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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 34, June 22, 1850 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 34, June 22, 1850 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
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       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 34.]
SATURDAY, JUNE 22. 1850.
[Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                        Page
    The Agapemone of the Sixteenth Century, by E. F.
      Rimbault, LL.D.                                               49
    Punishment of Death by Burning, by C. Ross and Rev.
      A. Gatty                                                      50
    Folk Lore:--Death-bed Mystery--Easter Eggs--May
      Marriages--"Trash" or "Skriker"                               51
    Notes on Milton                                                 53
    Colvil's Whigg's Supplication                                   53

    Hubert le Soeur's Six Brass Statues by E. F. Rimbault, LL.D.    54
    Bishop Jewell's Library                                         54
    The Low Window                                                  55
    Minor Queries:--North Sides of Churchyards--Hatfield--Ulrich
      von Hutten--Simon of Ghent--Boetius--Gloucestershire Gospel
      Tree--Churchyards--Epitaphs--Anthony Warton--Cardinal's
      Hat--Maps of London--Griffith of Penrhyn--Mariner's
      Compass--Pontefract on the Thames                             55

    Study of Geometry in Lancashire by T. T. Wilkinson              57
    Queries Answered, No. 8., by Bolton Corney                      60
    Meaning of Bawn                                                 60
    Replies to Minor Queries:--Births, Marriages, &c.--M. or
      N.--Arabic Numerals--Comment in Apocalypsin--Robert
      Deverell--Hippopotamus--Ashes to Ashes--Dr. Maginn's
      Miscellanies--Living Dog better than a Dead Lion--Gaol
      Chaplains--Rome, Ancient and Modern--Trianon                  60

    Aboriginal Chambers near Tilbury--Mistake in Conybeare and
      Howson's Life of St. Paul                                     62

    Notes on Books, Catalogues, Sales, &c.                          63
    Books and Odd Volumes Wanted                                    63
    Notices to Correspondents                                       63
    Advertisements                                                  64

       *       *       *       *       *



As it is not generally known that the "Agapemone" had a prototype in the
celebrated _Family of Love_, some account of this "wicked sect" may not at
this moment be without interest to your readers:--

    "Henry Nicholas, a Westphalian, born at Munster, but who had lived a
    great while at Amsterdam, and some time likewise at Embden, was the
    father of this family. He appeared upon the stage about the year 1540,
    styled himself the _deified man_, boasted of great matters, and seemed
    to exalt himself above the condition of a human creature. He was, as he
    pretended, greater than Moses and Christ, because Moses had taught
    mankind to _hope_, Christ to _believe_, but he to _love_; which last
    being of more worth than both the former, he was consequently greater
    than both those prophets."--See Brandt's _Hist. of the Reform, &c., in
    the Low Countries_, vol. i. p. 105, ed. 1720.

According to some writers, however, the sect was not founded by Henry
Nicholas, but by David George, an Anabaptist enthusiast of Delft, who died
in 1556; and indeed there is some reason to believe that the _Family of
Love_ grew out of the heresies of the said George, with whom Nicholas had
been on friendly terms.

    "'Not content,' says Fuller, speaking of Nicholas, 'to confine his
    errors to his own country, over he comes into England, and in the
    latter end of the reign of Edward the Sixth, joyned himself to the
    Dutch congregation in London, where he seduced a number of artificers
    and silly women.'"--_Church. Hist._, p. 112, ed. 1655.

On the 12th of June, 1575, according to the historian Hollinshed,

    "Stood at Paule's Crosse five persons, Englishmen, of the sect termed
    the Familie of Love, who there confessed themselves utterlie to detest
    as well the author of that sect, H. N., as all his damnable errors and

A curious little volume on the history and doctrines of this sect appeared
in the year 1572, from the pen of John Rogers, entitled _The Displaying of
an horrible Secte of grosse and wicked Heretiques, naming themselves the
Family of Love, with the Lives of their Authors, and what Doctrine they
teach in Corners. Imprinted at London for George Bishop._ 1579. 12mo.
Christopher Vittall, a joiner of Southwark, who had been infected with the
doctrine of Arius some twenty years before, and whose credit was great
amongst the _Family of Love_, was at this period actively engaged in
teaching their doctrines. He travelled about the country to disseminate
them; and was likewise author of a little book, in reply to Roger's
_Displaying_ of the sect, printed in the same year.

At the close of the year 1580 the sect was increasing so rapidly in
England, that the government took active measures for its suppression, and
the Queen issued a proclamation to search for the "teachers or professors
of the foresaid damnable sect," and to "proceed severelie against them."
{50} This proclamation may be seen in Hollinshed and in Camden's

After the death of Queen Elizabeth--

    "The Family of Love (or Lust rather)," according to Fuller, "presented
    a tedious petition to King James, so that it is questionable whether
    his Majesty ever graced it with his perusall, wherein they endeavoured
    to cleare themselves from some misrepresentations, and by fawning
    expression to insinuate themselves into his Majesty's good opinion."

After printing the petition Fuller proceeds--

    "I finde not what effect this their petition produced, whether it was
    slighted and the petitioners looked upon as inconsiderable, or beheld
    as a few frantick folk out of their wits, which consideration alone
    often melted their adversaries' anger into pity unto them. The main
    design driven on in the petition is, to separate themselves from the
    Puritans (as persons odious to King James), that they might not fare
    the worse for their vicinity unto them; though these Familists could
    not be so desirous to leave them as the others were glad to be left by
    them. For if their opinions were so senseless, and the lives of these
    Familists so sensuall as is reported, no _purity_ at all belonged unto

The _Family of Love_, after being exposed and ridiculed both in "prose and
rime," finally "gave up the ghost," and was succeeded by another "wicked
sect" denominated the _Ranters_.


[Footnote 1: It was reprinted in NOTES AND QUERIES, Vol. i. p. 17.]

       *       *       *       *       *


A woman was strangled and burnt for coining in front of the Debtors door,
Newgate, on the 10th of March, 1789. I believe this to be the last instance
in which this old punishment was inflicted, at least in the metropolis. The
burning part of the ceremony was abolished by the 30 Geo. III., c. 48., and
death by hanging made the penalty for women in cases of high or petty
treason. E. S. S. W.'s informants are wrong in supposing that the criminals
were burnt whilst living. The law, indeed, prescribed it, but the practice
was more humane. They were first strangled; although it sometimes happened
that, through the bungling of the executioner, a criminal was actually
burnt alive, as occurred in the celebrated case of Katherine Hayes,
executed for the murder of her husband in 1726. The circumstances of this
case are so remarkable, that, having referred to it, I am induced to
recapitulate the chief of them, in the belief that they will interest your
readers. Hayes, who was possessed of some little property, lodged with his
wife Katherine in Tyburn, now Oxford Road. Mrs. Hayes prevailed upon two
men, named Billings (who lodged in the house) and Wood, a friend of Hayes,
to assist her in murdering her husband. To facilitate that object, Hayes
was induced to drink the enormous quantity of seven bottles (at that time
full quarts) of Mountain wine, besides other intoxicating drinks. After
finishing the seventh bottle he fell on the floor, but soon after arose and
threw himself on a bed. There, whilst in a state of stupefaction, he was
despatched by Billings and Wood striking him on the head with a hatchet.
The murderers then held council as to the best mode of concealing their
crime, and it was determined that they should mutilate and dispose of the
body. They cut off the head, Mrs. Hayes holding a pail to catch the blood;
and she proposed that the head should be boiled until the flesh came from
the skull. This advice was rejected on account of the time which the
process suggested would occupy, and Billings and Wood carried the head in
the pail (it was at night) to the Horseferry at Westminster, and there cast
it into the Thames. On the following day the murderers separated the limbs
from the body, and wrapping them, together with the trunk, in two blankets,
carried them to Marylebone fields, and placed them in a pond. Hayes' head
not having been carried away by the tide, as the murderers expected it
would have been, was found floating at the Horseferry in the morning. The
attention of the authorities was drawn to the circumstance, and the
magistrates being of opinion that a murder had been committed, caused the
head to be washed and the hair combed out, and then had it placed on a pole
and exposed to public view in St. Margaret's churchyard, in the hope that
it might lead to the discovery of the suspected crime. Great crowds of
persons of all ranks flocked to St. Margaret's churchyard to see the head,
and amongst the rest a young man named Bennett, who perceiving the likeness
to Hayes, whom he knew, immediately went to Mrs. Hayes on the subject; but
she assured him that her husband was alive and well, which satisfied him. A
journeyman tailor, named Patrick, also went to see the head, and on his
return told his fellow workmen that it was Hayes. These workmen, who also
had known Hayes, then went to look at the head, and felt the same
conviction. It happened that Billings worked at the same shop in which
these men were employed in Monmouth Street, and when he came to work next
morning, they told him of the circumstance. Billings, however, lulled their
suspicious by declaring that he had left Mr. Hayes at home that morning.
After the head had been exhibited for four days in the churchyard, the
magistrates caused it to be placed in spirits, in a glass vessel, and in
that state it continued to be exposed to public view. Two friends of Hayes,
named Ashley and Longmore, who had seen the head without imagining that it
was his, some time after called on Mrs. Hayes, on separate occasions, to
inquire for her husband, whose absence began to be noticed. Ashley and
Longmore were mutual {51} friends, and their suspicions being excited by
the contradictory statements which Mrs. Hayes had given to them, they went
to look again at the head, when a minute examination satisfied them that it
had belonged to Hayes. The apprehension of the murderers was the result. On
the day they were brought up for examination, the trunk and limbs of the
murdered man were found. Wood and Billings confessed and pleaded guilty.
Katherine Hayes put herself on her country, was tried and convicted. Wood
died in prison. Billings was hanged in Marylebone fields, near the pond in
which Hayes's body had been concealed. Katherine Hayes was executed at
Tyburn, under circumstances of great horror; for, in consequence of the
fire reaching the executioner's hands, he left his hold of the rope with
which he ought to have strangled the criminal, before he had executed that
part of his duty, and the result was, that Katherine Hayes was burnt alive.
The wretched woman was seen, in the midst of flames, pushing the blazing
faggots from her, whilst she yelled in agony. Fresh faggots were piled
around her, but a considerable time elapsed before her torments ended. She
suffered on the 3rd of November, 1726. This tragedy forms the subject of a
comic ballad which is attributed to Swift.


