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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 55, November 16, 1850
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 55, November 16, 1850" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 55.]
[Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

       *       *       *       *       *


    Authorship of "Henry VIII." by Samuel Hickson           401
    On Authors and Books, No. IX., by Bolton Corney         403
    Notes on the Second Edition of Mr. Cunningham's
      Handbook of London, by E.F. Rimbault                  404
    Folk-lore:--Laying a Ghost--A Test of Witchcraft        404
    Minor Notes:--Quin's incoherent Story--Touchstone's
      Dial--America and Tartary--A Deck of Cards--Time
      when Herodotus wrote--"Dat veniuam corvis."
      &c.                                                   405

    Dryden's "Absalom and Achitophel"                       406
    Minor Queries:--The Widow of the Wood--Edward
      the Confessor's Crucifix and Gold Chain--Cardinal
      Erskine--Thomas Regiolapidensis--"Her Brow was
      fair"--Hoods worn by Doctors of Divinity of Aberdeen--Irish
      Brigade--Doctrine of immaculate Conception--Gospel
      Oak Tree at Kentish Town--Arminian
      Nunnery in Huntingdonshire--Ruding's
      annotated Langbaine--Mrs. Tempest--Sitting
      Did Elizabeth visit Bacon
      there?--Burial towards the West--Medal struck by
      Charles XII.--National Debt--Midwives licensed        406

    The Black Rood of Scotland                              409
    Replies to Minor Queries:--Hæmony--Byron's Birthplace--Modena
      Family--Nicholas Breton's Fantasticks--Gaudentio
      di Lucca--Weights for weighing
      Coins--Mrs. Partington--The East-Anglican Word
      "Mauther"--Cheshire Cat--"Thompson of Esholt"--Minar's
      Book of Antiquities--Croziers and Pastoral
      Staves--Socinian Boast--MSS. of Locke--Sir Wm.
      Grant--Tristan d'Acunha--Arabic Numerals--Luther's
      Hymns--Bolton's Ace--Hopkins the
      Witchfinder--Sir Richard Steel--Ale-draper--George
      Herbert--Notaries Public--Tobacconists--Vineyards     410

    Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                  414
    Books and Odd Volumes Wanted                            415
    Notices to Correspondents                               415
    Advertisements                                          415

       *       *       *       *       *



In returning to the question of the authorship of _Henry VIII._, I am
anxious to remove a misconception under which MR. SPEDDING appears to
labour relative to the purport of a remark I made in my last communication
to you (Vol. ii., p. 198.) on this subject. As we appear to be perfectly
agreed as to the reasons for assigning a considerable portion of this play
to Fletcher, and as upon this basis we have each worked out a result that
so exactly coincides with the other, I conclude that MR. SPEDDING, as well
as myself, has rested his theory solely on positive grounds; that is, that
he imagines there is strong internal evidence in favour of all that he
ascribes to this writer. It follows, therefore that the "third hand" which
he thought he detected must be sought rather in what remained to
Shakspeare, than in that which had been already taken from him. I never for
an instant doubted that this was MR. SPEDDING's view; but the inequality
which I supposed he had observed and accounted for in this way, I was
disposed to refer to a mode of composition that must needs have been
troublesome to Shakspeare. The fact is, that, with one or two exceptions,
the scenes contributed by the latter are more _tamely_ written than any but
the earliest among his works; and these, different as they are, they
recalled to my mind. But I have no doubt whatever that these scenes were
all written about the same time; my feeling being, that after the opening
Shakspeare ceased to feel any great interest in the work. Fletcher, on the
other hand, would appear to have made a very great effort; and though some
portions of the work I ascribe to him are tedious and overlaboured, no
censure would weigh very strongly against the fact, that for more than two
centuries they have been _applauded_ as the work of Shakspeare.

As to the circumstances under which _Henry VIII._ was composed, it is an
exceedingly difficult question; and if I venture, on the present occasion,
to give the impression upon my mind, I do so, reserving to myself the full
right to change my opinion whenever I shall have acquired more knowledge of
the subject, or, from any other motive, shall see fit to do it. I consider
this case, then, as one of joint authorship; in point of time not much
later than the _Two Noble Kinsmen_, and in other respects similar to that
play. If the conclusions of the article in the _Westminster Review_, to
which MR. SPEDDING alludes, be accepted, the writer of the introductory
notice to _Henry VIII._ in the _Illustrated Shakspeare_, published by Tyas,
will recognise the "reverent disciple" whom he hints at, but does not name.
In short, I think that {402} Fletcher was the pupil of Shakspeare; and this
view, it appears to me, demands the serious attention of the biographer who
next may study or speculate upon the great poet's life.

I don't know that I can add anything to MR. SPEDDING'S able analysis of
_Henry VIII._ There are certain _tricks_ of expression he, no doubt, has
observed that characterise Fletcher's style, and which abound in the play.
It might be useful to make notes of these; and, at some future time, I may
send you a selection. I now beg to send you the following extracts, made
some time ago, showing the doubts entertained by previous writers on the

    "Though it is very difficult to decide whether short pieces be genuine
    or spurious, yet I cannot restrain myself from expressing my suspicion
    that neither the prologue nor epilogue to this play is the work of
    Shakspeare. It appears to me very likely that they were supplied by the
    friendship or officiousness of Jonson, whose manner they will be
    _perhaps found exactly_ to resemble."--_Johnson._

    "Play revived in 1613." "Prologue and epilogue added by Jonson or some
    other person."--_Malone._

    "I entirely agree with Dr. Johnson, that Ben Jonson wrote the prologue
    and epilogue to this play. Shakspeare had a little before assisted him
    in his _Sejanus_.... I think I now and then perceive his hand in the

    "That Jonson was the author of the prologue and epilogue to this play
    has been controverted by Mr. Gifford. That they were not the
    composition of Shakspeare himself is, I think, clear from internal

    "I entirely agree with Dr. Johnson with respect to the time when these
    additional lines were inserted.... I suspect they were added in 1613,
    after Shakspeare had quitted the stage, by that hand which tampered
    with the other parts of the play so much as to have rendered the
    versification of it of a different colour from all the other plays of

    "If the reviver of this play (or tamperer with it, as he is called by
    Mr. Malone) had so much influence over its numbers as to have entirely
    changed their texture, he must be supposed to have new-woven the
    substance of the whole piece; a fact almost incredible."--_Steevens._

    The double character of Wolsey drawn by Queen Katherine and her
    attendant, is a piece of vigorous writing of which any other author but
    Shakspeare might have been proud; and the celebrated farewell of the
    Cardinal, with his exhortation to Cromwell, only wants that quickening,
    that vital something which the poet could have breathed into it, to be
    truly and almost incomparably great.

    "Our own conviction is that Shakspeare wrote a portion only of this

    "It cannot for a moment be supposed that any alteration of Shakspeare's
    text would be necessary, or would be allowed; as little is it to be
    supposed that Shakspeare would commence a play in his old-accustomed,
    various, and unequalled verse, and finish it in the easy, but somewhat
    lax and familiar, though not inharmonious numbers of a reverent
    disciple."--_Tyas's Shakspeare_, vol. iii. p. 441.

At the same time I made the following notes from Coleridge:--

          "Classification, 1802.
  3rd Epoch.  Henry VIII. Gelegenheitsgedicht.

          Classification, 1819.
  3rd Epoch.  Henry VIII., a sort of historical masque, or show-play."

    "It (the historical drama) must likewise be poetical; that only, I
    mean, must be taken which is the permanent in our nature, which is
    common, and therefore deeply interesting to all ages."--_Lit. Rem._,
    vol. ii. p.160.

What is said in this last extract might be applied (as Coleridge, I feel no
doubt, had he gone one step farther into the subject, would have applied
it) to the Shakspearian drama generally; and tried by this test _Henry
VIII._ must certainly be found wanting.

Before I conclude I am anxious to make an observation with regard to the
extract from Mr. Emerson's _Representative Men_ (vol. ii. p. 307.). The
essay from which this is taken, I presume to be the same, in a printed
form, as a lecture which I heard that gentleman deliver. With abundant
powers to form a judgment for himself, I should say that his mind had never
been directed to questions of this nature. Accident, perhaps, had drawn his
attention to the style of _Henry VIII._; but, with reference to the general
subject, he had received implicitly and unquestioned the conclusions of
authorities who have represented Shakspeare as the greatest borrower,
plagiarist, and imitator that all time has brought forth. This, however,
did not shake his faith in the poet's greatness; and to reconcile what to
some would appear contradictory positions, he proposes the fact, I might
say the truism, that the greatest man is not the most original, but the
"most indebted" man. This, in the sense in which it is true, is saying no
more than that the educated man is better than the savage; but, in the
apologetic sense intended, it is equivalent to affirming that the greatest
thief is the most respectable man. Confident in this morality, he assumes a
previous play to Shakspeare's; but it appears to me that he relies too much
upon the "cadence" of the lines: otherwise I could not account for his
_selecting_ as an "autograph" a scene that, to my mind, bears
"unmistakeable traits" of Fletcher's hand, and that, by whomsoever written,
is about the weakest in the whole play.

