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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 189, June 11, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 189, June 11, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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generously made available by The Internet Library of Early

Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.




       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 189.]
Saturday, June 11, 1853.
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                   Page
    Tom Moore's First!                                 565
    Notes on several Misunderstood Words, by the Rev.
      W. R. Arrowsmith                                 566
    Verney Papers: the Capuchin Friars, &c., by Thompson
      Cooper                                           568
    Early Satirical Poem                               568
    The Letters of Atticus, by William Cramp           569

    MINOR NOTES:--Irish Bishops as English Suffragans--
        Pope and Buchanan--Scarce MSS. in the British
        Museum--The Royal Garden at Holyrood Palace--
        The Old Ship "Royal Escape"                    569

   "The Light of Brittaine"                           570

    MINOR QUERIES:--Thirteen an unlucky Number--
      Quotations--"Other-some" and "Unneath"--
      Newx, &c.--"A Joabi Alloquio"--Illuminations--
      Heraldic Queries--John's Spoils from Peterborough
      and Crowland--"Elementa sex." &c.--Jack and Gill:
      Sir Hubbard de Hoy--Humphrey Hawarden--"Populus
      vult decipi"--Sheriffs of Huntingdonshire and
      Cambridgeshire--Harris                           571

    Bishop Butler, by J. H. Markland, &c.              572
    Mitigation of Capital Punishment to Forgers        573
    Mythe _versus_ Myth, by Charles Thiriold      575
   "Inquiry into the State of the Union, by the Wednesday
      Club in Friday Street," by James Crossley        576
    Unpublished Epigram by Sir Walter Scott, by William
      Williams, &c.                                    576
    Church Catechism                                   577
    Jacob Bobart, &c., by Dr. E. F. Rimbault           578
   "Its," by W. B. Rye                                578
    Bohn's Edition of Hoveden, by Henry T. Riley       579
    Books of Emblems, by J. B. Yates, &c.              579

    PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:--Mr. Pollock's Directions
      for obtaining Positive Photographs upon
      albumenised Paper--Test for Lenses--Washing Collodion
      Pictures                                         581

    REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Cremonas--James Chaloner
      --Irish Convocation--St. Paul's Epistle to Seneca
      --Captain Ayloff--Plan of London--Syriac Scriptures
      --Meaning of "Worth"--Khond Fable--Collar of S3.
      --Chaucer's Knowledge of Italian--Pic Nic--Canker
      I"--Lowbell--Overseers of Wills--Detached Belfry
      Towers--Vincent Family, &c.                      582

    Books and Odd Volumes wanted                       586
    Notices to Correspondents                          586
    Advertisements                                     587

       *       *       *       *       *



It is now generally understood that the first poetic effusion of Thomas
Moore was entrusted to a publication entitled _Anthologia Hibernica_, which
held its monthly existence from Jan. 1793 to December 1794, and is now a
repertorium of the spirited efforts made in Ireland in that day to
establish periodical literature. The set is complete in four volumes: and
being anxious to see if I could trace the "fine Roman" hand of him whom his
noble poetic satirist, and after fast friend, Byron, styled the "young
Catullus of his day," I went to the volumes, and give you the result.

No trace of Moore appears in the volume containing the first six months of
the publication; but in the "List of Subscribers" in the second, we see
"_Master_ Thomas Moore;" and as we find this designation changed in the
fourth volume to "_Mr._ Thomas Moore, Trinity College, Dublin!" (a boy with
a black ribband in his collar, being as a collegian an "_ex officio_
man!"), we may take it for ascertained that we have arrived at the
well-spring of those effusions which have since flowed in such sparkling
volumes among the poetry of the day.

Moore's first contribution is easily identified; for it is prefaced by a
note, dated "Aungier Street, Sept. 11, 1793," which contains the usual
request of insertion for "_the attempts of a youthful muse_," &c., and is
signed in the semi-incognito style, "Th-m-s M--re;" the writer fearing,
doubtless, lest his fond mamma should fail to recognise in _his own copy_
of the periodical the performance of her little precocious Apollo.

This contribution consists of two pieces, of which we have room but for the
first: which is a striking exemplification (in subject at least) of
Wordsworth's aphorism, that "the child is father to the man." It is a
sonnet addressed to "Zelia," "_On her charging the author with writing too
much on Love!_" Who _Zelia_ was--whether a lineal ancestress of Dickens's
"Mrs. Harris," or some actual grown up young lady, who was teased by, and
tried to check the chirpings of the little {566} precocious singing
bird--does not appear: but we suspect the former, for this sonnet is
immediately followed by "A Pastoral Ballad!" calling upon some _Celia_
unknown to "pity his tears and complaint," &c., in the usual namby-pamby
style of these compositions. To any one who considers the smart,
_espiègle_, highly artificial style of "Tom Moore's" after compositions,
his "Pastoral Ballad" will be what Coleridge called his Vision, a
"psychological curiosity."

Passing on through the volumes, in the Number for February 1794 we find a
paraphrase of the Fifth Ode of Anacreon, by "Thomas Moore;" another short
poem in June 1794, "To the Memory of Francis Perry, Esq.," signed "T. M.,"
and dated "Aungier Street." These are all which can be identified by
outward and visible signs, without danger of mistake: but there are a
number of others scattered through the volumes which I conjecture may be
his; they are under different signatures, generally T. L., which may be
taken to stand for the _alias_ "Thomas Little," by which Moore afterwards
made himself so well known. There is an "Ode to Morning," in the Number for
March 1794, above the ordinary run of magazine poetry. And in the Number
for May following are "Imitations from the Greek" and Italian, all under
this same signature. And this last being derived from some words in
Petrarch's will, bequeathing his lute to a friend, is the more curious; and
may the more probably be supposed Moore's, as it contains a thought which
is not unlikely to have suggested in after years the idea of his celebrated
melody, entitled the "Bard's Legacy." The Number for Nov. 1794, last but
one in the fourth volume, contains a little piece on "Variety," which
independent of a T. M. signature, I would _almost swear_, from internal
evidence, to be Moore's; it is the last in the series, and indicates such
progress as two years might be supposed to give the youthful poet, from the
lack-a-daisical style of his first attempts, towards that light, brilliant,
sportive vein of humour in which he afterwards wrote "What the Bee is to
the Flowret," &c., and other similar compositions. I now give Moore's first
sonnet, including its footnote, reminding us of the child's usual
explanatory addition to his first drawing of some amorphous animal--"This
is a horse!" or "a bear!" as the case may be. Neither the _metre_ nor the
_matter_ would prepare us for the height to which the writer afterwards
scaled "the mountain's height of Parnassus:"

                 "TO ZELIA.

  (_On her charging the Author with writing too much on Love._)

 'Tis true my Muse to love inclines,
  And wreaths of Cypria's myrtle twines;
  Quits all aspiring, lofty views,
  And chaunts what Nature's gifts infuse:
  Timid to try the mountain's* height,
  Beneath she strays, retir'd from sight,
  Careless, culling amorous flowers;
  Or quaffing mirth in Bacchus' bowers.
  When first she raised her simplest lays
  In Cupid's never-ceasing praise,
    The God a faithful promise gave--
  That never should she feel Love's stings,
    Never to burning passion be a slave,
  But feel the purer joy _thy_ friendship brings.

          * Parnassus!"

If you think this fruit of a research into a now almost forgotten work,
which however contains many matters of interest (among the rest, "The
Baviad of Gifford"), worth insertion, please put it among "N. & Q.;" it may
incite others to look more closely, and perhaps trace other "disjecta
membra poetæ."

A. B. R.


       *       *       *       *       *


(_Continued from_ p. 544.)

Let no one say that a tithe of these instances would have sufficed. Whoever
thinks so, little understands the vitality of error. Most things die when
the brains are out: error has no brains, though it has more heads than the
hydra. Who could have believed it possible that after Steevens's heaped-up
proofs in support of the authentic reading, "_carded_ his state" (_King
Henry IV._, Act III. Scene 2.), Warburton's corruption, _'scarded_, i. e.
_discarded_, was again to be foisted into the text on the authority of some
nameless and apocryphal commentator? Let me be pardoned if I prefer
Shakspeare's genuine text, backed by the masterly illustrations of his
ablest glossarist, before the wishy-washy adulterations of Nobody: and as a
small contribution to his abundant avouchment of the original reading, the
underwritten passage may be flung in, by way of make-weight:

         "_Carded_ his state (says King Henry),
  _Mingled_ his royaltie with carping fooles."

    "Since which it hath been and is his daily practice, either to broach
    doctrinas novas et peregrinas, new imaginations never heard of before,
    or to revive the old and new dress them. And these--for that by
    themselves they will not utter--_to mingle and to card_ with the
    Apostles' doctrine, &c., that at the least yet he may so vent
    them."--One of the Sermons upon the Second Commandment, preached in the
    Parish Church of St. Giles, Cripplegate, on the Ninth of January, A.D.
    MDXCII.: Andrewes' Sermons, vol. v. p. 55. _Lib. Ang.-Cath. Theol._

       *       *       *       *       *

_Trash_, to shred or lop.--So said Steevens, alleging that he had met with
it in books containing directions for gardeners, published in the time of
{567} Queen Elizabeth. I fear his memory deceived him, or why should a man
of his sound learning afterwards incline to vail bonnet to the dogmatist
Warburton? whose knowledge of dogs, by the way, must have been marvellously
small, or he could never have imagined them to overtop one another in a
horizontal course. _Overrun_, _overshoot_, _overslip_, are terms in
hunting, _overtop_ never; except perchance in the vocabulary of the wild
huntsman of the Alps. _Trash_ occurs as a verb in the sense above given,
Act I. Sc. 2. of the _Tempest_: "Who t'aduance, and who to _trash_ for
over-topping." I have never met with the _verb_ in that sense elsewhere,
but overtop is evermore the appropriate term in arboriculture. To quote
examples of that is needless. Of it metaphorically applied, just as in
Shakspeare, take the following example:

    "Of those three estates, which swayeth most, that in a manner doth
    overtop the rest, and like a foregrown member depriveth the other of
    their proportion of growth."--Andrewes' Sermons, vol. v. p. 177., _Lib.
    Ang.-Cath. Theol._

Have we not the substantive _trash_ in the sense of shreddings, at p. 542.
book iii. of a _Discourse of Forest Trees_, by John Evelyn? The extract
that contains the word is this:

    "Faggots to be every stick of three feet in length, excepting only one
    stick of one foot long, to harden and wedge the binding of it; this to
    prevent the abuse, too much practised, of filling the middle part and
    ends with _trash_ and short sticks, which had been omitted in the
    former statute."

Possibly some of the statutes referred to by Evelyn may contain examples of
the verb. In the meantime it will not be impertinent to remark, that what
appears to be nothing more than a dialectic variety of the word, namely
_trouse_, is of every-day use in this county of Hereford for trimmings of
hedges; that it is given by Grose as a verb in use in Warwickshire for
trimming off the superfluous branches; and lastly, that it is employed as a
substantive to signify shreddings by Philemon Holland, who, if I rightly
remember, was many years head master of Coventry Grammar School:

    "Prouided alwaies, that they be paued beneath with stone; and for want
    thereof, laid with green willow bastons, and for default of them, with
    vine cuttings, or such _trousse_, so that they lie halfe a foot
    thicke."--The Seuenteenth Booke of Plinie's _Naturall History_, chap.
    xi. p. 513.: London, 1634.

_Trash_ no one denies to be a kennel term for hampering a dog, but it does
not presently follow that the word bore no other signification; indeed,
there is no more fruitful mother of confusion than homonomy.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Clamor_, to curb, restrain (the tongue):

 "_Clamor_ your tongues, and not a word more."
              _The Winter's Tale_, Act IV. Sc. 4.

Most judiciously does NARES reject Gifford's corruption of this word into
_charm_, nor will the suffrage of the "clever" old commentator one jot
contribute to dispel their diffidence of this change, whom the severe
discipline of many years' study, and the daily access of accumulating
knowledge, have schooled into a wholesome sense of their extreme
fallibility in such matters. Without adding any comment, I now quote, for
the inspection of learned and unlearned, the two ensuing extracts:

    "For Critias manaced and thretened hym, that onelesse he _chaumbreed_
    his tongue in season, ther should ere l[=o]g bee one oxe the fewer for
    hym."--_Apoptheymis of Erasmus_, translated by Nicolas Vdall,
    MCCCCCXLII, the First Booke, p. 10.

    "From no sorte of menne in the worlde did he refrein or _chaumbre_ the
    tauntying of his tongue."--_Id._, p. 76.

After so many Notes, one Query. In the second folio edition of Shakspeare
(my first folio wants the whole play), I find in _Cymbeline_, Act V. Sc.
3., the next beautiful passage:

 "_Post._ Still going? This is a lord: Oh noble misery
  To be ith' field, and aske what newes of me:
  To-day how many would have given their honors
  To have sav'd their carkasses? Tooke heele to doo't,
  And yet dyed too. I in mine owne woe charm'd,
  Could not find death, where I did heare him groane,
  Nor feele him where he strooke. Being an ugly monster,
 'Tis strange he hides him in fresh cups, soft beds,
  Sweet words; or hath moe ministers then we
  That draw his knives ith' war. Well I will finde him:
  For being now a favourer to the Britaine,
  No more a Britaine, I have resum'd againe
  The part I came in."

In the antepenultimate line, Britaine was more than a century ago changed
by Hanmer into Roman, therefore retained by Warburton, again rejected by
Steevens and Johnson, once more replaced by Knight and Collier, with one of
his usual happy notes by the former of the two, without comment by the
latter, finally left unnoticed by Dyce. My Query then is this. What amount
of obtuseness will disqualify a criticaster who itches to be tinkering and
cobbling the noblest passages of thought that ever issued from mortal
brain, while at the same time he stumbles and bungles in sentences of that
simplicity and grammatical clearness, as not to tax the powers of a
third-form schoolboy to explain?[1] If editors, commentators, {568}
critics, and all the countless throng who are ambitious to daub with their
un-tempered mortar, or scribble their names upon the most majestic edifice
of genius that the world ever saw, lack the little discernment necessary to
interpret aright the above extract from _Cymbeline_, for the last hundred
years racked and tortured in vain, let them at length learn henceforth to
distrust their judgment altogether.


P.S.--In article of No. 180. p. 353., a rather important misprint occurs,
viz. date of 4to. _King Richard II._ with unusual title-page, which should
be 1608, not 1605. Other little errors the reader may silently amend for

[Footnote 1: In a passage from L. L. L., lately winnowed in the pages of
"N. & Q.," divers attempts at elucidation (whereof not one, in my judgment,
was successful) having been made, it was gravely, almost magisterially
proposed by one of the disputants, to corrupt the concluding lines (MR.
COLLIER having already once before corrupted the preceding ones by
substituting a plural for a singular verb, in which lay the true key to the
right construction) by altering "their" the pronoun into "there" the
adverb, because (shade of Murray!) the commentator could not discover of
what noun "their" could possibly be the pronoun in these lines following:

 "When great things labouring perish in their birth,
  Their form confounded makes most form in mirth."

