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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 37, July 13, 1850
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 37, July 13, 1850" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 37.] SATURDAY, JULY 13, 1850 [Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

       *       *       *       *       * {97}


  The Author of the "Characteristics" by W.D. Christie. 97
  Caxton's Printing office, by R.F. Rimbault. 99
  Sanatory Laws in other Days. 99
  Folk Lore:--Midsummer Fires. 101
  Minor Notes:--Borrowed Thoughts--An Infant Prodigy
    in 1659--Allusion in Peter Martyr--Hogs not
    Pigs. 101

  A Query and Replies, by H. Walter. 102
  Letters of Queen Elizabeth and Philip II. of Spain. 102
  Minor Queries:--The New Temple--"Junius Identified"--Mildew
    in Books--George Herbert's Burialplace--The Earl of Essex
    and "The Finding of the Rayned Deer"--The Lass of Richmond
    Hill--Curfew--Alumni of Oxford, Cambridge, and Winchester--St.
    Leger's Life of Archbishop Walsh--Query put to a Pope--The
    Carpenter's Maggot--Lord Delamere--Henry and the Nutbrown Maid. 103

  French Poem by Malherbe, by S.W. Singer. 104
  "Dies Iræ, Dies Illa." 105
  Dr. Samuel Ogden, by J.H. Markland. 105
  Replies to Minor Queries:--Porson's Imposition--The
    Three Dukes--Kant's Sämmtliche Werke--Becket's
    Mother--"Imprest" and "Debenture"--Derivation
    of "News"--Origin of Adur--Meaning of
    Steyne--Sarum and Barum--Epigrams on the
    Universities--Dulcarnon--Dr. Magian--America
    known to the Ancients--Collar of SS.--Martello
    Towers--"A Frog he would a-wooing go"--William
    of Wykeham--Execution of Charles I.--Swords--The
    Low Window--Brasichelli's Expurgatory Index--Discursus
    Modestus--Melancthon's Epigram. 106

  Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, Sales, &c. 111
  Books and Odd Volumes Wanted. 111
  Notices to Correspondents. 111
  Advertisements. 112

       *       *       *       *       *



Lord Shaftesbury's _Letters to a young Man at the University_, on which
Mr. SINGER has addressed to you an interesting communication (Vol. ii.,
p. 33.), were reprinted in 1746 in a collection of his letters,
"_Letters of the Earl of Shaftesbury, author of the Characteristicks,
collected into one volume_: printed MDCCXLVI." 18mo. This volume
contains also Lord Shaftesbury's letters to Lord Molesworth, originally
published by Toland, with an introduction which is not reprinted; a
"Letter sent from Italy, with the notion of the Judgment of Hercules,
&c., to my Lord ----"; and three letters reprinted from Lord
Kippis, under the superintendence of Lord Shaftesbury's son, the fourth

In my copy of the original edition of the _Letters to a young Man at the
University_, two letters have been transcribed by an unknown previous
possessor. One is to Bishop Burnet, recommending young Ainsworth when
about to be ordained deacon:--

    "To the Bishop of Sarum.

    "Reigate, May 23. 1710.

    "My Lord,--The young man who delivers this to your Lordship, is
    one who for several years has been preparing himself for the
    ministry, and in order to it has, I think, completed his time at
    the university. The occasion of his applying this way was purely
    from his own inclination. I took him a child from his poor
    parents, out of a numerous and necessitous family, into my own,
    employing him in nothing servile; and finding his ingenuity, put
    him abroad to the best schools to qualify him for preferment in
    a peculiar way. But the serious temper of the lad disposing him,
    as I found, to the ministry preferably to other advantages, I
    could not be his hindrance; though till very lately I gave him
    no prospect of any encouragement through my interest. But having
    been at last convinced, by his sober and religious courage, his
    studious inclination and meek behaviour, that 'twas real
    principle and not a vanity or conceit that led him into these
    thoughts, I am resolved, in case your lordship thinks him worthy
    of the ministry, to procure him a benefice as soon as anything
    happens in my power, and in the mean time design to keep him as
    my chaplain in my family.

    "I am, my Lord, &c.,


The second letter inserted in my copy is to Ainsworth himself, dated
Reigate, 11th May, 1711, and written when he was about to apply for
priest's orders. But the bulk of this letter is printed, with a
different beginning and ending, in the tenth printed letter, under date
July 10th, 1710, and is there made to apply to Ainsworth's having just
received deacon's orders. The beginning, and ending of the letter, as in
MS., are--

    "I am glad the time is come that you are to receive full orders,
    and that you hope it from the hands of our {98} great, worthy,
    and excellent Bishop, the Lord of Salisbury. This is one of the
    circumstances" [then the letter proceeds exactly as in the
    printed Letter X., and the MS. letter concludes:] "God send you
    all true Christianity, with that temper, life, and manners which
    become it.

    "I am, your hearty friend,


I quote the printed beginning of Letter X., on account of the eulogy on
Bishop Burnet:--

    "I believed, indeed, it was your expecting me every day at ----
    that prevented your writing since you received orders from the
    good Bishop, my Lord of Salisbury; who, as he has done more than
    any man living for the good and honour of the Church of England
    and the Reformed Religion, so he now suffers more than any man
    from the tongues and slander of those ungrateful Churchmen, who
    may well call themselves by that single term of distinction,
    having no claim to that of Christianity or Protestant, since
    they have thrown off all the temper of the former and all
    concern or interest with the latter. I hope whatever advice the
    great and good Bishop gave you, will sink deeply into your

Mr. Singer has extracted from the eighth printed letter one or two
sentences on Locke's denial of innate ideas. A discussion of Locke's
views on this subject, or of Lord Shaftesbury's contrary doctrine of a
"moral sense," is not suited to your columns; and I only wish to say
that I think Mr. Singer has not made it sufficiently clear that Lord
Shaftesbury's remarks apply only to the speculative consequences,
according to his own view, of a denial of innate ideas; and that Lord
Shaftesbury, in another passage of the same Letters, renders the
following tribute of praise to the _Essay on the Human Understanding_:--

    "I am not sorry that I lent you Mr. Locke's _Essay on the Human
    Understanding_, which may as well qualify for business and the
    world as for the sciences and a University. No one has done more
    towards the recalling of philosophy from barbarity into use and
    practice of the world, and into the company of the better and
    politer sort, who might well be ashamed of it in its other
    dress. No one has opened a better or clearer way to reasoning;
    and, above all, I wonder to hear him censured so much by any
    Church of England men, for advancing reason and bringing the use
    of it so much into religion, when it is by this only that we
    fight against the enthusiasts and repel the great enemies of our

A life of the author of the _Characteristics_ is hardly less a
desideratum than that of his grandfather, the Lord Chancellor, and would
make an interesting work, written in connection with the politics as
well as literature of the reigns of William and Anne; for the third Lord
Shaftesbury, though prevented by ill-health from undertaking office or
regularly attending parliament, took always a lively interest in
politics. An interesting collection of the third earl's letters has been
published by Mr. Foster (_Letters of Locke, Algernon Sidney, and the
Earl of Shaftesbury_), and a few letters from him to Locke are in Lord
King's _Life of Locke_. I subjoin a "note" of a few original letters of
the third Lord Shaftesbury in the British Museum; some of your readers
who frequent the British Museum may perhaps be induced to copy them for
your columns.

Letters to Des Maizeaux (one interesting, offering him pecuniary
assistance) in _Ags. Cat._ MSS. 4288.

Letters to Charles Montagu, Earl of Halifax[1], (one introducing
Toland). Add. MSS. 7121.

Letter to Toland (printed, I think, in one of the _Memoirs of Toland_).
_Ags. Cat._ 4295. 10.

Letter to T. Stringer in 1625. Ib. 4107. 115.

In Watt's _Bibliotheca Britannica_, neither the _Letters to a young Man
at the University_, published in 1716, nor the collection of letters of
1746, are mentioned; and confusion is made between the author of the
_Characteristics_ and his grandfather the Chancellor. Several political
tracts, published during the latter part of Charles II.'s reign, which
have been ascribed to the first Earl of Shaftesbury, but of which,
though they were probably written under his supervision, it is extremely
doubtful that he was the actual author, are lumped together with the
_Characteristics_ as the works of one and the same Earl of Shaftesbury.

Some years ago a discovery was made in Holland of MSS. of Le Clerc, and
some notice of the MSS., and extracts from them, are to be found in the
following work:--

    "De Joanne Clerico et Philippo A. Limborch Dissertationes Duæ.
    Adhibitis Epistolis aliisque Scriptis ineditis scripsit atque
    eruditorum virorum epistolis nunc primum editis auxit Abr. Des
    Amorie Van Der Hoeven, &c. Amstelodami: apud Fredericum Muller,

Two letters of Locke are among the MSS. Now it is mentioned by Mr.
Martyn, the biographer of the first Earl of Shaftesbury, in a MS. letter
in the British Museum, that some of this earl's papers were sent by the
family to Le Clerc, and were supposed not to have been returned. I
mention this, as I perceive you have readers and correspondents in
Holland, in the hope that I may possibly learn whether any papers
relating to the first Earl of Shaftesbury have been found among the
lately discovered Le Clerc MSS.; and it is not unlikely that the same
MSS. might contain letters of the third earl, the author of the
_Characteristics_, who was a friend and correspondent of Le Clerc.


    [Footnote 1: Two of these--one a letter asking the earl to stand
    godfather to his son, and the other a short note, forwarding a
    book (Qy. of Toland's)--are printed by Sir Henry Ellis in his
    Camden volume, _Letters of Eminent Literary Men_.--ED.]

       *       *       *       *       * {99}


The particular spot where Caxton exercised his business, or the place
where his press was fixed, cannot now, perhaps, be exactly ascertained.
Dr. Dibdin, after a careful examination of existing testimonies, thinks
it most probable that he erected his press in one of the chapels
attached to the aisles of Westminster Abbey; and as no remains of this
interesting place can now be discovered, there is a strong presumption
that it was pulled down in making alterations for the building of Henry
VII.'s splendid chapel.

