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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 68, February 15, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 68, February 15, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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generously made available by The Internet Library of Early



       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 68.]
[Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                   Page
  Defence of the Execution of Mary Queen of Scots, by
  J. Payne Collier                                            113
  "De Navorscher," by Bolton Corney                           114
  A Bidding at Weddings in Wales, by W. Spurrell              114
  Coleridge's "Religious Musings"                             115
  Folk Lore:--Lammer Beads--Engraved Warming-pans--Queen
  Elizabeth's Christening Cloth                               115
  Minor Notes:--The Breeches Bible--Origin of the
  present Race of English--True Blue--"By Hook or
  by Crook"--Record of Existing Monuments                     115

  Five Queries and Notes on Books, Men, and Authors           117
  Minor Queries:--The Witches' Prayer--Water-buckets
  given to Sheriffs--A Cracow Pike--Meaning
  of Waste-book--Machell's MS. Collections for
  Westmoreland and Cumberland--Decking Churches at
  Christmas--Coinage of Germany--Titles of Peers
  who are Bishops--At Sixes and Sevens--Shaking
  Hands--George Steevens--Extradition--Singing of
  Metrical Psalms and Hymns in Churches--Ormonde
  Portraits--Tradescant--Arthur's Seat and Salisbury
  Craigs--Lincoln Missal                                      118

  Meaning of Eisell, by Samuel Hickson and S. W. Singer       119
  Descent of Henry IV.                                        120
  Fossil Elk of Ireland                                       121
  Replies to Minor Queries:--Coverdale Bible--Epitaph--
  Probabilism--Old Hewson the Cobbler--Rodolph
  Gualter--Burning the Hill--"Fronte capillata," &c.--Time
  when Herodotus wrote--Herstmonceux Castle--Camden
  and Curwen Families--Joan Sanderson, or the Cushion
  Dance--North Sides of Churchyards--"Antiquitas
  Sæculi Juventus Mundi"--Umbrella--Form
  of Prayer at the Healing                                    122

  Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                      126
  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                127
  Notices to Correspondents                                   127
  Advertisements                                              127

       *       *       *       *       *



Allow me to supply a deficiency in my last volume of _Extracts from the
Registers of the Stationers' Company_, printed by the Shakspeare Society.
It occurs at p. 224., in reference to an entry of 11th Feb., 1587, in the
following terms:

    "John Wyndett. Lycensed alsoe to him, under the B. of London hand and
    Mr. Denham, An Analogie or Resemblance betweene Johane, Queene of
    Naples, and Marye, Queene of Scotland."

In the note appended to this entry I point out a mistake by Herbert (ii.
1126. of his _History of Printing_), who fancied that the _Defence of the
Execution of Mary Queen of Scots_, and Kyffin's _Blessedness of Britain_,
were the same work; and I add that "the _Analogy_ here entered is not
recorded among the productions of John Windet's press." This is true; but
Mr. David Laing, of Edinburgh, has kindly taken the trouble to send me, all
the way from Scotland, a very rare volume, which proves that the _Analogy_
in question was printed by Windet in consequence of the registration, and
that it was, in fact, part of a volume which that printer put forth under
the following title:

    "A Defence of the Honorable Sentence of Execution of the Queene of
    Scots: exampled with Analogies, and Diverse Presidents of Emperors,
    Kings, and Popes. With the Opinions of learned Men in the Point, &c.;
    together with the Answere to certaine Objections made by the favourites
    of the late Scottish Queene, &c. At London, printed by John Windet."

It has no date: but it may be supplied by the entry at Stationer's Hall,
and by the subject of the volume. The first chapter of the work is headed
"An Analogie or Resemblance betweene Ione, queene of Naples, and Marie,
queene of Scotland," which are the terms of the entry; and the probability
seems to be, that when Windet took, or sent, it to be licensed, the book
had no other title, and that the clerk adopted the heading of the first
chapter as that of the whole volume. It consists, in fact, of eight
chapters, besides a "conclusion," and a sort of supplement, with distinct
signatures (beginning with D, and possibly originally forming part of some
other work), of Babington's letter to Mary, her letter to Babington, the
heads of a letter from Mary to Bernardin Mendoza, and "points" out of other
letters, subscribed by Curle. The whole is a very interesting collection in
relation to the history and end of Mary Queen of Scots; but nobody who had
not seen the book could be aware that the entry in the Stationers'
Registers, of "_An Analogie_," &c., applied to this general _Defence_ of
her execution. The manner in which the "analogy" is made out may be seen by
the two first paragraphs, which your readers may like to see quoted:--

    "Ione, Queene of Naples, being in love with the Duke of Tarent, caused
    her husband Andrasius (or, as {114} some terme him, Andreas), King of
    Naples (whom she little favoured), to be strangled, in the yeare of our
    Lord God 1348."

    "Marie, Queene of Scotland, being (as appeareth by the Chronicles of
    Scotlande and hir owne letters) in love with the Earle of Bothwell,
    caused hir husband, Henrie Lorde Darley, King of Scotland (whome she
    made small account of long time before) to be strangled, and the house
    where he lodged, called Kirk of Fielde, to be blowen up with gunpowder,
    the 10th of Februarie in the yeare of our Lord God 1567."

In this way the analogy is pursued through twelve pages; but, for my
present purpose, it is not necessary to extract more of it. I beg leave
publicly to express my thanks to Mr. Laing for thus enabling me to furnish
information which I should have been glad to supply, had it been in my
power, when I prepared volume ii. of _Extracts from the Stationers'


       *       *       *       *       *


An idea recorded in 1841, is to be realized in 1851--which promises, in
various ways, to be the _annus mirabilis_!

In an appeal to residents at Paris for a transcript of certain inedited
notes on Jean Paul Marana, which are preserved in the _bibliothèque
royale_, I made this remark:--

    "If men of letters, of whatever nation, were more disposed to
    interchange commodities in such a manner, the beneficial effects of it
    in promoting mutual riches, would soon become visible."--_Gent. Mag._
    XV. 270. N. S.

The appeal was unsuccessful, and I could not but ascribe the failure of it
to the want of a convenient channel of communication. A remedy is now
provided--thanks to the example set at home, and the enterprising spirit of
Mr. Frederik Muller of Amsterdam.

We contemplate Holland as the school of classical and oriental literature,
and as the _studio_ of painters and engravers; we admire her delicate
Elzevirs and her magnificent folios; we commend her for the establishment
of public libraries, _made available by printed catalogues_; we do justice
to the discoveries of her early navigators; but we had scarcely heard of
her vernacular literature before the publications of Bosworth, and Bowring.

As M. Van Kampen observes, "La litérature hollandaise est presque inconnue
aux étrangers à cause de la langue peu répandue qui lui sert d'organe."
Under such circumstances it may be presumed that many a query will now be
made, and many a new fact elicited. We may expect, by the means of _De
Navorscher_, the further gratification of rational curiosity, and the
improvement of historical and bibliographic literature.

In assuming that some slight credit may be due to one who gives public
expression to a novel and plausible idea, it may become me to declare that
I renounce all claim to the substantial merit of having devised the means
of carrying it into effect.


       *       *       *       *       *


The practice of "making a bidding" and sending "bidding letters," of which
the following is a specimen, is so general in most parts of Wales, that
printers usually keep the form in type, and make alteration in it as
occasion requires. The custom is confined to servants and mechanics in
towns; but in the country, farmers of the humbler sort make biddings. Of
late years tea parties have in Carmarthen been substituted for the bidding;
but persons attending pay for what they get, and so incur no obligation;
but givers at a bidding are expected and generally do return "all gifts of
the above nature whenever called for on a similar occasion." When a bidding
is made, it is usual for a large procession to accompany the young couple
to church, and thence to the house where the bidding is held. Accompanying
is considered an addition to the obligation conferred by the gift. I have
seen, I dare say, six hundred persons in a wedding procession, and have
been in one or two myself (when a child). The men walk together and the
women together to church; but in returning they walk in pairs, or often in
trios, one man between two women. The last time I was at such a wedding I
had three strapping wenches attached to my person. In the country they
ride, and generally there is a desperate race home to the bidding, where
you would be surprised to see a comely lass, with Welsh hat on head and
ordinary dress, often take the lead of fifty or a hundred smart fellows
over rough roads that would shake your Astley riders out of their seats and

    "Carmarthen, October 2. 1850.

    "As we intend to enter the Matrimonial State, on Tuesday, the 22nd of
    October instant, we are encouraged by our Friends to make a Bidding on
    the occasion the same day, at the New Market House, near the Market
    Place; when and where the favour of your good and agreeable company is
    respectfully solicited, and whatever donation you may be pleased to
    confer on us then, will be thankfully received, warmly acknowledged,
    and cheerfully repaid whenever called for on a similar occasion,

    By your most obedient Servants, HENRY JONES, (Shoemaker,) ELIZA DAVIES.