And it was left to MR. KEIGHTLEY to bless the world with the information
that it was "things."]

       *       *       *       *       *


In the appendix to _Notes of Proceedings in the Long Parliament_, by Sir
Ralph Verney, edited by Mr. Bruce for the Camden Society in 1845, are
"Notes written in a Cipher," which Mr. Bruce gives in the hope that the
ingenuity of some reader will discover their meaning. I venture thus to
decypher the same:

 "The Capuchin's house to be dissolued.
  No extracts of letters to be aloued in this house.
  The prince is now come to Greenhich three lette.
  Three greate ships staied in France.
  Gersea a letter from Lord S^t Albones.
  £11 per diem Hull.
  The king's answert to our petition about the militia.
  If a king offer to kil himselfe, wee must not only advise but wrest the
      weapon from.
  A similitude of a depilat.
  Consciences corrupted."

I ought to state that in one or two instances the wrong cypher has
evidently been used by mistake, and this has of course increased the
difficulty of decyphering the notes.

With reference to the note "The Capuchins' House to be dissolued," may I be
allowed to refer to the following votes in the House of Commons, of the
date 26th February, 1641-2:

    "Ordered, That Mr. Peard, Mr. Whistler, Mr. Reynolds, Mr. Pideaux, Mr.
    Selden, Mr. Young, Mr. Hill, do presently withdraw, to peruse the
    statutes now in force against priests and Jesuits.

    "Ordered, That Mr. Whittacre, Mr. Morley, do presently go to Denmarke

    "Resolved, That the Capuchines shall be forthwith apprehended and taken
    into safe custody by the Serjeant-at-Arms attending on this house; and
    there kept till this house take farther order."

The Capuchins were under the protection of the Queen Henrietta Maria;
Denmark House was the name by which Somerset House was at the period known.

Under date 2nd March, 1641-2, are the following entries in the Commons'

    "Mr. Holles brings this answer from the French Ambassador, That the
    Capuchins being sent hither by Articles of Treaty between the Two
    Crowns, he durst not of himself send them without Order from the King
    his Master, or the King and Queen here: And said farther, That the
    Queen had left an express Command for their stay here; and that he
    would be ever ready to do any good Office for this House, and to keep a
    good Correspondency between the Two Crowns; and if this House pleased,
    he would undertake to keep them safe Prisoners at Somersett House; and
    that the chapel there shall have the doors locked, and no Mass be said

    "Ordered, That Mr. Hollis do acquaint the French Ambassador, that this
    House doth accept of his Offer in securing the Persons of the
    Capuchins, till this House take farther Order: and that the Doors be
    locked, and made fast, at the Chapel at Somersett House; and that no
    Mass be said there.

    "Ordered, That the Lord Cramborne and Mr. Hollis shall acquaint the
    French Ambassador with the desires of this House, that the Capuchins be
    forthwith sent away; and to know if he will undertake to send them
    away; and, if he will, that then they be forthwith delivered unto him.

    "That Mr. Hollis do go up to the Lords, to acquaint them with the
    Resolutions of this House, concerning the Capuchins, and desire their
    Lordships' concurrence therein."

Some particulars of the proceedings of the parliament against the Capuchins
may be found in "Memoirs of the Mission in England of the Capuchin Friars
of the Province of Paris by Father Cyprian Gamache," in _The Court and
Times of Charles I._, vol. ii. pp. 344. 354.



       *       *       *       *       *


On the turning over the pages of an old printed copy of Durand's _Rationale
Divinorum Officiorus_, edited by Bonetus de locatellis bergomensis, and
printed at Lyons in 1506, by Natalis Brabam, for Jaques Huguetan, I found
the following copy of verses written on the fly-leaf. They are written in a
hand which I am inclined to assign to a date {569} not much later than that
of the book. There is no clue to the author. If they are thought worthy of
insertion in "N. & Q.," I beg to inquire, through the medium of your
columns, whether they are to be found in any collection of early English
poems? and whether the author is known?

The ungallant sentiment of the first three stanzas is obvious. The fourth
is not so plain; nor is its connexion with the others evident, though it is
written without anything to mark separation; and the word "finis" is placed
below it, as if to apply to the whole. I should be obliged if some one of
your readers would give some explanation of it.

W. H. G.


 "Wen [_sic_] nettylles in wynter bryngythe forthe rosses red,
  And a thorne bryngythe figges naturally,
  And grase berrythe appulles in every mede,
  And lorrel cherrys on his crope so hye,
  And okkys berrythe datys plentyusly,
  And kykkys gyvythe hony in superfluans,
  The put in women yower trust and confydenc.

 "When whythynges walke forrestys hartyse for to chase,
  And herrings in parkkys the hornnys boldly bloc,
  And marlyons[2] ... hernys in morrys doo unbrace,
  And gomards shut ryllyons owght of a crose boow,
  And goslyngs goo a howntyng the wolf to overthrow,
  And sparlyns bere sperrys and arms for defenc,
  Then put yn women yower trust and confydenc.

 "When sparrowes byld chorchys and styppyllys of a hyght,
  And corlewys carry tymber yn howsys for to dyght,
  Wrennys bere sakkys to the myll,
  And symgis[3] bryng butter to the market to sell,
  And wodcokkys were wodknyffys the crane for to kyll,
  And gryffyns to goslynges doo obedienc,
  Then put in women yower trust and confydenc.

 "O ye imps of Chynner, ye Lydgatys pene,
  With the spryght of bookkas ye goodly inspyrryd,
  Ye Ynglyshe poet, excydyng other men,
  With musyk wyne yower tong yn syrryd,
  Ye roll in yower rellatyvys as a horse immyrryd,
  With Ovyddes penner ye are gretly in favor,
  Ye bere boys incorne, God dyld yow for yower labor.

[Footnote 2: Merlin's hawks.]

[Footnote 3: Doubtful; but perhaps for syngies, an old name for the finch.]

       *       *       *       *       *


The editor of the _Grenville Papers_ has alluded to some "very judicious
and pertinent remarks in the 'N. & Q.'" respecting the Letters of Atticus,
and as most of your readers will probably agree with him that the
authenticity of these letters is "a curious and interesting question, and
one that deserves _very particular attention_," I beg to correct an error
into which he and others have fallen, as to the date when Junius ceased to
write under the signature Atticus. The Atticus forwarded by Junius to
George Grenville on the 19th October, 1768, was, there is every reason to
believe, the _last_ from the pen of that writer, who was then preparing to
come before the public in a more prominent character. When another
correspondent adopted the signature Atticus, Woodfall gave his readers
warning by inserting the following notice into the _Public Advertiser_:

    "The Address to the Freeholders of the county of Middlesex, signed
    _Atticus_, in our next. The Printer thinks it his duty to acquaint his
    readers that this letter is not by the same hand as some letters in
    this paper a little time since, under the signature _Atticus_."--_Pub.
    Ad._, March 19, 1769.

The printer took the like course when writers attempted to "impose upon the
public" by using the signatures Lucius and C., and then freely inserted
their letters; but when the same trick was tried with Junius, the printer
did not scruple to alter the signature, or reject the contribution as

The genuine Letters of Atticus have had a narrow escape lately of being
laughed out of their celebrity by writers in some of our most respectable
periodicals. The authenticity of these letters up to the 19th October,
1768, is now fully established. The undecided question of the authorship of
Junius requires that every statement should be carefully examined, and (as
far as possible) only well-authenticated facts be admitted as evidence in


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Irish Bishops as English Suffragans._--In compliance with the suggestion
of J. M. D. in your last volume, p. 385., I abridge from _The Record_ of
March 17th the following particulars:

    "At a recent meeting of the Archæolgical Society the Rev. W. Gunner
    stated that from a research among the archives of the bishops and of
    the college of Winchester, he had found that many Irish bishops, during
    the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, were merely titular bishops,
    bearing the titles of sees in Ireland, while they acted as suffragans
    to bishops in England. A Bishop of Achonry, for instance, appeared to
    have been frequently deputed by William of Wykeham to consecrate
    churches, and to perform other episcopal duties, in his diocese; and
    the Bishops of Achonry seemed frequently to have been suffragans of
    those of Winchester. No see exhibits more instances of this
    expatriation than Dromore, lying as it did in an unsettled and
    tumultuous country. Richard Messing, who succeeded to Dromore bishopric
    in 1408, was suffragan to the Archbishop of York; and so died at {570}
    York within a year after his appointment. His successor John became a
    suffragan to the Archbishop of Canterbury, and died such in 1420.
    Thomas Scrope, a divine from Leicestershire, was appointed by the Pope
    to this see in 1430: he could not live in peace with the Irish, and
    therefore became vicar-general to the Bishop of Norwich. Thomas
    Radcliffe, his successor, never lived in Ireland: 'the profits of his
    see did not extend to 30l. sterling, and for its extreme poverty it is
    void and desolate, and almost extincted, in so much as none will own
    the same, or abide therein.' Dr. Radcliffe was therefore obliged to
    become a suffragan to the Bishop of Durham. William, who followed him
    in the Dromore succession in 1500, lived in York, and was suffragan to
    its archbishop; and it would seem his successors were also suffragans
    in England, until the plantation of Ulster improved the circumstances
    of that province."


_Pope and Buchanan._--I beg to suggest as a Query, whether Pope did not
borrow the opening of his _Essay on Man_ from that of the second book of
Buchanan's Latin poem _De Sphærâ_. Let us compare them.


 "Jam mihi Timoleon, animo majora capaci
  Concipe; nec terras semper mirare jacentes;
  Excute degeneres circum mortalia curas,
  Et mecum ingentes coeli spatiare per auras."


 "Awake, my St. John, leave all meaner things
  To low ambition and the pride of kings;
  Let us, since life can little more supply
  Than just to look about us and to die,
  Expatiate free o'er all this scene of man."

I do not remember the comparison to have been made before.


University Club.

_Scarce MSS. in the British Museum._--In Cotton MSS., Titus, B 1., will be
found a curious and valuable collection of papers entitled "Cromwell's
Remembrances." These comprise:

1. A period from about the death of Anne Boleyn to his attainder.

2. They are very miscellaneous, consisting of memoranda of subjects for
conference with the king. Notices of persons to be remembered for offices.
Sale of lands. Diplomacy, and various other particulars. Notes relative to
the dissolution of monasteries; their riches, revenues, and pensions to
abbots, &c. The reception of Anne Cleves, and the alteration of the royal
household thereupon. Privy council and parliamentary notes. Foreign
alliances. Scotch and Irish affairs, consequent on the dissolution of
abbeys, &c.

These curious materials for history are in the rough and confused state in
which they were left by their author, and, to render them available, would
require an index to the whole.

The "Remembrances" are in some degree illustrated by Harl. MS. 604., which
is a very curious volume of monastic affairs at the dissolution. Also by
605, 606, and 607. The last two belong to the reign of Philip and Mary, and
contain an official account of the lands sold by them belonging to the
crown in the third and fourth years of their reign.


_The Royal Garden at Holyrood Palace._--I cannot help noticing a
disgraceful fact, which has only lately come to my knowledge. There is,
adjoining the Palace of Holyrood, an ancient garden of the old kings of
Scotland: in it is a curious sundial, with Queen Mary's name on it. There
is a pear-tree planted by her hands, and there are many other deeply
interesting traces of the royal race, who little dreamed how their old
stately places were to be profaned, after they themselves were laid in the
dust. The garden of the Royal Stuarts is now _let_ to a market gardener!
Are there no true-hearted Scotchmen left, who will redeem it from such

L. M. M. R.

_The Old Ship "Royal Escape."_--The following extract from the _Norwich
Mercury_ of Aug. 21, 1819, under the head of "Yarmouth News," will probably
be gratifying to your querist ANON, Vol. vii., p. 380.:

    "On the 13th inst. put into this port (Yarmouth), having been grounded
    on the Barnard Sand, _The Royal Escape_, government hoy, with horses
    for his royal highness at Hanover. This vessel is the same that King
    Charles II. made his escape in from Brighthelmstone."


       *       *       *       *       *



I should be glad, through the medium of "N. & Q.," to be favoured with some
particulars regarding this work, and its author, Maister Henry Lyte, of
Lytescarie, Esq. He presented the said work with his own hand to "our late
soveraigne queene and matchlesse mistresse, on the day when shee came, in
royall manner, to Paule's Church." I shall also be glad of any information
about his son, Maister Thomas Lyte, of Lytescarie, Esq., "a true immitator
and heyre to his father's vertues," and who

    "Presented to the Majestie of King James, (with) an excellent mappe or
    genealogicall table (contayning the bredth and circumference of twenty
    large sheets of paper), which he entitleth _Brittaines Monarchy_,
    approuing Brute's History, and the whole succession of this our nation,
    from the very original, with the just observation of al times, changes,
    and occasions therein happening. This worthy worke, having cost above
    {571} seaven yeares labour, beside great charges and expense, his
    highnesse hath made very gracious acceptance of, and to witnesse the
    same, in court it hangeth in an especiall place of eminence. Pitty it
    is, that this phoenix (as yet) affordeth not a fellowe, or that from
    privacie it might not bee made more generall; but, as his Majestie has
    granted him priviledge, so, that the world might be woorthie to enjoy
    it, whereto, if friendship may prevaile, as he hath been already, so
    shall he be still as earnestly sollicited."

These two works appear to have been written towards the close of the
sixteenth century. Is anything more known of them, and their respective


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Thirteen an unlucky Number._--Is there not at Dantzic a clock, which at 12
admits, through a door, Christ and the Eleven, shutting out Judas, who is
admitted at 1?

A. C.


    "I saw a man, who saw a man, who said he saw the king."


    "Look not mournfully into the past; it comes not back again,"
    &c.--Motto of _Hyperion_.


A. A. D.

_"Other-some" and "Unneath."_--I do not recollect having ever seen these
expressions, until reading Parnell's _Fairy Tale_. They occur in the
following stanzas:

 "But now, to please the fairy king,
  Full every deal they laugh and sing,
    And antic feats devise;
  Some wind and tumble like an ape,
  And _other-some_ transmute their shape
    In Edwin's wondering eyes.

 "Till one at last, that Robin hight,
  Renown'd for pinching maids by night,
    Has bent him up aloof;
  And full against the beam he flung,
  Where by the back the youth he hung
    To sprawl _unneath_ the roof."

As the author professes the poem to be "in the ancient English style," are
these words veritable ancient English? If so, some correspondent of "N. &
Q." may perhaps be able to give instances of their recurrence.


