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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 45, September 7, 1850
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 45, September 7, 1850" ***

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NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 45.] SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 7, 1850 [Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

       *       *       *       *       * {225}


CONTENTS.

NOTES:--
  Folk Lore:--The first Mole in Cornwall--"A whistling
    Wife," &c.--A Charm for Warts--Hanging out
    the broom. 225
  Lord Plunket and St. Agobard. 226
  Notes on Cunningham's Handbook of London, By E.F.
    Rimbault. 227
  Notes on Coleridge's Aids to Reflection, by J.E.B.
    Mayor. 228
  Minor Notes:--Capture of Henry VI.--Notes from
    Mentmore Register. 228

QUERIES:--
  Joachim, the French Ambassador. 229
  Roman Catholic Translations of the Scriptures, &c. 229
  Minor Queries:--The Lost Tribes--Partrige Family--Commoner
    marrying a Peeress--The Character "&"--Combs buried with
    the Dead--Cave's Historia Literaria--Julin--Richardson
    Family--Arabic Name of Tobacco--Pole Money--Welsh Money--A
    Skeleton in every House--Whetstone of Reproof--Morganatic
    Marriages--Gospel of Distaffs. 230

REPLIES:--
  Poeta Anglicus. 232
  Caxton's Printing-office, by J.G. Nichols. 233
  The Use of Coffins, by Rev. A. Gatty. 234
  Shakspeare's Use of the Word "Delighted". 234
  Ventriloquism. 234
  Replies to Minor Queries:--Earl of Oxford's Patent--The
    Darby Ram--Rotten Row and Stockwell
    Street--Hornbooks--Passages from Shakspeare--Mildew in
    Books--Pilgrims' Road to Canterbury--Abbé Strickland--Etymology
    of Totnes--Ædricus qui Signa fundebat--Fiz-gig--Guineas--
    Numismatics--Querela Cantabrigiensis--Ben Johnson--Barclay's
    "Argenis"--Hockey--Praed's Poetical Works. 235

MISCELLANEOUS:--
  Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c. 239
  Books and Odd Volumes Wanted. 239
  Notices to Correspondents. 239
  Advertisements. 240

       *       *       *       *       *


NOTES.

FOLK LORE.

_The First Mole in Cornwall; a Morality from the Stowe of Morwenna, in
the Rocky Land._--A lonely life for the dark and silent mole! She glides
along her narrow vaults, unconscious of the glad and glorious scenes of
earth, and air, and sea! She was born, as it were, in a grave, and in
one long living sepulchre she dwells and dies! Is not existence to her a
kind of doom? Wherefore is she thus a dark, sad exile from the blessed
light of day? Hearken! Here, in our own dear Cornwall, the first mole
was a lady of the land! Her abode was in the far west, among the hills
of Morwenna, beside the Severn sea. She was the daughter of a lordly
race, the only child of her mother, and the father of the house was
dead. Her name was Alice of the Lea. Fair was she and comely, tender and
tall; and she stood upon the threshold of her youth. But most of all did
men wonder at the glory of her large blue eyes. They were, to look upon,
like the summer waters, when the sea is soft with light! They were to
her mother a joy, and to the maiden herself--ah! benedicite--a pride.
She trusted in the loveliness of those eyes, and in her face, and
features, and form: and so it was that the damsel was wont to pass the
summer's day, in the choice of rich apparel, and precious stones, and
gold. Howbeit this was one of the ancient and common customs of those
old departed days. Now, in the fashion of her stateliness, and in the
hue and texture of her garments, there was none among the maidens of old
Cornwall like Alice of the Lea. Men sought her far and nigh, but she was
to them all, like a form of graven stone, careless and cold. Her soul
was set upon a Granville's love, fair Sir Bevil of Stowe, the flower of
the Cornish chivalry--that noble gentleman! that valorous knight! He was
her star. And well might she wait upon his eyes; for he was the garland
of the west--the loyal soldier of a sainted king. He was that stately
Granville who lived a hero-life, and died a warrior's death!

Now there was signal made of banquet in the halls of Stowe, of wassail,
and the dance. The messengers had sped, and Alice of the Lea would be
there. Robes, precious and many, were unfolded from their rest, and the
casket poured forth jewel and gem, that the maiden might stand before
the knight victorious! It was the day--the hour--the time. Her mother
sate by her wheel at the hearth. The page waited in the hall. She came
down in her loveliness into the old oak room, and stood before the
mirrored glass. Her robe was of woven velvet, rich, and glossy, and
soft; jewels shone like stars in the midnight of her raven hair, and on
her hand there gleamed, afar off, a bright and glorious ring! She {226}
stood--she gazed upon her own countenance and form, and worshipped! "Now
all good angels succour thee, dear Alice, and bend Sir Bevil's soul!
Fain am I to see thee a wedded wife, before I die! I yearn to hold thy
children on my knee! Often shall I pray to-night that the Granville
heart may yield! Thy victory shall be my prayer!"

"Prayer!" was the haughty answer; "with the eyes that I see in that
glass, and this vesture meet for a queen, I lack no doubting prayer!"

Saint Mary shield us! Ah words of evil soul! There was a shriek--a
sob--a cry: and where was Alice of the Lea? Vanished--gone. They had
heard wild tones of sudden music in the air. There was a rush--a beam of
light--and she was gone, and that for ever! East sought they her, and
west, in northern paths and south; but she was never more seen in the
lands. Her mother wept till she had not a tear left; none sought to
comfort her, for it was vain. Moons waxed and waned, and the crones by
the cottage-hearth had whiled away many a shadowy night with tales of
Alice of the Lea.

But, at the last, as the gardener in the Pleasance leaned one day on his
spade, he saw among the roses a small round hillock of earth, such as he
had never seen before, and upon it something which shone. It was her
ring! It was the very jewel she had worn the day she vanished out of
sight! They looked earnestly upon it, and they saw within the border
(for it was wide) the tracery of certain small fine letters in the
ancient Cornish tongue, which said,--

  "Beryan Erde,
   Oyn und Perde!"

Then came the priest of the Place of Morwenna, a gray and silent man! He
had served long years at a lonely altar, a bent and solitary form. But
he had been wise in the language of his youth, and he read the legend
thus--

  "The earth must hide
  Both eyes and pride!"

Now, as he uttered these words, they stood in the Pleasance by the
mound; and on a sudden there was a low faint cry! They beheld, and O
wondrous and strange! there was a small dark creature, clothed in a soft
velvet skin, in texture and in hue like the Lady Alice her robe; and
they saw, as it went into the earth, that it moved along without eyes,
in everlasting night. Then the ancient priest wept, for he called to
mind all these things, and saw what they meant; and he showed them how
this was the maiden, who had been visited with doom for her pride.
Therefore her rich array had been changed into the skin of a creeping
thing and her large proud eyes were sealed up; and she herself had
become

  The first mole!
  Of the hillocks of Cornwall!

Ah! woe is me! and well-a-day! that damsel so stately and fair, sweet
Lady Alice of the Lea, should be made for a judgement--the dark mother
of the moles!

Now take ye good heed, Cornish maidens, how ye put on vain apparel, to
win love. And cast down your eyes, all ye damsels of the west, and look
ye meekly on the ground! Be ye good and gentle, tender and true; and
when ye see your image in the glass, and begin to be lifted up with the
beauty of that shadowy thing, call to mind the maiden of Morwenna, her
noble eyes and comely countenance, the vesture of price and the
glittering ring. Sit ye by the wheel, as of old they sate and as ye draw
the lengthening wool, sing ye ever-more and say,

  "Beryan Erde,
   Oyn and Perde!"

       *       *       *       *       *

"A whistling Wife" &c.--I can supply another version of the couplet
quoted in "Folk Lore" (Vol. ii., p. 164.), which has the merit of being
more rhymical and mysterious. In what district it was current I know
not.

  "A whistling wife and a crowing hen
   Will call the old gentleman out of his den."

G.L.B.


_A Charm for Warts._--In some parts of Ireland, especially towards the
south, they place great faith in the following charm:--When a funeral is
passing by, they rub the warts and say three times, "May these warts and
this corpse pass away and never more return;" sometimes adding, "in the
name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost."

JARLTZBERG.


_"Hanging out the Broom"._--Besides the instance given by Mr. R.F.
Johnson (Vol. i., p. 384.), perhaps some of your readers can inform me
of the origin of a somewhat similar custom, applicable to all ships and
vessels for sale or hire, by the broom (all old one being generally
used) being attached to the mast-head: if of two masts, to the
foretop-mast head.

WP.

       *       *       *       *       *

LORD PLUNKET AND SAINT AGOBARD.

Some of your readers may remember a speech in parliament by, as I think,
Lord Plunket, in which his lordship argued with great eloquence in
behalf of the Bill for the Emancipation of the Roman Catholics. Among
many passages therein of equal truth and rhetorical power, there was one
long afterwards much quoted, paraphrased, and praised. It was that in
which he reminded the House, that those for whom he pleaded were
fellow-subjects of the same race, offspring of the same Creator, alike
believers in the One true God, the equal recipients of His mercies,
appealing for {227} His blessings though the medium of the same faith,
and looking forward for salvation to the One Intercessor, Mediator, and
Sacrifice for all,--men, who, as they did, addressed the Eternal in the
form of that "Universal prayer"--Our Father--the authority and the
privilege of one common parentage, offered by the all in the union of
the same spirit, in the conviction of the same wants, in the aspiration
of the same hope. I say, I think Lord Plunket so spoke, for I write from
memory dating from the period when George the Third was king. Now be
this so: according to the dogmas of some critics, Lord Plunket may be
convicted of an eloquent plagiary. Read the following extract from a
missive by S. Agobard, to be found in the _Bibl. Vet. Patrum_, tome
xiii, page 429., by Galland, addressed "Ad præfatum Imperatorem,
adversus legem Gundobadi et impia certamina quæ per eam geruntur," and
say whether, in spite of the separation of centuries, there does not
appear a family likeness, though there were no family acquaintance
between them; Saint Agobard being Bishop of Lyons in the ninth centry,
and Lord Plunket Attorney-General for Ireland in the nineteenth.