It has been frequently asserted that all Caxton's books were printed in
a part of Westminster Abbey; this must be mere conjecture, because we
find no statement of it from himself: he first mentions the place of his
printing in 1477, so that he must have printed some time without
informing us where.

With all possible respect for the opinions of Dr. Dibdin, and the
numerous writers on our early typography, I have very considerable
doubts as to whether Caxton really printed _within the walls of the
Abbey_ at all. I am aware that he himself says, in some of his
colophons, "Emprinted in th' Abbey of Westmynstre," but query whether
the _precincts_ of the Abbey are not intended? Stow, in his _Annals_
(edit 1560, p. 686.), says,--"William Caxton of London, mercer, brought
it (printing) into England about the year 1471, and first practised the
same in the _Abbie_ of St. Peter at Westminster;" but in his _Survey of
London_, 1603 (edit. Thoms, p. 176.), the same writer gives us a more
full and particular account; it is as follows:--

    "Near unto this house [i.e. Henry VII.'s alms-house], westward,
    was an old chapel of St. Anne; over against the which, the Lady
    Margaret, mother to King Henry VII., erected an alms-house for
    poor women, which is now turned into lodgings for the singing
    men of the college. The place wherein this chapel and alms-house
    standeth was called the Elemosinary, or almonry, now corruptly
    the ambry, for that the alms of the Abbey were there distributed
    to the poor; and therein Islip, abbot of Westminster, erected
    the first press of book-printing that ever was in England, about
    the year of Christ 1471. William Caxton, citizen of London,
    mercer, brought it into England, and was the first that
    practised it _in the said abbey_; after which time the like was
    practised in the abbeys of St. Augustine at Canterbury, St.
    Albans, and other monasteries."

Again, in the curious hand-bill preserved in the Bodleian Library, it
will be remembered that Caxton invites his customers to "come to
Westmonester _into the Almonestrye_," where they may purchase his books
"good chepe."

From these extracts it is pretty clear that Caxton's printing-office was
in the Almonry, which was within the precincts of the Abbey, and not in
the Abbey itself. The "old chapel of St. Anne" was doubtless the place
where the first printing-office was erected in England. Abbot Milling
(not Islip, as stated by Stow) was the generous friend and patron of
Caxton and the art of printing; and it was by permission of this learned
monk that our printer was allowed the use of the building in question.

The _old_ chapel of St. Anne stood in the New-way, near the back of the
workhouse, at the bottom of the almonry leading to what is now called
Stratton Ground. It was pulled down, I believe, about the middle of the
seventeenth century. The _new_ chapel of St. Anne, erected in 1631, near
the site of the old one, was destroyed about fifty years since.

Mr. Cunningham, in his _Handbook for London_ (vol. i. p. 17.), says,--

    "The first printing-press ever seen in England was set up in
    this almonry under the patronage of _Esteney_, Abbot of
    Westminster, by William Caxton, citizen and mercer (d. 1483)."

Esteney succeeded Milling in the Abbacy of Westminster, but the latter
did not die before 1492. On p. 520. of his second volume, Mr. Cunninghan
gives the date of Caxton's death correctly, i.e. 1491.


       *       *       *       *       *


In that curious medley commonly designated, after Hearne, _Arnold's
Chronicle_, and which was probably first printed in 1502 or 1503, we
find the following passages. I make "notes" of them, from their peculiar
interest at the moment when sanatory bills, having the same objects, are
occupying the public attention so strongly; especially in respect to the
Smithfield Nuisance and the Clergy Discipline bill.

1. In a paper entitled "The articles dishired bi y'e comonse of the cety
of London, for reformacyo of thingis to the same, of the Mayer,
Aldirmen, and Comon Counsell, to be enacted," we have the following:--

    "Also that in anoyding the corupte savours and lothsom innoyaunc
    (caused by slaughter of best) w'tin the cyte, wherby moche
    people is corupte and infecte, it may plese my Lord Mayr,
    Aldirmen, and Comen Counsaile, to put in execucion a certaine
    acte of parlement, by whiche it is ordeigned y't no such
    slaughter of best shuld be vsed or had within this cite, and
    that suche penaltees be leuyed vpo the contrary doers as in the
    said acte of parlement ben expressed.

    "Also in anoyding of lyke annoyauce. Plese it my Lord Mair,
    Alderme, and Como Councell, to enact that noo manor pulter or
    any other persone i this cytee kepe from hinsforth, within his
    hous, swans, gies, or dowk, upon a peyn therfore to be
    ordeigned."--pp. 83, 84, 3d. ed.

I believe that one item of "folk-faith" is that "farm-yard odours are
healthy." I have often {100} heard it affirmed at least; and, indeed,
has not the common councilman, whom the _Times_ has happily designated
as the "defender of filth", totally and publicly staked his reputation
on the dogma in its most extravagant shape, within the last few months?
It is clear that nearly four centuries ago, the citizens of London
thought differently; even though "the corupte savours and lothsom
innoyaunc" were infinitely less loathsome than in the present Smithfield
and the City slaughter-houses.

It would be interesting to know to what act of parliament Arnold's
citizens refer, and whether it has ever been repealed. It is curious to
notice, too, that the danger from infuriated beasts running wild through
the streets is not amongst the evils of the system represented. They go
further, however, and forbid even the _killing_ within the city.

Moreover, it would really seem that the swan was not then a mere
ornamental bird, either alive or dead, but an ordinary article of
citizen-dinners, it being classed with "gies and dowks" in the business
of the poulterer. At the same time, no mention being made of swine in
any of these ordonnances or petitions, would at first sight seem to show
that the flesh of the hog was in abhorrence with the Catholic citizen,
as much perhaps as with the Jews themselves; at any rate, that it was
not a vendible article of food in those days. When did it become so?
This conclusion would, however, be erroneous; for amongst "the articles
of the good governaûce of the cite of London" shortly following we have

    "Also yf ony persone kepe or norrysh hoggis, oxen, kyen, or
    mallardis within the ward, in noyoying of ther neyhbours."--p.

The proper or appointed place for keeping hoggis was Hoggistone, now
Hoxton; as Houndsditch[2] was for the hounds.

There is another among these petitions to the Lord Mayor and
corporation, worthy of notice, in connection with sanatory law.

    "Also in avoydîg ye abhomynable savours causid by ye kepîg of ye
    kenell in ye mote and ye diches there, and î especiall by sethig
    of ye houndes mete wt roten bones, and vnclenly keping of ye
    hoûdes, wherof moche people is anoyed, soo yt when the wynde is
    in any poyte of the northe, all the fowle stynke is blowen ouer
    the citee. Plese it mi Lord Mair, Aldirmen, and Comen Coûcell,
    to ordeigne that the sayd kenell be amoued and sett in sô other
    côuenient place where as best shall seme them. And also that the
    said diches mai be clensed from yere to yere, and so kepte yt
    thereof folowe non annoyaunce."--p. 87.

Of course "Houndsditch" is here meant; but for what purpose were the
hounds kept? And, indeed, what kind of hounds were they, that thus
formed a part of the City establishment? Were they bloodhounds for
tracking criminals, or hounds kept for the special behoof and pleasure
of the "Lord Mair, Aldermen, and Comen Coûsel?" The Houndsditch of that
time bore a strong resemblance to the Fleet ditch of times scarcely
exceeding the memory of many living men.

I come now to the passages relating to the clergy.

    "Also, where as the curatis of the cyte have used often tyme
    herebefore to selle their offring (at mariag), whereby the
    pisshês where such sales be made comenly be lettid fro messe or
    matyns, and otherwhiles from both, by so moch as the frendis of
    the pties maryed vsen to goo abowte vij. or viij. dayes before,
    and desiryg men to offryg at such tymes as more conuenyent it
    were to be at diunyne seruice. Plese it my Lord Mair, Aldirmê,
    and Comê Coûseile, to puide remedy, so that the sayd custume be
    fordone and leid aparte."--p. 86.

    "Also, to thentent that the ordre of priesthood be had in dew
    reuerence according to the dignite therof, and that none
    occasions of incontinence growe bee the famylyarite of seculer
    people. Plese it my Lord Mayre, Aldirmen, and Comon Counsyll, to
    enacte that no maner persone beyng free of this citee take,
    receyue, and kepe from hensforth ony priest in comons, or to
    borde by the weke, moneth, or yere, or ony other terme more or
    lesse, vpon peine thervpon to be lymytyd, prouided that this
    acte extêde not to ony prieste retayned wyth a citezen in
    famyliar housolde."--p. 89.

    "Also, plese it my Lord Mayre, Aldyrmen, and Comon Counseylle,
    that a communication may be had wyth the curatis of this citee
    for oblacions whiche they clayme to haue of citezens agaynst the
    tenour of the bulle purchased att their owne instance, and that
    it may be determined and an ende taken, whervpon the citezens
    shall rest."--p. 89.

    "Also, yf ther be ony priest in seruice within the warde, which
    afore tyme hath been sette in the toune in Cornhyll for his
    dishoneste, and hath forsworne the cyte, alle suche shulde bee
    presentyd."--p. 92.

Upon these I shall make no remark. They will make different impressions
on different readers; according to the extent of prejudice or liberality
existing in different minds. They show that even during the most
absolute period of ecclesiastical domination, there was one spot in
England where attempts to legislate for the priesthood (though perhaps
feeble enough) were made. The legislative {101} powers of the
corporation were at that time very ample; and the only condition by
which they appear to have been limited was, that they should not
override an act of parliament or a royal proclamation.

