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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 32, June 8, 1850
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 32, June 8, 1850" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

Ingram, William Flis, and the Online Distributed



       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

NO. 32.] SATURDAY, JUNE 8. 1850. [Price Threepence. Stamped Edition, 4d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  Presence of Strangers in the House of Commons 17
  The Agapemone, by Richard Greene  17
  London Irish Registers, by Robert Cole  18
  Folk Lore--Divination by Bible and Key--Charm for Warts--Boy or Girl  19
  Poet Laureates 20
  Minor Queries:--Wood Paper--Latin Line--New Edition of Milton--Barum
    and Sarum--Roman Roads--John Dutton, of Dutton--Rome--Prolocutor of
    Convocation--Language of Queen Mary's Days--Vault Interments--Archbishop
    Williams' Persecutor, R.K.--The Sun feminine in English--Construe and
    translate--Men but Children of a Larger Growth--Clerical Costume--Ergh,
    Er, or Argh--Burial Service--Gaol Chaplains--Hanging out the
    Broom--George Lord Goring--Bands 21
  Derivation of "News" and "Noise" by Samuel Hickson 23
  The Dodo Queries, by H.E. Strickland 24
  Bohn's Edition of Milton 24
  Umbrellas 25
  Emancipation of the Jews 25
  Replies to Minor Queries:--Wellington, Wyrwast and Cokam--Sir William
    Skipwyth--Dr. Johnson and Dr. Warton--Worm of Lambton--Shakspeare's
    Will--Josias Ibach Stada--The Temple or a Temple--Bawn--"Heigh ho!
    says Rowley"--Arabic Numerals--Pusan--"I'd preach as though"--"Fools
    rush in"--Allusion in Friar Brackley's Sermon--Earwig--Sir R. Haigh's
    Letter-book--Marescautia--Memoirs of an American Lady--Poem by Sir E.
    Dyer, &c. 26
  Blue Boar Inn, Holborn--Lady Morgan and Curry--Sir Walter Scott and
    Erasmus--Parallel Passages--Grays Ode--The Grand
    Style--Hoppesteris--Sheridan's last Residence 30
  Notes on Books, Catalogues, Sales, &c. 31
  Notices to Correspondents 31
  Advertisements 32

       *       *       *       *       *



In the late debate on Mr. Grantley Berkeley's motion for a fixed duty
on corn, Sir Benjamin Hall is reported to have imagined the presence
of a stranger to witness the debate, and to have said that he was
imagining what every one knew the rules of the House rendered an
impossibility. It is strange that so intelligent a member of the
House of Commons should be ignorant of the fact that the old sessional
orders, which absolutely prohibited the presence of strangers in the
House of Commons, were abandoned in 1845, and that a standing order
now exists in their place which recognises and regulates their
presence. The insertion of this "note" may prevent many "queries" in
after times, when the sayings and doings of 1850 have become matters
of antiquarian discussion.

The following standing orders were made by the House of Commons on the
5th of February, 1845, on the motion of Mr. Christie, (see Hansard,
and Commons' Journals of that day), and superseded the old sessional
orders, which purported to exclude strangers entirely from the House
of Commons:--

"That the serjeant at arms attending this House do from time to
time take into his custody any stranger whom he may see, or who
may be reported to him to be, in any part of the House or gallery
appropriated to the members of this House; and also any stranger who,
having been admitted into any other part of the House or gallery,
shall misconduct himself, or shall not withdraw when strangers are
directed to withdraw while the House, or any committee of the whole
House, is sitting; and that no person so taken into custody be
discharged out of custody without the special order of the House.

"That no member of this House do presume to bring any stranger into
any part of the House or gallery appropriated to the members of this
House while the House, or a committee of the whole House, is sitting."

Now, therefore, strangers are only liable to be taken into custody
if in a part of the House appropriated to members, or misconducting
themselves, or refusing to withdraw when ordered by the Speaker to do
so; and Sir Benjamin Hall imagined no impossibility.


       *       *       *       *       *


Like most other things, the "Agapemone" wickedness, which has recently
disgusted all decent people, does not appear to be a new thing by any
means. The religion-mongers of the nineteenth century have a precedent
nearly 300 years old for this house of evil repute.

In the reign of Elizabeth, the following proclamation was issued
against "The Sectaries of the Family of Love:"--

"Whereas, by report of sundry of the Bishops of this Realm, and others
having care of souls, the Queen's Majesty is informed, that in sundry
places of her said Realm, in their several Dioceses there are certain
persons which do secretly, in corners, make privy assemblies of
divers simple unlearned people, and after they have craftily and
hypocritically allured them to esteem them to be more holy and
perfect men than other are, they do then teach them damnable heresies,
directly contrary to divers of the principal Articles of our Belief
and Christian Faith and in some parts so absurd and fanatical, as by
feigning to themselves a monstrous new kind of speech, never found in
the Scriptures, nor in ancient Father or writer of Christ's Church, by
which they do move ignorant and simple people at the first rather to
marvel at them, than to understand them but yet to colour their sect
withal, they name themselves to be of the _Family of Love_, and then
as many as shall be allowed by them to be of that family to be elect
and saved, and all others, of what Church soever they be, to be
rejected and damned. And for that upon conventing of some of them
before the Bishops and Ordinaries, it is found that the ground of
their sect, is maintained by certain lewd, heretical, and seditious
books first made in the Dutch tongue, and lately translated into
English, and printed beyond the seas, and secretly brought over
into the Realm, the author whereof they name H.N., without yielding
to him, upon their examination, any other name, in whose name they
have certain books set forth, called _Evangelium Regni, or, A Joyful
Message of the Kingdom; Documental Sentences, The Prophecie of the
Spirit of Love; a Publishing of the Peace upon the Earth_, and such

"And considering also it is found, that these Sectaries hold opinion,
that they may before any magistrate, ecclesiastical or temporal,
or any other person not being professed to be of their sect (which
they term the Family of Love), by oath or otherwise deny any thing
for their advantage, so as though many of them are well known to be
teachers and spreaders abroad of these dangerous and damnable sects,
yet by their own confession they cannot be condemned, whereby they are
more dangerous in any Christian Realm: Therefore, her Majesty being
very sorry to see so great an evil by the malice of the Devil, first
begun and practised in other countries, to be now brought into this
her Realm, and that by her Bishops and Ordinaries she understandeth
it very requisite, not only to have these dangerous Heretics and
Sectaries to be severely punished, but that also all other means be
used by her Majesty's Royal authority, which is given her of God
to defend Christ's Church, to root them out from further infecting
her Realm, she hath thought meet and convenient, and so by this her
Proclamation she willeth and commandeth, that all her Officers and
Ministers temporal shall, in all their several vocations, assist
the Archbishops and Bishops of her Realm, and all other persons
ecclesiastical, having care of souls, to search out all persons duly
suspected to be either teachers or professors of the foresaid damnable
sects, and by all good means to proceed severely against them
being found culpable, by order of the Laws either ecclesiastical or
temporal: and that, also, search be made in all places suspected, for
the books and writings maintaining the said Heresies and Sects, and
them to destroy and burn.

"And wheresoever such Books shall be found after the publication
hereof, in custody of any person, other than such as the Ordinaries
shall permit, to the intent to peruse the same for confutation
thereof, the same persons to be attached and committed to close
prison, there to remain, or otherwise by Law to be condemned, until
the same shall be purged and cleared of the same heresies, or shall
recant the same, and be thought meet by the Ordinary of the place to
be delivered. And that whoever in this Realm shall either print, or
bring, or cause to be brought into this Realm, any of the said Books,
the same persons to be attached and committed to prison, and to
receive such bodily punishment and other mulct as fautors of damnable
heresies. And to the execution hereof, her Majesty chargeth all her
Officers and Ministers, both ecclesiastical and temporal, to have
special regard, as they will answer not only afore God, whose glory
and truth is by these damnable Sects greatly sought to be defaced,
but also will avoid her Majesty's indignation, which in such cases as
these are, they ought not to escape, if they shall be found negligent
and careless in the execution of their authorities.

"Given at our Mannour of Richmond, the third of October, in the
two-and-twentieth year of our Reign.

"God Save The Queen."


Lichfield, May 28. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *


The interleaving, of a little work in my possession, published by
Kearsley in 1787, intitled _Account of the several Wards, Precincts,
and Parishes in the City of London_, contains MS. notes of the
commencement of the registers of fifty of the London parishes, and of
four of Southwark, the annexed list[1] of which may be of use to some
of the readers of "Notes and Queries." The book formerly belonged to
Sir George Nayler, whose signature it bears on a fly-leaf.

[Footnote 1: We have collated the list with the Population Returns
(Parish Register abstract) 1831, and noted any difference. In addition
to the list given from Sir Geo. Nayler's MS. the following early
registers were extant in 1831:--

  1538. Allhallows, Bread Street; Allhallows, Honey
        Lane; Christ Church; St. Mary-le-bow;
        St. Matthew, Friday Street; St. Michael
        Bassishaw; St. Pancras, Soper Lane.
  1539. St. Martin, Ironmonger Lane; St. Martin
        Ludgate; St. Michael, Crooked Lane.
  1547. St. George, Botolph Lane, at the commencement
        of which are 22 entries from tombs, 1390-1410.
  1558. Allhallows the Less; St. Andrew, Wardrope;
        St. Bartholomew, Exchange; St. Christopher-le-Stock;
        St. Mary-at-Hill, St. Michael le Quern;
        St. Michael, Royal; St. Olave, Jewry;
        St. Thomas the Apostle; St. Botolph, Bishopsgate.
  1559. St. Augustine; St. Margaret, Moses; St. Michael,
          Wood Street.
  1560. St. Magnus.

