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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 39, July 27, 1850
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 39, July 27, 1850" ***

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       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 39.] SATURDAY, JULY 27, 1850 [Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

       *       *       *       *       * {129}


  Etymology of "Whitsuntide" and "Mass." 129
  Folk Lore:--Sympathetic Cures--Cure for Ague--Eating
    Snakes a Charm for growing young. 130
  Long Meg of Westminster, by E.F. Rimbault. 131
  A Note on Spelling,--"Sanatory," "Connection." 131
  Minor Notes:--Pasquinade on Leo XII.--Shakspeare
    a Brass-rubber--California--Mayor of Misrule and
    Masters of the Pastimes--Roland and Oliver. 131

  The Story of the Three Men and their Bag of Money. 132
  The Geometrical Foot, by A. De Morgan. 133
  Minor Queries:--Plurima Gemma--Emmote de Hastings--Boozy
    Grass--Gradely--Hats worn by Females--Queries
    respecting Feltham's Works--Eikon
    Basilice--"Welcome the coming, speed the parting
    Guest"--Carpets and Room-paper--Cotton of Finchley--Wood
    Carving in Snow Hill--Walrond Family--Translations--Bonny
    Dundee--Graham of Claverhouse--Franz von Sickingen--Blackguard--Meaning
    of "Pension"--Stars and Stripes of the American
    Arms--Passages from Shakspeare--Nursery Rhyme--"George"
    worn by Charles I.--Family of Manning
    of Norfolk--Salingen a Sword Cutler--Billingsgate--"Speak
    the Tongue that Shakspeare spoke"--Genealogical
    Queries--Parson, the Staffordshire Giant--Unicorn
    in the Royal Arms--The Frog and the Crow of
    Ennow--"She ne'er with treacherous Kiss," &c. 133

  A treatise on Equivocation. 136
  Further Notes on the Derivation of the Word "News." 137
  "News," "Noise," and "Parliament." 138
  Shakpeare's Use of the Word "Delighted" by Rev. Dr.
    Kennedy and J.O. Halliwell. 139
  Replies to Minor Queries:--Execution of Charles I.--Sir
    T. Herbert's Memoir of Charles I.--Simon of
    Ghent--Chevalier de Cailly--Collar of Esses--Hell
    paved with good Intentions--The Plant "Hæmony"--Practice
    of Scalping among the Scythians--Scandinavian
    Mythology--Cromwell's Estates--Magor--"Incidis
    in Scyllam"--Dies Iræ--Fabulous Account
    of the Lion--Caxton's Printing-Office. 140

  Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, Sales, &c. 142
  Books and Odd Volumes Wanted. 143
  Answers to Correspondents. 143

       *       *       *       *       *



Perhaps the following Note and Query on the much-disputed origin of the
word _Whitsunday_, as used in our Liturgy, may find a place in your
Journal. None of the etymologies of this word at present in vogue is at
all satisfactory. They are--

I. _White Sunday_: and this, either--

1. From the garments of _white linen_, in which those who were at that
season admitted to the rite of holy baptism were clothed; (as typical of
the spiritual purity therein obtained:) or,--

2. From the glorious light of heaven, sent down from the father of
Lights on the day of Pentecost: and "those vast diffusions of light and
knowledge, which were then shed upon the Apostles, in order to the
enlightening of the world." (Wheatley.) Or,--

3. From the custom of the rich bestowing on this day all the milk of
their kine, then called _white meat_, on the poor. (Wheatley, from
Gerard Langbain.)

II. _Huict Sunday_: from the French, _huit_, eight; i.e. the eighth
Sunday from Easter. (L'Estrange, _Alliance Div. Off._)

III. There are others who see that neither of these explanations can
stand; because the ancient mode of spelling the word was not
_Whit_-sunday, but _Wit_-sonday (as in Wickliff), or _Wite_-sonday
(which is as old as _Robert of Gloucester_, c. A.D. 1270). Hence,--

1. Versteran's explanation:--That it is _Wied_ Sunday, _i.e. Sacred_
Sunday (from Saxon, _wied_, or _wihed_, a word I do not find in
Bosworth's _A.-S. Dict._; but so written in Brady's _Clovis Calendaria_,
as below). But why should this day be distinguished as sacred beyond all
other Sundays in the year?

2. In _Clavis Calendaria_, by John Brady (2 vols. 8vo. 1815), I find,
vol. i. p. 378., "Other authorities contend," he does not say who those
authorities are, "that the original name of this season of the year was
_Wittentide_; or the time of choosing the _wits_, or wise men, to the

Now this last, though evidently an etymology inadequate to the
importance of the festival, appears to me to furnish the right clue. The
day of Pentecost was the day of the outpouring of the Divine Wisdom and
Knowledge on the Apostles; the day on which was given to them that HOLY
SPIRIT, by which was "revealed" to them "_The wisdom of God_ ... even
the _hidden wisdom_, which GOD ordained before the world." 1 Cor. ii.
7.[1] It was the day on which was fulfilled the promise {139} made to
them by CHRIST that "The Comforter, which is the HOLY GHOST, whom the
Father will send in my name, he shall _teach you all things_, and bring
all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you." John,
xiv. 26. When "He, the Spirit of Truth, came, who should _guide_ them
_into all truth_." John xvi. 13. And the consequence of this "unction
from the Holy One" was, that they "knew all things," and "needed not
that any man should teach them." 1 John, ii. 20. 27.

_Whit-sonday_ was, therefore, the day on which the Apostles were endued
by God with _wisdom_ and knowledge: and my Query is, whether the root of
the word may not be found in the Anglo-Saxon verb,--

_Witan_, to know, understand (whence our _wit_, in its old meaning of
good sense, or cleverness and the expression "having one's _wits_ about
one," &c.); or else, perhaps, from--

_Wisian_, to instruct, show, inform; (Ger. _weisen_). Not being an
Anglo-Saxon scholar, I am unable of myself to trace the formation of the
word _witson_ from either of these roots: and I should feel greatly
obliged to any of your correspondents who might be able and willing to
inform me, whether that form is deduceable from either of the above
verbs; and if so, what sense it would bear in our present language. I am
convinced, that _wisdom day_, or _teaching day_, would afford a very far
better reason for the name now applied to Pentecost, than any of the
reasons commonly given. I should observe, that I think it incorrect to
say Whit-Sunday. It should be Whitsun (Witesone) Day. If it is Whit
Sunday, why do we say Easter Day, and not Easter Sunday? Why do we say
Whitsun-Tide? Why does our Prayer Book say Monday and Tuesday in
Whitsun-week (just as before, Monday and Tuesday in Easter-week)? And
why do the lower classes, whose "vulgarisms" are, in nine cases out of
ten, more correct than our refinements, still talk about Whitsun Monday
and Whitsun Tuesday, where the more polite say, Whit Monday and Tuesday?

Query II. As I am upon etymologies, let me ask, may not the word _Mass_,
used for the Lord's Supper--which Baronius derives from the Hebrew
_missach_, an oblation, and which is commonly derived from the "missa
missorum"--be nothing more nor less than _mess_ (_mes_, old French), the
meal, the repast, the supper? We have it still lingering in the phrase,
"an officers' mess;" i.e. a meal taken in common at the same table; and
so, "to mess together," "messmate," and so on. Compare the Moeso-Gothic
_mats_, food: and _maz_, which Bosworth says (_A.-S. Dic._ sub voc.
_Mete_) is used for bread, food, in Otfrid's poetical paraphrase of the
Gospels, in Alemannic or High German, published by Graff, Konigsberg,



    [Footnote 1: The places in the New Testament, where Divine
    Wisdom and Knowledge are referred to the outpouring of God's
    Spirit, are numberless. Cf. Acts, vi. 3., 1 Cor. xii. 8., Eph.
    i. 8, 9., Col. i. 9., &c. &c.]

       *       *       *       *       *


_Sympathetic Cures._--Possibly the following excerpt may enable some of
your readers and Folklore collectors to testify to the yet lingering
existence, in localities still unvisited by the "iron horse," of a
superstition similar to the one referred to below. I transcribe it from
a curious, though not very rare volume in duodecimo, entitled _Choice
and Experimental Receipts in Physick and Chirurgery, as also Cordial and
Distilled Waters and Spirits, Perfumes, and other Curiosities_.
Collected by the Honourable and truly learned Sir Kenelm Digby, Kt.,
Chancellour to Her Majesty the Queen Mother. London: Printed for H.
Brome, at the Star in Little Britain, 1668.

    "_A Sympathetic Cure for the Tooth-ach._--With an iron nail
    raise and cut the gum from about the teeth till it bleed, and
    that some of the blood stick upon the nail, then drive it into a
    wooden beam up to the head; after this is done you never shall
    have the toothach in all your life." The author naively adds
    "But whether the man used any spell, or said any words while he
    drove the nail, I know not; only I saw done all that is said
    above. This is used by severall certain persons."