_Newx, &c._--Can any of your readers give me the _unde derivatur_ of the
word _newx_, or _noux_, or _knoux_? It is a very old word, used for the
last hundred years, as _fag_ is at our public schools, for a young cadet at
the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. When I was there, some twenty-five or
twenty-seven years ago, the _noux_ was the youngest cadet of the four who
slept in one room: and a precious life of it he led. But this, I hope, is
altered now. I have often wanted to find out from whence this term is
derived, and I suppose that your paper will find some among your numerous
correspondents who will be able to enlighten me.

T. W. N.


_"A Joabi Alloquio."_--Who can explain the following, and point out its
source? I copy from the work of a Lutheran divine, Conrad Dieteric,
_Analysis Evangeliorum_, 1631, p. 188.:

 "A Joabi Alloquio,
  A Thyestis Convivio,
  Ab Iscariotis 'Ave,'
  A Diasii 'Salve'
  Ab Herodis 'Redite'
  A Gallorum 'Venite.'
          Libera nos Domine."

The fourth and sixth line I do not understand.

B. H. C.

_Illuminations._--When were illuminations in cities first introduced? Is
there any allusion to them in classic authors?


_Heraldic Queries._--Will some correspondent versed in heraldry answer me
the following questions?

1. What is the origin and meaning of women of all ranks, except the
sovereign, being now debarred from bearing their arms in shields, and
having to bear them in lozenges? Formerly, all ladies of rank bore shields
upon their seals, _e.g._ the seal of Margaret, Countess of Norfolk, who
deceased A.D. 1399; and of Margaret, Countess of Richmond, and mother of
Henry VIII., who deceased A.D. 1509. These shields are figured in the
_Glossary of Heraldry_, pp. 285, 286.

2. Is it, heraldically speaking, wrong to inscribe the motto upon a circle
(not a garter) or ribbon round the shield? So says the _Glossary_, p. 227.
If wrong, on what principle?

3. Was it ever the custom in this country, as on the Continent to this day,
for ecclesiastics to bear their arms in a circular or oval panel?--the
martial form of the shield being considered inconsistent with their
spiritual character. If so, when did the custom commence, and where may
instances be seen either on monuments or in illustrated works?


_John's Spoils from Peterborough and Crowland._--Clement Spelman, in his
Preface to the reader, with which he introduces his father's treatise _De
non temerandis Ecclesiis_, says (edit. Oxford, 1841, p.45.):

    "I cannot omit the sacrilege and punishment of King John, who in the
    seventeenth year of his reign, among other churches, rifled the abbeys
    of {572} Peterborough and Croyland, and after attempts to carry his
    sacrilegious wealth from Lynn to Lincoln; but, passing the Washes, the
    earth in the midst of the waters opens her mouth (as for Korah and his
    company), and at once swallows up both carts, carriage, and horses, all
    his treasure, all his regalities, all his church spoil, and all the
    church spoilers; not one escapes to bring the king word," &c.

Is the precise spot known where this catastrophe occurred, or have any
relics been since recovered to give evidence of the fact?


_"Elementa sex," &c._--Perhaps one of your readers, given to such trifles,
will hazard a guess at the solution, if not at the author, of the

 "Elementa sex me proferent totam tibi;
  Totam hanc, lucernis si tepent fungi, vides,
  Accisa senibus suppetit saltantibus,
  Levetur, armis adfremunt Horatii;
  Facienda res est omnibus, si fit minor,
  Es, quod relinquis deinde, si subtraxeris;
  Si rite tandem quæritas originem,
  Ad sibilum, vix ad sonum, reverteris."


_Jack and Gill--Sir Hubbard de Hoy._--Having recently amused myself by a
dive into old Tusser's _Husbandrie_, the following passages suggested
themselves as fitting _Queries_ for your pages:

_Jack and Gill._--

 "Let Jack nor Gill
  Fetch corn at will."

Can the "Jack and Gill" of our nursery tales be traced to an earlier date
than Tusser's time?

_Hobble de Hoy._--Speaking of the periods of a man's life, Tusser's advice,
from the age of fourteen years to twenty-one, is to "Keep under Sir Hubbard
de Hoy." Is it known whether there ever existed a personage so named,
either as a legend or a myth? And if not, what is the origin of the modern
term "Hobble de Hoy" as a designation for a stripling? Bailey omits it in
his _Dictionary_.

L. A. M.

_Humphrey Hawarden._--Information is solicited respecting this individual,
who was a Doctor of Laws, and living in 1494. Also, of a Justice Port,
living about the same period.



_"Populus vult decipi."_--

 "Populus  }               {
  Mundus   }  vult decipi  { et decipiatur,
  Vulgus   }               { decipiatur ergo."

Who was the author of the maxim? which is its correct form? and where is it
to be found? It seems to present another curious instance of our ignorance
of things with which we are familiar. I have put the question to a dozen
scholars, fellows of colleges, barristers, &c. &c., and none has been able
to give me an answer. One only _thinks_ it was a dictum of some Pope.


_Sheriffs of Huntingdonshire and Cambridgeshire._--Where can any list of
the sheriffs for these counties be found, _previous_ to the list given by
Fuller from the time of Henry VIII.?


_Harris._--The Rev. William Harris, B.A., was presented, by Thomas Pindar,
Esq., to the vicarage of Luddington, Lincolnshire, on the 7th August, 1722.
Mr. Harris died here in June, 1748, aged eighty-two. On his tomb is

 "Illi satis licuit
  Nunc veterum libris, nunc
  Somno, et inertibus horis
  Ducere solicitæ jucunda oblivio vitæ."

A tradition of his being a wizard still lingers in the village, and I
should be very glad to receive any particulars respecting him. From an
inspection of his will at Lincoln, it appears that he used the coat of the
ancient family of Harris of Radford, Devon, and that his wife's name was
Honora, a Christian name not infrequent about that period in families of
the West of England also, as, for instance, Honora, daughter of Sir Richard
Rogers of Bryanstone, who married Edward Lord Beauchamp, and had a daughter
Honora, who married Sir Ferdinand Sutton; Honora, the wife of Harry Conway,
Esq., of Bodrhyddan, Flint; Honora, daughter of Edward Fortescue of
Fallapit; besides others.



       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. vii., p. 528.)

"Charity thinketh no evil;" but we must feel both surprise and regret that
any one should, in 1853, consider it a doubtful question whether Bishop
Butler died in the communion of the Church of England. The bishop has now
been in his grave more than a hundred years; but Warburton says truly, "How
light a matter very often subjects the best-established characters to the
suspicions of posterity--how ready is a remote age to catch at a low
revived slander, which the times that brought it forth saw despised and
forgotten almost in its birth."

X. Y. Z. says he would be glad to have this charge (originally brought
forward in 1767) _sifted_. He will find that it has been sifted, and in the
most full and satisfactory manner, by persons of no less distinction than
Archbishop Secker and Bishop Halifax. The strong language employed by the
archbishop, when refuting what he terms {573} a "gross and scandalous
falsehood," and when asserting the bishops "abhorrence of popery," need not
here be quoted, as "N.& Q." is not the most proper channel for the
discussion of theological subjects; but it is alleged that every man of
sense and candour was convinced _at the time_ that the charge should be
retracted; and it must be a satisfaction to your correspondent to know,
that as Bishop Butler lived so he _died_, in full communion with that
Church, which he adorned equally by his matchless writings, sanctity of
manners, and spotless life.[4]



[Footnote 4: Your correspondent may be referred to _Memoirs of the Life of
Bishop Butler_, by a connexion of his own, the Rev. Thomas Bartlett, A.M.,
published in 1839; and to a review of the same work in the _Quarterly
Review_, vol. lxiv. p. 331.]

In reference to the Query by X. Y. Z., as to whether Bishop Butler died in
the Roman Catholic communion, allow me to refer your correspondent to the
contents of the letters from Dr. Forster and Bishop Benson to Secker, then
Bishop of Oxford, concerning the last illness and death of the prelate in
question, deposited at Lambeth amongst the private MSS. of Archbishop
Seeker, "as negative arguments against the calumny of his dying a Papist."

Than the allegations that Butler died with a Roman Catholic book of
devotion in his hand, and that the last person in whose company he was seen
was a priest of that persuasion, nothing can be more unreasonable, if at
least it be meant to deduce from these unproved statements that the bishop
agreed with the one and held communion with the other. Dr. Forster, his
chaplain, was with him at his death, which happened about 11 A.M., June 16;
and this witness observes (in a letter to the Bishop of Oxford, June 18)
that "the last four-and-twenty hours preceding which [_i. e._ his death]
were divided between short broken slumbers, and intervals of a calm but
disordered talk when awake." Again (letter to Ditto, June 17), Forster says
that Bishop Butler, "when, for a day or two before his death, he had in a
great measure lost the use of his faculties, was perpetually talking of
writing to your lordship, though without seeming to have anything which, at
least, he was at all capable of communicating to you." Bishop Benson writes
to the Bishop of Oxford (June 12) that Butler's "attention to any one or
anything is immediately lost and gone;" and, "my lord is incapable, not
only of reading, but attending to anything read or said." And again, "his
attention to anything is very little or none."

There was certainly an interval between this time (June 12) and "the last
four-and-twenty hours" preceding his death, during which, writes Bishop
Benson (June 17), Butler "said kind and affecting things more than I could
bear." Yet, on the whole, I submit that these extracts, if fully weighed
and considered with all the attending circumstances, contain enough of even
positive evidence to refute conclusively the injurious suspicions alluded
to by X. Y. Z., if such are still current.

J. R. C.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. iv., p. 434., &c.)

I have asked many questions, and turned over many volumes and files of
newspapers, to get at the real facts of the cases of mitigation stated in
"N. & Q." Having winnowed the chaff as thoroughly as I could, I send the
very few grains I have found. Those only who have searched annual
registers, magazines, and journals for the foundation of stories defective
in names and dates, will appreciate my difficulties.

I have not found any printed account of the "Jeannie Deans" case, "N. &
Q.," Vol. iv., p. 434.; Vol. v., p. 444.; Vol. vi., p. 153. I have inquired
of the older members of the Northern Circuit, and they never heard of it.
Still a young man may have been convicted of forgery "about thirty-five
years ago:" his sister may have presented a well-signed petition to the
judges, and the sentence may have been commuted without the tradition
surviving on the circuit. All however agree, that no man who ever sat on
the bench deserved the imputation of "obduracy" less than Baron Graham. I
should not have noticed the anecdote but for its _mythic_ accompaniments,
which I disposed of in "N. & Q.," Vol. v., p. 444.

In Vol. vi., p. 496., W. W. cites from Wade's _British History_:

    "July 22, 1814. Admiral William B----y found guilty of forging letters
    to defraud the revenue. He was sentenced to death, which was commuted
    to banishment."

The case is reported in _The Sun_, July 25, 1814; and the subsequent facts
are in _The Times_, July 30, and August 16 and 20. It was tried before Mr.
Justice Dampier at the Winchester Summer Assizes. There were five bills
against the prisoner for forgery, and one for a fraud. That on which he was
convicted, was for defrauding the post-master of Gosport of 3l. 8s. 6d. He
took to the post-office a packet of 114 letters, which he said were "ship
letters," from the "Mary and Jane." He received the postage, and signed the
receipt "W. Johnstone." The letters were fictitious. The case was fully
proved, and he received sentence of death. He was respited for a fortnight,
and afterwards during the pleasure of the Prince Regent. He was struck off
the list of retired {574} rear-admirals. It was proved at the trial, that,
in 1809, he commanded "The Plantagenet;" but, _from the unsettled state of
his mind_, the command had been given up to the first lieutenant, and that
he was shortly after superseded. This, and the good character he received,
were probably held to excuse the pardon.

I now come to the great case of George III. and Mr. Fawcett. I much regret
that WHUNSIDE has not replied in your pages to my question (Vol. vii., p.
163.), as I could then have commented upon the facts, and his means of
knowing them, with more freedom. I have a private communication from him,
which is ample and candid. He objects to bring his name before the public,
and I have no right to press that point. He is not _quite_ certain as to
the convict's name, but can procure it for me. He would rather that it
should not be published, as it might give pain to a respectable family.
Appreciating the objection, and having no use for it except to publish, I
have declined to ask it of him.

The case occurred in 1802 or 1803, when WHUNSIDE was a pupil of Mr.
Fawcett. He says:

    "Occasionally Mr. Fawcett used to allow certain portions of a weekly
    newspaper to be read to the boys on a Saturday evening. This case was
    read to us, I think from the _Leeds Mercury_; and though Mr. Fawcett's
    name was not mentioned, we were all aware who the minister was."

Thus we have no _direct_ evidence of the amount of Mr. Fawcett's
communications with George III. How much of the story as it is now told was
read to the boys, we do not know; but that it came to them first through a
weekly paper, is rather against than for it.

We all know the tendency of good stories to pick up additions as they go. I
have read that the first edition of the _Life of Loyola_ was without
miracles. This anecdote seems to have reached its full growth in 1823, in
Pearson's _Life of W. Hey, Esq._, and probably in the two lives of George
III., published after his death, and mentioned by WHUNSIDE. Pearson, as
cited in "N. & Q.," Vol. vi., p. 276., says, that by some means the _Essay
on Anger_ had been recommended to the notice of George III., who would have
made the author a bishop had he not been a dissenter; that he signified his
wish to serve Mr. Fawcett, &c. That on the conviction of H----, Mr. Fawcett
wrote to the king; and a letter soon arrived, conveying the welcome
intelligence, "You may rest assured that his life is safe," &c.

It is not stated that this was "private and confidential:" if it was, Mr.
Fawcett had no right to mention it; if it was not, he had no reason for
concealing what was so much to his honour, and so extraordinary as the
king's personal interference in a matter invariably left to the Secretary
of State for the Home Department. If, however, Mr. Fawcett was silent from
modesty, his biographers had no inducement to be so; yet, let us see how
they state the case. The _Account of the Life, Writings, and Ministry of
the late Rev. John Fawcett_: London, 1818, cited in "N. & Q.," Vol. vi., p.
229., says:

    "He was induced, _in conjunction with others_, to solicit the exercise
    of royal clemency in mitigating the severity of that punishment which
    the law denounces: and it gladdened the sympathetic feelings of his
    heart to know that these petitions were not unavailing; but the modesty
    of his character made him regret the publicity which had been given to
    this subject."

