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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 57, November 30, 1850
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 57, November 30, 1850" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.




       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 57.]
[Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

       *       *       *       *       *


    Portrait of Cardinal Beaton                            433
    On the Pointing of a Passage in "All's Well that Ends
      Well" by A. Roffe                                    434
    Folk-Lore:--The bigger the Ring, the nearer the Wet
      --Power of prophesying before Death--Change in the
      Appearance of the Dead--Strange Remedies--Mice
      as a Medicine--Omens from Birds                      434
    Mode of computing Interest                             435
    On the Cultivation of Geometry in Lancashire           436
    Minor Notes.--Sermon's Pills--An Infant Prodigy--
      A Hint for Publishers--"He who runs may read"--
      The Rolliad--The Conquest                            438

    Bibliographical Queries                                440
    Minor Queries.--Dr. Timothy Thruscross--Echo
      Song--Meaning of Thwaites--Deus Justificatus--
      Death by Burning--Irish Bull--Farquharson's
      Observations on Auroræ--Defender of the Faith--
      Calendar of Sundays in Greek and Roman Churches--
      Dandridge the Painter--Chaucer's Portrait by Occleve--
      John o'Groat's House--Dancing the Bride to
      Bed--Duke and Earl of Albermarle                     441

    Julin, the Drowned City                                443
    Nicholas Ferrar and the so-called Arminian Nunnery of
      Little Gidding                                       444
    Vineyards                                              446
    Treatise of Equivocation, by J. Sansom                 446
    Riots in London                                        446
    Replies to Minor Queries:--Osnaburg Bishoprick--
      Death of Richard II.--Scottish Prisoners sold to
      Plantations--Lachrymatories--Querela Cantabrigiensis--
      "Then" for "than."--Doctrine of the Immaculate Conception--
      Letters of Horning--Dr. Euseby Cleaver--Mrs. Partington--"Never
      did Cardinal bring good to England"--Florentine Edition of the
      Pandects--Master John Shorne--"Her Brow was
      Fair"--Dodd's Church History--Blackwall Docks--
      Wives of Ecclesiastics--Stephens' Sermons--Saying
      of Montaigne--Scala Coeli--Red Hand                  447

    Notes on Books, Sales Catalogues, &c.                  453
    Books and Odd Volumes Wanted                           453
    Notices to Correspondents                              454
    Advertisements                                         454

       *       *       *       *       *



A portrait of this eminent Man was engraved by Pennant, from a picture at
Holyrood House, in Part II. of his _Tour in Scotland_, p. 243. 4to. Lond.
1776. Lodge has an engraving from the same portrait in his collection of
_Illustrious Personages_. This is a strange circumstance; because, when
Pinkerton was about to include this portrait in his collection, Pennant
wrote to him, on 30th April, 1796, as follows:

    "Give me leave to say, that I suspect the authenticity of my Cardinal
    Beaton. I fear it is Cardinal Falconer or Falconieri. I think there is
    a genuine one somewhere in Scotland. It will be worth your while to
    inquire if there be one, and engrave it, and add my suspicions, which
    induce you do it."--Pinkerton's _Correspondence_, vol. i. p. 402. 8vo.
    Lond. 1830.

Pinkerton made inquiry, and on Dec. 1st, 1797, writes to the Earl of

    "Mr. Pennant informs me the Cardinal Beaton is false. It is, indeed,
    too modern. A real Beaton is said to exist in Fife."--Pinkerton's
    _Correspondence_, vol. ii. p. 17.

Lord Buchan writes to him that Mr. Beaton, of Balfour, believes himself to
have a genuine portrait of the Cardinal, and offers it for engraving. The
authenticity of this portrait, however, appears not to have been
established, and it was not engraved. Another was found at Yester, and was
at first concluded to be a genuine original: but Lady Ancram soon
discovered that it possessed no marks of originality, but might be a good
copy: it was, however, certainly _not_ one of the six cardinals purchased
by the third Earl of Lothian. Finally, it was rejected altogether. A copy
of a portrait from the Vatican was also rejected as undoubtedly spurious.
It appears, therefore, that Pinkerton, in this case at least, exercised
caution in the selection of his subject for engraving, so far as concerned
authenticity. His criticism, that the Holyrood House portrait is "too
modern," will be agreed in by all who will take the trouble to compare the
portrait in Lodge with undoubted portraits of the time: the style is too
modern by a hundred years. But the portrait is of a man upwards of sixty
years old: Beaton was murdered in 1546, in the fiftieth year of his age.
The portrait is of a dark haired man without beard.

I now come to a portrait of Beaton which there appears reason to think is
genuine, and I beg the favour of your correspondents to give me any
information in their power regarding it. This portrait is in the Roman
Catholic College at Blairs, near Aberdeen. It was in the Scotch College at
Rome down to the period of the French occupation of that city in 1798, and
formed part of the plunder {434} from that college. It was subsequently
discovered in a sale-room by the late Abbé Macpherson, rector of the same
college, who purchased it and sent it to Blairs, where it has been for,
now, a good many years. That it is a portrait of Beaton's time is certain;
but the artist is unknown, and the picture has sustained damage. It is
attributed, by a competent judge, who has himself painted two careful
copies of it, to Titian, not only from its general style and handling, but
from certain peculiarities of canvas, &c., on which latter circumstances,
however, he does not lay much stress, taking them only as adminicles in
proof. The portrait is a half-length, about 2 ft. 6 in. by 2 ft.: it is
that of a fresh-coloured, intellectual man, of forty-five or upwards; hazel
eyes; hair slightly reddish, or auburn, just becoming tinged with grey; a
thin small beard; costume similar to that of Holbein's Cardinal Wolsey, in
the hall of Christchurch, Oxford. It bears this inscription, painted at the
bottom of the portrait, and over the original finished painting, and
therefore of a subsequent date:

    "David Betonius, S.R.E., Card. Archiep. S. Andreæ in Scotia, ab
    Hostibus Fidei Barbare Trucidatus."

Beaton was elected to the Cardinalate in Dec. 1538; did he visit Rome after
that? He was at all events in Paris. The Scotch College at Rome was a
natural habitat for a portrait of a Scottish churchman so famous as
Cardinal Beaton, and it would be strange indeed if they had not one of him
where they affected a collecion of portraits of British prelates. I propose
to have this portrait engraved, if its probable authenticity cannot be
shaken. Did Pinkerton engrave any portrait of Beaton? There is none in my
copies of his _Iconographia Scotica_, 1797, and his _Scottish Gallery_,
1799. These contain several duplicates; but it is rare to meet with copies
that can be warranted perfect. If the portrait be published, it will
probably be accompanied by a short memoir, correcting from authentic
documents some of the statements of his biographers: any information either
as to the portrait or his life will be thankfully acknowledged. One or two
letters from Lord Buchan, on the subject of Scottish Portraits, appeared in
the _Gentleman's Magazine_, vol. lxv., but not relating to this particular


       *       *       *       *       *


    _Lafeu._ "They say miracles are past: and we have our philosophical
    persons, to make modern and familiar, things, supernatural and
    causeless."--Act ii. Scene 3.

So the passage is pointed in Johnson and Steevens, that is, with a comma
after the word "things;" and the same pointing is used in the recent
editions of Mr. Knight, Barry Cornwall, and Mr. Collier.

It occurred to me that this pointing gave a meaning quite out of harmony
with what directly follows, and also with the spirit in which Lafeu speaks.
Let the comma be placed after "familiar", and the whole passage be read

    _Lafeu._ "They say miracles are past; and we have our philosophical
    persons to make modern and familiar, things supernatural and causeless.
    Hence is it, that we make trifles of terrors; ensconcing ourselves into
    seeming knowledge, when we should submit ourselves to an unknown fear."

Lafeu apparently is speaking somewhat sarcastically of those who say
miracles are past, and who endeavour to _explain away_ the wonderful into
something common and well-known. Subsequently I found that Mr. Coleridge,
in his _Literary Remains_ (vol. ii. p. 121.), had adduced the
above-mentioned passage, placing the comma after "familiar." He does not,
however, make any observation on the other pointing; but remarking, that
Shakspeare often uses "modern" for "common," proceeds thus:

    "Shakspeare, inspired, as it might seem, with all knowledge, here uses
    the word _causeless_ in its strict philosophical sense; cause being
    truly predicable only of _phenomena_,--that is, things natural, and not
    of _noumena_, or things supernatural."

It is, perhaps, rather curious, that although Mr. Collier, in his note on
Lafeu's speech, has quoted the above from Mr. Coleridge, the improved
pointing should have escaped that gentleman's notice.

Looking into Theobald's _Shakspeare_, I find that he also had placed the
comma as Mr. Coleridge has. Mr. Theobald adds this note:

    "This, as it has hitherto been printed, is directly opposite to our
    poet's and his speaker's meaning. As I have stopped it, the sense
    quadrates with the context: and surely it is one unalterable property
    of philosophy to make seeming strange and preternatural phenomena
    familiar and reducible to cause and reason."

Does not Mr. Theobald, in his closing remark, turn what in Lafeu is really
an ironical outburst on _would-be_ philosophers, into something like a
serious common-place?


Query, In a work entitled _Philosophy of Shakspeare_, by W.H. Roukin,
Lafeu's speech is quoted, and one word changed; "_and_ we have our
philosophical persons," &c., becomes "_yet_ we have," &c. Is there any
authority for such a change?


       *       *       *       *       *


_The bigger the Ring, the nearer the Wet._--On Sunday evening, the 20th
Oct., the moon had a {435} very fine ring round it, which apparently was
based near the horizon, and spread over a considerable area of the heavens.
This was noticed by myself and others as we returned home from church; and
upon my mentioning it to my man-servant, who is a countryman, he said he
had been noticing it, and that it reminded him of the old saying, "the
bigger the ring, the nearer the wet." On the next day, however, it was fine
and windy, and my faith began to be shaken as to the truth of the saying;
but the almost incessant rain of the four or five subsequent days fully
proved its correctness.


_Power of prophesying before Death._--To the passages on this subject
lately supplied by your correspondents (Vol. ii., pp. 116. 196.) may be
added the following from Tertullian, _De Anima_, c. 53. (vol. ii. col.
741., ed. Migne, Paris, 1844):

    "Evenit sæpe animam in ipso divortio potentius agitari, sollicitiore
    obtutu, extraordinariâ loquacitate, dum ex majori suggestu, jam in
    libero constituta, per superfluum quod adhuc cunctatur in corpore
    enuntiat quæ videt, quæ audit, quæ incipit nosse."


_Change in the Appearance of the Dead._--A woman near Maidstone, who had
had much experience as a sick-nurse, told me some years ago that she had
always noticed in corpses a change to a more placid expression on the third
day after death; and she supposed this to be connected with our Lord's
resurrection. I omitted to ask her whether the belief were wholly the
result of her own observation, or whether it had been taught her by others,
and were common among her neighbours.


_Strange Remedies._--I find some curious prescriptions in an old book
entitled _The Pathway to Health,_ &c. (I will not trouble you with the full
title), "by Peter Levens, Master of Arts in Oxford, and Student in Physick
and Chirurgery."... "Printed for J.W., and are to bee sold by Charles Tym,
at the Three Bibles on London Bridge, MDCLXIV." The first is a charm

    _For all manner of falling evils._--Take the blood of his little finger
    that is sick, and write these three verses following, and hang it about
    his neck:

  '_Jasper fert Mirrham, Thus Melchior Balthazar Aurum,_
  _Hæc quicum secum portat tria nomina regum,_
  _Soleitur à morbo, Domini pietate, caduca.'_

and it shall help the party so grieved."

"_For a man or woman that is in a consumption._--Take a brasse pot, and
fill it with water, and set it on the fire, and put a great earthen pot
within that pot, and then put in these parcels following:--Take a cock and
pull him alive, then flea off his skin, then beat him in pieces; take dates
a pound, and slit out the stones, and lay a layer of them in the bottom of
the pot, and then lay a piece of the cock, and upon that some more of the
dates, and take succory, endive, and parsley roots, and so every layer one
upon another, and put in fine gold and some pearl, and cover the pot as
close as may bee with coarse dow, and so let it distill a good while, and
so reserve it for your use till such time as you have need thereof."

I could select some exceedingly ludicrous prescriptions (for the book
contains 400 pages), but the most curious unfortunately happen to be the
most indelicate. Besides this, I am afraid the subject is scarcely worthy
of much space in such an important and useful work as "NOTES AND QUERIES."


Abridge, Essex.

_Mice as a Medicine_ (Vol. i., p. 397.).--An old woman lately recommended
an occasional roast mouse as a certain cure for a little boy who wetted his
bed at night. Her own son, she said, had got over this weakness by eating
three roast mice. I am told that the Faculty employ this remedy, and that
it has been prescribed in the Oxford Infirmary.


_Omens from Birds._--It is said that for a bird to fly into a room, and out
again, by an open window, surely indicates the decease of some inmate. Is
this belief local?


