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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 67, February 8, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 67, February 8, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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generously made available by The Internet Library of Early




       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 67.]
[Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                     Page
  Inedited Letter from the Earl of Shaftesbury, Author of
  the "Characteristics," to Le Clerc, respecting Locke           97

  Mr. Gough's Translation of the "History of The Bible"         100

  Folk-Lore:--Lammer Beads, by Albert Way                       100

  On Catalogues of Books, by Bolton Corney                      101

  Minor Notes:--The "Winter's Tale"--Inscribed
  Alms-dish--Landwade Church--The First Edition
  of the Second Book of Homilies, by Queen Elizabeth,
  in 1563                                                       101


  Dutch Translation of a Tract by Robert Greene                 103

  The Black Rood of Scotland                                    104
  Minor Queries:--The "Tanthony"--"Beauty Retire"--The
  Soul's Dark Cottage--Small by Degrees and
  beautifully less--Musical Plagiarism--Simon Bache--Sir
  Walter Raleigh--Harrison's Chronology--Aristophanes
  on the Modern Stage--Drachmarus--Strutt's
  Queen Hoo Hall--Cardinal's Monument--Names
  Bacon and Fagan--Blunder--Prince of
  Wales' Feathers--Portrait of Ben Jonson--Robert
  Burton--Blowen                                                105


  Touchstone's Dial, by Robert Snow and J. Clarke               107

  Winifreda, by Lord Braybrooke                                 108
  Replies to Minor Queries--Did St. Paul's Clock
  strike Thirteen--By the bye--Clement's Inn--Words
  are Men's Daughters--Passage in Saint Mark--"And
  Coxcombs vanquish Berkeley by a Grin"--Dr.
  Trusler's Memoirs                                             109


  Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                        110

  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                  111

  Notices to Correspondents                                     111

  Advertisements                                                111

       *       *       *       *       *



    [We are indebted to our valued correspondent JANUS DOUSA, for a
    transcript of the following important letter--the original of which is
    preserved in the Remonstrant Library of Amsterdam--and for which our
    correspondent acknowledges his obligations to the great kindness of
    Prof. des Amories van der Hoven.]

"St. Giles's, in Dorset, Feb. 8-13. 1705.

"Sir,--Having once writt to you in my own Language, I continue to use the
same Privilege. I am sorry that I am in no better a condition to acquit my
self of my Promise to you. My Recovery has been so slow, that I am scarce
yet got up: and I have been unable to hold any Correspondance with my
Friends in Town. Mr. King promisd to send me the Papers I mention'd to you
of Mr. Lock's; who, it seems, had begun some Memoires of his own relating
to my G^d Father. These however imperfect, yet as being Mr. Lock's own I
should have been glad to send you with what supplement I could make myself:
But Mr. King's Engagements in the Publick affaires has made him delay this
so long, that according to the account you have given me of the shortness
of your Time, I must wayt no longer: but content my self with giving you
what I can out of my own head, without other Assistance.

"Mr. Lock came into my Grandfathers Family in the summer of the year 1666,
recommended by his Friend[1] Mr. Bennet of y^e town of Shaftesbury. The
occasion of it was thus. My Grandfather had been ill for a great while
after a Fall, by w^{ch} his Breast was so bruised that in time it came to
an Imposthumation (?) within, and appeard by a swelling under his stomach.
Mr. Lock was at that time a student in Physick at Oxford: and my
Grandfather taking a journey that way to drink the Waters (having Mr.
Bennett in y^e Coach with him), He had this young Physician presented to
him: who tho' he had never practic'd Physick; yet appear'd to my
Grandfather to be such a Genius that he valew'd him above all his other
Physicians, the great men in practice of those times. Accordingly on his
advice and allmost solely by his Direction my G^d Father underwent an
Operation w^{ch} sav'd his Life, and was the most wonderfull of the kind
that had been heard of, till that time. His Breast was layd open, the
matter discharg'd, and an Orifice ever afterwards kept open by a silver
pipe: an Instrument famouse {98} upon Record, in the Writings our Popish
and Jacobite Authors, who never faild to reproach him with this Infirmity.

"After this Cure, Mr. Lock grew so much in esteem with my Grand-Father that
as great a Man as he had experienc'd him in Physick; he look'd upon this
but as his least part. He encourag'd him to turn his Thoughts another way.
Nor would he suffer him to practice Physick except in his own Family and as
a kindness to some particular Friend. He put him upon the studdy of the
Religiouse and Civil affaires of the Nation with whatsoever related to the
Business of a Minister of State: in w^{ch} he was so successfull, that my
G^d Father begun soon to use him as a Friend, and consult with him on all
occasions of that kind. He was not only with him in his Library and Closet,
but in company with the Great Men of those times, the Duke of Buckingham,
Lord Hallifax and others, who being men of Witt and Learning, were as much
taken with him. For together with his seriouse, respectfull and humble
Character, he had a mixture of Pleasantry and a becoming Boldness of
Speech. The Liberty he could take with these great Men was peculiar to such
a Genius as his. A pleasant Instance of it runs in my Mind: tho' perhaps
the relation of it may not be so pleasing to another.

"At an appointed Meeting of two or three of these Great-Men at my G^d
Father's House, more for Entertainment and good company than for Business,
it happen'd that after a few Compliments the Cards were called for, and the
Court-Fashion prevailing, they were engag'd in Play before any Conversation
was begun. Mr. Lock sate by as a spectator for some time. At least taking
out his Table-Book, he began to write something very busily: till being
observd by one of the Lords, and ask'd what he was meditating; My Lords
(sayd he) I am improving my self the best I can in your Company: for,
having impatiently wayted this Honour of being present at such a meeting of
the wisest Men and greatest Witts of the Age, I thought I could not do
better than to write your Conversation: and here I have it, in substance,
all that has pass'd for this hour or two. There was no need of Mr. Lock's
writing much of the Dialogue. The great men felt the ridicule, and took
pleasure in improving it. They quitted their Play, and fell into a
Conversation becoming them: and so passed the remainder of the Day.

"When my G^d Father, from being Chancellor of the Exchequer, was made High
Chancellor (w^{ch} was in the year 1672) he advanc'd Mr. Lock to the Place
of Secretary for the Clergy: and when my G^d Father quitted the Court and
began to be in Danger from it, Mr. Lock now shard with him in Dangers, as
before in Honours & Advantages. He entrusted him with his secretest
negotiations, and made use of his assistant Pen in matters that nearly
concerned the State, and were fitt to be made publick, to raise that spirit
in the Nation which was necessary against the prevailing Popish Party.

"It was for something of this kind that got air, and out of great
Tenderness to Mr. Lock that my Grandfather in the year 1674 sent him abroad
to travell: an Improvement w^{ch} my G^d father was gladd to add to those
he had allready given him. His Health servd as a very just Excuse: he being
consumptive as early in his Life as that was. So that having travelld thro'
France he went[2] to Montpelier and there stayd for some time. He returnd
again to my G^d Fathers in the year 1678, and remaind in his Family till
the year 1682: w^{ch} was the year that my G^d Father retird into Holland
and there dyed. Mr. Lock who was to have soon followd him thither, was not
prevented in the voyage, by this Death: but found it safest for him to
retire thither, and there lived (at our good Friend Mr. Furly's of
Rotterdam) till the happy Revolution of King William, w^{ch} restord him to
his native Country and to other Publick offices of greater Note, w^{ch} by
fresh Meritts he deserv'd: witness his then Publishd Books of Government,
Trade and Coin: by w^{ch} he had as considerably servd the State, as he had
done the Church and Protestant Interest by his defence of Toleration and
support of the Revolution-Principles.

"But of this part of his Life, you need no Information.

"Thus far I have made mention of Mr. Lock as to his station in Publick
affaires, under my Grandfather. Now as to his Service in private affaires,
and the Concerns of a Family, w^{ch} was, in every respect, so happy in
him, that he seem as a good Guardian Angel sent to bless it.

"When Mr. Lock first came into the Family, my Father was a youth of about
fifteen or sixteen. Him my Grandfather entrusted wholly to Mr. Lock for
what remain'd of his Education. He was an only Child, and of no firm
Health: w^{ch} induc'd my G^d Father, in concern for his Family to think of
marrying him as soon as possible. He was too young and unexperienc'd to
chuse a Wife for himself: and my Grandfather too much in Business to chuse
one for him. The affair was nice, for tho' my Grandfather requir'd not a
great Fortune, he insisted on good Blood, good Person and Constitution, and
above all, good Education, and a Character as remote as possible from that
of Court- or Town-bred Lady. All this was thrown upon Mr. Lock, who being
allready so good Judge of Men, my Grand Father doubted not of his equal
{99} Judgment in Women. He departed from him, entrusted and sworn, as
_Abraham's_ Head-servant[3] _that ruled over all that he had_, and went
into a far-Country (the North of England) _to seek for his Son a Wife_
whome he as successfully found. Of Her, I and six more of us, Brothers &
Sisters, were born; in whose Education Mr. Lock govern'd according to his
own Principles (since publishd by him) and with such success that we all of
us came to full years, with strong healthy Constitutions: my own the worst;
tho' never faulty till of late. I was his more peculiar Charge: being as
eldest son, taken by my Grandfather, & bred under his immediate Care: Mr.
Lock having the absolute Direction of my Education, and to whome next my
immediate Parents as I must own the greatest Obligation, so I have ever
preserved the highest Gratitude & Duty.

