By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Notes and Queries, Number 46, September 14, 1850
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 46, September 14, 1850" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 46.] SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 1850 [Price Threepence. Stamped Edition

       *       *       *       *       * {241}


The Meaning of "Risell" in Hamlet, by S.W. Singer. 241
Authors of the Rolliad. 242
Notes and Queries. 242
The Body of James II., by Pitman Jones. 243
Folk Lore:--Legend of Sir Richard Baker--Prophetic
  Spring at Langley, Kent. 244
Minor Notes:--Poem by Malherbe--Travels of Two
  English Pilgrims. 245

Quotations in Bishop Andrewes, by Rev. James Bliss. 245
Minor Queries:--Spider and Fly--Lexicon of Types--Montaigue's
  Select Essays--Custom of wearing the Breast uncovered--Milton's
  Lycidas--Sitting during the Lessons--Blew-Beer--Carpatio--Value of
  Money--Bishop Berkeley, and Adventures of Gaudeatio
  di Lucca--Cupid and Psyche--Zund-nadel Guns--Bacon
  Family--Armorials--Artephius--Sir Robert Howard--Crozier
  and Pastoral Staff--Marks of Cadency--Miniature Gibbet. 245

Collar of S.S. by Rev. H.T. Ellacombe and J. Gough
  Nichols. 248
Sir Gregory Norton. 250
Shakspeare's Word "Delighted," by Rev. Dr. Kennedy. 250
Aerostation, by Henry Wilkinson. 251
Replies to Minor Queries:--Long Lonkin--Rowley
  Powley--Guy's Armour--Alarm--Prelates of
  France--Haberdasher--"Rapido contrarius orbi"--Robertson
  of Muirtown--"Noli me tangere"--Clergy sold
  for Slaves--North Side of Churchyards--Sir John
  Perrot--Coins of Constantius II.--She ne'er with
  treacherous Kiss--California--Bishops and their
  Precedence--Elizabeth and Isabel--Bever's Legal
  Polity--Rikon Basilike, &c. 251

Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c. 255
Notices to Correspondents. 255
Advertisements. 256

       *       *       *       *       *



Few passages have been more discussed than this wild challenge of Hamlet
to Laertes at the grave of Ophelia:

  "Ham. I lov'd Ophelia! forty thousand brothers
  Could not, with all their quantity of love,
  Make up my sum. What wilt thou do for her?

  --Zounds! show me what thou'lt do?
  Woo't weep? Woo't fight? Woo't fast? Woo't tear

  _Woo't drink up Eisell?_ eat a crocodile?

  I'll do't".

The sum of what has been said may be given in the words of Archdeacon

    "There is no doubt that eisell meant vinegar, nor even that
    Shakspeare has used it in that sense; but in this passage it
    seems that it must be put for the name of a Danish river.... The
    question was much disputed between Messrs. Steevens and Malone:
    the former being for the river, the latter for the vinegar; and
    he endeavored even to get over the drink up, which stood much in
    his way. But after all, the challenge to drink vinegar, in such
    a rant, is so inconsistent, and even ridiculous, that we must
    decide for the river, whether its name be exactly found or not.
    To drink up a river, and eat a crocodile with his impenetrable
    scales, are two things equally impossible. There is no kind of
    comparison between the others."

I must confess that I was formerly led to adopt this view of the
passage, but on more mature investigation I find that it is wrong. I see
no necessary connection between eating a crocodile and drinking up
eysell; and to drink up was commonly used for simply to drink. Eisell or
Eysell certainly signified vinegar, but it was certainly not used in
that sense by Shakspeare, who may in this instance be his own expositor;
the word occurring again in his CXIth sonnet.

  "Whilst, like a willing patient, I will drink
  Potions of eysell, 'gainst my strong infection;
  No bitterness that I will bitter think,
  Nor double penance, to correct correction."

Here we see that it was a bitter potion which it was a penance to drink.
Thus also in the Troy Book of Lydgate:

  "Of bitter eysell, and of eager wine."

Now numerous passages in our old dramatic writers show that it was a
fashion with the gallants of the time to do some extravagant feat, as a
proof of their love, in honour of their mistresses; and among others the
swallowing some nauseous potion was one of the most frequent; but
vinegar would hardly have been considered in this light; wormwood might.

In Thomas's Italian Dictionary, 1562, we have "Assentio, Eysell" and
Florio renders that word by vinegar. What is meant, however, is
Absinthites or Wormwood wine, a nauseously bitter medicament then much
in use; and this being evidently {242} the _bitter potion of Eysell_ in
the poet's sonnet, was certainly the nauseous draught proposed to be
taken by Hamlet among the other extravagant feats as tokens of love. The
following extracts will show that in the poet's age this nauseous bitter
potion was in frequent use medicinally.

    "ABSINTHIUM, [Greek: apsinthion, aspinthion], Comicis, ab
    insigni amarore quo bibeates illud aversantur."-_Junius,
    Nomenclator ap. Nicot_.

    "ABSINTHITES, _wormwood wine_.--_Hutton's Dict_.

    "Hujus modi autem propomatum _hodie_ apud Christianos quoque
    _maximus est et frequentissimus usus_, quibus potatores maximi
    ceu proemiis quibusdam atque præludiis utuntur, ad dirum illud
    suum propinandi certamen. _Ae maxime quidem commune est proponia
    absynthites_, quod vim habet stomachum corroborandi et
    extenuandi, expellendique excrementa quæ in eo continentur. Hoc
    fere propomate potatores hodie maxime ab initio coenæ utuntur
    ceu pharmaco cum hesternæ, atque præteritæ, tum futuræ
    ebrietatis, atque crapulæ.... _amarissimæ sunt potiones
    medicatæ_, quibus tandem stomachi cruditates immoderato cibo
    potuque collectas expurgundi cause uti coguntur."--Stuckius,
    _Antiquitatæ Corviralium. Tiguri_, 1582, fol. 327.

Of the two latest editors, Mr. Knight decides for the _river_, and Mr.
Collier does not decide at all. Our northern neighbours think us almost
as much deficient in philological illustration as in enlarged
philosophical criticism on the poet, in which they claim to have shown
us the way.


Mickleham, Aug. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *


To the list of subjects and authors in this unrivalled volume,
communicated by LORD BRAYBROOKE (Vol. ii., p. 194.), I would add that
No. XXI. _Probationary Odes_ (which is unmarked in the Sunning-hill Park
copy) was written by Dr. Laurence: so also were Nos. XIII. and XIV., of
which LORD BRAYBROOKE speaks doubtfully. My authority is the note in the
correspondence of Burke and Laurence published in 1827, page 21. The
other names all agree with my own copy, marked by the late Mr. A.

In order to render the account of the work complete, I would add the
following list of writers of the _Political Miscellanies_. Those marked
with an asterisk are said "not to be from the club:"--

    "* Probationary Ode Extraordinary, by Mason.

    The Statesmen, an Eclogue. Read.

    Rondeau to the Right Honourable W. Eden. Dr. Laurence.

    Epigrams from the Club. Miscellaneous.

    The Delavaliad. Dr. Laurence.

    This is the House that George built. Richardson.

    Epigrams by Sir Cecil Wray. Tickell and Richardson.

    Lord Graham's Diary, not marked.

    * Extracts from 2nd Vol. of Lord Mulgrave's Essays.

    * Anecdotes of Mr. Pitt.

    Letter from a New Member.

    * Political Receipt Book, &c.

    * Hints from Dr. Pretyman.

    A tale 'at Brookes's once,' &c. Richardson.

    Dialogue 'Donec Gratus eram Tibi.' Lord J. Townshend.

    Pretymaniana, principally by Tickell and Richardson.

    Foreign Epigrams, the same and Dr. Laurence.

    * Advertisement Extraordinary.

    Vive le Scrutiny. Bate Dudley.

    * Paragraph Office, Ivy Lane.

    * Pitt and Pinetti.

    * New Abstract of the Budget for 1784.

    Theatrical Intelligence Extraordinary. Richardson.

    The Westminster Guide (unknown). Part II. (unknown).

    Inscription for the Duke of Richmond's Bust (unknown).

    Epigram, 'Who shall expect,' &c. Richardson.

    A New Ballad, 'Billy Eden.' Tickell and Richardson.

    Epigrams on Sir Elijah Impey, and by Mr. Wilberforce (unknown).

    A Proclamation, by Richardson.

    * Original Letter to Corbett.

    * Congratulatory Ode to Right Hon. C. Jenkinson.

    * Ode to Sir Elijah Impey.

    * Song.

    * A New Song, 'Billy's Budget.'

    * Epigrams.

    * Ministerial Undoubted Facts (unknown).

    Journal of the Right Hon. Hen. Dundas. From the Club.

    Incantation. Fitzpatrick.

    Translations of Lord Belgrave's Quotations. From the Club.

Some of these minor contributions were from the pen of O'Beirne,
afterwards Bishop of Meath.

Tickell should be joined with Lord John Townshend in "Jekyll." The
former contributed the lines parodied from Pope.

In reply to LORD BRAYBROOKE'S Query, Moore, in his _Life of Sheridan_,
speaks of Lord John Townshend as the only survivor of "this confederacy
of wits:" so that, if he is correct, the author of "Margaret Nicholson"
(Adair) cannot be now living.



