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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 66, February 1, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 66, February 1, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

generously made available by The Internet Library of Early




       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 66.]
[Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

       *       *       *       *       *



  "NOTES AND QUERIES" in Holland                               81


  Sir John Davies and his Biographers, by Dr. E. F. Rimbault   82

  A Note on Queen Anne's Farthings by J. Y. Akerman            83

  Folk-Lore:--Lammer Beads--On the Lingering of the
  Spirit--May Cats--Mottos on Warming-pans and
  Garters                                                      84

  Notes on Jesse's "London and its Celebrities," by Henry
  Campkin                                                      84

  Minor Notes:--Verstegan--George Herbert and the
  Church at Leighton Bromswold--Little Gidding--Etymology
  of Kobold--Judas Cup--Essleholt Priory--Crossing
  Rivers on Skins                                              85


  Bibliographical Queries                                      86

  Minor Queries:--Bishops' Lands--The Barons of Hugh
  Lupus--Can the Queen make a Gentleman?--Plafery--St.
  John's Bridge Fair--Queries on Costume--Cum
  Grano Salis--Earl of Clarendon's Daughter,
  Lucretia--Vandyke's Portrait of Lord Aubigny--Foundation
  Stone of St. Mark's, Venice--Coins of
  Richard Cromwell--Cataracts of the Nile--Paternoster
  Tackling--Dancing Trenchmore--Hymns--
  Camden and Curwen Families--Jartuare                         87


  John Bunyan and his Portrait.--Did Bunyan know
  Hobbes? by George Offor                                      89

  The Mother Church of the Saxons by Dr. J. Rawson             90

  Replies to Minor Queries:--The Frozen Horn--To
  Pose--Culprits torn by Horses--The Conquest--Mayors,
  their correct Prefix--True Blue--Modum Promissionis--Fronte
  capillatâ &c.--Cross between a
  Wolf and a Hound--Touching for the Evil--Old
  Booty--Breeches Bible--Separation of the Sexes--Defender
  of the Faith--Epigram on the Synod of Dort--Parish
  Register Tax--Clergy sold for Slaves                         91


  Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                       94

  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                 95

  Notices to Correspondents                                    95

  Advertisements                                               95

       *       *       *       *       *


The following extremely interesting, and, we need scarcely add, to us most
gratifying, communication reached us at too late a period last week to
admit of our then laying it before our friends, readers, and contributors.
They will one and all participate in our gratification at the proof which
it affords, not merely of that success which they have all combined to
secure, but of the good working, and consequent wide extension, of that
great principle of literary brotherhood which it has been the great object
of "NOTES AND QUERIES" to establish.

_To the Editor of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES."

Mr. Editor,

We have the pleasure of sending you the prospectus of "DE NAVORSCHER," a
new Dutch periodical, grounded upon the same principle as its valuable and
valiant predecessor "NOTES AND QUERIES." The title, when translated into
English, would be--"_The Searcher; a medium of intellectual exchange and
literary intercourse between all who know something, have to ask something,
or can solve something._" If it be glorious for _you_ to have proposed a
good example, we think it honourable for _us_ to follow it.

Though we do not wish to be our own trumpets, we can say that never a Dutch
newspaper was greeted, before its appearance, by such favourable
prognostics. _Your_ idea, Mr. Editor, was received with universal applause;
and Mr. FREDERIK MULLER, by whom "DE NAVORSCHER" will be published, is not
only a celebrated bookseller, but also one of our most learned _bookmen_.

Ready to promote by every means in our power the friendly intercourse
between your country and our fatherland, we desire of you to lay the
following plan before the many readers of "NOTES AND QUERIES."

1. Every Query, which, promulgated by our English sister, would perhaps
find a solution when meeting the eyes of _Dutch_ readers, will be
TRANSLATED for them by her foreign brother. We promise to send you a
version of the eventual answers.

2. Of Queries, divulged in "DE NAVORSCHER," and likely to be answered if
translated for the British readers of "NOTES AND QUERIES," a _version_ will
be presented by us to the sister-periodical.

3. The title of BOOKS OR ODD VOLUMES wanted to purchase, of which copies
may exist in the Netherlands, will be duly inserted into "DE NAVORSCHER"
when required. Mr. FREDERIK MULLER will direct his letters, containing
particulars and lowest price, to the persons anxious for information.

4. All communications for "DE NAVORSCHER" must be addressed to Mr. D. NUTT,
Bookseller, {82} No. 270. Strand; or, _carriage free_, to the "_Directors_
of the same," care of Mr. FREDERIK MULLER, "Heerengracht, near the Oude
Spieglestraat, Amsterdam."

With a fervent wish that in such a manner, two neighbourly nations,
connected by religion, commerce, and literary pursuits, may be more and
more united by the mail-bearing sea which divides them, we have the honour
to remain,

    Mr. Editor,
      Your respectful servants,

Amsterdam, the 16th of December, 1850.

    When by the publication of "NOTES AND QUERIES" we laid down those
    telegraphic lines of literary communication which we hoped should one
    day find their way into every library and book-room in the United
    Kingdom, we little thought that, ere fifteen months had passed, we
    should be called upon, not to lay down a _sub_marine telegraph, but to
    establish a _super_marine communication with our brethren in the Low
    Countries. We do so most gladly, for we owe them much. From them it was
    that Caxton learned the art, but for which "NOTES AND QUERIES" would
    never have existed; and of which the unconstrained practice has, under
    Providence, served to create our literature, to maintain our liberties,
    and to win for England its exalted position among the nations of the

    Heartily, therefore, do we bid God speed to "DE NAVORSCHER;" and
    earnestly will we do all we can to realize the kindly wish of our
    Amsterdam brethren, that the "two neighbourly nations of Holland and
    England, connected by religion, commerce, and literary pursuits, may be
    more and more united by the mail-bearing sea which divides them."

       *       *       *       *       *



Sir John Davies, the "sweet poet" and "grave lawyer"--rather odd
combinations by the bye,--according to Wood, was "born at Chisgrove, in the
parish of Tysbury in Wiltshire, being the son of a wealthy _tanner_ of that
place!" This statement is repeated in Cooper's _Muses' Library_, p. 331.;
Nichols's _Select Poems_, vol. i., p. 276.; Sir E. Brydges's edition of
Philips's _Theatrum Poetarum_, 1800, p. 272.; Sir Harris Nicolas's edition
of Davison's _Poetical Rhapsody_, vol. i. p. cii., &c. And Headley, in his
_Select Beauties of Poetry_, ed. 1787, vol. i. p. xli., adds, "he was a man
of _low_ extraction!" Wood's assertion concerning Davies's parentage, was
made, I believe, upon the authority of Fuller; but it is undoubtedly an
error, as the books which record the admission of the younger Davies into
the Society of the Middle Temple, say the father was "late of New Inn,

Mr. Robert R. Pearce, in a recent work, entitled _A History of the Inns of
Court and Chancery_, 8vo. 1848, p. 293., gives the following sketch of the
leading facts in the life of our "poetical lawyer:"--

    "Sir John Davis, the author of _Reports_, and several other legal
    works, and a poet of considerable repute, was of this Society [_i.e._
    the Middle Temple]. His father was a member of New Inn, and a
    practitioner of the law in Wiltshire. At the Middle Temple, young Davis
    became rather notorious for his irregularities, and having beaten Mr.
    Richard Martin (also a poet, and afterwards Recorder of London) in the
    hall, he was expelled the house. Afterwards, through the influence of
    Lord Chancellor Ellesmere, he was restored to his position in the
    Middle Temple; and, in 1601, was elected a Member of the House of
    Commons. In 1603, he was appointed by King James Solicitor-General in
    Ireland. In 1606, he was called to the degree of Serjeant-at-Law; and,
    in the following year, was knighted by the King at Whitehall. In 1612,
    he published a book on the state of Ireland, which is often referred
    to; and soon afterwards he was appointed King's Serjeant, and Speaker
    of the House of Commons in Ireland. On his return to England he
    published his reports of cases adjudged in the King's Court in
    Ireland,--the first reports of Irish cases made public. The preface to
    these reports is very highly esteemed. It has been said to vie with
    Coke in solidity and learning, and equal Blackstone in classical
    illustration and elegant language. Sir John Davis died 7th of December,

It is amusing to see how erroneous statements creep into ordinary
biography. Headley, as we have just seen, calls Davies "a man of _low_
extraction;" and now we find a more recent biographer adding (without the
shadow of an authority), "at the Middle Temple, young Davies became _rather
notorious for his irregularities_!"