  Allhallows, Barking            begins 1558
  ----------- London Wall          "    1567 [1559 Pop. ret.]
  ----------- Lombard Street       "    1550
  ----------- Staining             "    1642
  St. Andrew Undershaft            "    1558
  St. Antholin                     "    1538
  St. Bennet Fink                  "    1538
  ----------- Gracechurch          "    1558
  St. Clement, Eastcheap           "    1539
  St. Dionis Backchurch            "    1538
  St. Dunstan in the East          "    1558
  St. Edmund the King              "    1670
  St. Gabriel, Fenchurch           "    1571
  St. Gregory                      "    1539 [1559 Pop. ret.,
                                             probably an error
                                             of transcriber.]
  St. James Garlickhithe           "    1535
  St. John Baptist                 "    1682 [1538 Pop. ret.]
  St. Katharine Coleman            "    1559
  St. Lawrence, Jewry              "    1538
  ------------- Pountney           "    1538
  St. Leonard, Eastcheap           "    1538
  St. Margaret Lothbury            "    1558
  ------------ Pattens             "    1653 [1559 Pop. ret.]
  St. Martin Orgars                "    1625
  ---------- Outwick               "    1678 [1670 Pop. ret.]
  ---------- Vestry                "    1671 [1668 Pop. ret.]
  St. Mary, Aldermanbury           "    1538
  St. Mary Magdalene, Old
    Fish Street                    "    1712 [1717 Pop. ret.]
  St. Mary Mounthaw                "    1568 [1711 Pop. ret.
                                             A register evidently
  St. Mary Somerset                "    1558 [1711 Pop. ret.
                                             A register missing.]
  St. Mary Woolchurch, and St.
    Mary Woolnorth, both in one    "    1538
  St. Michael, Cornhill,  beg. _before_ 1546
  ------------ Royal            begins  1558
  St. Mildred, Poultry             "    1538
  St. Nicholas Acons               "    1539
  ------------ Coleabby            "    1695 [1538 Pop. ret.]
  ------------ Olave               "    1703
  St. Peter, Cornhill              "    1538
  St. Peter le Poor                "    1538 [1561 Pop. ret.]
  St. Stephen, Coleman Street      "    1558
  ------------ Walbrook            "    1557
  St. Swithin                      "    1615 [1754 Pop. ret.]
  St. Andrew, Holborn              "    1551 [1558 Pop. ret.]
  St. Bartholomew the Great        "    1616
  --------------- the Less         "    1547
  St. Botolph, Aldgate             "    1558
  St. Bride                        "    1653[2]
  St. Dunstan in the West          "    1554 [1558 Pop. ret.]
  St. Sepulchre                    "    1663
    _Note_.--The register prior burnt at the fire of London.
  St. Olave, Southwark. "Register said by
    _Bray's Survey_ to be as early as
    1586. Vide vol. i. 111-607; but on a
    search made this day it appears that
    the register does not begin till
    1685. Qy. if not a book
    lost?--5th Oct. 1829."                   [1685 Pop. ret.]
  St. George, Southwark, beg. abt. 1600      [1602 Pop. ret.]
  St. Mary Magdalen, Bermondsey, begins
    1548 (Lysons); but from end of 1642
    to 1653 only two entries made; viz.
    one in Nov. 1643, and another Aug.
    1645, which finishes the first
    volume; and the second volume
    begins in 1653.
  St. Saviour, Southwark, begins temp. Eliz. [1570 Pop. ret.]
  St. Thomas, Southwark, begins 1614.


[Footnote 2: _Note in the Book_--There are registers before this in
the hands of Mr. Pridden.]

       *       *       *       *       *


_Divination by Bible and Key_ seems not merely confined to this
country, but to prevail in Asia. The following passage from
_Pérégrinations en Orient_, par Eusèbe de Salle, vol. i. p. 167.,
Paris, 1840, may throw some additional light on this superstition.
The author is speaking of his sojourn at Antioch, in the house of the
_English_ consul.

"En rentrant dans le salon, je trouvai Mistriss B. assise sur son
divan, près d'un natif Syrien Chrétien. Ils tenaient à eux deux une
Bible, suspendue à une grosse clé par un mouchoir fin. Mistriss B. ne
se rappelait pas avoir reçu un bijou qu'un Aleppin affirmait lui avoir
remis. Le Syrien disait une prière, puis prononçait alternativement
les noms de la dame et de l'Aleppin. La Bible pivota au nom de la dame
déclarée par-là en erreur. Elle se leva à l'instant, et ayant fait des
recherches plus exactes, finit par trouver le bijou."

I hardly think that this would be an English superstition transplanted
to the East; it is more probable that it was originally derived frown


Newcastle-on-Tyne, May 19. 1850.

_Charm for Warts_.--Count most carefully the number of warts; take a
corresponding number of nodules or knots from the stalks of any of the
_cerealia_ (wheat, oats, barley); wrap these in a cloth, and deposit
the packet in the earth; _all the steps of the operation being done
secretly_. As the nodules decay the warts will disappear. Some artists
think it necessary that each wart should be _touched_ by a separate

This practice was very rife in the north of Scotland some fifty years
since, and no doubt is so still. It was regarded as very
effective, and certainly had plenty of evidence of the
_post-hoc-ergo-propter-hoc_ order in its favour.

Is this practice prevalent in England?

It will be remarked that this belongs to the category of _Vicarious
Charms_, which have in all times and in all ages, in great things and
in small things, been one of the favourite resources of poor mortals
in their difficulties. Such charms (for all analogous practices may be
so called) are, in point of fact, _sacrifices_ made on the principle
so widely adopted,--_qui facit per alium facit per se_. The common
witch-charm of melting an image of wax stuck full of pins before
a slow fire, is a familiar instance. Everybody knows that the
party _imaged_ by the wax continues to suffer all the tortures of
pin-pricking until he or she finally melts away (colliquescit), or
dies in utter emaciation.


_Boy or Girl._--The following mode was adopted a few years ago in
a branch of my family residing in Denbighshire, with the view of
discovering the sex of an infant previous to its birth. As I do not
remember to have met with it in other localities, it may, perhaps,
be an interesting addition to your "Folk Lore." An old woman of the
village, strongly attached to the family, asked permission to use
a harmless charm to learn if the expected infant would be male or
female. Accordingly she joined the servants at their supper, where she
assisted in clearing a shoulder of mutton of every particle of meat.
She then held the blade-bone to the fire until it was scorched, so
as to permit her to force her thumbs through the thin part. Through
the holes thus made she passed a string, and having knotted the ends
together, she drove in a nail over the back door and left the house,
giving strict injunctions to the servants to hang the bone up in that
place the last thing at night. Then they were carefully to observe who
should first enter that door on the following morning, exclusive of
the members of the household, and the sex of the child would be that
of the first comer. This rather vexed some of the servants, who wished
for a boy, as two or three women came regularly each morning to the
house, and a man was scarcely ever seen there; but to their delight
the first comer on this occasion proved to be a man, and in a few
weeks the old woman's reputation was established throughout the
neighbourhood by the birth of a boy.


       *       *       *       *       *



Can any of the contributors to your most useful "NOTES AND QUERIES"
favour me with the title of any work which gives an account of the
origin, office, emoluments, and privileges of Poet Laureate. Selden,
in his _Titles of Honour (Works_, vol. iii. p. 451.), shows the Counts
Palatine had the right of conferring the dignity claimed by the
German Emperors. The first payment I am aware of is to Master Henry
de Abrinces, the _Versifier_ (I suppose Poet Laureate), who received
6d. a day,--4l. 7s., as will be seen in the _Issue Roll_ of Thomas de
Brantingham, edited by Frederick Devon.

Warton (_History of English Poetry_, vol. ii. p. 129.) gives no
further information, and is the author generally quoted; but the
particular matter sought for is wanting.

The first patent, according to the _Encyclopædia Metropolitana_,
article "Laureate," is stated, as regards the existing office, to date
from 5th Charles I., 1630; and assigns as the annual gratuity 100l.,
and a tierce of Spanish Canary wine out of the royal cellars.

Prior to this, the emoluments appear uncertain, as will be seen by
Gifford's statement relative to the amount paid to B. Jonson, vol. i.

    "Hitherto the Laureateship appears to have been a mere trifle,
    adopted at pleasure by those who were employed to write for
    the court, but conveying no privileges, and establishing no
    claim to a salary."

I am inclined to doubt the accuracy of the phrase "employed to write
for the court." Certain it is, the question I now raise was _pressed_
then, as it was to satisfy Ben Jonson's want of information Selden
wrote on the subject in his _Titles of Honour_.

