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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 54, November 9, 1850 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 54, November 9, 1850 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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generously made available by The Internet Library of Early




       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 54.]
[Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                   Page
    English and Norman Songs of the Fourteenth Century,
      by James Graves.                                        385
    Misplaced Words in Shakspeare's Troilus and Cressida      386
    Master John Shorne, by W. J. Thoms                        387
    Corrigenda of Printer's Errors                            388
    Folk-lore of Wales: No. 3. Meddygon Myddvai--No. 4.
      Trwyn Pwcca                                             388
    Connexion of Words: the Word "Freight"                    389
    Minor Notes:--Smith's Obituary--George Wither the
        Poet, a Printer--Corruption of the Text of Gibbon's
        "Decline and Fall"--Traditional Story concerning
        Cardinal Wolsey                                       389


    Early Sale of Gems, Drawings, and Curiosities             390
    Minor Queries:--Quotations wanted--Death of Richard
        H.--Sir W. Herschel's Observations and Writings--
        Swearing by Swans--Automachia--Poa cynosuwides--
        Vineyards--Martin, Cockerell, and Hopkins
        Families--Camden's Poem on the Marriage of the
        Thames and Isis--National Airs of England--Poor
        Pillgarlick--Inscription on a Portrait--Burton's
        Parliamentary Diary--Tobacconists--"The Owl is
        abroad"--Scandal against Queen Elizabeth--Letters
        of Horning--Cromwell poisoned                         391


    Collar of SS.                                             393
    Daniel De Foe, by W. Crafter                              395
    "Antiquitas Sæculi Juventus Mundi"                        395
    Replies to Minor Queries:--Sir Gammer Vans--
        Hipperswitches--Cat and Bagpipes--Forlot, Firlot,
        Bibliotheca Auctor. Class.--News--Derivation of


    Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                    398
    Books and Odd Volumes Wanted                              398
    Notice to Correspondents                                  399
    Advertisements                                            399

       *       *       *       *       *



In a vellum book, known as _The Red Book of Ossory_, and preserved in the
archives of that see, is contained a collection of Latin religious poetry,
written in a good bold hand of the 14th century; prefixed to several of the
hymns, in a contemporary and identical hand, are sometimes one sometimes
more lines of a song in old English or Norman French, which as they occur I
here give:

 "Alas hou shold y syng, yloren is my playnge
  Hou sholdy wiz zat olde man}
                                  } swettist of al zinge."
  To leven and let my leman  }

       *       *       *       *       *

 "Harrow ieo su thy: p fol amo^r de mal amy."

       *       *       *       *       *

 "Have m^rcie on me frere: Barfote zat ygo."

       *       *       *       *       *

 "Do Do. nightyngale syng ful myrie
  Shal y nevre for zyn love lengre karie."

       *       *       *       *       *

 "Have God day me lemon," &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

 "Gaveth me no garlond of greene,
  Bot hit ben of Wythones yuroght."

       *       *       *       *       *

 "Do Do nyztyngale syng wel miry
  Shal y nevre for zyn love lengre kary."

       *       *       *       *       *

 "Hew alas p amo^r
  Oy moy myst en tant dolour."

       *       *       *       *       *

 "Hey how ze chevaldoures woke al nyght."

It is quite evident that these lines were thus prefixed (as is still the
custom), to indicate the _air_ to which the Latin hymns were to be sung.
This is also set forth in a memorandum at the commencement, which states
that these songs, _Cantilene_, were composed by the Bishop of Ossory for
the vicars of his cathedral church, and for his priests and clerks,

    "ne guttura eorum et ora deo sanctificata polluantur cantilenis
    teatralibus turpibus et secularibus: et cum sint cantatores, provideant
    sibi notis convenientibus, secundum quod dictamina requirunt."--_Lib.
    Rub. Ossor._ fol. 70.

We may, I think, safely conclude that the lines above given were the
commencement of the _cantilene teatrales turpes_ et _seculares_, which the
good bishop wished to deprive his clergy of all excuse for singing, by
providing them with pious hymns to the same airs; thinking, I suppose, like
John Wesley in after years, it was a pity the devil should monopolise all
the good tunes. I shall merely add that the author of the Latin poetry
seems to have been Richard de Ledrede, who filled {386} the see of Ossory
from 1318 to 1360, and was rendered famous by his proceedings against Dame
Alice Kyteller for heresy and witchcraft. (See a contemporary account of
the "proceedings" published by the Camden Society in 1843; a most valuable
contribution to Irish history, and well deserving of still more editorial
labour than has been bestowed on it.) I have copied the old English and
Norman-French word for word, preserving the contractions wherever they

I shall conclude this "note" by proposing two "Queries:" to such of your
contributors as are learned in old English and French song-lore, viz.,

1. Are the entire songs, of which the above lines form the commencements,
known or recoverable?

2. If so, is the music to which they were sung handed down?

I shall feel much obliged by answers to both or either of the above
Queries, and

 "Bis dat, qui cito dat."


Kilkenny, Nov. 1. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *


In that immaculate volume, the first folio edition of Shakspeare, of which
Mr. Knight says: "Perhaps, all things considered, there never was a book so
correctly printed"! a passage in _Troilus and Cressida_, Act. v. Sc. 3.,
where Cassandra and Andromache are attempting to dissuade Hector from going
to battle, is thus given:

 "_And._ O be perswaded: doe not count it holy,
  To hurt by being iust; it is lawful:
  For we would count giue much to as violent thefts,
  And rob in the behalfe of charitie."

Deviating from his usual practice, Mr. Knight makes an omission and a
transposition, and reads thus:

                     "Do not count it holy
  To hurt by being just: it is as lawful,
  For we would give much, to count violent thefts,
  And rob in the behalf of charity."

with the following note; the ordinary reading is

 "'For we would give much _to use_ violent thefts.'"

_To use thefts_ is clearly not Shakspearian. Perhaps _count_ or _give_
might be omitted, supposing that one word had been substituted for another
in the manuscript, without the erasure of the first written; but this
omission will not give us a meaning. We have ventured to transpose _count_
and omit _as_:

 "For we would give much, to count violent thefts."

We have now a clear meaning: it is as lawful because we desire to give
much, to count violent thefts as _holy_, "and rob in the behalf of

Mr. Collier also lays aside his aversion to vary from the old copy, and
makes a bold innovation: he reads,--

                     "Do not count it holy
  To hurt by being just: it is as lawful,
  For us to give much count to violent thefts,
  And rob in the behalf of charity."

Thus giving his reasons: "This line [the third] is so corrupt in the folio
1623, as to afford no sense. The words and their arrangement are the same
in the second and third folio, while the fourth only alters _would_ to
_will_." Tyrwhitt read:

 "For we would give much to use violent thefts,"

which is objectionable, not merely because it wanders from the text, but
because it inserts a phrase, "to _use_ violent thefts," which is awkward
and unlike Shakspeare. The reading I have adopted is that suggested by Mr.
Amyot, who observes upon it: "Here, I think, with little more than
transposition (_us_ being, substituted for _we_, and _would_ omitted), the
meaning, as far as we can collect it, is not departed from nor perverted,
as in Rowe's strange interpolation:

 "For us to count we give what's gain'd by thefts."

The original is one of the few passages which, as it seems to me, must be
left to the reader's sagacity, and of the difficulties attending which we
cannot arrive at any satisfactory solution."

Mr. Collier's better judgment has here given way to his deference for the
opinion of his worthy friend; the deviation from the old copy being quite
as violent as any that he has ever quarrelled with in others.

Bearing in mind MR. HICKSON'S valuable canon (which should be the guide of
future editors), let us see what is the state of the case. The line is a
nonsensical jumble, and has probably been printed from an interlineation in
the manuscript copy, two words being evidently transposed, and one of them,
at the same time, glaringly mistaken. The poet would never have repeated
the word _count_, which occurs in the first line, in the sense given to it
either by Mr. Collier or by Mr. Knight.

Preserving every word in the old copy, I read the passage thus:--

 "O! be persuaded. Do not count it holy
  To hurt by being just: it is as lawful as
  (For we would give much) to commit violent thefts
  And rob in the behalf of charity."

"To _count_ violent thefts" here would be sheer nonsense; and when we
recollect how easy it is to mistake _comit_ for _count_, the former word
being almost always thus written and often thus printed, we must, I think,
be convinced that in copying an interlineated MS., the printer _misplaced_
and _misprinted_ that word, and transposed _as_, if the repetition of it be
not also an error.--"For," commencing the parenthesis, "we would give much"
stands for _cause_. The emphasis should, I think, be {387} laid on _for_;
and _commit_ be accented on the first syllable. Thus the line, though of
twelve syllables, is not unmetrical; indeed much less prosaic than with the
old reading of _count_.

This correction, upon the principle which governs Messrs. Collier and
Knight, and which indeed should govern all of us,

 "To lose no drop of that immortal man,"

ought to be satisfactory; for it is effected without taking away a letter.
The transposition of two evidently _misplaced_ words, and the correction of
a letter or two palpably misprinted in one of them, is the whole gentle
violence that has been used in a passage which has been, as we see,
considered desperate. But, as Pope sings:

 "Our sacred Shakspeare,--comprehensive mind!
  Who for all ages writ, and all mankind,
  Has been to careless printers oft a prey,
  Nor time, nor moth e'er spoil'd as much as they;
  Let the right reading drive the cloud away,
  And sense breaks on us with resistless day."


