By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Notes and Queries, Number 187, May 28, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 187, May 28, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

generously made available by The Internet Library of Early



       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 187.]
Saturday, May 28, 1853.
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                            Page
    On Chaucer's Knowledge of Italian                                  517
    The Rebellion of '45: unpublished Letter                           519
    Oliver St. John, by James Crossley                                 520
    Notes on several misunderstood Words, by the Rev.
      W. R. Arrowsmith                                                 520
    FOLK LORE:--Weather Rules--Drills presaging Death
      --Superstition in Devonshire; Valentine's Day                    522
    A Note on Gulliver's Travels, by C. Forbes                         522
    Shakspeare Correspondence                                          523
    The Coenaculum of Lionardo da Vinci, by E. Smirke                  524
    MINOR NOTES:--Scotter Register (County Lincoln)--
      "All my Eye:" "Over the Left"--Curious Marriages
      --Child-mother                                                   525

    Further Queries respecting Bishop Ken                              526
    The Rev. John Larson and his Mathematical Manuscripts,
      by T. T. Wilkinson                                               526
    MINOR QUERIES:--"Wanderings of Memory"--
      "Wandering Willie's Tale"--Chapel Sunday--Proud
      Salopians--George Miller, D.D.--Members of Parliament
      --Taret--Jeroboam of Claret, &c.--William Williams
      of Geneva--The First of April and "The Cap
      awry"--Sir G. Browne, Bart.--Bishop Butler--Oaken
      Tombs--Alleged Bastardy of Elizabeth--"Pugna
      Porcorum"--Parviso--Mr. Justice Newton--Mufti
      --Ryming and Cuculling--Custom at the Savoy
      Church                                                           527
      Kelway Family--Regatta--Coket and Cler-mantyn                    529

    Curfew                                                             530
    The "Salt-Peter-Man," by C. H. Cooper                              530
    Forms of Judicial Oaths, by John Thrupp, &c.                       532
      Pictures--Test for Lenses--Improvement in
      Positives--Cheap Portable Tent--Rev. Mr. Sisson's
      New Developing Fluid                                             533
    REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Vanes--Loselerius
      Villerius--Westminster Parishes--Hevristic--Creole
      --General Monk and the University of Cambridge--
      Ecclesia Anglicana--Gibbon's Library--Golden Bees
      --Passage in Orosius--Names first given to Parishes
      --Grafts and the Parent Tree--Lord Cliff and Howell's
      Letters--The Bouillon Bible--Rhymes on Places--
      Serpents' Tongues--Consecrated Roses, &c.                        534

    Notes on Books, &c.                                                537
    Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                       538
    Notices to Correspondents                                          538
    Advertisements                                                     538

       *       *       *       *       *



In the Memoir prefixed to the Aldine edition of the _Poetical Works of
Chaucer_, London, 1845, Sir Harris Nicolas expresses an opinion that Dan
Geoffrey was not acquainted with the Italian language, and therefore not
versed in Italian literature.

    "Though Chaucer undoubtedly knew Latin and French, it is by no means
    certain, notwithstanding his supposed obligations to the Decameron,
    that he was as well acquainted with Italian. There may have been a
    common Latin original of the main incidents of many, if not of all the
    tales, for which Chaucer is supposed to have been wholly indebted to
    Boccaccio, and from which originals Boccaccio himself may have taken
    them. That Chaucer was not acquainted with Italian may be inferred from
    his not having introduced any Italian quotation into his works,
    redundant as they are with Latin and French words and phrases."--_Life
    of Chaucer_, pp. 24, 25.

To which the following note is subjoined:

    "Though Chaucer's writings have not been examined for the purpose, the
    remark in the text is not made altogether from recollection, for at the
    end of Speght's edition of Chaucer's _Works_, translations are given of
    the Latin and French words in the poems, but not a single Italian word
    is mentioned."

If Sir Harris Nicolas had examined the writings of Chaucer with any care,
he would scarcely have formed or expressed so strange an opinion, for he
must necessarily have discovered that Chaucer was not only well acquainted
with the language, but thoroughly well versed in Italian literature, and
that he paraphrased and translated freely from the works of Dante,
Petrarca, and Boccaccio. Chaucer would naturally quote Latin and French, as
being familiar to his cotemporaries, and would abstain from introducing
Italian, as a knowledge of that language must have been confined to a few
individuals in his day; and he wrote for the many, and not for the

The circumstances of Chaucer's life, his missions to Italy, during which he
resided several months in that country, when sent on the king's business to
Genoa, and Florence, and Lombardy, afforded {518} him ample opportunities
of becoming thoroughly acquainted with the language and literature of
Italy; the acquisition of which must have been of easy accomplishment to
Chaucer, already familiar with Latin and French. So that it is not
necessary to endow Chaucer "with all human attainments as proof of his
having spoken Italian."

Chaucer's own writings, however, afford the strongest evidence against the
opinion entertained by Sir Harris Nicolas, and such evidence as cannot be

Chaucer loves to refer to Dante, and often translates passages from the
_Divine Comedy_. The following lines are very closely rendered from the
_Paradiso_, xiv. 28.:--

 "Thou one, two, and thre, eterne on live,
  That raignest aie in thre, two, and one,
  Uncircumscript, and all maist circumscrive."
              Last stanza of _Troilus and Creseide_.

 "_Quell' uno e due e tre che sempre vive,_
  _E regna sempre in tre e due ed uno_,
  _Non circonscritto, e tutto circonscrive._"
              Dante, _Il Paradiso_, xiv. 28.

 "Wel can _the wise poet of Florence_,
  That highte _Dant_, speken of this sentence:
  Lo, in swiche maner rime is _Dantes_ tale.
  _Ful selde up riseth by his branches smale_
  _Prowesse of man, for God of his goodnesse_
  _Wol that we claime of him our gentillesse._"
              _Wif of Bathes Tale_, 6707.

 "_Rade volte risurge per li rami_
    _L' umana probità: e questo vuole_
    _Quei che la dà, perchè da lui si chiami._"
              _Purgatorio_, vii. 121.

After relating the dread story of the Conte Ugolino, Chaucer refers to
Dante, from whom perhaps he derived it. (Conf. _Inferno_, xxxiii.)

 "Who so wol here it in a longer wise,
  Redeth the grete poete of Itaille,
  That highte _Dante_, for he can it devise
  Fro point to point, not o word wol he faille."
              _The Monkes Tale_, 14,769.

 "Bet than Vergile, while he was on live,
  Or _Dant_ also."--_The Freres Tale_, 7101.

The following lines refer to the _Inferno_, xiii. 64.:

 "Envie is lavender of the court alway,
  For she ne parteth neither night ne day,
  Out of the house of Cesar, thus saith _Dant_."
          Prologue to the _Legend of Good Women_, 359.

"_Dant_ that it tellen can" is mentioned in the _House of Fame_, book i.;
and Chaucer is indebted to him for some lines in that fine poem, as in the
description of the "egle, that with feathers shone all of gold" = _un'
aquila nel ciel con penne d'oro_; and the following line:

 "O thought, that wrote all that I met."
              _House of Fame_, ii. 18.

 "_O mente, che scrivesti ciò ch' io vidi._"
              _Inferno_, ii. 8.

The _Knightes Tale_ exhibits numerous passages, lines, and expressions
verbally translated from the _Teseide_ of Boccaccio, upon which it is
founded; such as _Idio armipotente_ = Mars armipotent; _Eterno admante_ =
Athamant eterne; _Paura palida_ = pale drede; _Le ire rosse come focho_ =
the cruel ire red as any glede. Boccaccio describes the wood in which "Mars
hath his sovereine mansion" as--

 "_Una selva sterile de robusti_
  _Nodosi aspri e rigidi e vetusti._
  _Vi si sentia grandissimo romore,_
  _Ne vera bestia anchora ne pastore._"
              _Teseide_, book vii.

There is a purposed grisly ruggedness in the corresponding passage of the
_Knightes Tale_, which heightens the horrors of "thilke colde and frosty

 "First on the wall was peinted _a forest,_
  _In which ther wonneth neyther man ne best,_
  _With knotty knarry barrein trees old_
  _Of stubbes sharpe and hidous to behold_;
  In which ther ran _a romble and a swough_,
  As though a storme shuld bresten every bough."
              _The Knightes Tale_, 1977.

The death of Arcite is thus related by Boccaccio:

 "La morte in ciascun membro era venuta
  Da piedi in su, venendo verso il petto,
  Ed ancor nelle braccia era perduta
  La vital forza; sol nello intelletto
  E nel cuore era ancora sostenuta
  La poca vita, ma già si ristretto
  Eragli 'l tristo cor del mortal gelo
  Che agli occhi fe' subitamente velo.

 "Ma po' ch' egli ebbe perduto il vedere,
  Con seco cominciò a mormorare,
  Ognor mancando più del suo podere:
  Nè troppo fece in ciò lungo durare;
  Ma il mormorare trasportato in vere
  Parole, con assai basso parlare
  Addio Emilia; e più oltre non disse,
  Chè l' anima convenne si partisse."
              _Teseide_, book x. 112.

Chaucer loses nothing of this description in his condensed translation:

 "For from his feet up to his brest was come
  The cold of deth, that had him overnome.
  And yet moreover in his armes two
  The vital strength is lost, and all ago.
  Only the intellect, withouten more,
  That dwelled in his herte sike and sore,
  Gan feillen, when the herte felte deth;
  Dusked his eyen two, and failled his breth.
  But on his ladie yet cast he his eye;
  His laste word was; Mercy, Emelie!"
              _The Knightes Tale_, 2301.

_Troilus and Creseide_ seems to have been translated from the _Filostrato_
of Boccaccio, when {519} Chaucer was a young man, as we are informed by Dan
John Lydgate in the Prologue to his Translation of Boccaccio's _Fall of
Princes_, where he speaks of his "Maister Chaucer" as the "chefe poete of
Bretayne," and tells us that--

 "_In youthe he made a translacion_
  Of a boke which called is Trophe,
  In Lumbard tongue, as men may rede and se,
  _And in our vulgar, long or that he deyde_
  Gave it the name of Troylous and Cresseyde."

Chaucer's translation is sometimes very close, sometimes rather free and
paraphrastic, as may be seen in the following examples:

 "But right as floures through the cold of night
    Yclosed, stoupen in hir stalkes lowe,
  Redressen hem ayen the Sunne bright,
    And spreaden in hir kinde course by rowe."
              _Troilus and Creseide_, b. ii.

 "_Come fioretto dal notturno gelo_
  _Chinato e chiuso, poi che il Sol l' imbianca,_
  _S'apre, e si leva dritto sopra il stelo._"
              Boccaccio, _Il Filostrato_, iii. st. 13.

 "She was right soche to sene in her visage
  As is that wight that men on bere ybinde."
              _Troilus and Creseide_, b. iv.

 "_Essa era tale, a guardarla nel viso,_
  _Qual donna morta alla fossa portata._"
              _Il Filostrato_, v. st. 83.

 "As fresh as faucon coming out of mew."
              _Troilus and Creseide_, b. iii.

 "_Come falcon ch' uscisse dal cappello._"
              _Il Filostrato_, iv. st. 83.

"The Song of Troilus," in the first book of _Troilus and Creseide_, is a
paraphrase from one of the Sonnets of Petrarca:

 "_S' Amor non è, che dunque è quel ch' i' sento?_
  _Ma s' egli è Amor, per Dio che cosa, e quale?_
  _Se buona, ond' è l' effetto aspro mortale?_"
          Petrarca, _Rime in Vita di Laura_, Son. cii.

 "If no love is, O God, what feele I so?
  And if love is, what thing and which is he?
  If love be good, from whence cometh my wo?"
              _Troilus and Creseide_, b. i.

Chaucer evidently had the following lines of the _Paradiso_ in view when
writing the invocation to the Virgin in _The Second Nonnes Tale_:

 "Vergine Madre, figlia del tuo Figlio,
  Umile e alta più che creatura,
  Termine fisso d' eterno consiglio,
  Tu se' colei, che l' umana Natura,
  _Nobilitasti_ sì, che il suo Fattore
  Non disdegno di farsi sua fattura."
              _Paradiso_, xxxiii, I.

 "Thou maide and mother, doughter of thy Son,
  Thou well of mercy, sinful soules cure,
  In whom that God of bountee chees to won;
  Thou humble and high over every creature,
  Thou _nobledest_ so fer forth our nature,
  That no desdaine the maker had of kinde
  His Son in blood and flesh to clothe and winde."
              _The Second Nonnes Tale_, 15,504.

Traces of Chaucer's proficiency in Italian are discoverable in almost all
his poems; but I shall conclude with two citations from _The Assembly of

 "The day gan failen, and the darke night,
  That reveth beastes from hir businesse,
  Berafte me my booke for lacke of light."
              _The Assembly of Foules_, I. 85.

 "_Lo giorno se n'andava, e l'aer bruno_
  _Toglieva gli animai che sono in terra_
  _Dalle fatiche loro._"--_Inf._ ii. 1.

 "With that my hand in his he toke anon,
  Of which I comfort caught, and went in fast."
              _The Assembly of Foules_, I. 169.

 "_E poiche la sua mano alla mia pose_
  _Con lieto volto, ond' io mi confortai._"
              _Inf._ iii. 19.

By the way, Chaucer commences _The Assembly of Foules_ with part of the
first aphorism of Hippocrates, "[Greek: Ho bios brachus hê de technê
makrê]" (but this, I suppose, had been noticed before):

 "The lyfe so short, the craft so long to lerne."

Chaucer was forty years old, or upwards, in 1372, when he was sent as an
envoy to treat with the duke, citizens, and merchants of Genoa; and if, as
is probable, he had translated _Troilus and Creseide_ out of the "Lombarde
tonge" in his youth (according to the testimony of Lydgate), it is not
unreasonable to infer that his knowledge of Italian may have led to his
being chosen to fill that office. But, however this may be, abundant proof
has been adduced that Chaucer was familiarly acquainted with Italian.

I may briefly remark, in conclusion, that the dates and other circumstances
favour the supposed interview at Padua, between Fraunceis Petrark the
laureate poet, and Dan Chaucer,

 "Floure of poets throughout all Bretaine."

J. M. B.

Tunbridge Wells.

       *       *       *       *       *


Inverness, 16th Aprile, 1746.

