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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 201, September 3, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 201, September 3, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

generously made available by The Internet Library of Early

Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.

       *       *       *       *       *




       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 201.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  "That Swinney"                                            213

  Monumental Inscription in Peterborough Cathedral, by
  Thos. Wake                                                215

  FOLK LORE:--Superstition of the Cornish Miners--
  Northamptonshire Folk Lore                                215

  Shakspeare Correspondence                                 216

  MINOR NOTES:--Lemon-juice administered in Gout
  and Rheumatism--Weather Proverbs--Dog Latin--Thomas
  Wright of Durham--A Funeral Custom                        217


  Littlecott--Sir John Popham, by Edward Foss               218

  Early Edition of the New Testament, by A. Boardman        219

  MINOR QUERIES:--Ravilliac--Emblem on a Chimney-piece--
  "To know ourselves diseased," &c.--"Pætus
  and Arria"--Heraldic Query--Lord Chancellor
  Steele--"A Tub to the Whale"--Legitimation (Scotland)--
  "Vaut mieux," &c.--Shakspeare First Folio--
  The Staffordshire Knot--Sir Thomas Elyot--
  "Celsior exsurgens pluviis," &c.--The Bargain Cup--
  School-Libraries.--Queen Elizabeth and her
  "true" Looking-glass--Bishop Thomas Wilson--
  Bishop Wilson's Works--Hobbes, Portrait of                219

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Brasenose, Oxford--
  G. Downing--Unkid--Pilgrim's Progress--John
  Frewen--Histories of Literature--"Mrs. Shaw's
  Tombstone"                                                221


  Cranmer and Calvin, by the Rev. H. Walter                 222

  Barnacles, by Sir J. E. Tennent and T. J. Buckton         223

  Dial Inscriptions, by Cuthbert Bede, B.A.                 224

  The "Saltpeter Maker"                                     225

  Tsar, by T. J. Buckton, &c.                               226

  "Land of Green Ginger," by John Richardson and
  T. J. Buckton                                             227

  Protonitrate of Iron--Photographs in natural
  Colours--Photographs by artificial Lights                 227

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Vandyke in America--
  Title wanted: Choirochorographia--Second Growth
  of Grass--Snail-eating--Sotades--The Letter "h"
  in "humble"--Lord North--Singing Psalms and
  Politics--Dimidiation by Impalement--"Inter
  cuncta micans," &c.--Marriage Service--Widowed
  Wife--Pure--Mrs. Tighe--Satirical Medal--"They
  shot him dead at the Nine-Stone Rig"--Hendericus
  du Booys: Helena Leonore de Sievéri--House-marks,
  &c.--"Qui facit per alium, facit per se"--
  Engin-à-verge--Campvere, Privileges of--Humbug:
  Ambages--"Going to Old Weston"--Reynolds's
  Nephew--The Laird of Brodie--Mulciber--Voiding
  Knife--Sir John Vanbrugh--Portrait of Charles I.--
  Burial in an erect Posture--Strut-Stowers and
  Yeathers or Yadders--Arms of the See of York--
  Leman Family--Position of Font                            228


  Notes on Books, &c.                                       234

  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                              234

  Notices to Correspondents                                 234

  Advertisements                                            235

       *       *       *       *       *



Junius thus wrote to H. S. Woodfall in a private note, to which Dr. Good
has affixed the date July 21st, 1769 (vol. i. p. 174.*)

    "That Swinney is a wretched but dangerous fool. He had the impudence to
    go to Lord G. Sackville, whom he had never spoken to, and to ask him
    whether or no he was the author of Junius: take care of him."

This paragraph has given rise to a great deal of speculation, large
inferences have been drawn from it, yet no one has satisfactorily answered
the question, who was "that Swinney?"

That neither Dr. Good nor Mr. George Woodfall, the editors of the edit. of
1812, knew anything about him, is manifest from their own bald note of
explanation, "A correspondent of the printers." Some reports say that he
was a collector of news for the _Public Advertiser_, and subsequently a
bookseller at Birmingham, but I never saw any one fact adduced tending to
show that there was any person of that name so employed. Others that the
Rev. Dr. Sidney Swinney was the party referred to: and Mr. Smith, in his
excellent notes to the _Grenville Papers_, vol. iii. p. lxviii., _assumes_
this to be the fact. I incline to agree with him, but have only inference
to strengthen conjecture. What may be the value of that inference will
appear in the progress of this inquiry, Who was Dr. Sidney Swinney?

Reports collected by Mr. Butler, Mr. Barker, Mr. Coventry, and others, say
that the Doctor had been chaplain to the Russian Embassy, chaplain to the
Embassy at Constantinople, and chaplain to one of the British regiments
serving in Germany. Mr. Falconer, in his _Secret Revealed_, p. 22., quotes
a paragraph from one of Wray's letters to Lord Hardwick with reference to
the proceedings at the Royal Society:

    "Dr. Swinney, your Lordship's friend, presented his father-in-law
    Howell's book."

Swinney's father-in-law, here called Howell, was John Zephaniah Holwell, a
remarkable man, whose name is intimately associated with the early history
of British India, one of the few survivors of the Black Hole imprisonment,
the successor of {214} Clive as governor, and a writer on many subjects
connected with Hindoo antiquities. Swinney enrols him amongst his heroes,

 "Holwell, Clive, York, Lawrence, Adams, Coote,
  Of Draper, Bath-strung for his baffled suit."

And he refers, in a note, to those

    "Ungrateful monsters (heretofore in a certain trading company), who
    have endeavoured to vilify and sully one of the brightest characters
    that ever existed."

I learn farther, from a volume of _Fugitive Pieces_, published by Dr.
Swinney, that he was the son of Major Mathew Swinney, whom after his
flourishing fashion he calls on another occasion "Mathew Swinney of
immortal memory;" from one of his dedications that the Doctor himself was
educated at Eton; from the books of the Royal Society that he was of Clare
Hall, Cambridge; from dates and dedications, that from 1764 to 1768, he was
generally resident at Scarborough; and from the _Gentleman's Magazine_,
that he died there 12th November, 1783.

That Swinney had been chaplain to the Russian Embassy I have no reason to
believe; but that he had been in the East for a time, possibly as chaplain
to the Embassy at Constantinople, is asserted in the brief biographical
notice in the _Gentleman's Magazine_, and would _seem to be proved_ by a
work which he published in 1769, called--

    "A Tour through some parts of the Levant: in which is included An
    Account of the Present State of the Seven Churches in Asia. Also a
    brief Explanation of the Apocalypse. By Sidney Swinney, D.D."

Nothing, however, can be inferred from a title-page of Swinney's. Here we
have two or three distinct works referred to:--_A Tour_, including "An
Account of the Seven Churches," and the "Explanation of the Apocalypse."
Now I must direct attention to the fact, that from the peculiar punctuation
and phraseology--the full-stop after Asia in this title-page--it may have
been Swinney's intention to indicate, without asserting, that the Account
of the Apocalypse _only_ was by Sidney Swinney. If so, though Swinney's
name alone figures in the title-page of the work, he is responsible only
for one or two notes!

I would not have written conjecturally on this subject if I could have
avoided it; but though Swinney was a F.A.S. F.R.S., and though the work is
dedicated to the Fellows of those Societies, no copy of it is to be found
in the libraries of either, or in the British Museum. I cannot, therefore,
be sure that my own copy is perfect. What that copy contains is thus set
forth in half a dozen lines of introduction:

    "Before I [S. S.] enter upon the more important part of my dissertation
    [The Explanation of the Apocalypse], it may not be improper to give you
    some account of the present state of the Seven Churches in Asia, as
    they are, _which was communicated to me_ by a certain _friend of mine_,
    in the description of a short tour which _he_ made through the
    principal parts of the Levant: should they be accompanied with a few
    casual notes _of my own_, I trust the work will not be less acceptable
    to you on that account."

It must be obvious, after this declaration, that the _Tour_ set forth so
conspicuously in the title-page, was not written by Swinney. Now the
"Itinerary" which follows is advowedly "wrote by _the author of the
preceding account_," and this brings the reader and the work itself to "The

The truth I suspect to have been this:--Swinney was not prudent and was
poor, and raised money occasionally, after the miserable fashion of the
time, by publishing books on subscription, and receiving subscriptions in
anticipation of publication.

About this time, from 1767 to 1769, he published a _Sermon_; _The Ninth
Satire of Horace_, a meaningless trifle of a hundred lines, swollen, by
printing the original and notes, into a quarto; a volume of _Fugitive
Pieces_; and the first canto of _The Battle of Minden, a Poem in three
Books, enriched with critical Notes by Two Friends, and with explanatory
Notes by the Author_. Of the latter work, as of the _Tour_, I have never
seen but one copy, a splendid specimen of typography, splendidly bound,
containing the first and second canto. Whether the third canto was ever
published is to me doubtful; some of your correspondents may be able to
give you information. My own impression is that it was not, and for the
following reasons.

Swinney, it appears, had received subscriptions for the work, and promised
in his prospectus _a plan of the battle_, and _portraits_ of the heroes,
which the work does not contain. "However, to make some little amends" to
his "generous subscribers," Swinney announces his intention to present them
with "_three_ books instead of _one_."

The first book is dedicated to Earl Waldegrave, who commanded "the six
British regiments of infantry" on the "ever memorable 1st August, 1759,"
and a note affixed states that "Book the Second" will be published on 1st
January, and "Book the Third" on 1st of August.

But the public, as Swinney says, were kept "in suspense" almost three years
for the second book, which was not published until 1772; and in the
dedication of this second book, also to Earl Waldegrave, Swinney says:

    "Doubtless many of my subscribers have thought me very unmindful of the
    promise I made them in my printed proposal, in which I undertook to
    publish my poem out of hand. Ill health has been the sole cause of my
    disappointing their expectations. A fever of the nerves ... for these
    four years, has rendered me incapable.... In my original proposals I
    undertook to publish this work in two books. [In the introduction he
    says, as I have just quoted, _one_ book.] Poetical {215} matter hath
    increased upon me to such a degree, in the genial climate of Languedoc,
    as to have enabled me to compose several more books on this interesting
    subject, all which I purpose presenting my subscribers with at the
    original price of half a guinea.... Many months ago this Second Book
    was printed off; but on my arrival in town from Montauban (whither I
    purpose to return), I found there were so many faults and blunders in
    it throughout, that I was under the necessity of condemning five
    hundred copies to the inglorious purpose of defending pye bottoms from
    the dust of an oven.... Profit, my Lord, has not been my motive for
    publishing: if it had, I should be egregiously disappointed, for
    instead of gaining I shall be a considerable loser by the publication;
    and yet many of my subscribers have _given me four, five, and six times
    over and above the subscription-price for my Poem. How even the
    remaining books will see the light must depend entirely upon my
    pecuniary, not my poetical abilities_. The work is well nigh completed;
    but not one solitary brother have I throughout the airy regions of Grub
    Street who is poorer than I. It is not impossible, however, but when
    _some of my partial friends shall know this_, they may _enable me by
    their bounty_ to publish out of hand."

This leads me to doubt whether the third book was ever published, for I
think the most "partial" of his friends--those who had given "four, five,
and six times over and above the subscription price"--must have had enough
in two books. If it were not published, it is a curious fact that, in a
poem called _The Battle of Minden_, the battle of Minden is not mentioned;
though not more extraordinary perhaps than the omissions of the
"Explanation of the Apocalypse" in his previous work.

I come now to the question, Why did Junius speak so passionately and
disrespectfully of Swinney, and what are the probabilities that Swinney had
never before (July) 1769 spoken to Lord G. Sackville? These I must defer
till next week.

T. S. J.

       *       *       *       *       *


The following Notes occur on a fly-leaf at the end of a copy of Gunton's
_History of Peterborough Cathedral_, and appear to have been written soon
after that book was printed:

    "Among other things omitted in this history, I cannot but take notice
    of one ancient inscription upon a tomb in y^e body of the church,
    written in old Saxon letters, as followeth:

    [Cross] 'WS : KI : PAR : CI : PASSEZ : PVR : LE : ALME : ESTRAVNGE : DE

    "This inscription may seem to challenge some relation to William de
    Waterville, one of the abbots of this church. (See p. 23.)"

    "On Sennour Gascelin de Marrham's tomb, mentioned p. 94., these letters
    seem to be still legible:


    "In St. Oswald's Chapel, on y^e ground round the verge of a stone:


    "In y^e churchyard is this inscription:


    "This may probably relate to Ivo, sub-prior of this monastery, whose
    anniversary was observed in y^e Kalends of March. (See page 324. of
    this book.)"

    "In y^e churchyard:

     'Joannes Pocklington, S. S. Theologiæ doctor, obiit
      Nov. 14, A. D^i. 1642.'

     'Anne Pocklington, 1655.'

     'Mary, y^e wife of John Towers, late Lord Bp. of
      Peterborough, dyed Nov. 14, A.D. 1672.'

     'Quod mori potuit præstantissimæ foeminæ
      Compton Emery
      Filiæ Joannis Towers S. T. P.
      Hujus Ecclesiæ quondam Episcopi
      Viduæ Roberti Rowell LL. D.
      Nec non charissimæ conjugis
      Richardi Emery Gen:
      In hoc tumulo depositum: Feb. 4.
      A^o Ætatis 54,
      A^o Domini 1683.'"

A marginal note states that "The Chapter-house and Cloyster sold in 1650
for 800l., to John Baker, Gent., of London."


       *       *       *       *       *


_Superstition of the Cornish Miners_ (Vol. viii., p. 7.).--I cannot find
the information desired by your correspondent in the Cornish antiquaries,
and have in vain consulted other works likely to explain this tradition;
but the remarks now offered will perhaps be interesting in reference to the
_nation_ alluded to. The Carthaginians being of the same race, manners, and
religion as the Phoenicians, there are no particular data by which we can
ascertain the time of their first trading to the British coast for the
commodity in such request among the traders of the East. The genius of
Carthage being more martial than that of Tyre, whose object was more
commerce than conquest, it is not improbable that the former might by force
of arms have established a settlement in the Cassiterides, and by this
means have secured that monopoly of tin which the Phoenicians and their
colonies indubitably enjoyed for several centuries. Norden, in his
_Antiquities of Cornwall_, mentions it as a tradition universally received
by the inhabitants, that their tin mines were formerly wrought by the Jews.
He adds that these old works are there at this day called Attal Sarasin,
the ancient {216} cast-off works of the Saracens, in which their tools are
frequently found. Miners are not accustomed to be very accurate in
distinguishing traders of foreign nations, and these Jews and Saracens have
probably a reference to the old merchants from Spain and Africa; and those
employed by them might possibly have been Jews escaped the horrors of
captivity and the desolation which about that period befel their country.