    "The Young Man, his Father (John Jones, Shoemaker), his Sister (Mary
    Jones), his Grandmother (Nurse Jones), his Uncle and Aunt (George
    Jones, {115} Painter, and Mary, his wife), and his Aunt (Elizabeth
    Rees), desire that all gifts due to them be returned to the Young Man
    on the above day, and will be thankful for all additional favours.

    "The Young Woman, her Father and Mother (Evan Davies, Pig-drover, and
    Margaret, his wife), and her Brother and Sisters (John, Hannah, Jane,
    and Anne Davies), desire that all gifts of the above nature due to them
    be returned to the Young Woman on the above day, and will be thankful
    for all additional favours conferred."


       *       *       *       *       *


Some readers of "NOTES AND QUERIES" may be interested in a reading of a few
lines in this poem which varies from that given in Pickering's edition of
the _Poems_, 1844. In that edition the verses I refer to stand thus (p.

 "For in his own, and in his Father's might,
  The Saviour comes! While as the Thousand Years
  Lead up their mystic dance, the Desert shouts!
  Old Ocean claps his hands! The mighty Dead
  Rise to new life, whoe'er from earliest time
  With conscious zeal had urged Love's wondrous plan,
  Coadjutors of God."

I happen to be in possession of these lines as originally written, in
Coleridge's own hand, on a detached piece of paper. It will be seen that
they have been much altered in the printed edition above cited. I am now
copying from Coleridge's autograph:

 "For in his own, and in his Father's Might,
  Heaven blazing in his train, the SAVIOUR comes!
  To solemn symphonies of Truth and Love
  The THOUSAND YEARS lead up their mystic dance.
  Old Ocean claps his hands, the Desert shouts,
  And vernal Breezes wafting seraph sounds
  Melt the primæval North. The Mighty Dead
  Rise from their tombs, whoe'e[r] from earliest time
  With conscious zeal had aided the vast plan
  Of Love Almighty."

The variations of the printed poem from this MS. fragment appear to me of
sufficient importance to warrant my supposition that many readers and
admirers of Coleridge may be glad to have the original text restored.

H. G. T.


       *       *       *       *       *


_Lammer Beads_--Lammer, or Lama beads are so called from an order of
priests of that name among the western Tartars. The Lamas are extremely
superstitious, and pretend to magic. Amber was in high repute as a charm
during the plague of London, and was worn by prelates of the Church. John
Baptist Van Helmont (_Ternary of Paradoxes_, London, 1650) says, that

    "A translucid piece of amber rubbed on the jugular artery, on the hand
    wrists, near the instep, and on the throne of the heart, and then hung
    about the neck,"

was a most certain preventative of (if not a cure for) the plague; the
profound success of which Van Helmont attributes to its magnetic or
sympathetic virtue.


       *       *       *       *       *

_Engraved Warming-pans_.--Allow me to add another illustration to the list
furnished by H. G. T., p. 84. One which I purchased a few years ago of a
cottager at Shotover, in Oxfordshire, has the royal arms surmounted by
C. R., and surrounded by


The lid and pan are of brass, the handle of iron.


       *       *       *       *       *

_Queen Elizabeth's Christening Cloth_.--The mention (in the first No. of
your 3rd Vol.) of some damasked linen which belonged to James II. reminds
me of a relic which I possess, and the description of which may interest
some of your readers.

It is the half of Queen Elizabeth's christening cloth, which came into my
possession through a Mrs. Goodwin. A scrap of paper which accompanies it
gives the following account of it:

    "It was given by an old lady to Mrs. Goodwin; she obtained it from one
    of the Strafford family, who was an attendant upon the Queen. The other
    half Mrs. Goodwin has seen at High Fernby, in Yorkshire, a place
    belonging to the family of the Rooks, in high preservation. In its
    original state, it was lined with a rose-coloured lutestring, with a
    flounce of the same about a quarter deep. The old lady being very
    notable, found some use for the silk, and used to cover the china which
    stood in the best parlour with this remains of antiquity."

The christening cloth is of a thread net, worked in with blue and yellow
silk, and gold cord. It must have been once very handsome, but is now
somewhat the worse for wear and time. It is about 2½ feet wide and 3½ feet
in length, so that the entire length must have been about 7 feet.

Can any one inform me whether the remaining half of this interesting relic
STILL exists; as the notice attached to it, and mentioning its locality,
must now be fifty years old at least?

H. A. B.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_The Breeches Bible_.--The able and interesting article on the Breeches
Bible which appeared in a late number of "NOTES AND QUERIES" (Vol. iii., p.
17.) is calculated to remove the deep-rooted popular error which affixes
great pecuniary value to {116} every edition of the Bible in which the
words "made themselves breeches" are to be found, by showing that such
Bibles are generally only worth about as many shillings as they are
supposed to be worth pounds. It is worth noting, with reference to this
translation, that in the valuable early English version, known as
Wickliffe's Bible, just published by the university of Oxford, the passage
in Genesis (cap. iii. v. 7.) is translated "thei soweden togidre leeues of
a fige tree and maden hem brechis."


_Origin of the present Race of English._--In Southey's _Letters of
Espriella_ (Letter xxiv., p. 274., 3rd edit.), there is a remark, that the
dark hair of the English people, as compared with the Northern Germans,
seems to indicate a considerable admixture of southern blood. Now, in all
modern ethnological works, this fact of present complexion seems to be
entirely overlooked. But it is a fact, and deserves attention. Either it is
the effect of climate, in which case the moral as well as the physical man
must have altered from the original stock, or it arises from there being
more "ungerman" blood flowing in English veins than is acknowledged. May I
hazard a few conjectures?

1. Are we not apt to underrate the number of Romanised Celts remaining in
England after the Saxon Conquest? The victors would surely enslave a vast
multitude, and marry many Celtic women; while those who fled at the first
danger would gradually return to their old haunts. Under such
circumstances, that the language should have been changed is no wonder.

2. Long before the Norman Conquest there was a great intercourse between
England and France, and many settlers from the latter country came over
here. This, by the way, may account for that gradual change of the
Anglo-Saxon language mentioned as observable prior to the Conquest.

3. The army of the Conqueror was recruited from all parts of France, and
was not simply Norman. When the men who composed it came into possession of
this country, they clearly must have sent home for their wives and
families; and many who took no part in the invasion no doubt came to share
the spoils. Taking this into account, we shall find the Norman part of the
population to have borne no small proportion to the _then_ inhabitants of
England. It is important to bear in mind the probable increase of
population since 1066 A.D.


_True Blue._--I find the following account of this phrase in my note-book,
but I cannot at present say whence I obtained it:--

    "The first assumption of the phrase 'true blue' was by the Covenanters
    in opposition to the scarlet badge of Charles I., and hence it was
    taken by the troops of Leslie in 1639. The adoption of the colour was
    one of those religious pedantries in which the Covenanters affected a
    Pharisaical observance of the scriptural letter and the usages of the
    Hebrews; and thus, as they named their children Habakkuk and
    Zerubbabel, and their chapels Zion and Ebenezer, they decorated their
    persons with blue ribbons because the following sumptuary precept was
    given in the law of Moses:--

    "'Speak to the children of Israel, and tell them to make to themselves
    fringes on the borders of their garments, putting in them ribbons of
    blue.'"--_Numb._ xv. 38.

E. L. N.

"_By Hook or by Crook._"--The destruction caused by the Fire of London,
A.D. 1666, during which some 13,200 houses, &c., were burnt down, in very
many cases obliterated all the boundary-marks requisite to determine the
extent of land, and even the very sites occupied by buildings, previously
to this terrible visitation. When the rubbish was removed, and the land
cleared, the disputes and entangled claims of those whose houses had been
destroyed, both as to the position and extent of their property, promised
not only interminable occupation to the courts of law, but made the far
more serious evil of delaying the rebuilding of the city, until these
disputes were settled, inevitable. Impelled by the necessity of coming to a
more speedy settlement of their respective claims than could be hoped for
from legal process, it was determined that the claims and interests of all
persons concerned should be referred to the judgment and decision of two of
the most experienced land-surveyors of that day,--men who had been
thoroughly acquainted with London previously to the fire; and in order to
escape from the numerous and vast evils which mere delay must occasion,
that the decision of these two arbitrators should be final and binding. The
surveyors appointed to determine the rights of the various claimants were
Mr. Hook and Mr. Crook, who by the justice of their decisions gave general
satisfaction to the interested parties, and by their speedy determination
of the different claims, permitted the rebuilding of the city to proceed
without the least delay. Hence arose the saying above quoted, usually
applied to the extrication of persons or things from a difficulty. The
above anecdote was told the other evening by an old citizen upwards of
eighty, by no means of an imaginative temperament.