The Saint is pleading against the judical ordeal:

    "Illi autem profecti, prædicaverunt ubique Domino cooperante;
    annuntiataque est ab eis omni creaturæ; id est, cunetis
    nationibus mundi; una fides indita per Deum, una spes diffusa
    per Spiritum Sanctum in cordibus credentium, una caritas nata in
    omnibus, una voluntas, accensum unum desiderium, tradita una
    oratio; ut omnes omnino ex diversis gentibus, diversis
    conditionibus, diverso sexu, nobilitate, honestate, servitute
    diversa, simul dicant uni Deo, et Patri omnium; Pater Noster qui
    es, &c., sicut unum Patrem invocantes, ita unam santificationem
    quærentes, unum regnum postulantes, unam adimpletionem
    voluntatis ejus, sicut fit in coelo optantes; unum sibi panem
    quotidianum dari precantes et omnibus dimitti debita."

To which other passages might be added, as, in fact, S. Agobard pursues
the one idea until he hunts it down to the one effect of sameness and
common antithesis. Should we say Lord Plunket had read these passages,
and is thereby convicted of eloquent plagiary? I say, No! Lauder then
equally convicted Milton of trespassing on the thoughts of others, by
somewhat apposite quotations from the classics. We are, in truth, too
much inclined to this. The little, who cannot raise themselves to the
stature of the great, are apt to strive after a socialist level, by
reducing all to one same standard--their own. Truth is common to all
ages, and will obtain utterance by the truthful and the eloquent
throughout all time.

S.H.

Athenæum, August 12.

       *       *       *       *       *

NOTES ON THE SECOND EDITION OF MR. CUNNINGHAM'S HANDBOOK OF LONDON

14. _Long Acre._ Mr. Cunningham, upon the authority of Parton's _History
of St. Giles's_, says:

    "First known as the Elms, then called Seven Acres, and since
    1612, from the length of a certain slip of ground, then first
    used as a public pathway, as Long Acre."

The latter part of this statement is incorrect. The Seven Acres were
known as _Long Acre_ as early as 1552, when they were granted to the
Earl of Bedford. See _Strype_, B. vi. p. 88.

Machyn, in his _Diary_, printed by the Camden Society, p. 21., under the
date A.D. 1556, has the following allusion to the _Acre_:

    "The vj day of December the Abbot of Westminster went a
    procession with his convent. Before him went all the Santuary
    men with crosse keys upon their garments, and after went iij for
    murder: on was the Lord Dacre's sone of the North, was wypyd
    with a shett abowt him for kyllyng of on Master West, squyre,
    dwellyng besyd ... and anodur theyff that dyd long to one of
    Master Comtroller ... dyd kylle Recherd Eggylston the
    Comtroller's tayller, and kylled him in the _Long Acurs_, the
    bak-syd Charyng Crosse."

15. _Norfolk House, St. James's Square._ The present Norfolk House was
built from a design by R. Brettingham, in 1742, by Thomas Duke of
Norfolk, and finished by his brother Edward in 1762. Mr. Cunningham
speaks as if the old house, in which George III. was born, was still
standing.

16. _Soho Square._ Mr. Cunningham has not corrected his mistake about
Mrs. Cornelys's house in this square, (see "Notes and Queries," vol. i.,
pp. 244, 450.). _D'Almaine's_, which Mr. Cunningham confounds with Mrs.
Cornelys's, was at a former period tenanted by the Duke of Argyll; then
by the Earl of Bradford; and, at a later time, by the celebrated Onslow,
who held his parliamentary levees in the principal drawing-room. The
ceilings of the best rooms are adorned with paintings by Rebecca and
Angelica Kauffman.

Mr. Cunningham has taken some pains to destroy the _Pennant_ tradition
concerning the name of this square, but he has not given us one
important piece of information, i.e. that between the years 1674 and
1681, the ground was surveyed by _Gregory King_, an eminent architect of
those days, who projected the square with the adjacent streets. Query,
Did it not take the name of _King's_ Square from the architect? This
seems very probable; more especially as the statue of Charles I. was not
placed in the square until the beginning of the next century. The centre
space was originally occupied by a splendid fountain, (the work of
Colley Cibber's father), an estimate of the "cost and charges" of which
is now before me.

Among the eminent inhabitants of this square, not noticed by Mr.
Cunningham, were the following:--Lord {228} Berkely, Lord Byron, Lord
Grimstone, Lord Howard, Lord Leicester, Sir Thomas Mansel, Lord Morpeth,
Lord Nottingham, Lord Peterborough, Lord Pierrepoint, Lord Pigot, Dudley
North, the Earl of Dartmouth, the Duchess of Cleveland, the Duchess of
Wharton, &c. These names appear in the books of the parish of St. Anne,
between the years of 1708 and 1772.

17. _Surrey Institution._ At one period (about 1825), this building was
known as the _Blackfriars Rotundo_. Here that execrable character,
Robert Taylor, who styled himself "the Devil's Chaplain," delivered his
blasphemous discourses.

18. _Opera House._ Mr. Cunningham, speaking of the translation of
_Arsinoe_, the first Anglo-Italian opera performed in this country,
says: "The translation was made by Thomas Clayton." This is an error,
for Clayton himself says, in his preface: "I was obliged to have an
Italian opera translated." Clayton was the composer of the music.

19. _James's (St.) Chapel, St. James's Palace._ Mr. Cunningham says,
"The service is chanted by the boys of the Chapel Royal." This ought to
read, "The service is chaunted by the boys _and gentlemen_ of the Chapel
Royal" The musical service of our cathedrals and collegiate
establishments cannot be performed without four kinds of voices, treble,
alto, tenor, and bass.

20. _Bagnigge Wells._ Mr. Cunningham makes a strange mistake concerning
this once popular place of amusement when he says, "first opened to the
public in the year 1767." A stone, still to be seen, let into the wall
over what was formerly the garden entrance, has the following
inscription:

  "S + T
  This is Bagnigge
  Hovse neare
  The Pinder a
  Wakefeilde
  1680."

The gardens were first opened for the accommodation of persons who
partook of the mineral springs; subsequently, amusements were added; and
in Bickham's curious work, _The Musical Entertainer_ (circa 1738), is an
engraving of Tom Hippersley mounted in the "singing rostrum," regaling
the company with a song. About half a century after this date, a regular
orchestra was erected, and the entertainments resembled Marylebone
Gardens and Vauxhall. The old house and gardens were demolished in 1842,
to make room for several new streets.

Edward F. Rimbault.

       *       *       *       *       *

NOTES ON COLERIDGE'S AIDS TO REFLECTION

(2nd Edition, 1831)

Introductory Aphorisms, No. xii., p. 7.:

    "Tertullian had good reason for his assertation, that the
    simplest Christian (if indeed a Christian) knows more than the
    most accomplished irreligious philosopher."

The passage referred to is in the Apology, c. 46:

    "Deum quilibet opifex Christianus et invenit et ostendit et
    exinde totum, quod in Deo quæritur, re quoque assignat; licet
    Plato affirmet factitatorem universitatis neque inveniri facilem
    et inventum enarrari in omnes difficilem."

Note to Aphorism xxxi., p. 30.:

    "To which he [Plato] may possibly have referred in his phrase
    [Greek: theoparadotos sophia]."

Possibly Coleridge may have borrowed this from Berkeley's _Siris_, §
301., where [Greek: theoparadotos philosophia] is cited from "a heathen
writer." The word [Greek: theoparadotos] occurs in Proclus and Marinus
(see Valpy's _Stephani Thesaurus_), but not in Plato.

The motto from Seneca, prefixed to the Aphorisms on Spiritual Religion,
is from the fourty-first Epistle of that writer.

The question from Tertullian in the Comment on the eight of those
Aphorisms,

  "Certum est quia impossibile est."--p. 199.

is from the _De Carne Christi_, cap. v.

Aphorism iv., p. 227.:

  "In wonder all philosophy began."

See Plato's _Theætetus_ § 32., p. 155. Gataker on Antonin, i. 15.
Plutarch _de EI Delph_. cap. 2. p. 385 B. Sympos, v. 7., p. 680 C.
Aristot. _Metaph_. 1. 2. 9.

In the "Sequelæ" annexed to this Aphorism, it is said of Simonides (p.
230.), that

    "_In the fortieth day_ of his mediation the sage and philosophic
    poet abandoned the problem [of the nature of God] in despair."

Cicero (_de nat. Deor._ i. 22. § 60.) and Minucius Felix (_Octav._ 13.)
do not specify the number of days during which Simonides deferred his
answer to Hiero.

Aphorism x. On Original Sin. (note, p. 252.) [Greek: sunetois phonun],
&c., from Pindar, _Olymp._ ii. 85. (152.)

Conclusion, p. 399.:

    "_Evidences_ of Christianity! I am weary of this word," &c.

See the remarks on this passage in Archbishop Whately's _Logic_,
Appendix III., near the end.

The quotation from Apuleius, at the end of the book (p. 403.), is from
the _Metamorphos._, i. 3.

J.E.B. Mayor

Marlborough College.

       *       *       *       *       *

MINOR NOTES.

_Capture of Henry VI._ (Vol. ii., p. 181.).--There are several errors in
this historical note. The name of the Dean of Windsor was Manning, not
{229} "Manting;" "Brungerly" should be Bungerley. One of the Talbots, of
Bashall Hall, could never be "High Sheriff for the West Riding," as the
Ridings of Yorkshire never had distinct sheriffs; neither was he sheriff
of the county. The particulars of the king's capture are thus related in
the chronicle called Warksworth's _Chronicle_, which has been printed by
the Camden Society:--

    "Also, the same yere, kynge Henry was takene byside a howse of
    religione [i.e. Whalley] in Lancashyre, by the mene of a blacke
    monke of Abyngtone [Abingdon] in a wode called Cletherwode [the
    wood of Clitheroe], besyde Bungerly hyppyngstones, by Thomas
    Talbott, sonne and heyre to sere Edmunde Talbot of Basshalle,
    and Jhon Talbott, his cosyne, of Colebry [i.e. Salebury, in
    Blackburn], withe other moo; which discryvide [him] beynge at
    his dynere at Wadyngton halle: and [he was] carryed to London on
    horsebake, and his leges bownde to the styropes."

