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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 197, August 6, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 197, August 6, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

generously made available by The Internet Library of Early

Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.

       *       *       *       *       *




       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 197.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                   Page
  High Church and Low Church      117
  Concluding Notes on several misunderstood Words, by
  the Rev. W. R. Arrowsmith      120
  Sneezing an Omen and a Deity, by T. J. Buckton      121
  Abuses of Hackney Coaches      122
  Shakspeare Correspondence, by C. Mansfield Ingleby,
  Thomas Falconer, &c.      123

  MINOR NOTES:--Falsified Gravestone in Stratford
  Churchyard--Barnacles in the River Thames--Note
  for London Topographers--The Aliases and Initials
  of Authors--Pure--Darling's "Cyclopædia Bibliographica"      124

  Delft Manufacture, by O. Morgan      125

  MINOR QUERIES:--The Withered Hand and Motto
  "Utinam"--History of York--"Hauling over the
  coals"--Dr. Butler and St. Edmund's Bury--Washington--Norman
  of Winster--Sir Arthur Aston--"Jamieson
  the Piper"--"Keiser Glomer"--Tieck's
  "Comoedia Divina"--Fossil Trees between Cairo and
  Suez: Stream like that in Bay of Argastoli--Presbyterian
  Titles--Mayors and Sheriffs--The Beauty of
  Buttermere--Sheer Hulk--The Lapwing or Peewitt
  (Vanellus cristatus)--"Could we with ink," &c.--Launching
  Query--Manliness      125

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Pues or Pews--"Jerningham"
  and "Doveton"      127

  Battle of Villers en Couché, by T. C. Smith, &c.      127
  Snail-eating, by John Timbs, &c.      128
  Inscription near Cirencester, by P. H. Fisher, &c.      129
  Curious Custom of ringing Bells for the Dead, by the
  Rev. H. T. Ellacombe and R. W. Elliot      130
  Who first thought of Table-turning? by John Macray      131
  Scotchmen in Poland      131
  Anticipatory Use of the Cross, by Eden Warwick      132

  for Photography--Dr. Diamond's Replies--Trial of
  Lenses--Is it dangerous to use the Ammonio-Nitrate
  of Silver?      133

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Burke's Marriage--The
  House of Falahill--Descendants of Judas Iscariot--Milton's
  Widow--Whitaker's Ingenious Earl--Are
  White Cats deaf?--Consecrated Roses--The Reformed
  of Cromwell--Burke's "Mighty Boar of
  the Forest"--"Amentium haud Amantium"--Talleyrand's
  Maxim--English Bishops deprived by Queen
  Elizabeth--Gloves at Fairs--St. Dominic--Names of
  Plants--Specimens of Foreign English, &c.      134

  Notes on Books, &c.      138
  Books and Odd Volumes wanted       138
  Notices to Correspondents      138
  Advertisements      139

       *       *       *       *       *



_A Universal History of Party; with the Origin of Party Names_[1] would
form an acceptable addition to literary history: "N. & Q." has contributed
towards such a work some disquisitions on our party names _Whig_ and
_Tory_, and _The Good Old Cause_. Such names as _Puritan_, _Malignant_,
_Evangelical_[2], can be traced up to their first commencement, but some
obscurity hangs on the mintage-date of the names we are about to consider.

As a matter of fact, the distinction of _High Church_ and _Low Church_
always existed in the Reformed English Church, and the history of these
parties would be her history. But the _names_ were not coined till the
close of the seventeenth century, and were not stamped in full relief as
party-names till the first year of Queen Anne's reign.

In October, 1702, Anne's first Parliament and Convocation assembled:

    "From the deputies in Convocation at this period, the appellations
    _High Church_ and _Low Church_ originated, and they were afterwards
    used to distinguish the clergy. It is singular that the bishops[3] were
    ranked among {118} the Low Churchmen (see Burnet, v. 138.; Calamy, i.
    643.; Tindal's _Cont._, iv. 591.)"--Lathbury's _Hist. of the
    Convocation_, Lond. 1842, p. 319.

Mr. Lathbury is a very respectable authority in matters of this kind, but
if he use "originated" in its strict sense, I am inclined to think he is
mistaken; as I am tolerably certain that I have met with the words several
years before 1702. At the moment, however, I cannot lay my hands on a
passage to support this assertion.

The disputes in Convocation gave rise to a number of pamphlets, such as _A
Caveat against High Church_, Lond. 1702, and _The Low Churchmen vindicated
from the unjust Imputation of being No Churchmen, in Answer to a Pamphlet
called "The Distinction of High and Low Church considered:_" Lond. 1706,
8vo. Dr. Sacheverell's trial gave additional zest to the _dudgeon
ecclesiastick_, and produced a shower of pamphlets. I give the title of one
of them: _Pulpit War, or Dr. S----l, the High Church Trumpet, and Mr.
H----ly, the Low Church Drum, engaged by way of Dialogue_, Lond. 1710, 8vo.

To understand the cause of the exceeding bitterness and virulence which
animated the parties denominated _High Church_ and _Low Church_, we must
remember that until the time of William of Orange, the Church of England,
_as a body_--her sovereigns and bishops, her clergy and laity--comes under
the _former_ designation; while those who sympathised with the Dissenters
were comparatively few and weak. As soon as William was head of the Church,
he opened the floodgates of Puritanism, and admitted into the church what
previously had been more or less external to it. This element, thus made
part and parcel of the Anglican Church, was denominated _Low Church_.
William supplanted the bishops and clergy who refused to take oaths of
allegiance to him as king _de jure_; and by putting Puritans in their
place, made the latter the dominant party. Add to this the feelings of
exasperation produced by the murder of Charles I., and the expulsion of the
Stuarts, and we have sufficient grounds, political and religious, for an
irreconcilable feud. Add, again, the reaction resulting from the overthrow
of the tyrannous hot-bed and forcing-system, where a sham conformity was
maintained by coercion; and the _Church-Papist_, as well as the
_Church-Puritans_, with ill-concealed hankering after the mass and the
preaching-house, by penal statutes were forced to do what their souls
abhorred, and play the painful farce of attending the services of "The

A writer in a _High Church_ periodical of 1717 (prefacing his article with
the passage from Proverbs vi. 27.) proceeds:

    "The old way of attacking the Church of England was by mobs and
    bullies, and hard sounds; by calling _Whore_, and _Babylon_, upon our
    worship and liturgy, and kicking out our clergy as _dumb dogs_: but now
    they have other irons in the fire; a new engine is set up under the
    cloak and disguise of _temper, unity, comprehension, and the Protestant
    religion_. Their business now is not to storm the Church, but to _lull
    it to sleep_: to make us relax our care, quit our defences, and neglect
    our safety.... These are the politics of their Popish fathers: when
    _they_ had tried all other artifices, they at last resolved to sow
    schism and division in the Church: and from thence sprang up this very
    generation, who by a fine stratagem endeavoured to set us one against
    the other, and they gather up the stakes. _Hence the distinction of
    High and Low Church._"--_The Scourge_, p. 251.

In another periodical of the same date, in the Dedication "To the most
famous University of Oxford," the writer says:

    "These enemies of our religious and civil establishment have
    represented you as instillers of _slavish doctrines and principles_ ...
    if to give to God and Cæsar his due be such tow'ring, and _High Church_
    principles, I am sure St. Peter and St. Paul will scarce escape being
    censured for _Tories_ and _Highflyers_."--_The Entertainer_, Lond.

    "If those who have kept their first love, and whose robes have not been
    defiled, endeavour to stop these innovations and corruptions that their
    enemies would introduce, they are blackened for _High Church Papists_,
    favourers of I know not who, and fall under the public
    resentment."--_Ib._ p. 301.

I shall now give a few extracts from _Low Church_ writers (quoted in _The
Scourge_), who thus designate their opponents:

    "A pack or party of scandalous, wicked, and profane men, who
    appropriate to themselves the name of _High Church_ (but may more
    properly be said to be Jesuits or Papists in masquerade), do take
    liberty to teach, preach, and print, publickly and privately, sedition,
    contentions, and divisions among the Protestants of this
    kingdom."--_Motives to Union_, p. 1.

    "These men glory in their being members of the _High Church_ (Popish
    appellation, and therefore they are the more fond of that); but these
    pretended sons are become her persecutors, and they exercise their
    spite and lies both on the living and the dead."--_The Snake in the
    Grass brought to Light_, p. 8.


    "Our common people of the _High Church_ are as ignorant in matters of
    religion as the bigotted Papists, which gives great advantage to our
    Jacobite and Tory priests to lead them where they please, or to mould
    them into what shapes they please."--_Reasons for an Union_, p. 39.

    "The minds of the populace are too much debauched already from their
    loyalty by seditious arts of the _High Church faction_."--_Convocation
    Craft_, p. 34.

    "We may see how closely our present _Highflyers_ pursue the steps of
    their Popish predecessors, in reckoning those who dispute the usurped
    power of the Church to be hereticks, schismaticks, or what else they
    please."--_Ib._ p. 30.

    "All the blood that has been spilt in the late unnatural rebellion, may
    be very justly laid at the doors of the _High Church
    clergy_."--_Christianity no Creature of the State_, p. 16.

    "We see what the _Tory Priesthood_ were made of in Queen Elizabeth's
    time, that they were ignorant, lewd, and seditious: and it must be said
    of 'em that they are true to the stuff still."--_Toryism the Worst of
    the Two_, p. 21.

    "_The Tories_ and _High Church_, notwithstanding their pretences to
    loyalty, will be found by their actions to be the greatest rebels in
    nature."--_Reasons for an Union_, p. 20.

Sir W. Scott, in his _Life of Dryden_, Lond. 1808, observes that--

    "Towards the end of Charles the Second's reign, the _High-Church-men_
    and the Catholics regarded themselves as on the same side in political
    questions, and not greatly divided in their temporal interests. Both
    were sufferers in the plot, both were enemies of the sectaries, both
    were adherents of the Stuarts. Alternate conversion had been common
    between them, so early as since Milton made a reproach to the English
    Universities of the converts to the Roman faith daily made within their
    colleges: of those sheep--

     'Whom the _grim wolf_ with privy paw
      Daily devours apace, and nothing said.'"
                  _Life_, 3rd edit. 1834, p. 272.

I quote this passage partly because it gives Sir Walter's interpretation of
that obscure passage in _Lycidas_, respecting which I made a Query (Vol.
ii., p. 246.), but chiefly as a preface to the remark that in James II.'s
reign, and at the time these party names originated, the Roman Catholics
were in league with the Puritans or _Low Church_ party against the High
Churchmen, which increased the acrimony of both parties.

In those days religion was politics, and politics religion, with most of
the belligerents. Swift, however, as if he wished to be thought an
exception to the general rule, chose one party for its politics and the
other for its religion.

    "Swift carried into the ranks of the Whigs the opinions and scruples of
    a _High Church_ clergyman... Such a distinction between opinions in
    Church and State has not frequently existed: the _High Churchmen_ being
    usually _Tories_, and the _Low Church_ divines universally
    _Whigs_."--Scott's _Life_, 2nd edit.: Edin. 1824, p. 76.

See Swift's _Discourse of the Contests and Dissensions between the Nobles
and Commons of Athens and Rome:_ Lond. 1701.

In his quaint _Argument against abolishing Christianity_, Lond. 1708, the
following passage occurs:

    "There is one advantage, greater than any of the foregoing, proposed by
    the abolishing of Christianity: that it will utterly extinguish parties
    among us by removing those factious distinctions of _High_ and _Low
    Church_, of _Whig_ and _Tory_, Presbyterian and Church of England."

Scott says of the _Tale of a Tub:_

    "The main purpose is to trace the gradual corruptions of the Church of
    Rome, and to exalt the English Reformed Church at the expense both of
    the Roman Catholic and Presbyterian establishments. It was written with
    a view to the interests of the _High Church_ party."--_Life_, p. 84.

Most men will concur with Jeffrey, who observes:

    "It is plain, indeed, that Swift's _High Church_ principles were all
    along but a part of his selfishness and ambition; and meant nothing
    else, than a desire to raise the consequence of the order to which he
    happened to belong. If he had been a layman, we have no doubt he would
    have treated the pretensions of the priesthood as he treated the
    persons of all priests who were opposed to him, with the most bitter
    and irreverent disdain."--_Ed. Rev._, Sept. 1846.

The following lines are from a squib of eight stanzas which occurs in the
works of Jonathan Smedley, and are said to have been fixed on the door of
St. Patrick's Cathedral on the day of Swift's instalment (see Scott, p.

 "For _High Churchmen_ and policy,
  He swears he prays most hearty;
  But would pray back again to be
  A Dean of any party."

This reminds us of the Vicar of Bray, of famous memory, who, if I recollect
aright, commenced his career thus:

 "In good King Charles's golden days,
      When loyalty no harm meant,
  A zealous _High Churchman_ I was,
      And so I got preferment."

How widely different are the men we see classed under the title _High
Churchmen!_ Evelyn and Walton[4], the gentle, the Christian; the arrogant
Swift, and the restless Atterbury.

It is difficult to prevent my note running beyond the limits of "N. & Q.,"
with the ample {120} materials I have to select from; but I cannot wind up
without a _definition_; so here are two:

    "Mr. Thelwall says that he told a pious old lady, who asked him the
    difference between _High Church_ and _Low Church_, 'The High Church
    place the Church alcove Christ, the Low Church place Christ above the
    Church.' About a hundred years ago, that very same question was asked
    of the famous South:--'Why,' said he, 'the High Church are those who
    think highly of the Church, and lowly of themselves; the Low Church are
    those who think highly of themselves, and lowly of the Church."--Rev.
    H. Newland's _Lecture on Tractarianism_, Lond. 1852, p. 68.

The most celebrated High Churchmen who lived in the last century, are Dr.
South, Dr. Samuel Johnson, Rev. Wm. Jones of Nayland, Bp. Horne, Bp.
Wilson, and Bp. Horsley. See a long passage on "High Churchmen" in a charge
of the latter to the clergy of St. David's in the year 1799, pp. 34. 37.
See also a charge of Bp. Atterbury (then Archdeacon of Totnes) to his
clergy in 1703.


[Footnote 1: There is a book called _History of Party, from the Rise of the
Whig and Tory Factions Chas. II. to the Passing of the Reform Bill_, by
G. W. Cooke: Lond. 1836-37, 3 vols. 8vo.; but, as the title shows, it is
limited in scope.]