Dear Sirs,

This day about twelve our army came up with the rebels, about a mile above
Lord President's house, in a muir called Drumrossie. They began the
engagement first, by firing from a battery of six guns they had erected
upon their right; but our cannon played so hott upon them, that they were
obliged soon to fly, by which means we gote possession of their artillery,
and so drove them before us for three miles of way. The cavalry gave them
closs chase to the town of Inverness: {520} upon which the French
ambassador (who is not well) sent out an officer, and a drum with him,
offering to surrender at discretion; to which the duke made answer, that
the French officers should be allowed to go about on their parole, and
nothing taken from them. Brigadier Stapleton is among them, and God knows
how many more officers; for we have not gote home to count them yet. Its
thought the rebels have between four and five hundred killed, and as many
taken prisoners already: many more we expect this night, parties having
been sent out after them. Lord Kilmarnock I saw prisoner, and Major
Stewart, with many more. Secretary Murray is very bad: a party is just now
sent for him, intelligence being brought where he is. I don't think we have
lost thirty men, and not above five officers killed, amongst which are Lord
Robert Ker, Captain Grosset: the rest their names I have forgote. We are
now in full possession of this place. Some say the Pretender was in the
battle, and wounded; but others say he was not. Such of them as are left
are gone to Fort Augustus. The duke, God be praised, is in good health, and
all the generalls. His Royal Highness behaved as if he had been inspired,
riding up and down giveing orders himself.

  I am, Gentlemen,
      Your most obedt. servant,
          DAVID BRUCE.

After writing y^e above, y^e lists of y^e killed and wounded are as
follows, so far as is yet known:--

  We have of y^e prisoners          700
  Killed and wounded on y^e field  1800

Of y^e duke's army:--

  Killed, wounded, and amissing     220

       *       *       *       *       *


I hope you'l pardon y^e confusedness of y^e foregoing line, as I have been
in y^e utmost confusion since I came here. 'Tis said, but not quite
certain, y^t y^e following rebells are killed, viz.:--Lochiel, Capuch
(Keppach), Lord Nairn, Lord Lewis Drummond, D. of Perth, Glengarry, &c. The
French have all surrendered prisoners of war.


  Addressed to
      The Governors of
          The Town of Aberdeen.

X. Y. Z.

       *       *       *       *       *


In giving the lives of the Commonwealth chief justices, Lord Campbell
observes (_Lives of Chief Justices_, vol. i. p. 447.), "in completing the
list with the name of Oliver St. John, I am well pleased with an
opportunity of tracing his career and pourtraying his character." Then
follows a biography of thirty pages. The subject seems to be a favourite
one with his lordship, and he accordingly produces a striking picture,
laying on his colours in the approved historical style of the day, so as to
make the painting an effective one, whether the resemblance be faithful or
not. But how is it that the noble biographer appears to be quite unaware of
what really is the only document we have relating to Oliver St. John of his
own composition, which does give us much light as to his career or
character? I refer to _The Case of Oliver St. John, Esq, concerning his
Actions during the late Troubles_, pp. 14., 4to., n.d. It is a privately
printed tract, emanating from St. John himself, and was no doubt circulated
amongst persons in power at the Restoration, with a view to obtaining
indemnity and pardon. My copy is signed by himself, and has some
corrections in his autograph. His Defence is full of interesting
particulars, some of which are very inconsistent with Lord Campbell's
speculations and statements. It would, however, occupy too much of your
space were I to go through the various articles objected to by him, and to
which he gives his replies and explanations. My object in noticing this
tract at present, is to prevent any future biographer of this Commonwealth
worthy, whose life may well be an historical study, from neglecting an
important source of information. I observe Lord Campbell (p. 473.) doubts
whether he favoured the measure of making Cromwell king. But if we are to
believe the title-page of _Monarchy asserted_, 1660, 12mo., he was one of
the speakers at the conference with Cromwell on the 11th April, 1657, in
favour of his assuming the title of king. On the list of the committee
which follows, the "Lord Chief Justice" only is mentioned, but in the
speeches a difference seems to be made between "Lord Chief Justice" (pp. 6.
7. 15.) and "Lord Chief Justice Glynne" (p. 44.), and they would seem to be
two different speakers. The title-page states distinctly, "the arguments of
Oliver St. John, Lord Chief Justice, Lord Chief Justice Glyn, &c., members
of that committee."


       *       *       *       *       *


(_Continued from_ p. 402.)

_No did, no will, no had, &c._--

 "_K. John._     .    .    .   I had a mighty cause
  To wish him dead, but thou hadst none to kill him.

  _Hubert._ _No had_ (my Lord), why, did you not provoke me?"
              _King John_, Act IV. Sc. 2.

So the first folio edition of Shakspeare. A palpable error, as the
commentators of the present would pleasantly observe, and all the world
would echo the opinion; but here, as in most other {521} instances,
commentators and all the world may be wrong, and the folios right. The
passage has accordingly been corrupted by the editors of Shakspeare into
what was more familiar to their modern ears: "Had none, my Lord!" Though
the mode of speech be very common, yet, to deprive future editors of all
excuse for ever again depraving the genuine text of our national Bible, I
shall make no apology for accumulating a string of examples:

 "_Fort._ Oh, had I such a hat, then were I brave!
  Where's he that made it?

  _Sol._ Dead: and the whole world
  Yields not a workman that can frame the like.

  _Fort._ _No does?_"
     "Old Fortunatus," _Old English Plays_, vol. iii. p. 140., by Dilke:

who alters "No does?" into _None does?_ thinking, I presume, that he had
thereby simplified the sentence:

 "_John._ I am an elde fellowe of fifty wynter and more,
  And yet in all my lyfe I knewe not this before.

  _Parson._ _No dyd_, why sayest thou so, upon thyselfe thou lyest,
  Thou haste euer knowen the sacramente to be the body of Christ."
              _John Bon and Mast Person._

    "_Chedsey._ Christ said 'Take, eat, this is my body;' and not 'Take ye,
    eat ye.'

    _Philpot._ _No did_, master doctor? Be not these the words of Christ,
    'Accipite, manducate?' And do not these words, in the plural number,
    signify 'Take ye, eat ye;' and not 'Take thou, eat thou,' as you would
    suppose?"--Foxe's _Acts and Monuments_, vol. vii. p. 637., Cattley's

    "_Philpot._ Master Cosins, I have told my lord already, that I will
    answer to none of these articles he hath objected against me: but if
    you will with learning answer to that which is in question between my
    lord and me, I will gladly hear and commune with you.

    _Cosins._ _No will_ you? Why what is that then, that is in question
    between my lord and you?"--_Id._, p. 651.

    "_Philpot._ And as I remember, it is even the saying of St. Bernard
    [viz. The Holy Ghost is Christ's vicar on earth (_vic-arius_), and a
    saying that I need not to be ashamed of, neither you to be offended at;
    as my Lord of Durham and my Lord of Chichester by their learning can
    discern, and will not reckon it evil said.

    _London._ _No will?_ Why, take away the first syllable, and it soundeth
    Arius."--_Id._ p. 658.

    "_Philpot._ These words of Cyprian do nothing prove your pretensed
    assertion; which is, that to the Church of Rome there could come no

    _Christopherson._ Good lord, _no doth_? What can be said more
    plainly?"--_Id._, p. 661.

Again, at p. 663. there occur no less than three more instances and at p.
665. another.

    "_Careless._ No, forsooth: I do not know any such, nor have I heard of
    him that I wot of.

    _Martin._ _No have_, forsooth: and it is even he that hath written
    against thy faith."

Then _Martin_ said:

    "Dost thou not know one Master Chamberlain?

    _Careless._ No forsooth; I know him not.

    _Martin._ _No dost!_ and he hath written a book against thy faith
    also."--_Id._, vol. iii. p. 164.

    "_Lichfield and Coventry._ We heard of no such order.

    _Lord Keeper._ _No did?_ Yes, and on the first question ye began
    willingly. How cometh it to pass that ye will not now do so?"--_Id._,
    p. 690.

    "Then said Sir Thomas Moyle: 'Ah! Bland, thou art a stiff-hearted
    fellow. Thou wilt not obey the law, nor answer when thou art called.'
    '_Nor will_,' quoth Sir John Baker. 'Master Sheriff, take him to your
    ward.'"--_Id._, vol. vii. p. 295.

Is it needful to state, that the original editions have, as they ought to
have, a note of interrogation at "Baker?" I will not tax the reader's
patience with more than two other examples, and they shall be fetched from
the writings of that admirable papist--the gentle, the merry-hearted More:

    "Well, quod Caius, thou wylt graunte me thys fyrste, that euery thynge
    that hath two erys is an asse.--Nay, mary mayster, wyll I not, quod the
    boy.--_No wylt_ thou? quod Caius. Ah, wyly boy, there thou wentest
    beyond me."--The Thyrde Boke, the first chapter, fol. 84. of Sir Thomas
    More's _Dialogues_.

    "Why, quod he, what coulde I answere ellys, but clerely graunt hym that
    I believe that thyng for none other cause but only bycause the
    Scripture so sheweth me?--_No could ye?_ quod I. What yf neuer
    Scripture had ben wryten in thys world, should there neuer haue bene
    eny chyrch or congregacyon of faythfull and ryght beyleuyng
    people?--That wote I nere, quod he. _No do ye?_ quod I."--_Id._, fol.

In taking leave of this idiom, it would not perhaps be amiss to remark,
that "ye can," in Duke Humphey's rejoinder to the "blyson begger of St.
Albonys," is not, as usually understood, "you can?" but "yea can?"

       *       *       *       *       *

_To be at point_ = to be at a stay or stop, _i.e._ settled, determined,
nothing farther being to be said or done: a very common phrase. Half a
dozen examples shall suffice:

 "    .    .    .    .    .   What I am truly
  Is thine, and my poore countries to command:
  Whither indeed before they (thy) heere-approach,
  Old Seyward with ten thousand warlike men
  Already _at a point_, was setting forth."
              _Macbeth_, Act IV. Sc. 3. 1st Fol.

No profit to give the commentators' various guesses at the import of the
phrase in the above passage, which will be best gathered from the following
instances of its use elsewhere. But, before passing further, I beg
permission to inform MR. KNIGHT that the original suggester of "sell" for
"self," in an earlier part of this play, whose name {522} he is at a loss
for, was W. S. Landor, whose footnote to vol. ii. p. 273., Moxon's edit. of
his works, is as follows:

    "And here it may be permitted the editor to profit also by the
    manuscript, correcting in Shakespeare what is _absolute nonsense_ as
    now printed:

     '_Vaulting_ ambition that o'erleaps _itself_,
      And falls on the _other side_.'

    Other side of what? It should be _its sell_. _Sell_ is saddle in
    Spenser and elsewhere, from the Latin and Italian."

A correspondent of "N. & Q."., Vol. vii., p. 404., will be delighted to
find his very ingenious discovery brought home, and corroborated by
Landor's valuable manuscript: but it is an old said saw--"Great wits jump."
Now to our examples:

    "_Pasquin._ Saint Luke also affirmeth the same, saying flatly that he
    shall not be forgiuen. Beholde, therefore, how well they interprete the

    _Marforius._ I am alreadie _at a poynt_ with them, but thou shalt doo
    me great pleasure to expounde also vnto me certayne other places, vppon
    the which they ground this deceit."--_Pasquine in a Traunce_, turned
    but lately out of the Italian into this tongue by W. P.: London, 1584.

    "But look, where malice reigneth in men, there reason can take no
    place: and, therefore, I see by it, that you are all _at a point_ with
    me, that no reason or authority can persuade you to favour my name, who
    never meant evil to you, but both your commodity and profit."--Foxe's
    _Acts and Monuments_, vol. viii. p. 18.

    "Not so, my lord," said I, "for I am _at a full point_ with myself in
    that matter; and am right well able to prove both your
    transubstantiation with the real presence to be against the Scriptures
    and the ancient Fathers of the primitive Church."--_Id._, p. 587.

    "_Winchester._ No, surely, I am fully determined, and fully _at a
    point_ therein, howsoever my brethren do."--_Id._, p. 691.

    "_Brad._ Sir, so that you will define me your church, that under it you
    bring not in a false church, you shall not see but that we shall soon
    be _at a point_."--_Id._, vol. vii. p. 190.

    "_Latimer._ Truly, my lord, as for my part I require no respite, for I
    am _at a point_. You shall give me respite in vain; therefore, I pray
    you let me not trouble you to-morrow."--_Id._, p. 534.

    "Unto whom he (Lord Cobham) gave this answer: 'Do as ye shall think
    best, for I am _at a point_.' Whatsoever he (Archbishop Arundel) or the
    other bishops did ask him after that, he bade them resort to his bill:
    for thereby would he stand to the very death."--_Id._, vol. iii. pp.

    "'Et illa et ista vera esse credantur et nulla inter nos contentio
    remanebit, quia nec illis veris ista, nec istis veris illa
    impediuntur.' Let bothe those truthes and these truthes be beleued, and
    we shall be _at appoinct_. For neither these truthes are impaired by
    the other, neither the other by these."--_A Fortresse of the Faith_, p.
    50., by Thomas Stapleton: Antwerp, 1565.

    "A poore man that shall haue liued at home in the countrie, and neuer
    tasted of honoure and pompe, is alwayes _at a poynt_ with himselfe,
    when menne scorne and disdayne him, or shewe any token of contempt
    towardes his person."--John Calvin's _CVIII. Sermon on the Thirtieth
    Chap. of Job_, p. 554., translated by Golding: London, 1574.

    "As for peace, I am _at a point_."--_Leycester Correspondence_, Camd.
    Soc., p. 261.


(_To be continued._)

       *       *       *       *       *


_Weather Rules._--The interesting article on "The Shepherd of Banbury's
Weather Rules" (Vol. vii., p. 373.) has reminded me of two _sayings_ I
heard in Worcestershire a few months back, and upon which my informant
placed the greatest reliance. The first is, "If the moon changes on a
Sunday, there will be a flood before the month is out." My authority
asserted that through a number of years he has never known this fail. The
month in which the change on a Sunday has occurred has been fine until the
last day, when the flood came. The other saying is, "Look at the
weathercock on St. Thomas's day at twelve o'clock, and see which way the
wind is, and there it will stick for the next quarter," that is, three
months. Can any of your readers confirm the above, and add any similar
"weather rules?"

