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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 20, March 16, 1850
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 20, March 16, 1850" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 20.]
[Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

       *       *       *       *       *


NOTES:--                                              Page
  Alfred's Geography of Europe, by S.W. Singer         313
  The First Coffee Houses in England, by E.F.
    Rimbault, LL.D.                                    314
  True Tragedy of Richard III.                         315
  Folk-Lore--Merry Lwyd--Deathbed Superstition         315
  Passage in L'Allegro--Milton's Minor Poems           315
  Doctor Dobbs--Golden Age of Magazines                316
  Use of Beaver Hats in England, by E.F.
    Rimbault, LL.D.                                    317
  Extracts from Old Records, by R. Cole                317

  Queries on Outline                                   318
  Christ's Hospital--Old Songs once popular there      318
  Watching the Sepulchre, &c.                          318
  Minor Queries:--Conrad of Salisbury--Peruse or
    Pervise--Cromlech--Meaning of Grummett--Vertue's
    MSS.--Loscop--Ormonde House--As Morse caught
    the Mare--Dustpot, Forthlot--Tracts attributed to
    Eachard--Queen of Hearts--Guildhalls--Vox
    Populi--Use of Coffins--Rococo--Howlet the
    Engraver--The Bear, &c.                            319

  Letter attributed to Sir R. Walpole                  321
  College Salting                                      321
  Junius                                               322
  White Hart Inn, Scole                                323
  Parkership, Porkership, Pokership                    323
  Replies to Minor Queries:--Coleridge's Christabel--
    Sir William Rider--God tempers the Wind--
    Complutensian Polyglot--Tickhill--Bishop Blaise--
    Sangred--Judas Bell--La Mer des Histoires          324

  Tale of a Tub--A Genius--Dedications                 326

  Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.               326
  Notices to Correspondents                            326
  Advertisements                                       327

       *       *       *       *       *


There is no other printed copy of the A.-S. _Orosius_ than the very
imperfect edition of Daines Barrington, which is perhaps the most
striking example of incompetent editorship which could be adduced. The
text was printed from a transcript of a transcript, without much pains
bestowed on collation, as he tells us himself. How much it is to be
lamented that the materials for a more complete edition are diminished
by the disappearance of the _Lauderdale MS._, which, I believe, when Mr.
Kemble wished to consult it, could not be found in the Library at Ham.

Perhaps no more important illustration of the Geography of the Middle
Ages exists than Alfred's very interesting description of the _Geography
of Europe_, and the _Voyages of Othere and Wulfstan_; and this portion
of the _Hormesta_ has received considerable attention from continental
scholars, of which it appears Mr. Hampson is not aware. As long since as
1815 Erasmus Rask (to whom, after Jacob Grimm, Anglo-Saxon students are
most deeply indebted) published in the _Journal of the Scandinavian
Literary Society_ (ii. 106. sq.) the Anglo-Saxon Text, with a Danish
translation, introduction, and notes, in which many of the errors of
Barrington and Forster are pointed out and corrected. This was reprinted
by Rask's son in the _Collection_ he gave of his father's
_Dissertation_, in 2 vols. Copenhagen, 1834.

Mr. Thorpe, in the 2nd edit. of his _Analecta_, has given "Alfred's
Geography," &c., no doubt accurately printed from the Cotton MS., and
has rightly explained _Apdrede_ and _Wylte_ in his Glossary, but does
not mention _Æfeldan_; and Dr. Leo, in his _Sprachproben_, has given a
small portion from Rask, with a few geographical notes. Dr. Ingram says:
"I hope on some future occasion to publish the whole of 'Alfred's
Geography,' accompanied with accurate maps."

Rask has anticipated Mr. Hampson's correction respecting the _Wilti_,
and thus translates the passage: "men norden for Oldsakserne er
Obotriternes Land, og i Nordost Vilterne, som man kalder Æfelder." The
mistake of Barrington and Dr. Ingram is the more extraordinary when it
is recollected that no people are so frequently mentioned in the
chronicles of the Middle Ages as this Sclavonic tribe: citations might
be given out of number, in which their contests with their neighbours
the Obotriti, _Abodriti_, or _Apdrede_ of Alfred are noticed. Why the
Wilti were sometimes called _Æfeldi_ or _Heveldi_, will appear from
their location, as pointed out by Ubbo Emmius: "_Wilsos_, Henetorum
gentem, ad _Havelam_ trans Albim sedes habentem." (Rer. Fris. Hist. l.
iv. p. 67.) Schaffarik remarks, "Die Stoderaner und _Havelaner_ waren
ein und derselbe, nur durch zwei namen interscheiden zweige des
_Weleten_ stammes;" and Albinus says: "Es sein aber die riehten _Wilzen_
Wender sonderlich an der _Havel_ wonhaft." They were frequently
designated by the name of _Lutici_, {314} as appears from Adam of Bremen,
Helmond, and others, and the Sclavonic word _liuti_ signified _wild,
fierce_, &c. Being a _wild_ and contentious people, not easily brought
under the gentle yoke of Christianity, they figure in some of the old
Russian sagas, much as the Jutes do in those of Scandinavia; and it is
remarkable that the names of both should have signified giants or
monsters. Notker, in his Teutonic paraphrase of Martianus Capella,
speaking of other Anthropophagi, relates that the _Wilti_ were not
ashamed to say that they had more right to eat their parents than the
worms.[1] Mone wrote a Dissertation upon the Weleti, which is printed in
the _Anzeigen für Kunde des Mittelalters_, 1834, but with very
inconclusive and erroneous results; some remarks on these Sclavonic
people, and a map, will be found in Count Ossolinski's _Vincent
Kadlubek_, Warsaw, 1822; and in Count Potocki's _Fragments Histor. sur
la Scythie, la Sarmatie, et les Slaves_, Brunsw., 1796, &c. 4 vols.
4to.; who has also printed Wulfstan's _Voyage_, with a French
translation. The recent works of Zeuss, of Schaffarik, and above all the
_Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache_, of Jacob Grimm, throw much light on
the subject.

On the names _Horithi_ and _Mægtha Land_ Rask has a long note, in which
he states the different opinions that have been advanced; his own
conclusions differ from Mr. Hampson's suggestion. He assigns reasons
for thinking that the initial _H_ in _Horithi_ should be _P_, and that
we should read _Porithi_ for _Porizzi_, the old name for _Prussians_.
Some imagined that _Mægtha Land_ was identical with _Cwen Land_, with
reference to the fabulous Northern Amazons; but Alfred has placed
Cwenland in another locality; and Rask conjectures that _Mægth_
signifies here _provincia, natio gens_, and that it stood for
_Gardariki_, of which it appears to be a direct translation.

It appears to me that the _Horiti_ of Alfred are undoubtedly the
_Croati_, or _Chrowati_, of Pomerania, who still pronounce their name
_Horuati_, the _H_ supplying, as in numerous other instances, the
place of the aspirate _Ch_. Nor does it seem unreasonable to presume
that the _Harudes_ of Cæsar (_De Bell. Gall._ b. i. 31. 37. 51.) were
also _Croats_; for they must have been a numerous and widely spread
race, and are all called _Ch_arudes, [Greek: Aroudes]. The following
passage from the _Annales Fuldensis_, A. 852., will strengthen this
supposition:--"Inde transiens per Angros, _Harudos_, Suabos, et Hosingos
... Thuringiam ingreditur."

Mr. Kemble[2], with his wonted acumen, has not failed to perceive that
our _Coritavi_ derived their name in the same manner; but his derivation
of the word from Hor, _lutum_, Horilit, _lutosus_, is singularly at
issue with Herr Leo's, who derives it from the Bohemian Hora, a
mountain, Horet a mountaineer, and he places the _Horiti_ in the Ober
Lanbitz and part of the Silesian mountains.

Schaffarik again, says that _Mægtha Land_ is, according to its proper
signification, unknown; but that as Adam of Bremen places Amazons on the
Baltic coast, probably from mistaking of the _Mazovians_? it is possible
that _Mægthaland_ has thus arisen. In 1822 Dahlmann (_Forschungen auf
dem Gebiete der Geschichte_, t. i. 422.) gave a German version of King
Alfred's narration, where the passage is also correctly translated; but
as regards the illustration of the names of the people of Sclavonic
race, much yet remains to be done.

It is to be hoped that some competent northern scholar among us may
still remove, what I must consider to be a national reproach--the want
of a correct and well illustrated edition of the _Hormesta_, or at any
rate of this singularly interesting and valuable portion of it.


Feb. 21. 1850.

[Footnote 1: "Aber _Welitabi_, die in Germania sizzent, tie wir _Wilze_
heizen, die ni scáment sih niche ze chedenne, daz sih iro parentes mit
mêrem réhte ézen súlin danne die wurme." Albinus, in his _Meissnische
Chronicle_, says they had their name from their _wolfish_ nature.]

[Footnote 2: _The Saxons in England_, vol. i. p. 9. note.]

