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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 25, April 20, 1850
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 25, April 20, 1850" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 25.] SATURDAY, APRIL 20, 1850 [Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

       *       *       *       *       * {393}


Our further Progress. 393

  Roger Bacon, Hints for a New Edition of. 393
  Craik's Romance of the Peerage. 394
  Notes on Cunningham's London, by E.F. Rimbault,
    LL.D. 395
  Pope's Revision of Spence, by W.S. Singer. 396
  Folk Lore:--Charm for the Toothache--Easter Eggs--Cure
  for Hooping-cough--Gootet. 397
  Duke of Monmouth's Pocket-book, by C. Ross. 397

  Woolton's Christian Manual. 399
  Luther's Translation of the New Testament. 399
  Minor Queries:--Medical Symbols--Charles II. and
    Lord R.'s Daughter--St. Alban's Day--Black Broth--Deputy
    Lieutenant of the Tower--Buccaneers--Travelling in
    1590--Richard Hooker--Decker's Raven's
    Almanack--Prebendaries--Luther's Portrait--Rawdon
    Papers--Wellington, Wyrwast, &c.--Blockade of Corfe
    Castle--Locke's MSS.--Locke's Life of Lord
    Shaftesbury--Théses--Apocrypha, &c. 399

  Scala Coeli, by C.H. Cooper. 402
  Watching the Sepulchre. 403
  Queries Answered, No. 7., by Bolton Corney. 403
  Replies to Minor Queries:--Compendyous Olde
    Treatyse--Hurdys--Eachard's Tracts--Masters of St.
    Cross--Living Dog better than dead Lion--Monumental
    Brass--Wickliff MSS.--Hever--Steward
    Family--Gloves--Cromlech--Watewich--By Hook or by
    Crook--Tablet to Napolean--Lines on Pharaoh--Zachary
    Boyd--the Welsh Ambassador--Madoc--Poghell--Swingeing
    Tureen--"A" or "an." 404

  Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c. 407
  Books and Odd Volumes wanted. 407
  Notices to Correspondents. 407
  Advertisements. 408

       *       *       *       *       *


We have again been called upon to reprint our first Four Numbers; that
is to say, to print a _Third Edition_ of them. No stronger evidence
could be afforded that our endeavour to do good service to the cause of
sound learning, by affording to Men of Letters a medium of
intercommunication, has met with the sympathy and encouragement of those
for whose sake we made the trial. We thank them heartily for their
generous support, and trust we shall not be disappointed in our hope and
expectation that they will find their reward in the growing utility of
"NOTES AND QUERIES," which, thanks to the readiness with which able
correspondents pour out their stores of learning, may be said to place
the judicious inquirer in the condition of Posthumus, and

  "Puts to him all the learnings that _this_ time
   Could make him the receiver of."

And here we may be permitted to avail ourselves of this opportunity, as,
indeed, we feel compelled to do, to impress upon our correspondents
generally, the necessity of confining their communications within the
narrowest possible limits consistent with a satisfactory explanation of
the immediate objects of them. "He that questioneth much," says Bacon,
"shall learn much, and content much; but especially if he apply his
Questions to the skill of the Persons whom he asketh. For he shall give
them occasion to please themselves in speaking, and himself shall
continually gather knowledge. But let his Questions not be troublesome,
for that is fit for a Poser; and let him be sure _to leave other Men
their turn to speak_." What Bacon has said so wisely and so well, "OF
DISCOURSE," we would apply to our little Journal; and beg our kind
friends to remember, that our space is necessarily limited, and that,
therefore, in our eyes, Brevity will be as much the Soul of a
communication as it is said to be that of Wit.

       *       *       *       *       *



Victor Cousin, who has been for many years engaged in researches on the
scholastic philosophy, with the view of collecting and publishing such
of its monuments as have escaped the diligence of scholars, or the
ravages of time, has lately made the discovery in the library at Douay
of a copy of an inedited MS. of Roger Bacon, entitled _Opus Tertium_, of
which but two or three other copies are known to exist; and has taken
occasion, in some elaborate critiques, to enter, at considerable length,
into the history and character of Roger {394} Bacon and his writings.[1]
The following is a summary of part of M. Cousin's observations.

The _Opus Tertium_ contains the author's last revision, in the form of
an abridgment and improvement, of the _Opus Majus_; and was drawn up at
the command of Pope Clement IV., and so called from being the _third_ of
three copies forwarded to his holiness; the third copy being not a
_fac-simile_ of the others, but containing many most important
additions, particularly with regard to the reformation of the calendar.
It also throws much light on Bacon's own literary history and studies,
and the difficulties and persecutions he had to surmount from the
jealousies and suspicions of his less-enlightened contemporaries and
rivals. The _Opus Tertium_, according to the sketch given of its
contents by Bacon himself, is not complete either in the Douay MS. or in
that in the British Museum, several subjects being left out; and, among
others, that of Moral Philosophy. This deficiency may arise, either from
Bacon not having completed his original design, or from no complete MS.
of this portion of his writings having yet been discovered. M. Cousin
says, that the _Opus Tertium_, as well as the _Opus Minus_, is still
inedited; and is only known by what Jebb has said of it in his preface
to the _Opus Majus_. Jebb quotes it from a copy in the Cottonian
Library, now in the British Museum; and it was not known that there was
a copy in France, till M. Cousin was led to the discovery of one, by
observing in the Catalogue of the public library of Douay, a small MS.
in 4to. with the following title, _Rog. Baconis Grammatica Græca_.
Accustomed to suspect the accuracy of such titles to MSS., M. Cousin
caused a strict examination of the MS. to be made, when the discovery
was communicated to him that only the first part of the MS. consisted of
a Greek grammar, and that the remaining portion, which the compiler of
the Catalogue had not taken the trouble to examine, consisted of many
fragments of other works of Bacon, and a copy of the _Opus Tertium_.
This copy of the _Opus Tertium_ is imperfect, but fortunately the
deficiencies are made up by the British Museum copy, which M. Cousin
examined, and which also contains a valuable addition to Chapter I., and
a number of good readings.

The _Opus Majus_, as published by Jebb, contains but six parts; but the
work in its complete state had originally a seventh part, containing
Moral Philosophy, which was reproduced, in an abridged and improved
state, by the renowned author, in the _Opus Tertium_. This is now
ascertained, says M. Cousin, with unquestionable certainty, and for the
first time, from the examination of the Douay MS.; which alludes, in the
most precise terms, to the treatise on that subject. Hence the
importance of endeavouring to discover what has become of the MS.
Treatise of Moral Philosophy mentioned by Jebb, on the authority of Bale
and Pits, as it is very likely to have been the seventh part of the
_Opus Majus_. Jebb published the _Opus Majus_ from a Dublin MS.,
collated with other MSS.; but he gives no description of that MS., only
saying that it contained many other works attributed to Bacon, and in
such an order that they seemed to form but one and the same work. It
becomes necessary, therefore, to ascertain what were the different works
of Bacon included in the Dublin MS.; which is, in all probability, the
same mentioned as being in Trinity College, in the _Catalogi Codicum
Manuscriptorum Angliæ et Hiberniæ in unum Collecti_: Folio. Oxon, 1697.

According to this Catalogue, a Treatise on Moral Philosophy forms part
of Roger Bacon's MSS. there enumerated; and if so, why did Jebb suppress
it in his edition of the _Opus Majus_? Perhaps some of your
correspondents in Dublin may think it worth the trouble to endeavour to
clear up this difficulty, on which M. Cousin lays great stress; and
recommends, at the same time, a new and complete edition of the _Opus
Majus_ to the patriotism of some Oxford or Cambridge Savant. He might
well have included Dublin in his appeal for help in this undertaking;
which, he says, would throw a better light on that vast, and not very
intelligible monument of one of the most independent and greatest minds
of the Middle Ages.

Oxford, April 9th.

    [Footnote 1: See _Journal des Savants_, Mars, Avril, Mai, Juin,

       *       *       *       *       *


If I knew where to address Mr. G.L. Craik, I should send him the
following "Note:" if you think it deserves a place in your columns, it
may probably meet his eye.

In the article on the Lady Arabella Stuart (_Romance of the Peerage_,
vol. ii. p. 370.), a letter of Sir Ralph Winwood, dated 1610, is quoted,
in which he states, that she is "not altogether free from suspicion of
being collapsed." On this Mr. Craik observes, "It is difficult to
conjecture what can be here meant by _collapsed_, unless it be fallen
off to Romanism." Now it is not a little curious, and it proves Mr.
Craik's capability for the task of illustrating family history from the
obscure allusions in letters and documents, that there exists
cotemporary authority for fixing the meaning Mr. Craik has conjectured
to be the true one, to the word _collapsed_. A pamphlet, with the title
_A Letter to Mr. T.H., late Minister, now Fugitive_, was published in
1609, with a dedication to all Romish _collapsed_ "ladies of Great
Britain;" which bears internal evidence of being addressed to those who
were converts from the Church of England to Romanism. {395}

Theophilus Higgons, whom the above initials represent, was himself a
convert to the Church of Rome.