"I could wish that my Time and Health would permit me to be longer in this
Account of my Friend and Foster-Father, Mr. Lock. If I add any thing as you
desire, concerning my Grandfather himself, it must have a second place:
this being a subject more selfish and in w^{ch} I may justly suspect my
self of Partiality: of w^{ch} I would willingly be free: and think I truly
am so in this I now send you. But I fear least this (such as it is) should
come too late, and therefore hasten to conclude with repeated Assurances of
my being your Oblig'd Friend and humble Servant


"P.S. If after what I have said I dare venture a Word to you as to my
Grandfather's Apology for the one and only thing I repine at in his whole
Life (I mean the unhappy Words you mention _delenda est Carthago_), It must
be this: That the Publick would not insist on this as so ill, and
injuriouse; if they considered the English Constitution and manner of those
times in w^{ch} the Prince more lofty in Prorogative and at greater
distance from his People than now of days, used but a few Words to his
Parlement; and committed the rest to his Keepers or Chancellor, to speak
his sence for him (as he expresses it in y^e conclusion of his own speech)
upon w^{ch} my Grandfather, the then Chancellor, and in his Chancellor's
Place[4], spoke of King's sence, as the King's mouth; in y^e same manner as
the Speaker of the House of Peers or Commons, speaks the House's sence, as
_the House's mouth_ (for so he is esteemd and calld) whatsoever may be his
own private sence; or tho' he may have deliver'd his own Opinion far

"Such was my Grandfather's Call: who was far from delivering his Vote or
Opinion in this manner, either as a Councillor or Peer, or in his Place in
Parlement: where he carryed on a direct opposite Interest: he being
allready in open Enmity with the Duke of York and his Party that carryed on
that Warr, in so much that he was at that very time suspected of holding a
Correspondence with Holland in favour of the Commonwealth-Party in England.
However it be, it is no small Comfort to me that that wise Commonwealth of
Holland, the Parent and Nursing-Mother of Liberty, thought him worthy of
their Protection when he was a sufferer for the common Cause of Religion
and Liberty: and he must ever remain a noble Instance of the Generosity of
that State, and of that potent Head of it, y^e City of Amsterdam; where
yourself and other Great Men have met with a Reception y^t will redound to
their Honour.

"My Grandfather's _turning short upon the Court_ (as[5] Sir William Temple
expresses it) had only this plain reason for it; that he discoverd the King
to be a Papist, through that disguise of an _Esprit fort_, w^{ch} was a
character his Vices and over fondness of Witt made him affect and act very
naturally. Whatever Complyances my Grandfather, as a States-man, might make
before this discovery, to gain the King, from his Brother and y^e French
Party, he broke off all, when by the Duke of Buckingham's means, he had
gaind this secret. For my Grandfather's Aversion and irreconcileable Hatred
to Popery, was (as Phanaticisme,) confessd by his greatest Enemyes to be
his Master-Passion. Nor was it ever said that the King left him: but He the
King, for nothing was omitted afterwards by that Prince to regain him; nor
nothing to destroy him, when that was found impossible----

"But I must end: least I fail this Post."

The superscription is:

     "A Monsieur
  Monsieur LE CLERC
      sur le Keiser Gracht
  près de l'Eglise Arminienne
          a Amsterdam"

[Footnote 1: "A Gentleman of a Sound Protestant Family allways in great
Friendship with ours. Both Father and Son were members of Parlement for
that Town, and were Stewards to my G^d Father." (_In a marginal note._)]

[Footnote 2: "It was there (as I take it) that Mr. Lock came so
particularly well acquainted with My Lord Pembrock, that great Ornament and
Pillar of our Nation. He was then Mr. Herbert, a younger Brother only."
--(_In a marginal note_.)]

[Footnote 3: "Gen. c. 24." (_In a marginal note._)]

[Footnote 4: The Speech was an Act of Councill examind beforehand in the

"Mr. Lock saw the first Coppy of it, w^{ch} was very different; and after
it was alter'd in the Cabinet, my Grandfather complain'd to Mr. Lock and a
Relation of his whome Mr. Lock introducd into y^e family.

"The same Person has left me a written account of that affaire; and so
great was my Grandfather's Concern and Trouble, that He who of all Men alas
esteemd y^e most ready in speaking was forcd to desire Mr. Lock to stand at
his Elbow with the written Coppy to prompt him in Case of failure in his
Repetition." (_In a marginal note._)]

[Footnote 5: "It is my Grandfathers Misfortune to have S^r Will^m Temple, a
valewable Author, very unfavourable to him: there having been a great
Quarrel between them on a slight occasion of my Grandfather's having stopt
his Gift of Plate after his Embassy; a Custome w^{ch} my Grandfather as
Chancellor of ye Exchequer thought very prejudicial." (_In a marginal

       *       *       *       *       *



In vol. vi., p. 266., of Nichols's _Literary Anecdotes_, "Memoirs of Mr.
Gough," is the following anecdote of Mr. Gough's precocious talents--

    "At the very early age of eleven he commenced a task that would have
    reflected credit on any period of life; which, by the indulgence of his
    mother, appeared in print under the title of '_The History of the
    Bible_, translated from the French by R. G., junior, 1746. London:
    Printed by James Waugh in the year 1747.' Of this curious volume,
    consisting of 160 sheets in folio, not more than twenty-five copies
    were printed, as presents to a few particular friends and when
    completed at the press, it is marked by way of colophon, 'Done at
    twelve years and a half old.'"

Mr. Nichols in his notes says, that the French edition was printed at
Amsterdam, in 2 vols. folio, with plates, 1700. That by the generosity of
Mr. Gough's worthy relict, he had a copy of the work with Mr. Gough's
corrections in maturer age; and in a note at p. 642. of this volume of the
_Literary Anecdotes_ Mr. Nichols further states, that

    "By a singular chance, at a sale of the library of Dr. Guise in
    January, 1812, he met with two copies of Mr. Gough's juvenile
    translation of the _History of the Bible_; and at the end of one of the
    volumes were ten sheets of Mr. Pickering's _Dictionary_, perhaps the
    only copy of them in existence."

The Rev. Roger Pickering was Mr. Gough's tutor until he was admitted at
Bene't College, Cambridge, July, 1752, being then in the 17th year of his
age. This Dictionary was compiled on the plan of Calmet, but left

Mr. J. B. Nichols, son of the late venerable octogenarian, having recently
presented me with a copy of Mr. Gough's scarce volume, I am anxious to
learn by whom the original French work was written, and where a copy may be
purchased. It is one of much erudition; sound in doctrine and principle;
pleasing and familiar in its language, and would, I should think, well
repay the publisher of a new edition, after a careful correction of a few
deficiencies in composition, incidental to the early period at which Mr.
Gough translated it. There is nothing in the preface, or in any part of the
volume, to indicate the name of the original author. Should Mr. J. B.
Nichols still possess Mr. Gough's more matured and corrected copy, he might
perhaps discover some reference to the author.

J. M. G.

Worcester, Jan. 1851.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Lammer Beads_ (Vol. iii. p. 84.).--If L. M. M. R. had taken the trouble to
consult Jamieson's _Etymological Dictionary_,--that rich storehouse of
curious information, not merely in relation to the language, but to the
manners and customs, and the superstitions of North Britain,--he would have
found interesting notices connected with his inquiry. See the word LAMMER,
and the same in the Supplement. We might accept, without a moment's
hesitation, the suggestion of a learned friend of Dr. Jamieson's, deriving
Lammer from the French, _l'ambre_, were it not that Kilian gives us Teut.
Lamertyn-steen, _succinum_. In Anglo-Saxon times it was called Eolhsand
(_Gloss. Ælfr._), and appears to have been esteemed in Britain from a very
early period. Amongst antiquities of the Anglo-Saxon age, beads of amber
are of very frequent occurrence. Douglas has collected some interesting
notes regarding this substance, in his _Nenia_, p. 9. It were needless to
cite the frequent mention of _precularia_, or Paternosters, of amber,
occurring in inventories. The Duke of Bedford, Regent of France, purchased
a most costly chaplet from a Parisian jeweller, in 1431, described as "une
patenostres à signeaux d'or et d'ambre musquet." (Leber, Inventaires, p.
235.) The description "de alba awmbre," as in the enumeration of strings of
beads appended to the shrine of S^r William, at York Minster, may have been
in distinction from jet, to which, as well as to amber, certain virtuous or
talismanic properties were attributed. There were, however, several kinds
of amber,--_succinum rubrum_, _fulvum_, &c. The learned professor of
Copenhagen, Olaus Worm, alludes to the popular notions and superstitious
use of amber--

    "Foris in collo gestatum, contra fascinationes et nocturna
    terriculamenta pueros tueri volunt; capitis etiam destillationibus, et
    tonsillarum ac faucium vitiis resistere, oculorum fluxus et ophthalmias

By his account it would seem to have been received as a panacea, sovereign
for asthma, dropsy, toothache, and a multitude of diseases.

    "In summâ (he concludes) Balsami instar est, calorem nativum roborans
    et morborum insultibus resistens."--_Museum Wormianum_, p. 32.

