769 he commenced it under the title of
    _Secret Journal of a Self-Observer_. In the following year it fell into
    the hands of a stranger, and from him it was transmitted to Zollikofer,
    with such alterations, however, as to conceal the real author.
    Zollikofer, thinking that it contained much useful matter, had it
    printed; and among others, sent a copy of it to his friend Lavater, who
    was beyond measure astonished at the sight. However, as it was now
    before the world in a somewhat disfigured state, Lavater edited it with
    the necessary alterations, and with an additional volume: Leipsic, 1771
    and 1773. In 1795, the German original was translated into English by
    the Rev. Peter Will, of the Reformed German Chapel in the Savoy, in two
    vols. 8vo. Prefixed to the second volume is a letter from Lavater to
    the editor, with the editor's reply. See Chalmers's _Biographical
    Dictionary, s. v._, and Heisch's _Memoirs of John Caspar Lavater_, pp.

_Jockey._--Mr. Borrow, in his Introduction to _The Gypsies of Spain_, says:

    "The English gypsies are constant attendants at the race-course. What
    jockey is not? Perhaps jockeyism originated with them, and even racing,
    at least in England. Jockeyism properly implies _the management of a
    whip_; and the word _jockey_ is neither more nor less than the term,
    slightly modified, by which they designate the formidable whip which
    they usually carry, at present in general use amongst horse-traffickers
    under the title of jockey-whips."

Can any of your correspondents give the derivation of _jockey_?

Q. Q.

    [Most etymologists derive it from _Jackey_, a diminutive of the Scotch
    term _Jock_, or _Jack_, John: primarily, a boy that rides horses.]

_Boyle Lectures._--In that valuable and well-executed work, now publishing
by Darling of Great Queen Street, called the _Cyclopædia Bibliographica_, a
list of the preachers of the Boyle Lecture is given. The list is very
nearly complete, the preachers during the following years only being marked
"Unknown:"--1729, 1733-5, 1746, 1753-5, 1764-5. With these few omissions,
the names of preachers from 1692 to 1807 are given without exception. Will
some of your correspondents kindly supply the hiatus above referred to?
Possibly the lectures for those years were not printed, as was the case
very frequently (see columns 405. 406. _Cyc. Bibl._)--so there may be some
slight difficulty in identifying the preachers.


    [The same omissions occur in the _Oxford Catalogue_, 1837, so that it
    is a probable conjecture they were never printed.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. iii., pp. 161. 261. 340.; Vol. iv., p. 282.; Vol. vii., p. 354.)

I am glad to see that a subject to which I have at various times attempted
to turn public attention, has at least been responded to by one voice. When
the "N. & Q." was first established, I felt that there was now at least one
place where it was possible to print historical documents of various kinds,
and no one can deny that at various times very interesting and important
papers have been made publicly available, which might otherwise have
escaped notice. I may instance a very interesting account of the inquest on
Chatterton, which I have myself, in a sketch of that ill-fated {457}
youth's fate, been the first to make use of for biographical purposes.

It is still my conviction that at some time or other an association for
such purposes will be formed, and I must attain earnestly entreat those
persons whose position would command assistance, and whose learning and
opportunities would aid the cause I am advocating, to give some sign of
their favourable intention toward such a scheme. I must once more place
this very important matter before the eyes of the public; I trust that my
appeal may not be in vain.

See how in other cases, when something offers itself promising amusement
and instruction, societies can be formed and spring into life and activity
at once. For instance, I might adduce the beautiful and useful processes of
photography; within the short space of a few months the art has been
brought to a high decree of excellence: a Photographical Institute is, I
believe, now in active working, there is a photographical journal, besides
the continued and unwearying co-operation of "N. & Q." itself. Why may not
historical documents have something of the same sort? For a slight sum (but
a few shillings a year), if the reading public were willing, such a society
might be founded, and many invaluable documents of every description placed
where they would be available for the historian, for the archæologist, for
the editor, and for the general inquirer.

Let me hope that something may be proposed; I have myself hunted through
dusty MS. folios, quartos, duodecimos innumerable, and my investigations
have not been wholly useless.

If there be any who look with a favourable eye upon these hints, I shall be
glad to hear from them.


68. Mortimer Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., pp. 393. 417.)

Perhaps a few lines from a fellow-collegian of Reginald Heber, during his
last years of residence at Brazenoze College, may throw light on this

My contemporary MS. copy of _The Whippiad_ contains Heber's _own notes_,
additional ones by myself, explanatory of places and persons mentioned,
autographs of the latter, and Blackwood's printed copy (the subject of
inquiry), No. 333., July, 1843.

The _notes_ subjoined to Blackwood's printed copy are _Heber's notes_,
varying only from my MS. copy in immaterial points.

As to the _epigram_ mentioned in p. 417., the two first stanzas were by
Heber, and written (as I think) after his election to All Souls. The third
was attributed to Mr. Wilson, the learned High Master of Clithero School.

Very many _jeux d'esprit_ by Heber, relative to convivialities and passing
events in Brazenoze and All Souls, live in the memory and MSS. of his
surviving friends; but their amiable author would doubtless have wished
them to be forgotten, with the subjects to which they related. The
forbearance of Mr. Halliwell made him vainly anxious for the suppression of
_The Whippiad_.

I subjoin from Heber's autograph a Song for a Bow Meeting, near St. Asaph,
in or about 1808. It has an airy freshness, and is (as I believe)



  The Soldier loves the laurel bright,
    The Bard the myrtle bough,
  And smooth shillalas yield delight
    To many an Irish brow.
  The Fisher trims the hazel wand,
    The Crab may tame a shrew,
  The Birch becomes the pedant's hand,
    But Bows are made of yew.


    The yew, the yew, the hardy yew!
    Still greenly may it grow,
      And health and fun
      Have everyone
    That loves the British Bow.


 'Tis sweet to sit by Beauty's side
    Beneath the hawthorn shade;
  But Beauty is more beautiful
    In green and buff array'd.
  More radiant are her laughing eyes,
    Her cheeks of ruddier glow,
  As, hoping for the envied prize,
    She twangs the Cambrian bow.

    The yew, the yew, &c.


  The Fop may curl his Brutus wig,
    And sandy whiskers stain,
  And fold his cravat broad and big;
    But all his arts are vain.
  His nankeen trowsers we despise,
    Unfit for rain or dew,
  And, pinch'd in stays, he vainly tries
    His strength against the yew.

    The yew, the yew, &c.


  The heiress, once, of Bowdale Hall,
    A lovely lass, I knew--
  A Dandy paid his morning call,
    All dizen'd out to woo.
  I heard his suit the Coxcomb ply;
    I heard her answer--"No;"
  A true love knot he ne'er could tie,
    Who could not bend a bow.

    The yew, the yew, &c.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 286.)