October, 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *


If proof were wanted how little is now known of those saints whose names
were once in everybody's mouth, although they never figured in any
calendar, it might be found in the fact that my friend, Mr. Payne Collier,
whose intimate knowledge of the phrases and allusions scattered through our
early writers is so well known and admitted, should, in his valuable
_Extracts from the Registers of the Stationers' Company_ (1557-1570), have
illustrated this entry,--

    "1569-70. Rd. of Thomas Colwell, for his lycense for the pryntinge of a
    ballett intituled 'Newes to Northumberlande yt skylles not where, to
    Syr John Shorne, a churche rebell there' ... iiij^d."

by a note, from which the following is an extract:--

    "Sir John Shorne no doubt is to be taken as a generic name for a shaven
    Roman Catholic priest."

Reasonable, however, as is Mr. Collier's conjecture, it is not borne out by
the facts of the case. The name Sir John Shorne is not a generic name, but
the name of a personage frequently alluded to, but whose history is
involved in considerable obscurity. Perhaps the following notes may be the
means, by drawing forth others, of throwing some light upon it. In Michael
Wodde's _Dialogue_, quoted by Brand, we read--

    "If we were sycke of the pestylence we ran to Sainte Rooke; if of the
    ague, to Sainte Pernel or Master John Shorne."

Latimer, in his _Second Sermon preached in Lincolnshire_, p. 475. (Parker
Society ed.), says,--

    "But ye shall not think that I will speak of the popish pilgrimages,
    which we were wont to use in times past, in running hither and thither
    to Mr. John Shorn or to our Lady of Walsingham."

On which the editor, the Rev. G. E. Corrie, remarks that he was--

    "A saint whose head quarters were probably in the parish of Shorn and
    Merston near Gravesend, but who seems to have had shrines in other
    parts of the country. He was chiefly popular with persons who suffered
    from ague."

Mr. Corrie then gives an extract from p. 218. of the _Letters relating to
the Suppression of Monasteries_, edited by Mr. Wright for the Camden
Society; but we quote from the original, Mr. Corrie having omitted the
words given in our extract in Italics:--

    "At Merston, Mr. Johan Schorn stondith blessing a bote, whereunto they
    do say he conveyd the devill. He ys moch sowzt for the agou. _If it be
    your lordeschips pleasur, I schall sett that botyd ymage in a nother
    place, and so do wyth other in other parties wher lyke seeking ys._"

In that extraordinary poem _The Fantassie of Idolatrie_, printed by Fox in
his edition of 1563, but not afterwards reprinted until it appeared in
Seeley's edition (vol. v. p. 406.), we read--

 "To Maister John Shorne
  That blessed man borne;
    For the ague to him we apply,
  Whiche jugeleth with a _bote_
  I beschrewe his herte rote
    That will truste him, and it be I."

The editor, Mr. Cattley, having explained _bote_ "a recompense or fee," Dr.
Maitland, in his _Remarks on Rev. S. R. Cattley's Defence of his Edition of
Fox's Martyrology_, p. 46., after making a reference to Nares, and quoting
his explanation, proceeds:

    "The going on pilgrimage to St. John Shorne is incidentally mentioned
    at pages 232. and 580. of the FOURTH volume of Fox, but in a way which
    throws no light on the subject. The verse which I have quoted seems as
    if there was some relic which was supposed to cure the ague, and by
    which the juggle was carried on. Now another passage in this same fifth
    volume, p. 468., leads me to believe that this relic really was, and
    therefore the word 'bote' simply means, a boot. In this passage we
    learn, that one of the causes of Robert Testwood's troyble was his
    ridiculing the relics which were to be distributed to be borne by
    various persons in a procession upon a relic Sunday. St. George's
    dagger having been given to one Master Hake, Testwood said to Dr.
    Clifton,--'Sir, Master Hake hath St. George's dagger. Now if he had his
    horse, and St. Martin's cloak, and _Master John Shorne's boots_, with
    King Harry's spurs and his hat, he might ride when he list.'"

That there is some legend connected with Master John Shorne and "his bote,
whereunto they do say he conveyd the devill," is evident from {388} a fact
we learn from the _Proceedings of the Archæological Institute_, namely,
that at the meeting on the 5th Nov. 1847, the Rev. James Bulwer, of
Aylsham, Norfolk, sent a series of drawings exhibiting the curious painted
decorations of the rood screen in Cawston Church, Norfolk, amongst which
appears the singular saintly personage bearing a boot, from which issues a
demon. An inscription beneath the figures gives the name "Magister Johannes
Schorn." It is much to be regretted that fuller details of this painting
have not been preserved in the Journal of the Institute.

The earliest mention of _Master John Schorne_ is in the indenture for
roofing St. George's Chapel at Windsor, dated 5th June, 21 Henry VII.
(1506), printed in the _Reliquiæ Antiquæ_, vol. ii. p. 115., where it is

    "That the creastes, corses, beastes, above on the outsides of Maister
    John Shorne's Chappell, bee done and wrought according to the other
    creastes, and comprised within the said bargayne."


       *       *       *       *       *


In my note on Conjectural Emendation (Vol. ii., p. 322.), your printer, in
general so very correct, has by a fortunate accident strengthened my
argument, by adding one letter, and taking away another. Should my note be
in existence, you will find that I wrote distinctly and correctly Mr.
Field's prænomen _Barron_, and not _Baron_. And I have too much respect for
my old favourite, honest George _Wither_, to have written _Withers_, a
misnomer never used but by his adversaries, who certainly did speak of him
as "one Withers." I should not have thought it necessary to notice these
insignificant errata, but for the purpose of showing _Printer's errors_ do
and will occur, and that Shakspeare's text may often be amended by their
correction. You will recollect honest George's punning inscription round
his juvenile portrait:



       *       *       *       *       *


_No. 3. Meddygon Myddvai_.--On the heights of the Black Mountains, in
Caermarthenshire, lies a dark-watered lake, known by the name of _Lyn y Van
Vach_. As might be predicated, from the wild grandeur of its situation, as
well as from the ever-changing hues which it takes from the mountain
shadows, many a superstition--gloomy or beautiful--is connected with its
history. Amongst these may be reckoned the legend of the _Meddygon Myddvai_
or "surgeons of Myddvai." Tradition affirms that "once upon a time" a man
who dwelt in the parish of Myddvai led his lambs to graze on the borders of
this lake; a proceeding which he was induced to repeat in consequence of
his visits being celebrated by the appearance of three most beautiful
nymphs, who, rising from the waters of the lake, frequently came on shore,
and wandered about amongst his flock. On his endeavouring, however, to
catch or retain these nymphs, they fled to the lake and sank into its
depths, singing--

 "Cras dy fara,
  Anhawdd ein dala!"

which may be rendered [eater of] "hard baked bread, it is difficult to
retain us!" Difficulties, however, but increased the determination of the
shepherd; and day after day he watched beside the haunted lake, until at
length his perseverance was rewarded by the discovery of a substance
resembling unbaked bread, which floated on the water: this he fished up and
ate, and on the following day he succeeded in capturing the nymphs: on
which he requested one of them to become his wife; to this she consented,
on condition that he should be able to distinguish her from her sisters on
the following day. This was no easy task, as the nymphs bore the most
striking resemblance to each other; but the lover noticed some trifling
peculiarity in the dress of his choice, by means of which he identified
her. She then assured him that she would be to him as good a wife as any
_earthly_ maiden could be, until he should strike her three times without a
cause. This was deemed by the shepherd an impossible contingency, and he
led his bride in triumph from the mountain; followed by seven cows, two
oxen, and one bull, which she had summoned from the waters of the lake to
enrich her future home.

Many years passed happily on, and three smiling children--afterwards the
"surgeons of Myddvai"--blessed the shepherd and his Undine-like bride; but
at length, on requesting her to go to the field and catch his horse, she
replied that she would do so presently; when striking her arm three times
he exclaimed, _Dôs, dôs, dôs_; Go, go, go. This was more than a free
dweller in the waters could brook; so calling her ten head of cattle to
follow her, she fled to the lake, and once more plunged beneath its waters.

Such is the legend; of which reason vainly expresses its disbelief, as long
as the eye of faith can discern physical proofs of its truth in the deep
furrow which, crossing the mountain in detached portions, terminates
abruptly in the lake; for it seems that when the two oxen were summoned by
their mistress, they were ploughing in the field; and at their departure,
they carried the plough with them, and dragged it into the lake.

The nymph once more appeared upon the earth; for as her sons grew to
manhood, she met them {389} one day in a place which, from this
circumstance, received the name of _Cwm Meddygon_, and delivered to each of
them a bag, containing such mysterious revelations in the science of
medicine, that they became greater in the art than were ever any before

Though so curiously connected with this fable, the "surgeons of Myddvai"
are supposed to be historical personages, who, according to a writer in the
_Cambro-Briton_, flourished in the thirteenth century, and left behind them
a MS. treatise on their practice, of which several fragments and imperfect
copies are still preserved.