It may be worth while making a further note, that the copy of the
pamphlet before me belonged to Camden, and is described in his
autograph, _Guil. Camdenj. Ex. dono Authoris_. It forms one of a large
collection of tracts and pamphlets, originally the property of Camden,
which are now in the library of the dean and chapter here.

It is curious that another document quoted by Mr. Craik in the same
volume (p. 286 _note_), seems to fix the meaning of a word or
expression, of obscure signification, in the authorised translation of
the Bible. In Judges, ix. 53., we read, "A certain woman cast a piece of
a millstone upon Abimelech's head, and all tobrake his skull." I have
heard some one, in despair at the grammatical construction of the latter
clause, suggest that it might be an error for "_also_ brake his skull;"
and I have been told, that some printer or editor solved the difficulty
by turning it into "and all to _break_ his skull." But in the Lieutenant
of the Tower's marginal notes on an inventory of the Countess of
Hertford's (Lady Katherine Grey) furniture, quoted by Mr. Craik from
Lands. MS. 5. art. 41., he described the _sparrer_ for the bed as "_all
to-broken_, not worth ten pence." There seems, therefore, to have been a
compound, "to-breck, to-brake, to-broken" (_perfrango_), of which the
word in the "Book of Judges" is the preterite. I may be exposing my
ignorance, when I say, that the quotation in the _Romance of the
Peerage_ is the only other instance of its use I ever met with.

Cloisters, Westminster

    [The word "to-break," is not to be found in Nares.--Mr.
    Halliwell, in his _Archaic Dictionary_, has TO-BROKE, broken in

      "The gates that Neptunus made
       A thousand wynter theretofore,
       They have anon _to-broke_ and tore."
         From the _Gower MS_. Soc. Ant. 134, f. 46.

    The word occurs also in Chaucer (p. 549. ed. Urry):--

      "To-broken ben the Statutes hie in heven;"

    and also in the _Vision of Piers Ploughman_ (p. 156. ed.

      "The bagges and the bigirdles
       He hath to-broke them all."

    And Mr. Wright very properly remarks, that "_to_- prefixed in
    composition to verbs of Anglo-Saxon origin, has the same force
    as the German _zu_, giving to the word the idea of destruction
    or deterioration."]

       *       *       *       *       *


_Lambeth Wells._--A place of public entertainment, first opened in 1697.
It was celebrated for its mineral water, which was sold at one penny per
quart. At the beginning of the eighteenth century it was provided with a
band of music, which played at intervals during the day, and the price
of admission was threepence. A monthly concert, under the direction of
Starling Goodwin, organist of St. Saviour's church, Southwark, was held
here in 1727.

_Hickford's Rooms, Panton Street, Haymarket._--These rooms, under the
name of "Hickford's Dancing Rooms," were in existence as early as 1710.
In 1738, they were opened as the "Musick-room." A contemporary account

    "The band was selected from the Opera House; but the singularity
    most attractive consisted of an organ combined with a
    harpsichord, played by clock-work, which exhibited the movements
    of an orrery and air-pump, besides solving astronomical and
    geographical problems on two globes, and showing the moon's age,
    with the Copernican system in motion."

In 1740, Mr. Galliard's benefit is announced to take place "at Mr.
Hickford's Great Room in Brewer Street, Golden Square."--See the _Daily
Post_ of March 31. The "Great Room" is now known as "Willis's Dancing

_The Music Room in Dean Street, Soho._--The Oratorio of Judas Maccabeus
was performed here in great splendour in 1760. It was afterwards the
auction room of the elder Christie; and is now "Caldwell's Dancing
Academy." George III. frequently honoured this "musick-room" with his

_The Music Room in Charles Street, Covent Garden_:--

    "The Consort of Musick, lately in Bow Street, is removed next
    Bedford Gate, in _Charles Street, Covent Garden_, where a room
    is newly built for that purpose."--_Lond. Gaz._ Feb. 19. 1690.

    "A Consort of Music, with several new voices, to be performed on
    the 10th instant, at the _Vendu_ in Charles Street, Covent
    Garden."--Ibid. March 6. 1691.

In 1693 was published _Thesaurus Musicus_, being a Collection of the
"Newest Songs performed at their Majesties' Theatres, and at the
Consorts in Villier Street, in York Buildings, and in _Charles Street,
Covent Garden_."

In the proposals for the establishment of a Royal Academy in 1720, the
subscription books are advertised as being open, amongst other places,
"at the Musick Room in Charles Street, Covent Garden."

_Coleman's Music House._--A house of entertainment, with a large and
well planted garden, known as "Coleman's Musick House," was offered for
sale in 1682. It was situated near _Lamb's Conduit_, and was demolished
upon the building of Ormond Street.

_White Conduit House._--The old tavern of this name was erected in the
reign of Charles I. The workmen are said to have been regaling
themselves upon the completion of the building, at the instant the king
was beheaded at Whitehall. {396}

_Goodman's Field Wells._--A place of entertainment established after the
suppression of the theatre in this locality in 1735.

_Bride Lane, St. Bride's._--The first meetings of the Madrigal Society
(established in 1741) were held at a public-house in this lane, called
"The Twelve Bells."


       *       *       *       *       *


Spence's almost idolatrous admiration of, and devotion to, Pope, is
evident from the pains he took to preserve every little anecdote of him
that he could elicit from conversation with him, or with those who knew
him. Unfortunately, he had not Boswell's address and talent for
recording gossip, or the _Anecdotes_ would have been a much more racy
book. Spence was certainly an amiable, but I think a very weak man; and
it appears to me that his learning has been overrated. He might indeed
have been well designated as "a fiddle-faddle bit of sterling."

I have the original MS. of the two last Dialogues of the _Essay on the
Odyssey_ as written by Spence, and on the first page is the following
note:--"The two last Evenings corrected by Mr. Pope." On a blank page at
the end, Spence has again written:--"MS. of the two last Evenings
corrected with Mr. Pope's own hand, w'ch serv'd y'e Press, and is so
mark'd as usual by Litchfield."

This will elucidate Malone's note in his copy of the book, which Mr.
Bolton Corney has transcribed. I think the first three dialogues were
published in a little volume before Spence became acquainted with Pope,
and perhaps led to that acquaintance. Their intercourse afterwards might
supply some capital illustrations for a new edition of Mr. Corney's
curious chapter on _Camaraderie Littéraire_. The MS. copy of Spence's
Essay bears frequent marks of Pope's correcting hand by erasure and
interlineary correction, silently made. I transcribe the few passages
where the poet's revision of his critic are accompanied by remarks.

In Evening the Fourth, Spence had written:--"It may be inquired, too,
how far this translation may make a wrong use of terms borrowed from the
arts and sciences, &c. [The instances are thus pointed out.] As where we
read of a ship's crew, Od. 3. 548. The longitude, Od. 19. 350. Doubling
the Cape, Od. 9. 90. Of Architraves, Colonnades, and the like, Od. 3.
516." Pope has erased this and the references, and says:--"_These are
great faults; pray don't point 'em out, but spare your servant_."

At p. 16. Spence had written:--"Yellow is a proper epithet of fruit; but
not of fruit that we say at the same time is ripening into gold." Upon
which Pope observes:--"I think yellow may be s'd to ripen into gold, as
gold is a deeper, fuller colour than yellow." Again: "What is proper in
one language, may not be so in another. Were Homer to call the sea a
thousand times by the title of [Greek: porphureos], 'purple deeps' would
not sound well in English. The reason's evident: the word 'purple' among
us is confined to one colour, and that not very applicable to the deep.
Was any one to translate the _purpureis oloribus_ of Horace, 'purple
swans' would not be so literal as to miss the sense of the author
entirely." Upon which Pope has remarked:--"The sea is actually of a deep
purple in many places, and in many views."

Upon a passage in Spence's _Criticism_, at p. 45., Pope says:--"I think
this too nice." And the couplet objected to by Spence--

  "Deep in my soul the trust shall lodge secur'd,
   With ribs of steel, and marble heart immur'd,"

he pronounced "very bad." And of some tumid metaphors he says, "All too
forced and over-charged."

At p. 51. Spence says:--"Does it not sound mean to talk of lopping a
man? of lopping away all his posterity? or of trimming him with brazen
sheers? Is there not something mean, where a goddess is represented as
beck'ning and waving her deathless hands; or, when the gods are dragging
those that have provok'd them to destruction by the Links of fate?" Of
the two first instances, Pope says:--"Intended to be comic in a
sarcastic speech." And of the last:--"I think not at all mean, see the
Greek." The remarks are, however, expunged.