    "The Jews," says Whitaker (_Origin of Arianism_, p. 334.), "denominated
    themselves, and were denominated by the Britons of Cornwall,
    _Saracens_, as the genuine progeny of Sarah. The same name, no doubt,
    carried the same reference with it as borne by the genuine, and as
    usurped by the spurious, offspring of Abraham."


_Northamptonshire Folk Lore_ (Vol. vii., p. 146.).--In Norfolk, a ring made
from nine sixpences freely given by persons of the opposite sex is
considered a charm against epilepsy. I have seen nine sixpences brought to
a silversmith, with a request that he would make them into a ring; but
13½d. was not tendered to him for making, nor do I think that any
threehalfpences are collected for payment. After the patient had left the
shop, the silversmith informed me that such requests were of frequent
occurrence, and that he supplied the patients with thick silver rings, but
never took the trouble to manufacture them from the sixpences.

A similar superstition supposes that the sole of the left shoe of a person
of the same age, but opposite sex, to the patient, reduced to ashes is a
cure for St. Anthony's fire. I have seen it applied with success, but
suppose its efficacy is due to some astringent principle in the ashes.

E. G. R.

       *       *       *       *       *


_On Two Passages in Shakspeare._--Taking up a day or two since a Number of
"N. & Q.," my attention was drawn to a new attempt to give a solution of
the difficulty which has been the torment of commentators in the following
passage from the Third Act of _Romeo and Juliet_:

 "Gallop apace, you fiery-footed steeds,
  Towards Phoebus' mansion; such a waggoner
  As Phaeton would whip you to the West,
  And bring in cloudy night immediately.--
  Spread thy close curtain, love-performing Night,
  That _runaways'_ eyes may wink, and Romeo
  Leap to these arms, untalk'd of and unseen."

"Runaways'" being a manifest absurdity, the recent editors have substituted
"unawares," an uncouth alteration, which, though it has a glimmering of
sense, appears to me almost as absurd as the word it supplies. In this
dilemma your correspondent MR. SINGER ingeniously suggests the true reading
to be,--

 "That _rumourers'_ eyes may wink, and Romeo
  Leap to these arms, untalk'd of and unseen."

No doubt this is a felicitous emendation, though I think it may be fairly
objected that a rumourer, being one who deals in what he hears, as opposed
to an observer, who reports what he sees, there is a certain
inappropriateness in speaking of a rumourer's eyes. Be this as it may, I
beg to suggest another reading, which has the merit of having spontaneously
occurred to me on seeing the word "runaways'" in your correspondent's
paper, as if obviously suggested by the combination of letters in that
word. I propose that the passage should be read thus:

 "Spread thy close curtain, love-performing Night,
  That _rude day's_ eyes may wink, and Romeo
  Leap to these arms, untalk'd of and unseen."

A subsequent reference to Juliet's speech has left no doubt in my mind that
this is the true reading, and so obviously so, as to make it a wonder that
it should have been overlooked. She first asks the "fiery-footed steeds" to
bring in "cloudy night," then night to close her curtain (that day's eyes
may wink), that darkness may come, under cover of which Romeo may hasten to
her. In the next two lines she shows why this darkness is propitious, and
then, using an unwonted epithet, invokes night to give her the opportunity
of darkness:

             "Come, _civil_ night,
  Thou sober suited matron all in black,
  And learn me how to lose a winning game," &c.

The peculiar and unusual epithet "civil," here applied to night, at once
assured me of the accuracy of the proposed reading, it having evidently
suggested itself as the antithesis of "rude" just before applied to day;
the civil, accommodating, concealing night being thus contrasted with the
unaccommodating, revealing day. It is to be remarked, moreover, that as
this epithet _civil_ is, through its ordinary signification, brought into
connexion with what precedes it, so is it, through its unusual meaning of
_grave_, brought into connexion with what follows, it thus furnishing that
equivocation of sense of which our great dramatist is so fond, rarely
missing an opportunity of "paltering with us in a double sense."

I think, therefore, I may venture to offer you the proposed emendation as
rigorously fulfilling all the requirements of the text, while at the same
time it necessitates a very trifling literal disturbance of the old
reading, since by the simple change of the letters _naw_ into _ded_, we
convert "runaways'" into "rude day's," of which it was a very easy

Having offered you an emendation of my own, I cannot miss the opportunity
of sending you {217} another, for which I am indebted to a critical student
of Shakspeare, my friend Mr. W. R. Grove, the Queen's Counsel. In _All's
Well that ends Well_, the third scene of the Second Act opens with the
following speech from Lafeu:

    "They say miracles are past; and we have our philosophical persons to
    make modern and familiar things, supernatural and causeless. Hence is
    it that we make trifles of terrors; ensconcing ourselves in a seeming
    knowledge when we should submit ourselves to an unknown fear."

On reading this passage as thus printed, it will be seen that the two
sentences of which it is composed are in direct contradiction to each
other; the first asserting that we have philosophers who give a causeless
and supernatural character to things ordinary and familiar: the second
stating as the result of this, "that we make trifles of terrors," whereas
the tendency would necessarily be to make "terrors of trifles." The
confusion arises from the careless pointing of the first sentence. By
simply shifting the comma at present after "things," and placing it after
"familiar," the discrepancy between the two sentences disappears, as also
between the two members of the first sentence, which are now at variance.
It should be pointed thus:

    "They say miracles are past; and we have our philosophical persons to
    make modern and familiar, things supernatural and causeless."

It is singular that none of the editors should have noticed this defect,
which I have no doubt will hereafter be removed by the adoption of a simple
change, that very happily illustrates the importance of correct

R. H. C.

_Shakspeare's Skull_.--As your publication has been the medium of many
valuable comments upon Shakspeare, and interesting matter connected with
him, I am induced to solicit information, if you will allow me, on the
following subject. I have the _Works of Shakspeare_, which being in one
volume 8vo., I value as being more portable than any other edition. It was
published by Sherwood without any date affixed, but probably about 1825.
There is a memoir prefixed by Wm. Harvey, Esq., in which, p. xiii., it is
stated that while a vault was being made close to Shakspeare's, when Dr.
Davenport was rector, a young man perceiving the tomb of Shakspeare open,
introduced himself so far within the vault that he could have brought away
the skull, but he was deterred from doing so by the anathema inscribed on
the monument, of--

    "Curs'd be he that moves my bones."

This is given upon the authority of Dr. Nathan Drake's work on Shakspeare,
in two vols. 4to. Now in this work much is given which is copied into the
memoir, but I do not there find this anecdote, and perhaps some reader of
"N. & Q." may supply this deficiency, and state where I may find it. I may
be allowed to state, that Pope's skull was similarly stolen and another

I annex Wheler's remark that no violation of the grave had, up to the time
of his work, taken place.

    "Through a lapse of nearly two hundred years have his ashes remained
    undisturbed, and it is to be hoped no sacrilegious hand will ever be
    found to violate the sacred repository."--_History of
    Stratford-upon-Avon_, by R. B. Wheler (circa 1805?), 8vo.


_On a Passage in "Macbeth."_--MR. SINGLETON (Vol. vii., p. 404.) says,
"Vaulting ambition, that _o'erleaps_ itself," is nonsense--the thing is
impossible; and proposes that "vaulting ambition" should "rest his hand
upon the pommel, and _o'erleap_ the saddle (sell)," a thing not uncommon in
the feats of horsemanship.

Did MR. SINGLETON never _o'erleap_ himself, and be too late--later than
_himself_ intended? Did he never, in his younger days, amuse himself with a
_soprasalto_; or with what Donne calls a "vaulter's sombersault?" Did he
never hear of any little plunderer, climbing a wall, _o'erreaching_ himself
to pluck an apple, and falling on the other side, into the hands of the
gardener? "By like," says Sir Thomas More, "the manne there _overshotte_

What was the _manne_ about? Attempting such a perilous gambol, perhaps, as
correcting Shakspeare.

To {overleap, overreach, overshoot} himself are merely, to {leap, reach,
shoot}, over or beyond the mark himself intended.



P.S.--MR. ARROWSMITH reminds us of the old saw, that "great wits jump." He
should recollect also that they sometimes _nod_.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Lemon-juice administered in Gout and Rheumatism._--At a time when
lemon-juice seems to be frequently administered in gout and rheumatism, as
though it were an entirely new remedy, I have been somewhat amused at the
following passage, which may also interest some of your readers; it occurs
in _Scelta di Lettere Familiari degli Autori più celebri ad uso degli
studiosi della lingua Italiana_, p. 36., in a letter "Di Don Francesco a
Teodoro Villa":

    "Io non posso star meglio di quel che sto, e forse perchè uso di spesso
    il bagno freddo, e beo limonata a pranzo e a cena da molti mesi. Questa
    è la mia quotidiana bevanda, e dacche mi ci sono messo, m' ha fatto un
    bene che non si puo dire. Di quelle doglie di capo, {218} che un tempo
    mi sconquassavano le tempie, non ne sento più una. Le vertigini, che un
    tratto mi favorivano sì di spesso, se ne sono ite. Sino un reumatismo,
    che m' aveva afferrato per un braccio, s' e dileguato, così ch'io farei
    ora alla lotta col più valente marinaro calabrese che sia. L' appetito
    mio pizzica del vorace. Che buona cosa il sugo d' un limone spremato
    nell' acqua, e indolciato con un po' di zucchero! Fa di provarlo,
    Teodoro. Chi sa che non assesti il capo e lo stomaco auche a te."

S. G. C.

_Weather Proverbs_.--Are these proverbs worth recording?

 "Rain before seven, fine before eleven."

 "A mackerel sky and mare's tails,
  Make lofty ships carry low sails."

 "If the rain comes before the wind,
  Lower your topsails and take them in:
  If the wind comes before the rain,
  Lower your topsails and hoist them again."

The expressions in the latter two are maritime, and the rhymes not very
choice; but they hold equally in terrestrial matters, and I have seldom
found them wrong.


_Dog Latin_.--The answer of one of your late correspondents (E. M. B., Vol.
vii., p. 622.) on the subject of "Latin--Latiner," has revived a Query in
your First Volume (p. 230.) as to the origin of this expression which does
not appear to have been answered. I do not remember having seen any
explanation of the term, but I have arrived at one for myself, and present
it to your readers for what it is worth. Nothing, it must be admitted, can
be more inconsistent with the usual forms of language than the Latin of
mediæval periods; it is often, in fact, not Latin at all, but merely a
Latin form given to simple English or other words, and admitting of the
greatest variety. Now of all animals the distinctions of breed are perhaps
more numerous in the canine race than any other. The word "mongrel,"
originally applied to one of these quadruped combinations of variety, has
long been used to signify anything in which mixture of class existed,
especially of a debasing kind, to which such mixture generally tends.
Nothing could be more appropriate than the application of the term to the
"infima latinitas" of the Middle Ages; and from "mongrel" the transition to
the name of the genus from that of the degenerate species appears to me to
be very easy, though fanciful.

J. B--T.

_Thomas Wright of Durham_.--In the _Philosophical Magazine_ for April,
1848, I gave an account of the "Original Theory or new Hypothesis of the
Universe" of Thomas Wright, whose anticipations of modern speculation on
the milky way, the central sun, and some other points, make him one of the
most remarkable astronomical thinkers of his day. In the biography in the
_Gentleman's Magazine_ for 1793, he is described as struggling for a
livelihood when a young man, and no account is given of the manner in which
he obtained the handsome competence with which he emerges in 1756, or
thereabouts. A few days after my account was published, I was informed (by
Captain James, R.E.) that a large four-foot orrery, constructed by Wright
for the Royal Academy at Portsmouth, was still in that town; and that by
the title of "J. Harrises Use of the Globes" it appears that he (Wright)
kept his shop at the _Orrery_, near Water Lane, Fleet Street (No. 136),
under the title of instrument-maker to his Majesty. In an edition of Harris
(the 8th, 1767), which I lately met with, the above is described as "late
the shop of Thomas Wright," &c. By the advertisements which this work
contains, Wright must have had an extensive business as a philosophical
instrument-maker. The omission in the biography is a strange one. Possibly
some farther information may fall in the way of some of your readers.


_A Funeral Custom_.--At Broadwas, Worcestershire, in the valley of the
Teame, it is the custom at funerals, on reaching "the Church Walk," for the
bearers to set down the coffin, and, as they stand around, to bow to it.


       *       *       *       *       *



Every one knows the tradition attached to the manor of Littlecott in
Wiltshire, and the alleged means by which Chief Justice Sir John Popham
acquired its possession. It is told by Aubrey, Sir Walter Scott, and many
others, and is too notorious to be here repeated. Let me ask you or your
learned correspondents whether there exists any refutation of a charge so
seriously detrimental to the character of any judge, and so inconsistent
with the reputation which Chief Justice Popham enjoyed among his
cotemporaries? See Lord Ellesmere's notice of him in the case of the
Postnati (_State Trials_, ii. 669.), and Sir Edward Coke's flattering
picture of him at the end of Sir Drew Drury's case (_Reports_, vi. 75.).
Are there any records showing that a Darell was ever in fact arraigned on a
charge of murder, and the name of the judge who presided at the trial? Is
the date known of the death of the last Darell who possessed the estate, or
that of Sir John Popham's acquisition of it? The discovery of these might
throw great light on the subject, and possibly afford a complete

Sir Francis Bacon, in his argument against Sir John Hollis and others for
traducing public justice, states that--

    "Popham, a great judge in his time, was complained of by petition to
    Queen Elizabeth; it was committed {219} to four privy councillors, but
    the same was found to be slanderous, and the parties punished in the
    court."--_State Trials_, vol. ii. p. 1029.