Davies's quarrel with Richard Martin is alluded to by Wood. After speaking
of his admission into the Middle Temple, and of his being made a barrister
(July, 1595), that writer adds:--

    "But so it was that he [Sir John Davies] being a high-spirited young
    man, did, upon some little provocation or punctilio, bastinado Rich.
    Martin (afterwards Recorder of London) in the Common Hall of the Middle
    Temple, while he was at dinner. For which act being forthwith
    [February, 1597-8] expell'd, he retired for a time in private, lived in
    Oxon in the condition of a sojourner, and follow'd his studies, tho' he
    wore a cloak. However, among his serious thoughts, making reflections
    upon his own condition, which sometimes was an affliction to him, he
    composed that excellent philosophical and divine poem called _Nosce

It is not a little singular that this very Richard Martin, whose
chastisement is thus recorded, had {83} been on terms of strict friendship
with our "high-spirited" young lawyer. In 1596, Davies had published his
poem on dancing, entitled _Orchestra_, the title-page of which is followed
by a dedicatory sonnet "To his very friend, Ma. Richard Martin." This
sonnet is written in extravagant terms of friendship and admiration; and as
it is only to be found in the _rare_ first edition, and in the almost
equally rare _Bibliographical Catalogue of the Ellesmere Collection_, some
of your readers may not be displeased to see it on the present occasion:--


 "To whom shall I this dauncing Poeme send,
    This suddaine, rash, halfe-capreol of my wit?
    To you, first mover and sole cause of it,
  Mine-owne-selves better halve, my deerest frend.
  O, would you yet my Muse some Honny lend
    From your mellifluous tongue, whereon doth sit
    Suada in majestie, that I may fit
  These harsh beginnings with a sweeter end.
    You know the modest sunne full fifteene times
  Blushing did rise, and blushing did descend,
    While I in making of these ill made rimes,
  My golden bowers unthriftily did spend.
    Yet, if in friendship you these numbers prayse,
    I will mispend another fifteene dayes."

The cause of quarrel between the two young lawyers is not known, but the
"offence," whatever it was, was not slight. In the year 1622, when Davies
reprinted his poetical works, we find that his feelings of resentment
against his once "very friend" had not abated, for in place of the
dedicatory sonnet to Richard Martin, is substituted a sonnet addressed to
Prince Charles; and at the conclusion of the poem, he left a _hiatus_ after
the one hundred and twenty-sixth stanza, on account of the same quarrel.

Sir John Davies's celebrated poem, _Nosce Teipsum_ (mentioned by Wood in
the previous extract), is said to have gained the author the favour of
James I., even before he came to the crown. Wood gives the precise period
of its composition, and, I think, with every appearance of truth, although
it does not accord with the statement of modern biographers, that it was
written at twenty-five years of age. (See Campbell's _Essay on Poetry_,
&c., ed. 1848, p. 184.) The first edition of this poem was printed in 4to.
in the year 1599, and has for its title the following:--

    "_Nosce Teipsum_. This Oracle expounded in Two Elegies. 1. Of Humane
    Knowledge. 2. Of the Soule of Man, and the Immortalitie thereof.
    London, Printed by Richard Field, for John Standish. 43 leaves."

As I am deeply interested in all that relates to the subject of this note,
I have compiled a list of editions of the above poem, which shows its
popularity for more than a century and a half:--

  1.   1599.  _London_,  4to.   First edition.
  2.   1602.    _ib._    4to.   Second ed.
  3.   1608.    _ib._    4to.   Third ed.
  4.   1619.    _ib._    8vo.   Fourth ed.
  5.   1622.    _ib._    8vo.   The last edition printed during the
      Author's lifetime.
  6.   1653.    _ib._    4to.   Published by T. Jenner with curious plates,
      and prose paraphrase.
  7.   1688.    _ib._    folio. With prose dissertation.
  8.   1697.  _Dublin,_  8vo.   With Life of the Author, by Nahum Tate.
  9.   1714.    _ib._    12mo.  Second edition by Tate.
  10.  1733.    _ib._    8vo.   With Essay by Dr. Sheridan.
  11.  1749.  _London,_  12mo.
  12.  1759.  _Glasgow,_ 12mo.  With Life of the Author.
  13.  1760.  _London,_  8vo.   In Capel's _Prolusions._
  14.  1773.    _ib._    12mo.  In Davies's _Poetical Works_, edited by

Sir John Davies left behind him a large number of MSS. upon various
subjects, none of which have since been printed. It would be very desirable
that a list, as far as can now be made out, should be put on record.
Anthony Wood says, several of Davies's MSS. were formerly in the library of
Sir James Ware of Ireland and since that in the possession of Edward, Earl
of Clarendon. The most interesting of these MSS. were a Collection of
Epigrams, and a Metaphrase of David's Psalms. The Harleian MSS., Nos. 1578.
and 4261., contain two law treatises of this learned writer, and in
Thorpe's _Catalogue_ for 1823, I find _A Treatise of Tenures touchinge his
Majesties Prerogative Royal_, by John Davies, folio, MS.

Granger does not record any engraved portrait of this writer, and all my
enquiries have failed in discovering one. In Mr. Soame Jenyn's Hall, at
Botesham, in Cambridgeshire (in 1770), was a full-length portrait of an
elderly gentleman in a gown, with a book in one hand, on which is written
"_Nosce Teipsum_." If this is a genuine portrait of Sir John Davies, it
ought to be engraved to accompany a new edition of his poetical works; a
publication which the lovers of our old poetry would deem an acceptable


       *       *       *       *       *


The idea that a Queen Anne's farthing is a coin of the greatest rarity,
originated perhaps in the fact that there are several _pattern pieces_
executed by Croker, which are much valued by collectors, and which
consequently bring higher prices. One type only was in circulation, and
this appears to have been very limited, for it is somewhat scarce, though a
specimen may easily be procured of any dealer in coins for a few shillings.
This bears the bust of the {84} Queen, with the legend ANNA DEI
GRATIA--reverse, BRITANNIA around the trite figure of Britannia with the
spear and olive-branch: the date 1714 in the exergue. Those with Peace in a
car, Britannia standing with olive-branch and spear, or seated under an
arch, are patterns; the second has the legend BELLO ET PACE in indented
letters, a mode revived in the reign of George III. It is said that many
years ago a lady in the north of England lost one of the farthings of Queen
Anne, which she much prized as the bequest of a deceased friend, and that
having offered in the public journals a large reward for its recovery, it
was ever afterwards supposed that any farthing of this monarch was of great


       *       *       *       *       *


_Lammer Beads._--Does any one know the meaning of "Lammer beads?" They are
almost always made of amber, and are considered as a charm to keep away
evil of every kind; their touch is believed to cure many diseases, and they
are still worn by many old people in Scotland round the neck. The name
cannot have anything to do with "Lammermuir," as, although they are well
known among the old people of Lammermuir, yet they are equally so all over

L. M. M. R.

_On the Lingering of the Spirit._--Perhaps you may think the following
story worthy of insertion in your paper.

There is a common belief among the poor, that the spirit will linger in the
body of a child a long time when the parent refuses to part with it. I said
to Mrs. B., "Poor little H. lingered a long time; I thought, when I saw
him, that he must have died the same day, but he lingered on!"

"Yes," said Mrs. B., "it was a great shame of his mother. He wanted to die,
and she would not let him die: she couldn't part with him. There she stood,
fretting over him, and couldn't give him up; and so we said to her, 'He'll
never die till you give him up.' And then she gave him up; and he died
quite peaceably."


Vicarage, Barrow-on-Humber, Jan. 13. 1851.

_May Cats_ (Vol. iii., p. 20.).--In Hampshire, to this day, we always kill
May kittens.


_Mottos on Warming-Pans and Garters._--It seems to have been much the
custom, about two centuries ago, to engrave more or less elaborately the
brass lids of warming-pans with different devices, such as armorial
bearings, &c., in the centre, and with an inscription or a motto
surrounding the device. A friend of the writer has in his possession three
such lids of warming-pans, one of which has engraven on the centre a hart
passant, and above his back a shield, bearing the arms of Devereux, the
whole surrounded by this inscription:--


Another bears the arms of the commonwealth, (as seen on the coins of the
Protectorate,) encircled with an inscription, thus:--


The third bears a talbot passant, with the date above its back, 1646, and
the motto round:--

 "IN . GOD . IS . ALL . MY . TRUST."

It appears to me that the first two, at least, belonged to _inns_, known by
the respective signs indicated by the mottos, &c.; the first probably in
honour of the Lord-General of the Parliament's army, who was the last
Devereux bearing the title.

That last described affords a curious illustration of a passage cited in
Ellis's _Brand_ (ed. 1849, vol. i. p. 245.), from _The Welsh Levite tossed
in a Blanket_, 1691.

    "Our _garters_, bellows, and _warming-pans_ wore godly mottos," &c.

In further illustration, I may mention that the owner of the warming-pans
has in his possession likewise a beautifully manufactured long silk
_garter_, of perhaps about the same date, in which are woven the following


H. G. T.

       *       *       *       *       *


During my perusal of Mr. Jesse's pleasant volumes, I marked two or three
slips of the pen, which it may not be amiss to make a note of.

In vol. i. pp. 403, 404, 405., there is a curious treble error regarding
Thomas Sutton, the munificent founder of the Charter House. He is
successively styled _Sir_ Thomas, _Sir Richard_, and _Sir Robert_. Sutton's
Christian name was Thomas. He was never knighted. Of the quaint leaden case
which incloses his remains, and of its simple inscription, an accurate
drawing, with accompanying particulars, by your able correspondent Mr. E.
B. PRICE, was inserted in the _Gent. Mag._ for January, 1843, p. 43. The
inscription runs thus: "1611. THOMAS SUTTON, ESQUIAR."