Is there any specific account of the "tonne in Cornhyll" existing? Its
purpose, in connection with the conduit, admits of no doubt; the
forsworn and dishonest priest had been punished with a "good ducking,"
and this, no doubt, accompanied with a suitable ceremonial for the
special amusement of the "'prentices."[3]

I have also marked a few passages relative to the police and the fiscal
laws of those days, and when time permits, will transcribe them for you,
if you deem them worthy of being laid before your readers.


    [Footnote 2: Mr. Cunningham, speaking of Houndsditch, merely
    quotes the words of Stow. It would appear that Stow's reason for
    the name is entirely conjectural; and indeed the same reason
    would justify the same name being applied to all the "ditches"
    in London in the year 1500, and indeed much later. This passage
    of Arnold throws a new light upon the _name_, at least, of that
    rivulet; for stagnant its waters could not be, from its
    inclination to the horizon. It, however, raises another question
    respecting the mode of keeping and feeding hounds in those days;
    and likewise, as suggested in the text, the further question, as
    to the purpose for which these hounds were thus kept as a part
    of the civic establishment.]

    [Footnote 3: This view will no doubt be contested on the
    authority of Stow, who describes the tonne as a "prison for
    night-walkers," so called from the form in which it was built.
    (Cunningham, p. 141., 2nd ed.) Yet, as Mr. Cunningham elsewhere
    states (p. xxxix.), "the Tun upon Corn-hill [was] converted into
    a conduit" in 1401, it would hardly be called a "prison" a
    century later. The probability is, that the especial building
    called the tonne never was a prison at all; but that the prison,
    from standing near or adjoining the tonne, took its name, the
    tonne prison, in conformity with universal usage. It is equally
    probable that the tonne was originally built for the purpose to
    which it was ultimately applied; and that some delay arose in
    its use from the difficulty experienced in the hydraulic part of
    the undertaking, which was only overcome in 1401. The
    universality of the punishment of "ducking" amongst our
    ancestors is at least a circumstance in favour of the view taken
    in the text.]

       *       *       *       *       *


_Midsummer Fires._--From your notice of Mr. Haslam's account of the
Beltein or Midsummer fires in Cornwall, I conclude you will give a place
to the following note. On St. John's eve last past, I happened to pass
the day at a house situate on an elevated tract in the county of
Kilkenny, Ireland; and I shall long remember the beauty of the sight,
when, as dusk closed in, fire after fire shot up its clear flame,
thickly studding the near plains and distant hills. The evening was calm
and still, and the mingled shouts and yells of the representatives of
the old fire-worshippers came with a very singular effect on the ear.
When a boy, I have often _passed through_ the fire myself on Midsummer
eve, and such is still the custom. The higher the flame, the more daring
the act is considered: hence there is a sort of emulation amongst the
unwitting perpetrators of this Pagan rite. In many places cattle are
driven through the fire; and this ceremony is firmly believed to have a
powerful effect in preserving them from various harms. I need not say,
that amongst the peasantry the fires are now lighted in honour of St



       *       *       *       *       *


_Borrowed Thoughts._--Mr. SINGER (Vol. i., p. 482.) points out the
French original from which Goldsmith borrowed his epigram beginning--

  "Here lies poor Ned Purdon."

I find, in looking over Swift's works, a more literal version of this
than Goldsmith's:--

  "Well then, poor G---- lies under ground,
    So there's an end of honest Jack;
  So little justice here he found,
   'Tis ten to one he'll ne'er come back."

I should like to add two Queries:--Who was the Chevallier de Cailly (or
d'Aceilly), the author of the French epigram mentioned by Mr. Singer?
And--when did he live?


_An Infant Prodigy in 1659._--The following wonderful story is thus
related by Archbishop Bramhall (Carte's _Letters_, ii. 208.: Dr.
Bramhall to Dr. Earles, Utrecht, Sept. 6-16, 1659):--

    "A child was born in London about three months since, with a
    double tongue, or divided tongue, which the third day after it
    was born, cried 'a King, a King,' and bid them bring it to the
    King. The mother of the child saieth it told her of all that
    happened in England since, and much more which she dare not
    utter. This my lady of Inchiguin writeth to her aunt, _Me brow
    van Melliswarde_[4], living in this city, who shewed me the
    letter. My Lady writeth that she herself was as incredulous as
    any person, until she both saw and heard it speak herself very
    lately, as distinctly as she herself could do, and so loud that
    all the room heard it. That which she heard was this. A
    gentleman in the company took the child in his arms and gave it
    money, and asked what it would do with it, to which it answered
    aloud that it would give it to the King. If my Lady were so
    foolish to be deceived, or had not been an eye and ear witness
    herself, I might have disputed it; but giving credit to her, I
    cannot esteem it less than a miracle. If God be pleased to
    bestow a blessing upon us, he cannot want means."

It can hardly be doubted that the Archbishop's miracle was a
ventriloquist hoax.


    [Footnote 4: The name of the Dutch lady, mis-written for De
    Vrouw, &c.]

_Allusion in Peter Martyr._--Mr. Prescott, in his _History of the
Conquest of Mexico_ vol. i. p. 389. (ed. 8vo. 1843), quotes from Peter
Martyr, _De Orbe Novo_, dec. 1. c. l., the words, "Una illis fuit spes
salutis, desperasse de salute," applied to the Spanish invaders of
Mexico; and he remarks that "it is said with the classic energy of
Tacitus." The {102} expression is classical, but is not derived from
Tacitus. The allusion is to the verse of Virgil:--

  "Una salus victis nullam sperare salutem."

_Æn._ ii. 354.


_Hogs not Pigs._--In Cowper's humorous verses, "The yearly Distress, or
Tithing-time at Stoke in Essex," one of the grumblers talks

  "of pigs that he has lost
  By maggots at the tail."

Upon this I have to remark that an intelligent grazier assures me that
pigs are never subject to the evil here complained of, but that lambs of
a year old, otherwise called "hogs" or "hoggets," are often infested by
it. It would appear, therefore, that the poet, misled by the ambiguous
name, and himself knowing nothing of the matter but by report,
attributed to pigs that which happens to the other kind of animal, viz.
lambs a year old, which have not yet been shorn.

J. MN.

       *       *       *       *       *



_Plaister or Paster--Christian Captives--Members for Calais, &c._--In
editing Tyndale's _Pathway_ (_Works_, vol. i. p. 22.), I allowed
preceding editors to induce me to print _pastor_, where the oldest
authority had _paster_. As the following part of the sentence speaks of
"suppling and suaging wounds," I am inclined to suspect that "paster"
might be an old way of spelling, "plaster." Can any of your
correspondents supply me with any instance in which "plaster" or
"plaister" is spelt "paster" by any old English writer?

In return for troubling you with this question, you may inform Mr.
Sansom, in answer to Query, Vol. ii., p. 41., that Hallam says, "Not
less than fifty gentlemen were sold for slaves at Barbadoes, under
Cromwell's government." (_Constit. Hist._, ch. x. note to p. 128., 4to.
edit.) And though Walker exaggerated matters when he spoke "a project to
sell some of the most eminent masters of colleges, &c., to the Turks for
slaves," Whitelock's _Memorials_ will inform him, under date of Sept.
21, 1648, that the English Parliament directed one of its committees "to
take care for transporting the Scotch prisoners, in the first place to
supply the plantations, and to send the rest to Venice."

To another, O.P.Q. (Vol. ii., p. 9.), you may state that the members for
Calais in the time of Edw. VI., and in the first four parliaments of
Mary, may be seen in Willis' _Notitia Parliamentaria_, where their names
are placed next to the members for the Cinque Ports. Willis states that
the return for Calais for the last parliament of Henry VIII is lost.
Their names indicate that they were English,--such as Fowler,
Massingberd, &c.

As to umbrellas, there are Oriental scholars who can inform your
inquirers that the word "satrap" is traceable to words whose purport is,
the bearer of an umbrella.

Another of your latest Querists may find the epigrams on George II.'s
(not, as he imagines, Charles I.'s) different treatment of the two
English universities in Knox's _Elegent Extracts_. The lines he has
cited are both from the same epigram, and, I think, from the first of
the two. They were occasioned by George. II's purchasing the library of
Dr. Moore, Bishop of Ely, and giving it to the university of Cambridge.

The admirer of another epigram has not given it exactly as I can
remember it in a little book of emblems more than fifty years ago:--

  "'Tis an excellent world that we live in,
  To lend, to spend, or to give in;
  But to borrow or beg, or get a man's own,
  'Tis just the worst world that ever was known."


       *       *       *       *       *


Perhaps some of your readers may be able to inform me whether any of the
following letters between Queen Elizabeth and Philip II. of Spain,
extracted from the archives of Simancas, have yet appeared in print:--

1. Queen Elizabeth to Philip II., January 9, 1562-3.

2. Answer, April 2, 1563.

3. Philip II.'s reply to the English ambassador in the case of Bishop
Cuadra, April, 1563.

4. Charges made in England against the Bishop of Aquila, Philip's
ambassador, and the answers.

5. Queen Elizabeth to Philip II., January 18, 1569.

6. Philip to Elizabeth, May 9, 1569.

7. Elizabeth to Philip, March 20, 1571.

8. Answer, June 4, 1571.

9. Declaration of the Council to the Spanish ambassador Don Gueran de
Espes, Dec. 14, 1571.

10. The ambassador's answer.

11. Elizabeth to Philip, Dec. 16, 1571.

12. Bermandino de Mendoza to Philip II., in cypher, London, January 26,

13. Philip to Elizabeth, July, 16, 1568.

14. Duke of Alva to Philip II., January 14, 1572.

15. Minutes of a letter from Philip II. to Don Gueran de Espes, February
24, 1572.


       *       *       *       *       * {103}


_The New Temple._--As your correspondent L.B.L. states (Vol. ii., p.
75.) that he has transcribed a MS. survey of the Hospitallers' lands in
England, taken in 1338, he will do me a great kindness if he will
extract so much of it as contains a description of the New Temple in
London, of which they became possessed just before that date. It will
probably state whether it was then in the occupation of themselves or
others: and, even if it does not throw any light on the tradition that
the lawyers were then established there, or explain the division into
the Inner and Middle Temple, it will at least give some idea of the
boundaries, and perhaps determine whether the site of Essex House,
which, in an ancient record is called the Outer Temple, was then
comprehended within them.