       *       *       *       *       *


The mode of computing interest among the ancient Greeks appears to have
been in many respects the same as that now prevailing in India, which has
probably undergone no change from a very remote period. Precisely the same
term, too, is used to denote the rate of interest, namely, [Greek: tokos]
in Greek and _taka_ or _tuka_ in the languages of Western India. [Greek:
Tokoe epidekatoi] in Greek, and _dus také_ in Hindostanee, respectively
denote _ten per cent_. At Athens, the rate of interest might be calculated
either by the month or by the year--each being expressed by different terms
(Böckh. _Pub. Econ. of Athens_, i. 165.). Precisely the same system
prevails here. _Pono taka_, that is, three quarters of a _taka_, denotes ¾
per cent. _per month_. _Nau také_, that is, nine _také_, denotes nine per
cent. _per annum_. For the Greek mode of reckoning interest by the month,
see Smith's _Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities_, p. 524. At Athens,
the year, in calculating interest, was reckoned at 360 days (Böckh, i.
183.). Here also, in all native accounts-current, the year is reckoned at
360 days.

The word [Greek: tokos], as applied to interest, was understood by the
Greeks themselves to be derived from [Greek: tiktô], "to produce," _i.e._
money begetting money; the offspring or produce of money lent out. Whether
its identity may not be established with the word in current use for
thousands of years in this country to express precisely the same meaning,
is a question I should like to see discussed {436} by some of your
correspondents. The word _taka_ signifies any thing _pressed_ or _stamped_,
anything on which an impression is made hence _a coin_; and is derived from
the Sanscrit root _tak_, to press, to stamp, to coin: whence, _tank_, a
small coin; and _tank-sala_, a mint; and (query) the English word _token_,
a piece of stamped metal given to communicants. Many of your readers will
remember that it used to be a common practice in England for copper coins,
representing a half-penny, penny, &c., stamped with the name of the issuer,
and denominated "tokens," to be issued in large quantities by shopkeepers
as a subsidiary currency, and received at their shop in payment of goods,
&c. May not _ticket_, defined by Johnson, "a _token_ of any right or debt
upon the delivery of which admission is granted, or a claim acknowledged,"
and _tick_, score or trust, (to go on _tick_), proceed from the same root?



       *       *       *       *       *


If our Queries on this subject be productive of no other result than that
of eliciting the able and judicious analysis subsequently given by MR.
WILKINSON (Vol. ii., p. 57.), they will have been of no ordinary utility.
The silent early progress of any strong, moral, social, or intellectual
phenomenon amongst a large mass of people, is always difficult to trace:
for it is not thought worthy of record at the time, and before it becomes
so distinctly marked as to attract attention, even tradition has for the
most part died away. It then becomes a work of great difficulty, from the
few scattered indications in print (the books themselves being often so
rare[1] that "money will not purchase them"), with perhaps here and there a
stray letter, or a metamorphosed tradition, to offer even a probable
account of the circumstances. It requires not only an intimate knowledge of
the subject-matter which forms the groundwork of the inquiry, both in its
antecedent and cotemporary states, and likewise in its most improved state
at the present time; it also requires an analytical mind of no ordinary
powers, to separate the necessary from the probable; and these again from
the irrelevant and merely collateral.

MR. WILKINSON has shown himself to possess so many of the qualities
_essential_ to the historian of mathematical science, that we trust he will
continue his valuable researches in this direction still further.

It cannot be doubted that MR. WILKINSON has traced with singular acumen the
manner in which the _spirit_ of geometrical research was diffused amongst
the operative classes, and the class immediately above them--the exciseman
and the country schoolmaster. Still it is not to be inferred, that even
these classes did not contain a considerable number of able geometers
anterior to the period embraced in his discussion. The Mathematical Society
of Spitalfields existed more than half a century before the Oldham Society
was formed. The sameness of pursuit, combined with the sameness of
employment, would rather lead us to infer that geometry was _transplanted_
from Spitalfields to Manchester or Oldham. Simpson found his way from the
country to London; and some other Simpson as great as Thomas (though less
favourably looked upon by fortune in furnishing stimulus and opportunity)
might have migrated from London to Oldham. Or, again, some Lancashire
weaver might have adventured to London (a very common case with country
artisans after the expiration of apprenticeship); and, there having
acquired a taste for mathematics, as well as improvement in his mechanical
skill, have returned into the country, and diffused the knowledge and the
tastes he took home with him amongst his fellows. The very name betokens
Jeremiah Ainsworth to have been of a Lancashire family.

But was Ainsworth really the earliest mathematician of his district? Or,
was he merely the first that made any figure in print as a correspondent of
the mathematical periodicals of that day? This question is worthy of MR.
WILKINSON's further inquiry; and probably some light may be thrown upon it
by a careful examination of the _original_ Ladies' and Gentleman's Diaries
of the period. In the reprints of these works, only the names, real or
assumed, of those whose contributions were actually printed, are
inserted--not the list of all correspondents.

Now one would be led to suppose that the study of mathematics was
peculiarly suited to the daily mode of life and occupation of these men.
Their employment was monotonous; their life sedentary; and their minds were
left perfectly free from any _contemplative_ purpose they might choose.
Algebraic investigation required writing: but the weaver's hands being
engaged he could not write. A diagram, on the contrary, might lie before
him, and be carefully studied, whilst his hands and feet may be performing
their functions with an accuracy almost instinctive. Nay more: an
exceedingly complicated diagram which has grown up gradually as the result
of investigations successively {437} made, may be carried in the memory and
become the subject of successful peripatetic contemplation. On this point a
decided _experimental_ opinion is here expressed: but were further
instances asked for, they may be found in Stewart, Monge, and Chasles, all
of whom possessed this power in an eminent degree. Indeed, without it, all
attempts to study the geometry of space (even the very elements of
descriptive geometry, to say nothing of the more recondite investigations
of the science) would be entirely unproductive. It is, moreover, a power
capable of being acquired by men of average intellect without extreme
difficulty; and that even to the extent of "mentally seeing" the
constituent parts of figures which have never been exhibited to the eye
either by drawings or models.

That such men, if once imbued with a love for geometry, and having once got
over the drudgery of elementary acquisition, should be favourably situated
for its cultivation, follows as a matter of course. The great difficulty
lay in finding sufficient stimulus for their ambition, good models for
their imitation, and adequate facilities for publishing the results at
which they had arrived. The admirable history of the contents of their
scanty libraries, given by MR. WILKINSON, leaves nothing more to be said on
that head; except, perhaps, that he attributes rather more to the
_influences_ of Emerson's writings than I am able to do.[2] As regards
their facilities for publication, these were few, the periods of
publication being rarely shorter than annual; and amongst so many
competitors, the space which could be allotted to each (even to "the best
men") was extremely limited. Yet, contracted as the means of publication
were, the spirit of emulation did something; from the belief that
_insertion was an admitted test of superiority_, it was as much an object
of ambition amongst these men to solve the "prize question" as it was by
philosophers of higher social standing to gain the "prize" conferred by the
_Académie des Sciences_, or any other continental society under the wing of
Royalty, at the same period. The prize (half a dozen or a dozen copies of
the work itself) was not less an object of triumph, than a Copley or a
Royal medal is in our own time amongst the philosophers of the Royal

These men, from similarity of employment and inevitable contiguity of
position, were brought into intercourse almost of necessity, and the
formation of a little society (such as the "Oldham") the natural
result--the older and more experienced men taking the lead in it. At the
same time, there can be little doubt that the Spitalfields Society was the
pattern after which it was formed; and there can be as little doubt that
one or more of its founders had resided in London, and "wrought" in the
metropolitan workshops. Could the records of the "Mathematical Society of
London" (now in the archives of the Royal Astronomical Society) be
carefully examined, some light might be thrown upon this question. A list
of members attending every weekly meeting, as well as of visitors, was
always kept; and these lists (I have been informed) have been carefully
preserved. No doubt any one interested in the question would, upon
application to the secretary (Professor De Morgan), obtain ready access to
these documents.

The preceding remarks will, in some degree, furnish the elements of an
answer to the inquiry, "_Why_ did geometrical speculation take so much
deeper root amongst the Lancashire weavers, than amongst any other classes
of artisans?" The subject was better adapted to the weaver's mechanical
life than any other that could be named; for even the other favourite
subjects, botany and entomology, required the suspension of their proper
employment at the loom. The formation of the Oldham Society was calculated
to keep alive the aspiration for distinction, as well as to introduce
novices into the arcanium of geometry. There was generous co-operation, and
there was keen competition,--the sure stimulants to eminent success. The
unadulterated love of any intellectual pursuit, apart from the love of fame
or the hope of emolument, is a rare quality in all stages of society. Few
men, however, seem to have realised Basil Montagu's idea of being governed
by "a love of _excellence_ rather than the pride of _excelling_," so
closely as the Lancashire geometers of that period--uncultivated as was the
age in which they lived, rude as was the society in which their lives were
passed, and selfish as the brutal treatment received in those days by
mechanics from their employers, was calculated to render them. They were
surrounded, enveloped, by the worst social and moral influences; yet, so
far as can now be gathered from isolated remarks in the periodicals of the
time, they may be held up as a pattern worthy of the imitation of the
philosophers of our own time in respect to the generosity and strict honour
which marked their intercourse with one another.

Mathematicians seldom grow up solitarily in any locality. When _one_
arises, the absence of all external and social incentives to the study can
only betoken an inherent propensity and constitutional fitness for it. Such
a man is too much in earnest to keep his knowledge to himself, or to wish
to stand alone. He makes disciples,--he aids, encourages, guides them. His
own researches are fully communicated; and this with a prodigality
proportioned to his own great resources. He feels no jealousy of
competition, and is always gratified by seeing others successful. Thus such
bodies of men are created in wonderfully short periods by the magnanimous
labours of one ardent {438} spirit. These are the men that found societies,
schools, sects; wherever one unselfish and earnest man settles down, there
we invariably find a cluster of students of his subject, that often lasts
for ages. Take, for instance, Leeds. There we see that John Ryley created,
at a later period, the Yorkshire school of geometers; comprising amongst
its members such men as Swale, Whitley, Ryley ("Sam"), Gawthorp, Settle,
and John Baines. This, too, was in a district in many respects very
analogous to Lancashire, but especially in the one to which the argument
more immediately relates:--it was a district of weavers, only substituting
wool for cotton, as cotton had in the other case been substituted for the
silk of Spitalfields.

We see nothing like this in the agricultural districts; neither do we in
those districts where the ordinary manufacturing operations themselves
require the employment of the head as well as the hands and feet. With the
exception, indeed, of the schoolmaster, and the exciseman, and the
surveyor, there are comparatively few instances of persons whose employment
was not strictly sedentary having devoted their intellectual energies to
mathematics, independent of early cultivation. To them the subject was more
or less professional, and their devotion to it was to be expected--indeed
far more than has been realised. It is professional now to a larger and
more varied class of men, and of course there is a stronger body of
non-academic mathematicians now than at any former period. At the same time
it may be doubted whether there be even as many really able men devoted to
science purely and for its own sake in this country as there were a century
ago, when science wore a more humble guise.

Combining what is here said with the masterly analysis which MR. WILKINSON
has given of the books which were accessible to these men, it appears that
we shall be able to form a correct view on the subject of the Lancashire
geometers. Of course documentary evidence would be desirable--it would
certainly be interesting too.

To such of your readers as have not seen the mathematical periodicals of
that period, the materials for which were furnished by these men, it may be
sufficient to state that the "NOTES AND QUERIES" is conceived in the exact
spirit of those works. The chief difference, besides the usual
subject-matter, consists in the greater formality and "stiffness" of those
than of this; arising, however, of necessity out of the specific and rigid
character of mathematical research in itself, and the more limited range of
subjects that were open to discussion.

The one great defect of the researches of those men was, that they were
conducted in a manner so desultory, and that the subjects themselves were
often so isolated, that there can seldom be made out more than a few
dislocated fragments of any one subject of inquiry whatever. Special
inquiries are prosecuted with great vigour and acumen; but we look in vain
for system, classification, or general principles. This, however, is not to
be charged to _them_ as a scientific vice, peculiarly:--for, in truth, it
must be confessed to be a vice, not only too common, but almost universal
amongst English geometers; and even in the geometry of the Greeks
themselves, the great object appears to have been "problem-solving" rather
than the deduction and arrangement of scientific truths. The modern French
geometers have, however, broken this spell; and it is not too much too hope
that we shall not be long ere we join them in the development of the
systems they have already opened; and, moreover, add to the list some
independent topics of our own. The chief dangers to which we are in this
case exposed are, classification with incomplete data, and drawing
inferences upon trust. It cannot be denied, at all events, that some of our
French cotemporaries have fallen into both these errors; but the abuse of a
principle is no argument for our not using it, though its existence (or
even possible existence) should be a strong incentive to caution.

These remarks have taken a more general form than it is usual to give in
your pages. As, however, it is probable that many of your readers may feel
an interest in a general statement of a very curious intellectual
phenomenon, I am not without a hope that, though so far removed from the
usual topics discussed in the work, they will not be altogether
unacceptable or useless.


[Footnote 1: Although at one period of our life we took great pains to make
a collection of the _periodicals_ which, during the last century, were
devoted wholly or partially to mathematics, yet we could never even
approximate towards completeness. It was not, certainly, from niggardly
expenditure. Indeed, it is doubtful whether a complete set exists, or could
even be formed now.]

[Footnote 2: See _Philosophical Magazine_, Sept. 1850.]

       *       *       *       *       *


_Sermon's Pills._--In Guizot's _Life of Monk, Duke of Albermarle_,
translated and edited by the present Lord Wharncliffe, it is stated (p.
313.) that when the Duke was suffering from the diseases which afterwards
proved fatal to him,

    "One of his neighbours, at New Hall, formerly an officer in his army,
    mentioned to him certain pills said to be sovereign against the dropsy,
    which were sold at Bristol by one Sermon, who had also served under his
    orders in Scotland as a private soldier. This advice and remedy from
    ancient comrades, inspired the old general with more confidence than
    the skill of the physicians. He sent for Sermon's pills, and found
    himself so much recovered by them for a time, that he returned to
    London at the close of the summer."