       *       *       *       *       *


"There is nothing new under the sun," quoth the Preacher; and such must
be said of "NOTES AND QUERIES." Your contributor M. (Vol. ii, p. 194.)
has drawn attention to the _Weekly Oracle_, which in 1736 gave forth its
responses to the inquiring public; but, as he intimates, many similar
periodicals might be instanced. Thus, we have _Memoirs for the
Ingenious_, 1693, 4to., edited by I. de la Crose; _Memoirs for the
Curious_, 1701, 4to.; _The Athenian Oracle_, 1704, 8vo.; _The Delphick
Oracle_, {243} 1720, 8vo.; _The British Apollo_, 1740, 12mo.; with
several others of less note. The three last quoted answer many singular
questions in theology, law, medicine, physics, natural history, popular
superstitions, &c., not always very satisfactorily or very
intelligently, but still, often amusingly and ingeniously. _The British
Apollo: containing two thousand Answers to curious Questions in most
Arts and Sciences, serious, comical, and humourous_, the fourth edition
of which I have now before me, indulges in answering such questions as
these: "How old was Adam when Eve was created?--Is it lawful to eat
black pudding?--Whether the moon in Ireland is like the moon in England?
Where is hell situated? Do cocks lay eggs?" &c. In answer to the
question, "Why is gaping catching?" the Querists of 1740 are gravely

    "Gaping or yawning is infectious, because the steams of the
    blood being ejected out of the mouth, doth infect the ambient
    air, which being received by the nostrils into another man's
    mouth, doth irritate the fibres of the hypogastric muscle to
    open the mouth to discharge by expiration the unfortunate gust
    of air infected with the steams of blood, as aforesaid."

The feminine gender, we are further told, is attributed to a ship,
"because a ship carries burdens, and therefore resembles a pregnant

But as the faith of 1850 in _The British Apollo_, with its two thousand
answers, may not be equal to the faith of 1740, what dependence are we
to place in the origin it attributes to two very common words, a _bull_,
and a _dun_?--

    "Why, when people speak improperly, is it termed a bull?--It
    became a proverb from the repeated blunders of one _Obadiah
    Bull_, a lawyer of London, who lived in the reign of King Henry

Now for the second,--

    "Pray tell me whence you can derive the original of the word
    _dun_? Some falsely think it comes from the French, where
    _donnez_ signifies _give me_, implying a demand of something
    due; but the true original of this expression owes its birth to
    one _Joe Dun_, a famous bailiff of the town of Lincoln, so
    extremely active, and so dexterous at the management of his
    rough business, that it became a proverb, when a man refused to
    pay his debts, 'Why don't you _Dun_ him?' that is, why don't you
    send Dun to arrest him? Hence it grew a custom, and is now as
    old as since the days of Henry VII."

Were these twin worthies, Obadiah Bull the lawyer, and Joe Dun the
bailiff, men of straw for the nonce, or veritable flesh and blood? They
both flourished, it appears, in the reign of Henry VII.; and to me it is
doubtful whether one reign could have produced two worthies capable of
cutting so deep a notch in the English tongue.

"To dine with Duke Humphrey," we are told, arose from the practice of
those who had shared his dainties when alive being in the habit of
perambulating St. Paul's, where he was buried, at the dining time of
day; what dinner they then had, they had with Duke Humphrey the defunct.

Your contributor MR. CUNNINGHAM will be able to decide as to the value
of the origin of Tyburn here given to us:

    "As to the antiquity of Tyburn, it is no older than the year
    1529; before that time, the place of execution was in _Rotten
    Row_ in _Old Street_. As for the etymology of the word _Tyburn_,
    some will have it proceed from the words _tye_ and _burn_,
    alluding to the manner of executing traitors at that place;
    others believe it took its name from a small river or brook once
    running near it, and called by the Romans Tyburnia. Whether the
    first or second is the truest, the querist may judge as he
    thinks fit."

And so say I.

A readable volume might be compiled from these "NOTES AND QUERIES,"
which amused our grandfathers; and the works I have indicated will
afford much curious matter in etymology, folk-lore, topography, &c., to
the modern antiquary.


       *       *       *       *       *


The following curious account was given to me by Mr. Fitz-Simons, an
Irish gentleman, upwards of eighty years of age, with whom I became
acquainted when resident with my family at Toulouse, in September, 1840;
he having resided in that city for many years as a teacher of the French
and English languages, and had attended the late Sir William Follett in
the former capacity there in 1817. He said,--

    "I was a prisoner in Paris, in the convent of the English
    Benedictines in the Rue St. Jaques, during part of the
    revolution. In the year 1793 or 1794, the body of King James II.
    of England was in one of the chapels there, where it had been
    deposited some time, under the expectation that it would one day
    be sent to England for interment in Westminster Abbey. It had
    never been buried. The body was in a wooden coffin, inclosed in
    a leaden one; and that again inclosed in a second wooden one,
    covered with black velvet. That while I was so a prisoner, the
    sans-culottes broke open the coffins to get at the lead to cast
    into bullets. The body lay exposed nearly a whole day. It was
    swaddled like a mummy, bound tight with garters. The
    sans-culottes took out the body, which had been embalmed. There
    was a strong smell of vinegar and camphor. The corpse was
    beautiful and perfect. The hands and nails were very fine, I
    moved and bent every finger. I never saw so fine a set of teeth
    in my life. A young lady, a fellow prisoner, wished much to have
    a tooth; I tried to get one out for her, but could not, they
    were so firmly fixed. The feet also were very beautiful. The
    face and cheeks were just as if he were alive. I rolled his
    eyes: the eye-balls were perfectly firm under my finger. The
    French and English prisoners {244} gave money to the
    sans-culottes for showing the body. They said he was a good
    sans-culotte, and they were going to put him into a hole in the
    public churchyard like other sand-culottes; and he was carried
    away, but where the body was thrown I never heard. King George
    IV. tried all in his power to get tidings of the body, but could
    not. Around the chapel were several wax moulds of the face hung
    up, made probably at the time of the king's death, and the
    corpse was very like them. The body had been originally kept at
    the palace of St. Germain, from whence it was brought to the
    convent of the Benedictines. Mr. Porter, the prior, was a
    prisoner at the time in his own convent."

The above I took down from Mr. Fitz-Simons' own mouth, and read it to
him, and he said it was perfectly correct. Sir W. Follett told me he
thought Mr. Fitz-Simons was a runaway Vinegar Hill boy. He told me that
he was a monk.


Exeter, Aug. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *


_The Legend of Sir Richard Baker_ (vol. ii., p. 67.).--Will F.L. copy
the inscription on the monument in Cranbrook Church? The dates on it
will test the veracity of the legend. In the reign of Queen Mary, the
representative of the family was Sir John Baker, who in that, and the
previous reigns of Edward VI. and Henry VIII., had held some of the
highest offices in the kingdom. He had been Recorder of London, Speaker
of the House of Commons, Attorney-General and Chancellor of the
Exchequer, and died in the first year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth.
His son, Sir Richard Baker, was twice high-sheriff of the county of
Kent, and had the honour of entertaining Queen Elizabeth in her progress
through the county. This was, most likely, the person whose monument
F.L. saw in Cranbrook Church. The family had been settled there from the
time of Edward III., and seem to have been adding continually to their
possessions; and at the time mentioned by F.L. as that of their decline,
namely, in the reign of Edward VI., they were in reality increasing in
wealth and dignities. If the Sir Richard Baker whose monument is
referred to by F.L. was the son of the Sir John above mentioned, the
circumstances of his life disprove the legend. He was not the sole
representative of the family remaining at the accession of Queen Mary.
His father was then living, and at the death of his father his brother
John divided with him the representation of the family, and had many
descendants. The family estates were not dissipated; on the contrary,
they were handed down through successive generations, to one of whom, a
grandson of Sir Richard, the dignity of a baronet was given; and
Sivinghurst, which was the family seat, was in the possession of the
third and last baronet's grandson, E.S. Beagham, in the year 1730. Add
to this that the Sir Richard Baker in question was twice married, and
that a monumental erection of the costly and honourable description
mentioned by F.L. was allowed to be placed to his memory in the chancel
of the church of the parish in which such Bluebeard atrocities are said
to have been committed, and abundant grounds will thence appear for
rejecting the truth of the legend in the absence of all evidence. The
unfortunately red colour of the gloves most likely gave rise to the
story. Nor is this a solitary instance of such a legend having such an
origin. In the beautiful parish church of Aston, in Warwickshire, are
many memorials of the Baronet family of Holt, who owned the adjoining
domain and hall, the latter of which still remains, a magnificent
specimen of Elizabethan architecture. Either in one of the compartments
of a painted window of the church, or upon a monumental marble to one of
the Holts, is the Ulster badge, as showing the rank of the deceased, and
painted red. From the colour of the badge, a legend of the bloody hand
has been created as marvellous as that of the Bloody Baker, so fully
detailed by F.L.


[Will our correspondent favour us by communicating the Aston Legend of
the Holt Family to which he refers?]

_Langley, Kent, Prophetic Spring at._--The following "note" upon a
passage in _Warkworth's Chronicle_ (pp. 23, 24.) may perhaps possess
sufficient interest to warrant its insertion in your valuable little
publication. The passage is curious, not only as showing the
superstitious dread with which a simple natural phenomenon was regarded
by educated and intelligent men four centuries ago, but also as
affording evidence of the accurate observation of a writer, whose
labours have shed considerable light upon "one of the darkest periods in
our annals." The chronicler is recording the occurrence, in the
thirteenth year of Edward the Fourth, of a "gret hote somere," which
caused much mortality, and "unyversalle fevers, axes, and the blody flyx
in dyverse places of Englonde," and also occasioned great dearth and
famine "in the southe partyes of the worlde."

He then remarks that "dyverse tokenes have be schewede in Englonde this
year for amendynge of mannys lyvynge," and proceeds to enumerate several
springs or waters in various places, which only ran at intervals, and by
their running always portended "derthe, pestylence, or grete batayle."
After mentioning several of these, he adds--

    "Also ther is a pytte in Kent in Langley Parke: ayens any
    batayle he wille be drye, and it rayne neveyre so myche; and if
    ther be no batayle toward, he wille be fulle of watere, be it
    neveyre so drye a wethyre; and this yere he is drye."

