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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 69, February 22, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 69, February 22, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.

       *       *       *       *       *



       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 69.]
[Price Sixpence. Stamped Edition 7d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                   Page

  The Rolliad, by Sir Walter C. Trevelyan, &c.                129

  Note on Palamon and Arcite                                  131

  Folk Lore:--"Snail, Snail, come out of your Hole"--The
  Evil Eye--"Millery, Millery, Dousty-poll,"
  &c.--"Nettle in, Dock out"                                  132

  The Scaligers, by Waldegrave Brewster                       133

  Inedited Ballad on Truth, by K. R. H. Mackenzie             134

  Minor Notes:--Ayot St. Lawrence Church--Johannes
  Secundus--Parnel--Dr. Johnson--The King's
  Messengers, by the Rev. W. Adams--Parallel Passages--Cause
  of Rarity of William IV.'s Copper Coinage--Burnett--Coleridge's
  Opinion of Defoe--Miller's
  "Philosophy of Modern History"--Anticipations of
  Modern Ideas or Inventions--"Sun, stand thou still
  upon Gibeon!"--Langley's Polidore Vergile, &c.              135


  Bibliographical Queries                                     138

  Shakspeare's "Antony and Cleopatra"                         139

  Green's "Groathsworth of Witte," by J. O. Halliwell         140

  Minor Queries:--Fronte Capillatâ--Prayer of Bishop
  of Nantes--Advantage of a Bad Ear--Imputed Letters
  of Sullustius or Sallustius--Rev. W. Adams--Mr.
  Beard, Vicar of Greenwich--Goddard's History
  of Lynn--Sir Andrew Chadwick--Sangaree--King
  John at Lincoln--Canes lesi--Headings of Chapters
  in English Bibles--Abbot Eustacius and Angodus de
  Lindsei--Oration against Demosthenes--Pun--Sonnet
  (query by Milton?)--Medal given to Howard--Withers'
  Devil at Sarum--Election of a Pope--Battle
  in Wilshire--Colonel Fell--Tennyson's "In
  Memoriam"--Magnum Sedile--Ace of Diamonds:
  the Earl of Cork--Closing of Rooms on account of
  Death--Standfast's Cordial Comforts--"Predeceased"
  and "Designed"--Lady Fights at Atherton, &c.                140


  The Episcopal Mitre and Papal Tiara, by A. Rich,
  Jun., &c.                                                   144

  Dryden's Essay upon Satire, by J. Crossley                  146

  Foundation-stone of St. Mark's at Venice                    147

  Histoire des Sévarambes                                     147

  Touching for the Evil, by C. H. Cooper                      148

  Replies to Minor Queries:--Forged Papal Bulls--
  --Scandal against Queen Elizabeth--Meaning
  of Cefn--Portrait of Archbishop Williams--Sir
  Alexander Cumming--Pater-noster Tackling--Welsh
  Words for Water--Early Culture of the
  Imagination--Venville--Cum Grano Salis--Hoops--Cranmer's
  Descendants--Shakspeare's Use of the
  Word "Captious"--Boiling to Death--Dozen of
  Bread--Friday Weather--Saint Paul's Clock--Lunardi--Outline
  in Painting--Handbell before a Corpse--Brandon
  the Juggler--"Words are Men's Daughters"--"Fine
  by degrees, and beautifully less"--"The
  Soul's dark Cottage"--"Beauty Retire"--Mythology
  of the Stars--Simon Bache--Thesaurarius
  Hospitii--Winifreda--Queries on Costume--Antiquitas
  Sæcula Juventus Mundi--Lady Bingham--Proclamation
  of Langholme Fair, &c.                                      149


  Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                      158

  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                158

  Notices to Correspondents                                   158

  Advertisements                                              159

       *       *       *       *       *



(22d Ed., 1812.)

Finding that my copy of _The Rolliad_ ("NOTES AND QUERIES," Vol. ii., p.
373.) contains fuller information regarding the authors than has yet
appeared in your valuable periodical, I forward you a transcript of the MS.
notes, most of which are certified by the initial of Dr Lawrence, from
whose copy all of them were taken by the individual who gave me the volume.


    Wallington, Morpeth.

       *       *       *       *       *

  Advertisement. Dr. Lawrence.
  Advertisement to 4th Edition. Do.
  Explanation of Frontispiece and Title. Do.
  Dedication. Do.
  Rollo Family. E. T. and R. "This was the piece first published, and the
      origin of all that followed."
  Extract from Dedication. Fitzpatrick. "The title of these verses gave
      rise to the vehicle of Criticisms on _The Rolliad_."--L.


No. 1. Ellis. The passage in p. 2, from "His first exploit" to "what it
loses in sublimity," "inserted by Dr. L. to preserve the parody of Virgil,
and break this number with one more poetical passage."--L.

No. 2. Ellis. "This vehicle of political satire not proving immediately
impressive, was here abandoned by its original projector, who did not take
it up again till the second part."--L.

  No.  3. Dr. Lawrence. Verses on Mr. Dundas by G. Ellis.
       4. Richardson.
       5. Fitzpatrick.
       6. Dr. Lawrence.
       7. Do.
       8. Do.
       9. Fitzpatrick.
      10. Richardson.
      11. Do.
      12. Fitzpatrick.
      13. Dr. Lawrence.
      14. Do.


_The French Inscriptions by Ellis._


  No. 1. Ellis
      2. Do.
      3. Richardson.
      4. Do.
      5. Fitzpatrick.
      6. R----d.
      7. Dr. Lawrence.

The passage commencing "The learned Mr. Daniel Barrington," to "drawing a
long bow," "inserted by R----d under the verbal suggestions of Dr.

  The Rose. Dr. Lawrence.
  The Lyars. Fitzpatrick.
  Margaret Nicholson. Lines 2-12, by Dr. Lawrence; the rest by A. (Adair.)
  Charles Jenkinson. Ellis.
  Jekyll. Lines 73. to 100., "inserted by Tickle;" 156. to end, "altered
      and enlarged by Tickle;" the rest by Lord J. Townsend. (At the end of
      Jekyll is the note which I have already sent to the "NOTES AND
      QUERIES," Vol. ii, p. 373.--W. C. T.)

_Probationary Odes._

  Preliminary Discourse. G. Ellis or Tickle. Q.
  Thoughts on Ode-writing. Tickle.
  Recommendatory Testimonies. Tickle. "I believe all the Testimonies are
      his, unless the last be by Lord John Townsend."--L.
  Warton's Ascension. Tickle.
  Laureat Election. Richardson. "The first suggestion of the vehicle for
      Probationary Odes for the Laureatship came (as I understood, for I
      was not present) from the Rev. Dudley Bate."--L.
  Irregular Ode. Tickle.
  Ode on New Year. Ellis.
  Ode No.  3. Dudley Bate.
           4. Richardson.
           6. Anonymous, communicated by Tickle.
           7. Anonymous.
           8. "Brummell." "Some slight corrections were made by L., and one
              or two lines supplied by others."--L.
           9. Tickle. "The first draft of this ode was by Stratford
              Canning, a merchant in the city; but of his original
              performance little or nothing remains except five or six
              lines in the third Stanza."--L.
          10. "Pearce, (I believe) Brother-in-law of Dudley Bate."--L.
          11. "Boscawen, (I believe) afterwards of the Victualling Office,
              communicated by Tickle."--L.
          12. Lord John Townsend,--"Three or four lines in the last stanza,
              and perhaps one or two in some of the former, were inserted
              by Tickle."--L.
          13. "Anonymous, sent by the Post."--L.
          14. "The Rev. O'Byrne.
             'This political Parson's a *B'liever! most odd! He b'lieves
                 he's a Poet, but don't b'lieve in God!'--_Sheridan._
                  * Dr. O'B. pronounces the word believe in this manner."
          15. Fitzpatrick.
          16. Dr. Lawrence.
          17. Genl. Burgoyne.
          18. R----d.
          19. Richardson.
          20. Ellis.
          21. Address. Dr. Lawrence. For "William York" read "William
              Pindaric Ode. Dr Lawrence.
          22. The Prose and Proclamation, "by Tickle or Richardson."--L.
  Table of Instructions. Tickle or Richardson.