The longest remonstrance occurs at p. 6. of the Fifth Dialogue. Spence
had written:--"The _Odyssey_, as a moral poem, exceeds all the writings
of the ancients: it is perpetual in forming the manners, and in
instructing the mind; it sets off the duties of life more fully as well
as more agreeably than the Academy or Lyceum. _Horace ventured to say
thus much of the Iliad, and certainly it may be more justly said of this
later production by the same hand_." For the words in Italics Pope has
substituted:--"Horace, who was so well acquainted with the tenets of
both, has given Homer's poems the preference to either:" and says in a
note:--"I think you are mistaken in limiting this commendation and
judgment of Horace to the _Iliad_. He says it, at the beginning of his
Epistle, of Homer in general, and afterwards proposes both poems equally
as examples of morality; though the _Iliad_ be mentioned first: but then
follows--'_Rursus quid virtus et quid sapientia possit, Utile proposuit
nobis exemplar Ulyssem_,' &c. of the Odyssey."

At p. 34. Spence says:--"There seems to be something mean and awkward in
this image:--

  "'His _loose head_ tottering as with wine opprest
   Obliquely drops, and _nodding_ knocks his breast.'"

Here Pope says:--"Sure these are good lines. {397} They are not mine."
Of other passages which please him, he occasionally says,--"This is good
sense." And on one occasion, where Spence had objected, he says
candidly:--"This is bad, indeed,"--"and this."

At p. 50. Spence writes:--"There's a passage which I remember I was
mightily pleased with formerly in reading _Cervantes_, without seeing
any reason for it at that time; tho' I now imagine that which took me in
it comes under this view. Speaking of Don Quixote, the first time that
adventurer came in sight of the ocean, he expresses his sentiments on
this occasion in the following manner:--'He saw the sea, which he had
never seen before, and thought it much bigger than the river at
Salamanca.'" On this occasion Pope suggests,--"Dr. Swift's fable to
Ph----s, of the two asses and Socrates."

April 8. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Charm for the Toothache._--The charm which one of your correspondents
has proved to be in use in the south-eastern counties of England, and
another has shown to be practised at Kilkenny, was also known more than
thirty years ago in the north of Scotland. At that time I was a
school-boy at Aberdeen, and a sufferer--probably it was in March or
April, with an easterly wind--from toothache. A worthy Scotchwoman told
me, that the way to be cured of my toothache was to find a charm for it
in the Bible. I averred, as your correspondent the curate did, that I
could not find any such charm. My adviser then repeated to me the charm,
which I wrote down from her dictation. Kind soul! she could not write
herself. It was pretty nearly in the words which your correspondent has
sent you. According to my recollection, it ran thus:--"Peter sat upon a
stone, weeping. And the Lord said unto him, 'Peter, why weepest thou?'
And he answered, and said, 'Lord, my tooth acheth.' And the Lord said
unto him, 'Arise, Peter, thy teeth shall ache no more.'" "Now,"
continued my instructress, "if you gang home and put yon bit screen into
your Bible, you'll never be able to say again that you canna find a
charm agin the toothache i' the Bible." This was her version of the
matter, and I have no doubt it was the orthodox one; for, although one
of the most benevolent old souls I ever knew, she was also one of the
most ignorant and superstitious. I kept the written paper, not in my
Bible, but in an old pocket-book for many years, but it has disappeared.


_Easter Eggs_ (No. 16. p. 244.).--Breakfasting on Easter Monday, some
years ago, at the George Inn at Ilminster, in the county of Somerset, in
the palmy days of the Quicksilver Mail, when the table continued to be
spread for coach travellers at that time from four in the morning till
ten at night, we were presented with eggs stained in the boiling with a
variety of colours: a practice which Brande records as being in use in
his time in the North of England, and among the modern Greeks.


_Cure for the Hooping-cough._--"I know," said one of my parishioners,
"what would cure him, but m'appen you woudent believe me." "What is it,
Mary?" I asked. "Why, I did every thing that every body teld me. One
teld me to get him breathed on by a pie-bald horse. I took him ever such
a way, to a horse at ----, and put him under the horse's mouth; but he
was no better. Then I was teld to drag him backward through a bramble
bush. I did so; but this didn't cure him. Last of all, I was teld to
give him nine fried mice, fasting, in a morning, in this way:--three the
first morning; then wait three mornings, and then give him three more;
wait three mornings, and then give him three more. When he had eaten
these nine fried mice he became quite well. This would be sure to cure
your child, Sir."

Drayton Beauchamp.

_Gootet._--In Eccleshall parish, Staffordshire, Shrove Tuesday is called
Gootet. I am not aware if this be the true spelling, for I have never
seen it in print. Can any of your readers supply the etymology, or state
whether it is so called in any other part of England? I have searched
numerous provincial glossaries, but have hitherto been unsuccessful.


       *       *       *       *       *


It is reasonable to conclude, that the article copied from _Chambers'
Edinburgh Journal_, in No. 13., furnishes the strongest evidence that
can be adduced in support of the opinion, that the book in the
possession of Dr. Anster is the one found on the Duke of Monmouth when
captured, after his defeat at Sedgemoor; and, if so, it is impossible to
admit the hypothesis, because a portion of the contents of the real book
has been given to the world and contains matter far too important to
have been passed over by Dr. Anster, had it existed in his volume. In
the 6th edition of Dr. Welwood's _Memoirs of the most material
Transactions in England for the last Hundred Years preceding the
Revolution in 1688_, printed for "Tim. Goodwin, at the Queen's Head,
against St. Dunstan's Church, in Fleet Street, 1718," the following
passage is to be found at p. 147.:--

    "But of the most things above mentioned there is an infallible
    proof extant under Monmouth's own hand, in a little pocket-book
    which was taken with him and delivered to King James; which by
    an accident, as needless to mention here, I have leave to copy
    and did {398} it in part. A great many dark passages there are
    in it, and some clear enough that shall be eternally buried for
    me: and perhaps it had been for King James's honour to have
    committed them to the flames, as Julius Cæsar is said to have
    done on a like occasion. All the use that shall be made of it
    is, to give in the Appendix some few passages out of it that
    refer to this subject, and confirm what has been above related."

In the Appendix the following extracts are given from the Duke's book:--

    "_October_ 13. L. came to me at eleven at night from 29, told me
    29 could never be brought to believe I knew anything of that
    part of the plot that concern'd _Rye House_; but as things went
    he must behave himself as if he did believe it, for some reasons
    that might be for my advantage. L. desired me to write to 29,
    which I refus'd; but afterwards told me 29 expected it; and I
    promis'd to write to-morrow if he could call for the letter; at
    which S.L. shew'd a great concern for me, and I believe him
    sincere though S is of another mind.

    "14. L. came as he promis'd and receiv'd the letter from 3
    sealed, refusing to read it himself, tho' I had left it open
    with S. for that purpose.

    "20. L. came to me at S. with a line or two from 29 very kind,
    assuring me he believed every word in my letter to be true; and
    advis'd me to keep hid till he had an opportunity to express his
    belief of it some other way. L. told me that he was to go out of
    town next day and that 29 would send 80 to me in a day or two,
    whom he assured me I might trust.

    "25. L. came for me to ----, where 29 was with 80. He receiv'd
    me pretty well, and said 30 and 50 were the causes of my
    misfortune and would ruin me. After some hot words against them
    and against S., went away in a good humour.

    "26. I went to E---- and was in danger of being discover'd by
    some of Oglethorpe's men that met me accidentally at the back
    door of the garden.

    "_Nov_ 2. A letter from 29 to be to-morrow at seven at night at
    S. and nobody to know it but 80.

    "3. He came not, there being an extraordinary council. But 80
    brought me a copy of 50's intercepted letter, which made rather
    for me than against me. Bid me come to-morrow at the same hour,
   and to say nothing of the letter except 29 spake of it first.

    "4. I came and found 29 and L. there; he was very kind and gave
    me directions how to manage my business and what words I should
    say to 39. He appointed 80 to come to me every night until my
    business was ripe and promised to send with him directions from
    time to time.

    "9. L. came from 29 and told me my business should be done to my
    mind next week, and that Q. was my friend, and had spoke to 39
    and D. in my behalf; which he said 29 took very kindly and had
    expressed so to her. At parting he told me there should be
    nothing requir'd of me but what was both safe and honourable.
    But said there must be something done to blind 39.

    "15. L came to me with a copy of a letter I was to sign to
    please 39. I desired to know in whose hands it was to be
    deposited; for I would have it in no hands but 29. He told me it
    should be so; but if 39 ask'd a copy it could not well be
    refus'd. I referred myself entirely to 29's pleasure.

    "24. L. came to me from 29 and order'd me to render myself
    to-morrow. Cautioned me to play my part, to avoid questions as
    much as possible, and to seem absolutely converted to 39's
    interest. Bad me bear with some words that might seem harsh.

    "25. I render'd myself. At night 29 could not dissemble his
    satisfaction; press'd my hand, which I remember not he did
    before except when I return'd from the French service. 29 acted
    his part well, and I too. 39 and D. seemed not ill pleas'd.