"_Junius Identified._"--The name of "John Taylor" is affixed to the
Preface, and there can be little doubt, I presume, that Mr. John Taylor
was literally _the writer_ of this work. It has, however, already become
a question of some interest, to what extent he was assisted by Mr.
Dubois. The late Mr. George Woodfall always spoke of the pamphlet as the
work of Dubois. Lord Campbell, in his _Lives of the Chancellors_,
published a statement by Lady Francis in respect to Sir Philip's claim
to the authorship of _Junius' Letters_, and thus introduced it--"I am
indebted for it to the kindness of my old and excellent friend, Mr.
Edward Dubois, _the ingenious author of 'Junius Identified'_" Mr. Dubois
was then, and Mr. Taylor is now living, and both remained silent. Sir
Fortunatus Dwarris, the intimate friend of Dubois, states that he was
"_a connection_ of Sir Philip Francis", and that the pamphlet is "said,
I know not with what truth, to have been prepared under the eye of Sir
Philip Francis, it may be, through the agency of Dubois." Dubois was
certainly connected with, though not, I believe, related to Sir Philip;
and at the time of the publication he was also connected with Mr.
Taylor. I hope, under these circumstances, that Mr. Taylor will think it
right to favour you with a statement of the facts, that future
"Note"-makers may not perplex future editors with endless "Queries" on
the subject.


_Mildew in Books._--Can you, or any of your readers, suggest a
preventive for mildew in books?

In a valuable public library in this town (Liverpool), much injury has
been occasioned by mildew, the operations of which appear very
capricious; in some cases attacking the printed part of an engraving,
leaving the margin unaffected; in others attacking the inside of the
backs _only_; and in a few instances it attacks all parts with the
utmost impartiality.

Any hints as to cause or remedy will be most acceptable.


_George Herbert's Burial-place._--Can any of your correspondents inform
me where the venerable George Herbert, rector of Bemerton, co. Wilts.,
was buried, and whether there is any monument of him existing in any

J.R. Fox.

_The Earl of Essex, and "The Finding of the Rayned Deer."_--

    "There is a boke printed at Franker in Friseland, in English,
    entitled _The Finding of the Rayned Deer_, but it bears title to
    be printed in Antwerp, it should say to be done by som prieste
    in defence of the late Essex's tumult."

The above is the postscript to a letter of the celebrated Father Parsons
written "to one Eure, in England", April 30, 1601, a contemporary copy
of which exists in the State Paper Office [Rome,] Whitehall. Can any of
your readers tell me whether anything is known of this book?


June 28. 1850.

_The Lass of Richmond Hill._--I should be much obliged by being informed
who wrote the _words_ of the above song, and when, if it was produced
originally at some place of public entertainment. The Rev. Thomas
Maurice, in his elegant poem on Richmond Hill, has considered it to have
been written upon a Miss Crop, who committed suicide on that spot, April
23rd, 1782; but he was evidently misinformed, as it appeared some few
years later, and had no reference to that event. I have heard it
attributed to Leonard Mac Nally, a writer of some dramatic pieces, but
on no certain grounds; and it may have been a Vauxhall song about the
year 1788. The music was by James Hook, the father of Theodore Hook.


_Curfew._--In what towns or villages in England is the old custom of
ringing the curfew still retained?


_Alumni of Oxford, Cambridge, and Winchester._--Are the alumni of the
various colleges of Oxford, Cambridge, and Winchester, published from an
early period, and the various preferments they held, similar to the one
published at Eton.

J.R. Fox.

_St. Leger's Life of Archbishop Walsh._--In Doctor Oliver's _History of
the Jesuits_, it is stated that William St. Leger, an Irish member of
that Society, wrote the _Life of Thomas Walsh, Archbishop of Cashel_, in
Ireland, published in 4to. at Antwerp in 1655. Can any of your numerous
readers inform me if a copy of this work is to be found in the British
Museum, or any other public library, and something of its contents?

J.W.H. {104}

_Query put to a Pope._--

  "Sancte Pater! scire vellem
  Si Papatus mutat pellem?"

I have been told that these lines were addressed to one of the popes,
whose life, before his elevation to the see of St. Peter, had been
passed in excesses but little suited to the clerical profession.

They were addressed to him _orally_, by one of his former associates,
who met and stopped him while on his way to or from some high festival
of the Church, and who plucked aside, as he spoke, the gorgeous robes in
which his quondam fellow-reveller was dressed.

The reply of the pope was prompt, and, like the question, in a rhyming
Latin couplet. I wish, if possible, to discover, the name of the
pope;--the terms of his reply;--the name of the bold man who "_put him
to the question_;"--by what writer the anecdote is recorded, or on what
authority it rests.



_The Carpenter's Maggot._--I have in my possession a MS. tune called the
"Carpenter's Maggot," which, until within the last few years, was played
(I know for nearly a century) at the annual dinner of the Livery of the
Carpenters' Company. Can any of your readers inform me where the
original is to be found, and also the origin of the word "Maggot" as
applied to a tune?


_Lord Delamere._--Can any of your readers give me the words of a song
called "Lord Delamere," beginning:

  "I wonder very much that our sovereign king,
  So many large taxes upon this land should bring."

And inform me to what political event this song, of which I have an
imperfect MS. copy, refers.


_Henry and the Nut-brown Maid._--SEARCH would be obliged for any
information as to the authorship of this beautiful ballad.

    [Mr. Wright, in his handsome black-letter reprint, published by
    Pickering in 1836, states, that "it is impossible to fix the
    date of this ballad," and has not attempted to trace the
    authorship. We shall be very glad if SEARCH's Query should
    produce information upon either of these points.]

       *       *       *       *       *



The two stanzas your correspondent E.R.C.B. has cited (Vol. ii., p. 71.)
are from an elegiac poem by MALHERBE (who died in 1628, at the good old
age of seventy-three), which is entitled _Consolation à Monsieur Du
Perrier sur la Mort de sa Fille_. It has always been a great favorite of
mine; for, like Gray's Elegy and the celebrated _Coplas_ of Jorge
Manrique on the death of his father, beside its philosophic moralising
strain, it has that pathetic character which makes its way at once to
the heart. I will transcribe the first four stanzas for the sake of the
beauty of the fourth:--

  "Ta douleur, Du Perrier, sera done éternelle,
     Et les tristes discours
  Que te met en l'esprit l'amitié paternelle
     L'augmenteront toujours.

  "Le malheur de ta fille au tombeau descendue,
     Par un commun trépas,
  Est-ce quelque dédale, où ta raison perdue
     Ne se retrouve pas?

  "Je sai de quels appas son enfance estoit pleine;
     Et n'ay pas entrepris,
  Injurieux ami, de soulager ta peine
     Avecque son mépris.

  "Mais elles estoit du monde, où les plus belles choses
     Ont le pire destin:
  Et Rose elle a vécu ce que vivent les roses,
     L'espace d'un matin."

The whole poem consists of twenty-one stanzas and should be read as a
whole; but there are several other striking passages. The consolation
the poet offers to his friend breathes the spirit of Epictetus:--

  "De moy, déjà deux fois d'une pareille foudre
     Je me suis vu perclus,
  Et deux fois la raison m'a si bien fait resoudre,
     Qu'il ne m'en souvient plus.

  "Non qu'il ne me soit grief que la terre possède
     Ce qui me fut si cher;
  Mais en un accident qui n'a point de remède,
     II n'en faut point chercher."

Then follow the two stanzas cited by your correspondent, and the closing
verse is:--

  "De murmurer contre-elle et perdre patience,
     Il est mal-à-propos:
  Vouloir ce que Dieu veut, est la seule science
     Qui nous met en repos."

The stanza beginning "Le pauvre en sa cabane," is an admirable imitation
of the "Pallida mors æquo pulsat pede," &c. of Horace, which a
countryman of the poet is said to have less happily rendered "La pâle
mort avec son pied de cheval," &c.

Malherbe has been duly appreciated in France: his works, in one edition,
are accompanied by an elaborate comment by Menage and Chevreau: Racan
wrote his life, and Godeau, Bishop of Vence, a panegyrical preface. He
was a man of wit, and ready at an impromptu; yet it is said, that in
writing a consolotary poem to the President de Verdun, on the death of
his wife, he was so long {105} in bringing his verses to that degree of
perfection which satisfied his own fastidious taste, that the president
was happily remarried, and the consolation not at all required.

Bishop Hurd, in a note on the _Epistle to Augustus_, p. 72., says:

    "Malherbe was to the French pretty much what Horace had been to
    Latin poetry. These great writers had, each of them, rescued the
    lyric muse of their country out of the rude ungracious hands of
    their old poets. And, as their talents of a _good ear_, _elegant
    judgment_, and _correct expression_, were the same, they
    presented her to the public in all the air and grace, and yet
    _severity_, of beauty, of which her form was susceptible."


Mickleham, July 2. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *


In reply to the first of Mr. SIMPSON's Queries (Vol. ii., p. 72.)
relative to the magnificent sequence _Dies iræ_, I beg to say that the
author of it is utterly unknown. The following references may be
sufficient:--Card. Bona, _Rer. Liturgic._ lib. ii. cap. vi. p. 336.,
Romæ, 1671; or, if possible, Sala's edition, tom. iii. p 143., Aug.
Turin. 1753; Gavantus, tom. i. pp. 274-5., Lugd. 1664; and the
_Additions_ by Merati, i. 117-18., Aug. Vindel, 1740; Zaccaria,
_Biblioth. Ritual._ tom. i. p. 34., Romæ, 1776; Oldoini Addit. ad
Ciaconii _Vit. Pontiff. et Cardd._, tom. ii. col. 222., Romæ, 1677.