Leaving the philosophy of this question for the _savans_, I beg to add the
following to the alleged cases already referred to. Dr. Lindsley has
compiled a table of nineteen instances, from the _Dictionnaire de
Médecine_,--not, however, of _spontaneous_ combustion exactly, but of
something akin to it; namely, the rapid ignition of the human body (which
_per se_ is not combustible) by contact with flame, as a consequence of the
saturation of its tissues by alcohol:

|   Date of Occurrence | Age of Individual.       |            |          |
==================|    |    =======================            |          |
|  |              |    |    |           |         |            |          |
|  |              |    |    |           |         |            |          |
|No|   Works in   |    |    |Extent of  |Immediate|  Habit     |Situation |
|  |    which     |    |    |   the     |  Cause  |    of      |  of the  |
|  |   they are   |    |    |Combustion.|  when   |   Life.    | Remains, |
|  |  reported.   |    |    |           | Known.  |            |    &c.   |
|  |              |    |    |           |         |            |          |
|  |              |    |    |           |         |            |          |
|  |   By Whom.   |    |    |           |         |            |          |
|  |              |    |    |           |         |            |          |
|  |   Actes de   |    |    | The whole |         |            |          |
|  |  Copenhague  |    |    |   body,   |         |            |          |
|  |              |    |    |   except  |         |            |          |
|  |              |    |    | the skull |         |  Abuse of  |  Upon a  |
| 1|              |1692| -- |  and last |   --    |spirits for |  chair.  |
|  |              |    |    | joints of |         |three years |          |
|  |              |    |    |    the    |         |            |          |
|  |   Jacobeus   |    |    |  fingers  |         |            |          |
|  |    Annual    |    |    |   Except  |         |Indulged in |          |
|  |   Register   |    |    |the skull, |Took fire|  frequent  |          |
|  |              |    |    | a part of | through |fomentations| Upon the |
| 2|              |1763| 62 | the face, | sitting |     of     |  floor.  |
|  | Blanchin de  |    |    | and three | near a  |camphorated |          |
|  |    Verone    |    |    |  fingers  |  lamp   |  spirits   |          |
|  |    Ibid.     |    |    |           | A light |            |          |
|  |              |    |    |   Except  |  upon a |            |Upon the  |
| 3|              | -- | 50 | thigh and |  chair  |Took a pint |floor near|
|  |              |    |    |  one leg  |near the |of rum daily| the bed. |
|  |   Wilmer     |    |    |           |   bed   |            |          |
| 4| Ency. Method.| -- | 50 |  Except a |   --    | Habitually |          |
|  |      --      |    |    | few bones |         |   drunken  |          |
|  |  Acta Medica |    |    | Except the|         | She drank  |          |
| 5|              | -- | -- | skull and |   --    | brandy as  |          |
|  |              |    |    |  fingers  |         |  her only  |          |
|  |      --      |    |    |           |         |   drink    |          |
|  |   Mem. on    |    |    | Except a  |  A pipe |            |          |
|  |  Spon. Com.  |    |    |  part of  |which she|            |Near the  |
| 6|              |1744| 60 | the head  |   was   | A drunkard | chimney. |
|  |    Lecat     |    |    | and limbs | smoking |            |          |
|  |    Ibid.     |    |    |           |         | Habitually | Upon the |
| 7|              |1745| -- |   Ibid.   | A fire  |   drunken  | hearth.  |
|  |    Ibid.     |    |    |           |         |            |          |
|  |    Ibid.     |    |    |           |         |            |Sitting on|
|  |              |    |    | A charred | Fire of |Drank brandy|  a chair |
| 8|              |1749| 80 |  skeleton |   the   |  only for  | near the |
|  |    Ibid.     |    |    | only left | hearth  | many years |  fire.   |
|  |  Jour. de    |    |    | Except a  |A foot-  |            |          |
| 9|     Méd.     |1779| -- |few bones, |stove    | A drunkard |          |
|  |              |    |    |a hand,    |under her|            |          |
|  |      --      |    |    |and a foot |feet     |            |          |
|  |    Ibid.     |    |    |           |A fire of|            | Upon the |
|10|              |1782| 60 |   Ibid.   |   the   |   Ibid.    |  hearth  |
|  |      --      |    |    |           | hearth  |            |          |
|  |    Revue     |    |    |Except the |         |  Abuse of  |          |
|11|  Médicale    |1820| 90 | skull and |A candle |wine and Eau| In bed.  |
|  |              |    |    | a portion |         | de Cologne |          |
|  |   Julia      |    |    |   of the  |         |            |          |
|  |  Fontenelle  |    |    |    skin   |         |            |          |
|  |    Ibid.     |    |    |           |         |            |  In the  |
|  |              |    |    | Except the|         |            |same bed. |
|12|              |1830| 66 | right leg |  Ibid.  |   Ibid.    |Both burnt|
|  |    Ibid.     |    |    |           |         |            | together |
|  |      --      |    |    |   Almost  |         |            |          |
|13| Gen. William | -- |Very|   wholly  |A lighted|     --     | Upon the |
|  |   Kepland    |    |old |  consumed |  pipe   |            |   floor  |
|  | Journal de   |    |    |  Skin of  |         |            | Upon the |
|  |  Florence    |    | -- | right arm |   --    |      --    |floor. He |
|14|              |1786|    | and right |         |            |lived four|
|  |   Joseph     |    |    |thigh only |         |            |   days   |
|  |  Battaylia   |    |    |   burnt   |         |            |  after.  |
|  |  Revue Méd.  |    |    |Combustion |         |  Abuse of  |  Upon a  |
|15|              |1799| -- |incomplete |    --   |   brandy   |  bench.  |
|  |  Robertson   |    |    |           |         |            |          |
|  |     Ibid.    |    |    | Hand and  |         |            |          |
|16|              | -- | -- |thigh only |   --    |     --     |  Cured.  |
|  |  M.Marchand  |    |    |   burnt   |         |            |          |
|  |   Journal    |    |    |One finger |         |            |          |
|17|  Hosp. Hamp. | -- | 17 | of right  |A candle |     --     |  Cured.  |
|  |              |    |    |hand only  |         |            |          |
|  |     --       |    |    |  burnt    |         |            |          |
|  |     --       |    |    |Muscles of |         |            |          |
|  |              |    |    | thighs,   |         |            |          |
|18|              |1829| 51 | superior  |A foot-  | Abuse of   | Upon a   |
|  |              |    |    |extremities| stove   |  spirits   | chair.   |
|  |     Alph.    |    |    | and trunk |         |            |          |
|  |   Devenge    |    |    |   burnt   |         |            |          |
|  |   Dic. de    |    |    |Combustion |A foot-  |            | Upon the |
|19|   Médecine   | -- | -- |  almost   | stove   |   Ibid.    |  floor.  |
|  |     --       |    |    | complete  |         |            |          |

The following case is related, on the authority of Dr. Schofield, Upper
Canada, in the _Journal of the American Temperance Union_ for March,
1837:--A young man, aged twenty-five, had been an habitual drunkard for
many years. One evening at about eleven o'clock he went to a blacksmith's
shop: he was then full of liquor, though not thoroughly drunk. The
blacksmith, who had just crossed the road, was suddenly alarmed by the
breaking forth of a brilliant conflagration in his shop. He rushed across,
and threw open the door, and there stood the man, erect, in the midst of a
widely-extended silver-coloured flame, bearing, as he described it, exactly
the appearance of the wick of a burning candle in the midst of its own
flame. He seized him by the shoulder, and jerked him to the door, and the
flame was instantly extinguished. There was no fire in the shop, and no
articles likely to cause combustion within reach of the individual. In the
course of a short time a general sloughing came on, and the flesh was
almost wholly removed in the dressing, leaving the bones and a few of the
large blood-vessels standing. The blood nevertheless rallied round the
heart, and life continued to the thirteenth day, when he died, a loathsome,
ill-featured, and disgusting object. His shrieks and cries were described
as truly horrible.

Some information will be found in Nos. 44. and 56. of an old magazine
called _The Hive_,--a book which may be found in the British Museum. Two
cases have occurred recently, one in 1851 at Paris, {459} and one last year
somewhere in the north. Both may be found by reference to the newspapers.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 269.)

LORD BRAYBROOKE speaks of a _tradition_ of Major-General Lambert's having
been imprisoned in Cornet Castle, in the island of Guernsey, after the
Restoration. The following documents, copies of which exist in Guernsey,
will prove that he really was kept as a prisoner in that island:


    Upon suite made unto us by Mrs. Lambert, for liberty for herself and
    children to goe to and remaine w^{th} her husband Collonell Lambert
    yo^r prisoner, Wee, graciously inclyninge to gratifye her in that
    request, have thought fitt to signify our royall pleasure to you in
    that particular, willing and requiring you, upon sight hereof, to
    suffer the said Mrs. Lambert, her three children, and three
    maid-servants, to goe and remaine w^{th} the said Mr. Lambert, under
    the same confinement he himselfe is, untill o^r further pleasure be
    knowne. And for soe doinge this shalbe y^r warrant. Given at our Court
    at Whitehall, the 17^{th} day Febr., 1661/2.