    "26. 29 took me aside and falling upon the business of L.R. said
    he inclined to have sav'd him but was forc'd to it, otherwise he
    must have broke with 39. Bid me think no more on't. Coming home
    L. told me he fear'd 39 began to smell out 29's carriage. That
    ---- said to 39 that morning that all that was done was but

    "27. Several told me of the storm that was brewing. Rumsey was
    with 39 and was seem to come out crying that he must accuse a
    man he lov'd.

    "_Dec._ 19. A letter from 29 bidding me stay till I heard
    farther from him.

    "_Jan._ 5. I received a letter from L. marked by 29 in the
    margin to trust entirely in 10; and that in February I should
    certainly have leave to return. That matters were concerted
    towards it; and that 39 had no suspicion, notwithstanding of my
    reception here.

    "_Feb._ 8. A letter from L. that my business was almost as well
    as done; but must be so sudden as not to leave room for 39's
    party to counterplot. That it is probable he would choose
    Scotland rather than Flanders or this country; which was all one
    to 29.

    "16. The sad news of his death by L. _O cruel fate!_"

Dr. Welwood cautiously adds, in a note:--

    "That by 29 and 39 King Charles and the Duke of York seem to be
    meant. But I know not what to make of the other numbers and
    letters, and must leave the reader to his own conjectures."

There can, I apprehend, be little doubt that the L.R., under the date of
November 26, were meant to indicate the patriotic Lord Russell.

The whole of these extracts possess the highest interest, establishing
as they do several points referred to by historians. It is curious to
remark the complete subjection in which Charles, at this period, stood
towards his brother; occasioned, perhaps, but the foreign supplies which
he scrupled not to receive, being dependant on his adhesion to the
policy of which the Duke of York was the avowed representative. Shortly
before his death, Charles appears to have meditated emancipation from
this state of thraldom; and Hume says,--

    "He was determined, it is thought, to send the Duke to Scotland,
    to recall Monmouth, to summon a parliament, to dismiss all his
    unpopular ministers, and to throw himself entirely upon the good
    will and affections of his subjects." {399}

This passage accords with the entries in Monmouth's pocket-book under
the dates of Jan. 5. and Feb. 3. If the unfortunate Monmouth could have
foreseen the miserable end, with all its accompanying humiliations and
horrors, to which a few months were destined to bring him, his
exclamation, "O cruel fate!" would have acquired additional bitterness.


    [We insert the foregoing as serving to complete the series of
    interesting notices connected with the capture of Monmouth which
    have appeared in our columns, rather than from an agreement with
    the views of our valued correspondent. Dr. Anster states, that
    in the pocket-book in his possession, the Duke's movements up to
    the 14th March, 1684-5, are given. Would he kindly settle the
    question by stating whether the passages quoted by Weldon are to
    be found among them?]

       *       *       *       *       *



One important use, I conceive, of the "NOTES AND QUERIES" is, the
opportunity it presents of ascertaining the existence of rare editions
of early printed books. Can any of your readers state where a copy or
copies of the following may be found?

    "The Christian Manuell, or the life and maners of true
    Christians. A Treatise, wherein is plentifully declared how
    needeful it is for the servaunts of God to manifest and declare
    to the world: their faith by their deedes, their words by their
    work, and their profession by their conversation. Written by
    Jhon Woolton, Minister of the Gospel, in the cathedral church of
    Exetor. Imprinted at London by J.C. for Tho. Sturruppe, in
    Paules Church yarde, at the George, 1576. Dedicated to Sir
    William Cordell knight, Maister of the Rolles.--At Whymple 20
    Nouember 1676. N 7, in eights."--Copy formerly in the possession
    of Herbert. (Herbert, _Typographical Antiquities_, vol. ii. p.

There is an imperfect copy, I understand, in the Bodleian. Access to
another copy has been needed for an important public object, in order to
transcribe the leaf or leaves wanting in the Bodleian copy; and the
book, so far as I am aware, does not occur in any other public

Woolton was nephew to Nowell, author of the _Catechisms_. He wrote
several other pieces, and was Bishop of Exeter 1579-1593. (Wood,
_Athen. Oxon._ ed. Bliss, vol. i. pp. 600, 601.)

Bath, April 9. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *


In an article of the _Quarterly Review_ (vol. xxxiii. p. 78.) on this
controverted passage of St. John's Epistles, generally attributed to the
present learned Bishop of Ely, the following statement is made
respecting Luther:--

    "Let it also be recollected, to the honour of Luther,
    Bugenhagius, and other leaders of the Reformation, that in this
    contest they magnanimously stood by the decision of Erasmus.
    Luther, in his translation of the New Testament, omitted the
    passage; and, in the preface to the last edition (in 1546)
    revised by himself, he solemnly requested that his translation
    should on no account be altered."

Since such was the injunction of Luther, how does it happen that this
verse appears in the later editions of his Testament? I have looked into
five or six editions, and have not found the verse in the two earliest.
These bear the following titles:--

    "Biblia dat ys. de gantze hillige Schrifft verdüdeschet dorch
    Doct. Mart. Luth. Wittemberch. Hans Lufft. 1579." (in folio.)
    "Dat Neu Testamente verdüdeschet dörch D. Mart. Luth. mit den
    korten Summarien L. Leonharti Hutteri. Gosslar. In Iahre 1619."

The verse appears in an edition of his Bible printed at Halle in 1719;
in his New Testament, Tubingen, 1793; in one printed at Basel in 1821;
and is also to be found in that printed by the Christian Knowledge
Society. In the Basel edition the verse is thus given;--

    "Denn Drey sind, die de zeugen im Himmel; der Vater, das Wort,
    und der beilige Geist; und diese Drey sind Eins."

Perhaps some of your learned readers can explain when, and by whose
authority, the verse was inserted in Luther's Testament.


    [We may add, that the verse also appears in the stereotype
    edition of Luther's Bible, published by Tauchnitz, at Leipsig,
    in 1819.--ED.]

       *       *       *       *       *


_Medical Symbols._--"A PATIENT" inquires respecting the origin and date
of the marks used to designate weights in medical prescriptions.

_Charles II. and Lord R.'s Daughter._--Can any of your readers inform me
who was the lady that is referred to in the following passage, from
Henry Sidney's _Diary_, edited by Mr. Blencowe (March 9. 1610, vol. i.
p. 298.):--

    "The King hath a new mistress, Lord R----'s daughter: she
    brought the Duke of Monmouth to the King."


_St. Alban's Day._--A friend has asked me the following question, which
some of your readers may perhaps be able to answer, viz.:--

"Till the reign of Ed. VI. St. Alban's Day was kept in England on June
22d (the supposed anniversary {400} of his martyrdom). It was then
erased from the kalendar, but restored to it in the reign of Chas. II.;
when it was transferred to June 17th. Why was this change made?"


_Black Broth_ (No. 19. p. 300.).--If this were a sauce or condiment, may
not the colour have been produced by the juice of the Boletus, much used
in Greece to the present day?


_Deputy-Lieutenants of the Tower of London._--By whom were these
officers appointed? What was the nature of their duties? Had they a
salary, or was the office an honorary appointment? They used to meet
periodically, was it for the transaction of business? if so, what
business? Does the office still exist?


_Buccaneers--Charles II._--There is a passage in Bryan Edward's _History
of the West Indies_ (vol. i. p. 164. 4to edit. 1793), in which he gives
an opinion that the buccaneers of Jamaica were not the pirates and
robbers that they have been commonly represented; and mentions, on the
authority of a MS. journal of Sir William Beeston, that Charles II. had
a pecuniary interest in the buccaneering, and continued to receive a
share of the booty after he had publicly ordered the suppression of
buccaneering: and also, speaking of Sir Henry Morgan, and the honours he
received from Charles II., gives an opinion that the stories told of
Morgan's cruelty are untrue. Can any of your readers tell me who Sir
William Beeston was, and what or where his journal is? or refer me to
any accessible information about Charles II.'s connection with the
buccaneers, or that may support Bryan Edwards's favourable opinion of
the Jamaica buccaneers and of Sir Henry Morgan?


_Travelling in 1590.--Richard Hooker._--Could any of your readers give
me some particulars of travelling at the above period between London and
Salisbury? I should also feel greatly indebted for any _unpublished_
particulars in the life of the "Judicious Richard Hooker" after his
marriage. Answers might be sent, either through "NOTES AND QUERIES," or
direct to me,

Drayton Beauchamp, Tring.

_Decker's Raven's Almanack--Nash's Terrors of the Night, &c._--Having
lately picked up a volume of old tracts, I am anxious to learn how far I
may congratulate myself on having met with a prize. Among the contents

1. "The Rauen's Almanacke," for the year 1609, purporting to be by T.
Deckers. Is this the same person with Thomas Dekker the dramatist?

2. Nashe's "Terrors of the Night" (wanting eight leaves at the
beginning.) Of this, Beloe (the only authority within my reach) says,
that only one copy is known to exist; can his statement be correct?

3. A religious tract, which seems only remarkable for its bad printing,
obscure wording, and almost invariably using the third person singular
of the verb, whatever be the nominative. It begins--

    "To all you who profess the name of our Lord Jesus in words, and
    makes mention of his words, &c."....