I have substituted the word "discryvide" for "disseyvide," as it is
printed in the Camden Society's book, where the editor, Mr. Halliwell,
understood the passage as meaning that the king was deceived or
betrayed. I take the meaning to be that the black monk of Abingdon had
descried, or discovered, the king as he was eating his dinner at
Waddington Hall; whereupon the Talbots, and some other parties in the
neighbourhood, formed plans for his apprehension, and arrested him on
the first convenient opportunity, as he was crossing the ford across the
river Ribble, formed by the hyppyngstones at Bungerley. Waddington
belonged to Sir John Tempest, of Bracewell, who was the father-in-law of
Thomas Talbot. Both Sir John Tempest and Sir James Harrington of
Brierley, near Barnsley, were concerned in the king's capture, and each
received one hundred marks reward; but the fact of Sir Thomas Talbot
being the chief actor, is shown by his having received the larger reward
of 100£. Further particulars respecting these and other parties
concerned, will be found in the notes to Warksworth's _Chronicle_. The
chief residence of the unhappy monarch during his retreat was at Bolton
Hall, where his boots, his gloves, and a spoon, are still preserved, and
are engraved in Whitaker's _Craven_. An interior view of the ancient
hall at Bolton, which is still remaining, is engraved in the
_Gentleman's Magazine_ for May, 1841. Sir Ralph Pudsay, of Bolton, had
married Margaret, daughter of Sir Thomas Tunstal, who attended the king
as esquire of the body.

JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS.


_Mentmore, Bucks, Notes from Register of._--Having recently had occasion
to go through the entire registers of the parish of Mentmore, Bucks, I
send you three extracts, not noticed by Lipscombe, the two first
relating to an extinct branch of the house of Hamilton, the third
illustrating the "Manners and Customs of the English" at the end of the
seventeenth century.

"1732, William Hamilton, an infant son of Lord Viscount Limerick, Feb.
28."

"1741. The Honourable Charles Hamilton, son of Lord Viscount Limerick,
Jan. 4."

"Memorand. A beggar woman of Slapton, whipt at Mentmoir, July 5th,
1698."

Q.D.

       *       *       *       *       *


QUERIES

JOHN JOKYN, OR JOACHIM, THE FRENCH AMBASSADOR.

I am very desirous to be informed in what _French_ author I can find any
account of John Jokyn (Joachim?), who was ambassador to England from
France during the time of Cardinal Wolsey. I have looked into the
greater part of the French authors who have written historically on the
reign of François I. without having found any mention of such
personage--_L'Art de vérifier les Dates_, &c., without success. He is
frequently spoken of by English writers, and particularly in the _Union
of the Famelies of Lancastre and Yorke_, by Edward Halle, 1548, folios
135, 136, 139, 144, and 149.; at folio 144., 17th year of Hen. VIII., it
is stated:--

    "There came over as ambassador from France, Jhon Jokyn, now
    called M. de Vaux, which, as you have heard in the last year,
    was kept secret in Master Lark's house; and when he came into
    England he was welcomed of the Cardinal (Wolsey), and there
    between them were such communications at the suit of the said
    Jhon, that a truce was concluded from the 13th of July for forty
    days between England and France, both on the sea, and beyond the
    sea," &c. &c.

This M. Jokyn, or Joachim, appears to have been a person of considerable
influence, and it appears his purpose on this mission was to bribe
Wolsey; and it seems that the Chancellor Duprat was aware of this, and
was much displeased on the occasion.

AMICUS.
Aug 3, 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *

SCRIPTURES, ROMAN CATHOLIC TRANSLATIONS OF, LUTHER'S FAMILIARITY WITH.

The replies I have gained to previous Queries encourage me to trouble
you with the following:--

1. Has the Roman Catholic Church ever published a translation of the
Scriptures, or any part of them, into the vernacular _Irish_? Have their
missionaries in _China_ ever translated anything beyond the Epistles and
Gospels of the Missal? Or, is there any Roman Catholic translation into
any of the vernacular languages of _India_? Or, are there any versions
in any of the American dialects by Roman Catholic authors, besides those
mentioned by Le Long in his _Bibliotheca Sacra_. And is there any
continuation of his work up to {230} the present day? I am acquainted
with Bishop Marsh's volume, but he seems ill-informed and speaks vaguely
about Roman Catholic versions.

2. What is the authority for the familiar story of a bill being brought
into parliament for the suppression of all vernacular translations in
Richard II.'s reign, and of its being stoutly opposed by John of Gaunt?
"What, are we the dregs of the earth not to hear the Scriptures in our
own tongue?" Usher mentions the circumstance (_Historia Dogmatica_,
&c.), and it is borrowed from him by Fox. But I am so ignorant as not to
know the original and cotemporary authority.

3. Your learned correspondent, DR. MAITLAND, in his _Dark Ages_, snubs
D'Aubigné most unmercifully for repeating an old story about Luther's
stumbling upon a Bible, and pooh-pooh's D'Aubigné's authority,
Mathesius, as no better than a goose. May I ask whether it is possible
to discover the probable foundation of such a story, and whether Luther
has left us in his writings any account of his early familiarity with
Scripture, that would bear upon the alleged incident, and show how much
of it may be true?

C.F.S.

       *       *       *       *       *

MINOR QUERIES

_The Lost Tribes._--A list of all the theories and publications
respecting the ten tribes commonly called the Lost tribes, or any
communication concerning them, will much oblige.

JARLTZBERG.


_Partrige Family._--Can any of your readers inform me where I can see
the grant mentioned in the following _note_ taken from Strype's
_Ecclesiastical Memorials_, vol. iii. p. 542: "I find a grant to the
Lady Jane Partrige for life, of the manor of Kenne in Devon, of the
yearly value of 57l. 12s. 0-3/4d., but this not before April, 1553." Can
any of your readers tell me how to obtain access to a private act 1st
Mary, Sessio secunda. cap. 9., anno 1553, intituled, "An Act for the
Restitution in Blood of the Heirs of Sir Miles Partrige, Knight"? Strype
calls it an act for the restitution of the daughters of Sir Miles
Partrige, and I think he must be right, as I have primâ facie proof that
Sir Miles left no son. Were the debates on the acts of parliament
recorded in those days, and if so, how can they be seen?

J. PARTRIGE.

Birmingham.


_Commoner marrying a Peeress._--Formerly, when a commoner married a
peeress in her own right, he assumed her title and dignity. The right
was, I believe, disputed during the reign of Henry VIII., in the case of
the claimant of the barony of Talbois, when it was decided that no man
could take his wife's titles unless he had issue male by her, but, if
there were such issue, he became, as in cases of landed property,
"tenant by curtesy" of her dignities. Can any of your correspondents
inform me whether any subsequent decision has deprived of this right a
commoner marrying a peeress and having issue male by her?

L.R.N.


_The Character "&."_--What is the correct name of the character "&?" I
have heard it called _ample-se-and_, _ampuzzánd_, _empuzád_, _ampássy_,
and _apples-and_,--all evident corruptions of one and the same word.
What is that word?

M.A. LOWER.


_Combs buried with the Dead._--When the corpse of St. Cuthbert was
disinterred in the cathedral of Durham, there was found upon his breast
a plain simple Saxon _comb_. A similar relique has been also discovered
in other sepulchres of the same sanctuary.

Can any of your learned contributors inform me (for I am totally
ignorant) the origin and intent of this strange accompaniment of the
burial of the ancient dead. The comb of St. Cuthbert is, I believe,
carefully preserved by the Dean and Chapter of Durham.

R.S. HAWKER.

Morwenstow, Cornwall.


_Cave's Historia Literaria._--My present Queries arise out of a Note
which I took of a passage in Adam Clarke's _Bibliography_, under the
article "W. Cave" (vol. ii. p. 161.).

1. Has not the bibliographer assigned a wrong date to the publication of
Cave's _Historia Literaria_, viz. 1740, instead of 1688-1698?

2. Will some of your readers do me the favour of mentioning the
successive editions of the _Historia Literaria_, together with the year
and the place of appearance of each of them?

According to the _Biographia Britannica_ (ed. 2., "Cave, W."), this
learned work came out in the year above stated, and there were two
impressions printed at Geneva in 1705 and 1720 respectively.

R.K.J.


_Julin._--Will DR. BELL, who adverts to the tradition of the doomed
city, _Julin_, in your last number (Vol. ii. p. 178.), oblige me by a
"Note" of the story as it is told by Adam of Bremen, whose work I am not
within reach of? I have long wanted to trace this legend.

V.

Belgravia, Aug. 17. 1850.


_Richardson Family._--Can of your correspondents inform me who "Mr. John
Richardson, of the Market Place, Leeds," was? he was living 1681 to 1700
and after, and he made entries of the births of eleven children on the
leaves of an old book, and also an entry of the death of his wife, named
Lydea, who died 20th December, 1700. These entries are now in possession
of one of his daughters' descendants, who is desirous to know {231} of
what family Mr. Richardson was, who he married, and what was his
profession or business.

T.N.I.

Wakefield.


_Tobacco--its Arabic Name._--One of your correspondents, A.C.M. (Vol.
ii., p. 155.), wishes to know what is the Arabic word for _tobacco_ used
in Sale's _Koran_, ed. 8vo. p. 169. Perhaps, if he will refer to the
chapter and verse, or even specify _which_ is the 8vo. edition which he
quotes, some of your correspondents may be able to answer his Query.

M.D.


_Pole Money._--Some time ago I made a copy of

    "A particular of all the names of the several persons within the
    Lordship of Marston Montgomery (in Derbyshire), and of their
    estates, according to the acts of parliament, for payment of
    _pole money_ assessed by William Hall, constable, and others."

This was some time between 1660 and 1681. And also of a like

    "Particular of names of the several persons within the same
    lordship under the sum of _5l._, to _pole for_ according to the
    acts of parliament."

Can any of your correspondents inform me to what tax the above lists
applied, and what were the acts of parliament under which this tax (or
pole-money) was payable.

T.N.I.

Wakefield.


_Welsh Money._--I have never seen in any work on coins the slightest
allusion to the money of the native princes of Wales before the
subjugation of their country by Edward I. Is any such in existence? and,
if not, how is its disappearance to be accounted for? I read that
Athelstan imposed on the Welsh an annual tribute _in money_, which was
paid for many years. Query, In what sort of coin?

J.C. Witton.


_A skeleton in every House._--Can you or any of your correspondents
explain the origin of that most significant saying "There is a skeleton
in every house?" Does it originate in some ghastly legend?

Mors.


    [Our correspondent is right in his conjecture. The saying is
    derived from an Italian story, which is translated in the
    _Italian Tales of Humour, Gallantry, and Romance_, published
    some few years ago, with illustrations by Cruikshank.]


_Whetstone of Reproof._--Can any of your readers inform me who was the
author of the book with the following title?

