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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 190, June 18, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 190, June 18, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

generously made available by The Internet Library of Early

Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.



       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 190.]
Saturday, June 18, 1853.
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                        Page

    On the Use of the Hour-glass in Pulpits                 589
    The Megatherium Americanum in the British Museum        590
    Remunerations of Authors, by Alexander Andrews          591
    Coincident Legends, by Thomas Keightley                 591
    Shakespeare Readings, No. VIII.                         592
    Shakespeare's Use of the Idiom "No had" and "No hath
      not," by S. W. Singer, &c.                            593

    MINOR NOTES:--The Formation of the Woman,
      Gen. ii. 21, 22.--Singular Way of showing Displeasure
      --The Maids and the Widows--Alison's "Europe"--
     "Bis dat, qui cito dat:" "Sat cito, si sat bene"      593


    House-marks                                             594

    Minor Queries:--"Seductor Succo"--Anna Lightfoot
      --Queries from the "Navorscher"--"Amentium
      haud Amantium"--"Hurrah!" and other War-cries
      --Kissing Hands at Court--Uniforms of the three
      Regiments of Foot Guards, temp. Charles II.--Raffaelle's
      Sposalizio--"To the Lords of Convention"--
      Richard Candishe, M.P.--Alphabetical Arrangement--
      Saying of Pascal--Irish Characters on the Stage--
      Family of Milton's Widow--Table-moving                595

    MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Form of Petition,
      &c.--Bibliography--Peter Francius and De Wilde--
      Work by Bishop Ken--Eugene Aram's Comparative
      Lexicon--Drimtaidhvrickhillichattan--Coins of
      Europe--General Benedict Arnold                       596


    Parish Registers: Right of Search, by G. Brindley Acworth      598
    The Honourable Miss E. St. Leger, a Freemason, by
      Henry H. Breen                                        598
    Weather Rules, by John Booker, &c.                      599
    Scotchmen in Poland, by Richard John King               600
    Mr. Justice Newton                                      600
    The Marriage Ring                                       601
    Canada, &c.                                             602
    Selling a Wife, by William Bates                        602
    Enough                                                  603

      Mode of levelling Cameras--Collodion Negative--
      Developing Collodion Process--An iodizing Difficulty      604

    REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Bishop Frampton--Parochial
      Libraries--Pierrepont--Passage in Orosius
      --Pugna Porcorum--Oaken Tombs and Effigies--
      Bowyer Bible--Longevity--Lady Anne Gray--Sir
      John Fleming--Life--Family of Kelway--Sir G.
      Browne, Bart.--Americanisms, so called--Sir Gilbert
      Gerard, &c.                                           605


    Notes on Books, &c.                                     610
    Books and Odd Volumes wanted                            610
    Notices to Correspondents                               610
    Advertisements                                          611

       *       *       *       *       *



George Herbert says:

    "The parson exceeds not an hour in preaching, because _all ages_ have
    thought that a competency."--_A Priest to the Temple_, p. 28.

Ferrarius, _De Ritu Concion._, lib. i. c. 34., makes the following

    "Huic igitur certo ac communi malo (the evil of too long sermons) ut
    medicinam facerent, Ecclesiæ patres in concionando determinatum dicendi
    tempus fereque unius horæ spatio conclusum aut ipsi sibi præscribant,
    aut ab aliis præfinitum religiosè observabant."

Bingham, commenting on this passage, observes:

    "Ferrarius and some others are very positive that they (their sermons)
    were generally an hour long; but Ferrarius is at a loss to tell by what
    instrument they measured their hour, for he will not venture to affirm
    that they preached, as the old Greek and Roman orators declaimed, by an
    hour-glass."--See _Bingham_, vol. iv. p. 582.

This remark of Bingham's brings me at once to the subject of my present
communication. What evidence exists of the practice of preaching by the
hour-glass, thus treated as improbable, if not ridiculous, by the learned
writer just quoted? If the early Fathers of the church _timed_ their
sermons by any instrument of the kind, we should expect their writings to
contain _internal_ evidence of the fact, just as frequent allusion is made
by Demosthenes and other ancient orators to the klepshydra or water-clock,
by which the time allotted to each speaker was measured. Besides, the close
proximity of such an instrument would be a constant source of metaphorical
allusion on the subject of _time and eternity_. Perhaps those of your
readers who are familiar with the extant sermons of the Greek and Latin
fathers, may be able to supply some illustration on this subject. At all
events there appears to be indisputable evidence of the use of the
hour-glass in the pulpit formerly in this country. {590}

In an extract from the churchwardens' accounts of the parish of St. Helen,
in Abingdon, Berks, we find the following entry:

    "Anno MDXCI. 34 Eliz. 'Payde for an houre-glasse for the pulpit,'
    4d."--See Hone's _Table-Book_, vol. i. p. 482.

Among the accounts of Christ Church, St. Catherine's, Aldgate, under the
year 1564, this entry occurs:

    "Paid for an hour-glass that hangeth by the pulpitt when the preacher
    doth make a sermon that he may know how the hour passeth
    away."--Malcolm's _Londinium_, vol. iii. p. 309., cited Southey's
    _Common-Place Book_, 4th Series, p. 471.

In Fosbrooke (_Br. Mon._, p. 286.) I find the following passage:

    "A stand for an hour-glass still remains in many pulpits. A rector of
    Bibury (in Gloucestershire) used to preach two hours, regularly turning
    the glass. After the text the esquire of the parish withdrew, smoaked
    his pipe, and returned to the blessing."

The authority for this, which Fosbrooke cites, is Rudder's
_Gloucestershire_, in "Bibury." It is added that lecturers' pulpits have
also hour-glasses The woodcuts in Hawkins's _Music_, ii. 332., are referred
to in support of this statement. I regret that I have no means of
consulting the two last-mentioned authorities.

In 1681 some poor crazy people at Edinburgh called themselves the Sweet
Singers of Israel. Among other things, they renounced the limiting the
Lord's mind by _glasses_. This is no doubt in allusion to the hour-glass,
which Mr. Water, the editor of the fourth series of Southey's _Common-Place
Book_, informs us is still to be found, or at least its iron frame, in many
churches, adding that the custom of preaching by the hour-glass commenced
about the end of the sixteenth century. I cannot help thinking that an
earlier date must be assigned to this singular practice. (See Southey's
_Common-Place Book_, 4th series, p. 379.) Mr. Water states that one of
these iron frames still exists at Ferring in Sussex. The iron extinguishers
still to be found on the railing opposite large houses in London, are a
similar memorial of an obsolete custom.

I trust some contributor to the "N. & Q." will be able to supply farther
illustrations of this custom. Should it be revived in our own times, I fear
most parishes would supply only a _half_-hour glass for the pulpit of their
church, however unanimous antiquity may be in favour of sermons of an
hour's duration. One advantage presented by this ancient and precise
practice was, that the squire of the parish knew exactly when it was time
to put out his pipe and return for the blessing, which he cannot ascertain
under the present uncertain and indefinite mode of preaching. Fosbrooke
(_Br. Mon._, p. 286.) states that the priest had sometimes a watch found
for him by the parish. The authority cited for this is the following entry
in the accounts of the Chantrey Wardens of the parish of Shire in Surrey:

    "Received for the priest's watch after he was dead, 13s.
    4d."--Manning's _Surrey_, vol. i. p. 531.

This entry seems to be rather too vague and obscure to warrant the
inference drawn from it. This also may be susceptible of farther

A. W. S.


       *       *       *       *       *


Amongst the most interesting specimens of that collection certainly ranges
the skeleton of the above animal of a primæval world, albeit but a cast;
the real bones, found in Buenos Ayres, being preserved in the Museum of
Madrid. To imagine a sloth of the size of a large bear, somewhat baffles
our imagination; especially if we ponder upon the size of trees on which
such a huge animal must have lived. To have placed near him a nondescript
branch (!!) of a palm, as has been done in the Museum here, is a terrible
mistake. Palms there were none at that period of telluric formation;
besides, no sloth ever could ascend an exogenous tree, as the simple form
of the coma of leaves precludes every hope of motion, &c. I never can view
those remnants of a former world, without being forcibly reminded of that
most curious passage in Berosus, which I cite from memory:

    "There was a flood raging then over parts of the world.... There were
    to be seen, however, on the walls of the temple of Belus,
    representations of animals, such as inhabited the earth before the

We may thence gather, that although the ancient world did not possess
museums of stuffed animals, yet, the first collection of _Icones_ is
certainly that mentioned by Berosus. I think that it was about the times of
the Crusades, that animals were first rudely preserved (stuffed), whence
the emblems in the coats of arms of the nobility also took their origin. I
have seen a MS. in the British Museum dating from this period, where the
delineation of a bird of the _Picus_ tribe is to be found. Many things
which the Crusaders saw in Egypt and Syria were so striking and new to
them, that they thought of means of preserving them as mementoes for
themselves and friends. The above date, I think, will be an addition to the
history of collections of natural history: a work wanting yet in the vast
domain of modern literature.


Charlotte Street, Bloomsbury Square.

       *       *       *       *       * {591}


In that varied and interesting of antiquarian and literary curiosities, "N.
& Q.," perhaps a collection of the prices paid by booksellers and
publishers for works of interest and to authors of celebrity might find a
corner. As a first contribution towards such a collection, if approved of,
I send some Notes made some years ago, with the authorities from which I
copied them. With regard to those cited on the authority of "R. Chambers,"
I cannot now say from which of Messrs. Chambers's publications I extracted
them, but fancy it might have been the _Cyclopædia of English Literature_.
To any one disposed to swell the list of the remunerations of authors, I
would suggest that Disraeli's _Curiosities of Literature_, Boswell's _Life
of Johnson_, Johnson's _Lives of the Poets_ and other works of every-day
handling, would no doubt furnish many facts; but all my books being in the
country, I have no means of searching, and therefore send my Notes in the
fragmentary state in which I find them:--

Title of Work.     | Author.     | Publisher. | Price.      | Authority.
Gulliver's Travels | Dean Swift  | Molte      | 300l.       |Sir W. Scott.
Tom Jones          | H. Fielding | Miller     | 600l.       |    Ditto.
                   |             |            | and 100l.   |
                   |             |            | after       |
Amelia             | Ditto       | Ditto      | 1000l.      |   Ditto.
History of England | Dr. Smollett|            | 2000l.      |   Ditto.
Memoirs of Richard |             |            |             |
  Cumberland       | Himself     | Lackington | 500l.       |   Ditto.
Vicar of Wakefield |Dr. Goldsmith| Newberry   | 50l.        | Dr. Johnson.
Selections of      |             |            |             |
  English Poetry   | Ditto       |            | 200l.       | Lee Lewis.
Deserted Village   | Ditto       |            | 100l.       | Sir W. Scott.
Rasselas           | Dr. Johnson |            | 100l.       |
                   |             |            | and 24l.    | Ditto
                   |             |            | after       |
Traveller          |Dr. Goldsmith|Newberry    | 21l.        | Wm. Irving
Old English Baron  | Clara Reeve | Dilly      |             |
                   |             | (Poultry)  | 10l.        |Sir W. Scott.
Mysteries of       |             | Geo.       |             |
Udolpho            |Ann Radcliffe| Robinson   |500l.        | Ditto
Italian            | Ditto       |            |800l.        | Ditto
Mount Henneth      | Robert Bage | Lowndes    |30l.         | Ditto
Translation of     |             | Jacob      |             |
  Ovid             | John Dryden |   Tonson   |52l. 10s.    |R. Chambers.
Ditto of           |             |            |1200l.       |
  Virgil           | Ditto       | Ditto      |and          | Ditto
                   |             |            |subscriptions|
Fables and Ode     |             |            |             |
 for St. Cecilia's | Ditto       | Ditto      | 250 guineas | Ditto
  Day              |             |            |             |
Paradise Lost      | John Milton |Sam. Symmons|5l., 5l. 2nd |
                   |             |            |edit., and   |Sir W. Scott.
                   |             |            |8l.          |
Translation of     | Alexander   |            |             |
  the Iliad        |  Pope       |            | 1200l.      | R. Chambers.
Ditto of the       |             |            |             |
  Odyssey (half)   | Ditto       |            | 600l.       | Ditto.
Ditto ditto        |             |            |             |
  (remainder)      | Ditto       | Browne     | 500l.       | Ditto.
Ditto ditto        |             |            |             |
  (ditto)          | Ditto       | Featon     | 300l.       | Ditto.
Beggar's Opera     |             |            |             |
  (1st part)       | John Gay    |            | 400l.       | Ditto.
Ditto (2nd part)   | Ditto       |            |1100l. or    |
                   |             |            |1200l.       | Ditto.
Three abridged     |             |            |             |
  Histories of     |Dr. Goldsmith| Newberry   | About 800l. | Ditto.
  England          |             |            |             |
History of         |             |            |             |
  Animated Nature  | Ditto       | Ditto      |  850l.      | Ditto.
Lives of the Poets | Dr. Johnson |            |  210l.      | Ditto.
Evelina            | Miss Burney |            |  5l.        | Ditto.
History of England |             |            |             |
  during the Reign | David Hume  |            | 200l.       |
  of the Stuarts   |             |            |             |
Ditto ditto        |             |            |             |
  (remainder)      | Ditto       |            | 5000l.      | Ditto.
History of Scotland| Robertson   |            | 600l        | Creech.
History of Charles |             |            |             |
  V.               | Ditto       |            | 4500l.      | Ditto.
Decline and Fall   |             |            |             |
  of the Roman     | Gibbon      |            | 6000l.      |R. Chambers.
  Empire           |             |            |             |
Sermons (1st part) | Blair       |            | 200l.       | Creech
Ditto              | Tillotson   |            | 2500 guineas| R. Chambers
Childe Harold      |             |            |             |
  (4th canto)      | Lord Byron  |            | 2100l.      | Ditto.
Poetical Works     |             |            |             |
  (whole)          | Ditto       |            | 15,000l.    | Ditto.
Lay of the         |             |            |             |
  Last Minstrel    |Sir W. Scott | Constable  | 600l.       | Ditto.
Marmion            | Ditto       | Ditto      | 1050l.      | Miss Seward.
Pleasures of       | Thos.       |            |             |
  Hope             | Campbell    | Mundell    | 1050l.      | R. Chambers.
Gertrude of        |             |            |             |
  Wyoming          | Ditto       | Ditto      |1500 guineas | Ditto.
Poems              | Crabbe      | Murray     | 3000l.      | Ditto.
Irish Melodies     | Thomas Moore|            |500l. a year | Ditto.
Spelling Book      | Vyse        |            | 2200l. and  |
                   |             |            | 50l. a year | Ditto.
Philosophy of      |             |            |1050l., 1st  |
  Natural History  | Smellie     |            |edition and  |
                   |             |            |50l. each    |
                   |             |            |after        | Ditto
Various            |             |            |             |
  (aggregate)      | Göthe       |            |30,000 crowns| Ditto.
Ditto (ditto)      |Chateaubriand|            |500,000 francs| Ditto.