_Political Miscellanies._

  To the Public. R----d.
  Odes to W. Pitt. Fitzpatrick.
  My Own Translation, prefixed to Ode 2nd. Dr.   Lawrence.
  The Statesmen. R----d.
  Rondeau. Dr. Lawrence.
  In the third Rondeau, for "pining in his spleen" read "moving honest
      spleen."--L. All the Rondeaus are by Dr. L.
  The Delavaliad. Richardson.
  Epigrams. Tickle and Richardson.
  Lord Graham's Diary. "Tickle, I believe."--L.
  Lord Mulgrave's Essays. Ellis.
  Anecdotes of Pitt. G. Ellis.
  A Tale. Sheridan.
  Morals. Richardson.
  Dialogue. Lord John Townsend.


  No.  1. Dr. Lawrence.
     "   32. Do.
     "   33. Do.
     "   37. Do.

_Foreign Epigrams._

  No.  1. Ellis.
     "    2. Rev. O'Byrne.
     "    3. Do.
     "    4. Do.
     "    5. Do.
     "    6. Dr. Lawrence.
     "    7. Do.
     "    8. Do.
     "    9. Do.
     "   10. Do.
     "   11. Tickle.
     "   12. Do.

"Most of the English Epigrams unmarked are by Tickle, some by Richardson,
D. Bate, R----d, and others."--L.

  Advertisement Extraordinary. Dr. Lawrence.
  Paragraph Office. Do.
  Pitt and Pinetti. "Ellis, I believe."--L.
  The Westminster Guide. Genl. Burgoyne.
  A new Ballad. Lord J. Townsend or Tickle.
  Epigrams on Sir Elijah Impey. R----d.
  ---- by Mr. Wilberforce. Ellis.
  Original Letter. A. (Adair.)
  Congratulatory Ode. Courtenay.
  Ode to Sir Elijah Impey. "Anonymous--I believe L. J. Townsend."--L.
  Song, to tune "Let the Sultan Saladin." R----d.
  A new Song, "Billy's Budget." Fitzpatrick.
  Epigrams. R----d.
  Ministerial Facts. "Ld. J. Townsend, I believe."--L.
  Journal of the Right Hon. H. Dundas.
      To end of March 7th. Tierney.
              March 9th and 10th. Dr. Lawrence.
              March 11th. Tierney.
              March 12th and 13th. C. Grey.
              March 14th. Tierney.
     "This came out in numbers, or rather in continuations, in the
  Incantation. Fitzpatrick.
  Translations. "Tickle, Richardson, R----d, and others."--L.

       *       *       *       *       *

The "Memoranda" &c., respecting _The Rolliad_, at Vol. ii., p. 439.,
recalled to my recollection a "Note" made several years back; but the
"Query" was, where to find that Note? However, I made a mental note, "when
found," to forward it to you, and by the merest chance it has turned up, or
rather, out; for it fell from within an old "Common Place Book," when--I
must not take credit for being in search of it, but, in fact, in quest of
another note. Should you consider it likely to interest either your
correspondents, contributors, or readers, you are much welcome to it; and
in that case, to have troubled you with this will not be regretted by

C. W.

    Stoke, Bucks.

_The Rolliad._--(_Memorandum in Sir James Mackintosh's copy of that work._)

"Bombay, 23rd June, 1804.

"Before I left London in February last, I received from my old friend, T.
Courtenay, Esq., M.P., notes, of which the following is a copy, giving
account of the Authors of _The Rolliad_, and of the series of Political
Satires which followed it:--

  Extract from Dedication. Fitzpatrick.
  Nos. 1. 2. G. Ellis.
  No. 3. Dr. Lawrence.
  No. 4. J. Richardson.
  No. 5. Fitzpatrick.
  Nos. 6. 7. 8. Dr. Lawrence.
  No. 9. Fitzpatrick.
  Nos. 10. 11. J. Richardson.
  No. 12. Fitzpatrick.
  Nos. 13. 14. Dr. Lawrence.

          PART II.

  Nos. 1. 2. G. Ellis
  Nos. 3. 4. J. Richardson.
  No. 5. Fitzpatrick.
  No. 6. Read.
  No. 7. Dr. Lawrence.

  _Political Eclogues._

  Rose. Fitzpatrick.
  The Lyars. Do.
  Margaret Nicholson. R. Adair.
  C. Jenkinson. G. Ellis.
  Jekyll, Lord J. Townsend and Tickell.

  _Probationary Odes._

  No.  1. Tickell.
       2. G. Ellis.
       3. H. B. Dudley.
       4. J. Richardson.
       5. J. Ellis. ?G.
       6. Unknown.
       7. (Mason's). Do.
       8. Brummell.
       9. Sketched by Canning, the Eton Boy, finished by Tickell.
      10. Pearce. ?
      11. Boscawen.
      12. Lord J. Townsend.
      13. Unknown. Mr. C. believes it to be Mrs. Debbing, wife of Genl. D.
      14. Rev. Mr. O'Byrne.
      15. Fitzpatrick.
      16. Dr. Lawrence.
      17. Genl. Burgoyne.
      18. Read.
      19. Richardson.
      20. G. Ellis.
      21. Do.
      22. Do.

"If ever my books should escape this obscure corner, the above memorandum
will interest some curious collector.


"The above list, as far as it relates to Richardson, is confirmed by his
printed Life, from which I took a note at Lord J. Townsend's four days ago.

"J. MACKINTOSH. 18 Nov., 1823."

       *       *       *       *       *


It has probably often been remarked as somewhat curious, that Chaucer, in
describing the arrival of Palamon and Arcite at Athens, mentions the day of
the week on which it takes place:

 "And in this wise, these lordes all and some,
  Ben on the Sonday to the citee come," &c.