The communication of E. S. S. W. (Vol. ii., p. 6.), which is as interesting
as it is shocking, induces me to send you a short extract from _Harrison's
Derby and Nottingham Journal, or Midland Advertiser_. The number of this
journal which is dated Thursday, September 23, 1779, contains as follows:--

    "On Saturday two prisoners were capitally convicted at the Old Bailey
    of high treason, viz. Isabella Condon, for coining shillings in
    Cold-Bath-Fields; and John Field, for coining shillings in Nag's Head
    Yard, Bishopsgate Street. They will receive sentence to be drawn on a
    hurdle to the place of execution; _the woman to be burnt_, and the man
    to be hanged."

I presume that the sentence which the woman underwent was not executed. The
barbarous fulfilment of such a law was, it may be hoped, already obsolete.
The motives, however, upon which this law was grounded is worth noting:--

    "In treason of every kind," says Blackstone, "the punishment of women
    is the same, and different from that of men. For, _as the decency due
    to the sex forbids the exposing and publicly mangling their bodies_,
    their sentence (which is to the full as terrible to sensation as the
    other) is to be drawn to the gallows, and there to be burned alive."
    "But," says the foot-note, "by the statute 30 Geo. III. c. 48., women
    convicted in all cases of treason, shall receive judgment to be drawn
    to the place of execution, and there to be hanged by the neck till

The law, therefore, under which a woman could be put to death by burning,
was repealed in 1790.

Blackstone elsewhere says:--

    "The humanity of the English nation has authorized, by a tacit consent,
    an almost general mitigation of such part of those judgments as savours
    of torture and cruelty: a sledge or hurdle being usually allowed to
    such traitors as are condemned to be drawn; and there being very few
    instances (and those accidental or by negligence) of any persons being
    embowelled or burned, till previously deprived of sensation by

This corroborates the conclusion of E. S. S. W., that the woman he
describes was strangled at the stake to which her neck was bound.

I wish to suggest to any of your legal or other well-informed
correspondents, who will have the kindness to take a little trouble for the
benefit of your general readers, that an instructive and interesting
communication might be made by noting down the periods at which the various
more revolting punishments under the English law were repealed, or fell
into disuse. For instance, when torture, such as the rack, was last
applied; when embowelling alive and quartering ceased to be practised; and
whose was the last head that fell under the axe's bloody stroke. A word
also on the use of the pillory, ducking-stool, stocks, &c. would interest.
Any illustrations of the modification of our penal code would throw
valuable light on the philosophy and improvement of the national character.
And I believe it would appear that the Reformation gradually swept away the
black horrors of the torture-room; that the butchery of the headsman's
block ceased at the close of the civil contest which settled the line of
regal succession; and that hanging, which is the proper death of the cur,
is now reserved for those only who place themselves out of the pale of
humanity by striking at human life.



E. S. S. W. (Vol. ii., p. 6.) will find a case of burning in _Dodsley's
Annual Register_, 1769, p. 117.: a Susannah Lott was burned for the murder
of her husband at Canterbury, Benjamin Buss, her paramour, being hanged
about fifteen minutes before she was burned.

T. S. N.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Death-bed Mystery._--In conversation with an aged widow,--as devout and
sensible as she is unlettered,--I yesterday learned a death-bed mystery
which appeared new to me, and which (if not more commonly known than I take
it to be) you may perhaps think worthy of a place in "NOTES AND QUERIES,"
to serve as a minor satellite to some more luminous communication, in reply
to B. H. at Vol. i., p. 315. My informant's "_religio_" (as she appears to
have derived it by tradition from her mother, and as confirmed by her own
experience in the case of a father, a {52} husband, several children, and
others), is to the effect that a considerable interval _invariably_ elapses
between the first semblance of death, and what she considers to be the
departure of the soul.

About five minutes after the time when death, to all outward appearance,
has taken place, "the last breath," as she describes, may be seen to issue
with a vapour, or "steam," out of the mouth of the departed.

The statement reminds me of Webster's argument, in his _Display of supposed
Witchcraft_, chap. xvi., where, writing of the bleeding of corpses in
presence of their murderers, he observes:

    "If we physically consider the union of the soul with the body by the
    mediation of the spirit, then we cannot rationally conceive that the
    soul doth utterly forsake that union, until by putrefaction, tending to
    an absolute mutation, it is forced to bid farewell to its beloved
    tabernacle; for its not operating _ad extra_ to our senses, doth not
    necessarily infer its total absence. And it may be, that there is more
    in that of _Abel's blood crying unto the Lord from the ground_, in a
    physical sense than is commonly conceived," &c.

Sir Kenelm Digby (I think I remember) has also made some curious remarks on
this subject, in his observations on the _Religio Medici_ of Sir T. Brown.


_Easter Eggs._-The custom of dyeing eggs at Easter (alluded to, Vol. i.,
pp. 244. and 397.) prevails in different parts of Cumberland, and is
observed in this city probably more specially than in any other part of
England. On Easter Monday and Tuesday the inhabitants assemble in certain
adjacent meadows, the children all provided with stores of hard-boiled
eggs, coloured or ornamented in various ways,--some being dyed an even
colour with logwood, cochineal, &c.; others stained (often in a rather
elegant manner) by being boiled in shreds of parti-coloured ribbons; and
others, again, covered with gilding. These they tumble about upon the grass
until they break, when they finish off by eating them. These they call
_pace_-eggs, being no doubt a corruption for _pasche_.

This custom is mentioned by Brande as existing among the modern Greeks; but
I believe it will be found more or less in almost all parts of Christendom.

I observed when in Syria during Easter quantities of eggs similarly dyed;
but it did not occur to me at the time to inquire whether the practice was
connected with the season, and whether it was not confined to the native

Information upon this point, and also upon the general origin of this
ancient custom, would be interesting.


Carlisle, June 3. 1850.

_May Marriages_ (Vol. i., p. 467.).--This superstition is one of those
which have descended to Christianity from Pagan observances, and which the
people have adopted without knowing the cause, or being able to assign a
reason. Carmelli tells us that it still prevailed in Italy in 1750.[2] It
was evidently of long standing in Ovid's time as it had passed then into a
proverb among the people; nearly two centuries afterwards Plutarch (_Quæst.
Rom._ 86.) puts the question: [Greek: Dia ti toi Maiou mênos ouk agontai
gunaikas], which he makes a vain endeavour to answer satisfactorily. He
assigns three reasons: _first_, because May being between April and June,
and April being consecrated to Venus, and June to Juno, those deities held
propitious to marriage were not to be slighted. The Greeks were not less
observant of fitting seasons and the propitiation of the [Greek: gamêlioi
theoi]. _Secondly_, on account of the great expiatory celebration of the
_Lemuria_, when women abstained from the bath and the careful cosmetic
decoration of their persons so necessary as a prelude to marriage rites.
_Thirdly_, as some say, because May was the month of old men, _Majus a
Majoribus_, and therefore June, being thought to be the month of the young,
_Junius a Junioribus_, was to be preferred. The Romans, however, held other
seasons and days unpropitious to matrimony, as the days in February when
the Parentalia were celebrated, &c. _June_ was the favourite month; but no
marriage was celebrated without an augury being first consulted and its
auspices proved favourable (_Val. Max._ lib. ii. c. 1.). It would be well
if some such superstitions observance among us could serve as a check to
ill-advised and ill-timed marriages; and I would certainly advise all
prudent females to continue to think that

 "The girls are all stark naught that wed in May."


Mickleham, June 12.

[Footnote 2: Storia di Vari Costumi, t. ii. p. 221.]

_"Trash" or "Skriker."_--Many hundreds of persons there are in these
districts who place implicit credence in the reality of the appearance of a
death sign, locally termed _trash_ or _skriker_. It has the appearance of a
large black dog, with long shaggy hair, and, as the natives express it,
"eyes as big as saucers." The first name is given to it form the peculiar
noise made by its feet when passing along, resembling that of a heavy shoe
in a miry road. The second appellation is in allusion to the sound of its
voice when _heard_ by those parties who are unable to _see_ the appearance
itself. According to the statements of parties who have seen the _trash_
frequently, it makes its appearance to some member of that family from
which death will shortly select his victim; and, at other times, to some
very intimate acquaintance. Should any one be so courageous as to follow
the appearance, it usually makes its retreat with its eyes _fronting_ {53}
the pursuer, and either sinks into the earth with a _strange noise_, or is
lost upon the slightest momentary inattention. Many have attempted to
strike it with any weapon they had at hand; but although the appearance
stood its ground, no _material_ substance could ever be detected. It may be
added that "trash" does not confine itself to churchyards, though
frequently seen in such localities.