Bartholomaeus Glanvilla, in his work, _De Proprietatibus Rerum_, has not
overlooked the properties of amber, which he seems to regard as a kind of
jet (book xvi., c. xlix.).

    "Gette, hyght Gagates, and is a boystous stone, and never the les it is

He describes it as most abundant and of best quality in Britain of two
kinds, yellow and black; it drives away adders,--

    "Is contrary to fendes,--helpeth for fantasies and ayenste vexacions of
    fendis by night.--And so, if so boystus a stone dothe so great wonders,
    none shuld be dispisid for foule colour without, while the vertu that
    is within is unknowe." (Translation by Trevisa.)


       *       *       *       *       *



A series of notes on the _utility_ of printed catalogues of public
libraries may seem to be a superfluity. It may be said, _Who ever denied
it?_ Relying on a official document, I can assert that it _has_ been
denied--in defiance of common sense, and the experience of two hundred and
fifty years!

At such a time, it behoves every lover of literature to declare himself,
and to furnish his quota of facts or arguments corrective of this upstart
paradox. It is under the influence of that sentiment that I submit, for
consideration in the proper quarter, some short extracts from my
bibliographic portfolios.


    "The forwardness of your CATALOGUE [of the public library at Oxford] is
    very good tidings.... I would intreat you to meditate upon it, how it
    may be performed to both our credits and contents."--_Sir Thomas_
    BODLEY to _Tho. James_, c. 1604.

    Habes, benigne lector, catalogum librorum, eo ordine dispositum, quo in
    celeberrima Oxoniensi bibliothecâ collocantur; opus diu multumque
    desideratum, et jam tandem editum."--_Thomas_ JAMES, 1605.

    "Quamprimum benignis academicorum suffragiis in bibliothecarium electus
    essem, viderémque justum bibliothecæ publicæ catalogum ab omnibus
    desiderari, ego ut gratiis litatum irem, me protinùs accinxi ad
    conficiendum proprio marte novum catalogum."--_Thomas_ HYDE, 1674.

    "The general use of catalogues of [of books], and the esteem they are
    in at present, is so well known, that it were to waste paper to
    expatiate on it."--_Gerard_ LANGBAINE, 1688.

    "Quelles obligations la république des lettres n'a-t-elle pas aux
    Anglais, d'avoir donné les catalogues des livres que renferment leurs
    bibliothèques! Celui d'Oxford est d'une utilité reconnue, par le grand
    nombre de livres qu'il contient, et par l'ordre alphabétique qu'on leur
    a donné."--JOURDAN, 1739.

    Catalogues of books are of great use in literary pursuits.... We mean
    not here to enter into all the conveniencies of a more improved
    catalogue, for it would require a volume to display them."--_William_
    OLDYS, 1745.

    "Solebat [sc. Ruhnkenius] haud exiguam subsecivæ operæ partem tribuere
    perlegendis catalogis librorum, sive per auctiones divendendorum, sive
    in bibliothecis publicis servatorum; unde factum est, ut rariorum
    cognitionem librorum, jam in Bergeri disciplina perceptam, continuo
    augeret."--_Dan_. WYTTENBACH, 1799.

    "Le premier besoin de l'homme de lettres qui entreprend un ouvrage, est
    de connoître les sources auxquelles il peut puiser, les livres qui ont
    traité directement ou indirectement le sujet qui l'occupe."--_S_.
    CHARDON _de la Rochette_, 1812.

    "La bibliothèque [savoir, la bibliothèque royale établie à Bruxelles]
    aura deux catalogues: l'un alphabétique, l'autre systématique. Dans
    l'intérêt de la science, le catalogue sera imprimé, en tout ou en
    partie."--LÉOPOLD, _roi des Belges_, 1837.

    "Le catalogue est l'inventaire en le véritable palladium d'une
    bibliothèque. L'impression des catalogues est toujours une chose utile,
    sinon indispensable.... La publicité est, en outre, le frein des abus,
    des négligences, et des malversations, l'aiguillon du zèle, et la
    source de toute amélioration."--_L. A._ CONSTANTIN, 1839.

    "La publication d'une nouvelle édition complète du catalogue de la
    bibliothèque du roi [de France], serait, sans doute, le plus grand
    service qu'on pût jamais rendre à l'histoire littéraire; et nous ne
    regardons pas cette entreprise comme impraticable."--_Jacques Charles_
    BRUNET, 1842.

    "M. Merlin pense avec moi, et c'est quelque chose, que les justes
    plaintes formées contre l'administration de la bibliothèque royale [de
    France] cesseront dès l'instant où l'on aura rédigé et publié le
    catalogue géneral des livres imprimés."--_Paulin_ PARIS, 1847.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_The "Winter's Tale."_--As MR. PAYNE COLLIER is making inquiries as to the
origin of Shakspeare's _Winter's Tale_, perhaps he will allow me to call
his attention to an oversight he has committed in his edition of Greene's
_Pandosto_, in the series called _Shakspeare's Library_. In a note to the
introduction, p. ii., MR. COLLIER says,

    "Some verbal resemblances and trifling obligations have been pointed
    out by the commentators in their notes to the WINTER'S TALE. One of the
    principal instances occurs in Act IV. Sc. 3., where Florizel says:

                     "'The gods themselves,
      Humbling their deities to love, have taken
      The shapes of beasts upon them: Jupiter
      Became a bull and bellow'd; the green Neptune
      A ram, and bleated; and the fire-rob'd god,
      Golden Apollo, a poor humble swain,
      As I seem now. Their transformations
      Were never for a piece of beauty rarer,
      Nor in a way so chaste.'

    "'This,' says Malone, 'is taken almost literally from the novel'--when,
    in fact, the resemblance merely consists in the adoption by Shakspeare
    of part of the mythological knowledge supplied by Greene. 'The gods
    above disdaine not to love women beneath. Phoebus liked Daphne; Jupiter
    Io; and why not I then Fawnia?' The resemblance is anything but

It would appear, however, that the passage cited by MR. COLLIER is not the
one referred to by Malone. MR. COLLIER's passage is at p. 34. of his
edition of the novel; the one Malone evidently had in view is at p. 40.,
and is as follows:--

    "And yet, Dorastus, shame not at thy shepheard's weede: the heavenly
    godes have sometime earthly thoughtes. Neptune became a ram, Jupiter a
    bul, Apollo a shepheard: they Gods, and yet in love; and thou a man,
    appointed to love."

E. L. N.

_Inscribed Alms-dish._--There is an alms-dish (?) {102} in the possession
of a clergyman near Rotherham, in this county, with the following


[Fear God (and?) keep his commandments.]

Having so lately been so justly reproved by your correspondent, MR. JANUS
DOUSA, for judging of Vondel's _Lucifer_ by an apparently unjust review
rather than by perusal,--and his beautiful chorus having so fully
"established his case,"--I am rather shy of making any remarks upon this
inscription: otherwise I would venture (errors excepted) to observe that
there _may_ be a mistake in the position of the last three letters of the
third word.

If MR. DOUSA would kindly inform a _very_ imperfect Dutch scholar whether
this sentence is intended as a quotation from Ecclesiastes xii., 13th

 "Vreest Godt ende hout sÿne geboden;"

or whether the third word is from the verb "_onder houden_,"--as _looks_
probable, I shall be greatly obliged to him. The Bible to which I refer is
dated 1644.

Being neither a scholar nor a critic, but only a lover of books and
languages, I hope MR. DOUSA will accept my apology for the affront offered
to his countryman, Vondel. Your publication has been a great temptation to
people with a few curious books around them to set sail their little boats
of inquiry or observation for the mere pleasure of seeing them float down
the stream in company with others of more importance and interest. I
confess myself to have been one of the injudicious number; and having made
shipwreck of my credit against M. Brellet's _Dictionnaire de la Langue
Celtique_, and also on Vondel's _Lucifer_, I must here apologise and
promise to offend no more. If MR. DOUSA will not be appeased, I have only
to add that I "send him my card." As Mrs. Malaprop said to Sir Lucius

 "Spare my blushes--_I_ am Delia."


P. S. Can MR. DOUSA fix a positive date to my undated _History of Dr. John

_Landwade Church._--It appears to me that an important service would be
rendered to posterity, if a full account were taken of all the monuments
and inscriptions in such deserted churches as Landwade appears to be. Such
records may ere long become invaluable, and every day is hastening them to
oblivion. Already hundreds of such churches, with the several monuments and
inscriptions they contained, have entirely passed away. I have been making
some investigation into the demolished and desecrated churches of
Buckinghamshire, and am astonished at the number of monumental records
which have thus perished. Thirty-one churches at least have been lost to
the county, and some of them were rich in monumental memorials.

Other counties, doubtless, have equally suffered. Would it not, therefore,
be well to collect accounts of the memorials they contained, so far as they
can be obtained, and have them recorded in some publication, that they may
be available to future historians, genealogists, and antiquaries? Is there
any existing periodical suitable for the purpose?