    By his Ma^{ts} Comand,

    To our right trusty and welbeloved Counsello^r S^r Hugh Pollard, K^{nt}
    and Bar^t, Governo^r of our Island of Guernsey and Castle there, or to
    other our Governo^r for y^e tyme beinge, and in his absence to his
    Deputy Governo^r.

    This is a true copie of his Ma^{t's} Warrant.

    (Signed) HUGH POLLARDE.

[In dorso.]

The King's order for Lambert's children.

In 1662, Christopher Lord Hatton was appointed Governor of Guernsey, upon
which the following warrant was issued:


    Our will and pleasure is, That you take into your custody the person of
    John Lambert, commonly called Collonell Lambert, and keepe him close
    prisoner, as a condemned traytor, untill further order from us, for
    which this shall be your warrant. Given at our Court at Hampton Court,
    this 25^{th} day of July, 1662.

    By his Ma^{ty's} Co[=m]and,

    To our trusty and welbeloved Councellor y^e Lord Hatton, Governor of
    our Island of Guernsey, and to the Lieutenant Governo^r thereof or his

    Lambert to Guernsey.

Four months later the following order was issued:


    Our will and pleasure is, That from sight hereof you give such liberty
    and indulgence to Collonell John Lambert your prisoner, within the
    precincts of that our island, as will consist with the security of his
    person, and as in your discretion you shall think fitt; and that this
    favour be continued to him till you receive our order to the contrary,
    allwayes understood, that he the sayd Collonell Lambert show himself
    worthy thereof in his comportment, and entertaine noe correspondencyes
    to the prejudice of our service, for which this shall be your warrant.
    Given at our Court at Whitehall, November the eighteenth, one thousand
    six hundred sixty-two,

    By his Ma^{ts} command,

    To our trusty and well-beloved Counsellor the Lord Hatton, our govern^r
    of our Island of Guernsey, to his Leiftenant Governour, or other
    officer commanding in chief there.

    Liberty of the Island to Mr. Lambert.

    [In dorso.]

    The King's order for Mr. Lambert's liberty.

In Rees's _Cyclopædia_, art. AMARYLLIS, sect. 27., _A. Sarniensis_,
Guernsey lily, I find the following statement: "It was cultivated at
Wimbledon, in England, by General Lambert, in 1659." As Guernsey, during
the civil wars, sided with the Parliament, it is probable that Lambert
procured the roots from some friend in the island.

The exact date of his arrival as a prisoner in Guernsey is fixed by a sort
of journal kept by Pierre Le Roy, schoolmaster and parish clerk of St.
Martin de la Bellouse in that island, who says:

    "Le 17^e de 9vembre, 1661, est arrivé au Château Cornet, Jean Lambert,
    générall des rebelles sectères en Angleterre, ennemy du roy, et y est
    constitué prisonnier pour sa vie."

There is no tradition in the island of his having died there. I remember to
have read, but cannot at present remember where, that he died a Roman



    [Lambert was removed to the island of St. Nicholas, at the entrance of
    Plymouth Harbour, in 1667, where his death took place during the _hard
    winter_ at the close of 1682 or commencement of 1683.--See "N. & Q".,
    Vol. iv., p 340. Probably some of our readers in that neighbourhood
    might, by a reference to the parish registers, be enabled to ascertain
    the precise date of that event.]


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 377.)

Your correspondent J. O. asks for information to No. 4. of his notes
respecting the "salt-peter-man," so quaintly described by Lord Coke as a
troublesome person. Before the discovery and importation of rough nitre
from the East Indies, the supply of that very important ingredient in the
manufactory of gunpowder was very inadequate to the quantity required; and
this country having in the early part of the seventeenth century to depend
almost entirely upon its own resources. Charles I. issued a proclamation in
1627, which set forth that the saltpetre makers were never able to furnish
the realm with a third part of the saltpetre required, especially in time
of war. The proclamation had reference to a patent that had been granted in
1625 to Sir John Brooke and Thomas Russel, for making saltpetre by a new
invention, which gave them power to collect the animal fluids (ordered by
the same proclamation to be preserved by families for this purpose), once
in twenty-four hours in summer, and in forty-eight hours in winter. This
royal proclamation was very obnoxious and inconvenient to the good people
of England, increased as it was by the power granted to the saltpetre
makers to dig up the floors of all dove-houses, stables, cellars, &c., for
the purpose of carrying away the earth, the proprietors being at the same
time prohibited from laying such floors with anything but "mellow earth,"
that greater facility might be given them. This power, in the hands of men
likely to be appointed to fulfil such duties, was no doubt subject to much
abuse for the purposes of extortion, making, as Lord Coke states, "simple
people believe that Lee (the salt-peter-man) will, without their leave,
breake up the floore of their dwelling-house, unless they will compound
with him to the contrary." The new and uncertain process for obtaining the
constituents of nitre having failed to answer the purpose for which the
patent was granted, an act was passed in 1656, forbidding the saltpetre
makers to dig in houses or lands without leave of the owner: and this is
the point to which the learned commentator of the law, in his _Discouerie
of the Abuses and Corruption of Officers_, alludes, when "any such fellowe
if you can meete with all, let his misdemenor be presented, that he may be
taught better to understand his office." In England, up to about the period
when these curious acts of parliament were passed, the right of all soil
impregnated with animal matter was claimed by the crown for this peculiar
purpose; and in France the rubbish of old houses, earth from stables,
slaughter-houses, and all refuse places, was considered to belong to the
Government, till 1778, when a similar edict, to relieve the people from the
annoyances of the saltpetre makers, was made.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. iii., pp. 119. 198.)

In reply to your correspondent ARUN, who inquired about the origin and
authority of metrical psalms and hymns in churches, in addition to an
extract from one of Bishop Cosin's letters on the subject, I referred also
to the treatise commonly known as Watson's _Deduction_, but of which
treatise Heylin was in fact the author. I have recently met with a passage
in Heylin's _History of the Reformation_ (ann. 1552, Lond., 1674, p. 127.)
which seems to contain the rudiment or first germ of the _Deduction_, and
to which ARUN therefore (if not already acquainted with it) may be glad to
be referred:

    "About this time (says Heylin) the Psalms of David did first begin to
    be composed in English meetter by one Thomas Sternhold, one of the
    grooms of the Privy Chamber; who, translating no more than
    thirty-seven, left both example and encouragement to John Hopkins and
    others to dispatch the rest:--a device first taken up in France by one
    Clement Marot, one of the grooms of the bedchamber to King Francis the
    First; who, being much addicted to poetry, and having some acquaintance
    with those which were thought to have enclined to the Reformation, was
    persuaded by the learned Vatablus (professor of the Hebrew tongue in
    the University of Paris) to exercise his poetical phancies in
    translating some of David's Psalms. For whose satisfaction, and his
    own, he translated the first fifty of them; and, after flying to
    Geneva, grew acquainted with Beza, who in some tract of time translated
    the other hundred also, and caused them to be fitted unto several
    times; which hereupon began to be sung in private houses, and by
    degrees to be taken up in all the churches of the French, and other
    nations which followed the Genevian platform. Marot's translation is
    said by Strada to have been ignorantly and perversely done, as being
    but the work of a man altogether unlearned; but not to be compared with
    that barbarity and botching, which everywhere occurreth in the
    translation of Sternhold and Hopkins. Which notwithstanding being first
    allowed for private devotion, they were by little and little brought
    into the use of the church, _permitted rather than allowed_ to be sung
    before and after sermons; afterwards printed and bound up with the
    Common Prayer Book, and at last added by the stationers at the end of
    the Bible. For, though it is expressed in the title of those singing
    psalms, that they were set forth and allowed to be sung in all churches
    before and after Morning and Evening Prayer, and also before and after
    sermons; yet this allowance seems rather to have been a _connivance_
    than an _approbation_: no such allowance being anywhere found by such
    as have been most industrious and concerned in the search thereof. At
    first it was pretended only that the said Psalms should be sung before
    and after Morning and Evening Prayer, and also before and after
    sermons; which shows they were not to be intermingled in the public
    Liturgie. But in some tract of time, as the Puritan faction grew in
    strength and {461} confidence, they prevailed so far in most places, to
    thrust the _Te Deum_, the _Benedictus_, the _Magnificat_, and the _Nunc
    Dimittis_, quite out of the church. But of this more perhaps hereafter,
    when we shall come to the discovery of the Puritan practices in the
    times succeeding."