Vol. ii. pp. 34, 35, 36. Mr. Jesse's ingenious suggestions relative to the
tradition of the burial of Oliver Cromwell in Red Lion Square, merit the
careful attention of all London antiquaries.

Ib. p. 316.:

    "There is no evidence of Clement's Inn having been a Court of Law
    previous to 1486."

For "a court of law," read "an inn of court." {85}

Ib. p. 339. Erratum, line 9, in reference to Mrs. Garrick's reopening of
her house, for the first time after her husband's decease--for "1701" read
"1781," obviously a printer's error.

Ib. p. 423.:

    "Cranmer's successor in the see of Canterbury was Archbishop Whitgift."

Whitgift was _Grindal's_ successor, and Grindal was preceded by Parker, who
must be deemed Cranmer's successor. Cranmer perished in 1556. Parker was
made archbishop in 1559.

Mr. Jesse will not be angry, I am sure, with the above notes, or need any
apology for an attempt to add to the value of his book.


Reform Club, Jan. 10. 1851.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Verstegan.--A Restitution of Decayed Intelligence in Antiquities,
concerning the most noble and renowned English Nation. By the Study and
Travel of Richard Verstegan._--There is something so sonorous and stately
in the very sound of the title of Master Richard Verstegan's etymological
treatise, that any bibliographical notice of it, I am sure, will find a
corner in "NOTES AND QUERIES." The following MS. note is on a fly-leaf of
my copy, A.D. 1655:--

    "The first edition was printed at Antwerp, in 1605. A full account of
    this work is given in Oldys's _British Librarian_, pp. 299 312. It
    concludes with suggestions for improving any future editions: namely,
    to add those animadversions, in their proper places, which have been
    since occasionally made on some mistakes in it; as those made by Mr.
    Sheringham on his fancy of the _Vitæ_ being the ancient inhabitants of
    the Isle of Wight, &c. But more especially should be admitted the
    corrections of the learned Mr. Somner, he having left large marginal
    notes upon Verstegan's whole book, as we are informed by Bishop
    Kennett, the late accurate author of his Life. This advice has never
    been acted upon."

To this is subjoined a notice of Verstegan's _Poems_.

    "There is a thin 12mo. volume of _Poems_ by Richard Verstegan, of which
    only one perfect copy is known. Dr Farmer had it; then a Mr. Lloyd, who
    disposed of it, when it sold for 22l. 1s. Mr. Faber now has it. Another
    copy, completed by MS., had belonged to T. Park, which was sold at
    Sotheby's, March 11. 1821, for 1l. 19s., and bought by Triphook."



_George Herbert and the Church at Leighton Bromswold.--Little
Gidding._--Some of your readers may not be aware that George Herbert built
the church of Leighton Bromswold, Hunts as well as that of Bemerton. The
church stands about three-quarters of a mile to the right of the road from
Huntingdon to Thrapston, and a view of it is given in Zouch's 4to. edition
of Isaac Walton's _Lives_; it is stated, in a note, to be near Spalding,
for which read _Spaldwick_. Herbert desired the pulpit and reading-desk to
be placed on opposite sides of the church, and of the same height; to show
that "preaching ought not to be esteemed above praying, nor praying above

Query, What is the state of the interior _now_, as to pews, &c.?

The nuns, if I may so call them, in the monastery at Little Gidding, Hunts,
employed themselves in covering or in ornamenting the covers of books, in
patterns, with silver and coloured-silk threads: a friend of mine in Surrey
has a small volume so ornamented by them.

E. H.

Norwich, Jan. 20.

_Etymology of Kobold._--At page 239. of Mr. Bohn's edition of Keightley's
_Fairy Mythology_, we find that Mr. K., after heading a chapter with
"Kobolds," says in a note:--

    "This word is usually derived from the Greek [Greek: kobalos], a knave,
    _but as this is only found in lexicographers_, it may in reality be a
    Teutonic word in a Greek form."

Surely, Mr. Keightley has forgotten the following passages--

1. Ar. Equites, 450. Dindf. [Conf. Ranæ, 1015.]

 "[Greek: KLEÔN: KOBALOS ei.]
                      [Greek: ALL. panourgos ei.]"

2. Ejusdem fab., 635.:

 "[Greek: Bereschethoi te kai KOBALOI kai Mothôn.]"

3. Plutus, 279.:

 "[Greek: hôs mothôn ei te kai phusei KOBALOS.]"

4. Aristotle, _H. A._ 8. 12. 12. [Bekker Oxon.] says of a bird,

 "[Greek: kobalos kai mimêtês.]"

In the 2nd passage Liddell and Scott call [Greek: kobaloi] "_mischievous
goblins_," which is exactly equivalent to "kobolds."

The word is also used adjectively for "knavish tricks," "rogueries."

See _Equites_, 419.:

 "[Greek: Kai, nê Di', alla g' esti mou kobala paidos ontos.]"

Ranæ, 104:--

 "[Greek: hê mên kobala g' estin, hôs kai soi dokei.]"

In _Equites_, 332. we find [Greek: kobalikeumata], "the tricks of a [Greek:


_Judas Cup_ (Vol. ii., p. 298.).--In the _Ancient Monuments, Rites, and
Customs of Durham_, published by the Surtees Society, we have the following
account of "Judas Cup" in the refectory, which is described as--

    "A goodly great mazer, called Judas Cup, edged about {86} with silver
    and double gilt, with a foot underneath it to stand on, of silver and
    double gilt, which was never used but on Maunday Thursday at night in
    the Frater House, where the prior and the whole convent did meet and
    keep their Maunday." (p. 68.)

I send this with reference to the mention of the "Judas Bell" and "Judas
Candle" in your 2nd Volume, p. 298.


_Essheholt Priory._--Esholt Hall (now in the possession of W. R. C.
Stansfield, Esq.) is the same as the ancient priory of Essheholt, which was
under the abbot of Kirkstall.

This priory fell, of course, with the smaller houses, and was valued at
19l. 0s. 8d. Essheholt remained in the crown till the first year of Edward
VI., nine years after the dissolution, when it was granted to Henry
Thompson, Gent., one of the king's gens-d'armes at Boulogne. In this family
the priory of Esholt remained somewhat more than a century, when it was
transferred to the neighbouring and more distinguished house of Calverley
by the marriage of Frances, daughter and heiress of H. Thompson, Esq., with
Sir Walter Calverley. His son, Sir Walter Calverley, Bart., built, on the
site of the old priory, the house which now stands.

Over a door of one of the out-buildings is an inscription in ancient
letters, from which may be traced--"Aleisbet. Pudaci, p----," with a bird
sitting on the last letter p. (Elizabeth Pudsay, prioress).

The builder of the present house died in 1749; and, in 1755, his son of the
same name sold the manor-house and furniture to Robert Stansfield, Esq., of
Bradford; from whom the present owner is descended.[1]


Jan. 10. 1851.

[Footnote 1: Thoresby's _History of Leeds_.]

_Crossing Rivers on Skins_ (Vol. iii., p. 3.).--Mr. C. M. G., a near
relative of mine, who lately returned from naval service on the Indus, told
me, last year, that he had often seen there naked natives employed in
fishing. The man, with his fishing-tackle, launches himself on the water,
sustained by a large hollow earthen vessel having a round protuberant
opening on one side. To this opening the fisherman applies his abdomen, so
as to close the vessel against the influx of water; and clinging to this
air-filled buoy, floats about quite unconcernedly, and plies his
fishing-tackle with great success. The analogy between this Oriental buoy
and the inflated skins mentioned by Layard and by your correspondent JANUS
DOUSA, is sufficiently remarkable to deserve a note.

G. F. G.


       *       *       *       *       *



(_Continued from_ Vol. ii., p. 493.)

(31.) P. H. F. (Vol. iii., pp. 24, 25.) has described a 12mo., or rather an
8vo., copy of Latin Psalter in his possession, and he wishes to know
whether Montanus had any connexion with one of the translations therein
exhibited. The title-page of your correspondent's volume will tell him
precisely what the book contains. He had better not rely too much upon MS.
remarks in any of his treasures; and when a bibliographical question is
being investigated, let _Cyclopædias_ by all means not be disturbed from
their shelves. Would it not be truly marvellous if a volume, printed by
Robert Stephens in 1556, could in that year have presented, by prolepsis,
to its precocious owner a version which Bened. Arias Montanus did not
execute until 1571? But P. H. F.'s communication excites another query. He
appears to set a special value upon his Psalter because that the verses are
in it distinguished by cyphers; but Pagnini's whole Bible, which I spoke
of, came thirty years before it, and we have still to go nearly twenty
years farther back in search of the earliest example of the employment of
Arabic figures to mark the verses in the Book of Psalms. The _Quincuplex
Psalterium_, by Jacques le Fevre, is a most beautiful book, perhaps the
finest production of the press of Henry Stephens the elder; and not only
are the verses numbered in the copy before me, which is of the improved
"secunda emissio" in 1513, but the initial letters of them are in red. At
signature A iiij. there is a very handsome woodcut of the letter A.,
somewhat of a different style, from the larger (not the Ascensian) P.,
within the periphery of which St. Paul is represented, and which is so well
worthy of notice in Le Fevre's edition of the _Epistole diui Pauli
Apostoli_, Paris, 1517. The inquiry toward which I have been travelling is
this, When did Henry Stephens first make use of the open Ratdoltian letter
on dotted ground? (See Maitland's _Lambeth List_, p. 328. Dibdin's _Typog.
Antiq._ vol. i., Prel. Disquis., p. xl.)