J. A., JUN.


_Drills presaging Death_ (Vol. vii., p. 353.).--Your correspondent asks if
the superstition he here alludes to in Norfolk is believed in other parts.
I can give him a case in point in Berkshire:--Some twenty years ago an old
gentleman died there, a near relative of my own; and on going down to his
place, I was told by a farm overseer of his, that he was certain some of
his lordship's family would die that season, as, in the last sowing, he had
missed putting the seed in one row, which he showed me! "Who could
disbelieve it now?" quoth the old man. I was then taken to the bee-hives,
and at the door of every one this man knocked with his knuckles, and
informed the occupants that they must now work for a new master, as their
old one was gone to heaven. This, I believe, has been queried in your
invaluable paper some time since. I only send it by the way. I know the
same superstition is still extant in Cheshire, North Wales, and in some
parts of Scotland.

T. W. N.


A friend supplies me with the information that before drills were invented,
the labourers {523} considered it unlucky to miss a "bout" in corn or seed
sowing, will sometimes happened when "broadcast" was the only method. The
ill-luck did not relate alone to a _death_ in the family of the farmer or
his dependents, but to losses of cattle or accidents. It is singular,
however, that the superstition should have transferred itself to the drill;
but it will be satisfactory to E. G. R. to learn that the process of
_tradition_ and _superstition-manufacturing_ is not going on in the
nineteenth century.


_Superstition in Devonshire; Valentine's Day_ (Vol. v., pp. 55.
148.).--This, according to Forby, vol. ii. p. 403., once formed in Norfolk
a part of the superstitious practices on _St. Mark's Eve_, not St.
Valentine's, as mentioned by J. S. A., when the sheeted ghosts of those who
should die that year (Mrs. Crowe would call them, I suppose,
_Doppelgängers_) march in grisly array to the parish church.

The rhyme varies from J. S. A.'s:--

 "Hempseed I sow:
  Hempseed grow;
  He that is my true love
  Come after me, and mow."

and the Norfolk spectre is seen with a _scythe_, instead of a rake like his
Devonshire compeer.


       *       *       *       *       *


If I may argue from the silence of the latest edition of _Gulliver's
Travels, with Notes_, with which I am acquainted, viz. that by W. C.
Taylor, LL.D., Trinity College, Dublin, the Preface to which is dated May
1st, 1840, I may say that all the commentators on Swift--all, at least,
down to that late date--have omitted to refer to a work containing
incidents closely resembling some of those recorded in the "Voyage to

The work to which I allude is a little dramatical composition, the
Bambocciata, or puppet-show, by Martelli, entitled _The Sneezing of
Hercules_. Goldoni, in his _Memoirs_, has given us the following account of
the manner in which he brought it out on the stage:

    "Count Lantieri was very well satisfied with my father, for he was
    greatly recovered, and almost completely cured: his kindness was also
    extended to me, and to procure amusement for me he caused a
    puppet-show, which was almost abandoned, and which was very rich in
    figures and decorations, to be refitted.

    "I profited by this, and amused the company by giving them a piece of a
    great man, expressly composed for wooden comedians. This was the
    _Sneezing of Hercules_, by Peter James Martelli, a Bolognese.

          .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .

    "The imagination of the author sent Hercules into the country of the
    pigmies. Those poor little creatures, frightened at the aspect of an
    animated mountain with legs and arms, ran and concealed themselves in
    holes. One day as Hercules had stretched himself out in the open field,
    and was sleeping tranquilly, the timid inhabitants issued out of their
    retreats, and, armed with prickles and rushes, mounted on the monstrous
    man, and covered him from head to foot, like flies when they fall on a
    piece of rotten meat. Hercules waked, and felt something in his nose,
    which made him sneeze; on which, his enemies tumbled down in all
    directions. This ends the piece.

    "There is a plan, a progression, an intrigue, a catastrophe, and
    winding up; the style is good and well-supported; the thoughts and
    sentiments are all proportionate to the size of the personages. The
    verses even are short, and everything indicates pigmies.

    "A gigantic puppet was requisite for Hercules; everything was well
    executed. The entertainment was productive of much pleasure; and I
    could lay a bet, that I am the only person who ever thought of
    executing the Bambocciata of Martelli."--_Memoirs of Goldoni_,
    translated by John Black, 2 vols., duod. vol. i. chap. 6.

It is certainly not necessary to point out here in what respects the
adventures of Hercules, the _animated mountain_, and those of Quinbus
Flestrin, the _man mountain_, differ from, or coincide with, each other, as
the only question I wish to raise is, whether a careful analysis of
Martelli's puppet-show ought, or ought not, to have been placed among the
notes on _Gulliver's Travels_.



       *       *       *       *       *


In reply to J. M. G. of Worcester, who inquires for a MS. volume of English
poetry containing some lines attributed to Shakspeare, and which is
described in Thorpe's _Catalog_ of MSS. for 1831, I can supply some
particulars which may assist him in the research. The MS., which at one
period had belonged to Joseph Hazlewood, was purchased from Thorpe by the
late Lord Viscount Kingsborough; after whose decease it was sold, in
November, 1842, at Charles Sharpe's literary sale room, Anglesea Street,
Dublin. It is No. 574. in the auction catalogue of that part of his
lordship's library which was then brought to auction.

The volume has been noticed by Patrick Fraser Tytler, in his _Life of Sir
Walter Raleigh_, Edinburgh, 1833 (in Appendix B, p. 436., of 2nd edit.),
where, citing the passage from Collier, which is referred to by J. M. G.,
he asserts that the lines are not Shakspeare's, but Jonson's. But he does
not appear to me to have established his case beyond doubt; as the lines,
though found among Jonson's works, may, notwithstanding, be the production
of some other writer: and why not of Shakspeare, to whom they are ascribed
in the MS.? Some verses by Sir J. C. Hobhouse originally appeared as Lord
Byron's: and there are {524} numerous instances, both ancient and modern,
of a similar attribution of works to other than their actual authors.



_The Island of Prospero._--We cannot assert that Shakspeare, in the
_Tempest_, had any particular island in view as the scene of his immortal
drama, though by some this has been stoutly maintained. Chalmers prefers
one of the Bermudas. The Rev. J. Hunter, in his _Disquisition on the Scene,
&c. of the Tempest_, endeavours to confer the honour on the Island of
Lampedosa. In reference to this question, a statement of the
pseudo-Aristotle is remarkable. In his work "[Greek: peri thaumasiôn
akousmatôn]," he mentions Lipara, one of the Æolian Islands, lying to the
north of Sicily, and nearly in the course of Shakspeare's Neapolitan fleet
from Tunis to Naples. Among the [Greek: polla teratôdê] found there, he
tells us:

    "[Greek: Exakouesthai gar tumpanôn kai kumbalôn êchon gelôta te meta
    thorubou kai krotalôn enargôs. legousi de ti teratôdesteron gegonenai
    peri to spêlaion.]"

If we compare this with the aerial music heard by Ferdinand (_Tempest_, I.
2.), especially as the orchestra is represented by the genial burin of M.
Retsch in the fifth plate of his well-known sketches (_Umrisze_), it will
appear probable that Shakspeare was acquainted with the Greek writer either
in the original or through a translation. As far as I am aware, this has
not been observed by any of the commentators.--From _The Navorscher_.

J. M.

_Coincident Criticisms._--I shall be obliged if you will allow me through
your pages to anticipate and rebut two charges of plagiarism. When I wrote
my Note on a passage in _The Winter's Tale_ ("N. & Q.," Vol. vii., p.
378.), I had not seen the _Dublin University Magazine_ for March last,
containing some remarks on the same passage in some respects much
resembling mine. I must also declare that my Note on a passage in _All's
Well that ends Well_ ("N. & Q.," Vol. vii., p. 426.) was posted for you
some time before the appearance of A. E. B.'s Note on the same passage ("N.
& Q.," Vol. vii., p. 403.). The latter coincidence is more remarkable than
the former, as the integrity of the amended text was in both notes
discussed by means of the same parallel passage. _Apropos_ of A. E. B.'s
clever Note, permit me to say, that though at first it appeared to me
conclusive, I now incline to think that Shakspeare intended Helen to
address the _leaden messengers_ by means of a very hyperbolic figure:
"wound the still-piecing air that sings with piercing" is a consistent
whole. If, as A. E. B. rightly says, _to wound the air_ is an
impossibility, it is equally impossible that the air should utter any sound
expressive of sensibility. The fact of course is, that the cannon-balls
_cleave_ the air, and that by so cleaving it a shrill noise is produced.
The cause and effect may, however, be metaphorically described, by
comparing air to Bertram. I believe it is a known fact that every man who
is struck with a cannon-ball cries out instinctively. Shakspeare therefore
might, I think, have very poetically described the action and effect of a
cannon-ball passing through the air by the strong figure of _wounding the
air that sings with the piercing which it is enduring_.

In concluding this Note, I beg to express what is not merely my own, but a
very general feeling of disappointment in respect of MR. COLLIER'S new
edition of Shakspeare. To it, with a new force, may be applied the words of
A. E. B. in "N. & Q.," Vol. vi., p. 296.:

    "But the evil of these emendations is not in this instance confined to
    the mere suggestion of doubt; the text has absolutely been altered in
    all accessible editions, in many cases _silently_, so that the ordinary
    reader has no opportunity of judging between _Shakspeare_ and his

That MR. COLLIER should be the greatest of such offenders, is no very
cheering sign of the times.



_Dogberry's Losses_ (Vol. vii., p. 377.).--I do not know whether it has
ever been suggested, but I feel inclined to read "lawsuits." He has just
boasted of himself as "one that knows the _law_;" and it seems natural
enough that he should go on to brag of being a rich fellow enough, "and a
fellow that hath had _lawsuits_" of his own, and actually figured as
plaintiff or defendant. Suppose the words taken down from the mouth of an
actor, and the mistake would be easy.


       *       *       *       *       *


I have in my possession a manuscript critique on the celebrated picture of
The Last Supper by Lionardo da Vinci, written many years ago by a deceased
academician; in which the writer has called in question the _point of time_
usually supposed to have been selected by the celebrated Italian painter.
The criticisms are chiefly founded on the copy by Marco Oggioni, now in the
possession of the Royal Academy of Arts.

Uniform tradition has assumed that the moment of action is that in which
the Saviour announces the treachery of one of his disciples "Dico vobis
quia unus vestrum me traditurus est." Matth. xxvi. 21., Joan. xiii. 21.,
Vulgate edit.; and most of the admirers of this great work have not failed
to find in it decisive proofs of the intention of the painter to represent
that exact point of time. {525}

The author of the manuscript enters into a very detailed examination of the
several groups of figures which compose the picture, and of the expression
of the heads; and he confesses his inability to find in them anything
decisively indicating the period supposed to be chosen. He remarks that
nine at least of the persons, including the principal one, are evidently
engaged in animated conversation; that instead of that concentrated
attention which the announcement might be supposed to generate, there
appears to be great variety of expressions and of action; and that neither
surprise nor indignation are so generally prominent, as might have been
expected. He inclines to think that the studied diversity of expression,
and the varied attitudes and gestures of the assembled party, are to be
regarded as proofs of the artist's efforts to produce a powerful and
harmonious composition, rather than a natural and truthful representation
of any particular moment of the transaction depicted by him.

The work in question is now so generally accessible through the medium of
accurate engravings, that any one may easily exercise his own judgment on
the matter, and decide for himself whether the criticism be well founded.

It must be borne in mind that the subject had long been a familiar
decoration of conventual refectories before the time when Lionardo brought
his profound knowledge of external human nature, and his unsurpassed powers
of executive art, to bear on a subject which had before been treated in the
dry, conventional, inanimate manner of the Middle Ages. The leading
features of the traditional picture are retained: the long table, the linen
cloth, the one-sided arrangement of the figures, the classic drapery, and
the general form and design of the apartment, are all to be found in the
earlier works; and must have been considered, by observers in general, far
more essential to the correct delineation of the scene than any adherence
to the exact description of it in any one of the Evangelists. But as the
subject was usually introduced into refectories for the edification of the
brethren assembled with their superior at their own meals, it does not seem
likely that the treachery of Judas should have been intended to be the
prominent action of the picture. It was a memorial of the institution of
the Eucharist, although the Christ was not represented as dispensing either
bread or wine. In such a case, if any particular point of time was ever
contemplated by the artist, he might judiciously and appropriately select
the moment when the Saviour was announcing, in mysterious words, the close
of his mission--as in St. Matthew and St. Mark; or was teaching them a
lesson of humility when the spirit of rivalry and strife had disclosed
itself among them--as we find in St. Luke and St. John.

It is not perhaps generally known that the statutes of Queen's College,
Oxford, prescribe the order of sitting at the common table in manner which
evidently refers to the _coenaculum_ of the old church painters.


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Scotter Register (County Lincoln)._--The following extracts from the
register of the parish of Scotter, in the county of Lincoln, are perhaps
sufficiently interesting to be worth printing in "N. & Q.":

    1. "Eccelesia parochialis de Scotter comitatu Lincolniæ dedicata est
    Beatis Apostolis Sancto Petro et Sancto Paulo ut apparet in Antiquo
    Scripto viduæ Loddington de Scotter, viz. in testamento vltimo Thomæ
    Dalyson, Gen. de Scotter, qui obiit Junii 19^o, anno Domini 1495.

         "Rector ecl[=i]a ibid."

    2. "_Memorandum_, That on Septuagesima Sunday, being the 19^{th} day of
    January, 1667, one Francis Drury, an excommunicate person, came into
    the church in time of divine service in y^e morning, and being
    admonisht by mee to begon, hee obstinately refused, whereuppon y^e
    whole congregation departed; and after the same manner in the
    afternoon, the same day, he came again, and refusing againe to go out,
    the whole congregation againe went home, soe y^t little or no service
    pformed. They prevented his further coming in y^t manner, as hee
    threatned, by order from the Justice, uppon the statute of Queene
    Elizabeth concerning the molestation and disturbance of publiq

      WM. CARRINGTON, Rec."

    "O tempora, O mores."

    3. "Michæl Skinner Senex centum et trium annorum sepultus fuit die
    sancti Johannis, viz. Dec. 27, 1673."


Bottesford Moors, Kirton Lindsey.

"_All my Eye._"--"_Over the Left._"

    "What benefit a Popish successor can reap from lives and fortunes spent
    in defence of the Protestant religion, he may put in his eye: and what
    the Protestant religion gets by lives and fortunes spent in the service
    of a Popish successor, will be over the left shoulder."--Preface to
    _Julian the Apostate_: London, printed for Langley Curtis, on Ludgate
    Hill. 1682.

Is this passage the origin of the above cant phrases?