Nothing seems to depend on their coming on one day of the week rather than
on another. In reality, however, this apparently insignificant circumstance
is astrologically connected with the issue of the contest. Palamon, who on
the morning of the following day makes his prayer to Venus, succeeds at
last in winning Emelie, though Arcite, who commends himself to Mars,
conquers him in the tournament. The prayers of both are granted, because
both address themselves to their tutelary deities at hours over which these
deities respectively preside. In order to understand this, we must call to
mind the astrological explanation {132} of the names of the days of the
week. According to Dio Cassius, the Egyptians divided the day into
twenty-four hours, and supposed each of them to be in an especial manner
influenced by some one of the planets. The first hour of the day had the
prerogative of giving its name, or rather that of the planet to which it
was subject, to the whole day. Thus, for instance, Saturn presides over the
first hour of the day, which is called by his name; Jupiter over the
second, and so on; the Moon, as the lowest of the planets, presiding over
the seventh. Again, the eighth is subject to Saturn, and the same cycle
recommences at the fifteenth and at the twenty-second hours. The
twenty-third hour is therefore subject to Jupiter, and the twenty-fourth to
Mars. Consequently, the first hour of the following day is subject to the
sun, and the day itself is accordingly dies Solis, or Sunday. Precisely in
the same way it follows that the next day will be dies Lunæ; and so on
throughout the week. To this explanation it has been objected that the
names of the days are more ancient than the division of the day into
twenty-four parts; and Joseph Scaliger has attempted to derive the names of
the days from those of the planets, without reference to this method of
division. His explanation, however, which is altogether geometrical,
inasmuch as it depends on the properties of the heptagon, seems quite
unsatisfactory, though Selden appears to have been inclined to adopt it. At
any rate, the account of the matter given by Dio Cassius has generally been

To return to Chaucer: Theseus, as we know, had erected in the place where
the tournament was to be held three oratories, dedicated to Mars, to Venus,
and to Diana. On the day after their arrival, namely, on Monday, Palamon
and Arcite offered their prayers to Venus and Mars respectively, and
Emelie, in like manner, to Diana. Of Palamon we are told that--

 "He rose, to wenden on his pilgrimage
  Unto the blisful Citherea benigne"

two hours before it was day, and that he repaired to her temple "in hire

In the third hour afterwards,

 "Up rose the sonne, and up rose Emelie
  And to the temple of Diane gan hie."

Her prayer also was favourably heard by the deity to whom it was addressed;
the first hour of Monday (the natural day beginning at sunrise) being
subject to Luna or Diana. The orisons of Palamon were offered two hours
earlier, namely, in the twenty-third hour of Sunday, which is similarly
subject to Venus, the twenty-fourth or last hour belonging to Mercury, the
planet intermediate between Venus and the Moon. It is on this account that
Palamon is said to have prayed to Venus in her hour.

Arcite's vows were made later in the day than those of Palamon and Emelie.
We are told that

 "The nexte hour of Mars following this,"

(namely after Emelie's return from the temple of Diana)

 "Arcite unto the temple walked is
  Of fierce Mars."

The first hour of Mars is on Monday, the fourth hour of the day; so that as
the tournament took place in April or May, Arcite went to the temple of
Mars about eight or nine o'clock.

It may be well to explain the word "inequal" in the lines--

 "The thridde hour inequal that Palamon
  Began to Venus temple for to gon,
  Up rose the sonne, and up rose Emelie."

In astrology, the heavens are divided into twelve houses, corresponding to
a division of the ecliptic into twelve equal parts, the first of which is
measured from the point of the ecliptic which is on the horizon and about
to rise above it, at the instant which the astrologer has to consider,
namely, the instant of birth in the case of a nativity, or that in which a
journey or any other enterprise is undertaken.

The hours inequal here spoken of similarly correspond to a division of the
ecliptic into twenty-four parts, so that each house comprehends the
portions of the ecliptic belonging to two of these hours, provided the
division into houses is made at sunrise, when the first hour commences. It
is obvious that these astrological hours will be of unequal length, as
equal portions of the ecliptic subtend unequal angles at the pole of the

With regard to the time of year at which the tournament takes place, there
seems to be an inconsistency. Palamon escapes from prison on the 3rd of
May, and is discovered by Theseus on the 5th. Theseus fixes "this day fifty
wekes" for the rendezvous at Athens, so that the tournament seems to fall
in April. Chaucer, however, says that--

 "Gret was the feste in Athenes thilke day,
  And eke the lusty seson of that May
  Made every wight to be, in swiche pleasance," &c.

Why the 3rd of May is particularly mentioned as the time of Palamon's
escape, I cannot tell: there is probably some astrological reason. The
mixture of astrological notions with mythology is curious: "the pale
Saturnus the colde" is once more a dweller on Olympus, and interposes to
reconcile Mars and Venus. By his influence Arcite is made to perish after
having obtained from Mars the fulfilment of his prayer--

 "Yeve me the victorie, I axe thee no more."


       *       *       *       *       *


"_Snail, Snail, come out of your Hole._"--In Surrey, and most probably in
other counties where {133} shell-snails abound, children amuse themselves
by charming them with a chant to put forth their horns, of which I have
only heard the following couplet, which is repeated until it has the
desired effect, to the great amusement of the charmer.

 "Snail, snail, come out of your hole,
  Or else I'll beat you as black as a coal."

It is pleasant to find that this charm is not peculiar to English children,
but prevails in places as remote from each other as Naples and Silesia.

The Silesian rhyme is:

 "Schnecke, schnecke, schnürre!
  Zeig mir dein viere,
  Wenn mir dein viere nicht zeigst,
  Schmeisz ich dich in den Graben,
  Fressen dich die Raben;"

which may be thus paraphrased:

 "Snail, snail, slug-slow,
  To me thy four horns show;
  If thou dost not show me thy four,
  I will throw thee out of the door,
  For the crow in the gutter,
  To eat for bread and butter."

In that amusing Folk's-book of Neapolitan childish tales, the _Pentamerone_
of the noble Count-Palatine Cavalier Giovan-Battista Basile, in the
seventeenth tale, entitled "La Palomma," we have a similar rhyme:

 "Jesce, jesce, corna;
  Ça mammata te scorna,
  Te scorna 'ncoppa lastrico,
  Che fa lo figlio mascolo."

of which the sense may probably be:

 "Peer out! Peer out! Put forth your horns!
  At you your mother mocks and scorns;
  Another son is on the stocks,
  And you she scorns, at you she mocks."


_The Evil Eye._--This superstition is still prevalent in this neighbourhood
(Launceston). I have very recently been informed of the case of a young
woman, in the village of Lifton, who is lying hopelessly ill of
consumption, which her neighbours attribute to her having been
"_overlooked_" (this is the local phrase by which they designate the
baleful spell of the _evil eye_). An old woman in this town is supposed to
have the power of "ill-wishing" or bewitching her neighbours and their
cattle, and is looked on with much awe in consequence.

H. G. T.

"_Millery! Millery! Dousty-poll!_" &c.--I am told by a neighbour of a cruel
custom among the children in Somersetshire, who, when they have caught a
certain kind of large white moth, which they call a _miller_, chant over it
this uncouth ditty:--

 "Millery! Millery! _Dousty_-poll!
  How many sacks hast thou stole?"

And then, with boyish recklessness, put the poor creature to death for the
imagined misdeeds of his human namesake.

H. G. T.

_"Nettle in, Dock out."_--Sometime since, turning over the leaves of
Clarke's _Chaucer_, I stumbled on the following passage in "Troilus and
Cressida," vol. ii. p. 104.:--

 "Thou biddest me that I should love another
  All freshly newe, and let Creseidé go,
  It li'th not in my power levé brother,
  And though I might, yet would I not do so:
  But can'st thou playen racket to and fro,
  _Nettle' in Dock out_, now this now that, Pandare?
  Now foulé fall her for thy woe that care."

I was delighted to find the charm for a nettle sting, so familiar to my
childish ear, was as old as Chaucer's time, and exceedingly surprised to
stumble on the following note:--

    "This appears to be a proverbial expression implying inconstancy; but
    the origin of the phrase is unknown to all the commentators on our

If this be the case, Chaucer's commentators may as well be told that
children in Northumberland use friction by a dock-leaf as the approved
remedy for the sting of a nettle, or rather the approved charm; for the
patient, while rubbing in the dock-juice, should keep repeating,--

 "Nettle in, dock out,
  Dock in, nettle out,
  Nettle in, dock out,
  Dock rub nettle out."

