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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 188, June 4, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.

{541}

NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *


No. 188.]
Saturday, June 4, 1853.
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

  NOTES:--                                                   Page
    Corrections adopted by Pope from the Dunces, by James
      Crossley                                                541

    Notes on several misunderstood Words, by the Rev.
      W. R. Arrowsmith                                        542

    Devonianisms                                              544

    The Poems of Rowley, by Henry H. Breen                    544

    FOLK LORE:--Legend of Llangefelach Tower--Wedding
      Divination                                              545

    Shakspeare Correspondence:--Shakspearian Drawings
      --Thomas Shakspeare--Passage in Macbeth, Act I.
      Sc. 5.--"Discourse of Reason"                           545

    MINOR NOTES:--The MSS. of Gervase Hollis--Anagrams
      --Family Caul--Numerous Progeny                         546

  QUERIES:--

    Smith, Young, and Scrymgeour MSS.                         547

    Mormon Publications, by W. Sparrow Simpson                548

    MINOR QUERIES:--Dimidiation--Early Christian
      Mothers--The Lion at Northumberland House--The
      Cross in Mexico and Alexandria--Passage in St. James
      --"The Temple of Truth"--Santa Claus--Donnybrook
      Fair--Saffron, when brought into England--
      Isping Geil--Humbug--Franklyn Household Book--
      James Thomson's Will--"Country Parson's Advice
      to his Parishioners"--Shakspeare: Blackstone            548

    MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Turkey Cocks--
      Bishop St. John--Ferdinand Mendez Pinto--Satin--
      Carrier Pigeons                                         550

  REPLIES:--

   "Pylades and Corinna:" Psalmanazar and Defoe, by
      James Crossley                                          551

    Robert Wauchope, Archbishop of Armagh                     552

    Seal of William d'Albini, by E. G. Ballard, &c.           552

   "Will" and "Shall," by William Bates, &c.                  553

    Inscriptions in Books, by Honoré de Mareville, &c.        554

    Bacon's "Advancement of Learning," by Thomas
      Markby                                                  554

    PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:--Test for a good
      Lens--Photography and the Microscope--Cement for
      Glass Baths--Mr. Lyte's Mode of Printing                555

    REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Eulenspiegel or Ulenspiegel
      --Lawyers' Bags--"Nine Tailors make a man"
      --"Time and I"--Carr Pedigree--Campvere, Privileges
      of--Haulf-naked--Old Picture of the Spanish
      Armada--Parochial Libraries--How to stain Deal--
      Roger Outlawe--Tennyson--Old Fogie--Errata corrigenda
      --Anecdote of Dutens--Gloves at Fairs--
      Arms: Battle-axe--Enough--Feelings of Age--Optical
      Query--Cross and Pile, &c.                              557

  MISCELLANEOUS:--

    Notes on Books, &c.                                       561

    Books and Odd Volumes wanted                              562

    Notices to Correspondents                                 562

    Advertisements                                            562

       *       *       *       *       *


Notes.

CORRECTIONS ADOPTED BY POPE FROM THE DUNCES.

In Pope's "Letter to the Honourable James Craggs," dated June 15, 1711,
after making some observations on Dennis's remarks on the _Essay on
Criticism_, he says--

    "Yet, to give this man his due, he has objected to one or two lines
    with reason; and I will alter them in case of another edition: I will
    make my enemy do me a kindness where he meant an injury, and so serve
    instead of a friend."

An interesting paper might be drawn up from the instances, for they are
rather numerous, in which Pope followed out this very sensible rule. I do
not remember seeing the following one noted. One of the heroes of the
_Dunciad_, Thomas Cooke, the translator of Hesiod, was the editor of a
periodical published in monthly numbers, in 8vo., of which nine only
appeared, under the title of _The Comedian, or Philosophical Inquirer_, the
first number being for April, and the last for December, 1732. It contains
some curious matter, and amongst other papers is, in No. 2., "A Letter in
Prose to Mr. Alexander Pope, occasioned by his Epistle in Verse to the Earl
of Burlington." It is very abusive, and was most probably written either by
Cooke or Theobald. After quoting the following lines as they then stood:

 "He buys for Topham drawings and designs,
  For Fountain statues, and for Curio coins,
  Rare monkish manuscripts for Hearne alone,
  And books for Mead, and rarities for Sloane,"

the letter-writer thus unceremoniously addresses himself to the author:

    "Rarities! how could'st thou be so silly as not to be particular in the
    rarities of Sloane, as in those of the other five persons? What
    knowledge, what meaning is conveyed in the word _rarities_? Are not
    some drawings, some statues, some coins, all monkish manuscripts, and
    some books, _rarities_? Could'st thou not find a trisyllable to express
    some parts of nature for a collection of which that learned and worthy
    physician is eminent? Fy, fy! correct and write--

     'Rare monkish manuscripts for Hearne alone,
      And books for Mead, and butterflies for Sloane.'

    {542}

    "Sir Hans Sloane is known to have the finest collection of butterflies
    in England, and perhaps in the world; and if rare monkish manuscripts
    are for Hearne only, how can rarities be for Sloane, unless thou
    specifyest what sort of rarities? O thou numskull!"--No. 2., pp.
    15--16.

The correction was evidently an improvement, and therefore Pope wisely
accepted the benefit, and was the channel through which it was conveyed;
and the passage accordingly now stands as altered by the letter-writer.

JAMES CROSSLEY.

       *       *       *       *       *


NOTES ON SEVERAL MISUNDERSTOOD WORDS.

(_Continued from_ p. 522.)

_Dare_, to lurk, or cause to lurk; used both transitively and
intransitively. Apparently the root of _dark_ and _dearn_.

 "Here, quod he, it ought ynough suffice,
  Five houres for to slepe upon a night:
  But it were for an olde appalled wight,
  As ben thise wedded men, that lie and _dare_,
  As in a fourme sitteth a wery hare."

Tyrwhitt's utterly unwarranted adoption of Speght's interpretation is
"_Dare_, v. Sax. to stare." The reader should always be cautious how he
takes upon trust a glossarist's sly fetch to win a cheap repute for
learning, and over-ride inquiry by the mysterious letters Sax. or Ang.-Sax.
tacked on to his exposition of an obscure word. There is no such Saxon
vocable as _dare_, to stare. Again, what more frequent blunder than to
confound a secondary and derivative sense of a word with its radical and
primary--indeed, sometimes to allow the former to usurp the precedence, and
at length altogether oust the latter: hence it comes to pass, that we find
_dare_ is one while said to imply peeping and prying, another while
trembling or crouching; moods and actions merely consequent or attendant
upon the elementary signification of the word:

 "I haue an hoby can make larkys to _dare_."
    Skelton's _Magnifycence_, vol. i. p.269. l. 1358., Dyce's edition;

on which line that able, but therein mistaken editor's note is, "_to dare_,
i. e. to be terrified, to tremble" (he however also adds, it means to lurk,
to lie hid, and remits his reader to a note at p. 379., where some most
pertinent examples of its true and only sense are given), to which add
these next:

 "    .    .   let his grace go forward,
  And _dare_ vs with his cap, like larkes."
    First Fol., _Henry VIII._, Act III, Sc. 2.

 "Thay questun, thay quellun,
  By frythun by fellun,
  The dere in the dellun,
  Thay droupun and _daren_".
    _The Anturs of Arthur at the Tarnewathelan_,
    St. IV. p. 3. Camden Society's Publications.

 "She sprinkled vs with bitter juice of vncouth herbs, and strake
  The awke end of hir charmed rod vpon our heades, and spake
  Words to the former contrarie. The more she charm'd, the more
  Arose we vpward from the ground on which we _darde_ before."
    The XIIII. Booke of Ouid's _Metamorphosis_,
    p. 179. Arthur Golding's translation: London, 1587.

    "Sothely it _dareth_ hem weillynge this thing; that heuenes weren
    before," &c.

And again, a little further on:

    "Forsothe yee moste dere, one thing _dare_ you nougt (or be not
    unknowen): for one day anentis God as a thousande yeeris, and a
    thousande yeer as one day."--_C^m 3^m Petre 2._, Wycliffe's
    translation:

in the Latin Vulgate, _latet_ and _lateat_ respectively; in the original,
[Greek: lanthanei] and [Greek: lanthanetô]. Now the book is before me, I
beg to furnish MR. COLLIER with the references to his usage of _terre_,
mentioned in Todd's _Dictionary_, but not given (Collier's _Shakspeare_,
vol. iv. p. 65., note), namely, 6th cap. of Epistle to Ephesians, _prop.
init._; and 3rd of that to Colossians, _prop. fin._

       *       *       *       *       *


_Die and live._--This _hysteron proteron_ is by no means uncommon: its
meaning is, of course, the same as live and die, _i. e._ subsist from the
cradle to the grave:

 "    .    .    .   Will you sterner be.
  Than he that _dies and lives_ by bloody drops?"
      First Fol., _As You Like It_, Act III. Sc. 5.

All manner of whimsical and farfetched constructions have been put by the
commentators upon this very homely sentence. As long as the question was,
whether their wits should have licence to go a-woolgathering or no, one
could feel no great concern to interfere: but it appears high time to come
to Shakspeare's rescue, when MR. COLLIER'S "clever" old commentator, with
some little variation in the letters, and not much less in the sense, reads
"kills" for dies; but then, in the _Merry Wives of Windsor_, Act II. Sc.
3., the same "clever" authority changes "cride-game (cride I ame), said I
well?" into "curds and cream, said I well?"--an alteration certainly not at
odds with the host's ensuing question, "said I well?" saving that that, to
liquorish palate, might seem a rather superfluous inquiry.

 "With sorrow they both _die and live_
  That unto richesse her hertes yeve."
      _The Romaunt of the Rose_, v. 5789-90.

 "He is a foole, and so shall he _dye and liue_,
  That thinketh him wise, and yet can he nothing."
      _The Ship of Fooles_, fol. 67., by Alexander Barclay, 1570.

{543}

    "Behold how ready we are, how willingly the women of Sparta will _die
    and live_ with their husbands."--_The Pilgrimage of Kings and Princes_,
    p. 29.

Except in Shakspeare's behalf, it would not have been worth while to
exemplify so unambiguous a phrase. The like remark may also be extended to
the next word that falls under consideration.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Kindly_, in accordance with kind, viz. nature. Thus, the love of a parent
for a child, or the converse, is kindly: one without natural affection
([Greek: astorgos]) is unkind, kindless, as in--

 "Remorselesse, treacherous, letcherous, _kindles_ villaine."
                          _Hamlet_, Act II. Sc. 2.

Thence _kindly_ expanded into its wider meaning of general benevolence. So
under another phase of its primary sense we find the epithet used to
express the excellence and characteristic qualities proper to the idea or
standard of its subject, to wit, genuine, thrifty, well-liking,
appropriate, not abortive, monstrous, prodigious, discordant. In the
Litany, "the _kindly_ fruits of the earth" is, in the Latin versions
"genuinus," and by Mr. Boyer rightly translated "les fruits de la terre
chaqu'un selon son espèce;" for which Pegge takes him to task, and
interprets _kindly_ "fair and good," through mistake or preference adopting
the acquired and popular, in lieu of the radical and elementary meaning of
the word. (_Anonymiana_, pp. 380--1. Century VIII. No. LXXXI.) The
conjunction of this adjective with _gird_ in a passage of _King Henry VI_.
has sorely gravelled MR. COLLIER: twice over he essays, with equal success,
to expound its purport. First, _loc. cit._, he finds fault with _gird_ as
being employed in rather an unusual manner; or, if taken in its common
meaning of taunt or reproof, then that _kindly_ is said ironically; because
there seems to be a contradiction in terms. (Monck Mason's rank distortion
of the words, there cited, I will not pain the reader's sight with.) MR.
COLLIER'S note concludes with a supposition that _gird_ may possibly be a
misprint. This is the misery! Men will sooner suspect the text than their
own understanding or researches. In Act I. Sc. 1. of _Coriolanus_,
dissatisfied with his previous note, MR. COLLIER tries again, and thinks a
_kindly gird_ may mean a gentle reproof. That the reader may be able to
judge what it does mean, it will be necessary to quote the king's _gird_,
who thus administers a kindly rebuke to the malicious preacher against the
sin of malice, _i.e._ chastens him with his own rod:

 "_King._ Fie, uncle Beauford, I have heard you preach,
  That mallice was a great and grievous sinne:
  And will not you maintaine the thing you teache,
  But prove a chief offender in the same?

  _Warn._ Sweet king: the bishop hath a _kindly gyrd_."
    First Part of _King Henry VI._, Act III. Sc. 1. 1st Fol.

A _gird_, akin to, in keeping with, fitting, proper to the cardinal's
calling; an evangelical _gird_ for an evangelical man: what more _kindly_?
_Kindly_, connatural, homogeneous. But now for a bushel of examples, some
of which will surely avail to insense the reader in the purport of this
epithet, if my explanation does not:

    "God in the congregation of the gods, what more proper and
    _kindly_"?--Andrewes' Sermons, vol. v. p. 212. _Lib. Ang.-Cath. Theol._

    "And that (pride) seems somewhat _kindly_ too, and to agree with this
    disease (the plague). That pride which swells itself should end in a
    tumour or swelling, as, for the most part, this disease doth."--_Id._,
    p. 228.

    "And so, you are found; and they, as the children of perdition should
    be, are lost. Here are you: and where are they? Gone to their own
    place, to Judas their brother. And, as is most _kindly_, the sons to
    the father of wickedness; there to be plagued with him for
    ever."--_Id._, vol. iv. p. 98.

    "For whatsoever, as the Son of God, He may do, it is _kindly_ for Him,
    as the Son of Man, to save the sons of men."--_Id._, p. 253.

    "There cannot be a more _kindly_ consequence than this, our not failing
    from their not failing: we do not, because they do not."--_Id._, p.
    273.

    "And here falls in _kindly_ this day's design, and the visible 'per
    me,' that happened on it."--_Id._, p. 289.

    "And having then made them, it is _kindly_ that viscera misericordiæ
    should be over those opera that came de visceribus."--_Id._, p. 327.

    "The children came to the birth, and the right and _kindly_ copulative
    were; to the birth they came, and born they were: in a kind consequence
    who would look for other?"--_Id._, p. 348.

    "For usque adeo proprium est operari Spiritui, ut nisi operetur, nec
    sit. So _kindly_ (proprium) it is for the spirit to be working as if It
    work not, It is not."--_Id._, vol. iii. p. 194.

    "And when he had overtaken, for those two are but presupposed, the more
    _kindly_ to bring in [Greek: epelabeto], when, I say, He had overtaken
    them, cometh in fitly and properly [Greek: epilambanetai]."--_Id._,
    vol. i. p. 7.

    "No time so _kindly_ to preach de Filio hodie genito as hodie."--_Id._,
    p. 285.

    "A day whereon, as it is most _kindly_ preached, so it will be most
    _kindly_ practised of all others."--_Id._, p. 301.

    "Respice et plange: first, 'Look and lament' or mourn; which is indeed
    the most _kindly_ and natural effect of such a spectacle."--_Id._, vol.
    ii. p. 130.

    "Devotion is the most proper and most _kindly_ work of
    holiness."--_Id._, vol. iv. p. 377.

Perhaps the following will be thought so apposite, that I may be spared the
labour, and the reader the tedium of perusing a thousand other examples
that might be cited:

    And there is nothing more _kindly_ than for them that will be touching,
    to be touched themselves, and to {544} be touched home, in the same
    _kind_ themselves thought to have touched others."--_Id._, vol. iv. p.
    71.[1]

W. R. ARROWSMITH.

(_To be continued._)

[Footnote 1: _Kindly_ is quite a pet word with Andrewes, as, besides the
passages quoted, he employs it in nearly the same sense in vol. iii., at
pp. 18. 34. 102. 161. 189. 262. 308. 372. 393. 397.; in vol. i., at pp.
100. 125. 151. 194. 214.; in vol. ii. at pp. 53. 157. 307. 313. 338. The
same immortal quibbler is also very fond of the word _item_, using it, as
our cousins across the Atlantic and we in Herefordshire do at the present
day, for "a hint."]