    "The Whetstone of Reproofe, or a Reproving Censvre of the
    misintitled Safe Way: declaring it by Discourie of the Authors
    fraudulent Proceeding, and captious Cauilling, to be a miere
    By-way, drawing pore Trauellers out of the royalle and common
    Streete, and leading them deceitfully into a Path of Perdition.
    With a Postscript of Advertisements, especially touching the
    Homilie and Epistles attributed to Alfric: and a compendious
    Retortiue Discussion of the misapplyed By-way. Avthor T.T.
    Sacristan and Catholike Romanist.--Catvapoli, apud viduam Marci
    Wyonis. Anno MDCXXXII." Sm. 8vo. pp. xvi. 570. 198.

It is an answer to Sir Humphrey Lynd's _Via Tuta_ and _Via Devia_. In
Wood's _Ath. Oxon._, edit. Bliss, fol. ii. col. 602, two answers to the
_Via Tuta_ are mentioned; but this is not noticed. From the author
stating in the preface, "I confesse, Sir Humfrey, I am Tom Teltruth, who
cannot flatter or dissemble," I suppose the initials T.T. to be
fictitious.

John I. Dredge.


_Morganatic Marriages.--Morganatique._--What is the derivation of this
word, and what its _actual signification_?

In the _Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française_ (ed. 4to., 1835), the word
does not appear. In Boister's _Dictionnaire Universel_ (Bruxelles, 1835)
it is thus given:--

    "Morganatique, _adj. 2 g._, nocturne, mystérieux, entrainée par
    séduction; (mariage) mariage secret des princes d'Allemagne avec
    une personne d'un rang inférieur."

And the same definition is given by Landais (Paris, 4to., 1842), but
this does not give the derivation or literal signification of the word
"_morganatic_." It is not in Johnson's _Dictionary_; but in Smart's
_Dictionary Epitomized_ (Longman and Co., 1840) it is thus given:--

    "Morganatic, _a._, applied to the marriage in which a gift in
    the morning is to stand in lieu of dowry, or of all right of
    inheritance, that might otherwise fall to the issue."

This, however, is inconsistent with the definition of _nocturne_,
_mystérieux_, for the gift in lieu of dowry would have nothing of
mystery in it.

Will some of your correspondents afford, if they can, any reasonable
explanation which justifies the application of the word to inferior or
left-handed marriages?

G.


    [Will our correspondent accept the following as a satisfactory
    reply?]

_Morganatic Marriage_ (Vol. ii, p. 72.).--The fairy Morgana was married
to a mortal. Is not this a sufficient explanation of the term morganatic
being applied to marriages where the parties are of unequal rank?

S.S.


_Gospel of Distaffs._--Can any reader say where a copy of the _Gospel of
Distaffs_ may be accessible? It was printed by Wynkyn de Worde, and Sir
E. Brydges, who describes it, says a complete copy was in Mr. Heber's
library. A few leaves are found in Bagford's Collection, Harleian MS.
5919., which only raises the desire to see the whole. Dibdin's _Ames'
Typography_, vol. ii. p. 232., has an account of it.

W. Bell.

       *       *       *       *       * {232}


REPLIES.

POETA ANGLICUS.

Every proof or disproof of statements continually made with regard to
the extravagant titles assumed, or complacently received, by the bishops
of Rome being both interesting and important, the inquiry of J.B. (Vol.
ii., p. 167.) is well deserving of a reply. Speaking of a passage cited
by Joannes Andreæ, in his gloss on the preface to the Clementines, he
asks, "who is the Anglicus Poeta?" and "what is the name of his poem,"
in which it is said to the pope, "Nec Deus es nec homo, quasi neuter es
inter utrumque?"

"Poetria nova" was the name assigned to the hexameter poem commencing,
"Papa stupor mundi," inscribed, about the year 1200, to the reigning
Pope, Innocent III., by Galfridus de Vino salvo. Of this work several
manuscript copies are to be met with in England. I will refer only to
two in the Bodleian, Laud. 850. 83.: Ken. Digb. 1665. 64. Polycarp
Leyser (_Hist. Poem. medii Ævi_) published it in 1721; and Mabillon has
set forth another performance by the same writer in elegiac verse (_Vet.
Analect._ pp. 369-76., Paris, 1723). In the latter case the author's
name is not given, and accordingly he is entered merely as "Poeta vetus"
in Mr. Dowling's _Notitia Scriptorum SS. Pat._, sc. p. 279., Oxon.,
1839. Your correspondent may compare with Andreæ's extract these lines,
and those which follow them, p. 374.:

  "Papa brevis vox est, sed virtus nominis hujus
  Perlustrat quiequid arcus uterque tenet."

Galfridus evidently derived his surname from his treatise on vines and
wine; and he has been singularly unfortunate in the epithet, for I have
never seen VIN-SAUF correctly printed. It varies from "de Nine salvo" to
"_Mestisauf_." Pits and Oudin call him "Vinesalf" and Fabricius and
Mansi change him into "Vine fauf."

The question now remains, Are the Roman Pontiffs and their Church
answerable for the toleration of such language? Uncertainty may on this
occasion be removed by our recollection of the fact, that a "Censura"
upon the glosses of the papal canon law, by Manriq, Master of the Sacred
Palace, was issued by the command of Pope Pius V. in 1572. It was
reprinted by Pappus, Argent. 1599, 12mo., and 1609, 8vo., and it
contains an order for the expurgation of the words before quoted,
together with the summary in the margin, "Papa nec Deus est nec homo,"
which appears in every old edition; for instance, in that of Paris,
1532, sig. aa. iij. So far the matter looks well, and the prospect is
not hopeless. These glosses, however, were revised by another master of
the Apostolic Palace, Sixtus Fabri, and were edited, under the sanction
of Pope Gregory XIII., in the year 1580; and from this authentic
impression the impious panegyric has not been withdrawn. The marginal
abridgment has, in compliance with Manriq's direction, been
exterminated; and this additional note has been appended as a
palliative:--

    "Hæc verba sano modo sunt accipienda: prolata enim sunt ad
    ostendendum amplissimam esse Romani Pontificis
    potestatem."--Col. 4. ed. Paris, 1585.

R.G.

_Poeta Anglicus_ (Vol ii., p. 167).--I cannot answer J.B.'s Queries; but
I have fallen upon a _cross scent_, which perchance may lead to their
discovery.

1. Ioannes Pitseus, _de Scriptor. ad ann._ 1250, (_Relat. Histor. de
Rebus Anglicis_, ed. Par. 1619, p. 322.), gives the following account
"de Michaele Blaunpaino:"--

    "Michael Blaunpainus, vulgo _Magister_ cognominatus, natione
    Anglus, patria Cornubiensis, ... missus Oxonium, deinde
    Parisios, ... præ cæteris se dedidit elegantiæ linguæ Latinæ,
    fuitque inter præcipuos sui temporis _poetus_ per Angliam
    potissimum et Galliam numeratus. Hunc subinde citat Textor in
    Cornucopia sub nomine Michaelis _Anglici_.... In lucem emisit:
    Historiarum Normanniæ, librum unum: Contra Henricum Abrincensem
    versu. librum unum. Archipoeta vide, quod non sit. (_MS. in
    Bibliotheca Lunleiana._) Epistolarum et carminum, librum unum.
    Claruit anno Messiæ 1250, sub Henrici tertii regno."

2. Valerius Andreas, however, gives a somewhat different account of
_Michael Anglicus_. In his _Biblioth. Belg._ ed. 8vo. Lovan, 1623, p.
609., he says:

    "Michael Anglicus, Bellimontensis, Hanno, I. V. Professor et
    _Poeta_, scripsit:

        Eclogarum, libros iv., ad Episc. Parisien.
        Eclogarum, libb. ii., ad Lud. Villerium.
        De mutatione studiorum, lib. i.
        Elegiam deprecatoriam.

    Et alia, quæ Paris. sunt typis edita. Hujus eruditionem et
    Poemata Bapt. Mantuanus et Joannes Ravisius Testor epigrammate
    commendarunt: hic etiam in Epithetis suis _Anglici_ auctoritatem
    non semel adducit."

3. Franciscus Sweertius (_Athenæ Belgricoe_, ed. Antv. 1628, p. 565.)
gives a similar account to this of Valerius Andreas.

4. And the account given by Christopher Hendreich Brandebargca, (ed.
Berolini, 1699, p. 193.) is substantially the same; viz.,

    "Anglicus Michael cognomine, sed natione Gallus, patria
    Belmontensis, utriusque juris Professor, scripsit Eclogarum,
    lib. iv. ad Episc." &c ... "Et diversorum carminum libros
    aliquot, quæ omnia Parisiis impressa sunt. Claruit autem A.C.
    1500."

5. Moreri takes notice of this apparent confusion made between two
different writers, who lived two centuries and a half apart. Speaking of
the later {233} of the two, he says (_Dictionnaire Historique_, Paris,
1759, tom. i. par. ii. p. 87.):--

    "_Anglicus_ (Michel), natif de Beaumont dans le Hainaut, qui
    vivoit dans le XVI. siècle, étoit poëte et professeur en droit.
    Nous avons divers ouvrages de sa façon, des églogues, un traité
    _de mutatione studiorum_, &c. (Valer. Andreas, _Bibl. Belg._)
    Quelques auteurs l'ont confondu avec Michel Blaumpain. (Voyez
    Blaumpain.)" #/

Of the earlier Anglicus, Moreri says (ubi sup., tom. ii. par. i. p.
506.):

    "Blaumpain (Michel) surnommé _Magister_, Anglois de nation, et
    _Poëte_, qui vivoit vers l'an 1250. Il est nommé par quelques-un
    _Michel Anglicus_. Mais il y a plus d'apparence que c'étoient
    deux auteurs différens; dont l'un composa une histoire de
    Normandie, et un traité contre Henri d'Avranches; et l'autre
    laissa quelques pièces de poësies;--Eclogarum, libri iv., ad
    Episcopum Parisiensem; Eclogarum, libri ii., ad Ludovicum
    Villerium, De mutatione studioram, Elogia deprecatoria, &c.
    Baptiste Mantuan parle de Michel Anglicus, qui étoit de Beaumont
    dans l'Hainault. (Pitseus, _De Script. Angl._ p. 322.; Valerius
    Andreas in _Bibl_, p. 670.)"