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 380.)

The cross, X, in the Greek Church, represents the initial of [Greek:
Christos], the Messiah, the symbolic affixing of which (sealing) before and
after baptism indicates that the name of Christ is imposed on the believer,
who takes his new or Christian name at baptism. This mark on the forehead
refers to Revelation vii. 3., xiv. 1., xxii. 4. The longer catechism of
that church, in answer to the question, "What force has the sign of the
cross, used on this and other occasions?" says, "What the _name_ of Jesus
Christ crucified is, when pronounced with faith by the motion of the lips,
the _very same_ is also the sign of the cross, when made with faith by _the
motion of the hand_, or represented in any other way." The authority quoted
is Cyril of Jerusalem (_Cat. Lect._ xiii. 36.).

In the Western Church the cross, [Symbol: cross], represented the [Greek:
stauros] whereon Christ suffered.

Both these crosses are now found in the Greek Church; and the Latin form,
[Symbol: cross], has at least been used therein nine centuries, for in
Goar's _Rituale Græcorum_ may be seen (pp. 114, 115. 126.) the icons of
Saints Methodius, Germanus, and Cyrillus, whose vestments are embellished
with Latin crosses. The Latin cross is marked on the sacramental bread of
the Greek communion,--which bread is also impressed with an abbreviation of
the words on Constantine's labarum: "Jesus Christ overcometh." (Eusebius's
_Life of Constantine_, lib. i. c. 25.: compare with Goar's _Rituale
Græcorum_, p. 117.)

The Latin cross, [Symbol: cross], is rarely found on the sepulchres in the
catacombs at Rome,--the most ancient Christian memorials; but, instead of
it, a combination of the letters [Chi][Rho] prevails, as the monogram for
"Christ." Aringhi, in his _Roma Subterranea_ (Romæ, 1651) says:

    "Illud autem fatendum nobis est, nullatenus ante felicissima
    Constantini Magni ad fidem traducti tempora crucem publicæ populorum
    venerationi expositam fuisse."--Vol. ii. lib. vi. c. xiv. p. 546.

The following statement from Humphrey's _Montfaucon_ (vol. x. part ii. book
iii. cap. 1. p. 158.) is very clear as to the form of the cross:

    "The cross, made with beams put together, had the shape of the
    Samaritan _tau_, says St. Jerome, whose words are these: 'In the oldest
    _Hebrew_ letters, which the Samaritans now make use of, the last, which
    is _tau_, had the form of a cross.' This _tau_, like a cross, was like
    the [Tau] of the Greeks, according to Paulinus, who says that the shape
    of the cross is expressed by the Greek letter _tau_, which stands for
    three hundred. The cross of our Lord was something different from the
    letter _tau_; the beam that was fixed in the earth crossing that which
    was athwart it above, and made as it were a head by rising above it:
    such a cross we see in the medals of Constantine the Great, in this
    form, [Symbol: cross], and such is it found described in the most
    ancient Christian monuments; this is the form of the cross which St.
    Jerome means, when he compares it to birds flying, to a man swimming,
    and to a man praying to God, with his arms extended."

The Greek church has retained _both_ forms: the Latin Church, in its
ignorance of the Greek language, has lost the more important symbol. These
forms were probably invented by Constantine, who used them on his helmet,
as crests were afterwards used in the ages of chivalry.



The difference between the manner in which the members of the Greek and
those of the Latin Church used to sign themselves with the sign of the
cross is this: both used the right hand, the thumb and first and second
fingers open, and the third and fourth closed; both began at the forehead,
and descended to the breast: but in crossing that vertical line by an
horizontal one, from one shoulder to the other, the _Greeks go from the
right to the left_, but the _Latins from the left to the right_. It is
said, that in the Latin Church, up to the thirteenth century, the cross
line was traced indifferently from either shoulder.

Whilst there is this difference between the Greek and Latin sign of the
cross when made upon oneself, there is also a difference between the two
when made upon others. The Latin _Benediction_ is given with the thumb and
the first two fingers open; the third and fourth fingers remaining closed.
This arrangement of the the fingers is symbolical of the Trinity: the three
open fingers signifying the three divine persons, and the two closed
fingers being emblematic of the two natures of Christ.

The Greek benediction is given with the forefinger entirely open; the
middle finger slightly bent, the thumb crossed upon the third finger, and
the little finger bent.

In the present day, however, in the Latin Church, a person making on
himself the sign of the cross, employs the right hand entirely open,
instead of three fingers only. And as it has been thought desirable to make
a distinction between the benediction given by a bishop and a priest,
bishops reserved to themselves the right of blessing with three fingers;
and priests give the benediction with the hand entirely open. {462}

J. C. B. will find this subject fully treated in Didron's _Christian
Iconography_, Bohn's edition, pp. 405. 412.; and an illustration of the
Latin benediction at p. 205., and the Greek benediction at p. 176.


       *       *       *       *       *


_New Developing Fluid._--DR. DIAMOND has reported very favourably of the
developing fluid, which I spoke of in "N. & Q." of March 12 as "being
simple, inexpensive, and keeping good a length of time." In accordance with
what I then stated, I herewith give the readers of "N. & Q." the benefit of
it, and leave them to form their own opinion of its value after trying it:

  Protosulphate of iron   12 grs.
  Nitrate of lead          8 grs.
  Water                   10 drs.
  Acetic acid              ½ dr.

Dissolve the protosulphate of iron in the water; then throw in the nitrate
of lead in powder; stir with glass rod until it is dissolved; keep stirring
while pouring in the acetic acid, and for a few minutes afterwards. Let the
precipitate subside, then filter. I have used nothing else for positives on
glass since I discovered the preparation. I have not tried it for
developing in the wax-paper or other paper process. The liquid is
colourless as water when first made. By long keeping it will change colour,
but throws down no deposit, nor loses its properties. If those gentlemen
who try it would give their opinions of it, I should be obliged.


Edingthorpe Rectory.

    [Since this was in type, MR. SISSON has written to say, that he has
    been informed that the use of nitrate of lead has already been
    recommended by MR. W. BROWN. MR. SISSON was not aware of that fact, but
    is unwilling to appear in any way to appropriate to himself the
    suggestion of another.--ED.]