The fifth edition of the _Essay on Anger, printed for the Book Society for
Promoting Religious Knowledge_, London, no date, has a memoir of the
author. The "incident" is said not to have been circulated _in any
publication by the family_; but "it was one of the secrets which obtain a
wider circulation from the reserve with which one relator invariably
retails it to another." That is exactly my view. Secrecy contributes to
diffusion, but not to accuracy. At the risk of being thought tedious, I
must copy the rest of this statement:

    "Soon after the publication of this treatise, _the author took an
    opportunity of presenting a copy_ to our late much revered sovereign;
    whose ear was always accessible to merit, however obscure the
    individual in whom it was found. Contrary to the fate of most
    publications laid at the feet of royalty, it was diligently perused and
    admired; and a communication of this approbation was afterwards made
    known to the author. It happened some time afterwards, a relative of
    one of his friends was convicted of a capital crime, for which he was
    left for execution. Application was instantly made for an extension of
    royal favour in his behalf; and, among others, one was made by Mr.
    Fawcett: and his majesty, _no doubt recollecting the pleasure he had
    derived from the perusal of his_ Essay on Anger, _and believing that he
    would not recommend an improper person to royal favour_, was most
    graciously pleased to answer the prayer of the petition; but _as to
    precisely how far the name of Mr. Fawcett might have contributed to
    this successful application must await the great disclosures of a
    future judgment._"

The reader will sift this jumble of inferences and facts, and perhaps will
not go so far as to have "no doubt."

WHUNSIDE tells me, that about 1807 he employed a bookbinder from Halifax;
who, on hearing that he had been a pupil of Mr. Fawcett, said he had seen
two copies of the _Essay on Anger_, most beautifully bound, to be sent to
the king.

The conclusion to which I come is, that Mr. Fawcett sent a copy of the
_Essay on Anger_ to the king; that the receipt of it was acknowledged,
possibly in some way more complimentary than the ordinary circular; that a
young man was convicted of forgery; that Mr. Fawcett and others petitioned
for his pardon, and that he was {575} pardoned. All the rest I hold to be
mere rumours, not countenanced by Mr. Fawcett or his family, and not
_asserted_ by his biographers.

H. B. C.

U. U. Club.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 326.)

MR. KEIGHTLEY'S rule is only partially true, and in the part which is true
is not fully stated. The following rules, qualified by the accompanying
remarks, will I trust be found substantially correct.

English monosyllables, formed from Greek or Latin monosyllabic roots,

(1.) When the root ends in a single consonant preceded by a vowel, require
the lengthening e.

(2.) When the root ends in a single consonant preceded by a diphthong, or
in more than one consonant preceded by a vowel, reject the e.

1. Examples from the Greek:--[Greek: schêm-a], _scheme_; [Greek: lur-a]
(lyr-a), _lyre_; [Greek: zôn-ê] (zon-a), _zon-e_; [Greek: bas-is], _base_;
[Greek: phras-is], _phras-e_; [Greek: trop-os], _trop-e_. From Latin,
ros-a, _ros-e_; fin-is, _fin-e_; fum-us, _fum-e_; pur-us, _pur-e_; grad-us,
_grad-e_. Compare, in verbs, ced-o, _ced-e_.

_Remarks._--This rule admits of a modification; _e.g._ we form from [Greek:
zêl-os] _zeal_ (the sound hardly perceptibly differing from _zel-e_); from
[Greek: hôr-a] (hor-a), _hour_; from flos (flor-is), _flower_ and _flour_
(the long sound communicated to the vowel in the other words by the added
_e_, being in these already contained in the diphthong). Add ven-a, _vein_;
van-us, _vain_; sol-um, _soil_, &c.; and compare _-ceed_ in _proceed_,
_succeed_, formed from compounds of ced-o. Some, but not all, of these
words have come to us through the French.

2. Examples from the Greek:--[Greek: rheum-a], _rheum_; [Greek: chasm-a],
_chasm_; [Greek: murr-a], _myrrh_; [Greek: glôss-a], _gloss_; [Greek:
numph-ê] (nymph-a), _nymph_; [Greek: disk-os], (disc-us), _disk_; [Greek:
plinth-os], _plinth_; [Greek: psalm-os], _psalm_. From Latin, fraus
(fraud-is), _fraud_; laus (laud-is), _laud_; plant-a, _plant_; orb-is,
_orb_; plumb-um, _plumb_; long-us, _long_, flux-us, _flux_; port-us,
_port_. Compare, in verbs, damn-o, _damn_; err-o, _err_; add-o, _add_;
vex-o, _vex_.

_Remarks._--From roots ending in the same consonant doubled, our derived
words ordinarily drop one of them; _e.g._ [Greek: stemm-a], _stem_; gemm-a,
_gem_; summ-a, _sum_; penn-a, _pen_; carr-us, _car_. (Note this tendency of
our language, by comparing our _man_ with the German _mann_.)

If the root ends in _s_ or _v_ preceded by a diphthong, or in a consonant
+_s_[5] or +_v_ preceded by a vowel, our derived words add _e_, _as_
[Greek: paus-is] (paus-a), _paus-e_; caus-a, _cause-e_; næv-a, _nav-e_;
puls-us, _puls-e_; dens-us, _dens-e_; [Greek: haps-is], _aps-e_; laps-us,
_laps-e_; vers-us, _vers-e_; valv-a, _valv-e_; nerv-us, _nerv-e_.[6] The
cause of this lies in the genius of our language, which totally rejects the
ending _v_, and uses _s_ (single) very sparingly in the singular number,
except in the ending _ous_, the genitive case, the third person of the
present tense, the obsolete _wis_, and _was_. Other words are, the
interjection _alas_; pronouns or pronominal particles; proper names, as
_Thomas_, _Chaos_; compounds, as _Lammas_, _Christmas_; _plural_ adverbs,
as _towards_, _thereabouts_; and the (perhaps) _plural_--it ought to be

From roots ending in a mute +_a_ liquid, our derived words also end in _e_,
and are then in fact dissyllables; _e.g._ [Greek: bibl-os], _bible_;
[Greek: kukl-os], _cycl-e_; [Greek: mitr-a], _mitr-e_; [Greek: nitr-on],
_nitr-e_; [Greek: petr-os], _petr-e_. In this class of words the final
letters (after the analogy of Latin) have sometimes become transposed;
_e.g._ [Greek: lepr-os], _lep-er_. So now-a-days, _cent-er_ as well as
_centr-e_. Compare _metr-e_, _diamet-er_.

To apply our rules to the words required to be formed in an English shape
from [Greek: muth-os].

Very few words in our language end in _th_ which are not of purely native
growth. _Frith_ is questionable exception. Besides the monosyllable
_plinth_, we have imported from the Greek _colocynth_, _hyacinth_,
_labyrinth_, with the proper names _Corinth_, _Erymanth_, all terminating
in _nth_.

In the ending _the_ our language does not rejoice. Most of such words are
verbs, so distinguished from their cognate substantives, as _wreathe_ from
_wreath_. We have, as substantives, _lathe_ (A.-S. [Saxon: leð]), _hythe_
([Saxon: hyð]), _scythe_ (more properly _sithe_, [Saxon: siðe]), _tythe_
([Saxon: tyðe]); as adjectives, _blithe_ ([Saxon: bliðe]), _lithe_ ([Saxon:
lið]). There may be one or two more.

In all these the sounds is [Saxon: ð] (_th_ in _this_) not [Saxon: þ] (_th_
in _thick_). This appears worth notice.

On the whole, I should venture to say that so uncouth a slip as _mythe_,
when set in our soil, was unlikely to thrive. Still _m[)y]th_ is
objectionable, though we at Cambridge might quote _g[)y]p_ However I may
seem to be a breaker of my own laws, I suggest, if we must have an English
form of the word, that we should write and pronounce _m[=y]th_. Several
words ending in _th_ have the preceding vowel lengthened, _e.g._ _both_,
_sloth_, _ruth_, _truth_ (though with the inconsistency attributed to us,
one, by the way, generally of orthography rather than pronunciation, we
shorten the diphthong in _breath_, _death_). Compare also the sound of the
endings _ild_ and _ind_.

I have already troubled you with a very long Note; but, before I close,
allow me to add that in what I have advanced I have had in view only our
modern mode of spelling, without binding {576} myself to an opinion of its
inferiority or superiority to that of our forefathers. I beg also to
protest against MR. KEIGHTLEY'S wish to banish _mythical_ from our
vocabulary. It may be _hybrid_, but equally so are _critical_,
_grammatical_, _musical_, _physical_, _poetical_, with a long string of et


[Footnote 5: Except _x_ (=_cs_). Compare _flax_, _wax_, _ox_.]

[Footnote 6: From serv-us (after the French) we form _serf_.]

[Footnote 7: _Rebus_, _overplus_, and _surplus_ may, if not satisfied, take
an _omnibus_, bring their action at the _Nisi Prius_, and meet there with a

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., pp. 261. 409.)

This very able and valuable work, as to which your correspondent inquires,
was written by Wm. Paterson, the projector of the Bank of England and the
Darien scheme; a great and memorable name, but which, to the discredit of
British biography, will be sought for in vain in Chalmers's or our other
biographical dictionaries. The book above noticed appears to be a
continuation of another tract by the same author, entitled _An Inquiry into
the Reasonableness and Consequences of an Union with Scotland, containing a
brief Deduction of what hath been done, designed, or proposed in the Matter
of the Union during the last Age, a Scheme of an Union as accommodated to
the present Circumstances of the two Nations, also States of the respective
Revenues, Debts, Weights, Measures, Taxes, and Impositions, and of other
Facts of moment: with Observations thereupon, as communicated to Laurence
Philips, Esq., near York_: London, printed and sold by R. Bragg, 1706,
8vo., 160 pages. This was preceded by an earlier tract by the same author:
_Conferences on the Public Debts, by the Wednesday's Club in Friday
Street_: London, 1695, 4to. The last is noticed, with a short account of
the author, by Mr. M^cCulloch (_Lib. of Political Economy_, p. 159.), but
he has not mentioned the two other works previously adverted to. In all of
them the author adopts the form of a report of the proceedings of a club;
but, without attempting to deny the actual existence of a Wednesday's club
in Friday Street (the designation he assumes for it), nothing can be more
clear to any one who reads the three tracts than that the conversations,
proceedings, and personages mentioned are all the creatures of his own
fertile invention, and made use of, more conveniently to bring out his
facts, arguments, and statements. The dramatic form he gives them makes
even the dry details of finance amusing; and abounding, as they do, in
information and thought, these works may always be consulted with profit
and pleasure. The _Inquiry into the State of the Union_, 1717, 8vo., for
which Walpole is said to have furnished some of the materials, was
answered, but rather feebly, in an anonymous pamphlet entitled _Wednesday
Club Law; or the Injustice, Dishonour, and Ill Policy of breaking into
Parliamentary Contracts for public Debts_: London, printed for E. Smith,
1717, 8vo., pp. 38. The author of this pamphlet appears to have been a Mr.
Broome. Those who would wish see one of the financial questions discussed
in the _Inquiry_ treated with equal force and ability, and with similar
views, by a great cotemporary of Paterson, whose pamphlet came out
simultaneously, may read _Fair Payment no Spunge; or some Considerations on
the Unreasonableness of refusing to receive back Money lent on public
Securities, and the Necessity of setting the Nation free from the
unsupportable Burthen of Debt and Taxes, with a View of the great Advantage
and Benefit which will arise to Trade and to the Landed Interest, as well
as to the Poor, by having these heavy Grievances taken off_: London,
printed and sold by Brotherton: Meadows and Roberts, 1717, 8vo., pp. 79.
This is one of the pamphlets which, though it has been sometimes
erroneously assigned to Paterson, both on external and internal evidence
may be confidently attributed to Defoe, but which has unaccountably escaped
the notice of all his biographers.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 498.)

The lines which your correspondent R. VINCENT attributes to Sir Walter
Scott are part of an old English inscription which Longfellow quotes in
_Outremer_, p. 66., and thus describes in a note:

    "I subjoin this relic of old English verse entire.... It is copied from
    a book whose title I have forgotten, and of which I have but a single
    leaf, containing the poem. In describing the antiquities of the church
    of Stratford-upon-Avon, the writer gives the following account of a
    very old painting upon the wall, and of the poem which served as its
    motto. The painting is no longer visible, having been effaced in
    repairing the church:

    "'Against the west wall of the nave, on the south side of the arch, was
    painted the martyrdom of Thomas à Becket, while kneeling at the altar
    of St. Benedict, in Canterbury Cathedral. Below this was the figure of
    an angel, probably St. Michael, supporting a long scroll, upon which
    were seven stanzas in old English, being an allegory of mortality.'"

The lines given at p. 498. of "N. & Q." seem to be taken from the two
following stanzas, which stand third and fourth in the old inscription:

 "_Erth apon erth wynnys castellys and towrys,_
  _Then seth erth unto erth thys ys all owrys._
  When erth apon erth hath bylde hys bowrys,
  Then schall erth for erth suffur many hard schowrys.

 "Erth goth apon erth as man apon mowld,
  Lyke as erth apon erth never goo schold,
  _Erth goth apon erth as gelsteryng gold,_
  _And yet schall erth unto erth rather than he wold._"


Dugdale, in his _Antiquities of Warwickshire_, p. 517., tells us that John
de Stratford, who was Archbishop of Canterbury in the reign of Edward III.,
built a chapel on the south side of the church, "to the honour of God and
of St. Thomas the Martyr;" and as at p. 521. he describes it as "in the
south ile of the said church," the west wall of this chapel answers very
well the description of the position of the painting, and inscription. But
in _The Beauties of England and Wales_, vol. xv. p. 238., _the chapel of
the gild of the Holy Cross_, in the centre of the town, is mentioned as the
place in which the pictures were discovered, during some repairs which it
underwent in the year 1804.

I have since ascertained that the work to which Longfellow refers is
Weaver's _Account of Stratford-upon-Avon_.


As a companion to the _unpublished_ epigram in No. 186. of "N. & Q.," I beg
to hand you the following epitaph, copied by myself about thirty years
since, and referring, as I _believe_, to an old brass in the church of St.
Helen's, London:

 "Here lyeth y^e bodyes of
  James Pomley, y^e sonne of ould
  Dominick Pomley and Jane his
  Wyfe: y^e said James deceased y^e 7^{th}
  day of Januarie Anno Domini 1592
  he beyng of y^e age of 88 years, and
  y^e sayd Jane deceased y^e ---- day
  of ----  D----.

  Earth goeth up[=o] earth as moulde up[=o] moulde;
  Earth goeth up[=o] earth all glittering as golde,
  As though earth to y^e earth never turne shoulde;
  And yet shall earth to y^e earth sooner than he woulde."


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., pp. 190. 463.)

In accordance with the request of Z. E. R., I have pleasure in forwarding
the extracts from the _Catechismus brevis et Catholicus_, referred to at
pp. 190. 463. of the present volume. It is needful to premise, 1. That the
pages of the catechism are not numbered. This will account for the absence
of precise references. 2. That only so much is quoted as may exhibit the
parallelism; and, 3. That the citations are not consecutive in the
original, but arranged in the order of the questions and answers of the
_Church Catechism_, beginning with the fourteenth question, "How many
sacraments hath Christ ordained in His Church?"

Q. 14. How many, &c.

    "Quot sunt Ecclesiæ Catholicæ Sacramenta?

    Septem sunt in universum," &c.

    "Quis instituit Baptismum?

    Ipse Servator ac Dominus noster Jesus Christus."