J. D. S.

Putney, Feb. 1. 1851.

    [We insert the above, as one of the many explanations which have been
    given of this very popular phrase--although we believe the correct
    origin to be the right of taking _fire-bote by hook or by crook_. See
    NOTES AND QUERIES, Vol. i., pp. 281. and 405.]

_Record of Existing Monuments._--I have some time since read your remarks
in Vol. iii., p. 14. of "NOTES AND QUERIES," on the Rev. J. Hewett's
_Monumentarum_ of Exeter Cathedral, and intend in {117} a short time to
follow the advice you have there given to "superabundant brass-rubbers," of
copying the inscriptions in the churches and churchyards of the hundred of
Manley. The plan I intend to pursue is, to copy in full every inscription
of an earlier date than 1750; also, all more modern ones which are in any
way remarkable as relating to distinguished persons, or containing any
peculiarity worthy of note. The rest I shall reduce into a tabular form.

The inscriptions of each church I shall arrange chronologically, and form
an alphabetical index to each inscription in the hundred.

By this means I flatter myself a great mass of valuable matter may be
accumulated, a transcript of which may not be entirely unworthy of a place
on the shelves of the British Museum.

I have taken the liberty of informing you of my intention, and beg that if
you can suggest to me any plan which is better calculated for the purpose
than the one I have described, you will do so.

Would it not be possible, if a few persons in each county were to begin to
copy the inscriptions on the plan that I have described, that in process of
time a copy of every inscription in every church in England might be ready
for reference in our national library?

Perhaps you will have the goodness, if you know of any one who like myself
is about to undertake the task of copying inscriptions in his own
neighbourhood, to inform me, that I may communicate with him, so that, if
possible, our plans may be in unison.


Bottesford Moors, Messingham, Kirton Lindsey.

    [We trust the example set by Mr. Hewett, and now about to be followed
    by our correspondent, is destined to find many imitators.]

       *       *       *       *       *



1. _Newburgh Hamilton_.--Can any of your readers inform me who Newburgh
Hamilton was? He wrote two pieces in my library, viz. (1.) _Petticoat
Plotter_, a farce in two acts; acted at Drury Lane and Lincoln's Inn
Fields, London, 1720, 12mo. This has been mutilated by Henry Ward, a York
comedian, and actually printed by him as his _own_ production, in the
collection of plays and poems going under his name, published in 1745,
8vo., a copy of which I purchased at Nassau's sale, many years since. (2.)
_The Doating Lovers, or the Libertine Tamed_, a comedy in five acts; acted
in Lincoln's Inn Fields. It is dedicated to the Duchess of Hamilton and
Brandon, whose "elegant taste and nice judgment in the most polite
entertainments of the age," as well as her "piercing wit," are eulogised.
Accident gave me a copy of Mr. Hamilton's book-plate, which consists of the
crest and motto of the ducal race of Hamilton in a very curious
framework,--the top being a row of music-books, whilst the sides and bottom
are decorated with musical instruments, indicative, probably, of the tastes
of Mr. Hamilton.

2. _The Children's Petition._--I have also a very extraordinary little
book, of which I never saw another copy. It formerly belonged to Michael
Lort, and is entitled

    "The Children's Petition, or a Modest Remonstrance of that Intolerable
    Grievance our Youth lie under, in the accustomed Severities of the
    School Discipline of this Nation. Humbly presented to the Consideration
    of the Parliament. Licensed Nov. 10. 1669, by Roger L'Estrange. London,
    1669. 18mo."

The object of this most singular production is to put down the flagellation
of boys in that particular part of the body wherein honour is said to be
placed; and the arguments adduced are not very easily answered. The author,
whoever he was, had reason, as well as learning, on his side. I am not
aware of any other copy north the Tweed; but there may be copies in some of
the libraries south of that river.

3. _Dr. Anthony Horneck._--Do any of the letters of the once celebrated Dr.
Anthony Horneck exist in any library, public or private? His only daughter
married Mr. Barneveldt; and his son, who served with Marlborough, left
issue, which failed in the male line, but still exists in the female line,
in the representative of Henry William Bunting, Esq., the caricaturist. The
writer of these Queries is the direct descendant of Mrs. Barneveldt, and is
anxious to know whether any unpublished MSS. of his ancestors still exist.
There was a Philip Horneck who in 1709 published an ode inscribed to his
excellency the Earl of Wharton, wherein he is described as LL.B., a copy of
which I have. There can be no doubt he is the individual introduced by Pope
in the _Dunciad_, book iii. line 152.; but what I wish to know is, whether
he was a son of Dr. Horneck, and a brother of the general.

4. In Clifford's _History of the Paul of Tixall_, the name of the real
author of _Gaudentio di Lucca_ is given. Every reliance may be attached to
the accuracy of the information there given, not only on account of the
undoubted respectability of the author, but from the evident means of
knowledge which he, as a Roman Catholic of distinction, must have had.

5. _The Travels of Baron Munchausen_ were written to ridicule Bruce, the
Abyssinian traveller, whose adventures were at the time deemed fictitious.
Bruce was a most upright, honest man, and recorded nothing but what he had
seen; nevertheless, as is always the case, a host of detractors buzzed
about him, and he was so much vexed at the impeachment of his veracity,
that he let them get their own way. Munchausen, a veritable {118} name--the
real possessor of which died in October, 1817--was assumed, and poor Bruce
was travestied very cleverly, but most unjustly. The real author has not
been ascertained; but at one time it was believed to have been James
Grahame, afterwards a Scotch barrister, and author of a poem of much
beauty, called _The Sabbath_. Circumstances which came to my knowledge,
coupled with the exceedingly loveable character of Grahame, render this
belief now incredible; but undoubtedly he knew who the real author was. The
copy in my library is in two volumes: the _first_, said to be the second
edition, "considerably enlarged, and ornamented with twenty explanatory
engravings from original designs," is entitled _Gulliver Revived: or the
Vice of Lying properly exposed_, and was printed for the Kearsleys, at
London, 1793. The _second_ volume is called _A Sequel to the Adventures of
Baron Munchausen_, and is described as "a new edition, with twenty capital
copperplates, including the Baron's portrait; humbly dedicated to Mr.
Bruce, the Abyssinian traveller," was published by H. D. Symonds,
Paternoster Row, 1796. I had for years sought for an original copy of this
very singular work, and I at last was so successful as to purchase the one
above described, which had been picked up by a bookseller at the sale of
some books originally forming part of the library at Hoddam Castle.

On looking over a copy of Sir John Mandeville,

    "Printed for J. Osborne, near Dockhead, Southwark; and James Hodges, at
    the Looking Glass, on London Bridge:"

I observe he gives--at least there--no account whatever of his
peregrinations to the polar regions; and the notion of ascribing to him the
story of the frozen words is preposterous. I have not in my library, but
have read, the best edition of Sir John's _Travels_ (I don't mean the
abominable reprint), but I do not remember anything of the kind there.
Indeed Sir John, like Marco Polo, was perfectly honest, though some of
their informants may not have been so.

J. ME.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_The Witches' Prayer._--Can you inform me where I can find the epigram
alluded to by Addison, in No. 61. of the _Spectator_, as "The Witches'
Prayer," which falls into verse either way, only that it reads "cursing"
one way, and "blessing" the other? Or is the epigram only a creation of the
pleasing author's fertile imagination?


St. John's Wood.

_Water-buckets given to Sheriffs._--Can any of your readers inform me the
origin of the delivery of water-buckets, glazed and painted with the city
arms, given to the sheriffs of London and Middlesex at the expiration of
the year of their shrievalty?

J. B. K.


_A Cracow Pike._--Can any of your readers tell me what _a Cracow pike_ is?
I have searched Meyrick's works on _Ancient Armour_ without finding any
notice of such a weapon; but as those works have no indexes one cannot be
certain that there may not be some mention of it. I shall be obliged by a
description of the Cracow pike, or a reference to any authorities
mentioning it, or its use.

I. H. T.

_Meaning of Waste Book._--Can you or any of your readers inform me the
origin of the term used in book-keeping, viz., _"Waste" book_?

I am the book-keeper and cashier in an extensive firm, and I know there is
very little _wasted_ that goes into our books bearing that name.


_Machell's MS. Collections for Westmoreland and Cumberland._--In the
library of the dean and chapter at Carlisle, are preserved six volumes in
folio, which purport to be _Collections for the History of Westmoreland and
Cumberland, made in the Reign of Charles II., by the Reverend Thomas
Machell_. Have these collections been carefully examined, and their
contents made use of in any topographical publication?


_Decking Churches at Christmas._--Does the custom of dressing the churches
at Christmas with holly, and other evergreens, prevail in any country
besides England?


_Coinage of Germany._--I should wish to be referred to the names of the
principal works on the coinage of Germany; not merely the imperial, but
that of sovereign prelates, abbeys, &c., that struck money.