       *       *       *       *       *


As a Supplement to your "NOTES ON COFFEE," I send you the following

Aubrey, in his account of Sir Henry Blount, (MS. in the Bodleian
Library), says of this worthy knight,

     "When coffee first came in he was a great upholder of it, and hath
     ever since been a constant frequenter of coffee-houses, especially
     Mr. Farres at the Rainbowe, by Inner Temple Gate, and lately John's
     Coffee-house, in Fuller's Rents. The first coffee-house in London
     was in St. Michael's Alley, in Cornhill, opposite to the church,
     which was set up by one ---- Bowman (coachman to Mr. Hodges, a
     Turkey merchant, who putt him upon it) in or about the yeare 1652.
     'Twas about 4 yeares before any other was sett up, and that was by
     Mr. Farr. Jonathan Paynter, over against to St. Michael's Church,
     was the first apprentice to the trade, viz. to Bowman.--Mem. The
     Bagneo, in Newgate Street, was built and first opened in Decemb.
     1679: built by ... Turkish merchants."

Of this James Farr, Edward Hatton, in his _New View of London_, 1708,
(vol. i. p. 30) says:--

     "I find it recorded that one James Farr, a barber, who kept the
     coffee-house which is now the Rainbow, by the Inner Temple Gate,
     (one of the first in England), was in the year 1657, prosecuted by
     the inquest of St. Dunstan's in the West, for making and selling a
     sort of liquor called coffee, as a great nuisance and prejudice to
     the neighbourhood, &c., and who would then have thought London
     would ever have had near three thousand such nuisances, and that
     coffee would have been, as now, so much drank by the best of
     quality and physicians." {315}

Howel, in noticing Sir Henry Blount's _Organon Salutis_, 1659, observes

     "This coffe-drink hath caused a great sobriety among all nations:
     formerly apprentices, clerks, &c., used to take their morning
     draughts in ale, beer, or wine, which often made them unfit for
     business. Now they play the good-fellows in this wakeful and civil
     drink. The worthy gentleman, Sir James Muddiford, who introduced
     the practice hereof first in London, deserves much respect of the
     whole nation."

From these extracts it appears that the use of this berry was introduced
by other Turkey merchants besides Edwards and his servant Pasqua.

Anthony Wood in his _Diary_, records, under the year 1654, that--

     "Coffey, which had been drank by some persons in Oxon. 1650, was
     this yeare publickly sold at or neare the Angel, within the Easte
     Gate of Oxon., as also chocolate, by an outlander or Jew."

And in another place he says--

     "This yeere Jacob a Jew opened a Coffey-house at the Angel, in the
     parish of St. Peter in the East, Oxon., and there it was by some,
     who delighted in noveltie, drank. When he left Oxon. he sold it in
     Old Southampton Buildings in Holborne, near London, and was living
     there 1671."


       *       *       *       *       *


In _The True Tragedy of Richard the Third_, the following passage--

    "His treacherous father hath neglect his word,
    And done imparshall past by dint of sword."

is considered by Mr. Baron Field as unintelligible. It seems to me that
the correction of it is obvious, and the explanation probable, though
not exactly fitting what had been said before, which is merely that Lord
Stanley had refused to come to Richard, not that he had actually joined
Richmond, much less fought for him. I read--

    "And dome imparshall;"

_i.e._ and _doom impartial_, and interpret, "pass'd upon himself impartial
judgment," or rather on his son, as is said just before:--

    "The father's fact condemns the son to die."

It is possible that doom by dint of sword may mean, to be executed by
dint of sword; that is, on the son. The _doom_ in the Scotch court, in
the _Heart of Mid Lothian_, is not the verdict, but the punishment.

Immediately before, we have this passage, also described as

     "_King._ Did not your selves, in presence, see the bondes sealde
     and assignde?

     "_Lo._ What tho my lord, the _vardits own_, the titles doth resign.

     "_King._ The bond is broke, and I will sue the fine."

I see no emendation for this but the _vardits own_ to mean, "the party
who has the verdict in his favour," and the speech to be a question. The
King tries to persuade himself that there is, _ipso facto_, no room for
forgiveness. Lovel answers, upon the principle of the rule of law, "Qui
vis potest renunciare juri pro se introducto."


       *       *       *       *       *


_Merry-Lwyd._--My attention has been called to an inquiry in No. 11. p.
173., as to the origin and etymology of the Merry-Lwyd, still kept up in

I believe that all these mummings may be traced to the disguisings which
formed so popular an amusement in the Middle Ages, and that the name
applied in Wales to this remnant of our ancient pastimes is nothing more
than a compound of our English adjective "merry" and a corruption of the
Latin word "Ludi," which these masquings were formerly termed.

Strutt, in his _Sports and Pastimes_, Book iii. chap. 13., speaks of
Christmas Spectacles in the time of Edward III., as known by the name of
Ludi; and in Warton's _History of English Poetry_, it is said of these
representations that "by the ridiculous and exaggerated oddity of the
Vizors, and by the singularity and splendour of the dresses, every thing
was out of nature and propriety." In Strutt's 16th Plate, specimens will
be found of the whimsical habit and attire in which the mummers were
wont to appear.

My impression that the Merry-Lwyd was by no means a diversion
exclusively Welsh is corroborated by the fact noticed in your Number of
the 23rd of Feb., of its being found to exist in Cheshire. And we know
that many ancient customs lingered in the principality long after they
fell into disuse in England.


Glamorganshire, March 1. 1850.

_Death-bed Superstition._--When a curate in Exeter I met with the
following superstition, which I do not remember to have seen noticed
before. I had long visited a poor man, who was dying of a very painful
disease, and was daily expecting his death. Upon calling one morning to
see my poor friend, his wife informed me that she thought he would have
died during the night, and consequently she and her friends unfastened
_every lock in the house_. On my inquiring the reason, I was told that
any bolt or lock fastened was supposed to cause uneasiness to, and
hinder the departure of the soul, and consequently upon the approach of
death all the boxes, doors, &c., in the house were unlocked. Can any of
your readers tell me whether this is in any way a general superstition
amongst the lower orders, or is it confined to the West of England?

R.H. {316}

[This remarkable superstition forms the subject of a communication of
the _Athenæum_ (No. 990.) of 17th Oct. 1846: in a comment upon which it
is there stated "that it originates from the belief which formerly
prevailed that the soul flew out of the mouth of the dying in the
likeness of a bird."]

       *       *       *       *       *


The suggestion of your correspondent B.H.K. (No. 18. p. 286.) has been
anticipated by Mr. Warton, who, in his 1st edition of _Milton's Poems_,
notices a similar interpretation of the passage, as the suggestion of an
unknown correspondent. In the 2nd edition this correspondent is
mentioned to have been Mr. Headley; and the editor discusses the point
in a note of upwards of a page, illustrating it with parallel passages,
and an analysis of the context. As the book is one of ready access, I
need not trouble you with a quotation; but I may mention that Mr.
Gilchrist has added, in a MS. note in my copy, that "Among the poems
appended to those of Lord Surrey and Sir Thomas Wyatt, is one of
considerable elegance in the same measure as those of Milton, nor is it
unlike in its subject: the following lines may throw some light on the
present inquiry (p. 200. ed. 1717):--

    'On hills then shewe the ewe and lambe
    And every young one with his damme;
    Then lovers walke and _tell their tale_
    Both of their bliss and of their bale.'"

[The passage is at p. 57. of the 1st vol. of Dr. Nott's edition.]

I am glad of the present opportunity of mentioning, for the benefit of
all whom it may concern, that my copy of the 1st edition of Warton's
_Milton_ is enriched with numerous notes and parallel passages by Mr.
Gilchrist; and a copy of the 2nd edition has been similarly, but less
copiously, illustrated by Mr. Dunston. I shall be glad if my mention of
them should lead to their being made useful--or, if you wish it, I shall
be happy to transcribe the notes for occasional insertion in your

May I be allowed to suggest that similar notifications _to_ intending
editors would have some tendency to do the same good results which may
be expected from the announcements _by_ intending editors suggested by
your correspondent R.R. at p. 243? There must be hundreds of volumes
enriched by the notes of scholars, such as those I have had occasion to
mention, which are dispersed in private libraries, and might, by means
of similar announcements, be made available to the cause of literature.


[We are much indebted to our valued correspondent for the offer he has
so kindly made us of the MS. Notes in question, which we shall gladly
receive; and also for his extremely useful suggestion of the advantage
of such notifications to intending editors, as he describes.]

_Milton's L'Allegro._--Your correspondent (No. 18. p. 286.) has been
anticipated by Headley, who suggested, long ago, that the word _tale_
here implied the _numbering_ sheep. When Handel composed his beautiful
air, "Let me wander not unseen," he plainly regarded this word in the
more poetical sense. The song breathes the shepherd's tale of _love_
(perhaps addressed to "the milkmaid singing blithe") far more than it
conveys a dull computation of the _number_ of "his fleecy care." Despite
of that excellent commentator, Tom Warton, who adopted Headley's
suggestion, it is to be hoped that readers will continue, though it may
be in error, to understand the line as your correspondent _used_ to do:
an amatory _tête-à-tête_ is surely better suited to "the hawthorn in the
dale," than either mental arithmetic, or the study of Cocker.


       *       *       *       *       *


It appears from the preface to the last edition of _The Doctor, &c._
that the story of Dr. Daniel Dove and his horse was one well known in
Southey's domestic circle.