Having "found," in the newspapers of the day, the following paragraphs
illustrative of this passage in the great General's history, I think them
sufficiently interesting "to make a Note of."

    "London, July 13. 1669.--His Grace the Lord General, after a long and
    dangerous distemper, is (God {439} be praised) perfectly recovered and
    restored to his former health, to the Great rejoycing of their
    Majesties and the whole court, by the assistance of one William Sermon,
    of Bristol, whose pills have had that excellent success as to restore
    him perfectly to his sleep and appetite, and wholly abate all the
    symptoms of his disease. Yesterday his Grace, as being perfectly cured,
    dismissed his physicians from their farther attendance."

    "London, July 17. 1669.--The 13th instant, Mr. William Sermon, the
    practitioner in physick, who so happily performed that excellent cure
    upon his Grace the Duke of Albermarle, was presented to His Majesty in
    St. James's Park, where he had the honor to kiss His Majesty's hand,
    and to receive his thanks for that good service."

    September 9. 1669.--"Advertisement: These are to give notice that
    William Sermon, Dr. of Physick, a person so eminently famous for his
    cure of his Grace the Duke of Albermarle, is removed from Bristol to
    London, and may be spoken with every day, especially in the forenoon,
    at his house in West Harding Street, in Goldsmith's Rents, near Three
    Legged Alley, between Fetter Lane and Shooe Lane."

Can any of your correspondents give an account of the subsequent career of
Dr. Sermon?

[Greek: D]

_An Infant Prodigy_ (Vol. ii., p. 101.).--There are parallel cases in the
hagioloists (_Hist. de l'Eglise Gallicane_, par Longueval, tom. iii. p.
430. 1782):

"S. Amand après cette mission étant repassé dans la Gaule, eut bientôt
occasion de montrer l'intrépidité de son zèle ... L'amour des femmes,
écueil fatal des jeunes princes, fit en peu de temps oublier à Dagobert les
leçons qu'il avoit reçues de S. Arnoux et de S. Cunibert. Il se livra à
cette passion avec tant de scandale, qu'il eut jusqu'à trois femmes à la
fois qui portoient le nom de reines, sans parler d'un grand nombre de
concubines ...

"Amand, après un assez long exil, 'refusa d'abord l'honneur de baptiser'
l'enfant de son maître: 'mais les instances que le roi lui fit faire par
Ouen et Eloi firent céder sa modestie à l'obéissance. L'enfant fut aussitôt
apporté le saint évêque l'ayant pris entre ses bras, lui donna sa
bénédiction, et récita les prières pour le faire catéchumène. L'oraison
étant finie, comme personne ne répondoit, Dieu délia la langue du jeune
prince, qui n'avoit pas plus de quarante jours, et il répondit
distinctement _amen_.'"

This happened in 630 at Orleans, and the holy abbot who attests the miracle
was present when it occurred. Had St. Amand learnt ventriloquism during his
missionary excursions?

And now permit me to tell your correspondent CH. that Abp. Bramhall's Dutch
is quite correct. "Mevrouw" is still the title of empresses, queens
duchesses, Countesses, noble ladies, ministers of state's and other great
men's wives.



_A Hint for Publishers._--Many, like myself, have no doubt experienced the
inconvenience of possessing early impressions of books, of which later
editions exist with numerous emendations and errata.

Would it not be practicable for publishers to issue these emendations and
errata in a separate form and at a fair price, for the benefit of the
purchasers of the preceding editions?

Were this plan generally adopted, the value of most books would be
materially enhanced, and people would not object, as they now do, to order
new publications.


"_He who runs may read._"--There appeared in Vol. ii., p. 374., a new, and,
in my opinion, an erroneous, interpretation of part of ver. 2., chap. ii.
Habakkuk. It appears to me probable that a person reading the vision might
be struck with awe, and so "alarmed by it" as not to be able "to fly from
the impending calamity" in the way which your correspondent imagines. I
prefer Archbishop Newcome's explanation:--"Let the characters be so legible
that one who hastily passeth on may read them. This may have been a
proverbial expression."

If you be pleased to insert this, readers may judge for themselves which is
the right interpretation.


_The Rolliad._--The following memoranda relative to this word were given to
me by one who lived during the period of its publication, and was, it is
believed, himself a contributor. Wraxall, in his _Memoirs_, states that the
work was nearly all written by Richardson; this is not true. The principal
writers were Gen. Fitzpatrick, Lord John Townshend, Dr. Lawrence--he had
the chief control. They met in a room at Becket's, the bookseller; they had
a secretary and copyist.

None of the contributions went to the newspaper in the original
handwriting. The _Morning Herald_ was the paper it is believed, in which
they first appeared, although that journal was on the eve of going over to
the opposite party. The "ode" to Wraxall, was written by Tickell, author of


November, 23. 1850.

_The Rolliad._--

From _The Times_, about 1784.


  _Political Eclogues._


    Line 21. ed. 1795.

  "Mr. Rose, Mr. Rose,
  How can you suppose
  I'll be led by the nose,
  In voting for those
  You mean to propose,
  Mr. Rose, Mr. Rose?"

The above epigram is inserted in my copy of the Rolliad.

Can any of your readers give the names of the {440} authors of the numerous
pieces in the second part of "Political Miscellanies."


_The Conquest._--Permit me to point out the erroneous historical idea which
obtains in the use of this phrase. Acquisition out of the common course of
inheritance is by our legists called _perquisitio_, by the feudists
_conquisitio_, and the first purchaser (he who brought the estate into the
current family) the _conquereur_. The charters and chronicles of the age
thus rightly style William the Norman _conquisitor_, and his accession
_conquæstus_; but now, from disuse of the foedal sense, with the notion of
the forcible method of acquisition, we annex the idea of victory to
conquisition,--a title to which William never pretended.



       *       *       *       *       *



(_Continued from page 421._)

(18.) What could have induced the accurate and learned Saxius (_Catal. Lib.
Mediol., edit._ p. DXC.) to give the name _Elucidarium_ to the first part
of the _Mariale_ of Bernardinus de Bustis? This writer, who has sometimes
erroneously been reputed a Dominican, and who is commemorated in the
Franciscan Martyrology on the 8th of May (p. 178.), derived his
denomination from his family, and not "from a place in the country of
Milan," as Mr. Tyler has supposed. (_Worship of the Virgin_, p. 41. Lond.
1846.) Elsewhere Saxius had said (_Hist. Typog.-Liter. Mediol._, col.
ccclii.) that the _Mariale_ was printed for the first time in 1493, and
dedicated to Pope Alexander VI.; and Argelati was led by him to consider
the _Elucidarium_ to be a distinct performance; and he speaks of the
_Mariale_ as having been published in 1494. (_Biblioth. Scriptor. Med._,
tom. i. p. ii. 245.) Unquestionably the real title assigned by the author
to the first part of his _Sermonarium_ or _Mariale_ was "PERPETUUM
SILENTIUM," and it was inscribed to Alexander's predecessor, Pope Innocent
VIII.; and, in conjunction with De Bustis's Office of the Immaculate
Conception of the Virgin Mary (sanctioned by a Brief of Pope Sixtus IV.,
who in 1476 had issued the earliest pontifical decree in favour of an
innovation now predominant in the Church of Rome), was primarily printed
"Mli," that is, _Mediolani_, "per Uldericum scinzenzeler, Anno dni
M.cccc.lxxxxij" (1492). Wharton, Olearius, Clement, and Maittaire knew
nothing of this edition; and it must take precedence of that of Strasburg
named by Panzer (i. 47.).

(19.) Can any particulars be easily ascertained relative to reprints of the
acts of the canonisation of the Seraphic Doctor in their original small
quarto shape?

(20.) To whom should we attribute the rare tract entitled _Lauacrum
conscientie omnium sacerdotum_, which consists of fifty-eight leaves, and
was printed in Gothic letter at Cologne, "Anno post Jubileum quarto?"

(21.) Where can information be met with as to the authorship of the
_Dialogus super Libertate Ecclesiastica_, between Hugo, Cato, and Oliver?
Fischer (_Essai sur Gutenberg_, 79.) traces back the first edition to the
year 1463; but I know the treatise only in the form in which it was
republished at Oppenheim in 1516.

(22.) Who was the compiler or curator of the _Viola Sanctorum_? and can the
slightest attempt be made at verifying the signatures and numbers inserted
in the margin, and apparently relating to the MSS. from which the work was
taken? One of two copies before me was printed at Nuremberg in 1486, but
the other I believe to belong to the earliest impression. It is of small
folio size, in very Gothic type, perhaps of the year 1472, without date,
place, or name of printer, and is destitute of cyphers, catchwords, and
signatures. There are ninety-two leaves in the volume, and in each page
generally thirty-three (sometimes thirty-four, rarely thirty-five) lines.
(See Brunet, iii. 547.; Kloss, 280.; Panzer, i. 193.)

(23.) By what means can intelligence be procured respecting "Doctor
Ulricus," the author of _Fraternitas Cleri_? A satisfactory reply to this
inquiry might probably be found in the _Bibl. Spenceriana_; but I have not
now an opportunity of determining this point.

(24.) A question has been raised by Dr Maitland, from whose admirable
criticism nothing connected with literature is likely to escape, as to the
meaning of the letters "P.V." placed over a sudarium held by St. Peter and
St. Paul. (_Early printed Books in the Lambeth Library_, pp. 115. 368.) Any
person who has happened to obtain the _Vitas Patrum_, decorated with the
curious little woodcuts of which Dr. Maitland has carefully represented
two, will cheerfully agree with him in maintaining the excellence of the
acquisition. In a copy of this work bearing date 1520, eleven years later
than the Lambeth volume (_List_, p. 85.), the reverse of the leaf which
contains the colophon exhibits the same sudarium, in company with the words
"Salve sancta Facies." This circumstance inclines me to venture to ask
whether my much-valued friend will concur with me in the conjecture that
_Pictura Veronicæ_ may be the interpretation of "P.V.?" Though the
pseudo-Archbishop of Westminster declared, in the simplicity of his heart
(_Letters to John Poynder, Esq._, p. 6.), that he had "never met" with the
sequence "quæ dicitur in Missa Votiva _de Vultu Sancto_," doubtless some of
his newly-arrested subjects are {441} well aware that it exists, and that
its commencement (see Bona, iii. 144.) is,--

  "Salve sancta Facies nostri Redemptoris,
  In qua nitet species divini splendoris,
  Impressa panniculo nivei candoris,
  Dataque Veronicæ signum ob amoris."


       *       *       *       *       *


_Dr. Timothy Thruscross._--What is known of the Rev. Dr. Timothy
Thruscross, Thirscross, or Thurscross? I am in possession of the very
little related by Wood, _Ath. Oxon. et Fasti_, Walker's _Sufferings of the
Clergy_, _Life of Barwich_, and the interesting notices scattered in
several parts of Sir H. Slingsby's _Diary_; but this only renders me
anxious for more, and I should be glad to receive other references.

W. DN.

_Echo Song._--_Meaning of Thwaites._--Would you be kind enough to insert
the inclosed poem as I am very desirous of being made acquainted with the
name of the writer. I expect, from various reasons, that it was written
about the year 1645:--

          AN ECHO.

  "What wantst thou, that thou art in this sad taking?
          _A King._
  What made him first remove hence his residing?
  Did any here deny him satisfaction?
  Tell me wherein the strength of faction lies?
          _On Lies._
  What didst though when the king left his parliament?
  What terms wouldst give to gain his company?
  What wouldst thou do if here thou mightst behold him?
          _Hold him._
  But wouldst thou save him with they best endeavour?
  But if he come not, what become of London?

I also wish to know (if any of your readers will enlighten me I shall be
obliged) what is the meaning of the name "Thwaites." It is a very common
name, there being Thwaites, Thornthwaites, Hawthornthwaites,
Haythornthwaites, in abundance through all part of England.


_Deus Justificatus._--Can any of your readers give any information
respecting the authorship of the book entitled:--

    "Deus Justificatus, or the Divine Goodness vindicated and cleared,
    against the Assertors of Absolute and Inconditionate Reprobation.
    Together with some Refections on a late Discourse of Mr. Parkers
    concerning the Divine Dominion and Goodness. London, 1668." 8vo. pp.
    xxxii. 280. iii.?

My copy (which has the autograph of Richard Claridge, the quaker) has
written on the title in an old hand "By H. Hallywell." In the _Biographia
Britannica_ vol. iv., p. 546., 2d edit., it is said to be by Ralph
Cudworth. If so, it has escaped Birch and the other editors of this
celebrated writer.


_Death by Burning_ (Vol. ii., p. 6.).--In the Mendip mining district in
Somersetshire, I am credibly informed that within seventy years a person
has been burned alive for stealing ore from the pit mouth. There must be
some old inhabitant who can attest this fact, and it would be desirable to
obtain its confirmation.


_Irish Bull._--What is the exact definition of an Irish bull? When was the
term first applied to the species of blunder which goes by that name?