It is a branch of the subject which I have not yet fully considered; but
MR. SPEDDING will observe that the view I take does not interfere with the
supposition that Fletcher revised the play, {403} with additions for its
revival in 1613; a task for the performance of which he would probably have
the consent of his early master.


       *       *       *       *       *


_Eustache Deschamps._ Except in the two centuries next after the conquest,
contemporaneous French notices of early English writers seem to be of
rather infrequent occurrence.

On this account, and on other accounts, the ballad addressed to Geoffrey
Chaucer by Eustache Deschamps deserves repetition. Its text requires to be
established, in order that we may be aware of its real obscurities--for no
future memoir of Chaucer can be considered as complete, without some
reference to it.

The best authorities on Eustache Deschamps are MM. Crapelet, Raynouard, and
Paulin Paris. To M. Crapelet we are indebted for the publication of
_Poésies morales et historiques d'Eustache Deschamps_; to M. Raynouard, for
an able review of the volume in the _Journal des Savants_; and to M. Paulin
Paris, for an account of the manuscript in which the numerous productions
of the author are preserved. Of the author himself, the learned M. Paris
thus writes:--

    "On pourroit surnommer Eustache Deschamps le Rutebeuf du XIVe
    siècle.--Ses oeuvres comprennent des épitres, des discours en prose,
    des jeux dramatiques, des ouvrages latins, des apologues, un grand
    poème moral, et un infinité de ballades et rondeaux pieux, bouffons,
    satiriques," &c.

Two impressions of the ballad in question are before me; one, in the _Life
of Geoffrey Chaucer by sir Harris Nicholas_, dated 1843--and the other in a
volume entitled _Geoffrey Chaucer, poète anglais du XIVe siècle. Analyses
et Fragments par H. Gomont_, Paris, 1847.--I transcribe the ballad from the
latter volume, as less accessible to English students:--


  O Socrates, plains de philosophie,
  Senèque en meurs et _Anglais_ en pratique,
  _Ouï des grans_ en ta poëterie,
  Bries en parler, saiges en rethorique,
  _Virgiles_ tres haulz qui, par ta théorique,
  Enlumines le règne d'Eneas,
  Lisle aux geans, ceuls du Bruth, et qui as
  Semé les fleurs et planté le rosier,
  Aux ignorants, de la langue pandras
  Grant translateur, noble Geffroy Chaucier.

  Tu es d'amours mondains Dieux en Albie,
  Et de la rose en la terre angélique,
  Qui _d'Angela_ Saxonne et (est) puis flourie
  Angleterre (d'elle ce nom s'applique).

  Le derrenier en l'éthimologique
  En bon anglès le livre translatas;
  Et un Vergier, où du plant demandas
  De ceuls qui _sont_ pour eulx auctorisier,
  _A ja_ long teams que tu édifias,
  Grant tranlslateur noble Geffroy Chaucier.

  A toy, pour ce, de la fontaine Helye
  Requier avoir un _buvraige_ autentique
  Dont la doys est du tout en ta baillie,
  Pour _rafrener_ d'elle ma _soif_ éthique
  _Qui men_ gaule seray paralitique
  Jusques à ce que tu m'abuveras.
  Eustaces sui qui de mon plant aras;
  Mais pran en gre les euvres d'escolier
  Que par Clifford de moy Bavoir pourras,
  Grant translateur noble Geffroy Chaucier.


    Poëte hauls loenge destynie
    _En_ ton jardin ne seroie qu'ortie
    Considere ce que j'ai dit premier
    Ton noble plant, ta douce melodie
    Mais pour savoir de rescripre te prie,
    Grant translateur noble Geoffroy Chaucier."

The new readings are in Italics, and I shall now repeat them with the
corresponding words as printed by sir Harris Nicolas:--

    "Anglais=angles; Ouï des grans=Ovides grans; Virgiles=Aigles;
    d'Angela=dangels; sont=font; A ja=N'a pas; buvraige=ouvrage;
    rafrener=rafrecir; soif=soix; Qui men=Qu'en ma; En=Et."

After such an exhibition of various readings, arising out of only two
copies of the same manuscript, it is evident that a re-collation of it is
very desirable, and I am sure the result would be thankfully received by
the numerous admirers of Chaucer.


_Eustache Deschamps_ (Vol. ii., p. 376.).--J.M.B. is desirous of learning
some particulars of this French poet, contemporaneous with Chaucer. He will
find a brief notice of him in the _Recueil de Chants Historiques Français,
depuis le XIIème jusqu'au XVIIIème Siècle_, by Le Roux de Lincy (2 vols.
Paris, 1841, Libraire de Charles Espelin). He is there described as,

    "Ecuyer et huissier d'armes des rois Charles V. et Charles VI., qui
    resta toujours fidèle à la maison de France;"

And the editor adds:

    "Les oeuvres d'Eustache Deschamps contiennent pour l'histoire du XIVème
    siècle des renseignemens précieux; on peut y recueillir des faits
    politiques qui ne sont pas sans importance, mais on y trouve en plus
    grand nombre des détails précieux sur les moeurs, les usages, et les
    coutumes de cette époque."

His poems were published for the first time in one vol. 8vo., in 1832, by
M. Crapelet, with this title: {404}

    "Poésies morales et historiques d'Eustache Deschamps, écuyer, huissier
    d'armes des rois Charles V. et Charles VI., chatelain de Fismes et
    bailli de Senlis."

As regards the "_genuineness_" of the poem cited, I am inclined, with
J.M.B., to think that it admits of question, the orthography savouring more
of the end of the fifteenth than of the close of the fourteenth century. I
am sorry not to be able to explain the meaning of "_la langue Pandras_."


       *       *       *       *       *


21. _New Tunbridge Wells, at Islington._--This fashionable morning lounge
of the nobility and gentry during the early part of the eighteenth century,
is omitted by Mr. Cunningham. There is a capital view of it in Bickham's
_Musical Entertainer_, 1737:

    "These once beautiful tea-gardens (we remember them as such) were
    formerly in high repute. In 1733 their Royal Highnesses the Princesses
    Amelia and Caroline frequented them in the summer time for the purpose
    of drinking the waters. They have furnished a subject for pamphlets,
    poems, plays, songs, and medical treatises, by Ned Ward, George Colman
    the older, Bickham, Dr. Hugh Smith, &c. Nothing now remains of them but
    the original chalybeate spring, which is still preserved in an obscure
    nook, amidst a poverty-stricken and squalid rookery of misery and
    vice."--George Daniel's _Merrie England in the Olden Time_, vol. i. p.

22. _London Spa_ (from which Spa Fields derives its name) dates as far back
as 1206. In the eighteenth century, it was a celebrated place of amusement.
There is a curious view of "London Spaw" in a rare pamphlet entitled
_May-Day, or, The Original of Garlands_. Printed for J. Roberts, 1720, 8vo.

23. _Spring Gardens._--Cox's Museum is described in the printed catalogue
of 1774, as being in "Spring Gardens." In the same year a small volume was
published containing _A Collection of various Extracts in Prose and Verse
relative to Cox's Museum_.

24. _The Pantheon in Spa Fields._--This place of amusement was opened in
1770 for the sale of tea, coffee, wine, punch, &c. It had an organ, and a
spacious promenade and galleries. In 1780 it was converted into a
lay-chapel by the Countess of Huntingdon, and is now known as _Northampton_
or _Spa Fields Chapel_. Mr. Cunningham speaks of the burying-ground
(originally the garden), but singularly enough omits to notice the chapel.

25. _Baldwin's Gardens_, running between Leather Lane and Gray's Inn Lane,
were, according to a stone which till lately was to have been seen against
a corner house, bearing the arms of Queen Elizabeth, named after _Richard
Baldwin_, one of the royal gardeners, who began building here in 1589.

26. _Rathbone Place._--In an old print (now before me) dated 1722, this
street is called "_Rawbone Place_." The Percy coffee-house is still in

27. _Surrey Institution, Blackfriars Road._--This building was originally
erected, and for some years appropriated to the _Leverian Museum_. This
magnificent museum of natural history was founded by Sir Ashton Lever, who
died in 1788. It was afterwards disposed of by way of lottery, and won by
Mr. James Parkinson, who transferred it from Leicester Place to the Surrey
side of Blackfriars bridge.

28. _Schomberg House, Pall Mall_, (now, I believe, about to be pulled
down), was once the residence of that celebrated "quack" Dr. Graham. Here,
in 1783, he erected his _Temple of Health_. He afterwards removed to Panton
Street, Haymarket, where he first exhibited his _Earth Bath_. I do not find
any mention of Graham in Mr. Cunningham's book.


       *       *       *       *       *


_Laying a Ghost._--Frequent mention is made of the laying of ghosts, and in
many localities the tradition of such an event is extant. At Cumnor, Lady
Dudley (Amy Robsart's) ghost is said to have been laid by nine Oxford
parsons, and the tradition is still preserved by the villagers; but nowhere
have I been able to ascertain what was the ceremony on such an occasion.

Is anything known on the subject?


Abingdon, Nov. 1850.

_A Test of Witchcraft._--Among the many tests applied for the discovery of
witchcraft was the following. It is, I believe, a singular instance, and
but little known to the public. It was resorted to as recently as 1759, and
may be found in the _Gentleman's Magazine_ of that year.