Amongst other "choice and experimental receipts" and "curiosities" which
in this little tome are recommended for the cure of some of the "ills
which flesh is heir to," one directs the patient to

    "Take two parts of the moss growing on the skull of a dead man
    (pulled as small as you can with the fingers)."

Another enlarges on the virtue of

    "A little bag containing some powder of toads calcined, so that
    the bag lay always upon the pit of the stomach next the skin,
    and presently it took away all pain as long as it hung there but
    if you left off the bag the pain returned. A bag continueth in
    force but a month after so long time you must wear a fresh one."

This, he says, a "person of credit" told him.


Reform Club, June 21. 1850.

_Cure for Ague._--One of my parishioners, suffering from ague, was
advised to catch a large spider and shut him up in a box. As he pines
away, the disease is supposed to wear itself out.


L---- Rectory, Somerset, July 8. 1850.

_Eating Snakes a Charm for growing young._--I send you the following
illustrations of this curious receipt for growing young. Perhaps some of
your correspondents will furnish me with some others, and some
additional light on the subject. Fuller says,--

    "A gentlewoman told an ancient batchelour, who looked _very
    young_, that she thought _he had eaten a snake_: 'No, mistris,'
    (said he), 'it is because I never {131} meddled with any snakes
    which maketh me look so young.'"--_Holy State_, 1642, p. 36.

      He hath left off o' late to _feed on snakes_;
      His beard's turned white again.

    _Massinger, Old Law_, Act v. Sc. 1.

      "He is your loving brother, sir, and will tell nobody
      But all he meets, that you have eat a _snake_,
      And are grown young, gamesome, and rampant."

    _Ibid, Elder Brother_, Act iv. Sc. 4.


       *       *       *       *       *


Mr. Cunningham, in his _Handbook of London_ (2nd edition, p. 540.), has
the following passage, under the head of "Westminster Abbey:"

    "_Observe._--Effigies in south cloister of several of the early
    abbots; large blue stone, uninscribed, (south cloister), marking
    the grave of Long Meg of Westminster, a noted virago of the
    reign of Henry VIII."

This amazon is often alluded to by our old writers. Her life was printed
in 1582; and she was the heroine of a play noticed in Henslowe's
_Diary_, under the date February 14, 1594. She also figured in a ballad
entered on the Stationers' books in that year. In _Holland's Leaguer_,
1632, mention is made of a house kept by Long Meg in Southwark:--

    "It was out of the citie, yet in the view of the citie, only
    divided by a delicate river: there was many handsome buildings,
    and many hearty neighbours, yet at the first foundation it was
    renowned for nothing so much as for the memory of that famous
    amazon _Longa Margarita_, who had there for many yeeres kept a
    famous _infamous_ house of open hospitality."

According to Vaughan's _Golden Grove_, 1608,--

    "Long Meg of Westminster kept alwaies twenty courtizans in her
    house, whom, by their pictures, she sold to all commers."

From these extracts the occupation of Long Meg may be readily guessed
at. Is it then likely that such a detestable character would have been
buried amongst "goodly friars" and "holy abbots" in the cloisters of our
venerable abbey? I think not: but I leave considerable doubts as to
whether Meg was a real personage.--Query. Is she not akin to Tom Thumb,
Jack the Giant-killer, Doctor Rat, and a host of others of the same

The stone in question is, I know, on account of its great size, jokingly
called "Long Meg, of Westminster" by the vulgar; but no one, surely,
before Mr. Cunningham, ever _seriously_ supposed it to be her
burying-place. Henry Keefe, in his _Monumenta Westmonasteriensa_, 1682,
gives the following account of this monument:--

    "That large and stately plain black marble stone (which is
    vulgarly known by the name of _Long Meg of Westminster_) on the
    north side of _Laurentius_ the abbot, was placed there for
    _Gervasius de Blois_, another abbot of this monastery, who was
    base son to King Stephen, and by him placed as a monk here, and
    afterwards made abbot, who died _anno_ 1160, and was buried
    under this stone, having this distich formerly thereon:

      "_De regnum genere pater hic Gervasius ecce
      Monstrat defunctus, mors rapit omne genus_."

Felix Summerly, in his _Handbook for Westminster Abbey_, p. 29.,
noticing the cloisters and the effigies of the abbots, says,--

    "Towards this end there lies a large slab of blue marble, which
    is called 'Long Meg' of Westminster. Though it is inscribed to
    Gervasius de Blois, abbot, 1160 natural son of King Stephen, he
    is said to have been buried under a small stone, and tradition
    assigns 'Long Meg' as the gravestone of twenty-six monks, who
    were carried off by the plague in 1349, and buried together in
    one grave."

The tradition here recorded may be correct. At any rate, it carries with
it more plausibility than that recorded by Mr. Cunningham.


    [Some additional and curious allusions to this probably mythic
    virago are recorded in Mr. Halliwell's _Descriptive Notices of
    Popular English Histories_, printed for the Percy Society.]

       *       *       *       *       *


I trust that "NOTES AND QUERIES" may, among many other benefits, improve
spelling by example as well as precept. Let me make a note on two words
that I find in No. 37.: _sanatory_, p. 99., and _connection_, p. 98.

Why "_sanatory_ laws?" _Sanare_ is _to cure_, and a curing-place is, if
you like, properly called _sanatorium_. But the Latin for _health_ is
_sanitas_, and the laws which relate to health should be called

Analogy leads us to _connexion_, not _connection_; _plecto_, _plexus_,
_complexion_; _flecto_, _flexus_, _inflexion_; _necto_, _nexus_,
_connexion_, &c.; while the termination _ction_ belongs to words derived
from Latin verbs whose passive participles end in _ctus_ as _lego_,
_lectus_, _collection_; _injecio_, _injectus_, _injection_; _seco_,
_sectus_, _section_, &c.


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Pasquinade on Leo XII._--The Query put to a Pope (Vol. ii., p. 104.),
which it is difficult to believe could be put orally, reminds me of Pope
Leo XII., who was reported, whether truly or not, to have been the
reverse of scrupulous in the earlier part of his life, but was
remarkably strict after he became Pope, and was much disliked at Rome,
perhaps because, by his maintenance of strict discipline, he abridged
the amusements and questionable indulgences of the people. On account of
his death, {132} which took place just before the time of the carnival
in 1829, the usual festivities were omitted, which gave occasion to the
following pasquinade, which was much, though privately, circulated--

  "Tre cose mat fecesti, O Padre santo:
          Accettar il papato,
          Viver tanto,
          Morir di Carnivale
          Per destar pianto."

J. Mn.

_Shakspeare a Brass-rubber._--I am desirous to notice, if no commentator
has forestalled me, that Shakspeare, among his many accomplishments, was
sufficiently beyond his age to be a brass-rubber:

                             "What's on this tomb
  I cannot read; the character I'll take with _wax_."

_Timon of Athens_, v. 4.

From the "soft impression," however, alluded to in the next scene, his
"wax" appears rather to have been the forerunner of _gutta percha_ than
of _heel-ball_.


_California._--In the _Voyage round the World_, by Captain George
Shelvocke, begun Feb. 1719, he says of California (_Harris's
Collection_, vol. i. p. 233.):--

    "The soil about Puerto, Seguro, and very likely in most of the
    valleys, is a rich black mould, which, as you turn it fresh up
    to the sun, appears as if intermingled with gold dust; some of
    which we endeavoured to purify and wash from the dirt; but
    though we were a little prejudiced against the thoughts that it
    could be possible that this metal should be so promiscuously and
    universally mingled with common earth, yet we endeavoured to
    cleanse and wash the earth from some of it; and the more we did
    the more it appeared like gold. In order to be further satisfied
    I brought away some of it, which we lost in our confusion in

How an accident prevented the discovery, more than a century back, of
the golden harvest now gathering in California!



_Mayor of Misrule and Masters of the Pastimes._--the word _Maior_ of
Misrule appears in the Harl. MSS. 2129. as having been on glass in the
year 1591, in Denbigh Church.

    "5 Edw. VI., a gentleman (Geo. Ferrars), lawyer, poet, and
    historian, appointed by the Council, and being of better calling
    than commonly his predecessors, received his commission by the
    name of 'Master of the King's Pastimes.'"--_Strutt's Sports and
    Pastimes_, 340.

    "1578. Edward Baygine, cursitor, clerk for writing and passing
    the Queen's leases, 'Comptroller of the Queen's pastimes and
    revels,' clerk comptroller of her tents and pavilions,
    commissioner of sewers, burgess in Parliament."--Gwillim,
    _Heraldry_, 1724 edit.