T. T. W.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Continued from Vol. i., p. 387.)


On l. 6. (D.):--

 "Where triumphant Darkness hovers
  With a sable wing, that covers
  Brooding Horror."
              _Crashaw_, Psalm xxiii.

On l. 11. (G.) Drayton has this expression in his _Heroical Epistles_:--

 "Find me out one so young, _so fair, so free_."
              _King John to Matilda._

and afterwards,--

         "Leave that accursed cell;
  There let black Night and Melancholy dwell."

On l. 24. (G.) Most probably from a couplet in Burton's _Anatomy of

 "And ever and anon she thinks upon the man,
  That was so fine, so fair, _so blith, so debonaire_."
              P. 3. Sc. 2. p. 603. ed. 1621. 4to.

And in Randolph's _Aristippus_,--

 "A bowle of wine is wondrous boone chere
  To make one _blith, buxome, and deboneere_."
              P. 13. ed. 1630. 4to.

On l. 27. (G.):--

 "_Manes._ Didst thou not find I did _quip_ thee?
 "_Psyllus._ No, verily; why, what's a _quip_?
 "_Manes._ We great girders call it a short saying of a sharp wit, with a
     bitter sense in a sweet word."
              _Alexander and Campaspe, Old Plays_,
              vol. ii. p. 113. ed. 1780.

 "Then for your Lordship's _Quippes_ and quick jestes,
  Why Gesta Romanorum were nothing to them."
      _Sir Gyles Goosecappe_, a Com., Sig. G. 2. 4to. 1606.

_Crank_ is used in a different sense by Drayton:--

 "Like Chanticleare he crowed _crank_,
  And piped full merily."
              Vol. iv. p. 1402. ed. 1753.

On l. 31. (M.):--

 "There dainty Joys laugh at white-headed Caring."
              _Fletcher's Purple Island_, C. vi. St. 35.

On l. 42. (G.):--

 "The cheerful lark, mounting from early bed,
  With sweet salutes awakes the drowsy Light;
  The earth shee left, and up to Heaven is fled:
  There chants her Maker's praises out of sight."
              _Purple Island_, C. ix. St. 2.

 "From heaven high to chase the cheareless darke,
  With mery note her lowd salutes the morning larke."
              _Faery Queene_, B. i. c. 11.

On l. 45. (G.):--

 "The chearful birds, chirping him sweet good-morrow,
  With nature's music do beguile his sorrow."
              _Sylvester's Du Bartas._

On l. 67. (G.) See note already inserted in "NOTES AND QUERIES," p. 316.

On l. 75. (G.):--

 "In May the meads are not so _pied with flowers_."
              _Sylvester's Du Bartas._

On l. 78. (G.) So in _Comus_:--

 "And casts a gleam over the _tufted grove_."
              v. 225.

On l. 80. (G.):--

 "Loadstar of Love and Loadstone of all hearts."

On l. 117. (Anon.) See extracts from the _Diary of a Lover of Literature_.
To me this line seems to allude to the imagination in sleep:--

 "Such sights as youthful poets dream."

On l. 121. (G.):--

 "Yet served I, gentles, seeing _store_
  _Of dainty girls_ beside."
              _Albion's England_, p. 218. 4to. 1602.

On l. 125. (G.):--

 "_In saffron robes_ and all his solemn rites,
  Thrice sacred _Hymen_."
              _Sylvester's Du Bartas._

and in Spanish Tragedy:--

 "The two first the nuptial torches bore,
  As brightly burning as the mid-day's sun:
  But after them doth _Hymen_ hie as fast,
  Clothed in sable and a _saffron robe_."

On l. 187. (G.):--

 "Marrying their sweet tunes to the angels' lays."
              _Sylvester's Du Bartas._

On l. 144. (D.):--

     "Those precious mysteries that dwell
  In Music's ravished soul."
              _Crashaw's Music's Duet._

J. F. M.

       *       *       *       *       *


Heber possessed a curious MS. volume entitled _A Poetical Miscellany,
selected from the Works of the Men of Genius of the XVIIth Century_. In
Part XI. of the _Bibliotheca Heberiana_ it is thus described:--

    "The first part of this volume was obviously collected by a Scotchman,
    and it includes pieces by Ben Jonson, Wither, Dr. Donne, &c. It must
    have been made in the latter part of the reign of Charles I. The second
    portion of the volume is a later production; a humourous poem, called a
    _Whig's Supplication_, by {54} S. C., in which there is a remarkable
    notice of Cleveland, Donne, and 'Bass Divine.' The latter name somebody
    has ignorantly altered, not knowing, probably, who 'Bass Divine' was.
    The poem is in imitation of Hudibras, both in style and metre."

It is somewhat singular that the writer of this notice never suspected that
the _author_ of the second part, and the _collector_ of the first part of
the volume, was Samuel Colvil, whose celebrated poem, _The Whigg's
Supplication, or the Scotch Hudibras_, went through so many editions, from
1667 to 1796. This "mock poem", as the author terms it, turns upon the
insurrection of the Covenanters in Scotland in the reign of Charles the
Second. An interesting notice of it, and other imitations of Hudibras, will
be found in the _Retrospective Review_, vol. iii. pp. 317-335.


       *       *       *       *       *



In a curious MS. Diary of the early part of the seventeenth century, lately
come into my possession, I find the following entry concerning the
sculptor, Hubert le Soeur:--

    "March 7. 1628. Had an interview with y^e famous and justly renowned
    artiste H. le Sueur, who, being late come to this countrie, I had never
    seene before. He showed me several famous statues in brasse."

This is probably the earliest notice of the celebrated pupil of John of
Bologna after his settlement in England. Dallaway, in his _Anecdotes of the
Arts in England_ (p. 395.), after stating that Hubert le Soeur arrived here
about the year 1630, says,--

    "If he was associated with Pierre Tacca, who finished the horse in the
    equestrian statue of Henry IV. in 1610, left incomplete on the death of
    his master, John of Bologna, two years preceding, he must have been far
    advanced in life. Three only of his works in bronze are now known with
    certainty to exist: the equestrian statue of Charles I. [at Charing
    Cross], a bust of the same monarch with a casque in the Roman style
    [now at Stourhead], and a statue in armour of William Herbert, Earl of
    Pembroke, Lord High Chamberlain and Chancellor of Oxford. The last was
    given to the University by T., Earl of Pembroke, about the time of the

The "several famous statues in brasse" alluded to by the writer of the
Diary above quoted, were probably those which afterwards ornamented the
gardens of St. James's Palace. Peacham, in his _Complete Gentleman_ (2nd
edit., 4to. 1634), having spoken of the collection of statues at Arundell
House, says:--

    "King Charles also, ever since his coming to the Crown, hath amply
    testified a royal liking of ancient Statues, by causing a whole army of
    foreign Emperors, Captains, and Senators, all at once to land on his
    coasts, to come and do him homage and attend him in his Palaces of
    Saint James and Somerset House. A great part of these belonged to the
    great Duke of Mantua; and some of the old Greek marble bases, columns,
    and altars were brought from the ruins of Apollo's temple at Delos, by
    that noble and absolutely complete gentleman, Sir Kenelm Digby, Kn^t.
    In the garden of St. James, there are also _half a dozen brass
    statues_, rare ones, cast by Hubert le Sueur, his Majesty's servant,
    now dwelling in St. Bartholomew's, London; the most industrious and
    excellent statuary, in all materials, that ever this country enjoyed.
    The best of them is the Gladiator, moulded from that in Cardinal
    Borghesi's Villa, by the procurement and industry of ingenious Master
    Gage. And at this present, the said Master Sueur hath divers other
    admirable moulds to cast in brass for his Majesty, and among the rest,
    that famous Diana of Ephesus. But the great Horse with his Majesty upon
    it, twice as great as the life, and now well nigh finished, will
    compare with that of the New Bridge at Paris, or those others at
    Florence and Madrid, though made by Sueur, his master John de Bologna,
    that rare workman, who not long since lived at Florence."

The bronze statue of the Gladiator originally stood (according to Ned
Ward's _London Spy_) in the Parade facing the Horse Guards. Dodsley
(_Environs_, iii. 741.) says it was removed by Queen Anne to Hampton Court,
and from thence, by George the Fourth, to the private grounds of Windsor
Castle, where it now is. Query, What has become of the other five "famous
statues in brass?"


       *       *       *       *       *


What became of Bishop Jewell's library? Cassan mentions (_Lives of Bishops
of Salisbury_, vol. ii. p. 55.) that

    "He had collected an excellent library of books of all sorts, not
    excepting the most impertinent of the Popish authors, and here it was
    that he spent the greatest and the best part of his time," &c.

Bishop Jewell died Sept. 22. 1571.

In the Account Books of Magdalen College, Oxford, I find the following

    "A. D. 1572. Solut. D^{no} Præsidi equitanti Sarisbur. pro libris per
    billam, iij^{li} xvi^s.

    "Solut. pro libris D^{ni}, episcopi Sar., c^{li}.

    "A. D. 1574. Solut per Dom. Præsidem pro libris M^{ri} Jewell,

Whether these books were a portion only, or the whole of the library of
Bishop Jewell, I am unable to discover; nor am I aware at present whether
Bishop Jewell's autograph is in any of the books of Magdalen College
Library. The president was Lawrence Humphrey, author of a Life of Jewell.