And the first division ends--

    "This have I written in love to all your soules, who am one who
    did drinke of the cup of fornication, and have drunke of the cup
    of indignation, but now drinkes the cup of salvation, where
    sorrow and tears is fled away; and yet am a man of sorrows and
    well acquainted with griefe, and suffers with the seed, and
    travels that it may be brought forth of captivity; called by the
    world F.H."

Who is F.H.?

4. Sundry poems on husbandry, housewifery, and the like, by Thomas
Tusser; but as the tract is mutilated up to cap. 3.,

  "I have been prayde,
  To shew mine aide," &c.,

I am not book-learned enough to know whether it be the same as Tusser's
_Five Hundred Poynts of Good Husbandry_. Information on any of the above
points would oblige.


_Prebendaries._--When were prebendaries first appointed, and what the
nature of their duties generally? What is the rank of a prebendary of a
cathedral or other church, whether as a layman or a clerk in orders?
Would a vicar, being a prebendary, take precedence as such of a rector
not being one? Where is the best account of prebends to be found?


_Luther's Portrait at Warwick Castle._--There is at Warwick Castle a
fine half-length portrait of Luther by Holbein, very unlike the ordinary
portraits of the great reformer. Is this portrait a genuine one? Has it
been engraved?


_Rawdon Papers._--The Rev. Mr. Berwick, in introducing to the public, in
1819, the interesting volume known by the name of _Rawdon Papers_,

    "They are a small part of a correspondence which was left in the
    Editor's hands after the greater portion had been sent several
    years before to the Marquis of Hastings, whose absence at this
    time prevents the Editor's making such additions to his stock as
    might render it more interesting to the public."

Do these papers still exist in the possession of {401} the Hastings
family, and is there any chance of a further publication? The volume
published by Mr. Berwick contains some very interesting incidental
illustrations of the politics, literature, and society of the
seventeenth century, and much might be expected from the remaining
papers. I may add, that this volume has not been so much used by
historians as it should be; but, as was to be expected, it has not
escaped Mr. Macaulay. It is not not well edited.


_Wellington, Wyrwast, Cokam._--In a MS. letter which I have relating to
the siege of Taunton in the Civil war, is the following sentence,
describing the movements of the royal army:--

    "The enemy on Friday last have quitted their garrisions in
    Wellington Wyrwast and Cokam houses; the two last they have

I am not certain about the second name, which seems to be Wyrwast; and
hsould be obliged by any information relative to these three houses.


_Blockade of Corfe Castle in 1644._--In Martyn's _Life of Shafetesbury_
(vol. i. p. 148.) it is stated that a parliamentary force, under Sir
A.A. Cooper, blockaded Corfe Castle in 1644, after the taking of
Wareham. I can find no mention any where else of an attack on Corfe
Castle in 1644. The blockade of that castle, which Lady Bankes's defence
has made memorable, was in the previous year, and Sir A.A. Cooper had
not then joined the parliament. I should be glad if any of your readers
could either corroborate Martyn's account of a blockade of Corfe Castle
in 1644, or prove it to be, as I am inclined to think it, a

I should be very thankful for any information as to Sir Anthony Asteley
Cooper's proceedings in Dorsetshire, Wiltshire, and Somersetshire,
during the Civil War and Commonwealth, being engaged upon a life of Lord


_MSS. of Locke._--A translation, by Locke, of Nicole's _Essays_ was
published in 1828 by Harvey and Darton, London; and it is stated in the
title-page of the book, that it is printed from an autograph MS. of
Locke, in the possession of Thomas Hancock, M.D. I wish to know if Dr.
Hancock, who also edited the volume, is still alive? and, if so, would
let this querist have access to the other papers of Locke's which he
speaks of in the preface?


_Locke's proposed Life of Lord Shaftesbury._--I perceive that the
interesting volume of letters of Locke, Algernon Sidney, and Lord
Shaftesbury, published some years ago, by Mr. Foster, is advertised in
your columns by your own publisher; and I therefore inquire, with some
hope of eliciting information, whether the papers in Mr. Foster's
possession, which he has abstained from publishing, contain any notices
of the first Earl of Shaftesbury; and I am particularly anxious to know
whether they contain any references to the Life of Lord Shaftesbury
which Locke meditated, or throw any light upon the mode in which Locke
would have become possessed of some suppressed passages of Edmund
Ludlow's memoirs.


_Theses._--Many German works introduced into Catalogues, are _theses_
defended at the universities. The name of the _President_ is generally
first, and in larger letters than that of the propounder, who is usually
the author. Hence, it often happens, that the _Thesis_ is entered as a
work written by the _Præses_. But is not unfrequently happened, that
this Præses was _really_ the author; and that, as an easy way of
publishing his thought, he entrusted an essay to a candidate for a
degree, to be defended by him. The seventh rule of the Museum Catalogue
runs thus:--

    "The respondent or defender in a thesis to be considered its
    author, except when it unequivocally appears to be the work of
    the Præses."

Now, I would ask, what are the usual signs of the authorship? Are there
any catalogues of Theses? Any bibliographical works which contain hints
for guidance in this matter? Any correspondents who can advise generally
on the whole matter?


_Apocrypha._--What editions of the Bible _containing the Apocrypha_ are
now on sale at the ordinary way?

_J.B.'s Treatise on Art and Nature._--By a scrap of a book, apparently
of the sixteenth century, it seems to be a Treatise by J.B. upon Art and
Nature: the first book is "of Water-workes." What book is this?


_Nursery Games and Rhymes._--In the _Letters and Memoir of Bishop
Shirley_, allusion is made (p. 415.) to a once popular game called
"Thread the needle," the first four lines of which are given. Can any of
your readers supply the remainder, or refer me to any work where they
may be found? I also should feel obliged by any information respecting
the age and origin of the popular nursery song, beginning,--

  "A frog he would a-wooing go,
    Heigho, says Rowley."

Perhaps some of your readers will state where the correct text may be
met with.


_Emancipation of the Jews._--In Francis' _History of the Bank of
English_, p. 24., mention is made of an offer on the part of the Jews to
pay 500,000l. to the state on the following conditions;--1. That the
laws against them should be repealed; 2. That the Bodleian Library
should be assigned to them; 3. That they should have permission to use
St. {402} Paul's Cathedral as a Synagogue. It is stated, on the
authority of a letter in the Thurloe State Papers, that this proposition
was actually discussed. The larger sum of 800,000l. was demanded; but,
being refused, the negotiation was broken off. This proposition is said
to have been made shortly before the elevation of Cromwell to the
Protectorate. The subject is an interesting one in these days, when
Jewish disabilities are under discussion.

I wish to offer two queries:--1. Is this story confirmed by any
contemporary writer? 2. Is it conceivable that the Jews would have
consented to worship in a _cruciform_ church, such as was old St.
Paul's, which was standing at the time this offer is supposed to have
been made?

St. Peter's, Thanet.

_The Complutensian MSS._--Has not there been an account of these MSS.
published in London in 1821? My authority for this Query is to be found
in a work of Dr. D. Antonio Puigblanch:--

    "En el año 1821 per encargo que hice desde Madrid _se imprimio
    mio aca en Londres_, de que es falso este rumor[2], pues en la
    biblioteca de la Universidad de Alcala quedaban pocos meses
    antes en gue estune en ella siete manuscritos biblicos en
    aquellas dos lenguas[3], que son sin duda los mismos siete de
    que hace mencion en la Vida del Cardenal Cisneros, Alfonso de
    Castro, doctor téologo de la misma Universidad, i escritor
    contemporaneo o de poco tiempo después, parte de los cuales
    manuscritos, es a saber, los caldéos, son de letra de Alfonso de
   Zamora, que es uno de los tres judíos conversos editores de la
   Complutense."--_Opusculos Gramatico-Satiricos del Dr. D. Antonio
   Puigblanch_, Londres [1832], p. 365.

If the Chaldee and Hebrew MSS. of the Complutensian Polyglot were at
Alcala in 1821, when were they removed to Madrid, and in what library at
Madrid are they now? The Greek MSS. are supposed to have been returned
to the Vatican Library. If the Chaldee MSS. are in the handwriting of
one of the editors, as stated by Puigblanch, they cannot be of much
value or authority. I shall add another Query:--Are they paper or


    [Footnote 2: That the MSS. were destroyed.]

    [Footnote 3: Hebrew and Chaldee.]

_Latin Names of Towns._--A correspondent who answered the Query as to
the "Latin Names of Towns" in titles, referred your readers to the
Supplement of Lemprière. I am much obliged to him for the hint, and have
obtained the work in consequence; but it is right your readers should
know that the information therein given must only be taken as
suggestive, and sometimes as dismissible upon reference to the commonest
gazetteer. I opened at the letter N; and found, that of three entries,
the first my eye lighted upon, two were palpably wrong. The first
informs us that "Næostadium _in Palatinatu_" is in "France;" the third
that "Nellore" is in "_Ceylon_." I am bound to say that I do not find
errors so thickly scattered throughout, and that the list will be useful
to me. But, Query, is there any thing extensive of which the accuracy
can be depended upon?