These emoluments, rights, and privileges have been matters of
Laureate dispute, even to the days of Southey. In volume iv. of his
correspondence, many hints of this will be found; e.g., at page 310.,
with reference to Gifford's statement, and "my proper rights."

The Abbé Resnel says,--"L'illustre Dryden l'a porté comme _Poète du
Roy_," which rather reduces its academic dignity; and adds, "Le Sieur
Cyber, comédien de profession, est actuellement en possession du titre
de Poète Lauréate, et qu'il jouit en même tems de deux cens livres
sterling de pension, à la charge de présenter tous les ans, deux
pièces de vers à la famille royale."

I am afraid, however, the Abbé drew upon his imagination for the
amount of the salary; and that he would find the people were never so
hostile to the court as to sanction so heavy an infliction upon the
royal family, as they would have met with from the quit-rent ode, the
peppercorn of praise paid by Elkanah Settle, Cibber, or H.J. Pye.

The Abbé, however, is not so amusing in his mistake (if mistaken)
relative to this point, as I find another foreign author has been
upon two Poet Laureates, Dryden and Settle. Vincenzo Lancetti, in his
_Pseudonimia Milano_, 1836, tells us:--

    "Anche la durezza di alcuni cognomi ha più volte consigliato
    un raddolcimento, che li rendesse più facili a pronunziarsi.
    Percio Macloughlin divenne Macklin; Machloch, Mallet; ed
    Elkana Settle fu poi ---- John Dryden!"

--a metamorphose greater, I suspect, than any to be found in Ovid, and
a transmigration of soul far beyond those imagined by the philosophers
of the East.



       *       *       *       *       *


_Wood Paper_.--The reprint of the _Works of Bishop Wilkins_, London,
1802, 2 vols. 8vo., is said to be on paper made from wood pulp.
It has all the appearance of it in roughness, thickness, and very
unequal opacity. Any sheet looked at with a candle behind it is like
a firmament scattered with luminous nebulæ. I can find mention of
straw paper, as patented about the time; but I should think it almost
impossible (knowing how light the Indian rice paper is) that the heavy
fabric above mentioned should be of straw. Is it from wood? If so,
what is the history of the invention, and what other works were
printed in it?


_Latin Line_.--I should be very much obliged to anybody who can tell
where this line comes from:--

  "Exiguum hoc magni pignus amoris habe,"

which was engraved on a present from a distinguished person to a
relation of mine, who tried in several quarters to learn where it came


_Milton, New Edition of_.--I observe in Mr. Mayor's communication
(Vol. i. p. 427.), that some one is engaged in editing Milton. May
I ask who, and whether the contemplated edition includes prose and


_Barum and Sarum_.--By what theory, rule, or analogy, if any, can the
contractions be accounted for of two names so dissimilar, into
words terminating so much alike, as those of Salisbury into
Sarum--Barnstaple into Barum?


_Roman Roads_.--Can you inform me in whose possession is the MS. essay
on "Roman Roads," written by the late Dr. Charles Mason, to which I
find allusion in a MS. letter of Mr. North's?


_John Dutton, of Dutton_.--In the Vagrant Act, 17 George II., c. 5.,
the heir and assigns of John Dutton, of Dutton, co. Chester, deceased,
Esq., are exempt from the pains and penalties of vagrancy. Query--Who
was the said John Dutton, and why was such a boon conferred on his
heirs for ever?


_Rome, Ancient and Modern_.--I observed, in a shop in Rome, in 1847,
a large plan of that city, in which, on the same surface, both ancient
and modern Rome were represented; the shading of the streets and
buildings being such as to distinguish the one from the other. Thus,
in looking at the modern Forum, you saw, as it were _underneath_ it,
the ancient Forum; and so in the other parts of the city. Can any of
your readers inform me as to the name of the designer, and where, if
at all, in England, a copy of this plan may be obtained?

If I remember rightly, the border to the plan was composed of the
Pianta Capitolina, or fragments of the ancient plan preserved in
the Capitol. In the event of the map above referred to not being
accessible, can I obtain a copy of this latter plan by itself, and


_Prolocutor of Convocation_.--W.D.M. inquires who was Prolocutor of
the Lower House of Convocation during its session in 1717-18?

_Language of Queen Mary's Days_.--In the first vol. of Evelyn's
_Diary_ (the last edition) I find the following notice:--

    "18th, Went to Beverley, a large town with two churches, St.
    John's and St. Mary's, not much inferior to the best of our
    cathedrals. Here a very old woman showed us the monuments,
    and being above 100 years of age, spake _the language of Queen
    Mary's days_, in whose time she was born; she was widow of a
    sexton, who had belonged to the church a hundred years."

Will any of your readers inform me what was the language spoken in
_Queen Mary's_ days, and what peculiarity distinguished it from the
language used in _Evelyn's_ days?

A learned author has suggested, that the difference arose from the
slow progress in social improvement in the North of England, caused by
the difficulty of communication with the court and its refinements. I
am still anxious to ascertain what the difference was.



_Vault Interments_.--I shall be very glad of any information as to the
origin and date of the practice of depositing coffins in vaults, and
whether this custom obtains in any other country than our own.


Edward Street, Portman Square.

_Archbishop Williams' Persecutor, R.K._--Any information will be
thankfully received of the ancestors, collaterals, or descendants, of
the notorious R.K.--the unprincipled persecutor of Archbp. Williams,
mentioned in Fuller's _Church Hist._, B. xi. cent. 17.; and in
Hacket's Life of the Archbishop (abridgment), p. 190.


_The Sun feminine in English_.--It has been often remarked, that
the northern nations made the sun to be feminine.[3] Do any of your
readers know any instances of the _English_ using this gender of the
sun? I have found the following:--

"So it will be at that time with the sun; for though _she_ be the
brightest and clearest creature, above all others, yet, for all that
Christ with His glory and majesty will obscure _her."--Latimer's
Works_, Parker Soc. edit. vol. ii. p. 54.

"Not that the sun itself, of _her_ substance, shall be darkened; no,
not so; for _she_ shall give _her_ light, but it shall not be seen
for this great light and clearness wherein our Saviour shall
appear."--(Ib. p. 98.)


[Footnote 3: See Latham's _English Language_, 2nd edition, p. 211]

_Construe and translate_.--In my school-days, verbal rendering from
Latin or Greek into English was _construing_; the same on paper was
_translating_. Whence this difference of phrase?


_Men but Children of a larger growth_.--Can you give one the author of
the following line?

  "Men are but children of a larger growth."


_Clerical Costume_.--In the Diary of the Rev. Giles Moore, rector of
Hosted Keynes, in Sussex, published in the first volume of the Sussex
Archæological Collections, there is the following account of his

    "I went to Lewis and bought 4 yards of broad black cloth at
    16s. the yard, and two yards and 1/2 of scarlet serge for a
    waistcoat, 11s. 1d., and 1/4 of an ounce of scarlet silke,

and this appears to have been his regular dress. Will any of your
correspondents inform me whether this scarlet serge waistcoat was
commonly worn by the clergy in those times, namely, in 1671?


_Ergh, Er, or Argh_.--In Dr. Whitaker's _History of Whalley_, p. 37.,
ed. 1818, are the following observations on the above word:--

    "This is a singular word, which occurs, however both to the
    north and south of the Ribble, though much more frequently
    to the north. To the south, I know not that it occurs, but
    in Angles-ark and Brettargh. To the north are Battarghes,
    Ergh-holme, Stras-ergh, Sir-ergh, Feiz-er, Goosen-ergh. In
    all the Teutonic dialects I meet with nothing resembling this
    word, _excepting the Swedish_ Arf, _terra_ (_vide_ Ihre _in
    voce_), which, if the last letter be pronounced gutturally, is
    precisely the same with _argh_."

Can any of your readers give a more satisfactory explanation of this
local term?


Burnley, May 4. 1850.

_Burial Service_.--During a conversation on the various sanitary
measures now projecting in the metropolis, and particularly on the
idea lately started of re-introducing the ancient practice of burning
the bodies of the deceased, one of our company remarked that the
words "ashes to ashes," used in our present form of burial, would in
such a case be literally applicable; and a question arose why the
word "ashes" should have been introduced at all, and whether its
introduction might not have been owing to the actual cremation of the
funeral pyre at the burial of Gentile Christians? We were none of us
profound enough to quote or produce any facts from the monuments and
records of the early converts to account for the expression; but I
conceive it probable that a solution could be readily given by some of
your learned correspondents. The burning of the dead does not appear
to be in itself an anti-christian ceremony, nor necessarily connected
with Pagan idolatries, and therefore might have been tolerated in the
case of Gentile believers like any other indifferent usage.


_Gaol Chaplains_.--When were they first appointed? Did the following
advice of Latimer, in a sermon before King Edward, in 1549, take any

    "Oh, I would ye would resort to prisons! A commendable thing
    in a Christian realm: I would wish there were curates of
    prisons, that we might say, the 'curate of Newgate, the curate
    of the Fleet,' and I would have them waged for their labour.
    It is a holiday work to visit the prisoners, for they be kept
    from sermons."--Vol. i. p. 180.