If this petition could be discovered, and it should turn out that the
slander complained of in it had reference to this story, the investigation
which it then underwent by the four privy councillors, and the chief
justice's enjoyment of his high office for so many subsequent years, would
go far to prove the utter falsehood of the charge. This is a "consummation
devoutly to be wished" by every one who feels an interest in the purity of
the bench, and particularly by the present possessors of the estate, who
must be anxious for their ancestor's fame.

Your useful publication has acted the part of the "detective police" in the
elucidation of many points of history less interesting than this, and I
trust you will consider the case curious enough to justify a close


       *       *       *       *       *


I should be greatly obliged if I could obtain through "N. & Q." when,
where, and by whom an imperfect black-letter copy of the New Testament,
lately come into my possession, was printed, and also who was the
translator of it.

It is bound in boards, has three thongs round which the sheets are
stitched, seems never to have been covered with cloth, leather, or other
material like our modern books, has had clasps, and is four inches long and
two inches thick.

The chapters are divided generally into four or five parts by means of the
first letters of the alphabet. The letters are neither placed equidistant,
nor do they always mark a fresh paragraph.

It is not divided into verses. There are a few marginal references, and the
chapter and letter of the parallel passages are given.

Crosses are placed at the heads of most chapters, and also throughout the
text, without much apparent regularity. It contains a few rude cuts of the
Apostles, &c. The Epistles of St. Peter and St. John are placed before that
to the Hebrews.

Letters are frequently omitted in the spelling, and this is indicated by a
dash placed over the one preceding the omitted letter. A slanting mark (/)
is the most frequent stop used. I will transcribe a few lines exactly as
they occur, only not using the black-letter.

    "B. As some spake of the temple/ howe yt was garnesshed with goodly
    stones and iewels he sayde. The dayes will come/ when of these thyngis
    which ye se shall not be lefte stone upon stone/ that shall not be
    throwen doune. And they asked hym sayinge/ Master wh[=e] shall these
    thynges be? And what sygnes wil there be/ when suche thynges shal come
    to passe."--St. Luke, ch. xxi.

Land is spelt _londe_; saints, _sainctis_; authority, _auctorite_, &c.


P.S. It commences at the 19th chapter of St. Matthew, and seems perfect to
the 21st chapter of Revelation.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Ravilliac_.--I have read that a pyramid was erected at Paris upon the
murder of Henry IV. by Ravilliac, and that the inscription represented the
Jesuits as men--

    "Maleficæ superstitonis, quorum instinctu peculiaris adolescens
    (Ravilliac) dirum facinus instituerat."--_Thesaur. Hist._, tom. iv.
    lib. 95, ad ann. 1598.

We are also informed that he confessed that it was the book of Mariana the
Jesuit, and the traitorous positions maintained in it, which induced him to
murder the king, for which cause the book (condemned by the parliament and
the Sorbonne) was publicly burnt in Paris. Is the pyramid still remaining?
If not, when was it taken down or destroyed, and by whom or by whose


_Emblem on a Chimney-piece_.--In the committee room of the Church
Missionary Society, Nos. 16. and 17. Upper Sackville Street, Dublin, a
curious emblem-picture is carved on the centre of the white marble
chimney-piece. An angel or winged youth is sleeping in a recumbent posture;
one arm embraces a sleeping lion, in the other hand he holds a number of
bell flowers. In the opposite angle the sun shines brightly; a lizard is
biting the heel of the sleeping youth. I shall not offer my own conjectures
in explanation of this allegorical sculpture, unless your correspondents
fail to give a more satisfactory solution.


_"To know ourselves diseased," &c_.--

    "To know ourselves diseased, is half the cure."




"_Pætus and Arria_."--Can you inform me who is the author of _Pætus and
Arria, a Tragedy_, 8vo., 1809?

In Genest's _Account of the English Stage_, this play is said to be written
by a gentleman of the University of Cambridge. Can you tell me whether this
is likely to be W. Smyth, the late Professor of Modern History in that
university, who died in June, 1849?


_Heraldic Query_.--A. was killed in open rebellion. His son B. lived in
retirement under a fictitious name. The grandson C. retained the assumed
name, and obtained new arms. Query, {220} Can the descendants of C. resume
the arms of A.? If so, must they substitute them for the arms of C., or
bear them quarterly, and in which quarters?


_Lord Chancellor Steele._--Is any pedigree of William Steele, Esq., Lord
Chancellor of Ireland temp. Commonwealth, extant; and do any of his
descendants exist?

It is believed he was nearly related to Captain Steel, governor of Beeston
Castle, who suffered death by military execution in 1643 on a charge of


_"A Tub to the Whale."_--What is the origin of this phrase?


_Legitimation_ (_Scotland_).--Perhaps some of your Scotch readers "learned
in the law" would obligingly answer the subjoined Queries, referring to
some decisions.

1. Will entail property go to a _bastard_, _legitimated before the Union_
under the great seal (by the law of Scotland)?

2. Will titles and dignities descend?

3. Will armorial bearings?

M. M.

  Inner Temple.

_"Vaut mieux," &c._--The proverb "Vaut mieux avoir affaire à Dieu qu'à ses
saints" has a Latin origin. What is it?


_Shakspeare First Folio._--Is there any _obtainable_ edition of Shakspeare
which follows, or fully contains, the first folio?


_The Staffordshire Knot._--Can any of your readers give the history of the
Staffordshire knot, traced on the carriages and trucks of the North
Staffordshire Railway Company?

T. P.

_Sir Thomas Elyot._--I shall be extremely obliged by a reference to any
sources of information respecting Sir Thomas Elyot, Knight, living in the
time of Henry VIII., son of Sir Richard Elyot, Knight, of Suffolk.

I shall be glad also to know whether a short work (among others of his in
my possession) entitled _The Defence of good Women_, printed in London by
Thomas Berthelet, 1545, is at all a rare book?

H. C. K.

_"Celsior exsurgens pluviis," &c._--

 "Celsior exsurgens pluviis, nimbosque cadentes,
  Sub pedibus cernens, et cæca tonitrua calcans."

Can you oblige me by stating where the above lines are to be found? They
appear to me to form an appropriate motto for a balloon.

J. P. A.

_The Bargain Cup._--Can the old English custom of drinking together upon
the completion of a bargain, be traced back farther than the Norman era?
Did a similar custom exist in the earlier ages? Danl. Dyke, in his
_Mysteries_ (London, 1634), says:

    "The Jews being forbidden to make couenants with the Gentiles, they
    also abstained from drinking with them; because that was a ceremonie
    vsed in striking of couenants."

This is the only notice I can find among old writers touching this custom,
which is certainly one of considerable antiquity: though I should like
confirmation of Dyke's words, before I can recognise an ancestry so remote.



_School-Libraries._--I am desirous of ascertaining whether any of our
public schools possess any libraries for the general reading of the
scholars, in which I do not include mere school-books of Latin, Greek, &c.,
which, I presume, they all possess, but such as travels, biographies, &c.

Boys fresh from these schools appear generally to know nothing of general
reading, and from the slight information I have, I fear there is nothing in
the way of a library in any of them. If not, it is, I should think, a very
melancholy fact, and one that deserves a little attention: but if any of
your obliging correspondents can tell me what public school possesses such
a thing, and the facilities allowed for reading in the school, I shall take
it as a favour.



_Queen Elizabeth and her "true" Looking-glass._--An anecdote is current of
Queen Elizabeth having in her later days, if not during her last illness,
called for a _true_ looking-glass, having for a long time previously made
use of one that was in some manner purposely falsified.

What is the original source of the story? or at least what is the authority
to which its circulation is mainly due? An answer from some of your
correspondents to one or other of these questions would greatly oblige


_Bishop Thomas Wilson._--In Thoresby's Diary, A.D. 1720, April 17 (vol. ii.
p. 289.), is the following entry:

    "Easter Sunday ... after evening prayers supped at cousin Wilson's with
    the Bishop of Man's son."

Was there any relationship, and what, between this "cousin Wilson," and the
bishop's son, Dr. Thomas Wilson? I should be glad of any information
bearing on any or on all these subjects.


_Bishop Wilson's Works._--The REV. JOHN KEBLE, Hursley, near Winchester,
being engaged in writing the life and editing the works of Bishop Wilson
(Sodor and Man), would feel obliged by {221} the communication of any
letters, sermons, or other writings of the bishop, or by reference to any
incidents not to be found in printed accounts of his life.

_Hobbes, Portrait of_.--In the _Memoirs_ of T. Hobbes, it is stated that a
portrait of him was painted in 1669 for Cosmo de Medici.

I have a fine half-length portrait of him, on the back of which is the
following inscription:

 "Thomas Hobbes, æt. 81. 1669.
  J^{os}. Wick Wrilps, Londiensis, Pictor Caroli 2^{di}. R.

Is this painter the same as John Wycke, who died in 1702, but who is not, I
think, known as a portrait painter?

Can any of your readers inform me whether a portrait of Hobbes is now in
the galleries at Florence, and, if so, by whom it was painted? It is
possible that mine is a duplicate of the picture which was painted for the
Grand Duke.



       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Brasenose, Oxford_.--I am anxious to learn the origin and meaning of the
word _Brasenose_. I have somewhere heard or read (though I cannot recall
where) that it was a Saxon word, _brasen haus_ or "brewing-house;" and that
the college was called by this name, because it was built on the site of
the brewing-house of King Alfred. All that Ingram says on the subject is

    "This curious appellation, which, whatever was the origin of it, has
    been perpetuated by the symbol of a brazen nose here and at Stamford,
    occurs with the modern orthography, but in one undivided word, so early
    as 1278, in an Inquisition, now printed in the _Hundred Rolls_, though
    quoted by Wood from the manuscript record."--See his _Memorials of


    [Our correspondent will find the notice of King Alfred's brew-house in
    the review of Ingram's _Memorials_ in the _British Critic_, vol. xxiv.
    p. 139. The writer says, "There is a spot in the centre of the city
    where Alfred is said to have lived, and which may be called the native
    place or river-head of three separate societies still existing,
    University, Oriel, and Brasenose. Brasenose claims his palace, Oriel
    his church, and University his school or academy. Of these Brasenose
    College is still called, in its formal style, 'the King's Hall,' which
    is the name by which Alfred himself, in his laws, calls his palace; and
    it has its present singular name from a corruption of _brasinium_, or
    _brasin-huse_, as having been originally located in that part of the
    royal mansion which was devoted to the then important accommodation of
    a brew-house." Churton, in his _Life of Bishop Smyth_, p. 277., thus
    accounts for the origin of the word:--"Brasen Nose Hall, as the Oxford
    antiquary has shown, may be traced as far back as the time of Henry
    III., about the middle of the thirteenth century; and early in the
    succeeding reign, 6th Edward I., 1278, it was known by the name of
    Brasen Nose Hall, which peculiar name was undoubtedly owing, as the
    same author observes, to the circumstance of a nose of brass affixed to
    the gate. It is presumed, however, this conspicuous appendage of the
    portal was not formed of the mixed metal, which the word now denotes,
    but the genuine produce of the mine; as is the nose, or rather face, of
    a lion or leopard still remaining at Stamford, which also gave name to
    the edifice it adorned. And hence, when Henry VIII. debased the coin,
    by an alloy of _copper_, it was a common remark or proverb, that
    'Testons were gone to Oxford, to study in _Brasen_ Nose.'"]

_G. Downing_.--Can any one point out to me a biography of G. Downing, or at
least indicate a work where the dates of the birth and death of this
celebrated statesman may be found? He was English ambassador in the Hague
previous to and in the year 1664, and to him Downing Street in London owes
its name. A very speedy answer would be most welcome.--From the

A. T. C.

    [In Pepys's _Diary_, vol. i. p. 2. edit. 1848, occurs the following
    notice of Sir George Downing:--"Wood has misled us in stating that Sir
    George Downing was a son of Dr. Calibut Downing, the rector of Hackney.
    He was beyond doubt the son of Emmanuel Downing, a London merchant, who
    went to New England. It is not improbable that Emmanuel was a near
    kinsman of Calibut; how related has not yet been discovered. Governor
    Hutchinson, in his _History of Massachusetts_, gives the true account
    of Downing's affiliation, which has been farther confirmed by Mr.
    Savage, of Boston, from the public records of New England. Wood calls
    Downing a sider with all times and changes; skilled in the common cant,
    and a preacher occasionally. He was sent by Cromwell to Holland, as
    resident there. About the Restoration, he espoused the King's cause,
    and was knighted and elected M. P. for Morpeth, in 1661. Afterwards,
    becoming Secretary to the Treasury and Commissioner of the Customs, he
    was in 1663 created a Baronet of East Hatley, in Cambridgeshire, and
    was again sent ambassador to Holland. His grandson of the same name,
    who died in 1749, was the founder of Downing College, Cambridge. The
    title became extinct in 1764, upon the decease of Sir John Gerrard
    Downing, the last heir male of the family." According to Hutchinson,
    Sir George died in 1684.]

_Unkid_.--Can any of your readers inform me as to the derivation of this
word, or give any instance of its recent use? I have frequently heard it in
my childhood (the early part of the present century) among the rural
population of Oxon and Berks. It was generally applied to circumstances of
a melancholy or distressing character, but sometimes used to express a
peculiar state of feeling, being apparently intended to convey nearly the
same meaning as the _ennui_ of the French. I {222} recollect an allusion to
the phrase somewhere in Miss Mitford's writings, who speaks of it as
peculiar to Berks; but as I was then ignorant of Captain Cuttle's maxim, I
did not "make a note of it," so that I am unable to lay my hand on the

G. T.


    [Mr. Sternberg also found this word in Northamptonshire: for in his
    valuable work on _The Dialect and Folk Lore_ of that county occurs the
    following derivation of it:--"UNKED, HUNKID, _s_. lonely, dull,
    miserable. 'I was so _unked_ when ye war away.' 'A _unked_ house,' &c.
    Mr. Bosworth gives, as the derivative, the A.-S. _uncyd_, solitary,
    without speech. In Batchelor's _List of Bedfordshire Words_, it is
    spelt _ungkid_."]