       *       *       *       *       *


DEVONIANISMS.

_Miserable._--_Miserable_ is very commonly used in Devonshire in the
signification of _miserly_, with strange effect until one becomes used to
it. Hooker the Judicious, a Devonshire man, uses the word in this sense in
the _Eccl. Polity_, book v. ch. lxv. p. 21.:

    "By means whereof it cometh also to pass that the mean which is virtue
    seemeth in the eyes of each extreme an extremity; the liberal-hearted
    man is by the opinion of the prodigal _miserable_, and by the judgment
    of the _miserable_ lavish."

_Few._--Speaking of broth, people in Devon say a _few broth_ in place of a
little, or some broth. I find a similar use of the word in a sermon
preached in 1550, by Thomas Lever, Fellow of St. John's College, preserved
by Strype (in his _Eccles. Mem._, ii. 422.). Speaking of the poor students
of Cambridge, he says:

    "At ten of the clock they go to dinner, whereas they be content with a
    penny piece of beef among four, having a _few pottage_ made of the
    broth of the same beef, with salt and oatmeal, and nothing else."

_Figs, Figgy._--Most commonly _raisins_ are called _figs_, and plum-pudding
_figgy_ pudding. So with plum-cake, as in the following rhymes:--

 "Rain, rain, go to Spain,
  Never come again:
  When I brew and when I bake,
  I'll give you a _figgy_ cake."

_Against_ is used like the classical _adversùm_, in the sense of _towards_
or _meeting_. I have heard, both in Devonshire and in Ireland, the
expression to send _against_, that is, to send _to meet_, a person, &c.

The foregoing words and expressions are probably provincialisms rather than
Devonianisms, good old English forms of expression; as are, indeed, many of
the so-called Hibernicisms.

_Pilm, Farroll._--What is the derivation of _pilm_=dust, so frequently
heard in Devon, and its derivatives, _pilmy_, dusty: it _pilmeth_? The
cover of a book is there called the _farroll_; what is the derivation of
this word?

J. M. B.

Tunbridge Wells.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE POEMS OF ROWLEY.

The tests propounded by MR. KEIGHTLEY (Vol. vii. p. 160.) with reference to
the authenticity of the poems of Rowley, namely the use of "its," and the
absence of the feminine rhyme in _e_, furnish additional proof, if any were
wanting, that Chatterton was the author of those extraordinary productions.
Another test often insisted upon is the occurrence, in those poems, of
borrowed thoughts--borrowed from poets of a date posterior to that of their
pretended origin. Of this there is one instance which seems to have escaped
the notice of Chatterton's numerous annotators. It occurs at the
commencement of _The Tournament_, in the line,--

 "The _worlde_ bie _diffraunce_ ys ynn _orderr_ founde."

It will be seen that this line, a very remarkable one, has been cleverly
condensed from the following passage in Pope's _Windsor Forest_:--

 "But as the _world_, harmoniously confused,
  Where _order_ in variety we see;
  And where, tho' all things _differ_, all agree."

This sentiment has been repeated by other modern writers. Pope himself has
it in the _Essay on Man_, in this form,--

 "The lights and shades, whose well-accorded strife
  Gives all the strength and colour of our life."

It occurs in one of Pascal's _Pensées_:

    "J'écrirai ici mes pensées sans ordre, et non pas peut-être dans une
    confusion sans dessein: C'est le véritable ordre, et qui marquera
    toujours mon objet par le désordre même."

Butler has it in the line,--

 "For discords make the sweetest airs."

Bernardin de St. Pierre, in his _Etudes de la Nature_:

    "C'est des contraires que résulte l'harmonie du monde."

And Burke, in nearly the same words, in his _Reflections on the French
Revolution_:

    "You had that action and counteraction, which, in the natural and in
    the political world, from the reciprocal struggle of discordant powers,
    draws out the harmony of the universe."

Nor does the sentiment belong exclusively to the moderns. I find it in
Horace's twelfth Epistle:

 "Nil parvum sapias, et adhuc sublimia cures,
      .    .    .    .    .    .
  Quid velit et possit rerum concordia discors."

{545}

Lucan, I think, has the same expression in his _Pharsalia_; and it forms
the basis of Longinus's remark on the eloquence of Demosthenes:

    [Greek: "Oukoun tên men phusin tôn epanaphorôn kai asundetôn pantêi
    phulattei têi sunechei metabolêi? houtôs autôi kai hê taxis atakton,
    kai empalin hê ataxia poian perilambanei taxin."]

It may be said that, as Pope adopted the thought from Horace or Lucan, so a
poet of the fifteenth century (such as the supposed Rowley) might have
taken it from the same sources. But a comparison of the line in _The
Tournament_ with those in _Windsor Forest_ will show that the borrowing
embraces not only the thought, but the very words in which it is expressed.

HENRY H. BREEN.

St. Lucia.

       *       *       *       *       *


FOLK LORE.

_Legend of Llangefelach Tower._--A different version of the legend also
exists in the neighbourhood, viz. that the day's work on the tower being
pulled down each night by the old gentleman, who was apparently
apprehensive that the sound of the bells might keep away all evil spirits,
a saint, of now forgotten name, told the people that if they would stand at
the church door, and throw a stone, they would succeed in building the
tower on the "spot where it fell," which accordingly came to pass.

CERIDWEN.

_Wedding Divination._--Being lately present on the occasion of a wedding at
a town in the East Riding of Yorkshire, I was witness to the following
custom, which seems to take rank as a genuine scrap of folk-lore. On the
bride alighting from her carriage at her father's door, a plate covered
with morsels of bride's cake was flung from a window of the second story
upon the heads of the crowd congregated in the street below; and the
divination, I was told, consists in observing the fate which attends its
downfall. If it reach the ground in safety, without being broken, the omen
is a most _un_favourable one. If on the other hand, the plate be shattered
to pieces (and the more the better), the auspices are looked upon as most
happy.

OXONIENSIS.

       *       *       *       *       *


SHAKSPEARE CORRESPONDENCE.

_Shakspearian Drawings._--I have very recently become possessed of some
curious drawings by Hollar; those relating to Shakspeare very interesting,
evidently done for one Captain John Eyre, who could himself handle the
pencil well.

The inscription under one is as follows, in the writing of the said J.
Eyre:

    "Ye house in ye Clink Streete, Southwarke, now belonging to Master
    Ralph Hansome, and in ye which Master Shakspeare lodged in ye while he
    writed and played at ye Globe, and untill ye yeare 1600 it was at the
    time ye house of Grace Loveday. Will had ye two Rooms over against ye
    Doorway, as I will possibly show."

Size of the drawing, 12 × 7, "W. Hollar delin., 1643." It is an exterior
view, beautifully executed, showing very prominently the house and a
continuation of houses, forming one side of the street.

The second has the following inscription in the same hand:

    "Ye portraiture of ye rooms in ye which Master Will Shakspeare lodged
    in Clink Streete, and which is told to us to be in ye same state as
    when left by himself, as stated over ye door in ye room, and on the
    walls were many printed verses, also a portraiture of Ben Jonson with a
    ruff on a pannel."

Size of the drawing 11-5/8 × 6-7/8, "W. Hollar delin., 1643:" shows the
interior of three sides, and the floor and ceiling, with the tables,
chairs, and reading-desk; an open door shows the interior of his
sleeping-room, being over the entrance door porch.

The third--

    "Ye Globe, as to be seen before ye Fire in ye year 1615, when this
    place was burnt down. This old building," &c.

Here follows a long interesting description. It is an exterior view; size
of drawing 7¼ wide × 9-7/8 high, "W. H. 1640."

The fourth shows the stage, on which are two actors: this drawing, 7-7/8 ×
6½, was done by J. Eyre, 1629, and on which he gives a curious description
of his accompanying Prince Charles, &c.; at this time he belonged to the
Court, as he also accompanied that prince to Spain.

The fifth, done by the same hand in a _most masterly manner_, pen and ink
portrait of Shakspeare, copied, as he writes, from a portrait belonging to
the Earl of Essex, with interesting manuscript notice.

The sixth, done also by J. Eyre:

    "Ye portraiture of one Master Ben Jonson, as on ye walls of Master Will
    Shakspeare's rooms in Clinke Streete, Southwarke."--J. E. 1643.

The first three, in justice to Hollar, independent of the admirers of the
immortal bard and lovers of antiquities, should be engraved as "Facsimiles
of the Drawings." This shall be done on my receiving the names of sixty
subscribers, the amount of subscription one guinea, for which each
subscriber will receive three engravings, to be paid for when delivered.

P. T.

P. S.--These curious drawings may be seen at No. 1. Osnaburgh Place, New
Road.

_Thomas Shakspeare._--From a close examination of the documents referred to
(as bearing the signature of Thomas Shakspeare) in my last {546}
communication to "N. & Q.," Vol. vii., p. 405.), and from the _nature_ of
the _transaction_ to which they relate, _my impression_ is, that he was by
profession a money scrivener in the town of Lutterworth; a circumstance
which may possibly tend to the discovery of his family connexion (if any
existed) with William Shakspeare.

CHARLECOTE.

_Passage in Macbeth, Act I. Sc. 5._--

 "    .    .    .   Come, thick night,
  And pall thee in the dunnest smoke of hell,
  That my keen knife see not the wound it makes,
  Nor heaven peep through the _blanket_ of the dark,
  To cry, Hold, hold!"

In MR. PAYNE COLLIER'S _Notes and Emendations_, p. 407., we are informed
that the old corrector substitutes _blankness_ for _blanket_. The change is
to me so exceedingly bad, even if made on some sort of authority (as an
extinct 4to.), that I should have let it be its own executioner, had not
MR. COLLIER apparently given in his adhesion to it. I now beg to offer a
few obvious reasons why _blanket_ is unquestionably Shakspeare's word.

In the _Rape of Lucrece_, Stanza CXV., we have a passage very nearly
parallel with that in _Macbeth_:

 "O night, thou furnace of foul reeking smoke,
  Let not the jealous day behold thy face,
  Which underneath thy _black all-hiding cloak_,
  Immodestly lies martyr'd with disgrace."

In _Lucrece_, the _cloak_ of night is invoked to screen a deed of adultery;
in _Macbeth_ the _blanket_ of night is invoked to hide a murder: but the
foul, reeking, smoky cloak of night, in the passage just quoted, is clearly
parallel with the smoky blanket of night in _Macbeth_. The complete imagery
of both passages has been happily caught by Carlyle (_Sartor Resartus_,
1841, p. 23.), who, in describing night, makes Teufelsdröckh say:

    "Oh, under that _hideous coverlet of vapours, and putrefactions, and
    unimaginable gases_, what a fermenting-vat lies simmering and hid!"

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY.

Birmingham.

_"Discourse of Reason"_ (Vol. vii., p. 497.).--This phrase, "generally
supposed to be peculiarly Shakspearian," which A. E. B. has indicated in
his quotation from Philemon Holland, occurs also in Dr. T. Bright's
_Treatise of Melancholy_, the date of which is 1586. In the third page of
the dedicatory epistle there is this sentence:

    "Such as are of quicke conceit, and delighted in _discourse of reason_
    in naturall things."

Here, then, is another authority against Gifford's proposed "emendation" of
the expression as it occurs in _Hamlet_.

M. D.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Notes.

_The MSS. of Gervase Hollis._--These were taken during the reign of Charles
I., and continue down to the middle of Charles II. In Harl. MSS. 6829, will
be found a most curious and valuable volume, containing the painted glass,
arms, monuments, brasses, and epitaphs in the various churches and chapels,
&c. throughout the county of Lincoln. The arms are all drawn in the margin
in colours. Being taken before the civil war, they contain all those which
were destroyed or defaced by the Parliament army. They were all copied by
Gough, which he notices in his _Brit. Top._, vol. i. p. 519., but not
printed.

His genealogical collections are contained in a series of volumes marked
with the letters of the alphabet, and comprehended in the Lansdowne
Catalogue under No. 207. The Catalogue is very minute, and the contents of
the several volumes very miscellaneous; and some of the genealogical notes
are simply short memoranda, which, in order to be made available, must be
wrought out from other sources. They all relate more or less to the county
of Lincoln. One of these, called "Trusbut," was presented to the British
Museum by Sir Joseph Banks in 1817, and will be found in Add. MSS. 6118.

E. G. BALLARD.

_Anagrams._--The publication of two anagrams in your Number for May 7,
calls to my mind a few that were made some years ago by myself and some
friends, as an experiment upon the anagrammatic resources of words and
phrases. A subject was chosen, and each one of the party made an anagram,
good, bad, or indifferent, out of the component letters. The following may
serve as a specimen of the best of the budget that we made.

  1. French Revolution.
      Violence, run forth!

  2. Swedish Nightingale.
      Sing high! sweet Linda. (_q. d._ di Chamouni.)

  3. Spanish Marriages.
      Rash games in Paris; or, Ah! in a miser's grasp.

  4. Paradise Lost.
      Reap sad toils.

  5. Paradise Regained.
      Dead respire again.

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY.

Birmingham.

_Family Caul--Child's Caul._--The will of Sir John Offley, Knight, of
Madeley Manor, Staffordshire (grandson of Sir Thomas Offley, Lord Mayor of
London temp. Eliz.), proved at Doctors' Commons 20th May, 1658, contains
the following singular bequest:

    "Item, I will and devise one Jewell done all in Gold enammelled,
    wherein there is a Caul that covered my face and shoulders when I first
    came into the world, the use thereof to my loving Daughter the Lady
    {547} Elizabeth Jenny, so long as she shall live; and after her decease
    the use likewise thereof to her Son, Offley Jenny, during his natural
    life; and after his decease to my own right heirs male for ever; and so
    from Heir to Heir, to be left so long as it shall please God of his
    Goodness to continue any Heir Male of my name, desiring the same Jewell
    be not concealed nor sold by any of them."

CESTRIENSIS.

_Numerous Progeny._--The _London Journal_ of Oct. 26, 1734, contains the
following paragraph:

    "Letters from Holderness, in Yorkshire, mention the following
    remarkable inscription on a tombstone newly erected in the churchyard
    of Heydon, viz. 'Here lieth the body of William Strutton, of
    Padrington, buried the 18th of May, 1734, aged 97, who had by his first
    wife 28 children, and by a second wife 17; own father to 45,
    grandfather to 86, great-grandfather to 97, and great-great-grandfather
    to 23; in all 251.'"

T. B. H.

       *       *       *       *       *


Queries.

SMITH, YOUNG, AND SCRYMGEOUR MSS.