(32.) Is there extant any collation of the various exemplars of the
_Alphabetum divini Amoris_? And has an incontrovertible opinion been formed
as to the paternity of this tract? For the common error of ascribing it to
Gerson is entirely inexcusable, as this Parisian chancellor is frequently
alleged therein. The third volume of his works, set forth by Du Pin, in
1706, contains this "Treatise of the Elevation of the Soul to God," and the
editor has left the blunder uncorrected in his _Eccles. Hist._ iii. 53.
Again, can it be affirmed that the folio impression of Louvain, (Panzer,
ix. 243.), in which Gerson's name occurs, was assuredly anterior to the
small black-letter and {87} anonymous editions, likewise without dates? Two
of the latter (one much older than the other) are of 12mo. size, in 8vo.,
as is also Bonaventura's _Stimulus divini Amoris_, printed in 1510 and

(33.) In what way can we detect the propounder of the _Notabilis expositio
super canonem misse_? His work is of small folio size without mention of
place or year; but it certainly proceeded from Nuremberg, and was it not
one of the _primitiæ_ of Creusner?

(34.) Who is designated by the letters "G. N. N. D.," which are put at the
head of the Epistle to Zuinglius, _De Magistris nostris Lovaniensibus, quot
et quales sint_? And why has the _Vita S. Nicolai, sive Stultitiæ
Exemplar_, originally attached to this performance, been omitted by Dr.
Münch in his edition of the _Epistolæ obscurorum Vivorum, aliaque ævi
decimi sexti Monimenta rarissima_, Leipzig, 1827? If he had reprinted this
very desirable appendix, it would have furnished him with the date "Anno
M.D.XX.," which would have prevented him from assigning this satirical
composition to the year "1521." (Einl. p. 408.)

(35.) A student can scarcely be considered moderately well versed in
ancient ecclesiastical documents who has neither read nor heard of the
_Somnium Viridarii_; and we may wonder at, and pity, the learned Goldast,
for having fallen into the extravagant mistake of attributing this Latin
translation of the celebrated Dialogue, _Le Songe du Verger_, to
"Philotheus Achillinus, Consiliarius Regius." (_Monarch. S. Rom. Imper_. i.
58. Hanov. 1612.) The question arises, How was he misled? Was it not
through a strange misconception of a sentence in the _Silva Nuptialis_ of
Nevizan, to which he refers in his preliminary "Dissertatio de Auctoribus?"
This writer, who has been plentifully purified by the Roman _Index_, had
cited the preface of an Italian poem, "Il Viridario," composed by his
contemporary, Giovanni FILOTEO ACHILLINI; and is it thus that an author of
the sixteenth century has got credit for an anonymous achievement of the
fourteenth age? Goldastus has hardly been out-Heroded by those who have
devised an individual named _Viridarius_, or "Le Sieur _du Vergier_." (See
Baillet, _Déguisemens des Auteurs_, p. 479., and M. De la Monnoye's note,
pp. 501-2.)

(36.) Is there not a transpositional misprint in the colophon of the old
German _Life of S. Dorothea_, the so-called patroness of Prussia? For it
would seem to be inevitable that we should endeavour to elicit 1492, and
not 1512, from the following date: "Den Dingstag nach Gregory als man
tzelete, M.CCCC. unde cxii." (Vid. Lilienthal, _Histor. B. Doroth_. p. 6.
Dantisc., 1744.)


    "The Original Manuscript of both volumes of this History will be
    deposited in the Cotton Library, by

    "T. BURNETT."

Has this declaration been inserted, in the handwriting of Thomas Burnet, on
the reverse of the title-page of the second volume, in all large-paper
copies (and is it strictly limited to them?) of Bishop Burnet's _History of
his own Time_, Lond., 1734? Compare the printed "Advertisement to the
Reader" in the first volume, published in 1724.

(38.) Mr. T. R. Hampson, the author of _Medii Ævi Kalendarium_, which has,
I believe, been commended in "NOTES AND QUERIES," informs us, in a precious
production which he has lately issued on the _Religious Deceptions of the
Church of Rome_, p. 30., that--

    "Dr. Geddes, himself a learned Romanist, has selected many [remarkable
    errors] in his tract, _A Discovery of some Gross Mistakes in the Roman

Only fancy a Romanist, learned or unlearned, having the effrontery to
bestow so outrageous an appellation upon such an exploit. Does not the
second volume of _Miscellaneous Tracts_, in which the said treatise may be
seen, explicitly admonish us to remember that Michael Geddes, LL.D., was
erst a chancellor of the Church of Sarum? "Quid Romæ faciam?" he
upbraidingly asks in one of his title-pages, "mentiri nescio."

R. G.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Bishops' Lands_.--In the month of September, 1642, the Parliament
appointed a committee for the sale of Bishops' lands; and an account of
some sold between 1647 and 1651, will be found in vol. i. of the
_Collectanea Topographica_, 8vo., 1834. On the Restoration, a committee sat
to inquire into these sales and make satisfaction. Bishop Kennet refers to
a MS. containing the orders of the commissioners, but does not state where
the MS. was deposited; nor has Sir Frederic Madden, who communicated that
article to the _Collectanea_, met with it anywhere.

Can any of your correspondents give any information upon the subject, or
say where may be found any accounts of the sales of the lands under the
parliamentary orders, or of the proceedings of the commissioners appointed
to make restitution upon the king's restoration?


_The Barons of Hugh Lupus_.--It appears by the charter foundation to the
abbey of St. Werburge at Chester, that several very eminent persons held
the rank of Baron, under Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester. The charter is signed
by the earl himself and by the following barons: Richard, son of Hugh
Lupus; Hervey, Bishop of Bangor; Ranulph de Meschines, nephew of the earl;
Roger Bigod, Alan de Perci, William Constabular, Ranulph Dapifer, William
Malbanc, Robert Fitz-Hugh, Hugh Fitz-Norman, Hamo de Masci, and Bigod de
Loges. {88}

Can any of your readers inform us what befel the families and descendants
of William Malbanc, and Bigod de Loges? The descendants of the rest are too
well authenticated to need inquiry.


_Can the Queen make a Gentleman?_--The following is from the Patent Rolls
(13 Ric. II. pars. 1. m. 37. Prynne's _Fourth Institutes_, p. 68.):--

    "Le Roy a tous ceux as queux cestes Lettres viendrount. Sachez qe come
    un Chivalier Fraunceys, a ceo qe nous Soums enformez, ad chalenge un
    nostre Liege, Johan de Kyngeston, a faire certeinez faitz et pointz
    darmes oveske le dit Chivalier. Nous a fyn qe le dit nostre liege soit
    le multz honerablement resceuz a faire puisse et perfourmir les ditz
    faitz et pointz d'armes _luy avons resceux en lestat de Gentile homme,
    et luy fait Esquier_. Et volons, qil soit conuz par armes, et porte
    desore enavant, Cestassavoir d'argent ove une, chapewe Dazure ovesque
    une plume Dostrich de goules. Et ceo a tous yeaux as queux y appertient
    nous notifions pu ycelles. En tesmoignance de quelle chose nous avons
    fait faire cestes noz lettres patentes. Done souz nostre grant Seal a
    nostre Paleys de Westm. le primer jour de Juyll.

     "Par brief de Prive Seal."


_Plafery_.--In Carew's masque of _Coelum Britannicum_, acted before the
court at Whitehall, the 18th of February, 1633; Momus, arriving from
Olympus immediately after Mercury, says to him--

    "The hosts upon the highway cry out with open mouth upon you, for
    supporting _plafery_ in your train; which, though, as you are the god
    of petty larceny, you might protect, yet you know it is directly
    _against the new orders_, and oppose the reformation in diameter."

What is _plafery_? It is evident that the joking allusion to it was rather
bold, for Mercury exclaims,--

 "Peace, railer, bridle your licentious tongue,
  And let this presence teach you modesty."

B. R. I.

_St. John's Bridge Fair._--In what county in England was St. John's Bridge
Fair held in the year 1614, and in what town in the county?


_Queries on Costume._--In Wilson's _Life of De Foe_ there is an anecdote of
Charles II. concealing himself, when a fugitive from Worcester, beneath a
lady's hoop, while his pursuers searched the house in which he had taken
refuge. Were hoops worn so early as the year 1651? In the _Book of Costume_
I find no mention of them before the beginning of the eighteenth century;
but I do not think this circumstance conclusive, as the "Lady of Rank" is
not always very accurate.