_Pilgrim's Progress_.--The common editions contain a _third_ part, setting
forth the life of _Tender-conscience_: this third part is thought not to
have been written by Bunyan, and is omitted from some, at least, of the
modern editions. Can any of your readers explain by whom this addition was
made, and all about it? The subject of the _Pilgrim's Progress_
generally--the stories of a similar kind which are said to have
preceded--especially in Catholic times--the history of its editions and
annotations, would give some interesting columns.


    [Mr. George Offor, in his Introduction to _The Pilgrim's Progress_,
    published by the Hanserd Knollys Society in 1847, notices the third
    part as a forgery:--"In a very few years after Bunyan's death, this
    third part made its appearance; and although the title does not
    directly say that it was written by Bunyan, yet it was at first
    generally received as such. In 1695, it reached a second edition; and a
    sixth in 1705. In 1708, it was denounced in the title to the ninth
    edition of the second part, by a 'Note, _the third part, suggested to
    be J. Bunyan's, is an imposture_.' The author of this forgery is as yet
    unknown." Mr. Offor has also devoted fifty pages of his Introduction to
    the conjectured prototypes of Bunyan's _Pilgrim's Progress_. He says,
    "Every assertion or suggestion that came to my knowledge has been
    investigated, and the works referred to have been analysed. And beyond
    this, every allegorical work that could be found, previous to the
    eighteenth century, has been examined in all the European languages,
    and the result is a perfect demonstration of the complete originality
    of Bunyan."]

_John Frewen_.--What is known of this divine? He was minister at Northiam
in Sussex in 1611; and published, the following year, a small volume of
_Sermons_, bearing reference to some quarrel between himself and
parishioners. Are these _Sermons_ rare? Any particulars would be



    [Accepted Frewen, Archbishop of York, was the eldest son of John
    Frewen, "the puritanical Rector of Northiam," as Wood calls him, and
    indeed his name carries a symbol of his father's sanctity. Wood has
    given a few particulars of John, who, he says, "was a learned divine,
    and frequent preacher of the time, and wrote, 1. _Fruitful Instructions
    and Necessary Doctrine, to edify in the Fear of God, &c_., 1587. 2.
    _Fruitful Instructions for the General Cause of Reformation, against
    the Slanders of the Pope and League, &c_., 1589. 3. _Certain Choice
    Grounds and Principles of our Christian Religion, with their several
    Expositions, by Way of Questions and Answers, &c_., 1621, and other
    things. He died in 1627 (about the latter end), and was buried in
    Northiam Church, leaving then behind these sons, viz. Accepted,
    Thankful, Stephen, Joseph, Benjamin, Thomas, Samuel, John, &c., which
    John seems to have succeeded his father in the Rectory of Northiam; but
    whether the said father was educated at Oxford, I cannot tell."]

_Histories of Literature_.--Can any correspondent inform me of the best, or
one or two principal Histories of Literature, published in the English
language, with the names of the author and publisher; as well as, if
possible, the size and price?


    [Our correspondent cannot do better than procure Hallam's _Introduction
    to the Literature of Europe in the Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and
    Seventeenth Centuries_, 3 vols. 8vo. (36s.). He may also consult with
    advantage Dr. Maitland's _Dark Ages_, which illustrates the state of
    religion and literature from the ninth to the twelfth centuries, 8vo.,
    12s. and Berrington's _Literary History of the Middle Ages_, 3s. 6d.]

"_Mrs. Shaw's Tombstone_."--In Leigh's _Observations_ (London, 1660) are
several quotations from a work entitled _Mrs. Shaw's Tombstone_. Where may
a copy of this be seen?



    [Mrs. Dorothy Shaw's _Tombstone, or the Saint's Remains_, 1658, may be
    seen in the British Museum, Press-mark, 1418. i. 41.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. viii., p. 182.)

A correspondent who seems to delight in sibilants, signing, himself
S. Z. Z. S., invites me to "_preserve_, in your columns, the letter of
Calvin to Cranmer, of which Dean Jenkyns has only given extracts," as
noticed by me in your Vol. vii., p. 621.

I would not shrink from the trouble of transcribing the whole letter, if a
complete copy were only to be found in the short-lived columns of a
newspaper, as inserted in the _Record_ of May 15, 1843, by Merle d'Aubigné;
but the Dean has given a reference to the volume in which both the letters
he cites are preserved and accessible, viz. _Calvin Epistles_, pp. 134,
135., Genev. 1616. {223}

S. Z. Z. S. justly observes that there are two points to be distinguished:
first, Cranmer's wish that Calvin should assist in a general union of the
churches protesting against Romish errors; second, Calvin's offer to assist
in settling the Church of England. He adds, "The latter was declined; and
the reason is demonstrated in Archbishop Laurence's _Bampton Lectures_." I
neither possess those lectures, nor the volume of Calvin's epistles; but
all I have seen of the correspondence between him and Cranmer, in the
Parker Society's editions of Cranmer, and of original letters between
1537-58, and in Jenkyns' _Remains of Cranmer_, indisposes me to believe
that Calvin made any "offer to assist in settling the Church of England."
It appears from Dean Jenkyns' note, vol. i. p. 346., that Archbishop
Laurence made a mistake in the order of the correspondence, calculated to
mislead himself; and as to Heylyn's assertion, _Eccles. Restaur._, p. 65.,
that Calvin made such an offer and "that the Archbishop (Cranmer) _knew_
the man and refused his offer," the Dean says:

    "He gives no authority for the later part of his statement, and it can
    hardly be reconciled with Cranmer's letter to Calvin of March 20,

The contemptuous expression, he "knew the man and refused his offer," is,
in fact, utterly irreconcilable with Cranmer's language in all his three
letters to Melancthon, to Bullinger, and to Calvin (Nos. 296, 297, 298. of
Parker Society's edition of _Cranmer's Remains_, and Nos. 283, 284, 285. of
Jenkyns' edition), where he tells each of the other two that he had written
to Calvin from his desire--

    "Ut in Anglia, aut alibi, doctissimorum et _optimorum_ virorum synodus
    convocaretur, in qua de puritate ecclesiasticæ doctrinæ, et præcipue de
    consensu controversiæ sacramentariæ tractaretur."

Or, as he said to Calvin himself:

    "Ut docti et pii viri, qui alios antecellunt eruditione et judicio,

Your correspondent seems to have used the word "demonstrated" rather in a
surgical than in its mathematical sense.

Having taken up my pen to supply you with an answer to this historical
inquiry, I may as well notice some other articles in your No. 199. For
example, in p. 167., L. need not have referred your readers to Halliwell's
_Researches in Archaic Language_ for an explanation of Bacon's word
"bullaces." The word may be seen in Johnson's _Dictionary_, with the
citation from Bacon, and instead of vaguely calling it "a small black and
tartish plum," your botanical readers know it as the _Prunus insititia_.

Again, p. 173., J. M. may like to know farther, that the Duke of
Wellington's clerical brother was entered on the boards of St. John's
College, Cambridge, as Wesley, where the spelling must have been dictated
either by himself, or by the person authorised to desire his admission. It
continued to be spelt Wesley in the Cambridge annual calendars as late as
1808, but was altered in that of 1809 to Wellesley. The alteration was
probably made by the desire of the family, and without communicating such
desire to the registrary of the university. For it appears in the edition
of _Graduati Cantabrigienses_, printed in 1823, as follows:

    "Wesley, Gerard Valerian, Coll. Joh. A. M. 1792. Comitis de Mornington,
    Fil. nat. 4^{tus}."

In p. 173., C. M. INGLEBY may like to know, as a clue to the origin of his
_apussee and_, that I was taught at school, sixty years ago, to call & _And
per se_, whilst some would call it _And-per-se-and_.

In the same page, the inquirer B. H. C. respecting the word _mammon_, may
like to know that the history of that word has been given at some length in
p. 1. to p. 68. of the Parker Society's edition of Tyndale's _Parable of
the wicked Mammon_, where I have stated that it occurs in a form identical
with the English in the Chaldee Targum of Onkelos on Exod. viii. 21., and
in that of Jonathan on Judges, v. 9., as equivalent to riches; and that in
the Syriac translation it occurs in a form identical with [Greek: Mamôna],
in Exod. xxi. 30., as a rendering for [Hebrew: K\holam\P\segol\R], the
price of satisfaction. In B. H. C.'s citation from Barnes, _even_ seems a
misprint for _ever_. The Jews did not again fall into actual idolatry after
the Babylonish captivity; but we are told that in the sight of God
covetousness is idolatry.


  Hasilbury Bryan.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 124.)

A Querist quoting from Porta's _Natural Magic_ the vulgar error that "not
only in Scotland, but in the river Thames, there is a kind of shell-fish
which get out of their shells and grow to be ducks, or such like birds,"
asks, what could give rise to such an absurd belief? Your correspondent
quotes from the English translation of the _Magia Naturalis_, A.D. 1658;
but the tradition is very ancient, Porta the author having died in 1515
A.D. You still find an allusion in _Hudibras_ to those--

 "Who from the most refin'd of saints,
  As naturally grow miscreants,
  As _barnacles_ turn Soland geese,
  In th' islands of the Orcades."

The story has its origin in the peculiar formation of the little mollusc
which inhabits the multivalve shell, the _Pentalasmis anatifera_, which by
a fleshy peduncle attaches itself by one end to the bottoms of ships or
floating timber, whilst from the other {224} there protrudes a bunch of
curling and fringe-like cirrhi, by the agitation of which it attracts and
collects its food. These cirrhi so much resemble feathers, as to have
suggested the leading idea of a bird's tail: and hence the construction of
the remainder of the fable, which is thus given with grave minuteness in
_The Herbal, or General Historie of Plants_, gathered by John Gerarde,
Master in Chirurgerie: London, 1597:

    "What our eyes have seen, and our hands have touched, we shall declare.
    There is a small island in Lancashire called the Pile of Foulders,
    wherein are found the broken pieces of old and bruised ships, some
    whereof have been cast thither by shipwreck; and also the trunks or
    bodies, with the branches of old and rotten trees, cast up there
    likewise, whereon is found a certain spume or froth, that in time
    breedeth unto certain shells, in shape like those of a mussel, but
    sharper pointed, and of a whitish colour; wherein is contained a thing
    in form like a lace of silk finely woven as it were together, of a
    whitish colour; one end whereof is fastened unto the inside of the
    shell, even as the fish of oysters and mussels are; the other end is
    made fast unto the belly of a rude mass or lump, which in time cometh
    to the shape and form of a bird. When it is perfectly formed, the shell
    gapeth open, and the first thing that appeareth is the foresaid lace or
    string; next come the legs of the bird hanging out and as it groweth
    greater, it openeth the shell by degrees, till at length it is all come
    forth, and hangeth only by the bill. In short space after it cometh to
    full maturity, and falleth into the sea, where it gathereth feathers,
    and groweth to a fowl, bigger than a mallard, and lesser than a goose;
    having black legs, and a bill or beak, and feathers black and white,
    spotted in such manner as our magpie, called in some places a
    Pie-Annet, which the people of Lancashire call by no other name than a
    tree-goose; which place aforesaid, and all those parts adjacent, do so
    much abound therewith, that one of the best may be bought for
    threepence. For the truth hereof, if any doubt, may it please them to
    repair unto me, and I shall satisfy them by the testimony of credible
    witnesses."--Page 1391.

Gerarde, who is doubtless Butler's authority, says elsewhere, that "in the
north parts of Scotland, and the islands called Orcades," there are certain
trees whereon these tree-geese and barnacles abound.

The conversion of the fish into a bird, however fabulous, would be scarcely
more astonishing than the metamorphosis which it actually undergoes--the
young of the little animal having no feature to identify it with its final
development. In its early stage (I quote from Carpenter's _Physiology_,
vol. i. p. 52.) it has a form not unlike that of the crab, "possessing eyes
and powers of free motion; but afterwards, becoming fixed to one spot for
the remainder of its life, it loses its eyes and forms a shell, which,
though composed of various pieces, has nothing in common with the jointed
shell of the crab."

Though Porta wrote at Naples, the story has reference to Scotland; and the
tradition is evidently northern, and local. As to SPERIEND's Query, What
could give rise to so absurd a story? it doubtless took its origin in the
similarity of the tentacles of the fish to feathers of a bird. But I would
add the farther Query, whether the ready acceptance and general credence
given to so obvious a fable, may not have been derived from giving too
literal a construction to the text of the passage in the first chapter of

    "And God said, Let the _waters bring forth abundantly_ the moving
    creature that hath life, and _the fowl_ that may fly in the open
    firmament of heaven?"


Drayton (1613) in his _Poly-olbion_, iii., in connexion with the river Dee,
speaks of--

    "Th' anatomised fish, and fowls from planchers sprung,"

to which a note is appended in Southey's edition, p. 609., that such fowls
were "_barnacles_, a bird breeding upon old ships." In the _Entertaining
Library_, "Habits of Birds," pp. 363-379., the whole story of this
extraordinary instance of ignorance in natural history is amply developed.
The barnacle shells which I once saw in a sea-port, attached to a vessel
just arrived from the Mediterranean, had the brilliant appearance, at a
distance, of flowers in bloom[1]; the foot of the _Lepas anatifera_
(Linnæus) appearing to me like the stalk of a plant growing from the ship's
side: the shell had the semblance of a calyx, and the flower consisted of
the fingers (_tentacula_) of the shell-fish, "of which twelve project in an
elegant curve, and are used by it for making prey of small fish." The very
ancient error was to mistake the foot of the shell-fish for the neck of a
goose, the shell for its head, and the _tentacula_ for a tuft of feathers.
As to the body, _non est inventus_. The Barnacle Goose is a well-known
bird: and these shell-fish, bearing, as seen out of the water, resemblance
to the goose's neck, were ignorantly, and without investigation, confounded
with geese themselves, an error into which Albertus Magnus (d. 1280) did
not fall, and in which Pope Pius II. proved himself infallible.
Nevertheless, in France, the Barnacle Goose may be eaten on fast-days by
virtue of this old belief in its marine origin.


[Footnote 1: See _Penny Cycl_., art. CIRRIPEDA, vii. 208., reversing the

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. iv., p. 507. Vol. v., p. 155., &c.)