Perhaps some of your readers may have access to a copy of the _Paris
impression_ of Michael Anglicus, mentioned by Andreas, Sweertius, and
Hendreich. J.B. will not need to be reminded of these words of Innocent
III., in his first serm. de consecr. Pont. Max., in which he claimed, as
St. Peter's successor, to be

    "Inter Deum et hominem medius constitutus; citra Deum, sed ultra
    hominem; minor Deo, sed major homine: qui de omnibus judicat, et
    a nemine judicatur."--_Innocentii tertii Op._, ed. Colon. 1575,
    tom. i., p. 189.

Did the claim _originate_ with Pope Innocent?

J. Sansom.

       *       *       *       *       *

CAXTON'S PRINTING-OFFICE.

I must protest against the manner in which Arun (Vol. ii., p. 187.) has
proceeded with the discussion of Caxton's printing at Westminster.
Though writing anonymously himself, he has not hesitated to charge me by
name with a desire to impeach the accuracy of Mr. C. Knight's _Life of
Caxton_, of which, and of other works of the same series, he then
volunteers as the champion, as if they, or any one of them, were the
object of a general attack. This is especially unfair, as I made the
slightest possible allusion to Mr. Knight's work, and may confess I have
as yet seen no more of it than the passage quoted by ARUN himself. Any
such admixture of personal imputations is decidedly to be deprecated, as
being likely to militate against the sober investigation of truth which
has hitherto characterised the pages of "NOTES AND QUERIES." ARUN also
chooses to say that the only question which is material, is, Who was
Caxton's patron? i.e. who was the Abbot of Westminster at the time,--who
may not, after all, have actively interfered in the matter. This
question remains in some doubt; but it was not the question with which
DR. RIMBAULT commenced the discussion. The object of that gentleman's
inquiry (Vol. ii., p. 99.) was, the particular spot where Caxton's press
was fixed. From a misapprehension of the passage in Stow, a current
opinion has obtained that the first English press was erected within the
abbey-church, and in the chapel of St. Anne; and Dr. Dibdin conjectured
that the chapel of St. Anne stood on the site of Henry VII.'s chapel.
The correction of this vulgar error is, I submit, by no means
immaterial; especially at a time when a great effort is made to
propagate it by the publication of a print, representing "William Caxton
examining the first proof sheet from his printing-press in Westminster
Abbey;" the engraving of which is to be "of the size of the favourite
print of Bolton Abbey:" where the draftsman has deliberately represented
the printers at work within the consecrated walls of the church itself!
When a less careless reader than Dr. Dibdin consults the passage of
Stow, he finds that the chapel of St. Anne stood in the opposite
direction from the church to the site of Henry VII.'s chapel, i.e.
within the court of the Almonry; and that Caxton's press was also set up
in the Almonry, though not (so far as appears, or is probable) within
that chapel. The second question is, When did Caxton first set up his
press in this place? And the third, the answer to which depends on the
preceding, is, Who was the abbot who gave him admission? Now it is true,
as ARUN remarks, that the introduction of Abbot Islip's name is traced
up to Stow in the year 1603: and, as Mr. Knight has observed, "the
careful historian of London here committed one error," because John
Islip did not become Abbot of Westminster until 1500. The entire passage
of Stow has been quoted by DR. RIMBAULT in "NOTES AND QUERIES," Vol.
ii., p. 99.; it states that in the Almonry--

    "Islip, abbot of Westminster, erected the first press of
    book-printing that ever was in England, about the year 1471."

Now, it appears that the various authors of repute, who have given the
point their consideration, as the editor of Dugdale's _Monasticon_ (Sir
Henry Ellis), and Mr. Cunningham in his _Handbook_, affirm that it is
John Esteney who became abbot in 1474 or 1475, and not Thomas Milling,
who was abbot in 1471, whose name should be substituted for that of
Islip. In that case, Stowe committed two errors instead of one; he was
wrong in his date as well as his name. It is to this point that I
directed my remarks, which are printed in Vol. ii., p. 142. We have
hitherto no evidence that Caxton {234} printed at Westminster before the
year 1477, six years later than mentioned by Stow.

JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE USE OF COFFINS.

The Query of H.E. (Vol. i., p. 321.) seems to infer that the use of
coffins may be only a modern custom. In book xxiii., chapters i. and
ii., of Bingham's _Antiquities of the Christian Church_, H.E. will find
ample proof of the very early use of coffins. During the first three
centuries of the Church, one great distinction betwixt Heathens and
Christians was, that the former burned their dead, and placed the bones
and ashes in urns; whilst the latter always buried the corpse, either in
a coffin or, embalmed, in a catacomb; so that it might be restored at
the last day from its original dust. There have frequently been dug out
of the barrows which contain Roman urns, ancient British stone coffins.
Bede mentions that the Saxons buried their dead in wood. Coffins both of
lead and iron were constructed at a very early period. When the royal
vaults at St. Denis were desecrated, during the first French revolution,
coffins were exposed that had lain there for ages.

Notwithstanding all this, it appears to be the case that, both in the
Norman and English periods, the common people of this country were often
wrapped in a sere-cloth after death, and so placed, coffinless, in the
earth. The illuminations in the old missals represent this. And it is
not impossible that the extract from the "Table of Dutyes," on which
H.E. founds his inquiry, may refer to a lingering continuance of this
rude custom. Indeed, a statute passed in 1678, ordering that all dead
bodies shall be interred in woollen and no other material, is so worded
as to give the idea that there might be interments without coffins. The
statute forbids that any person be put in, wrapt, or wound up, or buried
in any shirt, shift, sheet, or shroud, unless made of sheep's wool only;
or in any coffin lined or faced with any material but sheep's wool; as
if the person might be buried either in a garment, or in a coffin, so
long as the former was made of, or the latter lined with, wool.

I think the "buryall without a coffin," quoted by H.E., must have
referred to the interment of the poorest class. Their friends, being
unable to provide a coffin, conformed to an old rude custom, which had
not entirely ceased.

Alfred Gatty

       *       *       *       *       *

SHAKSPEARE'S USE OF THE WORD "DELIGHTED".

If the passage from _Measure for Measure_, which has been the subject of
much controversy in your recent numbers, be read in its natural
sense--there is surely nothing unintelligible in the word "delighted" as
there used.

The object of the poet was to show how instinctively the mind shudders
at the change produced by death--both on body and soul; and how
repulsive it must be to an active and sentient being.

He therefore places in frightful contrast the condition of _each_ before
and after that awful change. The BODY, _now_ endowed with "sensible warm
motion," to become in death "a kneaded clod," to "lie in cold
obstruction, and to rot." The SPIRIT, _now_ "delighted" (all full of
delight), to become in death utterly powerless, an unconscious--passive
thing--"imprisoned in the viewless winds, and blown with restless
violence round about the pendant world," how intolerable the thought,
and how repulsive the contrast! It is _not_ in its state _after death_,
but _during life_, that the poet represents the spirit to be a
"delighted one." If we fall into the error of supposing him to refer to
the _former_ period, we are compelled to alter our text, in order to
make the passage intelligible, or invent some new meaning to the word
"delighted," and, at the same time, we deprive the passage of the strong
antithesis in which all its spirit and force consists. It is this strong
antithesis, this painfully marked contrast between the two states of
_each, body_ and _spirit_, which displays the power and skill of the
poet in handling the subject. Without it, the passage loses half its
meaning.

MR. HICKSON will not, I hope, accuse one who is no critic for presuming
to offer this suggestion. I tender it with diffidence, being conscious
that, although a passionate admirer of the great bard, I am all
unlearned in the art of criticism, "a plain unlettered man," and
therefore simply take what is set before me in its natural sense, as
well as I may, without searching for recondite interpretations. On this
account, I feel doubly the necessity of apologising for interfering with
the labours of so learned and able a commentator as MR. HICKSON has
shown himself to be.

L.B.L.

       *       *       *       *       *

VENTRILOQUISM

(Vol. ii., p. 88.)

Plutarch (tom. ii., p. 397.D.) has these words:

    [Greek: "Ou gar esti theou hae gaerus oude ho phthoggos, oude he
    lexis, oude to metron, alla taes yunaikos: ekeinos de monas tas
    phantasias paristaesi, kau phos en tae psuchae poiei pros to
    mellon."]

If that be the passage referred to be Rollin, nothing is said there
about ventriloquism. The Scholiast on Aristoph. (_Plut._ 39.) tells us
how the Pythian received the _afflatus_, but says nothing about her
_speaking_ from her belly: He only has

    [Greek: "Ta taes manteias hae mallon manias ephtheggeto
    hraemata."]

In another place of Plutarch (tom. ii., p. 414. E.) we have [Greek:
eggastrimuthoi] and [Greek: puthones] used as synonymous words to
express persons into whose bodies the god might be supposed to enter,
"using their {235} bodies and voices as instruments." The only word in
that passage which appears to hint at what we call ventriloquism is
[Greek: hupophtheggesthai].

I have very little doubt that amongst the various tricks of ancient
divination ventriloquism found a place; but I cannot give that direct
evidence which MR. SANSOM asks for. I think it very likely that "_the
wizards that peep and mutter_" (Isa. viii. 19.) were of this class; but
it is not clear that the [Hebrew: 'obot]--the [Greek eggastrimuthoi] of
the LXX.--were so. The English version has "them that have familiar
spirits." The Hebrew word signifies _bottles_; and this may mean no more
than that the spirit of divination was contained in the person's body as
in a bottle, "using his body and his voice as instruments," as in the
place of Plutarch quoted above. We have something like this, Acts, xix.
15., where "the evil spirit answered," no doubt in the voice of the
demoniac, "Jesus I know," &c. Michaelis (Suppl., p. 39.) gives a
different meaning and etymology to [Hebrew: 'obot]. He derives it from
the Arabic, which signifies (1) _rediit_, (2) _occidit_ sol, (3) _noctu
venit_ or _noctu aliquid fecit_. The first and third of these meanings
will make it applicable to the [Greek: nekromanteia] (of which the witch
of Endor was a practitioner), which was carried on at night. See Hor.
_Sat._ I. ix.

I do not think that the damsel mentioned Acts, xvi. 16. was a
ventriloquist. The use of the word [Greek: ekraze] in the next verse,
would lead us to infer that she spoke in a loud voice _with her mouth
open_; whereas the [Greek: eggastrimuthoi] are defined by Galen
(_Glossar. Hippocr._) as [Greek: oi kekleismenou tou stomatos
phthengomenoi].

Consult Vitringa and Rosenmüller on Isa. viii. 19., Wolf and Kuinoel on
Acts, xvi. 16., Biscoe on the Acts, ch. viii. §2; where references will
be found to many works which will satisfy Mr. SANSOM better than this
meagre note.