Thomas Smith, in his _Vitæ Illustrium_, gives extracts from a so-called
Ephemeris of Sir Peter Young, but which Sir Peter compiled during the
latter years of his life. Thomas Hearne says, in a note to the Appendix to
Leland's _Collectanea_, that he had had the use of some of Smith's MSS.
This Ephemeris of Sir Peter Young may be worth the publishing if it can be
found: can any of your readers say whether it is among Smith's or Hearne's
MSS., or if it be preserved elsewhere? Peter Young, and his brother
Alexander, were pupils of Theodore Beza, having been educated chiefly at
the expense of their maternal uncle Henry Scrymgeour, to whose valuable
library Peter succeeded. It was brought to Scotland by Alexander about the
year 1573 or 1574, and was landed at Dundee. It was especially rich in
Greek MSS.; and Dr. Irvine, in his "Dissertation on the Literary History of
Scotland," prefixed to his _Lives of the Scottish Poets_, says of these
MSS. and library, "and the man who is so fortunate as to redeem them from
obscurity, shall assuredly be thought to have merited well from the
republic of letters." It is much to be feared, however, that as to the MSS.
this good fortune awaits no man; for Sir Peter Young seems to have given
them to his fifth son, Patrick Young, the eminent Greek scholar, who was
librarian to Prince Henry, and, after his death, to the king, and to
Charles I. Patrick Young's house was unfortunately burned, and in it
perished many MSS. belonging to himself and to others. If Scrymgeour's MSS.
escaped the fire, they are to be sought for in the remnant of Patrick
Young's collection, wherever that went, or in the King's Library, of which
a considerable part was preserved. Young's house was burned in 1636, and he
is supposed to have carried off a large number of MSS. from the royal
library, after the king's death in 1649. If therefore Scrymgeour's MSS.
were among these, it is possible that they may yet be traced, for they
would be sold with Young's own, after his death in 1652. This occurred on
the 7th of September, rather suddenly, and he left no will, and probably
gave no directions about his MSS. and library, which were sold _sub hastâ_,
probably within a few months after his death, and with them any of the MSS.
which he may have taken from the King's Library, or may have had in his
possession belonging to others. Smith says that he had seen a large
catalogue of MSS. written in Young's own hand. Is this catalogue extant?
Patrick Young left two daughters, co-heiresses: the elder married to John
Atwood, Esq.; the younger, to Sir Samuel Bowes, Kt. A daughter of the
former gave to a church in Essex a Bible which had belonged to Charles I.;
but she knew so little of her grandfather's history that she described him
as Patrick Young, Esq., library keeper to the king, quite unconscious that
he had been rector of two livings, and a canon and treasurer of St. Paul's.
Perhaps, after all, the designation was not so incorrect, for though he
held so many preferments, he never was in priest's orders, and sometimes
was not altogether free from suspicion of not being a member of the Church
of England at all, except as a recipient of its dues, and of course, a
deacon in its orders.

But it may be worthy of note, as affording another clue by which,
perchance, to trace some of Scrymgeour's MSS., that Sir Thomas Bowes, Kt.,
who was Sir Symonds D'Ewes's literary executor, employed Patrick Young to
value a collection of coins, &c., among which he recognised a number that
had belonged to the king's cabinet, and which Sir Symonds had purchased
from Hugh Peters, by whom they had been purloined. Young taxed Peters with
having taken books, and MSS. also, which the other denied, with the
exception of two or three, but was not believed. I do not know what
relation Sir Thomas Bowes was to Sir Samuel, who married Young's second
daughter, nor to Paul Bowes, who edited D'Ewes's _Journals_ in 1682. It is
quite possible that some of Scrymgeour's MSS. may have fallen into D'Ewes's
hands, may have come down, and be recognisable by some mark.

As to Scrymgeour's books, it is probable that they were deposited in Peter
Young's house of Easter Seatoun, near to Arbroath, of which he obtained
possession about 1580, and which remained with his descendants for about
ninety years, when his great-grandson sold it, and purchased the castle and
part of the lands of Aldbar. That any very fine library was removed thither
is not probable, especially any bearing Henry {548} Scrymgeour's name; and
for this reason, that Thomas Ruddiman was tutor to David Young, and was
resident at Aldbar, and would hardly have failed to notice, or to record,
the existence of any so remarkable a library as Scrymgeour's, or even of
Sir Peter Young's, who was himself an ardent collector of books, as appears
from some of his letters to Sir Patrick Vans (_recte_ Vaux) which I have
seen, and as might be inferred from his literary tastes and pursuits. There
is perhaps reason to believe that Sir Peter's library did not descend in
his family beyond his eldest son, Sir James Young, who made an attempt to
deprive the sons of his first marriage (the elder of whom died in infancy)
of their right of succession to their grandfather's estates, secured to
them under their father's marriage contract, and which attempt was defeated
by their uncle, Dr. John Young, Dean of Winchester (sixth son of Sir
Peter), who acquired from Lord Ramsay, eldest son of the Earl of Dalhousie,
part of the barony of Baledmouth in Fife. Dean Young founded a school at
St. Andrew's, on the site of which is now built Dr. Bell's Madras College.

Sir Peter Young the elder, knighted in 1605, has been sometimes confounded
with his third son, Peter, who received his knighthood at the hands of
Gustavus Adolphus, on the occasion of that king being invested with the
Order of the Garter.

Another fine library (Andrew Melville's) was brought into Scotland about
the same time as Scrymgeour's; and it is creditable to the statesmen of
James's reign that there was an order in the Scotch exchequer, that books
imported into Scotland should be free from custom. A note of this order is
preserved among the Harleian MSS. in the British Museum; but my reference
to the number is not at hand.

DE CAMERA.

       *       *       *       *       *


MORMON PUBLICATIONS.

Can any of your correspondents oblige me by supplying particulars of other
editions of the following Mormon works? The particulars required are the
size, place, date, and number of pages. The editions enumerated below are
the only ones to which I have had access.

1. _The Book of Mormon_:

    First American edition, 12mo.: Palmyra, 1830, pp. 588., printed by
    E. B. Grandin for the author.

    First European edition, small 8vo.: Liverpool, 1841, title, one leaf,
    pp. 643., including index at the end.

    Second European edition, 12mo.: Liverpool, 1849. Query number of pages?

    Third European edition, 12mo.: Liverpool, 1852, pp. xii. 563.

2. _Book of Doctrine and Covenants_:

    First (?) American edition, 18mo.: Kirkland, 1835, pp. 250.

    Third European edition, 12mo.: Liverpool, 1852, pp. xxiii, 336.

3. _Hymn Book for the "Saints" in Europe_:

    Ninth edition, 16mo.: Liverpool, 1851, pp. vii. 379., containing 296
    hymns.

As I am passing through the press two Lectures on the subject of Mormonism,
and am anxious that the literary history and bibliography of this curious
sect should be as complete as possible, I will venture to ask the favour of
an immediate reply to this Query: and since the subject is hardly of
general interest, as well as because the necessary delay of printing any
communication may hereby be avoided, may I request that any reply be sent
to me at the address given below. I shall also be glad to learn where, and
at what price, a copy of the first _American_ edition of the _Book of
Mormon_ can be procured.

W. SPARROW SIMPSON, B.A.

  14. Grove Road,
    North Brixton, Surrey.

       *       *       *       *       *


MINOR QUERIES.

_Dimidiation._--Is the practice of _dimidiation_ approved of by modern
heralds, and are examples of it common?

W. FRASER.

Tor-Mohun.

_Early Christian Mothers._--Can any of your correspondents inform me
whether the Christian mothers of the first four or five centuries were much
in the habit of using the rod in correcting their children; and whether the
influence acquired by the mother of St. Chrysostom, and others of the same
stamp, was not greatly owing to their having seldom or never inflicted
corporal punishment on them?

PATER.

_The Lion at Northumberland House._--One often hears the anecdote of a wag
who, as alleged, stared at the lion on Northumberland House until he had
collected a crowd of imitators around him, when he cried out, "By Heaven!
it wags, it wags," and the rest agreed with him that the lion did wag its
tail. If this farce really took place, I should be glad to know the date
and details.

J. P.

Birmingham.

_The Cross in Mexico and Alexandria._--In _The Unseen World; Communications
with it, real and imaginary, &c._, 1850, a work which is attributed to an
eminent divine and ecclesiastical historian of the English Church, it is
stated that--

    "It was a tradition in Mexico, before the arrival of the Spaniards,
    that when that form (the sign of the cross) should be victorious, the
    old religion should disappear. The same sign is also said to have been
    {549} discovered on the destruction of the temple of Serapis at
    Alexandria, and the same tradition to have been attached to it."--P.
    23.

The subject is very curious, and one in which I am much interested. I am
anxious to refer to the original authorities for the tradition in both
cases. It is known that the Mexicans worshipped the cross as the god of
rain. We have the following curious account thereof in _The Pleasant
Historie of the Conquest of West India, now called Newe Spayne_, translated
out of the Spanish tongue by T. N., anno 1578:

    "At the foote of this temple was a plotte like a churchyard, well
    walled and garnished with proper pinnacles; in the midst whereof stoode
    a crosse of ten foote long, the which they adored for god of the rayne;
    for at all times whe they wanted rayne, they would go thither on
    procession deuoutely, and offered to the crosse quayles sacrificed, for
    to appease the wrath that the god seemed to have agaynste them: and
    none was so acceptable a sacrifice, as the bloud of that little birde.
    They used to burne certaine sweete gume, to perfume that god withall,
    and to besprinkle it with water; and this done, they belieued assuredly
    to haue rayne."--P. 41.

EDWARD PEACOCK.

Bottesford Moors, Kirton Lindsey.

_Passage in St. James._--I hope you will not consider the following Query
unsuited to your publication, and in that case I may confidently anticipate
the removal of my difficulty.

In reading yesterday Jeremy Taylor's _Holy Living and Dying_, I came to
this passage (p. 308. Bohn's edition):

    "St. James, in his epistle, notes the folly of some men, his
    contemporaries, who were so impatient of the event of to-morrow, or the
    accidents of next year, or the good or evils of old age, that they
    would consult astrologers and witches, oracles and devils, what should
    befall them the next calends--what should be the event of such a
    voyage--what God had written in his book concerning the success of
    battles, the election of emperors, &c.... Against this he opposes his
    counsel, that we should not search after forbidden records, much less
    by uncertain significations," &c.

Now my Query is, To what epistle of St. James does the eloquent bishop
refer? If to the canonical epistle, to what part? To the words (above
quoted) "forbidden records" there is a foot-note, which contains only the
well-known passage in Horace, lib. i. od. xi., and two others from
Propertius and Catullus.

S. S. S.

_"The Temple of Truth."_--Who was the author of an admirable work entitled
_The Temple of Truth_, published in 1806 by Mawman?

T. B. H.

_Santa Claus._--Reading _The Wide Wide World_ recalled to my mind this
curious custom, which I had remarked when in America. I was then not a
little surprised to find so strange a superstition lingering in puritanical
New England, and which, it is needless to remark, was quite novel to me.
_Santa Claus_ I believe to be a corruption of _Saint Nicholas_, the
tutelary saint of sailors, and consequently a great favourite with the
Dutch. Probably, therefore, the custom was introduced into the western
world by the compatriots of the renowned Knickerbocker.

It is unnecessary to describe the nature of the festivity, as it is so
graphically pourtrayed in Miss Wetherell's, or rather Warner's work, to
which I would refer those desirous of further acquaintance with the
subject; the object of this Query being to learn, through some of the
American or other correspondents of "N. & Q.," the original legend, as well
as the period and events connected with the immigration into "The States"
of that beneficent friend of Young America, _Santa Claus_.

ROBERT WRIGHT.

_Donnybrook Fair._--This old-established fair, so well known in every
quarter of the globe, and so very injurious to the morality of those who
frequent it, is said to be held by patent: but is there any patent for it
in existence? If there be, why is it not produced? I am anxious to obtain
information upon the subject.

ABHBA.

_Saffron, when brought into England._--In a footnote to Beckmann's _History
of Inventions, &c._, vol. i. p. 179. (Bohn's), is the following, purporting
to be from Hakluyt, vol. ii. p. 164.:

    "It is reported at Saffron Walden that a pilgrim, proposing to do good
    to his country, stole a head of saffron, and hid the same in his
    palmer's staff, which he had made hollow before on purpose, and so he
    brought this root into this realm, with venture of his life; for if he
    had been taken, by the law of the country from whence it came, he had
    died for the fact."

Can any of your readers throw any light upon this tradition?

W. T.

Saffron Walden.

_Isping Geil._--In a charter of Joanna Fossart, making a grant of lands and
other possessions to the priory of Grosmont in Yorkshire, is the following
passage as given in Dugdale's _Monasticon_ (I quote from Bohn's edition,
1846, vol. vi. p. 1025.):

    "Dedi eis insuper domos meas in Eboraco; illas scilicet quæ sunt inter
    domos Laurentii clerici quæ fuerunt Benedicti Judæi et _Isping Geil_,
    cum tota curia et omnibus pertinentiis."

Can any of your readers, and in particular any of our York antiquaries,
inform me whether the "Isping Geil" mentioned in this passage is the name
of a person, or of some locality in that city now obsolete? In either case
I should be glad of any information as to the etymology of so singular
{550} a designation, which may possibly have undergone some change in
copying.

[Greek: Th.]

_Humbug._--When was this word introduced into the English language? The
earliest instance in which I have met with it is in one of Churchill's
Poems, published about the year 1750.

UNEDA.

Philadelphia.

_Franklyn Household Book._--Can any reader inform me in whose keeping, the
Household Book of Sir John Franklyn _now_ is?[2] Extracts were published
from it in the _Archæologia_, vol. xv.

J. K.

[Footnote 2: [Sir John Franklyn's _Household Book_ was in the possession of
Sir John Chardin Musgrave, of Eden Hall, co. Cumberland, who died in 1806.
Some farther extracts, consisting of about thirty items, relating to
archery (not given in the _Archæologia_) will be found in the British
Museum, Add. MSS. 6316. f. 30. Among other items is the following: "Oct.
20, 1642. Item, for a pound of tobacco for the Lady Glover, 12s." Sir John
Franklyn, of Wilsden, co. Middlesex, was M.P. for that county in the
beginning of the reign of Charles I., and during the Civil Wars.--ED.]]

_James Thomson's Will._--Did the author of the _Seasons_ make a will? If
so, where is the original to be seen?

D.

Leamington.

_"Country Parson's Advice to his Parishioners."_--Could you inquire through
your columns who the author of a book entitled _The Country Parson's Advice
to his Parishioners_ is? It was printed for Benjamin Tooke, at the Ship, in
St. Paul's Church Yard, 1680.

I have a singular copy of this book, and know at present of no other copy.
The booksellers all seem at a loss as to who the author was; some say
Jeremy Taylor, others George Herbert; but my date does not allow the
latter,--at least it makes it very improbable, unless it was published
after his death. The book itself is like George Herbert's style, very solid
and homely; it is evidently by some masterly hand. Should you be able to
give me information, or get it for me, I should be obliged. I think of
reprinting the book.

GEO. NUGÉE.

Senior Curate of St. Paul's, Wilton Place.

_Shakspeare--Blackstone._--In Moore's _Diary_, vol. iv. p. 130., he says,--

    "Mr. Duncan mentioned, that Blackstone has preserved the name of the
    judge to whom Shakspeare alludes in the grave-digger's argument?--

     'If the water comes to the man,' &c."

Will one of your Shakspearian or legal correspondents have the kindness to
name the judge so alluded to, and give a reference to the passage in
Blackstone in which he conveys this information?

IGNORAMUS.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries with Answers.

_Turkey Cocks._--Why are Turkey cocks so called, seeing they were not
imported from Turkey?

CAPE.

    [This Query did not escape the notice of Dr. Samuel Pegge. He says;
    "The cocks which Pancirollus (ii. tit. 1.) mentions as brought from
    America, were Turkey cocks, as Salmuth there (p. 28.) rightly observes.
    The French accordingly call this bird _Coq d'Inde_, and from _d'Inde_
    comes the diminutive _Dindon_, the young Turkey; as if one should say,
    'the young Indian fowl.' Fetching the Turkey from America accords well
    with the common notion:

     'Turkeys, carps, hops, pikarel, and beer,
      Came into England all in a year;'

    that is, in the reign of Henry VIII., after many voyages had been made
    to North America, where this bird abounds in an extraordinary manner.
    But Query how this bird came to be called Turkey? Johnson latinizes it
    _Gallina Turcica_, and defines it, 'a large domestic fowl brought from
    Turkey;' which does not agree with the above account from Pancirollus.
    Brookes says (p. 144.), 'It was brought into Europe either from India
    or Africa.' And if from the latter, it might be called _Turkey_, though
    but improperly."--_Anonymiana_, cent. x. 79.]