    "One _Susannah Hannokes_, an elderly woman of Wingrove, near
    Ayleshbury, was accused by a neighbour for bewitching her
    spinning-wheel, so that she could not make it go round, and offered to
    make oath of it before a majistrate; on which the husband, to justify
    his wife, insisted upon her being tried by the Church Bible, and that
    the accuser should be present: accordingly she was conducted to the
    parish church, where she was stript of all her cloathes to her shift
    and undercoat, and weighed against the Bible; when, to the no small
    mortification of her accuser, she outweighed it, and was honorably
    acquitted of the charge."


Abingdon, Nov. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       * {405}


_Quin's incoherent Story._--The comic story of Sir Gammer Vans (Vol. ii.,
p. 280.) reminds me of an anecdote related of Quin, who is said to have
betted Foote a wager that he would speak some nonsense which Foote could
not repeat off-hand after him. Quin then produced the following string of

    "So she went into the garden to pick a cabbage leaf, to make an
    apple-pie of; and a she-bear, coming up the street, put her head into
    the shop, and said 'Do you sell any soap?' So she died, and he very
    imprudently married the barber; and the powder fell out of the
    counsellor's wig, and poor Mrs. Mackay's puddings were quite entirely
    spoilt; and there were present the Garnelies, and the Goblilies, and
    the Picninnies, and the Great Pangendrum himself, with the little round
    button at top, and they played at the ancient game of 'Catch who catch
    can,' till the gunpowder ran out of the heels of their boots."


_Touchstone's Dial._--Mr. Knight, in a note on _As You Like It_, gives us
the description of a dial presented to him by a friend who had picked it
"out of a deal of old iron," and which he supposes to be such a one as the
"fool i' the forest" drew from his poke, and looked on with lacklustre eye.
It is very probable that this species of chronometer is still in common use
in the sister kingdom; for my brother mentions to me that, when at school
in Ireland some fifteen or sixteen years since, he had seen one of those
"_ring-dials_" in the possession of one of his schoolfellows: and Mr.
Carleton, in his amusing _Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry_, thus
describes them:--

    "The ring-dial was the hedge-schoolmaster's next best substitute for a
    watch. As it is possible that a great number of our readers may never
    have heard of--much less seen one, we shall in a word or two describe
    it--nothing indeed could be more simple. It was a bright brass ring,
    about three quarters of an inch broad, and two inches and a half in
    diameter. There was a small hole in it, which, when held opposite the
    sun, admitted the light against the inside of the ring behind. On this
    were marked the hours and the quarters, and the time was known by
    observing the hour or the quarter on which the slender ray, that came
    in from the hole in front, fell."


_America and Tartary._--

    "Un jésuite rencontra en Tartarie une femme huronne qu'il avoit connue
    au Canada: il conclut de cette étrange aventure, que le continent de
    l'Amérique se rapproche au nord-ouest du continent de l'Asie, et il
    devina ainsi l'existence du détroit qui, longtemps après, a fait la
    gloire de Bering et de Cook."--Chateaubriand, _Génie du Christianisme_,
    Partie 4., Livre 4., Chap. 1.

Yet, with all deference to the edifying letters of this missionary jesuit,
it is difficult to make such distant ends meet. It almost requires a copula
like that of the fool, who, to reconcile his lord's assertion that he had
with a single bullet shot a deer in the ear and the hind foot, explained
that the deer was scratching his ear at the time with his foot.

Subjoined is one more _proof_ of the communication which once existed
between America and the Old World:

    Colomb disoit même avoir vu les restes des fourneaux de Salomon dans
    les mines de Cibao."--Chateaubriand, _Génie, Notes, &c_.


_Deck of Cards._--

  "The king was slily finger'd from the _deck_."
              _Henry VI._, pt. iii. Act v. Sc. 1.

It is well known, and properly noted, that a pack of cards was formerly
called a _deck_; but it should be added that the term is still commonly
used in Ireland, and from being made use of in the famed song of "De Night
before Larry was stretched,"

  "De deck being called for dey play'd,
  Till Larry found one of dem cheated,"

it seems likely to be preserved. I may add, that many words and many forms
of expression which have gone out of vogue in England, or have become
provincial, are still in daily use in Ireland.


_Time when Herodotus wrote._--The following passage appears to me to afford
strong evidence, not only that Herodotus did not complete his history till
an advanced age, but that he did not _begin_ it. For in lib. i. 5. he
writes: "[Greek: ta de ep' emou ên megala, proteron ên smikra]," "those
cities, which in my time _were_ great, were of old small." This is
certainly such an expression as none but a man advanced in years could have
used. It is perhaps worth observing, that this passage occurring in the
Introduction does not diminish its weight, as the events recorded in it,
leading naturally into the history, could not well have been written
afterwards. As I have never seen this passage noticed with this view. I
shall be glad to see whether the argument which I have deduced from it
appears a reasonable one to your classical readers.


"_Dat veniam corvis," &c._--There were two headmasters of the school of
Merchant Taylors, of the respective names of Du Guard and Stevens: the
former having printed Salmasius' _Defensio Regia_, was ejected by Lord
President Bradshaw; and the latter held the vacant post in the interim,
from February to September, 1650. He wrote during his tenure of office in
the School Probation Book."-- {406}

    "Res DEUS nostras celeri citatas
      Turbine versat."
  "_Dat veniam corvis, vexat censura columbas_,
    Pejus merenti melior, et pejor bono."

On his restoration Du Gard pleasantly retorted,--

  "Du Gardum sequitur Stephanus, Stephanumque vicissim,
  Du Gardus: sortes versat utrinque DEUS."


       *       *       *       *       *



In my small library I have neither Malone's _Life of Dryden_, nor that of
more recent date by Sir Walter Scott; and, possibly, either of those works
would render my present Query needless. It relates to a copy of _Absalom
and Achitophel_ now lying before me, which is a mere chap-book, printed on
bad paper, in the most economical manner, and obviously intended to be sold
at a very reasonable rate: indeed, at the bottom of the title-page, which
is dated "1708," we are told that it was "Printed and sold by H. Hills, in
Black-fryars, near the Water-side, _for the Benefit of the Poor_." It
consists of twenty-four pages, small 8vo., and, in order that the poem
should not occupy too much space, one of the pages (p. 22.) is in a smaller
type, and in double columns. At the end is the following singular


    "To prevent the publicks being impos'd on, this is to give notice that
    the book lately published in 4to. is very imperfect and uncorrect, in
    so much that above thirty lines are omitted in several places, and many
    gross errors committed, which pervert the sense."

The above is in Italic type, and the body of the tract consists of only the
first part of _Absalom and Achitophel_, as ordinarily printed: allowing for
misprints (which are tolerably numerous), the poem stands very much the
same as in several common editions I have at hand. My Query is, Is the work
known to have been so published "for the benefit of the poor," and in order
to give it greater circulation, and what is the explanation of the


N.B. A short "Key" follows the usual address "To the Reader."

       *       *       *       *       *


_Edward the Confessor's Crucifix and Gold Chain._--In 1688 Ch. Taylour
published _A Narrative of the Finding St. Edward the King and Confessor's
Crucifix and Gold Chain in the Abbey Church of St. Peter's, Westminster_.
Are the circumstances attending this discovery well known? And where now is
the crucifix and chain?


_The Widow of the Wood._--Benjamin Victor published in 1755 a "narrative"
entitled _The Widow of the Wood_. It is said to be very rare, having been
"bought up" by the Wolseleys of Staffordshire. What is the history of the


_Cardinal Erskine._--I am anxious to obtain some information respecting
Cardinal Erskine, a Scotchman, as his name would impart, but called
Cardinal of England? I suppose he was elevated to the sacred college
between Cardinal Howard, the last mentioned by Dodd in his _Church
History_, and the Cardinal of York, the last scion of the house of Stuart.

And is the following a correct list of English Cardinals since Wolsey, who
died in 1530?

                                           Elevated in
John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester                  1535
Reginald Pole, Archbishop of Canterbury           1536
William Peyto, Bishop of Salisbury                1557
William Allen                                     1587
Philip Howard                                     1675
---- Erskine                                      ----
Henry Stuart of York                              1747
Thomas Weld                                       1830
Charles Acton                             1839 or 1842
Nicolas Wiseman, who is the 53rd                  1850
 on the list of English Cardinals

Both the latter were born abroad, the former at Naples, the latter at
Seville; but they were born of British subjects, and were brought to
England at an early age to be educated. The Cardinal of York was born in
Rome; but being of the royal family of England, was always styled the
Cardinal of England.


October 26. 1850.

_Thomas Regiolapidensis._--Where can I find any information as to the saint
who figures in the following curious story? _Regiolapidensis_ may probably
mean _of Königstein_, in Saxony; but Albon Butler takes no notice of this

    "Incipit narratiuncula e libro vingto, cui titular _Vita atq. Gesta B.
    Thomæ Regiolapidensis, ex ordine FF. Prædicatorum_, excerpta.