    [_Similarly of the Eucharist._]

Q. 15. What meanest thou, &c.

    "Ecquur hæc ipsa--et dicantur et sint Sacramenta?

    Sacramenta sunt et dicuntur quia sacra atque efficacia sunt signa
    divinæ erga nos voluntatis."

Q. 16. How many parts, &c.

    "Habetque unumquodque horum (quod sacramentis peculiare est verbum)
    Elementum, et Gratiam invisibilem. Quod verbum nos docet, et promittit
    nobis, hoc Elementum seu visibile signum similitudine quâdam
    demonstrat, hoc idem Gratia quoque (nisi tamen obicem objiciat homo) in
    anima invisibiliter operatur.

    Da paucis singulorum Sacramentorum signa et invisibilem gratiam?"

Q. 17. What is the outward, &c.

    "In Baptismo signum externum Aqua est."

Q. 18. What is the inward, &c.

    "Quid efficit seu prodest Baptismus?

    "Res seu gratia est renovatio et sanctificatio animæ, ablutio omnium
    peccatorum, adoptio baptizati in filium Dei.

    'Baptizatus sum in Nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti.'

    "Tinctione illa aquæ, operationeque Spiritus Sancti, eripitur
    baptizatus à regno et tyrannide diaboli, donatur remissione peccatorum
    ac innocentia, addicitur perpetuò uni veroque Deo Patri et Filio et
    Spiritui Sancto, hujus denique filius atque hæres instituitur."

Q. 19. What is required, &c.

    "Requiritur in eo (adulto), et verus fidei usus, et vita professione
    Christiana, Baptismique voto digna: hoc est ut corde credat, et ore
    fidem confiteatur, utque peccatis mortificatis in vitæ ambulet

    Proba sacræ Scripturæ testimoniis, quod Fides in Baptizato requiratur."

Q. 20. Why then are infants, &c.

    "Sed quomodo infantes possunt credere, ut qui nondum usum habeant

    His fides Ecclesiæ et susceptorum suffragatur, donec idonei fiant suo
    illam assensu percipere, adhæc et fidei gratiam in Baptismo ii

Q. 21. Why was the Sacrament, &c.

    "Quur vero sacram Eucharistiam Christus instituit?

    ... Ut suæ passionis ac mortis recordemur, eamque annuntiemus

Q. 22. What is the outward, &c.

Q. 23. What is the inward, &c.

    "Da paucis ... signa et invisibilem gratiam.

    In Eucharistia, Elementum est panis ac vini species: res autem, verum
    corpus, et verus Christi sanguis est, fructusque dignam sumptionem


Q. 24. What are the benefits, &c.

    "Jam recense paucis quinam fructus dignam Eucharistæ sumptionem

    Principio quidem virtute escæ hujus confirmamur in fide, munimur
    adversus peccata, ad bonorum operum studium excitamur, et ad charitatem
    inflammamur. Hinc vero per eam incorporamur adjungimurque capiti nostro
    Christo, ut unum cum ipso constituamus corpus," &c.

Q. 25. What is required, &c.

    "Quonam pacto dignè sumitur Eucharistia?

    Digna sumptio, omnium primum requirit, ut homo peccata sua agnoscat ex
    animo ob ea verè doleat--ac firmum etiam animo concipiat amplius non
    peccandi propositum. Deinde exigit etiam digna sumptio, ut
    communicaturus simultatem omnem odiumque animo eximat: reconcilietur
    læso, et charitatis contra viscera induat. Postremo vero et fides cum
    primis in sumente requiritur ... ut credat corpus Christi pro se esse
    traditum mortem, et sanguinem ejus in remissionem peccatorum suorum
    vere effusum," &c.

I fear the unavoidable length of the previous extracts will be against the
insertion of the full title of the book, and one remark. The title is,--

    "Catechismus brevis et Catholicus in gratiam Juventutis conscriptus,
    Autore Iacobo Schoeppero, Ecclesiasta Tremoniano. Cui accessit Pium
    diurnarum precum Enchiridion, ex quo pueri toto die cum Deo colloqui
    discant. Antverpiæ, apud Ioan. Bellerum ad insigne Falconis, 1555."

My remark is, that some of the coincidences above enumerated are at least
singular, though they do not perhaps _prove_ that the compiler of the
_Church Catechism_, in the places referred to, had them before him.

B. H. C.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 428.)

Of old Jacob Bobart, who originally came from Brunswick, Granger (_Biog.
Hist._, vol. v. p. 287., edit. 1824) gives us the following account:

    "Jacob Bobart, a German, whom Plot styles 'an excellent gardener and
    botanist,' was, by the Earl of Danby, founder of the physic-garden at
    Oxford, appointed the first keeper of it. He was author of _Catalogus
    Plantarum Horti Medici Oxoniensis, scil. Latino-Anglicus et
    Anglico-Latinus_: Oxon. 1648, 8vo. One singularity I have heard of him
    from a gentleman of unquestionable veracity, that on rejoicing days he
    used to have his beard tagged with silver. The same gentleman informed
    me, that there is a portrait of him in the possession of one of the
    corporation at Woodstock. He died the 4th of February, 1679, in the
    eighty-first year of his age. He had two sons, Tillemant and Jacob, who
    both belonged to the physic-garden. It appears that the latter
    succeeded him in his office."

There is a very fine print of the elder Bobart, now extremely scarce, "D.
Loggan del., M. Burghers, sculp." It is a quarto of the largest size.
Beneath the head, which is dated 1675, is this distich:

 "Thou German prince of plants, each year to thee
  Thousands of subjects grant a subsidy."

In John Evelyn's _Diary_, under the date Oct. 24, 1664, is the following

    "Next to Wadham, and the physic garden, where were two large
    locust-trees, and as many platani (plane-trees), and some rare plants
    under the culture of old Bobart."

The editor of the last edition, after repeating part of Granger's note, and
mentioning the portrait, adds:

    "There is a small whole-length in the frontispiece of _Vertumnus_, a
    poem on that garden. In this he is dressed in a long vest, with a
    beard. One of his family was bred up at college in Oxford; but quitted
    his studies for the profession of the whip, driving one of the Oxford
    coaches (his own property) for many years with great credit. In 1813 he
    broke his leg by an accident; and in 1814, from the respect he had
    acquired by his good conduct, he was appointed by the University to the
    place of one of the Esquire Beadles."

_Vertumnus_, the poem mentioned in the above note, was addressed to Mr.
Jacob Bobart, in 1713, by Dr. Evans. It is a laudatory epistle on the
botanical knowledge of the Bobarts; and we learn from it that Jacob, the
younger, collected a _Hortus Siccus_ (a collection of plants pasted upon
paper, and kept dry in a book) in twenty volumes.

 "Thy _Hortus Siccus_ ...
  In tomes twice ten, that world immense!
  By thee compiled at vast expense."

The broadsides about which H. T. BOBART inquires are of the greatest
possible rarity. They were the production of Edmund Gayton, the author of
_Festivious Notes on Don Quixote_, &c. Copies may be seen in the Ashmolean
Library, under the press-marks Nos. 423. and 438., but I think not in any
other repository of a like nature.

Among the Ashmolean MSS. (No. 36, art. 296.) is a poem of 110 lines "Upon
the most hopeful and ever-flourishing Sprouts of Valour, the indefatigable
Centrys of the Physick-Garden." This, I apprehend, is a MS. copy of the
first broadside mentioned by your correspondent.

I shall merely add, the Bobarts, father and son, were personal friends of
Ashmole and Ray, and that, in all probability, among their correspondence
much curious and minute information might be obtained.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 510.)

I was somewhat surprised to find, in No. 186. of "N. & Q.," two instances
quoted of the use of the {579} word "its" in the version of the Bible. It
has long been an established opinion that this word did not exist in it;
and the fact has been recently referred to by two different authorities,
MR. KEIGHTLEY in "N. & Q.," Vol. vii., p. 160., and Mr. Watts of the
British Museum, in a paper "On some philological peculiarities in the
English authorised Version of the Bible," read before the Philological
Society on December 10, 1852.

Feeling curious on the subject, I have taken the trouble of referring to
several different versions of the Bible in the British Museum, and the
following _variorum_ readings of the verses quoted by your correspondent
B. H. C. are the result:

1. The Wickliffite version, before 1390 (edit. Forshall and Wadden):

    "And he shal ben as a tree, that is plauntid beside the doun rennyngis
    of watris; that _his_ frut shal [gh]ive in _his_ time."--Ps. i. 3.

    "Duke of the weie thou were in _his_ (_sc._ the vine) si[gh]t; and thou
    plauntidist _his_ rootis, and it fulfilde the erthe."--Ps. lxxx. 10.

2. Coverdale's Bible, 1536:

    "Y^t br[=i]geth forth _his_ frute in due season."

    "Thou maydest rowme for it, and caused it to take rote, so y^t it
    fylled the l[=o]de."

3. Matthews, 1537:

    "That bryngeth forth _his_ frute in due season."

    "Thou madest rowme for it, and caused it to take rote, so that it
    fylled the lande."

4. Cranmer, 1539:

    "Y^t wyll brynge forth _hys_ frute in due season."

    "Thou madest rowme for it, and whan it had taken rote it fylled y^e

5. The Bishops' Bible, 1568:

    "That bryngeth foorth _her_ fruite in due season."

    "Thou madst roome before it, thou causedst it to take roote, and it
    hath filled the lande."

6. Geneva Bible, 1578. In this there are two translations, one "according
to the Ebrewe," the other "used in the Common Prayer":

    i. "That wil bring forth _her_ fruite in due season."

    ii. "That will bring forth _his_ fruite in due season."

    i. "Thou madest roome for it, and when it had taken roote, it filled
    the lande."

    ii. "Thou madest roume for it, and didest cause it to take roote, and
    it filled the land."

7. The Douay Bible (Roman Catholic version), 1609-10:

    "Which shal geue _his_ fruite in _his_ time."

    "Thou wast the guide of the way in the sight _thereof_; thou didst
    plant the rootes _thereof_, and it filled the earth."

8. Authorised version, 1611:

    "That bringeth forth _his_ fruit in _his_ season."

    "Thou preparedst roome before it, and didst cause it to take deepe
    roote, and it filled the land."

It will thus be perceived that "its" is wanting in all the above passages,
and that "his," "her," and "thereof" invariably supply its place. I have
been equally unsuccessful in detecting the word in the Common Prayer-Book
version of the Psalms, which is well known to be that of the "Great Bible,"
or Cranmer's edition of 1539, and which has remained in use without
alteration ever since. May I therefore ask B. H. C. to be so good as to
point out the particular "Old version of the Psalms" from which he has
derived his quotation?

W. B. RYE.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 495.)

In reply to your correspondent's remarks (May 21) on my translation of
Hoveden, I beg to state that, in suggesting Cork, I did not allude to the
city of Cork, but the _territory_ of Desmond or Cork, which probably
extended to within a short distance of Waterford. Hoveden more than once,
in his foreign geography, confounds places with territories or kingdoms;
this fact, and the similarity of the names, _Croch_ and _Corch_, as the
kingdom of Cork is elsewhere called by him, led me to believe that a
landing in the territory of Cork was meant. "Crook," "Hook Point," or "The
Crook," is only _supposed_ to have been the place of landing on this
occasion. I confess that I was not aware that "Erupolis" was an alias of
the diocese of Ossory: I cannot find it mentioned as such in the
dictionaries at my command. My Note, however, was worded in such a way as
to give offence to no reasonable person: and, among the many hundreds,
perhaps thousands of suggestions, made in the notes (in a proper spirit, I
hope,) I should be greatly surprised to find that I had miscarried in none.
For your correspondent's information, I beg to state, that I am not an
Irishman either by birth or descent; and that I have never had the good
fortune to pay a visit to that country. Were I inclined to follow his
example in making remarks upon the "ominousness" of names, I might perhaps
retaliate upon him with interest.

Why I have forfeited all claim to be treated by this gentleman with
courtesy or common politeness, I am quite at a loss to conceive; but I beg
to remind him that vituperation does not carry conviction, and that
criticism is enfeebled by an alliance with abuse.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 469.)

In your 185th Number, two or three Queries are proposed by the REV. MR.
CORSER in {580} connexion with that interesting branch of literature called
_Books of Emblems_. To these it shall be my endeavour to reply.

First. Some years ago I made particular inquiry from the surviving
relatives of the late Rev. William Beloe, whether among his manuscripts
there had been found any "Treatise on Emblems," or any notices which had a
bearing on the subject? They informed me that they had made search, but
without success.

Second. Of Thomas Combe, mentioned by Meres in his _Palladis Tamia_, I have
been unable to learn anything.

Third. It appears certain that Bunyan never published any _Book of
Emblems_, whatever may have been hawked under his name; nor can I find, in
the Account of his Life and Writings just published in Glasgow, Edinburgh,
and London, or in any preceding edition of his works, that such a
production was ever contemplated by him.

Fourth. In the extensive and valuable "English Books of Emblems" furnished
(chiefly from his own library) by MR. CORSER, he mentions R. Burton's
_Choice Emblems, Divine and Moral; or Delights for the Ingenious, &c._,
12mo. 1721. Perhaps my learned and accomplished friend may not be aware
that _Burton_ is an _assumed_ name, placed in the title-pages of several
cheap books which appeared at the end of the seventeenth and the beginning
of the eighteenth centuries, but which were thought to have been written by
a Mr. Nathaniel Crouch, a bookseller, who sold them. I have a sixth edition
of these "choice emblems," dated 1732, which was then sold for "two
shillings bound." The work is merely a collection of fifty emblems, taken,
without acknowledgment, from George Wither, the copper-plate engravings
being poor copies from those of Depasse. To this sixth edition there is
prefixed a portrait of K. Charles I., with eight pages of sympathising

MR. CORSER'S list of English works is very complete. I possess, however, an
unpublished manuscript translation of Alciato into English verse. It is of
the time of James I., and possesses much merit; but it has unfortunately
been mutilated.

I also possess the following:

    "Amorum Emblemata figuris æneis incisa studio Othonis Væni,
    Batavo-Lugdunensis. Emblemes of Love, with verses in Latin, English,
    and Italian, obl. 4to.: Antverpiæ, 1608."

Prefixed is an English dedication "to the most Honourable and Worthy
Brothers William, Earl of Pembroke, and Philip, Earl of Montgomerie,
Patrons of Learning and Chevalrie," whose coat of arms also is given.

    "The Doctrine of Morality, or a View of Human Life according to the
    Stoic Philosophy, &c. A translation, by T. M. Gibbs, from the French of
    M. De Gomberville, with 103 copper plates by Daret, folio: London,

To each engraving are appended quotations from Horace, &c., with English
translations: but both engravings and quotations have been pirated (without
the least acknowledgment) from Van Veen's _Horatia Emblemata_.