_Roland and Oliver_.--Canciani says there is a figure in the church
porch at Verona which, from being in the same place with _Roland_, and
manifestly of the same age, he supposes may be _Oliver_, armed with a
spiked ball fastened by a chain to a staff of about three feet in
length. _Who are Roland and Oliver_? There is the following derivation
of the saying "a Roland for your Oliver," without any reference or
authority attached, in my note-book:--

    "--Charlemagne, in his expedition against the Saracens, was
    accompanied by two '_steeds_,' some writers say 'pages,' named
    Roland and Oliver, who were so excellent and so equally matched,
    that the equality became proverbial--'I'll give you a Roland for
    your Oliver' being, the same as the vulgar saying, 'I'll give
    you tit for tat,' i.e. 'I'll give you the same (whether in a
    good or bad sense) as you give me.'"


       *       *       *       *       *



Lord Campbell, in his _Lives of the Chancellors_, relates, in connection
with Queen Elizabeth's Lord Keeper Ellesmere, a very common story, of
which I am surprised he did not at once discern the falsehood. It is
that of a widow, who having a sum of money entrusted to her by three
men, which she was on no account to return except to the joint demand of
the three, is afterwards artfully persuaded by one of them to give it up
to him. Being afterwards sued by the other two, she is successfully
defended by a young lawyer, who puts in the plea that she is not bound
to give up the money at the demand of _only_ two of the parties. In this
case this ingenious gentleman is the future chancellor. The story is
told of the Attorney-General Noy, and of an Italian advocate, in the
notes to Rogers' _Italy_. It is likewise the subject of one of the
smaller tales in Lane's _Arabian Nights_; but here I must remark, that
the Eastern version is decidedly more ingenious than the later ones,
inasmuch as it exculpates the keeper of the deposit from the "laches" of
which in the other cases she was decidedly guilty. Three men enter a
bath, and entrust their bag of money to the keeper with the usual
conditions. While bathing, one feigns to go to ask for a comb (if I
remember right), but in reality demands the money. The keeper properly
refuses, when he calls out to his companions within, "He won't give it
me." They unwittingly respond, "Give it him," and he accordingly walks
off with the money. I think your readers will agree with me that the
tale has suffered considerably in its progress westward.

My object in troubling you with this, is to ask {133} whether any of
your subscribers can furnish me with any other versions of this popular
story, either Oriental or otherwise.


Putney, July 17.

       *       *       *       *       *


In several different places I have discussed the existence and length of
what the mathematicians of the sixteenth century _used_, and those of
the seventeenth _talked about_, under the name of the _geometrical
foot_, of four palms and sixteen digits. (See the _Philosophical
Magazine_ from December 1841 to May 1842; the _Penny Cyclopædia_,
"Weights and Measures," pp. 197, 198; and _Arthmetical Books_, &c, pp.
5-9.) Various works give a figured length of this foot, whole, or in
halves, according as the page will permit; usually making it (before the
shrinking of the paper is allowed for) a very little less than 9-3/4
inches English. The works in which I have as yet found it are Reisch,
_Margarita Philosophica_, 1508; Stöffler's _Elucidatio Astrolabii_,
1524; Fernel's _Monolosphærium_, 1526; Köbel, _Astrolabii Declaratio_,
1552; Ramus, _Geometricæ_, 1621. Query. In what other works of the
sixteenth, or early in the seventeenth century is this foot of palms and
digits to be found, figured in length? What are their titles? What the
several lengths of the foot, half foot, or palm, within the twentieth of
an inch? Are the divisions into palms or digits given; and, if so, are
they accurate subdivisions? Of the six names above mentioned, the three
who are by far the best known are Stöffler, Fernel, and Ramus; and it so
happens that their subdivisions are _much_ more correct than those of
the other three, and their whole lengths more accordant.


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries

_Plurima Gemma._--Who is the author of the couplet which seems to be a
version of Gray's

  "Full many a gem of purest ray serene," &c.?

  "Plurima gemma latet cæca tellure sepulta,
   Plurima neglecto fragrat odore rosa."


_Emmote de Hastings._--


A very early slab with the above inscription was found in 1826 on the
site of a demolished transept of Bitton Church, Gloucester. By its side
was laid an incised slab of ---- De Bitton. Both are noticed in the
_Archæologia_, vols. xxii. and xxxi.

Hitherto, after diligent search, no notice whatever has been discovered
of the said person. The supposition is that she was either a Miss De
Bitton married to a Hastings, or the widow of a Hastings married
secondly to a De Bitton, and therefore buried with that family, in the
twelfth or thirteenth century. If any antiquarian digger should discover
any mention of the lady, a communication to that effect will be
thankfully received by



_Boozy Grass._--What is the derivation of "boozy grass," which an
outgoing tenant claims for his cattle? Johnson has, "Boose, a stall for
a cow or ox (Saxon)."


_Gradely._--What is the meaning, origin, and usage of this word? I
remember once hearing it used in Yorkshire by a man, who, speaking of a
neighbour recently dead, said in a tone which implied esteem: "Aye, he
was a very _gradely_ fellow."


_Hats worn by Females._--Were not the hats worn by the _females_, as
represented on the Myddelton Brass, peculiar to Wales? An engraving is
given in Pennant's _Tour_, 2 vols., where also may be seen the hat worn
by Sir John Wynne, about 1500, apparently similar to that on the Bacon
Monument, and to that worn by Bankes. A MS. copy of a similar one (made
in 1635, and then called "very auntient") may be seen in the Harleian
MS. No. 1971. (_Rosindale Pedigree_), though apparently not older than
Elizabeth's time. With a coat of arms it was "wrought in backside
work"--the meaning of which is doubtful. What is that of the motto,
"Oderpi du pariver?"


_Feltham's Works, Queries respecting._--

    "He that is courtly or gentle, is among them _like_ a merlin
    after Michaelmas in the field with crows."--_A Brief Character
    of the Low Countries_, by Owen Feltham. Folio, London, 1661.

What is the meaning of this proverb?

As a confirmation of the opinion of some of your correspondents, that
monosyllables give force and nature to language, the same author says,
page 59., of the Dutch tongue,--

    "Stevin of Bruges reckons up 2170 monosillables, which being
    compounded, how richly do they grace a tongue."

Will any of your correspondents kindly inform me of the titles of Owen
Feltham's works. I have his _Resolves_, and a thin folio volume, 1661,
printed for Anne Seile, 102 pages, containing _Lusoria, or Occasional
Pieces; A Brief Character of the Low Countries_; and some _Letters_. Are
these all he wrote? The poem mentioned by Mr. Kersley, beginning--

  "When, dearest, I but think of thee,"

is printed among those in the volume I have, with the same remark, that
it had been printed as Sir John Suckling's.

E.N.W. {134}

_Eikon Basilice._--

"[Greek: EIKON BASILIKAE], or, _The True Pourtraiture of His Sacred
Majestæ Charles the II_. In Three Books. Beginning from his Birth, 1630,
unto this present year, 1660: wherein is interwoven a compleat History
of the High-born Dukes of _York_ and _Glocester_. By R.F., Esq., an

  "Quo nihil majus meliusve terris
   Fata donavere, borique divi
   Nee dabunt, quamvis redeant in aurum
   Tempora priscum."


  "[Greek: Otan tin' Euraes Eupathounta ton kakon
   ginske touton to telei taeroumenon]."

  _G. Naz Carm_.

  "----more than conqueror."

"London, printed for H. Brome and H. March, at the Gun, in Ivy Lane, and
at the Princes' Arms, in Chancery Lane, neer Fleet Street, 1660."

The cover has "C.R." under a crown. What is the history of this volume.
Is it scarce, or worth nothing?


  "_Welcome the coming, speed the parting Guest?_"

--Whence comes the sentence--

  "Welcome the coming, speed the parting guest?"


_Carpets and Room-paper._--Carpets were in Edward III.'s reign used in
the palace. What is the exact date of their introduction? When did they
come into general use, and when were rushes, &c., last used? Room-paper,
when was it introduced?


_Cotton of Finchley._--Can some one of your readers give me any
particulars concerning the family of Cotton, which was settled at
Finchley, Middlesex, about the middle of the sixteenth century?


_Wood Carving in Snow Hill._--Can any one explain the wood carving over
the door of a house at the corner of Snow Hill and Skinner Street. It is
worth rescuing from the ruin impending it.


_Walrond Family._--Can any of your readers inform me what was the maiden
name of _Grace_, the wife of Col. Humphry Walrond, of Sea, in the county
of Somerset, a distinguished loyalist, some time Lieutenant-Governor of
Bridgewater, and Governor of the island of Barbadoes in 1660. She was
living in 1635 and 1668. Also the names of his _ten_ children, or, at
all events, his three youngest. I have reason to believe the seven elder
were George, Humphry, Henry, John, Thomas, Bridget, and Grace.


