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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 52, October 26, 1850 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 52, October 26, 1850 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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generously made available by The Internet Library of Early



       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 52.]
[Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

       *       *       *       *       *





  Address to our Friends                                       353

  Shakspeare's Use of the Words "Captious" and "Intenible,"
  by S. W. Singer      354

  Oratories of the Nonjurors, by J. Yeowell                    354

  Hogarth's Illustrations of Hudibras                          355

  Folk Lore:--Overyssel Superstition--Death-bed Superstitions--Popular
  Rhyme--Death-bed Mystery--Bradshaw
  Family                                                       356

  Advice to the Editor, and Hints to his Contributors          357

  Minor Notes:--Rollin's Ancient History and History
  of the Arts and Sciences--Jezebel--Clarendon, Oxford
  Edition of 1815--Macaulay's Country Squire--Miching
  Mallecho                                                     357


  The Inquisition: The Bohemian Persecution                    358

  Minor Queries:--Osnaburg Bishopric--Meaning of
 "Farlief"--Margaret Dyneley--Tristan d'Acunha--Production
  of Fire by Friction--Murderer hanged
  when pardoned--Passage from Burke--Licensing of
  Books--Le Bon Gendarme                                       358


  Tasso translated by Fairfax                                  359

  Ale-Draper--Eugene Aram                                      360

  On the Word "Gradely," by B. H. Kennedy and
  G. J. Cayley                                                 361

  Collar of Esses      362

  Replies to Minor Queries:--Symbols of the Evangelists--Becket's
  Mother--Passage in Lucan--Combs buried
  with the Dead--The Norfolk Dialect--Conflagration
  of the Earth--Wraxen                                         363


  Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                       366

  Books and Odd Volumes Wanted                                 367

  Notices to Correspondents                                    367

  Advertisements                                               367

       *       *       *       *       *



We this day publish our fifty-second Number. Every Saturday, for twelve
months, have we presented to our subscribers our weekly budget of "NOTES,"
"QUERIES," and "REPLIES;" and in so doing, we trust, we have accomplished
some important ends. We have both amused and instructed the general reader;
we have stored up much curious knowledge for the use of future writers; we
have procured for scholars now engaged in works of learning and research,
many valuable pieces of information which had evaded their own immediate
pursuit; and, lastly, in doing all this, we have powerfully helped forward
the great cause of literary truth.

In our Prospectus and opening address we made no great promise of what our
paper should be. That, we knew, must depend upon how far the medium of
intercommunication we had prepared should be approved and adopted by those
for whose special use it had been projected. We laid down a literary
railway: it remained to be seen whether the world of letters would travel
by it. They have done so: we have been especially patronised by first-class
passengers, and in such numbers that we were obliged last week to run an
extra train.

It is obvious that the use of a paper like "NOTES AND QUERIES" bears a
direct proportion to the extent of its circulation. What it aims at doing
is, to reach the learning which lies scattered not only throughout every
part of our own country, but all over the literary world, and to bring it
all to bear upon the pursuits of the scholar; to enable, in short, men of
letters all over the world to give a helping hand to one another. To a
certain extent, we have accomplished this end. Our last number contains
communications not only from all parts of the metropolis, and from almost
every county in England, but also from Scotland, Ireland, Holland, and even
from Demerara. This looks well. It seems as if we were in a fair way to
accomplish our design. But much yet remains to be done. We have recently
been told of whole districts in England so benighted as never to have heard
of "NOTES AND QUERIES;" and after an interesting question has been
discussed for weeks in our columns, we are informed of some one who could
have answered it immediately if he had seen it. So long as this is the case
the advantage we may confer upon literature and literary men is necessarily
imperfect. We do what we can to make known our existence through the
customary modes of announcement, and we gratefully acknowledge the kind
assistance and encouragement we derive from our brethren of the public
press; but we would respectfully solicit {354} the assistance of our
friends this particular point. Our purpose is aided, and our usefulness
increased by every introduction which can be given to our paper, either to
a Book Club, to a Lending Library, or to any other channel of circulation
amongst persons of inquiry and intelligence. By such introductions scholars
help themselves as well as us, for there is no inquirer throughout the
kingdom who is not occasionally able to throw light upon some of the
multifarious objects which are discussed in our pages.

At the end of our first twelvemonth we thank our subscribers for the
patronage we have received. We trust we shall go on week by week improving
in our work of usefulness, so that at the end of the next twelvemonth we
may meet them with the same pleasure as on the present occasion. We will
continue to do whatever is in our power, and we rely upon our friends to
help us.

       *       *       *       *       *


In the following passage of _All's Well that Ends Well_, Act i. Sc. 3.,
where Helena is confessing to Bertram's mother, the Countess, her love for
him, these two words occur in an unusual sense, if not in a sense peculiar
to the great poet:--

 "I love your son:--
  My friends were poor, but honest, so's my love:
  Be not offended, for it hurts not him,
  That he is lov'd of me: I follow him not
  By any token of presumptuous suit;
  Nor would I have him till I do deserve him:
  Yet never know how that desert may be.
  I know I love in vain; strive against hope;
  Yet, in this _captious and intenible_ sieve
  I still pour in the waters of my love,
  And lack not to lose still."

Johnson was perplexed about the word _captious_; "which (says he) I never
found in this sense, yet I cannot tell what to substitute, unless _carious_
for rotten!" Farmer supposed _captious_ to be a contraction of _capacious_!
Steevens believed that _captious_ meant _recipient_, capable of receiving;
which interpretation Malone adopts. Mr. Collier, in his recent edition of
Shakspeare, after stating Johnson's and Farmer's suggestions, says, "where
is the difficulty? It is true that this sense of _captious_ may not have an
exact parallel; but the intention of Shakspeare is very evident: _captious_
means, as Malone says, capable of _taking_ or _receiving_; and _intenible_
(printed _intemible_ in the first folio, and rightly in the second)
incapable of _retaining_. Two more appropriate epithets could hardly be
found, and a simile more happily expressive."

We no doubt all know, by intuition as it were, what Shakspeare meant; but
"the great master of English," as MR. HICKSON very justly calls him, would
never have used _captious_, as applied figuratively to a _sieve_, for
_capable of taking or receiving_.

_Intenible_, notwithstanding the hypercriticism of Mr. Nares (that "it is
incorrectly used by Shakspeare for _unable to hold_;" and that "it should
properly mean _not to be held_, as we now use _untenable_") was undoubtedly
used in the former sense, and it was most probably so accepted in the
poet's time; for in the _Glossagraphia Anglicana Nova_, 1719, we have
"Untenable, that _will not or cannot hold_ or be holden long."

With regard to _captious_, it is not so much a matter of surprise that none
of all these learned commentators should fail in their _guesses_ at the
meaning, as that none of them should have remarked that the sense of the
Latin _captiosus_, and of its congeners in Italian and old French, is
_deceitful_, _fallacious_; and Bacon uses the word for _insidious,
ensnaring_. There can be no doubt that this is the sense in which
Shakspeare used it. Helen speaks of her hopeless love for Bertram, and

    "I know I love in vain, strive against hope; yet in this _fallacious_
    and _unholding_ sieve I still pour in the waters of my love, and fail
    not to lose still."

When we speak of a _captious_ person, do we mean one _capable of taking or
receiving_? Then how much more absurd would it be to take it in that
impossible sense, when figuratively applied in the passage before us!
Bertram shows himself _incapable of receiving_ Helena's love: he is truly
_captious_ in that respect.

In French the word _captieux_, according to the Academy, is only applied to
language, though we may say _un homme captieux_ to signify a man who has
the art of _deceiving_ or leading into error by captious language.

It is not impossible that the poet may have had in his mind the fruitless
labour imposed upon the Danaïdes as a punishment, for it has been thus

    "These virgins, who in the flower of their age pour water into pierced
    vessels which they can never fill, what is it but to be always
    bestowing over love and benefits upon the ungrateful."


Mickleham, Oct. 4. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *


As the nooks and corners of London in olden times are now engaging the
quiet musings of most of the topographical brotherhood, perhaps you can
spare a nook or a corner of your valuable periodical for a few notes on the
Oratories of those good men and true--the Nonjurors. "These were honourable
men in their generation," and were made of most unbending materials.

{355} On the Feast of St. Matthias, Feb. 24, 1693, the consecrations of Dr.
George Hickes and Thomas Wagstaffe were solemnly performed according to the
rites of the Church of England, by Dr. William Lloyd, bishop of Norwich;
Dr. Francis Turner, bishop of Ely; and Dr. Thomas White, bishop of
Peterborough, at the Bishop of Peterborough's lodgings, at the Rev. William
Giffard's house at Southgate in Middlesex: Dr. Ken, bishop of Bath and
Wells, giving his consent.