Mr. SIMPSON's second question is, "In what book was it first printed?"
Joannes de Palentia, in his notes upon the _Ordinarium PP. Præd._,
asserts that this celebrated prose was first introduced into the Venice
editions of the Missals printed for the Dominicans. The oldest _Missale
Prædicatorum_ which I possess, or have an opportunity of seeing, is a
copy of the Parisian impression of the year 1519; and herein the _Dies
iræ_ is inserted in the _Commemoratio Defunctorum_; mens. Novemb. sig.
M. 5.

An inquiry remains as to the date of the general adoption of this
sequence by the Roman Church. In Quetif and Echard (_Scriptt. Ord.
Præd._ i. 437.), under the name of Latinus Malabranca, we read that it
certainly was not in use in the year 1255; and there does not appear to
be the slightest evidence of its admission, even upon private authority,
into the office for the dead anterior to the commencement of the
fifteenth century.

Your correspondent was not mistaken in his belief that he had met with
an imperfect transcript of this prose, for the original consists not of
"twenty-seven," but of _fifty-seven_ lines. I may add that I do not
remember to have found the text more correctly given than in the
beautiful folio missal of the church of Augsburg, partly printed on
vellum in 1555 (fol. 466. b.).


The _Dies Iræ_ is truly said by Mr. SPARROW SIMPSON (Vol. ii., p. 72.)
to be an extremely beautiful hymn. Who was its author is very doubtful,
but the probabilities are in favour of Thomas de Celano, a Minorite
friar, who lived during the second half of the fourteenth century. It
consists of nineteen strophes, each having three lines. Bartholomew of
Pisa, A.D. 1401, in his _Liber Conformitatum_, speaks of it; but the
earliest printed book in which I have ever seen this hymn, is the
_Missale Romanum_, printed at Pavia, A.D. 1491, in 8vo., a copy of which
I have in my possession.


Buckland, Faringdon.

       *       *       *       *       *


In reply to your correspondent TWYFORD (Vol. ii., p. 73.), the original
of the common surname _Ogden_ is doubtless Oakden. A place so called is
situated in Butterworth, Lancashire, and gave name to a
family,--possibly extinct in the sixteenth century. A clergymam, whose
name partook both of the original and its corruption, was vicar of
Bradford, 1556, viz Dus Tho. _Okden_. The arms and crest borne by the
Oakdens were both allusive to the name, certainly without any reference
to King Charles's hiding-place.

Dr. Samuel Ogden, born in 1716 at Winchester, was the son of Thomas
Ogden, a man of very humble origin: but he had the merit of giving a
liberal education to one whose natural talents well deserved culture;
and both his parents, in the decline of life, owed their support to
Ogden's filial piety and affection. Cole is quite mistaken in fixing the
father's residence at Mansfield, and in stating that he had been in the
army. The monument, spoken of by Cole, is not at Mansfield, but in the
cathedral of Manchester: nor is it a memorial of Dr. Ogden. It was
placed by him in memory of his _father_. Ogden was buried in his own
church, St. Sephlchre's, Cambridge.

The following epigram, it is believed, has not been printed. It is
transcribed from a letter in my possession, addressed by the first Lord
Alvanley, when at college, to his former tutor, Mr. Thyer, editor of
_Butler's Remains_:--

  "When Ogden his prosaic verse
    In Latin numbers drest,
  The Roman language prov'd too weak
    To stand the Critic's test.

  "To English Rhyme he next essay'd,
    To show he'd some pretence;
  But ah! Rhyme only would not do--
    They still expected Sense.

  "Enrag'd, the Doctor said he'd place
    In Critics no reliance,
  So wrapt his thoughts in Arabic,
    And bad them all defiance."


       *       *       *       *       * {106}

_Ogden Family_ (Vol. ii., p. 73.).--Perhaps the representatives of the
late Thomas Ogden, Esq., and who was a private banker at Salisbury
previous to 1810 (presuming he was a member of the family mentioned by
your correspondent TWYFORD), might be able to furnish him with the
information he seeks.


       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Porson's Imposition_ (Vol. i., p. 71.) is indeed, I believe, an
_imposition_. The last line quoted (and I suppose all the rest) can
hardly be Porson's, for Mr. Langton amused Johnson, Boswell, and a
dinner party at General Oglethorpe's, on the 14th of April, 1778, with
some macaronic Greek "by _Joshua Barnes_, in which are to be found such
comical Anglo-hellenisms as [Greek: klubboisin ebagchthae] they were
banged with clubs." Boswell's _Johnson_, last ed. p. 591.


_The Three Dukes_ (Vol. ii., pp. 9, 46, 91.).--Andrew Marvel thus makes
mention of the outrage on the beadle in his letter to the Mayor of Hull,
Feb. 28, 1671 (_Works_, i. 195.):--

    "On Saturday night last, or rather Sunday morning, at two
    o'clock, some persons reported to be of great quality, together
    with other gentlemen, set upon the watch and killed a poor
    beadle, praying for his life upon his knees, with many wounds;
    warrants are out for apprehending some of them, but they are

I am not aware of any contemporary authority for the names of the three
dukes; and a difficulty in the way of assigning them by conjecture is,
that in the poem they are called "three bastard dukes." Your
correspondent C. has rightly said (p. 46.) that none of Charles II.'s
bastard sons besides Monmouth would have been old enough in 1671 to be
actors in such a fray. Sir Walter Scott, in his notes on _Absalom and
Achitophel_, referring to the poem, gives the assault to Monmouth and
some of his brothers; but he did so, probably, without considering
dates, and on the strength of the words "three bastard dukes."

Mr. Lister, in the passage in his _Life of Clarendon_ referred to by Mr.
Cooper (p. 91.), gives no authority for his mention of Albemarle. I
should like to know if Mr. Wade has any other authority than Mr. Lister
for this statement in his useful compilation.

Were it certain that three dukes were engaged in this fray, and were we
not restricted to "bastards," I should say that Monmouth, Albemarle, and
Richmond (who married the beautiful Miss Stuart, and killed himself by
drinking) would probably be the three culprits. As regards Albemarle, he
might perhaps have been called bastard without immoderate use of
libeller's licence.

If three dukes did murder the beadle, it is strange that their names
have not been gibbeted in many of the diaries and letters which we have
of that period. And this is the more strange, as this assault took place
just after the attack on Sir John Coventry, which Monmouth instigated,
and which had created so much excitement.

The question is not in itself of much importance; but I can suggest a
mode in which it may possibly be settled. Let the royal pardons of 1671
be searched in the Rolls' Chapel, Chancery Lane. If the malefactors were
pardoned by name, the three dukes may there turn up. Or if any of your
readers is able to look through the Domestic Papers for February and
March, 1671, in the State Paper Office, he would be likely to find there
come information upon the subject.

Query. Is the doggerel poem in the _State Poems_ Marvel's? Several poems
which are ascribed to him are as bad in versification, and, I need not
say, in coarseness.

Query 2. Is there any other authority for Queen Catharine's fondness for
dancing than the following lines of the poem?

  "See what mishaps dare e'en invade Whitehall,
  This silly fellow's death puts off the ball,
  And disappoints the Queen's foot, little Chuck;
  I warrant 'twould have danced it like a duck."


_Kant's Sämmtliche Werke._--Under the head of "Books and Odd Volumes"
(Vol. ii., p. 59.), there is a Query respecting the XIth part of Kant's
_Sämmtliche Werke_, to which I beg to reply that it was published at
Leipzig, in two portions, in 1842. It consists of Kant's Letters,
Posthumous Fragments, and Biography. The work was completed by a 12th
vol., containing a history of the Kantian Philosophy, by Carl
Rosenkranz, one of the editors of this edition of Kant.


_Becket's Mother_ (Vol. i., pp. 415. 490.; vol. ii., p. 78.).--Although
the absence of any contemporaneous relation of this lady's romantic
history may raise a reasonable doubt of its authenticity, it seems to
derive indirect confirmation from the fact, that the hospital founded by
Becket's sister shortly after his death, on the spot where he was born,
part of which is now the Mercers' chapel in Cheapside, was called "The
Hospital of St. Thomas the Martyr _of Acon_." Erasmus, also, in his
_Pilgrimages to Walsingham and Canterbury_ (see J.G. Nichol's excellent
translation and notes, pp. 47. 120.), says that the archbishop was
called "Thomas _Acrensis_."

Edward Foss.

_"Imprest" and "Debenture."_--Perhaps the following may be of some use
to D.V.S. (Vol. ii., p. 40.) in his search for the verbal raw material
out of which these words were manufactured.

Their origin may, I think, be found in the Latin terms used in the
ancient accounts of persons {107} officially employed by the crown to
express transactions somewhat similar to those for which they appear to
be now used. Persons conversant with those records must frequently have
met with cases where money advanced, paid on account, or as earnest, was
described as "de prestito" or "in prestitis." Ducange gives "præstare"
and its derivatives as meaning "mutuo dare" with but little variation;
but I think that too limited a sense. The practice of describing a
document itself by the use of the material or operative parts expressing
or defining the transaction for which it was employed, is very common.
In legal and documentary proceedings, it is indeed the only one that is
followed. Let D.V.S. run over and compare any of the well-known
descriptions of writs, as _habeas corpus_, _mandamus_, _fi. fa._: or
look into Cowell's _Interpreter_, or a law dictionary, and he will see
numerous cases where terms now known as the names of certain documents
are merely the operative parts of Latin _formulæ_. "Imprest" seems to be
a slightly corrupted translation of "in prestito;" that part of the
instrument being thus made to give its name to the whole. Of "debenture"
I think there is little doubt that it may be similarly explained. Those
Record Offices which possess the ancient accounts and vouchers of
officers of the royal household contain numerous "debentures" of the
thirteenth, but far more of the fourteenth, century. In this case the
_initial_ is the chief operative word: those relating to the royal
wardrobe, commencing "Debentur in garderoba domini regis," being in fact
merely memorandums expressing or acknowledging that certain sums of
money "are owing" for articles supplied for the use of that department.
It is well known that the royal exchequer was, at the time these
documents were executed, often in great straits; and it seems to me
scarcely doubtful that these early "debentures" were actually delivered
over to tradesmen, &c., as security for the amount due to them, and
given in to be cancelled when the debts were discharged by the Exchequer

There is a remarkable feature about these ancient "debentures" which I
may perhaps be permitted to notice here, viz., the very beautiful seals
of the officers of the royal household and wardrobe which are impressed
upon them. They are of the somewhat rare description known as
"appliqué;" and at a time when personal seals were at the highest state
of artistic developement, those few seals of the clerks of the household
which have escaped injury (to which they are particularly exposed) are
unrivalled for their clearness of outline, design, delicacy, and beauty
of execution.

