By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Notes and Queries, Number 47, September 21, 1850
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 47, September 21, 1850" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 47.]
[Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

       *       *       *       *       * {257}


  Old Songs. 257
  "Junius Identified." by J. Taylor. 258
  Folk Lore:--Spiders a Cure for Ague--Funeral Superstition--Folk
  Lore Rhymes. 259
  On a Passage in the Tempest, by S.W. Singer. 259
  Punishment of Death of Burning. 260
  Note on Morganatic Marriages. 261
  Minor Notes:--Alderman Beckford--Frozen Horn--Inscription
  translated--Parallel Passages--Note on George Herbert's Poems--"Crede
  quod habes"--Grant to Earl of Sussex--First Woman formed from a
  Rib--Beau Brummell's Ancestry. 262

  Gray's Elegy and Dodsley's Poems. 264
  Hugh Holland and his Works, by E.F. Rimbault, L.L.D. 265
  Harvey and the Circulation of the Blood. 266
  Minor Queries:--Bernardus Patricius--Meaning of
  Hanger--Cat and Bagpipes--Andrew Becket--Laurence
  Minot--Modena Family--Bamboozle--Butcher's
  Blue Dress--Hatchment and Atchievement--"Te
  colui Virtutem"--"Illa suavissima Vita"--Christianity,
  Early Influence of--Meaning of Wraxen--Saint,
  Legend of a--Land Holland--Farewell--Stepony
  Ale--"Regis ad Exemplar"--La Caronacquerie--Rev.
  T. Tailer--Mistletoe as a Christmas
  Evergreen--Poor Robin's Almanacks--Sirloin--Thompson
  of Esholt. 266

  Replies to Minor Queries:--Pension--Execution of
  Charles I.--Paper Hangings--Black-guard--Pilgrims'
  Road--Combs buried with the Dead--Aërostation--St.
  Thomas of Lancaster--Smoke Money--Robert Herrich--Guildhalls--Abbé
  Strickland--Long Conkin--Havock--Becket's Mother--Watching
  the Sepulchre--Portraits of Charles I.--Joachim,
  the French Ambassador. 269

  Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c. 271
  Books and Odd Volumes Wanted. 271
  Notices to Correspondents. 271
  Advertisements. 272

       *       *       *       *       *



I heard, "in other days," a father singing a comic old song to one of
his children, who was sitting on his knee. This was in Yorkshire: and
yet it could hardly be a Yorkshire song, as the scene was laid in
another county. It commenced with--

  "Randle O'Shay has sold his mare
  For nineteen groats at Warrin'ton fair,"

and goes on to show how the simpleton was cheated out of his money.

I find in Hasted's _History of Kent_ (vol. i. p. 468., 2nd edit.)
mention made of the family of Shaw, who held the manor of Eltham, &c.,
and who "derive themselves from the county palatine of Chester." It is
further stated that _Randal de Shaw_, his son, was settled at Haslington
Hall in that county.

All, indeed, that this proves is, the probability of the hero of the
song being also a native of Cheshire, or one of the adjacent counties;
and that the legend is a truth, even as to names as well as general
facts. The song is worthy of recovery and preservation, as a remnant of
English character and manners; and I have only referred to Hasted to
point out the probable district in which it will be found.

There are many other characteristics of the manners of the humbler
classes to be found in songs that had great local popularity within the
period of living memory; for instance, the _Wednesbury Cocking_ amongst
the colliers of Staffordshire and _Rotherham Status_ amongst the cutlers
of Sheffield. Their language, it is true, is not always very
delicate--perhaps was not even at the time these songs were
composed,--as they picture rather the exuberant freaks of a
half-civilised people than the better phases of their character. Yet
even these form "part and parcel" of the history of "the true-born

One song more may be noticed here:--the rigmarole, snatches of which
probably most of us have heard, which contains an immense number of mere
truisms having no connexion with each others, and no bond of union but
the metrical form in which their juxtaposition is effected, and the
rhyme, which is kept up very well throughout, though sometimes by the
introduction of a nonsense line. Who does not remember--

  "A yard of pudding's not an ell,"


  "Not forgetting _dytherum di_,
  A tailor's goose can never fly,"

and other like parts?

It is just such a piece of burlesque as Swift might have written: but
many circumstances lead me to think it must be much older. Has it ever
been printed? {258}

There is another old (indeed an evidently very ancient) song, which I do
not remember to have seen in print, or even referred to in print. None
of the books into which I have looked, from deeming them likely to
contain it, make the least reference to this song. I have heard it in
one of the midland counties, and in one of the western, both many years
ago; but I have not heard it in London or any of the metropolitan
districts. The song begins thus:--

  "London Bridge is broken down,
     Dance over my Lady Lea:
  London Bridge is broken down,
     With a gay ladée."

This must surely refer to some event preserved in history,--may indeed
be well known to well-read antiquaries, though so totally unknown to men
whose general pursuits (like my own) have lain in other directions. The
present, however, is an age for "popularising" knowledge; and your work
has assumed that task as one of its functions.

The difficulties attending such inquiries as arise out of matters so
trivial as an old ballad, are curiously illustrated by the answers
already printed respecting the "wooing frog." In the first place, it was
attributed to times within living memory; then shown to exceed that
period, and supposed to be very old,--even as old as the Commonwealth,
or, perhaps, as the Reformation. This is objected to, from "the style
and wording of the song being evidently of a much later period than the
age of Henry VIII.;" and Buckingham's "mad" scheme of taking Charles
into Spain to woo the infanta is substituted. This is enforced by the
"burden of the song;" whilst another correspondent considers this
"chorus" to be an old one, analogous to "Down derry down:"--that is, M.
denies the force of MR. MAHONY's explanation altogether!

(Why MR. MAHONY calls a person in his "sixth decade" a "sexagenarian" he
best knows. Such is certainly not the ordinary meaning of the term he
uses. His pun is good, however.)

Then comes the HERMIT OF HOLYPORT, with a very decisive proof that
neither in the time of James I., nor of the Commonwealth, could it have
originated. His transcript from Mr. Collier's _Extracts_ carries it
undeniably back to the middle of the reign of Elizabeth. Of course, it
is interesting to find intermediate versions or variations of the
ballad, and even the adaptation of its framework to other ballads of
recent times, such as "Heigho! says Kemble,"--one of the Drury Lane
"O.P. Row" ballads (_Rejected Addresses_, last ed., or Cunningham's
_London_). Why the conjecture respecting Henry VIII. is so
contemptuously thrown aside as a "fancy," I do not see. A _fancy_ is a
dogma taken up without proof, and in the teeth of obvious
probability,--tenaciously adhered to, and all investigation eschewed.
This at least is the ordinary signification of the term, in relation to
the search after truth. How far my own conjecture, or the mode of
putting it, fulfills these conditions, it is not necessary for me to
discuss: but I hope the usefulness and interest of the "NOTES AND
QUERIES" will not be marred by any discourtesy of one correspondent
towards another.

At the same time, the HERMIT OF HOLYPORT has done the most essential
service to this inquiry by his extract from Mr. Collier, as the question
is thereby inclosed within exceedingly narrow limits. But if the ballad
do not refer to Henry VIII., to whom can it be referred with greater
probability? It is too much to assume that all the poetry, wit, and
talent of the Tudor times were confined to the partizans of the Tudor
cause, religious or political. We _know_, indeed, the contrary. But for
his communication, too, the singular coincidence of two such
characteristic words of the song in the "Poley Frog" (in the same number
of the "NOTES AND QUERIES") might have given rise to another conjecture:
but the _date_ excludes its further consideration.

I may add, that since this has been mooted, an Irish gentleman has told
me that the song was familiar enough in Dublin; and he repeated some
stanzas of it, which were considerably different from the version of
W.A.G., and the chorus the same as in the common English version. I hope
presently to receive a complete copy of it: which, by the bye, like
everything grotesquely humorous in Ireland, was attributed to the author
of _Gulliver's Travels_.


       *       *       *       *       *


It is fortunate for my reputation that I am still living to vindicate my
title to the authorship of my own book, which seems otherwise in danger
of being taken from me.

I can assure your correspondent R.J. (Vol. ii., p. 103.) that I was not
only "literally _the writer_," (as he kindly suggests, with a view of
saving my credit for having put my name to the book), but in its fullest
sense _the author of "Junius Identified"_; and that I never received the
slightest assistance from Mr. Dubois, or any other person, either in
collecting or arranging the evidence, or in the composition and
correction of the work. After I had completed my undertaking, I wrote to
Mr. Dubois to ask if he would allow me to see the handwriting of Sir
Philip Francis, that I might {259} compare it with the published
fac-similes of the handwriting of Junius; but he refused my request. His
letter alone disproved the notion entertained by R.J. and others, that
Mr. Dubois was in any degree connected with me, or with the authorship
of the work in question.

With regard to the testimony of Lord Campbell, I wrote to his lordship
in February, 1848, requesting his acceptance of a copy of _Junius
Identified_, which I thought he might not have seen; and having called
his attention to my name at the end of the preface, I begged he would,
when opportunity offered, correct his error in having attributed the
work to Mr. Dubois. I was satisfied with his lordship's reply, which was
to the effect that he was ashamed of his mistake, and would take care to
correct it. No new edition of that series of the _Lives of the
Chancellors_, which contains the "Life of Lord Loughborough," has since
been published. The present edition is dated 1847.