       *       *       *       *       *



I incline to think that the testator whose will is referred to in No.
23. p. 336., by "Scala Coeli," meant King Henry the Seventh's Chapel at

Margaret Countess of Richmond and Derby, mother to King Henry VII., in
the indenture for founding Chantry Monks in the Abbey of Westminster,
dated 2. March, 21 Henry VII. (1506-6), states that she had obtained
papal bulls of indulgence, that all persons saying and hearing her
chantry masses should have as full remission from sin as in the place
called _Scala Coeli_ beside Rome, "to the great comfort and relief of
the said Monasterie and all Cristen people resorting thereto." (_MS.
Lansd._ 444.)

Henry Lord Marney, by his will, dated 22d Dec., 15 Hen. VIII. (1523),
directs a trental of masses to be "first at Scala Coeli, in
Westminster." (_Testamenta Vetusta_, 609.)

Blomefield (_Hist. of Norfolk_, 8vo. edit., iv. 60) speaking of the
Church of the Augustine Friars at Norwich, observes,--

    "That which brought most profit to the convent, was the chapel
    of Our Lady in this church, called Scala Celi, to which people
    were continually coming in pilgrimage, and offering at the altar
    there; most folks desiring to have masses sung for them here, or
    to be buried in the cloister of Scala Celi, that they might be
    partakers of the many pardons and indulgences granted by the
    Popes to this place; this being the only chapel (except that of
    the same name at Westminster, and that of Our Lady in St.
    Buttolph's church at Boston,) that I find to have the same
    privileges and indulgences as the chapel of Scala Celi at Rome;
    which were so great as made all the three places aforesaid so
    much frequented; it being easier to pay their devotions here,
    than go so long a journey; all which indulgences and pardons may
    be seen in Fox's _Acts and Monuments_, fo. 1075."

In Bishop Bale's singular play of _Kynge Johan_, published by the Camden
Society, the King charges the clery with extorting money

  "For legacyes, trentalls with _scalacely_ messys
  Whereby ye have made the people very assys."
  (p. 17.)

And Simon of Swineshead, after drinking the poison, says,-- {403}

  "To send me to heaven god rynge the holye belle,
  And synge for my sowle a masse of _Scala Celi_,
  That I may clyme up aloft with Enoch and Heli."
  (p. 82.)

There are bulls of indulgence in Scala Coeli in Rymer's _Fædera_, xii.
565. 591. 672., xiii. 102.; but I can now only give the reference, as I
have not that work in hand.

Cambridge, April 6, 1850

       *       *       *       *       *


"T.W." (No. 20. p. 218.) will find no end of "Items" for watching the
sepulchre, in the "Churchwardens' Accounts" before the Reformation, and
during the reign of Queen Mary. At Easter it was the custom to erect a
sepulchre on the north side of the chancel, to represent that of our
Saviour. This was generally a temporary structure of wood; though in
some churches there still remain elaborately ornamented ones of stone.
Sometimes the founder's tomb was used for the purpose. In this sepulchre
was placed on Good Friday the crucifix, and occasionally the host, with
other emblems; and a person was employed to watch it till the morning of
Easter Day, when it was taken out with great ceremony, in imitation of
our Lord's resurrection. It was the payment for this watching that
occurs continually in the Churchwardens' Accounts, and of which, it
appears, Fuller could not understand the meaning. A paper on the subject
of Easter sepulchres, by Mr. Venables, was read at the meeting of the
Cambridge Camden Society in March, 1843, but I am not aware whether it
has been printed. Some very curious "Items" on this subject are given in
Britton's _Redcliffe Church_, which are quoted in the _Oxford Glossary
of Architecture_. They are so illustrative, that I subjoin them, to give
you an opportunity, if you please, of serving them up to your readers:--

    "Item, That Maister Canynge hath deliver'd, this 4th day of
    July, in the year of Our Lord 1470, to Maister Nicholas Petters,
    Vicar of St. Mary Redcliffe, Moses Conterin, Philip Barthelmew,
    Procurators of St. Mary Redcliffe aforesaid, a new sepulchre,
    well gilt with gold, and a civer thereto.

    "Item, An image of God Almighty rising out of the same
    sepulchre, with all the ordinance that 'longeth thereto; that is
    to say, a lathe made of timber and the iron work thereto.

    "Item, Thereto 'longeth Heaven, made of timber and stained

    "Item, Hell, made of timber, and the iron-work thereto, with
    Divels to the number of 13.

    "Item, 4 knights, armed, keeping the sepulchre, with their
    weapons in their hands; that is to say, 2 axes and 2 spears,
    with 2 pavés.

    "Item, 4 payr of angels' wings for 4 angels, made of timber and
    well painted.

    "Item, The Fadre, the crown and visage, the ball with a cross
    upon it, well gilt with fine gould.

    "Item, The Holy Ghost coming out of Heaven into the sepulchre.

    "Item, 'Longeth to the 4 angels 4 chevelers."

Ducange (vol. vi. p. 195. new edit.) gives a detailed account of the
service performed at the Easter sepulchres on the continent.

Cambridge, March 27.

"_Watching the Sepulchre_" (No. 20. p. 318.).--At the present day, in
most Roman Catholic countries it is the custom to exhibit in the
principal churches at this period, and at Christmas, a kind of _tableau_
of the entombment and of the birth of the Saviour. The figures are
sometimes small, and at other times the size of life: generally
coloured, and formed of wax, wood, stone, or other materials; and when
artistically arranged, and judiciously lighted, form sometimes beautiful
objects. I have no doubt the entry in the Churchwardens' Accounts of
Waltham Abbey refers to a custom of the same kind, prevailing in the
country before the Reformation. If the date of their entry were sought
for, I have little doubt but that it would be found to have been about
Easter. The _sepulchre_ itself was often, I believe, a permanent
erection of stone, and some of them probably now remain in the churches
of England on the north side of the chancel, where they may sometimes be
taken for the tombs of individuals there interred.


_Watching the Sepulchre._--In reply to "T.W.'s" Query in No. 20., I have
witnessed at Florence the custom of dressing the sepulchre on the
Thursday before Good Friday with the most beautiful flowers, many of
which are reared especially for the purpose. The devout attend at the
sepulchre, and make their prayers there throughout the day, the most
profound silence being observed. The convents rival each other in the
beauty of their decorations.

Do you think that the Churchwardens' entries in Fuller can refer to a
similar custom?

The loveliness of the flowers, and their delightful perfume, which
pervades the church, present a most soothing and agreeable type of death
and the grave, under their Christian phase. I was always at a loss to
understand why this was done on Thursday, instead of on Saturday; the
latter being the day on which Our Lord rested in the sepulchre.


       *       *       *       *       *


A new _blunder_ of Mr. Malone.--I love the memory of Edmond Malone,
albeit he sometimes committed blunders. He committed a pitiable blunder
when he broke his bow in shooting at the worthless Samuel Ireland; and
he committed an {404} irreparable blunder when he whitewashed the
monumental effigy of the matchless Shakspere. Of the blunder ascribed to
him by a reverend querist (No. 14. p. 213) he was quite innocent.

Before we censure an author or editor, we should consult his _own_
edition. He cannot be answerable for the errors of any other impression.
Such, at least, is _my_ notion of critical equity.

I shall now state the plain facts. Malone, in the first instance,
printed the spurious declaration of John _Shakspear_ in an _imperfect
state_. (_Plays and Poems of W.S._, 1790, vol. i. part ii. p. 162.) He
was soon afterwards enabled to complete it. (Ibid. vol. i. part ii. p.
330.) Steevens reprinted it entire, and without comment. (_Plays of
W.S._, 1793, vol. ii. p. 300.) Now the editor of the Irish reimpression,
who must have omitted to consult the edition of Steevens, merely
committed a _blunder_ in attempting to unite the two fragments as first
published by Mr. Malone.

There was no _audacious fabrication_ on the occasion--there is no
_mystery_ in the case! (No. 24. p. 386.) So, to stop the current of
misconception, and economise space on future occasions, I venture to
repeat a few words in suggesting as a canon of criticism:--_Before we
censure an author or editor we should consult his_ own _edition_.


       *       *       *       *       *


_Compendyous Olde Treatyse._--"F.M." (No. 18. p. 277.) will find this
tract reprinted (with the exception of the preface and verses) in Foxe's
_Acts and Monuments_; a portion once peculiar to the first edition of
1563, p. 452., but now appearing in the reprint of 1843, vol. iv. p.
671-76., which may be of some service in the absence of the original


_Hordys_ (No. 5. p. 157.).--I have waited till now in hopes of seeing an
answer from some more competent pen than my own to the Query as to the
meaning of the word "_hordys_," by your correspondent "J.G.;" but having
been disappointed, I venture a suggestion which occurred to me
immediately on reading it, viz. that "_hordys_" might be some possible
or impossible derivation from _hordeum_, and applied "irreverently" to
the consecrated host, as though it were no better than a common

Whether in those early days and in Ireland, the host was really made of
barley, and whether "hordys" was a name given to some kind of
barley-cake then in vogue, or (supposing my suggestion to be well
founded) a word coined for the occasion, may perhaps be worthy of

Kenilworth, April 5.