[Footnote 2: See Haweis's _Sermons on Evangelical Principles and Practice_:
Lond. 1763, 8vo.; _The _True_ Churchmen ascertained; or, An Apology for
those of the _Regular_ Clergy of the Establishment, who are sometimes
called _Evangelical_ Ministers: occasioned by the Publications of Drs.
Paley, Hey, Croft; Messrs. Daubeny, Ludlam, Polwhele, Fellowes; the
Reviewers, &c._: by John Overton, A. B., York, 1802, 8vo., 2nd edit. See
also the various memoirs of Whitfield, Wesley, &c.; and Sir J. Stephens
_Essays_ on "The Clapham Sect" _and_ "The Evangelical Succession."]

[Footnote 3: It is not so very "singular," when we remember that the
bishops were what Lord Campbell and Mr. Macauley call "_judiciously_
chosen" by William. On this point a cotemporary remarks, "Some steps have
been made, and large ones too, towards _a Scotch_ reformation, by
suspending and ejecting the chief and most zealous of our bishops, and
others of the higher clergy; and by advancing, upon all vacancies of sees
and dignities, ecclesiastical _men of notoriously Presbyterian, or, which
is worse, of Erastian principles_. These are the ministerial ways of
undermining Episcopacy; and when to the _seven notorious_ ones shall be
added more, upon the approaching deprivation, they will make a majority;
and then we may expect the new model of a church to be perfected." (Somers'
_Tracts_, vol. x. p. 368.) Until Atterbury, there were few High Church
Bishops in Queen Anne's reign in 1710. Burnet singles out the Bishop of
Chester: "for he seemed resolved to distinguish himself as a zealot for
that which is called _High Church_."--_Hist. Own Time_, vol. iv. p. 260.]

[Footnote 4: Of Izaak Walton his biographer, Sir John Hawkins, writing in
1760, says, "he was a friend to a hierarchy, or, as we should now call such
a one, a _High Churchman_."]

       *       *       *       *       *


(_Continued from_ Vol. vii., p. 568.)

Not being minded to broach any fresh matter in "N. & Q.," I shall now only
crave room to clear off an old score, lest I should leave myself open to
the imputation of having cast that in the teeth of a numerous body of men
which might, for aught they would know to the contrary, be as truly laid in
my own dish. In No. 189., p. 567., I affirmed that the handling of a
passage in _Cymbeline_, there quoted, had betrayed an amount of obtuseness
in the commentators which would be discreditable in a third-form schoolboy.
To substantiate that assertion, and rescue the disputed word "Britaine"
henceforth for ever from the rash tampering of the meddlesome sciolist, I
beg to advertise the ingenuous reader that the clause,--

    "For being now a favourer to the Britaine,"

is in apposition with _Death_, not with Posthumus Leonatus. In a note
appended to this censure, referring to another passage from L. L. L., I
averred that MR. COLLIER had corrupted it by chancing the singular verb
_dies_ into the plural _die_ (this too done, under plea of editorial
licence, without warning to the reader), and that such corruption had
abstracted the true key to the right construction. To make good this last
position, two things I must do first, cite the whole passage, without
change of letter or tittle, as it stands in the Folios '23 and '32; next,
show the trivial and vulgar use of "contents" as a singular noun. In Folio
'23, thus:

 "_Qu._ Nay my good Lord, let me ore-rule you now;
  That sport best pleases that doth least know how.
  Where Zeale striues to content, and the contents
  Dies in the Zeale of that which it presents:
  Their forme confounded, makes most forme in mirth
  When great things labouring perish in their birth."
                          Act IV. p. 141.

With this the Folio '32 exactly corresponds, save that the speaker is
_Prin._, not _Qu_.; _ore-rules_ is written as two words without the hyphen,
and _strives_ for _striues_. I have been thus precise, because criticism is
to me not "a game," nor admissive of cogging and falsification.

I must now show the hackneyed use of _contents_ as a singular noun. An
anonymous correspondent of "N. & Q." has already pointed out one in
_Measure for Measure_, Act IV. Sc. 2.:

    "_Duke_. The _contents_ of this is the returne of the Duke."


    "This is the _contents_ thereof."--Calvin's 82nd _Sermon upon Job_, p.
    419., Golding's translation.


    "After this were articles of peace propounded, y^e _contents_ wherof
    was, that he should departe out of Asia."--The 31st _Booke of Justine_,
    fol. 139., Golding's translation of Justin's _Trogus Pompeius_.


    "Plinie writeth hereof an excellent letter, the _contents_ whereof is,
    that this ladie, mistrusting her husband, was condemned to die,"
    &c.--_Historicall Meditations_, lib. iii. chap. xi. p. 178. Written in
    Latin by P. Camerarius, and done into English by John Molle, Esq.:
    London, 1621.


    "The _contents_ whereof is this."--_Id._, lib. v. chap. vi. p. 342.


    "Therefore George, being led with an heroicall disdaine, and
    nevertheless giuing the bridle beyond moderation to his anger,
    vnderstanding that Albert was come to Newstad, resolued with himselfe
    (without acquainting any bodie) to write a letter vnto him, the
    _contents_ whereof was," &c.--_Id._, lib. v. chap. xii. p. 366.

If the reader wants more examples, let him give himself the trouble to open
the first book that comes to hand, and I dare say the perusal of a dozen
pages will supply some; yet have we two editors of Shakspeare, Johnson and
Collier, so unacquainted with the usage of their own tongue, and the
universal logic of thought, as not to know that a word like _contents_,
according as it is understood collectively or distributively, may be, and,
as we have just seen, in fact is, treated as a singular or plural; that, I
say, _contents_ taken severally, every _content_, or in gross, the whole
mass, is respectively plural or singular. It was therefore optional with
Shakspeare to employ the word either as a singular or plural, but not in
the same sentence to do both: here, however, he was tied {121} to the
singular, for, wanting a rhyme to _contents_, the nominative to _presents_
must be singular, and that nominative was the pronoun of _contents_. Since,
therefore, the plural _die_ and the singular _it_ could not both be
referable to the same noun _contents_, by silently substituting _die_ for
_dies_, MR. COLLIER has blinded his reader and wronged his author. The
purport of the passage amounts to this: the _contents_, or structure (to
wit, of the show to be exhibited), breaks down in the performer's zeal to
the subject which it presents. Johnson very properly adduces a much happier
expression of the same thought from _A Midsummer Night's Dreame_:

 "_Hip._ I love not to see wretchedness o'ercharged;
  And duty in his service perishing."

The reader cannot fail to have observed the faultless punctuation of the
Folios in the forecited passage, and I think concur with me, that like
many, ay, most others, all it craves at the hands of editors and
commentators is, to be left alone. The last two lines ask for no
explanation even to the blankest mind. Words like _contents_ are by no
means rare in English. We have _tidings_ and _news_, both singular and
plural. MR. COLLIER himself rebukes Malone for his ignorance of such usage
of the latter word. If it be said that these two examples have no singular
form, whereas _contents_ has, there is _means_, at any rate precisely
analogous. On the other hand, so capricious is language, in defiance of the
logic of thought, we have, if I may so term it, a merely auricular plural,
in the word _corpse_ referred to a single carcase.

I should here close my account with "N. & Q." were it not that I have an
act of justice to perform. When I first lighted upon the two examples of
_chaumbre_ in Udall, I thought, as we say in this country, it was a good
"fundlas," and regarded it as my own property. It now appears to be but a
waif or stray; therefore, _suum cuique_, I cheerfully resign the credit of
it to MR. SINGER, the rightful proprietary. Proffering them for the
inspection of learned and unlearned, I of course foresaw that speedy
sentence would be pronounced by that division, whose judgment, lying ebb
and close to the surface, must needs first reach the light. I know no more
appropriate mode of requiting the handsome manner in which MR. SINGER has
been pleased to speak of my trifling contributions to "N. & Q.," than by
asking him, with all the modesty of which I am master, to reconsider the
passage in _Romeo and Juliet_; for though his substitution (_rumourers_
vice _runawayes_) may, I think, clearly take the wall of any of its rivals,
yet, believing that Juliet invokes a darkness to shroud her lover, under
cover of which even the fugitive from justice might snatch a wink of sleep,
I must for my own part, as usual, still adhere to the authentic text.


P. S.--In answer to a Bloomsbury Querist (Vol. viii., p. 44.), I crave
leave to say that I never have met with the verb _perceyuer_ except in
Hawes, _loc. cit._; and I gave the latest use that I could call to mind of
the noun in my paper on that word. Unhappily I never make notes, but rely
entirely on a somewhat retentive memory; therefore the instances that occur
on the spur of the moment are not always the most apposite that might be
selected for the purpose of illustration. If, however, he will take the
trouble to refer to a little book, consisting of no more than 448 pages,
published in 1576, and entitled _A Panoplie of Epistles, or a
Looking-glasse for the Unlearned_, by Abraham Flemming, he will find no
fewer than nine examples, namely, at pp. 25. 144. 178. 253. 277. 285.
(twice in the same page) 333. 382. It excites surprise that the word never,
as far as I am aware, occurs in any of the voluminous works of Sir Thomas
More, nor in any of the theological productions of the Reformers.

With respect to _speare_, the orthography varies, as _spere_, _sperr_,
_sparr_, _unspar_; but in the Prologue to _Troilus and Cressida_, _sperre_
is Theobald's correction of _stirre_, in Folios '23 and '32. Let me add,
what I had forgotten at the time, that another instance of _budde_
intransitive, to bend, occurs at p. 105. of _The Life of Faith in Death_,
by Samuel Ward, preacher of Ipswich, London, 1622. Also another, and a very
significant one, of the phrase to _have on the hip_, in Fuller's _Historie
of the Holy Warre_, Cambridge, 1647:

    "Arnulphus was as quiet as a lambe, and durst never challenge his
    interest in Jerusalem from Godfrey's donation; as fearing to _wrestle_
    with the king, who _had him on the hip_, and could out him at pleasure
    for his bad manners."--Book ii. chap. viii. p. 55.

In my note on the word _trash_, I said (somewhat too peremptorily) that
_overtop_ was not even a hunting term (Vol. vii., p. 567.). At the moment I
had forgotten the following passage:

    "Therefore I would perswade all lovers of hunting to get two or three
    couple of tryed hounds, and once or twice a week to follow after them a
    train-scent; and when he is able to _top_ them on all sorts of earth,
    and to endure heats and colds stoutly, then he may the better relie on
    his speed and toughness."--_The Hunting-horse_, chap. vii. p. 71.,
    Oxford, 1685.

       *       *       *       *       *


In the _Odyssey_, xvii. 541-7., we have, imitating the hexameters, the
following passage:

 "Thus Penelope spake. Then quickly Telemachus _sneez'd_ loud,
  _Sounding around all the building_: his mother, with smiles at her son,
  Swiftly addressing her rapid and high-toned words to Eumæus,
 'Go then directly, Eumæus, and call to my presence the strange guest.
  See'st thou not that my son, _ev'ry word I have spoken hath sneez'd
  Thus portentous, betok'ning the fate of my hateful suitors,
  All whom death and destruction await by a doom irreversive.'"

Dionysius Halicarnassus, on Homer's poetry (s. 24.), says, sneezing was
considered by that poet as a good sign ([Greek: sumbolon agathon]); and
from the Anthology (lib. ii.) the words [Greek: oude legei, Zeu sôson, ean
ptarêi], show that it was proper to exclaim "God bless you!" when any one

Aristotle, in the Problems (xxxiii. 7.), inquires why sneezing is reckoned
a God ([Greek: dia ti ton men ptarmon, theon hêgoumetha einai]); to which
he suggests, that it may be because it comes from the head, the most divine
part about us ([Greek: theiotatou tôn peri hêmas]). Persons having the
inclination, but not the power to sneeze, should look at the sun, for
reasons he assigns in Problems (xxxiii. 4.).

Plutarch, on the Dæmon of Socrates (s. 11.), states the opinion which some
persons had formed, that Socrates' dæmon was nothing else than the sneezing
either of himself or others. Thus, if any one sneezed at his right hand,
either before or behind him, he pursued any step he had begun; but sneezing
at his left hand caused him to desist from his formed purpose. He adds
something as to different kinds of sneezing. To sneeze twice was usual in
Aristotle's time; but once, or more than twice, was uncommon (Prob. xxxiii.

Petronius (_Satyr_. c. 98.) notices the "blessing" in the following

    "Giton collectione spiritus plenus, _ter_ continuo ita sternutavit, ut
    grabatum concuteret. Ad quem motum Eumolpus conversus, _salvere_ Gitona



[Footnote 5: The practice of snuff-taking has made the _sneezing_ at
anything a mark of contempt, in these degenerate days.]

       *       *       *       *       *


    [The following proclamation on this subject is of interest at the
    present moment.]

By the King.

A Proclamation to restrain the Abuses of Hackney Coaches in the Cities of
London and Westminster, and the Suburbs thereof.

  Charles R.

Whereas the excessive number of Hackney Coaches, and Coach Horses, in and
about the Cities of London and Westminster, and the Suburbs thereof, are
found to be a common nuisance to the Publique Damage of Our People by
reason of their rude and disorderly standing and passing to and fro, in and
about our said Cities and Suburbs, the Streets and Highways being thereby
pestred and made impassable, the Pavements broken up, and the Common
Passages obstructed and become dangerous, Our Peace violated, and sundry
other mischiefs and evils occasioned:

We, taking into Our Princely consideration these apparent Inconveniences,
and resolving that a speedy remedy be applied to meet with, and redress
them for the future, do, by and with the advice of our Privy Council,
publish Our Royal Will and Pleasure to be, and we do by this Our
Proclamation expressly charge and command, That no Person or Persons, of
what Estate, Degree, or Quality whatsoever, keeping or using any Hackney
Coaches, or Coach Horses, do, from and after the Sixth day of November
next, permit or suffer the said Coaches and Horses, or any of them, to
stand or remain in any the Streets or Passages in or about Our said Cities
either of London or Westminster, or the Suburbs belonging to either of
them, to be there hired; but that they and every of them keep their said
Coaches and Horses within their respective Coach-houses, Stables, and Yards
(whither such Persons as desire to hire the same may resort for that
purpose), upon pain of Our high displeasure, and such Forfeitures, Pains,
and Penalties as may be inflicted for the Contempt of Our Royal Commands in
the Premises, whereof we shall expect a strict Accompt.