       *       *       *       *       *


The low windows in the chancel of so many of our ancient churches have
proved a fruitful source of discussion among archæologists, and numerous
theories have been advanced respecting their use. Perhaps the words of the
chameleon in the fable might be addressed to many who have attempted to
account for their existence, "You all are right and all are wrong"--right
in your supposition that they were thus used; but wrong in maintaining that
this was the exclusive purpose. Some example, in fact, may be adduced
irreconcileable with any particular conjecture, and sufficient to overturn
every theory which may be set up. One object assigned is, the distribution
of alms; and it is surely reasonable to imagine that money collected at the
offertory should have been given to paupers from the chancel through this
convenient aperture. The following passage from the _Ecclesiologist_,
quoted in page 441. of "NOTES AND QUERIES," has induced me to bring this
subject forward:--

    "In them (churchyards) prayers are not now commonly poured forth to
    God, nor are doles distributed to his poor."

Now it must be admitted that relief could scarcely be given to a crowd of
importunate claimants without the interposition of some barrier; and where
could a more appropriate place be found than the low window? Can any of
your readers, therefore, oblige me with some information upon these points?
Where were the alms bestowed, if not here? An almonry is described in some
recent works as "a building near the church." What authority is there for
such an assertion, and do any examples of such structures remain? What
evidence is there that this business was transacted in the churchyard, in
the porch, or in any particular part of the edifice?

Although these mysterious openings are probably, with one or two exceptions
in Normandy, peculiar to this country, it is desirable to ascertain where
the poor on the Continent usually receive such charitable donations. In an
interior of a Flemish cathedral, by an artist of the sixteenth century, a
man is represented in the act of delivering bread to a number of eager
beggars, from a sort of pew; showing, at least, as above remarked, that
some such protection was requisite.

There is another Query connected with this subject, which I beg to submit.
Some ancient frescoes were lately discovered in the chapel of Eton College,
with a compartment containing (according to a letter in the
_Ecclesiologist_) a bishop administering the Holy Communion to a converted
Jew, through a low window. Can any one, from recollection or the inspection
of drawings, (for the original has disappeared,) assure me that he does not
hold in his hand a piece of money, or a portion of bread, for the supply of
his bodily wants?


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_North Sides of Churchyards unconsecrated._--In the West of England I have
found an opinion to prevail in rural parishes, that the north side of our
churchyards was left unconsecrated very commonly, in order that the youth
of the village might have the use of it as a playground. And, in one
parish, some few years ago, I had occasion to interrupt the game of
football in a churchyard on the "revel" Sunday, and again on another
festival. I also found some reluctance in the people to have their friends
buried north of the church.

Is there any ground for believing that our churchyards were ever thus
consecrated on the south side of the church to the exclusion of the north?


_Hatfield--Consecration of Chapel there._--Le Neve, in his _Lives of
Protestant Bishops_ (ii. 144.), states, that Richard Neile, Bishop of
Lincoln, went to Hatfield, 6th May, 1615, to consecrate the chapel in the
house there lately built by Robert, Earl of Salisbury. I have applied to
the Registrar of Lincoln diocese, in which Hatfield was (until recently)
locally situated, for a copy of the notarial act of consecration; but it
appears that the register of Bishop Neile was taken away or destroyed in
the Great Rebellion, and that, consequently, no record of his episcopality
now exists at Lincoln.

Le Neve says he had the most part of his account of Bishop Neile from
Thomas Baker, B.D. of St. John's College, Cambridge, who had it from a
grandson of the Bishop's. He quotes also Featley's MS. Collections.

Can any of your readers inform me whether Bishop Neile's episcopal register
for Lincoln is in existence, or whether any transcript of it is known? or
if any evidence, confirmatory of Le Neve's statement of the fact and date
of the consecration of the chapel of Hatfield, is known to exist?


P.S. I have examined Dr. Matthew Hutton's transcripts of the Lincoln
registers, in the Harleian MSS., but they do not come down to within a
century of Bishop Neile's episcopate.

_Ulrich von Hutten_ (Vol. i., p. 336.).--In one of the _Quarterly Reviews_
is an account of Ulrich von Hutten and the _Epistolæ Obscurorum Virorum_.
Will S. W. S., or any one who takes interest in Ulrich, tell me where it
is? A meagre article in the _Retrospective Review_, vol. v. p. 56.,
mentions only one edition of the _Epstolæ_, Francfurti ad Mainum, 1643. Is
there any recent edition with notes? Mine, Lond. 1710, is without, and
remarkable only for its dedication to Isaac Bickerstaffe, Esq., and the
curious mistake which Isaac made when he acknowledged it in _The Tatler_,
of supposing the letters genuine. Is it known to what {56} scholar we are
indebted for so neat an edition of a book then so little known in England,
and so little in accordance with English taste at that time?

H. B. C.

University Club, May 29.

_Simon of Ghent._--Can any of your correspondents give me any information
concerning Simon, Bishop of Salisbury in 1297-1315, further than what is
said of him in _Godwini de Præsulibus Angliæ_, and in Wanley's Catalogue,
where he is mentioned as the author of _Regulæ Sanctimonialium Ordinis Sti
Jacobi_? Why is he called "Gandavensis," or "De Gandavo," seeing that he is
said to have been born in London?


_Boetius' Consolations of Philosophy._--Alfred the Great translated this
work into Anglo-Saxon; Chaucer, Queen Elizabeth, and Lord Preston into

_Has Queen Elizabeth's work_ (which she executed during her captivity
before she ascended the throne) _been printed?_ Richard Viscount Preston's
appeared first, I believe, in 1712, in 12mo. _How often has it been
reprinted?_ What other English translations have been made, and what are
the latest?


_Gloucestershire Gospel Tree._--Mary Roberts, in her _Ruins and Old Trees
associated with Historical Events_, gives a very pretty account of a
certain _Gospel Tree_. Can any kind correspondent inform me where in
Gloucestershire it is situated? Although a native of the county, I never
heard of it.

W. H. B.

_Churchyards--Epitaphs._--Up to the time of the Norman Conquest,
churchyards appear to have been considered almost as sacred as churches;
but soon after that period, though regarded as places of sanctuary, they
were often used for profane purposes. I recollect reading of fairs and
rustic sports being held in them as early as John's reign, but
unfortunately I have not been an observer of your motto, and know not now
where to refer for such instances. I shall therefore feel obliged to any of
your readers who will specify a few instances of the profanation of
churchyards at different periods, or refer me to works where such may be
found. Churchyards appear to have been used in special cases for sepulture
from the year 750, but not commonly so used till the end of the fourteenth
century. Are there any instances of sepulchral monuments, between the above
dates, now existing in churchyards?

Stone crosses, evidently of Saxon or very early Roman structure, are found
in churchyards, but I am not aware of any sepulchral monuments detached
from the church of the same date. I shall be glad of any notices of early
monuments or remarkable epitaphs in churchyards. When did churchyards cease
to be places of sanctuary? What is the exact meaning of the word "yard?"
and was not "God's acre" applied to Christian cemeteries before sepulture
was admitted in churches or churchyards?

W. H. K.

Drayton Beauchamp, June 10.

_Anthony Warton._--Who was Anthony Warton, minister of the word at
Breamore, in Hampshire, and author of _Refinement of Zion_, London, 1657?
Another Anthony Warton was matriculated at Magdalen College, Oxford, 2nd
Nov., 1665, at sixteen, as son of Francis Warton, of Breamore, Hants,
plebeian. He remained clerk till 1671; chaplain from 1671 to 1674;
instituted vicar of Godalming, Surrey, in 1682; obiit 15th March, 1714-15.
He was father of Thomas Warton, Demy and Fellow of Magdalen College, vicar
of Basingstoke, Hants, and of Cobham, Surrey, Professor of Poetry in the
University of Oxford, 1718-28; who was father of the more celebrated Thomas
Warton, Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford, and of Joseph Warton, Head
Master of Winchester School.

Manning says (_History of Surrey_, vol. i. p. 648.) that Anthony Warton,
vicar of Breamore, Hants, was younger brother of Michael Warton, Esq., of
Beverley, but originally of Warton Hall in Lancashire. Both Wood and
Manning seem to have confounded the first Anthony with the clerk, &c. of
Magdalen. Was the former brother of Francis?


_Cardinal's Hat._--O'Halloran mentions the cardinal's
hat--"birede"--"biretrum"--as the hat anciently worn by the Irish doctors.
What is its history?


_Maps of London._--I should be grateful to any of your correspondents who
could inform me whether there are any maps of London before that of Aggas?
what they are? and where they are to be found? The date of Aggas's map is
supposed to be about 1560, and must have been after 1548, as the site of
Essex House in the Strand is there called "Paget Place." There is a MS. map
by Anthony Van Den Wyngerde in the Sutherland Collection in the Bodleian,
the date of which would be about 1559.


_Griffith of Penrhyn._--Can any of your correspondents refer me to a good


Coatham, near Redcar.

_The Mariner's Compass._--What is the origin of the _fleur-de-lis_ with
which the northern radius of the compass-card is always ornamented?


_Pontefract on the Thames._--Permit me to ask, through the medium of your
useful publication, where Pontefract _on the Thames_ was situate in {57}
the fourteenth century? Several documents of Edw. II. are dated from Shene
(Richmond); in 1318, one from Mortelak; in 1322, one from Istelworth; and
several are dated _Pountfrcyt_, or _Pontem fractum super Thamis_. (See
Rymer's _Foedera_). It is very clear that this Pountfrcyt on the Thames
must have been at no great distance from Shene, Mortlake, and Isleworth,
also upon the Thames; and this is further corroborated by the dates
following, from the places alluded to, so closely.