_Farquharson's Observations on Auroræ._--A translation of the _Course of
Meteorology_, by Professor Kaenitz, of Halle, by Mr. C.V. Walker, was
published at London in 1845, in one volume 12mo. The work was written in
German, and afterwards translated into French, and the English work is
derived from the French translation. In p. 459. the following passage

    "It is chiefly to the _shepherd_ Farquharson, at Alford, in
    Aberdeenshire, that we are indebted for a long series of observations
    on auroræ; and he endeavoured to prove that their height is

Lower down it is said:

    "At the same time, _another Protestant minister_, Mr. James Paull, at
    Tullynessle, four kilometres from Alford, saw that the aurora possessed
    an unusual clearness in the zenith, so that its height did not perhaps
    exeed 1300 metres."

I have neither the original German work nor the French translation at hand
to refer to; but I have a strong suspicion that the word translated
_shepherd_ is _pasteur_, and that it is used to designate Mr. Farquharson
as _minister_ of Alford.


_Smith's Vitæ Eruditissimorum et Illustrium Virorum._--In his _Life of Sir
Peter Young_ he quotes _Ex Ephemeride Cl. V.D. Petri Junii_, but does not
say where it was preserved. This (so-called) _Ephemeris_ was written by Sir
Peter in his later years, partly perhaps from memory, partly from notes,
and, as might be expected, is not free from errors of date which admit of
correction from other sources. Smith, following Camden, places Easter
Seatown, Young's chief residence, in Lothian, whereas it is in Forfarshire,
about a mile from Arbroath, and was part of the property of the great Abbey
to which that town belonged. Is it known whether this _Ephemeris_ is
extant? and, if so, where?



_Defender of the Faith._--In Banks' _Dormant and Extinct Baronage_, pp.
408-9., vol. iv., I find the following:--

    "He ( Henry VIII.) was the first English monarch who obtained the title
    of Defender of the Faith, which was conferred upon him by Pope Leo X.,
    for a book written by him against Martin Luther."

To which the following note is subjoined:--

    "But in a letter from Christopher Wren, Esq., to Francis Peek, M.A.
    (author of the _Desiderata Curiosa_), it is thus stated, viz., 'that
    King Henry VII. had the title of Defender of the Faith, appears by the
    Register of the Order of the Garter in the black book, (sic dictum a
    tegmine), now in my hands, by office, which having been shown to King
    Charles I., he received with much joy; nothing more pleasing him than
    that the right of that title was fixed in the crown long before the
    Pope's pretended donation, to all which I make protestation to all
    posterity.' [Greek: Autographô], hoc meo. Ità testor. Chr. Wren, à
    memoria, et secretis Honoratissimi Ordinis. Wrexham, 4 March, 1736-7."

In support of this note, I find in Chamberlayne's _Present State of
England_, 1669, p. 88., this statement:

    "Defender of the Faith was anciently used by the Kings of England, as
    appears by several charters granted to the University of Oxford, &c."

As the word _anciently_, I conceive, applies to a period anterior to 1521,
may I express a hope that some of your learned subscribers at Oxford will
favour your readers with the dates of the charters alluded to; and, if
possible, some information as to the circumstances which led to the
adoption of the title "Defender of the Faith" by the kings of England
previous to the reign of Henry VIII.



_Calendar of Sundays in Greek and Romish Churches._--Where can I find good
authority on the calendar of Sundays in the Greek Church, and in the Roman?
As to the latter, the missals and directories only give the current year:
as to the former, there is no work I know of which gives anything.


_Dandridge the Painter._--At Osterley Park (Lord Jersey's) is the only
example of the pencil of Dandridge, bearing his signature and the date

Through neglect and the effect of time this able work has been dried up, so
that we may say--

  "The wine of life is drawn, and nothing
  Left but the mere lees:"

but there's savour of merit and signs of goodly craft for the dark age of
its birth. In the group of three children of life-size we have a rare work
of the period when few men of genius wielded the brush or daubed canvas,
even through the inspiring patronage of a wealthy banker, whose progeny
they are--and this is executed too before academies and societies offered
their fostering aid, and when Hogarth struggled on probably side by side
with Dandridge. Some of your readers may have traces of him and of his
works, and may be able to trace his memory to the grave. All that Walpole
has of him is (p. 439.):

    "Son of a house painter; had great business from his felicity in taking
    a likeness. He sometimes painted small conversations, but died in the
    vigour of his age."


Athenæum, Nov. 20. 1850.

_Chaucer's Portrait by Occleve._--Is the _portrait_ of Chaucer which
Occleve _drew_ in his translation of _Egidius de Roma_ to be found in _all_
the MSS. of that work? and, if so, has it ever been engraved. I have not
Urry's _Chaucer_ by me, or perhaps he could save you the trouble of
answering the question.

On reference to Watts, I find he does not even mention this work of
Occleve, but contents himself with a piece of supercilious criticism;
whereas the notices which Occleve takes of passing events (of which the
character of Chaucer is one) are at least valuable (although his poetry may
not be the best in the world), and his work is also valuable in giving us
the phraseology of the fourteenth century.


_John o'Groat's House._--Does any authenticated view of the building called
_John o'Groat's House_ in Caithness exist, and are any traditions
respecting it known beyond the certainly ridiculous account in the fifth
volume of _Beauties of Scotland_, p.83.?

Can any of your readers point out an engraving of the old _Konigs_ or
_Kaiserstuhl, at Rheuse_, on the Rhine, as well as of its restoration in
1848, after being destroyed by the hordes of revolutionary France, in 1792?
It is not in Merian or Zeiler. I have seen it, but cannot call to mind the
author. Perhaps _Alsatia Illustrata_?


_Dancing the Bride to Bed_--_Old Hewson the Cobler._--I have a tune called
"_A round dance to dance the bride to bed_." Can any of your readers favour
me with notices of such a custom prevailing? The tune dates about 1630 or
earlier, and resembles that of "The Hunt is up."

Another, printed about 1730, is called, "_My name is Old Hewson the
Cobler_." Is this a cavelier's song in ridicule of the Roundhead Colonel
Hewson; and are the words to be found?


    [We trust these Queries may be regarded as a sign that Mr. Chappell is
    preparing a new edition of his valuable collection of _National English

_Duke and Earl of Albemarle._--Albemarle has given a title of duke to the
celebrated General Monk, and that of earl to the family of Keppel. Will
some of your correspondents tell me where {443} there is any place called
Albemarle, which gives rise to these dignities, or why this title was
assumed by these families?


       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. ii., p. 282.)

It does not at all follow, that if a city perished by the encroachment of
the sea, it was a very striking event at the time: it might have happened
gradually, not suddenly. Instances both ways seem to have occurred on the
shores of the German Ocean (see Lyell's _Principles of Geology_, ch. 16.).
A great flood happened in 1154 (Helmold, p. 216. b. ii. c. 1. s. 5.), but
it is mentioned with respect to the oceanic rivers only, and not as to the
Baltic, or destruction of houses or buildings.

But was Julin drowned at all? Helmold does not say that it was (his account
is in Book i. c. 2. s. 5.); and he does say that it was not, but destroyed
by a certain Danish king. It is most inconceivable that he should not have
known who the Danish king was, if it happened in his own time. The passage
savours of much later interpolation.

Koch, _Rivol._ vol. i. p. 280., states positively that Julin was Wollin,
and was destroyed by Waldemar I. in 1175, for which he seems to rely upon
Helmold, or at least his continuator, Arnold. Helmold himself died in 1170.

Saxo Grammaticus lived at that time, and was probably well acquainted with
the events, since he was intimate with Archbishop Absolon, who took part in
them in a military as well as ecclesiastical sense. In p. 333. he says:

    "Waldemar the 1st, goes with a fleet through the month of the river
    Zwina, then to the river which adjoins Julin and Camin, and has its
    mouth divided into two. There was a long bridge joining the walls of
    Julin. The king having landed 'ex adverso urbis in ripa Australi,
    pontem disjici jussit.' The king cleared the way for his fleet; got to
    an island Chrisztoa; crossed the river and went to Camin. He went out
    to sea by that mouth."

This is given very much at length.

All this is the geography of the present day, and the names, if you read
Wollin for Julin. The Oder expands into a wide lake, shut off from the sea
by a bar of land, through which there are three channels. The Zwein is the
middle one of the three; that which passes by Wollin and Kimmin is the
eastern one.

In p. 347. he says:

    "Rex ... classem ... Zuinsibus ostiis inserit, Julinique vacuas
    defensoribus ædes, incendio adortus, rehabitatæ urbis novitatem,
    iterata penatium strage, consumpsit.... Juilinenses, cum urbis uæ
    recenses ruinas, ferendæ obsidioni, inhabiles cernerent, perinde ac
    viribus orbati, deserta patria, præsidium Caminense petiverunt, aliena
    amplexi moenia, qui propria tueri diffiderent."

In p. 359. he says: The king "per Suinam invectus, Julinum oppidum,
incolarum fugâ desertam, incendio tentat."

Saxo mentions Julin, p. 182-24.: "Nobilissimum illius provinciæ oppidum,"
under Harold Blatand, King of Denmark, who reigned in the latter half of
the ninth century. He put a body of troops into it, who became dreadful

In p. 225. he says that the Danes compelled them to give up their pirates,
who were punished. In p. 381., in the reign of Canute, son of Waldemar,
there is an expedition against the Julinenses, the result of which is
expressed "Julinensium rebus absumptis."

In p. 382., the king sets out for Julin, but seems to have attacked only
Camin. Waldemar died in 1182, Canute, 1202 (Koch.)

Arnold (b. iii. c. 8. s. 4.) speaks of the Sclavi as finally subdued and
made tributary, about 1185.

In the notes to Saxo (p. 197.) there is a long extract about Wollinum, from
Chytræus, a writer who lived 1530-1600, taken from the information of a
learned old man whose uncle was born there. He says he went there to see,
accompanied by many of the principal inhabitants, the remains of Julin,
destroyed in 1170 by Waldemar. Wollin he calls "mediocris civitas." From
the ruins, it had been more than a German mile round. Part of it was
"ineditiore paulum colle." He speaks of four montes, which had castles. He
says Wollin is "non aspernenda civitas," but not a thirtieth part of the
ancient size.


I regret that my questioner V., from Belgravia (Vol. ii., p. 379.), should
have felt aggrieved that, upon his request for my story, I should have been
compelled to reply, in the words of the Ancient Mariner:

  "Story! bless you, sir, I have none to tell."

As he seems, however, so assured that some account of the destruction of a
city of such opulence and renown as Vineta _must_ exist, I shall be
extremely happy to learn it from him. I can assure my friend V. that
neither Kanzow nor Microelius (who has, however, a plan of the stone
pavement of its streets at the bottom of the Baltic), nor Giesebrecht, in
his _Wendische Geschichten_ (Berlin, 1844, 3 vols. 8 vo.), know anything
beyond what I have stated. And as to a great port disappearing in the
ocean, without any cotemporary notice, the instances are frequent; as
remarkable a one as any occurs in our own island, and at a much later
period:--Ravenspur, which was a sea-port of the greatest importance, where
certainly Henry IV., and, as some say, Henry VII., landed from the opposite
continent, to claim and conquer their crowns, and where the father of De la
Pole, {444} Duke of Suffolk, was a merchant, is now so totally lost from
memory and the earth, that its very site is unknown, whether within the
Humber, or outside the Spurn; possibly where now the reef called Stony
Binks at the mouth of that æstuary is situated.

So far, however, as an actual legend is concerned with the destruction of a
great emporium of commerce, I am happy I can supply your correspondent with
one, possibly the more acceptable as it is of another famous city, not very
remote from Vineta, and is not without relations belonging to the latter: I
allude to the town of Wisby, Visbuy, Visbye, Visburgum, on the island of
Gothland, of which the following account is found in an old Latin
description of Sweden:

    "Insulæ unica civitas, olim potentia splendore et magnitudine celebris,
    tantarum rerum jactura fracta in exiguos fines se contraxit et oppiduli
    speciem refert, ut Jansonii Atlas docet. Arx prope portum satis valida.
    Emporiis illis Pomeraniæ clarissimis Wineta et Julin pessum euntibus,
    Visbya inter omnia Regionum oppida floruit. (Olaus Magnus, l. 10. cap.
    16.) Licet urbs vetustissima Visbycensis potentissima ac opulentissima
    quondam fuerit _et pro minima occasione, nempe fractionis unius
    fenestralis vitri vix valoris obolaris, humiliata sit_, tamen leges
    maritimæ et decisiones omnium controversiarum singulariter longe
    latèque observantur. Ex distructa autem Vineta Gothlandos incolas
    marmor, ferrum, cuprum, stannum, argentum, et inter alia duas ænei
    portas grandis ponderis petiisse, et secum in Gothlandum avexisse

I need not remind your readers that the maritime code of Wisby even now
influences many of the most important decisions affecting our present
mercantile shipping, it having been the model of the Laws of the
Acquitanian Islands of Re and Oleron, which Richard I. ordered to be
observed in England, and which are still frequently acted on. It is,
however, to the notice which I have marked in Italics that I would call the
attention of V.,--the destruction of the city _on account of a small pane
of glass not the value of an obolus_: and as he, no doubt, has interested
himself on these northern histories, request him to explain the
circumstance more in detail. I myself have often determined on searching
Pontanus, and other ancient Danish authorities, but hitherto neglected, and
therefore know nothing about the matter.