A letter is there quoted from Mrs. Southey (then Miss Caroline Bowles),
in which she says:--

     "There is a story of Dr. D.D. of D. and of his horse Nobs, which
     has I believe been made into a Hawker's Book. Coleridge used to
     tell it, and the humour lay in making it as long-winded as
     possible; it suited, however, my long-windedness better than his,
     and I was frequently called upon for it by those who enjoyed it,
     and sometimes I volunteered it, when Coleridge protested against
     its being told."

While upon the subject of _The Doctor_, may I direct your attention to
the following passage on p. 269. of the one volume edition, which you
will admit in many respects accurately describes your "NOTES AND

     "Our Doctor flourished in the golden age of magazines, when their
     pages were filled with voluntary contributions from men who never
     aimed at dazzling the public, but each came with his scrap of
     information or his humble question, or his hard problem, or his
     attempt in verse.

     "In those days A was an antiquary, and wrote articles upon altars
     and abbeys, and architecture. B made a blunder, which C corrected.
     D demonstrated that E was in error, and that F was wrong in
     philology, and neither philosopher nor physician, though he
     affected to be both. G was a genealogist. H was an herald who
     helped him. I was an inquisitive inquirer who found reason for
     suspecting J to be a Jesuit. M was a mathematician. N noted the
     weather. O observed the stars. P was a poet who peddled in
     pastorals, {317} and prayed Mr. Urban to print them. Q came in the
     corner of the page with his query. R arrogated to himself the right
     of reprehending every one who differed from him. S sighed and sued
     in song. T told an old tale, and when he was wrong, U used to set
     him right. V was a virtuoso. W warred against Warburton. X excelled
     in algebra. Y yearned for immortality in rhyme, and Z in his zeal
     was always in a puzzle."

Surely, Sir, you have revived the Golden Age of magazines, and long may
you flourish.


       *       *       *       *       *


The notice from Fairholt's _Costume in England_, concerning the earliest
use of a beaver hat in England, is not very satisfactory. Beaver hats
were certainly used in this country long before Stubbes's time. They
were originally, like many other articles of dress, manufactured abroad,
and imported here. Indeed, this was a great source of complaint by the
English artizan until a comparatively late period. The author of _A
Brief Discourse of English Poesy_, n.d. (temp. Eliz.) says:--

     "I merveil no man taketh heed to it, what number of trifles come
     hither from beyond the seas, that we might clean spare, or else
     make them within our realme. For the which we either pay
     inestimable treasure every year, or else exchange substantial wares
     and necessaries for them, for the which we might receive great

     "The _beaver_ or felt hats (says J.H. Burn, in his interesting
     _History of the Foreign Refugees_, p. 257.) worn in the reign of
     Edward III., and for a long time afterwards, were made in Flanders.
     The refugees in Norfolk introduced the manufacture of felts and
     thrummed hats into that country; and by a statute of 5 and 6 Edward
     VI., that trade was confined to Norwich, and all other corporate
     and market towns in the country."

     "About that time (says a _History of Trade_, published in 1702) we
     suffered a great herd of French tradesmen to come in, and
     particularly hat-makers, who brought with them the fashion of
     making a slight, coarse, mean commodity, viz. felt hats, now called
     _Carolinas_; a very inferior article to beavers and demicastors,
     the former of which then sold at from 24s. to 48s. a piece."

In the _Privy-Purse Expenses of Henry VIII._, we read, under the date

    "Item the xxiij day [October] paied for a hatte
      and a plume for the King in Boleyn [_i.e._
      Boulogue] ... xvs."

And again--

    "Item the same day paied for the garnisshing of ij
      bonetts, and for the said hatte ... xxiijs. iiijd."

These entries are curious, as the purchase of the hat was made in a
foreign country. It was probably something that took the King's fancy,
as we can hardly suppose that his majesty had neglected to provide
himself with this necessary appendage before he left England.

Several interesting notices concerning hats, and apparel generally, may
be seen in Roger Ascham's _Schoolmaster_, 1570, which I do not remember
to have seen quoted; but the literature of this period abounds in
illustration of costume which has been but imperfectly gleaned.


       *       *       *       *       *


If you think the insertion of scraps from the mutilated Exchequer
records useful, I shall be most happy, from time to time, to contribute
a few. The following are extracted from fragments of a book of entries,
temp. Charles I.: the book appears to have been a large folio, and each
leaf torn into at least four pieces. It is much to be regretted that the
work of selection and mutilation was not assigned to more competent
persons than the ignorant porters who I am told were entrusted with it.


_Fragment dated 1640._

    John de Critz, Serjeant Painter, p't of
      2158. 13, for a debt in the great
      wardrobe                                          60   0   0
                                                     { 200   0   0
    S'r James Palmer, Kn't, for the Tapestrie        { 362  10   0
      makers and painters at Mortlach                { 300   0   0
                                                     { 262  10   0
                                                     { 300   0   0

_Fragment dated 1637._

    ..........hony Vandike Kn't p't of 1200_li._
      for.........                                     300   0   0

    ..........le Seur Sculpter p't of 720_li._
    .................Statues and Images                300   0   0

_Fragment dated 1640._

    ..........in satisfaction for his greate
      Losses by his greate and extraordinary
      disbursem'ts vpon assignem'ts and
      other charges                                   4000   0   0

    S'r Job Harby and S'r John Nulles,
      Kn'ts, for soe much paid to the King
      of Denmke for redempion of a greate
      Jewell, and to liquidate the accompts
      betwixt his Ma'ty and the said King            25000   0   0

    Hubrecht le Seur in full of 340_li._ for      }
      2 statues in brasse, the one of his late    }    100   0   0
      Ma'ty, and the other of our now             }     70   0   3
      Souerainge lo: King Charles[3]              }

    More to him 60_li._, in p't of 120li. for a
      bust of brasse of his late Ma'ty, and
      40_li._ for carrying and erecting 2
      figures at Winchester                            100   0   0

    Richard Delamair for making divers            }
      Mathematicall Instruments, and              }    100   0   0
      other services                              }     68   0   0

[Footnote 3: Qy. the statue now at Charing Cross.]

       *       *       *       *       *{318}



The boundary between a surface represented and its background received
two different treatments in the hands of artists who have the highest
claims on our respect. Some, following the older painters as they were
followed by Raphael and Albert Durer, bring the surface of the figure
abruptly against its background. Others, like Murillo and Titian, melt
the one into the other, so that no pencil could trace the absolute limit
of either. Curiously enough, though for very obvious reasons, the
Daguerreotype seems to favour one method, the Calotype the other. Yet,
two Calotypes, in which the outlines are quite undefined, coalesce in
the Stereoscope, giving a sharp outline; and as soon as the mind has
been thus taught to expect a relievo, either eye will see it.

But if you look at your face in the glass, you cannot at once (say at
three feet distance) see the outlines of the eye and cheek. They
disappear every where, except in the focus common to both eyes. Then
nothing is seen absolutely at rest. The act of breathing imparts
perpetual motion to the artist and the model. The aspen leaf is
trembling in the stillest air. Whatever difference of opinion may exist
as to Turner's use or abuse of his great faculties, no one will doubt
that he has never been excelled in the art of giving space and relative
distance to all parts of his canvas. Certainly no one ever carried
confusion of outline in every part not supposed to be in the focus of
the eye so far.

On the other hand, every portion of a large picture, however severe its
execution, acquires this morbid outline wherever the eye quits one
detail for another. Is, then, the law governing small and large surface
different? Do these instances imply that a definite boundary, a modern
German style, is indefensible? or only indefensible in miniature? Or, is
such a picture as the Van Eyh in the National Gallery a vindication of
the practice in small works?

I can answer that it is not; and this last question I merely ask to
avoid all answers on the score of authority. No doubt that strange work
is one of the most realising pictures ever painted,--more so than any
neighbouring Rembrandt,--whose masses of light and shade were used as a
"creative power." I want to know whether there is a right and wrong in
the case, apart from every thing men call taste. Whether, whenever a
work of art passes from suggestion to imitation, _some_ liberty must not
be given at the lines whence the rays are supposed to diverge to the two
eyes from two different surfaces. Every advance in art and science
removes something from the realms of opinion, and this appears to be a
question on which science must some day legislate for art.


       *       *       *       *       *


Amongst the numerous correspondents and readers of your very interesting
little work, there may yet be living some who were scholars in the above
institution during the last ten or fifteen years of the last century,
coevals, or nearly so, with Richards, afterwards of Oriel College,
author of a prize poem, _Aboriginal Britons_, and one of the Bampton
Lecturers; Middleton, afterwards Bishop of Calcutta; Trollope,
afterwards Master of the Grammar School; Barnes, afterwards connected
with the _Times_; Stevens, Scott (poor Scott!), Coleridge, Lamb, Allen,
White, Leigh Hunt, the two brothers Le G. Favell, Thompson, Franklin,
&c., pupils of old James Boyer, of flogging celebrity.

If so, can any of them furnish me with the words of an old song, then
current in the school, relating to the execution of the Earl of
Derwentwater in the rebellion of 1715, of which the four following lines
are all that I remember:

    "There's fifty pounds in my right pocket,
      To be given to the poor;
    There's fifty pounds in my left pocket,
      To be given from door to door."

Of another song, equally popular, less pathetic, but of more
spirit-stirring character, can any one supply the remainder?