June 14. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *



The extensive study of geometry in Lancashire and the northern counties
generally is a fact which has forced itself upon the attention of several
observers; but none of these have attempted to assign any reasons for so
singular an occurrence. Indeed, the origin and progress of the study of any
particular branch of science, notwithstanding their attractive features,
have but rarely engaged the attention of those best qualified for the
undertaking. Fully satisfied with pursuing their ordinary courses of
investigation, they have scarcely ever stopped to inquire _who_ first
started the subject of their contemplations; nor have they evinced much
more assiduity to ascertain the _how_, the _when_, or in _what_ favoured
locality he had his existence: and hence the innumerable misappropriations
of particular discoveries, the unconscious traversing of already exhausted
fields of research, and many of the bickerings which have taken place
amongst the rival claimants for the honour of priority.

Mr. Halliwell's _Letters on the Progress of Science_ sufficiently show that
the study of geometry was almost a nonentity in England previously to the
commencement of the eighteenth century. Before this period Dr. Dee, the
celebrated author of the preliminary discourse to Billingsley's _Euclid_,
had indeed resided at Manchester (1595), but his residence here could
effect little in flavour of geometry, seeing, as is observed by a writer in
the _Penny Cyclopædia_--

    "The character of the lectures on Euclid was in those days extremely
    different from that of our own time ... the propositions of Euclid
    being then taken as so many pegs to hang a speech upon."

Similar remarks evidently apply to Horrocks and Crabtree (1641); for
although _both_ were natives of Lancashire, and the latter a resident in
the vicinity of Manchester, their early death would prevent the exertion of
any considerable influence; nor does it appear that they ever paid any
attention to the study of the ancient geometry. Richard Towneley, Esq., of
Towneley (1671), is known to have been an ardent cultivator of science, but
his residence was principally in London. It may, however, be mentioned to
his honour, _that he was the first to discover what is usually known as
"Marriotte's Law"_ for the expansion of gases. At a later period
(1728-1763), the name of "John Hampson, of Leigh, in Lancashire," appears
as a correspondent to the _Lady's Diary_; but since he mostly confined his
speculations to subjects relating to the Diophantine Analysis, he cannot be
considered as the originator of the revival in that branch of study now
under consideration. Such being the case, we are led to conclude that the
"Oldham Mathematical Society" was really the great promoter of the study of
the ancient geometry in Lancashire; for during the latter half of the last
century, and almost up to the present date, it has numbered amongst its
members several of the most distinguished geometers of modern times. A
cursory glance at some of the mathematical periodicals of that date will
readily furnish the names of Ainsworth, whose elegant productions in pure
geometry adorn the pages of the _Gentleman's_ and _Burrow's Diaries_;
Taylor, the distinguished tutor of Wolfenden; Fletcher, whose
investigations in the _Gentleman's Diary_ and the _Mathematical Companion_
entitle him to the highest praise; Wolfenden, acknowledged by all as one of
the most profound mathematicians of the last century; Hilton, afterwards
the talented editor of that "work of rare merit" the _Liverpool Student_;
and last, though not least, the distinguished Butterworth, whose elegant
and extensive correspondence occupies so conspicuous a place in the
_Student_, the _Mathematical Repository_, the _Companion_, the _Enquirer_,
the _Leeds Correspondent_, and the _York Courant_. Besides these, we find
the names of Mabbot, Wood, Holt (Mancuniensis), Clarke (Salfordoniiensis),
as then resident at Manchester and in constant communication with, if not
actually members of the society; nor can it be doubted from the evidence of
existing documents that the predilection for the study of the ancient
geometry evinced by various members of this Lancashire School, exercised
considerable influence upon the minds of such distinguished proficients as
Cunliffe, Campbell, Lowry, Whitley, and Swale.

Hence it would seem that _many_, and by no means improbable, reasons may be
assigned for "the very remarkable circumstance of the geometrical analysis
of the ancients having been cultivated with eminent success in the northern
counties of England, and particularly in Lancashire." Mr. Harvey, at the
York meeting of the British Association in 1831, eloquently announced "that
when Playfair, in one of his admirable papers in the _Edinburgh Review_,
expressed a fear that the increasing taste for analytical science would at
length drive the {58} ancient geometry from its favoured retreat in the
British Isles; the Professor seemed not to be aware that there existed a
devoted band of men in the north, resolutely bound to the pure and ancient
forms of geometry, who in the midst of the tumult of steam engines,
cultivated it with unyielding ardour, preserving the sacred fire under
circumstances which would seem from their nature most calculated to
extinguish it." Mr. Harvey, however, admitted his inability clearly to
trace the "true cause of this remarkable phenomenon," but at the same time
suggested that "a taste for pure geometry, something like that for
entomology among the weavers of Spitalfields, may have been transmitted
from father to son; but who was the distinguished individual _first_ to
create it, in the peculiar race of men here adverted to, seems not to be
known." However, as "the two great restorers of ancient geometry, Matthew
Stewart and Robert Simson, it may be observed, lived in Scotland," he asks
the important questions:--"Did their proximity encourage the growth of this
spirit? Or were their writings cultivated by some teacher of a village
school, who communicated by a method, which genius of a transcendental
order knows so well how to employ, a taste for these sublime inquiries, so
that at length they gradually worked their way to the anvil and the loom?"

An attentive consideration of these questions in all their bearings has
produced in the mind of the writer a full conviction that we must look to
other sources for the revival of the study of the ancient geometry than
either the writings of Stewart or Simson. It has been well observed by the
most eminent geometer of our own times, Professor Davies--whose signature
of PEN-AND-INK (Vol. ii., p. 8.) affords but a flimsy disguise for his
well-known _propria persona_--that "it was a great mistake for these
authors to have written their principal works in the Latin language, as it
has done more than anything else to prevent their study among the only
geometers of the eighteenth century who were competent to understand and
value them;" and it is no less singular than true, as the same writer
elsewhere observes, "that whilst Dr. Stewart's writings were of a kind
calculated to render them peculiarly attractive to the non-academic school
of English geometers, they remain to this day less generally known than the
writings of any geometer of these kingdoms." The same remarks, in a
slightly qualified form, may be applied to most of the writings of Simson;
for although his edition of Euclid is now the almost universally adopted
text-book of geometry in England, at the time of its first appearance in
1756 it did not differ so much from existing translations as to attract
particular attention by the novelty of its contents. Moreover, at this time
the impulse had already been given and was silently exerting its influence
upon a class of students of whose existence Dr. Simson appears to have been
completely ignorant. In one of his letters to Nourse (_Phil. Mag._, Sept.
1848, p. 204.) he regrets that "the taste for the ancient geometry, or
indeed any geometry, seems to be quite worn out;" but had he instituted an
examination of those contemporary periodicals either wholly or partially
devoted to mathematics, he would have been furnished with ample reasons for
entertaining a different opinion.

We have every reason to believe that the publication of Newton's
_Principia_ had a powerful effect in diffusing a semi-geometrical taste
amongst the academical class of students in this country, and it is equally
certain that this diffusion became much more general, when Motte, in 1729,
published his translation of that admirable work. The nature of the
contents of the _Principia_, however, precluded the possibility of its
being adapted to form the taste of novices in the study of geometry; it
served rather to exhibit the _ne plus ultra_ of the science, and produced
its effect by inducing the student to master the rudimentary treatises
thoroughly, in order to qualify himself for understanding its
demonstrations, rather than by providing a series of models for his
imitation. A powerful inducement to the study of pure geometry was
therefore created by the publication of Motte's translation: ordinary
students had here a desirable object to obtain by its careful cultivation,
which hitherto had not existed, and hence when Professor Simpson, of
Woolwich, published his _Algebra_ and the _Elements of Geometry_ in 1745
and 1747, a select reading public had been formed which hailed these
excellent works as valuable accessions to the then scanty means of study.
Nor must the labours of Simpson's talented associates, Rollinson and
Turner, be forgotten when sketching the progress of this revival. The pages
of the _Ladies' Diary_, the _Mathematician_, and the _Mathematical
Exercises_, of which these gentlemen were severally editors and
contributors, soon began to exhibit a goodly array of geometrical
exercises, whilst their lists of correspondents evince a gradual increase
in numbers and ability. The publication of Stewart's _General Theorems_ and
Simson's edition of _Euclid_, in 1746 and 1756, probably to some extent
assisted the movement; but the most active elements at work were
undoubtedly the mathematical periodicals of the time, aided by such
powerful auxiliaries as Simpson's _Select Exercises_ (1752) and his other
treatises previously mentioned. It may further be observed that up to this
period the mere English reader had few, if any means of obtaining access to
the elegant remains of the ancient geometers. Dr. Halley had indeed given
his restoration of Apollonius's _De Sectione Rationis_ and _Sectione
Spatii_ in 1706. Dr. Simson had also issued his edition of the _Locis
Planis_ in 1749; but unfortunately the very language in which these
valuable works were written, precluded the possibility of {59} these
unlettered students being able to derive any material advantages from their
publication: and hence arises another weighty reason why Simpson's writings
were so eagerly studied, seeing they contained the leading propositions of
some of the most interesting researches of the Alexandrian School.