As to the gates, which are more especially mentioned amongst the spoils of
the ruined Wineta, we find them also noticed in the same work, at its
account of Wineta:

    "Urbem frequentabant Græci aut potius Russi multarumque aliarum
    nationum mercatores, quorum affluxus frequens civibus ingentes divitias
    et facultates conciliavit: _adeo ut portæ civitatis ex ære paratæ_, et
    argentum tam vulgare ibi esset ut ad communium et vilium rerum usum

To go, however, completely into the history of these gates would require a
volume. It would be necessary to commence with the great veneration for
gates in general throughout the north: whether the name of their great god
Thor (a gateway) is cause or consequence would have to be considered, and
his coincidence, in this respect, with Janus and Janua, the eldest deity of
the Italians, which I have more largely discussed in an _Essay on a British
Coin with the Head of Janus_, in the 21st No. of the Journal of the British
Archæological Association. Next, the question would arise, whether these
gates have not been migratory, like those of Somnauth, which Mahmoud took
to Gazni from a similar principle of deeply-rooted ancient
veneration,--relics of sanctity rather than trophies of victory, and which
Lord Ellenborough was so unjustly ridiculed for endeavouring to restore.
Thirdly, therefore, also whether the famous gates of the cathedral of
Novogorod may not be identical with those which have successively adorned
Vineta's and Wisby's portals; and whether those which are still the
ornament of the west door of the cathedral of Hildesheim, (which, according
to the inscription which crosses their twenty scriptural bas-reliefs, were
cast by Bereward, the thirteenth bishop, in 1015), may not be an existing
and beautiful example; as is the bronze column, with the bas-reliefs of
passages of the New Testament winding round it, and placed in the same
cathedral close. It would not be too much to surmise, that even the
beautiful gate of the Florence baptistery are from the same atelier, as an
old Italian author sings:

  "O Germania gloriosa,
  Tu vasa ex aurichalcis
  Ad nos subinde mittes."


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ii., pp. 119. 407.)

Hearne, the antiquary, has preserved two curious documents relating to the
Little Gidding establishment in the Appendix to his Preface to _Peter
Langtoff's Chronicle_, Nos. IX. and X. See also _Thomæ Caii Vindiciæ_, vol.
ii. The most complete account of this remarkable man is that by Dr.
Peckard, formerly Master of Magdalen College, Cambridge, entitled _Memoirs
of the Life of Nicholas Ferrar_, published in 1790, which has now become
extremely scarce, but has been reprinted by Dr. Wordsworth, in his
_Ecclesiastical Biography_, who has given in an Appendix an account of the
visit of the younger Nicholas Ferrar to London, from a MS. in the Lambeth
Library. The _Life of Nicholas Ferrar_, by Dr. Turner, Bishop of Ely, came
into the hands of the celebrated Dr. Dodd, who published an abridgment
{445} of it in the _Christian Magazine_ of 1761. This account was again
republished, with additions, in 1837, entitled _Brief Memorials of Nicholas
Ferrar, Founder of a Protestant Religious Establishment at Little Gidding,
in Huntingdonshire_, by the Rev. T.M. Macdonogh, Vicar of Bovingdon. Some
further particulars of this family may be found in Barnabas Oley's preface
to _Herbert's Country Parson_, and in Bishop Hacket's _Life of Archbishop
Williams_. In _Baker's MSS._ (vol. xxxv. p. 389.) in the Public Library of
Cambridge, is an article entitled "Large Materials for writing the Life of
Mr. Nicholas Ferrar." Isaac Walton, in his _Life of George Herbert_, also
notices Ferrar, and describes minutely his mode of life at Little Gidding.
From an advertisement at the end of Francis Peck's _Memoirs of Cromwell_,
it appears that Peck had prepared for publication a _Life of Mr. Nicholas
Ferrar_, no doubt the manuscript collections noticed by MR. RIMBAULT (p.

    "Little Gidding," it has been observed, "was in England what Port Royal
    was in France. Ardent devotion to the Redeemer characterised both. In
    each, peace, charity, good order, and love to the souls and bodies of
    men, were eminently exhibited; upon each the hand of persecution fell
    with unrelenting severity. Port Royal was destroyed by the Jesuits;
    Little Gidding by the Puritans."



_Arminian Nunnery in Huntingdonshire_ (Vol. ii., p. 407.).--Allow me to
refer DR. RIMBAULT to Hacket's _Life of Archbishop Williams_, Part ii. p.
50.; Izaak Walton's _Life of George Herbert_; Peter Langloft's _Chronicle_,
ed. Hearne, Preface, sect xi., Appendix to Preface, Nos. IX. and X.; _Caii
Vindiciæ Antiquitatis Academiæ Oxoniensis_, ed. Hearne, vol. ii. p. 683.
693. 697. 702. 713.; and _Memoirs of the Life of Mr. Nicholas Ferrar_, by
Peter Peckard, D.D., Cambridge, 8vo., 1790 (which is reprinted with
additions from a manuscript in the archiepiscopal library at Lambeth, in
Dr. Wordsworth's _Ecclesiastical Biography_). In Dr. Peckard's Preface will
be found somewhat respecting "the loss (probably the unjust detention)" of
Francis Peck's manuscript life of Nicholas Ferrar, apparently the same
manuscript which DR. RIMBAULT states he has seen.


Cambridge, November 16. 1850.

In Nichol's _Litterary Anecdotes_, vol. ii. p. 519., it is stated that "a
capital account of the family of Ferrar was compiled by Mr. Gough for the
sixth volume of the second edition of the _Biographica Britannica_." Of the
only two copies known to exist of the printed portion of this sixth volume
Mr. Chalmers possessed one, and he seems to have used it in the preparation
of the life of Ferrar for his _Biographical Dictionary_.


DR. RIMBAULT will find many interesting particulars relating to the
so-called "Arminian Nunnery," and the family of Ferrars, together with an
account of the present state of the place, in a paper by C. Colson, B.A.,
Fellow of St. John's College, entitled "An Account of a Visit to Little
Gidding, on the Feast of S. Andrew, 1840," published in the first part of
the _Transactions of the Cambridge Camden Society_, Stevenson, Cambridge,


Dr. Peckard appears to have had the use of some of Peck's MSS. (perhaps
those referred to by DR. RIMBAULT), but he regrets the loss of a MS. which
he had lent to the Rev. Mr. Jones, of Sheepshall, being, a _Life of
Nicholas Ferrar_, by Peck, prepared for the press, but which, after near
twenty years' inquiry, he had been unable to recover. This suggests the
Query, Has it ever yet been recovered? DR. RIMBAULT'S inquiry regarding
Thomas Hearne has been answered by Dr. Dibdin (_Bibliomania_, London, 1811,
p.381.) who informs Dr. Peckard, Dr. Wordsworth, and his Quarterly Reviewer
(p. 93), that Hearne, in the Supplement to his _Thom. Caii Vind. Ant.
Oxon._, 1730, 8vo., vol. ii., "had previously published a copious and
curious account of the monastery at Little Gidding," which he says "does
not appear to have been known to this latter editor," meaning Dr.
Wordsworth. I have not Hearne's work to refer to; but Dr. Dibdin _versus_
Dr. Wordsworth and his Reviewer, as to ignorance of what so well-known an
author as Tom Hearne has written, is a little curious. The word "Arminian,"
in DR. RIMBAULT'S Query, requires a remark. On reading the _Memoir_ which
Dr. Wordsworth has edited, he will find (Appendix, p. 247.) that the
Ferrars complained of "a libellous pamphlet, entitled the _Arminian Nunnery
at Little Gidding in Huntingdonshire_," and that they repudiated
"Arminianism and other fopperies." This suggests a further Query: Is DR.
RIMBAULT possessed of that pamphlet? The attachment to books manifested by
the Ferrars family entitles them, I humbly think, to as much space as your
"NOTES AND QUERIES" can afford them.



If DR. RIMBAULT or any of your correspondents could furnish a reply to any
of the Queries inserted by you in Vol. ii., p. 119., relative to the memoir
published by Peckard, and other matters connected therewith, I should feel


Mr. Henning of Hillingden, a descendant of the Ferrar family, through his
great-uncle, Dr. John Mapletoft, (see Ward's _Lives of the Gresham
Professors_), who was the great-nephew of Nicholas Ferrar, possessed one of
the three curious volumes arranged by members of the family, {446} viz.--_A
Digest of the History of our Saviour's Life_, with numerous plates. One of
these copies was presented to Charles I. on his going into the North;
another to Charles II. at the Restoration; the third remained in the
family. Can any of your readers tell us whether the copies given to the two
kings exist, and if so, who are the present possessors of them?



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ii., p. 393. 414.).

CLERICUS will find some information in the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for the
year 1775 (vol. xlv. pp. 513. 632.) which will direct him to a still fuller
discussion of the subject in the third volume of the _Archæologia_.


At _Rochester_ there is a field so called; it is a very favourite _walk_.
In the neighbourhood of the _Cathedral at Bath_, there is one side of a
street so called.


A part of the town of Richmond (Surrey) is called "the Vineyard." The name,
of the origin of which I am ignorant, is applied to a collection of small
houses between the Roman Catholic Chapel and the Rose Cottage Hotel.


In the fields between Buckden and Diddington, in the county of Huntingdon,
there is what is called "the Vineyard" at the present day; and connected
therewith is what is called, and evidently from the shape has been, a "fish
pond." In Buckden is the abbot's house, with the original door; and there
is no doubt but what the above was, in olden times, belonging to a
religious house in that part.


A small close of land adjoining the churchyard at Oiston, Nottinghamshire
(due west of the church), goes by the name of "the Vineyard."


There is also a street at Abingdon called "the Vineyard," from the land
having been formerly used for that purpose by the Benedictines of Abingdon
Abbey. If my memory do not betray me, there is some interesting information
on the early cultivation of the vine in England, in an article by Mr. T.
Hudson Turner, in the _Archæological Journal_, which I have not now at


There was a vineyard belonging to Ely Place, Holborn: and another probably
in the Abbey grounds at Westminster. A portion of the estate of the late
Chas. Powell, Esq., of Hinton Court, near Hereford, was called the
"Vineyard" and the Vineyard of the Monks of St. Mary's is yet pointed out
by the good folks of Beaulieu in Hampshire. The vineyards of Bath are in
the heart, not the suburbs of the present town.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ii., p. 168.).

As supplementary to J.B.'s valuable paper on the _Treatise of
Equivocation_, I transcribe the following from the _Smith Manuscripts_
(num. lxix. 5. p. 35.), thinking it may leave an interest for some of your

    "_Apud, D.P._ 13th of May, 1597.

    _Gerard the Jesuite, his Defence of Æquivocation._

    John Gerard, the Jesuite, being told that, upon the arraignment of
    Sowthwell the priest of high treason, one of the witnesses being asked
    upon her oath by one of the judges, in open court, whether Sowthwell
    were ever in Bellamie's house, said that she had been perswaded by
    Sowthwell to affirme upon her oath, that she did not see Sowthwell in
    Bellamie's house and to keep this secret in her mind, of INTENT TO TELL
    YOU, whereas in truth she had seen him diverse times in Bellamie's
    house; and Sowthwell being charged therewith, openly confessed the
    same, and sought to justifie the same by the place out of Jeremie, that
    a man ought to swear _in judicio, justitiá, et veritate_. Now, this
    John Gerrard, being asked what his opinion and judgment was concerning
    Southwell's opinion above said, said that he was of the same opinion,
    and seemed to justifie the same by the example of our Saviour Christ,
    who said to His disciples, that _you shall go to Jerusalem, Ego autem
    non ascendam_, keeping this secret to himself, of INTENT TO TELL YOU.
    And also sayeth that our Saviour Christ said, that the Son of Man did
    not know of the day of judgment, keeping this secret to himself, OF
    INTENT TO TELL YOU; for he sayeth, that as he was Son of Man he knew
    it, and could not be ignorant of any thing: and furder sayeth, that a
    witness being examined, _juridicè_ and of temporal things, not
    concerning religion or Catholics, cannot answer with such æquivocation
    as is above said. And, forasmuch as this opinion and the defence
    thereof seemed to be damnable and blasphemous, he was required to sett
    down his own opinion therein, least he should be mistaken; but he
    denied the same, not because it is untrue, but because he would not
    publish it. Then being required to subscribe the same, denied the same


The reference "_Apud. D.P._," which stands as I have placed it above, may
perhaps enable some of your contributors to point out the source from which
this account is derived. The date at the top appears to have been added by
a later hand.


Oxford, Nov. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ii., pp. 273. 332.)

Will you do me the favour to insert the following attempt to set right and
disentangle the thread {447} of my narrative respecting the death of young
Allen. Certain it is that I was not "an actor nor spectator," in the riots
of 1768, for they occurred some little time before I was born! It is
equally certain that a man well remembered by me as our servant, whose name
was "Mac," was a soldier concerned in the affair of Allen's death. As all
the three soldiers had the prefix of "Mac" to their names, I cannot tell
which of them it was, but it was _not_ the man who really shot Allen, and
_was never again heard of_; for "Mac," whom I so well remember, must have
lived with my father _after_ the affair of 1768, or _I_ could not have
known him. In my youthful remembrance, I have blended the story about him
with the riots which I had witnessed in 1780: this is the best and only
explanation I can give. Sure I am, that all my father related to me of that
man was true. I presume the "Mac" I knew must have been Maclane, as your
correspondent E.B. PRICE thinks probable, because of his trial and
acquittal, which agrees with my father's statement; and especially as he
was singled out and erroneously accused of the crime--as the quotation
above referred to states. All I can say is, I can relate no more; I have
told the story _as I remember it,_ and for myself can only apologise that
(though not so old as to witness the riots of 1768) I am old enough to
experience that Time has laid his hand not only on my head to whiten my
locks, but in this instance compels me to acknowledge that even the
memories of my early days are, like the present, imperfect. The failure is
with me, not with my father.