Allowing for the changes produced by time, I think sufficient analogy
may be found between the ancient and modern uses of the words "imprest"
and "debenture."

J. BT.

"_Imprest_" (Vol. ii., p. 40).--D.V.S. will find an illustration of the
early application of this word to advances made by the Treasury in the
"Rotulus de _Prestito_" of 12 John, printed by the Record Commission
under the careful editorship of Mr. T. Duffus Hardy, whose preface
contains a clear definition of its object, and an account of other
existing rolls of the same character.


_Derivation of News._--P.C.S.S. has read with great interest the various
observations on the derivation of the word "News" which have appeared in
the "NOTES AND QUERIES," and especially those of the learned and
ingenious Mr. Hickson. He ventures, however, with all respect, to differ
from the opinion expressed by that gentleman in Vol. i., p. 81., to the
effect that--

    "In English, there is no process known by which a noun plural
    can be formed from an adjective, without the previous formation
    of the singular in the same sense."

P.C.S.S. would take the liberty of reminding Mr. H. of the following
passage in the _Tempest_:--

                 "When that is gone,
  He shall drink nought but brine, for I'll not show him
  Where the quick freshes lie."

Surely, in this instance, the plural noun "freshes" is not formed from
any such singular noun as "_fresh_," but directly from the adjective,
which latter does not seem to have been ever used as a singular _noun_.

While on the subject of "News," P.C.S.S. finds in Pepys' _Diary_ (vol.
iii. p. 59.) another application of the word, in the sense of a noun
singular, which he does not remember to have seen noticed by others.

    "Anon, the coach comes--in the meantime, there coming a _news_
    thither, with his horse to come over."

In other parts of the _Diary_, the word _News-book_ is occasionally
employed to signify what is now termed a newspaper, or, more properly, a
bulletin. For instance (vol. iii. p. 29.), we find that--

    "This _News-book_, upon Mr. Moore's showing L'Estrange Captain
    Ferrers's letter, did do my Lord Sandwich great right as to the
    late victory."

And again (at p. 51.):

    "I met this noon with Dr. Barnett, who told me, and I find in
    the _News-book_ this week, that he posted upon the 'Change,'"
    &c. &c.

Much has been lately written in the "NOTES AND QUERIES" respecting the
"Family of Love." A sect of a similar name existed here in 1641, and a
full and not very decent description of their rites and orgies is to be
found in a small pamphlet of that date, reprinted in the fourth volume
(8vo. ed.) of the _Harleian Miscellany_.

P.C.S.S. {108}

_Origin of Adur_ (Vol. ii., p. 71.).--A, derived from the same root as
Aqua and the French _Eau_, is a frequent component of the names of
rivers: "A-dur, A-run, A-von, A-mon," the adjunct being supposed to
express the individual characteristic of the stream. _A-dur_ would then
mean the _river of oaks_, which its course from Horsham Forest through
the Weald of Sussex, of which "oak is the weed," would sufficiently
justify. It is called in ancient geography _Adurnus_, and is probably
from the same root as the French _Adour_.


The river Adur, which passes by Shoreham, is the same name as the Adour,
a great river in the Western Pyrenees.

This coincidence seems to show that it is neither a Basque word, nor a
Saxon. Whether it is a mere expansion of _ydwr_, the water, in Welch, I
cannot pretend to say, but probably it includes it.

We have the Douro in Spain; and the Doire, or Doria, in Piedmont.
Pompadour is clearly derived from the above French river, or some other
of the same name.


_Meaning of Steyne_ (Vol. ii., P. 71.).--Steyne is no doubt _stone_, and
may have reference to the original name of Brighthelm-_stone_: but what
the _stone_ or "steyne" was, I do not conjecture; but it lay or stood
probably on that little flat valley now called the "Steyne." It is said
that, so late as the time of Elizabeth, the town was encompassed by a
high and strong _stone wall_; but that could have no influence on the
name, which, whether derived from Bishop _Brighthelm_ or not, is
assuredly of Saxon times. There is a small town not far distant called
_Steyning, i.e._ the meadow of the stone. In my early days, the name was
invariably pronounced Brighthamstone.


_Sarum and Barum_ (Vol. ii., p. 21.).--As a conjecture, I would suggest
the derivation of _Sarum_ may have been this. Salisbury was as
frequently written Sarisbury. The contracted form of this was Sap., the
ordinary import of which is the termination of the Latin genitive plural
_rum_. Thus an imperfectly educated clerk would be apt to read _Sarum_
instead of Sarisburia; and the error would pass current, until one
reading was accepted for right as much as the other. In other instances
we adopt the Law Latin or Law French of mediæval times; as the county of
_Oxon_ for Oxfordshire, _Salop_ for Shropshire, &c., and _Durham_ is
generally supposed to be French (_Duresmm_), substituted for the
Anglo-Saxon Dunholm, in Latin _Dunelmum_. I shall perhaps be adding a
circumstance of which few readers will be aware, in remarking that the
Bishops of Durham, down to the present day, take alternately the Latin
and French signatures, _Duresm_ and _Dunelm_.


"_Epigrams on the Universities_" (Vol. ii., p. 88.).--The following
extract frown Hartshorne's _Book-rarities in the University of
Cambridge_ will fully answer the Query of your Norwich correspondent.

After mentioning, the donation to that University, by George I., of the
valuable library of Dr. Moore, Bishop of Ely, which his Majesty had
purchased for 6,000 guineas, the author adds,--

    "When George I. sent these books to the University, he sent at
    the time a troop of horse to Oxford, which gave occasion to the
    following well-known epigram from Dr. Trapp, smart in its way,
    but not so clever as the answer from Sir William Browne:--

      "The King, observing, with judicious eyes,
      The state of both his Universities,
      To one he sent a regiment; for why?
      That learned body wanted loyalty:
      To th' other he sent books, as well discerning
      How much that loyal body wanted learning."

      _The Answer._

      "The King to Oxford sent his troop of horse,
      For Tories hold no argument but force:
      With equal care to Cambridge books he sent,
      For Whigs allow no force but argument.

"The books were received Nov. 19, 20, &c., 1715."


    [J.J. DREDGE, V. (Belgravia), and many other correspondents,
    have also kindly replied to this Query.]

_Dulcarnon_ (Vol. i., p. 254.)--_Urry_ says nothing, but quotes
_Speght_, and _Skene_, and _Selden_.

"_Dulcarnon_," says Speght, "is a proposition in _Euclid_ (lib. i.
theor. 33. prop. 47.), which was found out by Pythagoras after a whole
years' study, and much beating of his brain; in thankfulness whereof he
sacrificed an ox to the gods, which sacrifice he called Dulcarnon."

_Neckam_ derived it from _Dulia quasi sacrificium_ and _carnis_.

_Skene_ justly observes that the triumph itself cannot be the point; but
the word might get associated with the problem, either considered before
its solution, puzzling to _Pythagoras_, or the demonstration, still
difficult to us,--a Pons Asinorum, like the 5th proposition.

Mr. _Selden_, in his preface to _Drayton's Polyolbion_, says,--

    "I cannot but digresse to admonition of abuse which this learned
    allusion, in his _Troilus_, by ignorance hath indured.

      "'I am till God mee better mind send,
      At _Dulcarnon_, right at my wit's end.'

    It's not _Neckam_, or any else, that can make mee entertaine the
    least thought of the signification of _Dulcarnon_ to be
    _Pythagorus_ his sacrifice after his geometricall theorem in
    finding the square of an orthogonall triangle's sides, or that
    it is a word of _Latine_ deduction: but, indeed, by easier
    pronunciation it was made of D'hulkarnyan[5], i.e. _two-horned_
    which the _Mahometan Arabians_ {109} vie for a root in
    calculation, meaning _Alexander_, as that great dictator of
    knowledge, _Joseph Scaliger_ (with some ancients) wills, but, by
    warranted opinion of my learned friend Mr. _Lydyat_, in his
    _Emendatio Temporum_, it began in _Seleucus Nicanor_, XII yeares
    after _Alexander's_ death. The name was applyed, either because
    after time that _Alexander_ had persuaded himself to be _Jupiter
    Hammon's_ sonne, whose statue was with _Ram's_ hornes, both his
    owne and his successors' coins were stampt with horned images:
    or else in respect of his II pillars erected in the East as a
    _Nihil ultra_[6] of his conquest, and some say because hee had
    in power the Easterne and Westerne World, signified in the two
    hornes. But howsoever, it well fits the passage, either, as if
    hee had personated _Creseide_ at the entrance of two wayes, not
    knowing which to take; in like sense as that of _Prodicus_ his
    _Hercules_, _Pythagoras_ his _Y._, or the Logicians _Dilemma_
    expresse; or else, which is the truth of his conceit, that hee
    was at a _nonplus_, as the interpretation in his next staffe
    makes plaine. How many of noble _Chaucer's_ readers never so
    much as suspect this his short essay of knowledge, transcending
    the common Rode? And by his treatise of the _Astrolabe_ (which,
    I dare sweare, was chiefly learned out of _Messahalah_) it is
    plaine hee was much acquainted with the mathematiques, and
    amongst their authors had it."