After the death of Simpson, the Rev. John Lawson, who appears to have
inherited no small portion of the spirit of his predecessors, began to take
the lead in geometrical speculations; and having himself carefully studied
the principal writings of the ancient geometers, now formed the happy
project of unfolding these treasures of antiquity to the general reader, by
presenting him with English translations of most of these valuable remains.
With this view he published a translation of Vieta's restoration of
_Apollonius on Tangencies_, in 1764, and to this, in the second edition of
1771, was added the _Treatise on Spherical Tangencies_, by Fermat, which
has since been reprinted in the _Appendix to the Ladies' Diary_ for 1840.
In 1767 appeared Emerson's _Treatise on Conic Sections_; a work which,
notwithstanding its manifest defects, contributed not a little to aid the
student in his approaches to the higher geometry, but whose publication
would probably have been rendered unnecessary, had Dr. Simson so far
loosened himself from the trammels of the age, as to have written his own
admirable treatise in the English language. The frequency, however, with
which Mr. Emerson's treatise has been quoted, almost up to the present
date, would appear to justify the propriety of including _it_ amongst the
means by which the study of geometry was promoted during the last
generation. The success which attended Mr. Lawson's first experiment
induced him to proceed in his career of usefulness by the publication, in
1772, of the _Treatise on Determinate Section_; to which was appended an
amended restoration of the same work by Mr. William Wales, the well-known
geometer, who attended Captain Cook as astronomer, in one of his earlier
voyages. In 1773 appeared the _Synopsis of Data for the Construction of
Triangles_, which was followed in 1774 by his valuable _Dissertations on
the Geometrical Analysis of the Ancients_; and although the author used an
unjustifiable freedom with the writings of others, Dr. Stewart's more
especially, it is nevertheless a work which probably did more to advance
the study of the ancient geometry than any other separate treatise which
could be named. As these publications became distributed amongst
mathematicians, the _Magazines_, the _Diaries_, and various other
periodicals, began to show the results of the activity which had thus been
created; geometrical questions became much more abundant, and a numerous
list of contributions appeared which afford ample proof that their able
authors had entered deeply into the spirit of the ancient geometry. During
the year 1777 Mr. Lawson issued the first portion of Dr. Simson's
restoration of _Euclid's Porisms_, translated from the _Opera Reliqua_ of
that distinguished geometer; and though the work was not continued,
sufficient had already been done to furnish the generality of students with
a clue to the real nature of this celebrated enigma of antiquity. The last
of these worthy benefactors to the non-academic geometers of the last
century was Mr. Reuben Burrow, who by publishing in 1779 his _Restitution
of Apollonius Pergæus on Inclinations_ gave publicity to a valuable relic
which would otherwise have remained buried in the Latin obscurity of Dr.
Horsley's more elaborate production.

During the greater portion of the time just reviewed, Mr. Jeremiah
Ainsworth was resident in the neighbourhood of Manchester, and so early as
1761 was in correspondence with the editors of the _Mathematical Magazine_.
He subsequently associated with Mr. George Taylor, a gentleman of kindred
habits, then resident in the immediate vicinity, and these worthy veterans
of science, as time wore on, collected around them a goodly array of pupils
and admirers, and hence may truly be said not only to have laid the
foundation of the "Oldham Society," but also to have been the fathers of
the Lancashire school of geometers. Such then was the state of affairs in
the mathematical world at the period of which we are speaking; all the
works just enumerated were attracting the attention of all classes of
students by their novelty or elegance; Dr. Hutton and the Rev. Charles
Wildbore had the management of the _Diaries_, each vieing with the other in
offering inducements for geometrical research; whilst both, in this
respect, for a time, had to contend against the successful competition of
Reuben Burrow, the talented editor of Carnan's _Diary_: correspondents
consequently became numerous and widely extended, each collecting around
him his own select circle of ardent inquirers; and thus it was, to use the
words of Mr. Harvey, and answer the questions proposed, that inquiries
which had hitherto been "locked up in the deep, and to them unapproachable
recesses of Plato, Pappus, Apollonius and Euclid * * porisms and loci,
sections of ratio and of space, inclinations and tangencies,--subjects
confined among the ancients to the very greatest minds, (became) familiar
to men whose condition in life was, to say the least, most unpropitious for
the successful prosecution of such elevated and profound pursuits."

The preceding sketch is respectfully submitted as an attempt to answer the
queries of PEN-AND-INK, so far as Lancashire is concerned. It is not
improbable that other reasons, equally cogent, or perhaps corrective of
several of the preceding, may be advanced by some of your more learned
correspondents, whose experience and means of reference are superior to my
own. Should any such {60} be induced to offer additions or corrections to
what is here attempted, and to extend the inquiry into other localities,
your pages will afford a most desirable medium through which to compare
_notes_ on a very imperfectly understood but most important subject of


Burnley, Lancashire, June 5. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *


Passing over various queries of early date, on which it has been my
intention to offer some suggestions, I have _endeuoyred me_, as Master
Caxton expresses it, to illustrate three subjects recently mooted.

_Trianon_ (No. 27.).--The origin of this name is thus stated by M. Dolort,
in his excellent work entitled _Mes voyages aux environs de Paris_, ii. 88.

    "_Le grand Trianon._--Appelé au 13^e siècle _Triarmun_, nom d'une
    ancienne paroisse, qui était divisée en trois villages dépendant du
    diocèse de Chartres. Cette terre, qui appartenait aux moines de
    Sainte-Geneviève, fut achetée par Louis XIV. pour agrandir le parc de
    Versailles, et plus tard il y fit coustruire le château."

_Wood paper_ (No. 32.).--At the close of the last century a patent was
granted to Matthias Koops for the manufacture of paper from _straw_,
_wood_, &c. In September 1800, he dedicated to the king a _Historical
account of the substances which have been used to describe events_, in
small folio. The volume is chiefly printed on paper _made from straw_; the
appendix is on _paper made from wood alone_. Both descriptions of paper
have borne the test of time extremely well. Murray, in his _Practical
remarks on modern paper_, speaks of Koops and his inventions with much
ignorance and unfairness.

_Tobacco in the East_ (No. 33.).--Relying on the testimony of Juan Fragoso,
physician to Felipe II. of Spain, I venture to assert that tobacco is not
indigenous to the East. To the same effect writes Monardes. Nevertheless,
it was cultivated in Java as early as the year 1603. Edmund Scott, factor
for the East India Company at Bantam, thus describes the luxuries of the

    "They are very great eaters--and they haue a certaine hearbe called
    _bettaile_ which they vsually have carryed with them wheresoeuer they
    goe, in boxes, or wrapped vp in cloath like a suger loafe: and also a
    nutt called _pinange_, which are both in operation very hott, and they
    eate them continually to warme them within, and keepe them from the
    fluxe. They doe likewise take much _tabacco_, and also _opium_."--_An
    exact discovrse_ etc. _of the East Indians_, London, 1606. 4^o. Sig. N.


       *       *       *       *       *


_Bawn_ (Vol. i, p. 440.) has been explained as "the outer fortification,
inclosing the court-yard of an Irish castle or mansion, and was generally
composed of a wall with palisadoes, and sometimes flankers."

The word _bawn_ or _bane_ (the _a_ pronounced as in the English word _hat_)
is still applied in the south of Ireland to the spot of ground used as a
place for milking the cows of a farm, which, for obvious reasons, is
generally close to the farm-house. Before the practice of housing cattle
became general, every country gentleman's house had its _bawn_ or _bane_.
The necessity for having such a place well fenced, and indeed fortified, in
a country and period when cattle formed the chief wealth of all parties,
and when the country was infested by Creaghadores and Rapparees, is
obvious; and hence the care taken in compelling the "undertakers in Ulster"
to have at least "a good bawn after the Irish fashion." In Munster the word
_bane_ or _bawn_ is used to express land that has been long in grass;
_tholluff bawn_ being used to signify grass land about to be brought into
cultivation; and _tholluff breagh_, or _red land_, land which has been
recently turned. To _redden land_ is still used to express either to plough
land, or, more generally, to turn land with the spade.

Now the _milking field_ was, and is always kept in grass, and necessarily
receiving a good deal of manure, would usually be _white_ from the growth
of daisies and white clover. Hence such a field would be called the _white_
field: and from this to the general application of the phrase to grass land
the transition is easy and natural. It may be proper to add, that in Kerry,
particularly, the word is pronounced _bawn_, in speaking _Irish_; but the
same person will call it _bane_, if mentioning such land in English. The
_a_ in the latter word is, as I said before, pronounced like the _a_ in

The Irish for a _cow_ being _bo_, the phrase may have had its origin
therefrom. On this matter, as on all relating to Irish antiquities, the
readers of "NOTES AND QUERIES" may be glad to have a sure person to refer
to; and they cannot refer to a more accomplished Irish scholar and
antiquarian than "Eugene Curry". His address is, "Royal Irish Academy,
Grafton Street, Dublin."


       *       *       *       *       *

Replies To Minor Queries.

_Births, Marriages, &c., Taxes on_ (Vol. ii., p. 10.).--The first instance,
that I am aware of, of a tax on marriages in this country, occurs in the 5
of Wm. and Mary, c. 21. The war in which William engaged soon rendered it
necessary to tax other incidents of humanity; and accordingly the 6 & 7 Wm.
III. c. 6. was passed, granting to his Majesty certain {61} rates and
duties upon marriages, births, deaths, and burials, and upon bachelors and
widowers (a widely-spread net), for the term of five years, "for carrying
on the war against France with vigour." The taxes on births, marriages, and
burials were continued indefinitely by the 7 & 8 Wm. III. c. 35. I know not
when this act was repealed; but by the 23 George III. c. 67., taxes were
again imposed on burials, births, marriages, and christenings; and by 25
George III. c. 75. these taxes were extended to Dissenters. By the 34
George III. c. 11., the taxes were repealed, and they ceased on October
1st, 1794. The entries in the parish register noticed by ARUN, refer to
these taxes. Query, Were our ancestors justified in boasting that they were
"free-born" Englishmen as long as one of these taxes existed?