A. N.

_Titles of Peers who are Bishops_ (Vol. iii., p. 23.).--Why is Lord Crewe
always called so, and not Bishop of Durham, considering his spiritual
precedency? Was not Lord Bristol (who was an Earl) always called Bishop of


_At Sixes and Sevens._--Shakspeare uses the well-known adage--"at sixes and
sevens;" Bacon, Hudibras, Arbuthnot, Swift, all use the proverb. Why should
sixes and sevens be more congruous with disorder than "twos and threes?"
and whence comes the saying?

D. C.

_Shaking Hands._--What is the origin of the custom of _shaking hands_ in
token of friendship? And were the _clasped hands_ (now the common symbol of
Benefit Clubs) ever used as a signet, prior to their adoption as such by
the early Christians in their wedding rings; or, did these rings {119} bear
any other motto, or posy, than "Fides annulus castus" (i. e. _simplex et
sine gemmâ_)?


_George Steevens._--Can any of your readers inform me whether a memoir of
George Steevens, the Shakspearian commentator, ever was published? Of
course I have seen the biographical sketch in the _Gentleman's Magazine_,
the paragraph in Nichols' _Anecdotes_, and many like incidental notices.
Steevens, who died in January, 1800, left the bulk of his property to his
cousin, Miss Elizabeth Steevens, of Poplar; and as there is no reservation
nor special bequest in the will, I presume she took possession of his books
and manuscripts. The books were sold by auction; but what has become of the

A. Z.

_Extradition._--The discussion which was occasioned, some time ago, by the
sudden transference of the word _extradition_ into our diplomatic
phraseology, must be still in the recollection of your readers. Some were
opposed to this change on the ground that _extradition_ is not English;
others justified its adoption, for the very reason that we have no
corresponding term for it; and one gentleman resolved the question by
urging that, "si le mot n'est pas Anglais, il mérite de l'être." I believe
there is no reference in "NOTES AND QUERIES" to this controversy; nor do I
now refer to it with any intention of reviving discussion on a point which
seems to have been set at rest by the acquiescence of public opinion. I
wish merely to put one or two Queries, which have been suggested to me by
the _fact_ that _extradition_ is now generally employed as an English word.

1. Is there any contingency in which the meaning of the word _extradition_
may not be sufficiently expressed by the verb _to deliver up_, or the
substantive _restitution_?

2. If so, how has its place been supplied heretofore in our diplomatic


St. Lucia, Dec. 1850.

_Singing of Metrical Psalms and Hymns in Churches._--1. When and how did
the custom of singing metrical psalms and hymns in churches originate? 2.
By what authority was it sanctioned? 3. At what parts of the service were
these psalms and hymns directed to be introduced? 4. Was this custom
contemplated by the compilers of the Book of Common Prayer?


_Ormonde Portraits._--I shall feel much obliged by information on the
following points:--

1. Whether _any_ portrait of Thomas Earl of Ormonde has been published? He
died in the year 1614.

2. _How many_ engraved portraits of Thomas, the famous Lord Ossory, have
been issued? their dates, and the engravers' names.

3. _How many_ engraved portraits of the first and second Dukes of Ormonde,
respectively, have appeared? their dates, and engravers' names.


Kilkenny, Jan. 31. 1851.

_Tradescant._--In the inscription on the tomb of the Tradescants in Lambeth
churchyard, which it is proposed to restore as soon as possible, these two
lines occur:

 "These famous antiquarians, that had been
  Both gardeners to the Rose and Lily queen."

Can any of your readers inform me _when_ the elder Tradescant came over to
England, and when he was appointed royal gardener? Was it not in the reign
of Elizabeth?

J. C. B.


_Arthur's Seat and Salisbury Craigs._--L. M. M. R. is very anxious to be
informed as to the origin of the name of Arthur's Seat and Salisbury
Craigs, the well-known hill and rocks close to Edinburgh.

_Lincoln Missal._--Is a manuscript of the missal, according to the use of
the church of Lincoln, known to exist? and, if so, where may it be seen?


       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. iii., p. 66.)

I must beg a very small portion of your space to reply to your
correspondent H. K. S. C., who criticises so pleasantly my remarks on the
meaning of "eisell." The question is: Does the meaning MR. SINGER attaches
to this word require in the passage cited the expression of quantity to
make it definite? I am disposed to think that a definite quantity may be
sometimes understood, in a well-defined act, although it be _not_
expressed. On the other hand, your correspondent should know that English
idiom requires that the name of a river should be preceded by the definite
article, unless it be personified; and that whenever it is used without the
article, it is represented by the personal pronoun _he_. Though a man were
able "to drink _the Thames_ dry," he could no more "drink up _Thames_" than
he could drink up _Neptune_, or the sea-serpent, or do any other impossible

I observed before, that "the notion of drinking up a river would be both
unmeaning and out of place." I said this, with the conviction that there
was a purpose in everything that Shakspeare wrote; and being still of this
persuasion, allow me to protest against the terms "mere verbiage" and
"extravagant rant," which your correspondent applies to the passage in
question. The poet does not present common things as they appear to all
men. Shakspeare's art was equally great, {120} whether he spoke with the
tongues of madmen or philosophers. H. K. S. C. cannot conceive why each
feat of daring should be a tame possibility, save only the last; but I say
that they are _all_ possible; that it was a daring to do not impossible but
extravagant feats. As far as quantity is concerned, to eat a crocodile
would be more than to eat an ox. Crocodile may be a very delicate meat, for
anything I know to the contrary; but I must confess it appears to me to be
introduced as something loathsome or repulsive, and (on the poet's part) to
cap the absurdity of the preceding feat. The use made by other writers of a
passage is one of the most valuable kinds of comment. In a burlesque some
years ago, I recollect a passage was brought to a climax with the very
words, "Wilt eat a crocodile?" The immediate and natural response
was--_not_ "the thing's impossible!" but--"you nasty beast!" What a descent
then from the drinking up of a river to a merely disagreeable repast. In
the one case the object is clear and intelligible, and the last feat is
suggested by the not so difficult but little less extravagant preceding
one; in the other, each is unmeaning (in reference to the speaker),
unsuggested, and, unconnected with the other; and, regarding the order an
artist would observe, out of place.


St. John's Wood, Jan. 27. 1851.

P.S. In replying to Mr. G. STEPHENS, in reference to the meaning of a
passage in the _Tempest_, I expressed a wish that he would give the meaning
of what he called a "common ellipsis" "stated _at full_." This stands in
your columns (Vol. ii., p. 499.) "at first," in which expression I am
afraid he would be puzzled to find any meaning.

       *       *       *       *       *

I might safely leave H. K. S. C. to the same gentle correction bestowed
upon a neighbour of his at Brixton some time since, by MR. HICKSON, but I
must not allow him to support his dogmatic and flippant hypercriticism by
falsehood and unfounded insinuation, and I therefore beg leave to assure
him that I have no claim to the enviable distinction of being designated as
the friend of MR. HICKSON, to whom I am an utter stranger, having never
seen him, and knowing nothing of that gentleman but what his very valuable
communications to your publication conveys.

I have further to complain of the want of truth in the very first paragraph
of your correspondent's note: the question respecting the meaning of
"Eisell" does _not_ "remain substantially where Steevens and Malone left
it;" for I have at least shown that _Eisell_ meant _Wormwood_, and that
Shakspeare has elsewhere undoubtedly used it in that sense.

Again: the remark about the fashion of extravagant feats, such as
swallowing nauseous draughts in honour of a mistress, was quite uncalled
for. Your correspondent would insinuate that I attribute to Shakspeare's
time "what in reality belongs to the age of Du Guesclin and the
Troubadours." Does he mean to infer that it did not in reality equally
belong to Shakspeare's age? or that I was ignorant of its earlier

The purport of such remarks is but too obvious; but he may rest assured
that they will not tend to strengthen his argument, if argument it can be
called, for I must confess I do not understand what he means by his
"definite quantity." But the phrase _drink up_ is his stalking-horse; and
as he is no doubt familiar with the _Nursery Rhymes_[1], a passage in

 "Eat up your cake, Jenny,
  _Drink up_ your wine."

may perhaps afford him further apt illustration.

The proverb tells us "It is dangerous playing with edge tools," and so it
is with bad puns: he has shown himself an unskilful engineer in the use of
MR. HICKSON's canon, with which he was to have "blown up" MR. HICKSON's
argument and my proposition; with what success may be fairly left to the
judgment of your readers. I will, however, give him another canon, which
may be of use to him on some future occasion: "When a probable solution of
a difficulty is to be found by a parallelism in the poet's pages, it is
better to adopt it than to charge him with a blunder of our own creating."