    "Quum verò prædicator indefensus, missionum ecclesiasticarum causâ, in
    borealibus versaretur partibus, miraculum ibi stupendum sanè patravit.
    Conspexit enim taurum ingentem, vaccarum (sicut poëta quidam ex
    ethnicis ait) 'magnâ comitante catervâ,' in prato quodam graminoso
    ferocientem, maceriâ tantum bassâ inter se et belluam istam horrendam
    interpositâ. Constitit Thomas, constitit et bos, horribiliter rugiens,
    caudâ erectâ, cornibus immaniter sæviens, ore spumam, naribus vaporem,
    oculis fulgur emittens, maceriam transsilire, in virum sanctum irruere,
    corpusque ejus venerabile in aëra jactitare, visibiliter nimis paratus.
    {407} Thomas autem, eaptâ occasione, oculos in monstrum obfirmat,
    signumque crucis magneticum in modum indesinenter ducere aggreditur, En
    portentum inauditum! geminis belluae luminibus illico palpebrae
    obducuntur, titubat taurus, cadit, ac, signo magnetico sopitus, primò
    raucum stertens, mox infantiliter placidum trahens halitum, humi pronus
    recumbit. Nec moratus donec hostis iste cornutus somnum excuteret, viv
    sanctus ad hospitium se propinquum laetus inde incolumisque recepit."


"_Her Brow was fair._"--Can any of your many readers inform me of the
author of the following lines, which I copy as I found them quoted in Dr.
Armstrong's _Lectures_:

  "Her brow was fair, but very pale,
  And looked like stainless marble; a touch methought would soil
  Its whiteness. On her temple, one blue vein
  Ran like a tendril; one through her shadowy hand
  Branched like the fibre of a leaf away."


_Hoods warn by Doctors of Divinity of Aberdeen._--Will you allow me to
inquire, through the pages of your publication, of what _colour_ and
_material_ the _exterior_ and _lining_ of hoods were composed which Doctors
in Divinity, who had graduated at Aberdeen, Glasgow, and St. Andrew's,
prior to the Reformation, were accustomed to wear? I imagine, the same as
those worn by Doctors who had graduated at Paris: but what hoods they wore
I know not. I trust that some of your correspondents will enlighten me upon
this subject.


_Irish Brigade._--Where can I find any account of the institution and
history of the Irish brigade, a part of the army of France under the



_Doctrine of the Immaculate Conception._--In the charge delivered by the
Bishop of London to his clergy, on the 2nd instant, the following passage

    "It is not easy to say what the members of that Church [the Church of
    Rome] are required to believe now; it is impossible for men to foresee
    what they may be called upon to admit as an article of faith next year,
    or in any future year: for instance, till of late it was open to a
    Roman Catholic to believe or not, as he might see reason, the fanciful
    notion of the immaculate conception of the Blessed Virgin; but the
    present Bishop of Rome has seen fit to make it an article of their
    faith; and no member of his church can henceforth question it without
    denying the infallibility of his spiritual sovereign, and so hazarding,
    as it is asserted, his own salvation."

Can any of your correspondents inform me where the papal decision on this
point is to be found?


_Gospel Oak Tree at Kentish Town._--Can you inform me why an ancient oak
tree, in a field at Kentish Town, is called the "Gospel Oak Tree." It is
situated and grows in the field called the "Gospel Oak Field," Kentish
Town, St. Pancras, Middlesex. Tradition says Saint Augustine, or one of the
ancient Fathers of the Church, preached under its branches.


_Arminian Nunnery in Huntingdonshire._--Where can I find an account of a
religious academy called the _Arminian Nunnery_, founded by the family of
the FERRARS, at Little Gidding in Huntingdonshire? I have seen some MS.
collections of Francis Peck on the subject, but they are formed in a bad
spirit. Has not Thomas Hearne left us something about this institution?


_Ruding's Annotated Langbaine._--Can any of your readers inform me who
possesses the copy of Langbaine's _Account of the English Dramatic Poets_
with MS. additions, and copious continuations, by the REV. ROGERS RUDING?
In one of his notes, speaking of the Garrick collection of old plays, that
industrious antiquary observes:

    "This noble collection has lately (1784) been mutilated by tearing out
    such single plays as were duplicates to others in the Sloane Library.
    The folio editions of Shakespeare, Beaumont and Fletcher, and Jonson,
    have likewise been taken from it for the same reason."

This is a sad complaint against the Museum authorities of former times.


_Mrs. Tempest._--Can any of your correspondents give me any account of Mrs.
(or, in our present style, Miss) Tempest, a young lady who died the day of
the great storm in Nov., 1703, in honour of whom Pope's early friend Walshe
wrote an elegiac pastoral, and invited Pope to give his "winter" pastoral
"a turn to her memory." In the note on Pope's pastoral it is said that "she
was of an ancient family in Yorkshire, and admired by Walshe." I have
elsewhere read of her as "the celebrated Mrs. Tempest;" but I know of no
other celebrity than that conferred by Walshe's pastoral; for Pope's has no
special allusion to her.


_Sitting cross-legged._--In an alliterative poem on Fortune (_Reliquiæ
Antiquæ_, ii. p. 9.), written early in the fifteenth century, are the
following lines:--

  "Sitte, I say, and sethe on a semeli sete,
  Rygth on the rounde, on the rennyng ryng;
  _Caste kne over kne, as a kynge kete_,
  Comely clothed in a cope, crouned as a kyng."

The third line seems to illustrate those early illuminations in which kings
and great personages are represented as sitting cross-legged. There are
numerous examples of the A.-S. period. Was it {408} merely assumption of
dignity, or was it not rather intended to ward off any evil influence which
might affect the king whilst sitting, in his state? That this was a
consideration of weight we learn from the passage in Bede, in which
Ethelbert is described as receiving Augustine in the open air:

    "Post dies ergo venit ad insulam rex, et residens sub divo jussit
    Augustinum cum sociis ad suum ibidem adveire colloquium; caverat enim
    ne in aliquam domum ad se introirent, vetere usus augurio, ne
    superventu suo, si quid maleficæ artis habuissent, eum superando
    deciperent."--_Hist. Eccles._, l. i. c. 25.

It was cross-legged that Lucina was sitting before the floor of Alemena
when she was deceived by Galanthes. In Devonshire there is still a saying
which recommends "sitting cross-legged to help persons on a journey;" and
it is employed as a charm by schoolboys in order to avert punishment.
(Ellis's _Brand_, iii. 258.) Were not the cross-legged effigies, formerly
considered to be those of Crusaders, so arranged with an idea of the
mysterious virtue of the position?


_Twickenham--Did Elizabeth visit Bacon there?_--I believe all the authors
who within the last sixty years have written on the history of Twickenham,
Middlesex (and among the most known of these I may mention Lysons,
Ironside, and John Norris Brewer), have, when mentioning Twickenham Park,
formerly the seat of Lord Bacon, stated that he there entertained Queen
Elizabeth. Of this circumstance I find no account in the works of the
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. His lordship entertained her at
Gorhambury in one of her progresses; and I would ask if it be possible that
Twickenham may have been mistaken for his other seat of Gorhambury? It is
well known Queen Elizabeth passed much of the latter part of her life at
Richmond, and ended her days there; and in Mr. Nares' _Memoirs of Lord
Burghley_ there is an account of her visit to Barn-Elms; and there is also
a curious description of her visit to Kew (in that neighbourhood) in the
_Sydney Papers_, published by Arthur Collins, in two vols. folio, vol. i.
p. 376., in a letter from Rowland Whyte, Esq. Had Lord Bacon received her
majesty, it must most probably have been in 1595. But perhaps some of your
readers may be able to supply me with information on this subject.


_Burial towards the West._--The usual posture of the dead is with the feet
eastward, and the head towards the west: the fitting attitude of men who
look for their Lord, "whose name is The East," and who will come to
judgement in the regions of the dawn suddenly. But it was the ancient usage
of the Church that the martyr, the bishop, the saint, and even the priest,
should occupy in their sepulture a position the reverse of the secular
dead, and lie down with their feet westward, and their heads to the rising
sun. The position of the crozier and the cross on ancient sepulchres of the
clergy record and reveal this fact. The doctrine suggested by such a burial
was, that these mighty men which were of old would be honoured with a first
resurrection, and as their Master came on from the east, they were to arise
and to follow the Lamb as He went; insomuch that they, with Him, would
advance to the Judgement of the general multitudes,--the ancients and the
saints which were worthy to judge and reign. Now, Sir, my purpose in this
statement is to elicit, if I may, from your learned readers illustrations
of this distinctive interment.



_Medal struck by Charles II._--Voltaire, in his _Histoire de Charles XII._,
liv. 4., states that a medal was struck in commemoration of a victory which
Charles XII. gained over the Russians, at a place named Hollosin, near the
Boresthenes, in the year 1708. He adds that on one side of this medal was
the epigraph, "Sylvæ, paludes, aggeres, hostes victi;" on the other the
verse of Lucan:--

  "Victrices _copias_ alium laturus in orbem."

The verse of Lucan referred to is in lib. v. l.238.:

  "Victrices _aquilas_ alium laturus in orbem."

Query, Is the medal referred to by Voltaire known to exist? and if so, is
the substitution of the unmetrical and prosaic word _copias_ due to the
author of the medal, or to Voltaire himself?