_Curious Marriages._--In _Harl. MSS._ 1550, p. 180., is the pedigree of
Irby, where Anthony Irby has two daughters: Margaret, who married Henry
Death, and Dorothy, who married John Domesday.

E. G. BALLARD. {526}

_Child-mother._--Four months ago, on board the Brazil packet, the royal
mail steam-vessel Severn, there was an instance of a "child-wife," which
might be worthy of a place among your curiosities of that description.

She was the wedded wife of a Brazilian travelling from the Brazils to
Lisbon, and her husband applied for permission to pay the "reduced passage
money" for her as being "under twelve years of age!"

As the regulation on that head speaks of "_children_ under twelve years of
age," this _conscientious_ Brazilian's demand could not be countenanced.

His wife's age was under eleven years and a half, and (_credat Judæus_)
_she was a mother_!

A. L.

       *       *       *       *       *



(_Continued from_ Vol. vii., p. 380.)

In a _Collection of Poems_, in six volumes, by several Hands (Dodsley, 5th
edition, 1758), and in vol. iii. p. 75., is found "An Epistle from Florence
to T. A., Esq., Tutor to the Earl of P----. Written in the year 1740. By
the Honourable ----." Can any one explain an allusion contained in these
three lines of the epistle?

 "Or with wise Ken judiciously define,
  When Pius marks the honorary coin
  Of Caracalla, or of Antonine."

It is hardly to be supposed that the Ken here named could mean the bishop,
who died so far back as 1711. Was there a coin-collector of that name
living about 1740?

We learn (from Ken's _Prose Works_, ed. Round, pp. 93, 94.) that the
Bishop's sister, "my poor sister Ken," most probably then a widow, lost her
only son, who died at Cyprus, in 1707. Was this Mrs. Ken the Rose Vernon,
sister of Sir Thomas Vernon, of Coleman Street, London, and the wife of Jon
Ken, the bishop's eldest brother, and treasurer of the East India Company?
This Jon and Rose Ken are represented, in Mr. Markland's Pedigree of the
Ken family, as still living in 1683. Is there no monumental memorial of
this Treasurer Ken, or his family, in any of the London churches?

In Mr. Macaulay's _History of England_, 5th ed., vol. ii. p. 365., he
states that "it was well known that one of the most opulent dissenters of
the City had begged that he might have the honour of giving security for
Ken," when the seven bishops were bailed, previous to their trial. On what
authority (for none is cited) does this statement rest?

Can any one give a clue to this passage from a letter written to Mr.
Harbin, Lord Weymouth's chaplain, by Bishop Ken, and dated "Winton, Jan
22." [1701]:

    "I came to Winchester yesterday, where I stay one post more, and then
    go either to Sir R. U. or L. Newton, where you shall hear from
    me."--Ken's _Prose Works_, by Round, p. 53.

Can "Sir R. U." (the _U_ perhaps being a mistake for _W._) designate Sir
Robert Worsley, Bart., of Chilton, in the county of Southampton, married to
Lord Weymouth's daughter? and can "L. Newton" be a mistake for Long Sutton,
in Hants? or may it be Long Newton, in the hundred of Malmesbury?

J. J. J.


       *       *       *       *       *


In the year 1774 the Rev. John Lawson, B.D., Rector of Swanscombe in Kent,
published _A Dissertation on the Geometrical Analysis of the Antients, with
a Collection of Theorems and Problems without solutions for the Exercise of
young Students_. This work was printed anonymously at Canterbury, but the
merits of the essay did not permit the author to remain long in obscurity;
the real writer was immediately known to most of the geometers of the day,
and the elegant character of many of the theorems and problems, led to a
general desire that their solutions should be published in a separate work.
In accordance with this intention, it was announced on a fly-sheet attached
to some copies of the work, that--

    "The author of this publication being a man of leisure, and living in a
    retired situation, remote from any opportunity of conversation with
    mathematicians, would be extremely glad of a correspondence with any
    such, who are willing to be at the expense of the same; or if this be
    thought too much, will pay the postage of his answers to their letters.
    But no letters, except post-paid, can be received by him; otherwise a
    door would be opened for frolic, imposition, and impertinence. Any new
    geometrical propositions, either theorems or problems, would be
    received with gratitude, and if sent without solutions, he would use
    his best endeavours to return such as might be satisfactory. Any new
    solutions of propositions already in print, _especially of those
    included in the present collection_, would also be very agreeable. If a
    variety of such demonstrations essentially different from those of the
    original authors should be communicated, he proposes at some future
    time to publish them all, with a fresh collection for further exercise;
    and then each author's name shall be affixt to his own solution, or any
    other signature which he shall please to direct. Any person who shall
    favor the publisher with his correspondence shall have speedily
    conveyed to him the solutions of any propositions contained in this
    collection, which he may be desirous of seeing. Letters (post-paid)
    directed for P. Q., to be left at Mr. Nourse's, Bookseller, in the
    {527} Strand, London, will be carefully transmitted on the first day of
    each month, and all correspondents may expect answers during the course
    of that month."

In consequence of this appeal, Mr. Lawson was speedily in correspondence
with several of the most able geometers then living, and amongst the rest,
Messrs. Ainsworth, Clarke, Merrit, Power, &c., appear to have furnished him
with original solutions to his collection of theorems and problems. The
manuscript containing these solutions must have been of considerable size,
since a portion of it was sent down to Manchester about July, 1777, for the
purpose of obtaining Mr. Ainsworth's remarks and corrections; and Mr.
Lawson is requested, in a letter bearing date "August 22, 1777," to "send
the next portion when convenient." Whether Mr. Lawson did so or not, I have
not yet been able to ascertain; but this much is certain, the manuscript
was never printed, and would most probably either be disposed of at the
death of its compiler, or previously transferred to the possession of some
geometer of Mr. Lawson's acquaintance. Several of the _original_ letters
which passed between the respective parties relating to this manuscript are
at present in the hands of two or three of the Lancashire geometers, but no
one seems to know anything of the manuscript itself. May I then request
that the fortunate holder of this yet valuable collection will make himself
known through the medium of the widely circulated pages of "N. & Q."


Burnley, Lancashire.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_"Wanderings of Memory."_--In Brayley's _Graphic and Historical
Illustrator_, p. 293., is a quotation from the _Wanderings of Memory_, as a
motto to an account of the ancient castle of the Peverils at Castleton, in
Derbyshire: can any of your readers tell me who was the author of the poem
in question?

W. R.

Camden Town.

_"Wandering Willie's Tale."_--Has the scene that presented itself to the
view of Piper Steenie Steenson, when he was ushered by the phantom of his
old friend Dougal M^cCallum into the presence of the ghastly revellers
carousing in the auld oak parlour of the visionary Redgauntlet Castle, ever
been painted? (See _Redgauntlet_, Letter xi.) If it has, is there any
engraving of the picture extant or on sale?



_Chapel Sunday._--I had the pleasure of spending a Sunday in the course of
the last summer in the neighbourhood of Keswick, among the delightful lake
scenery of England. I there learned that in the village of Thornthwaite it
was Chapel Sunday, and on inquiry I was told that there were a few other
villages in the neighbourhood where there was also a Chapel Sunday. Upon
this day it is the custom of young people to come from neighbouring places
to attend worship at the village church or chapel, and the afternoon
partakes of a merry-making character at the village inn. There appeared, as
far as I could see, no excesses attending the anniversary, all being
respectable in their conduct. Can any of your Cambrian readers inform me
the origin of this anniversary?


_Proud Salopians._--I have never heard a satisfactory account of the origin
of this title, given to persons belonging to my native county.

In the neighbourhood the following story is frequently related, but with
what authority I cannot tell, viz. "That upon the king (Query which?)
offering to make Shrewsbury a city, the inhabitants replied that they
preferred its remaining the largest borough in England, rather than it
should be the smallest city; their pride not allowing them to be small
among the great."

If this history of the term be true, it would appear that the name should
only be applied to _burgesses of Shrewsbury_.


_George Miller, D.D._--In the year 1796, George Miller, subsequently the
author of _Modern History Philosophically Illustrated_, and many other
well-known works (of which a list appears in a recent Memoir), was
appointed Donnelan Lecturer in Trinity College, Dublin; and delivered a
course of sermons or lectures on "An Inquiry into the Causes that have
impeded the further Progress of Christianity." I should be very glad indeed
to know whether these Sermons have appeared in print; and if so, when and
where published? I have not been able to procure a copy.

With regard to the Donnelan Lectureship, I may add, that a legacy of 1243l.
was bequeathed to the College of Dublin by Mrs. Anne Donnelan, of the
parish of St. George, Hanover Square, in the county of Middlesex, spinster,
"for the encouragement of religion, learning, and good manners." The
particular mode of application was entrusted to the Provost and Senior
Fellows; and accordingly, amongst other resolutions of the Board, passed
Feb. 22, 1794, are to be found the following: "That a Divinity Lecture, to
which shall be annexed a salary arising from the interest of 1200l., shall
be established for ever, to be called Donnelan's Lecture;" and "That one
moiety of the interest of the said 1200l. shall be paid to the Lecturer as
soon as he shall have delivered the whole number [six] of the lectures; and
the other moiety as soon as he shall have _published_ four of the said

ABHBA. {528}

_Members of Parliament._--Pennant, in _The Journey from Chester to London_,
p. 94., says:

    "The ancient owners of Rudgley were of the same name with the town:
    some of the family had the honour of being sheriffs of the county in
    the reign of Edward III. _Another was knight of the shire in the same

Can any reader of "N. & Q." verify the _last portion_ of Pennant's

J. W. S. R.

St. Ives, Hunts.

_Taret._--I have lately met with mention of a "small insect called the
_Taret_." What may this be?


_Jeroboam of Claret, &c._--Could any of your correspondents inform me what
a Jeroboam of Claret is, and from what it is derived: also a Magnum of


_William Williams of Geneva._--In _Livre des Anglois, à Génève_, with a few
biographical notes by J. S. Burn, Esq., pages 5, 6. 12, 13., mention is
made of Guillaume--Will[=m] Will[=m]s, and Jane his wife,--Will[=m]
Will[=m]s, a senior of the church there in 1555, 1556, 1557, 1558; and some
of the years he was a godfather. I shall be glad to have some further
account of such William Williams, or references to where to find such?


_The First of April and "The Cap awry."_--Tom Moore, in his Diary, 1819,

    "April 1st. Made Bessy turn her cap awry in honour of the day."

What was the origin of this custom? Was this the way a fool was supposed to
show that his head was turned?

C. R.

Paternoster Row.

_Sir G. Browne, Bart._--Sir George Browne, Bart., of West Stafford, Berks,
and Wickham, is said to have had nineteen children by his wife Eleanor
Blount; and that three of those children were sons, killed in the service
of Charles I.

Was either of those sons named Richard; and was any of them, and which,
married? If so, where, and to whom?


_Bishop Butler._--Will any of our Roman Catholic friends tell us on what
authority they assert that Bishop Butler, the author of _The Analogy_, died
in their communion? That he was suspected of a tendency that way during his
life is acknowledged by all, though the grounds, that of setting up a cross
in his chapel, are confessedly unsatisfactory. But, besides this, it is
alleged that he died with a Roman Catholic book of devotion in his hand,
and that the last person in whose company he was seen was a priest of that
persuasion. One would be glad to have this question sifted.

X. Y. Z.

_Oaken Tombs._--In Dr. Whitaker's noble history of _Loidis and Elmete_, p.
322., is the following passage:

    "Next in point of time is a very singular memorial, which has evidently
    been removed from its original position, between the chapel and the
    high altar, to a situation at the south side and west end of the
    chapel.... The tomb is a messy frame-work of oak, with quarter-foils
    and arms on three sides, and on the table above three statues of the
    same material, namely, of a knight bare-headed, with rather youthful
    countenance and sharp features, and his two wives. On the filleting is
    this rude inscription in Old English:

     'Bonys emong Stonys, lyes here ful styl,
      Quilst the sawle wanders wher God wyl.
              Anno D^{ni} MCCCCCXXIX.'

    This commemorates Sir John Savile, who married, &c.

    "Over all has been a canopy, or rather tester, for the whole must have
    originally resembled an antique and massy bedstead, exhibiting the very
    incongruous appearance of a husband in bed with two wives at once."

The Doctor adds:

    "Oaken tombs are very rare; that of Aymer de Valence in Westminster
    Abbey has been and still is in part coated over with copper, gilt, and
    enamelled, and I have seen another in the church of Tickencote in
    Rutlandshire. I do not recollect a third specimen."

Query, How many have been discovered since the great historian's day?


_Alleged Bastardy of Elizabeth._--In the State Paper Office (_Dom. Pap._,
temp. Jac. I.), there is, under date of 1608, a letter from Mr.
Chamberlaine to Sir Dudley Carleton, of October 28, in which Chamberlaine

    "I heare of a Bill put into the Exchequer, concerninge much lande that
    sh^d be alienated on account of the alleged bastardy of Queen

P. C. S. S. is desirous to know whether there be any record in the Court of
Exchequer which bears out this singular statement.

P. C. S. S.

_"Pugna Porcorum."_--Where may be found some account of the author, object,
&c. of this facetious production?


_Parviso._--Can any of your readers inform me as to the meaning of the word
_parviso_; it occurs in the usual form of the "Testamur" for Responsions.
On reference to Webster's _Dictionary_, I find that _parvis_ is a small
porch or gateway; perhaps this may throw some light upon the question.


_Mr. Justice Newton._--There is a very stiff Indian-ink copy of a portrait
in the _Sutherland Illustrated Clarendon_, in the Bodleian Library, the
original of which I should be glad to trace. It is described in the
Catalogue to be "by Bulfinch," {529} which is probably a mistake. It bears
the following inscription:

    "This is drawn from the painting in the hands of Mr. Justice Newton of
    the Middle Temple."

Can any one inform me when this learned justice lived; or rather, for it
concerns me more, when he died? And farther, if it be not too hopeless an
inquiry to make, who his existing representatives (if any) may be?


36. Mount Street, Grosvenor Square.

_Mufti._--I hear military men employ this term, "we went in _mufti_:"
meaning, out of uniform. Whence is it derived?


_Ryming and Cuculling._--In that very curious volume of extracts from _The
Presbytery Book of Strathbogie_, A.D. 1631-54, which was printed for the
Spalding Club in 1843, occurs the following passage:

    "George Jinkin and John Christie referred from the Session of
    Abercherder, for _ryming and cuculling_, called, compeird not. Ordained
    to be summonded _pro_ 2^o."--P. 242.