And for the due execution of Our Pleasure herein, We do further charge and
command the Lord Mayor and Aldermen of Our City of London, That they in
their several Wards, and Our Justices of Peace within Our said Cities of
London and Westminster, and the Liberties and Suburbs thereof, and all
other Our Officers and Ministers of Justice, to whom it appertaineth, do
take especial care in their respective Limits that this Our Command be duly
observed, and that they from time to time return the names of all those who
shall wilfully offend in the Premises, to Our Privy Council, and to the end
they may be proceeded against by Indictments and Presentments for the
Nuisance, and otherwise according to the severity of the Law and Demerits
of the Offenders.

Given at Our Court at Whitehall the 18th day of October in the 12th year of
Our Reign.


London: Printed by John Bell and Christopher Barker, Printers to the King's
most Excellent Majesty, 1660.

       *       *       *       *       *

Pepys, in his _Diary_, vol. i. p. 152., under date 8th November, 1660,

    "To Mr. Fox, who was very civil to me. Notwithstanding this was the
    first day of the King's {123} proclamation against hackney coaches
    coming into the streets to stand to be hired, yet I got one to carry me

T. D.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Passage in "The Tempest," Act I. Sc. 2._--

 "The sky, it seems, would pour down stinking pitch,
  But that the sea, mounting to the welkin's cheek,
  Dashes the fire out."

"The manuscript corrector of the folio 1632," MR. COLLIER informs us, "has
substituted _heat_ for 'cheek,' which is not an unlikely corruption, a
person writing only by the ear."

I should say very unlikely: but if _heat_ had been actually printed in the
folios, without speculating as to the probability that the press-copy was
written from dictation, I should have had no hesitation in altering it to
_cheek_. To this I should have been directed by a parallel passage in
_Richard II._, Act III. Sc. 3., which has been overlooked by MR. COLLIER:

 "Methinks, King Richard and myself should meet
  With no less terror _than the elements_
  _Of fire and water, when their thundering shock_
  _At meeting tears the cloudy cheeks of heaven_."

Commentary here is almost useless. Every one who has any capacity for
Shakspearian criticism must feel assured that Shakspeare wrote _cheek_, and
not _heat_.

The passage I have cited from _Richard II._ strongly reminds me of an old
lady whom I met last autumn on a tour through the Lakes of Cumberland, &c.;
and who, during a severe thunderstorm, expressed to me her surprise at the
pertinacity of the lightning, adding, "I should think, Sir, that so much
water in the heavens would have put all the fire out."



_The Case referred to by Shakspeare in Hamlet_ (Vol. vii., p. 550.).--

 "If the water come to the man."--_Shakspeare._

The argument Shakspeare referred to was that contained in Plowden's Report
of the case of Hales _v._ Petit, heard in the Court of Common Pleas in the
fifth year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. It was held that though the
wife of Sir James Hale, whose husband was _felo-de-se_, became by
survivorship the holder of a joint term for years, yet, on office found, it
should be forfeited on account of the act of the deceased husband. The
learned serjeants who were counsel for the defendant, alleged that the
forfeiture should have relation to the act done in the party's lifetime,
which was the cause of his death. "And upon this," they said, "the parts of
the act are to be considered." And Serjeant Walsh said:

    "The act consists of three parts. The first is the imagination, which
    is a reflection or meditation of the mind, whether or no it is
    convenient for him to destroy himself, and what way it can be done. The
    second is the resolution, which is the determination of the mind to
    destroy himself, and to do it in this or that particular way. The third
    is the perfection, which is the execution of what the mind has resolved
    to do. And this perfection consists of two parts, viz. the beginning
    and the end. The beginning is the doing of the act which causes the
    death; and the end is the death, which is only the sequel to the act.
    And of all the parts, the doing of the act is the greatest in the
    judgment of our law, and it is, in effect, the whole and the only part
    the law looks upon to be material. For the imagination of the mind to
    do wrong, without an act done, is not punishable in our law; neither is
    the resolution to do that wrong which he does not, punishable; but the
    doing of the act is the only point the law regards, for until the act
    is done it cannot be an offence to the world, and when the act is done
    it is punishable. Then, here, the act done by Sir James Hale, which is
    evil and the cause of his death, is the throwing of himself into the
    water, and death is but a sequel thereof, and this evil act ought some
    way to be punished. And if the forfeiture shall not have relation to
    the doing of the act, then the act shall not be punished at all, for
    inasmuch as the person who did the act is dead, his person cannot be
    punished, and therefore there is no way else to punish him but by the
    forfeiture of those things which were his own at the time of the act
    done; and the act was done in his lifetime, and therefore the
    forfeiture shall have relation to his lifetime, namely, to that time of
    his life in which he did the act which took away his life."

And the judges, viz. Weston, Anthony Brown, and Lord Dyer, said:

    "That the forfeiture shall have relation to the time of the original
    offence committed, which was the cause of the death, and that was, the
    throwing himself into the water, which was done in his lifetime, and
    this act was felony."----"So that the felony is attributed to the act,
    which act is always done by a living man and in his lifetime," as Brown
    said; for he said, "Sir James Hale was dead, and how came he to his
    death? It may be answered, By drowning. And who drowned him? Sir James
    Hale. And when did he drown him? In his lifetime. So that Sir James
    Hale being alive, caused Sir James Hale to die; and the act of the
    living man was the death of the dead man. And then for this offence it
    is reasonable to punish the living man who committed the offence, and
    not the dead man. But how can he be said to be punished alive when the
    punishment comes after his death? Sir, this can be done no other way
    but by devesting out of him, from the time of the act done in his life,
    which was the cause of his death, the title and property of those
    things which he had in his lifetime."

The above extract is long, but the work from which it is taken can be
accessible to but very few {124} of your readers. Let them not, however,
while they smile at the arguments, infer that those who took part in them
were not deservedly among the most learned and eminent of our ancient



_Shakspeare Suggestion_.--

 "These sweet thoughts do even refresh my labours;
  Most busy--less when I do it."
                  _Tempest_, Act III. Sc. 1.

I fear your readers will turn away from the very sight of the above. Be
patient, kind friends, I will be brief. Has any one suggested--

 "Most busy, least when I do"?

The words in the folio are

 "Most busy _lest_, when I do it."

The "it" seems mere surplusage. The sense requires that the thoughts should
be "most busy" whilst the hands "do least;" and in Shakspeare's time,
"lest" was a common spelling for _least_.


_Shakspeare Controversy._--I think the Shakspeare Notes contained in your
volumes are not complete without the following quotation from _The Summer
Night_ of Ludwig Tieck, as translated by Mary Maynard in the _Athen._ of
June 25, 1853. Puck, in addressing the sleeping boy Shakspeare, says:

 "After thy death, I'll raise dissension sharp,
    Loud strife among the herd of little minds:
  Envy shall seek to dim thy wondrous page,
    But all the clearer will thy glory shine."


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Falsified Gravestone in Stratford Churchyard._--The following instance of
a recent forgery having been extensively circulated, may lead to more
careful examination by those who take notes of things extraordinary.

The church at Stratford-upon-Avon was repaired about the year 1839; and
some of the workmen having their attention directed to the fact, that many
persons who had attained to the full age of man were buried in the
churchyard; and, wishing "for the honour of the place," to improve the
note-books of visitors, set about manufacturing an extraordinary instance
of longevity. A gravestone was chosen in an out-of-the-way place, in which
there happened to be a space before the age (72). A figure 1 was cut in
this space, and the age at death then stood 172. The sexton was either
deceived, or assented to the deception; as the late vicar, the Rev. J.
Clayton, learned that it had become a practice with him (the sexton) to
show strangers this gravestone, so falsified, as a proof of the
extraordinary age to which people lived in the parish. The vicar had the
fraudulent figure erased at once, and lectured the sexton for his

These facts were related to me a few weeks since by a son of the late
vicar. And as many strangers visiting the tomb of Shakspeare "made a note"
of this falsified age, "N. & Q." may now correct the forgery.


_Barnacles in the River Thames._--In Porta's _Natural Magic_, Eng. trans.,
Lond. 1658, occurs the following curious passage:

    "Late writers report that not only in Scotland, but also in the river
    of Thames by London, there is a kind of shell-fish in a two-leaved
    shell, that hath a foot full of plaits and wrinkles: these fish are
    little, round, and outwardly white, smooth and beetle-shelled like an
    almond shell; inwardly they are great bellied, bred as it were of moss
    and mud; they commonly stick in the keel of some old ship. Some say
    they come of worms, some of the boughs of trees which fall into the
    sea; if any of them be cast upon shore they die, but they which are
    swallowed still into the sea, live and get out of their shells, and
    grow to be ducks or such like birds(!)."

It would be curious to know what could give rise to such an absurd belief.


_Note for London Topographers._--

 "The account of Mr. Mathias Fletcher, of Greenwich,
  for carving the Anchor Shield and King's Arms
  for the Admiralty Office in York Buildings, delivered
  Nov. 2, 1668, and undertaken by His Majesty's command
  signified to me by the Hon. Samuel Pepys, Esq.,
  Secretary for the Affairs of the Admiralty:

                                                £ s. d.

 "For a Shield for the middle of the
  front of the said office towards the Thames,
  containing the Anchor of Lord High Admiral
  of England with the Imperial Crown
  over it, and cyphers, being 8 foot deep and
  6 foot broad, I having found the timber,
  &c.                                           30 0 0

 "For the King's Arms at large, with
  ornaments thereto, designed for the pediment
  of the said front, the same being in
  the whole 15 foot long and 9 foot high, I
  finding timber, &c.                           73 15 0

                                              £103 15 0"

Extracted from Rawlinson MS. A. 170, fol. 132.


_The Aliases and Initials of Authors._--It has often occurred to me that it
would save much useless inquiry and research, if a tolerable list could be
collected of the principal authors who have published their works under
assumed names or initials: thus, "R. B. Robert Burton," _Nathaniel Crouch_,
"R. F. Scoto-Britannicus," _Robert Fairley_, &c. The commencement of a new
volume of {125} "N. & Q." affords an excellent opportunity for attempting
this. If the correspondents of "N. & Q." would contribute their mites
occasionally with this view, by the conclusion of the volume, I have little
doubt but a very valuable list might be obtained. For the sake of
reference, the whole contributions obtained could then be amalgamated, and
alphabetically arranged.


_Pure._--In visiting an old blind woman the other day, I was struck with
what to me was a peculiar use of the word _pure_. Having inquired after the
dame's health, and been assured that she was much better, I begged her not
to rise from the bed on which she was sitting, whereupon she said, "Thank
you, Sir, I feel quite _pure_ this morning."


Oakridge, Gloucestershire.

_Darling's "Cyclopædia Bibliographica._"--The utility of Mr. Darling's
_Cyclopædia Bibliographica_ is exemplified by the solution conveyed under
the title "Crellius," p. 813, of the following difficulty expressed by Dr.
Hey, the Norrisian professor (_Lectures_, vol. iii. p. 40.):

    "Paul Crellius and John Maclaurin seem to have been of the same way of
    thinking with John Agricola. Nicholls, on this Article [Eighth of the
    Thirty-nine Articles], refers to Paul Crellius's book _De Libertate
    Christiana_, but I do not find it anywhere. A speech of his is in the
    _Bodleian Dialogue_, but not this work."

Similar information might have been received by your correspondent (Vol.
vii., p. 381.), who inquired whether Huet's _Navigations of Solomon_ was
ever published. In the Cyclopædia reference is made to two collections in
which this treatise has been inserted, _Crit. Sac_., viii.; _Ugolinus_,
vii. 277. With his usual accuracy, Mr. Darling states there are additions
in the _Critici Sacri_ printed at Amsterdam, 1698-1732, as Huet's treatise
above referred to is not in the first edition, London, 1660.


       *       *       *       *       *



I am extremely desirous of obtaining some information respecting the Dutch
manufactories of enamelled pottery, or Delft ware, as we call it.

On a former occasion, by your connexion with the _Navorscher_, you were
able to obtain for me some very valuable and interesting information in
reply to some question put respecting the Dutch porcelain manufactories. I
am therefore in hopes that some kind correspondent in Holland will be so
obliging as to impart to me similar information on this subject also. I
should wish to know--

When, by whom, at what places, and under what circumstances, the
manufacture of enamelled pottery was first introduced into Holland?

Whether there were manufactories at other towns besides Delft?

Whether they had any distinctive marks; and, if so, what were they?

Whether there was more than one manufactory at Delft; and, if so, what were
their marks, and what was the meaning of them?

Whether any particular manufactories were confined to the making of any
particular sort or quality of articles; and, if so, what were they?

Whether any of the manufactories have ceased; and, if so, at what period?

Also, any other particulars respecting the manufactories and their products
that it may be possible to communicate through the medium of a paper like
"N. & Q."


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_The Withered Hand and Motto "Utinam."_--At Compton Park, near Salisbury,
the seat of the Penruddocke family, there is a three-quarter length
picture, in the Velasquez style, of a gentleman in a rich dress of black
velvet, with broad lace frill and cuffs, and ear-rings, probably of the
latter part of Queen Elizabeth's reign. His right hand, which he displays
somewhat prominently, is _withered_. The left one is a-kimbo, and less
seen. In the upper part of the painting is the single Latin word "UTINAM"
(O that!). There is no tradition as to who this person was. Any suggestion
on the subject would gratify


_History of York._--Who is the author of a _History of York_, in 2 vols.,
published at that city in 1788 by T. Wilson and R. Spence, High Ousegate? I
have seen it in several shops, and heard it attributed to Drake; and
obtained it the other day from an extensive library in Bristol, in the
Catalogue of which it is styled Drake's _Eboracum_. Several allusions in
the first volume to his work, however, render it impossible to be ascribed
to him. It is dedicated to the Right Honourable Sir William Mordaunt
Milner, of Nunappleton, Bart., who was mayor at the time.



_"Hauling over the coals."_--What is the origin and meaning of the phrase,
"Hauling one over the coals;" and where does it first appear?


_Dr. Butler and St. Edmund's Bury._--Can any of your readers give me any
information respecting the Mr. or Dr. Butler, of St. Edmund's Bury,
referred to in the extracts from the _Post Boy_ and Gough's _Topography_,
quoted by MR. BALLARD in Vol. vii., p. 617.?


_Washington._--Anecdotes relative to General Washington, President of the
United States, {126} intended for a forthcoming work on the "Homes of
American Statesmen," will be gratefully received for the author by


26. Parliament Street.

_Norman of Winster._--Can any of your correspondents afford information
bearing on the family of Norman of Winster, county of Derby?