_Bishop St. John._--The following passage occurs at vol. iv. p. 84. of the
Second Series of Ellis's _Original Letters, Illustrative of English
History_. It is taken from the letter numbered 326, dated London, Jan. 5,
1685-6, and addressed "for John Ellis, Esq., Secretary of his Majesty's
Revenue in Ireland, Dublin:"

    "The Bishop of London's fame runs high in the vogue of the people. The
    London pulpits ring strong peals against Popery; and I have lately
    heard there never were such eminently able men to serve in those cures.
    The Lord Almoner Ely is thought to stand upon too narrow a base now in
    his Majesty's favour, from a late violent sermon on the 5th of
    November. I saw him yesterday at the King's Levy; and very little
    notice taken of him, which the more confirms what I heard. Our old
    friend the new Bishop St. John, gave a smart answer to a (very well
    put) question of his M---- with respect to him, that shows he is not
    altogether formed of court-clay; but neither you nor I shall withdraw
    either of our friendship for him on such an account."

All who know this period of our history, know Compton and Turner; but who
was Bishop St. John?

J. J. J.

    [An error in the transcription. In the manuscript it reads thus:
    "Bish^p S^r Jon^n," and clearly refers to Sir Jonathan Trelawney,
    Bart., consecrated bishop of {551} Bristol, Nov. 8, 1685, translated to
    Exeter in 1689, and to Winchester in 1707.]

_Ferdinand Mendez Pinto._--

    "Ferdinand Mendez Pinto was but a type of thee, thou liar of the first
    magnitude!"

Where is the original of the above to be found? Was Ferdinand Mendez Pinto
a real or imaginary character?

INQUIRENS.

    [A famous Portuguese traveller, in no good odour for veracity. His
    _Travels_ have been translated into most European languages, and twice
    published in English. A notice of Pinto will be found in Rose's _Biog.
    Dict._, s. v.]

_Satin._--What is the origin of the word _satin_?

CAPE.

    [See Ogilvie and Webster. "Fr. _satin_; W. _sidan_, satin or silk; Gr.
    and Lat. _sindon_; Ch. and Heb. _sedin_; Ar. _sidanah_."]

_Carrier Pigeons._--When were carrier pigeons first used in Europe?

CAPE.

    [Our correspondent will find some interesting notices of the early use
    of the carrier pigeon in Europe in the _Penny Cyclopædia_, vol. vii. p.
    372., art. "COLUMBIDÆ;" and in the _Encyclopædia Britannica_, vol. vi.
    p. 176., art. "CARRIER PIGEON."]

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies.

"PYLADES AND CORRINA."--PSALMANAZAR AND DEFOE.

(Vol. vii., pp. 206. 305. 435. 479.)

I had forwarded for insertion a short answer to the Query as to _Pylades
and Corinna_ before DR. MAITLAND'S communication was printed; but as it now
appears more distinctly what was the object of the Query, I can address
myself more directly to the point he has raised. And, in the first place, I
cannot suppose that Defoe had anything to do with _Pylades and Corinna_, or
the _History of Formosa_. In all Defoe's fictions there is at least some
trace of the master workman, but in neither of these works is there any
putting forth of his power, or any similitude to his manner or style. When
the _History of Formosa_ appeared (1704), he was ingrossed in politics, and
was not, as far as any evidence has yet informed us, in the habit of
translating or doing journeyman work for booksellers. Then the book itself
is, in point of composition, far beneath Defoe, even in his most careless
moods. As to _Pylades and Corinna_, Defoe died so soon after Mrs.
Thomas--she died on the 3rd February, 1731, and he on the 24th April
following, most probably worn out by illness--that time seems scarcely
afforded for getting together and working up the materials of the two
volumes published. The editor, who signs himself "Philalethes," dates his
Dedication to the first volume, in which are contained the particulars
about Psalmanazar, "St. John Baptist, 1731," which day would be after
Defoe's death. Nor is there any ground for supposing that Defoe and Curll
had much connexion as author and publisher. Curll only printed two works of
Defoe, as far as I have been able to discover, the _Memoirs of Dr.
Williams_ (1718, 8vo.), and the _Life of Duncan Campbell_ (1720, 8vo.), and
for his doing so, in each case, a good reason may be given. As regards the
genuineness of the correspondence in _Pylades and Corinna_, I do not see
any reason to question it. Sir Edward Northey's certificate, and various
little particulars in the letters themselves, entirely satisfy me that the
correspondence is not a fictitious one. The anecdotes of Psalmanazar are
quite in accordance with his own statements in his Life--(see particularly
p. 183., _Memoirs_, 1765, 8vo.); and if they were pure fiction, is it not
likely that, living in London at the time when they appeared, he would have
contradicted them? In referring (Vol. vii., p. 436., "N. & Q.") to the
_Gentleman's Magazine_ for these anecdotes, I had not overlooked their
having appeared in _Pylades and Corinna_, but had not then the latter book
at hand to include it in the reference. DR. MAITLAND considers _Pylades and
Corinna_ "a farrago of low rubbish, utterly beneath criticism." Is not this
rather too severe and sweeping a character? Unquestionably the poetry is
but so-so, and of the poem the greater part might have been dispensed with;
but, like all Curll's collections, it contains some matter of interest and
value to those who do not despise the minutiæ of literary investigation.
The Autobiography of the unfortunate authoress (Mrs. Thomas), who was only
exalted by Dryden's praise to be ignominiously degraded by Pope, and "whose
whole life was but one continued scene of the utmost variety of human
misery," has always appeared to me an interesting and rather affecting
narrative; and, besides a great many occasional notices in the
correspondence, which are not without their use, there are interspersed
letters from Lady Chudleigh, Norris of Bemerton, and others, which are not
to be elsewhere met with, and which are worth preserving.

For Psalmanazar's character, notwithstanding his early peccadilloes, I can
assure DR. MAITLAND that I have quite as high a respect as himself, even
without the corroborative evidence of our great moralist, which on such a
subject may be considered as perfectly conclusive.

JAMES CROSSLEY.

       *       *       *       *       * {552}


ROBERT WAUCHOPE, ARCHBISHOP OF ARMAGH.

(Vol. vii., p. 66.)

This prelate seems to have been a cadet of the family of Wauchope, of
Niddry, or Niddry Marischall, in the county of Midlothian, to which family
once belonged the lands of Wauchopedale in Roxburghshire. The exact date of
his birth I have never been able to discover, nor which "laird of Niddrie"
he was the son of. Robert was a favourite name in the family long before
his time, as is evidenced by an inscription at the entry to a burial chapel
belonging to the family to this effect: "This tome was Biggit Be Robert
Vauchop of Niddrie Marchal, and interit heir 1387." I am at present out of
reach of all books of reference, and have only a few manuscript memoranda
to direct further research; and these memoranda, I am sorry to say, are not
so precise in their reference to chapter and verse as they ought to be.

According to these notes, mention is made of Robert Wauchope, doctor of
Sorbonne, by Leslie, bishop of Ross, in the 10th book of his _History_; by
Labens, a Jesuit, in the 14th tome of his _Chronicles_; by Cardinal
Pallavicino, in the 6th book of his _Hist. Conc. Trid._; by Fra Paolo
Sarpi, in his _Hist. Conc. Trid._ Archbishop Spottiswood says that he died
in Paris in the year 1551, "much lamented of all the university," on his
return home from one of his missions to Rome.

One of my notes, taken from the _Memoirs of Sir James Melville_, I shall
transcribe, as it is suggestive of other Queries more generally
interesting. The date is 1545:

    "Now the ambassador met in a secret part with Oneel(?) and his
    associates, and heard their offers and overtures. And the patriarch of
    Ireland did meet him there, who was a Scotsman born, called Wauchope,
    and was blind of both his eyes, and yet had been divers times at Rome
    by post. He did great honour to the ambassadour, and conveyed him to
    see St. Patrick's Purgatory, which is like an old coal pit which had
    taken fire, by reason of the smoke that came out of the hole."

Query 1. What was the secret object of the ambassador?

Query 2. Has St. Patrick's Purgatory any existence at the present time?

D. W. S. P.

       *       *       *       *       *


SEAL OF WILLIAM D'ALBINI.

(Vol. vii., p. 452.)

The curious article of your correspondent SENEX relative to this seal, as
described and figured in Barrett's _History of Attleburgh_, has a peculiar
interest as connected with the device of a man combating a lion.

The first time I saw this device was in a most curious MS. on "Memorial
Trophies and Funeral Monuments, both in the old Churches of London before
the Fire, and the Churches and Mansions in many of the Counties of
England." The MS. is written by Henry St. George, and will be found in
Lansd. MSS. 874. The arms and tombs are all elaborately and carefully
drawn, with their various localities, and the epitaphs which belong to
them; and the whole is accompanied with an Index of Persons, and another of
Places.

At p. 28. this device of a man combating a lion is represented associated
with a shield of arms of many quarterings, showing the arms and alliances
of the royal family of Stuart, and is described as having formed the
subject of a window in the stewards house adjoining the church of St.
Andrew's, Holborn. In the _Catalogue of the Lansdowne MSS._ is a long and
interesting note on this device, with references to the various works where
it may be found, to which I have had access at the Museum, and find them
correct, and opening a subject for investigation of a most curious kind.

The figure of the knight, in this drawing, differs considerably from that
on Dr. Barrett's seal. He is here represented on foot, dressed in the chain
mail and tunic of the eleventh and twelfth centuries, with a close-barred
helmet, with a broad flat crown, such as was worn in France in the time of
Louis IX., called St. Louis. The lion is in the act of springing upon him,
and he is aiming a deadly blow at him with a ragged staff, as his sword
lies broken at his feet. The figure is represented as fighting on the green
sward. From a cloud over the lion proceeds an arm clothed in chain mail,
and holding in the hand, suspended by a baldrick, a shield bearing the arms
of France (modern[3])--Azure, three fleurs-de-lis or. On a scutcheon of
pretence in the centre, Argent, a lion ramp. gules, debruised with ragged
staff, proper. This device forms the 1st quarter of the quarterings of the
Stuart family.

In this device there is no figure of a lizard, dragon, or chimera,
whichever it is, under the horse's feet, as represented in the seal of
D'Albini.

I could much extend this reply, by showing the antiquity of this device,
which by a long process of investigation I have traced as connected with
the legendary songs of the troubadours; but I think I have said sufficient
for the present, in reply to SENEX.

In addition to the above, I may mention a seal of a somewhat similar
character to that of D'Albini, representing a knight on horseback, with his
sword in his hand, and his shield of arms, which are also on the housings
of the horse, under whose feet is the dragon: on the reverse is the {553}
combat of the knight with the lion. The knight is holding his shield in
front, and holding his sword in his left hand. This seal is that of Roger
de Quincy, earl of Winchester, and appended to a deed "M.CC. Quadrigresimo
Quinto." It occurs in Harl. MSS. 6079. p. 127.

E. G. BALLARD.

[Footnote 3: I say _modern_, for the ancient arms of France were Azure,
semée of fleurs-de-lis, as they are represented in old glass, when
quartered with those of England by our Henries and Edwards.]

Pray request SENEX to withdraw every word he has said about me. I do not
recollect that I ever said or wrote a word about the Seal of William
D'Albini; and I cannot find that my name occurs in Dr. Barrett's volume.

EDW. HAWKINS.

       *       *       *       *       *


"WILL" AND "SHALL."

(Vol. vii., p. 356.)

The difficulty as to the proper use of the auxiliaries _shall_ and _will_,
will be found to arise from the fact, that while these particles
respectively convey a different idea in the _first_ person singular and
plural, from that which they imply in the _second_ and _third_ persons
singular and plural, the distinction has been lost sight of in the
amalgamation of _both_; as if they were interchangeable, in _one_ tense,
according to the old grammatical formula _I shall_ or _will_. With a view
of giving my own views on the subject, and attempting to supply what
appears to me a grammatical deficiency, I shall proceed to make a few
remarks; from which I trust your Hong Kong correspondent W. T. M. may be
able to form "a clear and definite rule," and students of English assisted
in their attempts to overcome this formidable conversational "shibboleth."

The fact is simply thus:--_Will_ is _volitive_ in the _first_ persons
singular and plural; and simply _declarative_ or _promissory_ in the
_second_ and _third_ persons singular and plural. _Shall_, on the other
hand, is _declaratory_ or _promissory_ in the _first_ person singular and
plural; _volitive_ in the _second_ and _third_ singular and plural. Thus,
the so-called future is properly divisible into _two_ tenses: the _first_
implying _influence_ or _volition_; the _second_ (or future proper)
_intention_ or _promise_. Thus:

      1.                         2.

  I _will_ go.        I _shall_ go.
  Thou _shalt_ go.    Thou _wilt_ go.
  He _shall_ go.      He _will_ go.
  We _will_ go.       We _shall_ go.
  You _shall_ go.     You _will_ go.
  They _shall_ go.    They _will_ go.

When the above is thoroughly comprehended by the pupil, it will be only
necessary to impress upon his mind (as a concise rule) the necessity of
making use of a different auxiliary in speaking of the future actions of
_others_, when he wishes to convey the same idea respecting _such actions_
which he has done, or should do, in speaking of his _own_, and _vice
versâ_. Thus:

  I _will_ go, and you _shall_ accompany me.

(_i. e._ it is my _wish_ to go, and also that you shall accompany me.)

  I _shall_ go, and you _will_ accompany me.

(_i. e._ it is my _intention_ to go; and believe, or know, that it is your
_intention_ to accompany me.)

The philosophical reason for this distinction will be evident, when we
reflect upon the various ideas produced in the mind by the expression of
either _volition_ or mere _intention_ (in so far as the latter is
distinguishable from active _will_) with regard to _our own_ future
actions, and the same terms with reference to the future actions of
_others_. It will be seen that a mere _intention_ in the _first_ person,
becomes _influence_ when it extends to the _second_ and _third_; we know
nothing, _à priori_ (as it were) of the _intentions_ of others, except in
so far as we may have the power of _determining_ them. When I say "_I_
shall go" (_j'irai_), I merely express an _intention_ or _promise_ to go;
but if I continue "_You_ and _they_ shall go," I convey the idea that _my_
intention or promise is operative on _you_ and _them_; and the terms which
I thus use become unintentionally influential or expressive of an extension
of _my_ volition to the actions of _others_. Again, the terms which I use
to signify _volition_, with reference to _my own_ actions, are but
_declaratory_ or _promissory_ when I speak of _your_ actions, or those of
_others_. I am conscious of _my own_ wish to go; but _my_ wish not
influencing _you_, I do, by continuing the use of the same auxiliary, but
express my belief or knowledge that _your_ wish is, or will be, coincident
with _my own_. When I say "I will go" (_je veux aller_), I express a desire
to go; but if I add, "_You_ and _they_ will go," I simply promise on behalf
of _you_ and _them_, or express _my_ belief or knowledge that _you_ and
_they_ will also desire to go.

It is not unworthy of note, that the nice balance between _shall_ and
_will_ is much impaired by the constant use of the ellipse, "I'll, you'll,"
&c.; and that _volition_ and _intention_ are, to a great extent,
co-existent and inseparable in the _first_ person: the metaphysical reasons
for this do not here require explanation.

I am conscious that I have not elucidated this apparently simple, but
really complex question, in so clear and concise a manner as I could have
wished; but, feeling convinced that my principle at least is sound, I leave
it, for better consideration, in the hands of your correspondent.