Accordingly, on--

    "The said day, George Jinkin in Abercherder, being summonded for his
    _ryming and cuculling_, being called, compeired; and being accused of
    the foresaid fault, confessed he only spoke three words of _that ryme_.
    Being sharpely rebuked, and instructed of the grosnes of that sin, was
    ordained to satisfie in sackcloth, which he promised to do."--P. 245.

What was the "fault" here alluded to, and visited with a species of
discipline with which the presbytery, and those under its jurisdiction,
appear to have been very familiar?


_Custom at the Savoy Church._--At the Savoy Church (London), the Sunday
following Christmas Day, there was a chair placed near the door, covered
with a cloth: on the chair was an orange, in a plate.

Can any of the readers of "N. & Q." inform me the meaning of this?


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Faithfull Teate._--I lately fell in with a small work by this divine,
entitled _Ter Tria_, and on the fly-leaf is a MS. note, stating that some
years ago a copy of the same book was priced, in a bookseller's catalogue
in London, at 1l. 7s. 6d. I wish to learn some particulars relative to the
author, and if the work is valuable, or scarce, or both.

J. S.

    [Neither Calamy nor Brook has furnished any biographical notices of Dr.
    Faithfull Teate. When he wrote _Ter Tria_, in 1658, he was a "Preacher
    of the Word at Sudbury in Suffolk." A second edition of it was
    published in 1669. In 1665 appeared his _Scripture Map of the
    Wildernesse of Sin_," 4to. In a discourse on _Right Thoughts, the
    Righteous Man's Evidence_, he has the following passage, accommodated
    to his own destitute state after his ejectment: "The righteous man, in
    thinking of his present condition of life, thinks it his relief, that
    the less money he has he may go the more upon trust; the less he finds
    in his purse, seeks the more in the promise of Him that has said, 'I
    will never leave thee, nor forsake thee;' so that he thinks no man can
    take away his livelihood, unless he can first take away God's truth."
    Lowndes has given the following prices of _Ter Tria_: Sir M. M. Sykes,
    part iii. 626., 5s.; Nassau, part ii. 682., 8s.; White Knights, 4068.,
    1l.; _Bibl. Ang. Poet._, 764., 1l. 11s. 6d.]

_Kelway Family._--Can any of the readers of "N. & Q." guide me to anything
like a pedigree of the family of _Kelloway_, _Kaloway_, or _Kelway_; which
I find from Lysons' _Devonshire_ possessed the manor of Mokesbean in that
county from the time of Henry II.?

In the first year of Edward III., when the property of those who suffered
after the battle of Boroughbridge was restored, John de Keilewaye was found
"hæres de integro sanguine" to Lord Gifford of Brimesfield.

The last of the family appears to have been John Kelloway of Collampton in
Devon, who married Joan Tregarthian; and dying in 1530, left co-heiresses
married to Greville of Penheale, Codrington of Codrington, Harwood, and

The arms of the family are singular, being, Argent within a bordure
engrailed sable, two groving irons in saltire sable, between four pears Or.

R. H. C.

    [The pedigree of this family will be found in two copies by Munday of
    the "Visitation of Devonshire," A.D. 1564, in the Harleian MSS. 1091.
    p. 90., and 1538, p. 2166. The only difference in the arms is, in both
    copies, that there is _no bordure engrailed_; but this has probably
    been added since as a _difference_, as was often done to distinguish
    families. The name is here spelt _Kelloway_, and the pedigree begins
    with "Thomas Kelloway of Stowford in County Devon, who married Anne,
    daughter of ---- Copleston, of ----, in county Somerset," and ends with
    "John Kelloway, who married Margery, daughter of John Arscott of
    Dunsland, and left issue Robert, who married ----, and Richard."]

_Regatta._--What is the etymology of the word _regatta_? From whence is it
derived, and when was it first used in English to mean a boat-race?

C. B. N. C. J. S.

    [Baretti says, "Regatta, _palio che si corre sull' acqua_; a race run
    on water in boats. The word I take to be corrupted from _Remigata_, the
    art of rowing." Florio, in his _Worlde of Wordes_, has "_Regattare_,
    Ital. to wrangle, to cope or fight for the mastery." The term, as
    denoting a showy species of boat-race, was first used in this {530}
    country towards the close of the last century; for the papers of that
    time inform us, that on June 23, 1775, a regatta, a _novel_
    entertainment, and the first of the kind, was exhibited in the river
    Thames, in imitation of some of those splendid shows exhibited at
    Venice on their grand festivals. The whole river, from London Bridge to
    the Ship Tavern, Millbank, was covered with boats. About 1200 flags
    were flying before four o'clock in the afternoon, and vessels were
    moored in the river for the sale of liquors and other refreshments.
    Before six o'clock it was a perfect fair on both sides the water, and
    bad liquor, with short measure, was plentifully retailed. Plans of the
    regatta were sold from a shilling to a penny each, and songs on the
    occasion sung, in which "regatta" was the rhyme for "Ranelagh," and
    "royal family" echoed to "liberty."]

_Coket and Cler-mantyn._--Piers Plowman says that when new corn began to be

 "Waulde no beggar eat bread that in it beanes were,
  But of _coket_ and _cler-mantyn_, or else of cleane wheate."

What are _coket_ and _cler-mantyn_? Also, what are _coronation flowers_,
and _sops in wine_?


    [Both _coket_ and _cler-mantyn_ mean a kind of fine bread. _Coronation_
    is the name given by some of our old writers to a species of flower,
    the modern appellation of which is not clear. _Sops-in-wine_ were a
    species of flowers among the smaller kind of single gilliflowers or
    pinks. Both these flowers are noticed by Spenser, in his _Shepherd's
    Calendar_ for April, as follows:

     "Bring coronations and sops-in-wine
      Worn of paramours."]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. vi., pp. 53. 112.)

It will be remembered that when Mr. Webster, one of the greatest of
American statesmen, was on his death-bed, in October last, he requested his
son to read to him that far-famed "Elegy" of Gray:

 "The curfew tolls the knell of parting day."

The editor of the _Boston Journal_, after referring to this circumstance,
which he says has caused an unexampled demand for the works of Gray in the
United States, goes on to give the result of his researches in many old
English works, respecting the origin and meaning of the word _curfew_,
which I trust will interest not only your correspondents who have written
on the subject, but also many of your readers. I glean from the clever
article now before me the following brief notices, which I have not yet met
with in "N. & Q."

In King Alfred's time the curfew was rung at eight o'clock, and called the
"cover fire bell," because the inhabitants, on hearing its peals, were
obliged to cover their fires, and go to bed. Thomson evidently refers, in
the following lines, to this tyrannical law, which was abolished in England
about the year 1100:

 "The shiv'ring wretches at the curfew sound,
  Dejected sunk into their sordid beds,
  And through the mournful gloom of ancient time,
  Mused sad, or dreamt of better."

On the people finding that they could put out their fires and go to bed
when they pleased, it would appear, from being recorded in many places,
that the time of ringing the curfew bell was first changed from eight to
nine o'clock, then from nine to ten, and afterwards to the early hours of
the morning. Thus we find in _Romeo and Juliet_:

 "The curfew bell hath rung:
 'Tis _three o'clock_."

In Shakspeare's works frequent mention is made of the curfew. In the
_Tempest_ he gives the following:

                 "You whose pastime
  Is to make midnight mushrooms--that rejoice
  To hear the solemn curfew."

In _Measure for Measure_:

 "_Duke._ Who call'd here of late?
  _Provost._ None since the curfew rung."

In _King Lear_:

 "This is the foul fiend Flibertigibbet;
  He begins at curfew, and walks to the first cock."

This old English custom of ringing the curfew bell was carried by the
Puritan fathers to New England; and where is the Bostonian of middle age
who does not well recollect the ringing of the church bell at nine o'clock,
which was the willing signal for labourers to retire to bed, and for
shopmen to close their shops?

Before closing this Note, may I be allowed to inform MR. SANSOM, that
_Charlestown_ is in Massachusetts, and only separated from Boston by
Charles River, which runs between the two cities. The place to which he
refers is _Charleston_, and in South Carolina.

W. W.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., pp. 377. 433. 460.)

The statute against monopolies (21 Jac. I. c. 3.) contains a clause (sec.
10.) that its provisions should not extend to any commission grant or
letters patent theretofore made, or thereafter to be made, of, for, or
concerning the digging, making, or compounding of saltpetre or gunpowder,
which were to be of the like force and effect, _and no other_, as if that
act had never been made.

In the famous "Remonstrance of the State of the Kingdom" agreed upon by the
House of Commons in November, 1641, there is special allusion to the
vexation and oppression of the {531} subject by purveyors, clerks of the
market, and saltpetre men. (_Parliamentary History_, x. 67.)

Shortly afterwards was passed an act (which obtained the royal assent)
giving liberty for importing gunpowder and saltpetre, and for making of
gunpowder. The preamble asserts that the importation of gunpowder from
foreign parts had of late times been against law prohibited, and the making
thereof within this realm ingrossed; whereby the price of gunpowder had
been excessively raised, many powder works decayed, this kingdom very much
weakened and endangered, the merchants thereof much damnified, many
mariners and others taken prisoners and brought into miserable captivity
and slavery, many ships taken by Turkish and other pirates, and many other
inconveniences had from thence ensued, and more were likely to ensue, if
not timely prevented. (17 _Car. I._ c. 21.)

Lord Clarendon, in reviewing the various "important laws" of the Long
Parliament to which the king assented, makes the following observations
with reference to this particular act:

    "'An Act for the free making Saltpetre and Gunpowder within the
    Kingdom:' which was a part of the prerogative; and not only
    considerable, as it restrained that precious and dangerous commodity
    from vulgar hands; but, as in truth it brought a considerable revenue
    to the crown, and more to those whom the crown gratified and obliged by
    that license. The pretence for this exemption was, 'the unjustifiable
    proceeding of those (or of inferior persons qualified by them) who had
    been trusted in that employment,' by whom, it cannot be denied, many
    men suffered: but the true reason was, that thereby they might be sure
    to have in readiness a good stock in that commodity, against the time
    their occasions should call upon them."--_History of Rebellion_, book

On the 3rd April, 1644, the Lords and Commons passed an ordinance for the
making of saltpetre, &c. This was grounded on the following allegations:

    "1. The great expence of gunpowder, occasioned by the then war within
    his Majesty's dominions, had well near consumed the old store, and did
    exhaust the magazines so fast, that without a larger supply, the navy
    forts and the land armies could not be furnished.

    "2. Foreign saltpetre was not in equal goodness with that of our own
    country, and the foreign gunpowder far worse conditioned and less
    forcible than that which is made in England.

    "3. Divers foreign estates had of date prohibited the exportation of
    salt-peter and gunpowder out of their own dominions and countries, so
    that there could be but little hope or future expectation of any peter
    or powder to be brought into this kingdom, as in former times, which
    would enforce us to make use of our own materials."

From these circumstances, it was held most necessary that the digging of
saltpetre and making of gunpowder should by all fit means be encouraged, at
that time when it so much concerned the public safety; nevertheless, to
prevent the reviving of those _oppressions and exactions_ exercised upon
the people, under the colourable authority of commissions granted to
_salt-peter-men_; which burden had been eased since the sitting of that
Parliament. To the end there might not be any pretence to interrupt the
work, it was ordained that the committee of safety, their factors, workmen,
and servants, should have power and authority, (within prescribed hours) to
search and dig for saltpetre in all pigeon-houses, stables, cellars,
vaults, empty warehouses, and other outhouses, yards, and places likely to
afford that earth.

The _salt-peter-men_ were to level the ground and repair damage done by
them; or might be compelled to do so by the deputy-lieutenants, justices of
the peace, or committees of parliament.

The _salt-peter-men_ were also empowered to take carts, by the known
officers, for carriage of the liquor, vessels, and other utensils, from
place to place, at specified prices, and under limitations as to weight and
distance; and they were freed from taxes and tolls for carriages used about
their works, and empowered to take outhouses, &c., for their workhouses,
making satisfaction to the owners.

This ordinance was to continue for two years, from 25th March, 1644.

An ordinance of a similar character was passed 9th February, 1652, to be in
force till 25th March, 1656 (_Scobell_, 231.).

By an act of the Lord Protector and Parliament, made in 1656, it was
enacted that no person or persons should dig within the houses or lands of
any person or persons of the commonwealth for the finding of saltpetre, nor
take the carriages of any person or persons for the carrying of their
materials or vessels, without their leave first obtained or had.
(_Scobell_, 377.) This is the act referred to by BROCTUNA ("N. & Q.," Vol.
vii., p. 434.), and by my friend MR. ISAIAH DECK ("N. & Q.," Vol. vii., p.
460.), though I am not certain that MR. DECK'S inference be correct, that
this act was passed in consequence of the new and uncertain process for
obtaining the constituents of nitre having failed; and it is quite clear
that Lord Coke could not have referred to this act. The enactment referred
to is introduced by way of proviso in an act allowing the exportation of
goods of English manufacture (_inter alia_, of gunpowder, when the price
did not exceed 5l. per cwt.).

Allow me, in connexion, with this subject, to refer to Cullum's _History of
Hawsted_, 1st edition, pp. 150. and 151., also to the statute 1 Jac. II. c.
8. s. 3., by which persons obtaining any letters patent for the sole making
or importing gunpowder are subjected to the pains and penalties of


Cambridge. {532}

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 458.)

Will you permit me to make a few observations in reply to the Queries of
MR. H. H. BREEN on this subject?

There is hardly any custom more ancient than for a person imposing a
promise on another to call on him to bind himself by an oath to the due
performance of it. In this oath the person swearing calls on God, the king,
his father, or some person or thing to whom he attaches authority or value,
to inflict on him punishment or loss in case he breaks his oath. The mode
of swearing is, in one particular, almost everywhere and in every age the

When a father, a friend, a sword, or any corporeal object is sworn by, _the
swearer places his hand upon it_, and then swears. When a man, however,
swore by the Deity, on whom he cannot place his hand, he raised his hand to
heaven towards the God by whom he swore.

When Abraham made Abimelech swear to obey him, he caused him to place his
hand under his thigh, and then imposed the oath; and when Jacob, by his
authority as a father, compelled his son Joseph to swear to perform his
promise, he ordered him to go through a similar ceremony. (Genesis, ch.
xxiv. v. 5., and ch. xlvii. v. 29.)