_D'Herbelot_ says:

    "_Dhoul_ (or _Dhu_) _carnun_, _with the two horns_, is the
    surname of _Alexander_, that is, of an ancient and fabulous
    Alexander of the first dynasty of the Persians. 795. Article
    Sedd, Tagioug and Magioug. 993. Article Khedher. 395. b. 335. b.

    "But 317. Escander, he says, Alexander the Great has the same
    title secondarily. The truth probably is the reverse, that the
    fabulous personage was taken from the real conqueror.

    "_Hofmann_, in Seleucus, says that the area of Seleucus is
    called Terik Dhylkarnain, i.e. Epocha Alexandri Cornigen. Tarik
    means probably the date of an event."

There can be no doubt that the word in Chaucer is this Arabic word; nor,
I think, that Speght's story is really taught by the Arabs, our teachers
in mathematics. Whether the application is from Alexander, (they would
know nothing of his date with regard to Pythagoras), or merely from
two-horned, is doubtful. The latter might possibly mean the ox.

Mr. Halliwell gives a quotation from Stanyhurst, in which it means "dull
persons"--an obvious misuse of it for Englishmen, and which Skene
fortifies by an A.-S. derivation, but which is clearly not Cressida's
meaning, or she would have said, "I _am_ Dulcarnon," not "I _am at_
Dulcarnon;" and so Mrs. Roper.

It may seem difficult what Pandarus can mean:

  "Dulcarnon clepid is fleming of wretches,
  It semith hard, for wretchis wol nought lere
  For very slouthe, or othir wilfull tetches,
  This said is by them that ben't worth two fetches,
  But ye ben wise."

Whether he means that wretches call it _fleming_ or not, his argument
is, "You are not a wretch." Speght's derivation seems to mean, "Quod
stultos vertit." _Fleamas_, A.-S. (Lye), is _fuga_, _fugacio_, from
_flean_, to flee. Pandarus, I think, does not mean to give the
derivation of the word, but its application of fools, a stumbling-block,
or puzzle.


    [Footnote 5: Speght gives it in English letters, but Selden in

    [Footnote 6: Christman, _Comment. in Alfragan_, cap. ii.
    _Lysimachi_ Cornuum apud Cael. Rhodigin. _Antiq. lect._ 10. cap.
    xii., hic genuina interpretatio.]

_Dr. Maginn._--The best account of this most talented but unfortunate
man, is given in the _Dublin University Mag._, vol. xxiii. p. 72. A
reprint of this article, with such additional particulars of his
numerous and dispersed productions as might be supplied, would form a
most acceptable volume.


_America known to the Ancients._--To the list of authorities on this
subject given in Vol. i., p. 342., I have the pleasure to add Father
Laffiteau; Bossu[7], in his _Travels through Louisiana_; and though
last, not least, Acosta, who in his _Naturall and Morall Historie of the
East and West Indies_, translated by E.G. [Grimestone], 1604, 4to.,
devotes eighty-one pages to a review of the opinions of the ancients on
the new world.

The similarity which has been observed to exist between the manners of
several American nations, and those of some of the oldest nations on our
continent, which seems to demonstrate that this country was not unknown
in ancient times, has been traced by Nicholls, in the first part of his
_Conference with a Theist_, in several particulars, viz. burning of the
victim in sacrifices, numbering by tens, fighting with bows and arrows,
their arts of spinning, weaving, &c. The arguments, multitudinous as
they are, adduced by Adair for his hypothesis that the American Indians
are descended from the Jews, serve to prove that the known or old world
furnished the new one with men. To these may be added the coincidences
noticed in "NOTES AND QUERIES;" burning the dead (Vol. i., p. 308.); the
art of manufacturing glass (p. 341.); scalping (Vol. ii., p. 78.). Your
correspondents will doubtless be able to point out other instances.
Besides drinking out of the skulls of their enemies, recorded of the
Scythians by Herodotus; and of the savages of Louisiana by Bossu; I beg
to mention a remarkable one furnished by Catlin--the sufferings endured
by the youths among the Mandans, when admitted into the rank of
warriors, {110} reminding us of the probationary exercises which the
priests of Mithras forced the candidates for initiation to undergo.


    [Footnote 7: Forster, the translator of this work, annihilates
    the argument for the settlement of the Welsh derived from the
    word "penguin" signifying "white head," by the fact of the bird
    in question having a _black_, not a _white_ head!]

_Collar of SS._ (Vol. ii., p. 89.).--B. will find a great deal about
these collars in some interesting papers in the Gentleman's Magazine for
1842, vols. xvii. and xviii., conmunicated by Mr. J.G. Nicholls; and in
the Second Series of the Retrospective Review, vol. i. p. 302., and vol.
ii. pp. 156. 514. 518. Allow me to add a Query: Who are the persons now
privileged to wear these collars? and under what circumstances, and at
what dates, was such privilege reduced to its present limitation?

[Greek: Phi.]

_Martello Towers_ (Vol. ii., p. 9.).--A misspelling for _Mortella_
towers. They are named after a tower which commands the entrance to the
harbour of St. Fiorenzo, in Corsica; but they are common along the
coasts of the Mediterranean. They were built along the low parts of the
Sussex and Kent coasts, in consequence of the powerful defence made by
Ensign Le Tellier at the Tower of Mortella, with a garrison of 38 men
only, on 8th February, 1794, against an attack by sea, made by the
_Fortitude_ and _Juno_, part of Lord Hood's fleet, and by land, made by
a detachment of troops under Major-General Dundas. The two ships kept up
a fire for two hours and a half without making any material impression,
and then hauled out of gun-shot, the _Fortitude_ having lost 6 men
killed and 56 wounded, 8 dangerously. The troops were disembarked, and
took possession of a height comnanding the tower; and their battering
was as unsuccessful, till a hot shot fell and set fire to the bass-junk,
with which, to the depth of five feet, the immensely thick parapet wall
was lined. This induced the small garrison, of whom two were mortally
wounded, to surrender. The tower mounted only one 6 and two 18-pounders,
and the carriage of one of the latter had been rendered unserviceable
during the cannonade. (See James' _Naval History_, vol. i. p. 285.) The
towers along the English coast extend from Hythe to Seaford, where the
last tower is numbered 74, at intervals of about a quarter of a mile,
except where the coast is protected by the cliffs. The tower at Seaford
is 32 feet high, with a circumference of 136 feet at the base, and
gradually tapering to 90 feet at the top. The wall is 6 feet thick at
the top next the sea, and 2 feet on the land side. The cost of each
tower was very large,--from 15,000l. to 20,000l. I am not aware of any
blue book on the subject; blue books were not so much in vogue at the
time of their erection, or perhaps a little less would have been spent
in these erections, and a little more pains would have been taken to see
that they were properly built. Some have been undermined by the sea and
washed down already; in others, the facing of brick has crumbled away;
and in all the fancied security which the original tower taught us to
expect would be probably lessened were the English towers subjected to
an attack.


"_A Frog he would a-wooing go_" (Vol. ii., p. 75.).--I know not whether
this foolish ballad is worth the notice it has already received, but I
can venture to say that the supposed Irish version is but a modern
variance from the old ballad which I remember above sixty years, and
which began--

  "There was a frog lived in a well,
      Heigho crowdie!
  And a merry mouse in a mill,
    With a howdie crowdie, &c. &c.
  This frog he would a-wooing go,
      Heigho crowdie!
  Whether his mother would let him or no,
    With a howdie crowdie," &c.

Of the rest of the ballad I only remember enough to be able to say that
it had little or no resemblance to the version in your last Number.


_William of Wykeham_ (Vol. ii., p. 89.).--1. I believe that there is no
better life of this prelate than that by Bishop Lowth.

2. The public records published since he wrote give several further
particulars of Wykeham's early career, but a proper notice of them would
be too extended for your columns.

3. When W.H.C. recollects that New College, Oxford, the first of the
works he names, was not commenced till 1380, and that Wykeham had then
enjoyed the revenues of his rich bishopric for nearly fourteen years,
and had previously been in possession of many valuable preferments, both
lay and ecclesiastical, for fourteen years more, he will find his third
question sufficiently answered, and cease to wonder at the accumulation
of that wealth which was applied with wise and munificent liberality to
such noble and useful objects.

I am not able to answer W.H.C.'s 4th and 5th questions.

[Greek: Phi.]

_Execution of Charles I._ (Vol. ii., p. 72.).--The late Mr. Rodd had
collected several interesting papers on this subject; and from his
well-known acquaintance with all matters relating to English history,
they are no doubt valuable. Of course they exist. He offered them to the
writer of this note, on condition that he would prosecute the inquiry.
Other engagements prevented his availng himself of this liberal offer.


Woburn Abbey.

_Swords_ (Vol. i., p. 415.).--Swords "ceased to be worn as an article of
dress" through the influence of Beau Nash, and were consequently first
out of fashion in Bath. "We wear no swords here," says Sir Lucius


_The Low Window_ (Vol. ii., p. 55.).--In Bibury Church, Gloucestershire,
are several windows of unusual character; and in the chancel is a
narrow, low window, called to this day "the Lepers' window," through
which, it is concluded, the lepers who knelt outside the building
witnessed the elevation of the host at the altar, as well as other
functions discharged by the priest during the celebration of mass.