I perfectly agree with the suggestion of one of your correspondents, that,
in a publication like yours, dealing with historic facts, the
communications should not be anonymous, or made under _noms de guerre_. I
therefore drop the initials with which I have signed previous
communications, and append my name as suggested.


       *       *       *       *       *


In the Scandinavian portion of the _Fairy Mythology_, there is a legend of
a farmer cheating a Troll in an argument respecting the crops that were to
be grown on the hill within which the latter resided. It is there observed
that Rabelais tells the same story of a farmer and the Devil. I think there
can be no doubt that these are not independent fictions, but that the
legend is a transmitted one, the Scandinavian being the original, brought
with them perhaps by the Normans. {592} But what are we to say to the
actual fact of the same legend being found in the valleys of Afghánistán?

Masson, in his _Narrative_, &c. (iii. 297.), when speaking of the Tájiks of
Lúghmân, says,--

    "They have the following amusing story: In times of yore, ere the
    natives were acquainted with the arts of husbandry, the Shaitán, or
    Devil, appeared amongst them, and, winning their confidence,
    recommended them to sow their lands. They consented, it being farther
    agreed that the Devil was to be a _sherík_, or partner, with them. The
    lands were accordingly sown with turnips, carrots, beet, onions, and
    such vegetables whose value consists in the roots. When the crops were
    mature the Shaitán appeared, and generously asked the assembled
    agriculturists if they would receive for their share what was above
    ground or what was below. Admiring the vivid green hue of the tops,
    they unanimously replied that they would accept what was above ground.
    They were directed to remove their portion, when the Devil and his
    attendants dug up the roots and carried them away. The next year he
    again came and entered into partnership. The lands were now sown with
    wheat and other grains, whose value lies in their seed-spikes. In due
    time, as the crops had ripened, he convened the husbandmen, putting the
    same question to them as he did the preceding year. Resolved not to be
    deceived as before, they chose for their share what was below ground;
    on which the Devil immediately set to work and collected the harvest,
    leaving them to dig up the worthless roots. Having experienced that
    they were not a match for the Devil, they grew weary of his friendship;
    and it fortunately turned out that, on departing with his wheat, he
    took the road from Lúghmân to Báríkâb, which is proverbially intricate,
    and where he lost his road, and has never been heard of or seen since."

Surely here is simple coincidence, for there could scarcely ever have been
any communication between such distant regions in remote times, and the
legend has hardly been carried to Afghánistán by Europeans. There is, as
will be observed, a difference in the character of the legends. In the
Oriental one it is the Devil who outwits the peasants. This perhaps arises
from the higher character of the Shaitán (the ancient Akriman) than that of
the Troll or the mediæval Devil.


       *       *       *       *       *


I have to announce the detection of an important misprint, which completely
restores sense, point, and antithesis to a sorely tormented passage in
_King Lear_; and which proves at the same time that the corrector of MR.
COLLIER'S folio, in this instance at least, is undeniably in error. Here,
as elsewhere (whether by anticipation or imitation I shall not take upon me
to decide), he has fallen into just the same mistake as the rest of the
commentators: indeed it is startling to observe how regularly he suspects
every passage that they have suspected, and how invariably he treats them
in the same spirit of emendation (some places of course excepted, where his
courage soars far beyond theirs; such as the memorable "curds and cream,"
"on a table of green frieze," &c.).

I say that the error of "the old corrector," in this instance, is
_undeniable_, because the misprint I am about to expose, like the
egg-problem of Columbus, when once shown, demonstrates itself: so that any
attempt to support it by argument would be absurd, because superfluous.

There are two verbs, one in every-day use, the other obsolete, which,
although of nearly opposite significations, and of very dissimilar sound,
nevertheless differ only in the mutual exchange of place in two letters:
these verbs are _secure_ and _r_ecu_s_e; the first implying _assurance_,
the second _want of assurance_, or refusal. Hence any sentence would
receive an opposite meaning from one of these verbs to what it would from
the other.

Let us now refer to the opening scene of the Fourth Act of _King Lear_,
where the old man offers his services to Gloster, who has been deprived of
his eyes:

 "_Old Man._ You cannot see your way.

  _Gloster._ I have no way, and therefore want no eyes;
  I stumbled when I saw: full oft 'tis seen
  Our means _secure_ us, and our mere defects
  Prove our commodities."

Here one would suppose that the obvious opposition between _means_ and
_defects_ would have preserved these words from being tampered with; and
that, on the other hand, the _absence_ of opposition between _secure_ and
_commodious_ would have directed attention to the real error. But, no: all
the worretting has been about _means_; and this unfortunate word has been
twisted in all manner of ways, until finally "the old corrector" informs us
that "the printer read _wants_ 'means,' and hence the blunder!"

Now, mark the perfect antithesis the passage receives from the change of
_secure_ into _recuse_:

                     "Full oft 'tis seen
  Our means recuse us, and our mere defects
  Prove our commodities."

I trust I may be left in the quiet possession of whatever merit is due to
this restoration. Some other of my humble _auxilia_ have, before now, been
coolly appropriated, with the most innocent air possible, without the
slightest acknowledgment. One instance is afforded in MR. KEIGHTLEY'S
communication to "N. & Q.," Vol. vii., p. 136., where that gentleman not
only repeats the explanation I had previously given of the same passage,
but even does me the honour of requoting the same line of Shakspeare with
which I had supported it.

I did not think it worth noticing at the time, nor should I now, were it
not that MR. KEIGHTLEY'S {593} confidence in the negligence or want of
recollection in your readers seems not have been wholly misplaced, if we
may judge from MR. ARROWSMITH's admiring foot-note in last Number of "N. &
Q.," p. 568.

A. E. B.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 520.)

We are under great obligations to the REV. MR. ARROWSMITH for his very
interesting illustration of several misunderstood archaisms; and it may not
be unacceptable to him if I call his attention to what seems to me a
farther illustration of the above singular idiom, from Shakspeare himself.

In _As You Like It_, Act I. Sc. 3., where Rosalind has been banished by the
Duke her uncle, we have the following dialogue between Celia and her

 "_Cel._ O my poor Rosalind! whither wilt thou go?
  Wilt thou change fathers? I will give thee mine.
  I charge thee, be not thou more grieved than I am.

  _Ros._ I have more cause.

  _Cel._                   Thou hast not, cousin:
  Pr'ythee be cheerful: know'st thou not, the duke
  Hath banish'd me, his daughter?

  _Ros._                   That he hath not.

  _Cel._ _No hath not?_ Rosalind lacks, then, the love
  Which teacheth thee that thou and I _are_ one.
  Shall we be sunder'd," &c.

From wrong pointing, and ignorance of the idiomatic structure, the passage
has hitherto been misunderstood; and Warburton proposed to read, "Which
teacheth _me_," but was fortunately opposed by Johnson, although _he_ did
not clearly understand the passage. I have ventured to change _am_ to
_are_, for I cannot conceive that Shakspeare wrote, "that thou and I _am_
one!" It is with some hesitation that I make this trifling innovation on
the old text, although we have, a few lines lower, the more serious
misprint of _your change_ for _the charge_. I presume that the abbreviated
form of _the = y^e_ was taken for for _y^r_, and the _r_ in _charge_
mistaken for _n_; and in the former case of _am_ for _are_, indistinctness
in old writing, and especially in such a hand as, it appears from his
autograph, our great poet wrote, would readily lead to such mistakes. That
the correction was left to the printer of the first folio, I am fully
persuaded; yet, in comparison with the second folio, it is a correct book,
notwithstanding all its faults. That it was customary for men who were
otherwise busied, as we may suppose Heminge and Condell to have been, to
leave the correction entirely to the printer, is certain; for an
acquaintance of Shakspeare's, Resolute John Florio, distinctly shows that
it was the case. We have this pithy brief Preface to the second edition of
his translation of Montaigne:

    "_To the Reader._

    "Enough, if not too much, hath beene said of this translation. If the
    faults found even by myselfe in the first impression, be now by the
    printer corrected, as he was directed, the work is much amended: if
    not, know that through mine attendance on her Majesty, I could not
    intend it; and blame not Neptune for my second shipwracke. Let me
    conclude with this worthy man's daughter of alliance: 'Que t'ensemble
    donc lecteur?'

    _Still Resolute_ JOHN FLORIO."



_Shakspeare_ (Vol. vii., p. 521.).--May I ask whether there is any
precedent (I think there can be no excuse) for calling Shakspeare's plays
"our national Bible"?


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_The Formation of the Woman_, Gen. ii. 21, 22.--The terms of Matthew Henry
on this subject, in his learned _Commentary_, have become quite commonplace
with divines, when speaking of the ordinance of marriage:

    "The woman was made of a rib out of the side of Adam: not made out of
    his head, to top him; nor out of his feet, to be trampled upon by him;
    but out of his side, to be equal with him; under his arm, to be
    protected; and near his heart, to be beloved."

Like many other things in his Exposition, this is not original with Henry.
It is here traced to the _Speculum Humanæ Salvationis_ of the earliest and
rarest printed works. Some of your readers can probably trace it to the
Fathers. The verses which follow are engraven in block characters in the
first edition of the work named, and are copied from the fifth plate of
specimens of early typography in Meerman's _Origines Typographicæ_: Hague,

 "Mulier autem in paradiso est formata
  De costis viri dormientis est parata
  Deus autem ipsam super virum honestavit
  Quoniam Evam in loco voluptatis plasmavit,
  Non facit eam sicut virum de limo terræ
  Sed de osse nobilis viri Adæ et de ejus carne.
  Non est facta de pede, ne a viro despiceretur
  Non de capite ne supra virum dominaretur.
  Sed est facta de latere maritali
  Et data est viro pro gloria et socia collaterali.
  Quæ si sibi in honorem collata humiliter præstitisset
  Nunquam molestiam a viro unquam sustinuisset."

O. T. D.

_Singular Way of showing Displeasure._--

    "The earl's regiment not long after, according to order, marched to
    take possession of the town (Londondery); but at their appearance
    before it the citizens clapt up the gates, and denyed them entrance,
    {594} declaring their resolution for the king (William III.) and their
    own preservation. Tyrconnel at the news of this was said _to have burnt
    his wig, as an indication of his displeasure with the townsmen's
    proceedings_."--_Life of James II._, p. 290.

E. H. A.

_The Maids and the Widows._--The following petition, signed by sixteen
maids of Charleston, South Carolina, was presented to the governor of that
province on March 1, 1733-4, "the day of the feast:"

    "To His Excellency Governor Johnson.

    "The humble Petition of all the Maids whose names are underwritten:

    "Whereas we the humble petitioners are at present in a very melancholy
    disposition of mind, considering how all the bachelors are blindly
    captivated by widows, and our more youthful charms thereby neglected:
    the consequence of this our request is, that your Excellency will for
    the future order that no widow shall presume to marry any young man
    till the maids are provided for; or else to pay each of them a fine for
    satisfaction, for invading our liberties; and likewise a fine to be
    laid on all such bachelors as shall be married to widows. The great
    disadvantage it is to us maids, is, that the widows, by their forward
    carriages, do snap up the young men; and have the vanity to think their
    merits beyond ours, which is a great imposition upon us who ought to
    have the preference.

    "This is humbly recommended to your Excellency's consideration, and
    hope you will prevent any farther insults.

    "And we poor Maids as in duty bound will ever pray.

    "P.S.--I, being the oldest Maid, and therefore most concerned, do think
    it proper to be the messenger to your Excellency in behalf of my fellow


_Alison's "Europe."_--In a note to Sir A. Alison's _Europe_, vol. ix. p.
397., 12mo., enforcing the opinion that the prime movers in all revolutions
are not men of high moral or intellectual qualities, he quotes, as from
"Sallust _de Bello Cat._,"

    "In _turbis atque seditionibus_ pessimo cuique plurima vis; pax et
    quies bonis artibus _aluntur_."

No such words, however, are to be found in Sallust: but the correct
expression is in Tacitus (_Hist._, iv. 1.):

    "Quippe in _turbas et discordias_ pessimo cuique plurima vis; pax et
    quies bonis artibus _indigent_."

Sir A. Alison quotes, in the same note, as from Thucydides (l. iii. c.
39.), the following:

    "In the contests of the Greek commonwealth, those who were esteemed the
    most depraved, and had the least foresight, invariably prevailed; for
    being conscious of this weakness, and dreading to be overreached by
    those of greater penetration, they went to work hastily with the sword
    and poniard, and thereby got the better of their antagonists, who where
    occupied with more refined schemes."

This paragraph is certainly not in the place mentioned; nor can I find it
after a diligent search through Thucydides. Will Sir A. Alison, or any of
his Oxford friends, be good enough to point out the author, and indicate
where such a passage is really to be found?



_"Bis dat, qui cito dat"_ (Vol. vi., p. 376.).--_"Sat cito, si sat
bene."_--The first of these proverbs reminded me of the second, which was a
favourite maxim of Lord Chancellor Eldon. (See _The Life of Lord Chancellor
Eldon_, vol. i. p. 48.) I notice it for the purpose of showing that Lord
Eldon followed (perhaps unconsciously) the example of Augustus, and that
the motto is as old as the time of the first Roman emperor, if it is not of
more remote origin. The following is an extract from the Life of Augustus,
Sueton., chap. XXV.:

    "Nil autem minus in imperfecto duce, quam festinationem temeritatemque,
    convenire arbitrabatur. Crebrò itaque illa jactabat, [Greek: Speude
    bradeôs]. Et:

     '[Greek: asphalês gar est' ameinôn ê thrasus stratêlatês].'

    Et, 'Sat celeriter fieri, quicquid fiat satis bene.'"

Perhaps T. H. can give us the origin of these Greek and Latin maxims, as he
has of "Bis dat, qui cito dat" (Vol. i., p. 330).

F. W. J.

       *       *       *       *       *



Are there traces in England of what the people of Germany, on the shores of
the Baltic, call _Hausmärke_, and what in Denmark and Norway is called
_bolmærke_, _bomærke_? These are certain figures, generally composed of
straight lines, and imitating the shape of the cross or the runes,
especially the so-called compound runes. They are meant to mark all sorts
of property and chattels, dead and alive, movable and immovable, and are
drawn out, or burnt into, quite inartistically, without any attempt of
colouring or sculpturing. So, for instance, every freeholder in Praust, a
German village near Dantzic, has his own mark on all his property, by which
he recognises it. They are met with on buildings, generally over the door,
or on the gable-end, more frequently on tombstones, or on epitaphs in
churches, on pews and old screens, and implements, cattle, and on all sorts
of documents, where the common people now use three crosses.