R.J. says further, that "the late Mr. George Woodfall always spoke of
the _pamphlet_ as the work of Dubois;" and that Sir Fortunatus Dwarris
states, "the _pamphlet_ is said, I know not with what truth, to have
been prepared under the eye of Sir Philip Francis, it may be through the
agency of Dubois." If _Junius Identified_ be alluded to in these
observations as a _pamphlet_, it would make me doubt whether R.J., or
either of his authorities, ever saw the book. It is an 8vo. vol. The
first edition, containing 380 pages, was published in 1816, at 12s. The
second edition, which included the supplement, exceeded 400 pages, and
was published in 1818, at 14s. The supplement, which contains the plates
of handwriting, was sold separately at 3s. 6d., to complete the first
edition, but this could not have been the pamphlet alluded to in the
preceding extracts. I suspect that when the work is spoken of as a
pamphlet, and this if often done, the parties thus describing it have
known it only through the medium of the critique in the _Edinburgh

Mr. Dubois was the author of the biography of Sir Philip Francis, first
printed in the _Monthly Mirror_ for May and June, 1810, and reprinted in
_Junius Identified_, with acknowledgment of the source from which it was
taken. To this biography the remarks of Sir Fortunatus Dwarris are
strictly applicable, except that it never appeared in the form of a


30. Upper Gower Street, Sept. 7. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Spiders a Cure for Ague_ (Vol. ii., p. 130.).--Seeing a note on this
subject reminds me that a few years since, a lady in the south of
Ireland was celebrated far and near, amongst her poorer neighbours, for
the cure of this disorder. Her universal remedy was a large house-spider
alive, and enveloped in treacle or preserve. Of course the parties were
carefully kept in ignorance of what the wonderful remedy was.

Whilst I am on the subject of cures, I may as well state that in parts
of the co. Carlow, the blood drawn from a black cat's ear, and rubbed
upon the part affected, is esteemed a certain cure for St. Anthony's


_Funeral Superstition._--A few days ago the body of a gentleman in this
neighbourhood was conveyed to the hearse, and while being placed in it,
the door of the house, whether from design or inadvertence I know not,
was closed before the friends came out to take their places in the
coaches. An old lady, who was watching the proceedings, immediately
exclaimed, "God bless me! they have closed the door upon the corpse:
there will be another death in that house before many days are over."
She was fully impressed with this belief, and unhappily this impression
has been confirmed. The funeral was on Saturday, and on the Monday
morning following a young man, resident in the house, was found dead in
bed, having died under the influence of chloroform, which he had
inhaled, self-administered, to relieve the pain of toothache or

Perhaps the superstition may have come before you already; but not
having met with it myself, I thought it might be equally new to others.



       *       *       *       *       *

_Folk Lore Rhymes._--

  "Find odd-leafed ash, and even-leafed clover,
  And you'll see your true love before the day's over."

If you wish to see your lover, throw salt on the fire every morning for
nine days, and say--

  "It is not salt I mean to burn,
  But my true lover's heart I mean to turn;
  Wishing him neither joy nor sleep,
  Till he come back to me and speak."

  "If you marry in Lent,
  You will live to repent."


       *       *       *       *       *


Premising that I should approach the text of our great poet with an
almost equal degree of awful reverence with that which characterises his
two latest editors, I must confess that I should not have the same
respect for evident errors of the printers of the early editions, which
they have occasionally shown. In the following passage in the _Tempest_,
Act i., Scene 1., this forbearance has not, however, been the cause of
the very unsatisfactory state in which they have both left it. I {260}
must be indulged in citing at length, that the context may the more
clearly show what was really the poet's meaning:--

  "Enter FERDINAND _bearing a Log_.

  "_Fer._ There be some sports are painful; and their labour
  Delight in them sets off; some kinds of baseness
  Are nobly undergone; and most poor matters
  Point to rich ends. This my mean task
  Would be as heavy to me, as odious; but
  The mistress, which I serve, quickens what's dead,
  And makes my labours pleasures: O! she is
  Ten times more gentle than her father's crabbed;
  And he's composed of harshness. I must remove
  Some thousands of these logs, and pile them up,
  Upon a sore injunction: My sweet mistress
  Weeps when she sees me work; and says such business
  Had never like executor. I forget:
  But these sweet thoughts do even refresh my labours;
  Most busy lest when I do it."

Mr. Collier reads these last two lines thus--

  "But these sweet thoughts do even refresh my labours;
  Most busy, least when I do it."

with the following note--

    "The meaning of this passage seems to have been misunderstood by
    all the commentators. Ferdinand says that the thoughts of
    Miranda so refresh his labours, that when he is most busy he
    seems to feel his toil _least_. It is printed in the folio

      'Most busy _lest_ when I do it,'

    --a trifling error of the press corrected in the folio 1632,
    although Theobald tells us that both the oldest editions read
    _lest_. Not catching the poet's meaning, he printed,--

      'Most busy-_less_ when I do it,'

    and his supposed emendation has ever since been taken as the
    text; even Capell adopted it. I am happy in having Mr. Amyot's
    concurrence in this restoration."

Mr. Knight adopts Theobald's reading, and Mr. Dyce approves it in the
following words:--

    "When Theobald made the emendation, 'Most busy-_less_,' he
    observed that 'the corruption was so very little removed from
    the truth of the text, that he could not afford to think well of
    his own sagacity for having discovered it.' The correction is,
    indeed, so obvious that we may well wonder that it had escaped
    his predecessors; but we must wonder ten times more that one of
    his successors, in a blind reverence for the old copy, should
    re-vitiate the text, and defend a corruption which outrages
    language, taste, and common sense."

Although at an earlier period of life I too adopted Theobald's supposed
emendation, it never satisfied me. I have my doubts whether the word
_busyless_ existed in the poet's time; and if it did, whether he could
possibly have used it here. Now it is clear that _labours_ is a misprint
for _labour_; else, to what does "when I do _it_" refer? _Busy lest_ is
only a typographical error for _busyest_: the double superlative was
commonly used, being considered as more emphatic, by the poet and his

Thus in Hamlet's letter, Act ii. Sc. 2.:

  "I love thee best, O _most best_."

and in _King Lear_, Act ii. Sc. 3.:

  "To take the basest and _most poorest_ shape."

The passage will then stand thus:--

  "But these sweet thoughts, do even refresh my labour,
  Most busiest when I do it."

The sense will be perhaps more evident by a mere transposition,
preserving every word:

  "But these sweet thoughts, most busiest when I do
  My labour, do even refresh it."

Here we have a clear sense, devoid of all ambiguity, and confirmed by
what precedes; that his labours are made pleasures, being beguiled by
these sweet thoughts of his mistress, which are busiest when he labours,
because it excites in his mind the memory of her "weeping to see him
work." The correction has also the recommendation of being effected in
so simple a manner as by merely taking away two superfluous letters. I
trust I need say no more; secure of the approbation of those who (to use
the words of an esteemed friend on another occasion) feel "that making
an opaque spot in a great work transparent is not a labour to be
scorned, and that there is a pleasant sympathy between the critic and
bard--dead though he be--on such occasions, which is an ample reward."


Mickleham, Aug 30. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ii., pp. 6. 50. 90. 165.)

In the "NOTES AND QUERIES" of Saturday, the 10th of August, SENEX gives
some account of the burning of a female in the Old Bailey, "about the
year 1788."

Having myself been present at the last execution of a female in London,
where the body was burnt (being probably that to which SENEX refers),
and as few persons who were then present may now be alive, I beg to
mention some circumstances relative to that execution, which appear to
be worthy of notice.

Our criminal law was then most severe and cruel: the legal punishment of
females convicted of high treason and petty treason was burning; coining
was held to be high treason; and murder of a husband was petty treason.

I see it stated in the _Gentleman's Magazine_, that on the 13th of
March, 1789,--

    "The Recorder of London made his report to His Majesty of the
    prisoners under sentence of death in Newgate, convicted in the
    Sessions of September, October, November, and January (forty-six
    in number), {261} fourteen of whom were ordered for execution;
    five of whom were afterwards reprieved."

The recorder's report in regard to these unfortunate persons had been
delayed during the incapacity of the king; thus the report for four
sessions had been made at once. To have decided at one sitting of
council upon such a number of cases, must have almost been enough to
overset the strongest mind. Fortunately, these reports are now

In the same number of the _Gentleman's Magazine_, under date the 18th of
March, there is this statement,--

    "The nine following malefactors were executed before the
    Debtors' Door at Newgate pursuant to their sentence, viz., Hugh
    Murphy and Christian Murphy _alias_ Bowman, Jane Grace, and
    Joseph Walker, for coining. [Four for burglary, and one for
    highway robbery.] They were brought upon the scaffold, about
    half an hour after seven, and _turned off_ about a quarter past
    eight. The woman for coining was brought out after the rest were
    turned off, and fixed to a stake and burnt; being first
    strangled by the stool being taken from under her."

This is the execution at which I was present; the number of those who
suffered, and the burning of the female, attracted a very great crowd.
Eight of the malefactors suffered on the scaffold, then known as "the
new drop." After they were suspended, the woman, in a white dress, was
brought out of Newgate alone; and after some time spent in devotion, was
hung on the projecting arm of a low gibbet, fixed at a little distance
from the scaffold. After the lapse of a sufficient time to extinguish
life, faggots were piled around her, and over her head, so that her
person was completely covered: fire was then set to the pile, and the
woman was consumed to ashes.