_The First Edition of the Second Book of Homilies, by Queen Elizabeth in_
1563.--In the edition of the _Homilies_ at the Oxford University press in
1822, and which from inspection, in the portion concerned, appear to be the
same in the last, I find in the Advertisement, page iv. note d., that there
exist _four editions_ of the date 1563. Of these, I presume, are two in my
possession, and I conclude one of them to be the _first edition_ on the
following grounds:--_That_ one, printed by Richard Jugge and John Cawood,
1563, has in the last page and a half, "Faultes escaped in the printyng,"
which appear to have been _corrected_ in all the subsequent editions, and
are as they stand in the subsequent and modern editions, I presume, up to
the present time. But the principal proof arises from a cancelled leaf in
the Homily, "Of Common Prayer and Sacraments," as it stands in the Oxford
edition of 1822, p. 329-331. The passage in question, as it there stands,
and stands likewise in another edition of 1563, which I have, begins within
three lines of the end of the paragraph, p. 329.,--"eth, that common or
public prayer," &c., and ends at p. 331. line 13.,--"ment of baptism and
the Lord's supper," &c. In my presumed first edition the original passage
has been dismissed, and the substituted passage, being one leaf, _in a
smaller type_, in order plainly to contain more matter, and it is that
which appears, as I suppose, in all subsequent and the present copies. It
would have been a matter of some curiosity, and perhaps of some importance,
to have the original cancelled passage. But every intelligent reader will
perceive that the subject was one which required both delicacy and
judgment. Is any copy existing which has the original passage? My copy
unfortunately is imperfect, wanting three leaves; and I apprehend this is
an additional instance in which the first edition of an important work has
been in a manner thrown aside for its imperfection; as was the case with
the real first edition of the _Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent_,
and the _Execution of Justice_ given to Burghley. As the Oxford editor
wished for information upon this subject, it is hoped that the present
communication may not be unacceptable to him.

J. M.

Jan. 23. 1851.

       *       *       *       *       *




I was thinking of sending you a note or two on an early Dutch translation
of a very celebrated English tract when your last number came to hand, by
which I find that so much interest has been produced by "NOTES AND QUERIES"
in Holland, that certain _literati_ are about to establish a similar work
in that country. If I mistake not, what I now transmit will be acceptable
to your Batavian friends, and not unwelcome to those who approve of your
undertaking on this side of the water.

A good deal has been advanced lately regarding the interest taken by the
inhabitants of Holland, Belgium, and Germany, in our ancient drama; and in
consistency with what was said by Thomas Heywood more than 200 years ago,
some new information has been supplied respecting the encouragement given
to English players abroad. The fact itself was well-known, and the author
last cited (Shakspeare Society's reprint of the _Apology for Actors_, 1841,
p. 58.) furnishes the name of the very play performed on one occasion at
Amsterdam. The popularity of our drama there perhaps contributed to the
popularity of our lighter literature, (especially of such as came from the
pens of our most notorious playwrights,) in the same part of Europe, and
may account for the circumstance I am about to mention.

At this time of day I need hardly allude to the reputation the celebrated
Robert Greene obtained in England, both as a dramatist and a pamphleteer;
and although we have no distinct evidence on the point, we need hardly
doubt that some of his plays had been represented with applause in Holland.
_The Four Sons of Aymon_, which Heywood tells us was acted with such
strange effect at Amsterdam, must have been a piece of precisely the same
kind as Greene's _Orlando Furioso_, which we know was extraordinarily
popular in this kingdom, and may have been equally so abroad. We may thus
suppose that Greene's fame had spread to the Netherlands, and that anything
written by him would be well received by Batavian readers.

His _Quip for an Upstart Courtier, or, a Quaint Dispute between
Velvet-breeches and Cloth-breeches_, was published in London in 1592, and
went through two, if not three, impressions in its first year. It was often
reprinted, and editions in 1606, 1615, 1620, 1625, and 1635, have come down
to us, besides others that, no doubt, have entirely disappeared. That the
fame of this production extended to Holland, I have the proof before me: it
is a copy of the tract in Dutch, with the following imprint--"_Tot Leyden.
By Thomas Basson_. M.D.CI." A friend of mine writes me from Rotterdam, that
he has a copy, without date, but printed about twenty or five-and-twenty
years after mine of 1601, which shows how long the popularity of the tract
was maintained; and I have little doubt that mine is not by any means the
earliest Dutch impression, if only because the wood-cut of the Courtier and
the Countryman (copied with the greatest precision from the London
impression of 1592) is much worn and blurred. The title-page runs as
follows, and the name of Robert Greene is rendered obvious upon it for the
sake of its attraction:--

    "Een Seer vermakelick Proces tusschen Fluweele-Broeck ende
    Laken-Broeck. Waer in verhaldt werdt het misbruyck van de meeste deel
    der Menschen. Gheshreven int Engelsch door Robert Greene, ende nu int
    Neder-landtsch overgheset. Wederom oversien."

At the back of this title is printed a short address from the translator to
the _Edele ende welghesinde Leser_, which states little more than that the
original had been received from England, and concludes with the subsequent

 "Ghemerckt dit Dal vol van ydelheyt
  Soo lachet vrij als Democritus dede:
  Doch zy gheraeckt met vvat Barmherticheyt:
  Als Heraclyt, bevveen ons qualen mede."

The spelling and punctuation are the same as in the original, and the body
of the tract follows immediately:

    "Staende eens smorghens op van eene onrustige nacht rust, ende vindende
    mijn ghemoet noch wat onstelt, gingh ick wandelen nae de vermacklyche
    velden, om mijn Gheest wat te vermacken, dan wesende noch in een
    Melancholijcke humeur, seer eensaem sonder eenighe gheselschap, worde
    ick seer slaperich: alsoo dat ick droomde. Dat iek een Dal sach wel
    verceirt, &c."

As few of your readers will have the means of referring to the original
English, I quote Greene's opening words from an edition of 1592:--

    "It was just at that time when the Cuckoulds quirister began to bewray
    Aprill, Gentlemen, with his never-changed notes, that I, damped with a
    melancholy humor, went into the fields to cheere up my wits with the
    fresh aire: where solitarie seeking to solace my selfe, I fell in a
    dreame, and in that drowsie slumber I wandered into a vale, &c."

The Dutch version fills thirty-two closely printed pages, and ends with the
succeeding literal translation of Greene's last sentence:--

    "Tot dese Sententie (aldus by de Ridder ghepronuncieert) alle de
    omstaende Stemde daer toe, ende klapten in haere handen, ende maeckte
    een groot geluyde, waer door eck waeker worde, ende schoot uyt mynen
    Droom, soo stout ick op, ende met een vrolijck ghemoet, gingh ick
    schryven, al her gene, dat ghy hier ghehoort hebt."

The above is one of the few books I purchased when I was in Holland some
thirty years ago; and as I have quoted enough for the purpose of {104}
identification, I may conclude with asking some of your Dutch
correspondents, whether the tract, in this or in any other edition, is of
considerable rarity with them? In England I never saw a copy of it but that
in my possession. I may add that every paragraph is separately numbered
from 1 to 110, as if the production were one of importance to which more
particular reference might be made than even by the pagination.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ii., pp. 308. 409.)

I am not satisfied with what W. S. G. has written on this subject; and as I
feel interested in it, perhaps I cannot bring out my doubts better than in
the following Queries.

1. Instead of this famous cross being destined by St. Margaret for
Dunfermline, was it not transmitted by her as an heir-loom to her sons?
_Fordun_, lib. v. cap. lv. "_Quasi munus hæreditarium transmisit ad
filios._" Hailes (_Annals_, sub anno 1093) distinguishes the cross which
Margaret gifted to Dunfermline from the Black Rood of Scotland; and it is
found in the possession of her son David I., in his last illness. He died
at Carlisle, 24th May, 1153. (_Fordun_, ut supra.)

2. Is not W. S. G. mistaken when, in speaking of this cross being seized by
Edward I. in the Castle of Edinburgh in 1292, he says it is in a list of
muniments, &c., found "_in quadam cista in dormitorio S. Crucis._" instead
of in a list following, "_et in thesauria castri de Edinburgh inventa
fuerunt ornamenta subscripta?_" (Ayloffe's _Calendars_, p. 827.;
Robertson's _Index_, Introd. xiii.)

3. When W. S. G. says that this cross was not held in the same
superstitious reverence as the Black Stone of Scone, and that Miss
Strickland is mistaken when she says that it was seized by King Edward, and
restored at the peace of 1327, what does he make of the following

(1.) _Fordun_, lib. v, cap. xvii:

    "Illa sancta crux quam nigram vocant omni genti Scotorum non minus
    terribilem quam amabilem pro suæ reverentia sanctitatis."

(2.) _Letters to the Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of Carlisle,
occassioned by some Passages in his late Book of the Scotch Library, &c._,
ascribed to the historian Rymer: London, 1702. From a "notable piece of
Church history," appended to the second Letter, it appears that the Black
Rood accompanied King Edward in his progresses, along with a famous English
cross--the Cross Nigth,--and that he received on these two crosses the
homage of several of the Scottish magnates. (The same thing, I have no
doubt, will appear from the _Foedera_ of the same historian, which I have
it not in my power to refer to.)