_Hanging out the Broom_ (Vol. i., p. 385.).--This custom exists in
the West of England, but is oftener talked of than practised. It is
jocularly understood to indicate that the deserted inmate is in want
of a companion, and is really to receive the visits of his friends.
Can it be in any way analogous to the custom of hoisting broom at the
mast-head of a vessel which is to be disposed of?


_George Lord Goring_, well known in history as Colonel Goring and
General Goring, until the elevation of his father to the earldom
of Norwich, in Nov. 1644, is said by Lodge to have left England
in November, 1645, and after passing some time in France, to have
gone into the Netherlands, where he obtained a commission as
Lieutenant-General in the Spanish army. Lodge adds, upon the authority
of Dugdale, that he closed his singular life in that country, in the
character of a Dominican friar, and his father surviving him, he never
became Earl of Norwich. A recent publication, speaking of Lord Goring,
says he carried his genius, his courage, and his villainy to market on
the Continent, served under Spain, and finally assumed the garb of a
Dominican friar, and died in a convent cell.

Can any of your readers inform me _when_ and _where_ he died, and
whether any particulars are known respecting him after his retirement
abroad, and when his marriage took place with his wife Lady Lettice
Boyle, daughter of the Earl of Cork, who died in 1643? The confusion
that is made between the father and son is very great.


_Bands_.--What is the origin of the clerical and academical custom
of wearing _bands_? Were they not originally used for the purpose of
preserving the cassock from being soiled by the beard? This is the
only solution that presents itself to my mind.


       *       *       *       *       *



I hasten to repudiate a title to which I have no claim; a compliment
towards the close of the letter of your correspondent "CH." (Vol. i.,
p. 487.) being evidently intended for a gentleman whose _christian_
name, only, _differs_ from mine. The compliment in his case is
well-deserved; and it will not lower him in your correspondent's
opinion, to know that he is not answerable for the sins laid to my
charge. And now for a word in my own behalf.

Indeed, CH. is rather hard upon me, I must confess. In using the
simple form of assertion as more convenient,--although I intended
thereby merely to express that such was my opinion, and not dreaming
of myself as an authority,--I have undoubtedly erred. In the single
instance in which I used it, instead of saying "it is," I should have
said "I think it is." Throughout the rest of my argument I think the
terms made use of are perfectly allowable as expressions of opinion.
Your correspondent has been good enough to give "the whole" of my
"argument" in recapitulating my "assertions." Singular dogmatism that
in laying down the law should condescend to give reasons for it! On
the other hand, when I turn to the letter of my friendly censor, I
find assertion without argument, which, to my simple apprehension,
is of much nearer kin to dogmatism than is the sin with which I am

I cannot help thinking that your correspondent, from his dislike "to
be puzzled on so plain a subject," has a misapprehension as to the
uses of etymology. I, too, am no etymologist; I am a simple inquirer,
anxious for information; frequently, without doubt, "most ignorant"
of what I am "most assured;" yet I feel that to treat the subject
scientifically it is not enough to guess at the origin of a word, not
enough even to know it; that it is important to know not only whence
it came, but how it came, what were its relations, by what road it
travelled; and treated thus, etymology is of importance, as a branch
of a larger science, to the history of the progress of the human race.

Descending now to particulars, let your correspondent show me how
"news" was made out of "new." I have shown him how _I think_ it was
made; but I am open to conviction.

I repeat my opinion that "news is a noun singular, and as such must
have been adopted bodily into the language;" and if it were a "noun
of plural form and plural meaning," I still think that the singular
form must have preceded it. The two instances CH. gives, "goods" and
"riches," are more in point than he appears to suppose, although in
support of my argument, and not his. The first is from the Gothic,
and is substantially a word implying "possessions," older than the
oldest European living languages. "Riches" is most unquestionably
in its original acceptation in our language a noun singular, being
identically the French "richesse," in which manner it is spelt in our
early writers. From the form coinciding with that of our plural, it
has acquired also a plural signification. But both words "have been
adopted bodily into the language," and thus strengthen my argument
that the process of manufacture is with us unknown.

Your correspondent is not quite correct in describing me as putting
forward as instances of the early communication between the English
and the German languages the derivation of "news" from "Neues," and
the similarity between two poems. The first I adduced as an instance
of the importance of the inquiry: with regard to the second, I
admitted all that your correspondent now says; but with the remark,
that the mode of treatment and the measure approaching so near to each
other in England and Germany within one half century (and, I may add,
at no other period in either of the two nations is the same mode or
measure to be found), there was reasonable ground for suspicion
of direct or indirect communication. On this subject I asked for

In conclusion, I think I observe something of a sarcastic tone in
reference to my "novelty." I shall advocate nothing that I do not
believe to be true, "whether it be old or new;" but I have found that
our authorities are sometimes careless, sometimes unfaithful, and
are so given to run in a groove, that when I am in quest of truth I
generally discard them altogether, and explore, however laboriously,
by myself.


St. John's Wood, May 27. 1850.

I do not know the reason for the rule your correspondent Mr. S.
HICKSON lays down, that such a noun as "news" could not be formed
according to English analogy. Why not as well as "goods, the shallows,
blacks, for mourning, greens?" There is no singular to any of these as

_Noise_ is a French word, upon which Menage has an article. There can
be no doubt that he and others whom he quotes are right, that it
is derived from _noxa_ or _noxia_ in Latin, meaning "strife." They

  "Sæpe in conjugiis fit noxia, cum nimia est dos."


  "In mediam noxiam perfertur."


  "Diligerent alia, et noxas bellumque moverent."


It is a great pity that we have no book of reference for English
analogy of language.


Why should Mr. Hickson (Vol. i., p. 428.) attempt to derive
"news" indirectly from a German adjective, when it is so directly
attributable to an English one; and that too without departing from a
practice almost indigenous in the language?

Have we not in English many similar adjective substantives? Are we
not continually slipping into our _shorts_, or sporting our _tights_,
or parading our _heavies_, or counter-marching our _lights_, or
commiserating _blacks_, or leaving _whites_ to starve; or calculating
the _odds_, or making _expositions_ for _goods_?

Oh! but, says Mr. Hickson, "in that case the '_s_' would be the sign
of the plural." Not necessarily so, no more than an "_s_" to "mean"
furnishes a "means" of proving the same thing. But granting that it
were so, what then? The word "news" _is_ undoubtedly plural, and has
been so used from the earliest times; as (in the example I sent for
publication last week, of so early a date as the commencement of Henry
VIII.'s reign) may be seen in "_thies_ new_es_."

But a flight still more eccentric would be the identification of
"noise" with "news!" "There is no process," Mr. Hickson says, "by
which noise could be manufactured without making a plural noun of it!"

Is not Mr. Hickson aware that _la noise_ is a French noun-singular
signifying a contention or dispute? and that the same word exists in
the Latin _nisus_, a struggle?

If mere plausibility be sufficient ground to justify a derivation,
where is there a more plausible one than that "news," _intelligence,
ought_ to be derived from [Greek: nous], _understanding_ or _common


Leeds, May 5th.

Further evidence (see Vol. i., p. 369.) of the existence and common
use of the word "newes" in its present signification but ancient
orthography anterior to the introduction of newspapers.

In a letter from the Cardinal of York (Bainbridge) to Henry VIII.
(Rymer's _Foedera_, vol. vi. p. 50.),

    "After that thies Newes afforesaide ware dyvulgate in the
    Citie here."

Dated from Rome, September, 1513.

The _Newes_ was of the victory just gained by Henry over the French,
commonly known as "The Battle of the Spurs."


       *       *       *       *       *


I beg to thank Mr. S.W. Singer for the further notices he has given
(Vol. i., p. 485.) in connection with this subject. I was well
acquainted with the passage which he quotes from Osorio, a passage
which some writers have very inconsiderately connected with the
Dodo history. In reply to Mr. Singer's Queries, I need only make the
following extract from the _Dodo and its Kindred_, p. 8.:--

    "The statement that Vasco de Gama, in 1497, discovered, sixty
    leagues beyond the Cape of Good Hope, a bay called after San
    Blaz, near an island full of birds with wings like bats, which
    the sailors called _solitaries_ (De Blainville, _Nouv. Ann.
    Mus. Hist. Nat._, and _Penny Cyclopædia_, DODO, p. 47.), is
    wholly irrelevant. The birds are evidently penguins, and
    their wings were compared to those of bats, from being without
    developed feathers. De Gama never went near Mauritius, but
    hugged the African coast as far as Melinda, and then crossed
    to India, returning by the same route. This small island
    inhabited by penguins, near the Cape of Good Hope, has been
    gratuitously confounded with Mauritius. Dr. Hamel, in a
    memoir in the _Bulletin de la Classe Physico-Mathématique de
    l'Académie de St. Petersbourg_, vol. iv. p. 53., has devoted
    an unnecessary amount of erudition to the refutation of this
    obvious mistake. He shows that the name _solitaires_, as
    applied to penguins by De Gama's companions, [I should have
    said, 'by later compilers,'] is corrupted from _sotilicairos_,
    which appears to be a Hottentot word."

I may add, that Dr. Hamel shows Osorio's statement to be taken from
Castanheda, who is the earliest authority for the account of De Gama's


       *       *       *       *       *


Mr. Editor,--I have just seen an article in your "NOTES AND QUERIES"
referring to my edition of Milton's prose works. It is stated that, in
my latest catalogue, the book is announced as _complete_ in 3 vols.,
although the contrary appears to be the case, judging by the way in
which the third volume ends, the absence of an index, &c.