In the churchyard of Areley-Kings, Worcestershire (where is the singular
memorial to Sir Harry Coningsby, which I mentioned at Vol. vi., {225} p.
406.), is a curious dial, the pillar supporting which has its four sides
carved with figures of Time and Death, &c., and the following inscriptions.

On the south side, where is the figure of Time:


 "Aspice--ut aspicias."

 "Time's glass and scythe
  Thy life and death declare,
  Spend well thy time, and
  For thy end prepare."

     "O man, now or never
  While there is time, turn unto the Lord,
      And put not off from day to day."

On the north side, where is the figure of Death standing upon a dead body,
with his dart, hour-glass, and spade:

 "Three things there be in very deede,
  Which make my heart in grief to bleede:
  The first doth vex my very heart,
  In that from hence I must departe;
  The second grieves me now and then,
  That I must die, but know not when;
  The third with tears bedews my face,
  That I must die, nor know the place.

          I. W.
      _fecit_, Anno D[=m]i.

 "Behold my killing dart and delving spade;
  Prepare for death before thy grave be made;
          After death there's no hope."

 "If a man die he shall live again.
  All the days of my appointed time
  Will I wait till my days come."--_Job_ xiv. 14.

 "The death of saints is precious,
  And miserable is the death of sinners."

The east side of the pillar has the following:

 "Si vis ingredi in vitam,
  Serve mandata."

 "Judgments are prepared for sinners."--_Prov_. xiv. 9.

And on the west:

     "Sol non occidat
  Super iracundiam vestram."

 "Whatsoever ye would that men
      Should do unto you,
  Do ye even so unto them."

I subjoin a few other dial inscriptions, copied from churches in

Kidderminster (parish church):

    "None but a villain will deface me."

Himbleton (over the porch):

    "Via Vitæ."


    "We shall ----" (_i.e._ we shall die-all).


    "Ab hoc nomento pendet æternitas."


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., pp. 377. 433. 460. 530.)

The following humble petition will give an idea of the arbitrary power
exercised by the "Saltpeter maker" in the days of Good Queen Bess; and of
the useful monopoly that functionary contrived to make of his employment,
in defiance of county government:

    "Righte honorable, our humble dewties to yo^r good Lordshippe premised,
    maye it please the same to be advertised, that at the Quarter sessions
    holden at Newarke within this countie of Nottingham, There was a
    generall Complaynte made unto us by the Whole Countrie, that one John
    Ffoxe, saltpeter maker, had charged the Whole Countrie by his precepts
    for the Caryinge of Cole from Selsonn, in the Countie of Nottingham,
    unto the towne of Newarke w^{th}in the same countie; beinge sixteene
    myles distante for the makeinge of saltpeter, some townes w^{th} five
    Cariages and some w^{th} lesse, or els to geve him foure shillinges for
    everie Loade, whereof he hath Recyved a great parte. Uppon w^{ch}
    Complaynte we called the same Ffoxe before some of us at Newarke at the
    Sessions, there to answere the premisses, and also to make us a
    propc[=i]on what Loades of Coales would serve to make a thowsand of
    saltpeter, To thend we might have sett some order for the preparing of
    the same: But the said Ffoxe will not sett downe anie rate what would
    serve for the makeinge of a Thowsande. Therefore we have thoughte good
    to advertise your good Lordshippe of the premisses, and have appoynted
    the clarke of the peace of this countie of Nottingham to attend yo^r
    good Lordshippe to know yo^r Lordshippes pleasure about the same, who
    can further informe yo^r good Lordshippe of the particularities
    thereof, if it shall please yo^r good Lordshippe to geve him hearings,
    And so most humblie take our Leaves, Newarke, the viij^{th} of Octob^r,

     "Your L^{pp} most humblie to Comaunde,

      RO. MARKHAM,
      R[=AU]F BARTON, 1589,
      N[=IH]S ROOS,

The document is addressed on the back "To the Right Honorable our verie
good Lord the Lord Burghley, Lord Heighe Threasoro^r of England, yeve
theis;" and is numbered LXI. 72. among the Lansdowne MSS., B. M.

The proposal quoted below has no date attached, but probably belongs to the
former part of the seventeenth century:


    "1. To make 500 Tunne of refined Saltpetre within his Ma^{ties}
    dominions yearely, and continually, and cheaper.

    2. _Without digging of homes or charging of carts, or any other charge
    to the subject whatsoever._ {226}

    3. To performe the whole service at our owne cost.

    4. Not to hinder any man in his owne way of makeing saltpetre, nor
    importation from forreine parts."

The following memorandum is underwritten:

    "Mr. Speaker hath our Bill; Be pleased to-morrow to call for it."

The original draft of the above disinterested offer may be seen Harl.
CLVIII. fol. 272.


  St. James's.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 150.)

The difficulty in investigating the origin of this word is that the letter
_c_, "the most wonderful of all letters," says Eichhoff (_Vergleichung der
Sprachen_, p. 55.), sounds like _k_ before the vowels _a_, _o_, _u_, but
before _e_, _i_, in French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Dutch, as _s_, in
Italian as _tsh_, in German as _ts_. It is always _ts_ in Polish and
Bohemian. In Russian it is represented by a special letter [Cyrillic: ts],
_tsi_; but in Celtic it is always _k_. Conformably with this principle, the
Russians, like the Germans, Poles, and Bohemians, pronounce the Latin _c_
as _ts_. So Cicero in these languages is pronounced _Tsitsero_, very
differently from the Greeks, who called him _Kikero_. The letter _tsi_ is a
supplementary one in Russian, having no corresponding letter in the Greek
alphabet, from which the Russian was formed in the ninth century by St.
Cyril. The word to be sought then amongst cognate languages as the
counterpart of _tsar_ (or as the Germans write it _czar_) is _car_, as
pronounced in English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Dutch. The most
probable etymological connection that I can discover is with the Sanscrit
[Sanskrit: car] _car_, to move, to advance; the root of the Greek [Greek:
karrhon], in English _car_, Latin _curro_, French _cours_. So Sanscrit
_caras_, _carat_, movable, nimble; Greek [Greek: chraôn], Latin _currens_.
And Sanscrit _câras_, motion, Greek [Greek: choros], Latin _currus_,
_cursus_, French _char_, English _car_, _cart_, &c. The early Russians were
doubtless wanderers, an off-shoot of the people known to the Greeks as
Scythians, and to the Hebrews and Arabians as Gog and Magog, who travelled
in _cars_, occupying first one territory with their flocks, but not
cultivating the land, then leaving it to nature and taking up another
resting-place. It is certain that the Russians have many Asiatic words in
their vocabulary, which must necessarily have occurred from their being for
more than two centuries sometimes under Tatar, and sometimes under Mongol
domination; and the origin of this word _tsar_ or _car_ may leave to be
sought on the plateaus of North-east Asia. In the Shemitic tongues (Arabic,
Hebrew, Persian, &c.) no connexion of sound or meaning, so probable as the
above Indo-European one, is to be found. The popular derivations of
Nabupolassar, Nebuchadnezzar, Belshazzar, &c., are not to be trusted. It is
remarkable, however, that these names are significant in Russian. (See "N.
& Q.," Vol. vii., pp. 432, 433, _note_.) The cuneatic inscriptions may yet
throw light on these Assyrian names. In Russian the kingdom is _Tsarstvo_,
the king _Tsar_, his queen _Tsarina_, his son is _Tsarevitch_, and his
daughter _Tsarevna_. The word is probably pure Russian or Slavic. The
Russian tsar used about two hundred years ago to be styled duke by foreign
courts, but he has advanced in the nomenclature of royalty to be an
emperor. The Russians use the word _imperatore_ for emperor, _Kesar_ for
Cæsar, and _samodershetse_ for sovereign.



In Voltaire's _History of the Russian Empire_, it is stated that the title
of Czar may possibly be derived front the _Tzars_ or _Tchars_ of the
kingdom of Casan. When John, or Ivan Basilides, Grand Prince of Russia, had
completed the reduction of this kingdom, he assumed this title, and it has
since continued to his successors. Before the reign of John Basilides, the
sovereigns of Russia bore the name of _Velike Knez_, that is, great prince,
great lord, great chief, which in Christian countries was afterwards
rendered by that of great duke. The Czar Michael Federovitz, on occasion of
the Holstein embassy, assumed the titles of Great Knez and Great Lord,
Conservator of all the Russias, Prince of Wolodimir, Moscow, Novogorod,
&c., Tzar of Casan, Tzar of Astracan, Tzar of Siberia. The name of _Tzar_
was therefore the title of those Oriental princes, and therefore it is more
probable for it to have been derived from the _Tshas_ of Persia than from
the Roman Cæsars, whose name very likely never reached the ears of the
Siberian Tzars on the banks of the Oby. In another part of Voltaire's
_History_, when giving an account of the celebrated battle of Narva, where
Charles XII., with nine thousand men and ten pieces of cannon, defeated
"the Russian army with eighty thousand fighting men, supported by one
hundred and forty-five pieces of cannon," he says, "Among the captives was
the son of a King of Georgia, whom Charles sent to Stockholm; his name was
_Mittelesky Czarowitz_, or Czar's Son, which is farther proof that the
title of Czar or Tzar was not originally derived from the Roman Cæsars." To
the above slightly abbreviated description may not be uninterestingly added
the language of Voltaire, which immediately follows the first reference:

    "No title, how great soever, is of any signification, unless they who
    bear it are great and powerful of themselves. The word _emperor_, which
    denoted only the _general of an army_, became the title of the {227}
    sovereigns of Rome and it is now conferred on the supreme governor of
    all the Russias."


I beg to inform J. S. A. that the right word is _Tsar_, and that it is the
Russian word answering to our king or lord, the Latin _Rex_, the Persian
_Shah_, &c. There may be terms in other languages that have an affinity
with it, but I believe we should seek in vain for a derivation.

T. K.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 160.)

I wish that R. W. ELLIOT of Clifton, whom I recognise as a former
inhabitant of Hull, had given the authority on which he states, that "It is
so called from the sale of ginger having been chiefly carried on there in
early times." The name of this street has much puzzled the local
antiquaries; and having been for several years engaged on a work relative
to the derivations, &c., of the names of the streets of Hull, I have spared
no pains to ascertain the history and derivation of the singular name of
this street.

I offer then a conjecture as to its derivation as follows:--The ground on
which this street stands was originally the property of De la Pole, Duke of
Suffolk, on which he had built his stately manor-house. On the attainder of
the family it was seized by the king; and Henry VIII. several times held
his court here, on one of his visits having presented his sword to the
corporation. It was then, 1538, called Old Beverley Street, as seen in the
survey made of the estates of Sir William Sydney, Kt. In a romance called
_Piraute el Blanco_, it is stated "The morning collation at the English
Court was _green ginger_ with good Malmsey, which was their custom, because
of the coldness of the land." And in the _Foedera_, vii. 233., it is stated
that, among other things, the cargo of a Genoese ship, which was driven
ashore at Dunster, in Somersetshire, in 1380, consisted of green ginger
(ginger cured with lemon-juice). In Hollar's Map of Hull, 1640, the street
is there laid out as built upon, but without any name attached to it. No
other plans of Hull are at present known to exist from the time of Hollar,
1640, to Gent, 1735. In Gent's plan of Hull, it is there called "The Land
of Green Ginger;" so that probably, between the years 1640 and 1735, it
received its peculiar name.

I therefore conjecture that, as Henry VIII. kept his Court here with his
usual regal magnificence, green ginger would be one of the luxuries of his
table; that this portion of his royal property being laid out as a garden,
was peculiarly suitable for the growth of ginger--the same as Pontefract
was for the growth of the liquorice plant; and that, upon the property
being built upon, the remembrance of this spot being so suitable for the
growth of ginger for the Court, would eventually give the peculiar name, in
the same way that the adjoining street of Bowl-Alley-Lane received its
title from the bowling-green near to it.


  13. Savile Street, Hull.

This has long been a puzzle to the Hull antiquaries. I have often inquired
of old persons likely to know the origin of such names of places at that
sea-port as "The Land of Green Ginger," "Pig Alley," "Mucky-south-end," and
"Rotten Herring Staith;" and I have come to the conclusion, that "The Land
of Green Ginger" was a very dirty place where horses were kept: a mews, in
short, which none of the Muses, not even with Homer as an exponent, could
exalt ([Greek: Epea pteroenta en athanatoisi theoisi]) into the regions of

Ginger has been cultivated in this country as a _stove_ exotic for about
two hundred and fifty years. In one of the histories of Hull, ginger is
supposed to have grown in this street, where, to a recent period, the
stables of the George Inn, and those of a person named Foster opposite,
occupied the principal portion of the short lane called "Land of Green
Ginger." It is hardly possible that the true zingiber can have grown here,
even in the manure heaps; but a plant of the same order (_Zingiberaceæ_)
may have been mistaken for it. Some of the old women or marine school-boys
of the Trinity House, in the adjoining lane named from that guild, or some
druggist, may have dropped, either accidentally or experimentally, a root,
if not of the ginger, yet of some kindred plant. The magnificent _Fuchsia_
was first noticed in the possession of a seaman's wife by Fuchs in 1501, a
century prior to the introduction of the ginger plant into England.



       *       *       *       *       *


_Stereoscopic Angles_.--The discussion in "N. & Q." relative to the best
angle for stereoscopic pictures has gone far towards a satisfactory
conclusion: there are, however, still a few points which may be
beneficially considered.

In the first place, the kind of stereoscope to be used must tend to modify
the mental impression; and secondly, the _amount_ of reduction from the
size of the original has a considerable influence on the final result.

If in viewing a stereoscopic pair of photographs, they are placed _at the
same distance_ from the eyes as the _length of the focus of the lens used
in producing them_, then without doubt the distance between the eyes, viz.
about two and a quarter {228} inches, is the best difference between the
two points of view to produce a perfectly natural result; and if the points
of operation be more distant from one another, as I have before intimated,
an effect is produced similar to what would be the case if the pictures
were taken from a _model_ of the object instead of the object itself.