_Brasichelli's Expurgatory Index_ (Vol. ii., p. 37.).--Although unable
to reply to MR. SANSOM's Query, by pointing out any public library in
which he can find the Ratisbon reprint of Brasichelli's _Expurgatory
Index_, I beg to state that I possess it, the Bergomi reprint, and also
the original, and that MR. SANSOM is perfectly welcome to a sight of


11. King William Street, West Strand.

_Discursus Modestus_ (Vol. i., pp. 142, 205.)--Crakanthorp, in his
_Defens. Eccl. Angl._, cap. vi. p. 27. (A.C.L. edition), refers to
_Discur. Compen. de Jesuit. Angl._, p. 15., and quotes from it the
words, "Omnia pro tempore, nihil pro veritate." Is this _Discur.
Compen._ the _Discurs. Modest._? and are these words to be found in
Watson's _Quodlibets_? This would fix the identity of the two books. It
is curious that the only two references made by Bishop Andrews to the
_Discurs. Modest._ (_Respons. ad Apol._, pp. 7. and 117.) are to page
13., and both the statements are found in page 81. of Watson.
Crakanthorp, however (p. 532.), quotes both the works,--_Discurs.
Modestus de Jesuit. Anglic._, and Watson.

From the many different Latin titles given to this book, it seems
certain that it was originally written in English, and that the title
was Latinized according to each person's fancy. There is no copy in the
Lambeth library.


_Melancthon's Epigram._--Melancthon, in the epigram translated by RUFUS
(Vol. i., p. 422.), seems to have borrowed the idea, or, to use the more
expressive term of your "Schoolboy", to leave cabbaged from Martial's
epigram, terminating thus:--

  "Non possunt nostros multæ Faustine lituræ,
  Emendare jocos: una litura potest."

_Martial_, Book iv. 10.


       *       *       *       *       *



Mr. Bohn has just published the second volume of his very useful and
complete edition of _Junius' Letters_. It contains, in addition to a new
essay on their authorship, entitled _The History and Discovery of
Junius_, by the editor, Mr. Wade, the Private Letters of Junius
addressed to Woodfall; the Letters of Junius to Wilkes; and the
Miscellaneous Letters which have been attributed to the same powerful
pen. Mr. Wade is satisfied that Sir Philip Francis was Junius; a theory
of which it is said, "Se non e vero e ben trovato:" and, if he does not
go the length of Sir F. Dwarris in regarding Sir P. Francis, not as the
solitary champion, but the most active of the sturdy band of politicians
whose views he advocated, he shows that he was known to and assisted by
many influential members of his own political party. Some of the most
curious points in the Junius history are illustrated by notes by Mr.
Bohn himself, who, we have no doubt will find his edition of Junius
among the most successful volumes of his Standard Library.

We have received the following Catalogues:--W.S. Lincoln's (Cheltenham
House, Westminster Road) Fifty-eighth Catalogue of Cheap Books in
various Departments of Literature; W. Straker's (3. Adelaide Street,
West Strand) Catalogue No. 4. 1850, Theological Literature, Ancient and
Modern; J.G. Bell's (10. Bedford Street, Covent Garden) Catalogue of
Interesting and Valuable Autograph Letters and other Documents; John
Miller's (43. Chandos Street) Catalogue No. 8. for 1850, of Books Old
and New.

       *       *       *       *       *



(_In continuation of Lists in former Nos._)



Odd Volumes

11, 12.




1760. Vol. 2.

TOUR THROUGH GREAT BRITAIN, 12mo. 1742. Vols. 1 and 2.

TRISTRAM SHANDY. Vols. 7, 8, 9, and 10.

Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_ to be
sent to Mr. BELL, Publisher Of "NOTES AND QUERIES", 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

P.M. _is referred to our_ 27th No., p. 445., _where he will learn that
the supposed French original of "Not a Drum was heard" was a clever hoax
from the ready pen of Father Prout. The date when_ P.M. _read the poem,
and not the_ date it bore, _is a point necessary to be established to
prove its existence "anterior to the supposed author of that beautiful

_Will the Correspondent who wished for Vol. 8. of Rushworth, furnish his
name and address, as a copy has been reported._

VOLUME THE FIRST OR NOTES AND QUERIES, _with Title-page and very copious
Index, is now ready, price 9s. 6d., bound in cloth, and may be had, by
order, of all Booksellers and Newsmen._

Errata. In No. 34., p. 63., in reply to Delta, for "MRRIS," read
"MARRIS"; and for "MRIE" read "MARIE." No. 36., P. 83., l. 40., for
"prohibens" read "prohiben_te_".

       *       *       *       *       * {112}


FOR JULY. Gratis as usual. Contains works on Archæology, Antiquities,
Botany, Coins, Chess, Freemasonry, Geology and Mineralogy, Heraldry,
Irish Topography, Old Plays, Phrenology, Theatres, and Dramatic History,
Wales, its History, &c., with an extensive assortment of Books in other
departments of Literature, equally scarce, curious, and interesting.

JOHN MILLER, 43. Chandos Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Second Edition, cloth 1s.

EASTERN CHURCHES. By the author of "Proposals for Christian Union."
"This is a very careful compilation of the latest information of the
faith and condition of the various churches of Christ scattered through
the East."--_Britannia._ "The book is cheap, but it contains a good deal
of matter, and appears a labour of duty."--_Spectator._ "A brief, yet
full and correct, and withal a most agreeably written account, of the
different Eastern Churches."--_Nottingham Journal._

JAMES DARLING, Great Queen-street, Lincoln's Inn Fields.

       *       *       *       *       *

Preparing for publication, in 2 vols. small 8vo.

THE FOLK-LORE of ENGLAND. By William J. Thoms, F.S.A., Secretary of the
Camden Society, Editor of "Early Prose Romances," "Lays and Legends of
all Nations," &c. One object of the present work is to furnish new
contributions to the History of our National Folk-Lore; and especially
some of the more striking Illustrations of the subject to be found in
the Writings of Jacob Grimm and other Continental Antiquaries.

Communications of inedited Legends, Notices of remarkable Customs and
Popular Observances, Rhyming Charms, &c. are earnestly solicited, and
will be thankfully acknowledged by the Editor. They may be addressed to
the care of Mr. BELL, Office of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Vols. I. and II. 8vo., price 28s. cloth.

F.S.A. "A work in which a subject of great historical importance is
treated with the care, diligence, and learning it deserves; in which Mr.
Foss has brought to light many points previously unknown, corrected many
errors, and shown such ample knowledge of his subject as to conduct it
successfully through all the intricacies of a difficult investigation,
and such taste and judgement as will enable him to quit, when occasion
requires, the dry details of a professional inquiry, and to impart to
his work, as he proceeds, the grace and dignity of a philosophical
history."--_Gent. Mag._


       *       *       *       *       *


Royal Society of Antiquaries of Copenhagen. Translated and applied to
the illustration of similar Remains in England, by WILLIAM J. THOMS,
F.S.A., Secretary of the Camden Society. With numerous Woodcuts. 8vo.
10s. 6d.

"The best antiquarian handbook we have ever met with--so clear is its
arrangement, and so well and so plainly is each subject illustrated by
well executed engravings.... It is the joint production of two men who
have already distinguished themselves as authors and antiquarians."--
_Morning Herald._

"A book of remarkable interest and ability.... Mr. Worsaae's book is in
all ways a valuable addition to our literature.... Mr. Thoms has
executed the translation in flowing and idiomatic English, and has
appended many curious and interesting notes and observations of his

"The work, which we desire to commend to the attention of our readers,
is signally interesting to the British antiquary. Highly interesting and
important work."--_Archæological Journal._

See also the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for February 1850.

Oxford: JOHN HENRY PARKER, and 337. Strand, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


Shortly will be published,

rarest productions of our early English Divines, and embracing the
various controversies between the Puritans and the Churches of Rome and
England, the works of the Nonjurors, the best Liturgical Commentators,
Ecclesiastical Historians, Fathers of the Church, Schoolmen, Councils,
&c, many of them of extreme rarity, and forming the Library of the Rev.
William Maskell, late Vicar of St. Mary Church, Torquay, together with
other recent purchases, now on Sale by J. LESLIE, 58. Great
Queen-street, Lincoln's Inn.

N.B.--Gentlemen desirous of receiving this Catalogue are respectfully
requested to forward their names to the Publisher, with twelve postage
stamps to pre-pay the same.

       *       *       *       *       *

Now ready, containing 149 Plates, royal 8vo. 28s.; folio, 2l. 5s.; India
Paper, 4l. 4s.

The MONUMENTAL BRASSES of ENGLAND: a series of Engravings upon Wood,
from every variety of these interesting and valuable Memorials,
accompanied with Descriptive Notices.

By the Rev. C. BOUTELI. M.A. Rector of Downham Market.

Part XII., completing the work, price 7s. 6d.; folio, 12s.; India paper,

By the same Author, royal 8vo., 15s.; large paper, 21s.

MONUMENTAL BRASSES and SLABS: an Historical and Descriptive Notice of
the Incised Monumental Memorials of the Middle Ages. With upwards of 200

"A handsome large octavo volume, abundantly supplied with well-engraved
woodcuts and lithographic plates; a sort of Encyclopædia for ready
reference.... The whole work has a look of painstaking completeness
highly commendable."--_Athenæum._

"One of the most beautifully got up and interesting volumes we have seen
for a long time. It gives, in the compass of one volume, an account of
the history of these beautiful monuments of former days.... The
illustrations are extremely well chosen."--_English Churchman._

A few copies only of this work remain for sale; and, as it will not be
reprinted in the same form and at the same price, the remaining copies
are raised in price. Early application for the Large Paper Edition is

By the same Author, to be completed in Four Parts,

CHRISTIAN MONUMENTS in ENGLAND and WALES: an Historical and Descriptive
Sketch of the various classes of Monumental Memorials which have been in
use in this country from about the time of the Norman Conquest.
Profusely illustrated with Wood Engravings. Part I. price 7s. 6d.; Part
II. 2s. 6d.

"A well conceived and executed work."--_Ecclesiologist._

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, July 13. 1850.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 37, July 13, 1850" ***

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