_Translations._--What English translations have appeared of the famous
_Epistolæ Obscurorum Virorum_?

Has _La Chiave del Gabinetto del Signor Borri_ (by Joseph Francis Borri,
the Rosicrucian) ever been translated into English? I make the same
Query as to _Le Compte de Gabalis_, which the Abbé de Rillan founded on
Borri's work?


_Bonny Dundee--Graham of Claverhouse._--Can any of your correspondents
tell me the origin of the term "Bonny Dundee?" Does it refer to the fair
and flourishing town at the mouth of the Tay, or to the remarkable John
Graham of Claverhouse, who was created Viscount of Dundee, after the
landing of the Prince of Orange in England, and whose person is admitted
to have been eminently beautiful, whatever disputes may exist as to his
character and conduct?

2. Can reference be made to the date of his birth, or, in other words,
to his age when he was killed at Killycrankie, on the 27th of July,
1689. All the biographies which I have seem are silent upon the point.


_Franz von Sickingen._--Perusing a few of your back numbers, in a reply
of S.W.S. to R.G. (Vol. i., p. 336.), I read:

    "I had long sought for a representation of Sickingen, and at
    length found a medal represented in the _Sylloge Numismatum
    Elegantiorum of Luckius_," &c.

I now hope that in S.W.S. I have found the man who is to solve an
obstinate doubt that has long possessed my mind: Is the figure of the
knight in Durer's well-known print of "The Knight, Death, and the
Devil," a portrait? If it be a portrait, is it a portrait of Franz von
Sickingen, as Kugler supposes? The print is said to bear the date 1513.
I have it, but have failed to discover any date at all.



_Blackguard._--When did this word Come into use, and from what?

Beaumont and Fletcher, in the _Elder Brother_, use it thus:--

                       "It is a Faith
  That we will die in, since from the _blackguard_
  To the grim sir in office, there are few
  Hold other tenets."

Thomas Hobbes, in his _Microcosmus_, says,--

    "Since my lady's decay I am degraded from a cook and I fear the
    devil himself will entertain me but for one of his _blackguard_,
    and he shall be sure to have his roast burnt."


_Meaning of "Pension."_--The following announcement appeared lately in
the London newspapers:--

    "GRAY'S INN.--At a _Pension_ of the Hon. Society of Gray's Inn,
    holden this day, Henry Wm. Vincent, Esq., her Majesty's
    Remembrancer in the Court of Exchequer, was called to the degree
    of Barrister at Law." {135}

I have inquired of one of the oldest benchers of Gray's Inn, now
resident in the city from which I write, for an explanation of the
origin or meaning of the phrase "pension," neither of which was he
acquainted with; informing me at the same time that the Query had often
been a subject discussed among the learned on the dais, but that no
definite solution had been elicited.

Had the celebrated etymologist and antiquary, Mr. Ritson, formerly a
member of the Society, been living, he might have solved the difficulty.
But I have little doubt that there are many of the erudite, and, I am
delighted to find, willing readers of your valuable publication who will
be able to furnish a solution.



_Stars and Stripes of the American Arms._--What is the origin of the
American arms, viz. stars and stripes?


_Passages from Shakspeare._--May I beg for an interpretation of the two
following passages from Shakspeare:--

  "_Isab._ Else let my brother die,
  If not a feodary, but only he,
  Owe, and succeed thy weakness."

  _Measure for Measure,_ Act ii. Sc. 4.

  "_Imogen._ Some jay of Italy,
  Whose mother was her painting, hath betrayed him."

  _Cymbeline_, Act iii. Sc. 4.


King's College, London.

_Nursery Rhyme._--What is the date of the nursery rhyme:--

  "Come when you're called,
    Do what you're bid,
  Shut the door after you,
    Never be chid?"--Ed. 1754.

In Howell's _Letters_ (book i. sect. v. letter 18. p. 211. ed. 1754) I

    He will come when you call him, go when you bid him, and shut
    the door after him.


_"George" worn by Charles I._--I should be glad if any of your
correspondents could give me information as to who is the present
possessor of the "George" worn by Charles I. It was, I believe, in the
possession of the late Marquis Wellesley, but since his death it has
been lost sight of. Such a relic must be interesting to either
antiquaries or royalists.


_Family of Manning of Norfolk._--Can any of your readers supply me with
an extract from, or the name of a work on heraldry or genealogy,
containing an account of the family of _Manning_ of _Norfolk_. Such a
work was seen by a relative of mine about fifty years since. It related
that a Count Manning, of Manning in Saxony, having been banished from
thence, became king in Friesland, and that his descendants came over to
England, and settled in Kent and _Norfolk_. Pedigrees of the Kentish
branch exist: but that of Norfolk was distinct. Guillim refers to some
of the name in Friesland.


_Salingen a Sword Cutler._--A sword in my possession, with inlaid basket
guard, perhaps of the early part of the seventeenth century, is
inscribed on the blade "Salingen me fecit." If this is the name of a
sword cutler, who was he, and when and where did he live?


_Billingsgate._--May I again solicit a reference to any _early_ drawing
of Belins gate? That of 1543 kindly referred by C.S. was already in my
possession. I am also obliged to Vox for his Note.


_"Speak the Tongue that Shakspeare spoke."_--Can you inform me of the
author's name who says,--

  "They speak the tongue that Shakspeare spoke,
  The faith and morals hold that Milton held," &c.?

and was it applied to the early settlers of New England?


_Genealogical Queries._--Can any of your genealogical readers oblige me
with replies to the following Queries?

1. To what family do the following arms belong? They are given in
Blomfield's _Norfolk_ (ix. 413.) as impaled with the coat of William
Donne, Esq., of Letheringsett, Norfolk, on his tomb in the church there.
He died in 1684.

    On a chevron engrailed, two lioncels rampant, between as many

Not having seen the stone, I cannot say whether Blomfield has blazoned
it correctly; but it seems possible he may have _meant_ to say,--

    On a chevron engrailed, between two crescents, as many lioncels

2. _Which_ Sir Philip Courtenay, of Powderham, was the father of
Margaret Courtenay, who, in the fifteenth century, married Sir Robert
Carey, Knt.? and who was her mother?

3. Where can I find a pedigree of the family of Robertson of _Muirtown_,
said to be descended from _John_, second son of Alexander Robertson, of
_Strowan_, by his second wife, Lady Elizabeth Stewart, daughter of John,
Earl of Athol, brother of King James II.? which John is omitted in the
pedigree of the Strowan family, in Burke's _Landed Gentry_.


_Parson, the Staffordshire Giant._--Harwood, in a note to his edition of
Erdeswick's _Staffordshire_, p. 289., says,--

    "This place [Westbromwich] gave birth to _William_ Parsons,
    [query Walter,] the gigantic porter of King {136} James I.,
    _whose picture was at Whitehall_; and a bas-relief of him, with
    Jeffry Hudson the dwarf, was fixed in the front of a house near
    the end of a bagnio court, Newgate-street, probably as a sign."

Plot, in his _Natural History of Staffordshire_, gives some instances of
the great strength of Parsons.

I shall feel much obliged if you or your readers will inform me, 1.
Whether there is any mention of Parsons in contemporary, or other works?
2. Whether the portrait is in existence? if so, where? Has it been



_Unicorn in the Royal Arms._--When and why was the fabulous animal
called the unicorn first used as a supporter for the royal arms of


_The Frog and the Crow of Ennow._--I should be glad to get an answer to
the following Query from some one of your readers:--I remember some few
old lines of a song I used to hear sung many years ago, and wish to
learn anything as regards its date, authorship,--indeed, any
particulars, and where I shall be likely to find it at length. What I
remember is,--

  "There was a little frog, lived in the river swim-o,
  And there was an old crow lived in the wood of Ennow,
  Come on shore, come on shore, said the crow to the frog again-o;
  Thank you, sir, thank you, sir, said the frog to the crow of Ennow,


  But there is sweet music under yonder green willow,
  And there are the dancers, the dancers, in yellow."


"_She ne'er with treacherous Kiss_."--Can any of your readers inform me
where the following lines are to be found?

  "She ne'er with treacherous kiss her Saviour stung,
  Nor e'er denied Him with unholy tongue;
  She, when Apostles shrank, could danger brave--
  Last at His cross, and earliest at His grave!"


"_Incidit in Scyllam_" (Vol. ii., p. 85.).--

  "Incidit in Scyllam, cupiens vitare Charybdim;
  Sie morbum fugiens, incidit in medicos."