Henry Hall was consecrated bishop in the oratory of the Rev. Father in
Christ, John B---- [Blackburne?], in Gray's Inn, on the festival of St.
Barnabas, June 11, 1725.

Hilkiah Bedford was consecrated in the oratory of the Rev. R---- R----
[Richard Rawlinson], in Gray's Inn, on the festival of St. Paul, Jan. 25,
1720. Ralph Taylor was also consecrated at the same time and place.

Henry Gandy was consecrated at his oratory in the parish of St. Andrew's,
Holborn, on the festival of St. Paul, Jan. 25, 1716.

Grascome was interrupted by a messenger whilst he was ministering to his
little congregation in Scroope's Court, near St. Andrew's Church.

Jeremy Collier officiated at Broad Street, London, assisted by the Rev.
Samuel Carte, the father of the historian.

Mr. Hawkes officiated for some time at his own house opposite to St. James'

On Easter-day, April 13, 1718, at the oratory of his brother, Mr. William
Lee, dyer, in Spitalfields, Dr. Francis Lee read a touching and beautiful
declaration of his faith, betwixt the reading of the sentences at the
offertory and the prayer for the state of Christ's church. It was addressed
to the Rev. James Daillon, Count de Lude, then officiating.

Charles Wheatly, author of _A Rational Illustration of the Book of Common
Prayer_, in a letter to Dr. Rawlinson, the nonjuring titular bishop of
London, says:

    "I believe most of the books in Mr. Laurence's catalogue were really in
    his library. Most of his chapel furniture I had seen; but his pix, and
    his cruet, his box for unguent, and oil, I suppose you do not inquire

Roger Laurence was the learned author of _Lay Baptism Invalid_. Query,
Where did he officiate?

The Rev. John Lindsay, the translator of Mason's _Vindication of the Church
of England_, for many years officiated as minister of a nonjuring
congregation in Trinity Chapel, Aldersgate Street, and is said to have been
their last minister.

Thoresby, in his _Diary_, May 18, 1714, says, "I visited Mr. Nelson (author
of the _Fasts and Festivals_), and the learned Dr. George Hickes, who not
being at liberty for half an hour, I had the benefit of the prayers in the
adjoining church, and when the Nonjuring _Conventicle_ was over, I visited
the said Dean Hickes, who is said to be bishop of ----" [Thetford]. Both
Nelson and Hickes resided at this time in Ormond Street; probably the
conventicle was at one of their houses. It should be noted that Thoresby,
having quitted the Conventicles of the Dissenters, had only recently joined
what he calls the Church _established by law_. He appears to have known as
much about the principles of the Nonjurors as he did of Chinese music.

Dr. Welton's chapel in Goodman's Fields being visited (1717) by Colonel
Ellis and other justices of the peace, with proper assistants, about two
hundred and fifty persons were found there assembled, of whom but forty
would take the oaths. The doctor refusing them also, was ordered to be
proceeded against according to law.

This reminds me of another Query. What has become of Dr. Welton's famous
Whitechapel altar-piece, which Bishop Compton drove out of his church. Some
doubts have been expressed whether that is the identical one in the Saint's
Chapel of St. Alban's Abbey. A friend has assured the writer that he had
seen it about twenty years ago, at a Roman Catholic meeting-house in an
obscure court at Greenwich. It is not there now. The print of it in the
library of the Society of Antiquaries is accompanied with these MS. lines
by Mr. Mattaire:--

 "To say the picture does to him belong,
  Kennett does Judas and the painter wrong;
  False is the image, the resemblance faint,
  Judas, compared to Kennett, was a saint."

One word more. The episcopal seal of the nonjuring bishops was a shepherd
with a sheep upon his shoulders. The crozier which had been used by them,
was, in 1839, in the possession of John Crossley Esq., of Scaitcliffe, near



       *       *       *       *       *


    "Butler's _Hudibras_, by Zach. Grey, LL.D. 2 vols. 8vo. Cambridge,

    "Best edition. Copies in fine condition are in considerable request.
    The cuts are beautifully engraved, and Hogarth is much indebted to the
    designer of them; but who he was does not appear."

The above remarks in Lowndes's _Bibliographical Manual_ having caught my
attention, they appeared to me somewhat obscure and contradictory; and as
they seemed rather disparaging to the fame of Hogarth, of whose works and
genius I am a warm admirer, I have taken some pains to ascertain what may
have been Mr. Lowndes's meaning.

On examining the plates in Dr. Grey's edition, they are all inscribed "_W.
Hogarth inv^t, J. Mynde sc^t_." {356} How, then, can Hogarth be said to be
_much indebted to the designer of them_, if we are to believe the words on
the plates themselves--"_W. Hogarth inv^t"?_

It is clear that Mr. Lowndes supposes the designer of these plates to have
been some person distinct from Hogarth; and he was right in his conjecture;
but he was ignorant of the name of the artist alluded to.

Whoever he was, he can have little claim to be regarded as the original
designer; he was rather employed as an expurgator; for these plates are
certainly copies of the two sets of plates invented and engraved by Hogarth
himself in 1726.

All that this second designer performed was, to revise the original designs
of Hogarth's, in order to remove some _glaring indecencies_; and this, no
doubt, is what Mr. Lowndes means, when he says that "_Hogarth is much
indebted to the designer of them_."

The following passage in a letter from Dr. Ducaral to Dr. Grey, dated Inner
Temple, May 10th, 1743, printed In Nichols's _Illustrations_, will furnish
us with _the name_ of the artist in question:--

    "I was at _Mr. Isaac Wood's the painter_, who showed me the twelve
    sketches of _Hudibras_, which he designs for you. I think they are
    extremely well adapted to the book, and that the designer shows how
    much he was master of the subject."

In the preface to this edition, Dr. Grey expresses his obligations "to the
ingenious _Mr. Wood, painter, of Bloomsbury-square_."

In the fourth volume of Nichols's _Illustrations of Literature_ are some
interesting letters from Thos. Potter, Esq., to Dr. Grey, which throw much
light on the subject of this edition of _Hudibras_.

I cannot conclude these observations without expressing my dissent from the
praise bestowed upon the engravings in this work. Mr. Lowndes says "_the
cuts are beautifully engraved_." With the exception of the head of Butler
by Vertue, the rest are very spiritless and indifferent productions.

J. T. A.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Overyssel Superstition._--Stolen bees will not thrive; they pine away and


_Death-bed Superstitions._--When a child is dying, people, in some parts of
Holland, are accustomed to shade it by the curtains from the parent's gaze;
the soul being supposed to linger in the body as long as a compassionate
eye is fixed upon it. Thus, in Germany, he who sheds tears when leaning
over an expiring friend, or, bending over the patient's couch, does but
wipe them off, enhances, they say, the difficulty of death's last struggle.
I believe the same poetical superstition is recorded in _Mary Barton, a
Tale of Manchester Life_.


_Popular Rhyme._--The following lines very forcibly express the condition
of many a "country milkmaid," when influence or _other considerations_
render her incapable of giving a final decision upon the claims of two
opposing suitors. They are well known in this district, and I have been
induced to offer them for insertion, in the hope that if any of your
correspondents are possessed of any variations or additional stanzas, they
may be pleased to forward them to your interesting publication.

 "Heigh ho! my heart is low,
  My mind runs all on _one_;
  W for William true,
  But T for my love Tom."

T. W.

Burnley, Lancashire

_Death-bed Mystery._--It may, perhaps, interest MR. SANSOM to be informed
that the appearance described to him is mentioned as a known fact in one of
the works of the celebrated mystic, Jacob Behmen, _The Three Principles_,
chap. 19. "Of the going forth of the Soul." I extract from J. Sparrow's
translations., London, 1648.

    "Seeing then that Man is so very earthly, therefore he hath none but
    earthly knowledge, except he be regenerated in the Gate of Deep. He
    always supposeth that the Soul (at the deceasing of the Body) goeth
    only out at the Mouth, and he understandeth nothing concerning its deep
    Essences above the Elements. _When he seeth a blue Vapor go forth out
    of the Mouth of a dying Man_ (which maketh a strong smell all over the
    chamber), then he supposeth that is the Soul."