This vindication of my honourable parent's undoubted veracity reminds me of
a circumstance that I have read or heard in a trial with regard to a right
of way across an inclosure. Several aged men had given their evidence, when
one said, "I remember that a public footpath for more than 100 years." "How
old are you?" said the counsel. "Somewhere about eighty," was as the reply.
"How then do you remember the path for 100 years?" "I remember (said the
old man firmly), when a boy, sitting on my father's knee, and he told me of
a robbery that took place on that footpath; and so I know it existed
_then_, for _my father never told a lie_." The point was carried, and the
footpath remains open to this day, to tell to all generations _the beauty
of truth_.


In Malcolm's _Anecdotes of the Manners and Customs of London during the
eighteenth Century_, 4to. 1808, there is a

    "Summary of the Trial of Donald Maclane, on Tuesday last, at Guildford
    Assizes, for the murder of William Allen Jun. on the 10th of May last
    in St. George's Fields."

Upon the trial mention was made of the paper stuck up against the walls of
the King's Bench Prison, from which it appears that it contained the

  "Let * * * Judges, Ministers combine,
  And here great Wilkes and Liberty confine.
  Yet in each English heart secure their fame is
  In spite of crowded levies at St. J----'s.
  Then while in prison Envy dooms their stay,
  Here grateful Britons daily homage pay."

The inscription upon the tomb of William Allen was visible in 1817, and in
addition to the inscription on the north side, which has already been
printed in "NOTES AND QUERIES" (Vol. ii., p. 333), was as follows:--

      _South Side._

  "O disembody'd soul! most rudely driven
  From this low orb (our sinful seat) to Heaven,
  While filial piety can please the ear,
  Thy name will still occur for ever dear:
  This very spot now humaniz'd shall crave
  From all a tear of pity on thy grave.
  O flow'r of flow'rs! which we shall see no more,
  No kind returning Spring can thee restore,
  Thy loss thy hapless countrymen deplore.

      _East Side._

  "O earth! cover not thou my blood."--_Job._ xvi. 18.

      _West Side._

    "Take away the wicked from before the King, and His throne shall be
    established in righteousness."--_Prov._ xxiii. 5.

Fifteen months afterwards the father of William Allen presented a petition
to his majesty for vengeance on the murderers of his son.


       *       *       *       *       *


_Osnaburg Bishopric_ (Vol. ii. p. 358.).--By the treaty of Osnaburg, in
1624, it was stipulated "that the alternate nomination to the Bishopric of
Osnaburg should be in the catholic bishops, and in the protestant branches
of the house of Luneburg." Thus, the Princes Ernest Augustus, the father of
George I., Ernest Augustus, brother of the same monarch, and the late Duke
of York, became sovereign-bishops of Osnaburg. But by the treaty of Vienna,
in 1815, the bishopric became an integral part of the kingdom of Hanover.
(Vide _Halliday's House of Guelph_, 4to. 1820, pp. 134, 135, 335.)


_Death of Richard II._ (Vol. ii., p. 391.).--Otterburn tells us (pp. 228,
229.) that Richard II.'s death took place at _Pontefract Castle_, on St.
Valentine's day, and adds, that the body was exposed to public view in all
the principal towns through which it passed on the road to London. See also
Walsingham (p. 363.):

    "Clausitque diem extremum _apud castrum de Pontefracto_, die Sancti

{448} The Keeper of the Wardrobe, moreover, received 100 marks for the
conveyance of the king's body from Pontefract to London. (_Issue Rolls_, 1
Henry IV.)

It was the belief of many contemporaries--and arguments have been adduced
by modern writers in support of the supposition--(see a very interesting
treatise on the subject in the second volume of Tytler's _History of
Scotland_), that Richard II. escaped from his prison, and lived for several
years in Stirling Castle. But be that as it may, Froissart, I think, is
clearly wrong in stating that he died in the Tower of London.


In answer to your Query relative to the death of Richard II., and his dying
at Pontefract, I beg to refer you to Devon's printed _Pell Records_, Hen.
III. to Hen. VI., p. 275, for the following entry:

    "17 February. To Thos. Tuttabury, clerk, keeper of the king's wardrobe,
    In money paid to him by the hands of Wm. Pampleon, Esq., for expenses
    incurred for the carriage of the body of Richard, late king of England,
    _from the town of Pomferait to London_, by Writ, &c., 66l. 13s. 4d."

Again, at page 276.:

    "To a certain other valet, sent from London, by direction of the king's
    council, to Pontfreyt Castle for the protection and safe custody of the
    body of Richard II., late king of England, In money paid to his own
    hands for his wages and expenses, 6s. 8d."

This seems to be decisive of the question; but there are several other
interesting entries bearing on the same point.


_Scottish Prisoners sold to Plantations_ (Vol. ii., pp. 297. 350. 379.).--

    "The judgements of heaven were never so visible upon any people as
    those which have fallen upon the Scots since [the sale of Charles I.];
    for, besides the sweeping furious plague that reigned in Edinburgh, and
    the incredible number of witches which have increased, and have been
    executed there since; besides the sundry shameful defeats they have
    received by the English, who carried away more of them prisoners than
    they were themselves in number; _besides that many of them died of mere
    hunger; besides that they were sold away slaves, at half a crown a
    dozen, for foreign plantations among savages_; I say besides all this
    chain of judgements, with diverse others, they have quite lost their
    reputation among all mankind; some jeer them, some hate them, and none
    pity them."--Howell's _German Dict._, p. 65., 1653.

Echard, in _Hist. Eng._, vol. ii. p. 727., speaking of the prisoners taken
at Worcester, says that Cromwell

    "marched up triumphantly to London, driving four or five thousand
    prisoners like sheep before him; making presents of them, as occasion
    offered, as of so many slaves, and selling the rest for that purpose
    into the English plantations abroad."

W. DN.

_Lachrymatories._--There is absolutely _no_ authority in any ancient author
for this name, and the best scholars speak of these vessels as _the bottles
usually called lachrymatories_, &c. It would be curious to discover when
the name was first used, and by whom first this absurd use was imagined. It
_[illegible]_ that their _proper_ use was to contain perfumes, scents, and
unguents, as sweet odours to rest with the departed. Becker says:

    "Bottles, filled with perfumes, were placed inside the tomb, which was
    besprinkled _odoribus_. These are the tear-flasks, or _lachrymatories_,
    so often mentioned formerly."--_Gallus_, p. 413. Eng. Tr.

A wasteful use of perfumes at funerals (_sumptuosa respersio_, Cicero de
Legibus, ii. 23.) was forbidden by the Twelve Tables. The eighth verse of
the fifty-sixth Psalm,

    "My flight thou numberest: put my tears in thy bottle: stand they not
    in thy book?"--_Hengstenberg_, Clarke's Tr. Edinb.

is, I believe, the only evidence that can be brought in favour of the old
opinion; but we surely cannot take the highly figurative language of
Eastern poetry to establish a Roman custom of which we have no hint
elsewhere. This verse admits of a much simpler interpretation; see Arndt,
quoted by Hengstenberg _ad locum_. From a review of _Museum Disneianum_,
which appeared in No. XXIII. of the _Classical Museum_, it seems that Mr.
Disney has devoted to this subject some pages of the introduction to Part
II. of the above work, of which a summary is given by the reviewer.


Torreridge, Herts, Oct. 23.

_Querela Cantabrigiensis_ (Vol. ii., pp. 168. 205.).--MR. SANSOM is
sustained by Anthony Wood in assigning the _Querela_ to Dean Ryves; but it
may be doubted whether he were anything but the editor, publishing it as an
Appendix to the _Mercurius Rusticus_. The title of the work is _Querela
Cantabrigiensis: or A Remonstrance by way of Apologie for the banished
Members of the late flourishing University of Cambridge, by some of the
said Sufferers_. Now Dean Ryves was a member of the University of Oxford.
In Wood's _Fasti_, it is stated that he took the degree of B.A., Oct. 26,
1616, being then of New College. On June 9, 1619, he was admitted of
Magdalen College, as a member of which he took his B.D. in 1632, and
proceeded to D.D. in 1639. He had nothing therefore to do with the
sufferings of the members of the University of Cambridge. In the _Life of
Dr. Barwick_, the account given of the _Querela Cantabrigiensis_ is:--

    "But _Mr. Barwick's_ no inconsiderable part of this tragedy, together
    with others of the university, groaning under the same yoke of tyranny,
    _and each taking a particular account of the sufferings of his own
    college_, {449} gave a distinct narrative of all these barbarities, and
    under the title of _Querela Cantabrigiensis_, or the _University of
    Cambridge's Complaint_, got it printed by the care of _Mr. Richard
    Royston_, a bookseller of _London_, who did great service to his king
    and country, by printing and disposing, in the most difficult times,
    books written in defence of the royal cause." pp. 32-33.

In the Appendix (p.495. note), Dr. Bruno Ryves is mentioned, and spoken of
as the author of _Mercurius Rusticus_; but no notice is taken of his being
one of the authors of the _Querela_. Of Dr. Ryves, who assisted in the
Polyglot, a good account is given in Todd's _Life of Bishop Walton_, vol.
i. pp. 306-309.

Barwick was upon another occasion assisted in a work against the League and
Covenant, published in 1644, by William Lacy of St. John's, Isaac Barrow of
Peter-House, Sethward of Sidney College, Edmund Baldero, and William
Quarles of Pembroke Hall, and Peter Gunning of Clare Hall. It is not an
improbable conjecture that some of these distinguished men assisted in the
composition of the _Querela_.



_"Then" for "than."_--At the end of Selden's _Titles of Honour_ (edit.
1631), after the list of "Faults escapled in print," occur the words, "may
with no less difficulty be amended _then_ observed?" Was the word _then_
commonly used in the sense of _than_; or is it a misprint?


    [Dr Latham, in _English Language_, p. 377. (3d ed.), observes. "As to
    the word _than_, the conjunction of comparison, it is a variety of
    _then_; the notions of _order_, _sequence_, and _comparison_, being
    allied. _This is good; then_ (or _next in order_) _that is good_, is an
    expression sufficiently similar to _this is better than that_ to have
    given rise to it."]

_Doctrine of the Immaculate Conception_ (Vol. ii., p. 407.).--"The Papal
decision" referred to may probably be found in the Popes Letters of 2nd
Feb. 1849, and of 20th May, 1850. The former professes to seek for
information on this question from the priests and bishops of the whole
Catholic world, but at the same time it enunciates clearly the Pope's
opinion in favour of the doctrine.



In the _Catholic Annual Register for the Year ended 30th June, 1850_,
published by Dolman, will be found the recent Allocution of his Holiness
Pius IX., a Pastoral of the Cardinal Wiseman, and one from the bishops of
America on this subject; from which your correspondent L. will be fully
able to discover the present state of the doctrine of the Catholic Church
on this mystery.


_Letters of Horning_ (Vol. ii., p. 393.).--Letters of Horning, in the law
of Scotland, are writs issuing under the signet of the sovereign (used in
the Supreme Court, or Court of Session, for signifying the sovereign's
assent to writs issuing from that court) obtained by creditors, commanding
messengers at arms

    "To charge the debtor to pay or perform his obligation within a day
    certain." ... "If payment be not made within the days mentioned in the
    horning, the messsenger, after proclaiming three oyesses at the
    marketcross of the head borough of the debtor's domicil, and reading
    the letters there, blows three blasts with a horn, by which the debtor
    is understood to be proclaimed rebel to the king for contempt of his

    § 26. "Denunciation, if registered within fifteen days, either in the
    sheriff's books or in the general register, drew after it the rebel's
    single cheat, i.e. forfeiture of his moveables to the crown. So severe
    a penalty, with the character of rebel affixed to denunciation on civil
    debts, was probably owing to this; that anciently letters of horning
    were not granted but to enforce the performance of facts within one's
    own power, and when afterwards [in 1584] they came to be issued on
    liquid debts, the legislature neglected to soften the penalty. Insomuch
    that those who were denounced rebels, even for a civil cause, might be
    put to death with impunity till 1612. Persons denounced rebels have not
    a _persona standi ne judicio_. They can neither sue nor defend in any

I have preferred, to any explanation of my own, to make the preceding
extracts from Erskine's _Principles of the law of Scotland_, Book ii.,
Title 5., Sections 24, 25, 26.,--a standard institutional work of the
highest authority.

For those who are disinclined to examine the subject too gravely, I must
refer to another authority equally worthy of credit, viz. Sir Walter
Scott's _Antiquary_, where, in Chapter xviii.,

    "Full of wise saws and modern instances."

the subject of imprisonment for debt in Scotland is discussed most ably by
Jonathan Oldbuck, Esq., of Monkbarns, who proves to his nephew, Captain
McIntyre, that in that happy country no man can be legally imprisoned _for
debt_. He says,--

    "You suppose now a man's committed to prison because he cannot pay his
    debts? Quite otherwise; the truth is, the king is so good as to
    interfere at the request of the creditor, and to send the debtor his
    royal command to do him justice within a certain time; fifteen days, or
    six, as the case may be. Well, the man resists, and disobeys; what
    follows? Why, that he be lawfully and rightfully declared a rebel to
    our gracious sovereign, whose command he has disobeyed, and that by
    three blasts of a horn, at the market-place of Edinburgh, the
    metropolis of Scotland. And he is then legally imprisoned, not on
    account of any civil debt, but because of his ungrateful contempt of
    the royal mandate."