Has any of your readers met with, or heard of the second short line,
appendant and appurtenant to the first? I think it was Lord Grenville
who quoted them as found somewhere together.


_Nicholas Brigham's Works._--Nicholas Brigham, who erected the costly
tomb in Poets' Corner to the memory of Geoffrey Chaucer (which it is now
proposed to repair by a subscription of five shillings from the admirers
of the poet), is said to have written, besides certain miscellaneous
poems, _Memoirs by way of Diary_, in twelve Books; and a treatise _De
Venationibus Rerum Memorabilium_. Can any of the readers of "NOTES AND
QUERIES" state whether any of these, the titles of which are certainly
calculated to excite our curiosity, are known to be in existence, and,
if so, where? It is presumed that they have never been printed.


_Ciric-Sceat, or Church-scot._--Can any of your readers explain the
following passage from Canute's Letter to the Archbishops, &c. of
England, A.D. 1031. (_Wilkins Conc._ t. i. p. 298):--

    "Et in festivitate Sancti Martini primitæ seminum ad ecclesiam,
    sub cujus parochia quisque degit, quæ Anglice _Cure scet_


    [If our correspondent refers to the glossary in the second vol.
    of Mr. Thorpe's admirable edition of the _Anglo-Saxon Laws_,
    which he edited for the Record Commission under the title of
    _Ancient Laws and Institutes of England_, he will find s.v.
    "_Ciric-Sceat--Primitiæ Seminum_ church-scot or shot, an
    ecclesiastical due payable on the day of St. Martin, consisting
    chiefly of corn;" a satisfactory answer to his Query, and a
    reference to this very passage from Canute.]

_Welsh Language._--Perhaps some of your correspondents would favour me
with a list of the best books treating on the Welsh literature and
language; specifying the best grammar and dictionary.


_Armenian Language._--This copious and widely-circulated language is
known to but few in this country. If this meets the eye of one who is
acquainted with it, will he kindly direct me whither I may find notices
of it and its literature? Father Aucher's _Grammar, Armenian and
English_ (Venice, 1819), is rather meagre in its details. I have heard
it stated, I know not on what authority, that Lord Byron composed the
English part of this grammar. This grammar contains the two Apocryphal
Epistles found in the Armenian Bible, of the Corinthians to St. Paul,
and St. Paul to the Corinthians. Like the Greek and German, "the
different modes of producing compound epithets and words are the
treasure and ornament of the Armenian language; a thousand varieties of
compounded words may be made in this tongue," p. 10. I believe we have
no other grammar of this language in English.


       *       *       *       *       *



My attention has recently been drawn to the inquiry of J.M. (Vol. i., p.
260.) respecting the work bearing this name. He inquires, "Was the book
ever extant in MS. or print? What is its size, date, and extent?" These
questions may in part be answered by the following extracts from
Parsons's _Treatise tending to Mitigation_, 1607, to {137} which J.M.
refers as containing, "perhaps, all the substance of the Roman
equivocation," &c. It appears from these extracts that the treatise was
circulated in MS.; that it consisted of ten chapters, and was on eight
or nine sheets of paper. If Parsons' statements are true, he, who was
then at Douay, or elsewhere out of England, had not seen it till three
years after it was referred to publicly by Sir E. Coke, in 1604. Should
the description aid in discovering the tract in any library, it may in
answering J.M.'s second Query, "Is it now extant, and where?"

(Cap. i. § iii. p. 440.):--

    "To hasten then to the matter, I am first to admonish the
    reader, that whereas this minister doth take upon him to confute
    a certain Catholicke manuscript Treatise, made in defence of
    Equivocation, and intercepted (as it seemeth) by them, I could
    never yet come to the sight therof, and therfore must admit,"

And (p 44):--

    "This Catholicke Treatise, which I have hope to see ere it be
    long, and if it come in time, I may chance by some appendix, to
    give you more notice of the particulars."

In the conclusion (cap. xiii. §ix. p. 553.):--

    "And now at this very instant having written hitherto, cometh to
    my handes the Catholicke Treatise itselfe of _Equivocation_
    before meneyoned," &c.... "Albeit the whole Treatise itselfe be
    not large, nor conteyneth above 8 or 9 sheetes of written

And (§ xi. p. 554.):--

    "Of ten chapters he omitteth three without mention."


       *       *       *       *       *


I have too much respect for the readers of "NOTES AND QUERIES" to
consider it necessary to point out _seriatim_ the false conclusions
arrived at by MR. HICKSON, at page 81.

The origin of "news" may now be safely left to itself, one thing at
least being certain--that the original purpose of introducing the
subject, that of disproving its alleged derivation from the points of
the compass, is fully attained. No person has come forward to defend
_that_ derivation, and therefore I hope that the credit of expunging
such a fallacy from books of reference will hereafter be due to "NOTES

I cannot avoid, however, calling Mr. Hickson's attention to one or two
of the most glaring of his _non-sequiturs_.

I quoted the Cardinal of York to show that in his day the word "newes"
was considered plural. MR. HICKSON quotes _me_ to show that in the
present day it is used in the singular; therefore, he thinks that the
Cardinal of York was wrong: but he must pardon me if I still consider
the Cardinal an unexceptional authority as to the usage of his own time.

MR. HICKSON asserts that "odds" is not an English word; he classifies it
as belonging to a language known by the term "slang," of which he
declares his utter disuse. And he thinks that when used at all, the word
is but an ellipsis for "_odd chances_." This was not the opinion of the
great English lexicographer, who describes the word as--

    "Odds; a noun substantive, from the adjective odd."

and he defines its meaning as "inequality," or incommensurateness. He
cites many examples of its use in its various significations, with any
of which MR. HICKSON's substitution would play strange pranks; here is
one from Milton:--

  "I chiefly who enjoy
  So far the happier lot, enjoying thee
  Pre-eminent by so much odds."

Then with respect to "noise," MR. HICKSON scouts the idea of its being
the same word with the French "noise." Here again he is at odds with
Doctor Johnson, although I doubt very much that he has the odds of him.
MR. HICKSON rejects altogether the _quasi_ mode of derivation, nor will
he allow that the same word may (even in different languages) deviate
from its original meaning. But, most unfortunately for MR. HICKSON, the
obsolete French signification of "noise" was precisely the present
English one! A French writer thus refers to it:--

    "A une époque plus reculée ce mot avait un sens différent: il
    signifiait _bruit, cries de joie_, &c. Joinville dit dans son
    _Histoire de Louis IX_.,--'La noise que ils (les Sarrazins)
    menoient de leurs cors sarrazinnoiz estoit espouvantable à
    escouter.' Les Anglais nous ont emprunté cette expression et
    l'emploient _dans sa première acception_."

MR. HICKSON also lays great stress upon the absence, in English, of "the
new" as a singular of "the news." In the French, however, "_la
nouvelle_" is common enough in the exact sense of news. Will he allow
nothing for the caprice of idiom?


Leeds, July 8. 1850.

_News, Noise_ (Vol. ii., p. 82.).--I think it will be found that MR.
HICKSON is misinformed as to the fact of the employment of the Norman
French word _noise_, in the French sense, in England.

_Noyse_, _noixe_, _noas_, or _noase_, (for I have met with each form),
meant then quarrel, dispute, or, as a school-boy would say, a row. It
was derived from _noxia_. Several authorities agree in these points. In
the _Histoire de Foulques Fitz-warin_, Fouque asks "Quei fust _la noyse_
qe fust devaunt le roi en la sale?" which with regard to the context can
only be fairly translated by "What is going on in {138} the King's
hall?" For his respondent recounts to him the history of a quarrel,
concerning which messengers had just arrived with a challenge.

Whether the Norman word _noas_ acquired in time a wider range of
signification, and became the English _news_, I cannot say but stranger
changes have occurred. Under our Norman kings _bacons_ signified dried
wood, and _hosebaunde_ a husbandman, then a term of contempt.


       *       *       *       *       *


1. _News._--I regret that MR. HICKSON perseveres in his extravagant
notion about _news_, and that the learning and ingenuity which your
correspondent P.C.S.S., I have no doubt justly, gives him credit for,
should be so unworthily employed.

Does MR. HICKSON really "very much doubt whether our word _news_
contains the idea of _new_ at all?" What then has it got to do with

Does MR. HICKSON'S mind, "in its ordinary mechanical action," really
think that the entry of "old newes, or stale newes" in an old dictionary
is any proof of _news_ having nothing to do with _new_? Does he then
separate _health_ from _heal_ and _hale_, because we speak of "bad
health" and "ill health"?

Will MR. HICKSON explain why _news_ may not be treated as an elliptical
expression for _new things_, as well as _greens_ for _green vegetables_,
and _odds_ for _odd chances_?