The custom is first mentioned in the old Swedish law of the thirteenth
century (Uplandslagh, _Corp. Jur. Sveo-Goth._, iii. p. 254.), and occurs
almost at the same period in the seals of the citizens of the Hanse-town
Lubeck. It has been in common use {595} in Norway, Iceland, Denmark,
Sleswick, Holstein, Hamburgh, Lubeck, Mecklenburgh, and Pomerania, but is
at present rapidly disappearing. Yet, in Holstein they still mark the
cattle grazing on the common with the signs of their respective
proprietors; they do the same with the haystacks in Mecklenburgh, and the
fishing-tackle on the small islands of the Baltic. In the city of Dantzic
these marks still occur in the prayer-books which are left in the churches.

There are scarcely any traces of this custom in the south of Germany,
except that the various towers of the city-wall of Nurnberg are said to
bear their separate marks; and that an apothecary of Strasburg, Merkwiller,
signs a document, dated 1521, with his name, his coat of arms, and a simple

Professor Homeyer has lately read, before the Royal Academy of Berlin, a
very learned paper on the subject, and has explained this ancient custom as
significant of popular law, possibly intimating the close connexion between
the property and its owner. I am sorry not to be able to copy out the
Professor's collection of runic marks; but I trust that the preceding lines
will be sufficient in order to elicit the various traces of a similar
custom still prevalent, or remembered, in the British isles; an account of
which will be thankfully received at Berlin, where they have lately been
informed, that even the eyder-geese on the Shetlands are distinguished by
the marks of their owners.


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_"Seductor Succo."_--Will any of your readers oblige me by giving me either
a literal or poetical translation of the following lines, taken from
Foulis, _Rom. Treasons_, Preface, p. 28., 1681?

    "Seductor Succo, Gallo Sicarius; Anglo Proditor; Imperio Explorator;
    Davus Ibero; Italo Adulator; dixi teres ore,--Suitam."


_Anna Lightfoot._--T. H. H. would be obliged by any particulars relating to
Anna Lightfoot, the left-handed wife of George III. It has been stated that
she had but one son, who died at an early age; but a report circulates in
some channels, that she had also a daughter, married to a wealthy
manufacturer in a midland town. It is particularly desired to know in what
year, and under what circumstances, Anna Lightfoot died.

_Queries from the "Navorscher."_--Did Addison, Steele, or Swift write the
"Choice of Hercules" in the _Tatler_?

Was Dr. Hawkesworth, or, if not, who was, the author of "Religion the
Foundation of Content," an allegory in the _Adventurer_?

In what years were born C. C. Colton, Pinnock, Washington Irving, George
Long, F. B. Head; and when died those of them who are no longer among us?

Who wrote "Journal of a poor Vicar," "Story of Catherine of Russia,"
"Volney Becker," and the "Soldier's Wife," in Chamber's _Miscellany_?

Did Luther write drinking-songs? If so, where are they to be met with?

_"Amentium haud Amantium."_--I should be glad to ascertain, and perhaps it
may be interesting to classical scholars generally to know, if any of your
correspondents or readers can suggest an English translation for the phrase
"amentium haud amantium" (in the first act of the _Andria_ of Terence),
which shall represent the alliteration of the original. The publication of
this Query may probably elicit the desired information.



_"Hurrah!" and other War-cries._--When was the exclamation "Hurrah!" first
used by Englishmen, and what was the war-cry before its introduction? Was
it ever used separately from, or always in conjunction with "H.E.P.!
H.E.P.?" Was "Huzza!" contemporaneous? What are the known war-shouts of
other European or Eastern nations, ancient or modern?


_Kissing Hands at Court._--When was the kissing of hands at court first


_Uniforms of the three Regiments of Foot Guards, temp. Charles II._--Being
very desirous to know where well authenticated pictures of officers in the
regimentals of the Foot Guards during the reign of Charles II. may be seen,
or are, I shall be greatly obliged to any reader of "N & Q." who will
supply the information. I make no doubt there are, in many of the private
collections of this country, several portraits of officers so dressed,
which have descended as heir-looms in families. I subjoin the colonels'
names, and dates of the regiments:

1st Foot Guards, 1660: Colonel Russell, Henry Duke of Grafton.

Coldstream Guards, 1650: General Monk.

3rd Guards, 1660: Earl of Linlithgow. 1670: Earl of Craven.

D. N.

_Raffaelle's Sposalizio._--Will DIGITALIS, or any of your numerous
correspondents or readers, do me the favour to say why, in Raffaelle's
celebrated painting "Lo Sposalizio," in the gallery of the Brera at Milan,
Joseph is represented as placing the ring on the third finger of _right_
hand of the Virgin?

I noticed the same peculiarity in Ghirlandais's fresco of the "Espousals"
in the church of the Santa Croce at Florence. This I remarked to the
custode, an intelligent old man, who informed {596} me that the connexion
said to exist between the heart and the third finger refers to that finger
of the _right_ hand, and not, as we suppose, to the third finger of the
_left_ hand. He added, that the English are the only nation who place the
ring on the left hand. I do not find that this latter statement is borne
out by what I have seen of the ladies of continental Europe; and I suppose
it was an hallucination in my worthy informant.

I must leave to better scholars in the Italian language than I am, to say
whether "Lo Sposalizio" means "Betrothal" or "Marriage:" certainly this
latter is the ordinary signification.

I have a sort of floating idea that I once heard that at the ceremony of
"Betrothal," now, I believe, rarely if ever practised, it was customary to
place the ring on the right hand. I am by no means clear where I gleaned
this notion.



_"To the Lords of Convention."_--Where can I find the _whole_ of the ballad

 "To the Lords of Convention 'twas Claverh'se that spoke;"

and also the name of the author?


_Richard Candishe, M.P._--Pennant (_Tour in Wales_, vol. ii. p. 48.) prints
the epitaph of "Richard Candishe, Esq., of a good family in Suffolk," who
was M.P. for Denbigh in 1572, as it appears on his monument in Hornsey
Church. Who was this Richard Candishe? The epitaph says he was "derived
from noble parentage;" but the arms on the monument are not those of the
noble House of Cavendish, which sprung from the parish of that name in
Suffolk. The arms of Richard Candishe are given as "three piles wavy gules
in a field argent; the crest, a fox's head erased azure."


_Alphabetical Arrangement._--Can any one favour me with a reference to any
work treating of the date of the collection and arrangement in the present
form of the alphabet, either English, Latin, Greek, or Hebrew? or what is
the earliest instance of their being used to represent numerals?

A. H. C.

_Saying of Pascal._--In which of his works is Pascal's saying, "I have not
time to write more briefly," to be found; and what are the words in the



_Irish Characters on the Stage._--Would any of the contributors to "N. &
Q." oblige me with this information? Who, or how many, of the old English
dramatists introduced Irishmen into their _dramatis personæ_? Did Ben
Jonson? Shadwell did. What others?


_Family of Milton's Widow._--Your correspondent CRANMORE, in his article on
the "Rev. John Paget" ("N. & Q.," Vol. v., p. 327.), writes thus: "Dr.
Nathan Paget was an intimate friend of Milton and cousin to the poet's
fourth (no doubt meaning his third) wife, Elizabeth Minshall, of whose
family descent, which appears to be rather obscure, I may at another time
communicate some particulars."

Now, as more than a year has elapsed since the article referred to appeared
in your valuable columns, without the subject of Elizabeth Minshall's
descent having been farther noticed, I hope your correspondent will pardon
my soliciting him to supply the information he possesses relative thereto,
which cannot fail proving interesting to every admirer of our great poet.

V. M.

_Table-moving._--Was not Bacon acquainted with this phenomenon? I find in
his _Sylva Sylvarum_, art. MOTION:

    "Whenever a solid is pressed, there is an inward tumult of the parts
    thereof, tending to deliver themselves from the compression: and this
    is the _cause_ of all violent motion. It is very strange that this
    motion has never been observed and inquired into; as being the most
    common and chief origin of all mechanical operations.

    "This motion operates first in a round by way of proof and trial, which
    way to deliver itself, and then in progression where it finds the
    deliverance easiest."

C. K. P.

Newport, Essex.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Form of Petition, &c._--May I request the insertion of a Query, requesting
some of your readers to supply the _ellipsis_ in the form with which
petitions to Parliament are required to be closed, viz.: "And your
petitioners will ever pray, &c." To me, I confess, there appears to be
something like impiety in its use in its present unmeaning state. Would a
petition be rendered informal by any addition which would make it more

C. W. B.

    [The ellipsis appears to have varied according to circumstances: hence
    we find, in an original petition addressed to the Privy Council
    (apparently temp. Jac. I.), the concluding formula given at length
    thus:--"And yo^r sup^{lt}, as in all dutie bounden, shall daylie pray
    for your good L^{ps}." Another petition, presented to Charles I. at
    Newark, A.D. 1641, closes thus: "And your petitioners will ever pray
    for your Majesty's long and happy reign over us." Another, from the
    Mayor and Aldermen of London, in the same year: "And the petitioners,
    as in all duty bound, shall pray for your Majesty's most long and happy
    reign." Again, in the same year, the petition of the Lay-Catholic
    Recusants of England to the Commons closes thus: "And for so great a
    charity your humble petitioners {597} shall ever (as in duty bound)
    pray for your continual prosperity and eternal happiness." We do not
    believe that any petition would be rendered informal by such addition
    as would make it more comprehensible.]

_Bibliography._--I am about to publish a brochure entitled _Notes on Books:
with Hints to Readers, Authors, and Publishers_; and as I intend to give a
list of the most useful bibliographical works, I shall feel much obliged to
any one who will furnish me with a list of the various _Printers'
Grammars_, and of such works as the following: _The Author's Printing and
Publishing Assistant; comprising Explanations of the Process of Printing,
Preparation and Calculation of MSS., Paper, Type, Binding, Typographical
Marks, &c._ 12mo., Lond. 1840. I have met with Stower's _Printers'
Grammar_, London, 1808.


    [The following Printers' Grammars may be advantageously consulted; 1.
    Hansard's _Typographia; an Historical Sketch of the Origin and Progress
    of the Art of Printing_, royal 8vo. 1825. 2. Johnson's _Typographia; or
    the Printers' Instructor_, 2 vols. 8vo. 1824. 3. Savage's _Dictionary
    of the Art of Printing_, 8vo. 1841, the most useful of this class of
    works. 4. Timperley's _Dictionary of Printers and Printing_, royal 8vo.
    1839. Stower also published _The Compositors' and Pressmen's Guide to
    the Art of Printing_, royal 12mo. 1808; and _The Printer's Price Book_,
    8vo. 1814.]

_Peter Francius and De Wilde._--In a little work on my shelf, with the
following title,

    "Petri Francii specimen eloquentiæ exterioris ad orationem M. T.
    Ciceronis pro A. Licin. Archiâ accommodatum. Amstelædami, apud Henr.
    Wetstenium M DC XCVII.],"

occurs the following brief MS. note, after the text of the speech for

    "Orationem hanc pro Archia sub Dno Petro Francio memoriter recitavi
    Wilhelmus de Wilde in Athenæi auditorio Majore, a.d. xviii kal.
    Januarias, a^{ni} 1699."

The volume is 12mo., containing about 200 pp.; the text of the speech
occupying nearly 42 pp.

Who was Peter Francius? Did De Wilde ever distinguish himself?"


    [Peter Francius, a celebrated Greek and Latin poet, was born in 1645 at
    Amsterdam, afterwards studied at Leyden, and obtained the degree of
    Doctor of Laws at Augers. In 1674, the magistrates of Amsterdam
    appointed him Professor of History and Rhetoric, which office he held
    till his death in 1704. See _Biographie Universelle_.]

_Work by Bishop Ken._--

    "A Crown of Glory the Reward of the Righteous; being Meditations on the
    Vicissitude and Uncertainty of all Sublunary Enjoyments. To which is
    added, a Manual of Devotions for Times of Trouble and Affliction: also
    Meditations and Prayers before, at, and after receiving the Holy
    Communion; with some General Rules for our Daily Practice. Composed for
    the use of a Noble Family, by the Right Reverend Dr. Thomas Kenn, late
    Lord Bishop of Bath and Wells. Price 2s. 6d."

I find the above in a list of "books printed for Arthur, Betterworth, &c.,"
at the end of the 7th edition of Horneck's _Crucified Jesus_: London, 1727.
I do not remember to have seen any notice of this work in the recent
biographies of the saintly prelate to whom it is here attributed.

E. H. A.

    [This work originally appeared under the following title: _The Royal
    Sufferer; a Manual of Meditations and Devotions, written for the use of
    a Royal though afflicted Family_, by T. K., D. D., 1669, and was
    afterwards published with the above title. It has been rejected as
    spurious by the Rev. J. T. Round, the editor of _The Prose Works of
    Bishop Ken_, l838.]

_Eugene Aram's Comparative Lexicon._--This talented criminal is said to
have left behind him collections for a dictionary of the Celtic, Hebrew,
Greek, Latin, and English languages, comprising a list of about 3000 words,
which he considered them to possess in common. Was this ever published? and
where are any notices of his works to be found?


    [The following notice of Eugene Aram's Lexicon occurs in a letter
    written by Dr. Samuel Pegge to Dr. Philipps, dated Feb. 18, 1760: "One
    Eugene Aram was executed at York last year for a murder. He has done
    something, being a scholar and a schoolmaster, towards a Lexicon on a
    new plan. Hearing of this, I sent for the pamphlet, which contained
    some account of his life, and the specimen of a Lexicon. He goes to the
    Celtic, the Irish, and the British languages, as well as others; and
    there are things, in the specimen that will amuse a lover of
    etymologies." (_Gent. Mag._, 1789, p. 905.) Aram left behind him an
    Essay relative to his intended work, from which some extracts are given
    in Kippis's _Biographia Britannica_, s.v. The Lexicon does not appear
    to have been printed.]

_Drimtaidhvrickhillichattan._--I should feel obliged through the medium of
"N. & Q.," to be informed of the whereabouts of a locality in Scotland with
the above euphonious name.


    [Drimtaidhvrickhillichattan is situated in the island of Mull, and
    county of Argyle.]

_Coins of Europe._--Where can I find the fullest and most accurate tables
showing the relative value of the coins in use in different parts of


    [Consult Tate's _Manual of Foreign Exchanges_, and the art. COINS in
    M^cCulloch's _Dictionary of Commerce_.]

_General Benedict Arnold._--Can any of the readers of "N.& Q." inform me
where General Arnold is buried? After the failure of his attempt to deliver
up West Point to the English, he escaped, went to England, and never
returned to his native {598} country. I have heard that he died about forty
years ago, near Brompton, England; and would be glad to have the date of
his death, and any inscription which may be on his tomb.