When it is intended that the pictures taken are to be viewed by an
instrument that requires their distance from the eyes to be _less_ than the
focal length of the lens used in their formation, what is the result? Why,
that they subtend an angle larger than in nature, and are consequently
apparently _increased_ in bulk; and the obvious remedy is to _increase_ the
angle between the points of generation in the exact ratio as that by which
the visual distance is to be lessened. There is one other consideration to
which I would advert, viz. that as we judge of _distance_, &c. mainly by
the degree of _convergence_ of the optic axes of our two eyes, it cannot be
so good to arrange the camera with its two positions quite parallel,
especially for objects at a short or medium distance, as to let its centre
radiate from the principal object to be delineated; and to accomplish this
desideratum in the readiest way (for portraits especially), the ingenious
contrivance of Mr. Latimer Clark, described in the _Journal_ of the
Photographic Society, appears to me the best adapted. It consists of a
modification of the old parallel ruler arrangement on which the camera is
placed; but one of the sides has an adjustment, so that within certain
limits any degree of convergence is attainable. Now in the case of the
pictures alluded to by MR. H. WILKINSON in Vol. viii., p. 181., it is
probable they were taken by a camera placed in two positions parallel to
one another, and it is quite clear that only a _portion_ of the two
pictures could have been really stereoscopic. It is perfectly true that two
indifferent negatives will often combine and form one good stereoscopic
positive, but this is in consequence of one possessing that in which the
other is deficient; and at any rate two _good_ pictures will have a
_better_ effect; consequently, it is better that the two views should
contain exactly the same _range_ of vision.


_Protonitrate of Iron_.--"Being in the habit of using protonitrate of iron
for developing collodion pictures, the following method of preparing that
solution suggested itself to me, which appears to possess great

  Water                       1 oz.
  Protosulphate of iron      14 grs.
  Nitrate of potash          10 grs.
  Acetic acid                 ½ drm.
  Nitric acid                 2 drops.

In this mixture nitrate of potash is employed to convert the sulphate of
iron into nitrate in place of nitrate of baryta in Dr. Diamond's formula,
or nitrate of lead as recommended by Mr. Sisson; the advantage being that
no filtering is required, as the sulphate of potash (produced by the double
decomposition) is soluble in water, and does not interfere with the
developing qualities of the solution.

"The above gives the bright deposit of silver so much admired in Dr.
Diamond's pictures, and will be found to answer equally well either for
positives or negatives. If the nitric acid be omitted, we obtain the
effects of protonitrate of iron prepared in the usual way.--JOHN SPILLER."

(From the _Photographic Journal_.)

_Photographs in natural Colours_.--As "N. & Q." numbers among its
correspondents many residents in the United States, I hope you will permit
me to inquire through its columns whether there is really any foundation
for the very startling announcement, in Professor Hunt's _Photography_, of
Mr. Hill of New York having "obtained more than fifty pictures from nature
in all the beauty of native coloration," or whether the statement is, as I
conclude Professor Hunt is inclined to believe, one of those hoaxes in
which many of our transatlantic friends take so much delight.


_Photographs by artificial Lights_.--May I ask for references to any
manuals of photography, or papers in scientific journals, in which are
recorded any experiments that have been made with the view of obtaining
photographs by means of artificial lights? This is, I have no doubt, a
subject of interest to many who, like myself, are busily occupied during
the day, and have only their evenings for scientific pursuits: while it is
obvious, that if such a process can be successfully practised, there are
many objects--such as _prints_, _coins_, _seals_, _objects of natural
history and antiquity_--which might well be copied by it, even though
artificial light should prove far slower in its action than solar light.


       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Vandyke in America_ (Vol. viii., p. 182.).--I would take the liberty of
asking MR. BALCH of Philadelphia whom he means by Col. Hill and Col. Byrd,
"worthies famous in English history, and whose portraits by Vandyke are now
on the James River?" I know of no Col. Hill or Byrd whom Vandyke could
possibly have painted. I should also like to know what proof there is that
the pictures, whomsoever they represent, are by _Vandyke_. MR. BALCH says
that he favours us with this information "_in answer to the query_" (Vol.
vii., p. 38.); but I beg leave to observe that it is by no means "in answer
to the query," which was about an _engraved_ portrait and not _picture_,
and {229} his thus bringing in the Vandykes _à propos de bottes_ makes me a
little curious about their authenticity.


_Title wanted--Choirochorographia_ (Vol. viii., p. 151.).--The full title
of the book inquired after is as follows:

    "[Greek: Choirochôrographia]: sive, Hoglandiæ Descriptio.--Plaudite
    _Porcelli Porcorum pigra Propago_ (Eleg. Poet.): Londini, Anno Domini
    1709. Pretium 2^d," 8vo.

The printer, as appears from the advertisement at the end of the volume,
was Henry Hills. The middle of the title-page is occupied by a coarsely
executed woodcut, representing a boar with barbed instrument in his snout,
and similar instrument on a larger scale under the head, surmounted with
some rude characters, which I read


The dedication is headed, "Augusto admodum & undiquaq; Spectabili Heroi
Domini H---- S---- Maredydius Caduganus Pymlymmonensis, S.P.D." The entire
work appears to be written in ridicule of Hampshire, and to be intended as
a retaliation for work written by Edward Holdsworth, of Magd. Coll. Oxford,
entitled _Muscipula, sive_ [Greek: kambro-muo-machia], published by the
same printer in the same year, and translated by Dr. Hoadly in the fifth
volume of Dodsley's _Miscellany_, p. 277., edit. 1782.

Query, Who was the author? and had Holdsworth any farther connexion with
Hampshire than that of having been educated at Winchester School?

J. F. M.

_Second Growth of Grass_ (Vol. viii., p. 102.).--R. W. F. of Bath inquires
for other names than "fog," &c. In Sussex we leave "rowens," or "rewens"
(the latter, I believe, a corruption), used for the second growth of grass.

Halliwell, in his _Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words_, has
"_Rowens_, after-grass," as a Suffolk word. Bailey gives the word, with a
somewhat different signification; but he has "_Rowen hay_, latter hay," as
a country word.



In Norfolk this is called "aftermath eddish," and "rowans" or "rawins."

The first term is evidently from the A.-S. _mæth_, mowing or math:
Bosworth's _Dictionary_. Eddish is likewise from the A.-S. _edisc_,
signifying the second growth; it is used by Tusser, _October's Husbandry_,
stanza 4.:

 "Where wheat upon _eddish_ ye mind to bestow,
  Let that be the first of the wheat ye do sow."

_Rawings_ also occurs in Tusser, and in the _Promptorium Parvulorum_,
_rawynhey_ is mentioned. In Bailey's _Dictionary_ it is spelt _rowen_ and
_roughings_: this last form gives the etymology, for _rowe_, as may be seen
in Halliwell, is an old form for _rough_.

E. G. R.

I have always heard it called in Northumberland, _fog_; in Norfolk,
_after-math_; in Oxfordshire, I am told, it is _latter-math_. This term is
pure A.-Saxon, _mæth_, the mowing; the former word _fog_, and _eddish_
also, are to be found in dictionaries, but their derivation is not

C. I. R.

_Snail eating_ (Vol. viii., p. 34).--The beautiful specimens of the large
white snails were brought from Italy by Single-speech Hamilton, a gentleman
of _vertù_ and exquisite taste, and placed in the grounds at Paynes Hill,
and some fine statues likewise. On the change of property, the snails were
dispersed about the country; and many of them were picked up by my
grandfather, who lived at the Grove under Boxhill, near Dorking. They were
found in the hedges about West Humble, and in the grounds of the Grove. I
had this account from my mother; and had once some of the shells, which I
had found when staying in Surrey.


  Southcote Lodge.

The snails asked after by MR. H. T. RILEY are to be met with near Dorking.
When in that neighbourhood one day in May last, I found two in the hedgerow
on the London road (west side) between Dorking and Box Hill. They are much
larger than the common snail, the shells of a light brown, and the flesh
only slightly tinged with green. I identified them by a description and
drawing given in an excellent book for children, the _Parent's Cabinet_,
which also states that they are to be found about Box Hill.


The large white snail (_Helix pomatia_) is found in abundance about Box
Hill in Surrey. It is also plentiful near Stonesfield in Oxfordshire, where
have, at different periods, been discovered considerable remains of Roman
villas; and it has been suggested that this snail was introduced by the
former inhabitants of those villas.



_Sotades_ (Vol. vii., p. 417.).--Sotades is the supposed inventor of
Palindromic verses (see Mr. Sands' _Specimens of Macaronic Poetry_, p. 5.,
1831. His enigma on "Madam" was written by Miss Ritson of Lowestoft).

S. Z. Z. S.

_The Letter "h" in "humble"_ (Vol. viii., p. 54).--The question has been
raised by one of your correspondents (and I have not observed any reply
thereto), as to whether it is a peculiarity of Londoners to pronounce the
_h_ in _humble_. If, as a Londoner by birth and residence, I might be
allowed to answer the Query, I should say that {230} the _h_ is never heard
in _humble_, except when the word is pronounced from the pulpit. I believe
it to be one of those, either Oxford or Cambridge, or both, peculiarities,
of which no reasonable explanation can be given.

I should be glad to hear whether any satisfactory general rule has been
laid down as to when the _h_ should be sounded, and when not. The only rule
which occurs to me is to pronounce it in all words coming to us from the
Celtic "stock," and to pass it unsounded in those which are of Latin
origin. If this rule be admitted, the pronunciation sanctioned by the
pulpit and Mr. Dickens is condemned.



_Lord North_ (Vol. vii., p. 317. Vol. viii., p. 184.).--Is M. E. of
Philadelphia laughing at us, when he refers us to a _woodcut_ in some
American pictorial publication on the American Revolution for a true
portraiture of the figure and features of King George III.; different, I
presume, from that which I gave you. His woodcut, he says, is taken "from
an English engraving;" he does not tell us who either painter or engraver
was--but no matter. We have hundreds of portraits by the best hands which
confirm my description, which moreover was the result of personal
observation: for, from the twentieth to the thirtieth years of my life, I
had frequent and close opportunities of approaching his Majesty. I cannot
but express my surprise that "N. & Q." should have given insertion to
anything so absurd--to use the gentlest term--as M. E.'s appeal to his


_Singing Psalms and Politics_ (Vol. viii., p. 56.).--One instance of the
misapplication of psalmody must suggest itself at once to the readers of
"N. & Q.," I mean the melancholy episode in the history of the Martyr King,
thus related by Hume:

    "Another preacher, after reproaching him to his face with his
    misgovernment, ordered this Psalm to be sung,--

     'Why dost thou, tyrant, boast thyself,
        Thy wicked deeds to praise?'

    The king stood up, and called for that Psalm which begins with these

     'Have mercy, Lord, on me, I pray;
        For men would me devour.'

    The good-natured audience, in pity to fallen majesty, showed for once
    greater deference to the king than to the minister, and sung the psalm
    which the former had called for."--_Hume's History of England_, ch. 58.



_Dimidiation by Impalement_ (Vol. vii., p. 630.).--Your correspondent D. P.
concludes his notice on this subject by doubting if any instance of
"Dimidiation by Impalement" can be found since the time of Henry VIII. If
he turn to Anderson's _Diplomata Scotiæ_ (p. 164. and 90.), he will find
that Mary Queen of Scots bore the arms of France dimidiated with those of
Scotland from A.D. 1560 to December 1565. This coat she bore as Queen
Dowager of France, from the death of her first husband, the King of France,
until her marriage with Darnley.

T. H. DE H.

"_Inter cuncta micans_," &c. (Vol. vi, p. 413.; Vol. vii., p. 510.).--The
following translation is by the Rev. Geo. Greig of Kennington. It preserves
the acrostic and mesostic, though not the telestic, form of the original:

 "In glory rising see the sun,          Illustrious orb of day,
  Enlightening heaven's wide expanse,   Expel night's gloom away.
  So light into the darkest soul,     JESUS, Thou dost impart,
  Uplifting Thy life-giving smiles      Upon the deaden'd heart;
  Sun Thou of Righteousness Divine,     Sole King of Saints Thou art."



_Marriage Service_ (Vol. viii., p. 150.).--I have seen the Rubric carried
out, in this particular, in St. Mary's Church, Kidderminster.


_Widowed Wife_ (Vol. viii., p. 56.).--_Eur. Hec._ 612. "Widowed wife and
wedded maid," occurs in Vanda's prophecy; Sir W. Scott's _The Betrothed_,
ch. xv.

S. Z. Z. S.

_Pure_ (Vol. viii., p. 125.).--The use of the word _pure_ pointed out by
OXONIENSIS is nothing new. It is a common provincialism now, and was
formerly good English. Here are two examples from Swift (_Letters_, by
Hawkesworth, vol. iv. 1768, p.21.):

    "Ballygall will be a pure good place for air."

Ibid. p. 29.:

    "Have you smoakt the Tattler yet? It is much liked, and I think it a
    _pure_ one."



"Purely, I thank you," is a common reply of the country folks in this part
when accosted as to their health. I recollect once asking a market-woman
about her son who had been ill, and received for an answer: "Oh he's quite
_fierce_ again, thank you, Sir." Meaning, of course, that he had quite



_Mrs. Tighe_ (Vol. viii., p. 103.).--"There is a likeness of Mrs. Henry
Tighe, the authoress of 'Psyche,' in the _Ladies' Monthly Museum_ for
February, 1818. It is engraved by J. Hopwood, jun., from a drawing by Miss
Emma Drummond. Underneath the engraving referred to, are the words 'Mrs.
Henry Tighe;' but she is called in {231} the memoir, 'wife of William
Tighe, Esq., M.P. for Wicklow, whose residence is Woodstock, county of
Kilkenny, author of _The Plants_, a poem, 8vo.: published in 1808 and 1811;
and _Statistical Observations on the County of Kilkenny_, 1800. Mrs. Tighe
is described as having had a pleasing person, and a countenance that
indicated melancholy and deep reflection; was amiable in her domestic
relations; had a mind well stored with classic literature; and, with strong
feelings and affections, expressed her thoughts with the nicest
discrimination, and taste the most refined and delicate. Thus endued, it is
to be regretted that Mrs. Tighe should have fallen a victim to a lingering
disease of six years at the premature age of thirty-seven, on March 24,
1810.'--The remainder of the short notice does not throw any additional
light on Mrs. Tighe, or family; but if you, Sir, or the Editor of "N. & Q."
wish, I will cheerfully transcribe it.--I am, Sir, yours in haste,


 "Belfast, Aug. 15."