When MR. HICKSON says _dogmaticè_, "For the adoption of words we have no
rule, and we act just as our convenience or necessity dictates; but in
their formation we _must strictly_ conform to the laws we find
established,"--does he deliberately mean to say that there are no
exceptions and anomalies in the formation of language, except
importations of foreign words? If he means this, I should like to hear
some reasons for this wonderful simplification of grammar.

Why may not "convenience or necessity" sometimes lead us to swerve from
the ordinary rules of the formulation of language, as well as to import
words bodily, and, according to MR. HICKSON'S views of the origin of
_news_, without reference to context, meaning, part of speech, or
anything else?

Why may we not have the liberty of forming a plural noun _news_ from the
adjective _new_, though we have never used the singular _new_ as a noun,
when the French have indulged themselves with the plural noun of
adjective formation, _les nouvelles_, without feeling themselves
compelled to make _une nouvelle_ a part of their language?

Why may we not form a plural noun _news_ from _new_, to express the same
idea which in Latin is expressed by _nova_, and in French by _les

Why may not goods be a plural noun formed from the adjective _good_,
exactly as the Romans formed _bona_ and the Germans have formed _Güter_?

Why does MR. HICKSON compel us to treat goods as singular, and make us
go back to the Gothic? Does he say that _die Güter_, the German for
_goods_ or _possessions_, is singular? Why too must riches be singular,
and be the French word _richesse_ imported into our language? Why may we
not have a plural noun _riches_, as the Romans had _divitæ_, and the
Germans have _die Reichthumer_? and what if _riches_ be irregularly
formed from the adjective _rich_? Are there, MR. HICKSON, no
irregularities in the formation of a language? Is this really so?

If "from convenience or necessity" words are and may be imported from
foreign languages bodily into our own, why might not our forefathers,
feeling the convenience or necessity of having words corresponding to
_bona_, _nova_, _divitiæ_, have formed _goods_, _news_, _riches_, from
_good_, _new_, _rich_?

_News_ must be singular, says MR. HICKSON; but _means_ "is beyond all
dispute plural," for Shakspeare talks of "a mean:" with _news_, however,
there is the slight difficulty of the absence of the noun _new_ to start
from. Why is the absence of the singular an insuperable difficulty in
the way of the formation of a plural noun from an adjective, any more
than of plural nouns otherwise formed, which have no singulars, as
_clothes_, _measles_, _alms_, &c. What says MR. HICKSON of these words?
Are they all singular nouns and imported from other languages? for he
admits no other irregularity in the formation of a language.

2. _Noise._--I agree with MR. HICKSON that the old derivations of
_noise_ are unsatisfactory, but I continue to think his monstrous. I
fear we cannot decide in your columns which of us has the right German
pronunciation of _neues_; and I am sorry to find that you, Mr. Editor,
are with MR. HICKSON in giving to the German _eu_ the exact sound of
_oi_ in _noise_. I remain unconvinced, and shall continue to pronounce
the _eu_ with less fullness than _oi_ in _noise_. However, this is a
small matter, and I am quite content with MR. HICKSON to waive it. The
derivation appears to me nonsensical, and I cannot but think would
appear so to any one who was not bitten by a fancy.

I do not profess, as I said before, to give the root of _noise_. But it
is probably the same as of _noisome_, _annoy,_ the French _nuire_, Latin
_nocere_, which brings us again to _noxa_; and the French word _noise_
has probably the same root, though its specific meaning is different
from that of our word _noise_. Without venturing to assert it
dogmatically, I should expect the now usual meaning of _noise_ to be its
primary meaning, viz. "a loud sound" or "disturbance;" and this accords
with my notion of its alliances. The French word _bruit_ has both the
meanings of our word _noise_; and _to bruit_ and _to noise_ are with us
interchangeable terms. The French _bruit_ also has the sense of _a
disturbance_ more definitely than our word _noise_. "Il y a du bruit"
means "There is a row." {139} I mention _bruit_ and its meanings merely
as a parallel case to _noise_, if it be, as I think, that "a loud sound"
is its primary, and "a rumour" its secondary meaning.

I have no doubt there are many instances, and old ones, among our poets,
and prose writers too, of the use of the noun _annoy_. I only remember
at present Mr. Wordsworth's--

  "There, at Blencatharn's rugged feet,
  Sir Lancelot gave a safe retreat
  To noble Clifford; from annoy
  Concealed the persecuted boy."

3. _Parliament._--FRANCISCUS's etymology of Parliament (Vol. ii., p.
85.) is, I think, fit companion for MR. HICKSON's derivations of _news_
and _noise_. I take FRANCISCUS for a wag: but lest others of your
readers may think him serious, and be seduced into a foolish explanation
of the word _Parliament_ by his joke, I hope you will allow me to
mention that _palam mente_, literally translated, means _before the
mind_, and that, if FRANCISCUS or any one else tries to get "freedom of
thought or deliberation" out of this, or to get Parliament out of it, or
even to get sense out of it, he will only follow the fortune which
FRANCISCUS says has befallen all his predecessors, and stumble _in
limine_. The presence of _r_, and the turning of _mens_ into _mentum_,
are minor difficulties. If FRANCISCUS be not a wag, he is perhaps an
anti-ballot man, bent on finding an argument against the ballot in the
etymology of _Parliament_: but whatever he be, I trust your readers
generally will remain content with the old though humble explanation of
_parliament_, that it is a modern Latinisation of the French word
_parlement_, and that it literally means a talk-shop, and has nothing to
do with open or secret voting, though it be doubtless true that Roman
judges voted _clam vel palam_, and that _palam_ and _mens_ are two Latin


       *       *       *       *       *


"_Delighted_" (Vol. ii., p. 113.).--I incline to think that the word
_delighted_ in Shakspeare represents the Latin participle _delectus_
(from _deligere_), "select, choice, exquisite, refined." This sense will
suit all the passages cited by MR. HICKSON, and particularly the last.
If this be so, the suggested derivations from the adjective _light_, and
from the substantive _light_, fall to the ground: but MR. HICKSON will
have been right in distinguishing Shakspeare's _delighted_ from the
participle of the usual verb _to delight, delectare_=gratify. The roots
of the two are distinct: that of the former being _leg-ere_ "to choose;"
of the latter, _lac-ere_ "to tice."


_Meaning of the Word "Delighted."_--I am not the only one of your
readers who have read with deep interest the important contributions of
MR. HICKSON, and who hope for further remarks on Shakspearian
difficulties from the same pen. His papers on the _Taming of the Shrew_
were of special value; and although I do not quite agree with all he has
said on the subject, there can be no doubt of the great utility of
permitting the discussion of questions of the kind in such able hands.

Perhaps you would kindly allow me to say thus much; for the remembrance
of the papers just alluded to renders a necessary protest against that
gentleman's observations on the meaning of the word _delighted_ somewhat
gentler. I happen to be one of the unfortunates (a circumstance unknown
to MR. HICKSON, for the work in which my remarks on the passage are
contained is not yet published) who have indulged in what he terms the
"cool impertinence" of explaining _delighted_, in the celebrated passage
in _Measure for Measure_, by "delightful, sweet, pleasant;" and the
explanation appears to me to be so obviously correct, that I am
surprised beyond measure at the terms he applies to those who have
adopted it.

But MR. HICKSON says,--

    "I pass by the nonsense that the greatest master of the English
    language did not heed the distinction between the past and the
    present participles, as not worth second thought."

I trust I am not trespassing on courtesy when I express a fear that a
sentence like this exhibits the writer's entire want of acquaintance
with the grammatical system employed by the great poet and the writers
of his age. We must not judge Shakspeare's grammar by Cobbett or Murray,
but by the vernacular language of his own times. It is perfectly well
known that Shakspeare constantly uses the passive for the active
participle, in the same manner that he uses the present tense for the
passive participle, and commits numerous other offences against correct
grammar, judging by the modern standard. If MR. HICKSON will read the
first folio, he will find that the "greatest master of the English
language" uses plural nouns for singular, the plural substantive with
the singular verb, and the singular substantive with the plural verb. In
fact, so numerous are these instances, modern editors have been
continually compelled to alter the original merely in deference to the
ears of modern readers. They have not altered _delighted_ to
_delightful_; but the meaning is beyond a doubt. "Example is better than
precept," and perhaps, if MR. HICKSON will have the kindness to consult
the following passages with attention, he may be inclined to arrive at
the conclusion, it is not so very dark an offence to assert that
Shakspeare did use the passive participle for the active; not in
ignorance, but because it was an ordinary practice in the literary
compositions of his age.

  "To your _professed_ bosoms I commit him."