W. B. R.


    [General Arnold died 14th June, 1801, in the sixty-first year of his
    age. His remains were interred on the 21st at Brompton.]

       *       *       *       *       *



In Vol. iv., p. 473. a Query on this subject is inserted, to which, in Vol.
v., p. 37., MR. CHADWICK replied.

The question, one of great importance to the genealogist, has recently been
the subject of judicial decision, in the case of Steele _v._ Williams,
reported in the 17th volume of the _Jurist_, p. 464. (the Number for
Saturday, 28th May).

At the opening of the argument, the Court of Exchequer decided that the
fees, &c. are regulated by the 6 & 7 Will. IV. c. 86., "An Act for
registering Births, Deaths, and Marriages in England," which in the 35th
section enacts--

    "That every rector, vicar, curate, and every registrar, registering
    officer, and secretary, who shall have the keeping, for the time being,
    of any register book of births, deaths, or marriages, shall at all
    reasonable times allow searches to be made of any register book in his
    keeping, and shall give a copy, certified under his hand, of any entry
    or entries in the same, on payment of the fee hereinafter mentioned;
    that is to say, for every search extending over a period not more than
    one year, the sum of 1s., and 6d. additional for every additional year;
    and the sum of 2s. 6d. for every single certificate."

MR. CHADWICK seemed to consider this section only applied to "civil
registration;" but this view is, I apprehend, now quite untenable.

The case was, whether a parish clerk had a right to charge 2s. 6d., where
the party searching the register did not require "certified copies," but
only made his own extracts; _and it is decided he has no such right_.

Mr. Baron Parke in his judgment says:

    "I think this payment was not voluntary, because the defendant" [the
    parish clerk] "told the plaintiff, that if he did not pay him for
    certificates, in all cases in which he wanted to make extracts, he
    should not make a search at all. _I think the plaintiff had at all
    events a right to make a search, and during that time make himself
    master, as he best might, of the contents of the book, and could not be
    prevented from so doing by the clerk_ in whose custody they were; who
    in the present case insisted that if he wanted copies he must have
    certificates with the signature of the incumbent. For the 1s. he paid,
    the applicant had a right to look at all the names in one year. He had
    no right to remain an unreasonable time looking at the book; nor
    perhaps, strictly speaking, was the parish clerk bound to put it into
    his hands at all: for the clerk has a right to superintend everything
    done, and might fairly say to a man, 'Your hands are dirty: keep them
    in your pockets.' The applicant could therefore only exercise his right
    of search during a reasonable time, and make extracts that way. _If a
    man insists on taking himself a copy of anything in the books, that
    case is not provided for by the statute_: but if he requires a copy
    certified by the clergyman, then he must pay an additional fee for it.

    "It was consequently _an illegal act_ in the defendant to insist that
    the plaintiff should pay 2s. 6d. for each entry in the book, of which
    he might choose to make an extract," &c.

Mr. Baron Martin says:

    "With respect to the statute, counsel (Mr. Robinson) says, because
    taking extracts is not mentioned in the statute, it is competent for a
    parish clerk to take an extra payment for allowing them to be made.
    Where a man is allowed by statute to receive money, it is, as it were,
    by virtue of a contract that the statute makes for him, and he cannot
    make a contract for a different sum. The defendant here is bound by the
    entirety of the statute; _he may be paid for a search_, OR _for a

This decision will, I hope, have the effect of removing the difficulties so
often experienced in making searches for genealogical purposes. At all
events, the person making such search can now _safely_ make his own notes,
none daring _lawfully_ to make him afraid. I have to apologise for the
length of this letter.


12. King's Bench Walk, Temple.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. iv., p. 234.)

There is an inquiry in Vol. iv., p. 234., as to whether there is any truth
in the story, that the Honourable Miss E. St. Leger was made a freemason;
and as no account of the circumstances has yet appeared in your pages, I
send you the following statement, which has been extracted from _The
Patrician_. Apart from its value as a record of this singular fact, it
contains other particulars which you may deem worthy of preservation in "N.
& Q."

    "The Hon. Elizabeth St. Leger as the only female who was ever initiated
    into the ancient and honourable mystery of Freemasonry. How she
    obtained this honour we shall lay before our readers, having obtained
    the only genuine information from the best sources.

    "Lord Doneraile, Miss St. Leger's father, a very zealous mason, held a
    warrant, and occasionally opened Lodge at Doneraile House, his sons and
    some intimate friends assisting; and it is said that never were the
    masonic duties more rigidly performed than by the brethren of No. 150,
    the number of their warrant.

    "It appears that previous to the initiation of a gentleman to the first
    steps of masonry, Miss St Leger, {599} who was a young girl, happened
    to be in an apartment adjoining the room generally used as a
    lodge-room; but whether the young lady was there by design or accident,
    we cannot confidently state. This room at the time was undergoing some
    alteration: amongst other things, the wall was considerably reduced in
    one part, for the purpose of making a saloon.

    "The young lady having heard the voices of the Freemasons, and prompted
    by the curiosity natural to all, to see this mystery so long and so
    secretly locked up from public view, she had the courage to pick a
    brick from the wall with her scissors, and witnessed the ceremony
    through the first two steps. Curiosity gratified, fear at once took
    possession of her mind; and those who understand this passage, well
    know what the feelings of any person must be who could unlawfully
    behold that ceremony. Let them then judge what were the feelings of a
    young girl, under such extraordinary circumstances.

    "Here was no mode of escape except through the very room where the
    concluding part of the second step was still being solemnised; and that
    being at the far end, and the room a very large one, she had resolution
    sufficient to attempt her escape that way, and with light but trembling
    step glided along unobserved, laid her hand on the handle of the door,
    and gently opening it, before her stood, to her dismay, a grim and
    surly _tiler_, with his long sword unsheathed. A shriek that pierced
    through the apartment alarmed the members of the lodge, who all rushing
    to the door, and finding that Miss St. Leger had been in the room
    during the ceremony, in the first paroxysm of their rage, it is said,
    her death was resolved upon; but from the moving and earnest
    supplication of her younger brother, her life was spared, on condition
    of her going through the two steps of the solemn ceremony she had
    unlawfully witnessed. This she consented to do, and they conducted the
    beautiful and terrified young lady through those trials which are
    sometimes more than enough for masculine resolution, little thinking
    they were taking into the bosom of their craft a member that would
    afterwards reflect a lustre on the annals of Masonry.

    "Miss St. Leger was directly descended from Sir Robert De St. Leger,
    who accompanied William the Conqueror to England, and was of that high
    repute that he, with his own hand, supported that prince when he first
    went out of his ship to land in Sussex.

    "Miss St. Leger was cousin to General Anthony St. Leger, Governor of
    St. Lucia, who instituted the interesting race and the celebrated
    Doncaster St. Leger stakes.

    "Miss St. Leger married Richard Aldworth, Esq., of Newmarket, a member
    of a highly honourable and ancient family, long celebrated for their
    hospitality and other virtues. Whenever a benefit was given at the
    theatres in Dublin or Cork for the Masonic Orphan Asylum, she walked at
    the head of the Freemasons, with her apron and other insignia of
    Freemasonry, and sat in the front row of the stage box. The house was
    always crowded on those occasions.

    "The portrait of this estimable woman is in the lodge room of almost
    every lodge in Ireland."


St. Lucia.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 522.)

Your correspondent J. A., jun., invites further contributions on the
subject to which he refers. Though by no means infallible, such prognostics
are not without a measure of truth, founded as they are on habits of close

  1. "Si sol splendescat Maria Purificante
      Major erit glacies post festum quàm fuit ante."

Rendered thus:

     "When on the Purification sun hath shin'd,
      The greater part of winter comes behind."

  2. "If the sun shines on Easter-day, it shines on Whit
      Sunday likewise."

To this I may add the French adage:

     "Quel est Vendredi tel Dimanche."

From a MS. now in my possession, dating two centuries back, I extract the
following remarks on "Times and Seasons," as not wholly unconnected with
the present subject:

    "Easter-day never falleth lower than the 22nd of March, and never
    higher than the 25th of April."

    "Shrove Sunday has its range between the 1st of February and the 7th of

    "Whit Sunday between the 10th of May and the 13th of June."

    "A rule of Shrovetide:--The Tuesday after the second change of the moon
    after New Year's-day is always Shrove Tuesday."

To these I may perhaps be permitted to add certain cautions, derived frown
the same source:

    "The first Monday in April, the day on which Cain was born, and Abel
    was slain.

    "The second Monday in August, on which day Sodom and Gomorrah were

    "The 31st of December, on which day Judas was born, who betrayed

    "These are dangerous days to begin any business, fall sick, or
    undertake any journey."

We smile at the superstition which thus stamps these several periods as
days of ill omen, especially when we reflect that farther inquiry would
probably place every other day of the week under a like ban, and thus
greatly impede the business of life--Friday, for instance, which, since our
Lord's crucifixion on that day, we are strongly disinclined to make the
starting-point of any new enterprise.

In many cases this superstition is based on unpleasing associations
connected with the days proscribed. Who can wonder if, in times less
enlightened than our own, undue importance were attached to the strange
coincidence which marked the deaths of Henry VIII. and his posterity. They
all died on a Tuesday; himself on Tuesday, January 28, 1547; Edward VI. on
Tuesday, July 6, {600} 1553; Mary on Tuesday, November 17, 1558; Elizabeth
on Tuesday, March 24, 1603.



It is a saying in Norwich,--

 "When three daws are seen on St. Peter's vane together,
  Then we are sure to have bad weather."

I think the observation is tolerably correct.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 475.)

In the debates about a union with Scotland in 1606, the "multiplicities of
the Scots in Polonia" formed one of the arguments of the opposing party,
who thought that England was likely to be overrun in a similar fashion.
According to Wilson (_Hist. of James I._, p. 34.), the naturalisation of
the Scots--

    "Was opposed by divers strong and modest arguments. Among which they
    brought in the comparison of Abraham and Lot, whose families joining,
    they grew to difference, and to those words, 'Vade tu ad dextram, et
    ego ad sinistram.' It was answered, That speech brought the captivity
    of the one; they having disjoined their strength. The party opposing
    said, If we admit them into our liberties, we shall be overrun with
    them; as cattle, naturally, pent up by a slight hedge, will over it
    into a better soil; and a tree taken from a barren place will thrive to
    excessive and exuberant branches in a better,--witness the
    _multiplicities of the Scots in Polonia_.

    "To which it was answered, That if they had not means, place, custom,
    and employment (not like beasts, but men), they would starve in a
    plentiful soil, though they came into it. And what springtide and
    confluence of that nation have housed and familied themselves among us,
    these four years of the king's reign? And they will never live so
    meanly here as they do in Polonia; for they had rather discover their
    poverty abroad than at home."

This last "answerer" was Lord Bacon. In his speech "Of general
Naturalisation" (_Works_, vol. v. p. 52.), he asserts that the
"multiplication of Scots in Polonia" must of necessity be imputed

    "To some special accident of time and place that draws them thither;
    for you see plainly before your eyes, that in Germany, which is much
    nearer, and in France, where they are invited with privileges, and with
    this very privilege of naturalisation, yet no such number can be found;
    so as it cannot either be nearness of place, or privilege of person,
    that is the cause."

What these "special accidents" were, it would be interesting to ascertain.
Large bodies of men were levied in Scotland during the latter half of the
sixteenth century, for the service of Sweden, and employed in the Polish
wars. Can these have turned merchants, or induced others to follow them? In
1573, Charles de Mornay brought 5000 Scots to Sweden. In 1576, whilst they
were serving in Livonia, a quarrel broke out between them and a body of
Germans also in the Swedish pay, and 1500 Scots were cut down. (_Geiger_,
ch. xii.)

I believe MR. CUNNINGHAM will find some notices of Scottish merchants in
Poland in Lithgow's _Travels_, which I have not at present by me.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 528.)

Sir Richard Newton was Chief Justice of the Common Pleas from 1438 to 1444,
and died Dec. 13th, 1444, and was buried in a chapel of Bristol Cathedral.
(Collins's _Baronage_, vol. iii. p. 145.) He assumed the name of Newton,
instead of Caradoc, from Newton in Powysland. (Collinson's _Somersetshire_,
East Harptrie); and, as Camden, p. 60., says, the Newtons "freely own
themselves to be of Welsh extraction, and not long ago to have been called
Caradocks." These Caradocs were descended from the ancient kings of Wales.
Sir Richard Newton was twice married: 1. to a daughter of Newton, of
Crossland; and 2. to Emmett, daughter of John Harvey, of London, according
to a MS. in the British Museum; but, according to Somersetshire and
Gloucestershire Visitations, to Emma, daughter of Sir Thomas Perrott, of
Islington. He had issue by both marriages, and from the second descended
Sir John Newton, who was created a baronet 12 Car. II., and died in 1661.
The baronetcy was limited in remainder, at its creation, to John Newton, of
Hather, in Lincolnshire, and he became the second baronet. There are
several pedigrees tracing the descent from Sir Richard to the first
baronet; but I have not yet seen the descent to the second baronet, though
there can be no doubt that he was also descended from Sir Richard,
otherwise the baronetcy could not have been limited to him; and probably he
was the next male heir of the first baronet, as that is the usual mode of
limiting titles. In the Heralds' College there is a pedigree of Sir Isaac
Newton, signed by himself, in which he traces his descent to the brother of
the ancestor of the second baronet. It should seem, therefore, that Sir
Isaac was himself descended from the Chief Justice. It would confer a great
obligation on the writer if any of your readers could afford any assistance
to clear up the pedigree of the second baronet.

As to the representatives of Sir Richard, I doubt whether his heir is
discoverable, although there are many descendants now living who trace
their descent through females.

C. S. G.

       *       *       *       *       * {601}


(Vol. vii., p. 332.)

I cannot agree with the answer given, under the above reference, to the
question of J. P.: "How did the use of the ring, in the marriage ceremony,
originate?" The answer given is taken from Wheatly's _Rational
Illustration_, &c., and is in substance this:--The ring anciently was a
_seal_, and the delivery of this seal was a sign of confidence; and as a
ceremony in marriage, its signification is, that the wife is admitted to
the husband's counsels. From this argument, and the supposed proofs of it,
I beg to dissent; and I conceive that Wheatly has not thrown any light upon
the origin of this beautiful ceremony. To bear out his view, it would be
necessary to prove that a signet ring had originally been used for the
wedding ring--a matter of no slight difficulty, not to say impossibility.

What I take to be the real meaning of the ring as a part of the marriage
ceremony, I will now give. It has a far higher meaning in the ceremony, and
a more important duty to perform than merely to signify the admission of
the wife into the counsels of the husband. Its office is to teach her the
duty she owes to her husband, rather than the privilege of admission into
his counsels. The ring is a preacher, to teach her lessons of holy wisdom
referring to her state of life.