The meaning is therefore obvious. Troilus is indignant at being recommended
to forget this Cressida for a new love, just as a child cures a
nettle-sting by a dock-leaf. I know not whether you will deem this trifle
worth a corner in your valuable and amusing "NOTES."

       *       *       *       *       *


 "Lo primo tuo rifugio e 'l primo ostello
    Sarà la cortesia del gran Lombardo,
  Che _'n su_ la Scala porta il santo uccello."
                  Dante, _Paradiso_, xvii. 70.

The Scaligers are well known, not only as having held the lordship of
Verona for some generations, but also as having been among the friends of
Dante in his exile, no mean reputation in itself; and, at a later period,
as taking very high rank among the first scholars of their day. To which of
them the passage above properly belongs--whether to Can Grande, or his
brother Bartolommeo, or even his father Alberto, commentators are by no
means agreed. The question is argued more largely than conclusively, both
in the notes to Lombardi's edition, and also in Ugo Foscolo's _Discorso nel
testo di Dante_.

Perhaps the following may be a contribution to the evidence in favour of
Can Grande. After {134} saying, in a letter, in which he professes to give
the history and origin of his family,--

    "Prisca omnium familiarum Scaligeræ stirpis insignia sunt, aut _Scala
    singularis_, aut Canes utrinque scalæ innitentes."

Joseph Scaliger adds--

    "Denique principium Veronensium progenitores eadem habuerunt insignia:
    _donec_ in eam familiam Alboinus et _Canis Magnus_ Aquilam imperii cum
    Scala primum ab Henrico VII^o, deinde à Ludovico Bavaro acceptam nobis

Alboinus, however, who received this grant upon being made a Lieutenant of
the Empire, and having the Signory of Verona made hereditary in his family,
only bore the eagle "_in quadrante scuti_."

    "Sed Canis Magnus, cum eidem à Cæsare Ludovico Bavaro idem privilegium
    confirmatum esset, totum scutum Aquilâ occupavit, _subjectâ Alitis
    pedibus Scalâ_."

Can Grande, then, was surely the first who carried the "santo uccello" _in
su_ la Scala; and his epithet of Grande would also agree best with Dante's
words, as neither his father nor brothers seem to have had the same claim
to it.

I would offer a farther remark about this same title or epithet Can Grande,
and the origin of the scala or ladder as a charge upon the shield or coat
of this family. Cane would at first sight appear to be a designation
borrowed from the animal of that name. There would be parallels enough in
Italy and elsewhere, as the Ursini, Lewis the Lion (VIII. of France), our
own Coeur de Lion, and Harold Harefoot. Dante, too, refers to him under the
name "Il Veltro," _Inferno_, canto 1. l. 101. But Joseph Scaliger, in the
letter to which I referred before, gives the following account of it:--

    "Nomen illi fuerat _Franscisco_, à sacro lavacro, _Cani_ à gentilitate,
    _Magno_ à merito rerum gestarum. Neque enim _Canis_ ab illo _latranti
    animali_ dictus est, ut recte monet Jovius, sed quod linguâ Windorum,
    unde principes Veronenses oriundos vult, _Cahan_ idem est, quod linguâ
    Serviana _Kral_, id est Rex, aut Princeps. Nam in gente nostrâ multi
    fuerunt Canes, Mastini, Visulphi Guelphi."--P. 17.

This letter consists of about 58 pages, and stands first in the edition of
1627. It is addressed "ad Janum Dousam," and was written to vindicate his
family from certain indignities which he conceived had been put upon it.
Sansovino and Villani, it appears, had referred its origin to Mastin II.,
"qui," to use Scaliger's version of the matter,--

    "Qui primus dictator populi Veronensis perpetuus creatus est, quem et
    _auctorem_ nobilitatis Scaligeræ et _Scalarum_ antea _fabrum_
    impudentissime nugantur hostes virtutis majorum nostrorum."

It was bad enough to ascribe their origin to so recent a date, but to
derive it from a mere mechanic was more than our author's patience could
endure. Accordingly he is not sparing of invective against those who so
disparage his race.

_Vappa_, _nebulo_, and similar terms, are freely applied to their
characters; _invidia_, [Greek: kakoêtheia], &c., to their motives. The
following is a specimen of the way he handles them:--

    "Dantes Poëta illustrissimum Christianissimorum Regum Franciæ genus à
    laniis Parisiensibus deducit, utique tam vere, quam ille tenebrio
    nostrum à scalarum fabro: quas mirum, ni auctor generis _in suspendium
    eorum parabat_, quos vaticinabatur illustri nobilitate suæ

Now the charge of a ladder upon their shield was certainly borne by the
several branches of this family long before any of them became masters of
Verona; and I should suggest that it originated in some brilliant escalade
of one of the first members of it. Thus, of course, it would remind us all
of perhaps the earliest thing of the kind--I mean the shield and bearings
of Eteoclus before Thebes:

 "[Greek: Eschêmatistai d' aspis ou smikron tropon;]
  [Greek: Anêr d' hoplitês klimakos prosambaseis]
  [Greek: Steichei pros echthrôn purgon, ekpersai thelôn.]"
                                  Sept. c. Thebas, 461.


    H----n, Jan. 28. 1851.

       *       *       *       *       *


I send you herewith a copy of an ancient ballad which I found this day
while in search of other matters. I have endeavoured to explain away the
strange orthography, and I have conjecturally supplied the last line. The
ballad is unhappily imperfect. I trust that abler antiquaries than myself
will give their attention to this fragmentary poem.

             "A BALADE OF TROUTHE.

          (Harl. MSS. No. 48. folio 92.)

 "What more poyson . than ys venome.
  What more spytefull . than ys troozte.[1]
  Where shall hattred . sonere come.
  Than oone anothyr . that troozte showthe.
  Undoyng dysplesure . no love growthe.                          5
  And to grete[2] men . in especyall.
  Troozte dare speke . lest[3] of all.

 "And troozte . all we be bound to.
  And troozte . most men now dothe fle.[4]
  What be we then . that so do.                                 10
  Be we untrewe . troozte saythe ee.[5]
  But he y^t tellethe troozte . what ys he.
  A besy foole . hys name shalle ronge.[6]
  Or else he hathe an euyle tonge.

 "May a tong . be trew and evyle.                               15
  Trootze ys good . and evyle ys navtze.[7]
  God ys trootze . and navzt ys y^e devyle.
  Ego sum veritas . o^r[8] lord tavzt.[9]
  At whyche word . my conceyt lavzt.[10]
  To se[11] our Lorde . yff[12] foly in hym be.                 20
  To use troozt . that few doth but he.

 "To medyle w^t trouthe[13] . no small game.
  For trouthe told . of tyms ys shent.
  And trouthe known . many doth blame.
  When trouthe ys tyrned . from trew intent.                    25
  Yet trouthe ys trouthe . trewly ment.[14]
  But now what call they trouthe . trow ye.
  Trowthe ys called colored honestè.

 "Trouthe . ys honest without coloure.
  Trouthe . shameth not in no condycyon.                        30
  Of hymself . without a trespasowre.
  By myst and knowne . of evyle condycyon.
  But of trouthe thys ys y^e conclusyon.
  Surely good ordre there ys brokyne.
  Where trouthe may not . nor dare be spokyne.[15]              35

 "Trouthe many tyms ys cast.
  Out of credence . by enformacyon.
  Yet trouthe crepthe[16] out at last.
  And ovyr mastrythe cavylacyon.[17]
  That I besech Cryst . every nacyon.                           40
  May use trouthe . to God and man.
  *  *  that he * not * syn *  *  ."
      *    *    *    *    *    *

I would fill up the lacuna--

 "Now that he do not syn . we can."