WILLIAM BATES.

Birmingham.

Brightland's rule is,--

 "In the first person simply _shall_ foretells;
  In _will_ a threat or else a promise dwells:
  {554}
  _Shall_ in the second and the third does threat;
  _Will_ simply then foretells the coming feat."

(See T. K. Arnold's _Eng. Gram. for Classical Schools_, 3rd edit., p. 41.;
Mitford, _Harmony of Language_; and note 5. in Rev. R. Twopeny's
_Dissertations on the Old and New Testament_.)

The inconsistency in the use of _shall_ and _will_ is best explained by a
doctrine of Mr. Hare's (J. C.  H.), the _usus ethicus_ of the future. (See
_Cambridge Philological Museum_, vol. ii. p. 203., where the subject is
mentioned incidentally, and in illustration; and Latham's _English
Language_, 2nd edit., p. 498., where Mr. Hare's hypothesis is given at
length. Indeed, from Latham and T. K. Arnold my Note has been framed.)

F. S., B. A.

Lee.

       *       *       *       *       *


INSCRIPTIONS IN BOOKS.

(Vol. vii., p. 127.)

Your correspondent BALLIOLENSIS, at p. 127. of the current volume of "N. &
Q.," gives several forms of inscriptions in books. The following may prove
interesting to him, if not to the generality of your readers.

A MS. preserved in the Bibliothèque Sainte Généviève--it appears to have
been the cellarer's book of the ancient abbey of that name, and to have
been written about the beginning of the sixteenth century--bears on the
fly-sheet the name of "Mathieu Monton, religieux et célérier de l'église de
céans," with the following verses:

 "Qui ce livre cy emblera,
  Propter suam maliciam
  Au gibet pendu sera,
  Repugnando superbiam
  Au gibet sera sa maison,
  Sive suis parentibus,
  Car ce sera bien raison,
  Exemplum datum omnibus."

An Ovid, printed in 1501, belonging to the Bibliothèque de Chinon, has the
following verses:

 "Ce present livre est à Jehan Theblereau.

   "Qui le trouvera sy lui rende:
    Il lui poyra bien le vin
    Le jour et feste Sainct Martin,
    Et une mésenge à la Sainct Jean,
          Sy la peut prendre.

    "Tesmoin mon synet manuel, cy mis le x^e jour de avril mil v^c trente
    et cyns, après Pasque."

Here follows the paraphe.

School-boys in France write the following lines in their books after their
names, and generally accompany them with a drawing of a man hanging on a
gibbet:

 "Aspice Pierrot pendu,
  Quòd librum n'a pas rendu;
  Pierrot pendu non fuisset,
  Si librum reddidisset."

English school-boys use these forms:

 "Hic liber est meus
  Testis est Deus.
  Si quis furetur
  A collo pendetur
  Ad hunc modum."

This is always followed by a drawing of a gibbet.

         "John Smith, his book.
  God give him grace therein to look;
  Not only look but understand,
  For learning is better than house or land.
  When house and land are gone and spent,
  Then learning is most excellent."

 "John Smith is my name,
  England is my nation,
  London is my dwelling-place,
  And Christ is my salvation.
  When I am dead and in my grave,
  And all my bones are rotten,
  When this you see, remember me,
  When I am 'most forgotten."

 "Steal not this book, my honest friend,
  For fear the gallows should be your end,
  And when you're dead the Lord should say,
  Where is the book you stole away?"

 "Steal not this book for fear of shame,
  For under lies the owner's name:
  The first is JOHN, in letters bright,
  The second SMITH, to all men's sight;
  And if you dare to steal this book,
  The devil will take you with his hook."

HONORÉ DE MAREVILLE.

Guernsey.

I forward you the following inscription, which I met with in an old copy of
Cæsar's _Commentaries_ (if I remember rightly) at Pontefract, Yorkshire:

 "Si quis hunc librum rapiat scelestus
  Atque scelestis manibus reservet
  Ibit ad nigras Acherontis undas
          Non rediturus."

F. F. G. (Oxford).

       *       *       *       *       *


BACON'S "ADVANCEMENT OF LEARNING."

(Vol. vii., p.493.)

I have to thank L. for his notice of my edition of the _Advancement of
Learning_, as well as for the information which he has given me, of which I
hope to have an early opportunity of availing myself. As he expresses a
hope that it may be followed by similar editions of other of Bacon's works,
I may state that the _Essays_, with the _Colours of Good and Evil_, are
already printed, and will be issued very shortly. I am quite conscious that
the references in the margin are by no means complete: indeed, as I had
only _horæ subsecivæ_ to give to the work, I did not attempt to make them
so. {555} But I thought it might be useful to give a general indication of
the sources from which the writer drew, and therefore put in all that I
could find, without the expenditure of a great deal of time. Consequently I
fear that those I have omitted will not be found to be the most obvious.

I shall be glad to make a few remarks on some of the passages noticed by L.

P. 25.--Of this piece of carelessness--for which I do not the less feel
that I deserved a rebuke because L. has not administered it--I had already
been made aware by the kindness of a friend. I confess I had never heard of
Osorius, which is perhaps no great matter for wonder; but I looked for his
name both in Bayle and the catalogue of the library of the British Museum,
and by some oversight missed it. I have since found it in both. I cannot
help, however, remarking that this is a good example of the advantage of
noting _every_ deviation from the received text. Had I tacitly transposed
three letters of the word in question (a small liberty compared with some
that my predecessors have taken), my corruption of the text might have
passed unnoticed. I have not had much experience in these things; but if
the works of English writers in general have been tampered with by editors
as much as I have found the _Advancement_ and _Essays_ of Lord Bacon to be,
I fear they must have suffered great mutilation. I rather incline to think
it is the case, for I have had occasion lately to compare two editions of
Paley's _Horæ Paulinæ_, and I find great differences in the text. All this
looks suspicious.

P. 34.--I spent some time in searching for this passage in Aristotle, but I
could not discover it. I did not look elsewhere.

P. 60.--In the forthcoming edition of the _Essays_ I have referred to
Plutarch, _Gryll._, 1., which I incline to think is the passage Bacon had
in his mind. The passage quoted from Cicero I merely meant to point out for
comparison.

P. 146.--The passage quoted is from Sen. _ad Lucil._, 52.

P. 147.--_Ad Lucil._, 53.

P. 159.--_Ad Lucil._, 71.

Two or three other passages from Seneca will be found without any
reference. One of them, p. 13., "Quidam sunt tam umbratiles ut putent in
turbido esse quicquid in luce est," I have taken some pains to hunt for,
but hitherto without success. Another noticeable one, "Vita sine proposito
languida et vaga est," is from _Ep. ad Lucil._, 95.

For the reference to Aristotle I am much obliged. I was anxious to trace
all the quotations from Aristotle, but could not find this one.

P. 165.--I cannot answer this question. Is it possible that he was thinking
of St. Augustine? In the _Confessions_, i. 25., we kind the expression
_vinum erroris_.

P. 177.--No doubt Bacon had read the treatise of Sallust quoted, but my
impression is that he thought the proverb had grown out of the line in
Plautus.

P. 180.--I have searched again for "alimenta socordiæ," as it is quoted in
the _Colours of Good and Evil_, but cannot fix upon any passage from which
I can say it was taken, though there are many which might have suggested
it. One at p. 19. of the _Advancement_, which I missed at first, I have
since met with. It is from the _Cherson._, p. 106.

THOMAS MARKBY.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE.

_Test for a good Lens._--The generality of purchasers of photographic
lenses can content themselves with merely the following rules when they
buy. It ought to be achromatic, _i. e._ consisting of the usual two pieces
of crown and flint glass, that its curves are the most recommended, and
that it is free from bubbles: to ascertain the latter, hold the lens
between the finger and thumb of the right hand, much as an egg-merchant
examines an egg before a strong gas flame, and a little to the right of it;
this reveals every bubble, however small, and another kind of texture like
minute gossamer threads. If these are too abundant, it should not be
chosen; although the best lenses are never altogether free from these
defects, it is on the whole better to have one or two good-sized bubbles
than any density of texture; because it follows, that every inequality will
refract pencils of light out of the direction they ought to go; and as
bubbles do the same thing, but as they do not refract away so much light,
they are not of much consequence.

I believe if a lens is made as thin as it safely can be, it will be quicker
than a thicker one. I have two precisely the same focus, and one thinner
than the other; the thinner is much the quicker of the two. An apparently
indifferent lens should be tried with several kinds of apertures, till it
will take sharp pictures; but if no size of aperture can make it, or a
small aperture takes a very long time, it is a bad lens. M. Claudet, whose
long experience in the art has given him the requisite judgment, changes
the diameter of his lenses often during the day; and tries occasionally, in
his excellent plan, the places of the chemical focus: by this his time is
always nearly the same, and the results steady. As he is always free in
communicating his knowledge, he will, I think, always explain his method
when he is applied to. The inexperienced photographer is often too prone to
blame his lens when the failure proceeds more from the above causes. The
variation of the chemical focus during a day's work is often the cause of
disappointment: though it does not affect the landscape so much as the
portrait operator. {556}

If any one has a lens, the chemical and visual focus being different, his
only remedy is M. Claudet's method. And this method will also prove better
than any other way at present known of ascertaining whether a lens will
take a sharp picture or not. If, however, any plan could be devised for
making the solar spectrum visible upon a sheet of paper inside the camera,
it would reduce the question of taking sharp pictures at once into a matter
of certainty.

All lenses, however, should be tried by the opticians who sell them; and if
they presented a specimen of their powers to a buyer, he could see in a
moment what their capabilities were.

WELD TAYLOR.

Bayswater.

_Photography and the Microscope_ (Vol. vii., p. 507.).--I beg to inform
your correspondents R. I. F. and J., that in Number 3. of the _Quarterly
Journal of Microscopical Science_ (Highley, Fleet Street) they will find
three papers containing more or less information on the subject of their
Query; and a plate, exhibiting two positive photographs from collodion
negatives, in the same number, will give a good idea of what they may
expect to attain in this branch of the art.

Practically, I know nothing of photography; but, from my acquaintance with
the modern achromatic microscope, I venture to say that photography applied
to this instrument will be of no farther use than as _an assistant to the
draughtsman_. A reference to the plates alluded to will show how
incompetent it is to produce _pictures_ of microscopic objects: any one who
has seen these objects under a good instrument will acknowledge that these
specimens give but a very faint idea of what the microscope actually
exhibits.

It is unfortunately the case, that the more perfect the instrument, the
less adapted it is for producing photographic pictures; for, in those of
the latest construction, the aperture of the object-glasses is carried to
such an extreme, that the observer is obliged to keep his hand continually
on the fine adjustment, in order to accommodate the focus to the different
_planes_ in which different parts of the object lie. This is the case even
with so low a power as the half-inch object-glasses, those of Messrs.
Powell and Lealand being of the enormous aperture of 65°; and if this is
the case while looking through the instrument when this disadvantage is
somewhat counteracted by the power which the eye has, to a certain degree,
of adjusting itself to the object under observation, how much more
inconvenient will it be found in endeavouring to focus the whole object at
once on the ground glass plate, where such an accommodating power no longer
exists. The smaller the aperture of the object-glasses, in reason, the
better they will be adapted for photographic purposes.

Again, another peculiarity of the object-glasses of the achromatic
microscope gives rise to a farther difficulty; they are over-corrected for
colour, the spectrum is reversed, or the violet rays are projected beyond
the red: this is in order to meet the requirements of the eye-piece. But
with the photographic apparatus the eye-piece is not used, so that, after
the object has been brought visually into focus in the camera, a farther
adjustment is necessary, in order to focus for the actinic rays, which
reside in the violet end of the spectrum. This is effected by withdrawing
the object-glass a little from the object, in which operation there is no
guide but experience; moreover, the amount of withdrawal differs with each
object-glass.

However, the inconvenience caused by this over-chromatic correction may, I
think, be remedied by the use of the achromatic condenser in the place of
an object-glass; that kind of condenser, at least, which is supplied by the
_first_ microscopic makers. I cannot help thinking that this substitution
will prove of some service; for, in the first place, the power of the
condenser is generally equal to that of a quarter of an inch object-glass,
which is perhaps the most generally useful of all the powers; and again,
its aperture is, I think, not usually so great as that which an
object-glass of the same power would have; and, moreover, as to correction,
though it is slightly spherically under-corrected to accommodate the
plate-glass under the object, yet the chromatic correction is _perfect_.
The condenser is easily detached from its "fittings," and its application
to the camera would be as simple as that of an ordinary object-glass.

However, my conviction remains that, in spite of all that perseverance and
science can accomplish, it never will be in the power of the photographer
to produce a picture of an object under the microscope, _equally distinct
in all its parts_; and unless his art can effect this, I need scarcely say
that his best productions can be but useful auxiliaries to the draughtsman.

I see by an advertisement that the Messrs. Highley supply everything that
is necessary for the application of photography to the microscope.

H. C. K.

---- Rectory, Hereford.

In reply to your correspondent J., I would ask if he has any photographic
apparatus? if so, the answer to his question "What extra apparatus is
required to a first-rate microscope in order to obtain photographic
microscopic pictures?" would be _None_; but if not, he would require a
camera, or else a wooden conical body, with plate-holder, &c., besides the
ordinary photographic outfit. Part III. of the _Microscopical Journal_,
published by Highley & Son, Fleet Street, will give him all the information
he requires. {557}

[phi]. (p. 506.) may find a solution of his difficulties regarding the
production of stereoscopic pictures, in the following considerations. The
object of having two pictures is to present to _each eye_ an image of what
it sees in nature; but as the angle subtended by a line, of which the
pupils of the eyes form the extremities, must differ for every distance,
and for objects of varying sizes, it follows there is no _absolute_ rule
that can be laid down as the only correct one. For _distant_ views there is
in nature scarcely any stereoscopic effect; and in a photographic
stereoscopic view the effect produced is not really a representation to the
eye of the _view itself_, but of _a model of such view_; and the apparent
size of the model will vary with the angle of incidence of the two
pictures, being _smaller_ and _nearer_ as the angle increases. I believe
Professor Wheatstone recommends for landscapes 1 in 25, or about half an
inch to every foot.

GEO. SHADBOLT.

_Cement for Glass Baths._--In reply to numerous inquiries which have
appeared in "N. & Q." relative to a good cement for making glass baths for
photographic purposes, I send a recipe which I copied a year or two ago
from some newspaper, and which seems likely to answer the purpose: I have
not tried it myself, not being a photographer.

Caoutchouc 15 grains, chloroform 2 ounces, mastic ½ an ounce. The two
first-named ingredients are to be mixed first, and after the gum is
dissolved, the mastic is to be added, and the whole allowed to macerate for
a week. When great elasticity is desirable, more caoutchouc may be added.
This cement is perfectly transparent, and is to be applied with a brush
cold.

H. C. K.

---- Rectory, Hereford.

_Mr. Lyte's Mode of Printing._--All persons who have experienced
disappointment in the printing of their positive pictures will feel obliged
by MR. LYTE'S suggestion as to the bath; but as the preparation of the
positive paper has also a great deal to say to the ultimate result, MR.
LYTE would confer an additional obligation if he gave the treatment he
adopts for this.

I have observed that the negative collodion picture exercises a good deal
of influence on the ultimate colour of the positive, and that different
collodion negatives will give different results in this respect, when the
paper and treatment with each has been precisely the same. Does this
correspond with other persons' experience?

C. E. F.

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Eulenspiegel or Ulenspiegel_ (Vol. vii., pp. 357. 416. 507.).--MR. THOMS'S
suggestion, and his quotation in proof thereof from the Chronicler, are
farther verified by the following inscription and verses which I transcribe
from an engraved portrait of the famous jester:

"Ulenspiegel.