A ring, whenever used by the church, signifies, to use the words of
liturgical writers, "integritatem fidei," the perfection of fidelity, and
is "fidei sacramentum," the badge of fidelity. Its form, having no
beginning and no end, is the emblem of eternity, constancy, integrity,
fidelity, &c.; so that the wedding ring symbolises the eternal or entire
fidelity the wife pledges to her husband, and she wears the ring as the
badge of this fidelity. Its office, then, is to teach and perpetually
remind her of the fidelity she owes to her husband, and swore to him at the
marriage ceremony.

The wedding ring is to the wife precisely what the episcopal ring is to the
bishop, and _vice versâ_. The language used during the ceremony to the one
is very similar to that used to the other, as the object of the ceremony
and use of the ring is the same. A bishop's ring, as we read, signifies
"integritatem fidei," _i. e._ that he should love as himself the church of
God committed to him as his bride. When he receives the ring at his
consecration, the words used are, "Accipe annulum, _fidei scilicet
signaculum_, quatenus sponsam Dei, sanctum videlicet ecclesiam, intemerata
fide ornatus illibate custodias:" (Receive the ring, the badge of fidelity,
to the end that, adorned with inviolable fidelity you may guard without
reproach the spouse of God, that is, His Holy Church).

Hence the office of the episcopal ring throws light upon the office of the
wedding ring; and there can be no doubt whatever that its real meaning is,
in the latter as in the former case, to signify the _eternal fidelity and
constancy_ that should subsist between the married couple.

That this is the correct view of the meaning of the wedding ring is farther
confirmed by the prayer used in blessing the ring: "Benedic, Domine,
annulum hunc ... ut quæ eum gestaverit, _fidelitatem integram_ suo sponso
tenens, in pace et voluntate tua permaneat, acque in mutua charitate semper
vivat."--_Rituale_, &c.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., pp. 380. 504.)

My former Note on the origin of this name suggests a question, which, if
you think it worthy of a place in "N. & Q.," may interest many besides
myself, viz. At what period and by whom was that part of North America
called Canada?

To the French it appears always to have been known as "La Nouvelle France."
La Hontan, who quitted the country 1690, I think, calls it Canada. Lajitan
certainly does, as well as many other old authors.

In a map of North America, date 1769, the tract bordering on the St.
Lawrence, lately called Upper and Lower Canada, is designated "The Province
of Quebec;" whilst the region to the northward, lying between it and
Hudson's Bay, has the word Canada in much larger letters, as if a general
name of the whole. That the name is slightly altered from an Indian word is
probable, but not so that it was used by the Indians themselves, who, in
the first place, were not in the habit of imposing general names on large
districts, although they had significant ones for almost every locality;
the former were usually denominated the land of the Iroquois, of the
Hurons, &c., _i. e._ of the people dwelling, on, and in possession of it.
Even allowing that the Indians may have had a general name for the country,
it is very unlikely that one so unmeaning as "Kanata" would have been
imposed upon it by a people whose nomenclature in every other case is so
full of meaning.

Moreover, although the Mic-macs of Gaspé may have called themselves
Canadians according to Lescarbot, yet we are told by Volney, that--

    "The Canadian savages call themselves 'Metoktheniakes' (born of the
    sun), without allowing themselves to be persuaded of the contrary by
    the Black Robes," &c.--Vol. ii. p. 438.

The following, to the same purpose, is from the _Quarterly Review_, vol.
iv. p. 463.:

    "'Tapoy,' which we understand from good authority to be the generic
    appellation by which the North American tribes distinguish themselves
    from the whites," &c.


Now I should imagine both Lescarbot and Champlain, knowing nothing of the
language, and probably having very bad interpreters, must have made a great
mistake in supposing the Gaspésiens called themselves Canadians, for I have
questioned several intelligent Mic-Macs on the subject, and they have
invariably told me that they call themselves "Ulnookh" or "Elnouiek,"
"_Ninen elnouiek!--We are Men._" But Mic-mac? "O, Mic-mac all same as
Ulnookh." The latter word strictly means Indian-man, and cannot be applied
to a white. Mic-mac is the name of their tribe, and, they insist upon it,
always has been. Again, Kanata is said to be an Iroquois word, and,
consequently, not likely to have been in use amongst a tribe of the Lenape
family, which the Mic-macs are. It does not appear that we have any
authority for supposing the country was ever called Canada by the Indians

It is curious enough that as Canada was said to derive from an exclamation,
"Acá nada!" so the capital has been made to take its name from another;
"Quel bec!" cried one of Champlain's Norman followers, on beholding Cape
Diamond. As in the former case, however, so in this, we have evidence of
more probable sources of the name, which I will enumerate as briefly as
possible. The first, and a very probable one, is the fact, that the strait
between Quebec and St. Levi side of the river, was called in the Algonquin
language "Quebeio," _i. e._ a narrowing,--a most descriptive appellation,
for in ascending the river its breadth suddenly diminishes here from about
two miles to fourteen or fifteen hundred yards from shore to shore.

The little river St. Charles, which flows into the St. Lawrence on the
northern side of the promontory, is called in the Indian language
(Algonquin?) Kabir or Koubac, significant of its tortuous course, and it is
from this, according to La Potherie, that the city derives its name of

Mr. Hawkins, in his _Picture of Quebec, &c., 1834_, denies the Indian
origin of the word, since, as he says, there is no analogous sound to it in
any of their languages; and he assumes a Norman origin for it on the
strength of "Bec" being always used by the Normans to designate a
promontory in the first place; and secondly, because the word Quebec is
actually found upon a seal of the Earl of Suffolk, of historical celebrity
temp. Hen. V. and VI., which Mr. Hawkins supposes to have been the name of
some town, castle, or barony in Normandy.

Such are the pros and cons, upon which I do not presume to offer any
opinion; only I would observe, that if there are no analogous sounds in the
Indian languages, whence come Kennebec and other similar names?

A. C. M.


Surely in the "inscription on a seal (1420), in which the Earl of Suffolk
is styled 'Domin_e_ [?] de Hamburg et de Quebec,'" the last word must be a
misprint for _Lubec_, the sister city of Hamburg. MR. HAWKINS'S etymology
seems to rest on no more substantial foundation than an error of the press
in the work, whichever that may be, from which he quotes.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 429.)

The popular idea that a man may legally dispose of his wife, by exposing
her for sale in a public market, may not improbably have arisen from the
correlation of the terms _buying_ and _selling_. Your correspondent V. T.
STERNBERG need not be reminded how almost universal was the custom among
ancient nations of purchasing wives; and he will admit that it appears
natural that the commodity which has been obtained "per æs et libram"--to
use the phrase of the old Roman law touching matrimony--is transferable to
another for a similar consideration, whenever it may have become useless or
disagreeable to its original purchaser. However this may be, the custom is
ancient, and moreover appears to have obtained, to some extent, among the
higher orders of society. Of this an instance may be found in Grimaldi's
_Origines Genealogicæ_, pp. 22, 23. (London, 1828, 4to.) The deed, by which
the transaction was sought to be legalised, runs as follows:

    "To all good Christians to whom this writ shall come, John de Camoys,
    son and heir of Sir Ralph de Camoys, greeting: Know me to have
    delivered, and yielded up of my own free will, to Sir William de
    Paynel, Knight, my wife Margaret de Camoys, daughter and heiress of Sir
    John de Gatesden; and likewise to have given and granted to the said
    Sir William, and to have made over and quit-claimed all goods and
    chattels which the said Margaret has or may have, or which I may claim
    in her right; so that neither I, nor any one in my name, shall at any
    time hereafter be able to claim any right to the said Margaret, or to
    her goods and chattels, or their pertinents. And I consent and grant,
    and by this writ declare, that the said Margaret shall abide and remain
    with the said Sir William during his pleasure. In witness of which I
    have placed my seal to this deed, before these witnesses: Thomas de
    Depeston, John de Ferrings, William de Icombe, Henry le Biroun, Stephen
    Chamberlayne, Walter le Blound, Gilbert de Batecumbe, Robert de Bosco,
    and others."

This matter came under the cognisance of Parliament in 1302, when the grant
was pronounced to be invalid.

Now, we may fondly believe that this transaction, which occurred five
hundred and fifty years ago, was characteristic alone of that dark and
distant period, and that no parallel can be found in modern {603} times (at
least in a decent class of society, and recognised by legal sanction) to
justify the lively French dramatists in seizing upon it as a trait of
modern English manners. A transaction, however, came before the public eye
a month or two ago, which, should you think the following record of it
worth preservation as a "curiosity of legal experience," may lead your
readers to a different conclusion:

    "A young man, named W. C. Capas, was charged at the Public Office,
    Birmingham, Jan. 31, 1853, with assaulting his wife. The latter, in
    giving her evidence, stated that her husband was not living with her,
    but was 'leased' to another female. Upon inquiry by the magistrate into
    this novel species of contract, the document itself was produced in
    court, and read. It ran as follows:

    "'Memorandum of agreement made and entered into this second day of
    October, in the year of our Lord 1852, between William Charles Capas,
    of Charles-Henry Street, in the borough of Birmingham, in the county of
    Warwick, carpenter, of the one part, and Emily Hickson, of Hurst
    Street, Birmingham aforesaid, spinster, of the other part. Whereas the
    said William Charles Capas and Emily Hickson have mutually agreed with
    each other to live and reside together, and to mutually assist in
    supporting and maintaining each other during the remainder of their
    lives, and also to sign the agreement hereinafter contained to that
    effect: now, therefore, it is hereby mutually agreed upon, by and
    between the said William Charles Capas and Emily Hickson, that they the
    said, &c., shall live and reside together during the remainder of their
    lives, and that they shall mutually exert themselves by work and
    labour, and by following all their business pursuits, to the best of
    their abilities, skill, and understanding, and by advising and
    assisting each other, for their mutual benefit and advantage, and also
    to provide for themselves and each other the best supports and comforts
    of life which their means and income may afford. And for the true and
    faithful performance of this agreement, each of the said parties
    bindeth himself and herself unto the other finally by this agreement,
    as witness the hands of the said parties, this day and year first above

Here follow the signatures of the consenting parties. The girl Hickson was
examined, and admitted that she had signed the document at the office of a
Mr. Campbell, the _lawyer_(!) who prepared it, and that his charge for
drawing up the same was, she believed, 1l. 15s. The latter promised her, at
the same time, that if the wife of Capas gave her any annoyance he would
put in that paper as evidence. The magistrates, considering the assault
proved, fined Capas 2s. 6d., and "commented in very strong terms on the
document which had that day been brought before them." (See _Birmingham
Journal_, Jan. 5th, 1853.) Has a similar transaction come before the notice
of your correspondents?

I may add that we are informed by the _Birmingham Argus_ for March, 1834,
that in that month a man led his wife by a halter to Smithfield Market in
that town, and there publicly offered her for sale.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 455.)

This word, when written or pronounced _enow_, is regarded as a plural, and
relates to _number_. In this sense it is employed in Northampton and other
Midland counties, and is found in old writers. If the word was always
pronounced _enow_, it must be long since. The distinction above hinted at
prevailed in Waller's time, and he conforms to it in the examples quoted.
Butler, in _Hudibras_, has both:

 "This b'ing professed we hope _enough_,
  And now go on where we left off.'
                  Part i. canto 2. 44.

Again, line 1153. of the same canto:

 "For though the body may creep through,
  The hands in grate are _enough_;"

an apparent exception, but not really such. (See also canto 3. 117. 285.,
where it rhymes with "off," as also line 809. At line 739. it written
_enow_, and rhymes with "blow.")

And again, 873:

 "My loss of honour's great _enough_,
  Thou needst not brand it with a scoff."

Other examples may be quoted from the same author.

In a song, written upon the Restoration of Charles II., we have the

 "Were not contented, but grew rough,
  As though they had not won _enough_."
                  _Loyal Arms_, vol. i. p. 244.

In the _Lamentable Tragedy of Cambises_, written early in the reign of
Elizabeth, the word occurs:

 "Gogs sides, knaves, seeing to fight ye be so rough,
  Defend yourselves, for I will give ye bothe _inough_."

In _Lusty Juventus, a Morality_, temp. Edward VI., is the following:

 "Call them Papistes, hipocrites, and joyning of the plough;
  Face out the matter, and then good _ynough_."

Here certainly the distinction disappears, as in the next and last example
from _Candlemas Day_, "Ao. Do. 1512," where Joseph is speaking:

 "Take hym in your armys, Mary, I you pray,
  And of your swete mylke let him sowke _inowe_,
  Mawger Herowd and his grett fray:
  And as your spouse, Mary, I shall go with you."

It would seem therefore, that this word has had its present pronunciation
about three centuries. {604} Its derivation is directly from the Saxon
_genoh_, but the root is found in many other languages, as the German,
Dutch, Danish, &c.

B. H. C.

MR. WRIGHT supposes there has been a change in the pronunciation of this
word, and inquires when it took place. Now, if my conjecture be correct,
there may have been no change, and these are two words,--not one pronounced
differently. Both the instances quoted by him are in conformity with my
opinion, viz. that where the sense is "a sufficient _quantity_," either in
substance, quality, or action, we should make use of _enough_; yet where a
sufficient _number_ is intended, we should pronounce and write _enow_. I
recollect (being a native of Suffolk) that I was laughed at by the boys of
a school in a western county, nearly seventy years ago: but I was not then
laughed out of my word, nor am I likely now to be argued out of it.

P.S.--I see that Johnson's _Dictionary_ gives the same statement about
_enough_ and _enow_. This answer is therefore superfluous. Johnson gives
numerous instances of the use of _enow_ from our best authors.

H. C. R.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Mr. Wilkinson's Mode of levelling Cameras._--As you have done me the
honour to notice my simple invention for levelling cameras, which I have
since had an opportunity of trying in the open air for a week, and find to
succeed perfectly, I wish to correct some errors which appeared in the
_Photographic Journal_, from which you copied my remarks, and which arose
from the notes being taken down from my verbal observations. The first part
is perfectly correct but after l. 9. col. 2. "N. & Q." (Vol. vii., p. 462.)
it should read thus:

"The other perpendicular is then sought for; the back or front of the
camera being raised or lowered until the thread cuts the perpendicular
lines drawn upon the sides of the camera. By this means a perfectly
horizontal plane is obtained, as true as with the best spirit-levels, and
in less time. By tying three knots in the silk at twelve inches distance
from the one bullet and from each other, we have a measure for stereoscopic
pictures; and by making the thread thirty-nine inches and two-tenths long
from one bullet to the centre of the other, we obtain a pendulum vibrating
seconds, which is useful in talking portraits; as it will continue
vibrating for ten minutes, if one bullet be merely hung over any point of

Thus we obtain a levelling instrument, a chronometer, and a measure of
distances, at a cost considerably under one penny.