_No. 4. Trwyn Pwcca._--Many years ago, there existed in a certain part of
Monmouthshire a Pwcca, or fairy, which, like a faithful English Brownie,
performed innumerable services for the farmers and householders in its
neighbourhood, more especially that of feeding the cattle, and cleaning
their sheds in wet weather; until at length some officious person,
considering such practices as unchristian proceedings, laid the kindly
spirit for three generations, banishing him to that common receptacle for
such beings--the Red Sea. The spot in which he disappeared obtained the
name of _Trwyn Pwcca_ (Fairy's nose); and as the three generations have
nearly passed away, the approaching return of the Pwcca is anxiously looked
forward to in its vicinity, as an earnest of the "good time coming."

The form which tradition assigns to this Pwcca, is that of a handful of
loose dried grass rolling before the wind (such as is constantly seen on
moors); a circumstance which recalls to mind the Pyrenean legend of the
spirit of the Lord of Orthez, mentioned by Miss Costello, which appeared as
two straws moving on the floor. Query, Has the name of "Will o' the Wisp"
any connexion with the supposed habit of appearing in this form?


       *       *       *       *       *


The word employed to denote _freight_, or rather the _price of freight_, at
this day in the principal ports of the Mediterranean, is _nolis_, _nolo_,
&c. In the Arabian and Indian ports, the word universally employed to
denote the same meaning is _nol_. Are these words identical, and can their
connexion be traced? When we consider the extensive commerce of the
Phoenicians, both in the Mediterranean and Indian seas, that they were the
great merchants and carriers of antiquity, and that, in the words of
Hieron, "their numerous fleets were scattered over the Indian and Atlantic
oceans; and the Tyrian pennant waved at the same time on the coasts of
Britain and on the shores of Ceylon"--it is natural to look to that country
as the birthplace of the word, whence it may have been imported, westward
to Europe, and eastward to India, by the same people. And we find that it
is a pure Arabic word, [Arabic: nwl] _nawil_ and [Arabic: nwln] _nawlun_,
or _nol_ and _nolan_, both signifying _freight_ (price of carriage), from
the root [Arabic: nwh] _noh, pretium dedit, donum_. I am not aware that the
word _freight_ (not used in the sense of cargo or merchandise, but as the
_price_ of carriage of the merchandise, _merces pro vectura_) is to be
found in the Old Testament, otherwise some light might be thrown on the
matter by a reference to the cognate Hebrew word.

But here an interesting question presents itself. The word _freight_ in
Greek is [Greek: naulos] or [Greek: naulon], and in Latin _naulum_. Have
these any connexion with the Arabic word, or are they to be traced to an
independent source, and the coincidence in sense and sound with the Arabic
merely accidental? If distinct, are the words now in use in the
Mediterranean ports derived from the Greek or the Arabic? If the words be
not identical, may not the Greek be derived from the Sanscrit, thus
[Sanskrit: nau], _nau_, or in the pure form [Sanskrit: nawah], _nawah_, or
resolved, _naus_, a ship or boat; [Sanskrit: nauyayin], _nauyáyin_ quasi
_nouyáyil_, or abbreviated _naul_, that which goes into a ship or boat,
_i.e._ freight, fare, or, by metonyme, the price of freight, or
passage-money. It is to be noted that _nolis_, though in general use in the
Mediterranean ports (Marseilles, for example) to denote the price of
freight, or of carriage, is not so in the northern parts of France. At
Havre the word is _frêt_, the same as our _freight_, the German _fracht_,
viz. that which is _carried_ or _ferried_, and, by metonyme, as before, the
_price_ of carriage.

J. SH.


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Smith's Obituary._--One of the publications of the Camden Society for the
year 1849 is the _Obituary of Richard Smyth_ (extending from 1627 to 1674),
edited by Sir Henry Ellis. It is printed from a copy of the Sloane MS. in
the Brit. Mus., No. 886., which is itself but a transcript, later than
Smyth's time. The editor states that "where the original manuscript of the
obituary is deposited is not at present known."

I am glad at being able to supply the information here wanted. The original
manuscript is in the _University Library_ at Cambridge, marked Mm. 4. 36.
It consists of twenty-nine leaves, foolscap folio; and, except that the
edges and corners of the leaves are occasionally worn by frequent perusal,
is otherwise in excellent condition. It is well and clearly written, but
the latter part of it marks the alteration of the hand by the advancing
years of the writer. There are many variations in {390} the orthography,
and some omissions, in the Camden Society's publication, but perhaps not
more than may be accounted for by supposing the Sloane copy to have been
made by a not very careful transcriber.

Here again is seen the valuable use which might be made of your excellent
publication. Had a "Hue and Cry" been made in the "NOTES AND QUERIES" after
the original MS. of this obituary, information might have been immediately
given which would have added greatly to the value of this number of the
Camden Society's publications.


Cambridge, Oct. 28. 1850.

_George Wither the Poet, A Printer._--In the "_Premonition_ to the Reader"
prefixed to George Wither's _Britain's Remembrancer_, 12mo. 1628, the
author acquaints us with some circumstances relative to his work which are
not generally known. While craving some apology for his writing, Wither

    "It is above two years since I laboured to get this booke printed, and
    it hath cost me more money, more pains, and much more time to publish
    it, than to compose it, for I was faine to imprint every sheet thereof
    _with my owne hand_, because I could not get allowance to doe it


_Corruption of the Text of Gibbon's "Decline and Fall."_--A corruption,
which seems to have arisen from an attempt at emendation, has crept into
Note 17. on the 55th chapter of Gibbon's _History_. _Root_ is twice printed
instead of _roof_ in the later editions, including, Mr. Milman's. "What
comes from the roof," may not be very intelligible; still _roof_ is the
word in the original edition of Gibbon, where it corresponds to _toit_ in
Gibbon's authority, Fleury, and to _tectum_ in Fleury's authority.


_Traditional Story concerning Cardinal Wolsey._--In David Hughson (Dr.
Pugh's) _Walks through London and the surrounding Suburbs_, 12mo. 1817,
vol. ii. p. 366., I find the following:--

    "Passing on to _Cheshunt_: here is a plain brick edifice, in which
    Cardinal Wolsey is said to have resided. It has been nearly rebuilt
    since his time, but is still surrounded by a deep moat. In the upper
    part of this house, called Cheshunt House, is a room, the door of which
    is stained with blood: the tradition is--an unfortunate lady became a
    victim to the Cardinal's jealousy, and that he dispatched her with his
    own hand. If so, it is unaccountable that the murderer should have
    suffered those marks of his violence to have remained."

Is there any _old_ authority for this charge against the Cardinal?


       *       *       *       *       *



At the risk of showing my ignorance, I wish to have it removed by answers
to my present Queries.

I have before me a printed catalogue of a collection of antiques, drawings,
and curiosities, which were to be sold by auction not far from a century
and a half ago. It is upon a sheet of four pages, rather larger than
foolscap, which it entirely fills. It seems to me a remarkable assemblage
of valuable relics, and it is thus headed:--

    "A catalogue, being an extraordinary and great collection of antiques,
    original drawings, and other curiosities, collected by a gentleman very
    curious ... will be sold by auction at Covent Garden Coffee House, in
    the Little Piazza, on Wednesday next, being the 9th instant June,

This is the oldest English catalogue of the kind that I happen to have met
with, and my first question upon it is, is there any older? Next, if the
fact be known, who was the "gentleman very curious" who owned the

We are farther informed by the auctioneer (whose name is not given), that
"The antiques are all in precious stones, most of them engraved by the
greatest masters of the old Greeks and Romans; the drawings are of the
oldest and the best Italian masters;" and it is advertised, besides, that
"the aforesaid rarities may be seen on Monday the 7th, Tuesday the 8th, and
Wednesday till the time of sale, which will begin at 11 o'clock in the
morning for the antiques, and at 6 o'clock in the evening for the
drawings." After a statement that the "conditions of sale are as usual," we
come to the list of the gems, under the heads of "Names of the Jewels," and
"What they represent." There are fifty-one lots of those that are "set in
silver for seals," and they are upon cornelian, beril, sardonix, jasper,
&c. For the purpose of identification (if possible) I will quote two or

 "3. Sardonix--The head of Anacreon.
  17. Cornelian--Pallas crowning Hercules.
  30. Beryl--The Trojan Horse, as in Fortuna Lyceto.
  51. A cornelian ring, with the head of Lais of Corinth, engraved by Mr.

To these succeed twelve lots of "stones not set," including a "Head of
Christ," a "Gadetian Droll," the "Entry of Severus, the Emperor, into
Britain," &c. Then we come to 22. "Camejus, for the most part modern;" and
to 10. "Other extraordinary Rarities," including

  4. "The Picture of Mathew of Leyden, King of the Anabaptists, done in
      miniature by Holbein.
  7. A box with 8 Calcedonies set in gold, in which are engraved the
      Passion of our Saviour," &c.


The "antiques set in gold, being rings or seals," are thirty-seven in
number; among them

 "8. Ennius the poet, with this motto, _Sine lucto memento_, a seal.
 "19. Homer deified, a seal.
 "34. A double seal of Charles I., King of England, and Henrietta, daughter
     of Henry IV. of France, &c., with a motto of _Castus Amor vinxit_.
     Engraved by _Simon Monuntum Preclarissimum_."