In the following year, 1790, I heard sentence passed in the Criminal
Court, in the Old Bailey, upon other persons convicted of coining: one
of them was a female. The sentence upon her was, that she should be
"drawn to the place of execution, and there burnt with fire till she was

The case of this unfortunate woman, and the cruel state of the law in
regard to females, then attracted attention. On the 10th of May, 1790,
Sir Benjamin Hammett, in his place in the House of Commons, called the
attention of that House to the then state of the law. He mentioned that
it had been his official duty to attend on the melancholy occasion of
the burning of the female in the preceding year (it is understood he was
then one of the sheriffs of London), he moved for leave to bring in a
bill to alter the law, which he characterised as--

    "One of the savage remains of Norman policy, disgracing our
    statute book, as the practice did the common law."

He noticed that the sheriff who did not execute the sentence of burning
alive was liable to a prosecution; but he thanked Heaven there was not a
man in England who would carry such a sentence into effect. He obtained
leave to bring in a bill for altering this cruel law; and in that
session the Act 30 G. III. c. 48. was passed--

    "For discontinuing the judgment which has been required by law
    to be given against women convicted of certain crimes, and
    substituting another judgment in lieu thereof."

A debt of gratitude is due to the memory of Sir Benjamin Hammett, for
his exertions, at that period, in the cause of humanity. Thank God, we
now live in times when the law is less cruel, and more chary of human


       *       *       *       *       *


Grimm (_Deutsche Rechts Alterthumer_, vol. ii., p. 417.), after a long
dissertation, in which it appears that the money paid by the bridegroom
to the wife's relations (I believe subsequently also to the wife
herself) had every form of a _purchase_, possibly derived also from some
_symbolic_ customs common to all northern tribes, offers the following
as the origin of this word "morganatic:"--

    "Es gab aber im Alterthum noch einen erlaubten Ausweg für die
    Verbindung vorneluner Männer mit geringen (freien und selbst
    unfreien) Frauen, den _Concubinat_, der ohne feierliches
    Verlöbniss, ohne _Brautgabe_ und _Mitgift_ eingegangen wurde,
    mithin _keine wahre und volle Ehe_, dennoch ein rechtmässiges
    Verhältniss war.

    "Da jedoch die Kirche ein solches Verhältniss missbilligte durch
    keine Einsegnung weihte, so wurde es allmählich unerlaubt und
    verboten als Ausnahme aber bis auf die neueste Zeit für Fürsten
    zugelassen--ja durch Trauung an die linke Hand gefeiert. Die
    Benennung Morganatische Ehe,--Matrimonium ad Morganaticam (11.
    Feud. 29.), rührt daher, dass _den Concubinen_ eine _Morgangabe_
    (woraus im Mittelalter die Lombarden '_Morganatica_'
    machten)--bewilligt zu werden pflegte--_es waren Ehen auf blosse
    Morgengabe_. Den Beweis liefern Urkunden, die Morganatica für
    Morgengabe auch in Fallen gebrauchen wo von wahrer Ehe die Rede
    ist." (See Heinecius, _Antiq_. 3. 157, 158.)

The case now stands thus:

It was the custom to give money to the wife's relations on the

It was not the custom with respect to unequal marriage (Misheirath):
this took place "ohne Brautgabe und Mitgift," which was also of later

The exception made by the Church for _princes_, restored the woman so
far, that the marriage was legally and morally recognised by the Lombard
law and the Church, with exceptions as regards _issue_, and that the
left hand was given for the _right_.

With regard to this latter, it would be desirable {262} to trace whether
giving of the land had any _symbolic_ meaning. I think the
astrologists consider the right as the nobler part of the body; if so,
giving of _the left_ in this case is not without symbolic significance.
It must be remembered how much symbolism prevailed among the tribes
which swept Europe on the fall of the Roman empire, and their Eastern

The Morgengabe, according to Cancianus (_Leges Barbarorum_, tom. iv. p.
24.), was at first a _free gift_ made by the husband after the first
marriage night. This was carried to such excess, that Liutprand ordained

    "Tamen ipsum Morgengabe volumus, ut non sit amplius nisi quarta
    pars ejus substantia, qui ipsum Morgengabe dedit."

This became subsequently converted into a _right_ termed _justitia_.

Upon this extract from a charter,--

    "Manifesta causa est mihi, quoniam die ilio quando te sposavi,
    promiseram tibi dare _justitiam_ tuam secundum _legem meam_ [qr.
    _my Lombard_ law in opposition to the Roman, which he had a
    right to choose,] in Morgencap, id est, quartam portionem omnium
    rerum mobilium et immobilium," &c.

Cancianus thus comments:--

    "Animadverte, quam recte charta hæc cum supra alligatis formulis
    conveniat. Sponsus promiserat Morgencap, quando feminam
    desponsaverat, inde vero ante conjugium chartam conscribit: et
    quod et Liutprandi lege, et ex antiquis moribus _Donum_ fuit
    mere gratuitum, hic appellatur _Justitia_ secundum legem

The Morgencap here assumes, I apprehend, somewhat the form of _dower_.
That it was so, is very doubtful. (Grimm, vol. ii. p. 441.

    "An demselben Morgen empfängt die JungFrau von ihrem Gemahl ein
    ansehnliches Geschenk, welches Morgengabe heisst. Schon in der
    Pactio Guntherammi et Childeberti, werden Dos und Morganagiba
    _unterschieden_, ebenso _Leg. Rip._ 37. 2. _Alaman_. 56. 1, 2.
    Dos und Morgangeba; _Lex Burgend._ 42. 2. Morgangeba und das
    'pretium nuptiale;' bei den Langobarden, 'Meta und Morgengab.'"

I do not say this answers the question of your correspondent G., which
is, what is the _derivation_ of the word?

Its actual signification, I think, means left-handed; but to think is
not to resolve, and the question is open to the charitable contributions
of your learned and able supporters.

As regards the Fairy Morgana, who was married to a mortal, I confess,
with your kind permission, I had rather not accept her as a satisfactory
reply. It is as though you would accept "once upon a time" as a
chronological date! She was _married_ to a mortal--true; but
_morganatically_, I doubt it. If morganatic came from this, it should
appear the _Fairy Morgana_ was the _first lady_ who so underwent the
ceremony. Do not forget Lurline, who married also a mortal, of whom the
poet so prettily sings:

             "Lurline hung her head,
              Turned pale, and then red;
  And declared his abruptness in popping the question
  So soon after dinner had spoilt her digestion."

This lady's marriage resembled the other in all respects, and I leave
you to decide, and no man is more competent, from your extensive
knowledge of the mythology of Medieval Europe, whether Morgana, beyond
the mere accident of her name, was more likely than Lurline to have
added a word with a puzzling etymology to the languages of Europe. The
word will, I think, be found of Eastern origin, clothed in a Teutonic

After all, Jacob Grimm and Cancianus may interest your readers, and so I
send the Note.


Athenæum, Sept. 6. 1850

       *       *       *       *       *


_Alderman Beckford._--Gifford (_Ben Jonson_, vol. vi. p. 481.) has the
following note:--

    "The giants of Guildhall, thank heaven, yet defend their charge:
    it only remains to wish that the citizens may take example by
    the fate of Holmeby, and not expose them to an attack to which
    they will assuredly be found unequal. It is not altogether owing
    to their wisdom that this has not already taken place. For
    twenty years they were chained to the car of a profligate
    buffoon, who dragged them through every species of ignominy to
    the verge of rebellion; and their hall is even yet disgraced
    with the statue of a worthless negro-monger, in the act of
    insulting their sovereign with a speech of which (factious and
    brutal as he was) _he never uttered one syllable_." ... "By my
    troth, captain, these are very bitter words."

But Gifford was _generally_ correct in his assertions; and twenty-two
years after _his_ note, I made the following one:--

    "It is a curious fact, but a true one, that Beckford _did not
    utter one syllable of this speech_. It was penned by Horne
    Tooke, and by his art put on the records of the city and on
    Beckford's statue, as he told me, Mr. Braithwaite, Mr. Seyers,
    &c., at the Athenian Club.


    "See the _Times_ Of July 23. 1838, p. 6."

The worshipful Company of Ironmongers have _relegated their_ statue from
their hall to a lower position: but it still disgraces the Guildhall,
and will continue to do so, as long as any factious demagogue is
permitted to have a place among its members.


_The Frozen Horn._--Perhaps it is not generally known that the writer of
_Munchausen's Travels_ borrowed this amusing incident from Heylin's
{263} _Mikrokosmos_. In the section treating of Muscovy, he says:--

    "This excesse of cold in the ayre, gave occasion to _Castilian_,
    in his _Aulicus_, wittily and not incongruously to faine that if
    two men being smewhat distant, talke together in the winter,
    their words will be so frozen that they cannot be heard: but if
    the parties in the spring returne to the same place, their words
    will melt in the same order that they were frozen and _spoken_,
    and be plainly understood."



_Inscription from Roma Subterranea._--If you deem the translation of
this inscription, quoted in Lord Lindsay's fanciful but admirable
_Sketches of the History of Christian Art_, worth a place among your
Notes, it is very heartily at your service.

  "Sisto viator
  Tot ibi trophæa, quot ossa
  Quot martyres, tot triumphi.
  Antra quæ subis, multa quæ cernis marmora,
  Vel dum silent,
  Palam Romæ gloriam loquuntur.
  Audi quid Echo resonet
  Subterraneæ Romæ!
  Obscura licet Urbis Coemetria
  Totius patens Orbis Theatrium!
  Supplex Loci Sanetitatem venerare,
  Et post hac sub luto aurum
  Coelum sub coeno
  Sub Româ Romam quærito!"

_Roma Subterranea_, 1651, tom. i. p. 625.