    "Ligt Begraben zu Dom in Flandern in der grosen Kirch, auf dem
    Grabister also Likend abgebildet. Starb A^o. 1301."

These lines are above the portrait, and beneath it are the verses next
following:

 "Tchau _Ulenspiegeln_ hier. Das Bildniss macht dich lachen:
  Was wurdst du thun siehst du jhn selber Possen machen?
    Zwar _Thÿle_ ist ein Bild und _Spiegel_ dieser Welt,
  Viel Bruder er verliess; Wir treiben Narretheÿen,
  In dem uns dunckt, dass wir die grosten Weysen seÿen,
    Drum lache deiner selbst; diss Blat dich dir vorstellt."

The portrait, evidently that of a man of large intellect, is very
life-like, and full of animation. He seems to be some fifty years of age or
so; he has a cap, ornamented by large feather, on his head. He is seated in
a chair, has a book in his hand, and is attired in a kind of magisterial
robe bordered with fur. There is a good-humoured roguish twinkle in his
eyes; and I should be inclined to call him, judging from the portrait
before me, an epigrammatist rather than mere vulgar jester. The engraving
is beautifully executed: it has neither date nor place of publication, but
its age may perhaps be determined by the names of the painter (Paulus
Furst) and engraver (P. Troschel). The orthography is by no means of recent
date. I cannot translate the verses to my own satisfaction; and should feel
much obliged if you, MR. EDITOR, or MR. THOMS, would favour the readers of
"N. & Q." with an English version thereof.

HENRY CAMPKIN.

Reform Club.

_Lawyers' Bags_ (Vol. vii., pp. 85. 144.).--Colonel Landman is doubtless
correct in his statement as to the colour of barristers' bags; but from the
evidence of A TEMPLAR and CAUSIDICUS, we must place the change from green
to red at some period anterior to the trial of Queen Caroline. In Queen
Anne's time they were _green_.

    "I am told, Cousin Diego, you are one of those that have undertaken to
    manage me, and that you have said you will carry a _green bag_
    yourself, rather than we shall make an end of our lawsuit: I'll teach
    them and you too to manage."--_The History of John Bull_, by Dr.
    Arbuthnot, Part I. ch. xv.

T. H. KERSLEY, B. A.

Audlem, Cheshire.

_"Nine Tailors make a Man"_ (Vol. vi., pp. 390. 563.; Vol. vii., p.
165.).--The origin of this saying is to be sought for elsewhere than in
England only. Le Conte de la Villemarqué, in his {558} interesting
collection of Breton ballads, _Barzas-Breiz_, vol. i. p. 35., has the
following passage:

    "Les tailleurs, cette classe vouée au ridicule, en Bretagne, comme dans
    le pays de Galles, en Irlande, en Ecosse, en Allemagne et ailleurs, et
    qui l'était jadis chez toutes les nations guerrières, dont la vie
    agitée et errante s'accordait mal avec une existence casanière et
    paisible. Le peuple dit encore de nos jours en Bretagne, _qu'il faut
    neuf tailleurs pour faire un homme_, et jamais il ne prononce leur nom,
    sans ôter son chapeau, et sans dire: 'Sauf votre respect.'"

The saying is current also in Normandy, at least in those parts which
border on Britany. Perhaps some of the readers of "N. & Q." may be able to
say whether it is to be found in other parts of Europe.

HONORÉ DE MAREVILLE.

Guernsey.

_"Time and I"_ (Vol. vii., pp. 182. 247.).--Arbuthnot calls it a Spanish
proverb. In the _History of John Bull_, we read among the titles of other
imaginary chapters in the "Postscript," that of--

    "Ch. XVI. Commentary upon the _Spanish_ Proverb, _Time and I against
    any Two_; or Advice to Dogmatical Politicians, exemplified in some New
    Affairs between John Bull and _Lewis Baboon_."

T. H. KERSLEY, B. A.

Audlem, Cheshire.

_Carr Pedigree_ (Vol. vii., pp. 408. 512.).--W. ST. says that William Carr
married Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Sing, Bishop of Cork. The name is
Synge, not Sing. The family name was originally Millington, and was changed
to Synge by Henry VIII. or Queen Elizabeth, on account of the sweetness of
the voice of one of the family, who was a clergyman, and the ancestor of
George Synge, Bishop of Cloyne; Edward Synge, Bishop of Ross; Edward Synge,
Archbishop of Tuam; Edward Synge, Bishop of Leighlin and Ferns; Nicholas
Synge, Bishop of Killaloe; the late Sir Samuel Synge Hutchinson, Archdeacon
of Killala; and of the present Sir Edward Synge.

I cannot find that any of these church dignitaries had a daughter married
to Wm. Carr. Nicholas Synge, Bishop of Killaloe, left a daughter,
Elizabeth, who died unmarried in 1834, aged ninety-nine; but I cannot
discover that either of the other bishops of that family had a daughter
Elizabeth.

GULIELMUS.

_Campvere, Privileges of_ (Vol. vii., pp. 262. 440.).--What were these
privileges, and whence was the term derived?

    "Veria, quæ et Canfera, vel Campoveria potius dicitur, alterum est
    inter oppida hujus insulæ, muro et moenibus clausa, situ quidem ad
    aquilonem obversa, et in ipso oceani littore: fossam habet, quæ
    Middelburgum usque extenditur, à quâ urbe leucæ tantum unius, etc.

    "Estque oppidulum satis concinnum, et mercimoniis florens, maxime
    propter commercia navium _Scoticarum_, quæ in isto potissimum portu
    stare adsueverunt.

    "_Scotorum_ denique, superioribus annis, frequentatione celebris et
    _Scoticarum_ mercium, præcipue vellerum ovillorum, stapula, ut vocant,
    et emporium esse coepit."--L. Guicciardini, _Belgium_ (1646), vol. ii.
    pp. 67, 68.

Will J. D. S. be so good as to say where he found the "Campvere privileges"
referred to?

E.

_Haulf-naked_ (Vol. vii., p. 432.).--The conjecture that _Half-naked_ was a
manor in co. Sussex is verified by entries in _Cal. Rot. Pat._, 11 Edw. I.,
m. 15.; and 13 Edw. I., m. 18. Also in _Abbreviatio Rot. Orig._, 21 Edw.
III., _Rot._ 21.; in which latter it is spelt _Halnaked_.

J. W. S. R.

St. Ives, Hunts.

_Old Picture of the Spanish Armada_ (Vol. vii., p. 454.).--Although perhaps
this may not be reckoned an answer to J. S. A.'s Query on this head, I have
to inform you that in the steeple part of Gaywood Church near this town, is
a fine old painting of Queen Elizabeth reviewing the forces at Tilbury
Fort, and the Spanish fleet in the distance. It is framed, and sadly wants
cleaning.

J. N. C.

King's Lynn.

_Parochial Libraries_ (Vol. vi., p. 432., &c.).--We have in St. Margaret's
parish a parochial library, which is kept in a room fitted up near the
vestry of the church in this town.

J. N. C.

King's Lynn.

To the list of places where there are parochial libraries may be added
Bewdley, in Worcestershire. There is a small library in the Grammar School
of that place, consisting, if I recollect aright, mainly of old divinity,
under the care of the master: though it is true, for some years, there has
been no master.

S. S. S.

In the preface to the _Life of Lord Keeper Guilford_, by Roger North, it
appears that Dudleys youngest daughter of Charles, and granddaughter of
Dudley Lord North, dying,--

    "Her library, consisting of a choice collection of Oriental books, by
    the present Lord North and Grey, her only surviving brother, was given
    to the parochial library of Rougham in Norfolk, where it now remains."

This library then existed in 1742, the date of the first edition of the
work.

FURVUS.

St. James's.

_How to stain Deal_ (Vol. vii., p. 356.).--Your correspondent C. will find
that a solution of {559} asphaltum in boiling turpentine is a very good
stain to dye deal to imitate oak. This must be applied when cold with a
brush to the timbers: allowed to get dry, then size and varnish it.

The dye, however, which I always use, is a compound of raw umber and a
small portion of blue-black diluted to the shade required with strong size
in solution: this must be used hot. It is evident that this will not
require the preparatory sizing before the application of the varnish.
Common coal, ground in water, and used the same as any other colour, I have
found to be an excellent stain for roof timbers.

W. H. CULLINGFORD.

Cromhall, Gloucestershire.

_Roger Outlawe_ (Vol. vii., p. 332.).--Of this person, who was Lord Deputy
of Ireland for many years of the reign of Edward III., some particulars
will be found in the notes to the _Proceedings against Dame Alice Kyteler_,
edited for the Camden Society by Mr. Wright, p. 49. There is evidently more
than one misreading in the date of the extract communicated by the REV.
H. T. ELLACOMBE: "die pasche in viiij mense anno B. Etii post ultimum
conquestum hibernia quarto." I cannot interpret "in viiij mense;" but the
rest should evidently be "anno _Regis Edwardi tertii_ post ultimum
conquestum Hiberniæ quarto."

May I ask whether this "last conquest of Ireland" has been noticed by
palæographers in other instances?

ANON.

_Tennyson_ (Vol. vii., p. 84.).--Will not the following account by Lord
Bacon, in his _History of Henry VII._, of the marriage by proxy between
Maximilian, King of the Romans, and the Princess Anne of Britany,
illustrate for your correspondent H. J. J. his last quotation from
Tennyson?

                 "She to me
  Was proxy-wedded with a bootless calf,
  At eight years old."

    "Maximilian so far forth prevailed, both with the young lady and with
    the principal persons about her, as the marriage was consummated by
    proxy, with a ceremony at that time in these parts new. For she was not
    only publicly contracted, but stated, as a bride, and solemnly bedded;
    and after she was laid, there came in Maximilian's ambassador with
    letters of procuration, and in the presence of sundry noble personages,
    men and women, put his leg, stripped naked to the knee, between the
    espousal sheets," &c.

TYRO.

Dublin.

_Old Fogie_ (Vol. vii., p. 354.).--MR. KEIGHTLEY supposes the term of _old
fogie_, as applied to "mature old warriors," to be "of pure Irish origin,"
or "rather of Dublin birth." In this he is certainly mistaken, for the word
_fogie_, as applied to old soldiers, is as well known, and was once as
familiarly used in Scotland, as it ever was or could have been in Ireland.
The race was extinct before my day, but I understand that formerly the
permanent garrisons of Edinburgh, and I believe also of Stirling, Castles,
consisted of veteran companies; and I remember, when I first came to
Edinburgh, of people who had seen them, still talking of "the Castle
fogies."

Dr. Jamieson, in his _Scottish Dictionary_, defines the word "foggie or
fogie," to be first, "an invalid, or garrison soldier," secondly, "a person
advanced in life" and derives it from "Su. G. _fogde_, formerly one who had
the charge of a garrison."

This seems to me a more satisfactory derivation than MR. KEIGHTLEY'S, who
considers it a corruption or diminutive of _old folks_.

J. L.

City Chambers, Edinburgh.

_Errata corrigenda._--Vol. ii., p. 356. col. 2., near the bottom, for Sir
_William_ Jardine, read Sir _Henry_ Jardine. Sir William and Sir Henry were
very different persons, though the former was probably the more generally
known. Sir H. was the author of the report referred to.

Vol. vii., p. 441. col. 1. line 15, for _Lenier_ read _Ferrier_.

J. L.

City Chambers, Edinburgh.

_Anecdote of Dutens_ (Vol. vii., pp. 26. 390.).--

    "Lord Lansdowne at breakfast mentioned of Dutens, who wrote _Mémoires
    d'un Voyageur qui se repose_, and was a great antiquarian, that, on his
    describing once his good luck in having found (what he fancied to be) a
    tooth of Scipio's in Italy, some one asked him what he had done with
    it, upon which he answered briskly: 'What have I done with it? Le
    voici,' pointing to his mouth; where he had made it supplemental to a
    lost one of his own."--Moore's _Journal_, vol. iv. p. 271.

E. H. A.

_Gloves at Fairs_ (Vol. vii., p. 455.).--In Hone's _Every-day Book_ (vol.
ii. p. 1059.) is the following paragraph:--

    "EXETER LAMMAS FAIR.--The charter for this fair is perpetuated by a
    glove of immense size, stuffed and carried through the city on a very
    long pole, decorated with ribbons, flowers, &c., and attended with
    music, parish beadles, and the mobility. It is afterwards placed on the
    top of the Guildhall, and then the fair commences: on the taking down
    of the glove, the fair terminates.--P."

As to Crolditch, _alias_ Lammas Fair, at Exeter, see Izacke's _Remarkable
Antiquities of the City of Exeter_, pp. 19, 20.

C. H. COOPER.

Cambridge.

At Macclesfield, in Cheshire, a large glove was, perhaps is, always
suspended from the outside of the window of the town-hall during the
holding of a fair; and as long as the glove was so suspended, every one was
free from arrest within the {560} township, and, I have heard, while going
and returning to and from the fair.

EDWARD HAWKINS.

At Free Mart, at Portsmouth, a glove used to be hung out of the town-hall
window, and no one could be arrested during the fortnight that the fair
lasted.

F. O. MARTIN.

_Arms--Battle-axe_ (Vol. vii., p. 407.).--The families which bore three
Dane-axes or battle-axes in their coats armorial were very numerous in
ancient times. It may chance to be of service to your Querist A.C. to be
informed, that those of Devonshire which displayed these bearings were the
following: Dennys, Batten, Gibbes, Ledenry, Wike, Wykes, and Urey.

J. D. S.

_Enough_ (Vol. vii., p. 455.).--In Staffordshire, and I believe in the
other midland counties, this word is usually pronounced _enoo_, and written
_enow_. In Richardson's _Dictionary_ it will be found "enough or enow;" and
the etymology is evidently from the German _genug_, from the verb
_genugen_, to suffice, to be enough, to content, to satisfy. The
Anglo-Saxon is _genog_. I remember the burden of an old song which I
frequently heard in my boyish days:

 "I know not, I care not,
    I cannot tell how to woo,
  But I'll away to the merry green woods,
    And there get nuts _enow_."

This evidently shows what the pronunciation was when it was written.

J. A. H.

_Enough_ is from the same root as the German _genug_, where the first _g_
has been lost, and the latter softened and almost lost in its old English
pronunciation, _enow_. The modern pronunciation is founded, as that of many
other words is, upon an affected style of speech, ridiculed by
Holofernes.[4] The word _bread_, for example, is almost universally called
_bred_; but in Chaucer's poetry and indeed now in Yorkshire, it is
pronounced bré-äd, a dissyllable.

T. J. BUCKTON.

Birmingham.

[Footnote 4: The Euphuists are probably chargeable with this corruption.]

In Vol. vii., p. 455. there is an inquiry respecting the change in the
pronunciation of the word _enough_, and quotations are given from Waller,
where the word is used, rhyming with _bow_ and _plough_. But though spelt
_enough_, is not the word, in both places, really _enow_? and is there not,
in fact, a distinction between the two words? Does not _enough_ always
refer to _quantity_, and _enow_ to _number_: the former, to what may be
_measured_; the latter, to that which may be _counted_? In both quotations
the word _enough_ refers to _numbers_?

S. S. S.

_Feelings of Age_ (Vol. vii., p. 429.).--A.C. asks if it "is not the
general feeling, that man in advancing years would not like to begin life
again?" I fear not. It is a wisdom above the average of what men possess
that made the good Sir Thomas Browne say:

    "Though I think no man can live well once, but he that could live
    twice, yet for my own part I would not live over my hours past, or
    begin again the thread of my dayes: not upon Cicero's ground--because I
    have lived them well--but for fear I should live them worse. I find my
    growing judgment daily instruct me how to be better, but my untamed
    affections and confirmed vitiosity make me daily do worse. I find in my
    confirmed age the same sins I discovered in my youth; I committed many
    then, because I was a child, and, because I commit them still, I am yet
    an infant. Therefore I perceive a man may be twice a child before the
    days of dotage, and stand in need of Æson's bath before threescore."