The Drawings come last, and are divided into seven _Porta Folios_,
containing respectively 21, 23, 30, 23, 24, 26 and 42 specimens. In the
first two no names of the masters are given: in the third, they are all
assigned to various artists, including Emskirk (I spell names as I find
them), Paulo Veronesa, Raphael, Leonardo da Vinci, Tintorett, Giulio
Romano, &c. The fourth portfolio has only one name to the 23 lots, viz.
Tintorett; and Filippo Bellin is the only master named in the fifth
portfolio. In the sixth, we meet with Tintorett, Perugino, Mich. Ang.
Bonaroti, Annibal Caracci, Paulo Brill, and Raphael. Of the 42 drawings in
Portfolio 7. all have names annexed to them, excepting eight; and here we
read those of Guido Reni, Gio Bellini, Andrea Mantegna, Corregio, Andrea
del Sarto, Tadeo Zuccaro, &c.

I may have gone into more detail than was necessary; but, besides the
Queries I have already put, I want to know if any of these gems, cameos,
antiques, or drawings are now known to be in existence; and, if possible,
where they are to be found.


       *       *       *       *       *


_Quotations wanted._--I shall be greatly obliged to any of the
correspondents of your most interesting and useful publication who will
kindly inform me in what authors the following passages are to be found,
and will, if it can be done without too much trouble, give me the
references necessary for tracing them:--

 "Par un peu de sang bien répandu,
  L'on en épargne beaucoup."


 "Quadrijugis invectus equis Sol aureus extat,
  Cui septem veriis circumdant vestibus Horæ:
  Lucifer antesolat: rapidi fuge lampada Solis,
  Aurora, umbrarum victrix, neo victa recedas."

The latter I have only seen subjoined to a print of Guido's celebrated
Aurora, at Rome; and I should have supposed it might have been written for
the occasion, had I not been told, upon authority in which I put
confidence, that it is to be found in some classic author. If so, the lines
may possibly have given rise to the painting, and not the painting to the


Yarmouth, October 28. 1850.

_Avidius Varus._--Can you, or any of your readers, tell me who _Avidius
Varus_ was, referred to in the following passage:

 "Sed _Avidii Vari_ illud hic valeat:
   'Aut hoc quod produxi testium satis est, aut nihil satis.'"

I find reference made to him as above, in one of the Smith manuscripts; but
I cannot discover his name in any catalogue or biographical dictionary. Is
he known by any other name?


_Death of Richard II._--By what authority has the belief that Richard II.
died in Pontefract Castle, in Yorkshire, arisen? Every history that I have
consulted (with the exception, indeed, of Lord Lyttleton's) coolly assumes
it as a fact, in the teeth of the contemporary Froissart, who says plainly

    "Thus they left the _Tower of London where he had died_, and paraded
    the streets at a foot's pace till they came to
    Cheapside."--_Froissart's Chronicles_, translated by Johnes, vol. vii.
    p. 708.

It is barely possible that our modern historians may have been misled by
Shakspeare, who makes Pontefract the scene of his death.

Another circumstance which militates against the received story, is the
fact that all historians, I believe, agree that his _dead body_ was
conveyed to burial from the Tower of London. Now, it seems odd, to say the
least, that if he really died at Pontefract, and his corpse was removed to
London, that no one mentions this removal--that Froissart had not heard of
it, although, from the nature of the country, the want of good roads, &c.,
the funeral convoy must have been several days upon the road. Can any one
give me any information upon this question? I may just say that, of course,
no reliance can be placed on the fact of the "very identical tower" in
which the deposed king died being shown at Pontefract.

H. A. B.

_Sir W. Herschel's Observations and Writings._--Will you permit me to
propose the following Queries in your excellent paper.

1. I have a note to the following effect, but it is without date or
reference. The late Sir W. Herschel, during an examination of the heavens
in which he was observing stars that have a proper motion, saw one of the
7.8 magnitude near the 17th star 12 hour of Piazzi's Catalogue, and noted
the approximate distance between them; on the third night after, he saw it
again, when it had advanced a good deal, having gone farther to the
eastward, and towards the equator. Bad weather, and the advancing twilight,
prevented Sir William's getting another observation. Meantime the estimated
movement in three days was 10" in right ascension, and about a minute, or
rather less, towards the north. "So slow a motion," he says, {392} "would
make me suspect the situation to be beyond Uranus." What I wish to inquire
is this: has it been established by calculation whether the new planet
discovered by Adams and Le Verrier was or was not the star observed at the
time and in the place specified by Sir William Herschel?

2. Have Sir W. Herschel's contributions to the _Philosophical Transactions_
ever been published in a separate form? and if so, where they can be

H. C. K.

_Swearing by Swans._--

    "At the banquet held on this occasion, he vowed before God and the
    _swans_, which according to usage were placed on the table, to punish
    the Scottish rebels."--Keightley's _History of England_, vol. i. p.
    249. ed. 1839.

What authority is there for this statement respecting the swans? What was
the origin and significance of the usage to which allusion is here made?

R. V.


_Automachia._--I am the possessor of a little book, some 2½ inches long by
1½ wide, bound in green velvet, entitled _Automachia, or the Self-conflict
of a Christian_, and dedicated

    "To the most noble, vertuous, and learned lady, the Lady Mary Nevil,
    one of the daughters of the Right Honourable the Earl of Dorcet, Lord
    High Treasurer of England."

The book commences with an anagram on the lady's name:

 "Add but an A to Romanize your name
  _Another Pallas_ is your anagram,
              Maria Nevila
              Alia Minerva."

And then follow some "Stanzes Dedicatory," subscribed--

    Most deuoted to your honourable vertues.--J. S."

On the last page is--

    "London, printed by Milch Bradwood, for Edward Blount, 1607."

The _Automachia_ is a poem of 188 lines, in heroic metre, and is followed
by a shorter poem, entitled "A Comfortable Exhortation to the Christian in
his Self-conflict."

Do any of your correspondents know of the existence or authorship of this
little work? It is not in the British Museum, nor could the curators of the
library there, to whom it was shown, make out anything about it.

The discovery of its authorship might tend to throw some light on that of
"The Pedlar's Song," attributed to Shakspeare, and appearing in Vol. i., p.
23. of "NOTES AND QUERIES." The song contains the line--

 "Such is the sacred hunger for gold."

And in the _Automachia_ I find the "auri sacra fames" described as--

 "Midas' desire, the miser's only trust,
  The sacred hunger of Pactolian dust."

A. M.

_Poa cynosuwides._--_Poa cynosuwides_, the sacred grass of India, is
mentioned in Persoon's _Synopsis_, as also an Egyptian plant: does it
appear on the Egyptian monuments? Theophrastus, quoted in the _Præparatio
Evangelica_ of Eusebius, mentions the use of a certain [Greek: poa] in the
ancient sacrifices of Egypt.

F. Q.

_Vineyards._--Besides those at Bury St. Edmonds and Halfield, are there any
other pieces of land bearing this name? and if so, when were they disused
for their original purpose?


_Martin, Cockerell, and Hopkins Families._--Can any one give information
respecting the families of Martin, Cockerell, and Hopkins, in or near
Wivenhoe, Essex?


_Camden's Poem on Marriage of the Thames and Isis._--I should esteem it a
favour if any reader of the "NOTES AND QUERIES" would inform me where I can
find a Latin poem of Camden's on the "Marriage of the Thames with the
Isis." In his work styled _Britannia_ (which was enlarged by Richard Gough,
in 3 vols., fol. Lond. 1789), in vol. i. p. 169., under Surrey, Camden
himself quotes two passages; and in vol. ii., under Middlesex, p. 2., one
passage, from the above-mentioned poem. I have in vain made many endeavours
to find the _entire poem_. I have examined the original work, as well as
all the translations of _Britannia, sive Florentissimorum Regnorum Angliæ,
etc., chorographica descriptio; Gulielmo Camdeno, authore_, Londini, 1607,
folio. All these contain the quotations I have specified, but no more, and
I am anxious to see the whole of the poem.


_National Airs of England._--Among the national gleanings which are sent to
your journal, I have not seen any that relate to the traditional music of
England. We allow our airs to be stolen on all sides, and, had not Mr.
Chappell acted the part of a detective, might never have recovered our own
property. Ireland has taken "My Lodging is on the cold Ground" and "The
Girls we leave behind us," while Scotland has laid claim to all her own _at
least_, and Germany is laying violent hands on "God save the Queen."

Under these circumstances, would it not be a good thing, for those who have
the power, to communicate the simple air of any song which appears native
to our country, together with the words? I fancy that in this way we should
gain many hints, besides musical ones, highly interesting to your readers.

? (3.).


P.S. It has struck me that the origin of the word _mass_ may be found in
the custom, referred to in an early number of "NOTES AND QUERIES," of
messing persons together at dinner in former times.

_Poor Pillgarlick._--Whence comes the expression, "Poor Pilgarlick," and
how should the words be spelt?

H. P.


_Inscription on a Portrait._--Can any of your correspondents explain the
meaning of the following inscription:--

  io  par.  pla

placed at the top left-hand corner of an old portrait in my possession,
supposed to be that of Philip II. of Spain?


_Burton's Parliamentary Diary._--The sale of _clergymen for slaves_ is
alluded to in vol. iv. of Burton's _Diary_. This has received elucidation
at p. 253. of your present volume.

_Tobacconists._--At p. 320, vol. i., of Burton's _Parliamentary Diary_ it
is stated, that

    "Sir John Reynolds said he had numbered the House, and there were at
    rising at least 220 present, besides _tobacconists_."