In reply, I beg to say that the insertion of the word "complete," in
some of my catalogues, has taken place without my privity, and is now
expunged. The fourth volume has long been in preparation, but the
time of its appearance depends on the health and leisure of a prelate,
whose name I have no right to announce. Those gentlemen who have taken
the trouble to make direct inquiries on the subject, have always, I
believe, received an explicit answer.


May 30. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *


Although Dr. Rimbault's Query (Vol. i., p. 415.) as to the first
introduction of umbrellas into England, is to a certain extent
answered in the following number (p. 436.) by a quotation from Mr.
Cunningham's _Handbook_, a few additional remarks may, perhaps, be
deemed admissible. Hanway is there stated to have been "the first man
who ventured to walk the streets of London with one over his head,"
and that after continuing its use nearly thirty years, he saw them
come into general use. As Hanway died in 1786, we may thus infer that
the introduction of umbrellas may be placed at about 1750. But it is,
I think, probable that their use must have been at least partially
known in London long before that period, judging from the following
extract from Gay's _Trivia, or Art of Walking the Streets of London_,
published 1712:--

  "Good housewives all the winter's rage despise,
  Defended by the ridinghood's disguise;
  Or, underneath th' _umbrella's_ oily shade,
  Safe through the wet on clinking pattens tread.
  Let Persian dames the _umbrella's_ ribs display,
  To guard their beauties from the sunny ray;
  Or sweating slaves support the shady load,
  When Eastern monarchs show their state abroad;
  Britain in winter only knows its aid,
  To guard from chilly showers the walking maid."

Book i. lines 209-218.

That it was, perhaps, an article of curiosity rather than use in the
middle of the seventeenth century, is evident in the fact of its being
mentioned in the "_Musæum Tradescantianum, or Collection of Rarities_,
preserved at South Lambeth near London, by John Tradescant." 12mo.
1656. It occurs under the head of "Utensils," and is simply mentioned
as "_An Umbrella_."


    [Mr. St. Croix has also referred Dr. Rimbault to Gay's

Jonas Hanway the philanthropist is reputed first to have used an
"umbrella" in England. I am the more inclined to think it may be so,
as my own father, who was born in 1744, and lived to ninety-two years
of age, has told me the same thing, and he lived in the same parish as
Mr. Hanway, who resided in Red Lion Square.

Mr. Hanway was born in 1712.


The introduction of this article of general convenience is attributed,
and I believe accurately so, to Jonas Hanway, the Eastern traveller,
who on his return to his native land rendered himself justly
celebrated by his practical benevolence. In a little book with a
long title, published in 1787, written by "_John Pugh_," I find
many curious anecdotes related of Hanway, and apropos of umbrellas,
in describing his dress Mr. Pugh says,--"When it rained, a small
parapluie defended his face and wig; thus he was always prepared
to enter into any company without impropriety, or the appearance of
neglect. And he (Hanway) was the first man who ventured to walk the
streets of London with an umbrella over his head: after carrying one
near thirty years, he saw them come into general use." Hanway died


As far as I remember, there is a portrait of Hanway with an umbrella
as a frontispiece to the book of Travels published by him about 1753,
in four vols. 4to.; and I have no doubt that he had used one in his
travels through Greece, Turkey, &c.


In the hall of my father's house, at Stamford in Lincolnshire,
there was, when I was a child, the wreck of a very large green silk
umbrella, apparently of Chinese manufacture, brought by my father from
Holland, somewhere between 1770 and 1780, and as I have often heard,
the first umbrella seen at Stamford. I well remember also an amusing
description given by the late Mr. Warry, so many years consul at
Smyrna, of the astonishment and envy of his mother's neighbours at
Sawbridgeworth, in Herts, where his father had a country-house, when
he ran home and came back with an umbrella, which he had just brought
from Leghorn, to shelter them from a pelting shower which detained
them in the church-porch, after the service, on one summer Sunday.
From Mr. Warry's age at the time he mentioned this, and other
circumstances in his history, I conjecture that it occurred not later
than 1775 or 1776. As Sawbridgeworth is so near London, it is evident
that even there umbrellas were at that time almost unknown.

If I have "spun too long a yarn," the dates, at least, will not be
unacceptable to others like myself.


Swanscombe Rectory, May 1.

Dr. Jamieson was the first who introduced umbrellas to Glasgow in the
year 1782; he bought his in Paris. I remember very well when this took
place. At this time the umbrella was made of heavy wax cloth, with
cane ribs, and was a ponderous article.


       *       *       *       *       *


(VOL. I, PP. 474, 475.)

From a scarce collection of pamphlets concerning the naturalisation
of the Jews in England, published in 1753, by Dean Tucker and others,
I beg to send the following extracts, which may be of some use in
replying to the inquiry (Vol. i., p. 401.) respecting the Jews during
the Commonwealth.

Dean Tucker, in his _Second Letter to a Friend concerning
Naturalisation_, says (p. 29.):--

    "The Jews having departed out of the realm in the year 1290,
    or being expelled by the authority of parliament (it matters
    not which), made no efforts to return till the Protectorship
    of Oliver Cromwell; but this negotiation is known to have
    proved unsuccessful. However, the affair was not dropped, for
    the next application was to King Charles himself, then in his
    exile at Bruges, as appears by a copy of a commission dated
    the 24th of September, 1656, granted to Lt.-Gen. Middleton, to
    treat with the Jews of Amsterdam:--'That whereas the Lt.-Gen.
    had represented to his Majesty their good affection to him,
    and disowned the application lately made to Cromwell in their
    behalf by some persons of their nation, as absolutely without
    their consent, the king empowers the Lt.-Gen. to treat with
    them. That if in that conjunction they shall assist his
    Majesty by any money, arms, or ammunition, they shall find,
    when God should restore him, that he would extend that
    protection to them which they could reasonably expect, and
    abate that rigour of the law which was against them in his
    several dominions, and repay them."

This paper, Dean Tucker says, was found among the original papers of
Sir Edward Nicholas, Secretary of State to King Charles I. and II.,
and was communicated to him by a learned and worthy friend. The Dean
goes on to remark, that the restoration of the royal family of the
Stuarts was attended with the return of the Jews into Great Britain;
and that Lord Chancellor Clarendon granted to many of them letters of
denization under the great seal.

From another pamphlet in the same collection, entitled, _An Answer
to a Pamphlet entitled Considerations on the Bill to permit Persons
professing the Jewish Religion to be naturalized_, the following, is
an extract:--

    "There is a curious anecdote of this affair," (about the Jews
    thinking Oliver Cromwell to be the Messiah,) "in Raguenet's
    _Histoire d'Oliver Cromwell_, which I will give the reader
    at length. About the time Rabbi Manasseh Ben Israel came to
    England to solicit the Jews' admission, the Asiatic Jews sent
    hither the noted Rabbi Jacob Ben Azahel, with several others
    of his nation, to make private inquiry whether Cromwell was
    not that Messiah, whom they had so long expected. (Page 33.--I
    leave the reader to judge what an accomplished villain he will
    then be.) Which deputies upon their arrival pretending other
    business, were several times indulging the favour of a private
    audience from him, and at one of them proposed buying Hebrew
    books and MSS. belonging to the University of _Cambridge_[4],
    in order to have an opportunity, under pretence of viewing
    them, to inquire amongst his relations, in Huntingdonshire,
    where he was born, whether any of his ancestors could be
    proved of Jewish extract. This project of theirs was very
    readily agreed to (the University at that time being under a
    cloud, on account of their former loyalty to the King), and
    accordingly the ambassadors set forwards upon their journey.
    But discovering by their much longer continuance at Huntingdon
    than at Cambridge, that their business at the last place was
    not such as was pretended, and by not making their enquiries
    into Oliver's pedigree with that caution and secresy which was
    necessary in such an affair, the true purpose of their errand
    into England became quickly known at London, and was very much
    talked of, which causing great scandal among the _Saints_, he
    was forced suddenly to pack them out of the kingdom, without
    granting any of their requests."


[Footnote 4: Query: May not this be another version of the same story,
quoted by your correspondent, B.A., of Christ Church, Oxford, from
Monteith, (in Vol. i. p. 475.), of the Jews desiring to buy the
Library of _Oxford_?]

       *       *       *       *       *


_Wellington, Wyrwast, and Cokam_ (Vol. i., p. 401.).--The garrison in
Wellington was, no doubt, at the large house built by Sir John Topham
in that town, where the rebels, who had gained possession of it by
stratagem, held out for some time against the king's forces under
Sir Richard Grenville. The house, though of great strength, was much
damaged on that occasion, and shortly fell into ruin. Cokam probably
designates Colcombe Castle, a mansion of the Courtenays, near Colyton,
in Devonshire, which was occupied by a detachment of the king's troops
under Prince Maurice in 1644, but soon after fell into the hands of
the rebels. It is now in a state of ruin, but is in part occupied as a
farm-house. I am at a loss for _Wyrwast_, and should doubt the reading
of the MS.