_Photographic Tent._--Can any of your readers inform me how, or where, to
procure an _effective tent_ for photographic operations out of doors? All
those I have yet seen are sadly wanting in the two great
essentials--_portability_ and _cheapness_. If any one could suggest the
means for supplying the desiderata, it would prove in the coming season a
boon to photographers at large, and confer a favour on

M. F. M.

_Mr. Wilkinson's simple mode of levelling Cameras._--The following
ingenious suggestion appears in the 3rd Number of the _Journal of the
Photographic Society_, and deserves to be widely circulated. "My plan is to
place a T-square on the bottom of the camera, and draw one perpendicular
line on each side (exactly opposite to each other), either with paint or
pencil; or the ends of the camera itself will do if perpendicular to the
base. Then, having two musket bullets attached to a silk thread, simply
hang them over the camera, and everything required will be attained much
quicker by these plumb-lines, and with accuracy equal to the spirit-levels.
The advantage of the simple contrivance of two bullets suspended by threads
is, that when the thread is laid across the camera, it is at once seen
whether the thread touches all the way down both sides; if not, one or
other side of the camera is raised, until the thread lies close on each
side: this gives the level crossways. The other perpendicular of the line
is then sought for, and the back or front of the camera raised or lowered,
until the thread cuts the line drawn below. Here then we have the most
perfect line that can be obtained, at the expense of two bullets and a bit
of silk, answering every purpose of the best spirit-level, and applied in
one-half the time. It has since occurred to me, that as we sometimes
require to measure the distance for stereoscopic pictures, this thread
ought to be about three feet long; and we might as well make three knots,
and then we should have the measure of a three-feet rule always with us. It
has also occurred to me, that in taking portraits you sometimes require to
have a measure of time; and by a little modification we have here the most
accurate chronometer that can be produced. Instead of three feet, I make it
thirty-nine inches and the decimal necessary, say two-tenths from the
centre of support to the centre of the bullet. I then get a pendulum which
vibrates to second exactly, from the point of suspension to the point of
oscillation. I hang it by a pin, and I there have a chronometer of the
greatest possible accuracy; and I can employ it for taking portraits of
one, two, three, or four seconds: it will vibrate for a minute.
Consequently I have a mode of levelling my camera with the greatest
accuracy, a measure of time, and a measure of distance; and all at a cost
considerably under one penny."

_Antiquarian Photographic Club._--This association for the interchange of
photographic views of objects of antiquarian interest, has now nearly
attained the number of members to which it is proposed to limit it. For the
few remaining vacancies preference will be given, for obvious reasons, to
parties resident in varied localities. Any gentlemen or ladies desirous to
join the club, may send their names, with specimens of their skill, to the
_Honorary Secretary_, care of Mr. Bell, 186. Fleet Street. The amount of
the annual subscription is not yet fixed, but as all that can be required
will be to meet the expenses incident to the receipt and interchange of the
photographs, it must necessarily be very limited.


       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Erroneous Forms of Speech: Mangel Wurzel_ (Vol. vii., p. 329.).--Against
the dictum of E. G. R., I beg insertion of the following quotation from the
_Agricultural Gazette_, March 4, 1848, p. 166.:

    "Mangold wurzel is simply the German of _beet-root_. 'Mangel wurzel,'
    on the other hand, is one founded on an idea, which, though absurd, did
    not the less effectually answer the object of those who introduced the
    plant. 'Scarcity root,' or 'Famine root,' made a good heading to an

And Rham, _Dictionary of the Farm_, p. 62.:

    "The German name is 'Mangold wurzel,' or 'Mangold root;' but it is
    sometimes pronounced 'Mangel wurzel,' which means _scarcity root_; and,
    by a strange translation, it is called in French _racine d'abondance_,
    as well as _racine de disette_. The name of field-beet is much more

I hope E. G. R. will, however, not insist on classing those who say and
write "mangold" with those who would write "reddishes, sparrowgrass, and
cowcumbers." I should be sorry to be suspected of any one of the three
last; but "mangold" I will say and write till the authority of the best
German scholars decrees otherwise.


_The Whetstone_ (Vol. vii., pp. 208. 319.).--Herbert, in his _Typographical
Antiquities_, vol. ii. p. 1144., cites a book entitled, _Fower great Liers
striving who shall win the Silver Whetstone. Also a Resolution to the
Countreyman, proving it utterly unlawful to buy or use our yearely
Prognostications_, by W. P.: 8vo., printed by R. Waldegrave; no date.

H. C.

_Charade_ (Vol. vi., p. 604.).--

 "By mystic sign and symbol known,
  To Daniel, wise and meek, alone,
  Was Persia's coming _wo_ foreshown.

 "And in great Cæsar's proudest day,
  The Gospel held a mightier sway,
  And _man_ shone forth with purest ray.

 "But when, in Babylonia chain'd,
  _Man_ of his deepening _wo_ complain'd,
  A _woman_ conquering both, in faithful Esther reign'd."


_Parochial Libraries_ (Vol. vi., p. 432. &c.; Vol. vii., p.
392.).--_Totnes_ may be added to the list of places containing parochial
libraries. The books are placed in presses in the vestry room of the
church, and so preserved from loss and damage to which they were formerly
subjected. The collection is principally composed of works of divinity
published in the seventeenth century, the age of profound theological
literature. I noticed amongst the goodly array of weighty folios, the works
of St. Augustine, the _Homilies_ of St. Chrysostom, works of St. Ambrose,
St. Gregory, &c., the works of the high and mighty King James, Birckbek's
_Protestant Evidence_, and Walton's _Polyglott_. Nothing is known of the
history and formation of this library. Inside the cover of one of the
volumes is the following inscription:

    "Totnes Library. The guift of Mr. Thomas Southcott, July 10. 1656."

I found the following incorrect and antiquated piece of information
respecting this library in a flimsy work, published in 1850, entitled, _A
Graphic and Historical Sketch of the Antiquities of Totnes_, by William
Cotton, F.S.A., _note_, p. 38.:

    "I know not what the library contains. I believe nothing more than
    theological lumber. It is always locked up, and made no use of by those
    who keep it, and it is inaccessible to those who would wish to examine
    it. I was once there by accident, and looked into some books, which
    were all on Divinity."

J. M. B.

Tunbridge Wells.

_Judge Smith_ (Vol. vii., p. 13.).--Judge Smith lived towards the close of
Queen Elizabeth's reign, and was noted for severity against witches. His
monument is in Chesterfield Church. He belonged to the ancient family
seated at Dunston Hall, near that town, which I believe has lately ended in
co-heiresses. The late Sir J. E. Smith was of the same family: his father,
a considerable merchant of Norwich, married a Kindersley descended from
Geoffrey,--who was queried in Vol. vi., p. 603., and is ancestor of the
present Vice-Chancellor.

Z. E. R.

_Church Catechism_ (Vol. vii., p. 190.).--B. H. C. will confer a favour by
printing the Latin original of the Catechism.

Z. E. R.

_Charade attributed to Sheridan_ (Vol. vii., p. 379.).--Several years ago,
I think in 1818 or 1819, a friend gave me some verses nearly similar to
those communicated by your correspondent BALLIOLENSIS, and requested me to
ascertain if they were Mrs. Piozzi's, as my friend had been told that they
were written by that lady. Soon afterwards I asked Mrs. Piozzi if she ever
wrote a riddle on a gaming-table. She replied, "Yes, a very long time ago."
She immediately repeated a line or two, and, after some consideration,
recited the following, which, she assured me, were her original
composition. These lines, it will be observed, differ somewhat from those
attributed to Sheridan, but they were probably the basis of those, and also
of other versions of the riddle, which, I believe, are in existence. This
statement so thoroughly removes all uncertainty about the {464} author of
the original, that I trust you will deem it worthy of insertion in your

 "A place I here describe, how gay the scene!
  Fresh, bright, and vivid with perpetual green,
  Verdure attractive to the ravish'd sight,        }
  Perennial joys, and ever new delight,            }
  Charming at noon, more charming still at night.  }
  Fair pools where fish in forms pellucid play;
  Smooth lies the lawn, swift glide the hours away.
  No mean dependence here on summer skies,
  This spot rough winter's roughest blast defies.
  Yet here the government is curs'd with change,
  Knaves openly on either party range,
  Assault their monarch, and avow the deed,
  While honour fails, and tricks alone succeed;
  For bold decemvirs here usurp the sway;          }
  Now all some single demagogue obey,              }
  False lights prefer, and hate the intruding day. }
  Oh, shun the tempting shore, the dangerous coast,
  Youth, fame, and fortune, stranded here, are lost!"