_M._ or _N._ (Vol. i., p. 415.).--These must, I think, be the initials of
some words, and not originating in a corruption of nom, as suggested. We
have in the marriage service:--

  "'I publish the banns of marriage between M. of ---- and N. of ----.'
  "The curate shall say unto the man,
  "M. 'Wilt thou have this woman,' &c.
  "The priest shall say unto the woman,
  "N. 'Wilt thou have this man,' &c.
  "The man says: 'I, M. take thee N. to my wedded wife,' &c.
  "The woman says: 'I, N. take thee M. to my wedded husband,'" &c.
  Again, "Forasmuch as M. and N. have consented together," &c.

All these passages would go to show that the letters are initials either of
some word by which the sex was denoted, or of some very common Christian
names of each sex, which were formerly in use.

I grant that, in the baptismal service, N. may possibly stand for nomen.



_Arabic Numerals._--I am not entitled to question either the learning or
the "acumen" of the Bishop of Rochester; but I am entitled to question the
_interpretation_ which E. S. T. tells us (Vol. ii., p.27.) he puts upon the
Castleacre inscription. My title to do so is this:--that in the year of
grace 1084 the Arabic numerals were not only of necessity unknown to the
"plaisterers" of those walls, but even (as far as evidence has been yet
adduced) to the most learned of England's learned men.

As to the regular order in crossing himself, that will entirely depend upon
whether the plaister was considered to be a knight's shield, and the
figures the blazonry, or not. Is it not, indeed, stated in one of your
former numbers, that this very inscription was to be read 1408, and not
1048? I have already hinted at the necessity of _caution_ in such cases;
and Mr. Wilkinson of Burnley has given, in a recent number of your work,
two exemplifications. The Bishop of Rochester certainly adds another;
though, of course, undesignedly.

T. S. D.

Shooter's Hill, June 7.

_Comment. in Apocalypsin_ (Vol. i., p. 452.).--There was a copy of this
volume in the library of the Duke of Brunswick; and in the hope that Sir F.
Madden may succeed in obtaining extracts, or a sight of it, I intimate just
as much, though not in this kingdom. (See Von der Hardt's _Autographa
Lutheri et Coætaneorum_, tom. iii. 171.) You do not seem to have any copy
whatever brought to your notice. This collection was, it appears from the
_Centifolium Lutheranum_ of Fabricius (p. 484.), bequeathed by the Duke to
the library at Helmstad.


_Robert Deverell_ (Vol. i., p. 469.).--If my information is too scanty to
deserve a place among the Replies, you may treat it as a supplement to Dr.
Rimbault's Query. Mr. Deverell also published (according to Lowndes) _A New
View of the Classics and Ancient Arts, tending to show the invariable
Connexion with the Sciences_, 4to. Lond. 1806; and _Discoveries in
Hieroglyphics and other Antiquities_, 6 vols. 8vo. Lond. 1813,--which was
suppressed by the author after a few copies had been sold. I have the
second and third volumes, being all that relates to Shakspeare. They
consist of an edition of Hamlet, Lear, Othello, Merchant of Venice, and the
third satire of Horace, copiously illustrated with notes and woodcuts,
intended to prove that in the works in question, in common with "all the
classics and the different specimens of the arts which have come down to us
from the ancients, no part of them is to be understood without supposing
that they were mere vehicles of knowledge, not intended to meet the eye or
the understanding on the first inspection or perusal;" in short, that all
the phrases, characters, and incidents are merely allusions to the
appearances of the moon! a representation of which, and of Shakspearian
characters, &c., bearing supposed resemblance to its lights and shadows,
form the staple of the illustrations. I collect from passages in these
volumes, that the first was devoted to a similar illustration of Hudibras.
The whole affair seems to afford indications of insanity. In the
_Biographical Dictionary of Living Authors_, 8vo., Lond. 1816, I find that
in 1802 he was returned to Parliament by the borough of Saltash, in
Cornwall: and from the same authority it also appears that, in addition to
the works above noticed, he was the author of _A Guide to the Knowledge of
the Ancients_, 1803, and _A letter to Mr. Whitbread on two Bills pending in
Parliament_, 8vo. 1807.

J. F. M.

{62} _The Hippopotamus._--_The Scotch Kilt._--I was on the point of
addressing a Minor Query to you, when No. 33. arrived, and therein I saw a
Major Query from L. (p.36.), which prompts an immediate answer. He asks,
"Has there been a live hippopotamus in Europe since the reign of Commodus?"
To be sure there has, and Capitolinus would have set him right. A goodly
assemblage of animals of all sorts was collected by Gordianus Pius, but
used by the elder Philip, for the celebration of the secular games on the
1000th anniversary of the building of Rome, or A.D. 248. Among them were 32
elephants, 10 tigers, 10 elks, 60 lions, 30 leopards, 10 hyænas, 1
hippopotamus, 1 rhinoceros, 40 wild horses, 20 wild asses, and 10 giraffes,
with a vast quantity of deer, goats, antelopes, and other beasts. "And," it
is added in Captain Smyth's Roman Catalogue, "still further to increase the
public _hilarity_, 2000 gladiators were matched in mortal affray."

The portrait of the hippopotamus exhibited on that splendid occasion is
well represented upon the large brass medals of Otacilia Severa, Philip's
wife, and on those of their son, Philip Junior. That of Otacilia is
described at length in Captain Smyth's work.

Now for my Minor Query. Can you, Sir, or any of your intelligent
correspondents, oblige me by saying who introduced the kilt into Scotland
and when? However it may wound local prejudice, I fear our northern
brethren will find its use to be much more recent than they seem willing to
be aware of. At present I will not put a rider on the question, by asking,
whether an Englishman first gave it them: but perhaps you, Sir, will sift
it thoroughly, even although a whole corps of rabid MacNicolls should enter
the field against you.


_Ashes to Ashes_ (Vol. ii., p. 22.).--The word is taken from Genesis,
xviii. 27.:

    "I have taken upon me to speak unto the LORD, which am but dust and

It is plain that this has nothing to do with the treatment of the corpse;
but that whatever the exact meaning of the word in Hebrew may be, it is
synonymous with dust. As to dust, this is perfectly plain in Genesis, iii.

    "Till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken; for
    dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return."

Here burial seems to be distinctly meant.

The Latin word _cinis_, which denotes ashes produced by burning, is derived
from the Greek, which denotes natural dust, I forget whether burnt ashes

C. B.

_Dr. Maginn's Miscellanies_ (Vol. i., p. 470.).--Mr. Tucker Hunt (brother
of Mr. F. Knight Hunt, author of _The Fourth Estate, a History of
Newspapers, &c. &c._) showed me some years since a collections of these
papers from various sources, which he proposed to publish, and which I was
very glad to learn, as I had always regretted that Dr. Maginn had left no
memorial of his splendid talents in a seperate publication, but frittered
away his genius in periodicals. As "J. M. B." appears very anxious to
obtain an authentic reference to any article contributed by the Dr., I
think if he could communicate with Mr. Tucker Hunt, it might be of great
assistance. I have not the latter's address, but probably a note to the
care of his brother's publisher, "D. Bogue, Fleet Street", might lead to a


Fulham, June 5. 1850

_Living Dog better than a dead Lion_.--For an answer to my Query at Vol.
i., pp. 352. 371., where I asked for the authority upon which Baunez gave
_Homer_ credit for the expression (which is evidently none of his), "quod
leoni mortuo etiam lepores insultant," a friend has referred me to
_Antholog. Græc._. 8vo. Lipsiæ, 1794, tom. iv. p. 112.; out of which you
may, perhaps, think it not too late to insert the following Epigr. xi.

  [Greek: "Hôs apo Hektoros titrôskomenou hupo Hellênôn,]
  [Greek: Ballete nun meta potmon emon demas. hotti kai autai]
  [Greek: Nekrou sôma leontos ephubrizousi lagôoi."]


_Gaol Chaplains_ (Vol. ii., p. 22.) were made universal by act of
parliament in the fourth year of George IV. Before that they may have
existed in some places. In Gloucestershire from 1786.

C. B.

_Rome Ancient and Modern_ (Vol. ii., p. 21.)--Such a map as your
correspondent A. B. M. describes, was at Rome in 1827. It was by Vasi. I
got it, but never saw it in England.

C. B.

_Trianon_ (Vol. ii., p. 47.).--In justice to myself, and in reply to your
correspondent C., who believes I have "not the slightest authority" for my
explanation of the word _Trianon_, I beg to refer him to the French
dictionaries, in some of which, at all events, he will find it thus
written: _Trianon_, subst. masc., _a pavilion_.

J. K. R. W.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Aboriginal Chambers near Tilbury_ (Vol. i., p. 462.).--Mr. Cook, of
Abeley, Essex, having seen this Query, which had been kindly quoted into
_The Athenæum_ of the 25th ultimo, communicated to that journal on
Saturday, June 1st, the following information respecting two of these
caves, the result of a personal examination of them:--

    "The shafts are five in number; and are situated at {63} the edge of
    Hanging Wood, in the parish of Chadwell, about three miles from Grays
    Pier. I descended two of them in 1847, by means of a rope and pulley
    fixed to the branch of a neighbouring tree,--taking the precaution to
    have a lighted lanthorn swinging a few yards beneath me. They were
    between eighty and ninety feet in depth,--their diameter at the top six
    feet, gradually diminishing to three feet at the bottom. There was a
    great deal of drift sand at the bottom of the shaft, extending a
    considerable way up, which nearly blocked up the entrance to the
    chambers. By treading down the sand I soon gained an entrance, and
    found five chambers communicating with the shaft--three on one side and
    two on the other. In form they were nearly semicircular. Their
    dimensions were small, not exceeding thirty feet in length by fifteen
    in width, but very lofty; they were quite dry and free from foul air.
    The chambers in both shafts corresponded exactly with each other in
    size, form, and number. I trust this brief account may be of some
    service to those gentlemen who intend to explore them, and should be
    most happy to afford any assistance in my power."