_Bradshaw Family._--There is a popular belief in this immediate part of the
country, which was formerly a stronghold of the Jacobites, that no Bradshaw
has ever flourished since the days of the regicide. They point to old halls
formerly in possession of Bradshaws, now passed into other hands, and shake
their heads and say, "It is a bad name,--no Bradshaw will come to good." I
heard this speech only yesterday in connexion with Halton Hall (on the
Lune); but the feeling is common, and not confined to the uneducated

Haigh Hall remains in the possession of the descendants of the family from
which Judge Bradshaw was descended, because, so said my informant, the
heiress married a "loyal Lindsay" (the Earl of Balcarras).

E. C. G.


       *       *       *       *       *


My signature [Greek: S]. having been adopted by another correspondent, I
have been obliged to discontinue it.

My other signature [Greek: Ph]., which I have used since your commencement,
is in your last number applied to the contribution of another gentleman,
although the same number contains two articles of mine with that signature.

As this is palpably inconvenient, pray accept the following


  A contributor sending a Note or a Query,
    Considers what signature's better;
  And lest his full name too oft should prove weary,
    He sometimes subscribes with a letter.

  This letter in English or Greek thus selected,
    As his personal mark he engages;
  From piracy, therefore, it should be protected,
    Throughout all the rest of your pages.

  By a contrary practice confusion is sown,
    And annoyance to writers of spirit,
  Who wish not to claim any Notes but their own,
    Or of less or superior merit.

  I submit in such cases no writer would grumble,
    But give you his hearty permission,
  When two correspondents on one mark should stumble,
    To make to the last an addition.

  You are bound to avoid ev'ry point that distresses,
    And prevent all collision that vexes,
  Preserving the right of each collar of SS,
    And warding the blows of cross XX.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Rollin's Ancient History and History of the Arts and Sciences._--It may be
useful to note, for the benefit of some of your student readers, that the
most procurable editions of Rollin's _Ancient History_ are deficient,
inasmuch as they do not contain his History of the Arts and Sciences, which
is an integral part of the work. After having possessed several editions of
the work of Rollin, I now have got Blackie's edition of 1837, in 3 vols.
8vo., edited by Bell; and I learn from its preface that this is the only
edition published since 1740 containing the History of the Arts and

How comes it that the editions since 1740 have been so castrated?


Liverpool, October 16. 1850.

_Jezebel._--The name of this queen is, I think, incorrectly translated in
all the _Bible Dictionaries_ and _Cyclopædias_ that have come under my
notice. It was common amongst all ancient nations to give _compound_ names
to persons, partly formed from the names of their respective _divinities_.
This observation applies particularly to the Assyrians, Babylonians, and
their dependencies, together with the Phoenicians, Carthaginians,
Egyptians, and Greeks. Hence we find, both in scripture and profane
history, a number of names compounded of _Baal_, such as _Baal_-hanan, Gen.
xxxvi. 38., the gift, grace, mercy, or favour of _Baal_; the name of the
celebrated Carthaginian general, Hanni_bal_, is the same name transposed.
The father of the Tyrian prince, Hiram, was called Abi_bal_, my father is
_Baal_, or _Baal_ is my father. Esh_baal_, the fire of _Baal_; Jerub_baal_,
let _Baal_ contend, or defend his cause; Meri_baal_, he that resists
_Baal_, or strives against the _idol_, were Hebrew names, apparently
imposed to ridicule those given in honor of _Baal_. The father of _Jezebel_
was called Eth_baal_, Kings xvi. 31., (classically, Itho_balus_,) with
_Baal_, towards _Baal_, or him _that rules_. Lastly, Hasdru_bal_ signifies
help or assistance of _Baal_. Will some of the talented contributors to
"NOTES AND QUERIES" inform me what is the _composition_ and _meaning_ of
_Jezebel_, as it has hitherto baffled my own individual researches? Is it
the contracted _feminine form_ of Hasdru_bal_?

W. G. H.

_Clarendon, Oxford Edition of 1815._--The following curious fact, relating
to the Oxford edition of Lord Clarendon's History in 1815, was communicated
to me by a gentleman who was then officially interested in the publication,
and personally cognisant of the circumstances.

In the year 1815, the University of Oxford determined to reprint
Clarendon's _History of the Rebellion_, and to add to it that of the Irish
rebellion; but as it was suspected by one of the delegates of the press,
that the edition from which they were printing the "Irish Rebellion" was
spurious, as it attributed the origin of the rebellion _to the Protestants
instead of the Catholics_; a much earlier copy was procured from Dublin,
through the chaplain of the then Lord Lieutenant, which _reversed the
accusation_ which was contained in the copy from which the University had
been about to print.

J. T. A.

September 30. 1850.

_Macaulay's Country Squire._--I suppose I may take it for granted that all
the world has long since been made merry by Mr. Macaulay's description of
"the country squire on a visit to London in 1685." (_History of England_,
vol. i. p. 369.)

I am not aware that Steele's description of a country gentleman under
similar circumstances has ever been referred to; it is certainly far from
being as graphic as Mr. Macaulay's; but the one may at all events serve to
illustrate the other, and to prove that Urbs had not made any very great
progress in _urbanity_ between 1685 and 1712.

    "If a country gentleman appears a little curious in observing the
    edifices, signs, clocks, coaches, and dials, {358} it is not to be
    imagined how the polite rabble of this town, who are acquainted with
    these objects, ridicule his rusticity. I have known a fellow with a
    burden on his head steal a hand down from his load, and slily twirl the
    cock of a squire's hat behind him; and while the offended person is
    swearing or out of countenance, all the wag-wits in the highway are
    grinning in applause of the ingenious rogue that gave him the tip, and
    the folly of him who had not eyes all round his head to prevent
    receiving it."--_Spectator_, No. 354.


October 11.

_Miching Mallecho._--The Writer of the review of _Urquhart's Travels_ in
the _Quart. Rev._ for March 1850, who is, in all probability, identical
with the author of the _Handbook of Spain_, felicitously suggests that
_Miching Mallecho_ is a mere misprint for the Spanish words _Mucho
Malhecho_, _much mischief_: _Hamlet_, iii. 2. Imagining that I had seen
this ingenious conjecture somewhere in print before, I referred to, and was
disappointed when I found it not in Knight's _Shakspeare_ (library ed.).
Recently, in looking over Dr. Maginn's admirable dissections of _Dr.
Farmer's Essay on the Learning of Shakspeare_, I discovered what I was in
search of, and beg to present it to the notice of your readers.

    "That the text is corrupt, I am sure; and I think Dr. Farmer's
    substitution of _mimicking malhecco_, a most unlucky attempt at
    emendation. In the old copies it is _munching malicho_, in which we
    find traces of the true reading, _mucho malhecho_, much mischief.

    "'Marry, _mucho malhécho_--it means mischief.'"--_Fraser's Magazine_,
    Dec. 1839, p. 654.

J. M. B.

       *       *       *       *       *



My query as to the authorship of _The Adventures of Gaudentio di Lucca_ has
drawn so satisfactory a reply from your correspondents (whom I beg to thank
most heartily for the information they have communicated), that I am
induced to ask you to aid me in ascertaining the authorships of the
following works of which I have copies:--

    "Histoire de l'Inquisition et son Origine. A Cologne, chez Pierre
    Marteau, M.DC.XCIII." 1 vol. 12mo.

Is this the same work as that mentioned in Watt's _Bib. Brit._ as--

    "The History of the Inquisition and its Origin, by James Marsollier,
    1693." 12mo.?

I have often searched for a copy of this work in English, but have never
found it. Was it ever translated into English?


I should like to know something of the authorship of these volumes, and of
the circumstances under which they were published.

    "The Slaughter-House, or a brief description of the Spanish
    Inquisition, &c., gathered together by the pains and study of James
    Salgado." N.D.

The biographical dictionaries within my reach give no account of Salgado.
Who was he?

    "Historia Persecutionium Ecclesiæ Bohemicæ jam inde à primordiis
    Conversionis suæ ad Christianismum hoc est, 894, ad annum usque 1632,
    Ferdinando Secundo Austriaco regnante, &c., anno Domini M D CXLVIII." 1
    vol. 32mo.

I have an English translation of this small work, published in 1650. Can
any of your readers inform me who were the authors? (The preface concludes,
"In our banishment in the year 1632. N. N. N., &c.")


Liverpool, October, 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Osnaburg Bishopric._--Can any of your correspondents inform me who
succeeded the late Duke of York as Bishop of Osnaburg? how the Duke of York
attained it? and whether there were any ecclesiastical duties attached to
it? or whether the appointment was a lay one?

B. M.

_Meaning of "Farlief"._--May I ask for a definition of the word "farlief",
used in Devonshire to designate some service or payment to the lord of the
manor by his copyholders, apparently analogous to the old feudal "relief"?