J. S. S.


_Gesmas and Desmas_ (Vol. vii., pp. 238. 342.).--The names of the two
thieves crucified with our blessed Saviour are variously written. In the
verses quoted by A. B. R. (p. 238.) they are written _Gesmas and Desmas_.
In the edition of the Gospel of Nicodemus, quoted by W. C. H. (p. 342.),
_i.e._ the edition of "William Hone, Ludgate Hill, 1820," the names are
written _Gestas and Dimas_. He also gives an authority for the spelling
"_Dismas and Gestas_." I find them written in the edition I have of the
Gospel of Nicodemus, _i. e._ "Hutman's, London, 1818," _Dismas and Gesmas_
(pp. 87, 88.). Elsewhere I have met with them written as in the following
verse, _Gistas and Dismas_:

 "Gistas damnatur, Dismas ad astra levatur,"

which I have ventured to translate:

 "Gistas to hell--with Dismas all goes well;"

or perhaps better thus:

 "Gistas goes down, Dismas receives a crown."

The names of these two men in early life is said to have been _Titus_ and
_Dumachus_: see the _Evangelium Infantiæ_, quoted by Hutman (p. 13.).


_Lode_ (Vol. v., pp. 345. 350.).--There is in Gloucester a church and
parish called Saint Mary de Lode, touching which Mr. Fosbroke (_History of
City of Gloucester_, p. 341.) observes:

    "This parish is said to have derived the adjunct of _Lode_ from the
    Severn formerly running near it; and this may have been the fact, but
    it is not easy to give a satisfactory explanation of the term."

I would remark, that as the term _Lode_ may be considered a general name
for any navigable river, that if it be a fact that the river Severn did
formerly run near the parish in question, it appears to me not difficult to
give a satisfactory explanation of the term by which such parish is
distinguished from St. Mary de Crypt and St. Mary de Grace.



_Epitaphs imprecatory_ (Vol. vii., p. 256).--I have no doubt that the
churchyards of Scotland will furnish many examples of the embittered
feelings which religious persecution produced, during the latter half of
the seventeenth century; and as a specimen I forward the following, which
is found in the churchyard of Dalgarnock, in Dumfriesshire. The Duke of
York alluded to was afterwards James II.; and the descendants of Mr.
Harkness are still most respectable inhabitants of the parish of Closeburn,
which has been united to Dalgarnock:

    "Here Lyes the body of JAMES HARKNESS, in Locherben, who died 6th Dec.
    1723, aged 72 years.

     "Belo this stone his dust doth ly,
      Who indured 28 years
      Persecution by tirrany
      Did him pursue with echo and cry
      Though many a lonesome place,
      At last by Clavers he was taen
        Sentenced for to dy;
      But God, who for his soul took care,
      Did him from prison bring,
      Because no other Cause they had
      But that he ould not give up
      With Christ his Glorious King.
      And swear allegence to that beast,
      The duke of York I mean.
      In spite of all there hellish rage
      A natural death he died
      In full assurance of his rest
      With Christ ieternalie."

The following may be given as an example of a punning epitaph. It is found
in St. Anne's churchyard, in the Isle of Man, and is said to have been
written by Sir Wadsworth Busk, who was for many years attorney-general of
the island:

 "Here, Friend, is little Daniel's Tomb,
    To Joseph's age he did arrive;
  Sloth killing thousands in their bloom,
    While labour kept poor Dan alive.
  Though strange yet true, full seventy years
  Was his wife happy in her _Tears_.

    DANIEL TEAR died December 9th, 1787, aged 110 years."

C. T. R.

_Straw-bail_ (Vol. vii., pp. 85. 342.).--The origin of the expression "a
man of straw" may be traced to those mannikins or effigies representing the
human figure, which are (or used to be) paraded in the streets during the
Carnival in most continental countries. These mannikins were {465}
generally stuffed with _straw_; and hence, in legal phraseology, "a man of
straw" denotes the semblance of a man--a person of neither substance nor
responsibility, who is put forward to screen a real delinquent, or bear the
brunt of a prosecution. Such, at least, is the origin commonly assigned by
the French to their "homme de paille," the prototype of our "man of straw."


St. Lucia.

_How to stain Deal_ (Vol. vii., p. 356).--If C. will apply by letter or
otherwise to Mr. Henry Stevens, 54. Stamford Street, Blackfriars Road, he
will learn every particular, and be furnished with samples of its effect on
common deal, as now very extensively used in churches, school-rooms, &c.

_Detached Belfry Towers_ (Vol. vii., pp. 333. 416.).--Add to the list,
Marston Morteyne in Bedfordshire, not far from Ampthill, and Gunwalloe, in
Cornwall, about five miles south of Helston. Gunwalloe tower appears to be
much older than the church, and faces the south-west angle of the nave,
from which it is distant about fourteen feet.

J. M. B.

Tunbridge Wells.

CAMBRENSIS has forgotten that the _cloich teachs_ (bell-houses), or round
belfries, peculiar to Ireland, and which have become famous as "round
towers," are almost always separate from the churches.



To your instances of detached belfries in England add Magdalene College and
New College in Oxford, and Woburn in Bedfordshire.

H. C.


Detached church-towers exist at Beccles, Suffolk, and at East Dereham,

G. J. C.


       *       *       *       *       *



The anniversary of the Camden Society on Monday last, when Mr. Peter
Cunningham, Sir F. Madden, and Sir C. Young were elected on the Council,
was distinguished by two departures from the usual routine: one, a special
vote of thanks to Sir Harry Verney for placing his family papers at the
service of the Society; and the other, a general expression of satisfaction
on the part of the members at the steps taken by the Council to bring under
the consideration of the Commission appointed to inquire into the laws
regarding matters testamentary, the great impediments thrown in the way of
all historical and literary inquirers by the authorities in the Prerogative

It does not require the skill of an Oedipus to divine that in giving us so
graphic a picture of _The Vicar and his Duties_, the Rev. A. Gatty has had
the advantage of sketching from the life, and that his portraiture of

             "A good man of religioun
  That as a poore Persone of a toun;
  But riche he was of holy thought and werke."

is as much a true effigy, though taken with pen and ink, as if he had put
that capital parish priest, the Vicar of Leeds, before his camera. To the
many friends of Dr. Hook, this little volume will be deeply interesting.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--Pulleyn's _Etymological Compendium, or Portfolio of
Origins and Inventions. Third Edition, revised and improved, by_ Merton A.
Thoms. This new edition of a very popular and useful little book has had
the advantage of a thorough revision, and contains much new and interesting
information.--Longman's _Traveller's Library_ has lately been enriched by
two of Mr. Macaulay's brilliant essays, viz. on _Lord Byron_ and _The Comic
Dramatists of the Restoration_, and by a carefully compiled life of
_Marshal Turenne_ by the Rev. T. O. Cockayne: while Mr. Murray has added to
his valuable collection of _Railway Readings_, a reprint of _The Life of
Lord Bacon_, by his noble biographer Lord Campbell.--_Reynard the Fox,
after the German Version of Göthe, with Illustrations by_ J. Wolf. Part V.
This translation is kept up with spirit, and the present number carries us
to _The Pardon_ of the wily transgressor.--Mr. Bohn has put forth numerous
fresh claims on the favour of poor scholars: in his _Standard Library_ he
has given a third volume of _Miss Bremer's Works_, containing _Home_ and
_Strife and Peace_; in his _Classical Library_ he continues the translation
of _Aristotle_ in _The Politics and Economics_, translated by G. Walford,
M.A.; in his _Antiquarian Library_, he has continued in his series of
translations of Early English Chronicles by giving us in one volume a
translation of _Henry of Huntingdon_, and also of the _Gesta Stephani_;
while he will have done good service to naturalists and keepers of aviaries
and cage birds by the edition of Bechstein's _Cage and Chamber Birds_ and
Sweet's _Warblers_, which he has included in the same volume of his
_Illustrated Library_.

       *       *       *       *       *


JACOB'S ENGLISH PEERAGE. Folio Edition, 1766. Vols. II., III., and IV.


ALISON'S EUROPE. (20 Vols.) Vols. XIII., XX.

TILLOTSON. Vols. I., II., IV., V., XI. 12mo. Tonson, London, 1748.

LIVY. Vol. I. 12mo. Maittaire, London, 1722.