(3.) _Chronicon de Lanercost_, printed by the Maitland Club, Edinburgh,
1839, p. 283. Alluding to the pacification of 1327:

    "Reddidit etiam eis partem crucis Christi _quam vocant Scotti
    Blakerode_, et similiter unam instrumentum.... Ragman vocabatur.
    Lapidem tamen de Scone, in quo solent regis Scotiæ apud Scone in
    creatione sua collocari, Londonensis noluerunt a se demittere
    quoquomodo. Omnia autem hæc asportari fecerat de Scotia inclytus rex
    Edwardus filius Henrici, dum Scottos suæ subjiceret ditioni."

Fabian and Holinshed report the same thing.

4. Is not Fordun _quoting_ from Turgot and Aelred (whom he names Baldredus)
when he speaks of "illa sancta crux _quam nigram_ vocant?" And how does the
description of the Durham cross,--

    "Which rood and pictures were all three very richly wrought in silver,
    and were all smoked black over, being large pictures of a yard or five
    quarters long," &c. &c.,--

agree with the description of the Black Rood of St. Margaret which, as Lord
Hailes says, "was of _gold_, about the length of _a palm_; the figure of
ebony, studded and inlaid with gold. A piece of the true cross was enclosed
in it"?

5. As to the cross "miraculously received by David I., and in honour of
which he founded Holyrood Abbey in 1128," and which some antiquaries (see
_A Brief Account of Durham Cathedral_; Newcastle, 1833, p. 46.) gravely
assert was to be seen "in the south aisle of _the choir_ of Durham
Cathedral at its eastern termination, in front of a wooden screen richly
gilt and decorated with stars and other ornaments," are not all agreed that
the story is a mere monkish legend, invented long after Holyrood was
founded (although, perhaps, not so recent as Lord Hailes supposed)? and is
it not, therefore, absurd to speak of such a cross being taken at the
battle of Durham, or to identify it with the Black Rood of Scotland?

6. The quotation of W. S. G. from the _MS. Dunelm_ is curious; but is there
any contemporary authority for the Black Rood having been taken with King
David at the battle of Durham? I can find none.

7. Is it not, however, probable that King David lost _two_ crosses at
Durham, one a military cross, carried with his army, and taken from the
Abbey of Holyrood; and the other the famous Black Rood found on his person,
and made an offering to the shrine of St. Cuthbert? This would reconcile
some apparent discrepancies.

8. I find it noticed by Richardson in his _Table Book_ (Newcastle, 1846,
vol. i. p. 123.), that "there is a letter in the British Museum (Faustina,
A 6. 47.) from the prior of Durham to the Bishop (then absent), giving an
account of the battle of Neville's cross." Has this letter been printed,
and where? If not so, will any of your correspondents have the {105}
kindness to examine it, and say if it gives any information as to a cross
or crosses captured with the King of Scots?

J. D. N. N.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_The "Tanthony."_--When the porteress at the principal entrance to
Kimbolton Park opens the gates for the admission of a visitor, she rings a
bell to give warning to the servants at the castle of his approach. This
bell is popularly called the "Tanthony," in reference, I presume, to some
legend of Saint Anthony. Will one of your readers be good enough to
enlighten me?


"_Beauty Retire._"--Will the noble editor of Pepys's _Diary_ permit me to
ask him whether he has seen, in the Pepysian library, or elsewhere, a copy,
either in print or MS., of Pepys's song, "Beauty Retire," words and music;
or is it to be found in any miscellaneous collection of songs?

I. H. M.

_The Soul's Dark Cottage._--Being called on to reply to matters as plain as
those to which I replied last week, I am less reluctant to acknowledge my
own ignorance or obliviousness, respecting a couplet of which, I doubt not,
hundreds of your readers know the original _habitat_, but which cannot be
recalled to my own memory, nor to that of several friends to whom I have
referred. The couplet is--

 "The soul's dark cottage, battered and decayed,
  Lets in new light through chinks that time hath made."


London, Jan. 4, 1851.

"_Small by degrees and beautifully less._"--This is a very common
quotation, but, although I have made frequent inquiries, I have never yet
been able to find out the author of it. Perhaps some of your readers can
inform me.

W. H. B.

_Musical Plagiarism._--I think I remember to have heard, two or three years
ago, of an action for damages brought against an eminent composer, on
account of plagiarism in a musical composition; and that the defendant's
argument was founded on the fact, that there exist very few really
"original compositions," if originality excludes every form of plagiarism.
And he adduced as examples the "See the conquering hero," of Handel; and
the "Zitti Zitti," of Rossini. Can any of your readers refer me to the
minutes of this trial; and tell me if any book has been published in
criticism of the originality of composers?

R. M.

_Simon Bache._--In the parish church of Knebworth, Herts, is the brass of a
priest, with the following inscription:--

    "Hic jacet Dominus Simo Bache, Clericus, quondam _Thesaurarius
    Hospitii_ illustrissimi Principis Domini Henrici Quinti Regis Angliæ,
    ac Canonic. Ecclesiæ Cathedralis Sancti Paulli, London; qui obiit xix.
    die Maii. Anno Dom. nostr. 1414."

Can any of your readers inform me what this office of _Thesaurarius
Hospitii_ was; also, who Simon Bache was that held it; and how it happens
that he is buried at Knebworth?

A. W. H.

_Sir Walter Raleigh._--In speaking of the difficulty which exists in
obtaining a perfect knowledge of any event, reference is often made to Sir
Walter Raleigh having witnessed an occurrence, while confined in the Tower,
and that two witnesses gave such a different account from each other as
well as from himself, that he threw his MS. history into the fire. In what
contemporary work is this recorded?

A similar discrepancy in evidence is mentioned with reference to the
celebrated tourney at Tiani, in 1502, in Prescott's _Ferdinand and
Isabella_, vol. iii. p. 45.

H. J.

_Harrison's Chronology._--William Harrison, a native of London, chaplain to
Sir William Brooke, Baron Cobham, Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, composed
a _Description of Britain and of England_; and likewise translated Hector
Boethius's _Description of Scotland_, from the Scottish version of John
Bellenden. Both these pieces are printed in Holinshed's _Chronicles_, 2
vols. fol. 1587. In the prefaces Harrison speaks of a work on _Chronology_,
"which I have yet in hand." Has that work ever been printed? I discovered
the manuscript of it last year, in the Diocesan Library of Derry, in
Ireland; but did not ascertain _who_ was its author (though it bears the
name of Harrison), until a few days ago.


Thurles, Ireland, Dec. 21. 1850.

_Aristophanes on the Modern Stage._--Can any of your valuable
correspondents inform me whether any of the plays of Aristophanes have been
produced upon the stage in a modern version; and if so, when, and by whom?

I am inclined to think that some at least of the comedies in the hands of a
skilful author might be made entertaining and popular.

The _Acharnians_ and _Peace_, or perhaps even the _Birds_, might form the
groundwork of an amusing piece. Should you be able to spare a corner in
your valuable periodical for this Query, you would greatly oblige

C. J. R. (2.)

Burton Crescent.

_Drachmarus._--Can any of your readers kindly inform me, under what name
"Drachmarus," one of the Schoolmen, is commonly known?


_Strutt's Queen Hoo Hall._--Some years back I purchased of a son of the
late Joseph Strutt, a copy of _Queen Hoo Hall_, containing manuscript {106}
memoranda by that son relating to his father and to Walter Scott. Amongst
other matters it states, that the original manuscript of that romance was
submitted to Mr. Scott before it was published, and that he retained it a
long time before he published his _Waverley Novels_. Mr. Strutt, jun.,
accuses him of taking hints and facts from his parent's work. He also
stated that the story of the Illuminator in _Queen Hoo Hall_ is mainly an
account of the life of his father. The three volumes I gave to my friend
and patron, Mr. John Broadly, whose very fine and choice library was sold
by auction after his death, with the copy of the work referred to. I am
desirous of ascertaining in whose possession these volumes are? I have a
beautiful miniature portrait of Joseph Strutt.


17. Burton Street, Jan. 21. 1851.

_Cardinal's Monument_.--Passing into the church of St. Saviour, Southwark,
yesterday by the centre door on the south, I observed on a pillar to the
right, a sculpture of a cardinal's hat with the usual cord and tassels
properly coloured, beneath which was a coat of arms, quartering alternately
three lions and three fleur-de-lis. There is no name or date upon it. It
would be interesting to know to whom it refers.

J. D. A.

_Names Bacon and Fagan_.--The very curious and interesting information
which has come to light in the replies to my Query about the origin of the
patronymic BACON, emboldens me to put another question upon the subject.

I have long suspected, but have been unable to prove, that the names Bacon
and Fagan were originally one and the same. Bacon, it appears, is a Saxon
word, meaning "of the beech tree." Fagan, I presume, is as undoubtedly from
the Latin "de fago," "of the beech tree."

The approximation of sound in these names is sufficiently evident. That the
letters C and G have been commonly convertible between the Latin and Saxon
is without doubt. Query: Have B and F been at all used convertibly? Or can
any of your readers, by any other means, strengthen the probability, or
prove the truth, of my conjecture?


_Blunder_.--What is the origin of this word? In Woolston's _First Discourse
on Miracles_ (Lond. 1729), at p 28., I find this passage:--

    "In another place he intimates what are meant by oxen and sheep, viz.,
    the literal sense of the Scriptures. And if the literal sense be
    irrational and nonsensical, the metaphor we must allow to be proper,
    inasmuch as nowadays dull and foolish and absurd stuff we call _Bulls_,
    _Fatlings_, and _Blunders_."