V. J. S.

_Margaret Dyneley._--In Stanford Dingley Church, Berkshire, there is a
"brass" of _Margaret Dyneley_, from whose family, I presume, the parish has
received its appellation of _Dingley_. As, however, I have not yet
succeeded in obtaining any account as to this lady or her ancestors, I
should feel obliged by any information which your learned correspondents
only be able to afford.

J. H. K.

_Tristan d'Acunha._--COSMOPOLITE will be glad to have references to any
authentic sources of information respecting the island of Tristan d'Acunha.

_Production of Fire by Friction._--In most of the accounts written by
persons who have visited the South Sea Islands, we meet with descriptions
of the method adopted by the natives to produce fire by the rapid attrition
of two bits of wood. Now I wish to ask whether any person has ever seen the
same effect produced in this country by similar means? If not, to what
cause is the difficulty--if such difficulty really exists--attributable?

{359} Does it depend upon the nature of the wood used, the condition of the
atmosphere, or the dexterity of the operator? I have not quoted any
particular passages, as they are sufficiently familiar to readers of
voyages and travels in the South Sea hemisphere; and although they exhibit
some diversity in the _modus operandi_, the principle involved is
essentially the same in each mode. I need scarcely add, that I am of course
well aware of the means by which, whether by accident or design, heat is
ordinarily generated by friction in this country.



_Murderer hanged when pardoned._--I have a copy of the _Protestant's
Almanack_ for 1680, full of MS. notes of the period, written by one of the
Crew family. Among other matter it states:

    "A man was hung for a murder in Southwark (I think), notwithstanding
    the king's pardon had been obtained for him, and he actually had it in
    his pocket at the time."

Will some kind friend oblige me with further information of this case, or
tell me where I may obtain it?


_Burke, Passage from._--The following passage is quoted as a motto _from

    "The swarthy daughters of Cadmus may hang their trophies on high, for
    when all the pride of the chisel and the pomp of heraldry yield to the
    silent touches of time, a single line, a half worn-out inscription,
    remain faithful to their trust."

In what composition of Burke's is it to be found?


_Licensing of Books._--Can any of your readers inform me what was the law
in 1665 relative to the licensing of books? also when it was introduced (or
revived), and when modified? I find in a manual of devotion printed in that
year the following page, after the preface:--

    "I have perused this book, and finding nothing in it but what may tend
    to the increase of private devotion and piety, I recommend it to my
    Lord the Bishop of London for his licence to have it printed."


  Tho. Grigg, R. P. D. Hamff.
      Ep. Lond. a Sac. Dom.
  Ex Ædibus, Lond.
      Mart. 28. 1665."

R. N.

_Captain John Stevens._--I should be glad to learn some account of _Capt.
John Stevens_, the continuator of Dugdale's _Monasticon_ in 1722. He is
generally considered to have edited the English abridgment of the
_Monasticon_, in one vol. 1718, though a passage in Thoresby's _Diary_
mentions that it contained "some reflections upon the Reformation, which
the _Spanish Priest_, who is said to be translator and abridger of the
three Latin volumes, would not omit."

A note by the editor of Thoresby's _Diary_ says that--

    "Mr. Gough was uncertain by whom this Translation and Abridgment was
    prepared. He supposed that it was done by Captain Stevens, the author,
    or rather compiler of a valuable, Supplement to the _Monasticon_, in
    which he was assisted by Thoresby."

J. T. A.

_Le Bon Gendarme._--Close to the boundary stone which separates the
parishes of Fulham and Hammersmith, and facing the lane which leads to
Brook Green, on the Hammersmith Road, is a way-side public-house, known as
"The Black Bull." So late as three months ago, in addition to the sign of
the Black Bull, there was painted over the door, but somewhat high up, a
worn-out inscription, "Le Bon Gendarme," as if that had originally been the
name of the inn. These words have been lately effaced altogether: but as
they no doubt relate to some circumstance or adventure which had happened
in or near to the place, perhaps some reader of the "NOTES AND QUERIES"
will have the goodness to satisfy the curiosity of one who has asked at the
inn in vain for a solution.

U. U. C.

University Club.

       *       *       *       *       *



The variation in the first stanza of Fairfax's _Godfrey of Bulloigne_ has
been long known to bibliographers, and was pointed out in _The Critical
Review_ more than thirty years ago. I cannot fix on the particular number,
but it contained a long notice of the version of Tasso by Fairfax, and the
very stanzas extracted by T. N. The translator could not please himself
with the outset of his undertaking, and hence the recorded substitution;
but it is not known that he carried his fastidiousness so far as to furnish
a _third_ version of the first stanza, as well as of the "Argument" of the
introductory canto, differing from both the others. In the instance pointed
out by T. N. the substitution was effected by pasting the _approved_ stanza
over the _disapproved_ stanza; but the _third_ version was given by
reprinting the whole leaf, which contains other variations of typography,
besides such as it was thought necessary to make in the first stanza.

I formerly had copies of the book, dated 1600, including all three
variations; but the late Mr. Wordsworth having one day looked particularly
at that with the reprinted leaf, and expressing a {360} strong wish to
possess it, I gave it to him, and I presume that it remained in his library
at his death. What I speak of happened full twenty years ago.

_The Critical Review_ of the date I refer to (I am pretty confident that it
was of the early part of 1817) contained a good deal of information
regarding Fairfax and his productions; but it did not mention one fact of
importance to show the early estimation and popularity of his translation
of the _Gerusalemme Liberata_, viz., that although it was published in
1600, it is repeatedly quoted in _England's Parnassus_, printed in the same
year, and containing extracts, as most people are aware, from all the
distinguished poets of that day, and somewhat earlier. This circumstance
ascertains also that Fairfax's Tasso came out before _England's Parnassus_,
although both bear the date of 1600 on the title-pages.


_Fairfax's Tasso._--In my copy of the second edition, 1624, the first
stanza of the first book is given precisely as in Mr. Knight's reprint. But
in the very beautiful edition published by Bensley, 1817, and edited by Mr.
Singer, that stanza which T. N. terms an "elegant variation," introduces
the canto. The editor's preface states that the _first_ edition, 1600, had
been followed in that re-impression, "admitting some few corrections of
errors, and emendations of orthography, from the _second_, I printed in
1624." Of this second edition it is remarked that "it appears to have been
revised by some careful corrector of the press; yet nothing material is
changed but the orthography of particular words." No notice is taken of the
difference between the first stanza of the second edition, and that of the
first edition, identical with the cancel in T. N.'s copy. Possibly, _both_
the copies of these two editions, which happened to come under the editor's
notice, had this cancel, and so presented no variation from each other. If,
however, _all_ the copies of the second edition contained the stanza as
given by Mr. Knight, and Mr. Singer's opinion (drawn from the dedicatory
verses to Prince Charles, prefixed to _some_ copies of the second edition)
that this edition _was_ seen, and probably corrected, by the author, be
well-founded, it would seem to follow that Fairfax finally preferred the
stanza in this its first and later state, and as it appears in Mr. Knight's
edition. If the "cancel-slip" be an "elegant" variation, may not the
original stanza be regarded as more vigorous?

G. A. S.

_Fairfax's Tasso._--In the elegant edition published by Mr. Singer in 1817,
the first stanza is printed according to the variation noticed by your
correspondent T. N. (Vol. ii., p. 325.), "I sing the warre," &c., and the
original stanza is printed at the end of the first book, with a note
stating that the pasted slip is found "in most copies" of the first
edition. My copy contains no such peculiarity, but it is of course possible
that the pasted slip may have been removed. The second edition (folio,
London, 1624) has the stanza in the form in which it originally stood in
the first, beginning "The sacred armies," &c.

J. F. M

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ii., p. 310.)

Your correspondent D. asks whether the word _ale-draper_ was ever in "good
use." The only place in which I can find it is Bailey's _Dictionary_, where
it occurs thus:

    "Ale-draper (a humorous name), a seller of malt liquors; an
    alehouse-keeper or victualler."

The humour, I suppose, consists in applying to one kind of occupation that
which was commonly given to another; in taking _draper_ from the service of
cloth, and pressing it by force into that of _ale_. That it was ever
considered as a word of respectable standing, can hardly be imagined. In
such writers as Tom Brown it is most likely to occur.