Langley Park, situated in a parish of the same {245} name, about four
miles to the south-east of Maidstone, and once the residence of the
Leybournes and other families, well-known in Kentish history, has long
existed only in name, having been disparked prior to 1570; but the
"pytte," or stream, whose wondrous qualities are so quaintly described
by Warkworth, still flows at intervals. It is scarcely necessary to add,
that it belongs to the class known as _intermitting springs_, the
phenomena displayed by which are easily explained by the syphon-like
construction of the natural reservoirs whence they are supplied.

I have never heard that any remnant of this curious superstition can now
be traced in the neighbourhood, but persons long acquainted with the
spot have told me that the state of the stream was formerly looked upon
as a good index of the probable future price of corn. The same causes,
which regulated the supply or deficiency of water, would doubtless also
affect the fertility of the soil.


Chancery Lane, Aug. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Poem by Malherbe_ (Vol. ii., p. 104.).--Possibly your correspondent MR.
SINGER may not be aware of the fact that the beauty of the fourth stanza
of Malherbe's Ode on the Death of Rosette Duperrier is owing to a
typographical error. The poet had written in his MS.--

  "Et Rosette a vécu ce que vivent les roses," &c.,

omitting to cross his _t_'s, which the compositor took for _l_'s, and
set up _Roselle_. On receiving the proof-sheet, at the passage in
question a sudden light burst upon Malherbe; of _Roselle_ he made two
words, and put in two beautiful lines--

  "Et Rose, elle a vécu ce que vivent les roses,
  L'espace d'un matin."

(See _Français peints par eux-mémes_, vol. ii. p. 270.)



_Travels of Two English Pilgrims._--

    "A True and Strange Discourse of the Travailes of Two English
    Pilgrimes: what admirable Accidents befell them in their Journey
    to Jerusalem, Gaza, Grand Cayro, Alexandria, and other places.
    Also, what rare Antiquities, Monuments, and notable Memories
    (concording with the Ancient Remembrances in the Holy
    Scriptures), they sawe in the Terra Sancta; with a perfect
    Description of the Old and New Jerusalem, and Situation of the
    Countries about them. A Discourse of no lesse Admiration, then
    well worth the regarding: written by one of them on the behalfe
    of himselfe and his fellowe Pilgrime. Imprinted at London for
    Thomas Archer, and are to be solde at his Shoppe, by the Royall
    Exchange. 1603."

A copy of this 4to. tract, formerly in the hands of Francis Meres, the
author of _Wit's Commonwealth_, has the following MS. note:--

    "Timberley, dwellinge on Tower Hill, a maister of a ship, made
    this booke, as Mr. Anthony Mundye tould me. Thomas, at Mrs.
    Gosson's, sent my wyfe this booke for a token, February 15. A.D.


       *       *       *       *       *



Can any of your contributors help me to ascertain the following
quotations which occur in Bishop Andrewes' _Tortura Torti_?

P. 49.:

    "Si clavem potestatis non præcedat clavis discretionis."

P. 58.:

    "Dispensationes nihil aliud esse quam legum vulnera."

P. 58.:

    "Non dispensatio est, sed dissipatio."

This, though not marked as a quotation, is, I believe,
in _S. Bernard_.

P. 183.:

    "Et quæ de septem totum circumspicit orbem Montibus, imperii
    Roma Deûmque locus."

P. 225.:

    "Nemo pius, qui pietatem cavet."

P. 185.:

    "Minutuli et patellares Dei."

I should also be glad to ascertain whence the following passages are
derived, which he quotes in his _Responsio ad Apologiam_?

P. 48.:

    "[Greek: to gar trephon me tout ego kalo theon.]"

P. 145.:

    "Vanæ sine viribus iræ."

P. 119. occurs the "versiculus,"

    "Perdere quos vult hos dementat;"

the source of which some of your contributors have endeavoured to


Ogbourne St. Andrew.

       *       *       *       *       *


_The Spider and the Fly._--Can any of your readers, gentle or simple,
senile or juvenile, inform me, through the medium of your useful and
agreeable periodical, in what collection of nursery rhymes a poem
called, I think, "The Spider and Fly," occurs, and if procurable, where?
The lines I allude to consisted, to the best of my recollection, of a
dialogue between a fly and a spider, and began thus:-- {246}

  _Fly_. Spider, spider, what do you spin?
  _Spider_. Mainsails for a man-of war.
  _Fly_. Spider, spider, 'tis too thin.
      Tell me truly, what 'tis for.
  _Spider_. 'Tis for curtains for the king,
      When he lies in his state bed.
  _Fly_. Spider, 'tis too mean a thing,
      Tell me why your toils you spread.
      &c. &c. &c.

There were other stanzas, I believe, but these are all I can remember.
My notion is, that the verses in question form part of a collection of
nursery songs and rhymes by Charles Lamb, published many years ago, but
now quite out of print. This, however, is a mere surmise on my part, and
has no better foundation than the vein of humour, sprightliness, and
originality, obvious enough in the above extract, which we find running
through and adorning all he wrote. "Nihil quod tetigit non ornavit."


_A Lexicon of Types._--Can any of your readers inform me of the
existence of a collection of emblems or types? I do not mean allegorical
pictures, but isolated symbols, alphabetically arranged or otherwise.

Types are constantly to be met with upon monuments, coins, and ancient
title-pages, but so mixed with other matters as to render the finding a
desired symbol, unless very familiar, a work of great difficulty. Could
there be a systematic arrangement of all those known, with their
definitions, it would be a very valuable work of reference,--a work in
which one might pounce upon all the sacred symbols, classic types,
signs, heraldic zoology, conventional botany, monograms, and the like
abstract art.


_Montaigne, Select Essays of._--

    "Essays selected from Montaigne, with a Sketch of the Life of
    the Author. London. For P. Cadell, &c. 1800."

This volume is dedicated to the Rev. William Coxe, rector of Bemerton.

The life of Montaigne is dated the 28th of March, 1800, and signed
_Honoria_. At the end of the book is this advertisement:--

    "Lately published by the same Author 'The Female Mentor.' 2d
    edit., in 2 vols. 12mo."

Who was _Honoria_? and are these _essays_ a scarce book in England? In
France it is entirely unknown to the numerous commentators on
Montaigne's works.


_Custom of wearing the Breast uncovered in Elizabeth's Reign._--Fynes
Moryson, in a well-known passage of his _Itinerary_, (which I suppose I
need not transcribe), tells us that unmarried females and young married
women wore the breasts uncovered in Queen Elizabeth's reign. This is the
custom in many parts of the East. Lamartine mentions it in his pretty
description of Mademoiselle Malagambe: he adds, "it is the custom of the
Arab females." When did this curious custom commence in England, and
when did it go out of fashion?


_Milton's Lycidas._--In a Dublin edition of Milton's _Paradise Lost_
(1765), in a memoir prefixed I find the following explanation of than
rather obscure passage in _Lycidas_:--

  "Besides what the grim wolf, with privy paw,
  Daily devours apace, and nothing said;
  But that two-handed engine at the door
  Stands ready to smite once, and smite no more."

    "This poem is not all made up of sorrow and tenderness, there is
    a mixture of satire and indignation: for in part of it, the poet
    taketh occasion to inveigh against the corruptions of the
    clergy, and seemeth to have first discovered his acrimony
    against Arb. Laud, and to have threatened him with the loss of
    his head, which afterwards happened to him thorough the fury of
    his enemies. At least I can think of no sense so proper to be
    given to these verses in Lycidas." (p. vii.)

Perhaps some of your numerous correspondents will kindly inform me of
the meaning or meanings usually assigned to this passage.


_Sitting during the Lessons._--What is the origin of the congregation
remaining seated, while the first and second lessons are read, in the
church service? The rubric is silent on the subject; it merely directs
that the person who reads them shall stand:--

    "He that readeth so standing and turning himself, as he may best
    be heard of all such as are present."

With respect to the practice of sitting while the epistle is read, and
of standing while the gospel is read, in the communion service; there is
in the rubric a distinct direction that "all the people are to stand up"
during the latter, while it is silent as to the former. From the silence
of the rubric as to standing during the two lessons of the morning
service, and the epistle in the communion service, it seems to have been
inferred that the people were to sit. But why are they directed to stand
during the gospel in the communion service, while they sit during the
second lesson in the morning service?


_Blew-Beer._--Sir, having taken a Note according to your very sound
advice, I addressed a letter to the _John Bull_ newspaper, which was
published on Saturday, Feb. 16. It contained an extract from a political
tract, entitled,--

    "The true History of Betty Ireland, with some Account of her
    Sister Blanche of Brittain. Printed for J. Robinson, at the
    Golden Lion in Ludgate Street, MDCCLIII. (1753)." {247}

In allusion to the English the following passage occurs,--

    "But they forget, they are all so idle and debauched, such
    gobbling and drinking rascals, and expensive in _blew-beer_,"

Query the unde derivatur of _blew-beer_, and if it is to be taken in the
same sense as the modern phrase of "blue ruin," and if so, the cause of
the change or history of both expressions?


_Carpatio._--I have lately met with a large aquatinted engraving,
bearing the following descriptive title: "Angliæ Regis Legati
inspiciuntur Sponsam petentes Filiam Dionati Cornubiæ Regis pro Anglo
Principe." The costume of the figures is of the latter half of the
fifteenth century. The painter's name appears on a scroll, OP. VICTOR
CARPATIO VENETI. The copy of the picture for engraving was drawn by
Giovanni de Pian, and engraved by the same person and Francesco
Gallimberti, at Venice. I do not find the name of Carpatio in the
ordinary dictionaries of painters, and shall be glad to learn whether he
has here represented an historical event, or an incident of some
mediæval romance. I suspect the latter must be the case, as _Cornubia_
is the Latin word used for Cornwall, and I am not aware of its having
any other application. Is this print the only one of the kind, or is it
one of a set?