(Inscription abridged.)

  Stay, wayfarer--behold
  In ev'ry mould'ring bone a trophy here.
  In all these hosts of martyrs,
  So many triumphs.
  These vaults--these countless tombs,
  E'en in their very silence
  Proclaim aloud Rome's glory:
  The echo'd fame
  Of subterranean Rome
  Rings on the ear.
  The city's sepulchres, albeit hidden,
  Present a spectacle
  To the wide world patent.
  In lowly rev'rence hail this hallow'd spot,
  And henceforth learn
  Gold beneath dross
  Heav'n below earth,
  Rome under Rome to find!



_Parallel Passages._--

    "_There is an acre sown with royal seed_, the copy of the
    greatest change from rich to naked, from cieled roofs to arched
    coffins, from _living like gods to die like men_."--Jeremy
    Taylor's _Holy Dying_, chap. i. sect. 1. p. 272. ed. Edin.

    "_Here's an acre sown_ indeed
    _With_ the richest _royalest seeds_,
    That the earth did e'er suck in,
    Since the first man dyed for sin:
    Here the bones of birth have cried,
    Though _gods they were, as men they died_."


_A Note on George Herbert's Poems._--In the notes by Coleridge attached
to Pickering's edition of George Herbert's _Poems_, on the line--

  "My flesh beg_u_n unto my soul in pain,"

Coleridge says--

    "Either a misprint, or noticeable idiom of the word _began_:
    Yes! and a very beautiful idiom it is: the first colloquy or
    address of the flesh."

The idiom is still in use in Scotland. "You had better not begin to me,"
is the first address or colloquy of the school-boy half-angry
half-frightened at the bullying of a companion. The idiom was once
English, though now obsolete. Several instances of it are given in the
last edition of Foxe's _Martyrs_, vol. vi. p. 627. It has not been
noticed, however, that the same idiom occurs in one of the best known
passages of Shakspeare; in Clarence's dream, _Richard III._, Act i. Sc.

  "O, then _began_ the tempest _to_ my soul."

Herbert's _Poems_ will afford another illustration to Shakspeare,
_Hamlet_, Act iv. Sc. 7.:--

  "And then this _should_ is like a spendthrift sigh,
  That hurts by easing."

Coleridge, in the _Literary Remains_, vol. i. p. 233., says--

  "In a stitch in the side, every one must have heaved
  a sigh that hurts by easing."

Dr. Johnson saw its true meaning:

    "It is," he says, "a notion very prevalent, that sighs impair
    the strength, and wear out the animal powers."

In allusion to this popular notion, by no means yet extinct, Herbert
says, p. 71.:

  "Or if some years with it (a sigh) escape
  The sigh then only is
  A gale to bring me sooner to my bliss."


"_Crede quod habes_," &c.--The celebrated answer to a Protestant about
the real presence, by the borrower of his horse, is supposed to be made
since the Reformation, by whom I forget:--

  "Quod nuper dixisti
  De corpore Christi
  Crede quod edis et edis;
  Sic tibi rescribo
  De tuo palfrido
  Crede quod habes et habes."

But in Wright and Halliwell's _Reliquiæ Antiquæ_, {264} p. 287., from a
manuscript of the time of Henry VII., is given--

  "Tu dixisti de corpore Christi, crede et habes
  De palefrido sic tibi scribo, crede et habes."


_Grant to the Earl of Sussex of Leave to be covered in the Royal
Presence._--In editing Heylyn's _History of the Reformation_, I had to
remark of the grant made by Queen Mary to the Earl of Sussex, that it
was the only one of Heylyn's documents which I had been unable to trace
elsewhere (ii. 90.). Allow me to state in your columns, that I have
since found it in Weever's _Funeral Monuments_ (pp. 635, 636).



_The first Woman formed from a Rib_ (Vol. ii., p. 213.).--As you have
given insertion to an extract of a sermon on the subject of the creation
of Eve, I trust you will allow me to refer your correspondent
BALLIOLENSIS to Matthew Henry's commentary on the second chapter of
Genesis, from which I extract the following beautiful explanation of the
reason why the _rib_ was selected as the material whereof the woman
should be created:--

    "Fourthly, that the woman was made of a rib out of the side of
    Adam; not made out of his head to top him, nor out of his feet
    to be trampled upon by him; but out of his side to be equal with
    him, under his arm to be protected, and near his heart to be


_Beau Brummel's Ancestry._--Mr. Jesse some years back did ample justice
to the history of a "London celebrity," George Brummell; but, from what
he there stated, the following "Note" will, I feel assured, be a novelty
to him. At the time that Brummell was considered in everything the
_arbiter elegantiarum_, the writer of this has frequently heard Lady
Monson (the widow of the second lord, and an old lady who, living to the
age of ninety-seven, had a wonderful fund of interesting recollections)
say, that this ruler of fashion was the descendant of a very excellent
servant in the family. Not long ago, some old papers of the family being
turned over, proofs corroborative of this came to light. William
Brummell, from the year 1734 to 1764, was the faithful and confidential
servant of Charles Monson, brother of the first lord: the period would
identify him with the grandfather of the Beau; the only doubt was, that
as Mr. Jesse has ascertained that William Brummell, the grandfather,
was, in the interval above given, married, had a _son William_, and
owned a house in Bury Street, how far these facts were compatible with
his remaining as a servant living with Charles Monson, both in town and
country. Now, in 1757, Professor Henry Monson of Cambridge being
dangerously ill, his brother Charles sent William Brummell down, as a
trustworthy person, to attend to him; and in a letter from Brummell to
his master, he, with many other requisitions, wishes that there may be
sent down to him a certain glass vessel, very useful for invalids to
drink out of, and which, if not in Spring Gardens, "may be found in
_Bury Street_. It was used when _Billy_ was ill." From the familiarity
of the word "Billy," he must be speaking of his son. These facts are
certainly corroborative of the old dowager's statement.


       *       *       *       *       *



I have here, in the country, few editions of Gray's works by me, and
those not the best; for instance, I have neither of those by the Rev. J.
Mitford (excepting his Aldine edition, in one small volume), which,
perhaps, would render my present Query needless. It relates to a line,
or rather a word in the _Elegy_, which is of some importance. In the
second stanza, as the poem is usually divided (though Mason does not
give it in stanzas, because it was not so originally written), occurs,

  "Save where the beetle wheels his droning flight."

And thus the line stands in all the copies (five) I am able at this
moment to consult. But referring to Dodsley's _Collection of Poems_,
vol. iv., where it comes first, the epithet applied to "flight" is not
"droning," but _drony_--

  "Save where the beetle wheels his _drony_ flight."

Has anybody observed upon this difference, which surely is worthy of a
Note? I cannot find that the circumstance has been remarked upon, but,
as I said, I am here without the means of consulting the best
authorities. The _Elegy_, I presume, must have been first separately
printed, and from thence transferred to Dodsley's _Collection_; and I
wish to be informed by some person who has the earliest impression, how
the line is there given? I do not know any one to whom I can appeal on
such a point with greater confidence than to MR. PETER CUNNINGHAM, who,
I know, has a large assemblage of the first editions of our most
celebrated poets from the reign of Anne downwards, and is so well able
to make use of them. It would be extraordinary, if _drony_ were the
epithet first adopted by Gray, and subsequently altered by him to
"droning," that no notice should have been taken of the substitution by
any of the poet's editors. I presume, therefore, that it has been
mentioned, and I wish to know where?

Now, a word or two on Dodsley's _Collection of Poems_, in the fourth
volume of which, as I have {265} stated, Gray's-_Elegy_ comes first.
Dodsley's is a popular and well-known work, and yet I cannot find _that
anybody has given the dates connected with it accurately_. If Gray's
_Elegy_ appeared in it for the first time (which I do not suppose), it
came out in 1755 which is the date of vol. iv. of Dodsley's
_Collection_, and not in 1757, which is the date of the Strawberry Hill
edition of Gray's _Odes_. The Rev. J. Mitford (Aldine edit. xxxiii.)
informs us that "Dodsley published three volumes of this _Collection_ in
1752; the fourth volume was published in 1755 and the fifth and sixth
volumes, which completed the _Collection_, in 1758." I am writing with
the title-pages of the work open before me, and I find that the first
three volumes were published, not in 1752, but in 1748, and that even
this was the second edition so that there must have been an edition of
the first three volumes, either anterior to 1748, or earlier in that
year. The sale of the work encouraged Dodsley to add a fourth volume in
1755, and two others in 1758 and the plate of Apollo and the Muses was
re-engraved for vols. v. and vi., because the original copper, which had
served for vols. i., ii., iii., and iv., was so much worn.

This matter will not seem of such trifling importance to those who bear
in mind, that if Gray's _Elegy_ did not originally come out in this
_Collection_ in 1755, various other poems of great merit and
considerable popularity did then make their earliest appearance.


Sept. 1850.

P.S. My attention has been directed to the subject of Gray's _Poems_,
and particularly to his _Elegy_, by a recent pilgrimage I made to Stoke
Poges, which is only five or six miles from this neighbourhood. The
church and the poet's monument to his mother are worth a much longer
walk; but the mausoleum to Gray, in the immediate vicinity, is a
preposterous edifice. The residence of Lady Cobham has been lamentably

       *       *       *       *       *


The name of Hugh Holland has been handed down to posterity in connexion
with that of our immortal bard; but few know anything of him beyond his
commendatory verses prefixed to the first folio of Shakspeare.