In the prophet Daniel we read that--

    "The man clothed in linen which was upon the waters, held up his right
    hand and his left hand unto heaven, and sware by Him that liveth for
    ever and ever," &c.--Daniel, ch. xii. v. 7.

In the Revelation we also find--

    "And the angel, which I saw stand upon the sea and the earth, lifted up
    his hand to heaven and sware by Him that liveth for ever and ever,"
    &c.--Revelation, ch. x. v. 5, 6.

Your correspondent inquires how oaths were taken prior to their being taken
on the Gospel.

Among the nations who overthrew the Roman empire, the most common mode of
swearing was on the relics of the saints. In England, I think, the most
common mode was to swear on the corporalia or eucharistic elements, whence
we still have the common phrase "upon your corporal oath." In each case the
hand was placed on the thing sworn by.

The laws of the Alamanni as to conjurators, direct that the sacrament shall
be so arranged that all the conjurators shall place their hands upon the
coffer (containing the relics), and that the principal party shall place
his hand on all theirs, and then they are to swear on the relics. (_Ll.
Alam._ cap. 657.)

The custom of swearing on the Gospels is repeatedly mentioned in the laws
of the Lombards. (_Ll. Longo._ 1 tit. 21. c. 25.; _Ll. Longo._ 2. tit. 55.
c. 2., and c. 2. tit. 34. _et al._)

In the _Formularies of Marculphus_, two forms of oaths are given, one says

    "In palatio nostro super capella domini Martini ubi reliqua sacramenta
    percurrunt debeat conjurare."

In the other we read--

    "Posita manu supra sacrosanctium altare sancti ... sic juratus dixit.
    Juro per hunc locum sanctum et Deum altissimum et virtutis sancti ...
    quod," &c.

In the laws of Cnût of England, two forms of oath are given. They both
begin with "By the Lord before whom this relic is holy." (_Ancient Laws and
Justice of England_, p. 179.)

Your correspondent asks "what form of Judicial oath was first sanctioned by
Christians as a body?"

In the history of the Council of Constantinople, it is stated that--

    "George, the well beloved of God, a deacon and keeper of the records,
    having touched the Holy Gospels of God, swore in this manner, 'By these
    Holy Scriptures, and by the God who by them has spoken,'" &c.

At the Council of Nice it is said that--

    "Prayer having been offered up, every one saluted the Holy Gospels, the
    venerated cross and image of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, and of
    our Lady the mother of God, and placed his hands upon them in
    confirmation of what he had said."

From these I infer that the custom of swearing on the Gospels received the
sanction of the church at a very early period.

In reply to the question as to other modes of swearing, it may be said
briefly, that men swore by anything to which they attached any importance,
and generally by that to which they attached most importance.

By the laws of the Alamanni, a wife could claim her _Morgen-gabe_ (or the
gift of the morning after the wedding night) by swearing to its amount on
her breast; and by the Droits d'Augsbourg, by swearing to it on her two
breasts and two tresses.

Nothing was more common than for a man to swear by his beard. This custom
is alluded to by one of Shakspeare's fools, who suggests that if a certain
knight swore by his honour, and his mistress by her beard, neither of them
_could_ be forsworn.

In the canons of the Fourth Council of Orleans, we read--

    "Le Roi lui-même, ou le plus renommé des chevaliers présents, ayant
    découpé le paon, se leva, et mettant la main sur l'oiseau, fit un voeu
    hardi; Ensuite il passa le plat, et chacun de ceux qui le reçurent fit
    un voeu semblable."

In the year 1306, Edward I. of England swore an oath on two swans.

It was also very common from an early period, both in England and abroad,
to swear by one, two, seven, or twelve churches. The deponent went {533} to
the appointed number of churches, and at each, taking the ring of the
church door in his hand, repeated the oath.

One of the most curious specimens of the practice of swearing men by that
to which they attached most importance, is to be found in an Hindoo law. It
says, let a judge swear a Brahmin by his veracity; a soldier by his horses,
his elephants, or his arms; an agriculturist by his cows, his grain, or his
money; and a Soudra by all his crimes.



I know nothing about judicial oaths: but the origin of the form MR. BREEN
states to be used by the Roman Catholics of the Continent, and the Scotch
Presbyterians, may be seen in Dan. xii. 7.: "When he held up his right hand
and his left hand unto heaven, and sware by him that liveth for ever." And
in Revelation x. 5, 6.: "And the angel ... lifted up his hand to heaven,
and sware by him," &c. See also Genesis xiv. 22.


       *       *       *       *       *


_Washing Collodion Pictures--Test for Lens._--As I was indebted to the
kindness of DR. DIAMOND, amongst other friends, for my original initiation
into the mysteries of photography, it may appear somewhat presumptuous in
me to differ from one who has had so much more experience in a point of
practice. I allude to that of _washing_ the collodion negative after
developing, previously to fixing with the hyposulphite of soda; but,
probably, the reasons I urge may have some weight. As the hyposulphite
solution is intended to be used repeatedly, it appears to me not advisable
to introduce into it _any free acid_ (which must occur if the negative be
not washed, although the quantity at each operation may be small), because
it causes a decomposition of the salt, setting free _sulphurous_ acid, and
also sulphur; which last is slightly soluble in the hyposulphite of soda,
and thus the sulphur is brought in contact with the reduced silver, and
forms a sulphuret of that metal. But the change does not stop here: for, by
the lapse of time, oxygen is absorbed, and thus a _sulphate of silver_ is
formed, and the colour changed from black to white. That sulphur is set
free by the addition of an acid to the solution of hyposulphite of soda, is
fact so easily demonstrable both to the eyes and nose of the operator, that
no one need remain long in doubt who is desirous of trying the experiment.

A correspondent desires to know how to test the coincidence or otherwise of
the visual and actinic foci of a combination: this is very readily
accomplished by the aid of a _focimeter_, which can be easily made thus:

Procure a piece of stout card-board, or thin wood covered with white paper,
on which draw a considerable number of fine black lines, or cover it with
some fine black net (what I believe the ladies call _blond_), which may be
pasted on. Cut up the whole into a dozen good-sized pieces of any
convenient form, so that about four square inches of surface at least be
allowed to each piece. Paste over the _net_ a circular or square label
about the size of a shilling, bearing a distinctly printed number one on
each piece, from 1 upwards; and arrange the pieces in any convenient manner
by means of wires inserted into a slip of wood; but they must be so placed
that the _whole_ can be seen from one point of view, although each piece
must be placed so that it is _one inch_ farther from the operator than the
next lowest number. Having placed the camera eight or ten feet from the
cards, carefully focus to any one of the numbers, 4 or 5 for instance and
observe, not that the _number_ is distinct, but that the minute lines or
threads of the net are visible: then take a picture, exposing it a very
short time, and the threads of the card bearing the number that was most
perfectly in focus visually _ought_ to be most distinct; but, if otherwise,
that which is most distinct will not only show whether the lens is over or
under corrected, but will indicate the _amount_ of error. If under
corrected, a lower number will be most distinct; if over corrected, a


_Test for Lenses._--I beg to submit to a COUNTRY PRACTITIONER the following
very simple test for the coincidence of the chemical and visual foci of an
achromatic lens:

Take a common hand-bill or other sheet of printed paper, and having
stretched it on a board, place it before the lens in an oblique position,
so that the plane of the board may make an angle with a vertical plane of
about thirty or forty degrees. Bring any line of type about the middle of
the sheet into the true visual focus, and take a copy of the sheet by
collodion or otherwise. Then, if the line of type focussed upon be
reproduced clearly and sharply on the plate, the lens is correct; but if
any other line be found sharper than the test one, the foci disagree; and
the amount of error will depend on the distance of the two lines of type
one from the other on the hand-bill.


Fakenham, Norfolk.

_Improvement in Positives._--I have great pleasure in communicating to you
an improvement in the process of taking positives, which may not be
uninteresting to some of your readers, and which ensures by far the most
beautiful tints I have yet seen. I take three ounces of the hyposulphite of
soda, and dissolve it in one pint of distilled or rain water; and to this I
add about one or one and a half grains of pyrogallic acid, and seventy
grains {534} of chloride of silver; which must be squeezed up between the
finders facilitate its solution and separate the lumps, which, in their dry
state, are tough, and not easily pulverised. The whole is then to be set
aside for a week or two in a warm place. The solution, at first colourless,
becomes brown, and ultimately quite opaque; in this state it is fit for
use, and the longer kept the better it becomes. I generally use French
paper for this process, and, according to the time of immersion, obtain
fine sepia or black tints; the latter requiring long over-exposure to the
light, and proportionately long exposure to the action of the liquid; which
however will be found, particularly when old, to have a more rapid action
than most other setting liquids, and has the merit of always affording fine
tints, whatever the paper used. I imagine the pyrogallic acid to possess a
reducing influence on the salts of silver employed; but this effect is only
produced by its combination with the hyposulphite of soda and chloride of
silver. I may add, that in any case the pictures should be much overdone
before immersion, as the liquid exerts a rapid bleaching action on them;
and when the liquid becomes saturated, a few crystals of fresh hyposulphite
will renew its action.


Florian, Torquay.

P. S.--In answer to a COUNTRY PRACTITIONER, he will find great assistance
in choosing his lens by laying it on a sheet of blue wove post paper, when
he will immediately perceive the slightest yellow tinge in the glass, this
being the fault which frequently affects many well-ground and well-made
lenses. Of course, for sharpness of outline he must be guided entirely by
experiment in the camera; but where weakness of action exists, it most
frequently arises from this yellow colouration, and which the manufacturers
say is very difficult to avoid.

    [MR. LYTE having sent with his communication a positive prepared in the
    manner described, we are enabled to corroborate all he says as to the
    richness and beauty of its tints.]

_Cheap Portable Tent._--M. F. M. inquires for a cheap and portable tent for
working collodion out of doors. I have been using one lately constructed on
the principle of Francis's camera stand. It has a good size table, made
like the rolling patent shutters; and it is not necessary to stoop, or sit
down at your work, which is a great consideration on a hot day: you may get
them of any respectable dealer in photographic apparatus; it is called
Francis's Collodion Tent.


_Rev. Mr. Sisson's New Developing Fluid_ (Vol. vii., p. 462.).--The REV.
MR. SISSON's developing fluid for collodion positives, the formula for
which was published in the last Number of "N. & Q.," is merely a weak
solution of the protonitrate and protosulphate of iron. It does not, as he
seems to think, contain any lead; for the whole of the latter is
precipitated as sulphate, which the acetic acid does not dissolve even to
the smallest extent: and MR. SISSON will find that an equivalent proportion
of the nitrate of baryta will answer equally as well as the nitrate of

I have myself for a long time been in the habit of using a weak solution of
the protonitrate of iron in conjunction with acetic acid for positive
pictures; for, although I do not consider it so good a developer as that
made according to the formula of DR. DIAMOND, it produces very good
pictures; occupies very little time in preparing, and will moreover keep
good for a much longer time than a more concentrated solution would.


20. Compton Terrace, Islington.

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Vanes_ (Vol. v., p. 490.).--Taking up by accident the other day your fifth
volume, I saw what I believe is a still unanswered Query respecting the
earliest notice of vanes as indicators of the wind; and turning to my notes
I found the following extract from Beckman's _Inventions, &c._:

    "In Ughelli Italia Sacra, Romæ 1652, fol. iv., p 735., we find the
    following inscription on a weathercock then existing at Brixen;
    '_Dominus Rampertus Episc. gallum hunc fieri præcepit an. 820._'"

L. A. M.

_Loselerius Villerius_ (Vol. vii., p. 454.).--I beg to inform S. A. S. that
his copy of the New Testament, which wants the title-page, was printed by
Henry Stephens the second, at Geneva, in the year 1580. As to it being
"valuable," I should not consider him unfortunate if he could exchange it
for a shilling.

Loselerius Villerius was Pierre l'Oyseleur de Villiers, a professor of
Genevan divinity, who came over to London, and there published Beza's Latin
version of the New Testament, in 1574. He was not, however, as your
correspondent supposed him to be, the editor of the decapitated volume in
question; but Beza transferred his notes to an impression completed by

S. A. S. has, in the next place, inquired for any satisfactory "list of
editions of the Bible." It appears that, so far as he is concerned, Le
Long, Boerner, Masch, and Cotton have lived and laboured in vain.

The folio Bible lastly described by your correspondent is _not_ "so great a
curiosity" as family tradition maintained. The annotations "placed in due
order" are merely the Genevan notes.--See {535} the Archdeacon of Cashel's
very accurate and excellent work, _Editions of the Bible, and Parts
thereof, in English_, p. 75.: Oxford, 1852.

R. G.

_Westminster Parishes_ (Vol. vii., p. 454.).--In 1630 the City and
Liberties of Westminster contained the churches of St. Margaret, St.
Martin-in-the-Fields, St. Clement Danes, and St. John Baptist Savoy.

The registers of burials, marriages, and christenings, of St. Margaret's
Church, began January 1, 1538.

The Fire of London did not destroy any church in Westminster.


_Hevristic_ (Vol. vii., p. 237.).--The term _hevristisch_, in the first
edition of the translation of Kant's _Critik_, is not given in the
vocabulary appended to the translation; but under the word _ostensiv_ it is
stated that in its meaning it stands opposed to the word _euristic_
(_hevristisch_ in German). But in the second edition, published in 1818, it
is remarked, under the words _evristic_, _euristic_, _hevristisch_, that
the term should, in Sir Wm. Hamilton's opinion, be _euretic_ or _heuretic_;
the word _hevristisch_ being an error of long standing in German
philosophy. The derivation of _euretic_ would be from [Greek: heuretikos].

In Tissot's translation, _hevristisch_ is rendered by _heuristique_; in
Mantovani's, by _evristico_; in Born's, by _heuristicus_. In Krug's
_Lexicon_, _hevristik_ is given as derived from [Greek: heuriskô, heurein].
The _hevristic_ method, Krug remarks, is also called the _analytical_. It
may be added, that in the first edition of the _Critik_ (Riga, 1781), the
word is _hevristisch_. In the fourth edition (Riga, 1794), published also
in Kant's lifetime, it is _hevristisch_. In Rosenkranz's edition (Leipzig,
1838), the word is changed into _heuristisch_; and also, in another edition
of the same year, published also at Leipzig, it is written _heuristisch_,
and not _hevristisch_.