It must be admitted that a comprehensive work on European Books of Emblems,
illustrated with fac-similes of the various engravings, &c., is a great
desideratum in modern literature. I feel highly flattered by the kind
commendations which MR. CORSER has bestowed upon my two small attempts
towards such a work, and by his encouraging me to proceed "to enlarge and
complete" the same. Now, I do not altogether despair of _enlarging_ it. But
when my excellent friend puts forward a proposal to _complete_ it, he
should be informed that my library alone contains nearly 250 volumes
strictly emblematical, and published during the sixteenth and seventeenth
centuries. By far the greater part of these are in Latin. To carry forward
a work of such magnitude to anything like _completion_ must therefore be
rather wished for than expected.


West Dingle, near Liverpool.

Allow me to add the following to MR. CORSER'S list:

    "The Christian's Divine Amusement, consisting of Emblems and
    Hieroglyphicks on a great Variety of Subjects, Moral and Divine, in
    four books. By the late Rev. Mr. J. Jones. Embellished with near 100
    beautiful emblematical cuts, 12mo. pp. 191.: London, 1764."

I know not who the Rev. Mr. J. was, but his book is the old one of Francis
Quarles. The author, or rather adapter, attacks and demolishes the fable as
a method of instruction, and would substitute the emblems. In remodelling
Quarles, Mr. Jones makes the following alterations, or
improvements:--Instead of the Latin motto under each cut, he presents us
with four lines of English verse, which contain a general explanation of
the emblem. The page facing the cut he divides into two parts or sections
of odes and hymns suited to common psalmody, and the moral, or application,
also in a poetical dress.

A prose work belonging to the class under notice is an

    "Emblematical Representation of the Paradise of God; showing the Nature
    of Spiritual Industry, in the similitude of a Garden well ordered,
    dressed, and kept. London, 1779."

The author of this was a visionary Scots gardener named Alexander Clark,
who had been favoured with a special manifestation of divine glory, "by
which," he says, "(to my own astonishment) I was enabled to see through
every profound passage of Scripture, and to spiritualise every material
thing;" but he belongs to my fanatical rather {581} than to my emblematical
shelf, and may be worth a separate Note hereafter.

Under the name of Farlie, or Fairlie, MR. CORSER mixes up the titles of two
distinct books; they are now before me, and divide themselves thus:

    1. "Lychnocavsia, sive Moralia Facvm Emblemata. Light's Moral Emblems.
    Authore Roberto Farlæo, Scoto-Britanno. 12mo.: London, Th. Cotes for M.
    Sparke, 1638."

Containing fifty-eight emblems in Latin and English, each with a cut, with
a dedication in Latin to the Earl of Ancrum, and one in English to his
Countess. There are also complimentary verses by J. Hooper, Christ.
Drayton, Mr. Povey, Thos. Beedome, and Edm. Coleman.

    2. "Kalendarium Humanæ Vitæ. The Kalendar of Man's Life. Authore R. F.,
    S.-B. 12mo. London, for W. Hope, 1638."

With a Latin dedication to his patron the Earl of Ancrum. The book contains
verses upon the various stages of man's life, under the heads of Spring,
Summer, Autumn, and Winter; again subdivided into moralisations upon the
months, as corresponding with the periods of life, as "August, or Man's
Youth," &c. This has also a variety of curious cuts, and both have engraved
emblematical titles, the latter bearing on its face "G. Glover fecit."

When book-rarities were in more request, these were costly little volumes;
and I shall be glad if any of your correspondents can direct me where to
find any notice of Robert Fairlie, the author of two of the most
interesting of the emblematical series.

J. O.

       *       *       *       *       *


    [The following paper, which has been kindly communicated to us by MR.
    POLLOCK at the request of DR. DIAMOND, describes a process which
    deserves the especial attention of our photographic friends, for the
    beauty and uniformity of its results.]


_The paper_ should be carefully chosen, by holding up every sheet to the
light, and only those sheets which are homogeneous in appearance and free
from spots should be kept for use.

_The albumen_ should be obtained from new-laid hens' eggs; twenty-four is a
convenient number to use at a time: these will yield twenty-four ounces of
albumen, to which should be added six ounces of distilled writer (making
thirty ounces in all) and four per cent. of chloride of ammonium, viz. one
ounce and a quarter.

The albumen water and chloride should be whipped with a silver fork for
several minutes, and then put into a narrow tall jar, and allowed to stand
for not less than two days (forty-eight hours). In cool weather it will
keep well for eight days, at the end of which time the upper half of the
albumen is to be poured off into a shallow vessel, rather larger than the
sheets of paper intended to be albumenised.

_To put the Albumen on the Paper._--Take a sheet by two opposite corners;
turn one up; place the sheet boldly on the albumen, the centre first coming
in contact with the albumen; lower the corners of the paper, gradually
carefully excluding, the air. Let the sheet so placed remain four minutes:
then take it by the turned up corner, and rip it from the albumen quickly,
so as to carry up a quantity of the albumen with it. Let it drain for a
minute or two, moving it so as not to allow the albumen to run in streaks;
pin it to a piece of tape; and, when dry, pass a very hot iron over the
back. This ends the albumenising process.

_To make the Paper sensitive._--Place the albumenised side downwards, for
four minutes, on the surface of a solution of nitrate of silver, of the
strength of ninety grains to the ounce of distilled water; pin it up by one
corner to dry, and keep it between pieces of blotting-paper. This must be
done by yellow light, or the light of a candle.

_To print from the Negative._--The simplest apparatus to have is a number
of pieces of plate-glass a quarter of an inch thick, colourless, about
twelve inches by ten in size.

The sensitive paper is to be placed on one of the plates of glass,
sensitive side upwards, and the negative is to be placed firmly upon it,
collodion side downwards; and a second glass plate is then to be placed on
the negative, and the whole arrangement exposed to the light. The time for
exposure is from three minutes to an hour. With a little practice the
negative can be lifted up, and the positive viewed front time to time,
without any risk of displacement.

The best rule is to print the lightest shade on the positive very decidedly
darker than it would be wished that it should remain permanently.

_To fix the Positive._--On removing it from the pressure frame, place it in
a bath made as follows:

  Water                                            6 oz.
  Hyposulphite of soda                             1 oz.
  Nitrate of silver solution, 50 grs. to oz.      15 minims.
  Iodide of silver, dissolved in a saturated
    solution of hypo.                             10 minims.
  Chloride of gold                                 2 grains.
  Chloride of silver (blackened by light)          5 grains.
  Acetic acid                                      2 drops.

Mix these: let them stand some hours; and filter before use. If the
chloride of silver is omitted, the bath will do very well, but will very
much improve with age, as it will acquire chloride of silver from the
positives placed in it. {582}

The time to leave the positive in the fixing bath varies from one hour to
twelve. To get good black and white tints, the average time is five or six
hours. When the desired tint is obtained, remove it into a bath composed of

  Water      6 oz.
  Hypo.      1 oz.

Leave in this for half an hour, and then keep it in running water for
several hours. If the water is hot, the time of soaking may be lessened:
boiling water is objectionable. Nearly dry the positive between sheets of
clean blotting-paper, and finish it by passing a very hot iron over it.

_General Remarks._--The albumenised paper will keep any length of time in a
dry place.

When made sensitive, as directed, it will keep three days, always supposing
that it is both prepared and kept most carefully excluded from white light.
If, instead of a solution of nitrate of silver of ninety grains to the
ounce, a weaker one be used, to make the paper sensitive, it will keep when
sensitive a much longer time,--with a thirty-grain solution, a fortnight,
or sometimes even a month; but then it does not give a positive of the same
force and tone as that obtained with the stronger solution.

After the fixing bath has done its day's work, it should be poured back
into the bottle from which it came, and the bottle be filled up from the
finishing bath; and so the bath is kept always of the same quantity; and by
adding from time to time chloride of gold, it is kept of the same quality.

The nitrate of silver and chloride of silver will never have to be renewed.
The iodide of silver should be added as at first, viz. ten drops for about
every two hundred positives fixed; and the acetic acid, viz. two drops for
about every four hundred.

In a bath of twenty-four ounces, as many as thirty positives, five inches
by four, may be placed at one time: but the dark tints will then appear
very slowly and gradually.

To insure a good positive, next to having a good negative, it is most
important to print of the right depth, neither too much nor too little.
Great attention should be paid to this: for the finest tints are only to be
obtained in positives exposed exactly the right time.

Positives printed in a bright sun quickly are always better than those
obtained by longer exposure without sun.

H. P.

21. Maddox Street, Regent Street.

_Test for Lenses._--In applying the methods recommended in your last Number
for the purpose of testing lenses, there is one precaution absolutely
necessary to be taken, but which all your correspondents have omitted to
point out. The operator must take care that his _focussing-glass_ is placed
at precisely the same distance from the lens as the _collodionised_ glass
is. To insure this, my practice is to place a piece of ground glass in the
dark frame, which is afterwards to receive the collodionised glass, and to
obtain the focus of the lens on that; then to put in the proposed plate,
and obtain an impression as described by MR. SHADBOLT. In this way I secure
myself from what I believe is often a source of fallacy in these
experiments, and am sure that I give the lens a fair trial.

E. S.

_Washing Collodion Pictures._--I have never offered to your readers an
opinion in photography without having _bonâ fide_ tested it, to the best of
my ability; and however correct my friend MR. SHADBOLT may be, chemically
and theoretically, I am convinced that in practice so good a tone is never
obtained in a positive collodion picture which has been washed, as in one
which has been instantly fixed with the old saturated solution of
hyposulphite of soda. The unpleasant tints obtained upon positive collodion
pictures, I believe to be much dependent upon the frequent washings in the
proofs. When a collodion picture is properly treated, it surpasses in
pleasing effect every other photograph.


       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Cremonas_ (Vol. vii., p. 501.).--A discriminative account of the violins
and basses by the great Italian makers, showing, in every ascertainable
instance, the date of manufacture, and thereby forming to some extent a
chronological catalogue, as it were, of the works of each master, would be,
indeed, a curious and interesting achievement. Such a task, involving much
consultation of books and examination of instruments, calls for sounder
eye-sight and larger opportunities than are possessed by me; but I shall
rejoice if the desire expressed by your correspondent H. C. K. shall be
found to have stirred up some competent investigator. Time and accident are
gradually attaching, to the fine instruments in question, a kind of
_sibylline_ intensity of value; and the inquiry, if omitted now, may become
impossible hereafter. Let us not fear, however, that those "cunning'st
patterns of excelling art," the Amati, Stradivari, and Guarneri fiddles,
will eventually perish without worthy issue, and "die, and leave the world
no copy." Provision to the contrary, it seems, has already been made;
Monsieur Vuillaume "has ta'en order for't," that is to say, _if_ his
instruments, which at present look very like faithful fac-similes of the
renowned classic prototypes, shall verify the confident predictions of
their admirers, by continuing to stand the test of time.

My authority for 1664 as the date of birth of Antonio Stradivari, is a
living Belgian writer, Monsieur Fétis, who has not stated from whence {583}
he has adopted it. I find that the Paris _Biographie Universelle_ gives no
fixed date, but only a conjectural one, _about_ 1670, so that 1664 _may_
possibly be right.



_James Chaloner_ (Vol. vii., p. 334.).--MR. HUGHES is mistaken in imagining
that James Chaloner the herald-painter was the same person as James
Chaloner, Governor of the Isle of Man, and one of the judges of Charles I.
He will find the error exposed by Chalmers (_Biog. Dict._, JAS. C.), and in
my family, as descendants of the latter James Chaloner, there are among his
papers many which prove the governor to have been (as MR. HUGHES doubts)
the son of Sir Thomas Chaloner of Gisborough.

Should any farther doubts remain on the subject, I shall be happy to give
all information required concerning these papers, among which are the
original commission of governor and captain, signed by Lenthal, and
twenty-one letters from Lord Fairfax to his "dear cousin James Chaloner."
The son of Sir Thomas Chaloner married Ursula Fairfax. It may be presumed
the herald-painter did not stand in the same relationship to the
Parliamentary general. Lord Fairfax thanks his correspondent for a copy of
"his" _History of the Isle of Man_.


_Irish Convocation_ (Vol. vi., p. 317.; Vol. vii., p. 345.).--In vol. i. of
_Letters written by the late Jonathan Swift, D.D., Dean of St. Patrick's,
Dublin, and several of his Friends, from the Year 1703 to 1740, &c., with
Notes, by John Hawkesworth, LL.D._: London, 1766,--will be found some
account of the Irish Convocation in 1711. See Archbishop King's Letters at
pp. 110, 111. 122, 123. 132, 133. 140, 141.

J. K.

_St. Paul's Epistle to Seneca_ (Vol. vii., p. 500.).--It is not manifest
whether J. M. S. wishes for information simply respecting the MS. in Merton
College, or whether his inquiry really relates to the _printing_ of the
fourteen spurious epistles, eight of which are ascribed to Seneca, and six
to St. Paul.

If your correspondent is curious about the particular MS. he mentions,
which is a very old one, and was the gift of William Reade, Bishop of
Chichester (who had been a Fellow of Merton) about the year 1370, he may
consult the _Catal. Lib. MSS. Ang. et Hib._, part. ii. p. 23., Oxon. 1697;
and should he desire to peruse the fictitious Epistles, he may easily
discover them in the _Bibliotheca Sancta_ of Sixtus Senensis, lib. ii. pp.
102-104. Francof. 1575, or in Fabricii _Cod. Apoc. Nov. Test._, ii.
892-904. Jacobus Faber Stapulensis has inserted them in the handsome volume
of his _Commentaries on the Epistles of St. Paul_. (Fol. clxxvi.-clxxix.:
Paris, 1517.) I find them also annexed to the _Epistole Francisci
Philelphi_, 4to., Hagenau, 1514. So far as I can perceive, it does not
appear that the correspondence in question was published amongst any of the
works of Seneca earlier than the year 1475; and it is commonly omitted in
later editions. (Fabr., _Bib. Lat._, i. 429.: Venet. 1728.) Vid. Raynaudi
_Erotemata_, p. 119.: Lugd. 1653.; Nicolai Antonii _Biblioth. Hisp. vetus_,
tom. i. pp. 39, 40.: Matriti, 1788.

R. G.

_Captain Ayloff_ (Vol. vii., p. 429.).--I possess a small volume (a 12mo.)
by "Captain Ayloffe," with a title-page as follows:

    "A Pocket Companion for Gentlemen and Ladies; being a true and faithful
    Epitomy of the most exact and ample Histories of _England_; containing
    all the material Particulars in every reign of the _English_ Monarchs,
    from Egbert to her present Majesty, being 884 years. With forty-nine
    Copper plates curiously engraved, being the effigies of every Monarch.
    London, printed by J. Nutt, near Stationers' Hall, 1703."

It is dedicated "To the Honourable Col. Archibald Row, Colonel of the Royal
Regiment of Scots Fuzileers," and signed "W. Ayloffe." Then follows an
introduction of six pages.