Perhaps, I repeat, some more able antiquaries will give their attention to
this, and satisfy me on the _points_ of punctuation, date, &c.


[Footnote 1: Truth, I presume, is meant, though it does not seem to agree
with the context, which is pure nonsense in its present condition.]

[Footnote 2: Great.]

[Footnote 3: Least.]

[Footnote 4: Flee.]

[Footnote 5: Yea.]

[Footnote 6: Ring, I fancy.]

[Footnote 7: Naught.]

[Footnote 8: Our.]

[Footnote 9: Taught.]

[Footnote 10: Laughed.]

[Footnote 11: See.]

[Footnote 12: If.]

[Footnote 13: Here the orthography changes.]

[Footnote 14: Meant.]

[Footnote 15: I think there must be some allusion here, which can only be
arrived at by knowing the date of its composition.]

[Footnote 16: An elision for creepeth; possibly an intermediate
etymological state of _creeps_.]

[Footnote 17: From "to cavil."]

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Ayot St. Lawrence Church_ (Vol. iii., pp. 39. 102.). Ayot St. Lawrence,
Herts, is another deserted church, like that of Landwade,--in fact a ruin,
with its monuments disgracefully exposed. I was so astonished at seeing it
in 1850, that I would now ask the reason of its having been allowed to fall
into such distress, and how any one could have had the power to build the
present Greek one, instead of restoring its early Decorated neighbour. I
did not observe the 2 ft. 3 in. effigy alluded to in _Arch. Journ._ iii.
239., but particularly noted the elegant sculpture on the chancel arch

I would suggest to Mr. Kelke, that the incumbents of parishes should keep a
separate register, recording _all_ monuments, &c. as they are put up, as
existing, or as found in MS. church notes, or published in county
histories. In the majority of parishes the trouble of so doing would be
trifling, and to many a pleasant occupation.

A. C.

_Johannes Secundus_--_Parnel_--_Dr. Johnson._--In Dr. Johnson's _Life of
Parnel_ we find the following passage:--

    "I would add that the description of _Barrenness_, in his verses to
    Pope, was borrowed from Secundus; but lately searching for the passage
    which I had formerly read, I could not find it."

I will first extract Parnel's description, and then the passage of
Secundus; to which, I suppose, Dr. Johnson referred.

 "This to my friend--and when a friend inspires,
  My silent harp its master's hand requires,
  Shakes off the dust, and makes these rocks resound,
  For fortune placed me in unfertile ground;
  Far from the joys that with my soul agree,
  From wit, from learning--far, oh far, from thee!
  Here moss-grown trees expand the smallest leaf,
  Here half an acre's corn is half a sheaf.
  Here hills with naked heads the tempest meet,
  Rocks at their side, and torrents at their feet;
  Or lazy lakes, unconscious of a flood,
  Whose dull brown Naiads ever sleep in mud."

Secundus in his first epistle of his first book (edit. Paris, p. 103.),
thus writes:--

 "Me retinet salsis infausta Valachria terris,
    Oceanus tumidis quam vagus ambit aquis.
  Nulla ubi vox avium, pelagi strepit undique murmur,
    Coelum etiam largâ desuper urget aquâ.
  Flat Boreas, dubiusque Notus, flat frigidus Eurus,
    Felices Zephyri nil ubi juris habent.
  Proque tuis ubi carminibus, Philomena canora,
    Turpis in obscoenâ rana coaxat aquâ."


_The King's Messengers, by the Rev. W. Adams._--Ought it not to be
remarked, in future editions of this charming and highly poetical book
(which has lately been translated into Swedish), that it is grounded on one
of the "examples" occurring in _Barlaam and Josaphat_?"

In the third or fourth century, an Indian prince names Josaphat was
converted to Christianity by a holy hermit called Barlaam. This subject was
afterwards treated of by some Alexandrian priest, probably in the sixth
century, in a beautiful tale, legend, or spiritual romance, in Greek, and
in a style of great ease, beauty, warmth, and colouring. The work was
afterwards attributed to Johannes Damascenus, who died in 760. In this
half-Asiatic Christian prose epic, Barlaam employs a number of even then
ancient folk-tales and fables, spiritually interpreted, in Josaphat's
conversion. It is on the fifth of these "examples" that Mr. Adams has built
his richly-glittering fairy palace.

_Barlaam and Josaphat_ was translated into almost {136} every European
dialect during the Middle Age, sometimes in verse, but usually in prose,
and became an admired folk-book. Among the versions lately recovered I may
mention one into Old-Swedish (a shorter one, published in my _Old-Swedish
Legendarium_, and a longer one, not yet published); and one in
Old-Norwegian, from a vellum MS. of the thirteenth century, shortly to
appear in Christiania.



_Parallel Passages._--Under "Parallel Passages" (Vol. ii., p. 263.) there
occur in two paragraphs--"_There is an acre sown with royal seed,_"
concluding with "_living like gods, to die like men,_" from Jeremy Taylor's
_Holy Dying_; and from Francis Beaumont--

 "_Here's an acre sown indeed_
  _With the richest royalest seed._
      .    .    .    .    .    .
  _Though gods they were, as men they died._"

Which of these twain borrowed the "royal seed" from the other, is a manner
of little moment; but the correspondence of living as gods, and dying as
men, both undoubtedly taken from Holy Scripture; the phrase occurring in
either Testament: "I have said, Ye are gods ... But ye shall die like men"
(Psalm lxxxii. 6, 7.); quoted by our Saviour (John, x. 34.): "Jesus
answered them, Is it not written in your law, I said, Ye are Gods?"

J. G. M.


_Cause of Rarity of William IV.'s Copper Coinage._--The copper coinage of
William IV. is become so scarce, that possibly a doubt may some day arise,
whether any but a very limited issue of it was ever made; it may be well,
therefore, to introduce a _note_ on the cause of its disappearance, while
the subject is comparatively recent.

When the copper coins of the last reign appeared, a slight tinge in the
colour of the metal excited the suspicion of those accustomed to examine
such things, that it contained gold, which proved to be the fact; hence
their real value was greater than that for which they passed current, and
they were speedily collected and melted down by manufacturers, principally,
I believe, as an alloy to gold, whereby every particle of that metal which
they contained was turned to account. I have been told that various
Birmingham establishments had agents in different parts of the country,
appointed to collect this coinage.

R. C. H.

_Burnet._--In the list of conflicting judgments on Burnet, quoted by your
correspondents (Vol. i., pp. 40. 120. 181. 341. 493.), I find no reference
to the opinion of his contemporary, Bishop Nicolson. That writer takes a
somewhat partial view of the character and merits of the historian, and
canvasses, by anticipation, much of what has been urged against him by our
more modern critics. But, as the weight of authorities already cited
appears to militate against Burnet, I am induced to send you some of Bishop
Nicolson's remarks, for the sake of those readers who may not have
immediate access to them. I quote from his _English Historical Library_,
2nd edition, p. 119.:

    "In the months of December and January in the year following (1680),
    the historian (G. Burnet) had the thanks of both Houses of Parliament
    for what he had already done; and was desired to proceed to the
    finishing of the whole work, which was done accordingly. This historian
    gives a punctual account of all the affairs of the Reformation, from
    its first beginning in the reign of Henry VIII., till it was finally
    completed and settled by Queen Elizabeth, A.D. 1559. And the whole is
    penned in such a masculine style as becomes an historian, and such as
    is this author's property in all his writings. The collection of
    records which he gives in the conclusion of each volume are good
    vouchers of the truth of all he delivers (as such) in the body of his
    history; and are much more perfect than could reasonably be expected,
    after the pains taken, in Queen Mary's days, to suppress everything
    that carried the marks of the Reformation upon it. The work has had so
    much justice done it, as to meet with a general acceptance abroad, and
    to be translated into most of the European languages; insomuch that
    even the most piquant of the author's enemies allow it to have a
    _reputation firmly and deservedly established_. Indeed, some of the
    French writers have cavilled at it; but the most eminent of them (M.
    Varillas and M. Le Grand) have received due correction from the author


    St. Lucia, Dec. 1850.