[Hebrew: B]

_Ventriloquism_ (Vol. ii., p. 88.).--In reply to Query 1, I wish to call
Mr. SANSOM'S attention to _Plutarch de Oraculorum defectu_ (Lipsiæ,
1777, vol. vii. p. 632.), and to Webster's _Displaying of supposed
Witchcraft_ (chaps. vi. and viii.). Queries 2 and 3. Besides the
extraordinary work of Webster, he may consult the elaborate
dissertations of Allatius on these subjects, in the eighth volume of
_Critici Sacri_. Query 4. On the use of the term [Greek: eggastrimuthos]
by the sacred writers, _Ravanelli Biblioth. S._, and by classical
authors, _Foesii Oeconomia Hippocratis_; and for synonymous "divinorum
ministrorum nomina," _Pollucis Onomasticon_.

T.J.

       *       *       *       *       *

REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES.

_Earl of Oxford's Patent_ (Vol. ii., p. 194.).--M.'s quotation from the
_Weekly Oracle_ relates to Harley's having been stabbed at the
council-table by the Sieur de Guiscard, a French Papist, brought up for
examination 8th March, 1711. The escape of the Chancellor of the
Exchequer was the subject of an address from both Houses to the Queen;
and upon his being sufficiently recovered to resume his seat, the
Speaker delivered to him the unanimous congratulations of the House of
Commons. Harley was shortly after created Earl of Oxford, by patent
bearing date 24th May, 1711, which recites, _inter alia_,--

    "Since, therefore, the two Houses of Parliament have declared
    that the fidelity and affection he has expressed in our service
    have exposed him to the hatred of wicked men, _and the desperate
    rage of a villanous parricide_, since they have congratulated
    his escape from such imminent dangers, and put us in mind that
    he might not be preserved in vain, we willingly comply with
    their desires, and grant him who comes so honourably recommended
    by the votes of our Parliament, a place among our peer," &c.
    &c.--Collin's _Peerage_, vol. iv. p. 260. edit. 1789.

Guiscard died in Newgate of the wounds which he received in the scuffle
when he was secured.

BRAYBROOKE.

    [O.P.Q., who has kindly replied to M.'s inquiry, has appended to
    his answer the following Query:--"Is Smollett justified in using
    the words _assassin_ and _assassinate_, as applied to cases of
    intended homicide, when death did not ensue?"]


_The Darby Ram_ (Vol. ii., p. 71.).--There is a whimsical little volume,
which, as it relates mainly to local matters, may not have come under
the notice of many of your readers, to which I would refer your querist
H.W.

It is entitled,--

    "Gimcrackiana, or Fugitive Pieces on Manchester Men and Manners
    ten years ago. Manchester, 1833." cr. 8vo.

It is anonymous, but I believe truly ascribed to a clever young
bookseller of the name of J.S. Gregson, since dead.

At page 185. he gives twelve stanzas of this ballad, as the most perfect
copy from the oral chronicle of his greatgrandmother.

In _The Ballad Book_ (Edinb. 1827, 12mo.), there is another entitled
"The Ram of Diram," of a similar kind, but consisting of only six verses
and chorus. And the _Dublin Penny Journal_, vol. i., p. 283., contains a
prose story, entitled "Darby and the Ram," of the same veracious nature.

F.R.A.


_Rotten Row and Stockwell Street._--R.R., of Glasgow, inquires the
etymology of these names (Vol. i., p. 441.). The etymology of the first
word possesses some interest, perhaps, at the present time, owing to the
name of the site of the intended Exhibition from all Nations in Hyde
Park. I sent to the publishers of _Glasgow Delineated_, {236} which was
printed at the University press in 1826, a contradiction of the usual
origin of the name adopted in that city, showing the impossibility of
the expression bearing any reference to the dissoluteness or immorality
of the former residents, and also contradicting its having any thing to
do with "rats," or "rattons," _Scotticè_; although, in 1458, the "Vicus
Rattonum" is the term actually used in the Archbishop of Glasgow's
chartulary. My observations, which were published in a note, concluded
as follows:

    "The name, however, may be also traced to a very remote and
    classic origin, although we are not aware that it has hitherto
    been condescended on. In ancient Rome was what was called the
    Ratumena Porta, 'a nomine ejus appellata (says Gessner in his
    Latin _Thesaurus_) qui ludiero certamine quadrigis victor
    juvenis Veiis consternatis equis excussus Romæ periit, qui equi
    feruntur non ante constitisse quam pervenirent in Capitolium.'
    The same story is related by Pliny, from whom and other authors,
    it appears that the word Ratumena was then as proverbially
    applied to jockies as Jehu in our own days. From the
    circumstance of the Rotten Row Port (of Glasgow) having stood at
    the west end of this street, and the Stable Green Port near the
    east end, which also led to the Archbishop's castle, it is
    probably not only that it was the street through which
    processions would generally proceed, but that the port alluded
    to, and after it the street in question, were dignified by the
    more learned of our ancestors with the Roman name of which, or
    of the Latin Rota, the present appears a very natural
    corruption."

I may here refer to Facciolati's _Dictionary, voce_ "Ratumena Porta," as
well as Gessner's.

As to _Stockwell_, also a common name, it is obviously indicative of the
particular kind of well at the street, by which the water was lifted not
by a wheel, nor by a pump, nor a pulley, but by a beam poised on or
formed by a large _stock_, or _block of wood_.

Lambda.


_Hornbooks_ (Vol. ii., p. 167.).--Mr. Timbs will find an account of
hornbooks, with a woodcut of one of the time of Queen Elizabeth, in Mr.
Halliwell's _Notices of Fugitive Tracts_, printed by the Percy Society,
1849. Your readers would confer a favour on Mr. Timbs and myself by the
communication of any additional information.

R.


_Passages from Shakspeare_ (Vol. ii., p. 135.).--

  _Ang._ We are all frail.

  _Isab._ Else let my brother die,
  If not a feodary, but only he
  Owe, and succeed thy weakness.

  _Ang._ Nay, women are frail too.

  _Measure for Measure_, Act. ii. Sc. 4.

I should paraphrase Isabella's remarks thus:--

    "If it be otherwise, if we are not all frail as thou sayest,
    then let my brother die, unless he be but in the same case as
    others; if he alone possess and follow thee in that particular
    frailty to which thou has half confessed."

A feodary, I should observe, was an officer of the Court of Wards, who
was joined with the escheator and did not act singly; I conceive
therefore that Shakspeare by this expression indicates an associate; one
in the same plight as others; negatively, one who does not stand alone.
In _Cymbeline_, Act iii. Sc. 2., we read:

  "Senseless bauble,
  Art thou a _feodary_ for this act, and lookst
  So virgin-like without?"

where feodary clearly means confederate, associate. According to some,
the word signifies one who holds land by the same tenure as the rest of
mankind; whilst Mr. Knight, in a note on _Henry IV_. Part i. Act i.
endeavors to show that it includes both the companion and the feudal
vassal.

"To owe" is frequently used by Shakspeare in the sense of to possess, to
own, as in Act i. Sc. 5. where Lucio says:

  "But when they weep and kneel,
  All their petitions are as freely theirs
  As they themselves would _owe_ them."

So also in the following instances:--

  "The slaughter of the prince that _ow'd_ that crown."

  _Richard III._, Act. iv. Sc. 4.

  "What art thou, that keepst me out from the house I
  _owe_?"

  _Comedy of Errors_, Act iii. Sc. 1.

  "Then thou alone kingdoms of hearts shouldst _owe_."

  _Sonnet_ lxx.

Further examples will be found in _A Lover's Complaint_, the last line
but two; _Pericles_, Act v. Sc. 1.; _Twelfth Night_, Act. i Sc. 5.,
_Love's Labour's Lost_, Act i. Sc. 2.; _King John_, Act ii. Sc. 1.;
_King Lear_, Act i. Sc. 4.

As the passage is allowed to be obscure, this attempt to explain its
meaning is submitted with great deference to the opinions of your
readers.

Arun.


_Mildew in Books_ (Vol. ii., p. 103.).--In answer to B. I mention that
the following facts connected with mildew in books have been elicited.

The mildew referred to is that which shows itself in the form of
roundish or irregular brown spots.

It is usually most abundant in those parts which are most exposed to the
air.

In making a microscopic examination of the spots, I ascertained that
there was no new structure present; but in manipulating I found that
these spots absorbed water more rapidly than the rest of the paper.

On applying litmus, these spots were found to have a powerful acid
reaction.

On submitting the matter to a chemical friend, he ascertained that the
acid in question was the sulphuric, or oil of vitriol. Experiments were
then made with a dilute solution of this acid on {237} clean paper, and
spots were produced similar to those of mildew.

The acid does not naturally exist in paper, and its presence can only be
accounted for by supposing that the paper has been bleached by the fumes
of sulphur. This produces sulphurous acid, which, by the influence of
atmospheric air and moisture, is slowly converted into sulphuric, and
then produces the mildew. As this may be shown to be an absolute
_charring_ of the fibres of which the paper is composed, it is to be
feared that it cannot be cured. After the process has once commenced, it
can only be checked by the utmost attention to dryness, moisture being
indispensable to its extension, and vice versâ.

I do not know whether these facts are generally known, but they would
seem to be very important to paper-makers.

T.I.


_Pilgrims' Road to Canterbury_ (Vol. ii., p. 199.).--Your correspondent
PHILO-CHAUCER, I presume, desires to know the old route to Canterbury. I
should imagine that at the time of Chaucer a great part of the country
was uncultivated and uninclosed, and a horse-track in parts of the route
was probably the nearest approximation to a road. At the present day,
crossing the London road at Wrotham, and skirting the base of the chalk
hills, there is a narrow lane which I have heard _called_ "the Pilgrims'
road," and this, I suppose, is in fact the old Canterbury road; though
how near to London or Canterbury it has a distinct existence, and to
what extent it may have been absorbed in other roads, I am not able to
say. The title of "Pilgrims' road" I take to be a piece of modern
antiquarianism. In the immediate vicinity of this portion there are some
druidical remains: some at Addington, and a portion of a small circle
tolerably distinct in a field and lane between, I think, Trottescliffe
and Ryarsh. In the absence of better information, you may perhaps make
use of this.

S.H.


_Abbé Strickland_ (Vol. ii, p. 198.), of whom I.W.H. asks for
information, is mentioned by _Cox_, in his _Memoirs of Sir Robert
Walpole_, t. i. p. 442., and t. iii. p. 174.