Writing in the reign of Anne, she says, "Fans were now very much used," but
omits to mention that they were in fashion long before, having been
indispensable to Catherine of Braganza and her ladies at home and abroad,
in the church and the theatre.

"Long gloves," says the Lady of Rank, "began to be worn by the ladies in
this reign." (Queen Anne's).

"Twelve dozen Martial,[2] whole and half," says Evelyn:--were not _whole_
Martial gloves, long?


[Footnote 2: "_Martial._--The name of a famous French perfumer, emulating
the Frangipani of Rome."--_Miscellaneous Writings of John Evelyn_, pp. 705.
711. 4to. edit. 1825.]

_Cum Grano Salis._--Sometime ago I asked from what figure is borrowed the
expression of "Cum grano salis," and have had no reply. I can't find it in
Erasmus. Once a very clever Cambridge man said that it meant "the thing
must be swallowed with a little Attic salt to make it go down pleasantly."
I don't think that he was right.

E. H.

_Earl of Clarendon's Daughter, Lucretia._--I should be very glad to learn
whether the great Earl of Clarendon had a daughter named Lucretia. A friend
of mine is descended from Dr. Marsh, archbishop of Armagh, who (it is said)
married Lucretia, daughter of the Earl of Clarendon, and was the father of
Lucretia, wife of Dr. McNeil, Dean of Down and Connor.


_Vandyke's Portrait of Lord Aubigny._--Can any of your correspondents give
any information respecting a portrait, by Vandyke, of George Lord Aubigny,
brother to the Duke of Richmond and Lennox? There is no doubt that such a
picture once existed.


_Foundation Stone of St. Mark's, Venice._--In vol. xxvi. of the
_Archæologia_ is a paper by the late Mr. Douce, "On the foundation stone of
the original church of St. Mark, at Venice," &c., accompanied by an
engraving of the mutilated object itself, which also appears to have been
submitted to the inspection of the Society of Antiquaries at the time the
paper was read. The essay contains, in reality, very little information
relating to the stone, and that little is of no very satisfactory kind; and
I have never been able to divest myself of the idea that it bears somewhat
the semblance of a hoax. Were I inclined to discuss the points which have
suggested this notion, the necessity there is for brevity in corresponding
with the Editor of "NOTES AND QUERIES" would preclude my doing it; but I
must quote the following passage, which comes immediately after the
statement that the original church, in the foundation of which this stone
was deposited, was destroyed in 976.

    "It is very possible that, in clearing away the rubbish of the old
    church, the original foundation stone was discovered, and, in some way
    or other, at present not traceable, preserved."

{89} If the fact is so, this stone, "of a circular form, the diameter six
inches and a quarter, its thickness half an inch," must have been loose in
the world for 858 years from its exhumation to 1834, when Mr. Douce's essay
was read, and during that time has lost only the least important part of
its inscription and ornaments.

Can any one say where this stone now is? When and where Mr. Douce obtained
it? And, I must add, what history was attached to it when in his
possession? for he was not a person likely to possess such an object
without, at least, endeavouring to trace its history. On these points the
essay contains not a word.

H. C. R.

_Coins of Richard Cromwell_.--Will any of your numismatical readers inform
me whether there are any coins or medals known of Richard Cromwell, either
during his chancellorship of Oxford, or his short protectorate of these


_Cataracts of the Nile_.--Seneca (_Nat. Quæst._ iv. 2.) tells a story of
the natives suffering themselves to be carried down in sport, which Rollin
says is confirmed by modern travellers; but can this be so? Can any one
give the names of any of these travellers, and supply the blank thus left
by the historian?

S. G.

_Paternoster Tackling.--Dancing Trenchmore._--What is the origin and
meaning of this term? also of the phrase "Dancing Trenchmore?"

S. G.

_Hymns_.--Will some of your correspondents favour me with a copy of "Queen
Mary's Lament," a translation of which appeared in Coxe's delightful
_Christian Ballads_. Also Adam of St. Victor's "exquisite poem" on the
Cross, referred to by Mr. Trench in his _Sacred Latin Poetry_?


_Camden and Curwen Families._--Camden, in his _Britannia_, art.
"Cumberland," mentions his descent, by the mother's side, from the Curwens
of Workington. Should any of your numerous correspondents be able to trace
their descent, he would much oblige a member of that family.

H. C.

_Jartuare._--Can any of your readers oblige me with any account of a
printed book called _Jartuare?_ Its date would be early in the sixteenth
century, if not earlier.


       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. ii., pp. 476. 518.; Vol. iii., p. 70.)

The best portrait of John Bunyan was drawn and engraved by White, to the
_Holy War_, 1682. The original drawing, and a fine impression of the
engraving, is preserved in the illustrated Grainger's _History of England_,
in the print-room at the British Museum. It was copied in folio for
Bunyan's _Works_. It has been recently copied for Mr. Bogue's elegant
edition of the _Pilgrim_, and for the first complete edition of Bunyan's
_Works_, now publishing by Messrs. Blackie and Sons, Glasgow. A fac-simile
was engraved for an edition of the _Pilgrim_, by Mr. Pickering, 8vo. 1849.

That the great allegorist was not the author of _Heart's Ease_ in _Heart
Trouble_ is perfectly clear, not only that the style is very different, but
from the author being known. It was first published in 1690, under the
initials of J. B., and the Epistle is dated "From the house of my
pilgrimage, March, 1690." Bunyan died in August, 1688. Mr. Palmer, in his
_Calamy_, vol. ii. p.16., states that the author was James Birdwood.

Whether Bunyan was acquainted with Hobbes depends upon the authority of a
small volume of _Visions of Heaven and Hell_, published under the name of
Bunyan. In this it is represented that he saw poor Hobbes in hell, and
recognised an old acquaintance.

The earliest edition of _The Visions_ which I have been able to discover,
is at "London: printed for Edward Midwinter, at the Looking Glass upon
London Bridge, price, bound, one shilling;" without date. It was printed
early in the reign of George I.; this is seen in an advertisement of books
at the end, among which is _The Lives of the Monarchs of England to his
present Majesty King George_. It is entitled, _The Visions of John Bunyan,
being his last remains_. There is no account of either of this, or the
_Heart's Ease_, in _The Struggler for the Preservation of Mr. John Bunyan's
Labours_. This gives a list of forty-three works published by him, and of
seventeen left by him at his decease for publication. If _The Visions_ were
written by him, it must have escaped the search of his widow and surviving
friends; but the style at once proves that it was not a production of his
prolific pen. Bunyan's style was remarkably simple and plain. The following
phrases extracted from _The Visions_ will carry conviction to every

    "Mormo's of a future state," "metempsychosis of nature," "nefandous
    villanies," "diurnal and annual," "my visive faculty,"
    "soul-transparent and diaphonous," "translucid ray," "terrene
    enjoyments," "our minds are clarified," "types both of the ante and
    post-diluvian world," "the tenuity thereof," "the aereal heavens,"
    "effluxes of divine glory," "all ænigmas," "corruscations of his divine
    nature," "Solomon's mystick epithalamium," "the epiphonema,"
    "propinquity in nature," "diversified refractions," "too bright and too
    diaphonous," "sweet odes and eniphalamics," "amarantine crown," "bright
    corruscancy," "palinodies and elegies," "no cataplasm," "eccentricks
    quite exterminate," "mutual assassinates," &c. &c.

Such phrases and terms plain John Bunyan utterly despised. They prove, as
does the whole plan of the treatise, that it must have been a very
different man to the author of the _Pilgrim's Progress_ who wrote these

{90} It is not likely that Hobbes and Bunyan were acquainted; they lived in
distant parts of the country. Bunyan's _Pilgrim_, which was the foundation
of his wide-spread fame, was not published till 1678, when the Leviathan
philosopher was ninety years of age; he died in 1679. Hobbes' company were
the learned and illustrious among men,--the Des Carteses, Gassendis, and
Wallises of his age; while Bunyan associated with the despised
Nonconformists. Nor is is likely that Bunyan read the _Leviathan_; Dent's
_Plain Man's Pathway to Heaven, The Practice of Piety_, Fox's _Martyrs_,
and, above all, his Bible, constituted his library during his imprisonment
for conscience-sake, which lasted from 1660 to 1672. Had he suffered from
Hobbes's philosophy, he would have proclaimed it upon the house-tops,
especially in his _Grace Abounding_, that others might have been guarded
from such dangerous scepticism. The _Vision_ of Hobbes was doubtless
intended to render the forgery more popular.


Hackney, Jan. 1851.

       *       *       *       *       *


In "NOTES AND QUERIES" (Vol. ii., p. 478.) SIR HENRY ELLIS observes, that--

    "Although St. Martin's, Canterbury, is commonly called the mother
    church of England on account of its having been the first used here by
    Augustine, tradition represents, that when this missionary arrived in
    Kent, he found an ancient church on the site of what is now called St.