_Coleridge's Opinion of Defoe._--Wilson, in his _Memoirs of the life and
Times of Defoe_, vol. ii. p. 205., having quoted the opinion of the Editor
of Cadell's edition of _Robinson Crusoe_,--"that Defoe wanted many of those
qualities, both of mind and manner, which fitted Steele and Addison to be
the inimitable _arbitri elegantiarum_ of English society, there can be no
doubt,"--Coleridge wrote in the margin of his copy, "I doubt this,
particularly in respect to Addison, and think I could select from Defoe's
writings a volume equal in size to Addison's collected papers, little
inferior in wit and humour, and greatly superior in vigor of style and


_Miller's "Philosophy of Modern History."_--In the memoir, chiefly
autobiographical, prefixed to the last edition (published by Mr. Bohn,
1848-9) of this most able and interesting work, we find the following
words, p. xxxv.:

    "In the preceding period of my lecturing, I collected a moderate
    audience [seldom exceeding ten persons] in the Law School [his friend,
    Alexander Knox, being always one], sufficient to encourage me, or at
    least to permit me, to persevere, but not to animate my exertions by
    publicity. But as I was approaching the sixteenth century, the number
    of my hearers {137} increased so much, that I was encouraged to remove
    to the Examination Hall, from which time my lectures attracted a large
    portion of public attention, strangers forming a considerable portion
    of the auditory."

It is worthy of remark, in connexion with this production of a
highly-gifted scholar and divine, whose name does honour to Trinity
College, Dublin, that Dr. Sullivan's _Lectures on the Constitution and Laws
of England_, which have since deservedly acquired so much fame, were
delivered in presence of only _three_ individuals, Dr. Michael Kearney and
two others--surely no great encouragement to Irish genius! In fact, the
Irish long seemed unconscious of the merits of two considerable works by
sons of their own university,--Hamilton's _Conic Sections_ and Sullivan's
_Lectures_; and hesitated to praise, until the incense of fame arose to one
from the literary altars of Cambridge, and an English judge, Sir William
Blackstone, authorised the other.

In the memoir to which I have referred, we find a complete list of the many
publications which Dr. Miller, "distinguished for his services in theology
and literature," sent forth from the press. We are likewise informed that
there are some unpublished letters from Hannah More, Alexander Knox, and
other distinguished characters, with whom Dr. Miller was in the habit of


_Anticipations of Modern Ideas or Inventions._--In Vol. iii., pp. 62. 69.,
are two interesting instances of this sort. In Wilson's _Life of Defoe_, he
gives the titles of two works which I have often sought in vain, and which
he classes amongst the writings of that voluminous author. They run thus:

    "_Augusta triumphans_, or the way to make London the most flourishing
    city in the universe. I. By establishing a university where gentlemen
    may have an academical education under the eye of their friends [_the
    London University anticipated_]. II. To prevent much murder, &c., by an
    hospital for foundlings. III. By suppressing pretended madhouses, where
    many of the fair sex are unjustly confin'd while their husbands keep
    mistresses, and many widows are lock'd up for the sake of their
    jointures. IV. To save our youth from destruction by suppressing gaming
    tables, and Sunday debauches. V. To avoid the expensive importation of
    foreign musicians by promoting an academy of our own, [_Anticipation of
    the Royal Academy of Music_], &c. &c. London: T. Warner. 1728. 8vo."

    "_Second Thoughts are Best_; or a further Improvement of a late Scheme
    to prevent Street Robberies, by which our Streets will be so strongly
    guarded and so gloriously illuminated, that any Part of London will be
    as safe and pleasant at Midnight as at Noonday; and Burglary totally
    impracticable [_a remarkable anticipation of the present state of
    things in the principal thoroughfares_]. With some Thoughts for
    suppressing Robberies in all the Public Roads of England [_rural police
    anticipated_]. Humbly offer'd for the Good of his Country, submitted to
    the Consideration of Parliament, and dedicated to his Sacred Majesty
    Geo. II., by Andrew Moreton, Esq. [supposed to be an assumed name; a
    common practice of De Foe's]. London. W. Meadows, 1729."

R. D. H.

"_Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon!_"--The above text is often quoted as
not being in accordance with the present state of our astronomical
knowledge, and many well-known commentators on the Bible have adopted the
same opinion.

I find Kitto, in the _Pictorial Bible_, characterising it as "an example of
those bold metaphors and poetical forms of expression with which the
Scriptures abound." Scott (edit. 1850) states that "it would have been
improper that he (Joshua) should speak, or that the miracle should be
recorded according to the terms of modern astronomy."

Mant (edit. 1830) says: "It is remarkable that the terms in which this
event is recorded do not agree with what is now known rewarding the motion
of the heavenly bodies."

Is it certain that Joshua's words are absolutely at variance and
irreconcileable with the present state of astronomical knowledge?
Astronomers allow that the sun is the centre and governing principle of our
system, and that it revolves on its axis. What readier means, then, could
Joshua have found for staying the motion of our planet, than by commanding
the revolving centre, in its inseparable connexion with all planetary
motion, to stand still?

I. K.

_Langley's Polidore Vergile._--At the back of the title of a copy of
Langley's _Abridgement of Polidore Vergile_, 8vo., Lond. 1546, seen by
Hearne in 1719, was the following MS. note:

    "At Oxforde, the yere 1546, browt down to Seynbury by John Darbye,
    pryse 14d. When I kept Mr. Letymer's shype I bout thys boke when the
    Testament was obberagatyd that shepe herdys myght not red hit. I prey
    God amende that blyndnes. Wryt by Robert Wyllyams, kepynge shepe uppon
    Seynbury Hill."

At the end of the dedication to Sir Ant. Denny is also written:

    "Robert Wyllyams Boke, bowgyt by John Darby at Oesforth, and brot to

The Seynbury here mentioned was doubtless Saintbury in Gloucestershire, on
the borders of Worcestershire, near Chipping Campden, and about four miles
distant from Evesham.

P. B.

_Luther and Ignatius Loyola._--A parallel or counterpoising view of these
two characters has been quoted in several publications, some of recent
date; but in all it is attributed to a wrong source. Mr. M^cGavin, in his
_Protestant_, Letter CXL., (p. 582, ed. 1846); Mr. Overbury, in his
_Jesuits_ (Lond. 1846), p. 8., and, of course, the authority from which he
borrows, Poynder's _History of the Jesuits_; and Dr. Dowling's _Romanism_,
p. 473. {138} (ed. New York, 1849)--all these give, as the authority for
the contrasted characters quoted, Damian's _Synopsis Societatis Jesu_.
Nothing of the kind appears _there_; but in the _Imago primi Sæculi Soc.
Jesu_, 1640, it will be found, p. 19.

The misleader of these writers seems to have been Villers, in his _Prize
Essay on the Reformation_, or his annotator, Mills, p. 374.