I have only quoted what was absolutely necessary to answer the Query; but
there is much more to be found on the subject in the same place.

I cannot suppose that there is any one of your readers so illiterate as not
to have read the _Antiquary_, {450} there are few memories which are not
the better for being from time to time refreshed. My own is not of the
best, which is sometimes disadvantageous to me, but not in a case like
this. I have frequently read over the _Antiquary_, again and again, and
have always derived much pleasure and amusement from so doing, and that
pleasure I hope still again to enjoy.

J. S----s.

_Dr. Euseby Cleaver_ (Vol. ii., p. 297.).--Your correspondent H. COTTON,
Thurles, Ireland, is mistaken with reward to Dr. Euseby Cleaver. He was
never Bishop of Cork and Ross. He was Bishop of Ferns and Leighlin, and
translated thence to the archbishopric of Dublin _about_ the year 1805. No
doubt the transaction will be found in the Registry of Ferns, but I do not
know the date of his consecration.

I was acquainted with that good man, and my mother was his first cousin.


Belgave, Nov. 15. 1850.

_Mrs. Partington_ (Vol. ii., pp. 377. 411.).--In the Rev. Sydney Smith's
speech at Taunton, on the Lords' rejection of the Reform Bill, October,
1831, is this passage:

    "The attempt of the Lords to stop the progress of reform, reminds me
    very forcibly of the great storm of Sidmouth, and of the conduct of the
    excellent Mrs. Partington on that occasion. In the winter of 1824,
    there set in a great flood upon that town--the tide rose to an
    incredible height--the waves rushed in upon the houses, and everything
    was threatened with destruction. In the midst of this sublime and
    terrible storm, Dame Partington, who lived upon the beach, was seen at
    the door of her house with mop and pattens, trundling her mop,
    squeezing out the sea-water, and vigorously pushing away the Atlantic
    Ocean. The Atlantic was roused. Mrs. Partington's spirit was up; but I
    need not tell you that the contest was unequal. The Atlantic Ocean beat
    Mrs Partington. She was excellent at a slop or a puddle, but she should
    not have meddled with a tempest."

This speech is reprinted in the collected editions of Sydney Smith's
_Works_. Unless an allusion to Mrs. Partington of a prior date to October,
1831, is produced, we may fairly consider that the celebrity of that lady
is owing to Sydney Smith.

I doubt if Lord Brougham ever alluded to Mrs. Partington. Certain it is he
never made any speech in the House of _Commons_ on the Reform Bill, as he
was raised to the peerage some months before that bill was brought forward.


_"Never did Cardinal bring good to England"_ (Vol. ii., p. 424.).--Your
correspondent O.P.Q. refers to Dr. Lingard's _History of England_, in which
this exclamation of the Duke of Suffolk, on the adjournment of the legatine
inquiry into the validity of the marriage of Henry VIII. and Catharine of
Arragon, is termed an "old saw," and remarks that he should be glad to know
if this saying is to be met with elsewhere, and what gave rise to it.
Before we enter upon the inquiries suggested by O.P.Q., it seems to me that
we have to consider a previous question--what authority is there for
terming it an "old saw." Dr. Lingard refers to "Cavendish, 434.; Herbert,
278." as his authorities for the whole paragraph. But Herbert does not
contain anything of the kind and Cavendish relates the matter very

    "With that stepped forth the Duke of Suffolk from the king, and lay his
    commandment spoke these words with a stout and an hault countenance,
    'It was never merry in England,' quoth he, 'whilst we had cardinals
    amongst us!'"--Cavendish's _Wolsey_, pp. 232, 233, Singer's edition.

Is Dr. Lingard the authority for these words being an "old saw", or has he
merely omitted to give a reference to the place from whence he really
derived them?


_Pandects, Florentine Edition of_ (Vol. ii., p. 421.).--Your correspondent
R.G. will find copies of the Florentine edition of the Pandects of 1553,
both in the British Museum and in the Bodleian library at Oxford. It is
described in the catalogues of both under the title of _Pandecta_.


_Master John Shorne_ (Vol. ii., p. 387.).--Mr. Thoms, in his curious notes
on this personage, has expressed much regret that fuller details relating
to a representation of _Magister Johannes Schorn_ at Cawston, Norfolk,
communicated to the Archæological Institute by the Rev. James Bulwer, had
not been preserved in the _Archæological Journal_. I believe that the
omission was solely in deference to Mr. Bulwer's intention of giving in
another publication the results of his inquiries, and those persons who may
desire detailed information regarding Master John will do well to peruse
Mr. Bulwer's curious memoir in the _Norfolk Archæology_, vol. ii. p. 280.,
published March 1849, where representations of the figure at Cawston, and
of another at Gateley, Norfolk, are given. There seems to be no evidence
that Sir John, although in both instances pourtrayed with _nimbus_, had
been actually canonized and it is deserving of notice that in no ancient
evidence hitherto cited is he designated as a Saint, but merely as Master,
or Sir John. I am surprised that Dr. Husenbeth, who is so intimately
conversant with the examples of hagiotypic symbols existing in Norfolk,
should not have given him even a supplementary place in his most useful
manual of the _Emblems of Saints_, recently published. (Burns, 1850, 12mo.)
I have sought for Sir John in vain, in either section of that valuable
work. It occurs neither under the names of saints, nor in the series of


_"Her brow was fair"_ (Vol. ii p. 407.).--The author of the passage quoted
by J.M.B. is Barry Cornwall. It occurs in one of the delicious {451} little
"Miscellaneous Poems" attached to the volume entitled _Dramatic Scenes_.
The quotation is not quite accurate, the last two words of the first line,
"and look'd," being carried into the second, and thus destroying the metre
of both. The Dr. Armstrong alluded to by J.M.B. is, I suppose, a modern
celebrity of whom I must plead guilty of being ignorant. The lines could,
of course, only occur in the writings of the Dr. Armstrong who wrote _The
Art of Preserving Health_, and who was the friend of the poet Thomson,
through the interpolation of some modern editor, within the last thirty
years. Barry Cornwall's poems have never been collected, in this country at
least; and as the volume which contains the one in question is to be met
with only occasionally, on the book stalls, I send you the entire poem:--

          THE MAGDALEN.

  "And woman who had wept her loveliest dower
  There hid her broken heart.
    _Paris._ "I do remember it. Twas such a face
  As Guido would have loved to dwell upon;
  But oh! the touches of his pencil never
  Could paint her perfect beauty. In her home
  (Which once she did desert) I saw her last;
  Propp'd up by pillows, swelling round her like
  Soft heaps of snow, yielding, and fit to bear
  Her faded figure. I observed her well:
  Her brow was fair, but _very_ pale, and look'd
  Like stainless marble; a touch methought would soil
  Its whiteness. O'er her temple one blue vein
  Ran like a tendril; one through her shadowy hand
  Branch'd like the fibre of a leaf--away.
  Her mouth was tremulous, and her cheek wore then
  A flush of beautiful vermilion,
  But more like art than nature; and her eye
  Spoke as became the youthful Magdalen,
  Dying and broken-hearted."


_Dodd's Church History_ (Vol. ii., p. 347).--G.R., who is good enough to
speak of my edition of this work in a very flattering manner, presumes, and
not unnaturally, from the lengthened period which has elapsed since the
appearance of the last, or fifth volume, that its continuation "has for
some reason or other been abandoned." I am glad, however, to inform him
that such is not the case. Health, and other uncontrollable circumstances,
have unfortunately interfered to impede the progress of the work; but that
it is not abandoned, I hope, ere long, to give to him and to the public a
practical evidence.


Arundel, Nov. 1850.

_Blackwall Docks_ (Vol. i., pp. 141. 220.).--These, in Pepys' time,
probably included more than the dry docks, known as Wigram's and Green's;
_e.g._, in Sir Thomas Brame's _Letters_, dated 29th Sept. 1666, we read:

    "Blackwall hath the largest wet dock in England, and belongs chiefly to
    the East India Company."--Sir Thos. Brame's _Letters_, edit. Wilkin, t.
    i. p. 135.

W. DN.

_Wives of Ecclesiastics_ (Vol. i., p. 149.).--In Archdeacon Hale's _Curious
Precedents in Criminal Causes_, p. 23., under 1490, and in the parish of S.
Nicholas, Coldharbour, London, we read:

    "Nicholai Colde.--Johannes Warwick quondam clericus parochie ibidem
    adulteravit cum Rosa Williamson et ob amorem illius mutilavit et quasi
    interfecit uxorem propriam."

We may remark that the delinquent is not called Dominus, but "clericus

W. DN.

_Stephens' Sermons_ (Vol. i., p. 334.).--The sermons referred to by
BALLIOLIENSIS, with a suggestion that they may be those of the Rev. W.
Stephens, were preached by Rev. Samuel Johnson, vicar of Great, and rector
of Little Torrington. Stephens was subsequently vicar of St. Andrew's,
Plymouth, a living then in the gift of the corporation.

W. DN.

_Saying of Montaigne_ (Vol. ii., p. 278.).--I have seen this attributed to
Fenelon, and, I think, to an English divine; but have no "Note," and regret
I cannot recollect the name.


_Scala Coeli_ (Vol. ii., p. 285.)--They are not _in_ the church of St. John
Lateran, but in a separate portico-like building. They form the middle
flight, up which the faithful ascend on their knees, and descend by
ordinary stairs on each side. These stairs are of stone (or marble), and
are covered with boards, so that only parts are visible. They are said to
have formed part of Pilate's house at Jerusalem; but I believe there are
other claimants for the honour. One or two brass stars, inlaid in the
stone, are said to mark the spots where Christ's tears fell.


Birmingham, Nov. 13. 1850.

_Red Hand--Holt Family--Aston Church_ (Vol. ii., p. 241.).--The tradition
is not, I belive, of very ancient date. It is stated that one of the Holt
family murdered his cook, and was afterwards compelled to adopt the red
hand in his arms. It is, however, obviously only the "Ulster badge" of
baronetcy. I have never heard any further particulars of the tradition.


_Swearing by Swans_ (Vol. ii., p. 392.).--

    "Toison d'or parut ensuite; il apportait un faisan vivant, orné d'un
    collier d'or; alors le duc Philippe, suivant l'ancien usage qu'avaient
    les seigneurs de prêter leurs serments sur quelque noble oiseau, jura
    qu'il irait en personne dans l'Orient combattre le chef des Sarrasins."
    &c., &c.--_Histoire des Ducs de Bourgogne_, par F. Valentin, troisième
    édition, p. 235. 8vo. Tours, 1846.



{452} _"Tickhill, God help me!"_ (Vol. i., p. 247.).--Chagford, on the
borders Dartmoor, in Devon, is in winter a very desolate and almost
unapproachable place. If an inhabitant be asked at this season concerning
his locality, he calls it, in sad tones, "Chagford, good Lord!" In summer
the place is picturesque and much sought, and then the exulting designation
is "Chaggiford, and what d'ye think?"

Widdicombe-in-the-Moor, in the same neighbourhood, is a most out-of-the-way
place, and is commonly spoken of as "Widdicombe in the cold country, good


_"Noli me tangere"_ (Vol. ii., p. 253.).--To the list given of the painters
of this subject may be added _Frederico Baroccio_. A singularly beautiful
engraving by Raphael Morghen of this picture, then in the possession of the
Marquis Bonvisi of Lucca, was published at Florence, 1816.


_Judas Bell, Judas Candle, &c._ (Vol. ii., p. 298.).--In the parish
accounts of Lambeth, the two following entries occur:--

  "1516. To James Calcot for payntyng of Judas, 6d."
  "1523. Paid for a staff for Judas crosse -- 4d."

I venture to add these to the instances cited by Mr. Walcott, hoping that
the slightly varied form may furnish a clue by which some of your readers
may be able to unravel the meaning of such allusions more satisfactorily
than any yet attempted.


_Burial towards the West_ (Vol. ii., p. 408.).--Mr. Hawker has stated very
confidently that

    "It was the ancient usage of the Church that the martyr, the bishop,
    the saint, and even the priest, should occupy in their sepulture a
    position the reverse of the secular dead, and lie down with their feet
    westward and their heads to the rising sun."

It is true that a custom has existed in many places for nearly two
centuries and a half to assign to the clergy a method of interment distinct
from that adopted for the laity; and the observance of this usage is not
limited to Romanists, for its continuance may be noted among members of the
Church of Ireland also, at least in remote districts of that country. With
respect to this matter, however, your correspondent has entirely misapplied
the term "ancient;" for until the seventeenth century there was not any
difference in the mode of sepulture prescribed for priests and laymen but,
most commonly, all persons entitled to Christian burial were placed with
their feet toward the east, in consequence of a tradition relative to the
position of our Saviour's body in the tomb. (Haimo, _Hom. pro Die Sancto
Pasch._; J. Gregrory, _Oriens nomen Ejus_, 85., Martene, _De Antiq. Eccles.
Ritibus_, tom. ii. p. 374. Venet. 1783.) It is believed that there is no
earlier authority for the sacerdotal privilege in question than a rule
contained in the _Rituale Romanum_ sanctioned by Pope Paul V. in June,
1614; viz.:

    "Corpora defunctorum in ecclesia ponenda sunt pedibus versus altare
    majus ... Presbyteri verò habeant caput versus altare."--Cap. _De
    Exsequiis_, p. 63. Antwerp, 1635.