"John Norman of Winster, county of Derby, married, in 1715 or 1716, to Jane
(_maiden name_ particularly wanted). The said J. Norman married again in
1723, to Mary" (maiden name wanted also).

I shall be particularly obliged to any one affording such information.


_Sir Arthur Aston._--I shall be much obliged, should any of your very
numerous correspondents be able to inform me in which part or parish, of
the county of Berkshire, the celebrated cavalier Sir Arthur Aston resided
_upon his return_ from the foreign wars in which he had been for so many
years engaged; and _previously_ to the rupture between Charles I. and the
Houses of Parliament.

I believe one of his daughters, about the same period, married a gentleman
residing in the same county: also that George Tattersall, Esq., of
Finchampstead, a family of consideration in the same county of Berkshire,
was a near relative.


_"Jamieson the Piper."_--I am anxious to ascertain who was the author of
the above ditty; it was very popular in Aberdeenshire about the beginning
of this century. The scene, if I remember rightly, is laid in the parish of
Forgue, in Aberdeenshire. Possibly some of the members of the Spalding Club
may be able to enlighten me on the subject.


_"Keiser Glomer."_--I have a Danish play entitled _Keiser Glomer, Frit
oversatte af det Kyhlamske vech C. Bredahl_: Kiobenhavn, 1834. It is a
mixture of tragedy and farce: the former occasionally good, the latter poor
buffoonery. In the notes, readings of the old MS. are referred to with
apparent seriousness; but _Gammel Gumba's Saga_ is quoted in a manner that
seems burlesque. I cannot find the word "Kyhlam" in any dictionary. Can any
of your readers tell me whether it signifies a real country, or is a mere
fiction? The work does not read like a translation; and, if one, the number
of modern allusions show that it is not, as it professes to be, from an
ancient manuscript.

M. M. E.

_Tieck's Comoedia Divina._--I copied the following lines six years ago from
a review in a Munich newspaper of Batornicki's _Ungöttliche Comödie_. They
were cited as from Tieck's suppressed (zurückgezogen) satire, _La Comödie
Divina_, from which Batornicki was accused of plundering freely, thinking
that, from its variety, he would not be detected:

 "Spitzt so hoch ihr könnt euer Ohr,
  Gar wunderbare Dinge kommen hier vor.
  Gott Vater identifieirt sich mit der Kreatur,
  Denn er will anschauen die absolute Natur;
  Aber zum Bewustseyn kann er nicht gedeihen,
  Drum muss er sich mit sich selbst entzweien."

I omitted to note the paper, but preserved the lines as remarkable. I have
since tried to find some account of _La Divina Comedia_, but in vain. It is
not noticed in any biography of Tieck. Can any of your readers tell me what
it is, or who wrote it?

M. M. E.

_Fossil Trees between Cairo and Suez_--_Stream like that in Bay of
Argastoli._--Can any of your readers oblige me by stating where the best
information may be met with concerning the very remarkable fossil trees on
the way from Cairo to Suez? And, if there has yet been discovered any other
stream or rivulet running from the ocean into the land similar to that in
the Bay of Argastoli in the Island of Cephalonia?

H. M.

_Presbyterian Titles_ (Vol. v., p. 516.).--Where may be found a list of
"the quaint and uncouth titles of the old Presbyterians?"


_Mayors and Sheriffs._--Can you or any of your readers inform me which
ought to be considered the principal officer, or which is the most
important, and which ought to have precedence of the other, the mayor of a
town or borough, or the sheriff of a town or borough? and is the mayor
merely the representative of the town, and the sheriff of the Queen; and if
so, ought not the representative of majesty to be considered more
honourable than the representative of merely a borough; and can a sheriff
of a borough claim to have a grant of arms, if he has not any previous?



_The Beauty of Buttermere._--In an article contributed by Coleridge to the
_Morning Post_ (vid. _Essays on his own Times_, vol. ii. p. 591.), he says:

    "It seems that there are some circumstances attending her birth and
    true parentage, which would account for her striking superiority in
    mind and manners, in a way extremely flattering to the prejudices of
    rank and birth."

What are the circumstances alluded to?



_Sheer Hulk._--Living in a maritime town, and hearing nautical terms
frequently used, I had always supposed this term to mean an old vessel,
{127} with sheers, or spars, erected upon it, for the purpose of masting
and unmasting ships, and was led to attribute the use of it, by Sir W.
Scott and other writers, for a vessel totally dismasted, to their ignorance
of the technical terms. But of late it has been used in the latter sense by
a writer in the _United Service Magazine_ professing to be a nautical man.
I still suspect that this use of the word is wrong, and should be glad to
hear on the subject from any of your naval readers.

I believe that the word "buckle" is still used in the dockyards, and among
seamen, to signify to "bend" (see "N. & Q.," Vol. vii., p. 375.), though


_The Lapwing or Peewitt_ (_Vanellus cristatus_).--Can any of your
correspondents, learned in natural history, throw any light upon the
meaning in the following line relative to this bird?--

 "The blackbird far its hues shall know,
    As _lapwing_ knows the vine."

In the first line the allusion is to the berries of the hawthorn; but what
the _lapwing_ has to do with the _vine_, I am at a loss to know. Having
forgotten whence I copied the above lines, perhaps some one will favor me
with the author's name.


_"Could we with ink," &c._--Could you, or any of your numerous and able
correspondents, inform me who is the _bonâ fide_ author of the following

 "Could we with ink the ocean fill,
    And were the heavens of parchment made,
  Were every stalk on earth a quill,
    And every man a scribe by trade;
  To write the love of God above,
    Would drain the ocean dry;
  Nor could the scroll contain the whole,
    Though stretched from sky to sky."


_Launching Query._--With reference to the accident to H.M.S. Cæsar at
Pembroke, I would ask, Is there any other instance of a ship, on being
launched, stopping on the ways, and refusing to move in spite of all
efforts to start her?

A. B.

_Manliness._--Query, What is the meaning of the word as used in "N. & Q.,"
Vol. viii., p. 94., col. 2. l. 12.


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Pues or Pews._--Which is the _correct_ way of spelling this word? What is
its derivation? Why has the form _pue_ been lately so much adopted?


    [The abuses connected with the introduction of pues into churches have
    led to an investigation of their history, as well as to the etymology
    of the word. Hence the modern adoption of its original and more correct
    orthography, that of _pue_; the Dutch _puye_, _puyd_, and the English
    _pue_, being derived from the Latin _podium_. In Vol. iii., p. 56., we
    quoted the following as the earliest notice of the word from the
    _Vision of Piers Plouman_:

     "Among wyves and wodewes ich am ywoned sute
      Yparroked in _pues_. The person hit knoweth."

    Again, in _Richard III._, Act IV. Sc. 4.: "And makes her _pue-fellow_
    with others moan."--In Decker's _Westward Hoe_: "Being one day in
    church, she made mone to her _pue-fellow_."--And in the _Northern Hoe_
    of the same author: "He would make him a _pue-fellow_ with lords."--See
    a paper on _The History of Pews_, read before the Cambridge Camden
    Society, Nov. 22, 1841.]

_"Jerningham" and "Doveton."_--Who was the author of _Jerningham_ and
_Doveton_, two admirable works of fiction published some twelve or fifteen
years ago? They are equal to anything written by Bulwer Lytton or by James.

J. MT.

    [The author of these works was Mr. Anstruther.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. viii., p. 8.)

I possess a singular work, consisting of a series of _Poetical Sketches_ of
the campaigns of 1793 and 1794, written, as the title-page asserts, by an
"officer of the Guards;" who appears to have been, from what he
subsequently states, on the personal staff of His Royal Highness the late
Duke of York. This work, I have been given to understand, was suppressed
shortly after its publication; the ludicrous light thrown by its pages on
the conduct of many of the chief parties engaged in the transactions it
records, being no doubt unpalatable to those high in authority. From the
notes, which are valuable as appearing to emanate from an eye-witness, and
sometimes an actor in the scenes he describes, I send the following
extracts for the information of your correspondent; premising that the
letter to which they are appended is dated from the "Camp at Inchin, April
26, 1794."

    "As the enemy were known to have assembled in great force at the Camp
    de Cæsar, near Cambray, Prince Cobourg requested the Duke of York would
    make a _reconnoissance_ in that direction: accordingly, on the evening
    of the 23rd, Major-General Mansel's brigade of heavy cavalry was
    ordered about a league in front of their camp, where they lay that
    night at a farm-house, forming _part_ of a detachment under General
    Otto. Early the next morning, an attack was made on the French drawn up
    in front of the village of Villers en Couchée (between Le Cateau and
    Bouchain) by the 15th regiment of Light Dragoons, and two squadrons of
    Austrian Hussars: they charged the enemy with such velocity and force,
    that, darting through their cavalry, they dispersed a line of infantry
    formed in their rear, forcing them also to retreat {128} precipitately
    and in great confusion, under cover of the ramparts of Cambray; with a
    loss of 1200 men, and three pieces of cannon. The only British officer
    wounded was Captain Aylett: sixty privates fell, and about twenty were

    "Though the heavy brigade was formed at a distance under a brisk
    cannonade, while the light dragoons had so glorious an opportunity of
    distinguishing themselves, there are none who can attach with propriety
    any blame on account of their unfortunate delay; for which General Otto
    was surely, as having the command, alone accountable, and not General
    Mansel, who acted at all times, there is no doubt, according to the
    best of his judgment for the good of the service.

    "The Duke of York had, on the morning of the 26th, observed the left
    flank of the enemy to be unprotected; and, by ordering the cavalry to
    wheel round and attack on that side, afforded them an opportunity of
    gaining the highest credit by defeating the French army so much
    superior to them in point of numbers.

    "General Mansel rushing into the thickest of the enemy, devoted himself
    to death; and animated by his example, that _very_ brigade performed
    such prodigies of valour, as must have convinced the world that
    Britons, once informed _how to act_, justify the highest opinion that
    can possibly be entertained of their native courage. Could such men
    have _ever_ been willingly _backward_? Certainly not.

    "General Mansel's son, a captain in the 3rd Dragoon Guards, anxious to
    save his father's life, had darted forwards, and was taken prisoner,
    and carried into Cambray. Since his exchange, he has declared that
    there was not, on the 26th, _a single French soldier_ left in the town,
    as Chapuy had drawn out the whole garrison to augment the army destined
    to attack the camp of Inchi. Had that circumstance been fortunately
    known at the time, a detachment of the British army might easily have
    marched along the Chaussée, and taken possession of the place ere the
    Republicans could possibly have returned, as they had in their retreat
    described a circuitous detour of some miles."

MR. SIMPSON will perceive, from the above extracts, that the brilliant
skirmish of Villers en Couché took place on April 24th; whereas the defeat
of the French army under Chapuy did not occur until two days later. A large
quantity of ammunition and thirty-five pieces of cannon were then captured;
and although the writer does not mention the number who were killed on the
part of the enemy, yet, as he states that Chapuy and near 400 of his men
were made prisoners, their loss by death was no doubt proportionately

The 15th Hussars have long borne on their colours the memorable words
"Villers en Couché" to commemorate the daring valour they displayed on that


In Cruttwell's _Universal Gazetteer_ (1808), this village, which is five
miles north-east of Cambray, is described as being "remarkable for an
action between the French and the Allies on the 24th of April, 1794." The
following officers of the 15th regiment of light dragoons are there named
as having afterwards received crosses of the Order of Maria Theresa for
their gallant behaviour, from the Emperor of Germany, viz.:

    "Major W. Aylett, Capt. Robert Pocklington, Capt. Edw. Michael Ryan,
    Lieut. Thos. Granby Calcraft, Lieut. Wm. Keir, Lieut. Chas. Burrel
    Blount, Cornet Edward Gerald Butler, and Cornet Robert Thos. Wilson."

D. S.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 33.)

The Surrey snails referred to by H. T. RILEY, are thus mentioned by Aubrey
in his account of Box Hill:

    "On the south downs of this county (Surrey), and in those of Sussex,
    are the biggest snails that ever I saw, twice or three times as big as
    our common snails, which are the Bavoli or Drivalle, which Mr. Elias
    Ashmole tells me that the Lord Marshal brought from Italy, and
    scattered them on the Downs hereabouts, and between Albury and Horsley,
    where are the biggest of all."

Again, Aubrey, in his _Natural History of Wiltshire_, says:

    "The great snailes on the downes at Albury, in Surrey (twice as big as
    ours) were brought from Italy by * * * Earle Marshal, about
    1638."--Aubrey's _History_, p. 10., edited by John Britton, F.S.A.,
    published by the Wiltshire Topographical Society, 1847.

The first of these accounts, from Aubrey's _Surrey_, I have quoted in my
_Promenade round Dorking_, 2nd edit. 1823, p. 274., and have added in a

    "This was one of the Earls of Arundel. It is probably from this snail
    account that the error, ascribing the planting of the box (on Box Hill)
    to one of the Earls of Arundel, has arisen. The snails were brought
    thither for the Countess of Arundel, who was accustomed to dress and
    eat them for a consumptive complaint."

When I lived at Dorking (1815-1821) a breed of large white snails was found
on Box Hill.


MR. H. T. RILEY is informed that the breed of white snails he refers to is
to be plentifully found in the neighbourhood of Shere. I have found them
frequently near the neighbouring village of Albury, on St. Martha's Hill,
and I am told they are to be met with in the lanes as far as Dorking. I
have always heard that they were imported for the use of a lady who was in
a consumption; but who this was, or when it happened, I have never been
able to ascertain.


The breed of large white snails is to be found all along the escarpment of
the chalk range, and is {129} not confined to Surrey. It is said to have
been introduced into England by Sir Kenelm Digby, and was considered very
nutritious and wholesome for consumptive patients. About the end of the
last century I was in the habit of collecting a few of the common garden
snails from the fruit-trees, and taking them every morning to a lady who
was in a delicate state of health; she took them boiled or stewed, or
cooked in some manner with milk, making a mucilaginous drink.

E. H.

I have somewhere read of the introduction of a foreign breed of snails into
Cambridgeshire, I forget the exact locality, for the table of the monks who
imported them; but unfortunately it was before I commenced making "notes"
on the subject, and I have not been able to recollect where to find it.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 76.)