The allusion to "breaking Priscian's head" reminds one of the remark of a
witty friend on a similar occasion, that "there are some heads not easily
broken, but the owners of them have often the fatuity to run them against
stumbling-blocks of their own making."


[Footnote 1: _Nursery Rhymes_, edited by James Orchard Halliwell, Esq., F.
R. S., &c.]

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ii., p. 375.)

Under the head of "Descent of Edward IV.," S. A. Y. asks for information
concerning "a popular, though probably groundless tradition," by which that
prince sought to prove his title to the throne of England. S. A. Y., or his
authority, Professor Millar, is mistaken in ascribing it to Edward IV.--it
was Henry IV. who so sought to establish his claim.

    "Upon Richard II.'s resignation ... Henry, Duke of Lancaster, having
    then a large army in the kingdom ... it was impossible for any other
    title to be asserted with safety, and he became king under the title of
    Henry IV. He was, nevertheless, not admitted to the crown until he had
    declared that he {121} claimed, not as a conqueror (which he was much
    inclined to do), but as a successor descended by right line of the
    blood royal.... And in order to this he set up a show of two titles:
    the one upon the pretence of being the first of the blood royal of the
    entire male line; whereas the Duke of Clarence (Lionel, elder brother
    of John of Gaunt) left only one daughter, Philippa: the other, by
    reviving an exploded rumour, first propagated by John of Gaunt, that
    Edmond Earl of Lancaster (to whom Henry's mother was heiress) was in
    reality the elder brother of King Edward I., though his parents, on
    account of his personal deformity, had imposed him on the world for the
    younger."--Blackstone's _Commentaries_, book i. ch. iii. p. 203. of
    edit. 1787.

This Edmond, Earl of Lancaster, was succeeded by his son Thomas, who in the
fifteenth year of the reign of Edward II. was attainted of high treason. In
the first of Edward III. his attainder was reversed, and his son Henry
inherited his titles, and subsequently was created Duke of Lancaster.
Blanche, daughter of Henry, first Duke of Lancaster, subsequently became
his heir, and was second wife to John of Gaunt, and mother to Henry IV.

Edward IV.'s claim to the throne was by descent from Lionel, Duke of
Clarence, third son of Edward III., his mother being Cicely, youngest
daughter of Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmoreland. Lionel married Elizabeth
de Burgh, an Irish heiress, who died shortly after, leaving one daughter,
Philippa. As William of Hatfield, second son of Edward III., died at an
early age, without issue, according to all our ideas of hereditary
succession Philippa, only child of Edward III.'s third son, ought to have
inherited before the son of his fourth son; and Sir Edward Coke expressly
declares, that the right of the crown was in the descent from Philippa,
daughter and heir of Lionel, Duke of Clarence. Henry IV.'s right, however,
was incontestable, being based on overwhelming might. Philippa married
Edward Mortimer, Earl of March. Roger, their son, succeeded his father in
his titles, and left one daughter, Anne, who married Richard, Earl of
Cambridge, son of Edmund Langley, Duke of York, which Edmund, Duke of York,
was the fifth son of Edward III.; and thus the line of York, though a
younger branch of the royal family, took precedence, _de jure_, of the
Lancaster line. From this union sprang Richard, Duke of York, who was
killed under the walls of Sandal Castle, and who left his titles and
pretensions to Edward, afterwards the fourth king of that name.

The above is taken from several authorities, among which are Blackstone's
_Comm._, book i. ch. iii.; and Miss Strickland's _Lives of the Queens of
England_, vols. ii. iii. iv.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ii., p. 494.; Vol. iii., p. 26.)

W. R. C. states that he is anxious to collect all possible information as
to this once noble animal. I would have offered the following notes and
references sooner, but that I was confident that some abler contributor to
the pages of "NOTES AND QUERIES" would have brought out of his stores much
to interest your natural history readers (whose Queries I regret are so few
and far between), and at the same time elucidate some points touched upon
by W. R. C., as to the period of its becoming extinct. Perhaps he would
favour me with the particulars of "its being shot in 1553," and a
particular reference to the plate alluded to in the _Nuremberg Chronicle_,
as I have not been able to recognise in _any_ of its plates the Cervus
Megaceros, and I am disposed to question the correctness of the statement,
that the animal existed so lately as the period referred to.

There is in the splendid collections of the Royal Dublin Society (which,
unfortunately, is not arranged as it should be, from want of proper space),
a fine _skeleton_ of this animal, the _first_ perfect one possessed by any
public body in Europe:

    "It is perfect" [I quote the admirable memoir drawn up for the Royal
    Dublin Society by that able comparative anatomist Dr. John Hart, which
    will amply repay a perusal by W. R. C., or any other naturalist who may
    feel an interest in the subject] "in every single bone of the framework
    which contributes to form a part of the general outline, the spine, the
    chest, the pelvis, and the extremities are all complete in this
    respect; and when surmounted by the head and _beautifully expanded
    antlers_, which extend out to a distance of nearly six feet on either
    side, form a splendid display of the reliques of the former grandeur of
    the animal kingdom, and carries back the imagination to the period when
    whole herds of this noble animal wandered at large over the face of the

Until Baron Cuvier published his account of these remains, they were
generally supposed to be the same as those of the Moose deer or elk of N.
America. (Vide _Ann. du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle_, tom. xii., and
_Ossemens Fossiles_, tom. iv.) This error seems to have originated with Dr.
Molyneux in 1697. (Vide _Phil. Trans._, vol. xix.)

The perforated rib referred to was presented to the society by Archdeacon
Maunsell, and

    "contains an oval opening towards its lower edge, the long diameter of
    which is parallel to the length of the rib, its margin is depressed on
    the outer and raised on the inner surface; round which there is an
    irregular effusion of callus.... In fact, such a wound as would be
    produced by the head of an arrow remaining in the wound after the shaft
    had broken off."--Hart's _Memoir_, p. 29.

There are in the Museum of Trinity College, Dublin, a very complete and
interesting series of {122} antlered skulls of this animal. Should W. R. C.
or any other reader of "NOTES AND QUERIES," desire further information on
this subject, I will gladly, if in my power, afford it.

S. P. H. T. (a M. R. D. S.)

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Coverdale Bible_ (Vol. iii., p. 54.).--Your correspondent ECHO is quite
right in declaring Mr. Granville Penn's statement, that Coverdale used
Tyndale's _New Test_. in his Bible of 1535, to be quite wrong. Mr. Penn
very probably took his statement from the Preface to D'Oyley and Mant's
Bible, as published by the Christian Knowledge Society, which contains a
very erroneous account of the earliest English versions.

Tyndale's version of the New Testament was not incorporated in any version
of the whole Bible till the publication of what is called Matthewe's Bible
in 1537.

For more particular statements confirmed by proofs, your correspondent may
consult Anderson's _Annals of the English Bible_, under the dates of the
respective editions, or his appendix to vol. ii., pp. viii., ix.; or Mr.
Pearson's biographical notice of Coverdale, prefixed to the Parker Soc.
edit. of his _Remains_; or the biographical notice of Tyndale, prefixed to
the Parker Soc. edit. of his Works, pp. lxxiv., lxxv.; or _Two Letters to
Bishop Marsh on the Independence of the Authorised Version_, published for
me by Hatchard in 1827 and 1828.


       *       *       *       *       *

_Epitaph_ (Vol. iii., p. 57.).--The name of the "worthie knyght" is _Sir
Thomas Gravener_, as A. B. R. might have seen in the printed Catalogue of
the Harleian MSS. Who he was, is a more difficult question to answer; but
there was a family of that name settled in Staffordshire, as appears from
MS. Harl. 1476. fol. 250. The epitaph in question (at fol. 28 b of the old
numbering, or 24 b of the new, _not_ fol. 25 b.) is inserted among several
short poems written by Sir Thomas Wyatt; and the epitaph itself has a
capital W affixed to it, as if it were also of his composition: but I do
not find it inserted in Dr. Nott's edition of his poetical works, in 1816;
nor does this MS. appear to have been consulted by Dr. Nott. And here I may
take the liberty of remarking, how desirable it is that your
correspondents, in sending any extracts from old English MSS. to the "NOTES
AND QUERIES," should adhere strictly to the original orthography, or else
modernise it altogether. A. B. R. evidently intends to retain the ancient
spelling; yet, from haste or inadvertence, he has committed no less than
forty-four _literal_ errors in transcribing this short epitaph, and three
_verbal_ ones, namely, _itt_ for _that_ (l. 11.), _Hys_ for _The_ (l. 14.),
and _or_ for _and_ (l. 17.). Another curious source of error may here be
pointed out. Nearly all the MSS. contained in the British Museum
collections are not only distinguished by a number, but have a _press-mark_
stamped on the back, which is denoted by _Plut._ (an abbreviation of
_Pluteus_, press), with the number and shelf. Thus the Harleian MS. 78.,
referred to by A. B. R., stands in _press_ (_Plut._) LXIII. _shelf_ E. In
consequence of the Cottonian collection having been originally designated
after the names of the twelve Cæsars (whose busts, together with those of
Cleopatra and Faustina, stood above the presses), it appears to have been
supposed that other classical names served as references to the remaining
portions of the manuscript department. In A. B. R.'s communication, _Plut._
is expressed by the name of _Pluto_; in a volume of Miss Strickland's
_Lives of the Queens of Scotland_, lately published, it is metamorphosed
into _Plutus_; and the late Dr. Adam Clarke refers to some of Dr. Dee's
MSS. in the _Sloane_ (more correctly, _Cottonian_) library, under
_Plutarch_ xvi. G! (See _Catalogue_ of his MSS., 8vo., 1835, p. 62.) The
same amusing error is more formally repeated by Dr. J. F. Payen, in a
recent pamphlet, entitled _Nouveaux Documents inédits ou peu connus sur
Montaigne_, 8vo., 1850, at p. 24. of which he refers to "Bibl. Egerton,
vol. 23., _Plutarch_, f. 167.," [_Plut._ CLXVII. F.], and adds in a note:

    "On sait que dans nos bibliothèques les grandes divisions sont marquées
    par les lettres de l'alphabet; _au Musée Britannique c'est par des noms
    de personnages célèbres qu'on les designe_."


       *       *       *       *       *

_Probabilism_ (Vol. iii., p. 61.).--Probabilism, so far as it means the
principle of reasoning or acting upon the opinion of eminent teachers or
writers, was the principle of the Pythagoreans, whose _ipse dixit_,
speaking of their master, is proverbial; and of Aristotle, in his Topics.

But probabilism, in its strict sense, I presume, means the doctrine so
common among the Jesuits, 200 years ago, and so well stated by Pascal, that
it is lawful to act upon an opinion expressed by a single writer of weight,
though contrary to one's own opinion, and entirely overbalanced, either in
weight or numbers, by the opinion of other writers.

Jeremy Taylor, in his _Ductor Dubitantium_, tells us that this doctrine,
though very prevalent, was quite modern; and that the old Casuists,
according to the plain suggestions of common sense, held directly the
contrary, namely, that the less probable opinion must give way to the more

All this may be no answer to the deeper research, perhaps, of your
enquirer,--but it may possibly be interesting to general readers, as well
as the following refined and ingenious sophism which was used in its
support:--They said that all agreed that you could not be wrong in using
the more probable, best supported, {123} opinion of the two. Now, let that
in the particular case in question be A, and the less probable B. But the
doctrine that you may lawfully take the less probable in general is the
more probable doctrine; meaning at that time the doctrine of the greater
number of authorities: therefore they said, even upon your principles it is
lawful to take B.

C. B.

_Old Hewson the Cobbler_ (Vol. iii., pp. 11. 73.).--The most satisfactory
account of "old Hewson" is the following, extracted from _The Loyal
Martyrology, by William Winstanley_, small 8vo. 1665, (p. 123.):--

    "John Hewson, who, from a cobbler, rose by degrees to be a colonel, and
    though a person of no parts either in body or mind, yet made by
    Cromwell one of his pageant lords. He was a fellow fit for any
    mischief, and capable of nothing else; a sordid lump of ignorance and
    impiety, and therefore the more fit to share in Cromwell's designs, and
    to act in that horrid murther of his Majesty. Upon the turn of the
    times, he ran away for fear of Squire Dun [the common hangman], and (by
    report) is since dead, and buried at Amsterdam."

In the collection of songs entitled _The Rump_, 1666, may be found two
ballads relative to Hewson, viz., "A Hymne to the Gentle Craft; or Hewson's
Lamentation. To the tune of the Blind Beggar:"

 "Listen a while to what I shall say
  Of a blind cobbler that's gone astray
  Out of the parliament's high way,
      Good people pity the blind."

"The Cobbler's Last Will and Testament; or the Lord Hewson's translation:"

 "To Christians all, I greeting send,
  That they may learn their souls to amend
  By viewing, of my _cobbler's end_."

Lord Hewson's "one eye" is a frequent subject of ridicule in the political
songs of the period. Thus in "The Bloody Bed-roll, or Treason displayed in
its Colours:"

 "Make room for one-ey'd HEWSON,
  A Lord of such account,
   'Twas a pretty jest
    That such a beast
  Should to such honour mount."

The song inquired for by my friend MR. CHAPELL, beginning, "My name is old
Hewson," is not contained in any of the well-known printed collections of
political songs and ballads, nor is it to be found among the broadsides
preserved in the King's Pamphlets. A full index to the latter is now before
me, so I make this statement _positively_, and to save others the trouble
of a search.


_Old Hewson and Smollett's "Strap."_--Perhaps the enclosed extract from an
old newspaper of April, 1809, will throw some light upon this subject:


    "On Sunday was interred, in the burial-ground of St.
    Martin's-in-the-Fields, the remains of Hugh Hewson, who died at the age
    of 85. The deceased was a man of no mean celebrity. He had passed more
    than forty years in the parish of St. Martin's, and kept a
    hair-dresser's shop, being no less a personage than the identical _Hugh
    Strap_, whom Dr. Smollett rendered so conspicuously interesting in his
    life and adventures of Roderick Random. The deceased was a very
    intelligent man, and took delight in recounting the scenes of his early
    life. He spoke with pleasure of the time he passed in the service of
    the Doctor; and it was his pride, as well as boast, to say, that he had
    been educated at the same seminary with so learned and distinguished a
    character. His shop was hung round with Latin quotations, and he would
    frequently point out to his acquaintance the several scenes in Roderick
    Random, pertaining to himself, which had their foundation, not in the
    Doctor's inventive fancy, but in truth and reality. The Doctor's
    meeting with him at a barber's shop at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, the
    subsequent mistake at the Inn, their arrival together in London, and
    the assistance they experienced from _Strap's_ friend were all of that
    description. The deceased, to the last, obtained a comfortable
    subsistence by his industry, and of late years had been paid a weekly
    salary by the inhabitants of the Adelphi, for keeping the entrances to
    Villiers-walk, and securing the promenade from the intrusion of


_Rodolph Gualter_ (Vol. iii., p. 8.).--From letters to and from Rodolph
Gualter (in _Zurich_, and _Original Letters, Parker Society_) little can be
gathered; thus much have I gleaned, that though mention is oftentimes made
of Scotland, yet not sufficient to identify Gualter as being a native of
that country; yet it should be observed that he dedicated his Homilies on
the Galatians to the King of Scotland, _Zurich Letters_ (second series)
cxviii., see also, cxxix., cxxx. These remarks may tend perchance to put
J. C. R. on the right track for obtaining true information.

N. E. R. (a Subscriber.)

_Burning the Hill_ (Vol. ii., pp. 441. 498.).--The provision for _burning
out_ a delinquent miner, contained in the Mendip mine laws, called Lord
C. J. Choke's laws, first appeared in print in 1687; at least I can find no
earlier notice of them in any _book_; but as the usages sanctioned by them
are incidentally mentioned in proceedings in the Exchequer in 21 and 22
Elizabeth, they are no doubt of early date. Article 6. certainly has a very
sanguinary aspect; but as the thief, whose hut and tools are to be burnt,
is himself to be "_banished_ from his occupation before the miners for
ever," it cannot be intended that he should be himself burnt also. If any
instance of the exercise of a {124} custom or law so clearly illegal had
ever occurred within recent times, we should have assuredly found some
record of it in the annals of criminal justice, as the executioner would
infallibly have been hanged. The regulations are probably an attempt by
some private hand to embody the local customs of the district, so far as
regards lead mining; and they contain the substance of the usual customs
prevalent in most metallic regions, where mines have been worked _ab
antiquo_. The first report of the Dean Forest Commission, 1839, f. 12.,
adverts to a similar practice among the coal and iron miners in that
forest. It seems to be an instance of the _Droit des arsins_, or right of
arson, formerly claimed and exercised to a considerable extent, and with
great solemnity, in Picardy, Flanders, and other places; but I know of no
instance in which this wild species of metallifodine justice has been
claimed to apply to anything but the culprit's local habitation and tools
of trade. I need not add that the custom, even with this limitation, would
now be treated by the courts as a vulgar error, and handed over to the
exclusive jurisdiction of the legal antiquaries and collectors of the Juris


"_Fronte capillata_," &c. (vol. iii., pp. 8. 43.).--The couplet is much
older than G. A. S. seems to think. The author is Dionysius
Cato,--"Catoun," as Chaucer calls him--in his book, _Distichorum de
Moribus_, lib. ii. D. xxvi.:

 "Rem tibi quam nosces aptam, dimittere noli:
  Fronte capillata, post est Occasio calva."
      _Corp. Poet. Lat._, Frankfurt, 1832, p. 1195.