1. With reference to Eugene Aram, D.'s remark about the
_over-ingeniousness_ of his defence has been anticipated by Paley, who was
present at the trial, and said that Aram would not have been hanged had he
less studiously defended himself. That laboured address to the jury must
have employed his thoughts for years. I should like very much to know
whether anyone has ever attempted to verify the references which he gives
to the cases in which he says that bones have been found. The style of the
speech has been much praised, but is surely not very surprising when it is
considered that Johnson had previously written the _Rambler_. The
composition wants ease.

2. Ever since I began to read about Eugene Aram, and that is some years
ago, I have had a settled opinion that his attainments, and perhaps his
abilities, had been greatly overrated. He was doubtless a man of
considerable mental powers; but we cannot but suspect that had he acquired
all the learning which is attributed to him, he would have attracted more
notice than it was his fortune to obtain.

3. Mr. Scatchard's attempts, and all other attempts, to clear him from
"blood-guilty stain," must be equally futile, for he himself confessed his
guilt while he was in prison.

Some time ago, a dozen years or more, there appeared in the _Literary
Gazette_, as a communication from a correspondent, an anecdote concerning
Aram, which well deserves to be repeated. During the time that he was in
the school of Lynn, it was the custom for the head-master, at the
termination of every half-year, to invite the parents of the boys to an
entertainment, and all {361} who accepted the invitation were expected to
bring with them the money due on account of their sons, which, _postquam
exempta fames epulis_, they paid into the head-master's hands. The master
would thus retire to rest with a considerable sum in his possession. On one
of these occasions, after he had gone to his chamber and supposed that all
the family were in bed, he heard a noise in a passage not far distant, and,
going out to see what was the cause of it, found Aram groping about in the
dark, who, on being asked what he wanted, said that he had been obliged to
leave his room on a necessary occasion, and had missed his way to the place
which he sought. The passage was not one into which he was likely to wander
by mistake, but the master accepted his excuse, and thought no more of the
matter till Aram was arrested for the robbery and murder of Clarke, when he
immediately recollected the circumstance, and suspected that he had
intended on that night to commit another robbery or murder. I have not the
number of the _Literary Gazette_ in which this statement was given to refer
to, but I am sure that I have repeated the substance of it correctly, and
remember that it was inserted as being worthy of credit. It is another
illustration of the fact that the nature of a man is unchangeable.

Bulwer's novel, which elevates Aram from a school-assistant into a private
gentleman, may have pleased those, if there were such, who knew nothing of
Arum's acts before they began to read it. But all who knew what Aram was,
must be disgusted at the threshold. I regarded the book, at the time of its
appearance, as one of the most presumptuous falsifications of biography
that had ever been attempted. It is not easy to see why Bulwer might not
have made an equally interesting story, if he had kept Aram in his proper

J. S. W.


       *       *       *       *       *


Permit me to make a few remarks on the word _gradely_:--

1. It seems to have no connexion with the Latin noun _gradus_, Angl.
_grade_, step.

2. Its first syllable, _grade_, is both a substantive and an adjective; and
_gradely_ itself both adjective and adverb, as _weakly_, _sickly_, _godly_,

3. It is not confined to Lancashire or to England, but appears in Scotland
as _graith_ (ready), _graith_ (furniture); whence _graithly_ (readily), to
_graith_, _grathe_, or _graid_ (prepare), &c. See Jamieson's _Sc. Dict._
and _Supplement_.

4. It is in fact the Anglo-Saxon _gerad_, which is both substantive and
adjective. As a substantive it means condition, arrangement, plan, reason,
&c. As an adjective, it means prudent, well-prepared, expert, exact, &c.
The _ge_ (Gothic _ga_) is merely the intensive prefix; the root being _rad_
or _rath_. The form in _ly_ (adjective or adverb), without the prefix _g_,
appears in the Anglo-Saxon _raedlic_, prudent, expert; _raedlice_,
expertly. This interesting root, which appears as _re_, _ra_, _red_, _rad_,
_rath_, &c.; sometimes by transposition, as _er_, _ar_, _erd_, &c. (perhaps
also as _reg_, _rag_, _erg_, _arc_, &c.), seems to represent the nobler
qualities of man: thought, reason, counsel, speech, deliberate action; and
perhaps, also, government.

Thus in the Semitic family of languages we have the radicals _rââ_ (saw,
foresaw, counselled); _râdhâ_ (helped, ruled); _râthâd_ (arranged); _râto_
(directed, instructed); and others, with their numerous derivatives.

The Indo-European family gives us, in Sanscrit, _râ_ or _râe_ (ponder,
experience); _rât_ (speak); _râdh_ (accomplish); _râj_ (excel); _râgh_
(attain, reach); and others, with derivatives. In Greek, _rheô_ (speak),
transp. _erô_ or _werô_ (whence _verbum_, _wort_, _word_); _rherô_ or
_rhedô_ (do), transp. _erdô_, also _ergô_ (whence _werke_, _work_); _archô_
(rule), and others, with derivatives. In Latin, _reor_ (think), whence
_ratus_ and _ratio_ (reason); _res_ (thing, action); _rego_ (rule), with
derivatives (_rex_, _regula_, _rectus_, &c.). In Celtic (Welsh), _rhe_
(active); _rheswm_ (reason); _rhaith_ (judgment, right); _rhi_ (prince);
_rhag_ (van, before). In Sclavonic, _rada_, _rade_ (counsel); _redian_ (to
direct), &c.

In the Teutonic dialects (Gothic, Anglo-Saxon, German, Dutch, Swedish,
Danish, Icelandic, Scotch, and English) the forms of this root are very
numerous. Thus we have, in Anglo-Saxon, _rad_, _raed_ (counsel);
_raedlich_, _grad_, as above, whence _geradien_ (to prepare), and other
words. In German, _rede_ (discourse); _rath_ (counsel); _reden_ (to speak);
_regel_ (a rule); _recht_ (right); _gerecht_ (just); _gerade_ (exactly),
&c.; _bereiten_ (prepare), &c. In English, _ready_, _read_, _rule_,
_right_, _riddle_, _reason_, _rather_, to which we must add _gradely_. In
Scotch, _red_, _rede_, _rade_, _rath_, &c., with the words mentioned above;
of which _graith_ (furniture) is the German _geräth_. Your readers will
derive much information on this class of words by reference to Jamieson,
under _red_, _rede_, _rath_, _graith_, &c.


Shrewsbury, Oct. 19.

_Gradely_.--It seems rather a rash step to differ from the mass of critical
authority with which your last number has brought this shy, old-fashioned
provincial word into a blaze of literary notoriety. Yet I cannot help
conceiving the original form of this adverb to be _grathedly_ ([Old
English: geraðlic], root [Old English: rað], with the preteritive prefix
[Old English: ge]) or _gerathely_. In our Yorkshire dialect, to _grathe_
(pronounced _gradhe_) means, to make ready, to put in a state of _order_ or
_fitness_. A man inconveniently accoutred or furnished with implements for
the performance of some operation on which he was employed, {362} observed
to me the other day, "I's ill grathed for't job"--rather a terse Saxon
contrast to my latinized paraphrase.

_Grathedly_ would then mean, "In a state of good order, fitness, readiness,
or perfection."

To the cognate German _gerade_ adv., I find the senses, "directly, just,
exactly, _perfectly_, rightly."

The prevailing impression given by your numerous testimonials as to the
character of the word _gradely_, is one of decency, order, rightness,

I fancy the whole family (who might be called the children of _rath_), viz.
[Old English: rað], _rathe_ (_gerathe, grathedly, gradely_), _rather_ (only
a Saxon form of _readier_), have as a common primeval progenitor the
Sanscrit [Sanskrit: radh] (_radh_), which is interpreted "a process towards
perfection;" in other words, "a becoming ready."


Wydale, Oct. 21.

P.S.--_Greadly_ is probably a transposition for _geradly_. The Yorkshire
pronunciation of _gradely_ is almost as if written _grared-ly_.

I think it probable that the words _greed, greedily_, are from the same
radicle. By the way, is _radix_ perhaps derived from [Sanskrit: rad]
(_rad_), a tooth (from the fang-like form of roots), whence _rodere_ and
possibly _radius_?