  _King Lear_, Act i. Sc. 1. {140}

  "I met the youthful lord at Laurence' cell,
  And gave him what _becomed_ love I might.
  Not stepping o'er the bounds of modesty."

  _Romeo and Juliet_, Act iv. Sc. 3.

  "Thus ornament is but the _guiled_ shore
  To a most dangerous sea."

  _Merchant of Venice_, Act iii. Sc. 2.

  "Then, in despite of _brooded_ watchful day,
  I would into thy bosom pour my thoughts."

  _King John_, Act iii. Sc. 3.

  "And careful hours, with time's _deformed_ hand,
  Have written strange defeatures in my face."

  _Comedy of Errors_, Act v. Sc. 1.

In all these passages, as well as in that in _Measure for Measure_, the
simple remark, that the poet employed a common grammatical variation, is
all that is required for a complete explanation.


       *       *       *       *       *


_Execution of Charles I.--Sir T. Herbert's "Memoir of Charles I_." (Vol.
ii. pp., 72. 110.).--Is P.S.W.E. aware that Mr. Hunter gives a
tradition, in his _History of Hallamshire_, that a certain William
Walker, who died in 1700, and to whose memory there was an inscribed
brass plate in the parish church of Sheffield, was the executioner of
Charles I.? The man obtained this reputation from having retired from
political life at the Restoration, to his native village, Darnall, near
Sheffield, where he is said to have made death-bed disclosures, avowing
that he beheaded the King. The tradition has been supported, perhaps
suggested, by the name of Walker having occurred during the trials of
some of the regicides, as that of the real executioner.

Can any one tell me whether a narrative of the last days of Charles I.,
and of his conduct on the scaffold, by Sir Thomas Herbert, has ever been
published in full? It is often quoted and referred to (see "NOTES AND
QUERIES," Vol. i., p. 436.), but the owner of the MS., with whom I am
well acquainted, informs me that it has never been submitted to
publication, but that some extracts have been secretly obtained. In what
book are these printed? The same house which contains Herbert's MS. (a
former owner of it married Herbert's widow), holds also the stool on
which King Charles knelt at his execution, the shirt in which he slept
the night before, and other precious relics of the same unfortunate


Ecclesfield, July 11. 1850.

_Execution of Charles I._ (Vol. ii., p 72.).--In Ellis's _Letters
illustrative of English History_ Second Series, vol. iii. p. 340-41.,
P.S.W.E. will find the answer to his inquiry. Absolute certainty is
perhaps unattainable on the subject; but no mention occurs of the Earl
of Stair, nor is it probable that any one of patrician rank would be
retained as the operator on such an occasion. We need hardly question
that Richard Brandon was the executioner. Will P.S.W.E. give his
authority for the "report" to which he refers?


_Simon of Ghent_ (Vol. ii., p. 56.).--"Simon Gandavensis, patria
Londinensis, sed patre Flandro Gandavensi natus, a. 1297. Episcopus
Sarisburiensis."--Fabric. _Bibl. Med. et Infint. Latin._, lib. xviii. p.

_Chevalier de Cailly_ (Vol. ii., p. 101.)--Mr. De St. Croix will find an
account of the Chevalier Jacque de Cailly, who died in 1673, in the
_Biographie Universelle_; or a more complete one in Goujet
(_Bibliothèque Françoise_, t. xvii. p. 320.).


_Collar of Esses_ (Vol. ii., pp. 89. 110.).--The question of B. has been
already partly answered in an obliging manner by [Greek: ph]., who has
referred to my papers on the Collar of Esses and other Collars of
Livery, published a few years ago in the _Gentleman's Magazine_. Permit
me to add that I have such large additional collections on the same
subject that the whole will be sufficient to form a small volume, and I
intend to arrange them in that shape. As a direct answer to B.'s
question--"Is there any list extant of persons who were honoured with
that badge?" I may reply, No. Persons were not, in fact, "honoured with
the badge," in the sense that persons are now decorated with stars,
crosses, or medals; but the livery collar was _assumed_ by parties
holding a certain position. So far as can be ascertained, these were
either knights attached to the royal household or service, who wore gold
or gilt collars, or esquires in the like position, who wore silver
collars. I have made collections for a list of such pictures, effigies,
and sepulchral brasses as exhibit livery collars, and shall be thankful
for further communications. To [Greek: ph].'s question--"Who are the
persons _now_ privileged to wear these collars?" I believe the reply
must be confined to--the judges, the Lord Mayor of London, the Lord
Mayor of Dublin, the kings, and heralds of arms. If any other officers
of the royal household still wear the collar of Esses, I shall be glad
to be informed.


    [To the list of persons now privileged to wear such collars
    given by Mr. Nichols, must be added the Serjeants of Arms, of
    whose creation by investiture with the Collar of Esses, Pegge
    has preserved so curious an account in the Fifth Part of his

_Hell paved with good Intentions_ (Vol. ii., p. 86.).--The history of
the phrase which Sir Walter Scott attributed "to a stern old divine,"
and which J.M.G. moralises upon, and asserts to be a misquotation for
"the _road_ to hell," &c., is this:--Boswell, {141} in his _Life of
Johnson_ (_sub_ 15th April, 1775), says that Johnson, in allusion to the
unhappy failure of pious resolves, said to an acquaintance, "Sir, hell
is paved with good intentions." Upon which Malone adds a note:

    "This is a proverbial saying. 'Hell,' says Herbert, 'is full of
    good meanings and wishings.'--_Jacula Prudentum_, p. 11. ed.

but he does not say where else the proverbial saying is to be found. The
last editor, Croker, adds,--

    "Johnson's phrase has become so proverbial, that it may seem
    rather late to ask what it means--why '_paved_?' perhaps as
    making the _road_ easy, _facilis descensus Averni_."


_The Plant "Hæmony"_ (Vol. ii., p. 88.).--I think MR. BASHAM, who asks
for a reference to the plant "hæmony", referred to by Milton in his
_Comus_, will find the information which he seeks in the following
extract from Henry Lyte's translation of Rembert Dodoen's _Herbal_, at
page 107, of the edition of 1578. The plant is certainly not called by
the name of "hæmony," nor is it described as having prickles on its
leaves; but they are plentifully shown in the engraving which
accompanies the description.

    "_Allysson._--The stem of this herbe is right and straight,
    parting itself at the top into three or foure small branches.
    The leaves be first round, and after long whitish and _rough_,
    or somewhat woolly in handling. It bringeth foorth at the top of
    the branches little _yellow_ floures, and afterward small rough
    whitish and flat huskes, and almost round fashioned like
    bucklers, wherein is contained a flat seede almost like to the
    seed of castell or stocke gilloflers, but greater.

    "Alysson, as Dioscorides writeth, groweth upon rough mountaynes,
    and is not found in this countrey but in the gardens of some

    "The same hanged in the house, or at the gate or entry, keepeth
    man and beast from _enchantments and witching_."


As a "Note" to DR. BASHAM'S "Query", I would quote Ovid's _Metamorph._,
lib vii. l. 264-5.:

  "Illic Hæmoniá radices valle resectas.
  Seminaque, et flores, et succos incoquit acres."


_Practice of Scalping amongst the Scythians--Scandinavian
Mythology._--In Vol. ii., p. 12., I desired to be informed whether this
practice has prevailed amongst any people besides the American Indians.
As you have established no rule against an inquirer's replying to his
own Query, (though, unfortunately for other inquirers, self-imposed by
some of your correspondents) I shall avail myself of your permission,
and refer those who are interested in the subject to Herodotus,
_Melpomene 64_, where they will find that the practice of scalping
prevailed amongst the Scythians. This coincidence of manners serves
greatly to corroborate the hypothesis that America was peopled
originally from the northern parts of the old continent. He has recorded
also their horrid custom of drinking the blood of their enemies, and
making drinking vessels of their skulls, reminding us of the war-song of
the savage of Louisiana:--

    "I shall devour their (my enemies') hearts, dry their flesh,
    drink their blood; I shall tear off their scalps, and make cups
    of their skulls." (Bossu's _Travels_.) "Those," says this
    traveller through Louisiana, "who think the Tartars have chiefly
    furnished America with inhabitants, seem to have hit the true
    opinion; you cannot believe how great the resemblance of the
    Indian manners is to those of the ancient Scythians; it is found
    in their religious ceremonies, their customs, and in their food.
    Hornius is full of characteristics that may satisfy your
    curiosity in this respect, and I desire you to read him."--Vol.
    i. p. 400.