_Sir William Skipwyth_ (Vol. i., p. 23.).--Mr. Foss will find some
notices of Will. Skipwyth in pp. 83, 84, 85, of _Rotulorum Pat. &
Claus. Cancellariæ Hib. Calendarium_, printed in 1828.


Trim, May 13. 1850.

_Dr. Johnson and Dr. Warton_ (Vol. i., p. 481.).--Mr. Markland is
probably right in his conjecture that Johnson had Warton's lines
in his memory; but the original source of the allusion to _Peru_ is

          "De tous les animaux
  De Paris au _Pérou_, du Japon jusqu'à Rome,
  Le plus sot animal, à mon avis, c'est l'homme."

Warton's Poems appeared in March, 1748. Johnson's _Vanity of Human
Wishes_ was published the 9th January, 1749, and was written probably
in December or November preceding.


_Worm of Lambton_ (Vol. i., p. 453.).--See its history and legend in
Surtees' _History of Durham_, vol. ii. p. 173., and a quarto tract
printed by Sir Cuthbert Sharp.


"A.C." is informed that there is an account of this "Worme" in _The
Bishoprick Garland_, published by the late Sir Cuthbert Sharpe in
1834; it is illustrated with a view of the Worm Hill, and a woodcut
of the knight thrusting his sword with great _nonchalance_ down the
throat of the Worme. Only 150 copies of the _Garland_ were printed.


_Shakspeare's Will_ (Vol. i., pp. 213, 386, 403, 461, and 469.).--I
fear if I were to adopt Mr. Bolton Corney's _tone_, we should
degenerate into polemics. I will therefore only reply to his
question, "_Have_ I wholly mistaken the whole _affair_?" by one
word, "_Undoubtedly_." The question raised was on an Irish edition of
Malone's _Shakspeare_. Mr. Bolton Corney reproved the querists for not
consulting original sources. It appears that Mr. Bolton Corney had not
himself consulted _the edition_ in question; and by his last letter
I am satisfied that he has not _even yet_ seen it: and it is not
surprising if, in these circumstances, he should have "_mistaken
the whole affair_." But as my last communication (Vol. i., p. 461.)
explains (as I am now satisfied) the blunder and its cause, I may take
my leave of the matter, only requesting Mr. Bolton Corney, if he still
doubts, to follow his own good precept, and look at _the original


_Josias Ibach Stada_ (Vol. i., p. 452.).--In reply to G.E.N., I would
ask, is Mr. Hewitt correct in calling him Stada, an Italian artist?
I have no hesitation in saying that Stada here is no personal
appellation at all, but the name of a town. The inscription "_Fudit
Josias Ibach Stada Bremensis_" is to be read, Cast by Josias Ibach,
_of the town of Stada, in the duchy of Bremen_. All your readers,
particularly mercantile, will know the place well enough from the
discussions raised by Mr. Hutt, member for Gateshead, in the House
of Commons, on the oppressive duties levied there on all vessels and
their cargoes sailing past it up the Elbe; and to the year 1150 it was
the capital of an independent graffschaft, when it lapsed to Henry the


_The Temple, or A Temple._--I have had an opportunity of seeing the
edition of Chaucer referred to by your correspondent P.H.F. (Vol.
i., p. 420.), and likewise several other black-letter editions (1523,
1561, 1587, 1598, 1602), and find that they all agree in reading "the
temple," which Caxton's edition also adopts. The general reading of
"temple" in the _modern_ editions, naturally induced me to suspect
that Tyrwhitt had made the alteration on the authority of the
manuscripts of the poem. Of these there are no less than ten in the
British Museum, all of which have been kindly examined for me. One
of these wants the prologue, and another that part of it in which the
line occurs; but in _seven_ of the remaining eight, the reading is--

  "A gentil maunciple was ther of _a_ temple;"

while _one_ only reads "the temple." The question, therefore, is
involved in the same doubt which I at first stated; for the subsequent
lines quoted by P.H.F. prove nothing more than that the person
described was a manciple in _some_ place of legal resort, which was
not disputed.


_Bawn_ (Vol. i., p. 440.).--If your Querist regarding a "Bawn" will
look into Macnevin's _Confiscation of Ulster_ (Duffy: Dublin, 1846,
p. 171. &c.), he will find that a Bawn must have been a sort of
court-yard, which might be used on emergency as a fortification
for defence. They were constructed either of _lime_ and _stone_, of
_stone_ and _clay_, or of _sods_, and twelve to fourteen feet high,
and sometimes inclosing a dwelling-house, and with the addition of


"_Heigh ho! says Rowley_" (Vol. i., p. 458.).--The burden of "_Heigh
ho! says Rowley_" is certainly _older_ than R.S.S. conjectures; I will
not say how much, but it occurs in a _jeu d'esprit_ of 1809, on the
installation of Lord Grenville, as Chancellor, at Oxford, as will be
shown by a stanza cited from memory:--

  "Mr. Chinnery then, an M.A. of great parts,
    Sang the praises of Chancellor Grenville.
  Oh! he pleased all the ladies and tickled their hearts;
    But, then, we all know he's a Master of Arts,
          With his rowly powly,
        Gammon and spinach,
          Heigh ho! says Rowley."


Wimpole Street, May 11. 1850.

_Arabic Numerals_.--As your correspondent E.V. (Vol. i., p. 230.)
is desirous of obtaining any instance of Arabic numerals of early
occurrence, I would refer him, for one at least, to _Notices of the
Castle and Priory of Castleacre_, by the Rev. J.H. Bloom: London;
Richardson, 23. Cornhill, 1843. In this work it appears that by the
acumen of Dr. Murray, Bishop of Rochester, the date 1084 was found
impressed in the plaster of the wall of the priory in the following,

          4 × 8

The writer then goes on to show, that this was the regular order of
the letters to one crossing himself after the Romish fashion.


_Pusan_ (Vol. i., p. 440.)--May not the meaning be a collar in the
form of a serpent? In the old Roman de Blanchardin is this line:--

    "Cy guer _pison_ tuit Apolin."

Can _Iklynton_ again be the place where such an ornament was made?
Ickleton, in Cambridgeshire, appears to have been of some note in
former days, as, according to Lewis's _Topog. Hist._, a nunnery was
founded there by Henry II., and a market together with a fair granted
by Henry III. As it is only five miles from Linton, it may have
formerly borne the name of Ick-linton.


"_I'd preach as though_" (Vol. i., p. 415.).--The lines quoted by
Henry Martyn are said by Dr. Jenkyn (Introduction to a little vol.
of selections from Baxter--Nelson's _Puritan Divines_) to be Baxter's
"own immortal lines." Dr. J. quotes them thus:--

  "I preached as never sure to preach again,
  And as a dying man to dying men."


May 18.

"_Fools rush in_" (Vol. i., p. 348.).--The line in Pope,

    "For fools rush in where angels fear to tread,"

it has been long ago pointed out, is founded upon that of Shakspeare,

    "For wrens make wing where eagles dare not perch."

I know not why that line of Pope is in your correspondent's list. It
is not a proverb.


_Allusion in Friar Brackley's Sermon_ (Vol. i., p. 351.)--It seems
vain to inquire who the persons were of whom stories were told in
medieval books, as if they were really historical. See the _Gesta
Romanorum_, for instance: or consider who the Greek king Aulix was,
having dealings with the king of Syria, in the 7th Story of the
_Novelle Antiche_. The passage in the sermon about a Greek king, seems
plainly to be still part of the extract from the _Liber Decalogorum_,
being in Latin. This book was perhaps the _Dialogi decem_, put into
print at Cologne in 1472: Brunet.


_Earwig_ (Vol. i., p. 383.).--This insect is very destructive to the
petals of some kinds of delicate flowers. May it not have acquired the
title of "couchbell" from its habit of couching or concealing itself
for rest at night and security from small birds, of which it is a
favourite food, in the pendent blossoms of bell-shaped flowers? This
habit is often fatal to it in the gardens of cottagers, who entrap it
by means of a lobster's claw suspended on an upright stick.


_Earwig_ (Vol. i., p. 383.).--In the north of England the earwig is
called _twitchbell_. I know not whether your correspondent is in error
as to its being called in Scotland the "coach-bell." I cannot afford
any explanation to either of these names.


_Sir R. Haigh's Letter-book_ (Vol. i, p. 463.).--This is incorrect; no
such person is known. The baronet intended is _Sir Roger Bradshaigh,
of Haigh_; a very well-known person, whose funeral sermon was
preached by Wroe, the warden of Manchester Collegiate Church, locally
remembered as "silver-mouthed Wroe."

This name is correctly given in Puttick and Simpson's Catalogue of
a Miscellaneous Sale on April 15, and it is to be _hoped_ that Sir
Roger's collection of letters, ranging from 1662 to 1676, _may have_
fallen into the hands of the noble earl who represents him, the
present proprietor of Haigh.


_Marescautia_ (Vol. i., p. 94.).--Your correspondent requests
some information as to the meaning of the word "marescautia."
_Mareschaucie_, in old French, means a stable. Pasquier (_Recherches
de la France_, l. viii. ch. 2.) says,--

    "Pausanias disoit que Mark apud Celtas signifioit un cheual
    ... je vous diray qu'en ancien langage allemant Mark se
    prenoit pour un cheual."