_National Debt._--What volumes, pamphlets, or paragraphs can be pointed out
to the writer, in poetry or prose, alluding to the bribery, corruption, and
abuses connected with the formation of the National Debt from 1698 to 1815?


_Midwives licensed._--In the articles to be inquired into in the province
of Canterbury, anno 1571 (_Grindal Rem._, Park. Soc. 174-58), inquiry to be

    "Whether any use charms, or unlawful prayers, or invocations, in Latin
    or otherwise, and _namely, midwives in the time of women's travail of

In the oath taken by Eleanor Pead before being licensed by the Archbishop
to be a midwife a similar clause occurs; the words, "Also, I will not use
any kind of sorcery or incantations in the time of the travail of any
woman." Can any of your readers inform me what charms or prayers are here
referred to, and at what period midwives ceased to be licensed by the
Archbishop, or if any traces of such license are still found in Roman
Catholic countries?


       *       *       *       *       * {409}



(Vol. ii., p. 308.)

I am not aware of any record in which mention of this relique occurs before
the time of St. Margaret. It seems very probable that the venerated
crucifix which was so termed was one of the treasures which descended with
the crown of the Anglo-Saxon kings. When the princess Margaret, with her
brother Edgar, the lawful heir to the throne of St. Edward the Confessor,
fled into Scotland, after the victory of William, she carried this cross
with her amongst her other treasures. Aelred of Rievaulx (ap. Twysd. 350.)
gives a reason why it was so highly valued, and some description of the
rood itself:

    "Est autem crux illa longitudinem habens palmæ de auro purissimo
    mirabili opere fabricats, quæ in modum techæ clauditur et aperitur.
    Cernitur in ea quædarn Dominicæ crucis portio, (sicut sæpe multorum
    miraculorum argumento probatum est). Salvatoris nostri ymaginem habens
    de ebore densissime sculptam et aureis distinctionibus mirabiliter

St. Margaret appears to have destined it for the abbey which she and her
royal husband, Malcolm III., founded at Dunfermline in honour of the Holy
Trinity: and this cross seems to have engaged her last thoughts for her
confessor relates that, when dying, she caused it to be brought to her, and
that she embraced, and gazed steadfastly upon it, until her soul passed
from time to eternity. Upon her death (16th Nov., 1093), the Black Rood was
deposited upon the altar of Dunfermline Abbey, where St. Margaret was

The next mention of it that I have been enabled to make note of, occurs in
1292, in the Catalogue of Scottish Muniments which were received within the
Castle of Edinburgh, in the presence of the Abbots of Dunfermline and Holy
Rood, and the Commissioners of Edward I., on the 23rd August in that year,
and were conveyed to Berwick-upon-Tweed. Under the head

    "Omnia ista inventa fuerunt in quadam cista in Dormitorio S. Crucis, et
    ibidem reposita prædictos Abbates et altos, sub ecrum sigillis."

we find

    "Unum scrinium argenteum deauratum, in quo reponitur crux quo vocatur
    _la blake rode_."--Robertson's _Index_, Introd. xiii.

It does not appear that any such fatality was ascribed to this relique as
that which the Scots attributed to the possession of the famous stone on
which their kings were crowned, or it might be conjectured that when Edward
I. brought "the fatal seat" from Scone to Westminster, he brought the Black
Rood of Scotland too. That amiable and pleasing historian, Miss Strickland,
has stated that the English viewed the possession of this relique by the
Scottish kings with jealousy; that it was seized upon by Edward I., but
restored on the treaty of peace in 1327. This statement is erroneous; the
rood having been mistaken for the stone, which, by the way, as your readers
know, was never restored.

We next find it in the possession of King David Bruce, who lost this
treasured relique, with his own liberty, at the battle of Durham (18th
Oct., 1346), and from that time the monks of Durham became its possessors.
In the _Description of the Ancient Monuments, Rites, and Customs of the
Abbey Church of Durham_, as they existed at the dissolution, which was
written in 1593, and was published by Davies in 1672, and subsequently by
the Surtees Society, we find it described as

    "A most faire roode or picture of our Saviour, in silver, called the
    Black Roode of Scotland, brought out of Holy Rood House, by King David
    Bruce ... with the picture of Our Lady on the one side of our Saviour,
    and St. John's on the other side, very richly wrought in silver, all
    three having crownes of pure beaten gold of goldsmith's work, with a
    device or rest to take them off or on."

The writer then describes the "fine wainscote work" to which this costly
"rood and pictures" were fastened on a pillar at the east end of the
southern aisle of the quire. And in a subsequent chapter (p. 21. of Surtees
Soc. volume) we have an account of the cross miraculously received by David
I. (whom the writer confounds with the King David Bruce captured at the
battle of Durham, notwithstanding that his _Auntient Memorial_ professes to
be "collected forthe of the best antiquaries"), and in honour of which he
founded Holy Rood Abbey in 1128 from which account it clearly appears that
this cross was distinct from the Black Rood of Scotland. For the writer,
after stating that this miraculous cross had been brought from Holy Rood
House by the king, as a "most fortunate relique," says:

    "He lost _the said crosse_, which was taiken upon him, and many other
    most wourthie and excellent jewells ... which all weare offred up at
    the shryne of Saint Cuthbert, _together with the Blacke Rude of
    Scotland_ (so termed), with Mary and John, maid of silver, being, as yt
    were, smoked all over, which was placed and sett up most exactlie in
    the pillar next St. Cuthbert's shrine," &c.

In the description written in 1593, as printed, the size of the Black Rood
is not mentioned; but in Sanderson's _Antiquities of Durham_, in which he
follows that description, but with many variations and omissions, he says
(p. 22.), in mentioning the Black Rood of Scotland, with the images, as
above described,--

    "Which rood and pictures were all three very richly wrought in silver,
    and were all smoked blacke over, {410} being large pictures of a yard
    or five quarters long, and on every one of their leads a crown of pure
    beaten gold," &c.

I have one more (too brief) notice of this famous rood. It occurs in the
list of reliques preserved in the Feretory of St. Cuthhert, under the care
of the shrine-keeper, which was drawn up in 1383 by Richard de Sedbrok, and
is as follows:

    "A black crosse, called the _Black Rode of Scotland_."--MS. Dunelm., B.
    ii. 35.

Strange to say, Mr. Raine, in his _St. Cuthbert_, p. 108., appears to
confound the cross brought from Holy Rood House, and in honour of which it
was founded, with the Black Rood of Scotland. He was misled, no doubt, by
the statement in the passage above extracted from the _Ancient Monuments_,
that this cross was brought out of Holy Rood House.

I fear that the fact that it was formed of silver and gold, gives little
reason to hope that this historical relique escaped destruction when it
came into the hands of King Henry's church robbers. Its sanctity may,
indeed, have induced the monks to send it with some other reliques to a
place of refuge on the Continent, until the tyranny should be overpast; but
there is not any tradition at Durham, that I am aware of, to throw light on
the concluding Query of your correspondent P.A.F., as to "what became of
the 'Holy Cross,' or 'Black Rood,' at the dissolution of Durham Priory?"

That the Black Rood of Scotland, and the Cross of Holy Rood House were
distinct, there can, I think, be no doubt. The cross mentioned by Aelred is
not mentioned as the "Black Rood:" probably it acquired this designation
after his time. But Fordoun, in the _Scoti-Chronicon_, Lord Hailes in his
_Annals_, and other historians, have taken Aelred's account as referring to
the Black Rood of Scotland. Whether it had been brought from Dunfermline to
Edinburgh before Edward's campaign, and remained thenceforth deposited in
Holy Rood Abbey, does not appear: but it is probable that a relique to
which the sovereigns of Scotland attached so much veneration was kept at
the latter place.


Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Nov. 2. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Hæmony_ (Vol. ii., p. 88.).--MR. BASHAM will find some account of this
plant under the slightly different type of "Hemionion" in Pliny, xxv. 20.,
xvi. 25., xxvii. 17.:

    "Invenit et Teucer eadem ætate Teucrion, quam quidam 'Hemionion'
    vocant, spargentem juncos tenues, folia parva, asperis locis nascentem,
    austero sapore, nunquam florentem: neque semen gignit. Medetur lienibus
    ... Narrantque sues qui radicem ejus ederint sine splene inveniri.

    "Singultus hemionium sedat.

    "'Asplenon' sunt qui _hemionion_ vocant foliis trientalibus multis,
    radice limosa, cavernosa, sicut filicis, candida, hirsuta: nec caulem,
    nec florem, nec semen habet. Nascitur in petris parietibusque opacis,

According to Hardouin's note, p. 3777., it is the _Ceterach_ of the shops,
or rather _Citrach_; a great favourite of the mules, [Greek: hêmionoi],
witness Theophrastus, _Hist._, ix. 19.

Ray found it "on the walls about Bristol, and the stones at St. Vincent's
rock." He calls it "Spleenwort" and "Miltwaste." _Catalog. Plant._ p. 31.
Lond. 1677.

I have a copy of Henri du Puy's "original" _Comus_, but do not recollect
his noticing the plant.