_Eachard's Tracts._--The Rev. George Wyatt, who inquires (No. 20. p.
320.) about Eachard's _Tracts_, will probably get all the information he
wants from the Life of Eachard prefixed to the collected edition of his
_Works_ in three volumes, which I am sorry I have not the means at
present of referring to.

"I.O.," to whom the last of the tracts is addressed, is Dr. John Owen.

Philatus (what objection is there to Latinising, in the usual way, the
Greek termination os?) is, of course, intended for Hobbes; and, to
convey Eachard's opinion of him, his opponent in the Dialogue is
Timothy, a God-honourer.

Let me add, as you have headed Mr. Wyatt's communication "Tracts
attributed to Eachard," thereby casting a doubt upon his authorship,
that there is no doubt about Dr. John Eachard being the author of all
the tracts which Mr. Wyatt enumerates; nor was there any concealment by
Eachard. His authorship of the _Grounds and Occasions of the Contempt of
the Clergy_ is notorious. The "Epistle Dedicatory," signed "J.E.,"
mentioned by Mr. Wyatt as prefixed to the Dialogue on Hobbes' _State of
Nature_, refers also to the five subsequent letters. These were
published at the same time with the Dialogue on Hobbes, in one volume,
and are answers to attacks on the _Grounds and Occasions_, &c. The
Epistle Dedicatory is addressed to Gilbert Sheldon, Archbishop of
Canterbury, "and," says Eachard, "I hope my dialogue will not find the
less acceptance with your Grace for these Letters which follow after."

The second edition of the volume I have by me, published in 1672: the
title, _Mr. Hobbes's State of Nature considered, &c.; to which are
added, Five Letters from the Author of "The Grounds and Occasions of the
Contempt of the Clergy."_


_Masters of St. Cross._--In reply to "H. EDWARDS" (No. 22. p. 352.), A
List of the Masters of St. Cross, I believe, is given in Browne Willis's
_Mitred Abbies_, vol. i.; but the most correct and perfect list is in
the _Sketches of Hampshire_, by the late John Duthy, Esq. Henry or
Humfrey de Milers is the first master whose name is recorded, and
nothing further is known of him: between Bishop Sherborne and Bishop
Compton there were thirteen masters.


Has "H. EDWARDS" seen the _History of St. Cross Hospital_, by Mr. Moody,
published within the last six months? It may materially assist him.


_A living Dog better than a dead Lion._--Your correspondent "MR. JOHN
SANSOM" may, perhaps, accept the following as an answer to the first
part of his Query (No. 22. p. 352.). In an ancient MS. preserved in the
archives of the see of Ossory, at fol. 66., is entered, in a hand of the
latter part of the fourteenth century, a list of ancient proverbs under
the following heading:-- {405}

    "Eux sount les proverbes en fraunceys conferme par auctorite del

      "Chers amys receiuez de moy
      Un beau present q vo' envoy,
      Non pas dor ne dargent
      Mais de bon enseignment,
      Que en escriptur ai trove
      E de latin translatee, &c. &c."

Amongst them is the following:--

  "Meux valt un chien sein e fort
  Qe un leoun freid e mort;
  E meux valt povert od bountex
  Qe richeste od malueiste."

Jesus, the Son of Sirak, is not, however, the authority for this
proverb; it occurs in the 9th chapter of Ecclesiastes and 4th verse.

And now, to ask a question in turn, what is meant by "auctorite _del


_Monumental Brass_ (No. 16. p. 247.).--On the floor of the Thorncombe
church, in the co. of Devon, is a splendid brass, representing Sir T.
Brooke, and Joan, his wife, dated respectively 1419 and 1436. At the
lower corner of the lady's robe is engraven a small dog, with a collar
and bells. May not these figures be the private mark of the artist?


_The Wickliffite Version of the Scriptures._--I have in my possession a
very fair MS. of Wickliff's translation of the New Testament; and should
the editors of the Wickliffite Versions like to see my MS., and let me
know to whom I may send it, I shall be happy to lend it them.

Buckland, Faringdon.

_Hever_ (pp. 269. 342.).--In confirmation of the meaning assigned to
this word, there is an estate near Westerham, in Kent, called


_Steward Family_ (No. 21. p. 335.).--Though not an answer to his
question, "O.C." may like to be informed that the arms of the impalement
in the drawing which he describes are (according to Izacke's _Exeter_)
those which were borne by Ralph Taxall, Sheriff of Devon, in 1519. Pole
calls him Texshall. Modern heralds give the coat to Pecksall of
Westminster. If a conjecture may be hazarded, I would suggest that the
coat was a modification of the ancient arms of Batishull: a crosslet in
saltier, between four owls.


_Gloves_ (No. 5. p. 72.).--In connection with the subject of the
presentation of gloves, I would refer your correspondents to the curious
scene in Vicar's _Parliamentary Chronicle_, where "Master Prynne," on
his visit to Archbishop Laud in the Tower in May 1643, accepts "a fair
pair of gloves, upon the Archbishop's extraordinary pressing
importunity;" a present which, under the disagreeable circumstances of
the interview, seems to have been intended to convey an intimation
beyond that of mere courtesy.


_Cromlech._--As your learned correspondent "Dr. TODD" (No. 20. p. 319.)
queries this word, I think it is very doubtful whether the word was in
use, or not, before the period mentioned (16th century). Dr. Owain Pughe
considered the word "cromlech" (_crwm-llech_, an inclined or flat
stone,) to be merely a popular name, having no reference to the original
purpose of the structure. The only Triadic name that will apply to the
cromlechs, is _maen ketti_ (stone chests, or arks), the raising of which
is described as one of "The three mighty labours of the Isle of


_Watewich_ (pp. 60. 121. 236.).--May not "Watewich" be Waterbeach?


"_By Hook or by Crook._"--I imagine that the expression "By hook or by
crook" is in very general use throughout England. It was familiar to my
ear forty years ago in Surrey, and within these four years its origin
was (to my satisfaction at the moment) brought home to my comprehension
in the North of Devon, where the tenant of a certain farm informed me
that, by an old custom, he was entitled to take wood from some adjoining
land "_by hook and crook_;" which, on inquiry, I understood to include,
first, so much underwood as he could cut with the _hook_ or bill, and,
secondly, so much of the branches of trees as he could pull down with
the aid of a _crook_.

Whether this crook originally meant the shepherd's crook (a very
efficient instrument for the purpose), or simply such a _crook_-ed
_stick_ as boys use for gathering hazel-nuts, is not very material. It
seems highly probable that, in the vast forests which once overspread
this country, the right of taking "_fire bote_" by "hook or crook" was
recognised; and we can hardly wish for a more apt illustration of the
idea of gaining a desired object by the ordinary means--"a hook," if it
lay close to our hand; or, by a method requiring more effort, "a crook,"
if it were a little beyond our reach.


_By Hook or by Crook_ (pp. 205, 237. 281. &c.).--In confirmation of this
phrase having reference to forest customs, my hind told me that my
plantations were plundered by hook or by crook, and he and I once caught
a man in _flagrante delicto_, with a hook for cutting green wood, and a
crook at the end of a long pole for breaking off dry branches, which
could not be otherwise reached. For an early use of the term, see
Bacon's _Fortress of the Faithful_, 1550.

    "Whatsoever is pleasant or profitable must be theirs by hook or
    by crook."

S.S.S. {406}

_Tablet to Napoleon._--Will it assist "EMDEE's" interpretation of the
inscription to Napoleon (No. 17 p. 262.) if I suggest that it may
mean--Ægyptiaco bis, Italico semper invicto?

Feb. 25.

_Lines on Pharaoh_ (No. 19. p. 298.).--I beg to inform "J.T.," that the
well-known _couplet_ about Pharaoh, and _rascal_ rhyming to _pascal_,
are from a certain _History of the Bible_, or _Bible History_, by the
Rev. Dr. Zachary Boyd, of Todrig, who was either Principal or Professor
of Divinity at Glasgow in the seventeenth century.

He left considerable property to the College there, on condition that
his bust should be placed in the quadrangle, and his great work printed
under the care of the Academical Senatus. The bust was placed
accordingly, and is, or lately was, to be seen in a niche over the inner
doorway. The _History_ was also printed, it is said, but never
published. However, curious visitors have always, I believe, been
allowed a peep into it--whether the MS. or the solitary printed book, I
am not sure--and a few choice morsels are current. I recollect one stave
of the lamentation of Jonah--

  "Lord! what a doleful place is this!
    There's neither coal nor candle;
  And nothing I but fishes' tripes
    And greasy guts do bandle."