The history of this Dionysius Cato is unknown; and it has been hotly
disputed whether he were a Heathen or Christian; but he is _at least_ as
old as the fourth century of the Christian era, being mentioned by
Vindicianus, chief physician in ordinary to the emperor, in a letter to
Valentinian I., A.D. 365. In the illustrations of _The Baptistery_, Parker,
Oxford, 1842, which are re-engraved from the originals in the _Via Vitæ
Eternæ_, designed by Boetius a Bolswert, the figure of "Occasion" is always
drawn with the hair hanging loose in front, according to the distich.

E. A. D.

_Time when Herodotus wrote_ (vol. ii., p. 405.; Vol. iii., p. 30.)--The
passage in Herodotus (i. 5.) is certainly curious, and had escaped my
notice, until pointed out by your correspondent. I am unable at present to
refer to Smith's _Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology_;
but I doubt whether the reading of the poem or title, in Aristotle's
_Rhetoric_ (II. 9. § 1.), has received much attention. In my forthcoming
translation of the "Pseudo-Herodotean Life of Homer" prefixed to the
_Odysseia_ (Bohn's _Classical Library_), note 1., I have thus given it:--

    "This is the exposition of the historical researches of Herodotus of
    _Thurium_," &c.

Now Aristotle makes no remark on the passage as being unusual, and it
therefore inclines me to think that, at the time of that philosopher and
critic, both editions were in use.

The date of the building of Thurium is B.C. 444, and Herodotus was there at
its foundation, being then about forty years of age. Most likely he had
published a smaller edition of this book before that time, bearing the
original date from Halicarnassus, which he revised, _enlarged_, corrected,
and _partly re-wrote_ at Thurium. I think this would not be difficult to
prove; and I would add that this retouching would be found more apparent at
the beginning of the volume than elsewhere. This may be easily accounted
for by the feeling that modern as well as ancient authors have, viz., that
of laziness and inertness; revising the first 100 pages carefully, but
decreasing from that point. But to return: Later editors, I conceive,
erased the word Thurium used by Herodotus, who was piqued and vexed at his
native city, and substituted, or restored, Halicarnassus; not, however,
changing the text.

A learned friend of mine wished for the bibliographical history of the
classics. I told him then, as I tell the readers of the "NOTES AND QUERIES"
now, "Search for that history in the pages of the classics themselves;
extend to them the critical spirit that is applied to our own Chaucer,
Shakspeare, and Milton, and your trouble will not be in vain. The history
of any book (that is the general history of the gradual development of its
ideas) is written in its own pages." In truth, the prose classics deserve
as much attention as the poems of Homer.


January 20. 1851.

_Herstmonceux Castle_ (Vol. ii., p. 477.).--E. V. asks for an explanation
of certain entries in the Fine Rolls, A.D. 1199 and 1205, which I can, in
part, supply. The first is a fine for having seisin of the lands of the
deceased mother of the two suitors, William de Warburton and Ingelram de
Monceaux. As they claim as joint-heirs or parceners, the land must have
been subject to partibility, and therefore of socage tenure. If the land
was not in Kent, the entry is a proof that the exclusive right of
primogeniture was not then universally established, as we know it was not
in the reign of Henry II. See _Glanville_, lib. vii. cap. 3.

The next entry records the fine paid for suing out a writ _de rationabili
parte_ against (_versus_) one of the above coheirs. The demandant is either
the same coheir named above, viz. Ingelram, altered by a clerical error
into Waleram,--such errors being of common occurrence, sometimes from
oscitancy, and sometimes because the clerk had to guess at the extended
form of a contracted name,--or he is a descendant and heir of Ingelram,
{125} claiming the share of his ancestor. I incline to adopt the former
explanation of the two here suggested. The form of writ is in the Register
of Writs, and corresponds exactly with the abridged note of it in the Fine
Roll. The "esnecia," mentioned in the last entry (not extracted by E. V.),
is the majorat or senior heir's perquisite of the capital mansion. E. V.
will pardon me for saying, that his translation of the passages is a little
deficient in exactness. As to E. V.'s query 4., does he think it worth
while to go further in search of a reason for calling the bedroom floor of
Herstmonceux Castle by the name of _Bethlem_, when the early spelling and
common and constant pronunciation of the word supply so plausible an
explanation? I myself knew, in my earliest days, a house where that
department was constantly so nicknamed. But there certainly _may_ be a more
recondite origin of the name; and something may depend on the date at which
he finds it first applied.


_Camden and Curwen Families_ (Vol. iii., p. 89.).--Camden's mother was
Elizabeth, daughter of Gyles Curwen, of Poulton Hall, in the county of
Lancaster. In the "visitation" of Lancashire made in 1613, it is stated
that this Gyles Curwen was "descended from Curwen of Workenton in co.
Cumberland;" but the descent is not given, and I presume it rests merely on


_Joan Sanderson, or the Cushion Dance_ (Vol. ii., p. 517.).--Your
correspondent MAC asks for the "correct date" of the _Cushion Dance_.
Searching out the history and origin of an old custom or ballad is like
endeavouring to ascertain the source and flight of December's snow. I am
afraid MAC will not obtain what he now wishes for.

The _earliest_ mention, that I have noticed, of this popular old dance
occurs in Heywood's play, _A Woman kill'd with Kindness_, 1600. Nicholas,
one of the characters, says:

    "I have, ere now, deserved a cushion: call for the _Cushion Dance_."

The musical notes are preserved in _The English Dancing Master_, 1686; in
_The Harmonicon_, a musical journal; in Davies Gilbert's _Christmas Carols_
(2nd edition); and in Chappell's _National English Melodies_. In the
first-named work it is called "Joan Sanderson, or the Cushion Dance, an old
Round Dance."

In a curious collection of old songs and tunes, _Neder-Landtsche
Gedenck-clank door Adrianum Valerium_, printed at Haerlem in 1626, is
preserved a tune called "Sweet Margaret," which, upon examination, proves
to be the same as the _Cushion Dance_. This favourite dance was well known
in Holland in the early part of the seventeenth century, and an interesting
engraving of it may be seen in the _Emblems_ of John de Brunnes, printed at
Amsterdam in 1624.

The last-named work (a copy of the edition of 1661 of which is now before
me) is exceedingly curious to the lovers of our popular sports and
pastimes. The engravings are by William Pass, C. Blon, &c., and among them
are representations of Kiss in the Ring, the game of Forfeits, rolling
Snow-balls, the Interior of a Barber's Shop, with citherns and lutes
hanging against the wall, for the use of the customers, &c.


_North Sides of Churchyards_ (Vol. ii., p. 93.).--In an appendix to our
registers I find the following entry, where I conceive the _backside_ means
the northside. Though now the whole of our churchyard is so full that we
have much difficulty in finding any new ground, what we do find, however,
is on the north side.

    "1750, Oct. 23. One Mary Davies, of Pentrobin, single woman, though
    excommunicated with the _Greater Excommunication_, was on this day,
    _within night_, on account of some particular circumstances alleged by
    neighbours of credit in her favour (as to her resolving to come and
    reconcile herself, and do penance if she recovered), indulged by being
    interred on the _backside_ the church, but no service or tolling

From this I conclude that _here_ at least there was no part of the
churchyard left unconsecrated for the burial of persons excommunicate, as
one of your correspondents suggests; or burial in such place would have
been no indulgence, as evidently it was regarded in this case. It would be
interesting to ascertain from accredited instances _how late_ this power of
excommunication has been _exercised_, and thereby how long it has really
been in abeyance. I expect the period would not be found so great as is
generally imagined.


_Antiquitas Sæculi Juventus Mundi_ (Vol. ii., p. 466.).--Dugald Stewart, in
his Dissertation prefixed to the _Encyclopædia Britannica_, ed. 7., p. 30.,
points out two passages of writers anterior to Lord Bacon, in which this
thought occurs. The first is in his namesake, Roger Bacon, who died in

    "Quanto juniores tanto perspicaciores, quia juniores posteriores
    successione temporum ingrediuntor labores priorum."--_Opus Majus_, p.
    9. ed. Jebb.

The _Opus Majus_ of Roger Bacon was not, however, printed until the last
century, and could not have been known to Lord Bacon unless he had read it
in manuscript.

The second is from Ludovicus Vives, _De Caus. Corrupt. Art._, lib. i., of
which Mr. Stewart gives the following version:--

    "The similitude which many have fancied between the superiority of the
    moderns to the ancients, and the elevation of a dwarf on the back of a
    giant, is {126} altogether false and puerile. Neither were they giants,
    nor are we dwarfs, but all of us men of the same standard; and _we_,
    the taller of the two, by adding their height to our own. Provided
    always that we do not yield to them in study, attention, vigilance, and
    love of truth; for if these qualities be wanting, so far from mounting
    on the giant's shoulders, we throw away the advantages of our own just
    stature, by remaining prostrate on the ground."