       *       *       *       *       *


Although the suggestion made by C. (Vol. ii., p. 330.), _viz._ that the
Collar of Esses had a "mechanical" origin, resulting from the mode of
forming "the chain," and that "the _name_ means no more than that the links
were in the shape of the letter S.," could only be advocated by one
unacquainted with the real formation of the collar, yet, as I am now
pledged before the readers of "NOTES AND QUERIES" as the historiographer of
livery collars, it may be expected that I should make some reply. This may
be accompanied with the remark, that, about the reign of Henry VIII., a
collar occurs, which might be adduced in support of the theory suggested by
the REV. MR. ELLACOMBE, and adopted by C. It looks like a collar formed of
esses; but it is not clear whether it was meant to do so, or was merely a
rich collar of twisted gold links. That was the age of ponderous gold
collars, but which were arbitrary features of ornamental costume, not
collars of livery. Such a collar, however, resembles a series of esses
placed obliquely and interlaced, as thus: _SSSS_; not laid flat on their
sides, as figured by C. Again, it is true an (endless) _chain_ of linked
esses was formed merely by attaching the letters [three letter Ss
horizontally] like hooks together. This occurs on the cup at Oriel College,
Oxford, engraved in Shaw's _Ancient Furniture_ in Shelton's _Oxonia
Illustrata_, and in the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for August last; but the
connexion of this with the English device is at least very doubtful. The
cup is not improbably of foreign workmanship, and Menneus assigns such a
collar to the knights of Cyprus; even there the S was not without its
attributed import:

    "Per literam autem S. quæ _Silentii_ apud Romanos nota fuit, secretum
    societatis et amicitiæ simulachrum, individuamque pro patriæ defensione
    _Societatem_ denotari."--_Fr. Mennenii Deliciæ Equest. Ordinum_, 1613.
    12mo. p. 153.

However, the answer to the suggestion of MR. ELLACOMBE and C. consists in
this important distinction, that the Lancastrian livery collar was _not a
chain_ of linked esses, but a collar of leather or other stiff material,
upon which the letters were _distinctly_ figured at certain intervals; and
when it came to be made of metal only, the letters were still kept distinct
and upright. On John of Ghent's collar, in the window of old St. Paul's
(which I have already mentioned in p. 330.), there are only five,

  S       S       S       S       S,

at considerable intervals. On the collar of the poet Gower the letters
occur thus,--

  SSSSS       SSSSS.

On that of Queen Joan of Navarre, at Canterbury, thus,--

  S | S | S | S | S | S |

There is then, I think, little doubt that this device was the _symbolum_ or
_nota_ of some word of which S was the initial letter; whether _Societas_,
or _Silentium_, or _Souvenance_, or _Soveraigne_, or _Seneschallus_, or
whatever else ingenuity or fancy may suggest, this is the question,--a
question which it is scarcely possible to settle authoritatively without
the testimony of some unequivocal contemporary statement. But I flatter
myself that I have now clearly shown that the esses were neither the _links
of a chain_ nor yet (as suggested in a former paper) identical with the
_gormetti fremales_, or horse-bridles, which are said to have formed the
livery collar of the King of Scots.


 "Christus purpureum gemmati textus in auro
  Signabat Labarum, Clypeorum insignia Christus
  Scripserat; ardebat summis crux addita cristis."

By the same sort of reasoning--viz. conjecture--that MR. JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS
adheres to the opinion that the Collar of SS. takes its name from the word
_Seneschallus_, it might be contended that the initial letters of the lines
above quoted mystically stand for "Collar, S. S." Enough, however, has
already been written on this unmeaning point to show that some of us are
"great gowks," or, in other words, stupid guffs, to waste so much pen, ink,
and paper on the subject.

There are other topics, however, connected with the Collar of SS. which are
of real interest to a {363} numerous section of the titled aristocracy in
the United Kingdom; and it is with these, as bearing upon the heraldic and
gentilitial rights of the subject, that I am desirous to grapple. MR.
NICHOLS, and those who pin faith upon his _dicta_, hold that the Collar of
SS. was a livery ensign bestowed by our kings upon certain of their
retainers, in much the same sense and fashion as Cedric the Saxon is said
to have given a collar to Wamba, the son of Witless. For myself, and all
those entitled to carry armorial bearings in the kingdom, I repudiate the
notion that the knightly golden Collar of SS. was ever so conferred or
received. Further, I maintain that there was a distinction between what MR.
NICHOLS calls "the Livery Collar of SS.," and the said knightly golden
Collar of SS., as marked and broad as is the difference between the Collar
of the Garter and the collar of that four-footed dignitary which bore the

 "I am the Prince's Dog at Kew,
  Pray whose Dog are you?"

In his last communication MR. NICHOLS lays it down that "livery collars
were perfectly distinct from collars of knighthood;" adding, they did not
exist until a subsequent age. Of course the collars of such royal orders of
knighthood as have been established since the days of our Lancastrian kings
had necessarily no existence at the period to which he refers. But Gough
(not MR. GOUGH NICHOLS) mentions that the Collar of SS. was upon the
monument of Matilda Fitzwalter, of Dunmow, who lived in the reign of King
John; and Ashmole instances a monument in the collegiate church at Warwick,
with the portraiture of Margaret, wife of Sir William Peito, said to have
been sculptured there in the reign of Edward III. What credit then are we
to attach to MR. N.'s averment, that the "Collar of Esses was not a badge
of knighthood, nor a badge of personal merit, but was a collar of livery,
and the idea typified by livery was feudal dependence, or what we now call
party?" What sort of feudal dependence was typified by the ensign of
equestrian nobility upon the necks of the two ladies named, or upon the
neck of Queen Joan of Navarre? MR. NICHOLS states that in the first
Lancastrian reigns the Collar of SS. had no pendant, though, afterwards, it
had a pendant called "the king's beast." On the effigy of Queen Joan the
collar certainly has no pendant, except the jewelled ring of a trefoil
form. But on the ceiling and canopy of the tomb of Henry IV., his arms, and
those of his queen (Joan of Navarre), are surrounded with Collars of SS.,
the king's terminating in an eagle volant (rather an odd sort of a beast),
whilst the pendant of the queen's has been defaced.

MR. NICHOLS, in a postscript, puts this query to the antiquaries of
Scotland: "Can any of them help me to the authority from which Nich. Upton
derived his livery collar of the King of Scotland de gormettis fremalibus
equorum?" If Mr. N. puts this query from no other data than the citation
given in my former paper upon this subject (vide Vol. ii., p. 194.), he
need not limit it to the antiquaries of Scotland. Upton's words are as

    "Rex etiam scocie dare solebat pro signo vel titulo suo, unum collarium
    de gormettis fremalibus equorum de auro vel argento."

This passage neither indicates that a King of Scotland is referred to, nor
does it establish that the collar was given as a livery sign or title. It
merely conveys something to this purport, that the king was accustomed to
give to his companions, as a sign or title, a collar of gold or silver
shaped like the bit of a horse's bridle.

MR. NICHOLS takes exception to Favine as an heraldic authority. Could that
erudite author arise from his grave, I wonder how he would designate MR.
NICHOLS'S lucubrations on livery collars, &c. But hear Matthew Paris: that
learned writer says Equites Aurati were known in his day "by a gold ring on
their thumbs, by a chain of gold about their necks, and gilt spurs." Let us
look to Scotland: Nesbit says, vol. ii. p. 87.:

    "Our knights were no less anciently known by belts than by their gilt
    spurs, swords, &c. In the last place is the collar, an ensign of
    knightly dignity among the Germans, Gauls, Britains, Danes, Goths, &c.
    In latter times it was the peculiar fashion of knights amongst us to
    wear golden collars composed of SS."

Brydson, too, in his _Summary View of Heraldry in reference to the Usages
of Chivalry, and the General Economy of the Feudal System_, (a work of
uncommon ingenuity, deserving to be called the Philosophy of Heraldry),
observes, p. 186, ch. v., that knights were distinguished by an investiture
which implied superior merit and address in arms--by the attendance of one
or more esquires--by the title SIR--by wearing a crest--a helmet of
peculiar form--apparel peculiarly splendid--polished armour of a particular
construction--gilded spurs--and a GOLDEN COLLAR.

He states, ch. iv., p. 132.:

    "In the fifth dissertation of Du Cange it is shown that the splendid
    habits which the royal household anciently received at the great
    festivals, were called 'LIVERIES,' being delivered or presented from
    the king."

But he nowhere countenances for a moment any of the errors entertained by
MR. JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS, which these remarks are intended to explode.

MR. NICHOLS has not yet answered B.'s query. Nor can he answer it until he
previously admits that he is wrong upon the four points enumerated in my
opening article (Vol. ii., p. 194.).