This inscription is not "in Earl Bathurst's park," as your correspondent A.
SMITH says, but is in Oakley Woods, situated at some three or four miles'
distance from Cirencester, and being separated and quite distinct from the
park; nor is the inscription correctly copied. Rudder, in his new _History
of Gloucestershire_, 1779, says:

    "Concealed as it were in the wood stands Alfred's Hall, a building that
    has the semblance of great antiquity. Over the door opposite to the
    south entrance, on the inside, is the following inscription in the
    Saxon character and language [of which there follows a copy]. Over the
    south door is the following Latin translation:

    "'Foedus quod Ælfredus & Gythrunus reges, omnes _Anglia sapientes, &
    quicunq_; Angliam in_c_olebant orientalem, ferierunt; & non solum de
    seipsis, verum etiam de nat_i_s suis, ac nondum in lucem editis,
    quotquot misericordiæ divinæ aut regiæ vel_i_nt esse participes
    jurejurando sanxerunt.

    "'Primò ditionis nostræ fines ad T_h_amesin evehunt_u_r, inde ad Leam
    usq; ad fontem ejus; t_u_m recta ad Bedfordiam, ac deniq; per Usam ad
    viam Vetelin_g_ianam.'"

I copy from Rudder, with the stops and contracted "et's," as they stand in
his work; though I think the original has points between each word, as
marked by A. SMITH.

The omissions and mistakes of your correspondent (which you will perceive
are important) are marked in Italics above.

Rudder adds,--

    "Behind this building is a ruin with a stone on the chimney-piece, on
    which, in ancient characters relieved on the stone, is this

     'IN . MEM . ALFREDI . REG . RESTAVR . ANO . DO . 1085.'

    "It would have been inexcusable in the topographer to have passed by so
    curious a place without notice; but the historian would have been
    equally culpable who should not have informed the reader that this
    building is an excellent imitation of antiquity. The name, the
    inscription, and the writing over the doors, of the convention between
    the good king and his pagan enemies, were probably all suggested by the
    similarity of _Achelie_, the ancient name of this place, to _Æcglea_,
    where King Alfred rested with his army the night before he attacked the
    Danish camp at Ethandun, and at length forced their leader Godrum, or
    Guthrum, or Gormund, to make such convention."

It is many years since I saw the inscription, and then I made no note of
it; but I have no doubt that Rudder has given it correctly, because when I
was a young man I was intimately acquainted with him, who was then an aged
person; and a curious circumstance that occurred between us, and is still
full in my memory, impressed me with the idea of his great precision and

I would remark on the explanation given by Rudder, that the _Iglea_ of
Asser is supposed by Camden, Gibson, Gough, and Sir Richard Colt Hoare to
be _Clayhill_, eastward of Warminster; and _Ethandun_ to be _Edington_,
about three miles eastward of Westbury, both in Wilts.

Asser says that, "in the same year," the year of the battle, "the army of
the pagans, departing from Chippenham, as had been promised, went to
_Cirencester_, where they remained one year."

On the signal defeat of Guthrum, he gave hostages to Alfred; and it is
probable that, if any treaty was made between them, it was made immediately
after the battle; and not that Alfred came from his fortress of
_Æthelingay_ to meet Guthrum at Cirencester, where his army lay after
leaving Chippenham.

If the treaty was made soon after the battle, it might have been at
Alfred's Hall near Cirencester, especially if _Hampton_ (Minchinhampton in
Gloucestershire), which is only six miles from Oakley Wood, be the real
site of the great and important battle, as was, a few years since, very
plausibly argued by Mr. John Marks Moffatt, in a paper inserted, with the
signature "J. M. M.," in Brayley's _Graphic and Historical Illustrator_, p.
106. _et seq._, 1834.

The mention of Rudder's History brings to my mind an inscription over the
door of Westbury Court, which I noticed when a boy at school, in the
village of Westbury in this county. This mansion was taken down during the
minority of Maynard Colchester, Esq., the present owner of the estate.
Rudder, in his account of that parish, has preserved the inscription--

          O. M.
  N. M. M. H. E. P. N. C."

He reads the first three letters "Deo Optimo Maximo," and says the
subsequent line contains the initials of the following hexameter:

 "Nunc mea, mox hujus, et postea nescio cujus,"

{130} alluding to the successive descent of property from one generation to

Perhaps one of your readers may be enabled to tell me whether the above
line be original, or copied, and from whom.



The agreement referred to is no other than the famous treaty of peace
between Alfred and Guthrun, whose name, by the substitution of an initial
"L." for a "G.," among various other inaccuracies for which your
correspondent is perhaps not responsible, has been disguised under the form
of "Lvthrvnvs." The inscription itself forms the commencement of the
treaty, which is stated, in Turner's _Anglo-Saxons_, book iv. ch. v., to be
still extant. It is translated as follows, in Lambard's [Greek:
Archaionomia], p. 36.:--

    "Foedus quod Aluredus & Gythrunus reges ex sapientum Anglorum, atque
    eorum omnium qui orientalem incolebant Angliam consulto ferierunt, in
    quod præterea singuli non solum de se ipsis, verum etiam de natis suis,
    ac nondum in lucem editis (quotquot saltem misericordiæ divinæ aut
    regiæ velint esse participes), jurarunt.

    "Primo igitur ditionis nostræ fines ad Thamesim fluvium evehuntor: Inde
    ad Leam flumen profecti, ad fontem ejus deferuntor: tum rectà ad
    Bedfordiam porriguntor, ac denique per Usam fluvium porrecti ad viam
    Vetelingianam desinunto."

Another translation will be found in Wilkins's _Leges Anglo-Saxonicæ_, p.
47., and the Saxon original in both. As to the boundaries here defined, see
note in Spelman's _Alfred_, p. 36.

At Cirencester Guthrun remained for twelve months after his baptism,
according to his treaty with Alfred. (See _Sim. Dunelm. de gestis Regum
Anglorum_, sub anno 879.)

J. F. M.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 55.)

W. W., alluding to such a custom at Marshfield, Massachusets, asks "if this
custom ever did, or does now exist in the mother country?" The curiosity is
that your worthy Querist has never heard of it! Dating from _Malta_, it may
be he has never been in our _ringing island_: for it must be known to every
Englishman, that the custom, varying no doubt in different localities,
exists in every parish in England.

The _passing bell_ is of older date than the canon of our church, which
directs "that when any is passing out of this life, a bell shall be tolled,
and the minister shall not then slack to do his duty. And after the party's
death, if it so fall out, then shall be rung no more than one short peal."

It is interesting to learn that our colonists keep up this custom of their
mother country.

In this parish, the custom has been to ring as quickly after death as the
sexton can be found; and the like prevails elsewhere. I have known persons,
sensible of their approaching death, direct the bell at once to be tolled.

Durand, in his _Rituals of the Roman Church_, says: "For expiring persons
bells must be tolled, that people may put up their prayers: this must be
done twice for a woman, and thrice for a man." And such is still the
general custom: either before or after the _knell_ is rung, to toll three
times _three_, or three times _two_, at intervals, to mark the sex.[6]

"Defunctos plorare" is probably as old as any use of a bell; but there is
every reason to believe that--

    "the ringing of bells at the departure of the soul (to quote from
    Brewster's _Ency._) originated in the darkest ages, but with a
    different view from that in which they are now employed. It was to
    avert the influence of Demons. But if the superstition of our ancestors
    did not originate in this imaginary virtue, while they preserved the
    practice, it is certain they believed the mere noise had the same
    effect; and as, according to their ideas, evil spirits were always
    hovering around to make a prey of departing souls, the tolling of bells
    struck them with terror. We may trace the practice of tolling bells
    during funerals to the like source. This has been practised from times
    of great antiquity: the bells being muffled, for the sake of greater
    solemnity, in the same way as drums are muffled at military funerals."


Rectory, Clyst St. George.

At St. James' Church, Hull, on the occurrence of a death in the parish, a
bell is tolled quickly for about the space of ten minutes; and before
ceasing, nine knells given if the deceased be a man, six if a woman, and
three if a child. As far as I have been able to ascertain, the custom is
now almost peculiar to the north of England; but in ancient times it must
have been very general according to Durandus, who has the following in his
_Rationale_, lib. i. cap. 4. 13.:

    "Verum aliquo moriente, campanæ debent pulsari; ut populus hoc audiens,
    oret pro illo. Pro muliere quidem bis, pro eo quod invenit
    asperitatem.... Pro viro vero ter pulsator.... Si autem clericus sit,
    tot vicibus simpulsatur, quot ordines habuit ipse. Ad ultimum vero
    compulsari debet cum omnibus campanis, ut ita sciat populus pro quo sit
    orandum."--Mr. Strutt's _Man. and Cust._, iii. 176.

{131} Also a passage is quoted from an old English Homily, ending with:

    "At the deth of a manne three bellis shulde be ronge, as his knyll, in
    worscheppe of the Trinetee; and for a womanne, who was the secunde
    persone of the Trinetee, two bellis should be rungen."

In addition to the intention of the "passing-bell," afforded by Durandus
above, it has been thought that it was rung to drive away the evil spirits,
supposed to stand at the foot of the bed ready to seize the soul, that it
might "gain start." Wynkyn de Worde, in his _Golden Legend_, speaks of the
dislike of spirits to bells. In alluding to this subject, Wheatly, in his
work on the Book of Common Prayer, chap. xi. sec. viii. 3., says:

    "Our Church, in imitation of the Saints of former ages, calls in the
    minister, and others who are at hand, to assist their brother in his
    last extremity."

The 67th canon enjoins that, "when any one is passing out of this life, a
bell shall be tolled, and the minister shall not then slack to do his duty.
And after the party's death, if it so fall out, there shall be rung _no
more than one short peal_."

Several other quotations might be adduced (vid. Brand's _Antiq._, vol. ii.
pp. 203, 204. from which much of the above has been derived) to show that
"one short peal" was ordered only to be rung after the Reformation: the
custom of signifying the sex of the deceased by a certain number of knells
must be a relic, therefore, of very ancient usage, and unauthorised by the



[Footnote 6: This custom of three tolls for a man, and two for a woman, is
thus explained in an ancient Homily on Trinity Sunday:--"At the deth of a
manne, three bells should be ronge as his knyll in worship of the Trinitie.
And for a woman, who was the second person of the Trinitie, two bells
should be ronge."]

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 57.)

Respecting the origin of this curious phenomenon in America, I am not able
to give your correspondent, J. G. T. of Hagley, any information; but it may
interest him and others among the readers of "N. & Q." to have some account
of what appears to be the first recorded experiment, made in Europe, of
table-moving. These experiments are related in the supplement (now lying
before me) to the _Allgemeine Zeitung_ of April 4, by Dr. K. Andrée, who
writes from Bremen on the subject. His letter is dated March 30, and begins
by stating that the whole town had been for eight days preceding in a state
of most peculiar excitement, owing to a phenomenon which entirely absorbed
the attention of all, and about which no one had ever thought before the
arrival of the American steam-ship "Washington" from New York. Dr. Andrée
proceeds to relate that the information respecting table-moving was
communicated in a letter, brought through that ship, from a native of
Bremen, residing in New York, to his sister, who was living in Bremen, and
who, in her correspondence with her brother, had been rallying him about
the American spirit-rappings, and other Yankee humbug, as she styled it, so
rampant in the United States. Her brother instanced this table-moving,
performed in America, as no delusion, but as a fact, which might be
verified by any one; and then gave some directions for making the
experiment, which was forthwith attempted at the lady's house in Bremen,
and with perfect success, in the presence of a large company. In a few days
the marvellous feat, the accounts of which flew like wildfire all over the
country, was executed by hundreds of experimenters in Bremen. The subject
was one precisely adapted to excite the attention and curiosity of the
imaginative and wonder-loving Germans; and, accordingly, in a few days
after, a notice of the strange phenomenon appeared in _The Times_, in a
letter from Vienna, and, through the medium of the leading journal, the
facts and experiments became rapidly diffused over the world, and have been
repeated and commented upon ten thousand fold. As the experiment and its
results are now brought within the domain of practical science, we may hope
to see them soon freed from the obscurity and uncertainty which still
envelope them, and assigned to their proper place in the wondrous system of
"Him, in whom we live, and move, and have our being."



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., pp. 475. 600.)

    "Religious freedom was at that time [the middle of the sixteenth
    century] enjoyed in Poland to a degree unknown in any other part of
    Europe, where generally the Protestants were persecuted by the
    Romanists, or the Romanists by the Protestants. This freedom, united to
    commercial advantages, and a wide field for the exercise of various
    talents, attracted to Poland crowds of foreigners, who fled their
    native land on account of religious persecution; and many of whom
    became, by their industry and talents, very useful citizens of their
    adopted country. There were at Cracow, Vilna, Posen, &c., Italian and
    French Protestant congregations. A great number of Scotch settled in
    different parts of Poland; and there were Scotch Protestant
    congregations not only in the above-mentioned towns, but also in other
    places, and a particularly numerous one at Kieydany, a little town of
    Lithuania, belonging to the Princes Radziwill. Amongst the Scotch
    families settled in Poland, the principal were the Bonars, who arrived
    in that country before the Reformation, but became its most zealous
    adherents. This family rose, by its wealth, and the great merit of
    several of its members, to the highest dignities of the state, but
    became extinct during the seventeenth century. There are even now in
    Poland many families of Scotch descent belonging to the class of
    nobles; as, for instance, {132} the Haliburtons, Wilsons, Ferguses,
    Stuarts, Haslers, Watsons, &c. Two Protestant clergymen of Scotch
    origin, Forsyth and Inglis, have composed some sacred poetry. But the
    most conspicuous of all the Polish Scotchmen is undoubtedly Dr. John
    Johnstone [born in Poland 1603, died 1675], perhaps the most remarkable
    writer of the seventeenth century on natural history. It seems, indeed,
    that there is a mysterious link connecting the two distant countries;
    because, if many Scotsmen had in bygone days sought and found a second
    fatherland in Poland, a strong and active sympathy for the sufferings
    of the last-named country, and her exiled children, has been evinced in
    our own times by the natives of Scotland in general, and by some of the
    most distinguished amongst them in particular. Thus it was an eminent
    bard of Caledonia, the gifted author of _The Pleasures of Hope_, who,

     'Sarmatia fell, unwept, without a crime,'

    has thrown, by his immortal strains, over the fall of her liberty, a
    halo of glory which will remain unfaded as long as the English language
    lasts. The name of Thomas Campbell is venerated throughout all Poland;
    but there is also another Scotch name [Lord Dudley Stuart] which is
    enshrined in the heart of every true Pole."--From Count Valerian
    Krasinski's _Sketch of the Religious History of the Sclavonic Nations_,
    p. 167.: Edinburgh, Johnstone and Hunter, 1851.