I think it a shame that the Maitland Club of Glasgow has not, ere now,
volunteered an edition of Zachary's immortal performance. The _Senatus_
would hardly object (if the expense were undertaken), as the circulation
would be confined to true Scots.


    [The following communication from a very competent authority,
    and the very passage quoted by "PHILOBODIUS" himself, quite
    justify the non-publication of Zachary's doggrel.]

_Zachary Boyd_ (No. 19. p. 298.).--Your notice of Zachary Boyd, and his
extraordinary paraphrase of the Bible in the College at Glasgow, has
reminded me of my having examined that strange work, and found ample
cause for its not being published, though a sufficient sum was
bequeathed for that purpose. The whole doggrel is only calculated to
bring ridicule and contempt upon the Scriptures; but there are, besides,
passages such as refer to Job's "Curse God, and die;" to Jeshuram waxing
fat; to Jonah in the whale's belly; and other parts, which utterly unfit
the MS. for decent perusal.


_Welsh Ambassador._--The origin of the word "Welsh," from the Saxon
"Wealh," a stranger, and the use of it in this sense by our old writers
(see Brady's _Introd._, p. 5.: Sir T. Smith's _Commonwealth of England_,
chap. xiii.), sufficiently explain this designation of the Cuckoo, the
temporary resident of our cold climate, and the ambassador
_extraordinary_ in the revolutions of the seasons, in the words of the
Nursery Rhymes,--

    "She comes as a _stranger_, and stays three months in the year."

    "Quid tibi vis aliud dicam? me _vox mea prodit_."

    _Alciati, Emblema_ lx. _Cuculi, Comment_.


_Prince Madoc._--I was much gratified on reading "T.T.'s" note,
commenting on my observations respecting the Mandan language, as he
proves the existence of Celtic words amongst the American Indians.
Regarding "T.T.'s" doubts as to the Mandans being descended from the
followers of Madoc, I confess that my opinions on the point do not
differ very widely from his own. The circumstances attending Madoc's
emigration, in the paucity of its numbers and the entire separation from
the mother country, with the character of the Indians, would almost
ensure the ultimate destruction of the settlement, or the ultimate
absorption of its remains by those who might have had friendly relations
with the Welsh. In this most favourable view, the evidences of the
presence of the Welsh seven centuries since would be few indeed at the
present day. The most striking circumstance of this nature that I met
with in Mr. Catlin's work, is a description of what he calls a
"bull-boat," from its being covered with a bull's hide, which, in
construction and form, is perfectly identical with the Welsh "_cwrygl_."
Yet, strong as this resemblance is, it will have but little weight if
unsupported by other evidence. In conclusion, I would observe, that I
never supposed Prince Madoc to be the discover of America, but that his
voyage was induced by the knowledge that other lands existed in the
great ocean (_see_ Humboldt's _Examen critique_). The emblems found in
America, and said to be crosses, are obviously the _tau_ [cross symbol],
or symbol of life, and can have no connection with Christianity.


_Poghell_ (No. 12. p. 186.).--In Cornwall and Devon there are places
called Poughill or Poghill,--in _Domesday_, Pochelle; and in the
_Taxatio Ecclesiastica_, Pockehulle and Pogheheulle. The etymology of
the word, I take to be merely the addition (as is often found) of the
Anglo-Saxon _hill_, or _hull_, to the old Teutonic word Pock, or Pok, an
eruption or protrusion. In low Latin, Pogetum is colliculus. (See


_Swingeing Tureen_ (No. 19. p. 211., and No. 21. p. 340.).--How could
"SELEUCUS" "conclude" that Goldsmith's "Poor Beau Tibbs and Kitty his
Wife," should have had "a _silver_ tureen" of expensive construction? It
is evident that "Kitty's" husband, in the "Haunch of Venison," was the
Beau Tibbs of the "Citizen of the World." There can be no doubt that,
however the word be spelled, {407} the meaning is _swingeing_, "huge,
great," which I admit was generally, if not always, in those days
spelled swinging, as in Johnson--"_Swinging_, from _swinge, huge,
great_;" but which ought to be, as it is pronounced, _swingeing_.

_Tureen_ (pp. 246. 307. 340.).--"And instead of soup in a China
terrene." (Knox, Essay 57 _Works_. vol. ii. p. 572.)


_"A" or "An."--Quem Deus vult perdere._--Allow me to refer your
correspondents "PRISCIAN" and "E.S. JACKSON" (of No. 22.), to the
_Selections from the Gentleman's Magazine_, London, 1814, vol. ii. pp.
333. and 162., for some interesting papers on the subjects of their
respective inquiries.

The paper first referred to, at p. 333., is certainly well worth
perusal, as the writer, "KUSTER," has examined the question with
considerable care, and proves, by many curious instances, that most of
those whom we have been taught to look up to as the greatest authorities
in English writing--Dryden, Swift, Pope, Johnson, and others--seem to
have had no fixed rule on the subject, but to have used "a" or "an"
before the same words with the most reckless inconsistency.

The second paper, at p. 162., gives a more detailed account of the
adage, "Quem Deus (potius _Jupiter_) vult perdere," &c., than "F.C.B."
(whose object, of course, was rather to compare _results_ than to trace
_derivations_) has supplied in his interesting communication.


       *       *       *       *       *



Such of our readers as do not possess Halliwell's _Dictionary of Archaic
and Provincial Words_, which Mr. Way, a very competent authority, lately
designated in our columns as Mr. Halliwell's "useful glossarial
collections," will be glad to learn that Mr. Russell Smith has announced
a second and cheaper edition of it.

The new number of the _Archæological Journal_ is a very interesting one.
That portion if it, more particularly, which relates the Proceedings of
the Meetings of the Archæological Institute, contains a great mass of
curious and valuable information; made the more available and
instructive by means of the admirable woodcuts by which it is

We have received several curious communications on the subject of Parish
Registers, with reference to the article on "Early Statistics," and the
"Registers of Chart, Kent," to which we shall endeavour to give early
insertion. We have also received a copy of _A Letter addressed to R.
Monckton Milnes, Esq. M.P., on the Condition and unsafe State of Ancient
Parochial Registers in England and the Colonies_, to which we beg to
direct the attention of such of our friends as take an interest in this
important subject.

Messrs. Puttick and Simpson, of 191. Piccadilly, will sell on Monday,
the 29th instant, and three following days, a selection from the
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We have received the following Catalogues:--Part III. for 1850 of J.
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Choice, Useful, and Interesting Books, in fine condition, on sale by
Waller and Son (188. Fleet Street).

       *       *       *       *       *



(_In continuation of Lists in former Nos._)

SACRED SONGS, DUETS, AND TRIOS, Words by Thomas Moore; Music by
Stephenson and Moore. Power, Strand.

edition of the "Happy Future of England.")


LADY RUSSELL'S LETTERS, edited by Miss Berry.

DU QUESNE'S ACCOUNT OF BOURBON, published in Holland about 1689.

ROUGE, 12mo. Paris, 1716.

SOUTH AFRICAN QUARTERLY JOURNAL, 8vo. Cape Town, 1830 (all that is

Odd Volumes

HUMBOLDT'S COSMOS, Nos. forming Vol. I. of Longman's 1st edition,

Paris, 1829-31.


LANGARD'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND, 12mo. edition of 1839. Vols. V. to IX.
(both inclusive).

PENNY CYCLOPÆDIA. Monthly Parts 82, 84 to 90 (both inclusive), 92, 93,
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Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
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       *       *       *       *       *


Adolphus' History of England. "INDACATOR" _is informed that the
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would at all times readily explain, to those entitled to ask him what
progress has been made in it_.

_Our numerous Correspondents will, we trust, excuse our specially
acknowledging the receipt of their various communications, and agree
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insert rather than acknowledge the articles with which they have
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_A Third Edition of Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4., forming Part I., is reprinted,
so that complete sets of our work may again be had._

       *       *       *       *       * {408}

Theological and Miscellaneous Library of the Rev. S.R. Maitland, DD., A
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PUTTICK and SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary property, will SELL by
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       *       *       *       *       *

On a large sheet, price 7s. 6d. plain; 15s. richly coloured; in case
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CENTURIES; containing Eighteen Figures, with a Description and a Sketch
of the Progress of European Armour. By JOHN HEWITT.

"A graphic outline of the subject of military costume during the period
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       *       *       *       *       *


Royal Society of Antiquaries of Copenhagen. Translated and applied to
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"This work, which we desire to commend to the attention of our readers,
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       *       *       *       *       *


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fashionable Concerts; the first performance of the Beggar's Opera, &c.

A limited number having been printed, few copies remain for sale: unsold
copies will shortly be raised in price to 1l. 11s. 6d.

LONDON: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square,
at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride,
in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL,
of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in
the West, in the City of London, Publisher,
at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, April 20. 1850.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 25, April 20, 1850" ***

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