The above will more fully explain to your correspondent [Phi]. (Vol. vii.,
p. 505.) my reasons for the length of thread stated; and with respect to
the diagonal lines on the ground glass, it is not material what may be the
distance of the principal object, whether six feet or six hundred: for if
the cross lines, or any other lines drawn on the glass, cut the central
object in the picture at any particular part--for example, the window of
any particular house, or the branch of any tree,--then the camera may be
removed to higher or lower ground, several feet or inches, to the right or
to the left, and the same lines be made to cut the same objects, previously
noted; the elevation will then be the same, which completes all that is

In most stereoscopic pictures, the distances are too wide. For a portrait,
two inches and half to three inches, at nine or twelve feet distant, is
enough; and for landscapes much less is required than is generally given,
for no very great accuracy is necessary. Three feet, at three hundred
yards, is quite enough; and four to six feet, at a mile, will do very well.
Let experiment determine: for every photographer must learn his profession
or amusement; there is no royal road to be depended on. But a small
aperture, a quarter of an inch diameter, may be considered a good practical
size for a lens of three and a quarter inches, depending on light and time:
the smaller the aperture, the longer the time; and no rules can be given by
any one who does not know the size and quality of the lenses employed.
Every one can make a few trials for himself, and find it out; which will be
more satisfactory than any instructions derived from books or
correspondence. I obtain all the information I can from every source, then
try, and judge for myself. At worst, you only spoil a few sheets of paper,
and gain experience.

I perfectly agree with DR. DIAMOND, that it is much better not to wash the
collodion pictures after developing; but pour on about one drachm of sat.
sol. hypo. at once, and then, when clear, plenty of water; and let water
rest on the surface for an hour or more, before setting on edge to dry.


_Collodion Negative._--Can you inform me how a collodion negative may be
made? that is, how you can ensure the negative being always of a _dense
enough character to print from_. This is rarely the case.

F. M.

_Developing Collodion Process._--I use to develope my collodion pictures M.
Martin's plan, _i. e._ a solution of common copperas made a little acid
with sulphuric acid. This answers very well and gives to the pictures,
after they have been exposed an hour or two to the atmosphere, a
silver-like appearance: but this copperas solution seems to destroy the
_glass_ for using _a second time_, inasmuch as a haziness is cast upon the
glass, and its former enamel seems lost, not to be regained even by using
acids. The hyposulphite also seems to be affected by this manner of
developing the {605} pictures after a short time, which is not the case
with pyrogallic acid. The hypo., when thus affected with the copperas,
appears also to throw a mist over the picture, which new hypo. does _not_.
I should esteem it a favour if any of your numerous readers could inform me
the cause of this.

A. A. P.

_An iodizing Difficulty._--May I request the favour, from some one of your
numerous photographic correspondents, of a solution to the following
apparent enigma, through the medium of "N. & Q."?

Being located in a neighbourhood where there is a scarcity of water in the
summer months, I lately took advantage of a pool in a running stream, which
ran at the bottom of the grounds of a friend, to soak my calotype papers
in, subsequent to having brushed them over with the solution of iodide of
silver, according to the process recommended by SIR W. NEWTON. One-half of
the batch was removed in about two hours and a half, being beautifully
clean, and of a nice light primrose colour; and in consequence of an
unexpected call and detention longer than I had anticipated, the other half
was left floating from two o'clock P.M. until seven or eight in the evening
(nearly six hours), when, much to my chagrin, I found on their removal that
they had all, more or less, become browned, or, rather, had taken on a
dirty, deep, nankeen colour, those that had been first floated being
decidedly the worst. I had previously thought that the papers _must_ be
left _at least_ two and a half to three hours, a longer period having no
other effect than that of softening the papers, or, at most, of allowing
some slight portion of the iodide to fall off from their surface, whereas,
from the above-described discoloration, an evident decomposition must have
commenced, which I am quite at a loss to account for; neither can I
conjecture what the chemical change can have been. I have several times
before prepared good papers in trays filled with water from the same
stream, but from the quantity running in the brook in the spring months, I
never before have had the chance of floating them in the stream itself.

An explanation of the above difficulty from some obliging and
better-informed photographist would be very thankfully received by


Ashburton, Devon.

P.S.--The pool of water was well shaded, consequently not a ray of bright
sunlight could possibly impinge on the papers while floating.

I have always understood that _pure_ iodide of silver was quite insensible
to the action of light, or to any other chemical change, as far as the
action of atmospheric air was concerned.

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Bishop Frampton_ (Vol. iii., p 261.).--For some account of this excellent
man, see chapter xxxi. of Mr. Anderdon's _Life of Bishop Ken_, where are
given some very interesting letters, that are printed from the MSS. in the
possession of Dr. Williams, Warden of New College, Oxford. Frampton appears
to have been at one time chaplain to the British Factory at Aleppo.
Mandeville, in the Dedication prefixed to his _Journey from Aleppo to
Jerusalem_, makes honourable mention of him, and attributes the highly
creditable character of the society to the influence of that incomparable
instructor. When the funeral procession of Christian, Countess of
Devonshire, halted at Leicester, on the way to Derby, a sermon was preached
on the occasion by Frampton, who was then chaplain to the Earl of Elgin,
the Countess's near relative. In sending these scraps, allow me to express
the hope that MR. EVANS has not laid aside his intention of favouring us
with a Life of Frampton.

E. H. A.

    [We cordially join in the wish expressed by our correspondent, that the
    Vicar of Shoreditch will before long favour us with the publication of
    the manuscript life of this amiable prelate, written, we believe, by
    his chaplain. It appears to us doubtful whether the bishop ever
    published any of his sermons, from what he states in a letter given in
    the Appendix to _The Life of John Kettlewell_. "I have often," he says,
    "been in the pulpit, in season and out of season, and also bold and
    honest enough there, God be praised; but never in the _printing-house_
    yet; and believe I never shall be." The longest printed account of this
    deprived bishop is given in Rudder's _History and Antiquities of
    Gloucester_; and no doubt many particulars respecting him and other
    Nonjurors may be found in the Rawlinson MSS. in the Bodleian Library.]

_Parochial Libraries_ (Vol. vi., p. 432; Vol. vii. _passim_).--At Dunblane
the collection of books bequeathed by the amiable Leighton is still
preserved. At All Saints, Newcastle-on-Tyne, I once saw, among some old
books in the vestry, a small quarto volume of tracts, including Archbishop
Laud's speech in the Star Chamber, at the censure of Bastwick, Burton, and
Prynne. It had been presented by the Rev. E. Moise, M. A., many years
lecturer of that church.

The old library at St. Nicholas, Newcastle-on-Tyne, contains many curious
books and MSS., particularly the old Bible belonging to Hexham Abbey. This
library was greatly augmented by the munificent bequest of the Rev. Dr.
Thomlinson, rector of Whickham, prebendary of St. Paul's, and lecturer of
St. Nicholas, who died at an advanced age, in 1748, leaving all his books
to this church. In 1825 Archdeacon Bowyer presented a series of lending
libraries--ninety-three in all--to the several parishes in the county of
Northumberland. {606} They are in the custody of the incumbent for the time
being. Lastly, there is a very valuable library at Bamburgh Castle, the
bequest of Dr. Sharp: the books are allowed to circulate gratuitously
amongst the clergy and respectable inhabitants of the adjoining

E. H. A.

The Honourable Mrs. Dudleya North died in 1712. Her choice collection of
books in oriental learning were "by her only surviving brother, the then
Lord North and Grey, given to the parochial library at Rougham, in Norfolk,
founded by the Hon. Roger North, Esq., for the use of the minister of that
parish, and, under certain regulations and restrictions, of the
neighbouring clergy also, for ever. Amongst these there is, in particular,
one very neat pocket Hebrew Bible in 12mo., without points, with silver
clasps to it, and bound in blue Turkey leather, in a case of the same
materials, which she constantly carried to church with her.... In the first
leaf of all the books that had been hers, when they were deposited in that
library," was a Latin inscription, setting forth the names of the late
owner, and of the donor of these books. (Ballard's _Memoirs of British
Ladies_. 8vo. 1775, p. 286.)


_Pierrepont_ (Vol. vii., p. 65.).--John Pierrepont, of Wadworth, near
Doncaster, who died 1st July, 1653, is described on a brass plate to his
memory, in the church at Wadworth, as "generosus." He was owner of the
rectory and other property there. It appears from the register that he
married, 18th April, 1609, Margaret, daughter and coheir of Michael
Cocksonn, Gent., of Wadworth and Crookhill, and by her (who was buried 22nd
July, 1620) he had

MARY (ultimately only daughter and heir), baptized at Wadworth, 27th July,
1612; married John Battie, of Wadworth, Gent., and had issue,

    Francis Battie, of Wadworth, Gent., who died without issue, 1682;
    having married Martha, daughter of Michael Fawkes, Esq., of Farnley.

    Elizabeth, wife of John Cogan, of Hull.

    Margaret, wife of William Stephens, Rector of Sutton, Bedfordshire.

FRANCES, bap. 1st July, and bur. Aug. 12, 1616.

JOHN, bap. 19th Aug., 1617; bur. Feb. 10, 1629-30.

GEORGE, bur. 26th Jan., 1631-2.

The arms on the memorial to John Pierrepont are--A lion rampant within
eight roses in orle.

N.B.--By the _second_ wife of the above John Battie there was issue, now
represented by William Battie Wrightson, Esq., M.P. of Cusworth.

C. J.

_Passage in Orosius_ (Vol. vii., pp. 399. 536.).--I cannot exactly
subscribe to the three propositions of MR. E. THOMSON, which he deduces
from his observations on "twam tyncenum" in Alfred's _Orosius_. In the
first place, the sentence in which the word _tyncenum_ occurs is perfectly
gratuitous on the part of Alfred, or whoever paraphrased Orosius in
Anglo-Saxon. No such assertion appears in Orosius, so that we have no means
of comparing it with the original.

The occurrence, as recounted by both Orosius and Herodotus, is attributed
to a _horse_ (a sacred horse, Herod.), not to a _horseman_, _knight_, or
_thane_. What is meant by the Anglo-Saxon text is, certainly, anything but
clear, as it stands in Barrington's edition; and he himself confesses this,
and does not admit it into his English translation.

Dr. Bosworth seems to have wisely omitted the word in the second edition of
his dictionary; and Thorpe confesses he can make nothing of it, in his
_Analecta_. We find no such word in Cædmon, Beowulf, or the _Saxon
Chronicle_; and the only reference made by Dr. Bosworth, in his first
edition, is to this very place in Alfred's _Orosius_, in which he seems to
have followed Lye.

May it not have been an error in the earlier transcribers of the MS., and
the real word have been _twentigum_, _i. e._ he ordered his thane to pass
over the river _with twenty men_, since the thane, by himself, could have
been but of little use on the other side the river? However this may be,
the fact is not historical at all, and therefore, as respects history, is
of little consequence.



_Pugna Porcorum_ (Vol. vii., p. 528.).--The author of this poem, as is
generally believed (though its production has also been assigned to
Gilbertus Cognatus or Cousin), was Joannes Leo Placentius, or Placentinus,
of whom the following account is given in the _Biographie Universelle_:

    "Jean-Leo Placentius ou Le Plaisant, n'est connu que comme l'auteur
    d'un petit poème _tautogramme_, genre de composition qui ne peut offrir
    que le frivole mérite de la difficulté vaincue. Né à Saint Trond, au
    pays de Liège, il fit ses études à Bois-le-Duc, dans l'école des
    Hiéronomytes; embrassa la vie religieuse, au commencement du seizième
    siècle, dans l'ordre des Dominicains, et fut envoyé à Louvain pour y
    faire son cours de théologie. Les autres circonstances de sa vie sont
    ignorées; et ce n'est que par conjecture qu'on place sa mort à l'année
    1548. On peut consulter sur cet écrivain, la _Bibl. Belgica_ de
    Foppens, et les _Scriptores ordin. Prædicator._ des PP. Quétif et

[Greek: Alieus].


This production appears to have been merely designed as a display of the
writer's skill. Dr. Brown notices it in his _Philosophy of the Mind_, lect.
36; and Ebert: "PORCIUS, _Pugna Porcorum_, per P. Porcium, Poetam (J.
Leonem), without {607} place, 1530, 8vo., 8 leaves. Printed in Italics, and
probably at Cologne or in Holland." He enumerates several other editions,
the last of which is that of Walch, 1786.

B. H. C.

_Oaken Tombs and Effigies_ (Vol. vii., p. 528.).--These are rare. Three of
the latter exist at Little Horkesley, Essex. Two are figures of
cross-legged knights in chain armour and surcoats: one is a female figure
wimpled. They are supposed by Suckling to represent members of the
Horkesley family, who held that manor from 1210 to 1322.

Another instance is the effigy of a cross-legged knight in chain mail at
Danbury in the same county. An account of these will be found in vol. iii.
of Weale's _Architectural Papers_.

At Ashwell, Rutland, is an effigy in wood of a cross-legged knight, also in
chain mail, if I remember rightly. It is not quite evident, from the
description in Weale's book, whether there are three effigies at Danbury or
only one. Of the same material is the figure of Isabella of Angoulême at
Fontevrault. A catalogue of these wooden effigies would be interesting.


_Bowyer Bible_ (Vol. vii., _passim_).--Relative to the history and various
possessors of this curious Bible, I find the following notice in _The
Times_, Oct. 14, 1840:

    "There is at present, in the possession of Mrs. Parker of Golden
    Square, a copy of Macklin's Bible in forty-five large volumes,
    illustrated with nearly 7000 engravings from the age of Michael Angelo
    to that of Reynolds and West. The work also contains about 200 original
    drawings or vignettes by Loutherbourg.

    "The prints and etchings include the works of Raffaelle, Marc Antonio,
    Albert Durer, Callot, Rembrandt, and other masters, consisting of
    representations of nearly every fact, circumstance, and object
    mentioned in the Holy Scriptures. There are, moreover, designs of
    trees, plants, flowers, quadrupeds, birds, fishes, and insects; such
    as, besides fossils, have been adduced in proof of the universal
    Deluge. The most authentic Scripture atlasses are bound up with the
    volumes. The Bible was the property of the late Mr. Bowyer the
    publisher, who collected and arranged the engravings, etchings, and
    drawings at great expense and labour; and he is said to have been
    engaged for upwards of thirty years in rendering it perfect. It was
    insured at the Albion Insurance Office for 3000l."

In the British Museum are several large works, particularly British
topography, illustrated in a similar manner, and which thus contain
materials of the rarest and most valuable description. Of these I would
only at present mention Salmon's _Hertfordshire_ illustrated by
Baskerville, and Lysons's _Environs_, in the King's Library. A long list of
such valuable works might be furnished from the Museum catalogues.