SIR H. ELLIS adds, that--

    "A charter of King Canute's styles Saviour's church, Canterbury, the
    mother and mistress of all churches in the kingdom of
    England."-_Æcclesia Salvatoris_, &c.

I conceive these accounts to be perfectly reconcilable. From Bede's
_Ecclesiastical History_ (b. i., caps. 25, 26.), we learn that, on the east
side of Canterbury, in the year 597, there was a church dedicated to the
honour of St. Martin, that was "built while the Romans were still in the
island," some two hundred years before this date. St. Martin's was the
church wherein Bertha, Queen of Kent, used to pray; she having been a
Christian of the Royal Family of the Franks.

It will, of course, be allowed that during the sixth, seventh, and eighth
centuries, different saints were held in especial honour in different
countries. For instance, not long after the arrival of the Roman
missionaries in England, various churches and monasteries,--at Canterbury,
Lindisfarne, Bamborough, Lichfield, Weremouth, and Jarrow, and the capital
city of the Picts,--were wholly or partially named after St. Peter. When
Naitan, King of the Picts, was about to build his church, he sought the
assistance of the Abbot of Weremouth, a strong supporter of Roman
observances, and "promised to dedicate the same in honour of St. Peter,"
and to follow the custom of the Roman church, in certain matters, which the
subjects of his kingdom had protested against, for more than a hundred

Now, on the occasion of Queen Bertha's leaving France, she was accompanied
to England by a bishop of her native country, named Luidhard; and when it
is remembered that they settled in Kent, amongst heathens of great
superstition,--an example of which is recorded on the part of her own
husband,--it is natural to suppose they would, in some public manner, seek
the especial protection of the popular saint of France; and that saint was
Martin. For so profound was the popular veneration which the Franks at one
period offered to the power of Saint Martin, that they even computed
ordinary occurrences and national events, by an era which commenced with
the year of his death.[3]

It is therefore very probable that the public act of reverence just alluded
to, consisted in a new dedication of the repaired church, by adding to the
ancient name that of St. Martin.

That a practice of altering the names of sacred edifices in this manner was
common at the date under consideration, cannot be questioned. For example,
Bishop Aidan, about the year 652, built a church in the island of
Lindisfarne, the name of which is now unknown. This structure, however,
having been destroyed by a fire, his successor, Finan, erected another on
the same site, and apparently of the same name. But when a second fire
destroyed this church also, in some five and twenty or thirty years, "a
larger church" was erected on the old site, and gratefully "dedicated in
honour of St. Peter," by Theodore of Roman appointment, "the first
archbishop whom all the English church obeyed." (_Bede_, iii. 17. and 25.,
and iv. 2.) Here, then, a new name was given to a church on the site of a
former one of different appellation; and in Lichfield, we have two examples
of similar alterations in the names of churches; one St. Chad's Church,
Stow, and the other, the cathedral. On the site of the former, according to
Bede, Bishop Chad built a St. Mary's Church, hard by which he was buried;
"but afterwards, when the church of the most holy prince of the apostles,
Peter, was built, his bones were translated into it." (_Ecc. History_, iv.
3.) That is to say, when Chad was canonised, his remains were removed to
the site of the present cathedral, as relics over which the principal
church of the Mercian kingdom was to be erected.

Throughout the various documents relating to this church, which are
preserved in Dugdale's _Monasticon_, vol. iii. pp. 219-255, Savoy edition,
{91} the cathedral is generally styled the church of St. Mary and St. Chad.
And again, on a recently discovered seal of the dean and chapter, engraved
some two hundred years after Stephen's reign, the inscription is this:


But in a grant from King Stephen to Bishop Roger de Clinton, who commenced
the present fabric, it is simply styled _ecclesia Sancti Ceddæ de
Lichfield_; and in the year 1341 a document was addressed _Decano et
Capitulo ecclesiæ Sancti Ceddæ Lych'_, as may be learned from the
_Foedera_, vol. ii. p. 2.

We thus perceive, that the original name of Lichfield Cathedral has been
dropped for centuries, and so has that of the church which Bishop Chad
built in honour of the Virgin Mary at Stow; for this Church has, for a long
time, been known only by the name of Stow Church, or by that of St. Chad's,

And in this manner, I fancy, may be reconciled the different names of
Saviour's, or St. Saviour's, Canterbury, and St. Martin's, Canterbury; both
alluding to the same church, THE MOTHER CHURCH of _Saxon_ England.



[Footnote 3: See Brady's _Clavis Calendaria_, November 12.]

[Footnote 4: See the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for August 1848; in which an
accurate representation of this seal is given.]

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_The Frozen Horn_ (Vol. ii., p. 262.; Vol. iii., p. 25.).--In an old
edition of _Hudibras_ now before me, I find the following note on the lines
quoted by J. M. G.:--

    "Some report that in Nova Zembla and Greenland men's words are wont to
    be frozen in the air, and at the thaw may be heard."

The application of the idea by Charles Dickens, in his _Old Curiosity
Shop_, is also, I think, extremely felicitous.

    "'Don't be frightened, mistress,' said Quilp, after a pause. 'Your son
    knows me: I don't eat babies; I don't like 'em. It will be as well to
    stop that young screamer though, in case I should be tempted to do him
    a mischief. Holloa, Sir! will you be quiet?' _Little Jacob stemmed the
    course of two tears which he was squeezing out of his eyes, and
    instantly subsided into a silent horror.... The moment their_ [Quilp
    and Swiveller] _backs were turned, little Jacob thawed, and resumed his
    crying from the point where Quilp had frozen him._"--Vol. i. pp. 207-9.


_To Pose._--In Vol. ii., p. 522., your correspondent F. R. A. points out
some passages in which the word "posing" appears to be used in a sense
equivalent to "parsing." Neither the etymology nor the exact meaning of the
word "to pose," are easy to determine. It seems to be abbreviated from the
old verb "to appose;" which meant, to set a task, to subject to an
examination or interrogatory; and hence to perplex, to embarrass, to
puzzle. The latter is the common meaning of the word _to pose_; thus in
Crabbe's _Parish Register_:--

 "Then by what name th' unwelcome guest to call,
  Was long a question, and _it posed them all_."

Hence, too, the common expression, that a question which it is difficult to
answer, or an argument which seems to decide the controversy, is a _poser_.
The word "posing" in the passages cited by F. R. A. may refer to the
examination of the pupil by the teacher of grammar. Thus, Fuller, in his
_Worthies_, art. Norfolk, says that--

    "The University appointed Dr. Cranmer, afterwards Archbishop of
    Canterbury, to be the _poser-general_ of all candidates in divinity."

Roquefort, _Gloss. de la Langue Romaine_, has "apponer, appliquer, poser,
plaier." See Richardson in _appose_ and _pose_.


_Culprits torn by Horses_ (Vol. ii., p. 480.).--In reply to MR. JACKSON'S
question respecting culprits torn by horses, I beg to inform him that
Robert François Damiens was the last criminal thus executed in France. He
suffered on the 28th March, 1757, for an attempt on the life of Louis XV.
The awful penalty of the law was carried out in complete conformity with
the savage precedents of former centuries. Not one of the preparatory
barbarities of question, ordinary and extraordinary, or of the accompanying
atrocities of red-hot pincers, melted lead, and boiling oil, was omitted.
The agony of the wretched man lasted for an hour and a half, and was
witnessed, as Mercier informs us, by all the best company in Paris.

The men amused their leisure with cards, while waiting, as he says, for the
boiling oil; and the women were the last to turn their eyes from the
hideous spectacle. Your correspondent may be glad to be informed that the
same punishment was inflicted on Poltrot de Méré for the murder of the Duke
of Guise, in 1563; on Salcède, in 1582, for conspiring against the Duke of
Alençon; on Brilland, in 1588, for poisoning the Prince de Condé; on
Bourgoing, Prior of the Jacobins, as an accessory to the crime of Jaques
Clément, in 1590; and on Ravaillac, for the murder of Henry IV. in 1610.
These, with the case of Jean Chastel, are all of which I am aware. If any
of your readers can add to the list, I shall feel obliged.

As I am upon the subject of judicial horrors, I would ask, whether any of
your correspondents can supply me with a reference to the case of a {92}
woman executed, I think in Paris, and, if my recollection serves, for a
systematic series of infanticides.

She was put to death by being suspended over a fire in an iron cage, in
which a number of wild cats were shut up with her.

I read the story many years ago, and for some time have been vainly
endeavouring to recover it.

J. S.

_Torn by Horses_ (Vol. ii., p. 522.).--This cruel mode of execution was
practised both in antiquity and the middle ages. Livy, speaking of Tullus
Hostilius, says:--

    "Exinde, duabus admotis quadrigis, in currus earum distentum illigat
    Mettum; deinde in diversum iter equi concitati, lacerum in utroque
    curru corpus, qua inhæserant vinculis membra, portantes. Avertere omnes
    a tantâ foedidate spectaculi oculos."--L. i., c. 28.

Livy adds, that this was the first and last example of so savage a
punishment among the Romans. The punishment, however, must have been
well-known in antiquity, as it is alluded to by Seneca among the tortures
which accompanied death.