He was born at Denbigh in 1558, and educated at Westminster School while
Camden taught there. In 1582 he matriculated at Baliol College, Oxford;
and about 1590 he succeeded to a Fellowship at Trinity College,
Cambridge. Thence he travelled into Italy, and at Rome was guilty of
several indiscretions by the freedom of his conversations. He next went
to Jerusalem to pay his devotions at the Holy Sepulchre, and on his
return touched at Constantinople, where he received a reprimand from the
English ambassador for the former freedom of his tongue. At his return
to England, he retired to Oxford, and, according to Wood, spent some
years there for the sake of the public library. He died in July, 1633,
and was buried in Westminster Abbey, "in the south crosse aisle, neere
the dore of St. Benet's Chapell," but no inscription now remains to
record the event.

Whalley, in Gifford's _Jonson_ (1. cccxiv.), says, speaking of Hugh

    "He wrote several things, amongst which is the life of Camden;
    but none of them, I believe, have been ever published."

Holland published two works, the titles of which are as follows, and
perhaps others which I am not aware of:--

1. "Monumenta Sepulchralia Sancti Pauli. Lond. 1613. 4to."

2. "A Cypres Garland for the Sacred Forehead of our late Soveraigne King
James. Lond. 1625. 4to."

The first is a catalogue of the monuments, inscriptions, and epitaphs in
the Cathedral Church of St. Paul, which Nicolson calls "a mean and dull
performance." It was, at any rate, very popular, being printed again in
the years 1616, 1618, and 1633.

The second is a poetical tract of twelve leaves, of the greatest
possible rarity.

Holland also printed commendatory verses before a curious musical work,
entitled _Parthenia, or the Maydenhead of the First Musick for the
Virginalls_, 1611; and a copy of Latin verses before Dr. Alexander's
_Roxana_, 1632.

In one of the Lansdowne MSS. are preserved the following verses written
upon the death of Prince Henry, by "Hugh Hollande, fellow of Trinity
College, Cambridge:"--

  "Loe, where he shineth yonder
  A fixed Star in heaven,
  Whose motion here came under
  None of the planets seven.
  If that the Moone should tender
  The Sun her love, and marry,
  They both could not engender
  So sweet a star as HARRY."

Our author was evidently a man of some poetical fancy, and if not worthy
to be classed "among the chief of English poets," he is at least
entitled to a niche in the temple of fame.

My object in calling attention to this long forgotten author is, to gain
some information respecting his manuscript works. According to Wood,
they consist of--1. Verses in Description of the chief Cities of Europe;
2. Chronicle of Queen Elizabeth's reign; 3. Life of William Camden.

Can any of your readers say in whose possession, {266} or in what
library, any of the above mentioned MSS. are at the present time? I
should also feel obliged for any communication respecting Hugh Holland
or his works, more especially frown original sources, or books not
easily accessible.


       *       *       *       *       *


I have both a Note and a Query about Harvey and the circulation of the
blood (Vol. ii., p. 187.). The Note refers to Philostratus (_Life of
Apollorius_, p. 461., ed. 1809), _Nouvelles de la République des
Lettres_, June, 1684, xi.; and Dutens pp. 157-341. 4to. ed. 1796. I
extract the passage from _Les Nouvelles_:--

    "On voit avec plaisir un passage d'André Cæsalpinus qui contient
    fort clairement la doctrine de la circrilation. Il est tiré de
    ses Questions sur la médecine imprimées l'an 1593. Jean
    Leonicenas ajoûte que le père Paul découvrit la circulation du
    sang, et les valvules des veines, mais qu'il n'osa pas en
    parler, de peur d'exciter contre luy quelque tempête. Il n'etois
    déjà que trop suspect, et il n'eut fallu que ce nouveau paradoxe
    pour le transformer en hérétique dans le pais d'inquisition. Si
    bien qu'il ne communiqua son secret qu'au seul Aquapendente, qui
    n'osant s'exposer à l'envie.... Il attendit à l'heure de sa mort
    pour mettre le livre qu'il avoit composé touchant les valvules
    des veines entre les mains de la république de Venise, et comme
    les moindres nouveautez font peur en cc pais-là, le livre fut
    caché dans le billiothèque de Saint Marc. Mais parcequ'
    Aquapendente ne fit pas difficulté de s'ouvrir à un jeune
    Anglois fort curieux nommé Harvée, qui étudioit sous lui a
    Padouë, et qu'en même temps le père Paul fit a même confidence à
    l'Ambassadeur d'Angleterre, ces deux Anglois de retour chez eux,
    et se voyant en pais de liberté, publièrent ce dogme, et l'ayant
    confirmé par plusieurs expériences, s'en attribuèrent toute la

The Query is, what share Harvey had in the discovery attributed to him?


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Bernardus Patricius._--Some writers mention _Bernardus_ Patricius as a
follower of Copernicus, about the time of Galileo. Who was he?


_Meaning of Hanger._--Can any one of your readers inform me, what is the
meaning of the word _hanger_, so frequently occurring in the names of
places in Bedfordshire, such as Panshanger?

W. Anderson

_Cat and Bagpipes._--In studying some letters which passed between two
distinguished philosophers of the last century, I have found in one
epistle a request that the writer might be remembered "to his friends at
the Crown and Anchor, and the _Cat and Bagpipes_." The letter was
addressed to a party in London, where doubtless, both those places of
entertainment were. The Crown and Anchor was the house where the Royal
Society Club held its convivial meetings. Can you inform me where the
Cat and Bagpipes was situated, and what literary and scientific club met
there? The name seems to have been a favourite one for taverns, and, if
mistake not, is common in Ireland. Is it a corruption of some foreign
title, as so many such names are, or merely a grotesque and piquant
specimen of sign-board literature?


_Andrew Becket._--A.W. Hammond will feel obliged for any information
respecting Andrew Becket, Esq., who died 19th January, 1843, æt. 95, and
to whose memory there is a handsome monument in Kennington Church.
According to that inscription, he was "ardently devoted to the pursuits
of literature," personally acquainted in early life with the most
distinguished authors of his day, long the intimate friend of David
Garrick, "and a profound commentator on the dramatic works of
Shakspeare." Can any of the learned readers of "NOTES AND QUERIES"
satisfy this Query?

_Laurence Minot._--Is any other MS. of Minot known, besides the one from
which Ritson drew his text? Is there any other edition of this poet
besides Ritson's, and the reprints thereof?


_Modena Family._--When did Victor Amadeus, King of Sardinia, die? When
did his daughter, Mary Duchess of Modena, die, (the mother of the
present Duke of Modena, and through whom he is the direct heir of the
House of Stuart)?


_Bamboozle._--What is the etymology of _bamboozle_, used as a verb?


_Butcher's Blue Dress._--What is the origin of the custom, which seems
all but universal in England, for butchers to wear a blouse or frock of
_blue_ colour? Though so common in this country as to form a distinctive
mark of the trade, and to be almost a butcher's uniform, it is, I
believe, unknown on the continent. Is it a custom which has originate in
some supposed utility, or in the official dress of a guild or company,
or in some accident of which a historical notice has been preserved?


_Hatchment and Atchievement._--Can any one of the readers of "NOTES AND
QUERIES" tell me how comes the corruption _hatchment_ from
_atchievement_? Ought the English word to be spelt with a _t_, or thus,
_achievement_? Why are hatchments put up in churches and on houses?

W. ANDERSON. {267}

"_Te colui Virtutem_."--Who is the author of the line--

  "Te colui virtutem ut rem ast tu nomen inane es?"

It is a translation of part of a Greek tragic fragment, quoted,
according to Dio Cassius, by Brutus just before his death. As much as is
here translated is also to be found in Plutarch _De Superstitione_.


"_Illa suavissima Vita_."--Where does "Illa suavissima vita indies
sentire se fieri meliorem" come from?


_Christianity, Early Influence of._--"The beneficial influence of the
Christian clergy during the first thousand years of the Christian era."

What works can be recommended on the above subject?


_Wraxen, Meaning of._--What is the origin and meaning of the word
_wraxen_, which was used by a Kentish woman on being applied to by a
friend of mine to send her children to the Sunday-school, in the
following sentence?--"Why, you see, they go to the National School all
the week, and get so _wraxen_, that I cannot send them to the Sunday
School too."

G.W. Skyring.

_Saint, Legend of a._--Can any of your correspondents inform me where I
can find the account of some saint who, when baptizing a heathen,
inadvertently pierced the convert's foot with the point of his crozier.
The man bore the pain without flinching, and when the occurrence was
discovered, he remarked that he thought it was part of the ceremony?


_Land Holland--Farewell._--In searching some Court Rolls a few days
since, I found some land described as "Land Holland" or "Hollandland." I
have been unable to discover the meaning of this expression, and should
be glad if any of your correspondents can help me.

In the same manor there is custom for the tenant to pay a sum as a
_farewell_ to the lord on sale or alienation: this payment is in
addition to the ordinary fine, &c. Query the origin and meaning of this?


_Stepony Ale._--Chamberlayne, in his _Present State of England_ (part.
i. p. 51., ed. 1677), speaking of the "Dyet" of the people, thus
enumerates the prevailing beverages of the day:--

    "Besides all sorts of the best wines from Spain, France, Italy,
    Germany, Grecia, there are sold in London above twenty sorts of
    other drinks: as brandy, coffee, chocolate, tea, aromatick, mum,
    sider, perry, beer, ale; many sorts of ales very different, as
    cock, _stepony_, stickback, Hull, North-Down, Sambidge, Betony,
    scurvy-grass, sage-ale, &c. A piece of wantonness whereof none
    of our ancestors were ever guilty."