In respect to the Leipzig edition of 1818, which is that now before me, the
term _hevristisch_, in speaking of _hevristich_ principles, is particularly
alluded to. (See page 512. line 10.) I do not find, after a hasty
inspection, this word changed, in any of the editions I possess, to



_Creole_ (Vol. vii., p. 381.).--The word appears to be a French form of the
Spanish _criollo_, which in the dictionary of Nuñez de Taboada is defined,
"El hijo de padres Europeos nacido en America;" whilst in the old
dictionary of Stevens (1726) it is translated, "Son of a Spaniard and a
West India woman." In Brande's _Dictionary of Science_, &c. Creole is said
to mean the descendants of whites born in Mexico, South America, or the
West Indies, the blood remaining unmixed with that of other races, &c.

Von Tschudi says, that in South America the Spaniards apply the term
_Creole_ not only to the human race, but also to horses, bullocks, and even
to poultry.

A. C. M.


_General Monk and the University of Cambridge_ (Vol. vii., pp. 427.
486.).--LEICESTRIENSIS begs to thank MR. C. H. COOPER and MR. J. P. ORD for
their replies to his Query on this subject. He avails himself of this, the
earliest opportunity, of assuring MR. ORD of his readiness to afford him
what slight information is in his power respecting the MS. in question
(which only came into his possession within the last two or three months),
if he will communicate with him as below.


Town Hall, Leicester.

_Ecclesia Anglicana_ (Vol. ii., pp. 12. 440.).--I am much obliged to your
correspondent W. FRASER for his answer to my Query, and the references with
which he supplies me. I shall be glad to ask a still more extensive
question, which will probably explain the object of the former more limited
one. Is it _usual_, in any of the unreformed branches of the church on the
continent, to find a similar appellation (implying distinct nationality)
employed in authoritative documents, _e.g._ would it be possible to find in
the title-pages of any Missal, &c., such words as "in usum Ecclesiæ
Hispanicæ, Lusitanæ, Gallicanæ?" If not now, was it more customary in
mediæval times, and when did it cease?

Should we be justified in saying, that at _every_ period of her existence,
with rare exceptions, the _Anglican church_, consciously or unconsciously,
maintained the theory of her nationality with greater distinctness than any
of the continental churches? I fancy I have heard, though I cannot state on
what authority, that this assertion might be made most truly of the
Portuguese church, and should be very glad to have any light thrown on the
subject by your able correspondent. Certain it is, that amongst the various
complaints made against Cardinal Wiseman and the Papal aggressors, it has
never been laid to their charge, that they arrogated to themselves the
title of members of the _Anglican church_.

G. R. M.

_Gibbon's Library_ (Vol. vii., p. 485.).--In 1838 I purchased some of
Gibbon's books at Lausanne, out of a basketful on sale at a small shop, the
depôt of the Religious Tract Society! Edward Gibbon, printed on a small
slip of paper, was pasted in them.


_Golden Bees_ (Vol. vii., p. 478.).--When the tomb of Childeric, father of
Clovis, was opened in 1653, there were found, besides the skeletons of his
horse and page, his arms, crystal orb, &c., {536} "more than three hundred
little bees of the purest gold, their wings being inlaid with a red stone
like cornelian."


_Passage in Orosius_ (Vol. vii., p. 399.).--May not the "twam tyncenum,"
between which Cyrus the Great's officer attempted to cross a river, be the
inflated skins which the Arabs still use, as the ancient inhabitants of
Assyria did, for crossing the Tigris and Euphrates, and of which the
Nimroud sculptures give so many illustrations?


_Names first given to Parishes_ (Vol. iv., p. 153.).--I wish to repeat this
Query in another form, and particularly in reference to the termination
_-by_. I suspect that wherever a cluster of villages, like that given by
F. B., occurs with this Danish suffix, it is a proof that the district was
originally a colony of Danes. The one in which I reside (the hundreds of
Flegg), from its situation is particularly likely to have been so. Its
original form was evidently that of a large island in the estuary of the
Yare, which formed numerous inlets in its shores; and this was flanked on
each aisle by a Roman garrison, one the celebrated fortress of Garianonum,
now Burgh Castle, and the other Caistor-next-Yarmouth, in which a camp,
burying-ground, &c., besides its name, sufficiently attest its Roman
origin. The two hundreds of Flegg, (or Fleyg, as appears on its common
seal) comprise twenty villages, thirteen of which terminate in _-by_. These
are Ormesby, Hemesby, Filby, Mauteby, Stokesby, Herringby, Thrigby,
Billockby, Ashby or Askeby, Clippesby, Rollesby, Oby, and Scratby or

Professor WORSAAE, I believe, considers Ormesby to have been originally
Gormsby, _i.e._ Gorm's or Guthrum's village, but I have not his work at
hand to refer to. Thrigby, or Trigby as it is vernacularly pronounced, and
Rollesby, may take their names from Trigge or Tricga, and Rollo, names
occurring in Scandinavian history. I should feel obliged if Professors
WORSAAE and STEPHENS, or other Scandinavian antiquaries and scholars, would
kindly inform me if my surmises are correct, and if the rest of the names
may be similarly derived. I should add that Stokesby fully hears out the
suggestion of C. (Vol. v., p. 161.), as there is even now a ferry over the
Bure at that point. The district is entirely surrounded by rivers and
extensive tracts of marshes, and intersected by large inland lakes, locally
termed "Broads," which undoubtedly were all comprised in the estuary, and
which would form safe anchorages for the long galleys of the Northmen.


Ormesby, St. Margaret, Norfolk.

_Grafts and the Parent Tree_ (Vol. vii., p. 436.).--In order to insure the
success of grafts, it is material that they be inserted on congenial
stocks: delicate-growing fruits require dwarf-growing stocks; and free
luxuriant-growing trees require strong stocks. To graft scions of delicate
wooded trees on strong stocks, occasions an over-supply of sap to the
grafts; and though at first they seem to flourish, yet they do not endure.
A few examples of this sort may lead to an opinion, that "grafts, after
some fifteen years, wear themselves out;" but the opinion is not (generally
speaking) well founded. I have for many years grafted the old _Golden
Pippin_ on the _Paradise_ or _Doucin_ stock, and found it to answer very
well, and produce excellent fruit. Taunton has long been famous for its
_Nonpareils_, which are there produced in great excellence and abundance.
The Cornish _Gilliflower_, one of our very best apples, was well known in
the time of King Charles I.; and, as yet, shows no symptoms of decay: that
fruit requires a strong stock.

The ancient _Ribston Pippin_ was a seedling:

    "It has been doubted by some, whether the tree at Ribston Hall was an
    original from the seed: the fact of its not being a grafted tree has
    been satisfactorily ascertained by Sir Henry Goodricke, the present
    proprietor, by causing suckers from its root to be planted out--which
    have set the matter at rest that it was not a grafted tree. One of
    these suckers has produced fruit in the Horticultural Garden at
    Chiswick."--Lindley's _Guide to the Orchard and Kitchen Garden_, 1831,
    p. 81.

J. G.


_Lord Cliff and Howell's Letters_ (Vol. vii., p. 455.).--The Lord Cliff, as
to whom your correspondent inquires, and to whom James Howell addresses
some of his letters, is intended for Henry Lord Clifford, and afterwards,
on the decease of his father, fifth and last Earl of Cumberland. He died in
December, 1643. Amongst the many republications of modern times, I regret
that we have no new edition, with illustrative notes, of Howell's
_Letters_. It is the more necessary, as one at least of the later editions
of this most entertaining book is very much abridged and mutilated.


Y. S. M. asks "Who was Lord Cliff?" He might as well have added, "Who was
Lord Viscount Col, Sir Thomas Sa, or End. Por?" who also figure in
_Epistolæ Ho-Elianiæ_. Had he looked over that entertaining book more
attentively, Y. S. M. would have seen that all these were mere contractions
of Howell's correspondents, Lord Clifford, Lord Colchester, Sir Thomas
Savage, and Endymion Porter.

J. O.

_The Bouillon Bible_ (Vol. vii., p. 296.).--H. W., who was good enough to
answer my Query respecting Philip D'Auvergne, has probably seen that the
Bible of which he inquires has turned up. {537} It seems to have been
pawned (if I rightly understand the report in the newspapers) to a Mr.
Broughton of the Foreign Office, who had advanced money to the prince to
enable him to prosecute his claim to the dukedom. It has now been ordered
by Vice-Chancellor Sir W. P. Wood to be offered for sale as part of Mr.
Broughton's estate, for the benefit of that gentleman's creditors. It was
stated in court, that on a former occasion, when the late Archbishop of
Canterbury wished to purchase it, 1500l. was asked for it. I was much
obliged to H. W. for the information he gave me, as I took some little
interest in Philip D'Auvergne from having heard that he was a friend of my
grandfather. They were, I find, both of them officers in the Racehorse
during Lord Mulgrave's discovery voyage to the North Pole.

E. H. A.

_Rhymes on Places_ (Vol. vii., p. 143.).--Northamptonshire:

 "Armston on the hill,
    Polebrook in the hole,
  Ashton turns the mill,
    Oundle burns the coal."

Repeated to me by poor old drunken Jem White the sexton, many years since,
when on the "battlements" of Oundle Church; Oundle being the market town
for the three villages in the rhymes quoted.


_Serpents' Tongues_ (Vol. vi., p. 340.; Vol. vii., p. 316.).--May I be
allowed to inform MR. PINKERTON that the sharks' teeth (fossils), now so
frequently found imbedded in this tufa rock, and cheaply sold, are not
known as "the tongues of vipers," but, on the contrary, from time
immemorial, as the "tongues of St. Paul." In proof of this, I would refer
MR. PINKERTON to the following extract, which I have taken from an Italian
letter now in the Maltese Library; which was published on August 28, 1668,
by Dr. Francis Buonamico, a native of this island, and addressed to
Agostino Scilla of Messina. Page 5., the writer remarks:

    "Che avanti de partire da questa isolde dovesse farle una raccolta di
    glossopietre, _O lingue come que le chiamiamo di S. Paolo_."

W. W.


_Consecrated Roses, &c._ (Vol. vii., pp. 407. 480.).--An instance of the
_Golden Rose_ being conferred on an English baron, will be found related in
Davidson's _History of Newenham Abbey in the County of Devon_, p. 208.

J. D. S.

       *       *       *       *       *



That well-worn quotation, "who shall decide when doctors disagree," must,
we should think, invariably suggest itself to the reader of every new book
upon the subject of Shakspeare's text. A few months since MR. COLLIER gave
to the world a volume of _Notes and Emendations from Early Manuscript
Corrections in a Copy of the Folio 1632_[1], which was hailed by many,
ourselves among the number, as a most valuable contribution to Shakspearian
literature. From this favourable view of these manuscript emendations, many
whose opinions upon such matters deserve the highest respect at once avowed
their dissent; and we now find that we have to add to this number MR.
SINGER, who has given us the result of his examination of them in a volume
entitled _The Text of Shakspeare vindicated from the Interpolations and
Corruptions advocated by John Payne Collier, Esq., in his Notes and
Emendations_. No one can put forth higher claims to speak with authority on
any points connected with Shakspeare than MR. SINGER, who has devoted a
life to the study of his writings; and none can rise from a perusal of his
book without recognising in it evidence of MR. SINGER'S fitness for editing
the works of our great dramatist, and feeling anxious for his revised
edition of them. But we think many will regret that, while pointing out the
Notes and Emendations from which he dissents, MR. SINGER should not have
noticed those which he regards with favour; and that, in his anxiety to
vindicate the purity of Shakspeare's text from the anonymous emendator, he
should have embodied that vindication in language, which, though we are
quite sure it is unintentional on his part, gives his book almost a
personal character, instead of one purely critical.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_Records of the Roman Inquisition, Case of a Minorite
Friar who was sentenced by S. Charles Borromeo to be walled up, and who,
having escaped, was burned in effigy: edited, with an English Translation,
Notes, &c., by_ Rev. Richard Gibbings. Published from one of the MSS.
conveyed from Rome to Paris by order of Napoleon, at the close of the last
century, as a challenge to the defenders of the papacy to acknowledge its
truth, or to controvert it.--_The History of England from the Peace of
Utrecht to the Peace of Versailles_, by Lord Mahon, Vol. III. The third
volume of this new and cheaper edition of Lord Mahon's valuable history
comprehends the period from 1740 to 1748.--_English Forests and Forest
Trees; Historical, Legendary, and Descriptive, with numerous
Illustrations._ This volume, one of the _Illustrated London Library_, is a
pleasant chatty compilation on a subject which will interest many of our
readers and correspondents by furnishing them with a series of notices of
old forests, remarkable trees, &c., which have never before been gathered
together.--_The Shakspeare Repository, edited by_ J. H. Fennell, No. II.
The second part of this periodical, the only one exclusively devoted to the
Elizabethan writers, contains, among other interesting articles, a long one
on the medical practice of Shakspeare's son-in-law, Dr. John Hall.

[Footnote 1: Since this was written we have heard that MR. COLLIER has
traced back the history of his Folio 1632 for upwards of a century.--ED.]


       *       *       *       *       *




HISTORY OF ANCIENT WILTS, by SIR R. C. HOARE. The last   three Parts.

Published by Francis Macpherson, Middle Row,   Holborn. 1836.

for Robson. 1779.

BEN JOHNSON'S WORKS. 9 Vols. 8vo. Vols. II., III., IV. Bds.

SIR WALTER SCOTT'S NOVELS. 41 Vols. 8vo. The last nine   Vols. Boards.

JACOB'S ENGLISH PEERAGE. Folio Edition, 1766. Vols. II., III., and IV.


ALISON'S EUROPE. (20 Vols.) Vols. XIII., XX.



*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names._

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

_We are compelled to omit several interesting papers respecting Shakspeare
which are in type, among which we may mention a notice of some drawings
which are great interest._

W. T. WATTS (St. Ives), _who inquires respecting the literary history of_
Baron Munchausen, _is referred to our_ 2nd Vol., p. 519., _and our_ 3rd
Vol., pp. 117. 305. 453.

G. P. (Offenburg) _Potatoes were most probably introduced into England by
Sir W. Raleigh. Gerarde mentions them in his_ Herbal, _published in 1597_.

ANTIQUARIAN _had better send a rubbing from the oak cover in question. His
copy cannot be deciphered._

S. S. S.'s _Query on the passage in St. James in our next._

BROOKTHORPE _will find, in the Notices to Correspondents, in_ No. 179. (2nd
April), _a reply to his former Query respecting the Epitaph:_

 "If Heaven be pleased."