    [We are indebted for the above reply to the _Dublin Weekly Telegraph_,
    which not only does us the honour to quote very freely from our pages,
    but always most liberally acknowledges the source from which the
    articles so quoted are derived.]

_Satirical Medal_ (Vol. viii., p. 57.).--I have seen the same medal of Sir
R. Walpole (the latest instance of the mediæval _hell-mouth_ with which I
am acquainted) bearing on the obverse--"THE GENEROUSE (_sic_) DUKE OF
ARGYLE;" and at the foot--"NO PENTIONS."

S. Z. Z. S.

"_They shot him dead at the Nine-Stone Rig_" (Vol. viii., p. 78.).--Your
correspondent the BORDERER will find the fragment of the ballad he is in
search of commencing with the above line, in the second volume of the
_Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border_, p. 114. It is entitled "Barthram's
Dirge," and "was taken down," says Scott, "by Mr. Surtees, from the
recitation of Anne Douglas, an old woman, who weeded his garden."

Since the death of Mr. Surtees, however, it has been ascertained that this
ballad, as well as "The Death of Featherstonhaugh," and some others in the
same collection, were composed by him and passed off upon Scott as genuine
old Scottish ballads.

Farther particulars respecting this clever literary imposition are given in
a review of the "Memoir of Robert Surtees," in the _Athenæum_ of August 7,

J. K. R. W.

_Hendericus du Booys: Helena Leonora de Sievéri_ (Vol. v., p. 370.).--Are
two different portraits of each of these two persons to be found? By no
means. There exists, however, a plate of each, engraved by C. Visscher; but
the first impressions bear the address of E. du Booys, the later that of E.
Cooper. As I am informed by Mr. Bodel Nijenhuis, Hendericus du Booys took
part in the celebrated three-days' fight, Feb. 18, 19, and 20, 1653,
between Blake and Tromp.--From the _Navorscher_.


_House-marks, &c_. (Vol. vii., p. 594. Vol. viii., p. 62.).--May I be
allowed to inform MR. COLLYNS that the custom he refers to is by no means
of modern date. Nearly all the cattle which come to Malta from Barbary to
be stall-fed for consumption, or horses to be sold in the garrison, bring
with them their distinguishing marks by which they may be easily known.

And it may not be out of place to remark, that being one of a party in the
winter of 1830, travelling overland from Smyrna to Ephesus, we reached a
place just before sunset where a roving band of Turcomans had encamped for
the night. On nearing these people we observed that the women were
preparing food for their supper, while the men were employed in branding
with a hot iron, under the camel's upper lip, their own peculiar mark,--a
very necessary precaution, it must be allowed, with people who are so well
known for their pilfering propensities, not only practised on each other,
but also on all those who come within their neighbourhood. Having as
strangers paid our tribute to their great dexterity in their profession,
the circumstance was published at the time, and to this day is not

W. W.


"_Qui facit per alium, facit per se_."--In Vol. vii., p. 488., I observe an
attempt to trace the source of the expression, "Qui facit per alium, facit
per se." A few months since I met with the quotation under some such form
as "Qui facit per alium, per se facere videtur," in the preface to a book
on _Surveying_, by Fitzherbert (printed by Berthelet about 1535), where it
is attributed to St. Augustine. As I know of no copy of the works of that
father in these parts (though I heard him quoted last Sunday in the
pulpit), I cannot at present verify the reference.



_Engin-à-verge_ (Vol. vii., p. 619. Vol. viii., p. 65.).--H. C. K. is
mistaken in his conjecture respecting this word, as the following
definition of it will show:

    "_Engins-à-verge_. Ils comprenaient les diverges espèces de catapultes,
    les pierriers, &c."--Bescherelle, _Dictionnaire National_.

B. H. C.

_Campvere, Privileges of_ (Vol viii., p. 89.).--"Jus Gruis liberæ." Does
not this mean the privilege of using a crane to raise their goods free of
dues, municipal or fiscal? _Grus_, _grue_, _krahn_, {232} _kraan_, all
mean, in their different languages, crane the bird, and crane the machine.

J. H. L.

_Humbug_--_Ambages_ (Vol. viii., p. 64.).--May I be permitted to inform
your correspondent that Mr. May was certainly correct when using the word
"ambages" as an English word in his translation of Lucan.

In Howell's _Dictionary_, published in London in May 1660, I find it thus

 "Ambages, or circumstances."
 "Full of ambages."

W. W.


"_Going to Old Weston_" (Vol. iii., p. 449.).--In turning over the pages of
the third volume of "N. & Q." recently, I stumbled on ARUN'S notice of the
above proverb. It immediately struck me that I had heard it used myself a
few days before, without being conscious at the time of the similarity of
the expression. I was asking an old man, who had been absent from home,
where he had been to? His reply was, "To Old Weston, Sir. You know I must
go there before I die." Knowing that he had relatives living there, I did
not, at the time, notice anything extraordinary in the answer; but, since
reading ARUN'S note, I have made some inquires, and find the saying is a
common one on this (the Northamptonshire) side of Old Weston, as well as in
Huntingdonshire. I have been unable to obtain any explanation of it, but
think the one suggested by your correspondent must be right. One of my
informants (an old woman upwards of seventy) told me she had often heard it
used, and wondered what could be its meaning, when she was a child.

W. W.

  B---- Rectory, Northamptonshire.

_Reynolds's Nephew_ (Vol. viii., p. 102.).--I think I can certify A. Z.
that two distinct branches of the Palmer family, the Deans, and another
claiming like kindred to Sir Joshua Reynolds, still exist; from which I
conclude that Sir Joshua had at least two nephews of that name. I regret
that I cannot inform your correspondent as to the authorship of the piece
about which he inquires; but, in the event of A. Z. not receiving a
satisfactory answer to his Query through the medium of our publication, if
he will furnish me with any farther particulars he may possess on the
subject, I shall be happy to try what I can do towards possessing him with
the desired information.



_The Laird of Brodie_ (Vol. viii., p. 103.).--I. H. B. mistakes, I think,
the meaning of the lines. The idea is not that the Laird was less than a
gentleman, but that he was a gentleman of mark; at least, I have never
heard any other interpretation put upon it in Scotland, where the ballad of
"We'll gang nae mair a-roving," is a great favourite. King James is the
_subject_ of the ballad. That merry monarch made many lively escapades, and
on this occasion he personated a beggarman. The damsel, to whom he
successfully paid his addresses, saw through the disguise at first; but
from the king's good acting, when he pretended to be afraid that the dongs
would "rive his meal pokes," she began to think she had been mistaken. Then
she expressed her disgust by saying, that she had thought her lover could
not be anything less than the Laird of Brodie, the highest untitled
gentleman probably in the neighbourhood: implying that she suspected he
might be peer or prince.

W. C.

_Mulciber_ (Vol. viii., p. 102).--It may not be a sufficient answer to MR.
WARD'S Query, but I wish to state that there was no "Mayor of Bromigham"
until after the passing of the Reform Bill. I think that it may be inferred
from the extract given below, that the mayor was no more a reality than the
shield which he is said to have wrought:

 "His shield was wrought, if we may credit Fame,
  By Mulciber, the Mayor of Bromigham.
  A foliage of dissembl'd senna leaves
  Grav'd round its brim, the wond'ring sight deceives.
  Embost upon its field, a battle stood,
  Of leeches spouting hemorrhoidal blood.
  The artist too expresst the solemn state,
  Of grave physicians at a consult met;
  About each symptom how they disagree!
  But how unanimous in case of fee!
  And whilst one ass-ass-in another plies
  With starch'd civilities--the patient dyes."

N. W. S.

_Voiding Knife_ (Vol. vi., pp. 150. 280.).--The following quotation from
Leland will throw more light on the ancient custom of _voyding_:

    "In the mean time the server geueth a voyder to the carver, and he doth
    _voyde_ into it the trenchers that lyeth under the _knyues_ point, and
    so cleanseth the tables cleane."--_Collectanea_, vol. vi. p. 11., "The
    Intronization of Nevill."



_Sir John Vanbrugh_ (Vol. viii., pp. 65. 160.).--Previous to sending you my
Query about the birthplace of Sir John Vanbrugh, I had carefully gone
through the Registers of the Holy Trinity parish, Chester, and had
discovered the baptisms or burials of seven sons and six daughters of Mr.
Giles Vanbrugh duly registered therein. Sir John's name is not included in
the list; therefore, if he was born in Chester, his baptism must have been
registered at one of the many other parish churches of this city. The
registers of St. Peter's Church, a neighbouring parish, have also been
{233} examined, but contain no notice of the baptism of the future knight.
I will, however, continue the chace; and should I eventually fall in with
the object of my search, will give my fellow-labourers the benefit of my
explorations. Mr. Vanbrugh sen. died at Chester, and was buried with
several of his children at Trinity Church, July 19, 1689.



_Portrait of Charles I._--The portrait of Charles I. by Vandyke (the
subject of MR. BREEN'S Query, "N. & Q.," Vol. viii., p. 151.) is no less
than the celebrated picture in which the monarch is represented standing,
with his right hand resting on a walking cane, and his left (the arm being
beautifully foreshortened) against his hip; and immediately behind him his
horse is held by an equerry, supposed to be the Marquis of Hamilton. The
picture hangs in the great square room at the Louvre, close on the left
hand of the usual entrance door, and is undoubtedly one of the finest in
that magnificent collection. As a portrait, it is without a rival. It is
well known in this country by the admirable engraving from it, executed in
1782, by Sir Robert Strange.

The description of this picture in the Catalogue for 1852 _du Musée
Nationale du Louvre_, is as follows:--

    "Gravé par Strange; par Bonnefoy; par Duparc;--Filhol, t. 1. pl. 5.

    "Collection de Louis XV.--Ce tableau, qui a été exécuté vers 1635, ne
    fut payé à van Dyck que 100 livres sterling. En 1754, il faisait
    partie, suivant Descamps, du cabinet du marquis de Lassay. On trouve
    cette note dans les mémoires secrets de Bachaument," &c.

Then follows the passage quoted by MR. BREEN. I can find no mention of a
Dubarry among the ancestors of the monarch.

H. C. K.

_Burial in an erect Posture_ (Vol. viii., p. 59.).--

 "Pass, pass, who will yon chantry door,
  And through the chink in the fractured floor
  Look down, and see a grisly sight,
  A vault where the bodies are buried upright;
  There face to face and hand lay hand
  The Claphams and Mauleverers stand."
      Wordsworth, _White Doe of Rylstone_, Canto I.,
          p. 5., line 17., new edition, 1837.

See note on line 17 taken from Whitaker's _Craven_:

    "At the east end of the north aisle of Bolton Priory Church is a
    chantry belonging to Bethmesley Hall, and a vault where, according to
    tradition, the Claphams were buried upright."

F. W. J.

_Strut-Stowers and Yeathers or Yadders_ (Vol. viii., p. 148.).--The former
of these words is, I believe, obsolete, or nearly so. It means
bracing-stakes: _strut_, in carpentry, is to _brace_; and _stower_ is a
small kind of stake, as distinguished from the "ten stakes" mentioned in
the legend quoted by MR. COOPER.

The other word, _Yeather_ or _Yadder_, is yet in use in Northumberland
(vid. Brockett's _Glossary_), and is mentioned by Charlton in his _History
of Whitby_. The legend referred to by MR. COOPER is, I suspect, of modern
origin but Dr. Young, in his _History of Whitby_, vol. i. p. 310.,
attributes it to some of the monks of the abbey; on what grounds he does
not say. The records of the abbey contain no allusion to the legend; and no
ancient MS. of it, either in Latin or English, has ever been produced. The
_penny-hedge_ is yearly renewed to this day but it is a service performed
for a different reason than that attributed in the legend. (See Young and
Charlton's histories.)

F. M.

The term _strut_ is commonly used by carpenters for a brace or stay.
_Stower_, in Bailey's _Dictionary_, is a stake; Halliwell spells it
_stoure_, and says it is still in use. Forby connects the Norfolk word
_stour_, stiff, inflexible, applied to standing corn, with this word, which
he says is Lowland Scotch, and derives them both from Sui.-G. _stoer_,
stipes. A _yeather_ or _yadder_ seems to be a rod to wattle the stakes
with. In Norfolk, wattling a live fence is called _ethering_ it, which
word, evidently with _yeather_, may be derived from A.-S. _ether_ or
_edor_, a hedge. The barons, therefore, had to drive their stakes
perpendicularly into the sand, to put the strut-stowers diagonally to
enable them to withstand the force of the tide, and finally to wattle them
together with the yeathers.

E. G. R.

_Arms of See of York_ (Vol. viii., p. 111.).--It appears that the arms of
the See of York were certainly changed during Wolsey's time, for on the
vaulting of Christ Church Gate, Canterbury, is a shield bearing (in
sculpture) the same arms as those now used by the Metropolitan See of
Canterbury, impaling those of Wolsey, and over the shield a cardinal's hat.
This gateway was built in 1517; yet in the parliament roll of 6th Henry
VIII., 1515, the _keys_ and _crown_ are impaled with the arms of Wolsey as
Archbishop of York (see fac-simile, published by Willement, 4to. Lond.
1829), showing that the alteration was not generally known when the gateway
was built.

Although the charges on the earlier arms of the See of York were the same
as on that of Canterbury, the colours of their fields differed; for in a
north window of the choir of York Minster is a shield of arms, bearing the
arms of Archbishop Bowett, who held the see from 1407 to 1423, impaled by
the pall and pastoral staff, on a field _gules_. The glass is to all
appearance of the fifteenth century.

T. WT.


_Leman Family_ (Vol. viii., p. 150.).--Without being able to give a
substantial reply to R. W. L.'s Query, it may assist him to know that Sir
John Leman had but _one_ brother (William), who certainly did not emigrate
from his native land. Sir John died, March 26, 1632, without issue; and was
buried in the chancel of St. Michael, Crooked Lane, London. His elder
brother, William, had five sons; all settled comfortably in England, and
not at all likely to have left their native country. One of the _Heralds'
Visitations_ for the counties of Norfolk or Suffolk would materially assist
your Philadelphian correspondent.