P.S. (Vol. ii., p. 375.).--The lines quoted by Dr. Pusey, I have some
notion, belong to a Romish, not a Socinian, writer.

_Winkel._--I thought, some time since, that the places bearing this name in
England, were taken from the like German word, signifying _a corner_. I
find, on examination, that there is a village in Rhenish Prussia named
"Winkel." It seems that Charlemagne had a wine-cellar there; so that that
word is no doubt taken from the German words _wein_ and _keller_, from the
Latin _vinum_ and _cella_.


_Foreign Renderings._--In addition to those given, I will add the
following, which I once came across at Salzburg:

    "George Nelböck recommande l'hôtel aux _Trois Alliés_, vis-à-vis de la
    maison paternelle du célèbre Mozart, lequel est nouvellement fourni et
    offre tous les comforts à Mrs. les voyageurs."

Translated as follows:

    "George Nelböck begs leave to _recommand_ his hotel to the Three
    Allied, situated _vis-à-vis_ of the birth house of Mozart, which offers
    all comforts to the _meanest_ charges."

Also the following:

    "M. Reutlinger (of Frankfort on Main) _takes_ leave to _recommande_ his
    well furnished magazine of all kind of travelling-luggage and


_Samuel Johnson--Gilbert Wakefield._--Whoever has had much to do with the
press will sympathise with MR. CHARLES KNIGHT in all that he has stated
("NOTES AND QUERIES," Vol. iii., p. 62.) respecting the accidental--but not
at first discovered--substitution of _modern_ for _moderate_. If that word
_modern_ had not been detected till it was too late for an explanation on
authority, what strange conjectures would have been the consequence!
Happily, MR. KNIGHT was at hand to remove that stumbling-block.

I rather fancy that I can rescue Samuel Johnson from the fangs of Gilbert
Wakefield, by the supposition of an error of the press. In 1786, Wakefield
published an edition of Gray's _Poems_, with notes; and in the last note on
Gray's "Ode on the Death of a Cat," he thus animadverts on Dr. Johnson:--

    Our critic exposes himself to reproof from the manner in which he has
    conveyed his severe remark: _show a rhyme is sometimes made_. The
    omission of the relative, a too common practice with our writers, is an
    impropriety of the grossest kind: and which _neither gods or men_, as
    one expresses himself, nor any language under heaven, can endure."

Now in Dr. Johnson's _Life of Gray_, we find this sentence:--

    "In the first stanza 'the azure flowers that blow' show resolutely a
    rhyme is sometimes made when it cannot easily be found."

My notion is, that the word _how_ has been omitted in the printing, from
the similarity of blow, show, how; and thus the sentence will be--

    "_The azure flowers that blow_ show how resolutely a rhyme is sometimes
    made when it cannot easily be found."

But Gilbert Wakefield was a critic by profession, and apparently as great
in English as he was in Greek.


_Passage in Gray's Elegy._--I do not remember to have seen noted the
evident Lucretian origin of the verse--

 "For them no more the blazing hearth shall burn,
    Nor busy housewife ply her evening care;
  No children run to lisp their sire's return,
    Or climb his knees the envied kiss to share."

Compare Lucretius, lib. 3. v. 907.:

 "At jam non domus accipiet te læta; neque uxor
  Optima, nec dulces occurrent oscula nati
  Præripere, et tacitâ pectus dulcedine tangent."


       *       *       *       *       *



(_Continued from_ Vol. iii., p. 87.)

(39.) Does any one now feel inclined to vindicate for Inchofer, Scioppius,
Bariac, or Contarini, the authorship of the _Monarchia Solipsorum_?
Notwithstanding the testimony of the Venice edition of 1652, as well as the
very abundant evidence of successive witnesses, in favour of the
first-named writer, (whose claim has been recognised so lately as the year
1790, by the _Indice Ultimo_ of Madrid), can there be the smallest doubt
that the veritable inventor of this satire upon the Jesuits was their
former associate, JULES-CLEMENT SCOTTI? For the interpretation of his
pseudonyme, "Lucius Cornelius Europæus," see Niceron, _Mém._ xxxix. 70-1.

(40.) Mr. Cureton (_Ant. Syr. vers. of Ep. of S. Ignat._ Preface, p. ii.,
Lond. 1845) has asserted that--

    "The first Epistles published, bearing the name of St. Ignatius--one to
    the Holy Virgin, and two to the Apostle St. John, in Latin,--were
    printed in the year 1495. Three years later there appeared an edition
    of eleven Epistles, also in Latin, attributed to the same {139} holy
    Martyr. But nearly seventy years more elapsed before any edition of
    these Epistles in Greek was printed. In 1557, Val. Paceus published
    twelve," &c.

Two connected Queries may be founded upon this statement:--(1.) Is not Mr.
Cureton undoubtedly in error with respect to the year 1495? for, if we may
believe Orlandi, Maittaire, Fabricius (_B. G._), and Ceillier, the three
Latin Epistles above named had been set forth previously at Cologne, in
1478. (2.) By what mysterious species of arithmetic can it be demonstrated
that "nearly _seventy_ years" elapsed between 1498 and 1557? The process
must be a somewhat similar one to that by which "A.D. 360" is made
equivalent to "five-and-_twenty_ years after the Council of Nice." (Pref.,
p. xxxiv.) In the former instance "_seventy_" is hardly a literal
translation of Bishop Pearson's "_sexaginta_:" but whether these
miscalculations have been already adverted to, and subsequently amended, or
not, I cannot tell.

(41.) In the same Preface (p. xxiv.) a very strange argument was put
forward, which, as we may learn from the last _Quarterly Review_, p. 79.,
where it is satisfactorily refuted, has been since repeated by Mr. Cureton.
He maintains that the Syriac text of the Ignatian Epistles cannot be an
epitome, because that "we know of no instances of such abridgment in any
Christian writer." To commence with the West,--is not Mr. Cureton
acquainted with the manner in which Rufinus dealt with the _History_ of
Eusebius? Have we here no specimens of abbreviation; no allusion in the
prologue to "omissis quæ videbantur superflua?" Has Mr. C. never looked
into that memorable combination of the independent works of three
contemporaries, entitled _Historia Tripartita?_ and, not to wander from the
strictest bounds of bibliography, will any one presume to boast of having a
copy of this book printed prior to that now near me, (a spectacle which De
Bure could never get a sight of), "per Iohannem Schüszler regie vrbis
Augustensis ciuem," anno 1472? But let us go to the East in search of
compendiums. Did not Theodorus Lector, early in the sixth century, reduce
into a harmony the compositions of Socrates, Sozomen, and Theodoret? How
does Assemani speak of the first two parts of the Ecclesiastical History of
Zacharias Rhetor, supposed to have been written _in Syriac_, about the year
540? "Prima est _epitome_ Socratis, altera Theodoreti." (_Biblioth.
Orient._, tom. ii. cap. vii.) On this occasion, manifestly, ancient records
are encountered in an abridged Syriac form; a circumstance which will not
strengthen the Curetonian theory relative to the text of the Ignatian
Epistles. Again, bearing in mind the resemblance that exists between
passages in the interpolated Epistles and in the Apostolic Constitutions,
with the latter of which the _Didascalia_ of Ignatius seems to have been
commingled, let us inquire, Did not Dr. Grabe, in his _Essay upon the
Doctrine of the Apostles_, published in 1711, unanswerably prove that the
_Syriac_ copy of this _Didascalia_ was much more contracted than the
_Arabic_ one, or than the _Greek_ Constitutions of the Apostles? Is it not
true that extracted portions of these Constitutions are found in some old
MS. collections of Canons? Has not Cotelier furnished us with an
"_Epitome_," compiled by Metaphrastes from Clementine counterfeits,
concerning the life of S. Peter? And, to descend from the tenth to the
sixteenth century, are we not indebted to Carolus Capellius for an
"_Epitome Apostolicarum Constitutionum, in Creta insula repertarum_," 4to.,
Ingolstad. 1546?