One of the most laborious collectors of curious prints of every kind was
John Bagford, whose voluminous collections are amongst the Harleian MSS. in
many folio volumes, in which will be found illustrations of topography to
be met with nowhere else.


_Longevity_ (Vol. vii., pp. 358. 504.).--Our friend A. J. is certainly not
one of the "remnant of true believers." By way of aiding in the crusade to
convert him to the faith, I hereunder quote a couple of instances, "within
the age of registers," which I trust will in some degree satisfy his pagan
incredulity. The parish registers of the township of Church Minshull, in
Cheshire, begin in 1561, and in the portion for the year 1649 appears the

    "Thomas Damme, of Leighton, buried the 26th of February, being of the
    age of seven score and fourteen."

This entry was made under the "Puritan dispensation," when the parish
scribe was at any rate supposed to be an "oracle of truth." Here, however,
is another instance, culled from the Register of Burials for the parish of
Frodsham, also in Cheshire:

 "1512/3. Feb. 12. Thomas Hough, cujus ætas CXLI."

And again, on the very next day after--

 "---- Feb. 13. Randle Wall, ætas 104."

I have met with other instances, but those now enumerated will probably
suffice for my present purpose.



John Locke, baptized 17th December, 1716, in the parish of Coney Weston,
was buried in Larling parish, county of Norfolk, 21st July, 1823. He is
registered as 110 years of age. He and his family always said that he was
three years old when he was baptized. I saw and conversed with him in Jan.

F. W. J.

_Lady Anne Gray_ (Vol. vii., p. 501.).--Referring to Sir John Harington's
poem, I do not find that the Christian name of the Lady Gray is set down at
all; the words of the stanza are,--

 "First doth she give to _Grey_,
  The falcon's curtesse kind."

I find in the pedigrees, British Museum, a "Lady Anne Grey" (daughter to
John Lord Grey of Pirgo, brother to Henry Grey, Duke of Suffolk) _married_
to "Henry Denny of Waltham," father to the Earl of Norwich of that name.
She was his first wife, and dying without issue, he married again "Lady
Honora Grey, daughter of Lord Grey de Wilton;" but I scarce think this Lady
Anne Grey could have been the maid of honour to the princess. The number of
Greys of different stocks and branches at that period, are beyond counting
or distinguishing from each other, and yet the fall of a queen's maid of
honour should be {608} easily traceable. Isabella Markham, one of the six
ladies, married Sir John Harington himself.

On referring to Lodge's _Illustrations_, I find the Lord John Grey one of
those noblemen appointed to attend Queen Elizabeth on her _entrée_ from
Hatfield to London on her accession, so that his daughter may well have
been one of her maids of honour; yet from comparison of dates I think she
can scarce have been the wife of Henry Denny.

A. B. R.


_Sir John Fleming_ (Vol. vii., p. 356.).--If CARET can obtain access to the
pedigree of the Flemings of Rydal Hall, Westmoreland, I anticipate he will
find that this Sir John was the third son of Sir Michael le Fleming, who
came over at the instance of Baldwin, Earl of Flanders, to assist King
William in his conquest of England. I may add that the Rydal family,
honoured with a baronetcy, Oct. 4, 1704, bear for their arms--"Gules, a
fret argent."



_Life_ (Vol. vii., p. 429.).--Campbell, in his lines entitled _A Dream_,

 "Hast thou felt, poor self-deceiver!
    Life's career so void of pain,
  As to wish its fitful fever
    New begun again?"

Though everybody knows the line--

 "After life's fitful fever he sleeps well"--

I think Campbell might have acknowledged his adoption of the words by
marking them, and might have improved his own lines (with all deference be
it said) if he had written--

 "Hast thou felt, poor self-deceiver!
    _Thy_ career so void of pain,
  As to wish 'life's fitful fever'
    New begun again?"


    "I would not live my days over again if I could command them by a wish,
    for the snares of life are greater than the fears of death." (Penn's
    father, the Admiral.)

Penn himself said, that if he had to live his life over again, he could
serve God, his neighbour, and himself better than he had done. Considering
the history of the father and son's respective lives (and of those I before
alluded to), though the latter's remarks may appear presumptuous, which
showed the most _wisdom_ is an open question. Does not H. C. K.'s
professional experience enable him to give a more certain opinion of
ordinary men's feelings than is expressed in "I fear not?"

A. C.

_Family of Kelway_ (Vol. vii., p. 529.).--In reply to the Query as to this
family in "N. & Q." of May 28, I beg to mention that in MS. F. 9. in the
Heraldic MSS. in Queen's College library, Oxford, is a pedigree of the
family of Kelway of Shereborne, co. Dorset, and White Parish, Wilts.

The arms are beautifully tricked. There is a bordure engrailed to the
Kelway coat. With it are these quarterings: 2, a leopard's face g. entre
five birds close s., three in chief, two in base. 3, az. a camel statant
arg. Crest, on a wreath arg. and g. a cock arg. crested, beaked, wattled,

D. P.

_Sir G. Browne, Bart._ (Vol. vii., p. 528.).--The particulars given by
NEWBURY, while introducing his Query, are extremely vague and inaccurate.
In the first place, the individual he styles _Sir_ George Browne, _Bart._,
was in reality simple George Browne, _Esq._, of Caversham, Oxon, and
Wickham, Kent. This gentleman, who would have been a valuable acquisition
to any nascent colony, married Elizabeth (_not_ Eleanor), second daughter
of Sir Richard Blount, of Maple Durham, and had by her nineteen children,
pretty evenly divided as to sex: for I read that of the daughters, three at
least died young; other three became nuns and one married ---- Yates, Esq.,
a Berkshire gentleman. Of the sons, three, as NEWBURY relates, fell
gloriously fighting for Charles, their sovereign. Neither of these latter
were married: indeed, the only sons who ventured at all into the bonds of
wedlock were George, the heir, and John, a younger brother. George married
Mary Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Francis Englefield, Knt., a Popish
recusant, and left two daughters, his co-heiresses. John, his brother,
created a baronet May 19th, 1665, married Mrs. Bradley, a widow, and had
issue three sons and three daughters. The sons, Anthony, John, and George,
inherited the baronetcy in succession, the two former dying bachelors: the
third son, Sir George, married his sister-in-law, Gertrude Morley, and left
three sons, the first of whom, Sir John, succeeded his father; and with him
the baronetcy became dormant, if not indeed extinct.



_Americanisms, so called_ (Vol. vi., p. 554.; Vol. vii., p. 51.).--Thurley
Bottom, near Great Marlow, dear to "the Fancy," may be added to the list of
J. S.'s.


_Sir Gilbert Gerard_ (Vol. v., pp. 511. 571.; Vol. vi., p. 441.).--Sir
Gilbert Gerard, Master of the Rolls temp. Queen Elizabeth, died on the 4th
of February, and was interred on the 6th of March, 1592 (Old Style), in
Ashley Church, in Staffordshire. The style most probably led Dugdale into
the error noticed by your learned correspondent MR. FOSS, in his last
communication to "N. & Q.," relative to the probate of Sir Gilbert Gerard's
will. I beg to forward you an extract taken from the Parish Register of
Ashley, which, {609} it will be seen, not only records the burial, but
likewise, rather unusually, the precise day of his death, a little more
than a month intervening between the two events, which possibly might be
accounted for. On a careful examination of Sir Gilbert's tomb, I did not
find (which agrees with Dugdale) any epitaph thereon,--a somewhat
remarkable circumstance, inasmuch as Sir Thomas Gerard (Sir Gilbert
Gerard's eldest son and heir, who was created Baron Gerard, of Gerard's
Bromley, where his father had built a splendid mansion, a view of which is
in Plot's _History of Staffordshire_, page 103., not a vestige of which
beyond the gateway is now standing) is said by the Staffordshire historians
to have erected a monument to the memory of his father at great expense; a
drawing of which is given by Garner in his _Natural History of
Staffordshire_, p. 120., with a copious description of the tomb.

    _Extract. Annus 1592._

    "4 Die Februarii mortuus est Gilbert Gerard, Miles, et Custos
    Rotulorium Serenissimæ Reginæ Elizabethæ; et sepultus 6 die Martii



_Tombstone in Churchyard._--_Arms: Battle-axe_ (Vol. vii., pp. 331. 390.
407. 560.).--It appears that I may conclude that 1600 is the oldest
_legible_ date on a tombstone inscription. That of 1601 is cut in relief
round the edge of a long free-stone slab, raised on a course of two or
three bricks, and is in Henllan, near Denbigh.

The battle-axes (three in fesse) are on the wall over it. I am obliged to
J. D. S.; but in both my cases the arms appear as connected with Welsh
families; but it is the above that I want to identify.

A. C.

A correspondent asks for instances of dates on tombstones earlier than
1601. I know of one, at Moore Church in the county of Meath, within five
miles of Drogheda. It is as early as 1597; the letters, instead of being
sunk, are in relief. I subjoin a copy of the inscription:


M. E.


_Thomas Gage_ (Vol. vi., p. 291.).--Thomas Gage (formerly a Dominican
friar, and author of the _English American_, 1648--as I saw the work
entitled--subsequently a Puritan preacher), is, I imagine, identical with
Thomas Gage, minister of the Gospel at Deal in Kent, whom your
correspondent A. B. R. inquires about, p. 291. If so, he became chaplain to
Lord Fairfax, and, according to Macaulay, was not unlikely to have married
some dependent connexion of that family.

E. C. G.

_Marriage in High Life_ (Vol. vi., p. 359.).--I have often heard a similar
story, from an old relation of mine with whom I lived when a girl; and she
had heard it from her father,--which would carry the time of its occurrence
back to the date 1740, named by your correspondent. My informant's father
knew the parties, and I have repeatedly heard the name of the bridegroom;
but whether Wilbraham or Swetenham, I do not now remember. Both Wilbrahams
and Swetenhams are old Cheshire families, and have intermarried. I am
almost certain a Wilbraham was the hero of the story. I have had the house
pointed out to me where he lived, and it was not above a couple of hours'
drive from Chester, whither we were going in the old-fashioned way of
carriage-conveyance. I am sure he was not a peer, though, if a Wilbraham,
he might be related to the late (first) Lord Skelmersdale.

There is one other little circumstance, which the reference to those former
times has reminded me of,--the pronunciation of the word _obliged_ (as in
the Prologue to the _Satires_, where Pope says:

             "By flatterers besieged,
  And so obliging that he ne'er obliged),

which the old lady that I have referred to, maintained was the proper
pronunciation for _obleege_, to confer a favour; whereas the harsher sound,
to _oblige_, was discriminatively reserved for the equivalent, to compel.
She was a well-educated woman, and had associated with the good society of
London in her youth; and she always complained of the want of taste and
judgment shown by the younger generation, in pronouncing the same word,
with two distinct meanings, alike in both cases.

E. C. G.

_Eulenspiegel_ (Vol. vii., p. 557.).--The German verses under MR. CAMPKIN'S
portrait of Eulenspiegel, rendered into English prose, mean:

 "Look here at Eulenspiegel: his portrait makes thee laugh.
  What wouldst thou do, if thou couldst see the jester himself?
  But Till is a picture and mirror of this world.
  He left many a brother behind. We are great fools
  In thinking that we are the greatest sages:
  Therefore laugh at thyself, as this sheet represents thyself."

From the orthography, I do not think that the lines are much anterior to
the beginning of the eighteenth century. The names of the artist will be
the safest guides for discovering the date of the print.

[alpha]. {610}

"_Wanderings of Memory_" (Vol. vii., p. 527.).--The author of _Wanderings
of Memory_, published by subscription at Lincoln in 1815, 12mo. pp. 151.,
was a young man "in his apprenticeship," of the name of A. G. Jewitt. He
dedicates the book to his father, Mr. Arthur Jewitt, Kimberworth School,
Yorkshire. Nearly the whole of the embellishments were engraved by a
younger brother of the author, "who at the time had not attained his
sixteenth year, and who had not the opportunity of profiting by any regular

There are some good lines in the poem, but not enough to rescue it from
that fate which poetical mediocrity is irreversibly doomed to.


       *       *       *       *       *



The reputation which Mr. Finlay has acquired by his _History of Greece_,
and his _Greece under the Romans_, will unquestionably be increased by his
newly published _History of the Byzantine Empire from DCCXVI. to MLVII._
The subject is one of great interest to the scholar; and the manner in
which Mr. Finlay has traced the progress of the eastern Roman empire
through an eventful period of three centuries and a half, and while doing
so enriched his pages with constant reference to the original historians,
has certainly enabled him to accomplish the object which he has avowedly
had in view, namely, that of making his work serve not only as a popular
history, but also as an index for scholars who may be more familiar with
classic literature than with the Byzantine writers.

We understand that Her Majesty and Prince Albert, with that appreciation of
the beautiful and the useful for which they are distinguished, have shown
their opinion of the value of photography by becoming the Patrons of the
_Photographic Society_.

The _Camden Society_ is about to put to press a work which will be of great
value to our topographical writers, as well as to historians generally,
namely, _The Extent of the Estates of the Hospitalers in England, taken
under the direction of Prior Philip de Thame_, A.D. 1338. The original MS.
is at Malta; and though the transcript of it was made by a most competent
hand, we have reason to believe that our correspondent at La Valetta
(W. W.) would be doing good service both to the Society and to the world of
letters, and one which would be most acceptable to the Transcriber, if he
could find it convenient to revise the proof sheets with the original

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_Cyclopædia Bibliographica, a Library Manual of
Theological and General Literature._ Part IX. of this useful Library
Companion extends from _Göthe_ to _Matthew Henry_.--_Reynard the Fox, after
the German Version of Göthe, with Illustrations, by J. Wolf._ Part VI.
Contains Chap. VI. The Relapse.--Messrs. Longman have added to their
_Traveller's Library_ (in two parts) an interesting and cleverly written
account of our _Coal Mines, and those who live in them_, which gives a
graphic picture of the places and persons to whom we are all for so many
months indebted for our greatest comfort.--Mr. Bohn continues his good work
of supplying excellent books at moderate prices. We are this month indebted
to him for publishing in his _Scientific Library_ the third volume of Miss
Ross' excellent translation of Humboldt's _Personal Narrative of his
Travels to the Equinoctial Regions of America_, which is enriched with a
very copious index. In his _Classical Library_ he has given us
_Translations of Terence and Phædrus_; and in his _Antiquarian Library_,
the second volume of what, in spite of the laches pointed out by one of our
correspondents, we must pronounce a most useful work for the mere English
reader, the second volume of Mr. Riley's translation of _Roger de Hoveden's
Annals of English History_, which completes the work. Probably, however,
the volume which Mr. Bohn has just published in his _Standard Library_ is
the one which will excite most interest. It is issued as a continuation of
Coxe's _History of the House of Austria_, and consists (for the most part)
of a translation of Count Hartig's _Genesis of the Revolution in Austria_.