_Value of Money in Reign of Charles II._--Will any of your
correspondents inform me of the value of 1000l. circa Charles II. in
present money, and the mode in which the difference is estimated?


_Bishop Berkeley--Adventures of Gaudentio di Lucca._--I have a volume
containing the adventures of Signor Gaudentio di Lucca, with his
examination before the Inquisition of Bologna. In a bookseller's
catalogue I have seen it ascribed to Bishop Berkeley. Can any of your
readers inform me who was the author, or give me any particulars as to
the book?


_Cupid and Psyche._--Can any of your learned correspondents inform me
whether the fable of Cupid and Psyche was invented by Apuleius; or
whether he made use of a superstition then current, turning it, as it
suited his purpose, into the beautiful fable which has been handed down
to us as his composition?


_Zünd-nadel Guns._--In paper of September or October last, I saw a
letter dated Berlin, Sept. 11, which commenced--

    "We have had this morning a splendid military spectacle, and
    being the first of the kind since the revolution, attracted
    immense crowds to the scene of action."

    "The Fusileer battalions (light infantry) were all armed with
    the new zünd-nadel guns, the advantages and superiority of which
    over the common percussion musket now admits of no
    contradiction, with the sole exception of the facility of
    loading being an inducement to fire somewhat too quick, when
    firing independently, as in battle, or when acting en
    tirailleur. The invincible pedantry and amour-propre of our
    armourers and inspectors of arms in England, their
    disinclination to adopt inventions not of English growth, and
    their slowness to avail themselves of new models until they are
    no longer new, will, undoubtedly, exercise the usual influence
    over giving this powerful weapon even a chance in England. It is
    scarcely necessary to point out the great advantages that these
    weapons, carrying, let us say, 800 yards with perfect accuracy,
    have over our muskets, of which the range does not exceed 150,
    and that very uncertain. Another great advantage of the
    zünd-nadel is, that rifles or light infantry can load with ease
    without effort when lying flat on the ground. The opponents of
    the zünd-nadel talk of over-rapid firing and the impossibility
    of carrying sufficient ammunition to supply the demands. This is
    certainly a drawback, but it is compensated by the immense
    advantage of being able to pour in a deadly fire when you
    yourself are out of range, or of continuing this fire so
    speedily as to destroy half your opponents before they can
    return a shot with a chance of taking effect."

This was the first intimation I ever had of the zünd-nadel guns. I
should like to know when and by whom they were invented, and their


_Bacon Family, Origin of the Name._--Among the able notes, or the
_not_-able Queries of a recent Number, (I regret that I have it not at
hand, for an exact quotation), a learned correspondent mentioned, _en
passant_, that the word _bacon_ had the obsolete signification of
"_dried wood_." As a patronymic, BACON has been not a little
illustrious, in literature, science, and art; and it would be
interesting to know whether the name has its origin in the crackling
fagot or in the cured flitch. Can any of your genealogical
correspondents help me to authority on the subject?

A modern motto of the Somersetshire Bacons has an ingenious rebus:


the capitals, thus placed, giving it the double reading, Proba
coniscientia, and Pro Bacon Scientia.


_Armorials._--Sable, a fesse or, in chief two fleurs de lis or, in base
a hind courant argent. E.D.B. will feel grateful to any gentlemen who
will kindly inform him of the name of the family to which the above coat
belonged. They were quartered by Richard or Roger Barow, of Wynthorpe,
in Lincolnshire (_Harl. MS._ 1552. 42 _b_), who died in 1505.


_Artephius, the Chemical Philosopher._--What is known of the chemical
philosopher Artephius? He is mentioned in Jocker's _Dictionary_, and by
Roger Bacon (in the _Opus Majus_ and elsewhere), {248} and a tract
ascribed to him is printed in the _Theatrum Chemicum_.


_Sir Robert Howard._--Can any reader assist me in finding out the author

    "A Discourse of the Nationall Excellencies of England. By R.H.,
    London. Printed by Thomas Newcomb for Henry Fletcher, at the
    Three Gilt Cups in the New Buildings, near the west end of St.
    Paul's, 1658. 12 mo., pp. 248."

This is a very remarkable work, written in an admirable style, and
wholly free from the coarse party spirit which then generally prevailed.
The writer declares, p. 235., he had not subscribed the engagement, and
there are internal evidences of his being a churchman and a monarchist.
Is there any proof of its having been written by Sir Robert Howard? A
former possessor of the copy now before me, has written his name on the
title-page as its conjectured author. My copy of Sir Robert's _Poems_,
published two years after, was published not by _Fletcher_, but by
"Henry Herringman, at the sign of the Anchor, in the lower walk of the
New Exchange." John Dryden, Sir Robert's brother-in-law, in the
complimentary stanzas on Howard's poems, says,

  "To write worthy things of worthy men,
  Is the peculiar talent of your pen."

I would further inquire if a reason can be assigned for the omission
from Sir Robert Howard's collected plays of _The Blind Lady_, the only
dramatic piece given in the volume of poems of 1660. My copy is the
third edition, published by Tonson, 1722.


_Crozier and Pastoral Staff._--What is the real difference between a
crozier and a pastoral staff?


_Marks of Cadency._--The copious manner in which your correspondent E.K.
(Vol. ii., p. 221.) has answered the question as to the "when and why"
of the unicorn being introduced as one of the supporters of the royal
arms, induces me to think that he will readily and satisfactorily
respond to an heraldic inquiry of a somewhat more intricate nature.

What were the peculiar marks of cadency used by the heirs to the crown,
apparent and presumptive, after the accession of the Stuarts? For
example, what were the changes, if any, upon the label or file of
difference used in the coat-armour of Henry, Prince of Wales, eldest son
of James I., and of his brother Charles, when Prince of Wales, and so
on, to the present time?

_Miniature Gibbet, &c._--A correspondent of the _Times_ newspaper has
recently given the following account of an occurrence which took place
about twenty-five years ago, and the concluding ceremony of which he
personally witnessed:--

    "A man had been condemned to be hung for murder. On the Sunday
    morning previous to the sentence being carried into execution,
    he contrived to commit suicide in the prison by cutting his
    throat with a razor. On Monday morning, according to the then
    custom, his body was brought out from Newgate in a cart; and
    after Jack Ketch had exhibited to the people a small model
    gallows, with a razor hanging therefrom, in the presence of the
    sheriffs and city authorities, he was thrown into a hole dug for
    that purpose. A stake was driven through his body, and a
    quantity of lime thrown in over it."

Will any correspondent of "NOTES AND QUERIES" give a solution of this
extraordinary exhibition? Had the sheriffs and city authorities any
legal sanction for Jack Ketch's disgusting part in the performances?
What are the meaning and origin of driving a stake through the body of a



       *       *       *       *       *



If you desire proof of the great utility of your publication, methinks
there is a goodly quantum of it in the very interesting and valuable
information on the Collar of SS., which the short simple question of B.
(Vol. ii., p. 89.) has drawn forth; all tending to illustrate a mooted
historical question:--first, in the reply of [Greek: Phi.] (Vol. ii., p.
110.), giving reference to the _Gentleman's Magazine_, with two
_rider_-Queries; then MR. NICHOLS'S announcement (Vol. ii., p. 140.) of
a forthcoming volume on the subject, and a reply in part to the Query of
[Greek: Phi.]; then (Vol. ii, p. 171.) MR. E. FOSS, as to the _rank_ of
the legal worthies allowed to wear this badge of honour; and next (Vol.
ii., p. 194.) an ARMIGER, who, though he rides rather high on the
subject, over all the Querists and Replyists, deserves many thanks for
his very instructive and scholarlike dissertation.

What the S. signifies has evidently been a puzzle. That a chain is a
badge of honour, there can be no doubt; but may not the _Esses_, after
all, mean nothing at all? originating in the simple S. link, a form
often used in chain-work, and under the name of S. A series of such,
linked together, would produce an elegant design, which in the course of
years would be wrought more like the letter, and be embellished and
varied according to the skill and taste of the workman, and so, that
which at first had no particular meaning, and was merely accidental,
would, after a time, be _supposed_ to be the _initial letters_ of what
is now only guessed at, or be involved in heraldic mystery. As for
[Greek: Phi.]'s rider-Query (Vol ii., p. 110.), repeated by MR. FOSS
(Vol. ii., p. 171.), as to dates,--it may be one step towards a reply if
I here mention, that in Yatton Church, Somerset, there {249} is a
beautifully wrought alabaster monument, without inscription, but
traditionally ascribed to judge Newton, alias Cradock, and his wife Emma
de Wyke. There can be no doubt, from the costume, that the effigy is
that of a judge, and under his robes is visible the Collar of Esses. The
monument is in what is called the Wyke aisle or chapel. That it is
Cradock's, is confirmed by a garb or wheat-sheaf, on which his head is
laid. (The arms of Cradock are, Arg. on a chevron az. 3 _garbs_ or.)
Besides, in the very interesting accounts of the churchwardens of the
parish, annis 1450-1, among the receipts there is this entry:

    "It.: Recipim. de Dnà de Wyke p. man. T. Newton filii sui de
    legato Dni. Riei. Newton ad ---- p. campana ... xx."

Richard Cradock was the first of his family who took the name of Newton,
and I have been informed that the last fine levied before him was, Oct.
Mart. 27 Hen. VI. (Nov. 1448), proving that the canopied altar tomb in
Bristol Cathedral, assigned to him, and recording that he died 1444,
must be an error. It is stated, that the latter monument was defaced
during the civil wars, and repaired in 1747, which is, probably, all
that is true of it. But this would carry me into another subject, to
which, perhaps, I may be allowed to return some other day. However, we
have got a date for the use of the collar by the _chief_ judges,
_earlier_ than that assigned by MR. FOSS, and it is somewhat
confirmatory of what he tells us, that it was not worn by any of the
_puisne_ order.