    "As our king lay musing on his bed,
    He bethought himself once on a time
    Of a tribute that was due from France,
    That had not been paid for so long a time.

    "Oh! then he called his trusty page,
    His trusty page then called he,
    Saying, 'You must go to the king of France,
    To the king of France right speedily.'"


       *       *       *       *       *


Allow me to offer a query or two respecting which I shall be glad of any
information your numerous correspondents may be able to furnish.

1. In Fuller's _History of Waltham Abbey_, pp. 269. 274., Nichol's
edition, 1840, we have the following entries from the churchwarden's

     "Anno 1542, the thirty-fourth of Henry viii. _Imprimis_. For
     watching the sepulchre, a groat."

     "_Item_, for watching the sepulchre, eight pence."

The last entry occurs in "Anno 1554, Mariæ primo," but Fuller adds,
"though what meant thereby, I know not." Can any satisfactory
information be furnished which will explain the custom here alluded to?

2. In the same work, page 278., a passage occurs, which not only
explains the meaning of the term _factotum_, but furnishes matter for
another query. The passage is this; speaking of "eminent persons buried"
at Waltham Abbey, he says: "we spoil all, if we forget Robert Passellew,
who was _dominus fac totum_ in the middle--and _fac nihil_ towards the
end--of the reign of Henry III." Some parasites extolled him by allusion
to his name, _pass-le-eau_, (that is "passing the pure water,") the wits
of those days thus descanting upon him:

    "Est aqua lenis, et est aqua dulcis, et est aqua clara,
      Tu præcellis aquam, nam leni lenior es tu,
    Dulci dulcior es tu, clara clarior es tu;
      Mente quidem lenis, re dulcis, sanguine clarus."
                    _Camden's MSS._ Cott. Lib.

The learned Dr. Whitaker, in his _History of Whalley_, says, that "the
word Paslew was of Norman origin (Pass-le-eau), and afforded a subject
for some rhyming monkish verses, not devoid of ingenuity, which the
curious reader may find in Weever's _Funeral Monuments_, p. 645;" and a
question now arises whether the _Passellew_ mentioned by Fuller belongs
to the same family as the "Paslews of Wiswall," alluded to by Dr.
Whitaker, one of whom, "John, Abbot of Whalley" was executed for the
part he took in the "Pilgrimage of Grace." when it is stated that the
Paslews of Wiswall bore "Argent a fess between three mullets Sable
pierced of the field, a crescent for difference," probably some of your
readers will be able to give some particulars respecting "Robert
Passelew," and also identify the families if possible.


Burnley, Lancashire, Feb. 23, 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Conrad of Salisbury's Descritio utriusque Britanniæ._--A good many
years since I had a communication from the Baron de Penhouet, a Breton
Antiquary, respecting a work which I have never yet been able to
discover. I may ascertain, through the medium of your very useful
publication, whether there exists a work under the title of a
"Descriptio utriusque Britanniæ," by Conrad of Salisbury, from a MS. of
the time of Henry I. I should feel much obliged to any one who would
favour me with this information.


_Peruse or Pervise--Passage in Frith's Works._--Your correspondent T.J.
rightly conjectured that the _peruse_ of a modern reprint of Frith was
an error. I have been able since to consult two black-letter editions,
and have found, as I suspected, "pervise" and "pervyse."

If your same correspondent, or any other, can help me to correct, or to
understand another erroneous clause in Russell's edit. of Frith, vol.
iii. p. 227., I shall be still further obliged.

It is probably meant for some old rule in logic, but is printed there,
"Ab inferiori ad suis superius confuse distribue." Foxe, however, has
"suum" instead of "suis."


_Cromlech._--I shall feel much obliged if any of your readers will
kindly refer me to any authority for the use of the word _Cromlech_,
prior to the sixteenth century, whether in the Welsh or English


Trin. Coll. Dublin, Jan. 31, 1850.

_Meaning of "Grummett."_--A Constant Reader is desirous of addressing
such of your correspondents as are well versed in maritime history,--Mr.
Bolton Corney to wit,--on the following subject. In the early ages of
our Navy there was a distinct rating, called "Grummett," on board each
man-of-war, and he was generally, as may be seen in the Cottonian MSS.,
placed after the "maryners and gonners." Now, the reader will be highly
obliged to any one who will trace the designation to its source, and
give information as to what were the special duties of the Grummett, or

[Greek: Sigma].

_Vertue's Manuscripts._--Steevens and Malone, in fixing the dates of
Shakspeare's Dramas, frequently quote from _Vertue's_ MSS. George
Chalmers, in his _Supplemental Apology_, says, "On making some
inquiries, by a friend, what manuscript of _Vertue's_ it were, which I
saw so often quoted about scenic matters, Mr. Steevens was so obliging
as to say, 'The books, from which those extracts were made, with several
others lost, belonged to Secretary Pepys, and afterwards to Dr.
Rawlinson, who lent them to Mr. Vertue.' When the said MSS. were
consulted by the two commentators, they were, I believe, in the
possession of Garrick." Chalmers adds, "Much is it to be lamented, that
any MS. or book, which furnished an illustration of Shakespeare, and
having once been seen, should ever disappear." Every true lover of our
great poet will heartily agree with this remark.


_Loscop._--The Patent Roll, 1 Edw. III. part I, membrane 27, contains
the exemplification or copy of a grant by Henry I. to his butler William
de Albini of--"Manerium de Snetesham cum duobus hundredis et dimidio
scil. Fredebruge et Smethedune cum wreck et cum omnibus pertinentiis
suis et misteria de Luna cum medietate fori et theloneis et cum ceteris
consuetudinibus et portu cum applicacione navium et _loscop_ et viam
ipsius aquæ et transitu cum omnibus querelis." I should be greatly
obliged to any of your learned correspondents who would explain the word
_loscop_. Luna is the town or port of King's Lynn. _Misteria_ {320} may
probably be translated "offices." See Ducange (Paris Edit. 1845) under
the words misterium and ministerium. _Loscop_ appears to be a word of
similar formation to Laudcop and Lahcop, which occur in the Laws of
Ethelred (Thorpe's _Ancient Laws_, vol. i. pp. 294, 295.). Can it mean a
fee paid on _loosing_ the vessel in order to leave the port?


_Ormonde House._--Perhaps some of your annotators on Cunningham's
_Hand-book of London_, will be so kind as to inform me whereabouts
"Ormonde House" stood in St. James's Square; also to state any
particulars respecting its history before and after it was occupied by
that noble family.


_As Morse caught the Mare._--I shall be glad to be informed the meaning
of this expression--it is to be met with in the translation of Rabelais.
There is also a song sung among the farmers of South Devon, of which the
last line of each verse is "As Morse caught the Mare."


_Dustpot--Forthlot._--In a Manorial Compotus, temp. Hen. V., I find the
following entry, under the head of Out-goings:--

     "In custodes carucarum et carectarum nil quia per firmarium. Item
     pro eorum _duspot_ (xij'd) nil, causa predicta. Item pro eorum
     _forlot_ (iiij'd) nil, causa predicta," &c.

I have in vain consulted the glossaries within my reach,--Ducange,
Spelman, Halliwell, for the meaning of the terms _dustpot_ and _forlot_
(or, as spelt in another Compotus, _dustpot_ and _forthlot_). They
appear to have been customary payments to the servants who had the care
of the carts and carriages belonging to the manor, which, at the time of
this particular Compotus, were not payable by the lord, because the
demesne lands were in farm; and these dues were paid by the tenant. A
reference to the _Promptorinm Parvulorum_ (a further instalment of which
I rejoice to learn, from Mr. Way's communication, in No. 15., is in a
state of progress) has been equally unproductive. The editorial note to
the communications inserted in No. 17., on the interpretation of
_Pokership_, induces me to send you this query, in the hope of eliciting
information, if not from the gentleman you there refer to, at least from
some one or other of your numerous readers learned in Archaic words.

I may, at a future period trouble you with some further remarks arising
out of the same Compotus.


_Tracts attributed to Eachard._--The writer of this article has long had
in his possession an old volume (among many others of a like kind in his
collection) published in 1685; and containing the following
tracts:--1st. "The Grounds and Occasions of the Contempt of the
Clergy,... in a letter written to R.L., 9th edition." This letter is
signed T.B. 2nd. "Observations upon the Answer to the Inquiry, &c., in a
second Letter from T.B. to R.L." 3rd. "Hobbes' State of Nature,
considered, in a Dialogue between Philautus and Timothy;" the "Epistle
Dedicatory" is signed, J.E. 4th. "A Letter to his Old Dear Friend R.L.
from T.B." 5th. "A Letter to B.D.," the publisher of Mr. Herbert's
_Country Parson_, from T.B. 6th. "A Letter to the Author of the
Vindication of the Clergy," from T.B. 7th. "A Letter to T.D.," the
Author of _Hieragonisticon_, or _Corah's Doom_, from T.B. 8th. "A Letter
to I.O. from T.B."