In ch. 54. he refers to another etymolygy of "maréchal," from
"maire," or "maistre," and "cheval," "comme si on les eust voulu dire
maistre de la cheualerie." "Maréchal" still signifies "a farrier."
_Maréchaussée_ was the term applied down to the Revolution to the
jurisdiction of Nosseigneurs les Maréchaux de France, whose orders
were enforced by a company of horse that patrolled the _high_ways,
la _chaussée_, generally raised above the level of the surrounding
country. Froissart applies the term to the Marshalsea prison in
London. In D.S.'s first entry there may, perhaps, be some allusion
to another meaning of the word, namely, that of "_march_, limit,

What the nature of the tenure per serjentiam marescautiæ may be I am
not prepared to say. May it not have had some reference to the support
of the royal stud?


_Memoirs of an American Lady_ (Vol. i., p. 335.).--If this work cannot
now be got it is a great pity,--it ought to go down to posterity; a
more valuable or interesting account of a particular state of society
now quite extinct, can hardly be found. Instead of saying that "it is
the work of Mrs. Grant, the author of this and that," I should say of
her other books that they were written by the author of the _Memoirs
of an American Lady_. The character of the individual lady, her way
of keeping house on a large scale, the state of the domestic slaves,
threatened, as the only known punishment and most terrible to them,
with being sold to Jamaica; the customs of the young men at Albany,
their adventurous outset in life, their practice of robbing one
another in joke (like a curious story at Venice, in the story-book
called _Il Peccarone_, and having some connection with the stories of
the Spartan and Circassian youth), with much of natural scenery, are
told without pretension of style; but unluckily there is too much
interspersed relating to the author herself, then quite young.


_Poem by Sir E. Dyer_ (Vol. i., p. 355.).--"My mind to me," &c.
Neither the births of Breton nor Sir Edward Dyer seem to be known;
nor, consequently, how much older the one was than the other. Mr. S.,
I conclude, could not mean much older than Breton's tract, mentioned
in Vol. i., p. 302. The poem is not in England's _Helicon_. The
ballad, as in Percy, has four stanzas more than the present copy, and
one stanza less. Some of the readings in Percy are better, that is,
more probable than the new ones.

  "I see how plenty _surfeits_ oft."--_P._

  "I grudge not at another's _gain_".--_P._

  "No worldly _wave_ my mind can toss."--_P._

These seem to me to be stupid mistranscriptions.

  "I brook that is another's pain."--_P._
  "My state at one doth still remain."--_Var._

Probably altered on account of the slight obscurity; and possibly a
different edition by the author himself.

  "They beg, I give,
  They lack, I _lend_."--_P._

In this verse,

  "I fear no foe, I _scorn_ no friend."--_P._

I think the new copy better.

  "To none of these I yield as thrall,
  For why my mind _despiseth_ all."--_P._
                   doth serve for.--_Var._

The var. much better.

In this--

  "I never seek by bribes to please,
  Nor by _dessert_ to give offence."--_P._

I cannot understand either.

So very beautiful and popular a song it would be well worth getting in
the true version.


_Monumental Brasses_.--In reply to S.S.S. (Vol. i., p. 405.), I beg to
inform him that the "small dog with a collar and bells" is a device of
very common occurrence on brasses of the fifteenth and latter part of
the fourteenth centuries. The Rev. C. Boutell's _Monumental Brasses of
England_ contains engravings of no less than twenty-three on which it
is to be found; as well as two examples without the usual appendages
of collar, &c. In addition to these, the same work contains etchings
of the following brasses:--Gunby, Lincoln., two dogs with plain
collars at the bottom of the lady's mantle, 1405. Dartmouth, Devon.,
1403. Each of the ladies here depicted has two dogs with collars and
bells at her feet.

The same peculiarities are exemplified on brasses at Harpham, York.,
1420; and Spilsby, Lincoln., 1391. I will not further multiply
instances, as my own collection of rubbings would enable me to do. I
should, however, observe, that the hypothesis of S.S.S. (as to "these
figures" being "the private mark of the artist") is untenable: since
the twenty-three examples above alluded to are scattered over sixteen
different counties, as distant from each other as Yorkshire and
Sussex. Two examples are well known, in which the dog so represented
was a favourite animal:--Deerhurst, Gloc., 1400, with the name,
"Terri," inscribed; and Ingham, Norfolk, 1438, with the name "Jakke."
This latter brass is now lost, but an impression is preserved in the
British Museum. The customary explanation seems to me sufficient: that
the dog was intended to symbolise the fidelity and attachment of the
lady to her lord and master, as the lion at _his_ feet represented his
courage and noble qualities.


Queen's College, Cambridge, April 22. 1850.

_Fenkle Street_.--A street so called in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, lying in
a part of the town formerly much occupied by garden ground, and _in
the immediate vicinity of the house of the Dominican Friars there_.
Also, a way or passage inside the town wall, and leading between that
fortification and the _house of the Carmelites or White Friars_, was
anciently called by the same name. The name of _Fenkle_ or _Finkle
Street_ occurs in several old towns in the North, as Alnwick,
Richmond, York, Kendal, &c. _Fenol_ and _finugl_, as also _finul_, are
Saxon words for _fennel_; which, it is very probable, has in some way
or other given rise to this name. May not the _monastic institutions_
have used fennel extensively in their culinary preparations, and thus
planted it in so great quantities as to have induced the naming of
localities therefrom? I remember a portion of the ramparts of the
town used to be called _Wormwood Hill_, from a like circumstance. In
Hawkesworth's _Voyages_, ii. 8., I find it stated that the town of
Funchala, on the island of Madeira, derives its name from _Funcko_,
the Portuguese name for _fennel_, which grows in great plenty upon the
neighbouring rocks. The priory of Finchale (from _Finkel_), upon the
Wear, probably has a similar origin; _sed qu._


Newcastle-upon-Tyne, May 12. 1850.

_Christian Captives_ (Vol. i., p. 441.)--In reply to your
correspondent R.W.B., I find in the papers published by the Norfolk
and Norwich Archæological Society, vol. i. p. 98., the following
entries extracted from the Parish Registers of Great Dunham,

  "December, 1670.
                                             £  s. d.
Collected for the redemption of y'e English
  Captives out of Turkish bondage            04 05 06

Feb. 13. p'd the same to M'r. Swift, Minister
  of Milcham, by the Bhps appointm't.

  October, 1680.
Collected towards the redemption of English
  Captives out of their slavery and
  bondage in Algiers                          3 16  0

Which sum was sent to Mr. Nicholas Browne, Registrar under Dr.
Connant, Archdeacon of Norwich, Octr. 2d. 1680."

Probably similar entries will be found in other registers of the same
date, as the collections appear to have been made by special mandate,
and paid into the hands of the proper authorities.


_Passage in Gibbon_ (Vol. i., p. 348.).--The passage in Gibbon I
should have thought was well known to be taken from what Clarendon
says of Hampden, and which Lord Nugent says in his preface to
_Hampden's Life_ had before been said of Cinna. Gibbon must either
have meant to put inverted commas, or at least to have intended to
take nobody in.


_Borrowed Thoughts_ (Vol. i., p. 482.)--_La fameuse_ La Galisse is an
error. The French pleasantly records the exploits of the celebrated
_Monsieur_ de la Galisse. Many of Goldsmith's lighter poems are
borrowed from the French.


_Sapcote Motto_ (Vol. i., pp. 366. and 476.).--Taking for granted that
solutions of the "Sapcote Motto" are scarce, I send you what seems to
me something nearer the truth than the arbitrary and unsatisfactory
translation of T.C. (Vol. i, p. 476.).

The motto stands thus:--

  "sco toot × vinic [or umic]
      × poncs."

Adopting T.C.'s suggestion that the initial and final _s_ are mere
flourishes (though that makes little difference), and also his
supposition that _c_ may have been used for _s_, and as I fancy, not
unreasonably conjecturing that the × is intended for _dis_, which
is something like the pronunciation of the numeral X, we may then
take the _entire_ motto, without garbling it, and have sounds
representing _que toute disunis dispenses_; which, grammatically and
orthographically corrected, would read literally "all disunions cost,"
or "destroy," the equivalent of our "Union is strength." The motto,
with the arms, three dove-cotes, is admirably suggestive of family


_Lines attributed to Lord Palmerston_ (Vol. i., p. 382.).--These lines
have also been attributed to Mason.


_Shipster_ (Vol. i., p. 339.).--That "ster" is a feminine termination
is the notion of Tyrwhitt in a note upon Hoppesteris in a passage of
Chaucer (_Knight's Tale_, l. 2019.); but to ignorant persons it seems
not very probable. "Maltster," surely, is not feminine, still less
"whipster;" "dempster," Scotch, is a judge. Sempstress has another
termination on purpose to make it feminine.

I wish we had a dictionary, like that of Hoogeven for Greek, arranging
words according to their terminations.