XX. 5s. each. The above in Parts or Monthly Numbers will do.


A COLLECTION OF DIVERTING SONGS, AIRS, &c. both published about the middle
of last century.



VIEWS OF ARUNDEL HOUSE IN THE STRAND, 1646. London, published by T. Thane,
Rupert Street, Haymarket. 1792.


PICKERING'S STATUTES AT LARGE. 8vo. Edit. Camb. From 46 Geo. III. cap. 144.
(Vol. XLVI. Part I.) to 1 Wm. IV.

EUROPEAN MAGAZINE. Nos. for May, 1817; January, February, May, June, 1818;
April, June, July, October, and December, 1819. {466}


THE LAWYER AND MAGISTRATE'S MAGAZINE, complete, or single Volumes, _circa_



BAYLE'S DICTIONARY. English Version, by DE MAIZEAUX. London, 1738. Vols. I.
and II.

SWIFT'S (DEAN) WORKS. Dublin: G. Faulkner. 19 volumes. 1768. Vol. I.


ARCHÆOLOGIA. Vols. III., IV., V., VIII. Boards.




CHURCH. 8vo. Belfast, 1840.







*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names._

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

J. N. C. _will see by this week's Number, that the line to which he refers
is from_ Hamlet.

K. R. H. M.'s _communication was marked for insertion before we received
his Note_.

W. F. _We were quite unable to attend to your wishes this week._

STUPIDITAS. _We have never known such failures to take place as you
describe. In all probability you have not_ perfectly _immersed your paper
in the saline solution. Half a drachm of muriate of soda, and the same
quantity of muriate of barytes and muriate of ammonia, dissolved in a quart
of water, forms a very excellent application for the paper, previous to the
use of the ammonio-nitrate._

H. HENDERSON. _Any application applied to your window would in a great part
obstruct the light. Brushing it over with starch might be tried._

B--Z. _Yes. Many of the very best pictures in the_ Photographic Exhibition
in Bond Street, _as we may probably take an opportunity of pointing out in
some future notice of that interesting collection, are from collodion

PRICE OF IODIDE OF POTASSIUM. _I beg to say that the price named by me_,
i. e. 1s. 3d. _per oz., for iodide of potassium, is quoted from the list of
Messrs. Simpson and Maule, Kensington Road._



_A few complete sets of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. _to_ vi., _price
Three Guineas, may now be had; for which early application is desirable._

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday._

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIMEN COPIES of the First Volume of this Work may be seen at MR.
SKEFFINGTON'S, 192. Piccadilly, and at MR. RUSSELL SMITH'S, 36. Soho
Square, London.

The Editor having, at a great sacrifice, adhered to the original limit, and
the estimates having been considered exceeded, has been compelled, to avoid
incurring an extravagant loss, to make the terms very absolute, and to
raise the Subscription to the later copies. Notwithstanding, therefore, the
great demand for the Work, a few copies may still be secured by early
written application.

All communications on the subject are request to be addressed to--


       *       *       *       *       *


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A perfect Apparatus with Ross's finest Lenses has been procured, and every
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The School is under the joint direction of T. A. MALONE, Esq., who has been
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A Prospectus, with terms, may be had at the Institution.

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PHOTOGRAPHY.--Collodion (Iodized with the Ammonio-Iodide of Silver).--J. B.
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Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
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       *       *       *       *       *

TO PARENTS, GUARDIANS, RESIDENTS IN INDIA, &c.--A Lady residing within an
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Address to T. B. S., care of MR. BELL, Publisher, 186. Fleet Street. {467}

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECTACLES.--WM. ACKLAND applies his medical knowledge as a Licentiate of
the Apothecaries' Company, London, his theory as a Mathematician, and his
practice as a Working Optician, aided by Smee's Optometer, in the selection
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ACHROMATIC TELESCOPES, with the New Vetzlar Eye-pieces, as exhibited at the
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application to

WM. ACKLAND, Optician, 93. Hatton Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

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Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
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BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
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  Silver Watches, with same movements
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  Gentlemen's fine Gold Albert Chains   1  10  0
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  In 44 MONTHLY PARTS, at One Shilling;
  In WEEKLY NUMBERS, at Three-halfpence;
  In 12 QUARTERLY VOLUMES, at Four Shillings;

PART I. and NO. I. are now ready, and may be had of all Booksellers and


       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

Established 1824.

       *       *       *       *       *

FIVE BONUSES have been declared: at the last in January, 1852, the sum of
131,125l. was added to the Policies, producing a Bonus varying with the
different ages from 24½ to 55 per cent. on the Premiums paid during the
five years, or from 5l. to 12l. 10s. per cent. on the Sum Assured.

The small share of Profit divisible in future among the Shareholders being
now provided for, the ASSURED will hereafter derive all the benefits
obtainable from a Mutual Office, WITHOUT ANY LIABILITY OR RISK OF

POLICIES effected before the 30th of June next, will be entitled, at the
next Division, to one year's additional share of Profits over later

On Assurances for the whole of Life only one half of the Premiums need be
paid for the first five years.

INVALID LIVES may be Assured at rates proportioned to the risk.

Claims paid _thirty_ days after proof of death, and all Policies are
_Indisputable_ except in cases of fraud.

Tables of Rates and forms of Proposal can be obtained of any of the
Society's Agents, or of

GEORGE H. PINCKARD, Resident Secretary.

_99. Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, London._

       *       *       *       *       *




During the last Ten Years, this Society has issued more than _Four Thousand
One Hundred and Fifty Policies_--

Covering Assurances to the extent of _One Million Six Hundred and
Eighty-seven Thousand Pounds, and upwards_--

Yielding Annual Premiums amounting to _Seventy-three Thousand Pounds_.

This Society is the only one possessing Tables for the Assurance of
Diseased Lives.

Healthy Lives Assured at Home and Abroad at lower rates than at most other

A Bonus of 50 per cent. on the premiums paid was added to the policies at
last Division of Profits.

Next Division in 1853--in which all Policies effected before 30th June,
1853, will participate.

       *       *       *       *       *

Agents wanted for vacant places.

Prospectuses, Forms of Proposal, and every other information, may be
obtained of the Secretary at the Chief Office, or on application to any of
the Society's Agents in the country.

  F.G.P. NEISON, Actuary.
  C. DOUGLAS SINGER, Secretary.

       *       *       *       *       *

Polarizing Apparatus, Object-glasses, and Eye-pieces. S. STRAKER supplies
any of the above of the first quality, and will forward by post free a new
priced List of Microscopes and Apparatus.


       *       *       *       *       *



Founded A.D. 1842.


  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.
  W. Cabell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq. M.P.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
  T. Grissell, Esq.
  J. Hunt, Esq.
  J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  E. Lucas, Esq.
  J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  J. B. White, Esq.
  J. Carter Wood, Esq.


W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; L. C. Humfrey, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq.

_Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.

_Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed on
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age      _£  s.  d._
   17       1  14   4
   22       1  18   8
   27       2   4   5
   32       2  10   8
   37       2  18   6
   42       3   8   2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.


       *       *       *       *       *

The Camden Society,

       *       *       *       *       *

THE CAMDEN SOCIETY is instituted to perpetuate, and render accessible,
whatever is valuable, but at present little known, amongst the materials
for the Civil, Ecclesiastical, or Literary History of the United Kingdom;
and it accomplishes that object by the publication of Historical Documents,
Letters, Ancient Poems, and whatever else lies within the compass of its
designs, in the most convenient form, and at the least possible expense
consistent with the production of useful volumes.

The Subscription to the Society is 1l. per annum, which becomes due in
advance on the first day of May in every year, and is received by MESSRS.
may compound for their future Annual Subscriptions, by the payment of
10_l_. over and above the Subscription for the current year. The
compositions received have been funded in the Three per Cent. Consols to an
amount exceeding 900l. No Books are delivered to a Member until his
Subscription for the current year has been paid. New Members are admitted
at the Meetings of the Council held on the First Wednesday in every month.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Publications for the past year (1851-2) were:

AKERMAN, Esq., Sec. S.A.