       *       *       *       *       *

{364} Replies to Minor Queries

_Symbols of the Evangelists_ (Vol. i., pp. 375. 471.; vol. ii., pp. 13. 45.
205.).--Should the inquirer not have access to the authorities which, as is
stated in p. 471., are referred to by DR. WORDSWORTH, or not have leisure
to avail himself of his copious references, he may be glad to find that in
the _Thesaurus Theologico Philologicus_ (vol. ii. pp. 57.-62.), there is a
dissertation containing an analysis of more than fifty authors, who have
illustrated the visions of Ezekiel and St. John, and an explanation of the
Sententiarum Divortia of Irenæus, Jerome, and Augustine, respecting the
application of the symbols, or of the quæstio vexata--quodnam animal cui
Evangelistæ comparandum sit. Thomasius, the author of this dissertation,
suggests that to recall to mind the symbol applied to Luke, we should
remember the expression denoting elephantes, _boves lucas_. Abundant
information is also supplied on this subject by that hierophantic
naturalist, Aldrovandus, _de Quadrup. Bisulcis_, p. 180. et seq. Nor should
Daubuz be neglected, the learned commentator on the Revelations.

T. J.

_Becket's Mother_ (Vol. ii., pp. 106. 270.).--In support of the view of MR.
FOSS with regard to Becket's mother, against that propounded by J. C. R.
(Vol. ii., p. 270.), I would mention that _Acon_ is the ordinary mediæval
name for the city of _Acre_, and appears in the earlier deeds relating to
the hospital in Cheapside, while the modern form occurs in those of later
date; _e.g._ Pat. 18 Edw. II., "S. Thomæ Martyris _de Aconia_;" Pat. 14
Edw. III., "S. Thomæ Martyris Cantuarensis de _Acon_;" but Rot. Parl. 23
Hen. VI., "Saint Thomas the Martir of _Acres_," "the Martyr of Canterbury
of _Acres_." (Deeds in Dugdale, _Monast._ vi. 646, 647.)

This would seem to identify the distinctive name of the hospital with the
city in the Holy Land but the following passage from the _Chronicle_ of
Matthew of Westminster (p. 257.) seems quite conclusive on this point, as
it connects that city with Becket in a manner beyond all dispute:--

    "Anno gratiæ 1190. Obsessa est _Acon_ circumquaque Christianorum
    legionibus, et arctatur nimis. _Capella Sancti Thomæ martyris ibidem

If, as J. C. R. supposes, there was no connexion between the saint and Acre
in Syria, the foundation of a chapel to his honour in or near that city
would seem quite unaccountable. However this may be, the truth of the
beautiful legend of his mother can, I fear, be never proved or disproved.

While on this subject, let me, at the risk of being tedious to your
readers, quote the amusing tale told by Latimer, with regard to this
hospital, in his "Sixth Sermon preached before Edward VI." (Parker Soc ed.,
p. 201.):--

    "I had rather that ye should come [to hear the Word of God] as the tale
    is by the gentlewoman of London: one of her neighbours met her in the
    street and said, 'Mistress, whither go ye?' 'Marry,' said she; 'I am
    going to St. Thomas of Acres, to the sermon; I could not sleep all this
    last night, and I am going now thither; I never failed of a good nap
    there.' And so I had rather ye should go a-napping to the sermons than
    not to go at all."

On the name "S. Nicholas _Acon_," I can throw no light. Stow is quite
silent as to its signification.



_Becket's Mother._--I am, in truth, but a new subscriber, and when I wrote
the remarks on MR. FOSS's note (Vol. ii., p. 270.), had not seen your first
volume containing the communications of MR. MATTHEWS (p. 415.) and DR.
RIMBAULT (p. 490.). The rejection of the story that Becket's mother was a
Saracen rests on the fact that no trace of it is found until a much later
time, when the history of "St. Thomas of Canterbury" had been embellished
with all manner of wonders. MR. MATTHEWS may find some information in the
_English Review_, vol. vi. pp. 40-42. DR. RIMBAULT is mistaken in saying
that the life of St. Thomas by Herbert of Boshain "is published in the
_Quadrilogus_, Paris, 1495." It was one of the works from which the
_Quadrilogus_ was _compiled_; but the only entire edition of it is that by
Dr. Giles, in his _S. Thomas Cantauriensis_.

J. C. R.

_Passage in Lucan_ (Vol. ii., p. 89.).--The following are parallel passages
to that in Lucan's _Pharsalia_, b. vii. 814., referred to by MR. SANSOM.

Ovid. _Metam._ 1. 256.:--

 "Esse quoque in fatis reminiscitur affore tempus,
  Quo mare, quo tellus, correptaque regia coeli
  Ardeat; et mundi moles operos laboret."

Cic. _De Nat. Deor._ 11. 46.:--

    "Ex quo eventurum nostri putant id, de quo Panætium addubitare
    dicebant, ut ad extremum omnis mundus ignesceret; cum, humore consumto,
    neque terra ali posset neque remearet ær; cujus ortus, aqua omni
    exhausta, esse non posset," etc.

Cic. _De Divinatione_, 1. 49.:--

    "Nam et natura futura præsentiunt, ut aquarum fluxiones et
    deflagrationem futuram aliquando coeli atque terrarum," etc.

Cic. _Acad. Quæst._ iv. 37.:--

    "Erit ei persuasum etiam, solem, lunam, stellas omnes, terram, mare,
    deos esse ... fore tamen aliquando ut omnis hic mundus ardore
    deflagret," etc.

Cic. _Somn. Scipionis,_ vii.:--

    "Propter eluviones exustionesque terrarum quas accidere tempore certo
    necesse est, non modo æternam, sed ne diuturnam quidem gloriam assequi

Seneca, _Consol. ad Marciam_, sub fine:--

    "Cum tempus advenerit quo se mundus renovaturus {365} extinguat ... et
    omni flagrante materia uno igne quicquid nunc ex disposito lucet,

Id. _Natural Quæst_. iii. 28.:--

    "Qua ratione inquis? Eadem qua conflagratio futura est ... Aqua et
    ignes terrenis dominantur. Ex his ortus et ex his interitus est," etc.

There are also the Sybilline verses (quoted by Lactantias _de Ira Dei_,
cap. xxiii.):--

 "[Greek: Kai pote tên orgên theon ouk eti praunonta,]
  [Greek: All' exembrithonta, kai exoluonta te gennan]
  [Greek: Anthrôpon, hapasan hup' emprêsmou perthonta.]"

Plato has a similar passage in his _Timæus_; and many others are quoted by
Matthew Pole in his _Synopsis Criticorum Script. Sacræ Interpretum_; on 2
Pet. iii. 6. 10.; to which I beg to refer MR. SANSOM; and also to Burnet's
_Sacred Theory of the Earth_, book iii. ch. 3.


King William's College, Isle of Man.

_Combs buried with the Dead_ (Vol. ii., pp. 230. 269.).--On reference to
Sir Thomas Browne's _Hydriotaphia_, I find two passages which may supply
the information your correspondent seeks as to the reason for combs being
buried with human remains. In section i., pp. 26, 27. (I quote from the
Edinburgh reprint of 1822, published by Blackwood) the author says:

    "In a field of Old Walsingham, not many months past (1658), were digged
    up between forty and fifty urns, deposited in a dry and sandy soil, not
    a yard deep, not far from one another, not all strickly of one figure,
    but most answering these described; some containing two pounds of
    bones, distinguishable in skulls, ribs, jaws, thigh-bones, and teeth,
    with fresh impressions of their combustion, besides extraneous
    substances, like pieces of small boxes, or _combs_, handsomely wrought,
    handles of small brass instruments, brazen nippers, and in one some
    kind of opale."

And again he says (pp. 36, 37.):

    "From exility of bones, thinness of skulls, smallness of teeth, ribs,
    and thigh-bones, not improbable that many thereof were persons of minor
    age, or women. Confirmable also from things contained in them. In most
    were found substances resembling _combs_, plates like boxes, fastened
    with iron pins, and handsomely overwrought like the necks or bridges of
    musical instruments, long brass plates overwrought like the handles of
    neat implements, _brazen nippers to pull away hair_, and in one a kind
    of opale, yet maintaining a bluish colour.

    "Now that they accustomed to burn or bury with them things wherein they
    excelled, delighted, or which were dear unto them, either as farewells
    unto all pleasure, or vain apprehension that they might use them in the
    other world, is testified by all antiquity."

The instances which he appends relate only to the Pagan period, and he does
not appear to have known that a similar practice prevailed in the sepulture
of Christians--if, indeed, such a custom was general, and not confined to
the particular case mentioned by your correspondent.


_The Norfolk Dialect_ (Vol. ii., p. 217.).--

_Mauther._--A word peculiar to East Anglia, applied to a girl just grown
up, or approaching to womanhood.