It will be observed that the ales are named in some instances from
localities, and in others from the herbs of which they were decoctions.
Can any of your readers tell me anything of Stepony ale? Was it ale
brewed at Stepney?

James T. Hammack

"_Regis ad Exemplar_."--Can you inform me whence the following line is

  "Regis ad exemplar totus componitur orbis."


"_La Caconacquerie_".--Will one of your numerous correspondents be kind
enough to inform me what is the true signification and derivation of the
word "caconac?" D'Alembert, writing to Voltaire concerning Turgot, says:

    "You will find him an excellent _caconac_, though he has reasons
    for not avowing it:--la caconacquerie ne mène pas à la fortune."


_London Dissenting Ministers: Rev. Thomas Tailer._--Not being entirely
successful in my Queries with regard to "London Dissenting Ministers"
(Vol. i., pp. 383. 444. 454.), I will state a circumstance which,
possibly, may assist some one of your correspondents in furnishing an
answer to the second of those inquiries.

In the lines immediately referred to, where certain Nonconformist
ministers of the metropolis are described under images taken from the
vegetable world, the late Rev. Thomas Tailer (of Carter Lane), whose
voice was feeble and trembling, is thus spoken of:--

  "Tailer tremulous as aspen leaves."

But in verses afterwards circulated, if not printed, the censor was
rebuked as follows:--

  "Nor tell of Tailer's trembling voice so weak,
  While from his lips such charming accents break,
  And every virtue, every Christian grace,
  Within his bosom finds a ready place."

No encomium could be more deserved, none more seasonably offered or more
appropriately conveyed. I knew Mr. Tailer, and am pleased in cherishing
recollections of him.


_Mistletoe as a Christmas Evergreen._--Can any of your readers inform me
at what period of time the mistletoe came to be recognised as a
Christmas evergreen? I am aware it played a great part in those
ceremonies of the ancient Druids which took place towards the end of the
year, but I cannot find any allusion to it, in connexion with the
Christian festival, before the time of Herrick. You are of course aware,
that there are still in existence some five or six very curious old
carols, of as early, or even an earlier date than the fifteenth century,
in praise of the holly or the ivy, which said carols used to be sung
during the Christmas {268} festivities held by our forefathers but I can
discover no allusion even to the mistletoe for two centuries later. If
any of your readers should be familiar with any earlier allusion in
prose, but still more particularly in verse, printed or in manuscript, I
shall feel obliged by their pointing it out.


_Poor Robin's Almanacks._--I am anxious to ascertain in which public or
private library is to be found the most complete collection of Poor
Robin's _Almanacks_: through the medium of your columns, I may, perhaps,
glean the desired information.


_Sirloin._--When on a visit, a day or two since, to the very interesting
_ruin_ (for so it must be called) of Haughton Castle, near Blackburn,
Lancashire, I heard that the origin of this word was the following freak
of James I. in his visit to the castle; a visit, by the way, which is
said to have ruined the host, and to have been not very profitable even
to all his descendants. A magnificent loin of meat being placed on the
table before his Majesty, the King was so struck with its size and
excellence, that he drew his sword, and cried out, "By my troth, I'll
knight thee, Sir Loin!" and then and there the title was given; a title
which has been honoured, unlike other knighthoods, by a goodly
succession of illustrious heirs. Can any of your correspondents vouch
for the truth of this?

Bowden, Manchester.

_Thomson of Esholt._--In the reign of Henry VIII. arms were granted to
Henry Thomson, of Esholt, co. York, one of that monarch's
gentlemen-at-arms at Boulogne. The grant was made by Laurence Dalton,
Norroy. The shield was--Per fesse embattled, ar. and sa., three falcons,
belted, countercharged--a _bend_ sinister. Crest: An armed arm, embowed,
holding a lance, erect. Families of the name of Thompson, bearing the
same shield, have been seated at Kilham, Scarborough, Escrick, and other
places in Yorkshire. My inquiries are,--

1. Will any of your readers by kind enough to inform me where any
mention is made of this grant, and the circumstances under which it was

2. Whether any _ancient_ monuments, or heraldic bearings of the family,
are still extant in any parts of Yorkshire?

3. Whether any work on Yorkshire genealogies exists, and what is the
best to be consulted?


       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Pension_ (Vol. ii., p. 134.).--In the _Dictionnaire Universelle_, 1775,
vol. ii. p. 203., I find the following explanation of the French word

    "Somme qu'on donne pour la nourriture et le logement de
    quelqu'un. _Il se dit aussi du lieu où l'on donne à manger._"

May not the meeting of the benchers have derived its name for their
dining-room in which they assembled?


_Execution of Charles I._ (Vol. ii., pp. 72. 110-140. 158.).--In Lilly's
_History of his Life and Times_, I find the following interesting
account in regard to the vizored execution of Charles I., being part of
the evidence he gave when examined before the first parliament of King
Charles II. respecting the matter. Should any of your correspondents be
able to substantiate this, or produce more conclusive evidence in
determining who the executioner was, I shall be extremely obliged. Lilly

    "Liberty being given me to speak, I related what follows: viz.,
    That the next Sunday but one after Charles I. was beheaded,
    Robert Spavin Secretary to Lieutenant-General Cromwell at that
    time, invited himself to dine with me, and brought Anthony
    Pearson and several others along with him to dinner. That their
    principal discourse all dinner time was only who it was that
    beheaded the king. One said it was the common hangman; another,
    Hugh Peters; others were also nominated, but none concluded.
    Robert Spavin, so soon as dinner was done, took me by the hand,
    and carried me to the south window. Saith he, 'These are all
    mistaken; they have not named the man that did the fact: it was
    Lieutenant-Colonel Joice. I was in the room when he fitted
    himself for the work; stood behind him when he did it; when
    done, went in with him again: there is no man knows this but my
    master, viz. Cromwell, Commissary Ireton, and myself.'--'Doth
    Mr. Rushworth know it?' saith I. 'No, he doth not know it,'
    saith Spavin. The same thing Spavin since has often related to
    me, when we were alone."


_Paper Hangings_ (Vol. ii., p. 134.).--"It was on the walls of this
drawing-room (the king's at Kensington Palace) that the then new art of
paper-hangings, in imitation of the old velvet flock, was displayed with
an effect that soon led to the adoption of so cheap and elegant a
manufacture, in preference to the original rich material from which it
was copied."--W.H. Pyne's _Royal Residences_, vol. ii. p. 75.


_Black-guard._--There are frequent entries among those of deaths of
persons attached to the Palace of Whitehall, in the registers of St.
Margaret's, Westminster, of "----, one of the blake garde." about the
year 1566, and later. In the Churchwarden's Accompts we find--

    "1532. Pd. for licence of 4 torchis for Black Garde, vj. d."

The royal Halberdiers carried black bills. (Grose, _Milit. Antiq._, vol.
i. p. 124.) In 1584 they behaved {269} with great cruelty in Ireland.
(Cornp. Peck's _Des. Curios._, vol. i. p. 155.) So Stainhurst, in his
_Description_, says of bad men: "They are taken for no better than
rakehells, or the devil's blacke guarde."--Chap. 8. Perhaps, in
distinction to the gaily dressed military guard, the menial attendants
in a royal progress were called black-guards from their dull appearance.

I remember a story current in Dublin, of a wicked wag telling a highly
respectable old lady, who was asking, where were the quarters of the
guards, in which corps her son was a private, to inquire at the lodge of
Trinity College if he was not within those learned walls, as the "black
guards were lying there."


_Pilgrims' Road_ (Vol. ii., p. 237.).--Your correspondent S.H., in
noticing the old track "skirting the base of the chalk hills," and known
by the name of the "Pilgrims' Road," has omitted to state that its
commencement is at Oxford,--a fact of importance, inasmuch as that the
Archbishops of Canterbury had there a handsome palace (the ruins of
which still exist), which is said to have been the favourite residence
of Thomas à Becket. The tradition in the county thereupon is, that his
memory was held in such sanctity in that neighbourhood as to cause a
vast influx of pilgrims annually from thence to his shrine at
Canterbury; and the line of road taken by them can still be traced,
though only portions of it are now used as a highway. The direction,
however, in which it runs makes it clear (as S.H., no doubt, is aware)
that it cannot be Chaucer's road.

While on the subject of old roads, I may add that a tradition here
exists that the direct road between London and Tunbridge did not pass
through Sevenoaks; and a narrow lane which crosses the Pilgrims' road
near Everham is pointed out as the former highway, and by which Evelyn
must have been journeying (passing close, indeed, to the seat of his
present descendant at St. Clere) when he met with that amusing
robber-adventure at Procession Oak.


_Pilgrims' Road to Canterbury._--In the _Athenæum_ of Nov. 2nd, 1844,
there is a notice of _Remarks upon Wayside Chapels; with Observations on
the Architecture and present State of the Chantry on Wakefield Bridge_:
By John Chessell and Charles Buckler--in which the reviewer says--

    "In our pedestrianism we have traced the now desolate ruins of
    several of these chapels along the old pilgrims' road to

If this writer would give us the results of his pedestrianism, it would
be acceptable to _all_ the lovers of Chaucer. I do not know whether
PHILO-CHAUCER will find anything to his purpose in the pamphlet


_Combs buried with the Dead._--In Vol. ii., p. 230., the excellent vicar
of Morwenstow asks the reason why combs are found in the graves of St.
Cuthbert and others, monks, in the cathedral church of Durham. I imagine
that they were the combs used at the first tonsure of the novices, to
them a most interesting memorial of that solemn rite through life, and
from touching affection to the brotherhood among whom they had dwelt,
buried with them at their death.