       *       *       *       *       *



LORD LANSDOWNE'S WORKS. Vol. I. Tonson, 1736.

4to. 1794.


WALKER'S PARTICLES. 8vo. old calf, 1683.

WARNER'S SERMONS. 2 Vols. Longman, about 1818.


Two Copies.





HISTORY OF ANCIENT WILTS, by SIR R. C. HOARE. The last three Parts.

*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names._

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

D. A. A. _will find an answer to his Query, "Was St. Patrick ever in
Ireland?" in our_ 5th Vol. p. 561., _from the pen of that accomplished
scholar, the_ REV. DR. ROCK.

_We have to apologise to many of our Shakspearian correspondents for the
delay which has taken place in the insertion of their communications._
A. E. B. _will perceive that we have complied with his request in
substituting for immediate publication the paper he sent this week, instead
of one by him which has been in type for two or three weeks._

_The coincident communications from two correspondents on Falstaff's
death_,--MR. SINGER_'s valuable emendation of a passage in_ Romeo and
Juliet,--_and_ MR. BLINK_'s and_ MR. RAWLINSON_'s respective
communications, shall have our earliest attention._

_We are also compelled to postpone our usual replies to Photographic

MR. MERRITT_'s Photographic specimens are very satisfactory. There can be
no doubt that, with perseverance, he will accomplish everything that can be
desired in this useful and pleasing art._

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday._ {611}

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, price 1s., free by Post 1s. 4d.,

Translated from the French.

Sole Agents in the United Kingdom for VOIGHTLANDER & SON'S celebrated
Lenses for Portraits and Views.

General Depot for Turner's, Whatman's Canson Frères, La Croix, and other
Talbotype Papers.

Pure Photographic Chemicals.

Instructions and Specimens in every Branch of the Art.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--Collodion (Iodized with the Ammonio-Iodide of Silver).--J. B.
HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, were the first in England who
published the application of this agent (see _Athenæum_, Aug. 14th). Their
Collodion (price 9d. per oz.) retains its extraordinary sensitiveness,
tenacity, and colour unimpaired for months; it may be exported to any
climate, and the Iodizing Compound mixed as required. J. B. HOCKIN & CO.
manufacture PURE CHEMICALS and all APPARATUS with the latest Improvements
adapted for all the Photographic and Daguerreotype processes. Cameras for
Developing in the open Country. GLASS BATHS adapted to any Camera. Lenses
from the best Makers. Waxed and Iodized Papers, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *


T. OTTEWILL (from Horne & Co.'s) begs most respectfully to call the
attention of Gentlemen, Tourists, and Photographers, to the superiority of
his newly registered DOUBLE-BODIED FOLDING CAMERAS, possessing the
efficiency and ready adjustment of the Sliding Camera, with the portability
and convenience of the Folding Ditto.

Every description of Apparatus to order.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions
(comprising Views in VENICE, PARIS, RUSSIA, NUBIA, &c.) may be seen at
BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured Apparatus of
every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of Photography in
all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

*** Catalogues may be had on application.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's,
Sanford's and Canson Frères' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's Process.
Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

Established 1824.

       *       *       *       *       *

FIVE BONUSES have been declared; at the last in January, 1852, the sum of
131,125l. was added to the Policies, producing a Bonus varying with the
different ages from 24½ to 55 per cent. on the Premiums paid during the
five years, or from 5l. to 12l. 10s. per cent. on the Sum Assured.

The small share of Profit divisible in future among the Shareholders being
now provided for, the ASSURED will hereafter derive all the benefits
obtainable from a Mutual Office, WITHOUT ANY LIABILITY OR RISK OF

POLICIES effected before the 30th June next, will be entitled, at the next
Division, to one year's additional share of Profits over later Assurers.

On Assurances for the whole of Life only one half of the Premiums need be
paid for the first five years.

INVALID LIVES may be Assured at rates proportioned to the risk.

Claims paid _thirty_ days after proof of death, and all Policies are
_Indisputable_ except in cases of fraud.

Tables of Rates and forms of Proposal can be obtained of any of the
Society's Agents, or of

GEORGE H. PINCKARD, Resident Secretary.

_99. Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, London._

       *       *       *       *       *

CITY OF LONDON LIFE ASSURANCE SOCIETY, 2. Royal Exchange Buildings, London.

Subscribed Capital, a Quarter of a Million.

  Mr. Commissioner West, Leeds.
  The Hon. W. F. Campbell, Stratheden House.
  John Thomas, Esq., Bishop's Stortford.

This Society embraces every advantage of existing Life Offices, viz. the
Mutual System without its risks or liabilities; the Proprietary, with its
security, simplicity, and economy; the Accumulative System, introduced by
this Society, uniting life with the convenience of a deposit bank;
Self-Protecting Policies, also introduced by this Society, embracing by one
policy and one rate of premium a Life Assurance, an Endowment, and a
Deferred Annuity. No forfeiture. Loans with commensurate Assurances. Bonus
recently declared, 20 per Cent.

EDW. FRED. LEEKS, Secretary.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECTACLES.--WM. ACKLAND applies his medical knowledge as a Licentiate of
the Apothecaries' Company, London, his theory as a Mathematician, and his
practice as a Working Optician, aided by Smee's Optometer, in the selection
of spectacles suitable to every derangement of vision, so as to preserve
the sight to extreme old age.

ACHROMATIC TELESCOPES, with the New Vetzlar Eye-pieces, as exhibited at the
Academy of Sciences in Paris. The Lenses of these Eye-pieces are so
constructed that the rays of light fall nearly perpendicular to the surface
of the various lenses, by which the aberration is completely removed; and a
telescope so fitted gives one-third more magnifying power and light than
could be obtained by the old Eye-pieces. Prices of the various sizes on
application to

WM. ACKLAND, Optician, 93. Hatton Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION, No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,


       *       *       *       *       *



Founded A.D. 1842.


  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.
  W. Cabell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M. P.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
  T. Grissell, Esq.
  J. Hunt, Esq.
  J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  E. Lucas, Esq.
  J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  J. B. White, Esq.
  J. Carter Wood, Esq.


  W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; L. C. Humfrey, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq.
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age      _£  s.  d._
   17       1  14   4
   22       1  18   8
   27       2   4   5
   32       2  10   8
   37       2  18   6
   42       3   8   2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions.
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *



RESPECTFULLY informs the Clergy, Architects, and Churchwardens, that he
replies immediately to all applications by letter, for information
respecting his Manufactures in CHURCH FURNITURE, ROBES, COMMUNION LINEN.
&c., &c., supplying full information as to Prices, together with Sketches,
Estimates, Patterns of Materials, &c., &c.

Having declined appointing Agents, MR. FRENCH invites direct communications
by Post as the most economical and satisfactory arrangement. PARCELS
delivered Free by Railway. {612}

       *       *       *       *       *

This day is published, in 8vo. pp. 542, price 12s. 6d.

ESQ., Honorary Member of the Royal Society of Literature.

WILLIAM BLACKWOOD & SONS, Edinburgh and London.

Who have lately published, by the same Author,

GREECE UNDER THE ROMANS: A Historical View of the Greek Nation, from the
time of its Conquest by the Romans until the Extinction of the Roman Empire
in the East, B.C. 146--A.D. 717. 8vo., pp. 554, price 16s.

HISTORY OF GREECE, from its Conquest by the Crusaders to its Conquest by
the Turks, and of the EMPIRE OF TREBIZOND, 1204--1461. 8vo. pp. 520, price

       *       *       *       *       *

This day is published, in 8vo., price 16s.,

CRITICAL NOTES. By JAMES SMITH, Esq., of Jordanhill, F.R.S., &c., Author of
the "Voyage and Shipwreck of St. Paul."

WILLIAM BLACKWOOD & SONS, Edinburgh and London.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-eighth Edition.

NEUROTONICS, or the Art of Strengthening the Nerves, containing Remarks on
the influence of the Nerves upon the Health of Body and Mind, and the means
of Cure for Nervousness, Debility, Melancholy, and all Chronic Diseases, by
DR. NAPIER, M.D. London: HOULSTON & STONEMAN. Price 4d., or Post Free from
the Author for Five Penny Stamps.

"We can conscientiously recommend 'Neurotonics,' by Dr. Napier, to the
careful perusal of our invalid readers."--_John Bull Newspaper, June 5,

       *       *       *       *       *

Now ready, Two New Volumes (price 28s. cloth) of

THE JUDGES OF ENGLAND and the Courts at Westminster. By EDWARD FOSS, F.S.A.

  Volume Three, 1272-1377.
  Volume Four, 1377-1485.

Lately published, price 28s. cloth,

  Volume One, 1066-1199.
  Volume Two, 1199-1272.

"A book which is essentially sound and truthful, and must therefore take
its stand in the permanent literature of our country."--_Gent. Mag._

London: LONGMAN & CO.

       *       *       *       *       *


The SCHOOL is NOW OPEN for instruction in all branches of Photography, to
Ladies and Gentlemen, on alternate days, from Eleven till Four o'clock,
under the joint direction of T. A. MALONE, Esq., who has long been
connected with Photography, and J. H. PEPPER, Esq., the Chemist to the

A Prospectus, with terms, may be had at the Institution.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, 8vo., 7s. 6d., THE

TEXT OF SHAKSPEARE VINDICATED from the Interpolations and Corruptions
advocated by JOHN PAYNE COLLIER, ESQ. in his Notes and Emendations. By

 "To blot old books and alter their contents."--_Rape of Lucrece._

Also, preparing for immediate Publication, in Ten Volumes, fcap. 8vo., to
appear monthly, The Dramatic Works of WILLIAM SHAKSPEARE, the text
completely revised, with Notes, and various Readings. By SAMUEL WELLER

WILLIAM PICKERING, 177. Piccadilly.

       *       *       *       *       *



(The Horticultural Part edited by PROF. LINDLEY)

Of Saturday, June 11, contains Articles on

  American plants
  Azaleas, hardy
  Apples, wearing out of, by Mr. Masters
  Beer, to make
  Boilers, incrusted
  Books noticed
  Botanical gardens
  Calendar, horticultural
  ----, agricultural
  Cartridge, Norton's
  Chiswick exhibitions
  Cinerarias, to grow
  Dobson's (Mr.) nursery
  Estates, management of
  Fences, holly
  Forests, crown
  Fruits, wearing out of, by Mr. Masters
  Gardens, botanical
  Gutta percha tubing, to mend, by Mr. Cuthill
  Heating incrusted boilers
  Holly fences
  Leases and printed regulations
  Lilium giganteum, by Mr. Cunningham
  Norton's cartridge
  Pasture, worn out, by Mr. Dyer
  Potato-drying _v._ disease
  Rhubarb, red
  ---- wine
  Rothamsted and Kilwhiss experiments, by Mr. Russell
  Royal Botanical Gardens
  Sheep, breeds of, by Mr. Spittal
  ----, keeping of
  Shows, reports of the Nottingham Tulip, Exeter Poultry
  Societies, proceedings of the Caledonian Horticultural,
      Agricultural of England, Bath Agricultural
  Straw, properties of
  Sun, rings about
  Tenant right
  Turnip seed, raising of, by Mr. Thallon
  Vine, disease
  Waterer's (Messrs.) nurseries
  Wine, rhubarb
  Winter, effects of
  Woods and forests

       *       *       *       *       *

the above, the Covent Garden, Mark Lane, Smithfield, and Liverpool prices,
with returns from the Potato, Hop, Hay, Coal, Timber, Bark, Wool, and Seed
Markets, and a _complete Newspaper, with a condensed account of all the
transactions of the week_.

ORDER of any Newsvender. OFFICE for Advertisements, 5. Upper Wellington
Street, Covent Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

contains designs and prices of upwards of ONE HUNDRED different Bedsteads;
also of every description of Bedding, Blankets, and Quilts. And their new
warerooms contain an extensive assortment of Bed-room Furniture, Furniture
Chintzes, Damasks, and Dimities, so as to render their Establishment
complete for the general furnishing of Bed-rooms.

HEAL & SON, Bedstead and Bedding Manufacturers. 196. Tottenham Court Road.

       *       *       *       *       *

8vo., price 21s.

end of the Thirteenth Century, with numerous Illustrations of Existing
Remains from Original Drawings. By T. HUDSON TURNER.

"What Horace Walpole attempted, and what Sir Charles Lock Eastlake has done
for oil-painting--elucidated its history and traced its progress in England
by means of the records of expenses and mandates of the successive
Sovereigns of the realm--Mr. Hudson Turner has now achieved for Domestic
Architecture in this country during the twelfth and thirteenth

"The writer of the present volume ranks among the most intelligent of the
craft, and a careful perusal of its contents will convince the reader of
the enormous amount of labour bestowed on its minutest details, as well as
the discriminating judgment presiding over the general
arrangement."--_Morning Chronicle._

"The book of which the title is given above is one of the very few attempts
that have been made in this country to treat this interesting subject in
anything more than a superficial manner.

"Mr. Turner exhibits much learning and research, and he has consequently
laid before the reader much interesting information. It is a book that was
wanted, and that affords us some relief from the mass of works on
Ecclesiastical Architecture with which of late years we have been deluged.

"The work is well illustrated throughout with wood-engravings of the more
interesting remains, and will prove a valuable addition to the antiquary's
library."--_Literary Gazette._

"It is as a text-book on the social comforts and condition of the Squires
and Gentry of England during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, that the
leading value of Mr. Turner's present publication will be found to consist.

"Turner's handsomely-printed volume is profusely illustrated with careful
woodcuts of all important existing remains, made from drawings by Mr. Blore
and Mr. Twopeny."--_Athenæum._

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford; and 377. Strand, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Literary and Musical Curiosities, the Collection of Richard Clark, Esq.,
Gentleman of H.M. Chapels Royal, Author of "An Account of the National
Anthem," &c.

PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property, will SELL by
AUCTION, at their Great Room, 191. Piccadilly, on Saturday, June the 25th,
Works on the History and Theory of Music; Musical Works by the best
composers; the Organ-Book of Dr. John Bull, the original manuscript;
attested copies of the Charter of Westminster Abbey (not otherwise
accessible); prints, pictures, curiosities, musical relics, some beautiful
objects, made from the wood of Caxton's printing-office, recently
demolished; the well-known anvil and hammer of Powell, the blacksmith, with
which was beat the accompaniment to his air, adopted by Handel, and since
called "The Harmonious Blacksmith;" and many other interesting items.
Catalogues will be sent on application; if in the country, on receipt of
four stamps.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, June 18,

       *       *       *       *       *

Corrections made to printed original.

p.596 "Another petition, persented" - "persented" - in original

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