The annotator refers to _Cic._, lib. xxiv. ep. 4.:

    "Quod reliquum est, sustenta te, mea Terentia, ut potes, honestissimè.
    Viximus: floruimus: non vitium nostrum, sed virtus nostra, nos
    afflixit. Peccatum est nullum, nisi quod non unâ animam cum ornamentis
    amisimus."--Edit. Orell., vol. iii. part i. p. 335.

However, it seems probable that Sir Thomas meant that this sentiment is
rather to be gathered from Cicero's writings,--not enunciated in a single
sentence.

H. C. K.

---- Rectory, Hereford.

_Optical Query_ (Vol. vii., p. 430.).--In reply to the optical Query by
H. H., I venture to suggest that a stronger gust of wind than usual might
easily occasion the illusion in question, as I myself have frequently found
in looking at the fans on the tops of chimneys. Or possibly the eyes may
have been confused by gazing on the revolving blades, just as the tongue is
frequently influenced in its accentuation by pronouncing a word of two
syllables in rapid articulations.

F. F. S.

Oxford.

_Cross and Pile_ (Vol. vii., p.487.).--Here is another explanation at least
as satisfactory as some of the previous ones:

    "The word _coin_ itself is money struck on the _coin_ or head of the
    flattened metal, by which word _coin_ or _head_ is to be understood the
    _obverse_, the only side which in the infancy of coining bore the
    stamp. Thence the Latin _cuneus_, from _cune_ or _kyn_, the head.

    "This side was also called _pile_, in corruption from _poll_, a head,
    not only from the side itself being the _coin_ or _head_, but from its
    being impressed most commonly with some head in contradistinction to
    the reverse, which, in latter times, was oftenest a cross. Thence the
    vulgarism, _cross or pile, poll, head_."--Cleland's _Specimen of an
    Etymological Vocabulary_, p. 157.

A. HOLT WHITE.

{561}

_Capital Punishments_ (Vol. vii., pp. 52. 321.).--The authorities to which
W. L. N. refers not being generally accessible, he would confer a very
great obligation by giving the names and dates of execution of any of the
individuals alluded to by him, who have undergone capital punishment in
this country for exercising the Roman Catholic religion. Herein, it is
almost needless to remark, I exclude such cases as those of Babington,
Ballard, Parsons, Garnett, Campion, Oldcorne, and others, their fellows,
who suffered, as every reader of history knows, for treasonable practices
against the civil and christian policy and government of the realm.

COWGILL.

_Thomas Bonnell_ (Vol. vii., p. 305.).--In what year was this person, about
whose published _Life_ J. S. B. inquires, Mayor of Norwich? His name, as
such, does not occur in the lists of Nobbs, Blomefield, or Ewing.

COWGILL.

_Passage in the First Part of Faust_ (Vol. vii., p. 501.).--MR. W. FRASER
will find good illustrations of the question he has raised in his second
suggestion for the elucidation of this passage in _The Abbot_, chap. 15.
_ad fin._ and _note_.

A few weeks after giving this reference, in answer to a question by EMDEE
(see "N. & Q.," Vol. i., p. 262.; Vol. ii., p. 47.), I sent in English, for
I am not a German scholar, as an additional reply to EMDEE, the very same
passage that MR. FRASER has just forwarded, but it was not inserted,
probably because its fitness as an illustration was not very evident.

My intention in sending that second reply was to show that, as in
_Christabel_ and _The Abbot_, the voluntary and _sustained_ effort required
to introduce the evil spirit was of a physical, so in _Faust_ it was of a
mental character; and I confess that I am much pleased now to find my
opinion supported by the accidental testimony of another correspondent.

It must, however, be allowed that the peculiar wording of the passage under
consideration may make it difficult, if not impossible, to separate
_earnest_ from the _magical_ form in which Faust's command to enter his
room is given. Göthe's intention, probably, was to combine and illustrate
both.

As proofs of the belief in the influence of the number _three_ in
incantation, I may refer to Virg. _Ecl._ viii. 73--78.; to a passage in
Apuleius, which describes the resuscitation of a corpse by Zachlas, the
Egyptian sorcerer;

    "Propheta, sic propitiatus, herbulam quampiam ter ob os corporis, et
    aliam pectori ejus imponit."--Apul. _Metamorph._, lib. ii. sect. 39.
    (Regent's Classics);

and to the rhyming spell that raised the White Lady of Avenel at the Corrie
nan Shian. (See _The Monastery_, chaps. xi. and xvii.)

C. FORBES.

_Sir Josias Bodley_ (Vol. vii., p. 357.).--Your correspondent Y. L. will
find some account of the family of Bodley in Prince's _Worthies of Devon_,
edit. 1810, pp. 92-105., and in Moore's _History of Devon_, vol. ii. pp.
220-227. See also "N. & Q.," Vol. iv., pp. 59. 117. 240.

J. D. S.

_Claret_ (Vol. vii., p. 237.).--The word _claret_ is evidently derived
directly from the French word _clairet_; which is used, even at the present
day, as a generic name for the "_vins ordinaires_," of a light and thin
quality, grown in the south of France. The name is never applied but to red
wines; and it is very doubtful whether it takes its appellation from any
place, being always used adjectively--"_vin clairet_," not _vin_ de
_clairet_. I am perhaps not quite correct in stating, that the word is
always used as an adjective; for we sometimes find _clairet_ used alone as
a substantive; but I conceive that in this case the word _vin_ is to be
understood, as we say "du Bordeaux," "du Champagne," meaning "du vin de
Bordeaux," "du vin de Champagne." _Eau clairette_ is the name given to a
sort of cherry-brandy; and lapidaries apply the name _clairette_ to a
precious stone, the colour of which is not so deep as it ought to be. This
latter fact may lead one to suppose that the wine derived its name from
being _clearer_ and lighter in colour than the more full-bodied vines of
the south. The word is constantly occurring in old drinking-songs. A song
of Olivier Basselin, the minstrel of Vire, begins with these words:

 "Beau nez, dont les rubis out coûté mainte pipe
    De vin blanc et clairet."

By the way, this song is the original of one in the musical drama of _Jack
Sheppard_, which many of the readers of "N. & Q." may remember, as it
became rather popular at the time. It began thus:

 "Jolly nose, the bright gems that illumine thy tip,
    Were dug from the mines of Canary."

I am not aware that the plagiarism has been noticed before.

HONORÉ DE MAREVILLE.

Guernsey.

       *       *       *       *       *


Miscellaneous.

NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.

Now that the season is arriving for the sportsman, angler, yachtsman, and
lover of nature to visit the wild and solitary beauties of _Gamle Norge_,
nothing could be better timed than the pleasant gossiping _Month in
Norway_, by J. G. Holloway, which forms this month's issue of Murray's
_Railway Library_; or the splendidly illustrated _Norway and its Scenery_,
comprising the _Journal of a Tour_ by Edward Price, Esq., and a _Road Book
for Tourists, with Hints to Anglers and Sportsmen_, edited by T. Forster,
Esq., which forms the new number of Bohn's _Illustrated Library_, and {562}
which is embellished with a series of admirable views by Mr. Price, from
plates formerly published at a very costly price, but which, in this new
form, are now to be procured for a few shillings.

As the Americans have been among the most successful photographic
manipulators, we have looked with considerable interest at a work devoted
to the subject which has just been imported from that country, _The History
and Practice of the Art of Photography, &c._, by Henry H. Snelling, _Fourth
Edition_; and though we are bound to admit that it contains many hints and
notes which may render it a useful addition to the library of the
photographer, we still must pronounce it as a work put together in a loose,
unsatisfactory manner, and as being for the most part a compilation from
the best writers in the Old World.

When Dr. Pauli's _Life of Alfred_ made its appearance it received, as it
deserved, our hearty commendation. We have now to welcome a translation of
it, which has just been published in Bohn's _Antiquarian Library_,--_The
Life of Alfred the Great, translated from the German of Dr. Pauli; to which
is appended Alfred's Anglo-Saxon Version of Orosius, with a literal English
Translation, and an Anglo-Saxon Alphabet and Glossary by_ Benjamin Thorpe;
and it speaks favourably for the spread of the love of real learning, that
it should answer the publisher's purpose to put forth such a valuable book
in so cheap and popular a form. Mr. Thorpe's scholarship is too well known
to require recognition at our hands.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_Remains of Pagan Saxondom, principally from Tumuli in
England, by_ J. Y. Akerman. The present number contains coloured engravings
of the _Umbo of Shield and Weapons found at Driffield_, and of a _Bronze
Patera from a Cemetery at Wingham, Kent_.--_Gervinus' Introduction to the
History of the Nineteenth Century_. Apparently a carefully executed
translation of Dr. Gervinus' now celebrated brochure issued by Mr. Bohn;
who has, in his _Standard Library_, given us a new edition of _De Lolme on
the Constitution_, with notes by J. Macgregor, M.P.; and in his _Classical
Library_ a translation by C. D. Yonge of _Diogenes Laertius' Lives and
Opinions of the Ancient Philosophers_.

       *       *       *       *       *


BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES WANTED TO PURCHASE.

WALKER'S LATIN PARTICLES.

HERBERT'S CAROLINA THRENODIA. 8vo. 1702.

THEOBALD'S SHAKSPEARE RESTORED. 4to. 1726.

SCOTT, REMARKS ON THE BEST WRITINGS OF THE BEST AUTHORS (or some such
title).

SERMONS BY THE REV. ROBERT WAKE, M.A. 1704, 1712, &c.

HISTORY OF ANCIENT WILTS, by SIR R. C. HOARE. The last three Parts.

REV. A. DYCE'S EDITION OF DR. RICHARD BENTLEY'S WORKS. Vol. III. Published
by Francis Macpherson, Middle Row, Holborn. 1836.

DISSERTATION ON ISAIAH XVIII., IN A LETTER TO EDWARD KING, ESQ., by SAMUEL
LORD BISHOP OF ROCHESTER (HORSLEY). The Quarto Edition, printed for Robson.
1779.

BEN JONSON'S WORKS. 9 Vols. 8vo. Vols. II., III., IV. Bds.

SIR WALTER SCOTT'S NOVELS. 41 Vols. 8vo. The last nine Vols. Boards.

* * * _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names._

* * * Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Notices to Correspondents.

_We are compelled to postpone until next week many interesting articles
which are in type, and many Replies to Correspondents._

MR. RILEY'S _Reply to the_ REV. MR. GRAVES' _notice of_ Hoveden _did not
reach us in time for insertion this week._

I. A. N. (93rd Highlanders.) _Several correspondents, as well as yourself,
complain of the difficulty of obtaining amber varnish. There are several
Eastern gums which much resemble amber, as also a substance known as
"Highgate resin." Genuine amber, when rubbed together, emits a very
fragrant odour similar to a fresh lemon, and does not abrade the surface.
The fictitious amber, on the contrary, breaks or becomes rough, and has a
resinous turpentine-like smell. Genuine amber is to be obtained generally
of the tobacconists, who have often broken mouth-pieces by them: old
necklaces, now out of use, are sold at a very moderate price by the
jewellers. The amber of commerce, used in varnish-making, contains so much
impurity that the waste of chloroform renders it very undesirable to use.
The amber should be pounded in a mortar, and, to an ounce by_ measure _of
chloroform, add a drachm and a half of amber (only about one-fourth of it
will be dissolved), and this requires two days' maceration. It should be
filtered through fine blotting-paper. Being so very fluid, it runs most
freely over the collodion, and, when well prepared and applied, renders the
surface so hard, and so much like the glass, that it is difficult to know
on which side of the glass the positive really is. The varnish is to be
obtained properly made at from_ 2s. _to_ 2s. 6d. _per ounce; and although
this appears dear, it is not so in use, so very small a portion being
requisite to effectually cover a picture; and the effects exceed every
other application with which we are acquainted,--to say nothing of its_
instantaneously _becoming hard, in itself a most desirable requisite._

---- (Islington). _Your note has been mislaid, but in all probability the
spots in your collodion would be removed by dipping into the bottle a small
piece of iodide of potassium. Collodion made exactly as described by_ DR.
DIAMOND _in_ "N. & Q.," _entirely answers our expectations, and we prefer
it, for our own use, to any we have ever been able to procure._

J. M. S. (Manchester) _shall receive a private communication upon his
Photographic troubles. We must, however, refer him to our advertising
columns for pure chemicals. Ether ought not to exceed_ 5s. 6d. _the pint of
twenty ounces._

_A few complete sets of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. _to_ vi., _price
Three Guineas, may now be had; for which early application is desirable._

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday._

       *       *       *       *       *


This day is published,

PICTORIAL ILLUSTRATIONS of the Catalogue of Manuscripts in Gonville and
Caius College Library. Selected by the REV. J. J. SMITH. Being Facsimiles
of Illumination, Text, and Autograph, done in Lithograph, 4to. size, with
Letter-press Description in 8vo., as Companion to the published Catalogue,
price 1l. 4s.

A few copies may be had of which the colouring of the Plates is more highly
finished. Price 1l. 10s.

Cambridge: JOHN DEIGHTON.

London: GEORGE BELL.

       *       *       *       *       *


OFFICERS' BEDSTEADS AND BEDDING.

HEAL & SON beg to call the Attention of Gentlemen requiring Outfits to
their large stock of Portable Bedsteads, Bedding, and Furniture, including
Drawers, Washstands, Chairs, Glasses, and every requisite for Home and
Foreign Service.

HEAL & SON, Bedstead and Bedding Manufacturers, 196. Tottenham Court Road.

       *       *       *       *       *


TO PARENTS, GUARDIANS, RESIDENTS IN INDIA, &C.--A Lady residing within an
hour's drive westward of Hyde Park, and in a most healthy and cheerful
situation, is desirous of taking the entire charge of a little girl, to
share with her only child (about a year and a half old) her maternal care
and affection, together with the strictest attention to mental training.
Terms, including every possible expense except medical attendance, 100l.
per annum. If required, the most unexceptionable references can be
furnished.

Address to T. B. S., care of MR. BELL, Publisher, 186, Fleet Street. {563}

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC SCHOOL.--ROYAL POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTION.

The SCHOOL is NOW OPEN for instruction in all branches of Photography, to
Ladies and Gentlemen, on alternate days, from Eleven till Four o'clock,
under the joint direction of T. A. MALONE, Esq., who has long been
connected with Photography, and J. H. PEPPER, Esq., the Chemist to the
Institution.

A Prospectus, with terms, may be had at the Institution.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for the delicacy of detail rival the
choicest Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their
Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHY.--Collodion (Iodized with the Ammonio-Iodide of Silver).--J. B.
HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, were the first in England who
published the application of this agent (see _Athenæum_, Aug. 14th). Their
Collodion (price 9d. per oz.) retains its extraordinary sensitiveness,
tenacity, and colour unimpaired for months: it may be exported to any
climate, and the Iodizing Compound mixed as required. J. B. HOCKIN & CO.
manufacture PURE CHEMICALS and all APPARATUS with the latest Improvements
adapted for all the Photographic and Daguerreotype processes. Cameras for
Developing in the open Country. GLASS BATHS adapted to any Camera. Lenses
from the best Makers. Waxed and Iodized Papers, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, price 1s., free by Post 1s. 4d.,

THE WAXED-PAPER PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS of GUSTAVE LE GRAY'S NEW EDITION.
Translated from the French.