_The Comb_, concerning "the origin and intent" of which MR. HAWKER (Vol.
ii., p. 230.) seeks information, was for ritual use; and its purposes
are fully described in Dr. Rock's _Church of our Fathers_, t. ii. p.
122., &c.


_Aërostation._--C.B.M. will find in the _Athenæum_ for August 10th,
1850, a notice of a book on this subject.


_St. Thomas of Lancaster_ (Vol. i., p. 181.).--MR. R.M. MILNES desires
information relative to "St. Thomas of Lancaster." This personage was
Earl of Leicester as well as Earl of Lancaster; and I find in the
archives of this borough numerous entries relative to him,--of payments
made to him by the burgesses. Of these mention is made in a _History of
Leicester_ recently published. The most curious fact I know of is, that
on the dissolution of the monasteries here, several relics of St.
Thomas, among others, his felt hat, was exhibited. The hat was
considered a great remedy for the headache!


_Smoke Money_ (Vol. ii., p. 120.).--"Anciently, even in England, were
Whitsun farthings, or smoke farthings, which were a composition for
offerings made in Whitsun week, by every man who occupied a house with a
chimney, to the cathedral of the diocese in which he lived."--Audley's
_Companion to the Almanac_, p. 76.

Pentecostals, or Whitsun Farthings, are mentioned by Pegge as being paid
in 1788 by the parishioners of the diocese of Lichfield, in aid of the
repairs of the cathedral, to the dean and chapter; but he makes no
allusion to the word _smoke_, adding only that in this case the payment
went by the name of Chad-pennies, or Chad-farthings, the cathedral there
being dedicated to St. Chad.


_Robert Herrick_ (Vol. i., p. 291.).--MR. MILNER BARRY states that he
found an entry of the burial of the poet Herrick in the parish books of
Dean Prior. As MR. BARRY seems interested in the poet, I would inform
him that a voluminous collection of family letters of early date is now
in the possession of William Herrick, Esq., of Beaumanor Park, the
present representative of that ancient and honourable house.


_Guildhalls._--The question in Vol. i., p. 320., relative to guildhalls,
provokes an inquiry into {270} guilds. In the erudite and instructive
work of Wilda on the _Guild System of the Middle Ages (Gildenwesen im
Mittelälter)_ will be found to be stated that guilds were associations
of various kinds,--convivial, religions, and mercantile, and so on; and
that places of assembly were adopted by them. A guild-house where eating
and drinking took place, was to be met with in most villages in early
times: and these, I fancy, were the guild-halls. On this head consult
Hone's _Every-day Book_, vol. ii. p. 670., and elsewhere, in connexion
with Whitsuntide holidays.


_Abbé Strickland_ (Vol. ii., pp. 198. 237.).--The fullest account of the
Abbé Strickland, _Bishop of Namur_, is to be found in Lord Hervey's
_Memoirs_ (Vol. i., p. 391.), and a most curious account it is of that
profligate intriguer.


_Long Lonkin_ (Vol. ii., pp. 168. 251.).--This ballad does not relate to
Cumberland, but to Northumberland. This error was committed by Miss
Landon (in the _Drawing-room Scrap-book_ for 1835), to whom a lady of
this town communicated the fragment through the medium of a friend. Its
real locality is a ruined tower, seated on the corner of an extensive
earth-work surrounded by a moat, on the western side of Whittle Dean,
near Ovingham. Since this period, I have myself taken down many
additional verses from the recitation of the adjacent villagers, and
will be happy to afford any further information to your inquirer,

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Sept. 7. 1850.

_Havock_ (Vol. ii., p. 215.).--The presumed object of literary men being
the investigation of truth, your correspondent JARLTZBERG will, I trust,
pardon me for suggesting that his illustration of the word _havock_ is
incomplete, and especially with reference to the line of Shakspeare
which he has quoted:

  "Cry havock! and let slip the dogs of war."

Grose, in his _History of English Armour_, vol. ii. p. 62., says that
_havok_ was the word given as a signal for the troops to disperse and
pillage, as may be learned from the following article in the _Droits of
the Marshal_, vol. ii. p. 229., wherein it is declared, that--

    "In the article of plunder, all the sheep and hogs belong to
    such private soldiers as can take them; and that on the word
    havok being cried, every one might seize his part; but this
    probably was only a small part of the licence supposed to be
    given by the word."

He also refers to the ordinance of Richard II.

In agreeing with your correspondent that the use of this word was the
signal for general massacre, unlimited slaughter, and giving no quarter,
as well as taking plunder in the manner described above, the omission of
which I have to complain is, that, in stating no one was to raise the
cry, under penalty of losing his head, he did not add the words, "the
king excepted." It was a royal act; and Shakspeare so understood it to
be; as will appear from the passage referred to, if fully and fairly

  "And Cæsar's spirit, ranging for revenge,
  With Até by his side, come hot from hell,
  Shall in these confines, _with a monarch's voice_,
  Cry Havock! and let slip the dogs of war."
                                  _Julius Cæsar_ Act iii.

It is not at this moment in my power to assist F.W. with the reference
to the history of Bishop Berkeley's giant, though it exists somewhere in
print. The subject of the experiment was a healthy boy, who died in the
end, in consequence of over-growth, promoted (as far as my recollection
serves me) principally by a peculiar diet.


_Becket's Mother._--I do not pretend to explain the facts mentioned by
MR. FOSS (Vol. ii., p. 106.), that the hospital founded in honour of
Becket was called "The Hospital of St. Thomas the Martyr, _of Acon_;"
and that he was himself styled "St. Thomas _Acrenis_, or _of Acre_;" but
I believe that the true explanation must be one which would not be a
hindrance to the rejection of the common story as to the Archbishop's
birth. _If_ these titles were intended to connect the Saint with Acre in
Syria, they may have originated after the legend had become popular. But
it seems to me more likely, that, like some other city churches and
chapels, that of St. Thomas got its designation from something quite
unconnected with the history of the patron. In particular, I would ask
what is the meaning of "St. Nicolas _Acons_?" And may not the same
explanation (whatever it be) serve for "St. Thomas _of Acon_?" Or the
hospital may have been built on some noted "acre" (like _Long Acre_ and
_Pedlars Acre_); and if afterwards churches in other places were
consecrated to St. Thomas under the designation "_of Acre_," (as to
which point I have no information), the churches of "our Lady _of
Loretto_," scattered over various countries, will supply a parallel. As
to the inference which Mr. Nichols (_Pilgrimages_, p. 120.) draws from
the name _Acrensis_, that Becket was _born at_ Acre, I must observe that
it introduces a theory which is altogether new, and not only opposed to
the opinion that the Archbishop was of English or Norman descent on both
sides, but _essentially_ contradictory of the legend as to the fair
Saracen who came from the East in search of her lover.


_Watching the Sepulchre_ (Vol. i., pp. 318. 354. 403.).--In the parish
books of Leicester various entries respecting the Sepulchre occur. In
the year 1546, when a sale took place of the furniture of St. Martin's
Church, the "Sepulchre light" was {271} sold to Richard Rainford for
21s. 10d. In the reign of Queen Mary gatherings were made for the
"Sepulchre lights;" timber for making the lights cost 5s.; the light
itself, 4s.; and painting the Sepulchre, and a cloth for "our lady's
altar," cost 1s. 10d. Facts like these might be multiplied.


_Portraits of Charles I. in Churches_ (Vol. i., pp. 137. 184.).--In
reference to this I have to state, that in the south aisle of the church
of St. Martin, in Leicester, a painting of this kind is yet to be seen,
or was lately. It was executed by a Mr. Rowley, for 10l., in the year
1686. It represents the monarch in a kneeling attitude.


_Joachim, the French Ambassador_ (Vol. ii., p. 229.).--In Rapin's
_History of England_ I find this ambassador described as "Jean-Joachim
de Passau, Lord of Vaux." This may assist AMICUS.


       *       *       *       *       *



The Rev. Mackenzie Walcott, M.A., of Exeter College, Oxford, whose
pleasant gossiping _Memorials of Westminster_, and _History of St.
Margaret's Church_, are no doubt familiar to many of our readers, is, as
an old Wykehamist, collecting information for a "History of Commoners
and the Two S. Marie Winton Colleges;" and will feel obliged by lists of
illustrious alumni, and any notes, archæological and historical, about
that noble school, which will be duly acknowledged.

The _Cambrian Archæological Association_, which was established in 1846
for the purpose of promoting the study and preservation of the
antiquities of Wales and the Marches, held its fourth anniversary
meeting in the ancient and picturesque town of Dolgelly, during the week
commencing the 26th ultimo. The Association is endeavouring to extend
its usefulness by enlarging the number of its members; and as its
subscribing members receive in return for their yearly pound, not only
the Society's Journal, the _Archæologia Cambrensis_ but also the annual
volume of valuable archæological matter published by the Association, we
cannot doubt but their exertions will meet the sympathy and patronage of
all who take an interest in the national and historical remains of the

The preceding paragraph was scarcely finished when we received proof of
the utility of the Association in Mr. Freeman's volume, entitled
_Remarks on the Architecture of Llandaff Cathedral, with an Essay
towards a History of the Fabric_--a volume which, as we learn from the
preface, had its origin in the observations on some of the more singular
peculiarities of the fabric made by the author at the Cardiff meeting of
the Association in 1849. These remarks were further developed in a paper
in the _Archæologia Cambrensis_; and have now been expanded into the
present descriptive and historical account of a building which, to use
Mr. Freeman's words, "in many respects, both of its history and
architecture, stands quite alone among English churches." Mr. Freeman's
ability to do justice to such a subject is well known: and his work will
therefore assuredly find a welcome from the numerous body of students of
church architecture now to be found in this country; and to their
judgments we leave it.