Should the above be useful to MR. STERNBERG, I shall feel pleasure in
having made the communication by means of the useful and intelligent
publication of "N. & Q."


_Plan of London_ (Vol. vii., p. 382.).--L. S. W. asks whether there is a
good plan of London, and answers his Query thus, _None_. I beg to differ
from him, believing that no city in the world possesses so good a plan as
that lately made under the late Commissioners of Sewers. It is true I and
my tenants have paid very dearly for it, but having examined both the
reduced plan and block plan very carefully, am compelled to admit their
accuracy. It is published in sheets at two shillings each; size, three feet
by two feet; scale of _block plan_, five feet to one mile; _reduced plan_,
one foot to one mile. On each plan accurate levels of every place is given.
An index-map, price threepence, is also published.

A. P.


_Syriac Scriptures_ (Vol. vii., p. 479.).--The editions of the eighteenth
and nineteenth centuries, preceding the Bible Society's edition, are,--

    1. Nov. Testam. Syriac. et Arabic. Romæ, typis Sacr. Cong. de prop.
    Fide, 1703, fol.

    2. Nov. D. N. Jesu Christi Test. Syriac. cum versione Latiná, currâ et
    studio Joh. Leusden et Caroli Schaaf. Secunda editio à mendis purgata.
    Lugduni. Bat. Typ. Jo. Mulleri. John. fil. apud Vid. et fil. Cornel.
    Boutesteyn, Samuelem Luchtmans, 1717, 4to.

    3. Biblia Sacra quadrilinguia N. T. Græci, cum versione Syriacâ, Græcâ
    vulgari, Latinâ, et Germanicâ, accurante M. Christ. Reineccio, Lips.
    1713, fol.

    4. Psalter, by John. Aug. Dathe, 1768.

    {584} 5. Sacrorum evangeliorum versio Syriaca Pholoxeniana ex codd.
    MSS. Ridleianis, nunc primum edita cum interpretatione et
    annotationibus Josephi White. Oxon. 1778.

    6. Pentateuchus Syriace. Ex Polyglottis Anglicanis summa fide edidit M.
    Georgius Guil. Kirsch. Gymnasii quod Hofæ est, in Principatu Baruthino
    Rector. Hofæ et Lipsiæ ap. A. Fr. Boehm, 1787, 4to.

An elaborate criticism on No. 5. (the Oxford edit.) appears in Eichhorn's
_Repertorium_, vol. vii. p. 1., by D. Gottlob Christian Storr.



_Meaning of "Worth"_ (Vol. v., p. 509.).--As this suffix enters into the
composition of many of our English surnames, particularly in the northern
counties, MR. LOWER (and probably your readers in general) will be glad to
have the explanation of an able Anglo-Saxon scholar and antiquary, the late
lamented Mr. John Just of this town, whose merits as a philosopher and
etymologist were highly appreciated by the learned societies in this
district. It occurs in a paper read at a chapter of the Rosicrucians in
Manchester a few months since:

    "WORTH.--_Weorthe_, Anglo-Saxon, a field, &c. _Worth_ means land,
    close, or farm. It does not necessarily imply any residence, although
    thereon might be a hall or mansion. It likewise sometimes means nothing
    more than road or public way. Hence it is connected with the names of
    many places on our old roads, as Ainsworth, Edgeworth, on the Roman
    military road to the north; Failsworth, Saddleworth, on the Roman
    military road from Manchester to York; Unsworth, Pilsworth, on the old
    road between Bury and Manchester; also Ashworth, Whitworth,
    Butterworth, on old roads, and connected with old places, near
    Rochdale. Whether originally land, closes, or farms, _worths_ were
    acquired properties. The old expression of 'What is he worth?' in those
    days meant, 'Has he land? Possesses he real property?' If he had
    secured a _worth_ to himself, he was called a _worthy_ person, and in
    consequence had _worship_, _i. e._ due respect shown him. A _worth_ was
    the reward of the free; and perchance the fundamentals of English
    freedom were primarily connected with such apparently trivial matters,
    and produced such a race of _worthies_ as the proud Greeks and haughty
    Romans might not be ashamed of. _Worth_ is pure Anglo-Saxon. The
    Scandinavians applied it not in their intercourse with our island."


Bury, Lancashire.

_Khond Fable_ (Vol. vii., p. 452.).--This fable is clearly from Lokman, of
which the following is Hélot's translation:

    "Une moustique se posa un jour sur la corne d'un taureau, et, pensant
    qu'elle pouvait être trop lourde pour lui, elle lui dit: 'Si je te suis
    à charge, fais-le-moi savoir afin que je m'envole.' Le taureau lui
    répondit: 'Je ne t'ai point sentie au moment où tu es descendue, je ne
    saurai pas davantage quand tu t'envoleras.' Cette fable regarde celui
    qui cherche à s'attribuer de l'honneur et de la gloire tandis qu'il est
    faible et méprisable."

The sense of the Bull's reply in Arabic seems to be:

    "O you, whatever you are [_Ya hadi_], I did not know when you
    descended, nor shall I know when you take yourself off [_Taterin_]."

A pointed reply, leaving the mosquito one horn of the dilemma.



The following lines by Prior immediately occurred to my mind on perusing
J. C. R.'s interesting note. The points of resemblance between the two
fables are somewhat striking:

 "'Say, sire of insects, mighty Sol!'
  A fly on the chariot pole cried out,
     'What blue-bottle alive
  Did ever with such fury drive?'

 "'Tell, Beelzebub, great father, tell!'
  Says t'other, perch'd upon the wheel,
 'Did ever any mortal fly
  Raise such a cloud of dust as I?'"


 "_My_ judgment turn'd the whole debate!
  _My_ valour saved the sinking state!"


This fable is found in the collection assigned to Babrius. It is the
eighty-fourth in the excellent edition of these fables by Mr. G. Cornewall
Lewis: Oxford, 1846.

W. H. G.


_Collar of SS._ (Vols. iv. _and_ v., _passim_).--In the discussion on the
subject of the collar of SS., in the columns of "N. & Q.," I find no
mention of an incidental observation of Thomas Fuller, which occurs in the
notice of John Gower, the poet, in the Worthies of Yorkshire, and is
deserving of some notice:

    "Another author (Stow) unknighteth him, allowing him only a plain
    esquire, though in my apprehension the collar of SSS. about his neck
    speaketh him to be more. Besides (with submission to better judgments)
    that collar hath rather a civil than a military relation, proper to
    persons in place of judicature; which makes me guess this Gower some
    judge in his old age, well consisting with his original education."

MR. FOSS, I see, mentions (Vol. iv., p. 147.) the existence of the collar
on the poet's monument, and suggests that he might have worn it as a court

H. C. K.

---- Rectory, Hereford.

_Chaucer's Knowledge of Italian_ (Vol. vii., p. 517.).--To the proofs that
Chaucer was well acquainted with Italian literature, brought forward in "N.
& Q." by J. M. B., it may seem {585} unnecessary to add any more. Yet, if
it were only for the purpose of recalling your readers' attention to the
elegant and instructive _Dissertation on the State of English Poetry before
the Sixteenth Century_, by the late Dr. Nott, of All Souls' College, will
you permit me to adduce that learned writer's authority, in opposition to
the opinion of Sir Harris Nicolas, that Chaucer was not versed in Italian
literature? Dr. Nott's Dissertation is entombed in the two quarto volumes
of his edition of the _Works of Surrey and Wyatt_ (London, 1815); and it is
much to be wished that it were reprinted in a separate and more accessible

J. M.


_Pic Nic_ (Vol. vii., p. 387.).--The following extract from an Italian
newspaper raises a considerable presumption that this word is not now
considered in Italy as an Italian one; the date is Sept. 1841.

    "Se qualche delirante vi ha dato ad intendere che i Bagni di Lucca sono
    il soggiorno prediletto dell' Italiano, ci vi ha detto una solenne

    "I Bagni di Lucca appartengono, come tant' altre cose in Italia,
    esclusivamente allo straniero."

Then follows a description of the numerous English arrivals, while the

    "Spera di rinvenir sulle alture di que' colli un piè di patria tutto
    per lui, e ascende i sentieri ornati di bosco. Ma abbassando gli occhi
    ci s' accorge che non è solo. Un' _Amatore_ a cui forse l' ignobile
    itinerario della _Starke_ ha rivelate quella sublime veduta, sta
    colassu scarabocchiando uno sbozzo pell' Album del suo _drawing room_.
    Più lunge, povero Italiano! più lunge! Ecco la scena si cambia ... i
    sentieri divengono più ardui ... in fondo, mezzo nascosto dal fitto
    fogliame apparisce ... un casolare; un villano lo invita ad entrare ...
    e gli parla in Inglese, in Francese, ed in Tedesco!... ci s' allontana
    impazientito, e corre più lunge!... I castagni divengono rari.... Aride
    roccie annunziano il vertice dell' Apennin. Ancora una breve salita, e
    poi ci sarà sul più alto pinacolo del Prato Fiorite. Ma al piè del
    viattolo è un inciampo! e l'occhio sconfortato scorge la livrea di un
    _groom_ e da un lato una sentimentale _Lady_, che si è arrampiccata più
    lassa e prosaicamente seduta sulla sua sedia portatile sta scrivendo
    una lettera sopra un foglio a vignetta. L' Italiano continua ad
    ascendere ... e giunte alla vetta ... all' amplissima libera vista, il
    cuore dell' Italiano batte più forte ... la mente s' esalta, e i più
    energici pensieri vi bollono.... Ma gli occhi ritornano svegliati dei
    passi dei Cavalli, appiè del ripiane s' affaccia una numerosa comitiva
    ... è un _pique nique_! Fuggi fuggi mal capitate Italiano la straniero
    l' inseque anco nel nido dell aguila!"

Here the "pique nique" is evidently the climax of all that is "straniero."

K. E.

_Canker or Brier Rose_ (Vol. vii, p. 500.).--I suspect that this term
refers to the beautiful mossy gall, so commonly seen on the branches of the
wild rose, which has been called the _bedeguar_ of the rose. This is the
production of a cynips; and, from its vivid tints of crimson and green,
might well pass at a short distance for a flower, brilliant, but scentless.
Hence Shakspeare's allusion:

 "The canker-blooms have full as deep a dye
  As the perfumed tincture of the roses."



_Cancre_ and _crabe_ in French are synonymous, meaning the same; Anglicè,
crab (_fish_).

Now, we have crab-tree, a wild apple-tree; a canker rose, a wild rose; dog
rose, dog-violet, horse leech, horse chestnut. In all these cases the
prefix denotes inferiority of species.

H. F. B.

_Door-head Inscriptions_ (Vol. vii., pp. 23. 190.)--In Watson's _History of
Halifax_ (1775, 4to., p. 257.), in describing the High Sunderland, an
ancient mansion near Halifax, formerly the residence of the Sunderlands, he
notices that "over the north door is written, _Ne subeat Glis serdus_, a
mistake for _surdus_; and over a door on the south side, _Ne entret amicus

As some of your correspondents doubt as to the proper reading I have
thought it worth while to give this duplicate version. I recollect the
inscription well, having been sorely puzzled, when a schoolboy, in my
frequent walks to High Sunderland, to understand these two inscriptions. I
must not omit the inscription on the south front:

 "Omnipotens faxet, stirps Sunderlandia sedes
  Incolet has placide, et tueatur jura parentum,
  Lite vacans, donec fluctus formica marinos
  Ebibat et totum testudo perambulet orbem!"

The commentary of the worthy historian is edifying:

    "The writer of these, or his son, alienated this very estate, which the
    then owner so earnestly wished might continue in the family for ever!"


On the portico of Arley Hall, the seat of the ancient family of Warburton,
and about four miles from the town of Northwich, Cheshire, the following
"free pass" to visitors appears, carved in stone:

 "This gate is free to all men, good and true;
  Right welcome thou, if worthy to pass through."



"_Time and I_," &c. (Vol. vii., p. 181.).--Who was the author of this
adage? Lord Mahon gives it as a favourite saying of Mazarin (_History of
England_, vol. ii. p. 100., small edition). Mr. Stirling (_Cloister Life of
Charles V._, p. 151., 2nd edition) tells us that it was a favourite adage
of {586} that temporising monarch. Perhaps it was a well-known Spanish


_Lowbell_ (Vol. vii., p. 181.).--The inclosed was taken from the
_Northampton Herald_ of the 16th April, 1853:

    "On Monday last this village was thrown into a state of great
    excitement by the tidings that a married labourer, named Samuel
    Peckover, had taken poison, with the intent of destroying himself. This
    was found to be the case. He had swallowed a dose of mercury, such as
    is commonly used for sheep, and, but for the timely arrival of Mr.
    Jones, surgeon, from Brackley, who administered him a powerful
    antidote, he would have expired within a short time. The circumstance
    which led the misguided man to attempt this rash act was as
    follows:--Although a married man, and wedded to a very respectable
    woman, he had seduced a young female of the village, named Adelaide
    Hirons, who was delivered of a female child on Saturday last. This
    disgraceful affair, of course, had become known to the neighbours, who
    expressed great indignation at his most disreputable conduct, and they
    in consequence determined to put him to open shame by 'lowbelling' him
    in front of his cottage in the evening, when all the old pots and
    kettles in the village were put in requisition, and a continual discord
    was kept up for two or three hours, by way of administering him a
    wholesome punishment for his breaking the marriage vows. It is supposed
    that the fear of this impending disgrace, and also remorse for his
    crime, were the cause of his thus attempting to make away with himself,
    and to rush unprepared and unpardoned into the presence of his Maker!"


_Overseers of Wills_ (Vol. vii., p. 500.).--J. K. will find what he seeks
about, overseers and supervisors of wills, in Burn's _Ecclesiastical Law_.


_Detached Belfry Towers_ (Vol. vii., pp. 333. 416. 465.).--I have also to
inform you that the tower of Terrington St. Clement's Church, about five
miles from Kings Lynn, is detached from the church.

J. N. C.

King's Lynn.

To the list of churches having detached towers may be added the church of
Chittlehampton, near South Molton, Devon. It is several years since I last
visited the spot, but I have a distinct recollection of the fact.


Amongst your list of towers separate from the church, I think you have not
mentioned Westbury on Severn, near Gloucester.


Add to your list of Detached Church Towers, the magnificent Norman tower at
Bury St. Edmunds in Suffolk.

J. B.

_Vincent Family_ (Vol. vii., p. 501.).--The representative of Augustine
Vincent is Thomas Wentworth Edmunds of Worsbro', W. Barnsley, in the county
of York, the son of the late Wm. Bennet Martin of the same place, Esq., who
has assumed the name of his great-uncle, Francis Offley Edmunds. There is a
memoir of Augustine Vincent, by Mr. Hunter, published, I believe, by
Pickering, Piccadilly, which shows the descent, and may perhaps throw light
on Francis Vincent. The name, I believe, is still common at Finedon in


Stoudon Place, Brentwood.