J. K.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., pp. 548. 629.)

some difficulty in referring to the works on which he based the statement
that "it was a tradition in Mexico that when that form (the cross) should
be victorious, the old religion should disappear, and that a similar
tradition attached to it at Alexandria." He doubtless made the statement
from memory, and unintentionally confounded two distinct facts, viz. that
the Mexicans worshipped the cross, and had prophetic intimations of the
downfall of their nation and religion by the oppression of bearded
strangers from the East. The quotation by MR. PEACOCK at p. 549., quoted
also in Purchas' _Pilgrims_, vol. v., proves, as do other authorities, that
the cross was worshipped in Mexico prior to the Spanish invasion, and
therefore it was impossible that the belief mentioned by THE WRITER, &c.
could have prevailed.

On the first discovery of Yucatan,--

    "Grijaha was astonished at the sight of large crosses, evidently
    objects of worship."--Prescott's _Mexico_, vol. i. p. 203.

Mr. Stephens, in his _Central America_, vol. ii., gives a representation of
one of these crosses. The cross on the Temple of Serapis, mentioned in
Socrates' _Ecc. Hist._, was undoubtedly the well-known _Crux ansata_, the
symbol of life. It was as the latter that the heathens appealed to it, and
the Christians explained it to them as fulfilled in the Death of Christ.

MR. PEACOCK asks for other instances: I subjoin some.

In _India_.--The great pagoda at Benares is built in the form of a cross.
(Maurice's _Ind. Ant._, vol. iii. p. 31., City, Tavernier.)

On a Buddhist temple of cyclopean structure at Mundore (Tod's _Rajasthan_,
vol. i. p. 727.), the cross appears as a sacred figure, together with the
double triangle, another emblem of very wide distribution, occurring on
ancient British coins (Camden's _Britannica_), Central American buildings
(Norman's _Travels in Yucatan_), among the Jews as the Shield of David
(Brucker's _History of Philosophy_), and a well-known masonic symbol
frequently introduced into Gothic ecclesiastical edifices.

In _Palestine_.--

    "According to R. Solomon Jarchi, the Talmud, and Maimonides, when the
    priest sprinkled the blood of the victim on the consecrated cakes and
    hallowed utensils, he was always careful to do it in the form of a
    _cross_. The same symbol was used when the kings and high priests were
    anointed."--Faber's _Horæ Mosaicæ_, vol. ii. p. 188.

See farther hereon, Deane on _Serpent Worship_.

In _Persia_.--The trefoil on which the sacrifices were placed was probably
held sacred from its cruciform character. The cross ([+]) occurs on Persian
buildings among other sacred symbols. (R. K. Porter's _Travels_, vol. ii.)

In _Britain_.--The cross was formed by baring a tree to a stump, and
inserting another crosswise on the top; on the three arms thus formed were
inscribed the names of the three principal, or triad of gods, _Hesus_,
_Belenus_, and _Taranis_. The stone avenues of the temple at Classerniss
are arranged in the form of a cross. (Borlase's _Antiquities of Cornwall_.)

In _Scandinavia_.--The hammer of Thor was in the form of the cross; see in
Herbert's _Select Icelandic Poetry_, p. 11., and Laing's _Kings of Norway_,
vol. i. pp. 224. 330., a curious anecdote of King Hacon, who, having been
converted to Christianity, made the sign of the cross when he drank, but
persuaded his irritated Pagan followers that it was the sign of Thor's

The figure of Thor's hammer was held in the utmost reverence by his
followers, who were called the children of Thor, who in the last day would
save themselves by his mighty hammer. The fiery cross, so well known by
Scott's vivid description, was originally the hammer of Thor, which in
early Pagan, as in later Christian times, was used as a summons to convene
the people either to council or to war. (Herbert's _Select Icelandic
Poetry_, p. 11.)




       *       *       *       *       *


_Glass Chambers for Photography._--I am desirous to construct a small glass
chamber for taking portraits in, and shall be much obliged if you can
assist me by giving me instructions how it should be constructed, or by
directing me where I shall find clear and sufficient directions, as to
dimensions, materials, and arrangements. Is it essential that it should be
all of violet-coloured glass, ground at one side, as that would add a good
deal to the expense? or will white glass, with thin blue gauze curtains or
blinds, answer?

Probably a full answer to this inquiry, accompanied with such woodcut
illustrations as would be necessary to render the description complete, and
such as an artificer could work by, would confer a boon on many amateur
photographers, as well as your obliged servant,

C. E. F.

    [In the construction of a photographic house, we beg to inform our
    correspondent that it is by no means needful to use entirely
    violet-coloured glass, but the roof thereof exposed to the rays of the
    sun should be so protected; for although the light is much subdued, and
    the glare so painful to the eyes of the sitter is taken away, yet but
    few of the actinic rays are obstructed. It has been proposed to coat
    the interior with smalt mixed with starch, and afterwards varnished;
    but this does not appear to have answered. Calico, both white and
    coloured, has also been used, but it is certainly not so effectual or
    pleasant. Upon the whole, we think that the main things to attend to
    are, firmness in its construction, so as to avoid vibration; ample
    size, so as to allow not only of room for the operator, but also for
    the arrangements of background, &c., and the sides to open so as to
    allow a free circulation of air; blinds to be _applied at such spots
    only_ as shall be found requisite. Adjoining, or in one corner, a small
    closet should be provided, admitting only yellow light, which may be
    effectually accomplished by means of yellow calico. A free supply of
    water is indispensable, which may be conveyed both to and from by means
    of the gutta percha tubing now in such general use. We apprehend,
    however, that the old proverb, "You must cut your coat according to
    your cloth," is most especially applicable to our querist, for not only
    must the house be constructed according to the advantages afforded by
    the locality, but the amount of expense will be very differently
    thought of by different persons: one will be content with any moderate
    arrangement which will answer the purpose, where another will be
    scarcely satisfied unless everything is quite of an _orné_ character.]

_Dr. Diamond's Replies._--I am sorry I have not before replied to the
Queries of your correspondent W. F. E., contained in Vol. viii., p. 41.;
but absence from home, together with a pressure of public duties here, has
prevented me from so doing.

1st. No doubt a _small_ portion of nitrate of potash is formed when the
iodized collodion is immersed in the bath of nitrate of silver, by mutual
decomposition; but it is in so small a quantity as not to deteriorate the

2nd. I believe collodion will keep good much longer than is generally
supposed; at the beginning of last month I obtained a tolerably good
portrait of Mr. Pollock from some remains in a small bottle brought to me
by Mr. Archer in September 1850; and I especially notice this fact, as it
is connected with the first introduction of the use of collodion in
England. Generally speaking, I do not find that it deteriorates in two or
three months; the addition of a few drops of the iodizing solution will
generally restore it, unless it has become rotten: this, I think, is the
case when the gun cotton has not been perfectly freed from the acid. The
redness which collodion assumes by age, may also be discharged by the
addition of a few drops of liquor ammoniæ, but I do not think it in any way
accelerates its activity of action.

3rd. "Washed ether," or, as it is sometimes called, "inhaling ether," has
been deprived of the alcohol which the common ether contains, and it will
not dissolve the gun cotton unless the alcohol is restored to it. I would
here observe that an excess of alcohol (spirits of wine) thickens the
collodion, and gives it a mucilaginous appearance, rendering it much more
difficult to use by its slowness in flowing over the glass plate, as well
as producing a less even surface than when nearly all ether is used. A
collodion, however, with thirty-five per cent. of spirits of wine, is very
quick, allowing from its less tenacious quality a more rapid action of the
nitrate of silver bath.

4th. Cyanide of potassium has been used to re-dissolve the iodide of
silver, but the results are by no means so satisfactory; the cost of pure
iodide of potassium bought at a _proper market_ is certainly very
inconsiderable compared to the disappointment resulting from a false


Surrey County Asylum.

_Trial of Lenses._--When you want to try a lens, first be sure that the
slides of your camera are correctly constructed, which is easily done.
Place at any distance you please a sheet of paper printed in small type;
focus this on your ground glass with the assistance of a magnifying-glass;
now take the slide which carries your plate of glass, and if you have not a
piece of ground glass at hand, insert a plate which you would otherwise
excite in the bath after the application of collodion, but now _dull_ it by
touching it with putty. Observe whether you get an equally clear and
well-focussed picture on this; if you do, you may conclude there is no
fault in the construction of your camera.

Having ascertained this, take a chess-board, and place the pieces on the
row of squares which run {134} from corner to corner; focus the middle one,
whether it be king, queen, or knight, and take a picture; you will soon see
whether the one best in the visual focus is the best on the picture, or
whether the piece one or more squares in advance or behind it is clearer
than the one you had previously in focus. The chess-board must be set
square with the camera, so that each piece is farther off by one square. To
vary the experiment, you may if you please stick a piece of printed paper
on each piece, which a little gum or common bees'-wax will effect for you.

In taking portraits, if you are not an adept in obtaining a focus, cut a
slip of newspaper about four inches long, and one and a half wide, and turn
up one end so as it may be held between the lips, taking care that the rest
be presented quite flat to the camera; with the help of a magnifying-glass
set a correct focus to this, and afterwards draw in the tube carrying the
lenses about one-sixteenth of a turn of the screw of the rackwork. This
will give a medium focus to the head: observe, as the length of focus in
different lenses varies, the distance the tube is moved must be learned by

W. M. F.

_Is it dangerous to use the Ammonio-Nitrate of Silver?_--Some time ago I
made a few ounces of a solution of ammonio-nitrate of silver for printing
positives; this I have kept in a yellow coloured glass bottle with a ground

I have, however, been much alarmed, and refrained from using it or taking
out the stopper, lest danger should arise, in consequence of reading in Mr.
Delamotte's _Practice of Photography_, p. 95. (vide "Ammonia Solution"):

    "If any of the ammonio-nitrate dries round the stopper of the bottle in
    which it is kept, the least friction will cause it to explode
    violently; it is therefore better to keep none prepared."

As in pouring this solution out and back into the bottle, of course the
solution will dry around the stopper, and, if this account is correct, may
momentarily lead to danger and accident, I will feel obliged by being
informed by some of your learned correspondents whether any such danger


       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Burke's Marriage_ (Vol. vii., p. 382.).--Burke married, in 1756, the
daughter of Dr. Nugent of Bath. (See _Nat. Cycl., s.v._ "Burke.")


_The House of Falahill_ (Vol. vi., p. 533.).--As I have not observed any
notice taken of the very interesting Query of ABERDONIENSIS, regarding this
ancient baronial residence, I may state that there is a Falahill, or
Falahall, in the parish of Heriot, in the county of Edinburgh. Whether it
be the Falahill referred to by Nisbet as having been so profusely
illuminated with armorial bearings, I cannot tell. Possibly either Messrs.
Laing, Wilson, or Cosmo Innes might be able to give some information about
this topographical and historical mystery.


_Descendants of Judas Iscariot_ (Vol. viii., p. 56.).--There is a
collection of traditions as to this person in extracts I have among my
notes, which perhaps you may think fit to give as a reply to MR. CREED'S
Query. It runs as follows:

    "On dit dans l'Anjou et dans le Maine que Judas Iscariot est né à
    Sablé; là-dessus on a fait ce vers:

     'Perfidus Judæus Sabloliensis erat.'

    "Les Bretons disent de même qu'il est né au Normandie entre Caen et
    Rouen, et à ce propos ils recitent ces vers.

             'Judas étoit Normand,
                  Tout le monde le dit--
              Entre Caen et Rouen,
                  Ce malheureux naquit.
      Il vendit son Seigneur pour trente mares contants.
      Au diable soient tous les Normands.'

    "On dit de même sans raison que Judas avoit demeuré à Corfou, et qu'il
    y est né. Pietro della Valle rapporte dans ses _Voyages_ qu'étant à
    Corfou on lui montra par rareté un homme que ceux du pays assuroient
    être de la race du traître Judas--quoiqu'il le niât. C'est un bruit qui
    court depuis long tems en cette contrée, sans qu'on en sache la cause
    ni l'origine. Le peuple de la ville de Ptolemaïs (autrement de l'Acre)
    disoit de même sans raison que dans une tour de cette ville on avoit
    fabriqué les trente deniers pour lesquelles Judas avoit vendu nôtre
    Seigneur, et pour cela ils appelloient cette tour la _Tour Maudite_."

This is taken from the second volume of _Menagiana_, p. 232.



_Milton's Widow_ (Vol. viii., p. 12.).--The information once promised by
your correspondent CRANMORE still seems very desirable, because the
statements of your correspondent MR. HUGHES are not reconcilable with two
letters given in Mr. Hunter's very interesting historical tract on Milton,
pages 37-8., to which tract I beg to refer MR. HUGHES, who may not have
seen it. These letters clearly show that Richard Minshull, the writer of
them, had only _two aunts_, neither of whom could have been Mrs. Milton, as
she must have been if she was the daughter of the writer's grandfather,
Randall Minshull. Probably this Elizabeth died in infancy, which the
Wistaston parish register may show, and which register would perhaps also
show (supposing Milton took his wife from Wistaston) the wanting marriage;
or if Mrs. Milton was of the Stoke-Minshull family, that parish register
would most likely {135} disclose his third marriage, which certainly did
not take place sooner than 1662.


_Whitaker's Ingenious Earl_ (Vol. viii., p. 9.).--It was a frequent saying
of Lord Stanhope's, that he had taught law to the Lord Chancellor, and
divinity to the Bishops; and this saying gave rise to a caricature, where
his lordship is seated acting the schoolmaster with a rod in his hand.

E. H.

_Are White Cats deaf?_ (Vol. vii., p. 331.).--In looking up your Numbers
for April, I observe a Minor Query signed SHIRLEY HIBBERD, in which your
querist states that in all white cats stupidity seemed to accompany the
deafness, and inquires whether any instance can be given of a white cat
possessing the function of hearing in anything like perfection.

I am myself possessed of a white cat which, at the advanced age of upwards
of seventeen years, still retains its hearing to great perfection, and is
remarkably intelligent and devoted, more so than cats are usually given
credit for. Its affection for persons is, indeed, more like that of a dog
than of a cat. It is a half-bred Persian cat, and its eyes are perfectly
blue, with round pupils, not elongated as those of cats usually are. It
occasionally suffers from irritation in the ears, but this has not at all
resulted in deafness.