_Mistake in Conybeare and Howson's Life of St. Paul._--In the splendid and
learned _Life of St. Paul_, now publishing by Messrs. Longmans, there
occurs in a note a broad assertion, but quite erroneous, which may mislead
those who would be inclined to take it without examination, induced by the
general accuracy and learning of the work. At page 35, note 1., the writer
says, "It is remarkable that the Sadducees are mentioned in no other books
of the New Testament, except St. Matthew and the Acts." I mentioned this as
a _fact_ to a friend, who immediately remembered a passage in St. Luke,
chap. xx. v. 27.: "Then came to him certain of the Sadducees," &c. I then
turned out Sadducees in Cruden, and there found only Matthew and Acts
referred to. On looking at the passage of St. Mark parallel to the
abovementioned of St. Luke, I read, "Then came unto him the Sadducees," &c.
(xii. 18.) The note, therefore, should end, "except the first three Gospels
and the Acts."


       *       *       *       *       *



The Rev. W. Haslam, the author of _Perran Zabuloe_, has just issued a
little volume entitled _The Cross and the Serpent, being a brief History of
the Triumph of the Cross through a long Series of Ages in Prophecy, Types,
and Fulfilments_. Though the present work belongs to one of the two classes
which, for obvious reasons, we do not undertake to notice in our columns,
there is so much of curious matter illustrative of Folk Lore, early
remains, and old-world customs, in the third part of it, as to justify our
directing the attention of our antiquarian readers to the archæology of the
volume. The Druidic Beltein or Midsummer Fire still burns brightly, it
appears, in Cornwall. We shall endeavour to transfer to our Folk Lore
columns some passages on this and other cognate subjects.

Mr. Russell Smith announces a series of _Critical and Historical Tracts_ on
the subject of, I. _Agincourt_; II. _First Colonists of New England_ (this
is already issued); and III. Milton, a _Sheaf of Gleanings after his
Biographers and Annotators_. The name of Joseph Hunter, F.S.A., which
figures upon their title-pages, is a sufficient warrant that they will
deserve the attention of the historical student.

Mr. M. A. Denham, the author of the interesting _Collection of Proverbs and
Popular Sayings relating to the Seasons, Weather, &c._, published by the
Percy Society, also intends to issue some Tracts (limited to fifty copies
of each) illustrative of the antiquities of the northern parts of the
kingdom. The first is to be on _The Slogans or Slughorns of the North of
England_; the second, on _"Some of the Manners and Customs"_ of the North.

We have received the following Catalogues:--Joseph Lilly's (7. Pall Mall)
Catalogue of a Choice and Valuable Collection of Rare, Curious, and Useful
Books; William Andrews' (7. Corn Street, Bristol) Catalogue, Part IV.,
1850, Books just bought from the Deanery, Armagh, &c.; and J. Russell
Smith's (4. Old Compton Street, Soho) Bibliotheca Historica et
Topographica; Books illustrating the History, Antiquities, and Topography
of Great Britain and Ireland.

       *       *       *       *       *


(_In continuation of Lists in former Nos._)


[The edition that contains the _History of Joseph_ as a Praxis, _not_ that
which contains the Proverbs.]


*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to Mr. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

TITLE AND INDEX TO VOLUME THE FIRST. _A Double Number will be published
next week, containing Title and copious Index to the First Volume, price
9d., or stamped to go post free,_ 11d.

_The Monthly Part will be ready at the same time, price 1s._ 9d.,
_including the Title and Index._

DELTA. _The following appears to us the true reading of the legend of the
seal transmitted:_--

              MRIE. D'. GALLATE.

_There appears little doubt as to the last word, whatever may be the
locality intended. "Gallatum" has been used for "Wallop" in Hampshire, but
it is doubtful if this seal applies to that place._

C. F. O. _The Phigaleian Marbles are in the British Museum. The casts
described were modelled from them by an accomplished London Artist._

_Errata._--No. 33., p. 39, 40., in the article _Cosas de España_, Te_r_eda
should be Te_x_eda; and for Carrascon, which recently _had_ been reprinted,
read _has_. {64}

       *       *       *       *       *

Country Business, established upwards of Fifty Years, and yielding a net
profit of 300_l_. per annum, is now to be sold a great Bargain: it embraces
Printing, Bookselling, and Stationery; is carried on in the West of
England, on premises admirably adapted for its various branches, and held
at a very Low Rental. About 1200l. or 1300l. will be required for the
purchase of the Stock, Printing Presses, &c., (which is of the best
description), one-third of which may remain on approved Security. Address
by Letter only to T. W., Messrs. Simpkin, Marshall, and Co., Stationer's
Court, Ludgate Hill.

       *       *       *       *       *

Vols. I. and II. 8vo., price 28s. cloth.


    "A work in which a subject of great historical importance is treated
    with the care, diligence, and learning it deserves; in which Mr. Foss
    has brought to light many points previously unknown, corrected many
    errors, and shown such ample knowledge of his subject as to conduct it
    successfully through all the intricacies of a difficult investigation,
    and such taste and judgment as will enable him to quit, when occasion
    requires, the dry details of a professional inquiry, and to impart to
    his work, as he proceeds, the grace and dignity of a philosophical
    history."--_Gent. Mag._


       *       *       *       *       *

MEMOIRS OF MUSICK. By the Hon. ROGER NORTH, Attorney-General to James. I.
Now first printed from the original MS. and edited, with copious Notes, by
EDWARD F. RIMBAULT, LL.D., F.S.A, &c. &c. Quarto; with a Portrait;
handsomely printed in 4to.; half-bound in morocco, 15_s_.

This interesting MS., so frequently alluded to by Dr. Burney in the course
of his "History of Music," has been kindly placed at the disposal of the
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Esq., Organist of Hereford Cathedral. But the Council, not feeling
authorised to commence a series of literary publications, yet impressed
with the value of the work, have suggested its independent publication to
their Secretary, Dr. Rimbault, under whose editorial care it accordingly

It abounds with interesting Musical Anecdotes; the Greek Fables respecting
the origin of Music; the rise and progress of Musical Instruments; the
early Musical Drama; the origin of our present fashionable Concerts; the
first performance of the Beggar's Opera, &c.

A limited number having been printed, few copies remain for sale: unsold
copies will shortly be raised in price to 1l. 11s. 6d.

Folio, price 30s.

IRELAND. Collect from Authentic Sources. By the Rev. JOHN JEBB, A.M.,
Rector of Peterstow.

The present Work contains a full collection of the harmonized compositions
of ancient date, including nine sets of pieces and responses, and fifteen
litanies, with a few of the more ancient Psalm Chants. They are given in
full score, and in their proper cliffs. In the upper part, however, the
treble is substituted for the "cantus" or "medius" cliff: and the whole
work is so arranged as to suit the library of the musical student, and to
be fit for use in the Choir.

London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Preparing for publication, in 2 vols. small 8vo.

Camden Society, Editor of "Early Prose Romances," "Lays and Legends of all
Nations," &c. One object of the present work is to furnish new
contributions to the History of our National Folk-Lore; and especially some
of the more striking Illustrations of the subject to be found in the
Writings of Jacob Grimm and other Continental Antiquaries.

Communications of inedited Legends, Notices of remarkable Customs and
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       *       *       *       *       *


Now ready, Fourth Edition, with upwards of 100 Plates and Woodcuts, 2 vols.
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NINEVEH AND ITS REMAINS: being a Narrative of Researches and Discoveries
amidst the Ruins of Assyria. With an account of the Chaldean Christians of
Kurdistan; the Yezidis, or Devil-worshippers; and an Enquiry into the
Manners and Arts of the Ancient Assyrians. By AUSTEN H. LAYARD, D.C.L.

"This is, we think, the most extraordinary work of the present age, whether
with reference to the wonderful discoveries it describes, its remarkable
verification of our early biblical history, or the talent, courage, and
perseverance of its author. We have had our Bruces and Mungo Parks, as well
as our Parrys, Franklins, Backs, and Rosses, but we question whether a more
enlightened or a more enterprising traveller than Mr. Layard is to be met
with in the annals of our modern English history."--_From the_ TIMES.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

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  The Evangelical History of our Lord and Saviour
    Jesus Christ. Part I., 4d. Part II., 8d. ... Reading.
  The Common Prayer Book the Best Companion, 3d. ... Unknown.
  Church School Hymn Book. Cloth, 8d.

The Clergy and others purchasing for distribution, are informed that a
reduction of twenty per cent. will be made on all orders of not less than
10_s_. in amount, if addressed direct to the Publisher, Mr. SLOCOMBE,
Leeds, or to Mr. BELL, Fleet Street, London, and payment made on delivery.

Leeds: R. SLOCOMBE. London: G. BELL.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, June 22. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *

Corrections made to printed original.

p. 52 "gamêlioi theoi" - "gamêlioi theio" in original.

p. 56 "admitted in churches or churchyards." - "chuchyards" in original.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 34, June 22, 1850 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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