What and who were the persons designated as tobacconists?

P. T.

_"The Owl is abroad."_--On what ground is the fine base song, "The Owl is
abroad," attributed to Henry Purcell? Dr. Clarke has done so in his
well-known selections from Purcell's works; and Mr. G. Hogarth, in his
_Memoirs of the Musical Drama_, speaking of Purcell's _Tempest_, says:

    "There is a song for Caliban, _The Owl is abroad, the Bat and the
    Toad_, which one might suppose Weber to have imagined."

Is it not really the property of John Christopher Smith, the friend of
Handel? Amongst the few books of printed music in the _British Museum
Catalogue_ is _The Tempest, an Opera, composed by Mr. Smith_, in which is
the base song in question. On the other hand, I do not find it in Purcell's
_Tempest_. If, as I imagine, it belongs to Mr. Smith, it seems peculiarly
hard that the credit of the composition should be taken from him, to be
given to one who stands in no need of it.

A. R.

_Scandal against Queen Elizabeth._--The following note occurs in vol. iv.
p. 135. of Burton's _Parliamentary Diary_:--

    "Osborn,--see his works (1673), p. 442,--says, 'Queen Elizabeth had a
    son, bred in the state of Venice, and a daughter, I know not where or
    when;' with other strange tales that went on her I neglect to insert,
    as fitter for a romance than to mingle with so much truth and integrity
    as I profess."

Is this rumour any where else alluded to? and if so, upon what foundation?

P. T.

_Letters of Horning._--What is the meaning of "letters of horning," a term
occasionally, though rarely, met with in documents drawn up by notaries?
And, _à propos_, why should "notaries public," with regard to the noun and
adjective, continue to place the cart before the horse?


_Cromwell Poisoned._--At p. 516. vol. ii. of Burton's _Parliamentary Diary_
it is stated, in a note upon the death of Oliver Cromwell, that his body
exhibited certain appearances "owing to the disease of which the Protector
died, which, by the by, appeared to be that of poison." The words,
"Prestwich's MS." are attached to this note. Is there any other authority
for this statement?

P. T.

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. ii., pp. 89. 194. 248. 280. 330. 362.)

The dispute about the Collar of SS., between MR. J. GOUGH NICHOLS and
ARMIGER, is, as Sir Lucius O'Trigger would say, "a mighty pretty quarrel as
it stands;" but I have seen no mention by either writer of "the red sindon"
for the chamber of Queen Philippa, "beaten throughout with the letter S in
gold leaf:" or the throne of Henry V. powdered with the letter S, in an
illuminated MS. of his time, in Bennet College Library, Cambridge. I fancy
there will be some difficulty in reconciling these two examples with the
theory of either of the disputants. When ARMIGER alludes to the monument of
Matilda Fitzwalter, "who lived in the reign of King John," I presume he is
aware that the effigy is not of that period. I do not think any of the
seekers of this hidden signification can be said to be even _warm_ yet,
much less to burn.


_Collar of SS._--As I conceive that the description of this Collar by your
correspondent C. (Vol. ii., p. 330.) is not strictly correct, I forward you
drawings of two examples: No. 1. from the monument of Sir Humphrey Stafford
(and which is the general type); No. 2. from that of the husband of
Margaret Holand, Countess of Somerset (Gough's _Funeral Monuments_). The
latter example might have been called a Collar of 8, 8, were it not that
that name is less euphonious than SS. The collar was worn by several
ladies. (See the work above quoted.)

B. W.

    [The figures in the example No. 1. forwarded by B. W. cannot possibly
    have been intended for {394} anything but SS.; while, on the other
    hand, those in No. 2., as he rightly observes, are more like figures 8,
    8, than the letters SS.]

While the origin of the Collar of Esses is instructively occupying your
correspondents, allow me to direct your attention to the enclosed paragraph
extracted from the _Morning Post_ of the 18th instant, from which it
appears that Lord Denman's collar has been "obtained" (_Qy._ by purchase?)
by the corporation of Derby for the future use of their mayor. I wish to
know, can a _Quo warranto_ issue to the said mayor for the assumption of
this badge? and if not, in whom does the power reside of correcting this
abuse, if such it be?

    week, at a meeting of the corporation of Derby, the mayor stated that
    the chain he then had the honour to wear was the one worn by the Lord
    Chief Justice of England, and that it had been obtained from Lord
    Denman by the corporation for all future chief magistrates of the
    borough. We understand the corporation obtained the chain upon the same
    terms as it would have been transferred to Lord Campbell, if his
    lordship had taken to it from his noble predecessor."--(_Quoted from
    Nottingham Journal, in Morning Post_, 18th Oct. 1850.)

F. S. Q.

The inclosed paragraph, extracted from the _Morning Post_ of last Saturday
completes the history of the municipal collar of the corporation of Derby,
concerning which I recently proposed a Query. The right to purchase does
not, however, establish the right to wear such a decoration.

    "THE INSIGNIA OF MAYORALTY.--Considerable excitement prevails just now
    in many municipal corporations respecting the insignia of mayoralty. At
    Derby the mayor has recently obtained the gold chain worn by Lord
    Denman when Lord Chief Justice. In reference to a question whether or
    not the chain was a present, a correspondent of the _Derby Mercury_
    says, 'I am sorry to admit, it was a bargain; it cost 100l., and is
    paid for. The chain is the property of the corporation, and will grace
    the neck of every succeeding mayor. The robes did not accompany the
    chain; they are bran new, gay in colour, a good cut, and hang well;
    they are private property, consequently not necessarily transferable.
    Every mayor will have the privilege of choosing the shape and colour of
    his official vestment, and can retain or dispose of it as he may deem
    proper. It was suggested that the robes should be the property of the
    corporation, but a difficulty arose, from the fact, that mayors differ
    as much in their bodies as they do in their minds, so that one measure
    would not conveniently fit all. Economically speaking, the suggestion
    was a valuable one, but the physical difficulty was insurmountable. It
    has been hinted that a wardrobe of habiliments for different sized
    mayors might be kept on hand at the Town-Hall, but as the cost would be
    great, and the arrangement would partake too much of the customary
    preparation for a fancy ball or masquerade, it was thought
    objectionable. The Liberal corporation have, therefore, very properly
    resolved on throwing no obstacle in the way of Free Trade, and it is
    their determination to enable all mayors, in the selection of their
    vestures, to buy in the cheapest market and sell in the
    dearest.'"--_Morning Post_, Oct. 26. 1850.

F. S. Q.

As I was the first to open the fire on the very puzzling subject of the SS.
Collar, which has led to more pleasant and profitable, though _warm_
discussion, than ever any person could have expected, it seems now to be
time for some to step forward as a moderator; and if I be allowed to do so,
it will be to endeavour to check the almost _uncourteous_ way in which our
ARMIGER friend has taken up the gauntlet on the question.

If, Sir, you admit _severe_ and sneering criticism, it will, it may be
feared, tend very considerably to mar the influence and advantage to be
drawn from your useful pages, which are intended, I conceive, for calm,
friendly and courteous interchange of useful information. Without
vituperating the _lucubrations_ of MR. JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS, or sneering at
those who "pin faith on his dicta," which have much merit (Vol. ii., p.
363.), it would be surely possible for ARMIGER to advance his own views
with good temper and friendly feeling.

I have also a word to say to MR. NICHOLS on his remarks on MR. ELLACOMBE'S
view. He imputes to MR. E. ignorance of the "real formation of the collar."
He could only mean that the S hook or link gave _the idea_ of such an
ornamental chain; and I believe he is correct: which ornament the taste of
the workman would adopt and fashion as we now have it, with the insertion
of another link both for the comfort of the wearer, and for variety in the

A series of SSes (SSS) by themselves would certainly be a galling badge,
whatever honour might be considered to be conferred with it.

B. (original),
in future SS., as my initial has been
usurped by some unknown friend.

October. 30. 1850.

_Collar of Esses._--I am glad to see the interest shown by your
correspondents upon this curious subject, and the various opinions
expressed by them as to the actual formation of the collar; the
signification of the letter, if a letter be intended (of which I think
there can be no reasonable doubt); and the persons who were privileged to
wear it. The first two questions will for ever occasion discussion; but
allow me to suggest that one step towards the solution of the third, would
be a collection in your pages of the names of those persons who, either on
their monumental effigies or brasses, or in their portraits or otherwise,
are {395} represented as wearing that ornament; together with a short
statement of the position held by each of these individuals in the court of
the then reigning monarch, seeming to warrant the assumption. Some notices
of this sort have been already given, and your antiquarian correspondents
will readily supply others; so that in a little time you will have obtained
such a list as will greatly assist the inquiry. It may serve as a
commencement if I refer to the atchievement of Thomas Mowbray, Duke of
Norfolk, in the reign of Richard II., a representation of which is given in
_Archæologia_, vol. xxix. p. 387., where the Collar of Esses is introduced
in a very peculiar manner.