_Consecrated Roses_ (Vol. vii., pp. 407. 480.; Vol. viii., p. 38.).--From
the communication of P. P. P. it seems that the origin of the consecration
of the rose dates so far back as 1049, and was "en reconnaissance" of a
singular privilege granted to the abbey of St. Croix. Can your
correspondent refer to any account of the origin of the consecration or
blessing of the sword, cap, or keys?


_The Reformed Faith_ (Vol. vii., p. 359.).--I must protest against this
term being applied to the system which Henry VIII. set up on his rejecting
the papal supremacy, which on almost every point but that one was pure
Popery, and for refusing to conform to which he burned Protestants and
Roman Catholics at the same pile. It suited Cobbett (in his _History of the
Reformation_), and those controversialists who use him as their text-book,
to confound this system with the doctrine of the existing Church of
England, but it is to be regretted that any inadvertence should have caused
the use of similar language in your pages.


_House-marks_ (Vol. vii., p. 594.).--It appears to me that the
_house-marks_ he alluded to may be traced in what are called _merchants'
marks_, still employed in marking bales of wool, cotton, &c., and which are
found on tombstones in our old churches, _incised_ in the slab during the
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and which till lately puzzled the
heralds. They were borne by merchants who had no arms.


_Trash_ (Vol. vii., p. 566.).--The late Mr. Scatchard, of Morley, near
Leeds, speaking in Hone's _Table Book_ of the Yorkshire custom of
_trashing_, or throwing an old shoe for luck over a wedding party, says:

    "Although it is true that an old shoe is to this day called 'a trash,'
    yet it did not, certainly, give the name to the nuisance. To 'trash'
    originally signified to clog, encumber, or impede the progress of any
    one (see Todd's _Johnson_); and, agreeably to this explanation, we find
    the rope tied by sportsmen round the necks of fleet pointers to tire
    them well, and check their speed, is hereabouts universally called
    'trash cord,' or 'dog trash.' A few miles distant from Morley, west of
    Leeds, the 'Boggart' or 'Barguest,' the Yorkshire Brownie is called by
    the people the _Gui-trash_, or _Ghei-trash_, the usual description of
    which is invariably that of a shaggy dog or other animal, _encumbered_
    with a chain round its neck, which is heard to rattle in its movements.
    I have heard the common people in Yorkshire say, that they 'have been
    _trashing_ about all day;' using it in the sense of having had a tiring
    walk or day's work.

    "East of Leeds the 'Boggart' is called the _Padfoot_."

G. P.

_Adamsoniana_ (Vol. vii., p. 500.).--Michel Ada_n_son (not Ada_m_son), who
has left his name to the gigantic Baobab tree of Senegal (_Adansonia
digitata_), and his memory to all who appreciate the advantages of a
natural classification of plants--for which Jussieu was indebted to
him--was the son of a gentleman, who after firmly attaching himself to the
Stuarts, left Scotland and entered the service of the Archbishop of Aix.
The _Encyclopædia Britannica_, and, I imagine, almost all biographical
dictionaries and similar works, contain notices of him. His devoted life
has deserved a more lengthened chronicle.


Your correspondent E. H. A., who inquires respecting the family of Michel
Adamson, or Michael Adamson, is informed that in France, the country of his
birth, the name is invariably written "Ada_n_son;" while the author of
_Fanny of Caernarvon, or the War of the Roses_, is described as "John
Ada_m_son." Both names are pronounced alike in French; but the difference
of spelling would seem adverse to the supposition that the family of the
botanist was of Scottish extraction.


St. Lucia.

_Portrait of Cromwell_ (Vol. viii., p. 55.).--The portrait inquired after
by MR. RIX is at the British Museum. Being placed over the cases in the
long gallery of natural history, it is extremely difficult to be seen.



_Burke's "Mighty Boar of the Forest"_ (Vol. iii., p. 493.; Vol. iv., p.
391.).--It is not, I hope, too late to notice that Burke's description of
Junius is an allusion neither to the _Iliad_, xiii. 471., nor to Psalm
lxxx. 8-13., but to the _Iliad_, xvii. 280-284. I cannot resist quoting the
lines containing the simile, at once for their applicability and their own
innate beauty:

 "[Greek: Ithusen de dia promachôn, sui eikelos alkên]
  [Greek: Kapriôi, host' en oressi kunas thalerous t' aizêous]
  [Greek: Rhêidiôs ekedassen, elixamenos dia bêssas.]
  [Greek: Ôs huios Telamônos]."



"_Amentium haud Amantium_" (Vol. vii., p. 595.).--The following English
translation may be considered a tolerably close approximation to the
alliteration of the original: "Of dotards not of the doting." It is found
in the Dublin edition of _Terence_, published by J. A. Phillips, 1845.

C. T. R.

Mr. Phillips, in his edition, proposes as a translation of this passage,
"Of _dotards_, not of the _doting_." Whatever may be its merits in other
respects, it is at all events a more perfect alliteration than the other
attempts which have been recorded in "N. & Q."



When I was at school I used to translate the phrase "Amentium haud
amantium" (Ter. _Andr_., i. 3. 13.) "_Lunatics, not lovers_." Perhaps that
may satisfy FIDUS INTERPRES.

[Pi]. [Beta].

A friend of mine once rendered this "_Lubbers, not lovers_."


_Talleyrand's Maxim_ (Vol. vi., p. 575.; Vol. vii., p. 487.).--Young's
lines, to which Z. E. R. refers, are:

 "Where Nature's end of language is declined,
  And men talk only to conceal their mind."

With less piquancy, but not without the germ of the same idea, Dean Moss
(ob. 1729), in his sermon _Of the Nature and Properties of Christian
Humility_, says:

    "Gesture is an artificial thing: men may stoop and cringe, and bow
    popularly low, and yet have ambitious designs in their heads. And
    _speech is not always the just interpreter of the mind_: men may use a
    condescending style, and yet swell inwardly with big thoughts of
    themselves."--_Sermons_, &c., 1737, vol. vii. p. 402.


_English Bishops deprived by Queen Elizabeth_ (Vol. vii., pp. 260. 344.
509.).--The following particulars concerning one of the Marian Bishops are
at A. S. A.'s service. Cuthbert Scot, D.D., sometime student, and, in 1553,
Master of Christ's Church College, Cambridge, was made Vice-Chancellor of
that University in 1554-5; and had the temporalities of the See of Chester
handed to him by Queen Mary in 1556. He was one of Cardinal Pole's
delegates to the University of Cambridge, and was concerned in most of the
political movements of the day. He, and four other bishops, with as many
divines, undertook to defend the principles and practices of the Romish
Church against an equal number of Reformed divines. On the 4th of April he
was confined, either in the Fleet Prison or the Tower, for abusive language
towards Queen Elizabeth; but having by some means or other escaped from
_durance_, he retired to Louvain, where he died, according to Rymer's
_Foedera_, about 1560.



_Gloves at Fairs_ (Vol. vii., _passim._).--To the list of markets at which
a glove was, or is, hung out, may be added Newport, in the Isle of Wight.
But a Query naturally springs out of such a note, and I would ask, Why did
a glove indicate that parties frequenting the market were exempt from
arrest? What was the glove an emblem of?

W. D--N.

As the following extract from Gorr's _Liverpool Directory_ appears to bear
upon the point, and as it does not seem to have yet attracted the attention
of any of your correspondents, I beg to forward it:--

    "Its (_i.e._ Liverpool's) fair-days are 25th July and 11th Nov. Ten
    days before and ten days after each fair-day, a hand is exhibited in
    front of the Town-hall, which denotes protection; during which time no
    person coming to or going from the town on business connected with the
    fair can be arrested for debt within its liberty."

I have myself frequently observed the "hand," although I could not discover
any appearance of a fair being held.


_St. Dominic_ (Vol. vii., p. 356.).--Your correspondent BOOKWORM will find
in any chronology a very satisfactory reason why Machiavelli could not
reply to the summons of Benedict XIV., unless, indeed, the Pope had made
use of "the power of the keys," to call him up for a brief space to satisfy
his curiosity.


_Names of Plants_ (Vol. viii., p. 37.).--Ale-hoof means useful in, or to,
ale; Ground-ivy having been used in brewing before the introduction of
hops. "The women of our northern parts" (says John Gerard), "especially
about Wales or Cheshire, do tunne the herbe Ale-hoof into their ale ...
being tunned up in ale and drunke, it also purgeth the head from rhumaticke
humours flowing from the brain." From the aforesaid tunning, it was also
called Tun-hoof (_World of Words_); and in Gerard, Tune-hoof. {137}

Considering what was meant by Lady in the names of plants, we should
refrain from supposing that _Neottia spiralis_ was called the Lady-traces
"sensu obsc.," even if those who are more skilled in such matters than I am
can detect such a sense. I cannot learn what a lady's _traces_ are; but I
suspect plaitings of her hair to be meant. "Upon the spiral sort," says
Gerard, "are placed certaine small white flowers, _trace_ fashion," while
other sorts grow, he says, "spike fashion," or "not _trace_ fashion."
Whence I infer, that in his day _trace_ conveyed the idea of spiral.

A. N.

_Specimens of Foreign English_ (Vol. iii. _passim._).--I have copied the
following from the label on a bottle of _liqueur_, manufactured at
Marseilles by "L. Noilly fils et C^{ie}." The English will be best
understood by being placed in juxtaposition with the original French:

     "Le Vermouth

    est un vin blanc légèrement amer, parfumé avec des plantes aromatiques

    "Cette boisson est tonique, stimulante, fébrifuge et astringente: prise
    avec de l'eau elle est apéritive et raffraichissante: elle est aussi un
    puissant préservatif contre les fièvres et la dyssenterie, maladies si
    fréquentes dans les pays chauds, pour lesquels elle a été
    particulièrement composée."

     "The Wermouth

    is a brightly bitter and perfumed with aromatical and good vegetables
    white wine.

    "This is tonic, stimulant, febrifuge and costive drinking; mixed with
    water it is aperitive, refreshing, and also a powerful preservative of
    fivers and bloody-flux; those latters are very usual in warmth
    countries, and of course that liquor has just been particularly made up
    for that occasion."


St. Lucia.

_Blanco White_ (Vol. vii., pp. 404. 486.).--Your correspondent H. C. K. is
right in his impression that the sonnet commencing

    "Mysterious Night! when our first parents knew," &c.

was written by Blanco White. See his _Life_ (3 vols., Chapman, 1845), vol.
iii. p. 48.

J. K. R. W.

_Pistols_ (Vol. viii., p. 7.).--In Strype's Life of Sir Thomas Smith,
_Works_, Oxon. 1821, mention is made of a statute or proclamation by the
Queen in the year 1575, which refers to that of 33 Hen. VIII. c. 6.,
alluded to by your correspondent J. F. M., and in which the words _pistol_
and _pistolet_ are introduced:

    "The Queen calling to mind how unseemly a thing it was, in so quiet and
    peaceable a realm, to have men so armed; ... did charge and command all
    her subjects, of what estate or degree soever they were, that in no
    wise, in their journeying, going, or riding, they carried about them
    privily or openly any dag, or pistol, or any other harquebuse, gun, or
    such weapon for fire, under the length expressed by the statute made by
    the Queen's most noble father.... [Excepting however] noblemen and such
    known gentlemen, which were without spot or doubt of evil behaviour, if
    they carried dags or pistolets about them in their journeys, openly, at
    their saddle bows," &c.

Here the _dag_ or _pistolet_ seems to answer to our "revolvers," and the
_pistol_ to our larger horse-pistol.

H. C. K.

---- Rectory, Hereford.

_Passage of Thucydides on the Greek Factions_ (Vol. viii., p. 44.).--If L.,
or any of your readers, will take the trouble to compare the passage
quoted, and the one referred to by him, in the following translation of
Smith, with Sir A. Alison's supposititious quotation[7] (Vol. vii., p.
594.), they will find that my inquiry is still unanswered. The passage
quoted by L. in Greek is, according to Smith:

    "Prudent consideration, to be specious cowardice; modesty, the disguise
    of effeminacy; and being wise in everything, to be good for nothing."

The passage not quoted, but referred to by L., is:

    "He who succeeded in a roguish scheme was wise; and he who suspected
    such practices in others was still a more able genius."--Vol. i. book
    iii. p. 281. 4to.: London, 1753.

In this "counterfeit presentment of two brothers," L. may discern a family
likeness; but my inquiry was for the identical passage, "sword and poniard"

If L. desires to find Greek authority for the general sentiment only, I
would refer him to passages, equally to Sir A. Alison's purpose, in
_Thucydides_, iii. 83., viii. 89.; _Herodotus_, iii. 81.; Plato's
_Republic_, viii. 11., and Aristotle's _Politics_, v. 6. 9. I beg to thank
L. for his attempt, although unsuccessful.



[Footnote 7: _Europe_, vol. ix. p. 397., 12mo.]

_The earliest Mention of the Word "Party"_ (Vol. vii., p. 247.).--In a
choice volume, printed by "Ihon Day, dwelling over Aldersgate, beneath St.
Martines," 1568, I find the word occurring thus:

    "The _party_ must in any place see to himselfe, and seeke to wipe theyr
    noses by a shorte aunswere."--_A Discovery and playne Declaration of
    the Holy Inquisition of Spayne_, fol. 10.

Permit me to attach a Query to this. Am I right in considering the
above-mentioned book as rare? I do so on the assumption that "Ihon Day" is
_the_ Day of black-letter rarity.




_Creole_ (Vol. vii., p. 381.).--It is curious to observe how differently
this word is applied by different nations. The English apply it to white
children born in the West Indies; the French, I believe, exclusively to the
mixed races; and the Spanish and Portuguese to the blacks born in their
colonies, never to whites. The latter, I think, is the true and original
meaning, as its primary signification is a _home-bred_ slave (from "criar,"
to bring up, to nurse), as distinguished from an imported or purchased one.


       *       *       *       *       *



We have before us a little volume by Mr. Willich, the able Actuary of the
University Life Assurance Society, entitled _Popular Tables arranged in a
new Form, giving Information at Sight for ascertaining, according to the
Carlisle Table of Mortality, the Value of Lifehold, Leasehold, and Church
Property, Renewal Fines, &c., the Public Funds, Annual Average Price and
Interest on Consols from 1731 to 1851; also various interesting and useful
Tables, equally adapted to the Office and the Library Table_. Ample as is
this title-page, it really gives but an imperfect notion of the varied
contents of this useful library and writing-desk companion. For instance,
Table VIII. of the Miscellaneous Tables gives the average price of Consols,
with the average rate of interest, from 1731 to 1851; but this not only
shows when Consols were highest and when lowest, but also what
Administration was then in power, and the chief events of each year. We
give this as one instance of the vast amount of curious information here
combined; and we would point out to historical and geographical students
the notices of Chinese Chronology in the preface, and the Tables of Ancient
and Modern Itinerary Measures, as parts of the work especially deserving of
their attention. In short, Mr. Willich's _Popular Tables_ form one of those
useful volumes in which masses of scattered information are concentrated in
such a way as to render the book indispensable to all who have once tested
its utility.