_Byron's Birthplace._--Can any of your correspondents give any information
relative to the house in which Lord Byron was born? His biographers state
that it was in Holles Street, but do not mention the number.



    [Our correspondent will find, on referring to Mr. Cunningham's
    _Handbook of London_, that "Byron was born at No. 24. Holles Street,
    and christened in the small parish church of St. Marylebone."]

_Ancient Tiles_ (Vol. i., p. 173.).--The device of two birds perched back
to back on the twigs of a branch that rises between them, is found, not on
tiles only, but in wood carving; as at Exeter Cathedral, on two of the
Misereres in the choir, and on the gates which separate the choir from the
aisles, and these again from the nave.


_Modena Family_ (Vol. ii., p. 266.).--Victor Amadeus III., King of
Sardinia, died in October, 1796. Mary Beatrice, Duchess of Modena, mother
of the present Duke of Modena, was the daughter of Victor Emmanuel V., King
of Sardinia, who abdicated his throne in 1821, and died 10th January, 1824.
The present Duke of Modena is the direct heir of the house of Stuart in the
following line:--

All the legitimate issue of Charles II. and James II. being extinct, we
fall back upon Henrietta Maria, youngest child of Charles I. She married
her cousin Philip, Duke of Orleans, brother of Louis XIV., and by him had
three children. Two died without issue: the youngest, Anna Maria, b. Aug.
1669, mar. Victor Amadeus II., Duke of Savoy, and had by him three
children, one son and two daughters.

The son, Charles Emmanuel III., Duke of {411} Savoy, married and had Victor
Amadeus III., who married Maria Antoinette of Spain, and had:--1. Charles
Emmanuel IV., who died without issue, and 2. Victor Emmanuel V., who
married an Austrian Archduchess; his eldest daughter married Francis IV.
Duke of Modena. She died between A.D. 1841-1846, I believe, and left four
children:--1. Francis V., Duke of Modena. 2. The wife of Henri, Comte de
Chambord. 3. Ferdinand. 4. Marie, wife of Don Juan, brother of the present
de jure King of Spain, Carlos VI.


_Nicholas Breton's Fantasticks_ (Vol. ii., p. 375.).--In reply to the
second Bibliographical Query of J. MT., Edinburgh, respecting Nicholas
Breton's _Fantasticks_, I beg to inform him that my copy is perfect, and
contains twenty-two leaves. The title is _Fantasticks: seruing for a
perpetuall Prognostication_, with the subjects of the twenty-four
_Descants_, as they are called, in prose, contained in the volume. 4to. bl.
lett. London: Printed for Francis Williams, 1626. After this is a
dedication "To the worshipfull and worthy knight Sir Marke Ive, of Rivers
Hall, in Essex;" and a short address "To the Reader," one leaf. It is an
entertaining work, and contains some curious and useful remarks on our
ancient manners, customs, and habits. My copy had successively belonged to
Garrick, Fillingham, and Heber; the latter of whom has written in it, "Who
has ever seen another copy?"



_Gaudentio di Lucca_ (Vol. ii., pp. 247. 298. 327.).--The Rev. Simon
Berington, the author of _The Memoirs of Gaudentio di Lucca_, "of whom" MR.
CROSSLEY (Vol. ii., p. 328.) "regrets that so little is known," was the
fourth son of John Berington, of Winesley, co. Hereford, Esquire, by
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Thomas Wolrich, of Dudmaston, co. Salop, Bart.
He was born 1679. He studied and took holy orders at Douay College.


Nov. 3. 1850.

_Weights for weighing Coins_(Vol. ii., p. 326.).--I am able to supply H.E.
with a reference to this subject of an earlier date than those he quotes.
In the MS. _Compotus_ or _Accounts of Sibton Abbey, in Suffolk_, in my
possession, occurs the following item, under the year 1363-4:

    "Et de ix d. pro ij paribus Balaunces pro aure ponderand'."

The following extract, although of later date than H.E. requires, may yet
be not without its use to him in illustration of the subject. It occurs in
the _Compotus_ of a collegiate establishment at Mettingam, Suffolk, from an
earlier volume of which some extracts were furnished to the _Archæological
Journal_ (vol. vi. p. 62.). It is as follows, under the year 1464:--

    "Item in ponderibus pro novo aura ponderant' s' nobili _xs._ di. nobyl
    et quadrant' ejusdem cunagii et pro nobili de _vj_s. _viij_d. di. nobil
    et quadrant' et minoribus ponderibus utriusque cunagii cum le Scolys et
    Cophino pro eisdem. _ij_s. _j_d."

The new gold is of course the reduced coinage of Edward IV. I conclude that
the nobles of 6s. 8d. were the same as the angels.


_Mrs. Partington_ (Vol. ii., p. 377.).--IGNORANS no doubt refers to the
oft-repeated allusion to "Dame Partington and her mop;" and taking it for
granted that he does so, I will enlighten him a little on the subject. The
"original Mrs. Partington" was a respectable old lady, living, at Sidmouth
in Devonshire; her cottage was on the beach, and during an awful storm
(that, I think, of Nov. 1824, when some fifty or sixty ships were wrecked
at Plymouth) the sea rose to such a height as every now and then to invade
the old lady's place of domicile: in fact, almost every wave dashed in at
the door. Mrs. Partington, with such help as she could command, with mops
and brooms, as fast as the water entered the house, mopped it out again;
until at length the waves had the mastery, and the dame was compelled to
retire to an upper story of the house. I well recollect reading in the
Devonshire newspapers of the time an account similar to the above: but the
first allusion to the circumstance was, I think, made by Lord Brougham in
his celebrated speech in the house of Commons on the Reform Bill, in which
he compared the Conservative opposition to the bill to be like the
opposition of "Dame Partington and her mop, who endeavoured to mop out the
waves of the Atlantic."


_Mrs. Partington._--Mr. Greene, the witty editor of the _Boston (N.E.)
Post_, is believed to be the original of Mrs. Partington: at least he
fathers all her sayings. He began to print them about twelve or fifteen
years ago.


    [G.M.B. has also kindly forwarded to us some of "_Mrs. Partington's
    Queries_ from a recent number of the _Boston Post_, from which we
    select a couple of specimens, viz.,--

    "Whether the Emperor of China is a _porcelain_ statue or a mere

    "Is the _Great Seal_ alive, or only stuffed?"]

_The East Anglian Word "Mauther"_ (Vol. ii., pp. 217. 365.).--Skinner's
note on this word is

    "Mawther, vox Norfolciensi agro peculiaris: _Spelman_ ipse eodem agro
    ortus a Dan. _Moer_, Virgo, Puella, deflectit. Possit tamen et
    declinari a Belg. _Maegd_, Teut. _Magd_, idem signante, addita term.
    _er_ vel _der_, ut in proximo agro Lincolniensi in vocibus _Heeder_ et
    _Sheeder_ quæ Marem et Feminam notant. Author Dict. Angl. scribit
    _Modder_, et cum Kiliano deducit a Belg. _Modde_, _Moddeken_, Pupa,
    Puella, Virgincula."--_Etymol._ sub voce.

Webster merely gives (with strange neglect, having Skinner before him):

    "Mauther, a foolish young girl(not used)."--_Ben Jonson._

Skinner is, I believe, wrong in assigning the _r_ termination to the Danish
word. Such a termination of the word _maid_ is not to be found in any of
the Teutonic dialects. The diphthong sound and the _th_ appear frequently;

  1. Moeso-Gothic: _Magath_ or _Magaths_; _Mawi_,
      dim. _Mawilo_.
  2. Anglo-Saxon: _Maeth_, _Maegth_, dim. _Meowla_.
  3. Old-German: _Maget_.
  4. Swedish: _Moe_.
  5. Norse: _Moei_.

I therefore suppose the _r_ termination in _mauther_ to be a mere
corruption, like that pointed out by Skinner in the Lincoln Folk-speech: or
is it possible that it may have arisen from a contusion of the words _maid_
and _mother_ in Roman Catholic times? In Holland the Virgin Mary was called
_Moeder Maagd_,--a phrase which may possibly have crossed over to the East
Anglian coast, and occasioned the subsequent confusion.


P.S. Do the words _modde_, _moddeken,_ quoted by Skinner, exist? and, if
so, are they Dutch or Flemish? I have no means of verifying them at hand.

    [On referring to Kilian's _Dictionarium Teutonico-Latin-Gallicum_ (ed.
    1642), we find, "MODDE, MODDEKEN, Pupa, Poupée."]

_Cheshire Cat_ (Vol. ii., p. 377.).--A correspondent, T.E.L.P.B.T., asks
the explanations of the phrase, "grinning like a Cheshire cat." Some years
since Cheshire cheeses were sold in this town moulded into the shape of a
cat, bristles being inserted to represent the whiskers. This may possibly
have originated the saying.



"_Thompson of Esholt_" (Vol. ii., p. 268.).--In an old pedigree of the
Calverley family, I find it stated that _Henry Thompson of Esholt_ (whose
only daughter _Frances_ William Calverley of Calverley married, and by her
acquired that property) was great-grandson to Henry Thompson,

    "One of the king's gentlemen-at-arms at the siege of Boulogne (temp. H.
    7.), where he notably signalised himself, and for his service was
    rewarded with the _Maison Dieu at Dover_, by gift of the king;
    afterwards, in the reign of Edward VI., exchanged it for the manor and
    rectory of _Bromfield_ in Cumberland, and the site of the late
    dissolved nunnery of Esholt."