Sole Agents in the United Kingdom for VOIGHTLANDER & SON'S celebrated
Lenses for Portraits and Views.

General Depôt for Turner's, Whatman's, Canson Frères', La Croix, and other
Talbotype Papers.

Pure Photographic Chemicals.

Instructions and Specimens in every Branch of the Art.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's,
Sanford's, and Canson Frères' make, Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's Process.
Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions
(comprising Views in VENICE, PARIS, RUSSIA, NUBIA, &c.) may be seen at
BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured Apparatus of
every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of Photography in
all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLERICAL, MEDICAL, AND GENERAL LIFE ASSURANCE SOCIETY.

       *       *       *       *       *

Established 1824.

       *       *       *       *       *

FIVE BONUSES have been declared: at the last in January, 1852, the sum of
131,125l. was added to the Policies, producing a Bonus varying with the
different ages from 24½ to 55 per cent. on the Premiums paid during the
five years, or from 5l. to 12l. 10s. per cent. on the Sum Assured.

The small share of Profit divisible in future among the Shareholders being
now provided for, the ASSURED will hereafter derive all the benefits
obtainable from a Mutual Office, WITHOUT ANY LIABILITY OR RISK OF
PARTNERSHIP.

POLICIES effected before the 30th June next, will be entitled, at the next
Division, to one year's additional share of Profits over later Assurers.

On Assurances for the whole of Life only one half of the Premiums need be
paid for the first five years.

INVALID LIVES may be Assured at rates proportioned to the risk.

Claims paid _thirty_ days after proof of death, and all Policies are
_Indisputable_ except in cases of fraud.

Tables of Rates and forms of Proposal can be obtained of any of the
Society's Agents, or of

GEORGE H. PINCKARD, Resident Secretary.

_99. Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, London._

       *       *       *       *       *


CITY OF LONDON LIFE ASSURANCE SOCIETY,  2. Royal Exchange Buildings,
London.

Subscribed Capital, a Quarter of a Million.

          _Trustees._

  Mr. Commissioner West, Leeds.
  The Hon. W. F. Campbell, Stratheden House.
  John Thomas, Esq., Bishop's Stortford.

This Society embraces every advantage of existing Life Offices, viz. the
Mutual System without its risks of liabilities: the Proprietary, with its
security, simplicity, and economy: the Accumulative System, introduced by
this Society, uniting life with the convenience of a deposit bank:
Self-Protecting Policies, also introduced by this Society, embracing by one
policy and one rate of premium a Life Assurance, an Endowment, and a
Deferred Annuity. No forfeiture. Loans with commensurate Assurances. Bonus
recently declared, 20 per Cent.

EDW. FRED. LEEKS, Secretary.

       *       *       *       *       *


SPECTACLES.--WM. ACKLAND applies his medical knowledge as a Licentiate of
the Apothecaries' Company, London, his theory as a Mathematician, and his
practice as a Working Optician, aided by Smee's Optometer, in the selection
of Spectacles suitable to every derangement of vision, so as to preserve
the sight to extreme old age.

ACHROMATIC TELESCOPES, with the New Vetzlar Eye-pieces, as exhibited at the
Academy of Sciences in Paris. The Lenses of these Eye-pieces are so
constructed that the rays of light fall nearly perpendicular to the surface
of the various lenses, by which the aberration is completely removed; and a
telescope so fitted gives one-third more magnifying power and light than
could be obtained by the old Eye-pieces. Prices of the various sizes on
application to

WM. ACKLAND, Optician, 93. Hatton Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION, No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 Guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen.

65. CHEAPSIDE.

       *       *       *       *       *


WESTERN LIFE ASSURANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY.

3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON.

Founded A.D. 1842.

  _Directors._

  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.
  W. Cabell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M. P.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
  T. Grissell, Esq.
  J. Hunt, Esq.
  J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  E. Lucas, Esq.
  J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  J. B. White, Esq.
  J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  _Trustees._

  W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; L. C. Humfrey, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq.
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE.

POLICES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age      _£  s.  d._
   17       1  14   4
   22       1  18   8
   27       2   4   5
   32       2  10   8
   37       2  18   6
   42       3   8   2

ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., Actuary.

Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions.
INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a TREATISE ON BENEFIT BUILDING
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


WINSLOW HALL, BUCKS.

DR. LOVELL'S SCHOLASTIC ESTABLISHMENT (exclusively for the Sons of
Gentlemen) was founded at Mannheim in 1836, under the Patronage of H. R. H.
the GRANDE DUCHESSE STEPHANIE of Baden, and removed to Winslow in 1848. The
Course of Tuition includes the French and German Languages, and all other
Studies which are Preparatory to the Universities, the Military Colleges,
and the Army Examination. The number of Pupils is limited to Thirty. The
Principal is always in the Schoolroom, and superintends the Classes. There
are also French, German, and English resident Masters. Prospectus and
References can be had on application to the Principal. {564}

       *       *       *       *       *


TO ALL WHO HAVE FARMS OR GARDENS.

THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE AND AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE.

(The Horticultural Part edited by PROF. LINDLEY)

Of Saturday, May 28, contains Articles on

  Agriculture, history of
  Agricultural machinery, by Mr. Mechi
  ---- statistics, by Mr. Watson
  Birds, names of, by Mr. Holt
  Bottles, preserve, by Mr. Cuthill
  Calendar, horticultural
  ----, agricultural
  Chemical work nuisance
  Dahlia, the, by Mr. M^cDonald
  Draining swamps, by Mr. Dumolo
  Drill seeding, advantages of
  Dropmore Gardens
  Exhibition of 1851, estate purchased by commissioners of (with engraving)
  Frost, plants injured by, by Mr. Whiting
  Gardening, kitchen
  Grapes, colouring of
  Heating, gas, (with engraving)
  Land, transfer of
  Law relating to land
  ---- of leases, by Dr. Mackenzie
  ---- of fixtures, French
  Manchester and Liverpool Agricultural Society's Journal, rev.
  Machinery, agricultural, by Mr. Mechi
  Mangold wurzel, by Mr. Watson
  Musa Cavendishi
  Pipes, to coat, by Dr. Angus Smith
  Potatoes, curl in
  Potato disease
  Preserves, bottles for, by Mr. Cuthill
  Rhubarb wine, by Mr. Cuthill
  Root, crops on clay, by Mr. Wortley
  Royal Botanic Society, report of exhibition
  Seeding, advantages of drill
  Siphocampylus betulifolius
  Societies, proceedings of the Horticultural, Linnean, National
      Floricultural, Agricultural of England
  Sparkenhoe Farmers' Club
  Statistics, agricultural, by Mr. Watson
  Swamps, to drain, by Mr. Dumolo
  Tulips, Groom's
  Vegetables, culture of
  Water-pipe coating, by Dr. Angus Smith
  Winter, effects of, by Mr. Whiting
  Woods, management of

       *       *       *       *       *

THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE and AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE contains, in addition to
the above, the Covent Garden, Mark Lane, Smithfield, and Liverpool prices,
with returns from the Potato, Hop, Hay, Coal, Timber, Bark, Wool, and Seed
Markets, and a _complete Newspaper, with a condensed account of all the
transactions of the week_.

ORDER of any Newsvender. OFFICE for Advertisements, 5. Upper Wellington
Street, Covent Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


This day is published, Part III. of

LILLY'S CATALOGUE, containing a most extraordinary COLLECTION of RARE and
CURIOUS BLACK-LETTER ENGLISH BOOKS, printed in the Fifteenth Century,
particularly rich in Theology and Works relating to Controversial Theology,
and Historical Books, relating to the Reign of Queen Elizabeth and James I.
on the Jesuits, Seminary Priests, Roman Catholics, Mary Queen of Scots,
Martin Mar-Prelate Tracts, &c. &c., during this eventful period. Also, a
COLLECTION of HISTORICAL and ANTIQUARIAN BOOKS, in ENGLISH TOPOGRAPHY,
HERALDRY, HISTORY, ANTIQUITIES, &c. &c., in very fine state, in fine old
Russia and calf gilt bindings; besides a Selection of Rare and Curious
Books in English and Miscellaneous Literature, on sale, at the very
moderate prices affixed, by J. LILLY, 19. King Street, Covent Garden,
London.

The Catalogue will be forwarded to any Gentleman on the receipt of two
postage stamps; or the whole of Lilly's Catalogues for 1853 on the receipt
of twelve postage stamps.

*** J. LILLY would most respectfully beg the attention of Collectors and
Literary Gentlemen to the above Catalogue.

       *       *       *       *       *


NEW BOOKS PUBLISHED THIS DAY.

BRITANNIC RESEARCHES; or, New Facts and Rectifications of Ancient British
History. By the REV. BEALE POSTE, M.A. 8vo., pp. 448, with Engravings, 15s.
cloth.

A GLOSSARY OF PROVINCIALISMS in Use in the County of SUSSEX. By W. DURRANT
COPPER, F.A.S. 12mo., 3s. 6d. cloth.

A FEW NOTES ON SHAKSPEARE; with occasional Remarks on the Emendations of
the Manuscript-Corrector in Mr. Collier's Copy of the Folio, 1632. By the
REV. ALEXANDER DYCE. 8vo., 5s. cloth.

WILTSHIRE TALES, illustrative of the Dialect and Manners of the Rustic
Population of that County. By JOHN YONGE AKERMAN, Esq. 12mo., 2s. 6d.
cloth.

REMAINS OF PAGAN SAXONDOM, principally from Tumuli in England, described
and illustrated. By J. Y. AKERMAN, Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries.
Parts I. to V., 4to., 2s. 6d. each.

*** The Plates are admirably executed by Mr. Basire, and coloured under the
direction of the Author. It is a work well worthy the notice of the
Archæologist.

THE RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW; consisting of Criticisms upon, Analyses of, and
Extracts from Curious, Useful, and Valuable Old Books. 8vo. Nos. 1, 2, and
3, 2s. 6d. each. (No. 4., August 1.)

J. RUSSELL SMITH, 36. Soho Square.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF
FEMALE MUSICIANS,
_Established 1839, for the Relief of its distressed Members._

_Patroness_: Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen. _Vice-Patronesses_: Her
Royal Highness the Duchess of Kent, Her Royal Highness the Duchess of
Cambridge.

On FRIDAY EVENING, JUNE 10, 1853, at the HANOVER SQUARE ROOMS, will be
performed, for the Benefit of this Institution, A GRAND CONCERT of Vocal
and Instrumental Music.

_Vocal Performers_--Miss Birch, Miss Dolby, Miss Pyne, Miss Helen Taylor,
Mrs. Noble, and Miss Louisa Pyne. Madame F. Lablache and Madame Clara
Novello. Signor Gardoni, Mr. Benson, and Signor F. Lablache. Herr Pischek
and Herr Staudigl.

In the Course of the Concert, Madlle. Clauss will play one of her
celebrated Pianoforte Pieces. The Members of the Harp Union, Mr. T. H.
Wright, Herr Oberthür, and Mr. H. J. Trust, will perform the GRAND NATIONAL
FANTASIA for THREE HARPS, composed by Oberthür, as lately played at
Buckingham Palace, by command of Her Majesty.

THE BAND will be complete in every Department.--_Leader_, Mr. H. Blagrove.
_Conductor_, Mr. W. Sterndale Bennett.

The Doors will open at Seven o'Clock, and the Concert will commence at
Eight precisely.

Tickets, Half-a-Guinea each. Reserved Seats, One Guinea each. An Honorary
Subscriber of One Guinea annually, or of Ten Guineas at One Payment (which
shall be considered a Life Subscription), will be entitled to Two Tickets
of Admission, or One for a Reserved Seat, to every Benefit Concert given by
the Society. Donations and Subscriptions will be thankfully received, and
Tickets delivered, by the Secretary,

MR. J. W. HOLLAND, 13. Macclesfield St., Soho; and at all the Principal
Music-sellers.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE for JUNE contains the following articles:--1. The
Daughters of Charles I. 2. The Exiled Royal Family of England at Rome in
1736. 3. The Philopseudes of Lucian. 4. History of the Lead Hills and Gold
Regions of Scotland. 5. Survey of Hedingham Castle in 1592 (with two
Plates). 6. Layard's Discoveries in Nineveh and Babylon (with Engravings).
7. Californian and Australian Gold. 8. Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban:
Establishment of the Cloth Manufacture in England by Edward III.--St.
James's Park.--The Meaning of "Romeland."--The Queen's and Prince's
Wardrobes in London.--The Culture of Beet-root.--With Notes of the Month,
Reviews of New Publications, Historical Chronicle, and OBITUARY, including
Memoirs of Rear-Adm. Sir T. Fellowes, General Sir T. G. Montresor,
Lieut.-Gen. Sir Walter Gilbert, the Dean of Peterborough, Professor
Scholefield, James Roche, Esq., George Palmer, Esq., Andrew Lawson, Esq.,
W. F. Lloyd, Esq., &c. &c. Price 2s. 6d.

NICHOLS & SONS, 25. Parliament Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


MR. PARKER'S NEW MAGAZINE.

THE NATIONAL MISCELLANY.--NO. II. JUNE.

          CONTENTS.
  1. Public Picture Galleries.
  2. Poems by Alexander Smith.
  3. The Pawnbroker's Window.
  4. Notes and Emendations of Shakspeare.
  5. The Præraphaelites.
  6. Social Life in Paris--_continued_.
  7. The Rappists.
  8. Colchester Castle.
  9. Cabs and Cabmen.
  10. The Lay of the Hero.

_Price One Shilling._

London: JOHN HENRY PARKER.

       *       *       *       *       *


The Twenty-eighth Edition.

NEUROTONICS, or the Art of Strengthening the Nerves, containing Remarks on
the influence of the Nerves upon the Health of Body and Mind, and the means
of Cure for Nervousness, Debility, Melancholy, and all Chronic Diseases, by
DR. NAPIER, M.D. London: HOULSTON & STONEMAN. Price 4d., or Post Free from
the Author for Five Penny Stamps.

    "We can conscientiously recommend 'Neurotonics,' by Dr. Napier, to the
    careful perusal of our invalid readers."--_John Bull Newspaper, June 5,
    1852._

       *       *       *       *       *


GILBERT J. FRENCH,

BOLTON, LANCASHIRE,

RESPECTFULLY informs the Clergy, Architects, and Churchwardens, that he
replies immediately to all applications by letter, for information
respecting his Manufactures in CHURCH FURNITURE, ROBES, COMMUNION LINEN,
&c., &c., supplying full information as to Prices, together with Sketches,
Estimates, Patterns of Materials, &c., &c.

Having declined appointing Agents, MR. FRENCH invites direct communications
by Post, as the most economical and satisfactory arrangement. PARCELS
delivered Free by Railway.

       *       *       *       *       *


RECORD AND LITERARY AGENCY.--The advertiser, who has had considerable
experience in topography and genealogy, begs to offer his services to those
gentlemen wishing to collect information from the Public Record Offices, in
any branch of literature, history, genealogy, or the like, but who, from an
imperfect acquaintance with the documents preserved in those depositories,
are unable to prosecute their inquiries with satisfaction. Address by
letter, prepaid, to W. H. HART, New Cross, Hatcham, Surrey.

       *       *       *       *       *


Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, June 4,
1853.

       *       *       *       *       *


Corrections made to printed original.

p. 547 "probably gave no directions about his MSS." - "give" in original

p. 548 "The Unseen World; Communications with it, real and imaginary, &c.,
1850" - date printed as 1550, corrected by subsequent Erratum note

p. 549 "the Mexicans worshipped the cross as the god of rain" - "pain" in
the original, the quotation clearly indicates that "rain" is correct

p. 551 "in neither of these works is there any putting forth of his power"
- "in there any" in original

p. 553 "it is my intention to go;" - "in is my intention" in original





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