Bitton, Aug. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Livery Collar of SS._--Though ARMIGER (Vol. ii., p. 194.) has not
adduced any facts on this subject that were previously unknown to me, he
has advanced some misstatements and advocated some erroneous notions,
which it may be desirable at once to oppose and contradict; inasmuch as
they are calculated to envelope in fresh obscurity certain particulars,
which it was the object of my former researches to set forth in their
true light. And first, I beg to say that with respect to the "four
inaccuracies" with which he charges me, I do not plead guilty to any of
them. 1st. When B. asked the question, "Is there any list of persons who
were honoured with that badge?" it was evident that he meant, Is there
any list of the names of such persons, as of the Knights of the Garter
or the Bath? and I correctly answered, No: for there still is no such
list. The description of the classes of persons who might use the collar
in the 2 Hen. IV. is not such a list as B. asked for. 2dly. Where I said
"That persons were not honoured with the badge, in the sense that
persons are now decorated with stars, crosses, or medals," I am again
unrefuted by the statute of 2 Hen. IV., and fully supported by many
historical facts. I repeat that the livery collar was not worn as a
badge of honour, but as a badge of feudal allegiance. It seems to have
been regarded as giving certain weight and authority to the wearer, and,
therefore, was only to be worn in the king's presence, or in coming to
and from the king's hostel, except by the higher ranks; and this
entirely confirms my view. Had it been a mere personal decoration, like
the collar of an order of knighthood, there would have been no reason
for such prohibition; but as it conveyed the impression that the wearer
was especially one of the king's immediate military or household
servants, and invested with certain power or influence on that ground,
therefore its assumption away from the neighbourhood of the court was
prohibited, except to individuals otherwise well known from their
personal rank and station. 3dly. When ARMIGER declares I am wrong in
saying "That the collar was _assumed_," I have every reason to believe I
am still right. I may admit that, if it was literally a livery, it would
be worn only by those to whom the king gave it; but my present
impression is, that it was termed the king's livery, as being of the
pattern which was originally distributed by the king, or by the Duke of
Lancaster his father, to his immediate adherents, but which was
afterwards _assumed_ by all who were anxious to assert their loyalty, or
distinguish their partizanship as true Lancastrians; so that the statute
of 2 Hen. IV. was rendered necessary to restrain its undue and
extravagant _assumption_, for sundry good political reasons, some notion
of which may be gathered by perusing the poem on the deposition of
Richard II. published by the Camden Society. And 4thly, Where ARMIGER
disputes my conclusion, that the assumers were, so far as can be
ascertained, those who were attached to the royal household or service,
it will be perceived, by what I have already stated, that I still adhere
to that conclusion. I do not, therefore, admit that the statute of 2
Henry IV. shows me to be incorrect in any one of those four particulars.
ARMIGER next proceeds to allude to Manlius Torquatus, who won and wore
the golden torc of a vanquished Gaul: but this story only goes to prove
that the collar of the Roman _torquati_ originated in a totally
different way from the Lancastrian collar of livery. ARMIGER goes on to
enumerate the several derivations of the Collar of Esses--from the
initial letter of _Soverayne_, from _St. Simplicius_, from _St. Crispin_
and _St. Crispinian_, the martyrs of Soissons, from the _Countess of
Salisbury_, from the word _Souvenez_, and lastly, from the office of
_Seneschalus_, or Steward of England, held by John of Ghent,--which is,
as he says, "Mr. Nichols's notion," but the whole of which he
stigmatises alike "as mere monkish or heraldic gossip;" and, finally, he
proceeds to unfold his own recondite discovery, "viz. that it comes from
the S-shaped lever upon the bit {250} of the bridle of the war
steed,"--a conjecture which will assuredly have fewer adherents than any
one of its predecessors. But now comes forth the disclosure of what
school of heraldry this ARMIGER is the champion. He is one who can tell
us of "many more rights and privileges than are dreamt of in the
philosophy either of the court of St. James's or the college of St.
Bennet's Hill!" In short, he is the mouthpiece of "the Baronets'
Committee for Privileges." And this is the law which he lays down:--

    "The persons now privileged to wear the ancient golden collar of
    SS. are the _equites aurati_, or knights (chevaliers) in the
    British monarchy, a body which includes all the hereditary order
    of baronets in England, Scotland, and Ireland, with such of
    their eldest sons, being of age, as choose to claim inauguration
    as knights."

Here we have a full confession of a large part of the faith of the
Baronets' Committee,--a committee of which the greater number of those
who lent their names to it are probably by this time heartily ashamed.
It is the doctrine held forth in several works on the Baronetage
compiled by a person calling himself "Sir Richard Broun," of whom we
read in Dodd's _Baronetage_, that "previous to succeeding his father, he
demanded inauguration as a knight, in the capacity of a baronet's eldest
son; but the Lord Chamberlain having refused to present him to the Queen
for that purpose, he assumed the title of 'Sir,' and the addition of
'Eques Auratus,' in June, 1842." So we see that ARMIGER and the Lord
Chamberlain are at variance as to part of the law above cited; and so,
it might be added, have been other legal authorities, to the privileges
asserted by the mouthpiece of the said committee. But that is a long
story, on which I do not intend here to enter. I had not forgotten that
in one of the publications of Sir Richard Broun the armorial coat of the
premier baronet of each division is represented encircled with a Collar
of Esses; but I should never have thought of alluding to this freak,
except as an amusing instance of fantastic assumption. I will now
confine myself to what has appeared in the pages of "NOTES AND QUERIES;"
and, more particularly, to the unfounded assertion of ARMIGER in p.
194., "that the golden Collar of SS. was the undoubted badge or mark of
a knight, _eques auratus_;" which he follows up by the dictum already
quoted, that "the persons now privileged to wear the ancient golden
Collar of SS. are the _equites aurati_." I believe it is generally
admitted that knights were _equites aurati_ because they wore golden or
gilt spurs; certainly it was not because they wore golden collars, as
ARMIGER seems to wish us to believe; and the best proof that the Collar
of Esses was not the badge of a knight, as such, at the time when such
collars were most worn, in the fifteenth century, is this--that the
monumental effigies and sepulchral brasses of many knights at that time
are still extant which have no Collar of Esses; whilst the Collar of
Esses appears only on the figures of a limited number, who were
undoubtedly such as wished to profess their especial adherence to the
royal House of Lancaster.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ii., p. 216.)

The creation of the baronetcy of _Norton_, of Rotherfield, in East
Tysted, co. Hants, took place in the person of Sir Richard Norton, of
Rotherfield, Kt., 23d May, 1622, and _expired_ with him on his death
without male issue in 1652.

The style of Baronet, in the case of _Sir Gregory Norton_, the
_regicide_, was an assumption not uncommon in those days; as in the case
of _Prettyman_ of Lodington, and others.

The regicide in his will styles himself "Sir Richard Norton, of Paul's,
Covent Garden, in the county of Middlesex, Bart." It bears date 12th
March, 1651, and was proved by his relict, Dame Martha Norton, 24th
Sept., 1652. He states that his land at Penn, in the county of Bucks,
was _mortgaged_, and mentions his "disobedient son, Henrie Norton;" and
desires his burial-place may be at Richmond, co. Surrey.

The descent of Gregory Norton is not known. There is no evidence of his
connexion with the Rotherfield or Southwick Nortons. His assumption of
the title was not under any claim he could have had, real or imaginary,
connected with the Rotherfield patent; for he uses the title at the same
time with Sir Richard of Rotherfield, whose will is dated 26th July,
1652, and not proved till 5th Oct, 1652, when Sir Gregory was dead; and,
what is singular, the will of Sir Richard was proved by his brother,
John Norton, by the style of _Baronet_, to which he could have had no
pretension, as Sir Richard died without male issue, and there was no
limitation of the patent of 1622 on failure of heirs male of the body of
the grantee.


       *       *       *       *       *


That the Shakspearian word _delighted_ might, as far as its form goes,
mean "endowed with delight," "full of delight," I should readily
concede; but this meaning would suit neither the passage in _Measure for
Measure_,--"the delighted spirit,"--nor (satisfactorily) that in
_Othello_,--"delighted beauty." Whether, therefore, _delighted_ be
derived from the Latin _delectus_ or not, I still believe that it means
"refined," "dainty," "delicate;" a sense which is curiously adapted to
each of the three places. This will not be questioned with respect to
the second and third passages cited by {251} MR. HICKSON: and the
following citations will, I think, prove the point as effectually for
the passage of _Measure for Measure_:

  1. "_Fine_ apparition".--_Tempest_, Act i. sc. 2.

  2. "Spirit, _fine_ spirit."--Ditto.

  3. "_Delicate_ Ariel."--Ditto.

  4. "And, for thou wast a spirit too _delicate_,
      To act her _earthy_ and abhorred commands."

  5. "_Fine_ Ariel."--Ditto.

  6. "My _delicate_ Ariel."--Ditto. Act iv. sc. 1.

  7. "Why that's my _dainty_ Ariel."--Ditto. Act v.
      sc. 1.

I do not know the precise nature of the "old authorities" which MR.
SINGER opposes to my conjecture: but may we not demur to the
conclusiveness of any "old authorities" on such a point? Etymology seems
to be one of the developing sciences, in which we know more, and better,
than our forefathers, as our descendants will know more, and better,
than we do.

To end with a brace of queries. Are not _delicioe_, _delicatus_, more
probably from _deligere_ than from _delicere_? And whence comes the word
_dainty_? I cannot believe in the derivation from _dens_, "a tooth."