This would seem to imply that in Woolston's days _blunder_ was the name of
some animal; but in no dictionary have I been able to find such a
signification attributed to it. The Germans use the words _bock_ and
_pudel_ in the same sense as our word _blunder_.

C. W. G.

_Prince of Wales' Feathers._--The establishment of "DE NAVORSCHER" is a
matter of great importance to all students of our early history, and the
liberal mention of its projectors, to bring under the notice of their
countrymen all Queries likely to be answered by them, is one calculated to
clear up many obscure points in our early history. Sir H. Nicolas concludes
his valuable papers on the Badge and Mottoes of the Prince of Wales
(_Archæologia_, vol. xxxi. p. 372.) by expressing his belief that both the
former, namely, _the Feathers_, and the mottoes, "_Ich Dien_" and
"_Houmout_," were derived from the House of Hainault, possibly from the
Comté of Ostrevant, which formed the appanage of the eldest sons of the
Counts of that province. Perhaps I may be allowed, through your columns, to
invite the attention of the correspondents of "DE NAVORSCHER" to this


_Portrait of Ben Jonson._--Ritson, the well-known antiquary, possessed an
original painting of Ben Jonson. It was afterwards purchased by W.
Fillingham, Esq., of the Inner Temple, a gentleman well known for his love
of the early drama; and whilst in his possession it was engraved by Ridley
in 8vo. What has become of the painting? Can any of your readers point out
its locality at the present time?


_Robert Burton_, otherwise _Democritus Junior_, the author of that glorious
book _The Anatomy of Melancholy_, is stated by Wood to have been born at
Lindley, in Leicestershire. Plot, however, in his _Natural History of
Staffordshire_, 1686, p.276., gives the place of his birth, Fald, in the
latter county; and, furthermore, says he was shown the very house of his
nativity. Can any of your correspondents throw any light upon this subject?


_Blowen, Origin of the Name._--You have fallen into a very general error in
spelling my name (pp. 71. 76.) with the terminal r, "Blower," instead of
"Blowen." Perhaps some one of your genealogical readers can inform me of
the origin and descendants of the family with this scarce name, thus spelt,
"Blowen." Are we a branch of the Blowers (as you appear to think we must
be), that useful family of alarmists, whose services in early times were so
necessary? or are we the descendants of the Flanders "Boleyns,"
Anglicanized "Bloyen?"

Query, Did Anna Boleyn, wife of Henry VIII., ever spell her name so? I need
not to be reminded that some lexicographers define "Blowen" to be a rude
woman. Query, origin of that appellation, so used?

We have been citizens and liverymen of London from Richard Blowen, who
married, at {107} the close of the seventeenth century, the sister of Dr.
Hugh Boulter (who became chaplain to George I., and afterwards Lord
Archbishop of Armagh).


       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. ii., p. 405.; vol. iii., p. 52.)

How is it that Mr. Knight, who so well and so judiciously exposes the
absurdness of attempting to measure out a poet's imaginings by
rule-and-compass probability, should himself endeavour to embody and
identify Touchstone's dial--an ideal image--a mere peg on which to hang the
fool's sapient moralizing.

Surely, whether it was a real moving animated pocket watch, that was
present to the poet's mind, or a thumb ring dial, is an inquiry quite as
bootless as the geographical existence of a sea-coast in Bohemia, or of
lions and serpents in the forest of Ardennes.

When Thaliard engages to take away the life of Pericles if he can get him
within his "pistol's length," are we seriously to inquire whether the
weapon was an Italian dagger or an English firearm? or are we to debate
which of the interpretations would be the lesser anachronism?

But your correspondents (Vol. ii., p. 405. and vol. iii., p. 52.) approve
of, and confirm Mr. Knight's suggestion of a ring dial, as though it were
so self-evident as to admit of no denial. Nevertheless, neither he nor they
have shown any good reason for its adoption: even its superior antiquity
over the portable time-piece is mere surmise on their parts, unaccompanied
as yet by any direct proof. In point of fact, the sole argument advanced by
Mr. Knight why Touchstone's dial should be a ring dial is, that "_it was
not likely that the fool would have a pocket watch_." Well, but it might
belong to Celia, carried away with the "jewels and wealth" she speaks of,
and, on account of the unwieldy size of watches in those days, intrusted to
the porterage of the able-bodied fool.

When Touchstone said, so very wisely, "_It is ten o'clock_," he used a
phrase which, according to Orlando in the same play, could only properly
apply to a mechanical time-piece. Rosalind asks Orlando, "I pray you what
is it _a clock?_" to which he replies, "You should ask me what time _o'
day_; there's no clock in the forest." Again, when Jacques declares that he
did laugh "an hour by his dial," do we not immediately recall Falstaff's
similar phrase, "an hour by Shrewsbury clock?"

If it shall be said that the word "dial" is more used in reference to a
natural than to a mechanical indicator of time, I should point, in reply,
to Hotspur's allusion:

 "Tho' life did ride upon a dial's point
  Still ending with the arrival of an hour"

The "dial's point," so referred to, must be _in motion_, and is therefore
the hand or _pointer_ of a mechanical clock.

A further confirmation that the Shakspearian "dial" was a piece of
mechanism may be seen in Lafeu's reply to Bertram, when he exclaims,

    "Then my dial goes not true,"

using it as a metaphor to imply that his judgment must have been deceived.

These are some of the considerations that would induce me to reject Mr.
Knight's interpretation, and, _were it necessary to realize the scene
between Jacques and Touchstone at all_, I should prefer doing so by
imagining some old turnip-faced atrocity in clock-making presented to the
fool's lack-lustre eye, than the nice astronomical observation supposed by
Mr. Knight.

The ring-dial, as described by him, and by your correspondents, is likewise
described in most of the encyclopædias. It is available for the latitude of
construction only, and was no doubt common enough a hundred years ago; but
it is scarcely an object as yet for deposit in the British Museum.

A. E. B.

Leeds, Jan. 28. 1851.

The Ring Dial, perhaps the most elegant in principle of all the forms of
sun dial, has not, I think, fallen into greater disuse than have sun dials
of other constructions. To describe, in this place, a modern ring dial, and
the method of using it, would be useless: because it is an instrument which
may be so readily inspected in the shops of most of the London opticians.
Messrs. Troughton and Simms, of Fleet Street, make ring dials to a pattern
of about six inches in diameter, costing, in a case, 2_l_. 5_s_. They are,
in truth, elegant and instructive astronomical toys, to say the least of
them; and indicate the solar time to the accuracy of about two minutes,
when the sun is pretty high.

Formerly, ring dials were made of a larger diameter, with much costly
graduation bestowed upon them; too heavy to be portable, and too expensive
for the occasion. For example, at the apartments of the Royal Astronomical
Society, at Somerset House, a ring dial, eighteen inches in diameter, may
be seen, constructed by Abraham Sharp, contemporary and correspondent of
Newton and Flamstead; one similar to which, hazarding a guess, I should
say, could not be made under 100_l_. At the same place also may be seen,
belonging to Mr. Williams, the assistant-secretary of the society, a very
handsome oriental astrolabe, about four inches in diameter, richly chased
with Arabic characters and symbols; to which instrument, as well as to
modern ring dials, the ring dials described in "NOTES AND QUERIES" (Vol.
iii., p. 52.) seem to bear relation. If I recollect right, in one of the
tales of the _Arabian Nights_, the barber goes out, leaving his customer
half shaved, {108} to take an observation with his astrolabe, to ascertain
if he were operating in a lucky _hour_. By his astrolabe, therefore, the
barber could find the _time_ of day; _this_, however, I confess I could not
pretend to find with the astrolabe in question. Ring dials, as I am
informed, are in demand to go out to India, where they are in use among
surveyors and military men; and, no doubt, such instruments as the
astrolabe above-mentioned, which, though pretty old, does not pretend to be
an antique, are in use among the educated of the natives all over the East.


I send you the particulars of two brass ring dials, seeing they are
claiming some notice from your learned correspondents, and having recently
bought them of a dealer in old metals.

7-16ths of an inch wide, 1 and 7-16ths over,


3-8ths wide, and 1½ over,



Easton, Jan. 27. 1851.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ii., p. 519. Vol. iii., p. 27.)

Subjoined is a brief notice of the various printed forms in which the old
song called "Winifreda" has, from time to time, been brought before the
public. I am indebted for these particulars to a kind friend in the British
Museum, but we have hitherto failed in discovering the author.

1. The song first occurs as a translation from the ancient British language
in D. Lewis's _Collection of Miscellaneous Poems_, 8vo. 1726, vol. i., p.
53., pointed out by your correspondent, MR. HICKSON. (Vol. ii., p. 519.)

2ndly. In Watts' _Musical Miscellany_, vol. vi., p. 198. Lond. 1731; it is
with the tune, "Eveillez vous ma belle Endormie," and is called "Winifreda,
from the ancient language."

3dly. As an engraved song entitled "Colin's Address;" the words by the Earl
of Chesterfield, set by W. Yates, 1752. The air begins "Away, &c."