Cottonian Library by J. GOUGH NICHOLS, Esq., F.S.A.

54. PROMPTORIUM: An English and Latin Dictionary of Words in Use during the
Fifteenth Century, compiled chiefly from the Promptorium Parvulorum. By
ALBERT WAY, Esq. M.A., F.S.A. Vol. II. (M to R.) (In the Press.)

Books for 1852-3.

55. THE SECOND VOLUME OF THE CAMDEN MISCELLANY, containing, 1. Expenses of
John of Brabant 1292-3; 2. Household Accounts of Princess Elizabeth,
1551-2; 3. Requeste and Suite of a True-hearted Englishman, by W.
Cholmeley, 1553; 4. Discovery of the Jesuits' College at Clerkenwell,
1627-8; 5. Trelawny Papers; 6. Autobiography of Dr. William Taswell.--Now
ready for delivery to all Members not in arrear of their Subscription.

56. THE VERNEY PAPERS. A Selection from the Correspondence of the Verney
Family during the reign of Charles I. to the year 1639. From the Originals
in the possession of Sir Harry Verney, Bart. To be edited by JOHN BRUCE,
ESQ., Trea. S.A.

57. REGULÆ INCLUSARUM: THE ANCREN REWLE. A Treatise on the Rules and Duties
of Monastic Life, in the Anglo-Saxon Dialect of the Thirteenth Century
addressed to a Society of Anchorites, being a translation from the Latin
Work of Simon de Ghent, Bishop of Salisbury. To be edited from MSS. in the
Cottonian Library, British Museum, with an Introduction, Glossarial Notes,
&c., by the REV. JAMES MORTON, B.D., Prebendary of Lincoln. (Will be ready

       *       *       *       *       *

The following Works are at Press, and will be issued from time to time, as
soon as ready:

be edited by the REV. T. T. LEWIS, M.A. (Will be ready immediately.)

the years 1289, 1290, with Illustrations from other and coeval Documents.
To be edited by the REV. JOHN WEBB, M.A., F.S.A.

THE DOMESDAY OF ST. PAUL'S: a Description of the Manors belonging to the
Church of St. Paul's in London in the year 1222. By the VEN. ARCHDEACON

Anglo-Norman Poet of the latter end of the Twelfth Century. Edited, from
the unique MS. in the Royal Library at Paris, by M. LE ROUX DE LINCY,
Editor of the Roman de Brut.

Communications from Gentlemen desirous of becoming Members may be addressed
to the Secretary, or to Messrs. Nichols.

WILLIAM J. THOMS, Secretary. 25. Parliament Street, Westminster.

       *       *       *       *       *


  1. Restoration of King Edward IV.
  2. Kyng Johan, by Bishop Bale.
  3. Deposition of Richard II.
  4. Plumpton Correspondence.
  5. Anecdotes and Traditions.
  6. Political Songs.
  7. Hayward's Annals of Elizabeth.
  8. Ecclesiastical Documents.
  9. Norden's Description of Essex.
  10. Warkworth's Chronicle.
  11. Kemp's Nine Daies Wonder.
  12. The Egerton Papers.
  13. Chronica Jocelini de Brakelonda.
  14. Irish Narratives, 1641 and 1690.
  15. Rishanger's Chronicle.
  16. Poems of Walter Mapes.
  17. Travels of Nicander Nucius.
  18. Three Metrical Romances.
  19. Diary of Dr. John Dee.
  20. Apology for the Lollards.
  21. Rutland Papers.
  22. Diary of Bishop Cartwright.
  23. Letters of Eminent Literary Men.
  24. Proceedings against Dame Alice Kyteler.
  25. Promptorium Parvulorum: Tom. I.
  26. Suppression of the Monasteries.
  27. Leycester Correspondence.
  28. French Chronicle of London.
  29. Polydore Vergil.
  30. The Thornton Romances.
  31. Verney's Notes of the Long Parliament.
  32. Autobiography of Sir John Bramston.
  33. Correspondence of James Duke of Perth.
  34. Liber de Antiquis Lezibus.
  35. The Chronicle of Calais.
  36. Polydore Vergil's History Vol. I.
  37. Italian Relation of England.
  38. Church of Middleham.
  39. The Camden Miscellany, Vol. I.
  40. Life of Ld. Grey of Wilton.
  41. Diary of Walter Yonge, Esq.
  42. Diary of Henry Machyn.
  43. Visitation of Huntingdonshire.
  44. Obituary of Rich. Smyth.
  45. Twysden on the Government of England.
  46. Letters of Elizabeth and James VI.
  47. Chronicon Petroburgense.
  48. Queen Jane and Queen Mary.
  49. Bury Wills and Inventories.
  50. Mapes de Nugis Curialium.
  51. Pilgrimage of Sir R. Guylford.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, in 8vo., price 15_s_. cloth,

GOETHE'S FAUST: With Copious English Notes, Grammatical, Philological, and
Exegetical, for Students of the German Language. By FALK LEBAHN, Ph.D.,
Author of "German in One Volume," &c.

"Not an idle addition to the many various impressions already existing in
our literature of Goethe's masterpiece, but an edition prepared for the use
of those students of German who read without a master. First we have the
original text complete. Then the grammatical note, which occupy the place
of a vocabulary, repeat the whole of the text in both German and English,
classified according to Doctor Lebahn's system, and with reciprocal
references to the pages and rules of grammar. The plan is highly ingenious,
and we may add that the numberous extracts from other German authors, which
illustrate the meanings of Goethe, will be often found very curious and


       *       *       *       *       *

THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE for MAY contains:--1. A Trip to the Gold Regions
of Scotland. 2. Hepple Castle, and Hetchester, Northumberland; with
Engravings. 3. Traits of the Trappists. 4. Treasury Warrant relating to
Rymer's Foedera and his MS. Collections. 5. "Heydon with One Hand," an
English Duel in the Year 1600. 6. The Clothiers of Kendal, and their Trade
Tokens; with Engravings. 7. Christian Iconography: the Wheel of Human Life,
or the Seven Ages. 8. A Biography, with Notes on the Glens of Antrim. 9.
The Gravestone of "Dame Joan" at the White Ladies. 10. Tower Royal. 11.
"Romeland" at Queen Hithe, Billingsgate, and Waltham Abbey. 12. The Manor
of Stotesden, Salop. 13. On supposed Springs and Showers of Blood. 14.
Early History of St. James's Park. With Notes of the Month, Reviews of New
Publications, Reports of Archæological Societies, Historical Chronicle, and
OBITUARY, including Memoirs of Lord Skelmersdale, Sir Edward Kerrison,
Henry Southern, Esq., Dr. Charlesworth, W. Nottidge, Esq., W. H. R. Brown,
Esq., and many other eminent persons recently deceased. Price 2s. 6d.

NICHOLS & SONS, 25. Parliament Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-eighth Edition.

NEUROTONICS, or the Art of Strengthening the Nerves, containing Remarks on
the influence of the Nerves upon the Health of Body and Mind, and the means
of Cure for Nervousness, Debility, Melancholy, and all Chronic Diseases, by
DR. NAPIER, M.D. London: HOULSTON & STONEMAN. Price 4d., or Post Free from
the Author for Five Penny Stamps.

"We can conscientiously recommend 'Neurotonics,' by Dr. Napier, to the
careful perusal of our invalid readers."--_John Bull Newspaper, June 5,

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, price 1s., free by Post 1s. 4d.,

Translated from the French.

Sole Agents in the United Kingdom for VOIGHTLANDER & SON'S celebrated
Lenses for Portraits and Views.

General Depôt for Turner's, Whatman's, Canson Frères', La Croix, and other
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       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, May 7,

Corrections made to printed original.

p453. "the reduction of the Irish rebels of 1641" - "French rebels" in
original, corrected in the next edition. Also "Ballinakill" corrects
original "Ballinakell".

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