_Notes on Bishop Jeremy Taylor's Works._ A reprint being called for of
vol. vi. of the present edition of Bishop Taylor's works, the Editor
will be glad of any assistance towards verifying the references which
have been omitted. The volume is to go to press early in October.

Messrs. Puttick and Simpson will commence on Monday next a six days'
sale of valuable books in all classes of literature; oriental, and other
manuscripts; autograph letters; engravings, miniatures, paintings, &c.

Messrs. Southgate and Barrett will sell on Tuesday next some fine
portraits and engravings; together with a very interesting and extensive
collection of nearly 200 original proclamations (extending from 1631 to
1695), two books printed by Pynson, unknown to bibliographers (viz.
_Aphthonii Sophistæ Præxercitamenta_ and _Ciceronis Orationes
Philippicæ_ and a few valuable MSS).

       *       *       *       *       *



ESSAYS, SCRIPTURAL, MORAL, AND LOGICAL, by W. and T. Ludlam. 2 vols.
8vo. London, 1807.

London, 1653.


THE TALE OF A TUB REVERSED, for the universal Improvement of Mankind,
with a character of the Author.

REFLECTIONS ON MR. BURCHET'S MEMOIRS, or, Remarks on his Account of
Captain Wilmot's Expedition to the West Indies, by Col. Luke
Lillingston. 1704. [Two copies wanted.]

SEVEN CHAMPIONS OF CHRISTENDUM. [Any Edition before 1700.]


Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

VOLUME THE FIRST OF NOTES AND QUERIES, _with Title-page and very copious
Index, is now ready, price 9s. 6d., bound in cloth, and may be had, by
order, of all Booksellers and Newsmen._

NOTES AND QUERIES _may be procured by the Trade at noon on Friday: so
that our country Subscribers ought to experience no difficulty in
receiving it regularly. Many of the country Booksellers are probably not
yet aware of this arrangement, which enables them to receive Copies in
their Saturday parcels._

W.A. _will find an article on_ "The Owl was once a Baker's Daughter,"
_quoted by Shakspeare, in one of_ MR. THOMS' _Papers on the_ FOLK LORE
OF SHAKSPEARE, _published in the_ Athenæum October and November 1847.

       *       *       *       *       * {272}


In One Volume 8vo., price 6s., bds., (published in 1818 at 14s.). JUNIUS
the Appendix, containing the Plates of Handwriting.

London: TAYLOR, WALTON, and MABERLY, 28. Upper Gower-street; and 27. Ivy
Lane, Paternoster Row.

       *       *       *       *       *

contains many curious and interesting books on the above Countries with
the usual valuable Miscellanies in all departments, Published this day,

The following Books may also be had of him:--

BALLAD ROMANCES, by R. H. HORNE, Esq., author of "Orion."
&c.--Containing the Noble Heart, a Bohemian Legend--The Monk of
Swinstead Abbey, a Ballad Chronicle of the Death of King John--The Three
Knights of Camelott, a Fairy Tale--The Ballad of Delora, or the Passion
of Andrea Como--Red Gelert, a Welsh Legend--Ben Capstan, A Ballad of the
Night Watch--The Elf of the Woodlands, a Child's Story, fcap. 8vo,
elegantly printed and bound in cloth, 248 pages, only 2s. 6d.

CRITICISMS AND ESSAYS On the Writings of Atherstone, Blair, Bowles, Sir
E. Brydges, Carlyle, Carrington, Coleridge, Cowper, Croly, Gillfillian,
Graham, Hazlitt, Heber, Heraud, Harvey, Irving, Keats, Miller, Pollock,
Tighe, Wordsworth, and other Modern Writers, by the Rev. J.W. LESTER,
B.A., royal 8vo., 100 pages of closely printed letterpress, originally
published at 5s., reduced to 1s. 3d. 1848.

"We give our cordial subscription to the general scope and tenor of his
views, which are in the main promulgated with a perspicuity and
eloquence not always found in the same individual."--_Church of England
Quarterly Review._

"Mr. Lester's volume is one of superior merit, and deserves a high rank
among works of its class."--_Tail's Edinburgh Review._

"He is the pioneer of the beautiful."--_Manchester Examiner._

FALLACY OF GHOSTS, DREAMS, AND OMENS, with Stories of Witchcraft, Life
in Death, and Monomania, by CHARLES OLLIER, 12mo., cloth. gilt, with
Illustrations by G. Measom, 250 pages of amusing letterpress, only 2s.

JOHN MILLER, 43. Chandos-street, Trafalgar-square.

       *       *       *       *       *

Old Engravings, early Printed Books, Manuscripts, &c.

SOUTHGATE and BARRETT will SELL by AUCTION, at their Rooms, 22.
Fleet-street, on Tuesday, September 24, at 12. PORTRAITS and ENGRAVlNGS.
incliding many proofs, a very interesting and extensive collection of
original proclamations, two books printed by Pynson unknown to
bibliographers: also a few very valuable Manuscripts relating to the
counties of Stafford, Salon, Leicester, Wilts, &c., ancient statutes
upon vellum. heraldic MSS., &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just Published, 8vo., price 8s., with numerous Illustrations by Messrs.
O. Jerrit and H. Shaw,

a History of the Fabric. By EDWARD A. FREEMAN, M.A., late Fellow of
Trinity College, Oxford; author of the "History of Architecture."

London: W. PICKERING, 177. Piccadilly. Tenby: R. MASON.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just Published, price 5s., in post 8vo., cloth lettered; if sent by
Post. 6s.

Embellished with a Portrait of His Holiness Pope Pius IX.

London: C. DOLMAN, 61. New Bond-street; and 48A. Paternoster Row.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE PARLOUR LIBRARY, One Shilling each Volume.

The Publishers beg to state that all G.P.R. JAMES's works lately out of
print are again reprinted, and may be had of every bookseller and at all
the railway stations. Works by the following popular authors have also
been published in the "Parlour Library:"--

A. Lamartine
G.P.R. James
Washington Irving
Miss Mitford
Author of "Emilia Wyndham"
Miss Austen
William Carleton
Gerald Griffin
Mary Howitt
T.C. Grattan
Mrs. S.C. Hall
Rodolph Toppfer
Leitch Ritchie
The O'Hara Family
W. Meinhold
Alex. Dumas

SIMMS and M'INTYRE, 13. Paternoster Row, London, and Belfast. Sold at
all the Railway Stations.

       *       *       *       *       *

Published by GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet-street.

Now ready, 1 vol. 8vo., with etched Frontispiece, by Wehnert, and Eight
Engravings, price 15s.

SABRINAE COROLLA: a Volume Of Classical Translations with original
Compositions contributed by Gentlemen educated at Shrewsbury School.

Among the Contributors are the Head Masters of Shrewsbury. Stanford,
Repton, Birmingham, and Uppingham Schools; Andrew Lawson, Esq., late
M.P; the Rev. R. Shilleto, Cambridge; the Rev. T.S. Evans, Rugby; J.
Riddell, Esq., Fellow of Baliol College, Oxford; the Rev. E.M. Cope,
H.J. Hodgson, Esq., H.A.J. Munro, Esq., W.G. Clark, Esq., Fellows of
Trinity College, Cambridge, and many other distinguished Scholars from
both Universities.

The Work is edited by three of the principal Contributors.

"Highly creditable to the Scholarship of Shrewsbury, and indeed of
England, and we wish it heartily success."--_Guardian._

RULES FOR OVIDIAN VERSE, with some Hints on the Transition to the
Virgilian Hexameter, and an Introductory Preface. Edited by JAMES TATE,
A.M., Master of the Grammar School, Richmond. 8vo. sewed, 1s. 6d.

FIRST STEPS TO LATIN VERSIFICATION, being an Analysis of the Scansion
and Structure of the Ovidian Verse. Price 6d. on sheet; folded in cloth,

Just Published, fcp. 8vo., price 4s. 6d., cloth,

CICERONIS CATO MAJOR, sive de Senectute, Laelius, site de Amicitia. et
Epistolæ Selectæ; with English Notes and an Index. By GEORGE LONG. Being
a second volume of the Grammar School Classics.

"Mr. George Long has edited the De Senectute, and De Amicitia, together
with some of the Epistles of Cicero, and has contributed a very clever
preface upon the best way of teaching foreign, and especially classical,
languages. Mr. Long's ability and reputation render any writing of his
important, and his name is a pledge for the accuracy and value of the

Also, a new edition, price 5s.,

XENOPHON'S ANABASIS, with English Notes and Three Maps. By the Rev. J.F.
MACMICHAEL, Master of the Grammar School, Burton-on-Trent. Being the
first volume of Grammar School Classics.

"We can confidently recommend this as the best school edition, and we
feel certain that it will satisfy every reasonable demand that can be
made."--_Classical Museum._

12mo., cloth, 2s. 6d.

prefatory remarks. This Selection is intended to afford an introduction,
at once easy and unobjectionable, to a knowledge of the Latin Language,
after a boy has become well acquainted with the declensions of nouns and
pronouns, and the ordinary forms of verbs.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, September 21. 1850.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 47, September 21, 1850" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.