       *       *       *       *       *


_Blue Boar Inn, Holborn_.--The reviewer in the last "Quarterly" of Mr.
Cunningham's _Handbook for London_, makes an error in reference to the
extract from Morrice's _Life of Lord Orrery_, given by Mr. Cunningham
under the head of "Blue Boar Inn, Holborn," and transcribed by the
reviewer (_Qu. Rev._ vol. lxxxvi., p. 474.). Morrice, Lord Orrery's
biographer, relates a story which he says Lord Orrery had told him,
that he had been told by Cromwell and Ireton of their intercepting a
letter from Charles I. to his wife, which was sewn up in the skirt
of a saddle. The story may or may not be true; this authority for it
is not first-rate. The Quarterly reviewer, in transcribing from Mr.
Cunningham's book the passage in Morrice's _Life of Lord Orrery_,
introduces it by saying,--"Cromwell, in a letter to Lord Broghill,
narrates circumstantially how he and Ireton intercept, &c." This is
a mistake; there is no letter from Cromwell to Lord Broghill on the
subject. (Lord Broghill was Earl of Orrery after the Restoration.)
Such a letter would be excellent authority for the story. The mistake,
which is the Quarterly reviewer's, and not Mr. Cunningham's, is of
some importance.


_Lady Morgan and Curry_.--An anecdote in the last number of the
_Quarterly Review_, p. 477., "this is the first set down you have
given me to-day," reminds me of an incident in Dublin society
some quarter of a century ago or more. The good-humoured and
accomplished--Curry (shame to me to have forgotten his christened name
for the moment!) had been engaged in a contest of wit with Lady Morgan
and another female _célébrité_, in which Curry had rather the worst
of it. It was the fashion then for ladies to wear very short sleeves;
and Lady Morgan, albeit not a young woman, with true provincial
exaggeration, wore none, a mere strap over her shoulders. Curry was
walking away from her little coterie, when she called out, "Ah! come
back Mr. Curry, and acknowledge that you are fairly beaten." "At any
rate," said he, turning round, "I have this consolation, you can't
laugh at me in your sleeve!"


_Sir Walter Scott and Erasmus_.--Has it yet been noticed that the
picture of German manners in the middle ages given by Sir W. Scott, in
his _Anne of Geierstein_ (chap. xix.), is taken (in some parts almost
verbally) from Erasmus' dialogue, _Diversoria_? Although Sir Walter
mentions Erasmus at the beginning of the chapter, he is totally silent
as to any hints he may have got from him; neither do the notes to my
copy of his works at all allude to this circumstance.


_Parallel Passages_.--A correspondent in Vol. i., p. 330, quoted some
parallels to a passage in Shakspeare's _Julius Cæsar_. Will you allow
me to add another, I think even more striking than those he cited. The
full passage in Shakspeare is,

  "There is a tide in the affairs of man,
  Which taken at the flood leads on to fortune.
  Omitted, all the voyage of their lives
  Is bound in shallows and in miseries."

In Bacon's _Advancement of Learning_, book 2, occurs the following:--

    "In the third place, I set down reputation because of the
    peremptory tides and currents it hath, which, if they be not
    taken in due time, are seldom recovered, it being extreme hard
    to play an after game of reputation."


_Gray's Ode_.--In return for the information about Gray's _Ode_, I
send an entertaining and very characteristic circumstance told in Mrs.
Bigg's (anonymous) _Residence in France_ (edited by Gifford):--

    "She had a copy of Gray when she was arrested in the Reign
    of Terror. The Jacobins who searched her goods lighted on the

      'Oh, tu severi religio loci,'

    and said, 'Apparemment ce livre est quelque chose de

My informant tells me that the monk he saw was the same as the one
mentioned by your correspondent, and that he had a motto from Lord
Bacon over his cell.


_The Grand Style_.--Is it not extremely probable that Bonaparte
plagiarised the idea of the centuries observing the French army from
the pyramids from these lines of Lucan?--

    "_Sæcula_ Romanos nunquam tacitura labore, _Attendunt,
    oevumque sequens speculatur_ ab omni Orbe ratem."--_Phars._
    viii. 622.

One of the recent French revolutionists (I think Rollin) compared
himself with the victim of Calvary. Even this profane rant is a
plagiarism. Gracchus Baboeuf, who headed the extreme republican party
against the Directory, exclaimed, on his trial, that his wife, and
those of his fellow-conspirators, "should accompany them _even to
Calvary_, because the cause of their punishment should not bring them
to shame."--_Mignet's French Revolution_, chap. xii.


_Hoppesteris_.--The "shippis _hoppesteris_," in Chaucer's _Knight's
Tale_, 2019., is explained by Tyrwhitt to mean _dancing_, and that in
the feminine--a very odd epithet. He tells us that the corresponding
epithet in Boccaccio is _bellatrici_. I have no doubt that Chaucer
mistook it for _ballatrici_.


_Sheridan's Last Residence_ (Vol. i., p. 484.).--I wonder at any doubt
about poor Sheridan's having died in his own house, 17. Saville Row.
His remains, indeed, were removed (I believe for prudential reasons
which I need not specify) to Mr. Peter Moore's, in Great George
Street; but he was never more than a temporary, though frequent
visitor at Mr. Moore's.


       *       *       *       *       *



The Devices and Mottoes of the later Middle Ages (_Die Devisen und
Motto des Späteren Mittelalters, von J.V. Radowitz_), just imported
by Messrs. Williams and Norgate, is one of those little volumes which
such of our readers as are interested in the subject to which it
relates should make a note of. They will, in addition to many novel
instances of Devices, Mottoes, Emblems, &c., find much curious
learning upon the subjects, and many useful bibliographical

Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson still sell, on Saturday next, the very
beautiful collection of Oriental Manuscripts of the late Dr. Scott;
on Monday and Tuesday, his Medical Library; on Wednesday, his
valuable Collection of Music; and on Thursday, his Philosophical and
Mathematical Instruments, Fire-arms, and other miscellaneous objects
of interest.

We have received the following catalogues:--John Petheram's (94. High
Holborn) Catalogue, Part CXII., No. 6. for 1850 of Old and New Books;
W.S. Lincoln's (Cheltenham House, Westminster Road) Fifty-Seventh
Catalogue of Cheap Second-hand Books, English and Foreign; James
Sage's (4. Newman's Row, Lincoln's Inn Fields) Miscellaneous List of
Valuable and Interesting Books; Edward Stibbs' (331. Strand) Catalogue
of Miscellaneous Collection of Books, comprising Voyages, Travels,
Biography, History, Poetry, Drama, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *


rapidly as can be, consistently with fullness and accuracy, and we
hope to have that and the Title page ready by the 15th of the Month._

_Covers for the First Volume are preparing, and will be ready for
Subscribers with the Title-Page and Index._

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *


Dennistoun. With numerous Portraits, Plates, Facsimiles, and Woodcuts.
3 vols. square crown 8vo. 2l. 8s.


SIR ROGER DE COVERLEY. From "The Spectator". With Notes, &c., by W.H.
WILLIS and Twelve fine Woodcuts from drawings by F. TAYLER. Crown 8vo.
15s.; morocco, 27s.


and MARTYRS. New Edition, complete in One Volume with Etchings by the
Author, and Woodcuts. Square crown 8vo. 28s.


the Fine Arts. With Etchings by the Author, and Woodcuts. Square crown
8vo. 28s.


THE CHURCH IN THE CATACOMBS: a Description of the Primitive Church of
Rome. BY CHARLES MAITLAND. New Edition, with Woodcuts. 8vo. 14s.


Mr. MACAULAY'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND, from the Accession of James II. New
Edition. Vols. I. and II. 8vo. 32s.


Transportation by Judge Jeffreys. Square fcap. 8vo. 4s. 6d.


the History of England. BY JAMES ECCLESTON. With many Wood Engravings.
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LEXICON. With about 2,000 Woodcuts, from the Antique. Post 8vo. 21s.


of Universal Knowledge. New Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 10s.; bound 12s.


MAUNDER'S BIOGRAPHICAL TREASURY; a New Dictionary of Ancient and
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Encyclopædia of Science and the Belles Lettres. New Edition. Fcap.
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MAUNDER'S HISTORICAL TREASURY: comprising an Outline of General
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Animated Nature. New Edition; with 900 Woodcuts. Fcap. 8vo. 10s.;
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edition with Medallion Portrait. Square crown 8vo. 18s.


by the REV. J.W. WARTER, B.D., the Author's Son-in-Law. Square crown
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by Mr. SOUTHEY's Son-in-Law, the Rev. J.W. WARTER, B.D. Square crown
8vo. 21s.


MEMORANDA, &c. Edited by the Rev. J.W. WARTER, B.D., Mr. SOUTHEY's
Son-in-Law. Square crown 8vo. [Nearly Ready.


SOUTHEY'S THE DOCTOR. &c. Complete in One Volume, with Portrait, Bust,
Vignette, and coloured Plate. Edited by the Rev. J.W. WARTER, B.D.,
the Author's Son-in-Law. Square crown 8vo. 21s.


SOUTHEY'S LIFE and CORRESPONDENCE. Edited by his Son, the Rev. C.C.
SOUTHEY, M.A., with Portraits and Landscape Illustrations. 6 vols.
post 8vo. 63s.

       *       *       *       *       *



       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5.
New Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London;
and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish
of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No.
186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, June 8. 1850.

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