Now, it is mentioned in Dr. Hooke's _Ecclesiastical Biography_ (vol.
iv., art. Eachard), that Eachard was the author of these tracts. But the
queries I would beg to propose, if any of your correspondents can answer
them, are these:--1st. Why does Eachard sign himself T.B.; does that
signature allude to any matter in particular? 2nd. Who are meant by the
other letters, R.L., B.D., L.O., &c.; and who, if any persons in
particular, by Philautus; and Timothy; and who was the author of

Perhaps "Philau_tus_" should be rather be "Philau_tos_," and may mean
"Hobbes" himself, as a self-sufficient person, and a great admirer or
lover of himself. I wish these queries may not be thought too
insignificant for your periodical, which to me, and so many others, is
of peculiar interest and value.

GEO. WYATT (Clerk.)

Burghwallis, 1850.

_Queen of Hearts._--Permit me to request some explanation of a passage
in Miss Strickland's _Life of Queen Elizabeth_ (vol. vii. p. 292.),
where we are told that--

     "Lady Southwell affirms that the two ladies in waiting discovered
     the _Queen of Hearts_, with a nail of Iron knocked through the
     forehead, and thus fastened to the bottom of the chair: they durst
     not pull it out, remembering that her like thing was used to the
     old Countess of Sussex, and afterwards proved a witchcraft, for
     which certain persons were hanged."

The author moralises upon this, but does not refer us to any authority,
or tell where the affirmation of Lady Southwell is to be found, or where
the account of the old countess is given; defects which I hope some of
your correspondents will be good enough to supply.


_Guildhalls._--There are in most villages in this neighbourhood houses
which from time immemorial have been called Guildhalls. These are
situate among such small populations that they are manifestly
unconnected with trade. Will any of your correspondents tell me--

1st. Why are they called Guildhalls?

2nd. For what purpose were they anciently used? {321}

3rd. Are they common in other counties besides Suffolk?

Also: What is the origin of the Friday Streets so common in most
villages in this neighbourhood?


Guildhall, Framlingham, Suffolk, Feb. 6. 1850.

_Vox Populi_--_Monody on Sir John Moore._--Can any reader give me the
origin of the saying "_Vox Populi, Vox Dei_?"--and has any one of your
correspondents ever heard of any doubts being raised as to the original
author of the _Monody upon Sir John Moore_, which is now always assigned
to the Rev. Dr. Wolfe? I saw it stated in an English paper, published in
France some few years back, that Wolfe had taken them from a poem at the
end of the _Memoirs of Lally Tottendal_, the French governor of
Pondicherry, in 1756, and subsequently executed in 1766. In the Paper I
refer to, the French poem was given; and certainly one of the two must
be a translation of the other. I have not been able to get a copy of
Tottendal's _Memoirs_, or of the Paper I refer to, or I would not
trouble you with this Query; but perhaps some one can inform me which is
the Merchant here, and which the Jew.


Reg. Coll. London.

_Use of Coffins._--How long has it been the custom to inter the dead in
coffins? "In a table of Dutyes" dated 11th Dec. 1664, and preserved at
Shoreditch Church, it is mentioned:--

     "For a buryall in the New Church Yard without a coffin, 00 00 08.

     "For a buryall in ye Old Church Yard without a coffin seauen pence
     00 00 07.

     "For the grave marking and attendance of ye Vicar and Clarke on
     ye enterment of a corps uncoffined the churchwardens to pay the
     ordinary duteys (and no more) of this table."


_Rococo._--Would any correspondent of "NOTES AND QUERIES" give the
history of this word, or indicate where it is to be found? or, if the
history is not known, state when, and by whom, it appears to have been
_first_ used?



_Howlett the Engraver._--Can any of your readers furnish me with an
account of the "Publications of Bartholomew Howlett," who was an
engraver of some note, and about forty-five or fifty years ago resided
in London? He was a native of Louth in Lincolnshire, and about
forty-five years ago, being then resident (as appears from his book)
somewhere in the neighbourhood of the Blackfriars' Road, published by
subscription a book containing a series of engravings, entitled "Views
in Lincolnshire."


_The Bear, the Louse, and Religion._--I should be much obliged to any of
your correspondents who will inform me where I can find _The Bear, the
Louse, and Religion_: a fable. It commences--

    "A surly Bear, in college bred,
    Determin'd to attack Religion;
    A Louse, who crawl'd from head to head,
    Defended her--as Hawk does pidgeon.
    Bruin Subscription discommended;
    The Louse determin'd to support it--"

I know no more. When was it written?--upon what occasion?--who are meant
by the Bear and the Louse?


Mar. 5. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *



There are many reasons, drawn from style and other internal evidence,
which induce P.C.S.S. to entertain strong doubts as to the authenticity
of the letter attributed to Sir Robert Walpole (and reprinted from
Bankes) in No. 19. Among others it seems very unlikely that a prime
minister, confidentially addressing his sovereign (and that sovereign
George II.!) on a matter of the greatest import, would indulge in a
poetical quotation. And it is remarkable that neither the quotation in
question, not any thing at all resembling it, in thought or expression,
is to be found in any part of Fenton's printed works. P.C.S.S. has
carefully looked them over, in the editions of London, 1717, and of
1810 (Chalmer's _Collection_, vol. x.), and he cannot discover a trace
of it. He had at first imagined that it might be successfully sought
for in Fenton's admirable _Epistle to William Lamborde_ (the Kentish
antiquary), where there is a remarkably fine passage respecting flattery
and its influences; but nothing at all like the quotation cited in the
letter is to be found in that poem, which (_par parenthèse_) seems to
have met with much more neglect than it deserves.

P.C.S.S. would further notice the great improbability that Walpole would
committed himself _in writing_, even to his royal master, by such a
display of perilous frankness, in treating of the private character and
principles of his great rival. He must have been aware that the letter
would, most probably, at the decease of the king (then advanced in life)
have been found among his majesty's papers, and, with them, have passed
into the hands of his successor, by whom it would undoubtedly have been
communicated to the very individual with whom it so hardly dealt.


       *       *       *       *       *


The money collected at the Eton Montem, now wisely abolished, was called
"salt." In the {322} _Consuetudinarium vetus Scholæ Etonensis_, taken from
a MS. in the library of Corpus, Cambridge, and the Harleian MS. 7044, p.
167., and printed by Professor Creasy in his _Account of Eton College_,
p. 73. (from whose work I take the extract), the following passage
occurs, under the head "Mense Januario." I would remark, that Montem was
changed from January to Whit-Tuesday, about a hundred years since:--

     "'Circiter festum Conversionis Divi Pauli ad horam nonam quodam die
     pro arbitrio moderatoris' (ex consueto modo quo eunt collectum
     Avellanas Mense Septembri), itur a pueris ad Montem. Mons puerili
     religione Etonensium sacer locus est; hunc ob pulchritudinem agri,
     amoenitatem graminis, umbraculorum temperationem, et Apollini et
     Musis venerabilem sedem faciunt, carminibus celebrant, Tempe
     vocant, Heliconi præferunt. Hic Novitii seu recentes, qui annum
     nondum viriliter et nervose in acie Etonensi ad verbera steterunt
     _sale primo_ condiuntur, tum versiculis qui habeant _salem_ ac
     leporem, quoad fieri potest egregie depinguntur. Deinde in recentes
     epigrammata faciunt, omni suavitate sermonis, et facetiis alter
     alterum superare contendentes. Quicquid in buccam venit libere
     licet effutire, modo Latine fiat, modo habeat urbanitatem, modo
     caveat obscoenà verborum scurrilitate, postremo et lacrymis
     _salsis_ humectant ora genasque' et tune demum veteranorum ritibus
     initiantur. Sequuntur orationes et parvi triumphi, et serio
     lætantur, cum ob præteritos labores tum ob cooptationem in tam
     lepidorum commilitonum societatem."

It seems that "salting" was a sort of initiation, like that which
prevails among our Teutonic brethren, where the "Fuchs" is raised to the
sublime degree of a "Brandfuchs," "junge Bursch," "bemorstes Haupt," by
successive promotions. Not improbably in after times, especially at the
Universities, like "passing the Line," it admitted of being commuted for
a money payment. The exact nature of the "salting" at Eton I cannot
explain; perhaps your able correspondent, R.O., may afford information
on this head.


_College Salting_ (no. 17. p. 261.).--I cannot but think that the asking
for salt at the now abolished ceremony of the Eton Montem (whence also,
as it is said, "Salt Hill" was named) must have been connected with the
"College Salting." The salt, or money, then collected belonged, as is
well known, to the head-boy who had "got Montem," as it (alas!) _was_
called, and who was about to enter on his career (of course as a
freshman) at Cambridge.

I would gladly, if permitted, draw the attention of your correspondents,
who are considering the original subject, to the latter, by placing it
in juxtaposition with "College Salting."


Hamilton Terrace.