    [As we think the origin and probable meaning of the Collar of Esses
    have now been discussed as far as they can be with advantage in the
    present state of our knowledge, we propose to adopt Mr. Foss's
    suggestion, and in future to limit our columns to a record of such
    facts as he points out.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Having been much interested with Daniel Defoe's description of a _Gravesend
Tiltboat_ in the year 1724, as recorded by ALPHA in Vol. ii., p. 209., I
think some of your readers may be pleased to learn that it is quite
possible that "it may be a plain relation of matter of fact," as De Foe was
engaged in the business of brick and tile making near Tilbury[1], and must
consequently have had frequent occasion to make the trip from Gravesend to
London. That De Foe was so engaged at Tilbury we learn from the following
Proclamation for his apprehension, taken from the _London Gazette_, dated
St. James's, January 10, 1702-3:--

    WHEREAS Daniel de Foe, alias Fooe, is charged with writing a scandalous
    and seditious pamphlet, entitled _The Shortest Way with the
    Dissenters_. He is a middled siz'd spare man, about forty years old, of
    a brown complexion, and dark brown-coloured hair, but wears a wig; a
    hooked nose, a sharp chin, grey eyes, and a large mole near his mouth;
    was born in London, and, for many years an hose-factor in Freeman's
    Yard, Cornhill, and is now owner of the brick and pantile works near
    Tilbury Fort, in Essex. Whoever shall discover the said Daniel de Foe
    to one of Her Majesty's principal secretaries of state, or any one of
    Her Majesty's justices of the peace, so as he may be apprehended, shall
    have a reward of fifty pounds, which Her Majesty has ordered
    immediately to be paid on such discovery."

He soon gave himself up; and having been tried, he stood in the pillory
with great fortitude: for soon after he published his poem, entitled _A
Hymn to the Pillory_, in which are the following singular lines:--

 "Men that are men, in thee can feel no pain,
  And all thy insignificants disdain;
  Contempt, that false new word for shame,
  Is, without crime, an empty name;
  A shadow to amuse mankind,
  But never frights the wise or well fix'd mind--
  Virtue despises human scorn,
  And scandals innocence adorn."

Referring to a design of putting the learned Selden into the pillory for
his _History of Tithes_, he says smartly:--

 "Even the learned Selden saw
  A prospect of thee thro' the law;
  He had thy lofty pinnacles in view,
  But so much honour never was they due.
  Had the great Selden triumph'd on thy stage,
  Selden, the honour of his age,
  No man would ever shun thee more,
  Or grudge to stand where Selden stood before."

This original poem ends with these remarkable lines, referring to himself:

 "Tell them, the men that placed him here,
  Are scandals to the times,
  Are at a loss to find his guilt,
  And can't commit his crimes."

De Foe, however, was afterwards received into favour without any
concessions on his part, and proceeded straight onwards in the discharge of
what he deemed to be his duty to mankind. He certainly was an extraordinary
man for disinterestedness, perseverance, and industry.



[Footnote 1: Traces of these tile-works are still discoverable in a field
some three or four hundred yards on the London side of Tilbury.

    [Wilson, in his _Life of Defoe_, vol. i. pp. 228. et seq., gives some
    interesting particulars of Defoe's share in these pantile works, and of
    his losses in connexion with them. Pantiles had been hitherto a Dutch
    manufacture, and brought in large quantities into England; the works at
    Tilbury were erected for the purpose of superseding the necessity for
    such importation, and providing a new channel for the employment of

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ii., pp. 218. 350.)

T. J. and his Dublin friend (Vol. ii., p. 350.), appear to refer, one to
the Latin version, the other to the original English text of Lord Bacon's
_Instauration_; and, oddly enough, the inference to which either points, as
a reason for disbelieving in the previous existence of the phrase
"Antiquitas" &c., extends not to the authority consulted by the other.
Thus, the circumstance of "_ordine retrogrado_" being printed also in
Italics, is true only in respect of the _English_ text; while, on the other
{396} hand, "_ut vere dicamus_" is an expression to be found only in the

But it may be doubted whether the originality of the phrase "Antiquitas
sæculi juventus mundi" is, after all, worth speculating upon. In the sense
in which Lord Bacon used it, it is rather a naked truism than a wise
aphorism. It does not even necessarily convey the intended meaning; nor, if
unaccompanied by an explanation, would it be safe from a widely different
interpretation. A previous correspondent of "NOTES AND QUERIES" had termed
it "this fine aphoristic expression;" and yet, when Lord Bacon himself
expands the thought into an aphorism, he does so without recurring to the
phrase in question, which is a tolerably fair proof that he did not look
upon it as a peculiarly happy one. (_Novum Organum_, lib. 1., Aphorismus

T. J. infers that if the phrase were a quotation it would have been
preceded by "ut dictum est" rather than by "ut dicamus"--but even if it had
been introduced by the first of these forms, it does not appear that it
would thereby have been proved to be a quotation; because there are
instances wherein Lord Bacon directly refers to the source from which he
professes to quote, and yet prefers to give the purport in his own words
rather than in those of his author. Thus, in citing one of the most
exquisite and familiar passages of Lucretius, he introduces it by the
prefix, "_Poeta elegantissime dixit_." And yet what follows, although
printed in italics with every appearance of strict quotation, is not the
language of Lucretius, but a commonplace prose version of its substance.
(_Sermones Fideles_, De Veritate.)

With reference to Lord Bacon's works, there are two Queries which I wish to

T. J.'s friend mentions a rare translation into English by Gilbert Wats,
Oxford, as existing in Primate Marsh's library. Query, _Of what_ is it a

In Lord Bacon's life, by William Rawley, it is stated that his lordship was
born in a house "infra plateam dictum _Le Strand_ juxta Londinum."

Query, Was the Strand ever known as _Le Strand_, similarly to
Adwick-_le-street_ in Yorkshire?

A. E. B.

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Sir Gammer Vans_ (Vol. ii., pp 89. 280.).--The story related by S. G. is
the same that I inquired after, and I admire the accuracy of his memory,
for his version is, for the greater part, _literally_ the same that I heard
in Ireland sixty years ago. A few passages, as that about _hipper
switches_, I do not recollect; and one or two that I remember are
wanting--the one, that the narrator was received in "a little _oak_
parlour" of, I forget what, different character; the other, that Sir
Gammer's "mother," or "aunt, was a justice of peace, and his sister a
captain of horse." I find that Goldsmith's allusion is to this last
passage, with some variation. Tony Lumpkin tells Marlow that Hardcastle
will endeavour to persuade him that "his mother was an alderman and his
aunt a justice of peace." (_She Stoops to Conquer_, A. i. _sub fine_.) I
have not been able to find the allusion in Swift; nor can I see how it
could have been a _political_ satire. It seems rather to be a mere tissue
of incongruities and contradictions--of Irish bulls, in short, woven into a
narrative to make folks laugh; and it is much of the same character as many
other pieces of ingenious nonsense with which Swift and Sheridan used to
amuse each other.


_Sir Gammer Vans._--This worthy is mentioned in that curious little
chap-book, _A Strange and Wonderful Relation of the Old Woman that was
drowned at Ratcliff Highway_, in two parts. I now quote the passage from a
copy of the genuine Aldermary churchyard edition:--

    "At last I arrived at Sir John Vang's house. 'Tis a little house
    entirely alone, encompassed about with forty or fifty houses, having a
    brick wall made of flint stone round about it. So knocking at the door,
    Gammer Vangs, said I, is Sir John Vangs within? Walk in, said she, and
    you shall see him in the little, great, round, three square parlour.
    This Gammer Vangs had a little old woman her son. Her mother was a
    churchwarden of a large troop of horse, and her grandmother was a
    Justice of the Peace; but when I came into the said great, little,
    square, round, three corner'd parlour, I could not see Sir John Vangs,
    for he was a giant. But I espied abundance of nice wicker bottles. And
    just as I was going out he called to me and asked me what I would have?
    So looking back I espied him just creeping out of a wicker bottle. It
    seems by his profession he was a wicker bottle maker. And after he had
    made them, he crept out at the stopper holes."

There are two notes worth recording with respect to this curious medley,
which is obviously a modern version of a much older composition. Query, is
any older edition known?

1. That the wood-cut on the title page, which has been re-engraved for Mr.
Halliwell's _Notices of Fugitive Tracts and Chap-books_, printed for the
Percy Society, is one of the few representations we have of the old
_Ducking Stool_.

2. That it is said that the Rev. Thomas Kerrich, the well-known librarian
of the University of Cambridge, could repeat by heart the whole of the
eight and forty pages of this strange gallimawfrey.


_Hipperswitches_ (Vol. ii., p. 280.).--I saw a story which was copied into
the _Examiner_ of Oct. 5. from "NOTES AND QUERIES," entitled "Sir Gammer
Vans." The correspondent who has furnished {397} you with the tale says
that he is ignorant of the meaning of "hipper switches." Now hipper is a
word applied in this part of the country to a description of osiers used in
coarse basket making, and which were very likely things to be bound up into
switches. A field in which they grow, near the water side, is called a
"hipper-holm." There is a station on the Lancashire and Yorkshire railway,
which takes its name from such a meadow. My nurse, a Cornwall woman, tells
me _hipper_ withies fetch a higher price than common withies in her

E. C. G.


_Cat and Bagpipes_ (Vol. ii., p. 266.).--A public-house of considerable
notoriety, with this sign, existed long at the corner of Downing Street,
next to King Street. It was also used as a chop-house, and frequented by
many of those connected with the public offices in the neighbourhood.

An old friend told me that many years ago he met George Rose,--so well
known in after life as the friend of Pitt, clerk of the Parliament,
secretary of the Treasury, &c., and executor of the Earl of
Marchmont,--then a bashful young man, at the Cat and Bagpipes.