       *       *       *       *       *


Your correspondent C.B.M. (Vol. ii., p 199.) will find a long article on
_Aërostation_ in Rees' _Cyclopædia_; but his inquiry reminds me of a
conversation I had with the late Sir Anthony Carlisle, about a year
before his death. He wished to consult me on the subject of flying by
mechanical means, and that I should assist him in some of his
arrangements. He had devoted many years of his life to the consideration
of this subject, and made numerous experiments at great cost, which
induced him to believe in the possibility of enabling man to fly by
means of artificial wings. However visionary this idea might be, he had
collected innumerable and extremely interesting data, having examined
the anatomical structure of almost every winged thing in the creation,
and compared the weight of the body with the area of the wings when
expanded in the act of volitation as well as the natural habits of
birds, insects, bats, and fishes, with reference to their powers of
flying and duration of flight.

These notes would form a valuable addition to natural history, whatever
might be thought of the purpose for which they were collected, during a
period of thirty years; and it is much to be regretted they were never
published. His own opinion was, that the publication, during his life
would injure his practice as a physician. It would be impossible without
the aid of diagrams, and I do not remember sufficient, to explain his
mechanical contrivances; but the general principle was, to suspend the
man under a kind of flat parachute of extremely thin _feather-edge_
boards, with a power of adjusting the angle at which it was placed, and
allowing the man the full use of his arms and legs to work any machinery
placed beneath; the area of the parachute being proportioned, as in
birds to the weight of the man, who was to start from the top of a high
tower, or some elevated position, flying against the wind.



       *       *       *       *       *


_Long Lonkin_ (Vol. ii., p. 168.).--If SELEUCUS will refer to Mr.
Chamber's _Collection of Scottish Ballads_, he will find there the whole
story under the name of Lammilsin, of which Lonkin appears to me to be a
corruption. In the 6th verse it is rendered:

  "He said to his ladye fair,
  Before he gaed abuird,
  Beware, beware o, Lammilsin!
  For he lyeth in the wudde."

Then the story goes on to state that Lammilsin crept in at a little shot
window, and after some conversation with the "fause nourrice" they
decide to

  "Stab the babe, and make it cry,
  And that will bring her down."

Which being done, they murder the unhappy lady. Shortly after, Lord
Weirie comes home, and has the "fause nourrice" burnt at the stake. From
the circumstance that the name of the husband of the murdered lady was
Weirie, it is conjectured that this tragedy took place at Balwearie
Castle, in Fife, and the old people about there constantly affirm that
it really occurred. I am not aware that there exists any connection
between the hero of this story and the _nursery rhyme_; for, as I before
stated, I think Lonkin a corruption of Lammilsin.


_Rowley Powley_ (Vol. ii., p. 74.).--Andre Valladier, who died about the
middle of the sixteenth century, was a popular preacher and the king's
almoner. He gained great applause for his funeral oration on Henry IV.
In his sermon for the second Sunday in Lent (Rouen, 1628), he says;--

    "Le paon est gentil et miste, bien que par la parfaite beauté de
    sa houppe, par la rareté et noblesse de sa teste, par la
    gentilesse et netteté de son cou, par l'ornement de ses pennes
    et par la majesté de tout le reste de son corps, il ravit tous
    ceux qui le contemplent attentivement; toutefois au rencontre de
    sa femelle, pour l'attirer à son amour, il déploye sa pompe,
    fait montrer et parade de son plumage bizarré, et RIOLLÉ PIOLLÉ
    se presente à elle avec piafe, et luy donne la plus belle visée
    de sa roue. De mesme ce Dieu admirable, amoreux des hommes, pour
    nous ravir d'amour à soy, desploye le lustre de ses plus
    accomplies beautez, et comme un amant transporté de sa bienaimée
    se {252} montre pour nous allecher à cetter transformation de
    nous en luy, de nostre misère en sa gloire."--Ap.
    _Predicatoriuna_ p. 132-3: Dijon, 1841.


_Guy's Armour_ (Vol. ii., pp. 55. 187.).--With respect to the armour
said to have belonged to Guy, Earl of Warwick, your correspondent NASO
is referred to Grose's _Military Antiquities_, vol. ii. pl. 42., where
he will find an engraving of a bascinet of the fourteenth century, much
dilapidated, but having still a fragment of the moveable vizor adhering
to the pivot on which it worked. Whether this interesting relic is still
at Warwick Castle or not, I cannot pretend to say, as I was
unfortunately prevented joining the British Archæological Association at
the Warwick congress in 1847, and have never visited that part of the
country; but the bascinet which was there in Grose's time was at least
of the date of Guido de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, the builder of Guy's
Tower, who died in 1315, and who has always been confounded with the
fabulous Guy: and if it has disappeared, we have to regret the loss of
the only specimen of an English bascinet of that period that I am aware
of in this country.


_Alarm_ (Vol. ii., pp. 151. 183.).--The origin of this word appears to
be the Italian cry, _all'arme; gridare all'arme_ is to give the alarm.
Hence the French _alarme_, and from the French is borrowed the English
word. _Alarum_ for _alarm_, is merely a corruption produced by
mispronunciation. The letters _l_ and _r_ before _m_ are difficult to
pronounce; and they are in general, according to the refined standard of
our pronunciation, so far softened as only to lengthen the preceding
vowel. In provincial pronunciation, however, the force of the former
letter is often preserved, and the pronunciation is facilitated by the
insertion of a vowel before the final _m_. The Irish, in particular,
adopt this mode of pronouncing; even in public speaking they say
_callum_, _firrum_, _farrum_, for _calm_, _firm_, _farm_. The old word
_chrisom_ for _chrism_, is an analogous change: the Italians have in
like manner lengthened _chrisma_ into _cresima_; the French have
softened it into _chrême_.


_Alarm._--It is in favour of the derivation _à l'arme_ that the Italian
is _allarme_; some dictionaries even have _dare all'arme_, with the
apostrophe, for to give alarm. It is against it that the German word
_Lärm_ is used precisely as the English _alarm_. Your correspondent CH.
thinks the French derivation suspiciously ingenious: here I must differ;
I think it suspiciously obvious. I will give him a suggestion which I
think really suspiciously ingenious: in fact, had not the opportunity
occurred for illustrating ingenuity, I should not have ventured it. May
it not be that _alarme_ and _allarme_ is formed in the obvious way, as
_to arms_; while _alarum_ and _Lärm_ wholly unconnected with them? May
it not sometimes happen that, by coincidence, the same sounds and
meanings go together in different languages without community of origin?
Is it not possible that _larum_ and _Lärm_ are imitations of the stroke
and subsequent resonance of a large bell? Denoting the continued sound
of _m_ by _m-m-m_, I think that _lrm-m-m-lrm-m-m-lrm-m-m_ &c., is as
good an imitation of a large bell at some distance as letters can make.
And in the old English use of the word, the alarum refers more often to
a bell than to any thing else.

The introduction of the military word into English can be traced, as to
time, with a certain probability. In 1579, Thomas Digges published his
_Arithmeticall Militare Treatise named Stratioticos_, which he informs
us is mainly the writing of his father, Leonard Digges. At page 170. the
father seems to finish with "and so I mean to finishe this treatise:"
while the son, as we must suppose, adds p. 171. and what follows. In the
father's part the word _alarm_ is not mentioned, that I can find. If it
occurred anywhere, it would be in describing the duties of the
_scout-master_; but here we have nothing but _warning_ and _surprise_,
never _alarm_. But in the son's appendix, the word _alarme_ does occur
twice in one page (173.). It also occurs in the body of the _second_
edition of the book, when of course it is the son who inserts it. We may
say then, that, in all probability, the military technical term was
introduced in the third quarter of the sixteenth century. This, I
suspect, is too late to allow us to suppose that the vernacular force
which Shakspeare takes it to have, could have been gained for it by the
time he wrote.

The second edition was published in 1590; about this time the spelling
of the English language made a very rapid approach to its present form.
This is seen to a remarkable extent in the two editions of the
_Stratioticos_; in the first, the commanding officer of a regiment is
always _corronel_, in the second _collonel_. But the most striking
instance I now remember, is the following. In the first edition of
Robert Recorde's _Castle of Knowledge_ (1556) occurs the following

  "If reasons reache transcende the skye,
  Why shoulde it then to earthe be bounde?
  The witte is wronged and leadde awrye,
  If mynde be maried to the grounde."

In the second edition (1596) the above is spelt as we should now do it,
except in having _skie_ and _awrie_.


_Prelates of France_ (Vol. ii., p. 182.).--In answer to a Minor Query of
P.C.S.S., I can inform him that I have in my possession, if it be of any
use to him, a manuscript entitled _Tableau de l'Ordre religieux en
France, avant et depuis l'Edit de 1768_, {253} containing the houses,
number of religions, and revenues, and the several dioceses in which
they were to be found.


Midgham House, Newbury, Berks.

_Haberdasher_ (Vol. ii., p. 167.).--

    "Haberdasher, a retailer of goods, a dealer in small wares; T.
    _haubvertauscher_, from _haab_; B. _have_; It. _haveri_,
    _haberi_, goods, wares; and _tauscher_, _vertauscher_, a dealer,
    an exchanger; G. _tuiskar_; D. _tusker_; B. _tuischer_."

This derivation of the term _haberdasher_ is from _Thomson's Etymons_,
and seems to be satisfactory.

_Haberdascher_ was the name of a trade at least as early as the reign of
Edward III.; but it is not easy to decide what was the sort of trade or
business then carried on under that name. Any elucidation of that point
would be very acceptable.


"_Rapido contrarius orbi_" (Vol. ii., p. 120.).--No answer having
appeared to the inquiry of N.B., it may be stated that, in Hartshorne's
_Book-Rarities of Cambridge_, mention is made of a painting, in Emanuel
College, of "Abp. Sancroft, sitting at a writing-table with arms, and
motto, _Rapido contrarius orbi_. P.P. Lens, F.L."