_Mormonism, its History, Doctrines, and Practices_, by the Rev. W. Sparrow
Simpson, is a small pamphlet containing the substance of two lectures on
this pestilent heresy, delivered by the author before the Kennington Branch
of the Church of England Young Men's Society, and is worth the attention of
those who wish to know something of this now wide-spread mania.

_On the Custom of Borough-English in the County of Sussex_, by George R.
Corner, Esq. This well-considered paper on a very curious custom owes its
origin, we believe, to a Query in our columns. We wish all questions
agitated in "N. & Q." were as well illustrated as this has been by the
learning and ingenuity of Mr. Corner.

_A Narrative of Practical Experiments proving to Demonstration the
Discovery of Water, Coals, and Minerals in the Earth by means of the
Dowsing Fork or Divining Rod, &c., collected, reported, and edited_ by
Francis Phippen. A curious little pamphlet on a _fact_ in Natural
Philosophy, which we believe no philosopher can either understand or
account for.

SERIALS RECEIVED.--_Murray's Railway Reading: History as a Condition of
Social Progress_, by Samuel Lucas. An able lecture on an interesting
subject.--_The Traveller's Library_, No. 46.: _Twenty Years in the
Philippines_, by De la Gironière. One of the best numbers of this valuable
series.--_Cyclopædia Bibliographica_, Part XI., August. This eleventh Part
of Mr. Darling's useful Catalogue extends from James Ibbetson to Bernard
Lamy.--_Archæologia Cambrensis, New Series, No. XV._: containing, among
other papers of interest to the inhabitants of the principality, one on the
arms of Owen Glendwr, by the accomplished antiquary to whom our readers
were indebted for a paper on the same subject in our own columns.

       *       *       *       *       *


  SOWERBY'S ENGLISH BOTANY, with or without Supplementary Volumes.
  LINGARD'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Second Edition, 1823, 9th and following
      Volumes, in Boards.
      Edition, and that of 1813 by Nicol.
  LIFE OF ADMIRAL BLAKE, written by a Gentleman bred in his Family. London.
      12mo. With Portrait by Fourdrinier.
  OSWALDI CROLLII OPERA. Genevæ, 1635. 12mo.
  UNHEARD-OF CURIOSITIES, translated by Chilmead. London, 1650. 12mo.
  BEAUMONT'S PSYCHE. Second Edition. Camb. 1702. fol.
  MEMOIRS OF THE ROSE, by Mr. John Holland. 1 Vol. 12mo. 1824.
  LITERARY GAZETTE, 1834 to 1845.
  ATHENÆUM, commencement to 1835.
  MOORE'S MELODIES. 15th Edition.
  WOOD'S ATHENÆ OXONIENSES (ed. Bliss). 4 vols. 4to. 1813-20.
  THE COMPLAYNTS OF SCOTLAND. 8vo. Edited by Leyden. 1804.
  SHAKSPEARE'S PLAYS. Vol. V. of Johnson and Steevens's edition, in 15
      vols. 8vo. 1739.

*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
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*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

MR. G. FURRIAN_'s offer is declined with thanks_.

E. W., _who inquires respecting the letters_ N _and_ M _in the Book of
Common Prayer, is referred to_ Vol. i., p. 415.; Vol. ii., p. 61.; Vol.
iii., pp. 323. 437.

T. _and other Correspondents who have written on the subject of Collodion
are informed that we shall next week publish a farther communication from_
DR. DIAMOND _upon this point_.

ADDENDUM.--Vol. viii., p. 104., add to end of Query on Fragments in
Athenæus, "D'Israeli's _Cur. Lit._, Bailey's _Fragmenta Comicorum_."

_A few complete sets of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. to vii., _price
Three Guineas and a Half, may now be had; for which early application is

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday_.


       *       *       *       *       *



Founded A.D. 1842.


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W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq.; T. Grissell, Esq.

_Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.

_Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
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Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
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  Age      _£  s.  d._
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   32       2  10   8
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   42       3   8   2


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UNITED KINGDOM LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY: established by Act of Parliament in
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  Earl of Courtown
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  _Chairman._--Charles Graham, Esq.
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  _Physician._--Arthur H. Hassall, Esq., M.D.,
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  _Surgeon._--F. H. Tomson, Esq., 48. Berners Street.

The Bonus added to Policies from March, 1834, to December 31, 1847, is as

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           |          | In 1841. In 1848.  |
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   * 1000  |  7 years |  -  -   | 157 10 0 | 1157 10 0
      500  |  1 year  |  -  -   |  11  5 0 |  511  5 0

* EXAMPLE.--At the commencement of the year 1841, a person aged thirty took
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       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
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Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
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Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


other form of Camera, for the Photographic Tourist, from its capability of
Elongation or Contraction to any Focal Adjustment, its extreme Portability,
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Every Description of Camera, or Slides, Tripod Stands, Printing Frames, &c.
may be obtained at his MANUFACTORY, Charlotte Terrace, Barnsbury Road,

New Inventions, Models, &c., made to order or from Drawings.

       *       *       *       *       *

WANTED, for the Ladies' Institute, 83. Regent Street, Quadrant, LADIES of
taste for fancy work,--by paying 21s. will be received as members, and
taught the new style of velvet wool work, which is acquired in a few easy
lessons. Each lady will be guaranteed constant employment and ready cash
payment for her work. Apply personally to Mrs. Thoughey. N.B. Ladies taught
by letter at any distance from London.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE REVALENTA ARABICA FOOD, the only natural, pleasant, and effectual
remedy (without medicine, purging, inconvenience, or expense, as it saves
fifty times its cost in other remedies) for nervous, stomachic, intestinal,
liver and bilious complaints, however deeply rooted, dyspepsia
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flatulency, oppression, distension, palpitation, eruption of the skin,
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and under all other circumstances, debility in the aged as well as infants,
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_A few out of 50,000 Cures_:--

Cure, No. 71. of dyspepsia; from the Right Hon. the Lord Stuart de
Decies:--"I have derived considerable benefit from your Revalenta Arabica
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publication of these lines.--STUART DE DECIES."

Cure, No. 49,832:--"Fifty years' indescribable agony from dyspepsia,
nervousness, asthma, cough, constipation, flatulency, spasms, sickness at
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cramps, spasms, and nausea, for which my servant had consulted the advice
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_Dr. Wurzer's Testimonial._

"Bonn, July 19. 1852.

"This light and pleasant Farina is one of the most excellent, nourishing,
and restorative remedies, and supersedes, in many cases, all kinds of
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invaluable remedy is employed with the most satisfactory result, not only
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counteracts effectually the troublesome cough; and I am enabled with
perfect truth to express the conviction that Du Barry's Revalenta Arabica
is adapted to the cure of incipient hectic complaints and consumption.

 "Counsel of Medicine, and practical M.D. in Bonn."

London Agents:--Fortnum, Mason & Co., 182. Piccadilly, purveyors to Her
Majesty the Queen; Hedges & Butler, 155. Regent Street; and through all
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packed for all climates, and with full instructions, 1lb. 2s. 9d.; 2lb. 4s.
6d.; 5lb. 11s.; 12lb. 22s.; super-refined, 5lb. 22s.; 10lb. 33s. The 10lb.
and 12lb. carriage free on receipt of Post-office order.--Barry, Du Barry &
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IMPORTANT CAUTION.--Many invalids having been seriously injured by spurious
imitations under closely similar names, such as Ervalenta, Arabaca, and
others, the public will do well to see that each canister bears the name
BARRY, DU BARRY & CO., 77. Regent Street, London, in full, without which
none is genuine. {140}

       *       *       *       *       *



(The Horticultural Part edited by PROF. LINDLEY,)

Of Saturday, July 30, contains Articles on

  Agriculture, history of Scottish
  Agricultural College examination papers
  Annuals, new
  Azaleas, to propagate
  Books noticed
  Brick burning, a nuisance
  Cabbages, club in
  Calendar, horticultural
  ---- agricultural
  Carrot rot, by Dr. Reissek
  Carts _v._ waggons
  Cedar, gigantic
  Cockroaches, to kill
  Cycas revoluta, by Mr. Ruppen
  Drainage bill, London
  Forests, royal
  Fruits, wearing out of
  ---- disease in stone, by M. Ysabeau
  Fumigator, Geach's, by Mr. Forsyth
  Guano, new source of
  Honey, thin
  Horticultural Society
  Horticultural Society's garden
  Machine tools
  Manures, concentrated
  ---- liquid, by Mr. Bardwell
  Marvel of Peru
  Mechi's (Mr.) gathering
  Mirabilis Jalapa
  New Forest
  Plant, hybrid
  Potatoes, Bahama
  Potato disease
  ---- origin of
  Poultry, metropolitan show of
  Races, degeneracy of
  Roses, Tea
  ---- from cuttings
  Soil and its uses, by Mr. Morton
  Strawberry, Nimrod, by Mr. Spencer
  Truffles, Irish
  Vegetables, lists of
  Violet, Neapolitan
  Waggons and carts
  Wax insects (with engraving)

       *       *       *       *       *

the above, the Covent Garden, Mark Lane, Smithfield, and Liverpool prices,
with returns from the Potato, Hop, Hay, Coal, Timber, Bark, Wool and Seed
Markets, and a _complete Newspaper, with a condensed account of all the
transactions of the week_.

ORDER of any Newsvender. OFFICE for Advertisements, 5. Upper Wellington
Street, Covent Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Now ready, price 25s., Second Edition, revised and corrected. Dedicated by
Special Permission to


Very Rev. H. H. MILMAN, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's. The Music arranged for
Four Voices, but applicable also to Two or One, including Chants for the
Services, Responses to the Commandments, and a Concise SYSTEM OF CHANTING,
by J. B. SALE, Musical Instructor and Organist to Her Majesty. 4to., neat,
in morocco cloth, price 25_s_. To be had of Mr. J. B. SALE, 21. Holywell
Street, Millbank, Westminster, on the receipt of a Post-office Order for
that amount: and, by order, of the principal Booksellers and Music

    "A great advance on the works we have hitherto had, connected with our
    Church and Cathedral Service."--_Times._

    "A collection of Psalm Tunes certainly unequalled in this
    country."--_Literary Gazette._

    "One of the best collections of tunes which we have yet seen. Well
    merits the distinguished patronage under which it appears."--_Musical

    "A collection of Psalms and Hymns, together with a system of Chanting
    of a very superior character to any which has hitherto
    appeared."--_John Bull._

London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

Also, lately published,

J. B. SALE'S SANCTUS, COMMANDMENTS and CHANTS as performed at the Chapel
Royal St. James, price 2s.

C. LONSDALE, 26. Old Bond Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Plates printed in Colours (published at 16s.), cloth, 12s.

SILVESTRE, ALPHABET-ALBUM, folio, Paris, 1843, 60 large beautiful Plates
(published at 100 francs), half morocco, 20s.

royal 8vo., 2s.

Also an extensive Collection of Works on Diplomatics, Mediæval Charters,
&c., by Astle, Montfaucon, Mabillon, and Rodriguez, on sale by

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Leicester Square.

*** B. Q.'s Monthly Catalogues are sent Gratis for a Year on prepayment of
a Shilling in Postage Stamps.

       *       *       *       *       *

following articles:--1. State Papers of the Reign of Henry VIII. 2. Madame
de Longueville. 3. The Prospero of "The Tempest." 4. Letter of Major P.
Ferguson during the American War. 5. Wanderings of an Antiquary: Bramber
Castle and the Sussex Churches, by Thomas Wright, F.S.A. (with Engravings).
6. St. Hilary Church, Cornwall (with an Engraving). 7. Benjamin Robert
Haydon. 8. The Northern Topographers--Whitaker, Surtees, and Raine. 9.
Passage of the Pruth in the year 1739. 10. Early History of the
Post-Office. 11. Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban: A Peep at the Library of
Chichester Cathedral--Christ's Church at Norwich--Rev. Wm. Smith of
Melsonby--Godmanham and Londesborough. With Reviews of New Publications, a
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other Antiquarian Societies, Historical Chronicle, and OBITUARY. Price 2s.

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       *       *       *       *       *

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       *       *       *       *       *



RESPECTFULLY informs the Clergy, Architects, and Churchwardens, that he
replies immediately to all applications by letter, for information
respecting his Manufactures in CHURCH FURNITURE, ROBES, COMMUNION LINEN,
&c., &c., supplying full information as to Prices, together with Sketches,
Estimates, Patterns of Materials, &c., &c.

Having declined appointing Agents, MR. FRENCH invites direct communications
by Post, as the most economical and satisfactory arrangement. PARCELS
delivered Free by Railway.

       *       *       *       *       *

This day is published, price 6d.


JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 36. Soho Square, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

This day is published, in 8vo., with Fac-simile from an early MS. at
Dulwich College, price 1s.


JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 36. Soho Square, London./

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, price 4s. 6d. per dozen, or nicely bound in cloth, 1s.

SIMPSON, B.A. (Late Scholar and Librarian of Queens' College, Cambridge;
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       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, fcap. 8vo., price 5s. in cloth.

BAPTIST VON HIRSCHER, D.D., Dean of the Metropolitan Church of Freiburg,
Breisgau, and Professor of Theology in the Roman Catholic University of
that City. Translated and edited with Notes and Introduction by the Rev.
ARTHUR CLEVELAND COXE, M.A., Rector of St. John's Church, Hartford,
Connecticut, U. S.

    "The following work will be found a noble apology for the position
    assumed by the Church of England in the sixteenth century, and for the
    practical reforms she then introduced into her theology and worship. If
    the author is right, then the changes he so eloquently urges upon the
    present attention of his brethren ought to have been made _three
    hundred years ago_; and the obstinate refusal of the Council of Trent
    to make such reforms in conformity with Scripture and Antiquity, throws
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    influence of the author from whom they proceed. The writer believes,
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       *       *       *       *       *

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Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
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Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, August 6,

       *       *       *       *       *

Corrections made to printed original.

page 131, "obscurity and uncertainty": 'uncertainly' in original.

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