Ludovicus Vives, the eminent Spanish writer, died in 1540, and therefore
preceded the active period of Lord Bacon's mind by about half a century.

Mr. Stewart likewise cites the following sentences of Seneca, which,
however, can hardly be said to contain the germ of this thought:--

    "Veniet tempus quo ista quæ nunc latent, in lucem dies extrahet, et
    longioris ævi diligentia.... Veniet tempus, quo posteri nostri tam
    aperta nos nescisse mirabuntur."--_Quæst. Nat._ viii. 25.


_Umbrella_ (Vol. i., p. 414.; Vol. ii., pp. 25. 93. 126. 346. 491. 523.;
Vol. iii., p. 37.).--Although I conceive that ample proof has been given in
your columns that umbrellas were generally known at an earlier period than
had been commonly supposed, yet the following additional facts may not
perhaps be unacceptable to your readers.

In Bailey's _Dictionary_, vol. i. (8th edit. 1737), are these articles:--

    "PARASOL, a sort of small canopy or umbrella, to keep off the rain."

    "UMBELLA, _a little shadow_; an umbrella, bon-grace, skreen-fan, &c.,
    which women bear in their hands to shade them."

    "UMBELLIFORUS _Plants_ [among _botanists_]. Plants which have round
    tufts, or small stalks standing upon greater; or have their tops
    branched and spread like a lady's _umbrella_."

    "UMBRELLO [_Ombrelle_, F.; _Ombrella_, Ital. of _Umbrella_, or
    _Umbrecula_, L.], a sort of skreen that is held over the head for
    preserving from the sun or rain; also a wooden frame covered with cloth
    or stuff, to keep off the sun from a window."

In Bailey's _Dictionary_, vol. ii. (3rd edit. 1737), is the following:--

    "UMBELLATED [_Umbellatus_, L.]; bossed. In _botan. writ._ is said of
    flowers when many of them grow together, disposed somewhat like an
    _umbrella_. The make is a sort of broad, roundish surface of the whole,
    &c. &c."

Horace Walpole (_Memoirs of the Reign of George II._, vol. iii. p. 153.),
narrating the punishment of Dr. Shebbeare for a libel, 5th December, 1758,

    "The man stood in the pillory, having a footman holding an umbrella to
    keep off the rain."

In Burrow's _Reports_ (vol. ii. p. 792.), is an account of the proceedings
in the Court of King's Bench against Arthur Beardmore, under-sheriff of
Middlesex, for contempt of court in remitting part of the sentence on Dr.
Shebbeare. The affidavits produced by the Attorney-General stated--

    "That the defendant only stood _upon the_ platform of the pillory,
    unconfined, and at his ease, attended by a _servant_ in _livery_ (which
    servant and livery were hired for this occasion only) holding an
    umbrella over his head, all the time:"

and Mr. Justice Dennison, in pronouncing sentence on Beardmore, did not
omit to allude to the umbrella.


Cambridge, January 25. 1851.

_Form of Prayer at the Healing_ (Vol. iii., p. 42.).--A copy of this
service of an earlier date than those mentioned is before me. It was
printed in folio at the Hague, 1650; and is appended to "a Form of Prayer
used in King Charles II.'s Chappel upon _Tuesdays_, in the times of his
trouble and distress." Charles I. was executed on that day of the week.

J. H. M.

       *       *       *       *       *



"Thoughts take up no room," saith Jeremy Collier, in a curious passage
which Mr. Elmes has adopted as the motto of a pretty little volume, which
he has just put forth under the following characteristic title: _Horæ
Vacivæ, a Thought-book of the Wise Spirits of all Ages and all Countries,
fit for all Men and all Hours_. The work appears to have furnished a source
of occupation to its editor when partially recovering from a deprivation of
sight. It is well described by him as a "Spicilegium of golden thoughts of
wise spirits, who, though dead, yet speak;" and being printed in
Whittingham's quaintest style, and suitably bound, this Thought-book is as
externally tempting as it is intrinsically valuable.

_The Calendar of the Anglican Church Illustrated, with Brief Accounts of
the Saints who have Churches dedicated in their Names, or whose Images are
most frequently met with in England; the Early Christian and Mediæval
Symbols; and an Index of Emblems_, is sufficiently described in its
title-page. The editor very properly explains that the work is of an
archæological, not of a theological character--and as such it is certainly
one which English archæologists and ecclesiologists have long wanted. The
editor, while judiciously availing himself of the labours of Alt, Radowitz,
Didron, and other foreign writers, has not spared his own, having, with the
view to one portion of it, compiled a list of all the churches in England,
with the saints after whom they were named. This is sufficient to show that
the work is one of research, and consequently of value; that value being
materially increased by the numerous woodcuts admirably engraved by Mr. O.
Jewitt, with which it is illustrated.

_Books Received._--_Helena, The Physician's Orphan_. The third number of
Mrs. Clarke's interesting series of tales, entitled, _The Girlhood of
Shakspeare's Heroines_. {127} _Every-day Wonders, or Facts in Physiology
which all should know:_ a very successful endeavour to present a few of the
truths of that science which treats of the structure of the human body, and
of the adaptation of the external world to it in such a form as that they
be readily apprehended. Great pains have been taken that the information
imparted should be accurate; and it is made more intelligible by means of
some admirable woodcuts.

_Catalogues Received._--John Miller's (43. Chandos Street) No. 18. of
Catalogues of Books Old and New; J. Russell Smith's (4. Old Compton Street)
Catalogue Part II. of an Extensive Collection of Choice, Useful, and
Curious Books.

       *       *       *       *       *


PONTIFES. A. GRÉGOIRE. Paris, 1818, 8vo. 72 pp.


STEPHEN'S CENTRAL AMERICA, 2 vols. 8vo. plates.

WHARTONI ANGLIA SACRA. The best edition.

NOVUM TESTAMENTUM GR. Ex recensione Greisbach, cum var. lect. 4 vols. 4to.
Leipsic, 1806 or 1803. Engraved Frontispiece.


GOODRIDGE, JOHN, THE PHOENIX; or, Reasons for believing that the Comet, &c.
London, 1781, 8vo.

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
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Notices to Correspondents.

_We have many articles in type which we are compelled, by want of space, to
postpone until next week, when the publication of our double number will
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REPLIES RECEIVED. _St. Pancras--Daresbury--Plafery--Touching for the
Evil--Munchausen--Cold Harbour--Landwade Church--Bacon and Fagan--Soul's
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the Stars--Adur--Burying in Church Walls--Sir Clowdesley Shovel--Lynch
Law--Cardinal's Monument--Inns of Court--True
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LITURGICUS, _who writes on the subject of the letters_ M. _and_ N. _in the
Catechism and Marriage Service, is referred to our First Volume, pp._ 415.
_and_ 468.

F. M. B. Hicks' Hall _was so called from its builder, Sir Baptist Hicks,
afterwards Viscount Camden; and the name of the_ Old Bailey, _says Stow,
"is likely to have arisen of some Count of old time there kept."--See
Cunningham's_ Handbook of London.

K. R. H. M. _received_.

E. T. (Liverpool). _We propose to issue a volume similar to our first and
second, at the termination of every half-year._

E. S. T. T. _For origin of_

 "Tempora mutantur," &c.,

_see our First Volume, pp._ 234. 419.

GEORGE PETIT. _The book called_ Elegantiæ Latinæ, _published under the name
of the learned Joh. Meursius, was written by Chorier of Grenoble. Meursius
had no share in it_.

H. A. R. _Much information concerning the general and social condition of
Lunatics before 1828 will be found in Reports of Committees of House of
Commons of 1815, 1816, and 1827, and of the House of Lords of 1828._

A. C. P. _The explanation furnished is one about which there can be no
doubt, but for obvious reasons we do not insert it._

K. R. H. M. _We cannot promise until we see the article; but, if brief, we
shall have every disposition to insert it._

C. H. P. _Surely there is no doubt that Lord Howard of Effingham, who
commanded the Armada, was a Protestant._

VOLUME THE SECOND OF NOTES AND QUERIES, _with very copious_ INDEX, _is now
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       *       *       *       *       *

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addressed to him.

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Whereshall we go this morning? Such is usually the query over the breakfast
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want a handsome or useful dressing-case, work-box, or writing-desk, if you
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one of the most elegant emporiums in London--then you will go to MECHI'S,
4. Leadenhall-street, near the India-house, in whose show-rooms you may
lounge away an hour very pleasantly.

       *       *       *       *       *

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Saints who have Churches dedicated in their Names, or whose Images are most
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       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, February 15. 1851.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 68, February 15, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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