A rubric afterwards directs (p. 168.) that the bier should be so set down
in the middle of the church that in every case the injunction previously
given should be complied with, even from the commencement of the funeral
service; and, in fact, the manner of adhering to the established practice
of exhibiting in the church to the people the bodies of the deceased
clergy, clad in vestments, prior to their interment (on which occasions an
altar-ward posture was naturally selected for the head, in order that the
remains might be more easily seen), appears to have originated the idea of
the fitness of retaining an unjustifiable priestly prerogative at the time
of burial.

Mr. Hawker may peruse with much advantage the first Appendix in the second
edition of _Eusebii Romani Epistola de Cultu Sanctorum ignotorum_. Mabillon
has herein very usefully enlarged what he had said, "De Sepultura
Sacerdotum," in the preceding impression, of which a French translation was
speedily published at Paris, 12mo in eights, 1698. The text of both
editions may be found together in tome i. of the _Ouvrages posthumes de
Mabillon et Ruinart_, à Paris, 1724.


_Totnes Church_ (Vol. ii., p. 376).--As the priory of St. Mary stood on the
N.E. side of the parish church, it is not improbable that the arched
passage to which your querist H.G.T. refers may have been formed between
the two buildings, and found needful to allow room for the extension of the
chancel on the re-erection of the church in 1432. Perhaps if H.G.T. could
refer to the ancient documents brought to light by the fall of one of the
pinnacles into the room over the porch in 1799, he would gain some
information in connexion with his inquiry. The following note may have
reference to the very "gangway" in question:

    "William Ryder of Totnes, by his will dated 18th Nov. 1432 desires to
    be buried in the cemetery of the parish church, in itinere
    processionali juxta ecclesiam prioris et conventus Totton, ex opposito
    magni altaris ejusdem ecclesiæ."--See Dr. Oliver's _Monasticum Dioc.
    Exon._ p. 239.

It appears that the present churchyard is the site of the priory, but on
this point the labours of the sexton would probably give some intimation.


_Irish Brigade_ (Vol. ii., p. 407.).--Your correspondent J.B. will find
some interesting particulars concerning the Irish Brigade in the _Military
History of the Irish Nation_, by Matthew O'Conor, extending to the peace of
Utrecht in 1711. It {453} was never finished. There is very valuable
Appendix in French, written in 1749, and authenticated September 1. 1815,
by the Adj.-Comm.-Col. De M. Morres (Hervé); it gives the war-orders, pay,
changes in the organization, and numbers of this gallant corps.


       *       *       *       *       *



We have received the second edition of _Chronicles of the Ancient British
Church_. The author exhibits great industry and research, and brings that
kindly reverential temper to his subject, which cannot fail to win for it
the sympathy of his readers. The apostolic origin of British Christianity,
and the early independence of the British Church, are satisfactorily
maintained, the labours of St. Patrick in Ireland, St. David and his
workfellows in Wales, St. Columba and St. Ninian in the North, are duly
chronicled; and the slender particulars that remain to us of the ancient
Church in Cornwall, are gleaned up with diligence and accuracy. The volume
is put together in a readable and popular shape, but is not unworthy the
attention of even our clerical friends. The author takes nothing upon
trust, and while availing himself of the labours of Usher, Stillingfleet,
&c., he ascends to the original authorities from which they drew, and makes
us acquainted with the pages of Gildas, Nennius, and Giraldus Cambrensis.

There is a time-honoured proverb, which bids us "Laugh and grow fat." The
author of a series of very witty and instructive papers written under the
title of, and for the prose of showing us _How to make Home
Unhealthy_,--written, too, it is obvious, on the principle of "When I say
hold fast, let go, and When I say let go, hold fast,"--has improved upon
the old saw, and bids us "Laugh and grow healthy." The subject is one which
comes home to everybody, and we accordingly recommend everybody in search
of a pleasant half-hour's reading of a happy combination of common sense
and uncommon humour to apply themselves to the study of _How to make Home

We last week called attention to several Flemish works likely to interest
English readers. We have since seen how desirable it is that this should be
done, in the fact, that a curious Flemish Rhyming Chronicle respecting our
Edward III., by Jan de Klerk, edited in 1840 by that accomplished antiquary
Willems, and of which only 100 copies were printed, has hitherto been so
little known in this country, that nearly a quarter of the whole impression
was left unsold in the hands of the late Mr. Rodd. At the last sale of Mr.
Rodd's books they were purchased by Mr. Quaritch.

We have received the following Catalogues:--Thomas Thorpe's (13. Henrietta
Street, Covent Garden) General Catalogue of the most extensive Collection
of Curious Books on Sale in this or any other country, in most Languages
and classes of Literature, and including many hundred Articles of the
utmost rarity; William Brown's (46. High Holborn) Catalogue of Second-hand
English and Foreign Books; Cole's (15. Great Turnstile, Holborn) List No.
XXX. of Miscellaneous Second-hand Books; Reeves' and Turner's (98. Chancery
Lane) Catalogue No. 14. of Cheap Books, many Rare and Curious; John
Miller's (43. Chandos Street) Catalogue No. 14. for 1850, of Books Old and
New; John Petheram's (94. High Holborn) Catalogue Part CXVIII., No. 12. for
1850, of Old and New Books.

Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson will sell on Wednesday next and three
following days, the valuable Philological, Biblical, and Miscellaneous
Library of the late Rev. Richard Garnet of the British Museum.

       *       *       *       *       *


OBI. An early and abridged edition.

BURKE'S WORKS. 9 vols. 8vo. 1845.


_Odd Volumes._

KNIGHT'S LONDON, Nos. 27. 53. 57. 98. 105. 146.

POPE'S WORKS. Warburton, 8vo. 1760. Vol. II.


PARKINSON'S SERMONS on Points of Doctrine and Rules of Duty. 1832. Vol. I.

ALISON'S EUROPE. First 8vo. edition. Vol. IX.



URE'S DICTIONARY of Arts and Manufactures. Part VI.

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


_We this week present our Subscribers with eight pages extra to meet our
increasing Correspondence. But though our present Number is thus enlarged,
we are compelled again to postpone many valuable communications, which are
already in type._

J.D.N.N. (_Renfrewshire_) _is thanked for his kind note. He will see by the
present Number, that there is no occasion for the alternative he suggests._

TWYFORD, _whose Query respecting the_ OGDEN FAMILY _appears at page 73, is
requested to say how a note may reach him._

_Communications should be addressed to the Editor of_ NOTES AND QUERIES,
_care of_ MR. BELL, No. 186. _Fleet Street._

_Part XIII. for November, price 1s. 3d., is now ready for delivery._

NOTES AND QUERIES _may be procured, by order, of all Booksellers and
Newsvenders. It is published at noon on Friday, so that our country
Subscribers ought not to experience any difficulty in procuring it
regularly. Many of the country booksellers, &c., are, probably, not yet
aware of this arrangement, which will enable them to receive_ NOTES AND
QUERIES _in their Saturday parcels._

_Errata._--P. 365, l. 36, for "ee_n_ or de_n_" read "e_r_ or de_r_"; p.
405, l. 16, for "Gar_n_elies" read "Gar_u_elies", p. 414, l. 13, for
J.V.R.W. read J.K.R.W.; p. 430, l. 9, for "441" read "414"; p. 420, l. 52,
for [Greek: exeleleiptô] read [Greek: exeleleipto]; p. 422, l. 5, for
_Amæn. Lit._ iii. read _Amæn. Lit._ ii.--l. 42, dele; after "manifest"; and
in col. 2, l. 26, for "milcinqcens et _o_nze" read "mil cinqcens et

       *       *       *       *       *

{454} NEW WORKS.


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Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans.

       *       *       *       *       *

{455} Committee for the Repair of the TOMB OF GEOFFREY CHAUCER.

  JOHN BRUCE, Esq., Treas. S.A.
  THOMAS W. KING, Esq., F.S.A.
  HENRY SHAW, Esq., F.S.A.

The Tomb of Geoffrey Chaucer in Westminster Abbey is fast mouldering into
irretrievable decay. A sum of One Hundred Pounds will effect a perfect
repair. The Committee have not thought it right to fix any limit to the
subscription; they themselves, have opened the list with a contribution
from each of them of Five Shillings; but they will be ready to receive any
amount, more or less, which those who value poetry and honour Chaucer may
be kind enough to remit to them.

Subscriptions have been received from the Earls of Carlisle, Ellesmere, and
Shaftesbury, Viscounts Strangford and Mahon, Pres. Soc. Antiq., The Lords
Braybrooke and Londesborough, and many other noblemen and gentlemen.

Subscriptions are received by all the members of the Committee, and at the
Union Bank, Pall Mall East. Post-office orders may be made payable at the
Charing Cross Office, to William Richard Drake, Esq., the Treasurer, 46.
Parliament Street, or William J. Thoms, Esq., Hon. Sec., 25. Holy-Well
Street, Millbank.

       *       *       *       *       *

Published this day,


Published in Fortnightly Parts, price 1s. each. And Monthly Sections, price
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Part IV., containing "King John," and Section II., containing "Love's
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London: CHAPMAN AND HALL, 186. Strand.

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EPISTOLÆ OBSCURORUM VIRORUM alia que Aevi XVI monimenta rarissima. Edited
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Sprache mit Index von Massmann, 7 vols, 4to. (published at 7l.) offered at
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Just completed and ready for delivery.

GOTHIC ORNAMENTS. By J.K. COLLING, Architect, in 2 vols. royal 4to., price
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GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

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Just Published, price 1l. 16s. Vols. I and II. illustrated with many
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THE CHURCH OF OUR FATHERS; or, St. Osmond's Rite for the Church of
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the first time, and elucidated with Dissertations on the belief and Ritual
of the Church in England, before and after the coming of the Normans. By
DANIEL ROCK, D.D., and Canon of the English Chapter. Vol. III. at Press.

Also, price 3s. 6d., in Octavo.

in a Letter to Lord John Manners, from DANIEL ROCK, D.D.

London: C. DOLMAN, 61. New Bond Street.

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Just Published, price Half-a-Crown,

JUNIUS AND HIS WORKS COMPARED with the Character and Writings of Phillip
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Philosophy of Language."

London: HOPE & CO., Publishers, 16. Great Marlborough Street

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HOPE AND CO., Publishers., 16. Great Marlborough Street, London, undertake
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Nearly ready, price, neatly bound in Cloth 3s.; With gilt edges in Roan
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our Lord 1851, containing an Almanack and Diary, with a variety of
Information useful to the Clergy, compiled from the best Sources.

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford and London.

       *       *       *       *       *


with Etymology, and Illustrated by Quotations from the best Authorities.
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Abridged in One thick volume octavo, Third Edition, reduced to 15s.

A NEW DICTIONARY of the ENGLISH LANGUAGE, to which is affixed a Grammatical
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EARLY ENGLISH POETRY. Edited by THOMAS WRIGHT. Printed in the Black Letter.
4 vols 16mo. half-bound morocco, 1l.

Containing--I. The Turnament of Tottenham. The Feest, a Sequel to the same
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Frere and the Boy, two early Ballads of Magic.--IV. Songs and Carols from a
MS. in the British Museum.

CHAUCER'S CANTERBURY TALES, with an Essay on his Language and
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5 vols. crown 8vo. with a Portrait, and an Engraving of the celebrated
Pilgrimage, by STOTHARD, 2l. 12s. 6d.

HARRIS NICOLAS, 3 vols. crown 8vo. 1l. 11s. 6d.

*** A Supplement to Tyrwhitt's Edition of Chaucer, which completes the
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printed in crown 8vo. viz.:--

GREENE, 2 vols. 2ls. PEELE. 3 vols. 1l. 11s. 6d. KIT MARLOWE, 3 vols. 1l.
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PIERS PLOUGHMAN'S VISION AND CREDE, newly imprinted from a MS. in Trinity
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BEOWULF, an Epic Poem, translated from the Anglo-Saxon into English Verse,
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THE POETICAL ROMANCES of TRISTAN, in French, in Anglo-Norman, and in Greek.
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of the Twelfth Century, now first printed from the original MS. in the
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CONQUEST OF IRELAND an Early Anglo-Norman Metrical History of the Conquest
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ANCIENT FRAGMENTS of the Phoenician, Chaldean, Egyptian, and other Writers,
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CORY. 8vo., Second Edition, 1l. 1s.

collected and translated from the Latin. With Notes and an introduction, by
the Rev. S. A. PEARS, M.A., Fellow of C.C.C. Oxford. 8vo. 10s. 6d.

A MANUAL OF BRITISH HISTORIANS, comprising An Account of the Monkish
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with the Period of each History, and when the Writer flourished. By WM. D.
MACRAY, of the Bodleian Library, Oxford. 8vo. 9s.

CRITICK OF PURE REASON, translated from the Original of IMMANUEL KANT, with
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Work. 8vo. 6s.

A GUIDE to the STUDY OF HERALDRY, by J.A. MONTAGU, Esq., of Magdalen
College, Cambridge, in 4to., with numerous wood-cuts, 18s.

A DISPLAY of HERALDRY by WILLIAM NEWTON. Numerous Woodcuts, 8vo. 14s.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5 New
Street Square, in the Parish of St Bride in the city of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, November 30. 1850.

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