D. ROCK.


_Etymology of Totnes._--The Query of J.M.B. (Vol. i., p 470.) not having
been as yet answered, I venture to offer a few notes on the subject;
and, mindful of your exhortation to brevity, compress my remarks into
the smallest possible compass, though the details of research which
might be indulged in, would call for a dissertation rather them a Note.

That Totnes is a place of extreme antiquity as a British town cannot be
doubted; first, from the site and character of its venerable hill
fortress; secondly, from the fact that the chief of the four great
British and Roman roads, the Fosse-way, commenced there--"The ferthe of
thisse is most of alle that tilleth from Toteneis ... From the
south-west to north-east into Englonde's end;" and, thirdly, from the
mention of it, and the antiquity assigned to it by our earliest annals
and chronicles. Without entering into the question of the full
authenticity of Brute and the _Saxon Chronicle_, or the implicit
adoption of the legendry tales of Havillan and Geoffry of Monmouth, the
concurring testimony of those records, with the voice of tradition, the
stone of the landing, and the fact that the town is seated at the head
of an estuary the most accessible, the most sheltered, and the best
suited of any on the south-western coast for the invasion of such a
class of vessels as were those of the early navigators, abundantly
warrant the admission that it was the landing-place of some mighty
leader at a very early period of our history.

And now to the point of the etymology of _Totenais_, as it stands in
Domesday Book. We may, I think, safely dismiss the derivation suggested
by Westcote, on the authority of Leland, and every thing like it derived
from the French, as well as the unknown tongue which he adopts in
"Dodonesse." That we are warranted in seeking to the Anglo-Saxon for
etymology in this instance is shown by the fact, that the names of
places in Devon are very generally derived from that language; e.g.
taking a few only in the neighbourhood of Totnes--Berry, Buckyatt,
Dartington, Halwell, Harberton, Hamstead, Hempstin, Stancombe.

First, of the termination _ais_ or _eis_. The names of many places of
inferior consequence in Devon end in _hays_, from the Ang.-Saxon _heag_,
a hedge or inclosure; but this rarely, if ever, designates a town or a
place beyond a farmstead, and seems to have been of later application as
to a new location or subinfeudation; for it is never found in Domesday
Book. In that ancient record the word _aisse_ is often found alone, and
often as a prefix and as a terminal; e.g., Aisbertone, Niresse,
Aisseford, Aisselie, &c. This is the Ang.-Saxon _Aesc_, an ash; and it
is uniformly so rendered in English: but it also means a ship or boat,
as built of ash. _Toten_, the major of the name, is, I have no doubt,
the genitive of _Tohta_, "dux, herzog," a leader or commander. Thus we
have _Tohtanoesc_, the vessel of the leader, or the commander's
ship,--commemorating the fact that the boat of some great invader was
brought to land at this place.

S.S.S


_Ædricus qui Signa fundebat_ (Vol. ii., p. 199), must surely have been a
bell-founder: signum is a very common word, in mediæval writings, for a
"bell."

D. ROCK


_Fiz-gig_ (Vol. ii, p. 120).--I had expected that your Querist C.B.
would have received an {238} immediate reply to his Query as to the
meaning of _fiz-gig_, because the word is in Johnson's _Dictionary_,
where he may also see the line from Sandys' _Job_, in which it caught
his attention.

You may as well, therefore, tell him two things,--that _fiz-gig_ means a
fish-cart and that Querists should abstain from soliciting your aid in
all cases where a common dictionary would give them the information they
want.

H.W.


_Guineas_ (Vol. ii., p. 10.).--The coin named in the document quoted by
A.J.H. is the _Guiennois_ a gold piece struck at Guienne by Edward III.,
and also by his son the Black Prince. It is not likely that the
Guiennois was the original of the name given to the new gold coin of
Charles II., because it could have had no claim to preference beyond the
_Mouton_, the _Chaise_, the _Pavillon_, or any other old Anglo-Gallic
coin. I think we may rest contented with the statement of Leake (who
wrote not much more than half a century after the event), and who says
that the _Guinea_ was so called from the gold of which it was made
having been brought from Guinea by the African Company, whose stamp of
an elephant was ordered to be impressed upon it.

J.C. Witton.


_Numismatics._--My thanks are due to Mr. J.C. Witton (Vol. ii., p. 42.)
for his replies to my Numismatic Queries, though I cannot coincide with
his opinion on Nos. 1. and 3.

No ancient forger would have taken the pains to cut a die to strike lead
from; and my specimen, from its sharpness, has clearly never been in
circulation: why may it not have been a proof from the original die?

Of No. 2. I have since been shown several specimens, which had before, I
suppose, escaped my notice.

On the coin of Macrinus, the letter below the S.C. now clearly appears
to be an [Greek: eta], but the one above is not a [Greek: Delta], but
rather an L or inverted T. It cannot stand for [Greek: Lykabas], as on
the Egyptian coinage, as Macrinus was slain by his soldiers the year
after his accession.

The Etruscilla, even under a powerful magnifier, betrays no trace of
ever having been plated and has all the marks by which numismatists
determine the genuineness of a coin. The absence of S.C., I must remind
Mr. W., is not uncommon on _third_ brass, though of course it always
appears on the first and second.

I need go no farther than the one just mentioned of Tiberius, which has
no S.C., and I possess several others which are deficient in this
particular, a Severus Alexander, Elagabalus, &c. After Gallienus it
never appears.

E.S.T.


_Querela Cantabrigiensis_ (Vol. ii, p. 168.).--Dr. Peter Barwick, in the
life of his brother, Dr. Jno. Barwick (Eng. Edit. Lond. 1724, 8vo.),
after describing the treatment of the University by Cromwell, adds (p.
32.) "But Mr. Barwick, no inconsiderable part of this tragedy, together
with others of the University, groaning under the same yoke of tyranny,
and each taking a particular account of the sufferings of his own
college, gave a distinct narrative of all these barbarities, and under
the title of _Querela Cantabrigiensis_, or the _University of
Cambridge's Complaint_, got it printed by the care of Mr. R---- B----,
bookseller of _London_ who did great service to his King and country, by
printing, and dispersing in the most difficult times, books written in
defence of the royal cause." See also _Biog. Brit._, article "Barwick".

John I. Dredge.


_Ben Johnson_ (Vol. ii., p. 167.)--So the name was spelt by most of his
contemporaries. The poem mentioned by N.A.B. is printed in the
_Underwoods_, Gifford's edition, ix., 68; but the MS. may contain
variations worthy of notice. I should doubt its being autograph, not
merely because the poet spelt his name without the _h_, but because the
verses in question are only part of his _Eupheme_.

J.O. Halliwell.


_Barclay's "Argenis"._--Since I sent you a Query on this subject, I have
heard of _one_ translation, by Miss Clara Reeve, the authoress of _The
Old English Baron_ and other works. She commenced her literary career, I
believe, by a translation of this work, which she published in 1772,
under the title of _The Phoenix_.

Jarltzberg.


_Hockey_ (Vol. i., p. 457.).--I have not observed that this has been yet
noticed: if such be the case, permit me to refer to a letter of the poet
Cowper, dated 5th Nov., 1785 (5th vol. _Works_, edit. by Southey, p.
174.) in which, alluding to that day, he says,

    "The boys at Olney have likewise a very entertaining sport which
    commences annually upon this day; they call it _hockey_, and it
    consists in dashing each other with mud, and the windows also,
    so that I am forced to rise now and then and to threaten them
    with a horsewhip, to preserve our own."

F.R.A.


_Praed's Poetical Works_ (Vol. ii., p. 190.).--Your Cambridge
correspondent, Mr. Cooper, will be glad to know that Praed's _poems_ are
published in a collected form; _Poetical Works of Winthrop Mackworth
Praed, now first collected by Rufus W. Griswold; New York_, 1844. This
collection contains some thirty-six pieces. The longest poems, "Lillian"
and "The Troubadour," each in two cantos, display passages of great
beauty and exquisite musical flow. Among the charades, five in number,
"Sir Harry, he charged at Agincourt", is not to be found.

W.M. Kingsmill.

       *       *       *       *       * {239}


MISCELLANEOUS

NOTES ON BOOKS, SALES, CATALOGUES, ETC.

We announced, after the last Annual Meetings of the Shakspeare Society,
that it had been determined to publish a complete set of the Plays of
one of Shakspeare's most prolific and interesting contemporaries, Thomas
Heywood; and that the first volume of such collection, containing Six
Plays, was then ready. A further contribution towards this collection,
containing _The Royal King and Loyal Subject_, which has not been
reprinted since the old edition of 1637, and his very popular drama, _A
Woman killed with Kindness_, has just been issued, with an Introduction
and Notes by J. Payne Collier, Esq., the zealous and indefatigable
Director of the Society, and will, we are sure, be welcomed by every
lover of our early drama. The Shakspeare Society will, indeed, do good
service to the cause of our early literature if it prove the means of
securing us, a uniform series of the works of such of our Elizabethan
dramatists as do not stand sufficiently high in the opinion of the
uninitiated, to tempt the publishing world to put forth their
productions in a collected form.

We have received the following Catalogues:--John Petheram's (94. High
Holborn) Catalogue, Part CXV. (No. 9. for 1850), of Old and New Books;
Cole's (15. Great Turnstile) List, No. XXVIII., of Useful Second-hand
Books.

       *       *       *       *       *

BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES

WANTED TO PURCHASE.

Diurnal Readings, 1 vol. 8vo.

Scottish Poems collected by Pinkerton, 2 vols. sm. 8vo., 1792.

ODD VOLUMES

Bell's Shakspeare's Plays and Poems. Vol. I.

Ivimey's History of the Baptists. Vol. II.

Edwards' Gangræna. Parts II. and III.

Asiatic Annual Register. Vol. VII. for 1805.

Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to Mr. Bell, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES", 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

Nocab _is informed that the Prelate to whom he refers was created a D.D.
by the late Archbishop of Canterbury. It certainly is not necessary that
the recipient of such a degree should have previously taken that of M.A.
or B.A._

H.I.G., _Northampton. The Editor would be happy to insert the Question
of this Correspondent, relating to the Epistles of St. Paul, but he
apprehends that the discussion to which it would give rise would, in
order to its being of any use, require more space than could be
afforded, and involve a good deal of criticism and argument not suited
to these columns._

A.B. _(Bradpole) will find a notice of the line "Incidis in Scyllam",
&c., which is taken from Gualter de Lisle's Alexandriad, in Notes and
Queries, Vol. ii., p. 86._

_The loan of a copy of the Teseide is freely offered to our Brighton
correspondent_.