I may mention that George Rose was one of the few instances which I have
met with, where a Scotsman had freed himself from the peculiarities of the
speech of his country. Sir William Grant was another. Frank Homer was a
third. I never knew another.


_Forlot, Firlot, or Furlet_ (Vol. i., p. 371.).--It may be interesting to
your correspondent J. S. to be informed that there is a measure of capacity
in universal use in this part of India called a _fara_ or _fura_, which is
identical in shape, and, as nearly as can be judged by the eye, in size,
with the Scottish _furlet_. The _fura_ is divided into sixteen _pilys_, a
small measure in universal use here; in like manner as the _furlet_ is
divided into sixteen _lipys_, which measure was, and I presume still is, in
general use throughout Scotland. A friend informs me that, in the west of
Scotland, the common pronunciation of the word _furlet_ is exactly the same
as that of the word _fura_ here by the Mahrattas. It is unnecessary to
point out the numerous instances in which such changes as that from _pily_
to _lipy_ take place _per metathesem_.

Now, an interesting subject of investigation, supposing the coincidence
above noticed not to be an accidental one, would be to trace the links of
connexion between these words; and in this, some of your German readers may
be enabled to afford valuable aid.

As an illustration of the same article being in use in widely distant
localities, I may mention that on returning to England from a voyage to
China, I brought with me a Chinese _abacus_ or _swanpan_, the instrument in
general use among the Chinese for performing the ordinary computations of
addition, subtraction, &c., thinking it a grand article of curiosity,
particularly in a remote seaport town on the east coast, with which to
astonish the natives. But what was my chagrin when I was informed by an
honest Baltic skipper, that to him, at least the instrument was no rarity
at all; that he had seen them used hundreds of times for the same purposes
at various ports in the Baltic; and that, moreover, he had one of them in
his home at that very time, which he forthwith produced.

J. SH.


_Sitting during the Lessons_ (Vol. ii., p. 246.).--The rubric directing the
people to stand while the Gospel is read in the Communion service, was
first inserted in the Scotch Common Prayer Book, A. D. 1637. The ancient
and more reverential practice of standing whenever any portion of God's
word is read, had not fallen into entire disuse as late as 1686, as will
appear from the following extract from _The Life of Bishop Wilson_, by
Cruttwell, prefixed to the folio edition of his works. It occurs (p. 4.)
under certain heads of advice given to that holy bishop, at the time he was
ordained deacon, by his much-esteemed friend, Archdeacon Hewetson:--

    "Never to miss the church's public devotions twice a day, when
    unavoidable business, or want of health, or of a church (as in
    travelling), does not hinder. In church to behave himself also very
    reverently; nor ever turn his back upon the altar in service time, nor
    on the minister, when it can be avoided; _to stand at the lessons and
    epistle as well as at the gospel_, and especially when a psalm is sung:
    to bow reverently at the name of Jesus whenever it is mentioned in any
    of the church's offices; to turn towards the east when the Gloria Patri
    and the creeds are rehearsing; and to make obeisance at coming into,
    and going out of the church, and at going up to, and coming down from,
    the altar; are all ancient, commendable, and devout usages, and which
    _thousands_ of good people of our Church practise at this day, and
    amongst them, if he deserves to be reckoned amongst them, Thomas
    Wilson's dear friend."

J. Y.


_Engelmann's Bibliotheca Auctor. Class._ (Vol. ii., pp. 296. 312.
328.).--"I hereby attest that the English titles to my _Bibliotheca
Scriptorum Classicorum_ were _not_ printed without my knowledge or wish,
but _by myself_, for my customers in England. ... W. ENGELMANN."

Leipzig, Oct. 25. 1850.

I also enclose the original, for the benefit of MR. DE MORGAN, if he is not


_News_ (Vol. ii., p. 81.).--Much wit and ingenuity have been wasted on this
word. It seems {398} clear, however, that its origin is Dutch or German,
and probably Flemish, like the "NEW'S BOOK," so frequently occurring in the
correspondence of the seventeenth century.

Look into that valuable German, French, and Latin dictionary of the
Elzeviers, Amst. 1664, where you will find "NEWE, _F._ une novelle; _Lat._
nova, novorum." Then follow "Etwas newes, quelque chose de nouveau; Aliquid
novi;" and "Was newes, quelles nouvelles;" or, more accurately, "Quid novi;
quoi de nouveau?" The inference is forced upon us that, during the Flemish
wars, in which the Sidneys and a long catalogue of noble English volunteers
distinguished themselves, the thing and the term were imported hither.

Agreeably to so natural a presumption, the Hollandish "Nieuws" occurs, as a
neuter substantive, in the sense of "niewe tijding," or "nouvelles," and,
of course, the English "news," as perfect as can be wished. It is true that
the "Nieuws-Boek" now circulates under the modest name of
"Nieuws-Papieren," or of "Nieuws-Verteller:" but, to convince readers wise
enough not to expect in such matters as these a geometrical demonstration,
what is here humbly stated might suffice.

G. M.


_Derivation of Orchard._--What is the derivation of _orchard_? Is the last
syllable "yard," as in vineyard, rickyard? If so, what is "orch?" By the
way, is the provincial word "hag-gard" hay-yard?

H. A. B.

    [Orchard is from the Anglo-Saxon _ort geard_, or _wyrt geard_; the
    final syllable _gard_ or _yard_, in the words cited by our
    correspondent, being the modern form of _the A.-S. geard_.]

       *       *       *       *       *



Were _Anschar, a Story of the North_, a mere work of fiction, we should not
think of recording its appearance in our columns. But it has other claims
to our notice and the attention of our readers. Based on the life of
Anschar the monk of Corbey, by Rembert, his successor in the archiepiscopal
see of Hamburgh,--a biography which the writer of the work before us
describes as one of the most important documents we possess for the
elucidation of the early history, manners, and religion of the races of
Northern Europe,--Mr. King has produced a narrative of considerable
interest, abounding in curious pictures of the social condition of the
Swedish people at the close of the ninth century. But Mr. King's pleasing
story has also this additional merit, that while his learning and
scholarlike acquirements have enabled him to illustrate the early history,
religion, customs, and superstitions of the North in a most interesting and
instructive manner, he has so done this, as at the same time to throw much
curious light on many of our own old-world customs, popular observances,
and folk-lore.

Such of our clerical readers as may be anxious to introduce cheap maps into
the schools under their superintendence, will thank us for calling their
attention to the series of _Penny Maps_ (twopence each with the boundaries
coloured), now publishing by Messrs. Chapman and Hall. That they have been
constructed and engraved by Mr. J. W. Lowry, is a sufficient guarantee for
their accuracy.

We have received a copy of Mr. Walker's engraving from Mr. Doyle's picture
of _Caxton submitting his proof-sheet to John Esteney, Abbot of
Westminster, in 1477_. The subject--and what can be of greater interest to
us than the great event it commemorates, the vast social change it has
wrought--has been very ably treated by the artist, and very successfully
rendered by the engraver. The calm dignity of the patriotic mercer, Master
William Caxton, as he watches the countenance of the abbot, who is
examining with astonishment this first specimen of the new art, contrasts
well with the expression of pride exhibited by Earl Rivers at the success
of his protégé, on whose shoulder he rests his hand with an air
half-patronizing, half-familiar, and with Wynkyn de Worde at the case
behind, constitute altogether a picture which tells its story well and
effectually, and furnishes a Caxton Memorial which will doubtless be very
acceptable to all those who remember, with the gratitude due to him, the
many precious volumes with which the learning of Caxton, no less than his
mechanical genius, enriched the literature of England.

Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson will sell on Monday next, and the two
following days, an interesting Collection of engraved British Portraits,
the property of the late Mr. Dodd, the author of the _Connoisseur's
Repertorium_. We may specify one lot as very interesting to lovers of
illustrated works, viz. a copy of Robert Smythe's _History of the Charter
House_, with two hundred and twenty-six sheets of prints illustrative of
the printed text.

We have received the following Catalogues:--Bernard Quaritch's (16. Castle
Street, Leicester Square) Catalogue, No. 20., of Books in European
Languages, Dialects, Classics, &c.; John Petheram's (94. High Holborn)
Catalogue, Part CXVII., No. 11 for 1850, of Old and New Books; John
Miller's (43. Chandos Street) Catalogue, No. 13. for 1850, of Books Old and

       *       *       *       *       *


    Moral. 8vo. 1751.




_Odd Volumes._

    GIBBON'S DECLINE AND FALL, &c., 12 vols. 8vo. 1815. Vol. X.

    JAMES' NAVAL HISTORY, 4 vols. Vol. IV.

    DRYDEN'S WORKS, by SCOTT. 1808. Large paper. Vols. II., IV., VI.

    *** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to
    be sent to Mr. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet


       *       *       *       *       *

Notices To Correspondents.

H. A. B. _The superstition respecting the number thirteen in company most
probably arose from the Paschal Supper._ See Ellis' _Brand_, iii., p. 143.
ed. 1841.