4thly. In 1755, 8vo., appeared _Letters concerning Taste_, anonymously, but
by John Gilbert Cooper; in Letter XIV. pp. 95, 96, he says,--

    "It was not in my power then to amuse you with any poetry of my own
    composition, I shall now take the liberty to send you, without any
    apology, an old song wrote above a hundred years ago by the happy
    bridegroom himself."

Cooper then praises the poem, and prints it at length.

5thly. In 1765, Dr. Percy first published his _Reliques_, with the song, as
copied from Lewis.

6thly. We find an engraved song, entitled "Winifreda, an Address to
Conjugal Love," translated from the ancient British language; set to music
by Signor Giordani, 1780. The air begins, "Away, &c."

7thly. In Ritson's printed Songs as by Gilbert Cooper, Park's edition,
1813, vol. i., p. 281., with a note by the editor referring to Aikin's
_Vocal Biography_, p. 152.; and mentioning that in the _Edinburgh Review_,
vol. xi., p. 37. "Winifreda" is attributed to the late Mr. Stephens,
meaning George Steevens.

8thly. In Campbell's _British Poems_, 1819, vol. vi., p. 93., with a Life
of John Gilbert Cooper, to whom Campbell attributes the authorship, stating
that he was born in 1723, and died in 1769; he was, consequently, only
three years old when the poem was printed, which would settle the question,
even if his disclaimer had been merely a trick to deceive his friend.

Lord Chesterfield's claim is hardly worth notice; his name seems to have
been used to promote the sale of the "Engraven old Song;" and no one can
doubt that he would gladly have avowed a production which would have added
to his literary fame.

Whether the problem will ever be solved, seems very doubtful; but I am
disposed to think that the song belongs to a much earlier period, and that
it should be looked for amongst the works of those poets of whom Izaak
Walton has left us such agreeable reminiscences; and whose simplicity and
moral tone are in keeping with those sentiments of good feeling to which
"Winifreda" owes its principal attraction.


Audley End.

_Winifreda_ (Vol. iii., p. 27.).--LORD BRAYBROOKE has revived a Query which
I instituted above forty years ago (see _Gent.'s Magazine_ for 1808, vol.
lxxviii., Part I. p. 129.). The correspondent, C. K., who replied to my
letter in the same magazine, mentioned the appearance of this song in
Dodsley's _Letters on Taste_ (3rd edition, 1757.) These letters, being
edited by John Gilbert Cooper, doubtless led Aikin, in his collection of
songs, and Park, in his edition of Ritson's _English Songs_, to ascribe it
to Cooper. That writer speaks of it as an "old song," and with such warm
praise, that we may fairly suppose it was not his own production. C. K.
adds, from his own knowledge, that about the middle of the eighteenth
century, he well remembered a Welsh clergyman repeating the lines with
spirit and pathos, and asserting that they were written by a native of
Wales. The name of Winifreda gives countenance to this; and the publication
by David Lewis, in 1726, referred to by Bishop Percy, as that in which it
first {109} appeared, also connects the song with the principality. An
Edinburgh reviewer (vol. xi. p. 37.) says that it is "one of the love
songs" by Stephens (meaning George Steevens), a strange mistake, as the
poem appeared in print ten years before Steevens was born.

I notice this error for the purpose of asking your readers whether many
poems by this clever, witty, and mischievous writer exist, although not, to
use the words of the reviewer, "in a substantive or collective form?" "The
Frantic Lover," referred to in the _Edinburgh Review_, and considered by
his biographer as "superior to any similar production in the English
language," and the verses on Elinor Rummin, are the only two poems of
George Steevens which now occur to me; but two or three others are noticed
in Nichols's _Literary Anecdotes_ as his productions.

J. H. M.

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Did St. Paul's Clock strike Thirteen?_ (Vol. iii., p. 40.).--MR. CAMPKIN
will find some notice of the popular tradition to which he refers, in the
_Antiquarian Repertory_, originally published in 1775, and republished in
1807; but I doubt whether it will satisfactorily answer his inquiries.

I. H. M.

_By the bye_ (Vol. ii., p. 424.).--As no one of your correspondents has
answered the Query of J. R. N., as to the etymology and meaning of _by the
bye_ and _by and by_, I send you the following exposition; which I have
collected from Richardson's _Dictionary_, and the authorities there
referred to.

Spelman informs us, that in Norfolk there were in his time thirteen
villages with names ending in _by:_ this _By_ being a Danish word,
signifying "villa." That a _bye_-law, Dan. _by-lage_, is a law _peculiar_
to a villa. And thus we have the general application of _bye_ to any thing;
peculiar, private, indirect, as distinguished from the direct or main: as,
_bye-ways_, _bye-talk_, &c. &c. In the trial of Sir Walter Raleigh, _State
Trials_, James I., 1603, are these words:--

    "You are fools; you are on the _bye_, Raleigh and I are on the _main_.
    We mean to take away the king and his cubs."

Here the contradistinction is manifest. Lord Bacon and B. Jonson write,
_on_ the _by_; as if, on the way, in passing, indirectly:--

    "'There is, _upon_ the _by_, to be noted.'--'Those who have seluted
    poetry _on_ the _by_'--such being a collateral, and not the main object
    of pursuit."

This I think is clear and satisfactory.

_By and by_ is quite a different matter. Mr. Tyrwhitt, upon the line in

    "These were his words _by and by_."--_R. R._ 4581.

interprets "separately, distinctly;" and there are various other instances
in Chaucer admitting the same interpretation:--

 "Two yonge knightes ligging, _by and by_."--_Kn. T._, v. 1016.

 "His doughter had a bed all _by_ hireselve,
  Right in the same chambre _by and by_."--_The Reves T._, v. 4441.

So also in the "Floure and the Leafe," stanzas 9 and 24. The latter I will
quote, as it is much to the purpose:--

     "The semes (of the surcote) echon,
  As it were a maner garnishing,
  Was set with emerauds, _one and one_,
  _By and by_."

But there are more ancient usages, e.g. in R. Brunne, bearing also the same
interpretation. "The chartre was read ilk poynt _bi and bi_:" William had
taken the homage of barons "_bi_ and _bi_." He assayed (_i.e._ tried) "tham
(the horses) _bi and bi_."

Richardson's conception is, that there is a _subaudition_ in all these
expressions; and that the meaning is, by point and by point; by baron and
by baron; by horse and by horse: _one and one_, as Chaucer writes; each
_one_ separately, by _him_ or _it_-self. And thus, that _by and by_ may be
explained, _by_ one and _by_ one; distinctly, both in space or time. Our
modern usage is restricted to _time_, as, "I will do so _by and by_:" where
_by and by_ is equivalent to _anon_, _i.e._ in one (moment, instant, &c.).
And so--



_Clement's Inn_ (Vol. iii., p. 84.).--This inn was neither "a court of law"
nor "an inn of court," but "an inn of chancery;" according to the
distinction drawn by Sir John Fortescue, in his _De Laudibus Legum Angliæ_,
chap. xlix., written between 1460 and 1470.

The evidence of its antiquity is traced back to an earlier date than 1486;
for, according to Dugdale (_Orig._, p. 187.), in a _Record of Michaelmas_,
19 _Edward IV_., 1479, it is spoken of as then, and _diu ante_, an Inn
"hominum Curiæ Legis temporalis, necnon hominum Consiliariorum ejusdem

The early history of the Inns of Court and Chancery is involved in the
greatest obscurity; and it is difficult to account for the original
difference between the two denominations.

Any facts which your correspondents may be able to communicate on this
subject, or in reference to what were the _ten_ Inns of Chancery existing
in Fortescue's time, but not named by him, or relating to the history of
either of the Inns, whether of Court or Chancery, will be most gratefully
received by me, and be of important service at the present time, when I am
preparing {110} for the press my two next volumes of _The Judges of


Street-End House, near Canterbury.

_Words are men's daughters_ (Vol. iii., p. 38.).--I take this to be a
proverbial sentence. In the _Gnomologia_ of Fuller we have "Words are for
women; actions for men"--but there is a nearer approach to it in a letter
written by Sir Thomas Bodley to his librarian about the year 1604. He says,

    "Sir John Parker hath promised more than you have signified: but words
    are women, and deeds are men."

It was no doubt an adoption of the worthy knight, and I shall leave it to
others to trace out the true author--hoping it may never be ascribed to an
ancestor of


_Passage in St. Mark_ (Vol. iii., p. 8.).--Irenæus is considered the best
(if not the only) commentator among the very early Fathers upon those words
in Mark xiii. 32. "[Greek: oude ho huios?]" and though I cannot refer
CALMET further than to the author's works, he can trust the general
accuracy of the following translation:--

    "Our Lord himself," says he, "the Son of God, acknowledged that the
    Father only knew the day and hour of judgment, declaring expressly,
    that of that day and hour knoweth no one, neither the Son, but the
    Father only. Now, if the Son himself was not ashamed to leave the
    knowledge of that day to the Father, but plainly declared the truth;
    neither ought we to be ashamed to leave to God such questions as are
    too high for us. For if any one inquires why the Father, who
    communicates in all things to the Son, is yet by our Lord declared to
    know alone that day and hour, he cannot at present find any better, or
    more decent, or indeed any other safe answer at all, than this, that
    since our Lord is the only teacher of truth, we should learn of him,
    that the Father is above all; for the Son saith, 'He is greater than
    I.' The Father, therefore, is by Our Lord declared to be superior even
    in knowledge also; to this end, that we, while we continue in this
    world, may learn to acknowledge God only to have perfect knowledge, and
    leave such questions to him; and (put a stop to our presumption), lest
    curiously inquiring into the greatness of the Father, we run at last
    into so great a danger, as to ask whether even above God there be not
    another God."