    "Cogita hoc loco carcerem, et cruces, et equleos, et uncum; et adactum
    per medium hominem, qui per os emergat, stipitem; _et distracta in
    diversum actis curribus membra_."--Epist. xiv. 4.

Grimm (_Deutsche Rechtsalterthümer_, p. 692.) quotes the following instance
of this punishment from Gregory of Tours, _Hist. France_, iii. 7.:

    "Puellas crudelinece interfecerunt ita ut ligatis brachiis super
    equorum cervicibus, ipsique acerrimo moti stimulo per diversa petentes
    diversas in partes feminas diviserunt"

He adds that it occurs frequently in the legends of the Carolingian period.
Thus Turpin, c. 26., describes as follows the punishment of the traitor

    "Jussit illum Carolus quatuor equis ferocissimis totius exercitus
    alligari, et super eos quatuor sessores agitantes contra quatuor plagas
    coeli, et sic dignâ morte discerptus interiit."

Almost all cruel punishments have been used in the East, and it is not
improbable that execution by means of horses may be mentioned in some
oriental narrative.


_The Conquest_ (Vol. ii., p. 440.).--In _Cambria Triumphans_, by Percy
Enderbie, at p. 283, will be found a copy of a deed, the conclusion of
which runs thus:--

    "Sigilla nostra apposuimus in Castro nostro de Burgavenny vicessimo
    secundo die Julii, anno regni Regis Henrici sexti, post _Conquestum_
    vicessimo septimo."

The word is here used for the accession of the King.

S. K.

_Mayors--their correct Prefix_ (Vol. i., p. 380.).--Since propounding my
Query in Vol. i., p. 380., relative to this subject, I have to inform your
readers, that I have been favoured with the opinion of gentlemen very high
in official authority on all points connected with heraldry and the rules
of precedence; which is, that the proper style of the mayor of a borough is
"the worshipful;" and they are further of opinion, that there can be no
ground for styling the mayor of a city "the right worshipful."


_True Blue_ (Vol. iii., p. 27.).--On the origin of this expression, I must
claim the right to dissent from your correspondent G. F. G., who appears to
have fallen into the error of confining a form of very wide application to
one particular case, in which he discovers a trifling coincidence of fact.
The connexion of the colour blue with truth is of very ancient date, of
which the following may for the present suffice as an example:--

 "And by hire beddes hed she made a mew
  And covered it with velouettes blew,
  In signe of trouth, that is in woman sene."
                  Chaucer, _Squiere's Tale_.

Blue, in the early practice of the tinctorial art, appears to have been the
most humble of the colours in use, and the least affected by any external
influence; and, down to the present day, if certain tints of recent
invention be excepted, the same character may be claimed for it. What then
more natural, than that it should be taken as the type of immutability, or
that every party, political or religious, should in turn assume it as the
badge of honesty of purpose, and of firm adherence to their principles?

F. S. Q.

_Modum Promissionis_ (Vol. ii., pp. 279, 347, 468.).--This phrase is
perhaps connected with the promissivus modus, _i.e._ tempus promissivum or
futurum of Diomedes and other mediæval grammarians.

T. J.

_Fronte capillatâ, &c._ (Vol. iii., pp. 8. 43.).--The representation of
"Occasio," or "Opportunity," with hair in front, and bald behind, is far
more ancient than the drama referred to by your correspondent G. A. S.

In the _Anthologia_ (Brunck's edition, vol. ii. p. 49.) the following
beautiful epigram is the 13th by Posidippus:--

              [Greek: Eis Agalma tou Kairou.]
  [Greek: Tis, pothen ho plastês? Sikuônios. Ounoma dê tis?]
    [Greek: Lusippos. Su de, tis? Kairos ho pandamatôr.]
  [Greek: Tipte d' ep' akra bebêkas? Aei trochaô. Ti de tarsous]
    [Greek: Possin echeis diphueis? Hiptam' hupênemios.]
  [Greek: Cheiri de dexiterêi ti phereis xuron? Andrasi deigma]
    [Greek: Hôs akmês pasês oxuteros telethô.]
  [Greek: Hê de komê, ti kat' opsin? Hupantiasanti labesthai,]
    [Greek: Nê Dia. Taxopithen pros ti phalakra pelei?]
  [Greek: Ton gar hapax ptênoisi parathrexanta me possin]
    [Greek: Ou tis eu' himeirôn draxetai exopithen.]
  [Greek: Tounech' ho technitês se dieplasen? Heineken humeôn,]
    [Greek: Xeine, kai en prothurois thêke dikaskaliên.]

{93} The same epigram, with an inconsiderable alteration, is given in
Bosch's _Anthologia Græca_, vol. ii. p. 478., with a close Latin
translation by Grotius.

The following English version of the Greek is as nearly literal as the
idioms of the two languages will allow.

 "Who is the sculptor, say, and whence?
    From Sicyon. What is he
  By name? Lysippus. Who art thou?
    I am Opportunity.

 "Why is thy step so high and light?
    I am running all the day.
  Why on each foot hast thou a wing?
    I fly with the winds away.

 "Why is a razor in thy hand?
    More keen my edge is set.
  Why hast thou hair upon thy brow?
    To seize me by, when met.

 "Why is thy head then bald behind?
    Because men wish in vain,
  When I have run past on wingèd feet
    To catch me e'er again.

 "Why did the artist form thee so?
    To place me in this hall,
  That I a lesson thus might give
    To thee, friend, and to all."

Ausonius, in the fourteenth century of the Christian era, imitates this in
his 12th epigram.

Phædrus (lib. v., fab. 8), in the Augustine age, speaks of the same
representation as already sanctioned by antiquity:--

 "Cursu veloci pendens in novaculâ,
  Calvus, comosâ fronte, nudo corpore;
  Quem si occuparis, teneas: elapsum semel
  Non ipse possit Jupiter reprehendere;
  Occassionem rerum significat brevem.
  Effectus impediret ne segnis mora,
  Finxere antiqui talem effigiem temporis."

T. C.

Durham, Jan. 20. 1851.

_Cross between a Wolf and a Hound_ (Vol. iii., p. 39.).--There is no doubt
that a dog and a wolf are capable of breeding together. The fact is well
known, and has been long ascertained. See _Penny Cyclopædia_, art. "Dog."
The only question is whether the offspring of this cross is a mule, and,
like other mules, incapable of continuing its race; or whether it is
prolific? The latter position is maintained by Mr. Bell, in his _History of
British Quadrupeds_. "The dog and wolf will readily breed together (he
says), _and their progeny is fertile_." But query, can any authentic
instance be produced of a cross between a dog and a wolf, which has
produced a prolific animal?


Professor Thomas Bell states that the dog and wolf will readily breed with
each other, and that their progeny thus obtained will again mingle with the


Temple, Jan. 19. 1851.

I have read somewhere (in Kohl's _Russia_, if I mistake not) that this
cross is not uncommon in the southern portions of European Russia, but I
have not the book at hand to refer to.


Your correspondent, T----N, will find this fact referred to in Sir John
Franklin's _Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea_, vol.
i., p. 268., 2nd edition, London. Murray, 1824. Lieutenant Hood says--

    "On our way to the tent a black wolf rushed out upon an Indian, who
    happened to pass its den. It was shot, and the Indians carried away
    three black whelps, to improve the breed of their dogs."

W. H. H. K.

Drayton Beauchamp, Jan. 22. 1851.

_Touching for the Evil_ (Vol. iii., p. 42.).--I have seen an illuminated
MS. containing the form of prayer in use previous to the Reformation. As
far as I remember, the MS. in question must have been of the fifteenth
century. Where it may now be found I am not aware. At the time of my seeing
it, it was in the possession of Mr. Toovey of Piccadilly.

A somewhat curious field for inquiry on this subject is opened by a passage
in Voltaire's _Siècle de Louis XIV_. Speaking of James II. touching for the
evil while in exile at the French court, he says--

    "Soit que les Rois Anglais se soient attribué ce singulier privilège,
    comme prétendans à la couronne de la France; soit que cette cérémonie
    soit établie chez eux depuis le temps du premier Edouard."

Have we any evidence of the ceremony having been performed by any French
monarchs? I am not aware of any.

J. SN.

_Old Booty_ (Vol. iii, p. 40.).--In 1830 there appeared a humorous
versification, by W. T. Moncrieff, of this story, for the authenticity of
which he prudently says he cannot vouch. He furnishes a sort of account of
the affair, and of an action at the suit of Booty's widow, the records of
which, it says, are at Westminster, Jan. 2. 1687.

Notwithstanding this apparent circumstantial account, we find in a very
entertaining anonymous work, entitled _The History of Man; or, the Wonders
of Human Nature_, 2nd edit. Edinb. 1790, 8vo., vol. i. p. 376., a similar
incident related of a Mr. Gresham, an eminent merchant of London, which
happened in the reign of Hen. VIII., the authorities for which are cited,
_Sandy's Trav._ l. 4. p. 248. _Clark's Mir._ c. 33. p. 115.