Further particulars regarding the above grant of _Bromefield_, and a
_pedigree_ of the Thompsons, are published in _Archæologia Oeliana_, vol.
ii. (1832), p. 171.



_Minar's Book of Antiquities_ (Vol. i., p. 277.; ii. p. 344.).--I am much
obliged to T.J. for his endeavours to help me to Minar's _Book of
Antiquities_. But there still remains a chasm too wide for me to jump;
inasmuch as Christopher Meiners published his treatise _De Vero Deo_ in
1780, and Cardinal Cusa, who refers to Minar, died in 1464, being more than
300 years before.


_Croziers and Pastoral Staves_ (Vol. ii., pp. 248, 313.).--The opinion
expressed by the REV. MR. WALCOT (in your No. 50.), that by the word
_crozier_ is to be understood the crossed staff belonging only to
archbishops and legates, while the staff with a crook at its end is to be
called the pastoral staff, cannot, I think, be considered satisfactory, for
the following, among other reasons.

Crozier is generally (I should formerly have said universally) understood
to mean the staff with a crook, the so well-known "ensign of bishops."

In the instances mentioned by MR. WALCOT, _croziers_ are repeatedly spoken
of as having been borne at the funerals of _bishops_, while the crosses
borne before Wolsey are called crosses, and not croziers.

The word _crozier_ seems to be derived from the mediæval Latin word
_crocia_. This is explained by Ducange: "Pedum, baculus pastoralis,
episcopalis." Crocia seems to be derived from, or closely connected with,
"crocha, uncinus, lamus," and "crochum, uncus quo arcubalistæ tenduntur"
(Ducange). Hence it appears that _crozier_ does not refer to a cross but to
a crook.

In such ancient authorities as I have had the opportunity of referring to
at the moment, as brasses, incised slabs, &c., bishops and archbishops are
alike represented with the crooked staff; a cross is of more rare
occurrence, and at the moment only two instances occur to me, one in the
fine brass of Frederic, son of Casimir, king of Poland, and a cardinal,
which is in the cathedral of Cracow, and in which he is represented holding
a crozier, while crosses are figured on the sides under the cardinal's hat.
The other is in the curious brass of Lambert, bishop of Bamberg, in the
cathedral of that city: in this the bishop holds a cross in his right and a
crozier in his left hand.

The statement that the crook of the bishop's staff was bent outwards, and
that of the abbot's inward, is one which is often made in books; I should,
however, be very glad to learn whether any difference has been observed to
exist either in mediæval representations of croziers on seals,
accompanying, effigies, or in paintings, or in the existing examples. So
far as I have seen, the crook, in all except a few early instances, is bent
in the same manner, _i.e._ inwards.


_Socinian Boast_ (Vol. ii., p. 375.).--The following lines "De Ruinâ
Babylonis" occur in the works of a Socinian writer, one Samuelis
Przipcovius, who died in 1670, and evidently have reference to those quoted
by Dr. Pusey:-- {413}

  "Quid per Luterum, Calvinum, perque Socinum,
    Funditus eversam jam Babylona putas?
  Perstat adhuc _Babylon_, et toto regnat in orbe
    Sub vario primum nomine robur habens.
  Ostentat _muros_, jactat sublimia _tecta_
    De _fundamento_ quis metus esse potest?
  Ni Deus hanc igitur molem disjecerit ipse
    Humano nunquam Marte vel arte ruet."

Przipcovius was a Polish knight, and cotempory the author of _Hudibras_. In
a tract entitled _Religio Vindicata a Calumniis Atheismi_, he thus alludes
to the spiritual Quixotism which induced Butler to "crack the satiric

    "Sæpe audivi quod in _Angliâ_ (quæ regio sicut in multis aliis rebus,
    sic præcipue in religionibus totius mundi compendium est) de ejusmodi
    fanaticis perhibetur, quod ita sui suarumque irrationabilium opinionum
    sint amantes, ut audeant propter eas divinam Providentiam angustis
    Ecclesiarum suarum (quæ ex angustis cujuslibet Penatibus constant)
    terminis circumscribere.... Et quemadmodum omnes isti miseri aperte
    delirant, præcipue ii quos zeli æstus eousque deducit, ut tanquam
    bacchantes aut cerriti per plateas, domos, templa, absque ullo ordine
    et respectu cursitantes concionentur, et interdum _anseres, equos, vel
    oves_ (cujus rei ibi satis frequentia exempla occurrunt) dum eis
    homines aures præbere nolunt, ad suas opiniones convertere tentent."



_MSS. of Locke_ (Vol. i., pp. 401. 462.).--In reply to a question in "NOTES
AND QUERIES," I may state, that the address of the son of the late Dr.
Hancock, is George H., Park Grove, Birkenhead; and he will furnish
information relative to the MSS. of Locke.


_Sir William Grant_ (Vol. ii., p. 397.).--Your correspondent R. says that
"_Sir William Grant_" was one of the few Scotchmen who had freed himself
from the peculiarities of the speech of his country. Frank Horner is
another." If R. means to include the _Scottish accent_, he is mistaken as
to Sir William Grant, who retained a strong Scottish _burr_. If he means
only correctness of diction, then I should say the number was not _few_.
Mackintosh's and Jeffery's English was, I think, quite as pure as Horner's;
and Lord Brougham, with much idiosyncrasy, had no _Scotch peculiarities_,
at least--_me judice_--infinitely less than Sir William Grant. I could name
twenty members of the present houses of parliament in whom I have never
detected any "Scotch peculiarity."


_Tristan d'Acunha_ (Vol. ii., p. 358.).--The island is noticed, but
briefly, in p. 54. of the first volume of Perouse's _Voyage round the
World_, Lond. 1799. It is there stated that a tolerably minute account of
it is contained in _Le Neptune Oriental_, by D'Apres (or Apres de
Manvilette). This work was published in Paris, 1775, in two volumes, large


_Arabic Numerals_ (Vol.ii., pp. 27. 61. 339.).-- In a work in Arabic, by
Ahmad ben Abubekr bin Wahshih, on Ancient Alphabets, published in the
original, and accompanied with an English translation, by Von Hammer, your
correspondent on the subject of Arabic numerals will find that these
numerals were not invented as arbitrary signs, and borrowed for various
alphabets; but that they are actually taken from an Indian alphabet of nine
characters, the remaining letters being made up at each decimal by
repeating the nine characters, with one or two dots. The English Preface
states that this alphabet is still in use in India, not merely as a
representative of numbers, but of letters of native language. The book is a
neat quarto, printed in London in 1806; and the alphabet occurs in page 7.
of the Arabic original.



_Luther's Hymns_ (Vol. ii., p. 327.).--If F.Q. will turn to Mr. Palmer's
_Origines Liturgicæ_, vol. ii. p. 238. 4th edit., he will find that the
sentence in the Burial Service, "In the midst of life we are in death,"
&c., is taken from the _Salisbury Breviary Psalter_. The Salisbury Use was
drawn up by Bishop Osmund in the eleventh century.

N.E.R. (a Subscriber.)

_Bolton's Ace._--What is the meaning of "_Bolton's Ace_," in the following
passage in the address to the reader prefixed to Henry Hutton's _Follies
Anatomie_, 8vo. Lond. 1618? It is passed over by DR. RIMBAULT in his
reprint of the work for the Percy Society in 1842:

  "Could ye attacke this felon in's disgrace,
  I would not bate an inch (not _Bolton's ace_)
  To baite, deride, nay, ride this silly asse."

J. CT.

    ["_Bate me an ace quoth Bolton_" is an old proverb of unknown origin.
    Ray tells us that a _Collection of Proverbs_ having been presented to
    Queen Elizabeth, with an assurance that it contained all the proverbs
    in the English language. "Bate me an ace, quoth Bolton," said the
    queen, implying that the assertion was too strong; and, in fact, that
    every proverb was not in the collection. See Nares' _Glossary_, who
    quotes the following epigram by H.P., to show the collection referred

        "_Secundæ Cogitutiones meliores._

  "A pamphlet was of proverbs penned by Polton,
    Wherein he thought all sorts included were;
  Untill one told him _Bate m' an ace quoth Bolton_,
    'Indeed,' said he, 'that proverb is not there.'"]

_Hopkins the Witchfinder_ (Vol. ii., p. 392.).--If the inquiry of CLERICUS
relates to Mathew Hopkins the witchfinder general, my friend W.S. Fitch of
Ipswich has some manuscript account of his residence in that town, as a
lawyer of but little {414} note, and his removal to Manningtree, in Essex;
but whether it gives any further particulars of him I am unable to state,
as I have not seen the manuscript.


_Sir Richard Steel_ (Vol. ii., p.375.).--The death and burial-place of Sir
Richard Steel is thus noticed in Cibber's _Lives of the Poets_, vol. iv.