       *       *       *       *       *


The questions asked by your correspondent "P." (No. 18. p. 172.)
perplexed by their simplicity. The answer, if answer can be seriously
required, was obvious. All that was ever urged in favour of every other
claimant was against the claim of Sir George Jackson. Beyond this I know
not what reply could be given. Emboldened by silence, "P." now proceeds
(p. 276.) to adduce certain evidence which he supposes has some bearing
on the question. "I possess," he says, "an unpublished letter by Junius
_to_ Woodfall, which once belonged to Sir George Jackson. My query is,
'Is it likely he would have obtained it from Junius, if he were neither
Junius himself nor a party concerned?'" What can be the meaning of this,
obtain _from Junius_ a letter which Junius had sent to Woodfall? Why, it
is obvious that Sir George must have obtained it as "P." obtained it--as
all autograph collectors obtain their treasures--directly or indirectly,
by gift or by purchase, mediately or immediately from one of the
Woodfalls--probably from Henry Sampson Woodfall--probably from George
Woodfall, who has recorded the fact that he lent one letter to a Mr.
Duppa, which was never returned. "P." then proceeds a step further, and
observes--"The manner in which Burke evades the question, as to himself
being the author of Junius, makes me think two or three were concerned
in these letters." Well, and it made others think so half a century or
more since. The three Burkes have often been named--the Burkes again,
with the assistance of Samuel Dyer: and Mr. Prior put forth a very
reputable argument in favour of the claims of the Burkes, but it was
delicate and died young. If your correspondent has nothing to urge in
favour of this conjecture, why disinter it? "P.," however, has it
in his power to do some service to the cause: let him send you, for
publication, an exact copy of the Junius' letter, following carefully
the spelling, the capital letters, the instructions, and even the

Mr. John Sudlow's conjectures are still more simple. He evidently is not
aware that when a public writer assumes a character he is bound to hold
to it consistently; and that as "ATTICUS" was then writing on the
subject of the national debt, and objecting to the financial policy of
the minister, he naturally affected to be a fundholder, to be
frightened, and to have, in consequence, removed his property. What a
strange notion Mr. Sudlow must have of Steele and Addison, if he has
read the _The Spectator_ and _The Tatler_ after this literal fashion.
But I will not speculate on his speculations, but come to facts.

It is true that "amongst the letters attributed to Junius, and, in the
opinion of Dr. Good, most certainly his production, is one signed
Atticus," {323} which your correspondent proceeds to quote, adding that
it is "believed to be the first which appeared signed Atticus." This is
really a little "too bad." It is known, and ought to have been known to
your correspondent before he intermeddled, that Good, though he wrote
so confidently in public, had "most certainly" very great doubts in
private; that others who have examined the question have no doubt at
all; and have, indeed, adduced such strong proofs against Good's
conjectures, that the gentleman now engaged in producing a new edition
of Good's work speaks, in the first volume, the only one yet published,
of Good's "unhesitating affiliation" of these letters, and announces his
intention of offering hereafter "strong proof" that the letters signed
Poplicola, _Atticus_, and others, "_were not written by Junius_." That
there may be persons who _believe_ that the letter quoted was the first
which appeared signed Atticus, I cannot deny; but all who are reasonably
informed on the subject _know_ that it is not so;--know, as stated not
long since in the _Athenæum_, that letters signed Atticus appeared
in the _Public Advertizer_ from 1766 to 1773--possibly before and
after--and that within that period there were at least thirty-seven
letters published, from which Good was pleased to select four.


       *       *       *       *       *


Having an engraving of this sign, I am enabled satisfactorily to reply
to Mr. Cooper's query (No. 16. p. 245.) respecting its existence. The
engraving measures 17 inches and a half long, by 22 wide; it was
"Published according to Act of Parliament May the 1st 1740." In the
right-hand bottom corner appears "Jno Fessey Sculp.," and in the left
"Joshua Kirby Delin't." It is entitled, "The North East Side of ye Sign
of ye White Hart at Schoale Inn in Norfolk, built in the year 1655 by
James Peck, a Merchant of Norwich, which cost 1057l., humbly Dedicated
to James Betts Gent by his most Obed't Serv't Harwin Martin." The sign
springs on one side from a mass of masonry, and was joined to the house
on the other: it was sufficiently high to enable carriages to drive
under it. As it would trespass too much on your columns were I to
particularise each of the figures, I will content myself with giving
the printed explanation of them from the engraving, premising that each
figure is numbered:--"1. Jonah coming out of the Fishes Mouth. 2. A
Lion supporting the Arms of Great Yarmouth. 3. A Bacchus. 4. The Arms of
Lindley. 5. The Arms of Hobart, now Lord Hobart. 6. A Shepherd playing
on his Pipe. 7. An Angel supporting the Arms of Mr. Peck's Lady.
8. An Angel supporting the Arms of Mr. Peck. 9. A White Hart, with
this Motto (this is the one which 'hangs down carved in a stately
wreath')--'Implentur veteris Bacchi pinguisque ferinæ Anno Dom 1655.'
10. The Arms of the late Earl of Yarmouth. 11. The Arms of the Duke of
Norfolk. 12. Neptune on a Dolphin. 13. A Lion supporting the Arms of
Norwich. 14. Charon carrying a reputed Witch to Hell. 15. Cerberus. 16.
An Huntsman. 17. Actæon [with three dogs, and this legend, 'Actæon ego
sum Dominum cognoscite vestrum']. 18. A White Hart couchant [underneath
appears in the engraving the artist's name--Johannes Fairchild struxit].
19. Prudence. 20. Fortitude. 21. Temperance. 22. Justice. 23. Diana
[with two greyhounds, one of whom is chasing a hare]. 24. Time devouring
an Infant [with the legend, 'Tempus edax rerum,' below]. 25. An
Astronomer, who is seated on a Circumferenter, and by some Chymical
Preparation is so Affected that in the fine Weather he faces that
Quarter from whence it is about to come." The whole sign is drawn by a
scale of half an inch to a food, and most of the figures are of the size
of life. On both sides of the engraving, but distinct from the sign, are
seven coats of arms. Those on the right hand are: 1. Earl of Yarmouth.
2. Cornwallis impaling 1st and 4th Buckton, 2nd Unknown, 3rd Teye. 3.
Castleton. 4. Unknown. 5. Mrs. Peck [these arms are wrongly blazoned by
Blomefield; they are _gules_ a fesse _argent_, between, in chief, two
crescents, and in base, a lion _passant guardant_ of the same]. 6. Great
Yarmouth. 7. Unknown. The arms on the opposite side are: 1. Duke of
Norfolk. 2. Hobart. 3. Bacon. 4. Thurston. 5. Mr. Peck impaling his wife
[his arms, too, are wrongly blazoned; they should be--Or, on a chevron
engrailed gules three crosslets pattee argent]. 6. Lindley. 7. Norwich.

Mr. Cooper will find a slight notice of this sign, both in Gough's
_Camden_ and in _The Beauties of England and Wales_; but both these are
of later date than Mr. Cruttwell's _Tour_. I have only to add, that I
should wish Mr. Cooper to _see_ the engraving. I shall be very happy to
send it by post for his inspection.


       *       *       *       *       *

_Parkership, Porkership, Pokership._--With every deference to the
ingenious suggestions of Mr. Bolton Corney (No. 15. p. 218.), I think it
will be found, on reference to the original documents, that "Pokership"
is a misreading of the ancient writing for "Parkership." This question
might be determined if any correspondent, acquainted with the present
excellent arrangement of our records, could inform us whether the
appointments under the old Earldom of March are extant. A large portion
of Herefordshire was held under his tenure. Thomas Croft, of Croft, was,
in 1473, "Parker" of Pembrugge, in that county: _Rot. Parl_. vi. 342. In
1485 John Amyas {324} was, by the act of settlement made on the accession
of Henry VII., continued in his office "of the kepyng of our chase of
Moketree in Wigmoresland under the Erledom of Marche," and Thomas Grove
"in the keepying of our chase of the Boryngwood in Wigmoresland and of
the 'Poulterership' and keping of the ditch of the same."

In _An Abstract of the late King's Revenues_ (printed 1651, 4to.) is
this entry relating to Bringwood:--

     "To Sir Robert Harley for keeping Boringwood alias Bringwood Forest
     Com. Heref. 6l. 2s. 8d. per ann., for the Pokership 30s. 5d. by the
     year, and for the keeping the forest of Prestwood 18s. by the

In a survey made of mocktree and Bringwood Forests in 1633, it is
stated, that "these Forests are stately grounds, and do feed a great and
large Deer, and will keep of Red and Fallow Deer two or three thousand
at the least."

These enclosures were disafforested temp. Charles II., and they now form
part of the Downton Castle Estate.



_Porkership_-Accept my best thanks for your ready insertion of my
observations in No. 18.; but I regret to say that the printer has
unfortunately made a mistake in one word, and that, as it mostly
happens, the principal one, on which the gist of my illustration in
regard to the Pokership depends. The error occurs in the extract from
the Pipe Roll, where the word has been printed Parcario instead of
Porcario; added to which the abbreviations in the other words are
wanting, which renders the meaning doubtful. It should have been printed
thus:--"Et [i+] li[b+]ae const Porcario de [h+]eford,"--being, _in
extenso_, "Et in liberatione constat Porcario de Hereford." Showing that
in early times there was a hog warden, or person who collected the
king's hog-rent in Hereford. And further, Mr. Smirke's extract in No.
17. p. 269., shows that in Henry VIII.'s time the Porcarius had become
Pocarius, the fee being within 1d. of the same amount as that paid in
John's reign.

May I, under these circumstances, crave a short note in your next
Number, correcting the oversight, so that my Porker may be set on his
legs again?

P.S.--In reference to the claim, the name of the place should be
Burnford, not Barnford.