E. M. (Darlington) _is thanked for his kind suggestion, which will not be
lost sight of._

F. G. (Edinburgh) _will find, upon reference to_ Vol. ii., p. 120., _that
the charade given in_ Vol. ii., p. 158. _had been answered in

_As we again propose this week to circulate a large number of copies of_
"NOTES AND QUERIES," _among members of the different provincial Literary
Institutions, we venture, for the purpose of furthering the objects for
which our paper was instituted, to repeat the following passage from our
52nd Number:--_

It is obvious that the use of a paper like "NOTES AND QUERIES" bears a
direct proportion to the extent of its circulation. What it aims at doing
is, to reach the learning which lies scattered not only throughout every
part of our own country, but all over the literary world, and to bring it
all to bear upon the pursuits of the scholar; to enable, in short, men of
letters all over the world to give a helping hand to one another. To a
certain extent, we have accomplished this end. Our last number contains
communications not only from all parts of the metropolis, and from almost
every county in England, but also from Scotland, Ireland, Holland, and even
from Demerara. This looks well. It seems as if we were in a fair way to
accomplish our design. But much yet remains to be done. We have recently
been told of whole districts in England so benighted as never to have heard
of "NOTES AND QUERIES;" and after an interesting question has been
discussed for weeks in our columns, we are informed of some one who could
have answered it immediately if he had seen it. So long as this is the case
the advantage we may confer upon literature and literary men is necessarily
imperfect. We do what we can to make known our existence through the
customary modes of announcement, and we gratefully acknowledge the kind
assistance and encouragement we derive from our brethren of the public
press; but we would respectfully solicit the assistance of our friends upon
this particular point. Our purpose is aided, and our usefulness increased
by every introduction which can be given to our paper, either to a Book
Club, to a Lending Library, or to any other channel of circulation amongst
persons of inquiry and intelligence. By such introductions scholars help
themselves as well as us, for there is no inquirer throughout the kingdom
who is not occasionally able to throw light upon some of the multifarious
objects which are discussed in our pages.

_Volume the First of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," _with very copious Index, price_
9s. 6d. _bound in cloth, may still be had by order of all Booksellers._

_The Monthly Part for October, being the Fifth of_ Vol. II., _is also now
ready, price_ 1s. 3d.

NOTES AND QUERIES _may be procured by the Trade at noon on Friday: so that
out country Subscribers ought to experience no difficulty in receiving it
regularly. Many of the country Booksellers are probably not yet aware of
this arrangement, which enables them to receive Copies in their Saturday

       *       *       *       *       *

JOURNAL FRANCAIS, publié à Londres.--Le COURRIER de l'EUROPE, fondé en
1840, paraissant le Samedi, donnes dans chaque numéro les nouvelles de la
semaine, les meilleurs articles de tous les journaux de Paris, la Semaine
Dramatique par Th. Gautier ou J. Janin, la Révue de Paris par Pierre
Durand, et reproduit en entier les romans, nouvelles, etc., en vogue par
les premiers écrivains de France. Prix 6d.

London: JOSEPH THOMAS, 1. Finch Lane.

       *       *       *       *       *

On the 2nd of December will be published, in post 8vo., 6s. cloth,

early portions of the Book of Genesis; critically examined and explained.
By the Rev. E. D. RENDELL, of Preston.

HODSON, 22. Portugal Street, Lincoln's Inn, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, price 10s. cloth,

time an Alphabetical Chronology of all Public Events and National
Characteristics. By H. C. HAMILTON, Esq., of the State Paper Office.

*** Early applications for this work will be necessary, as only a limited
number has been printed.

London: Wm. S. ORR and Co., Amen-corner, Paternoster-row.

       *       *       *       *       *

LITERATURE.--Inexperienced Writers, Possessors of Manuscripts, Poets,
Clergymen, Young Authors, and others seeking Publishers for their Works,
adopting the information and plan which it contains, they may have their
productions brought out, whether pamphlets or expensive volumes, without
the risk of publication, and with every chance of success.

THE AUTHOR'S ASSISTANT, 7th Edition, price 2s. 6d., or post-free, 3s.

SAUNDERS & OTLEY, Publishers, Conduit-street, Hanover-square.

       *       *       *       *       *


PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property and Works of Art,
will Sell by Auction at their Great Room, 191. Piccadilly, on Tuesday, Nov.
12, the well-known and carefully chosen Cabinet of Mediæval Art, collected
by Mr. George Isaacs, (who is about to leave England for a permanent
residence abroad). Some of the rare objects in this Cabinet are from the
celebrated De Bruge Collection, and several were not unimportant items in
the recent Exhibition of the Society of Arts. Also some curious printed
books, and a few highly interesting heraldic and other MSS., including the
long lost volume of the works of Dr. Dee, and others from the Ashmolean
Collection. Catalogues will be sent on application.

       *       *       *       *       *


MESSRS. S. LEIGH SOTHEBY and JOHN WILKINSON (Auctioneers of Literary
Property and Works illustrative of the Fine Arts,) will Sell by Auction, at
their House, 3. Wellington-street, Strand, on Monday, the 11th day of
November, 1850, and two following days, at One o'clock precisely, in
pursuance of his Will, the interesting Collection of Engraved British
Portraits, combining every class of the community that have figured in
British History and Biography; Governors of the Charter House, from the
date of the foundation of the establishment to the present time. Also, an
illustrated History of the Charter House, in five imperial folio volumes,
containing Two Hundred and Twenty-six Sheets of Prints, illustrative of the
printed text, and accompanied by an elaborate MS. Index, compiled by and in
the hand-writing of the Illustrator; the property of the late Mr. Thomas
Dodd, author of the "Connoisseur's Repertorium," and late a brother on the
foundation of the Charter House. Also, Works of Hogarth, Prints, framed and
glazed, Portrait of Sir T. Lawrence, by Cousins, Five Hundred Impressions,
with the Steel Plate. May be viewed two days prior, and Catalogue had (if
in the country, on receipt of six postage stamps). {400}

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

Edition. 8vo. 7s. 6d.

8vo. 12s. 6d.

PAROCHIAL ANTIQUITIES attempted in the History of Ambrosden, Burcester, and
other adjacent parts of the Counties of Oxford and Bucks. By WHITE KENNETT,
D. D., Vicar of Ambrosden, afterwards Bishop of Peterborough. A new edition
in two volumes, greatly enlarged from the Author's MS. notes. Edited by the
Rev. B. BANDINEL, D.D. 4to. 3l. 3s.

Tomi III. Folio. 5l. 15s.

A CATALOGUE OF THE MANUSCRIPTS bequeathed to the University of Oxford by
ELIAS ASHMOLE, Esq., M.D., &c. By W. H. BLACK. 4to. 1l. 11s. 6d.

DOUCE, Esq., to the Bodleian Library. Folio, with Plates plain, 1l. 8s.
coloured, 2l. 5s.

URI. Partis secundæ Volumen primum ab ALEXANDRO NICOLL, A.M. Partis secundæ
Volumen secundum, Arabicos complectens, ab E. B. PUSEY, S.T.B. 3 Vols.
Folio. 4l. 14s. 6d.

CATALOGUS MSS. E. D. CLARKE, qui in Bibliotheca Bodleiana adservantur. Pars
Prior. Inseruntur Scholia inedita in Platonem et in Carmina Gregorii
Nazianzeni. Pars Posterior MSS. Orientalium ed. A. NICOLL, A.M. 2 Parts.
4to. 14s.

qui in Bibliotheca Bodleiana adservantur. 4to. 8s. 6d.

Bibliotheca Bodleiana adservantur. Auctore FINNO MAGNO ISLANDO. 4to. 4s.

THE WORKS OF SIR WALTER RALEIGH, KT. History of the World, &c. 8 Vols. 8vo.
3l. 19s.

THE TWO BOOKS OF COMMON PRAYER, Set forth by Authority of Parliament, in
the reign of King Edward VI., compared with each other. By EDWARD CARDWELL,
D.D., Principal of St. Alban's Hall. Second Edition, 8vo. 8s.

HISTORY OF CONFERENCES and other Proceedings connected with the Revision of
the BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER, from the Year 1558 to the Year 1690. By EDWARD
CARDWELL, D.D., Principal of St. Alban's Hall. Third Edition. 8vo. 7s. 6d.

Injunctions, Declarations, Orders, Articles of Inquiry, &c., from the Year
1546 to the Year 1716. With Notes, Historical and Explanatory. By EDWARD
CARDWELL, D.D., Principal of St. Alban's Hall. 2 Vols. 8vo. 18s.

CONVOCATIONS in the Province of Canterbury, from the Year 1547 to the Year
1717. With Notes, Historical and Explanatory, by EDWARD CARDWELL, D.D.,
Principal of St. Alban's Hall. 2 Vols. 8vo. 19s.

CERTAIN SERMONS OR HOMILIES, appointed to be read in Churches in the Time
of Queen Elizabeth, A New Edition, with Scripture Reference, and Indexes.
To which are added, The Constitutions and Canons Ecclesiastical. 8vo. 6s.

FORMULARIES OF FAITH put forth by Authority during the Reign of Henry VIII.
8vo. 7s.

THREE PRIMERS put forth in the Reign of Henry VIII. A New Edition. 8vo. 9s.

D.D., late Lord Bishop of Sarum. A New Edition, with a Copious Index. 7
Vols. 8vo. 3l. 10s.

GOVERNMENT. By W. LLOYD, D.D. A New Edition, with Additional Notes. By the
REV. THOS. P. PANTIN, M.A. 2 Vols. 8vo. 1l. 1s.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, November 9. 1850.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 54, November 9, 1850 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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