    "Some years before his death he grew paralytic, and retired to his seat
    at Langunnor, near Caermarthen, in Wales, where he died, September 1st,
    1729, and was privately interred, according to his own desire, in the
    church of Caermarthen."


_Ale-draper_ (Vol. ii., p.310.).--A common designation for an ale-house
keeper in the sixteenth century. Henry Chettle, in his very curious little
publication, _Kind-Harts Dreame_, 1592 (edited for the Percy Society by
your humble servant), has the following passage:

    "I came up to London, and fall to be some tapster, hostler, or
    chamberlaine in an inn. Well, I get mee a wife; with her a little
    money; when we are married, seeke a house we must; no other occupation
    have I but to be an _ale-draper_." (P. 37. of reprint.)

Again, in the same tract, the author speaks of "two milch maydens that had
set up a shoppe of "_ale-drapery_."

In the _Discoverie of the Knights of the Poste_, 1597, is another notice of
the same occupation:

    "So that now hee hath left brokery, and is become a draper. A draper,
    quoth Freeman, what draper--of woollin or linnen? No, qd. he, an
    _ale-draper_, wherein he hath more skil then in the other."

Probably these instances of the use of the term may be sufficient for your


P.S. The above was written before J.S.W.'s note appeared (Vol. ii., p.
360.), which does not carry the use of this term further back than Bailey's

_George Herbert_ (Vol. ii., p. 103.) was buried under the communion table
at Bemerton, but there is no monument to his memory. The adornment of his
little church would be one of the most fitting offerings to his memory. It
is painful to contrast the whitewash and unpainted deal of the house of God
with the rich furniture and hangings of the adjoining rectory. In the
garden of the latter is preserved a medlar-tree, planted by "the sweet
singer of the temple."


_Notaries Public_ (Vol. ii., p. 393.).--Why does your correspondent
MANLEIUS think this form of expression "putting the cart before the horse?"
_Public notary_ (though that phrase is sometimes erroneously used) is not
so exact as "notary public;" for a notary is not, as the first form would
imply, a public officer appointed by the public to perform public services,
but an individual agent through whose ministry private acts or instruments
become _publici juris_. The same form, and for analogous reasons, prevails
in several other legal and technical titles or phrases, as
Attorney-General, Solicitor-General, Accountant-General, Receiver-General,
Surveyor-General; Advocate Fiscal; Theatre Royal, Chapel Royal; Gazette
Extraordinary; and many other phrases in which it is evident that the
adjective has a special and restricted meaning.


_Tobacconists_ (Vol. ii, p. 393.).--There was, in the old house of commons,
a room called the _smoking-room_, where members tired of the debate used to
retire to smoke, and in later years to drink tea or write letters. These,
no doubt, were meant by the _Tobacconists_, members within call, though not
actually within the house.


_Vineyards_ (Vol. ii., p. 392.).--In answer to CLERICUS, I beg to say that
there is a piece of land called the Vineyards situated in the warm and
sheltered valley of Claverton, about two miles from Bath: it formerly
belonged to the Abbey of Bath.

There is also in the suburbs, on the north side of the city of Bath, a
_street_ called the Vineyards; but I do not know that this ever belonged to
the Abbey.



       *       *       *       *       *



Those who know Mr. Craik's happy tact for seizing on the more striking
points of a character or an incident, his acquaintance with our national
history and biography, his love of research, and perseverance in following
up a clue, were prepared to expect both instruction and amusement from his
_Romance of the Peerage_. Nor were they doomed to disappointment. Each
succeeding volume has added to the interest of the work and there can be
little doubt, that the favour with which the first three volumes have been
received by the reading world, will be extended to the one now published,
and which concludes the first series, or main division of Mr. Craik's
projected work.

Our space will permit us to do little more than specify its principal
contents; but when we state that in the present volume Mr. Craik treats of
the _great_ Earl of Cork and the Boyles; of the founders of the Fermor,
Bouverie, Osborne, and Bamfylde families; that he gives us with great
completeness the history of Anne Clifford, the most remarkable woman of her
time; that he furnishes pleasant gossipping pictures of the rise of the
families of Fox, Phips, and Petty; the history of the celebrated claim of
the Trunkmaker to the honours of the Percies,--of the story of the heiress
of the Percies who married Tom Thynn of Longleat Hall; and lastly, that of
Ann of Buccleugh, {415} the widow of the unfortunate Monmouth, we shall
have done more than enough to make our readers wish to share the pleasure
we have derived from turning over Mr. Craik's amusing pages.

Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson will sell on Monday next, and two following
days, a valuable collection of books, chiefly the property of a gentleman
deceased, among which we may specify _la Vie Saint Germain L'Auxerrois_
(lettres gothèques), printed on vellum, and quite unique; no other copy
even on paper being known.

We have received the following Catalogues:-- Williams and Norgate's (14.
Henrietta Street, Covent Garden) German Book Circular, a Quarterly List of
New Publications, No. 26.; John Russell Smith's (4. Old Compton Street,
Soho) Catalogue No. 1. for 1851 of an extensive Collection of Choice,
Useful, and Curious Books in most Classes of Literature, English and

       *       *       *       *       *


BACON'S ADVANCEMENT OF LEARNING, interpreted by WATS,   Oxford, 1621, 1640,

STUART'S ATHENS. First Edition. Vols. IV. and V.





*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
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       *       *       *       *       *


G.W._'s Query was in type before we received his unbecoming letter,--the
terms of which both forbid our asking the name of the writer, or giving him
that satisfactory explanation which we could furnish as to the delay in the
insertion of his communication. As the first letter of the kind we have
ever received, we should certainly have printed it, but for our regard for
personal friends who belong to the same body as G.W., and whose names he
can have no difficulty in discovering in the list of our distinguished

_We are compelled by want of space to omit many_ NOTES, QUERIES, REPLIES,
_and articles of_ FOLK-LORE.

_Volume the First of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," _with very copious Index, price_
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NOTES AND QUERIES _may be procured by the Trade at noon on Friday; so that
our country Subscribers ought to experience no difficulty in receiving it
regularly. Many of the country Booksellers are probably not yet aware of
this arrangement, which enables them to receive Copies in their Saturday

    _Errata_--P. 391. col. 1. line 46, for "v_e_riis circum_d_ant" read
    "v_a_riis circum_st_ant;" l. 47., for "ante_s_olat" read "ante_v_olat;"
    and l. 48., for "ne_c_" read "ne."

       *       *       *       *       *

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London: JOSEPH THOMAS, 1. Finch Lane.

       *       *       *       *       *

PIETAS METRICA: or, Nature Suggestive of God and Godliness. By the Brothers
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"They possess great sweetness combined with deep devotional
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London: J. MASTERS, Aldersgate and New Bond Streets.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, Part X., price 9s. plain; 10s. 6d. tinted; proofs, large
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THE CHURCHES of the MIDDLE AGES: or, Select Specimens of Early and Middle
Pointed Structures, with a few of the purest Late Pointed Examples;
Illustrated by Geometric and Perspective Drawings. By HENRY BOUMAN and
JOSEPH S. CROWTHER, Architects, Manchester.

To be completed in Twenty Parts, each containing Six Plates, Imperial
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"We can hardly conceive anything more perfect. We heartily recommend this
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       *       *       *       *       *

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Published in Fortnightly Parts, price 1s. each, And Monthly Sections, price
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Part III., containing "Love's Labour's Lost," is published this day,

The Monthly Section is published on the 1st of every Month.


       *       *       *       *       *


Number III., price Twopence, is published this day, Saturday. The Monthly
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Number III., price Twopence, is published this day, Saturday. The Monthly
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       *       *       *       *       *


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And sold by all Booksellers in Town and Country; on application to whom may
be obtained Descriptive Catalogue of the Publications issued by CHARLES
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MR. PARKER _has recently published:_--

ARCHITECTURE. Exemplified by upwards of Eighteen Hundred Illustrations,
drawn from the best examples. Fifth Edition, 3 vols. 8vo. cloth, gilt tops,
2l. 8s.

    "Since the year 1836, in which this work first appeared, no fewer than
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    great part of his Architectural Nomenclature of the Middle Ages the
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F.S.A. 16mo. with numerous Illustrations. Price 4s. 6d.

WORSAAE, Member of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Copenhagen, and by
WILLIAM J. THOMS, F.S.A., Secretary of the Camden Society. With numerous
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RICKMAN'S GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE. An Attempt to discriminate the different
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30 Engravings on Steel by Le Keux, &c., and 465 on Wood, of the best
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OF OXFORD. 8vo. cloth, 7s. 6d.

GLASS, With Hints on Glass Painting, Illustrated by numerous coloured
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A BOOK OF ORNAMENTAL GLAZING QUARRIES, Collected and arranged from Ancient
Examples, BY AUGUSTUS WOLLASTON FRANKS, B.A. With 112 Coloured Examples.
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of 450 "RUBBINGS," in the possession of the Oxford Architectural Society,
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By the Rev. EDWARD L. CUTTS, B.A. 8vo., illustrated by upwards of 300
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THE CROSS AND THE SERPENT. Being a brief History of the Triumph of the
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or open Country, as also for the Woodland or several, mixed in every month
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       *       *       *       *       *


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Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.