Spring Gardens, March 4, 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Coleridge's Christabel and Byron's Lara_ (No. 17. p. 262.).--What
Christabel saw is plain enough. The lady was a being like Duessa, a
Spenser; a horrible-looking witch, who could, to a certain degree, put
on an appearance of beauty. The difference is, that this lady had both
forms at once; the one in her face, the other concealed. This is quite
plain from the very words of Coleridge.

The lifting her over the sill seems to be something like the same
superstition that we have in Scott's _Eve of St. John_:--

    "But I had not had pow'r to come to thy bow'r,
    If Though had'st not charm'd me so."

I have no doubt that Lara is the Corsair; and Kaled Gulnare, from the
Corsair: the least inspection is enough to show this. Ezzelin must also
be Seyd; but that does not answer quite so well. All that there is to
prepare it is, that Seyd is only left for dead, in a great hurry, and
therefore might recover; and that he drank wine, and therefore might be
of Christian extraction. In Lara he is described as dark; but his
appearance is rather confusedly related, as if he never appeared but
once, and yet Otho knows him, and he has a dwelling. The shriek is more
difficult. There could be no meeting, then, between Ezzelin and Lara,
because Ezzelin is surprised by meeting him at Otho's. Whether the
shriek may not be owing to a meeting between Kaled and Ezzelin, is in
not so clear. From the splendid description of her looking down upon
him, it is not proved that she there saw him first; and Ezzelin never
sees her at all there.

Nothing is more interesting than these mysteries left in narrative
fictions. The story of Gertude, in that first of romances, the _Promessi
Sposi_, is a very great instance; and the bad taste, of bringing her up
again to the subject of a story by another writer, is so extreme, that I
never could look into the book. That Mazoni has left the character, whom
he calls the _Innominato_, in mystery, is historical, and not of his own

I used to think that Scott had left the part of Clara, in _St. Ronan's
Well_, intentionally mysterious, as to a most important circumstance;
but we learn, from his _Life_, that he meant to have made that
circumstance a part of the story, but was prevented by the publisher. It
is natural that the altered novel, therefore, should retain some
impressions of it. I refer particularly to the latter part of the
communications between her and her brother. But the meeting between her
and Tyrell in the woods, and their conversation there, I now think,
forbid the reader to suspect any thing like what I speak of. In such
cases I do not myself wish to know too much about the matter. Sometimes
the author wishes you to have the pleasure of guessing, as I think, in
Lara; sometimes he means to be more mysterious; sometimes he does not
know himself. It would have been idle to have asked Johnson where Ajeet
went to.

C.B. {325}

_Sir William Rider_ (No. 12. p. 186).--"H.F." will find some account of
the acts and deeds of Sir Thomas Lake and Dame Mary Lake his wife in the
_13th Report on Charities_, p. 280, as to their gifts to Muccleston in
Staffordshire. In the _24th Report_, p. 300, as to Drayton in the same
county. Dame Mary Lake was also a benefactor to the parish of Little
Stanmore, see _9th Report_, p. 271. See also Stow's _Survey_ 593. (ed.


_God tempers the Wind_ (No. 14. p. 211.; No. 15. p 236.).--The proverb
is French: "A brebis tondue Dieu mesure le vent;" but I cannot tell now
where to find it in print, except in Chambaud's _Dictionary_. That is
why Sterne puts it into the mouth of Maria.


_Complutensian Polyglot._--"Mr. JEBB" asks (No. 14. p. 213.), "In what
review or periodical did there appear a notice of the supposed discovery
of the MSS. from which the _Complutensian Polyglot_ was compiled?"

He will find an article on this subject in the _Irish Ecclesiastical
Journal_ for April, 1847; from which I learn that there was a previous
article, by Dr. James Thomson, one of the agents of the British and
Foreign Bible Society, in the _Biblical Review_, a London periodical
publication. Dr. Thomson, if I understand the matter aright, professed
to have found at Madrid the MSS., so long supposed to have been lost.

There is also an article on the same subject by Dr. Bowring, in the
_Monthly Repository_, vol. xvi. (1821), p. 203.

_Tickhill, God help me_ (No. 16. p. 247.).--Of Tickhill I know nothing;
but Melverley in this county goes by the soubriquet of "Melverley, God
help;" and the folk-lore on the subject is this:--Melverley lies by
Severn side, where that river flows under the Breiddon hills from the
county of Montgomery into that of Salop. It is frequently inundated in
winter, and, consequently, very productive in summer. They say that if a
Melverley man is asked in winter where he belongs, the doleful and
downcast reply is, "Melverley, God help me;" but asked the same question
in summer, he answers quite jauntily, "Melverley, and what do you
think?" A friend informs me that the same story appertains to Pershore
in the vale of Evesham. Perhaps the analogy may assist Mr. Johnson in
respect to Tickhill.

Let me take this opportunity to add to my flim-flam on pet-names in your
late Number, that Jack appears to have been a common term to designate a
low person, as "every Jack;" "every man-jack;" "Jack-of-all-trades?"
"Jackanapes;" &c.


Shrewsbury, Feb. 18.

_Bishop Blaise_ (No. 16. p. 247.).--Four lives of the martyr Blasius,
Bishop of Sebaste in Cappadocia, are to be found in the Bollandine _Acta
Sanctorum_, under the 3rd of February. It appears that the relics and
worship of this saint were very widely spread through Europe, and some
places seem to have claimed him as indigenous on the strength merely of
possessing one of his toes or teeth. The wool-comb was one of the
instruments with which he was tortured, and having become a symbol of
his martyrdom, gave occasion, it would seem, to the wool-combers to
claim him as their patron, and to ascribe to him the invention of their
art. See Ellis's Brand's _Popular Antiquities_, vol. i. pp. 29, 30; and
query whether the veneration of St. Blaise by these artizans were not
peculiar to England. Blasius of Sebaste is said to have been a
physician; in consequence of the persecution raised by Diocletian, he
retired to a mountain named Argæus, whither all the wild beasts of the
country resorted to him, and reverentially attended him. But there is a
legend of another Blasius of Cæsarea in Cappadocia, who is represented
as an owner of herds ([Greek: boukolos]), and remarkable for his charity
to the poor. His herdsman's staff was planted over the spot where he was
martyred, and grew into an umbrageous tree.

This variation of legends favours the idea that the cultus of Blasius
was founded upon that of some deity worshipped in Cappadocia, whose
rites and attributes may have varied in different localities.


_Sangred--Judas Bell._--"BURIENSIS" inquires (p. 124.) what _sangred_
is. This term is noticed in Rock's _Church of Our Fathers_, t. ii. p.
372. In the very interesting, "Extracts from Church-warden's Accounts,"
p. 195., it is asked what "Judas' bell" was. I presume it to have been a
bell named after, because blessed in honour of the apostle St. Jude,
who, in the Greek Testament, in the Vulgate, and our own early English
translations, as well as old calendars, is always called Judas, and not
Jude, as a difference from Judas Iscariot.


_La Mer des Histoires._--"MR. SANSOM" (No. 18. p. 286.) has inquired,
What is known of Columna's book, entitled _Mare Historiarum_? Trithemius
has made mention of the work (_De Script. Eccles_. DL.), and two
manuscript copies of it are preserved in the Royal Library at Paris. (B.
de Montfaucon, _Biblioth. Bibliothecar. MSS._ tom ii. p. 751. Par.
1739.) Douce very properly distinguished it from _La Mer des Histoires_;
but, if he wrote "Mochartus," he was in error; for _Brochart_ was the
author of the Latin original, called _Rudimentum Novitiorum_, and
published in 1475. As to the statement of Genebrard, that Joannes de
Columna was the writer of the "_Mater_ Historiarum," I should say that
the mistake was produced by confounding the words _Mer_ and _Mere_. Mr.
Sansom may find all the information {326} that need be desired on this
subject in Quetif et Echard, _Scriptores Ord. Præd._ tom. i. pp. 418-20.
Lut. Paris, 1719. (Vid. etiam Amb. de Altamura, _Biblioth. Dominican_.
p. 45. Romæ, 1677; Fabricii, _Bibl. Med. et Inf. Latin._ i. 1133. Hamb.


"What are _depenings_?" (No. 18. p. 277.)

The nets used by the Yarmouth herring busses were made in breadths of
six feet. The necessary _depth_ was obtained by sewing together
successive breadths, and each breadth was therefore called a


[Footnote 4: From a pamphlet written about 1615, not now before us. ED.]

       *       *       *       *       *


_Tale of a Tub._--It is generally supposed that the title of Swift's
_Tale of a Tub_ was a jest originally levelled at the Puritan pulpit. It
probably had served a more ancient purpose. In Bale's _Comedye
concerning Three Laws_, compiled in 1538, Infidelitas says:

    "Ye say they follow your law,
    And vary not a shaw,
      Which is a tale of a tub."


       *       *       *       *       *


(_From the German of Claudius_.)

    "Friend Ass," said the Fox, as he met him one day,
    "What can people mean?--Do you know what they say?"
    "No, I don't," said the Ass; "nor I don't care, not I."
    "Why, they say you're a GENIUS," was Reynard's reply.
    "My stars!" muttered Jack, quite appall'd by the word,
    "What can I have done that's so very absurd?"