Brayley, in his _Concise Account of Lambeth Palace_, describes a
portrait, in the vestry, of "A young man in a clerical habit, or rather
that of a student, with a motto beneath, 'Rapido contrarium orbo'"
(whether the motto, as thus given, is the printer's or the painter's
error does not appear), "supposed to be Abp. Sancroft when young.--Date


_Robertson of Muirtown_ (Vol. ii., p. 135.).--C.R.M. will find a
pedigree of the family of Robertson of _Muirton_ in a small duodecimo

    "The History and Martial Atchievements of the Robertsons of
    Strowan. Edinburgh: printed for and by Alex. Robertson in
    _Morison's_ Close; where Subscribers may call for their copies."

The date of publication is not given; I think, however, it must have
been printed soon after 1st January 1771, which is the latest date in
the body of the work.

The greater portion of the volume is occupied with the poems of
Alexander Robertson of Strowan who died in 1749.



"_Noli me tangere_" (Vol. ii., p. 153.)--The following list of some of
the painters of this subject may assist B.R.:--

_Timoteo delle Vite_--for St. Angelo at Cogli.

_Titian_--formerly in the Orleans collection, and engraved by N.
Tardieu, in the Crozat Gallery.

_Ippolito Scarsella_ (Lo Scarsellino)--for St. Nicolo Ferrara.

_Cristoforo Roncalli_ (Il Cav. delle Pomarance)--for the Eremitani at
St. Severino.

_Lucio Massari_--for the Celestini, Bologna.

_Francesco Boni_ (Il Gobbino)--for the Dominicani, Faenza.


_Clergy sold for Slaves_ (Vol. ii., p. 51.),--MR. SANSOM will find in
the _Cromwellian Diary of Thomas Burton_, iv. 255. 273. 301-305., ample
material for an answer to his question respecting the sale of any of the
loyal party for slaves during the rebellion.

There is no evidence of any _clergymen_ having been sold as slaves to
Algiers or Barbadoes. Drs. Beale, Martin, and Sterne, heads of colleges,
were threatened with this outrage (see _Querela Cantabrigiensis_
appended to the _Mercurius Rusticus_ p. 184). In the life of Dr. John
Barwick, one of the authors of the _Querela_ (in the Eng. transl. p.
42.), the story is thus told:

    "The rebels at that time threatened some of their greatest men
    and most learned heads (such as Dr William Beale, Dr. Edward
    Martin, and Dr. Richard Sterne) transportation into the isles of
    America, or even to the barbarian Turks: for these great men,
    and several other very eminent divines, were kept close
    prisoners in a ship on the Thames, under the hatches, almost
    killed with stench, hunger, and watching; and treated by the
    senseless mariners with more insolence than if they had been the
    vilest slaves, or had been confined there for some infamous
    robbery or murder. Nay, one Rigby, a scoundrel of the very dregs
    of the parliament rebels, did at that time expose these venerable
    persons to sale, and _would actually have sold them for slaves,
    if any one would have bought them_."

In a note, it is added that Rigby moved twice in the Long Parliament,

    "That those lords and gentlemen who were prisoners, should be
    sold as slaves to Argiere, or sent to the new plantations in the
    West Indies, because he had contracted with two merchants for
    that purpose."

Col. Rigby, so justly denounced by Barwick, sat in the Long Parliament
for the borough of Wigan, and in the Parliarment of 1658-9 represented
Lancashire. He was a native of Preston, was bred to the law, and held a
colonel's rank in the parliamentary army. He was one of the committee of
sequestrators for Lancashire, served at the siege of Latham House, and
in 1649 was created Baron of the Exchequer, but was superseded by

Calamy, the historian and chaplain of the Nonconformists, treated
Walker's statement quoted by MR. SANSOM as a fiction, and advised him to
expunge the passage. See his _Church and Dissenters compared as to
Persecution_, 1719, pp. 40, 41.


_North Side of Churchyards_ (Vol. ii., pp. 55. 189).--One of your
writers has recently endeavoured to explain the popular dislike to
burial on the north side of the church, by reference to the place of the
churchyard cross, the sunniness, and the greater resort of the people to
the south. {254} These are not only meagre reasons, but they are

The doctrine of regions was coeval with the death of Our Lord. The east
was the realm of the oracles; the especial Throne of God. The west was
the domain of the people; the Galilee of all nations was there. The
south, the land of the mid-day, was sacred to things heavenly and
divine. The north was the devoted region of Satan and his hosts; the
lair of demons, and their haunt. In some of our ancient churches, over
against the font, and in the northern walls, there was a devil's door.

It was thrown open at every baptism for the escape of the fiend, and at
all other seasons carefully closed. Hence came the old dislike to
sepulture at the north.


Morwenstow, Cornwall.

_Sir John Perrot_ (Vol. ii., p. 217.).--This Query surprises me. Sir
John Perrot was not governor of Ireland _in the reign of Henry VIII._,
and your correspondent E.N.W. is mistaken in his belief that Sir John
was _beheaded_ in the reign of Elizabeth. He was convicted of treason
16th June, 1592, and died in the Tower in September following. In the
_British Plutarch_, 3rd edit., 1791, vol. i. p. 121., is _The Life of
Sir John Perrot_. The authorities given are Cox's _History of Ireland;
Life of Sir John Perrot_, 8vo., 1728; _Biographia Britannica_; Salmon's
_Chronological History_; to which I may add the following references:--

Howell's _State Trials_, i. 1315; Camden's _Annals_; Naunton's
_Fragmenta Regalia_; Lloyd's _State Worthies_; Nash's _Worcestershire_;
Strype's _Ecclesiastical Memorials_, iii. 297.; Strype's _Annals_, iii.
337, 398-404.; _Stradling Letters_, 48-50.; Nare's _Life of Lord
Burghley_, iii. 407.; _Fourth Report of Deputy Keeper of Public
Records_, Appendix, ii. 281. Dean Swift, in his _Introduction to Polite
Conversation_, says,--

    "Sir John Perrot was the first man of quality whom I find upon
    the record to have sworn by _God's wounds_. He lived in the
    reign of Queen Elizabeth, and was supposed to be a natural son
    of Henry VIII., who might also have been his instructor."


Cambridge, August 31. 1850.

_Coins of Constantius II._--The coins of this prince are, from their
titles being identical with those of his cousin, very difficult to be
distinguished. _My_ only guide is the portrait. Gallus died at
twenty-nine; and we may suppose that his coins would present a more
youthful portrait than Constantius II. The face of Constantius is long
and thin, and is distinguished by the royal diadem. The youthful head
resembling Constantius the Great with the laurel crown, _Rev_. Two
military figures standing, with spears and bucklers, between them two
standards, _Ex._ S M N B., I have arranged in my cabinet, how far
rightly I know not, as that of Gallus.


"_She ne'er with treacherous Kiss_" (Vol. ii., p. 136.).--C.A.H. will
find the lines,--

  "She ne'er with trait'rous kiss," &c.

in a poem named "Woman," 2nd ed. p. 34., by Eaton Stannard Barrett,
Esq., published in 1818, by Henry Colburn, Conduit street.


_California_ (Vol. ii, p. 132.).--Your correspondent E.N.W. will find
earlier anticipations of "the golden harvest now gathering in
California," in vol. iii. of _Hakluyt's Voyages_, p. 440-442, where an
account is given of Sir F. Drake's taking possession of Nova Albion.

    "There is no part of earth here to bee taken up, wherein there
    is not speciall likelihood of gold or silver."

In Callendar's _Voyages_, vol. i. p. 303., and other collections
containing Sir F. Drake's voyage to Magellanica, there is the same
notice. The earth of the country seemed to promise very rich veins of
gold and silver, there being hardly any digging without throwing up some
of the ores of them.


_Bishops and their Precedence_ (Vol. ii., pp. 9. 76.)--The precedence of
bishops is regulated by the act of 31 Hen. VIII. c. 10., "for placing of
the Lords." Bishops are, in fact, temporal barons, and, as stated in
Stephen's _Blackstone_, vol. iii. pp. 5, 6., sit in the House of Peers
in right of succession to certain ancient baronies annexed, or supposed
to be annexed, to their episcopal lands; and as they have in addition
high spiritual rank, it is but right they should have place before those
who, in temporal rank only, are equal to them. This is, in effect, the
meaning of the reason given by Coke in part iii. of the Institutes, p.
361. ed. 1670, where, after noticing the precedence amongst the bishops
themselves, namely, 1. The Bishop of London, 2. The Bishop of Durham, 3.
The Bishop of Winchester, he observes:

    "But the other bishops have place above all the barons of the
    realm, because they hold their bishopricks of the king per
    baroniam; but they give place to viscounts, earls, marquesses,
    and dukes."


_Elizabeth and Isabel_ (Vol. i., pp. 439. 488.).--The title of Ælius
Antonius Nebressengis's history is, _Rerum a Fernando et Elisabe
Hispaniaram fælicissimis regibus gestarum Decades duæ_.


_Dr. Thomas Bever's Legal Polity of Great Britain_ (Vol. i., p.
483.).--Is J.R. aware that the principal part of the parish of Mortimer,
near Reading, as well as the manorial rights, belongs to a Richard
Benyon de Beauvoir, Esq., residing not very far from that spot, at
Englefield House, about five miles on the Newbury Road from Reading.
{255} This gentleman, whose original name was Powlett Wright, took the
name of De Beauvoir a few years back, as I understand, from succeeding
to the property of his relative, a Mr. Beevor or Bever. This gentleman
may, perhaps, be enabled to throw some light upon the family of Dr.


_Eikon Basilike_ (Vol. ii., p. 134.).--I would suggest to A.C. that the
circumstance of his copy of this work bearing on its cover "C.R.,"
surmounted by a crown, may not be indicative of its having been in the
possession of royalty. It may have been, perhaps, not unusual to
occasionally so distinguish words of this description published in or
about that year (1660). I have a small volume entitled--

    "The History of His Sacred Majesty Charles II. Begun from the
    Murder of his royal father of Happy Memory, and continued to
    this present year, 1660, by a person of quality. Printed for
    _James Davies_, and are to be sold at the _Turk's Head in Ioy_
    Lane, and at the _Greyhound_ in _St. Paul's_ Church Yard, 1660."