But the subject of the "Origines Americanæ" is not what I now beg to
propose for consideration; it is the tradition-falsifying assertion of
Mr. Grenville Pigott, in his _Manual of Scandinavian Mythology_ (as
quoted by D'Israeli in the _Amenities of English Literature_, vol. i. p.
51, 52.), that the custom with which the Scandinavians were long
reproached, of drinking out of the skulls of their enemies, has no other
foundation than a blunder of Olaus Wormius, who, translating a passage
in the death-song of Regner Lodbrog,--

    "Soon shall we drink out of the curved trees of the head,"

turned the trees of the head into a skull, and the skull into a hollow
cup; whilst the Scald merely alluded to the branching horns, growing as
trees from the heads of aninals, that is, the curved horns which formed
their drinking cups.


_Cromwell's Estates.--Magor_ (Vol. ii., p. 126.).--I have at length
procured the following information respecting _Magor_. It is a parish in
the lower division of the hundred of Caldicot, Monmouthshire. Its
church, which is dedicated to St. Mary, is in the patronage of the Duke
of Beaufort.


_"Incidis in Scyllam," &c._ (Vol. ii., p. 85.).--MR. C. FORBES says he
"should be sorry this fine old proverb should be passed over with no
better notice than seems to have been assigned to it in Boswell's
_Johnson_," and then he quotes some account of it from the _Gentleman's
Magazine_. I beg leave to apprise MR. FORBES that there is no notice
whatsoever of it in Boswell's _Johnson_, though it is introduced (_inter
alia_) in a note of _Mr. Malone's_ in the later editions of Boswell; but
that note contains in substance all that MR. FORBES'S communication
repeats. See the later {142} editions of Boswell, under the date of 30th
March, 1783.


_Dies Iræ_ (Vol. ii., p. 72. 105.).--Will you allow me to enter my
protest against the terms "extremely beautiful and magnificent," applied
by your respectable correspondents to the _Dies Iræ_, which, I confess,
I think not deserving any such praise either for its poetry or its
piety. The first triplet is the best, though I am not sure that even the
merit of that be not its _jingle_, in which King David and the Sybil are
strangely enough brought together to testify of the day of judgment.
Some of the triplets appear to me very poor, and hardly above macaronic


_Fabulous Account of the Lion._--Many thanks to J. EASTWOOD (Vol. i., p.
472.) for his pertinent reply to my Query. The anecdote he refers to is
mentioned in the _Archæological Journal_, vol. i. 1845, p. 174., in a
review of the French work _Vitraux Peints de S. Etienne de Bourges_, &c.
No reference is given there; but I should fancy Philippe de Thaun gives
the fable.


_Caxton's Printing-office_ (Vol. ii., p. 122.).--The abbot of
Westminster who allowed William Caxton to set up his press in the
almonry within the abbey of Westminster, was probably John Esteney, who
became abbot in the year 1475, and died in 1498. If the date mentioned
by Stow for the introduction of printing into England by Caxton, viz.
1471, could be shown to be that in which he commenced his printing at
Westminster, Abbot Milling (who resigned the abbacy for the bishopric of
Hereford in 1475) would claim the honour of having been his first
patron: but the earliest ascertained date for his printing at
Westminster is 1477. In the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for April, 1846, I
made this remark:

    "There can, we think, be no doubt that the device used by
    Caxton, and afterwards by Wynkyn de Worde, (W. 4.7 C.) was
    intended for the figures 74, (though Dibdin, p. cxxvii, seems
    incredulous in the matter), and that its allusion was to the
    year 1474 which may very probably have been that in which his
    press was set up in Westminster."

Will the Editor of "NOTES AND QUERIES" now allow me to modify this
suggestion? The figures "4" and "7" are interlaced, it is true, but the
"4" decidedly precedes the other figure, and is followed by a point (.).
I thinly it not improbable that this cypher, therefore, is so far
enigmatic, that the figure "4" may stand for _fourteen hundred_ (the
century), and that the "7" is intended to read doubled, as
_seventy-seven_. In that case, the device, and such historical evidence
as we possess, combine in assigning the year 1477 for the time of the
erection of Caxton's press at Westminster, in the time of Abbot Esteney.
If _The Game and Play of the Chesse_ was printed at Westminster, it
would still be 1474. In the paragraph quoted by ARUN (Vol. ii., p. 122.)
from Mr. C. Knight's _Life of Caxton_, Stow is surely incorrectly
charged with naming Abbot Islip in this matter. Islip's name has been
introduced by the error of some subsequent writer; and this is perhaps
attributable to the extraordinary inadvertence of Dart, the historian of
the abbey, who in his _Lives of the Abbots of Westminster_ has
altogether omitted Esteney,--a circumstance which may have misled any
one hastily consulting his book.


       *       *       *       *       *



_The Fawkes's of York in the Sixteenth Century, including Notices of the
Early History of Guye Fawkes, the Gunpowder Plot Conspirator_, is the
title of a small volume written, it is understood, by a well-known and
accomplished antiquary resident in that city. The author has brought
together his facts in an agreeable manner, and deserves the rare credit
of being content to produce a work commensurate with the extent and
interest of his subject.

We learn from our able and well-informed contemporary, _The Athenæum_
that "one curious fact has already arisen out of the proposal for the
restoration of Chaucer's Monument,--which invests with a deeper interest
the present undertaking. One of the objections formerly urged against
taking steps to restore the perishing memorial of the Father of English
Poetry in Poets' Corner was, that it was not really his tomb, but a
monument erected to do honour to his memory a century and a half after
his death. An examination, however, of the tomb itself by competent
authorities has proved this objection to be unfounded:--inasmuch as
there can exist no doubt, we hear, from the difference of workmanship,
material, &c., that the altar tomb is the original tomb of Geoffrey
Chaucer,--and that instead of Nicholas Brigham having erected an
entirely new monument, he only added to that which then existed the
overhanging canopy, &c. So that the sympathy of Chaucer's admirers is
now invited to the restoration of what till now was really not known to
exist--_the original tomb_ of the Poet,--as well as to the additions
made to it by the affectionate remembrance of Nicholas Brigham."

Messrs. Ward and Co., of Belfast, announce the publication, to
subscribers only, of a new work in Chromo-Lithography, containing five
elaborately tinted plates printed in gold, silver, and colours, being
exact fac-similes of an _Ancient Irish Ecclesiastical Bell_, which is
supposed to have belonged to Saint Patrick and the four sides of the
jewelled shrine in which it is preserved, accompanied by a historical
and descriptive Essay by the Rev. William Reeves, D.D., M.R.I.A. By an
Irish inscription on the back of the case or shrine of the bell, which
Doctor Reeves has translated, he clearly proves that the case or shrine
was made in the end of the eleventh century, and that the bell itself is
several hundred years older; and also that it has {143} been in the
hands of the Mulhollands since the time the case or shrine was made;
that they bore the same name, and are frequently mentioned as custodians
of this bell in the "_Annals of the Four Masters_."

We have received the following Catalogues:--William Heath's, 29. Lincoln
Inn Fields, Select Catalogue, No. 4., of Second-Hand Books, perfect, and
in good condition. Thomas Cole's, 15. Great Turnstile, Catalogue of a
Strange Collection from the Library of a Curious Collector. John
Petheram's, 94. High Holborn, Catalogue of a Collection of British
(engraved) Portraits. Cornish's (Brothers), 37. New Street, Birmingham,
List No. IX. for 1850 of English and Foreign Books.

       *       *       *       *       *



(In continuation of Lists in former Nos.)

Odd Volumes.


Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to Mr. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


VOLUME THE FIRST OF NOTES AND QUERIES, _with Title-page and very copious
Index, is now ready, price 9s. 6d., bound in cloth, and may be had, by
order, of all Booksellers and Newsmen._

_Erratum_.--No. 38. p. 113. col. 2. l. 37., for "participle" read

       *       *       *       *       *


In One Large Volume 8vo. of 1,440 pages, comprising nearly 50,000 Names
of Places, price 36s. cloth; or half-russia, 41s.

A NEW DICTIONARY of GEOGRAPHY, Descriptive, Physical, Statistical, and
Historical; forming a complete General Gazetteer of the World. By
Edinburgh in Ordinary to Her Majesty.

"He appears to have executed in a very laudable manner the task which he
has undertaken, and to have taken every precaution possible to secure
accuracy and precision of statement."--_Times._


       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, in fcp. 8vo. price 4s. 6d. cloth,


Newly translated from the French. With an Introduction and Notes.


       *       *       *       *       *

In Post 8vo., price 2s. 6d.

Early History of GUYE FAWKES, the Gunpowder Plot Conspirator. By ROBERT
DAVIES, Esq., F.S.A.

Published by J.B. NICHOLS and J.G. NICHOLS, 25. Parliament-street,

       *       *       *       *       *

PARKER'S EDUCATIONAL CATALOGUE, including the Books produced under the
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A TREATISE ON MORAL EVIDENCE. Illustrated by numerous Examples both of
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