"_And Coxcombs vanquish Berkeley by a Grin_" (Vol. i., p. 384.).--This line
is taken from Dr. Brown's _Essay on Satire_, part ii. v. 224. The entire
couplet is--

 "Truth's sacred fort th' exploded laugh shall win,
  And coxcombs vanquish Berkeley by a grin."

Dr. Brown's Essay is prefixed to Pope's "Essay on Man" in Warburton's
edition of Pope's _Works_. (See vol. iii. p. 15., edit. 1770, 8vo.)

_Dr. Trusler's Memoirs_ (Vol. iii., p. 61.).--The first part of Dr.
Trusler's _Memoirs_ (Bath, 1806), mentioned by your correspondent, but
which is not very scarce, is the only one published. I have the
continuation in the Doctor's _Autograph_, which is exceedingly entertaining
and curious, and full of anecdotes of his contemporaries. It is closely
written in two 8vo. volumes, and comprises 554 pages, and appears to have
been finally revised for publication. Why it never appeared I do not know.
He was a very extraordinary and ingenious man, and wrote upon everything,
from farriery to carving. With life in all its varieties he was perfectly
acquainted, and had personally known almost every eminent man of his day.
He had experienced every variety of fortune, but seems to have died in very
reduced circumstances. The _Sententiæ Variorum_ referred to by your
correspondent is, I presume, what was published under the title of--

    "Detached Philosophic Thoughts of near 300 of the best Writers, Ancient
    and Modern, on Man, Life, Death, and Immortality, systematically
    arranged under the Authors' Names." 2 vols. 12mo. 1810.


Manchester, Jan. 25. 1851.

       *       *       *       *       *



Dr. Latham seems to have adopted as his literary motto the dictum of the

 "The proper study of mankind is man."

We have recently had occasion to call the attention of our readers to his
learned and interesting volume entitled _The English Language_,--a work
which affords proof how deeply he has studied that remarkable
characteristic of our race, which Goldsmith wittily described as being
"given to man to conceal his thoughts." From the language to _The Natural
History of the Varieties of Man_, the transition is an easy one. The same
preliminary studies lead to a mastery of both divisions of this one great
subject: and having so lately seen how successfully Dr. Latham had pursued
his researches into the languages of the earth, we were quite prepared to
find, as we have done, the same learning, acumen, and philosophical spirit
of investigation leading to the same satisfactory results in this kindred,
but new field of inquiry. In paying a well-deserved tribute to his
predecessor, Dr. Prichard, whom he describes as "a physiologist among
physiologists, and a scholar among scholars,"--and his work as one "which,
by combining the historical, the philological, and the anatomical methods,
should command the attention of the naturalist, as well as of the
scholar,"--Dr. Latham has at once done justice to that distinguished man,
and expressed very neatly the opinion which will be entertained by the
great majority of his readers of his own acquirements, and of the merits of
this his last contribution to our stock of knowledge.

_The Family Almanack and Educational Register for_ 1851, with what its
editor justly describes as "its noble list of grammar schools," to a great
extent the "offspring of the English Reformation in the sixteenth {111}
century," will be a very acceptable book to every parent who belongs to the
middle classes of society; and who must feel that an endowed school, of
which the masters are bound to produce testimonials of moral and
intellectual fitness, presents the best security for the acquirement by his
sons of a solid, well-grounded education.

Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson will sell on Monday next, and three following
days, the valuable antiquarian, miscellaneous, and historical library of
the late Mr. Amyot. The collection contains all the best works on English
history, an important series of the valuable antiquarian publications of
Tom Hearne; the first, second, and fourth editions of Shakspeare, and an
extensive collection of Shakspeariana; and, in short, forms an admirably
selected library of early English history and literature.

_Catalogues Received_.--Cole (15. Great Turnstile) List, No. XXXII. of very
Cheap Books; W. Pedder (18. Holywell Street, Strand) Catalogue, Part I. for
1851, of Books Ancient and Modern; J. Wheldon (4. Paternoster Row)
Catalogue of a Valuable Collection of Scientific Books; W. Brown (130. Old
Street, London) Catalogue of English Books on Origin, Rise, Doctrines,
Rites, Policy, &c., of the Church of Rome, &c., the Reformation, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Odd Volumes_.


BIBLIOTHECA SPENCERIANA, Vol. IV., and Bassano Collection.

Scott's Novels and Romances, last series, 14 vols., 8vo.--The SURGEON'S

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

REPLIES RECEIVED. _Col. Hewson--True Blue--Plafery--Cockade--Warming
Pans--Memoirs of Elizabeth--Paternoster Tackling--Forged Papal Bulls--By
Hook or by Crook--Crossing Rivers on Skins--Fronte Capillatâ--Tandem
D. O. M.--Cranmer's Descendants--Histoire des Severambes--Singing of
Swans--Annoy--Queen Mary's Lament--Touching for the Evil--The
Conquest--Scandal against Elizabeth--Shipster--Queries on
Costume--Separation of Sexes in Church--Cum grano Salis--St. Paul's
Clock--Sir John Davis--Aver._

H. J. WEBB (_Birmingham_) _has our best thanks for the Paper he so kindly

NEMO. _The book wanted is reported. Will he send his address to Mr. Bell?_

U. U. C. _"A Roland for an Oliver" is explained in our Second Volume, p._

P. S. _We should gladly receive any such succinct yet correct and
comprehensive definitions of new terms in science, or new words in
literature, as our correspondent suggests. Will he kindly set the example?_

T. F. R. (_Oriel_). _What are the coins? In one part they are spoken of as
farthings, in another as sixpences._

K. R. H. M. _received. Next double number._

VOLUME THE SECOND OF NOTES AND QUERIES, _with very copious_ INDEX, _is now
ready, price 9s. 6d. strongly bound in cloth._ VOL. I. _is reprinted, and
may also be had at the same price._

NOTES AND QUERIES _may be procured, by order, of all Booksellers and
Newsvenders. It is published at noon on Friday, so_ _that our country
Subscribers ought not to experience any difficulty in procuring it
regularly. Many of the country Booksellers, &c., are, probably, not yet
aware of this arrangement, which will enable them to receive_ NOTES AND
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_All communications for the Editor of_ NOTES AND QUERIES _should be
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_Errata_.--No. 65. p.62. l. 25. for "_S_u_llustius_" read "_S_a_llustius_."
No. 66. p. 87. l. 3., for "in 8vo." read "in eights"; l. 55., erase the
comma after "tzelete,"; and for "M.CCCC." read "mcccc." In the same column
for "And" and "For" read "and" and "for." A similar correction may be made
in the preceding column, in which remove the comma after "style," and put a
small _a_ in "_Apostoli_." and a period at "Paris." P. 92. l. 24. for
"humble" read "durable."

       *       *       *       *       *




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EPISTOLÆ OBSCURORUM VIRORUM aliaque Ævi XVI. Monimenta rarissima. Edited by
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CORPUS IGNATIANUM; or, a Complete Body of the IGNATIAN EPISTLES: Genuine,
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       *       *       *       *       * {112}


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       *       *       *       *       *


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M.A., F.L.S. With Illustrations by WOLF. Post 8vo. Price 9s.

Illustrations. Post 8vo. 7s. 6d.

with Sir John Franklin. By ROBERT A. GOODSIR, late President of the Royal
Medical Society of Edinburgh. Post 8vo. With a Frontispiece and Map. Price
5s. 6d.

EVERY-DAY WONDERS; or, Facts in Physiology which all should know. With
Woodcuts. 16mo. 2s. 6d.

DOMESTIC SCENES in GREENLAND and ICELAND. With Woodcuts. Second Edition.
16mo. 2s.

INSTRUMENTA ECCLESIASTICA. Edited by the Ecclesiological, late Cambridge
Camden Society. Second Series. Parts 1 to 3, each 2s. 6d.

F.R.S., and SYLVANUS HANLEY, B.A., F.L.S. Parts 25 to 34. 8vo. 2s. 6d.
plain, or royal 8vo. coloured, 5s. each.

This work is a continuation of the series of "British Histories," of which
the Quadrupeds and Reptiles, by PROFESSOR BELL; the Birds and Fishes, by
MR. YARRELL; the Birds' Eggs, by MR. HEWITSON; the Starfishes, by PROFESSOR
FORBES; the Zoophytes, by DR. JOHNSTON; the Trees, by MR. SELBY; and the
Fossil Mammals and Birds, by PROFESSOR OWEN, are already published. Each
work is sold separately, and is perfectly distinct and complete in itself.

The PORTRAIT of PROFESSOR HARVEY, due to Purchasers of his "Manual of
British Marine Algæ," may now be had in exchange for the "Notice" prefixed
to the volume.

JOHN VAN VOORST, 1. Paternoster Row.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, February 8, 1851.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 67, February 8, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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