To be Published by Subscription, in 3 vols. fcp. 8vo.

I. NORTHERN MYTHOLOGY, comprising the Principal Later Superstitions of
Scandinavia.

II. POPULAR TRADITIONS of Scandinavia and the Netherlands. By B. Thorpe.

The work will be sent to press as soon as the number subscribed for
shall be adequate to cover the cost of printing.

Names received by Messrs. R. and J.E. Taylor, Red Lion Court,
Fleet-street.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE and
HISTORICAL REVIEW for AUGUST contains,
among other articles,

Unpublished Anecdotes of Sir Thomas Wyatt.

Roman Art at Cirencester (with Engravings).

The Congress of Vienna and Prince de Ligne.

Letter of H.R.H. the Duke of York in 1787.

Monuments in Oxford Cathedral (with two Plates).

Michael Drayton and his "Idea's Mirrour."

Date of the erection of Chaucer's Tomb.

Letters of Dr. Maitland and Mr. Stephens on The Ecclesiastical History
Society: with Remarks.

The British Museum Catalogue and Mr. Panizzi.

Reviews of Correspondence of Charles V., the Life of Southey, &c., &c.,
Notes of the Month, Literary and Antiquarian Intelligence, Historical
Chronicle, and Obituary. Price 2s.6d.

"The Gentleman's Magazine has been revived with a degree of spirit and
talent which promises the best assurance of its former
popularity."--_Taunton Courier._

"A better or more valuable work for country book societies, lending
libraries, and reading rooms, it is impossible to find within the whole
compass of English literature. Its literary articles are peculiarly
sound in principle, and its criticisms liberal but just; whilst its
Obituary confers upon it a national importance. We are sure then we
cannot do a better service to our friends, and more especially to those
connected with institutions like those we have adverted to, than in
recommending this work to their support."--_Nottingham Review_.

Nichols and Son, 25. Parliament Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

BUILDING FOR THE EXHIBITION OF INDUSTRY OF ALL NATIONS, 1851.

THE ATHENÆUM

Of Saturday, August 31st, contains a perspective view of Mr. Paxton's
design for the building as finally approved by Her Majesty's
Commissioners, and now in course of erection in Hyde Park. The Athenæum
of Saturday, the 7th of September, will contain a view of the south
front, a view of the east front, a portion on an enlarged scale, and a
ground plan.

Several journals having published views of a building which it was
supposed would be the building erected, the publisher of The Athenæum
considers it proper to state that the views announced above have never
been seen by the public, and are totally dissimilar to those engraved in
the professional journals.

The Athenæum is published every Saturday, and may be had, by order, of
any Bookseller, price 4d., or stamped to pass free by post, 5d.; and
contains,

Reviews, with extracts, of every important new English book, and of the
more important foreign.

Reports of the learned and scientific societies, with abstracts of all
papers of interest.

Authentic Accounts of all scientific voyages and expeditions.

Criticisms on Art, with critical notices of exhibitions, picture
collections, new prints, &c.

Foreign Correspondence on literature, science, and art.

Music and Drama, including reports on the opera, concerts, theatres, new
music, &c.

Biographical Notices of men distinguished in literature, science, and
art.

Original Papers and Poems.

Miscellanea, including all that is likely to interest the informed and
intelligent.

The Athenæum is so conducted that the reader, however far distant, is,
in respect to literature, science, and the arts, on an equality, in
point of information, with the best-informed circles of the metropolis.

The publisher will on this occasion send a single copy on receipt of
five postage stamps.

Office, 14. Wellington-Street North, Strand, London.

       *       *       *       *       * {240}

BOOKS RECENTLY PUBLISHED
BY
JOHN HENRY PARKER,
OXFORD AND 377. STRAND, LONDON.

       *       *       *       *       *

I. THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND LEAVES HER CHILDREN FREE TO WHOM TO OPEN THEIR
GRIEFS. A Letter to the Rev. W.U. RICHARDS, Minister of Margaret Chapel.
By the Rev. E.B. PUSEY, D.D. 8vo. 5s.

II. THE ROYAL SUPREMACY NOT AN ARBITRARY AUTHORITY, BUT LIMITED BY THE
LAWS OF THE CHURCH OF WHICH KINGS ARE MEMBERS. By the Rev. E.B. PUSEY,
D.D., Regius Professor of Hebrew, Canon of Christ Church, late Fellow of
Oriel College. Part 1. Ancient Precedents. 8vo. 7s. Part II. in the
press.

III. THE CHARACTER OF PILATE AND THE SPIRIT OF THE AGE. A Course of
Sermons preached at the Chapel Royal, Whitehall, by the Rev. W. SEWELL,
B.D., Fellow and Tutor of Exeter College, and Whitehall Preacher, 12mo.
Price 4s. 6d.

IV. WESTMINSTER CHURCHES. A Sermon preached in the Chapel Royal,
Whitehall, on the Fourth Sunday after Easter, 1850. By the Rev. W.
SEWELL. 12mo. 6d.

V. DAILY STEPS TOWARDS HEAVEN. A small pocket volume, containing a few
PRACTICAL THOUGHTS on the GOSPEL HISTORY, with Texts for every Day in
the Year, commencing with Advent. A new edition, cloth, 2s. 6d.; bound,
4s.

VI. HYMNALE SECUNDUM USUM INSIGNIS AC PRAECLARAE ECCLESIAE
SARISBURIENSIS. Accedunt Hymni quidam secundum usus Matris Ecclesiæ
Eboracensis et insignis Ecclesiæ Herford. 18mos. cloth. 3s. 6d.

VII. A REPORT OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE GENERAL MEETING OF CLERGY AND
LAITY AT ST. MARTIN'S HALL, AND FREEMASONS' HALL, July 23, 1850.
Reprinted from the "Guardian," with Revisions. 12mo. Price 6d.

VIII. FIVE SERMONS ON THE PRINCIPLES OF FAITH AND CHURCH AUTHORITY. By
the Rev. C. MARRIOTT, B.D., Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford, and Vicar
of St. Mary the Virgin, in Oxford. 8vo. 2s. 6d.

IX. A PLEA FOR THE FAITHFUL RESTORATION OF OUR ANCIENT CHURCHES. By
GEORGE GILBERT SCOTT, Architect. Crown 8vo. 2s. 6d.

X. AN ESSAY ON THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF WINDOW TRACERY IN ENGLAND.
With Numerous Illustrations. Two Parts, 8vo., price 5s. each.

XI. A GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN GRECIAN, ROMAN, ITALIAN, AND GOTHIC
ARCHITECTURE. Exemplified by upwards of Eighteen Hundred Illustrations,
drawn from the best Examples. Fifth Edition, 3 vols. 8vo. cloth, gilt
tops, 2l. 8s.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE PUBLISHERS' CIRCULAR AND GENERAL RECORD OF BRITISH and FOREIGN
LITERATURE, containing a complete alphabetical list of all new works
published in Great Britain, and every work of interest published abroad.
On the 15th instant, will be published No. 312. vol. xiii. price 4d.,
(subscription, 8s. per annum), _stamped_. To book societies,
book-buyers, and all persons engaged in literary pursuits, the
"Circular" is of material service, containing, as it does, a perfect
transcript of the Title, number of Pages and Plates, Size, and Price of
every Book published in the United Kingdom, or imported from Foreign
Countries,--a desideratum never before attempted in England. It contains
also the Advertisements and Announcements of all the principal
publishing houses. To publishers it is one of the most useful channels
for advertising their publications, as well as all other matters
relating to the trade, there being but few booksellers who do not find
it to their interest to read and circulate it. Issued every Fortnight.
Published on the 1st and 15th of every month, by SAMPSON LOW, at the
office, 169. Fleet-street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Preparing for publication, in 2 vols. small 8vo.

THE FOLK-LORE of ENGLAND. By WILLIAM J. THOMS, F.S.A., Secretary of the
Camden Society, Editor of "Early Prose Romances," "Lays and Legends of
all Nations," &c. One objec. of the present work is to furnish new
contributions to the History of our National Folk-Lore; and especially
some of the more striking Illustrations of the subject to be found in
the Writings of Jacob Grimm and other Continental Antiquaries.

Communications of inedited Legends, Notices of remarkable Customs and
Popular Observances, Rhyming Charms, &c. are earnestly solicited, and
will be thankfully acknowledged by the Editor. They may be addressed to
the care of Mr. BELL, Office of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

TESTIMONIAL TO DR. CONOLLY.--At a meeting held at 12. Old Burlington
Street, Saturday, August 3d. 1850, the Right Hon. Lord Ashley in the
chair; the following resolutions among others were unanimously agreed
to:

That Dr. JOHN CONOLLY, of Hanwell, is, in the opinion of this meeting,
eminently entitled to some public mark of esteem and gratitude, for his
long, zealous, disinterested, and most successful labours in
ameliorating the treatment of the insane.

That a committee be now formed, for the purpose of carrying into effect
the foregoing Resolution, by making the requisite arrangements for the
presentation to Dr. Conolly of _A Public Testimonial_, commemorative of
his invaluable services in the cause of humanity, and expressive of the
just appreciation of those services by his numerous friends and
admirers, and by the public generally.

THE COMMITTEE subsequently resolved:

That in the opinion of the committee, the most appropriate Testimonial
will be a PORTRAIT of Dr. CONOLLY (for which he is requested to sit), to
be presented to his family, and an ENGRAVING of the same, to be
presented to the subscribers; and that the ultimate arrangement of this
latter point be made at a future meeting of the committee.

It has been determined that the individual subscriptions shall be
limited to Five Guineas; that subscribers of Two Guineas and upwards
shall receive a proof impression of the Engraving; and subscribers of
One Guinea, a print.

It is also proposed to present Dr. CONOLLY with a piece of plate, should
the funds permit after defraying the expenses of the painting and
engraving.

Subscribers' names and subscriptions will be received by the
secretaries, at 12. Old Burlington Street, and 4. Burlington Gardens,
and by the Treasurers, at the Union Bank, Regent Street Branch, Argyll
Place, London. Post-office Orders should be made payable at the
Post-office _Piccadilly_, to one of the Secretaries.

JOHN FORBES,
RICHARD FRANKUM,
_Secretaries_.

_London, August 3d, 1850_.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, September 7. 1850.





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