"Ipse eodem agro [Norfolciensi] ortus, a Dan. _moer_," virgo, puella,

Spelman assures us, in endeavouring to rescue the word from the contempt
into which it had fallen, that it was applied by our very early ancestors,
even to the noble virgins who were selected to sing the praises of heroes;
they were called _scald-moers_, q.d. singing mauthers!

 "En quantum in spretâ jam voce antiquæ gloria."

 "Ray spells the word _mothther_.

 "_P._ I am a _mother_ that do want a service.

 "_Qu._ O thou'rt a Norfolk woman (cry thee mercy),
      Where maids are _mothers_, and _mothers_ are maids."--R. Brome's
          _Engl. Moor_, iii. 1.

It is written also _modder_.

 "What! will Phillis then consume her youth as an ankresse,
  Scorning daintie Venus?  Will Phillis be a _modder_,
  And not care to be call'd by the deare-sweete name of a mother?"--A.
      Fraunce's _Ivy Church_, A. 4. b.

 "Away! you talk like a foolish _mauther_"--

says Restive to Dame Pliant in _Ben Jonson. Alchemist_, IV. 7. So Richard
says to Kate, in _Bloomfield's Suffolk ballad:--_

 "When once a giggling _mawther_ you,
    And I a red-faced chubby boy."--_Rural Tales_, 1802, p. 5.

Perhaps it is derived from the German [Fraktur: magd] with the termination
een or -den added, as in the Lincolnshire dialect, hee-der, and shee-der,
denote the male and female sex.

_Gotsch._--A jug or pitcher with one ear or handle. Forby thinks it may be
derived from the Italian _gozzo_, a throat.

_Holl._--From the Saxon holh. German [Fraktur: hohle], a ditch.

_Anan!_ = How! what say you? Perhaps an invitation to come near, in order
to be better heard, from the Saxon nean, near. Vid. Brockett's,--Jennings,
and Wilbraham's Chesh. Glossaries.

_To be Muddled._--That is, confused, perplexed, tired. Doubtless from the
idea of thickness, want of clearness; so, muddy is used for a state of

_Together._--In Low Scotch, thegether, seemingly, but not really, an
adverb, converted to a noun, and used in familiarly addressing a number of
persons collectively. Forby considers _to_ and the article _the_ identical;
as to-day, to-night, in Low Scotch, the day, the night, are in fact, this
day, this night; so {366} that the expression together may mean "the
gathering," the company assembled.

The authorities I have used are Forby's _Vocabulary of East Anglia_; Moor,
_Suffolk Words and Phrases_; and Lemon, _English Etymology_; in which, if
ICENUS will refer, he will find the subject more fully discussed.

E. S. T

_Conflagration of the Earth_ (Vol. ii., p. 89.).--The eventful period when
this globe, or "the fabric of the world,"[1] will be "wrap'd in flames" and
"in ruin hurl'd," is described in language, or at least, in sense similar
to the quotations of our correspondent in p. 89., by the poets,
philosophers, fathers, and divines here referred to:--

Lucan, lib. i. 70. et seqq. 75.:--

    "Omnia mistis Sidera sideribus concurrent."

Seneca _ad Marciam_, cap. ult.:--

    "Cum tempus advenerit, quo se mundus renovaturus extinguat, viribus
    ista se suis cedent, et sidera sideribus incurrent, et omni flagrante
    materia uno igne quicquid nunc ex disposito lucet, ardebit."

_Quæst. Nat._ iii. 27., which contains a commentary on St. Peter's
expression, "Like a thief in the night:"--

    "Nihil, inquit, difficile est Naturæ, ubi ad finem sui properat. Ad
    originem rerum parcè utitur viribus, dispensatque se incrementis
    fallentibus; subitò ad ruinam et toto impetu venit ... Momento fit
    cinis, diu silua."

Compare Sir T Browne's _Rel. Med._ s. 45.

Seneca, _Hercul. Oet._ 1102.

Ovid. _Metamorph._ lib. i. s. viii.

Diplilus as quoted by Dr. H. More, _Vision. Apoc._ vi. 9.

Cicero, _Acad._ lib. ii. 37. "Somn. Scipionis."

---- _de Nat. Deorum._ lib. ii. 46.

Pliny, _Nat. Hist._ lib. vii. cap. 16.

These are the opinions of writers before Christ; whether they were derived
from Scripture, it is not now my purpose to discuss. See also Lipsii
_Physiologia._ On the agreement of the systems of the Stoics, of the Magi,
and of the Edda, see Bishop Percy's Notes to Mallet's _Northern
Antiquities_, vol. ii.

The general conflagration and purgatorial fire were among the tenets of the
Sibylline books, and maintained by many Fathers of the Greek and Latin
churches down to the sixth century. See _Blondel on the Sibyls_, and
Arkudius _adversus_ Barlaam. Among modern writers on this subject, it will
be sufficient to name Magius _de Mundi Exustione_, Dr. H. More, and Dr T.
Burnet. Ray, in the third of his _Physico-Theological Discourses_,
discusses all the questions connected with the dissolution of the world.

T. J.

[Footnote 1: Magius, "that prodigy of learning en pure perte" (Villebrune),
concludes from the words of the text "the _heavens_ shall pass away," that
the _universe_ will be dissolved; but that it will undergo mutation only,
not annihilation.--Cf. Steuches _de Perenni Philosophia_, lib. x. ]

_Wraxen_, (Vol. ii., p. 207.).--G. W. SKYRING will find the following
explanation in Halliwell's _Dictionary of Provincial and Archaic Words_,
"to grow out of bounds, spoken of weeds," c. Kent. Certainly an expressive
term as used by the Kentish women.

J. D. A.

_Wraxen._--Probably analogous to the Northumbrian "_wrax_, wraxing,
wraxed," signifying to stretch or (sometimes) to sprain.

A peasant leaving overworked himself, would say he had _wraxed_ himself;
after sitting, would walk to _wrax_ his legs. Falling on the ice would have
_wraxed_ his arm; and of a rope that has stretched considerably, he would
say it had _wraxed a gay feck_.

It may possibly have come, as a corruption, from the verb _wax_, to grow.
It is a useful and very expressive word, although not recognised in polite

S. T. R.

_Wraxen._--Rax or Wrax is a very common word in the north of England,
meaning to stretch, so that when the old Kentish woman told MR. SKYRING'S
friend her children were wraxen, she meant their minds were so
overstretched during the week, that they required rest on Sunday.


       *       *       *       *       *



Of the various changes which have been made of late years in public
education, there is not one so generally admitted to be an improvement as
that which has made the study of

             "The tongue
  Which Shakspeare spake,"

an essential part of the system and probably no individual has so
effectually contributed towards this important end as Dr. Latham, the third
edition of whose masterly and philosophical volume, entitled _The English
Language_, is mow before us. Dr. Latham has ever earnestly and successfully
insisted on the _disciplinal_ character of grammatical studies in general,
combined with the fact, that the grammatical study of one's own language is
exclusively so; and having established this theory, he has, by the
production of various elementary works, exhibiting a happy combination of
great philological acquirements with the ability to apply them in a logical
and systematic manner, enabled those who shared his views to put that
theory into practice. Hence the change in our educational system to which
we have alluded. His volume entitled _The English Language_ is, however,
addressed to a higher class of {367} readers, and this third edition may
justly be pronounced the most important contribution to the history of our
native tongue which has yet been produced; and, as such every student of
our early language and literature must, with us, bid it welcome.

We have received the following Catalogues;--Cole's (15. Great Turnstile,
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J. C., _who inquires respecting the author of the oft-quoted saying_, "Quem
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BIBLIOTHECA SHAHILUDII.--Bibliothèque du Jeu des Echecs, by E. M.
OETTINGER. 8vo. 1844. 2s.

DANSK-NORSK CATALOG.--Catalogue Librorum in Dania et Norvegia editorum,
1841. Two Supplements, 1841--1844.

NORSK BOG-FORTEGNELSE, 1814-1847. Norwegian Books and Maps. 8vo. Christian.
5s. 6d.

SVENSK BOKHANDELS-KATALOG, 1845. Supplements, with Indexes to 1848.

DUTCH CATALOGUES.--Naamlijst van Bocken, 1790--1838, and 2 Supplements to

       *       *       *       *       *

_The following Catalogues, being not merely Catalogues of Stock, may be
had_ gratis:--



WORKS. Greek and Latin, German, Dutch, Danish, Swedish, &c., 1 Stamp.

1 Stamp. A complete Catalogue reprinting.


Quarterly and sent Gratis to their Customers.

       *       *       *       *       *




       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, October 26. 1850.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 52, October 26, 1850 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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