URSULA. _We shall be glad of the "succinct refutation" proposed._

J. W. _There is a folio edition of Godwin_ De Præsulibus, _Canterbury,
1743, in which the original work is continued by Richardson._

J. R. (Sunderland) _is referred to Brockett's_ Glossary, _where he will
find the etymology of_ stang, _from the Danish_ stang, _a pole or bar--or
the Saxon_ steng; _and a full description of the ceremonies connected with_
Riding the stang.

FLORENCE _is thanked for her hint._

J. B. _will find full particulars of Sir T. Herbert's_ Threnodia Carolina
_in our_ 3rd Vol., p. 259. _Other references in our_ 2nd Vol., pp. 140.
220. 476.

_A few complete sets of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. _to_ vi., _price
Three Guineas, may now be had; for which early application is desirable._

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday._

       *       *       *       *       *





Consisting of Observations on Modern Shakspearian Forgeries.


       *       *       *       *       *

SPECTACLES.--WM. ACKLAND applies his medical knowledge as a Licentiate of
the Apothecaries' Company, London, his theory as a Mathematician, and his
practice as a Working Optician, aided by Since's Optometer, in the
selection of Spectacles suitable to every derangement of vision, so as to
preserve the sight to extreme old age.

ACHROMATIC TELESCOPES, with the New Vetzlar Eye-pieces, as exhibited at the
Academy of Sciences in Paris. The Lenses of these Eye-pieces are so
constructed that the rays of light fall nearly perpendicular to the surface
of the various lenses, by which the aberration is completely removed: and a
telescope so fitted gives one-third more magnifying power and light than
could be obtained by the old Eye-pieces. Prices of the various sizes on
application to

WM. ACKLAND, Optician, 93. Hatton Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE CIVIL SERVICE GAZETTE, a Journal devoted to the interests of all
Government Officials in every department of the State, contains, besides
other official information, a list of the Recent Promotions and PRESENT
VACANCIES in the gift of the Government, both in England, the East Indies,
and the Colonies; a Summary of the News of the Week: Original Literary
Articles; Obituary of men of eminence or desert in the public serve;
Parliamentary, Legal, Foreign, Domestic and Theatrical Notices; with
Fashionable, Naval and Military Intelligence.

To be had of all Booksellers and Newsvenders; or at the Office, 5.
Catherine Street, Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-eighth Edition.

NEUROTONICS, or the Art of Strengthening the Nerves, containing Remarks on
the influence of the Nerves upon the Health of Body and Mind, and the means
of Cure for Nervousness, Debility, Melancholy, and all Chronic Diseases, by
DR. NAPIER, M.D. London: HOULSTON & STONEMAN. Price 4d., or Post Free from
the Author for Five Penny Stamps.

"We can conscientiously recommend 'Neurotonics,' by Dr. Napier, to the
careful perusal of our invalid readers."--_John Bull Newspaper, June 5,

       *       *       *       *       *

DAGUERREOTYPE MATERIALS.--Plates, Cases, Passepartoutes, best and cheapest,
to be had in great variety at M^cMILLAN'S Wholesale Depôt, 132. Fleet
Street. Price List gratis.

       *       *       *       *       *


DR. LOVELL'S SCHOLASTIC ESTABLISHMENT (exclusively for the Sons of
Gentlemen) was founded at Mannheim in 1836, under the Patronage of H.R.H.
the GRANDE DUCHESSE STEPHANIE of Baden, and removed to Winslow in 1848. The
Course of Tuition includes the French and German Languages, and all other
Studies which are Preparatory to the Universities, the Military Colleges
and the Army Examination. The number of Pupils is limited to Thirty. The
Principal is always in the Schoolroom, and superintends the Classes. There
are also French, German, and English resident Masters. Prospectus and
References can be had on application to the Principal.

       *       *       *       *       *

WILLIAMS & NORGATE will carry on Business at 15. BEDFORD STREET, COVENT
GARDEN, opposite the end of Henrietta Street during the alterations and
enlargement of their old Premises.

_June, 1853._

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS AND MATERIALS, for the Processes on Glass, Paper,
and Silver. An illustrated priced Catalogue 3d., Post Free.

JOHN JOSEPH GRIFFIN, F.C.S., Chemical and Philosophical Instrument Maker,
10. Finsbury Square. Manufactory, 119. and 120. Bunhill Row. Removed from
53. Baker Street, Portman Square.

       *       *       *       *       *


HEAL & SON beg to call the Attention of Gentlemen requiring Outfits to
their large stock of Portable Bedsteads, Bedding, and Furniture, including
Drawers, Washstands, Chairs, Glasses, and every requisite for Home and
Foreign Service.

HEAL & SON. Bedstead and Bedding Manufacturers, 196. Tottenham Court Road.

       *       *       *       *       *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION, No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 Guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen.

65. CHEAPSIDE. {539}

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, price 1s., free by Post 1s. 4d.,

Translated from the French.

Sole Agents in the United Kingdom for VOIGHTLANDER & SON'S celebrated
Lenses for Portraits and Views.

General Depôt for Turner's, Whatman's, Canson Frères', La Croix, and other
Talbotype Papers.

Pure Photographic Chemicals.

Instructions and Specimens in every Branch of the Art.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's,
Sanford's, and Canson Frères' make, Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's Process.
Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--Collodion (Iodized with the Ammonio-Iodide of Silver).--J. B.
HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, were the first in England who
published the application of this agent (see _Athenæum_, Aug. 14th). Their
Collodion (price 9d. per oz.) retains its extraordinary sensitiveness,
tenacity, and colour unimpaired for months; it may be exported to any
climate, and the Iodizing Compound mixed as required. J. B. HOCKIN & CO.
manufacture PURE CHEMICALS and all APPARATUS with the latest Improvements
adapted for all the Photographic and Daguerreotype processes. Cameras for
Developing in the open Country. GLASS BATHS adapted to any Camera. Lenses
from the best Makers. Waxed and Iodized Papers, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions
(comprising Views in VENICE, PARIS, RUSSIA, NUBIA, &c.) may be seen at
BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured Apparatus of
every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of Photography in
all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for the delicacy of detail rival the
choicest Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


The SCHOOL is NOW OPEN for instruction in all branches of Photography, to
Ladies and Gentlemen, on alternate days, from Eleven till Four o'clock,
under the joint direction of T. A. MALONE, Esq., who has long been
connected with Photography, and J. H. PEPPER, Esq., the Chemist to the

A Prospectus, with terms, may be had at the Institution.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

Established 1824.

       *       *       *       *       *

FIVE BONUSES have been declared: at the last in January, 1852, the sum of
131,125l. was added to the Policies, producing a Bonus varying with the
different ages from 24-1/2 to 55 per cent. on the Premiums paid during the
five years, or from 5l. to 12l. 10s. per cent. on the Sum Assured.

The small share of Profit divisible in future among the Shareholders being
now provided for, the ASSURED will hereafter derive all the benefits
obtainable from a Mutual Office, WITHOUT ANY LIABILITY OR RISK OF

POLICIES effected before the 30th of June next, will be entitled, at the
next Division, to one year's additional share of Profits over later

On Assurances for the whole of Life only one half of the Premiums need be
paid for the first five years.

INVALID LIVES may be Assured at rates proportioned to the risk.

Claims paid _thirty_ days after proof of death, and all Policies are
_Indisputable_ except in cases of fraud.

Tables of Rates and forms of Proposal can be obtained of any of the
Society's Agents, or of

GEORGE H. PINCKARD, Resident Secretary.

_99. Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, London._

       *       *       *       *       *



Founded A.D. 1842.


  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.
  W. Cabell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq. M.P.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
  T. Grissell, Esq.
  J. Hunt, Esq.
  J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  E. Lucas, Esq.
  J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  J. B. White, Esq.
  J. Carter Wood, Esq.


W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; L. C. Humfrey, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq.

_Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.

_Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed on
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age      _£  s.  d._
   17       1  14   4
   22       1  18   8
   27       2   4   5
   32       2  10   8
   37       2  18   6
   42       3   8   2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

ROYAL ASYLUM OF ST. ANN'S SOCIETY.--Waiting not for the Child of those once
in prosperity to become an Orphan, but by Voluntary Contributions affording
at once a Home, Clothing, Maintenance, and Education.

The Half-yearly Election will take place at the London Tavern of Friday,
August 12th, next.

Forms of Nomination may be procured at the Office, where Subscriptions will
be thankfully received.

Executors of Benefactors by Will become Life Governors according to the
amount of the Bequest.

E. F. LEEKS, Secretary. 2. Charlotte Row, Mansion House.

       *       *       *       *       *

UNITED KINGDOM LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY: established by Act of Parliament in
1834.--8. Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, London.


  Earl of Courtown
  Earl Leven and Melville
  Earl of Norbury
  Earl of Stair
  Viscount Falkland
  Lord Elphinstone
  Lord Belhaven and Stenton
  Wm. Campbell, Esq., of Tillichewan


  _Chairman._--Charles Graham, Esq.
  _Deputy-Chairman._--Charles Downes, Esq.

  H. Blair Avarne, Esq.
  E. Lennox Boyd, Esq., F.S.A., _Resident_.
  C. Berwick Curtis, Esq.
  William Fairlie, Esq.
  D. Q. Henriques, Esq.
  J. G. Henriques, Esq.
  F. C. Maitland, Esq.
  William Railton, Esq.
  F. H. Thomson, Esq.
  Thomas Thorby, Esq.


  _Physician._--Arthur H. Hassall, Esq., M.D.,
  8. Bennett Street, St. James's.

  _Surgeon._--F. H. Tomson, Esq., 48. Berners Street.

The Bonus added to Policies from March, 1834, to December 31, 1847, is as

    Sum    |   Time   |   Sum added to     |   Sum
  Assured. | Assured. |      Policy        | Payable
           |          +--------------------+ at Death.
           |          | In 1841. In 1848.  |
      £    |          |   £ s.d.|   £  s.d.|    £  s.d.
     5000  | 14 years | 683 6 8 | 787 10 0 | 6470 16 8
   * 1000  |  7 years |  -  -   | 157 10 0 | 1157 10 0
      500  |  1 year  |  -  -   |  11  5 0 |  511  5 0

* EXAMPLE.--At the commencement of the year 1841, a person aged thirty took
out a Policy for 1000l., the annual payment for which is 24l. 1s. 8d.; in
1847 he had paid in premiums 168l. 11s. 8d.; but the profits being 2-1/4
per cent. per annum on the sum insured (which is 22l. 10s. per annum for
each 1000l.) he had 157l. 10s. added to the Policy, almost as much as the
premiums paid.

The Premiums, nevertheless, are on the most moderate scale, and only
one-half need be paid for the first five years, when the Insurance is for
Life. Every information will be afforded on application to the Resident

       *       *       *       *       *

PURE NERVOUS or MIND COMPLAINTS.--If the readers of Notes and Queries, who
suffer from depression of spirits, confusion, headache, blushing,
groundless fears, unfitness for business or society, blood to the head,
failure of memory, delusions, suicidal thoughts, fear of insanity, &c.,
will call on, or correspond with, REV. DR. WILLIS MOSELEY, who, out of
above 22,000 applicants, knows not fifty uncured who have followed his
advice, he will instruct them how to get well, without a fee, and will
render the same service to the friends of the insane.--At home from 11 to


       *       *       *       *       *


HISTORY OF THE HOUSE OF AUSTRIA, from 1792 to the present time; in
continuation of COXE; with the Portrait of Francis Joseph, the reigning
Emperor. Post 8vo. cloth. Price 3s. 6d.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *


completes the Work. With General Index. Post 8vo. cloth. Price 5s.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *


Translated by H. T. RILEY. Vol. II., which completes the work. Post 8vo.
cloth. Price 5s.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *


TERENCE AND PHÆDRUS, literally translated into English Prose, by H. T.
Frontispiece. Post 8vo. cloth. Price 5s.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *

This day foolscap octavo, price 3s. 6d.,

extracted from his Communications and Correspondence. Translated by OTTO

London JOHN W. PARKER & SON, West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

Price 2s. cloth,

BACON'S ADVANCEMENT OF LEARNING. Carefully revised from the first copies,
with a few Notes and References to Works quoted.

Nearly ready, by the same Editor, BACON'S ESSAYS.

London: JOHN W. PARKER & SON, West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

ENGLISH COUNTIES.--A Catalogue of Curious, Rare, and Interesting Books and
Tracts relating to English Counties, is just published, and may be had free
with No. II. of the SHAKSPEARE REPOSITORY, on receipt of Six Postage

Also, a Fac-simile of a remarkably Curious, Droll, and Interesting
Newspaper of the Reign of CHARLES THE SECOND, sent free on receipt of Three
Postage Stamps.

Address, J. H. FENNELL, 1. Warwick Court, Holborn, London.

       *       *       *       *       *




THE DIARY OF GEORGE GRENVILLE, while First Lord of the Treasury; together
with his Correspondence during Thirty Years, including unpublished LETTERS
OF JUNIUS. Vols. III. and IV. (completing the Work). 8vo. 32s.


LORD MAHON'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. A New Library Edition. Vols. I. to IV.
Demy 8vo. (Uniform with Vols. V. and VI.) Nearly Ready.


WATERLOO, &c. Edited by THE MARQUIS OF LONDONDERRY. 4 vols., 8vo. 56s.


MR. GROTE'S HISTORY OF GREECE. Continued from the Accession to the Death of
Philip of Macedon. Vol. XI. 8vo. 16s. (The 12th Volume will complete the


SIR HUDSON LOWE'S LETTERS and JOURNALS, giving for the First Time the
M.A. Portrait. 3 vols., 8vo. (Immediately.)


AT NINEVEH AND BABYLON. Twelfth Thousand. With 300 Plates and Woodcuts.
8vo. 21s.


MR. JOHN HOLLWAY'S FOUR WEEKS' TOUR IN NORWAY, during the Autumn of 1852.
Fcap. 8vo. 2s.


Feejees, and others inhabited by the Polynesian Negro Race. Maps and
Plates. 8vo. 16s.


With Maps, Plates, and Woodcuts. Post 8vo.




Illustrations. Post 8vo.


ABYSSINIA. Map and Illustrations. 2 vols. 8vo. Nearly ready.


during an Expedition in Search of Sir John Franklin. Map. 8vo.


MR. CAMPBELL'S MODERN INDIA. A Sketch of the System of Civil Government,
with some Account of the Natives, and Native Institutions, Second Edition,
revised. Maps. 8vo. 16s.


Post 8vo.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, May 28,

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 187, May 28, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.