This volume is stamped in gold on both covers with C.R., surmounted by a


_Earl of Oxford's Patent_ (Vol. ii., PP. 194. 235.).--LORD BRAYBROOKE no
doubt knows, that the preamble to the patent was written by Dean Swift.
(See _Journal to Stella_.) I would add, in reply to O.P.Q., that there
is no doubt that _assassin_ and _assassinate_ are properly used even
when death does not ensue. Not so _murder_ and _murderer_, which are
strict terms of _law_ to which _death_ is indispensable.


_Cave's Historia Litteraria_ (Vol. ii., p. 230.).--Part I. appeared at
London, 1688. An Appendix, by Wharton, followed, 1689. These were
reprinted, Geneva, 1693. Part II., Lond., 1698; repr. Genev., 1699. The
whole was reprinted, Genev., 1708 and 1720. After the author's death a
new and improved edition appeared, Oxon., 1740-43; rep. Basil, 1741-45.
I give the date 1708, not 1705, to the second Geneva impression, on the
authority of Walch.


       *       *       *       *       *



Collections of Wills have always been regarded, and very justly so, as
among the most valuable materials which exist for illustrating the
social condition of the people at the period to which they belong.
Executed, as they must be, at moments the most solemn displaying, as we
cannot but believe they do, the real feelings which actuate the
testators; and having for their object the distribution of existing
property, and that of every possible variety of description, it is
obvious that they alike call for investigation, and are calculated to
repay any labour that may be bestowed upon them. It is therefore,
perhaps, somewhat matter of surprise that the Camden Society should not
hitherto have printed any of this interesting class of documents; and
that only in the twelfth year of its existence it should have given to
its members the very interesting volume of _Wills and Inventories from
the Registers of the Commissary of Bury St. Edmunds and the Archdeacon
of Sudbury_, which has been edited for the Society by Mr. Tymms, the
active and intelligent Treasurer and Secretary of the Bury and West
Suffolk Archæological Institute. The selection contains upwards of fifty
Wills, dated between 1370 and 1649, and the documents are illustrated by
a number of brief but very instructive notes; and as the volume is
rendered more useful by a series of very complete indices, we have no
doubt it will be as satisfactory to the members as it is creditable to
its editor. Mr. Tymms acknowledges his obligations to Mr. Way and Mr. J.
Gough Nicols: we are sure the Camden Society would be under still
greater obligations to those gentlemen if they could be persuaded to
undertake the production of the series of Lambeth Wills which was to
have been edited by the late Mr. Stapleton, with Mr. Way's assistance.

When the proprietors of the _Gentleman's Magazine_ at the commencement
of the present year announced their projected improvements in that
periodical, we expressed our confidence that they would really and
earnestly put forth fresh claims to the favour of the public. Our
anticipations have been fully realised. Each succeeding number has shown
increased energy and talent in the "discovery and establishment of
historical truth in all its branches," and that the conductors of this
valuable periodical, the only "Historical Review" in the country,
continue to pursue these great objects faithfully and honestly, as in
times past, but more diligently and more undividedly. No student of
English history can now dispense with, no library which places
historical works upon its shelves can now be complete without _The
Gentleman's Magazine and Historical Review_.

We have received the following Catalogues:--G. Willis's (Great Piazza,
Covent Garden) Catalogue No. 41. New Series of Second-hand Books,
Ancient and Modern; W.S. Lincoln's (Cheltenham House, Westminster Road)
Sixtieth (catalogue of Cheap Second-hand English and Foreign Books); C.
Hamilton's (4. Budge Place, City Road) Catalogue No. 41. of an important
Collection of the Cheapest Tracts, Books, Autographs, Manuscripts,
Original Drawings, &c. ever offered for sale.

       *       *       *       *       *


MARTENS OR MERTENS THE PRINTER. _Will D.L. kindly furnish us with a copy
of the Note alluded to in his valuable communication in_ No. 42.?

JUNIUS IDENTIFIED. MR. TAYLOR'S _Letter on his authorship of this volume
is unavoidably postponed until next week_.

M., _who writes on the subject of_ Mr. Thomas's Account of the State
Paper Office, _will be glad to hear that a Calendar of the documents
contained in that department is in the press_.

       *       *       *       *       * {256}


Now Ready, in 8vo., price 6s. 6d.

the PARTICLES.) In this Part the Passages for Translation are of
considerable length.

By the Rev. THOMAS KERCHEVER ARNOLD, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late
Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.

RIVINGTON, St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place.

       *       *       *       *       *

Of whom may be had, by the same Author,

1. The SEVENTH EDITION of the FIRST PART. In 8vo. 6s. 6d.



4. The FIRST GREEK BOOK; upon the plan of HENRY'S FIRST LATIN BOOK. 5s.
(The SECOND GREEK BOOK is in the Press.)

       *       *       *       *       *


The Central Committee of the Institute have considered a Resolution,
passed at a recent meeting of the British Archæological Association at
Manchester, August 24th, in reference to the expediency of promoting a
union between the Association and the Institute. The Committee desire to
give this public notice, that they are ready, as they have always been,
to admit members of the Association desirous of joining the Institute.
They have determined accordingly, that, in order to offer reasonable
encouragement to the members of the Association, they shall henceforth
be eligible without the payment of the customary entrance fee, on the
intimation of their wish to the Committee to be proposed for election.
Life-members of the Association shall be eligible as life-members on
payment of half the usual composition. All members of the Association
thus elected shall likewise have the privilege of acquiring the previous
publications of the Institute at the price to original subscribers.

Apartments of the Institute,
26. Suffolk Street, Pall Mall, Sept. 9, 1850.
  By order of the Central Committee,
     H. BOWYER LANE, _Secretary._

       *       *       *       *       *

Superintendence and Editorship of the Rev. T.K. ARNOLD.

Translated by the Rev. R.B. PAUL.

1. Ancient History, 6s. 6d.: 2. Mediæval History, 4s. 6d.; 3. Modern
History, 5s., 6d. These works have been already translated into the
Swedish and Dutch languages.

II. The ATHENIAN STAGE. From the German of WITZSCHEL. Translated by the
Rev. R.B. PAUL. 4s.

ANTIQUITIES. 3s. 6d. From the Swedish of BOJESEN. Translated from Dr.
HOFFA'S German version by the Rev. R.B. PAUL.

IV. HANDBOOKS of SYNONYMES: 1. Greek Synonymes. From the French of
PILLON. 6s. 6d. 2. Latin Synonymes. From the German of DÖDERLEIN 7s. 6d.
Translated by the Rev. H.H. ARNOLD.

V. HANDBOOKS of VOCABULARY, 1. Green (in the press). 2. Latin. 3. French
(nearly ready). 4. German (nearly ready).

RIVINGTON'S, St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place.

       *       *       *       *       *

With illustrative Woodcuts, by G.J. FRENCH.

Also, by the same author, price 6d. HINTS ON THE ARRANGEMENTS OF COLOURS
IN ANCIENT DECORATIVE ART. With some observations on the Theory of
Complementary Colours.

GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Illustrated with numerous Woodcuts, 8vo, 10s. 6d. THE PRIMEVAL

Translated and applied to the Illustration of similar Remains in
England; by WILLIAM J. THOMS, Esq., F.S.A., Secretary of the Camden

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford, and 337. Strand, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

In a few days, in 8vo., AN EXAMINATION OF THE CENTURY QUESTION: to which
is added, A Letter to the Author of "Outlines of Astronomy," respecting
a certain peculiarity of the Gregorian System of Bissextile

  "Judicio perpende: et si tibi vera videntur,

GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Second Edition, with Illustrations, 12mos., 3s. cloth.

THE BELL: its Origin, History, and Uses. By the Rev. ALFRED GATTY, Vicar
of Ecclesfield.

"A new and revised edition of a very varied, learned, and amusing essay
on the subject of bells."--_Spectator._

GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just Published, Octavo Edition, plain, 15s.; Quarto Edition, having the
Plates of the Tesselated Pavements all coloured, 1l. 5s.

REMAINS of ROMAN ART in Cirencester, the Site of Ancient Corinium:
containing Plates by De la Motte, of the magnificent Tesselated
Pavements discovered in August and September, 1849, with copies of the
grand Heads of Ceres, Flora, and Pomona; reduced by the Talbotype from
facsimile tracings of the original; together with various other plates
and numerous wood engravings.

In the Quarto edition the folding of the plates necessary for the
smaller volume is avoided.

"The recent discoveries made at Cirencester have been the means of
enlisting in the cause of archælogy two intelligent and energetic
associates, to whose exertions we are mainly indebted for the
preservation of the interesting remains brought to light, and our
obligations are increased by the able manner in which they have
described and illustrated them in the volume now under notice.

"These heads" (Ceres, Flora, and Pomona) are of a high order of art, and
Mr. De la Motte, by means of the Talbotype, has so successfully reduced
them that the engravings are perfect facsimiles of the originals. They
are, perhaps, the best of the kind, every tessella apparently being

"Our authors have very advantageously brought to their task a knowledge
of geology and chemistry, and the important aid which an application of
these sciences confers on archæology is strikingly shown in the chapter
on the materials of the tesselle, which also includes a valuable report
by Dr. VOELCKER, on an analysis of ruby glass, which formed part of the
composition of one of the Cirencester pavements. This portion of the
volume is too elaborate and circumstantial for any justice to be done to
it in an extract."--_Gentleman's Mag., Sept._

London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, in the Parish
of St. Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of
No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the
City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street
aforesaid.--Saturday, September 14. 1850.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 46, September 14, 1850" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.