F. R. A.

_Breeches Bible_ (Vol. iii., p 17.).--The first edition of this Bible is
now before me. The title-page and portions of the addresses to Queen
Elizabeth and to the reader are unfortunately {94} wanting, as is also the
first leaf of Genesis. But the title of the New Testament as follows:--

    "The Newe Testament of ovr Lord Jesus Christ [***] Conferred diligently
    with the Greke, and best approued translacions in divers languages. At
    Geneva: Printed by Rouland Hull. M.D.LX."

There is a woodcut of the Egyptians pursuing the Israelites on the shore of
the Red Sea, surrounded with texts from scripture. It is a small quarto in
Roman type, and divided into verses.


_Separation of Sexes in Church_ (Vol. ii., p. 94.).--This custom appears to
be of considerable antiquity. Sir Thomas More, in his _Utopia_ (p. 285. of
the edition of 1639), says--

    "When they be come thither, the men goe into the right side of the
    church, and the women into the left side."

J. SN.

_Defender of the Faith_ (Vol. iii., p. 9.).--By a hasty perusal of the
letter of COL. ANSTRUTHER in your number of the 4th of January, I perceive
that some doubt has been raised whether any of our sovereigns have used the
title of Defender of the Faith, prior to the time of King Henry VIII.

If you will refer to the forth part of Prynne's _Institutes_, pp. 229-30,
and 295-6-7, you will find set out at full length divers letters close and
patent from King Richard II. in the 6th, 11th, and 19th years of his reign,
for suppressing the heresies of Wickliff and his followers. These letters
are addressed to the Chancellor of the University of Oxford, William
Archbishop of Canterbury (Courtney), and to Ralfe Crombewell, Chivalier,
and John Lekyll, and the Mayor and Bailiffs of Nottingham, in which King
Richard II. styles himself thus--"Nos Zelo Fidei Catholicæ, Cujus Sumus Et
Esse Volumus Defensores," &c.


Lincoln Chambers, Chancery Lane, Jan. 14. 1851.

_Epigram on Synod of Dort_ (Vol. iii., p. 23.).--The statement in the
_Biographie Universelle_, that this epigram was made _in England_, is
probably taken from Mosheim (_Eccl. Hist_.), who says the same; but his
authority Neal (_Hist. of the Puritans_) does not say that it was made _in
England_; and one can hardly read the sentence in which he quotes it
without feeling satisfied that he did not know _who_ made it. After stating
that the proceedings of the synod were much approved of by the English
divines, and quoting expressions of Mr. Baxter and the learned Jacobus
Capella in its favour, he proceeds--

    "P. du Moulin, Paulus Servita, and the author of the life of Waleus,
    speak the same language. But _others_ poured contempt upon the Synod,
    or burlesqued their proceedings in the following lines:

     'Dordrechti Synodus, nodus; chorus integer, æger;
      Conventus, ventus; sessio stramen. Amen.'

    Lewis du Moulin, with all the favourers of the Arminian doctrine, as
    Heylin, Womeck, Brandt, &c., charge them with partiality and
    unjustifiable severity."

When a writer, in the midst of a shower of authorities, refers a particular
expression to "others," it may almost be laid down as a rule, that he does
not know whose property it is. Here, therefore, the inquiry seems brought
to a dead stop, in this tract at least.

B. R. I.

_Parish Register Tax_ (Vol. ii., p. 10.).--In our register, Hawarden, I
find the following entry:

    "October, 1783. On the 2nd of this month the Act commenced which layeth
    a duty of threepence upon every Registry of a Burial, except a

And again:

    "Oct. 1. 1794. The duty of threepence on each Registry of Births,
    Deaths, and Marriages, imposed by Act of Parliament, commencing October
    2. 1783, ceased this day."

During this interval many burials are marked _paupers_.


Hawarden, Flints.

_Clergy sold for Slaves_ (Vol. ii., p. 41.).--Walker says:

    "Mr. Dugdale, in relating the same matter, adds that Rigby not only
    exposed them to sale, but _found purchasers_ also; and what is more,
    had actually contracted with two merchants for them; and for that
    reason moved it twice (in the House, as I understand him) that they
    might be disposed of."


       *       *       *       *       *



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congregate;" which is, at the same time, from its nature, open to the
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by its greater fullness of detail and its extreme accuracy.

The Rev. A. Hussey, M.A., has in the Press _Notes on the Churches in the
Counties of Kent, Sussex, and Surrey mentioned in Domesday Book_.
Subscribers names are received by Mr. J. Russell Smith. {95}

Mr. M. A. Lower's translation of _The Chronicle of Battel Abbey, from the
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Messrs. Sotheby and Co. will sell, on Monday and Tuesday next, a very
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_Catalogues Received_.--William Brown's (46. High Holborn) Catalogue Part
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       *       *       *       *       *









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       *       *       *       *       *

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LOCKE. _We shall next week lay before our readers a long and most
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Characteristics, _to Le Clerc, in which he gives a biographical sketch of
his friend and foster father Mr. Locke._

J. S. B. _The two Notes were duly forwarded. Will our correspondent enable
us to write to him._

C. W. B. _The very interesting little_ History of Venice _in Murray's_
Family Library _was written by the late Rev. E. Smedley_.

G. R. M. _The brass token in question is a weight for weighing
half-guineas; the coinage weights of which were_ 2 dwt. 16¾ gr., _and the_
current _weights_ 2 dwt. 16 gr.

_We have two or three favours to request of our correspondents, and we ask
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J. S. (Brighton). _Received._

K. R. H. M. _The poem, beginning_,

 "Give Lucinda pearle nor stone,"

_written by Thomas Carew, or Carye, was addressed to the celebrated
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       *       *       *       *       *

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Horsley (J.) Britannia Romana, scarce, Rerum Britannicarum Scriptores, very
scarce; Rymeri Foedera, 10 vols.; Sandford (F.) Genealogical History, best
edition; Somneri (G.) Dictionarium Saxonico-Latino Anglicanum; the Sydney
Papers, 2 vols.; Tanneri (T.) Bibliotheca Britannico Hibernica et Notitia
Monastica; Thurloe (J.) State Papers, 7 vols; Wilkins (D.) Concilia Magnæ
Britanniæ, 4 vols, very scarce; with an important series of the valuable
Antiquarian Publications of Thomas Herne. To be viewed two days prior, and
catalogues had; if in the country on receipt of six postage stamps.

       *       *       *       *       *


Edited by THOS. PRICE, LL.D. and Rev. W. H. STOWELL, D.D.

  1. The Royal Academy
  2. Sunday Legislation.--Memoirs of Sir Andrew Agnew.
  3. Smith's Sacred Aspects.
  4. Popular Rhymes and Nursery Tales.
  5. Emigration.--Its Distribution and Importance.
  6. Lord Carlisle, and Alexander Pope.
  7. The Italian Revolution.--Mazzini and Baillie Cochrane.
  8. Höhner on Musical Composition
  9. The Power of Romanism.
      Review of the Month, &c. &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

[***] The circulation of the ECLECTIC having increased _fourfold_, a third
Edition of the JANUARY Number is now ready, and may be had by order of any
Bookseller in town or country.

WARD and Co, 27. Paternoster Row.

       *       *       *       *       *


_For February_, 1851.

       *       *       *       *       *

KING HENRY IV., Part I., with numerous Illustrations, price 1s.

[***] This Work is published twice a month. Each PART contains a complete

MONTHLY SECTIONS, each containing TWO PLAYS and a portion of the BIOGRAPHY
AND STUDIES. Section IV., price 2s. 6d.

HALF A CENTURY OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE.--A History of the Kingdom and the
People from 1800 to 1850. By HARRIET MARTINEAU, Part I., price 1s., with
Portraits of PITT, FOX, NELSON and NAPOLEON. The Work will be completed in
Twenty-four Shilling Parts, published twice a month.

price 6d. The Second Half-part. price 6d., completing the Work, will be
published in March, 1851.

Issued also in Weekly Numbers, price 2d.

KNIGHT'S CYCLOPÆDIA OF LONDON. Part III., price 9d. Issued also in Weekly
Numbers, price 2d.

KNIGHT'S EXCURSION TRAIN COMPANION. Part I., price 9d. Issued also in
Weekly Numbers, price 2d.

HALF-HOURS WITH THE BEST AUTHORS. Part XI., price 6d. Issued also in Weekly
Numbers, price 1½d.

HALF-HOURS WITH THE BEST AUTHORS. Volume III., with Portraits on Steel of
SCOTT, BYRON, COWPER, and WORDSWORTH, handsomely bound in cloth, price 2s.
6d. Vols. I and II., uniformly bound, are constantly on sale.

also in Weekly Numbers, price 2d. each.

[***] The First and Second Volumes, with illuminated Frontispieces,
handsomely bound in cloth, price 3s. 6d. each, are constantly on sale.

THE LAND WE LIVE IN. PART XXXIX., price 1s. containing SOUTH WALES, with a
Map, and numerous Woodcuts.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

London: CHARLES KNIGHT, 90. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186, Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, February 1. 1851.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 66, February 1, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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