_Pronunciation of "Coke"_ (Vol. vi., p. 16.).--In a list of books "printed
and sold by Richard Chiswell," at the end of a copy of Cave's _Lives of the
Fathers_, 1683, in my possession, the following occurs among the folios:
"Lord Cook's _Reports_ in English." This is exactly fifty years after his

H. C. K.

       *       *       *       *       *



Two Copies.









by Francis Macpherson, Middle Row, Holborn. 1836.

LORD BISHOP OF ROCHESTER (HORSLEY). The Quarto Edition, printed for Robson.

BEN JONSON'S WORKS. 9 Vols. 8vo. Vols. II., III., IV. Bds.

SIR WALTER SCOTT'S NOVELS. 41 Vols. 8vo. The last nine Vols. Boards.

*** _Correspondents sending Lists Of Books wanted are requested to send
their names._

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

_The number of Replies waiting for insertion has obliged us to omit our

QUERY. _The quotation_

 "Heu quanto minus reliquis versari," _&c._

_is from Shenstone's Epitaph on Miss Dolman. See_ "N. & Q." Vol. iv., p.

F. B. _The etymology of_ Apron _is very doubtful. Minshew and others derive
it from_ afore one; _while Todd again derives it from the French_ napperon.

TOM TELL TRUTH _is thanked. There cannot be two opinions on the subject of
his communication._

_A few complete sets of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. _to_ vi., _price
Three Guineas, may now be had; for which early application is desirable._

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday._ {587}

       *       *       *       *       *


T. OTTEWILL (from Horne & Co.'s) begs most respectfully to call the
attention of Gentlemen, Tourists, and Photographers, to the superiority of
his newly registered DOUBLE-BODIED FOLDING CAMERAS, possessing the
efficiency and easy adjustment of the Sliding Camera, with the portability
and convenience of the Folding Ditto.

Every description of Apparatus to order.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--Collodion (Iodized with the Ammonio-Iodide of Silver). J. B.
HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, were the first in England who
published the application of this agent (see _Athenæum_, Aug. 14th). Their
Collodion (price 9d. per oz.) retains its extraordinary sensitiveness,
tenacity, and colour unimpaired for months; it may be exported to any
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manufacture PURE CHEMICALS and all APPARATUS with the latest Improvements
adapted for all the Photographic and Daguerreotype processes. Cameras for
Developing in the open Country. GLASS BATHS adapted to any Camera. Lenses
from the best Makers. Waxed and Iodized Papers, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, price 1s., free by Post 1s. 4d.,

Translated from the French.

Sole Agents in the United Kingdom for VOIGHTLANDER & SON'S celebrated
Lenses for Portraits and Views.

General Depôt for Turner's, Whatman's, Canson Frères, La Croix, and other
Talbotype Papers.

Pure Photographic Chemicals.

Instructions and Specimens in every Branch of the Art.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's,
Sanford's, and Canson Frères' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's Process.
Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions
(comprising Views in VENICE, PARIS, RUSSIA, NUBIA, &c.) may be seen at
BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured Apparatus of
every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of Photography in
all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

*** Catalogues may be had on Application.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

Established 1824.

       *       *       *       *       *

FIVE BONUSES have been declared: at the last in January, 1852, the sum of
131,125l. was added to the Policies, producing a Bonus varying with the
different ages from 24½ to 55 per cent. on the Premiums paid during the
five years, or from 5l. to 12l. 10s. per cent. on the Sum Assured.

The small share of Profit divisible in future among the Shareholders being
now provided for, the ASSURED will hereafter derive all the benefits
obtainable from a Mutual Office, WITHOUT ANY LIABILITY OR RISK OF

POLICIES effected before the 30th of June next, will be entitled, at the
next Division, to one year's additional share of Profits over later

On Assurances for the whole of Life only one half of the Premiums need be
paid for the first five years.

INVALID LIVES may be Assured at rates proportioned to the risk.

Claims paid _thirty_ days after proof of death, and all Policies are
_Indisputable_ except in cases of fraud.

Tables of Rates and forms of Proposal can be obtained of any of the
Society's Agents, or of

GEORGE H. PINCKARD, Resident Secretary.

_99. Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, London._

       *       *       *       *       *

UNITED KINGDOM LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY: established by Act of Parliament in
1834.--8. Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, London.


  Earl of Courtown
  Earl Leven and Melville
  Earl of Norbury
  Earl of Stair
  Viscount Falkland
  Lord Elphinstone
  Lord Belhaven and Stenton
  Wm. Campbell, Esq., of Tillichewan


  _Chairman._--Charles Graham, Esq.
  _Deputy-Chairman._--Charles Downes, Esq.

  H. Blair Avarne, Esq.
  E. Lennox Boyd, Esq., F.S.A., _Resident_.
  C. Berwick Curtis, Esq.
  William Fairlie, Esq.
  D. Q. Henriques, Esq.
  J. G. Henriques, Esq.
  F. C. Maitland, Esq.
  William Railton, Esq.
  F. H. Thomson, Esq.
  Thomas Thorby, Esq.


  _Physician._--Arthur H. Hassall, Esq., M.D.,
  8. Bennett Street, St. James's.

  _Surgeon._--F. H. Tomson, Esq., 48. Berners Street.

The Bonus added to Policies from March, 1834, to December 31, 1847, is as

    Sum    |   Time   |   Sum added to     |   Sum
  Assured. | Assured. |      Policy        | Payable
           |          +--------------------+ at Death.
           |          | In 1841. In 1848.  |
      £    |          |   £ s.d.|   £  s.d.|    £  s.d.
     5000  | 14 years | 683 6 8 | 787 10 0 | 6470 16 8
   * 1000  |  7 years |  -  -   | 157 10 0 | 1157 10 0
      500  |  1 year  |  -  -   |  11  5 0 |  511  5 0

* EXAMPLE.--At the commencement of the year 1841, a person aged thirty took
out a Policy for 1000l., the annual payment for which is 24l. 1s. 8d.; in
1847 he had paid in premiums 168l. 11s. 8d.; but the profits being 2¼ per
cent. per annum on the sum insured (which is 22l. 10s. per annum for each
1000l.) he had 157l. 10s. added to the Policy, almost as much as the
premiums paid.

The Premiums, nevertheless, are on the most moderate scale, and only
one-half need be paid for the first five years, when the Insurance is for
Life. Every information will be afforded on application to the Resident

       *       *       *       *       *

suffer from depression of spirits, confusion, headache, blushing,
groundless fears, unfitness for business or society, blood to the head,
failure of memory, delusions, suicidal thoughts, fear of insanity, &c.,
will call on, or correspond with, REV. DR. WILLIS MOSELEY, who, out of
above 22,000 applicants, knows not fifty uncured who have followed his
advice, he will instruct them how to get well, without a fee, and will
render the same service to the friends of the insane.--At home from 11 to


       *       *       *       *       *



Founded A.D. 1842.


  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.
  W. Cabell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq. M.P.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
  T. Grissell, Esq.
  J. Hunt, Esq.
  J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  E. Lucas, Esq.
  J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  J. B. White, Esq.
  J. Carter Wood, Esq.


W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; L. C. Humfrey, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq.

_Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.

_Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed on
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age      _£  s.  d._
   17       1  14   4
   22       1  18   8
   27       2   4   5
   32       2  10   8
   37       2  18   6
   42       3   8   2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

ROYAL ASYLUM OF ST. ANN'S SOCIETY.--Waiting not for the Child of those once
in prosperity to become an Orphan, but by Voluntary Contributions affording
at once a Home, Clothing, Maintenance, and Education.

The Half-yearly Election will take place at the London Tavern on Friday,
August 12th, next.

Forms of Nomination may be procured at the Office, where Subscriptions will
be thankfully received.

Executors of Benefactors by Will become Life Governors according to the
amount of the Bequest.

E. F. LEEKS, Secretary.

2. Charlotte Row, Mansion House. {588}

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, in 8vo., price 2s.

ascribed to CYPRIAN, BISHOP of CARTHAGE. By the REV. E. J. SHEPHERD, M.A.,
Rector of Luddesdown: Author of the "History of the Church of Rome to the
End of the Episcopate of Damasus."


Of whom may be had, by the same Author,

THE FIRST LETTER, on the Intercourse between the Churches of Rome and
Africa. 8vo., price 1s.

A SECOND LETTER, on the Cyprianic Councils. 8vo., price 2s.

A THIRD LETTER on the Roman Supremacy. 8vo., price 1s.

       *       *       *       *       *



ANTIQUARIAN NEWS: containing Curious and Interesting Gleanings respecting
Prince Rupert, John Bunyan, Philip Astley, The Fortune Theatre, Strolling
Players, Mountebanks, Quack Doctors, Highwaymen, Cock-Fighting, St.
Pancras, May Fair, The Royal Bagnio, and a great variety of other
remarkable matters, forming altogether a most extraordinary and amusing


SHAKSPEARE REPOSITORY. No. II. (Sent Free on Receipt of Six Stamps.)
Containing New and Important Researches respecting Shakspeare and his

No. I. also may be had on Receipt of Six Stamps, or both Numbers on Receipt
of Twelve Stamps.


A Fac-simile of a remarkably Curious and Interesting NEWSPAPER OF CHARLES
THE SECOND'S REIGN, Free on Receipt of Three Stamps.

Address, J. H. FENNELL, 1. Warwick Court, Holborn, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Preparing for Publication,

of "The History of Russia," "Lives of the English Poets," &c.

To be published in Monthly Volumes, Foolscap Octavo, combining those
features of research, typographical elegance, and economy of price, which
the present age demands. The text will be carefully collated, and
accompanied by Biographical, Critical, and Historical Notes. A full
Prospectus may be had on application, post paid, to the Publishers.

JOHN W. PARKER & SON, West Strand, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-eighth Edition.

NEUROTONICS, or the Art of Strengthening the Nerves, containing Remarks on
the influence of the Nerves upon the Health of Body and Mind, and the means
of Cure for Nervousness, Debility, Melancholy, and all Chronic Diseases, by
DR. NAPIER, M.D. London: HOULSTON & STONEMAN. Price 4d., or Post Free from
the Author for Five Penny Stamps.

    "We can conscientiously recommend 'Neurotonics,' by Dr. Napier, to the
    careful perusal of our invalid readers."--_John Bull Newspaper, June 5,

       *       *       *       *       *

For Sale, price 16l. nett.

AN UNCUT COPY OF THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE, complete to Dec. 1843, with the
Five Volumes of Indexes, all half vellum, uncut, except Vols. III. and IV.,
which are calf, edges cut. Many of the volumes have Notes on Slips of Paper
and Newspaper Cuttings inserted by a former possessor.

Apply to OLIVE LASBURY, Bookseller, 10. Park Street, Bristol.

A New Catalogue Free by Post for One Penny Stamp.

       *       *       *       *       *


BRITANNIC RESEARCHES; or, New Facts and Rectifications of Ancient British
History. By the REV. BEALE POSTE, M.A. 8vo., pp. 448, with Engravings, 15s.

COOPER, F.A.S. 12mo., 3s. 6d. cloth.

A FEW NOTES on SHAKSPEARE; with occasional Remarks on the Emendations of
the Manuscript-Corrector in Mr. Collier's Copy of the Folio, 1632. By the
REV. ALEXANDER DYCE. 8vo., 5s. cloth.

WILTSHIRE TALES, illustrative of the Dialect and Manners of the Rustic
Population of that County. By JOHN YONGE AKERMAN, Esq. 12mo., 2s. 6d.

REMAINS of PAGAN SAXONDOM, principally from Tumuli in England, described
and illustrated. By J. Y. AKERMAN, Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries.
Parts I. to V., 4to., 2s. 6d. each.

*** The Plates are admirably executed by Mr. Basire, and coloured under the
direction of the Author. It is a work well worthy the notice of the

THE RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW: consisting of Criticisms upon, Analyses of, and
Extracts from Curious, Useful, and Valuable Old Books. 8vo. Nos. 1, 2, and
3, 2s. 6d. each. (No. 4., August 1.)

J. RUSSELL SMITH, 36. Soho Square.

       *       *       *       *       *

WANTED, for the Ladies' Institute, 83. Regent Street, Quadrant, LADIES of
taste for fancy work,--by paying 21s. will be received as members, and
taught the new style of velvet wool work, which is acquired in a few easy
lessons. Each lady will be guaranteed constant employment and ready cash
payment for her work. Apply personally to Mrs. Thoughey. N.B. Ladies taught
by letter at any distance from London.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECTACLES.--WM. ACKLAND applies his medical knowledge as a Licentiate of
the Apothecaries' Company, London, his theory as a Mathematician, and his
practice as a Working Optician, aided by Smee's Optometer, in the selection
of Spectacles suitable to every derangement of vision, so as to preserve
the sight to extreme old age.

ACHROMATIC TELESCOPES, with the New Vetzlar Eye-pieces, as exhibited at the
Academy of Sciences in Paris. The Lenses of these Eye-pieces are so
constructed that the rays of light fall nearly perpendicular to the surface
of various lenses, by which the aberration is completely removed; and a
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application to

WM. ACKLAND, Optician, 93. Hatton Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

12 mo. cloth, price 3s. 6d., with Index.

QUOTATIONS.--The Book of Familiar Quotations, containing the hackneyed
Quotations in daily use, with names of Authors, and places in their works
where they are to be found.


       *       *       *       *       *

Free of Expense by Post.

A CATALOGUE of certain old Books for Sale, by JOHN TUPLING, against the
Church of St. Mary in the Strand, with Notes set down to a few of them for
the taking away of all tediousness in reading.

 "Som of the gretest autours that men rede."
                  Chaucer, _Nonnes Tale_.

JOHN TUPLING, 320. Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, with Portrait of the Author, in One Volume 8vo., price 12s.

THE THISTLE AND THE CEDAR OF LEBANON; containing the Travels of the Author.
Domestic Life in Syria, the Comparative Influences of the Roman Catholic
and Protestant Faiths in Syria, and the present State of the Turkish

London: JAMES MADDEN, 8. Leadenhall Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


In 12mo., price 3s. 6d.

German of RUDOLPH JACOBS and others, by the REV. HENRY BROWNE, M.A., Canon
of Chichester. (Forming a New Volume of ARNOLD'S SCHOOL CLASSICS.)

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       *       *       *       *       *



RESPECTFULLY informs the Clergy, Architects, and Churchwardens, that he
replies immediately to all applications by letter, for information
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&c., &c., supplying full information as to Prices, together with Sketches,
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Having declined appointing Agents, MR. FRENCH invites direct communications
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delivered Free by Railway.

       *       *       *       *       *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION. No. 1. Class X.,
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BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
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       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, June 11.

       *       *       *       *       *

Corrections made to printed original.

p. 569 "With Ovyddes penner ye are gretly in favor," - "ooyddes" in
original, corrected by subsequent Erratum note

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