       *       *       *       *       *

_Dedications_ (No. 17. p. 259.).--In Villaneuva's Dedication to the Duke
of Medinaceli of his _Origen Epocas y Progressos del Teatro Español_
(Madrid, 1802, sm. 4to.), the enumeration of the names, titles, and
offices of his patron occupies three entire pages, and five lines of a


       *       *       *       *       *


The Percy Society have just issued a reprint of a black letter tract,
entitled "A manifest Detection of the most Vyle and Detestable Use of
Dice Play," which exhibits a curious picture of the tricks in vogue
amongst the gamesters of the sixteenth century, and, as the Editor very
justly observes, "comprises fuller explanations of terms used by
Shakspeare and other old dramatists than are to be found in the notes of
the commentators. The mysteries of _gowrds_ and _fullams_, _high men_
and _low men_, stumbling-blocks to many intelligent readers of the works
of the Stratford Poet, are here satisfactorily revealed."

Whatever hope the projectors of the approaching _Exhibition of Works of
Ancient and Mediæval Art_ entertained of forming such a collection of
objects as might deserve the attention of the public generally, and
accomplish the great end in view, have been more than realised. Thanks
to the liberality with which the possessors of works of early art of
this description, from the most distinguished personages of the realm,
have placed their stores at the disposal of the committee, the very
novel exhibition which will open to the public on Thursday next, will be
as remarkable for its intrinsic beauty, as for its instructive and
suggestive character.

We need scarcely remind lovers of fine editions of first class books
that Messrs. Sotheby commence the sale of the first portion of the
extensive stock of Messrs. Payne and Foss, of Pall Mall, on Monday next.

We have received from Mr. Straker, of 3. Adelaide Street, his Catalogue
of English and Foreign Theology, arranged according to subject, and with
an Alphabetical Index of Authors: and also Parts I. and II. of his
Monthly Catalogues of Ancient and modern Theological Literature. Mr.
Lilly, who has removed to No. 7. Pall Mall, has also forwarded Nos. 1.
and 2. of his Catalogues of Rare, Curious, and Useful Books. Mr. Miller,
of 43. Chandos Street, has just issued No. 3. for 1850 of his Catalogue
of Books, Old and New: and Mr. Quarritch (of 16. Castle Street,
Leicester Square) No. 14. Catalogue of Oriental and Foreign Books: and,
though not least deserving of mention (by us, at all events, as he has
the good taste to announce on his Catalogue "Notes and Queries SOLD"),
Mr. Nield, of 46. Burlington Arcade has just issued No. 2. for 1850, in
which are some Marprelate and Magical Books worth looking after.

       *       *       *       *       *


E. VEE. "When Greeks join Greeks," &c. is a line by _NAT. LEE._ See No.
14. p. 211.

K.D.B. The following--"In Flesh-monger-street, Siward the moneyer
(renders) to the King 15d. and to William de Chesney houseroom, salt and
water"--is a literal translation. Correspondents must be careful not to
omit letters or contractions in extracts from original records. It would
in this case have been difficult correctly to render "monet" without a
contraction; and "Flemangerstret," as our correspondent wrote it, might
have been changed into "Fell-monger-," instead of "Flesh-monger-street."
The service of "house-room, salt, and {327} water," seems a singular
one; it was, of course, a kind of entertainment, or a contribution to
entertainment. If the _Liber Winton_ contains no other notice of similar
services, "H.D.K." will find the subject illustrated, though not the
particular tenure, at pp. 260-267. of the first volume of Sir H. Ellis's
_Introduction to the Great Domesday_.

Rue Strewed before Prisoners at the Bar of the Old Bailey. This custom
originated in the fear of infection, at a period when Judges, &c. were
liable to fall victims to gaol fever.

Erratum. No. 19. p. 307. col. 2., for "Pla_u_torum Abbreviati_s_" read
"Pla_ci_torum Abbreviati_o_."

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, price 5s.

Biographical Notices of the LADY AMY DUDLEY and of ANTHONY FORSTER,
Esq., sometime M.P. for Abingdon; followed by some Remarks on the
Statements in Sir Walter Scott's Kenilworth; and a Brief History of the
Parish of Cumnor and its Antiquities. By ALFRED DURLING BARTLETT, of

Oxford and London: JOHN HENRY PARKER.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, a New Edition, revised and much enlarged, of the

HISTORY OF ENGLAND from the first Invasion of the Romans, to the
Accession of William and Mary, in the Year 1688. By the Rev. Dr.
LINGARD. Handsomely printed in Ten large octavo Volumes, price Six
Pounds, cloth lettered, and enriched with a Likeness of the Author,
engraved in the best style, from a Portrait taken last year by Mr.

London: C. DOLMAN, 61. New Bond Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Now ready, 1 vol. 8vo, with etched Frontispiece, by Webnert, and Eight
Engravings, price 15s.

SABRINAE COROLLA: a Volume of Classical Translations with original
Compositions contributed by Gentlemen educated at Shrewsbury School.

Among the Contributors are the Head Masters of Shrewsbury, Stamford,
Repton, Uppingham, and Birmingham Schools; Andrew Lawson, Esq. late
M.P.; the Rev. R. Shilleto, Cambridge; the Rev. T.S. Evans, Rugby; J.
Riddell, Esq., Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford; the Rev. E.M. Cope,
H.J. Hodgson, Esq., H.A.J. Munro, Esq., W.G. Clark, Esq., Fellows of
Trinity College, Cambridge, and many other distinguished Scholars from
both Universities.

The Work is edited by three of the principal Contributors.

London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

In 8vo., 12s. 6d.; royal 8vo., 18s.

ORIGINES PATRICIÆ, or a Deduction of European Titles of Nobility and
Dignified Offices, from their Primitive Sources. By R.T. HAMPSON.

In 2 vols. 8vo., with Illuminated Fac-simile Engravings of Anglo-Saxon
Kalendars. Price 32s.

MEDII ÆVI KALENDARIUM; or Dates, Charters and Customs of the Middle
Ages, with Kalendars from the Tenth to the Fifteenth Century; and an
alphabetical Digest of Obsolete Names of Days, forming a Glossary of the
Dates and Ecclesiastical Observances of the Middle Ages. By R.T.


On a Sheet, 22 Inches by 30. Price 7s. 6d.


London: Henry Kent CAUSTON, at the Printing Offices, Nag's Head Court,
Gracechurch Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Twenty Day's Sale of the First Portion of the valuable and extensive
Stock of Books of Messrs. Payne and Foss.

MESSRS. S. LEIGH SOTHEBY and Co., Auctioneers of Literary Property and
Works illustrative of the Fine Arts, will sell at their House, 3.
Wellington Street, Strand, on Monday, March 18th, 1850, and Nine
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In 1 vol. royal 4to., with 18 Plates. Price 1l. 1s.

THE DODO AND ITS KINDRED, or the History of the Dodo, the SOLITAIRE, and
other extinct Birds of the Mascarene Islands. By H.E. STRICKLAND, M.A.,
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London: REEVE, BENHAM, and REEVE, King William Street, Strand.

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collection has been selected from the extraordinary assemblage of
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May be viewed the day before the sale. Catalogues will be sent on

       *       *       *       *       *{328}


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Details. By W. CAVELER, Esq., Architect. 16 Plates, royal folio, cloth,
1l. 1s.

MINSTER LOVELL CHURCH, OXFORDSHIRE. Views, Elevations, Sections, and
Details. By J. PRICHARD, Esq., Architect. Folio. Nearly ready.

ANGLICAN CHURCH ARCHITECTURE. With some Remarks upon Ecclesiastical
Furniture. By JAMES BARR, Architect. Illustrated by 130 Examples. The
Third Edition, revised and enlarged. 12mo. 5s.

CHURCHES OF SCOTLAND. With Woodcuts. By O. JEWITT. 8vo. 7s. 6d.

Illustrations. Price 4s. 6d.

THE ARCHÆOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Published under the direction of the Central
Committee of the Archæological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland,
for the Encouragement and Prosecution of Researches into the Arts and
Monuments of the Early and Middle Ages. With numerous Illustrations.
Complete, with General Index. 5 vols. 8vo., cloth. 2l. 16s.

WILLIS, M.A., F.R.S., &c. 8vo. With 52 Woodcuts. 10s. 6d.

8vo. With Woodcuts and Plan. 5s.


4to., cloth lettered, 1l. 3s.

THE SCULPTURES OF WELLS CATHEDRAL. With Observations on the Art of
Sculpture in England in the Thirteenth Century. By C.R. COCKERELL, Esq.,
Professor R.A. In the Press.

J.J.A. WORSAAE, Member of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of
Copenhagen. Translated from the Danish, and applied to the Illustration
of similar Remains in England, by WILLIAM J. THOMS, F.S.A., Secretary of
the Camden and Ælfric Societies. With numerous Illustrations. 8vo. 10s.

UNDERWOOD, Esq., Architect. Folio. 15s.

With 44 Etchings. Royal folio, cloth. 1l. 1s.

Catalogue of Four Hundred and Fifty "RUBBINGS," in the possession of the
Oxford Architectural Society. Topographical and Heraldic Indices, &c.
With numerous Illustrations. 8vo. 10s. 6d.

AGES. By the Rev. EDWARD L. CUTTS, B.A. 8vo. Illustrated by upwards of
300 Engravings. 12s.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, March 16. 1850.

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