_Position of Font_ (Vol. vii., p. 149.).--In the church of Milton near
Cambridge, the font is _built into_ the north pier of the chancel arch; and
from the appearance of the masonry, &c., this is evidently the original
position. I have visited some hundreds of churches, and this is the only
instance I have observed of a font in this position. Numerous instances
occur where it is _built into_ the south-western pier of the nave.



       *       *       *       *       *



Our worthy publisher has just issued a volume which will be welcome, for
the excellence of its matter and the beauty of its various illustrations,
to all archæologists. These _Memoirs illustrative of the History and
Antiquities of Bristol and the Western Counties of Great Britain, and other
Communications made to the Annual Meeting of the Archæological Institute
held at Bristol in 1851_, certainly equal in interest and variety any of
their predecessors, and whether as a memorial of their visit to Bristol to
those who attended the meeting, or as a pleasant substitute to those who
did not, will doubtless find a resting-place on the shelf of every member
of the Society whose proceedings they record.

We cannot better recommend to our readers Dr. Madden's newly published
_Life and Martyrdom of Savonarola, illustrative of the History of Church
and State Connexion_, than by stating that this remarkable man, whom some
Protestants have claimed as of their own creed, while as many Romanists
have rejected him as a heretic, is viewed by Dr. Madden as a monk of
Florence at the close of the fifteenth century, who was of opinion that the
mortal enemy of Christ's gospel in all ages of the world had been mammon;
that simony was the sin against the Holy Ghost; that the interests of
religion were naturally allied with those of liberty; that the Arts were
the handmaids of both, of a Divine origin, and were given to earth for
purposes that tended to spiritualise humanity; and who directed all his
teachings, preachings, and writings to one great object, namely, _the
separation of religion from all worldly influences_. On this theme Dr.
Madden discourses with great learning, and, some few passages excepted,
with great moderation; and the result is a Life of Savonarola, which gives
a far more complete view of his character and his writings than has
heretofore been attempted.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_History of England from the Peace of Utrecht to the Peace
of Versailles_, by Lord Mahon, Vol. V. This volume embraces the period
between the early years of George III. and 1774, when Franklin was
dismissed from his office of Deputy Postmaster-General; and, as it includes
the Junius period, gives occasion to Lord Mahon to avow his adherence to
"the Franciscan theory;" while the Appendix contains two letters in support
of the same view,--one from Sir James Macintosh, and one from Mr.
Macaulay.--_Confessions of a Working Man, from the French of Emile
Souvestre_. This interesting narrative, well deserving the attention both
of masters and working men, forms Part XLVIII. of Longman's _Traveller's
Library._--_Remains of Pagan Saxondom, principally from Tumuli in England,
drawn from the Originals:_ described and illustrated by J. Y. Akerman, Part
VI. containing coloured engravings of the size of the originals of Fibulæ
and Bullæ, from cemeteries in Kent; and Fibulæ, Beads, &c. from a grave
near Stamford.

       *       *       *       *       *


  HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF NEWBURY. 8vo. 1839. 340 pages. Two Copies.
      London, 1813.
  HOWARD FAMILY, HISTORICAL ANECDOTES OF, by Charles Howard. 1769. 12mo.
  PARADISE LOST. First Edition.
  ---------- SECOND REVIEW. 1719.

*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names_.

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES." 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

S. Z. Z. S. _We have a letter for this Correspondent; how shall it be

J. S. G. (Howden) _is thanked for his collection of Proverbial Sayings--all
of which are however, we believe, too well known to justify their
republication in our columns_.

Y. S. M._ would oblige us by naming the subject of the communications to
which he refers_.

PHOTOGRAPHY. MR. SISSON_'s communication is unavoidably postponed until our
next Number, in which_ MR. LYTE_'s_ Three New Processes _will also appear_.

_A few complete sets of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. _to_ vii., _price
Three Guineas and a Half, may now be had; for which early application is

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday_. {235}

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

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_Dr. Wurzer's Testimonial._

    "Bonn, July 19. 1852.

    "This light and pleasant Farina is one of the most excellent,
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     "Counsel of Medicine, and practical M.D. in Bonn."

London Agents:--Fortnum, Mason & Co., 182. Piccadilly, purveyors to Her
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6d.; 5lb. 11s.; 12lb. 22s.; super-refined, 5lb. 22s.; 10lb. 33s. The 10lb.
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IMPORTANT CAUTION.--Many invalids having been seriously injured by spurious
imitations under closely similar names, such as Ervalenta, Arabaca, and
others, the public will do well to see that each canister bears the name
BARRY, DU BARRY & CO., 77. Regent Street, London, in full, _without which
none is genuine_.

       *       *       *       *       *



Founded A.D. 1842.


  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M. P.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
  T. Grissell, Esq.
  J. Hunt, Esq.
  J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  E. Lucas, Esq.
  J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  J. B. White, Esq.
  J. Carter Wood, Esq.


  W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq., T. Grissell, Esq.
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


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   27       2   4   5
   32       2  10   8
   37       2  18   6
   42       3   8   2


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Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of
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WANTED, for the Ladies' Institute, 83. Regent Street, Quadrant, LADIES of
taste for fancy work,--by paying 21s. will be received as members, and
taught the new style of velvet wool work, which is acquired in a few easy
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guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
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PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's,
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PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions
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       *       *       *       *       *





       *       *       *       *       *

AN ARCHÆOLOGICAL INDEX to Remains of Antiquity of the Celtic,
Romano-British, and Anglo-Saxon Periods. 1 vol. 8vo., price 15s. cloth,
illustrated by numerous Engravings, comprising upwards of five hundred

A NUMISMATIC MANUAL. 1 vol. 8vo., price One Guinea.

*** The Plates which illustrate this Volume are upon a novel plan, and
will, at a glance, convey more information regarding the types of Greek,
Roman, and English Coins, than can be obtained by many hours' careful
reading. Instead of fac-simile Engraving being given of that which is
already an enigma to the tyro, the most striking and characteristic
features of the Coin are dissected and placed by themselves, so that the
eye soon becomes familiar with them.

A DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE of Rare and Unedited Roman Coins, from the Earliest
Period to the taking of Rome under Constantine Paleologos. 2 vols. 8vo.,
numerous Plates, 30s.

COINS OF THE ROMANS relating to Britain. 1 vol. 8vo. Second Edition, with
an entirely new set of Plates, price 10s. 6d.

ANCIENT COINS of CITIES and Princes, Geographically arranged and described,
containing the Coins of Hispania, Gallia, and Britannia, with Plates of
several hundred examples. 1 vol 8vo., price 18s.

NEW TESTAMENT, Numismatic Illustrations of the Narrative Portions of
the.--Fine paper, numerous Woodcuts from the original Coins in various
Public and Private Collections. 1 vol. 8 vo., price 5s. 6d.

8vo., with numerous Wood Engravings from the original Coins, price 6s. 6d.

    CONTENTS:--Section 1. Origin of Coinage--Greek Regal Coins. 2. Greek
    Civic Coins. 3. Greek Imperial Coins. 4. Origin of Roman
    Coinage--Consular Coins. 5. Roman Imperial Coins. 6. Roman British
    Coins. 7. Ancient British Coinage. 8. Anglo-Saxon Coinage. 9. English
    Coinage from the Conquest. 10. Scotch Coinage. 11. Coinage of Ireland.
    12. Anglo-Gallic Coins. 13. Continental Money in the Middle Ages. 14.
    Various Representatives of Coinage. 15. Forgeries in Ancient and Modern
    Times. 16. Table of Prices of English Coins realised at Public Sales.

TRADESMEN'S TOKENS, struck in London and its Vicinity, from the year 1618
to 1672 inclusive. Described from the Originals in the Collection of the
British Museum, &c. 15s.

REMAINS OF PAGAN SAXONDOM, principally from Tumuli in England. Publishing
in 4to., in Numbers, at 2s. 6d. With coloured Plates.

A GLOSSARY OF PROVINCIAL WORDS and PHRASES in Use in Wiltshire. 12mo., 3s.

THE NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE is published Quarterly. Price 3s. 6d. each Number.

JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 36. Soho Square, London.

       *       *       *       *       *



(The Horticultural Part edited by PROF. LINDLEY,)

Of Saturday, August 27, contains Articles on

  Agapanth, diseased
  Agriculture, history of Scottish
  Agricultural statistics
  Allotment gardens, by Mr. Bailey
  Apple trees, cider
  Arrowroot, Portland, by Mr. Groves
  Berberry blight
  Books noticed
  Calendar, horticultural
  ---- agricultural
  Cartridge, Captain Norton's
  Cattle, Tortworth sale of
  Chrysanthemum, culture of
  Crayons for writing on glass, by M. Brunnquell
  Crickets, traps for
  Crops, returns respecting the state of
  Dahlias, new
  Eschscholtzia californica
  Forest, New
  Garden allotments, by Mr. Bailey
  Glass, writing on, by M. Brunnquell
  Gunnersbury Park
  Hollyhocks, new
  India, vegetable substances used in, for producing intoxication, by Dr.
  Leaves, variegated, by M. Carrière
  Marigold, white
  Mildew, Continental Vine
  National Floricultural Society
  Norton's (Captain) cartridge
  Oak, the
  Pig Breeding
  Potato Crop, returns respecting the state of in Ireland
  Pots, garden
  Reaping machines
  Roses, soil for
  Sale of cattle at Tortworth
  Sap, motion of, by Mr. Lovell
  Sheep, Leicester breed of
  Statistics, agricultural
  Timber, woody fibre of
  Trees, woody fibre of
  ---- movement of sap in, by Mr. Lovell
  Vine mildew, Continental
  Wheat crops, returns respecting the state of
  ---- growing of, without ploughing
  ---- after vetches
  ---- Lois Weedon culture of, by the Rev. S. Smith

       *       *       *       *       *

the above, the Covent Garden, Mark Lane, Smithfield, and Liverpool prices,
with returns from Potato, Hop, Hay, Coal, Timber, Bark, Wool, and Seed
Markets, and a _complete Newspaper, with a condensed account of all the
transactions of the week_.

ORDER of any Newsvender. OFFICE for Advertisements, 5. Upper Wellington
Street, Covent Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


FIRDOUSI'S SHAH NAMEH, by MURAN, 4 vols. royal 8vo., Calcutta, 1809, hlf.
calf, neat, 6l. 16s.--Timur Namah, Persian MS., folio, yellow morocco
extra, 5l. 5s.--Ferheng Jehangiry, with the Chattmeh, Persian MS., 2vols.
folio, calf, 3l. 3s.--Nizami's Works, a Superb Persian MS., stout folio,
red morocco, 16l.--Sold by

BERNARD QUARITCH, Oriental Bookseller, 16. Castle Street, Leicester Square.

*** B. Q.'s Catalogue of Books in all the Languages of the World is
published Monthly, and is sent Gratis on Receipt of 12 Postage Stamps.

       *       *       *       *       *

DAGUERROTYPE MATERIALS.--Plates, Cases, Passepartoutes, Best and Cheapest.
To be had in great variety at

M^cMILLAN's Wholesale Depot, 132. Fleet Street.

Price List Gratis.

       *       *       *       *       *

8vo., price 21s.

end of the Thirteenth Century, with numerous Illustrations of Existing
Remains from Original Drawings. By T. HUDSON TURNER.

    "What Horace Walpole attempted, and what Sir Charles Lock Eastlake has
    done for oil-painting--elucidated its history and traced its progress
    in England by means of the records of expenses and mandates of the
    successive Sovereigns of the realm--Mr. Hudson Turner has now achieved
    for Domestic Architecture in this century during the twelfth and
    thirteenth centuries."--_Architect._

    "The writer of the present volume ranks among the most intelligent of
    the craft, and a careful perusal of its contents will convince the
    reader of the enormous amount of labour bestowed on its minutest
    details as well as the discriminating judgement presiding over the
    general arrangement."--_Morning Chronicle._

    "The book of which the title is given above is one of the very few
    attempts that have been made in this country to treat this interesting
    subject in anything more than a superficial manner.

    "Mr. Turner exhibits much learning and research, and he has
    consequently laid before the reader much interesting information. It is
    a book that was wanted, and that affords us some relief from the mass
    of works on Ecclesiastical Architecture with which of late years we
    have been deluged.

    "The work is well illustrated throughout with wood-engravings of the
    more interesting remains, and will prove a valuable addition to the
    antiquary's library."--_Literary Gazette._

    "It is as a text-book on the social comforts and condition of the
    Squires and Gentry of England during the twelfth and thirteenth
    centuries, that the leading value of Mr. Turner's present publication
    will be found to consist.

    "Turner's handsomely-printed volume is profusely illustrated with
    careful woodcuts of all important existing remains, made from drawings
    by Mr. Blore and Mr. Twopeny."--_Athenæum._

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford; and 377. Strand, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Now ready, price 21s. uniform with the above,

CENTURY. By the Editor of "The Glossary of Architecture."

This volume is issued on the plan adopted by the late Mr. Hudson Turner in
the previous volume: viz., collecting matter relating to Domestic buildings
of the period, from cotemporary records, and applying the information so
acquired to the existing remains.

Not only does the volume contain much curious information both as to the
buildings and manners and customs of the time, but it is also hoped that
the large collection of careful Engravings of the finest examples will
prove as serviceable to the profession and their employers in building
mansions, as the Glossary was found to be in building churches.

The Text is interspersed throughout with numerous woodcuts.

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford; and 377. Strand, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

W. H. HART, RECORD AGENT and LEGAL ANTIQUARIAN (who is in the possession of
Indices to many of the early Public Records whereby his Inquiries are
greatly facilitated) begs to inform Authors and Gentlemen engaged in
Antiquarian or Literary Pursuits, that he is prepared to undertake searches
among the Public Records, MSS. in the British Museum, Ancient Wills or
other Depositories of a similar Nature, in any Branch of Literature,
History, Topography, Genealogy, or the like, and in which he has had
considerable experiences.


       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, September
3, 1853.

       *       *       *       *       *

Corrections made to printed original.

'PETERBOROUH' in original.

page 216, "In this dilemma": 'dilemna' in original.

page 221, "from the ninth to the twelfth centuries": spurious 'in' before
'from' in original.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 201, September 3, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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