(42.) When MR MERRYWEATHER (Vol. iii., p. 60.) was seeking for monastic
notices of extreme longevity, did he always find it feasible to meet with
Ingulphus's History of Croyland Abbey "_apud Wharton, Anglia Sacra_, 613?"
and if it be not enough to have read an account of an ecclesiastic who is
said to have attained to the delectable age of 168 years, is it not
questionable that anything will suffice except it be the narrative of the
_Seven Sleepers_? The third "Lectio" relating to these Champions of
Christendom, as it is given in a Vatican MS., makes the period of their
slumber to have been about 370 years. Who was the author of that
finely-printed and illustrated quarto volume, the _Sanctorum Septem
Dormientium Historia, ex Ectypis Musei Victorii expressa_, published, with
the full approbation of the Censors, Romæ, 1741? "Obscurus esse gestio" is
his declaration about himself (p. 63.). Has he remained incognito?

R. G.

       *       *       *       *       *


The first scene of the third act of Shakspeare's play of "Antony and
Cleopatra," at first sight, appears to be totally unconnected with what
goes before and what follows. It may be observed that the dramas founded on
the Roman history are much more regular in their construction than those
founded on the English history. Indeed, with respect to the drama in
question, I am not aware of any scene, with the exception of that I have
mentioned, which does not bear more or less on the fortunes of the
personages from whom the play derives its name. Hence I am led to
conjecture that the dramatist here alludes to some event of the day, which
was well known to his audience. The speech of Ventidius seems to point to
something of the kind:

                     "O Silius, Silius!
  I have done enough: a lower place, note well,
  May make too great an act: for learn this, Silius;
  Better leave undone, than by our deed acquire
  Too high a fame, when him we serve's away," &c.

Some of your numerous readers will doubtless {140} be able to inform me
whether there is any instance in the annals of that age of an inferior
officer outshining his superior, and being cashiered or neglected in

Malone assigns to the play the date of 1608.

X. Z.

       *       *       *       *       *


The interesting article by the HERMIT OF HOLYPORT, on the early German
translation of Greene's _Quip for an Upstart Courtier_, will, I am sure, be
read with attention by all lovers of our early literature. My object in
addressing you on the subject is to draw the attention of your foreign
correspondents, and perhaps the notice of your new contemporary, to the
great importance of discovering whether the _Groatsworth of Witte_ was also
translated into German. The earliest edition I have seen is that of 1617,
but it was printed as early as 1592; and I have long been curious to
ascertain whether the remarkable passage respecting Shakspeare has
descended to us in its genuine state. In the absence of the English edition
of 1592, this information might be obtained from a translation published
before 1617. Perhaps, however, some of your readers may be able to point
out the existence of an earlier edition. I have sought for that of 1592 for
several years without any success.


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Fronte Capillatâ._--The following lines recurred to my memory after
reading in your last number the translation of the epigram by Pasidippus in
the article on "Fronte capillatâ," &c.; it is many years since I read them,
but have forgotten where. Can you or any of your correspondents inform me
who is the author of them?

 "Oh! who art thou so fast proceeding,
    Ne'er glancing back thine eyes of flame?
  Known but to few, through earth I'm speeding,
    And Opportunity's my name.

 "What form is that, that scowls beside thee?
    Repentance is the form you see;
  Learn then the fate may yet betide thee,
    She seizes them, who seize not me."


    Gibson Square, Feb. 4. 1851.

_Prayer of Bishop of Nantes._--In Allison's _History of the French
Revolution_, ed. 1849, at page 432. vol. i., there occurs the following

    "The Bishop of Nancy commenced, as customary, with the prayer:
    'Receive, O God, the homage of the Clergy, the respects of the
    Noblesse, and the humble supplications of the Tiers Etat.'"

This formula was, the historian tells us, received with a storm of
disapprobation by the third order. Will any of your contributors be so
obliging as to inform me where the form of prayer spoken of as _customary_
is to be found?

J. M.


_Advantage of a Bad Ear._--Can any of your readers supply the name of the
man of mark in English history, who says "he encouraged in himself a bad
ear, because it enabled him to enjoy music he would not have enjoyed

I have looked through the lives of Lord Herbert of Cherbury, Hampden,
Hobbes, Andrew Marvell, and Fletcher of Saltoun, without finding it; though
it is possible it may be in some of these after all. The list given will
point to the kind of personage in question.


_Imputed Letters of Sullustius or Sallustius_ (Vol. iii., p. 62.).--I am
sorry to say that the printer has completely spoiled my Query, by printing
_Sullustius_ instead of _Sallustius_ throughout the whole article. I
subjoin a few more particulars concerning them. In the edition printed at
Cambridge (4to. 1710), and published under the auspices of the learned
Wasse, they are included. They are there entitled _Orationes ad C. Cæsarem,
de Republica Ordinanda_. Cortius rejects them, and De Brosses accepts them.
Douza, Crispinus, Perizonius, Clericus, &c., all speak in favour of their
authenticity. Allen does not mention them, and Anthon rejects them
entirely. With these additional hints I doubt not but that some of your
obliging correspondents will be able to give me a reply.


_Rev. W. Adams._--When did Mr. Adams, the accomplished author of the
_Sacred Allegories_, die? This is unaccountably omitted in the "Memoir"
prefixed to the collected edition of his _Allegories_ (London, Rivingtons,
1849). Can any characteristic anecdote be related of him, suitable for
giving _point_ to a sketch of his life for foreign readers?



_Mr. Beard, Vicar of Greenwich._--Any information relating to "Mr. Beard,
Vicar of Greenwich," who, in the year 1563, was recommended by Loftus,
Archbishop of Armagh, and Brady, Bishop of Meath, as a proper person to be
preferred to the bishopric of Kildare, will be very acceptable to--


_Goddard's History of Lynn._--It has been always understood that Mr. Guybon
Goddard (who was Recorder of this borough in 1651 or thereabouts) collected
a quantity of materials for a history of Lynn, and that in 1677 or 1678 an
offer to purchase them was made by the corporation to his son, Thomas
Goddard, but it seems without success. The fact of such materials having
been {141} collected is recognised by Goddard's brother-in-law, Sir Wm.
Dugdale (who refers to it in some part of his works), as also by Parkin, in
his _History of Freebridge and King's Lynn_, p. 293., where he is called a
curious collector of antiquities. My Query is, Can any of your
correspondents inform me where this collection can be met with?


_Sir Andrew Chadwick._--It is stated that on the 18th Jan. 1709-10, Sir
Andrew Chadwick, of St. James's, Westminster, was knighted by Queen Anne
for some service done to her, it is supposed for rescuing her when thrown
from her horse. Can any of your correspondents inform me if such was the
fact, and from what source they derive their information?


    King's Lynn.

_Sangaree._--Your periodical having been the means of eliciting some
interesting particulars respecting the origin of the word _grog_, perhaps
you will allow me to claim a similar distinction for the word _sangaree_.
You are aware that this word is applied, in the West Indies, to a beverage
composed of Madeira wine, syrup, water, and nutmeg. The French call it
_sangris_, in allusion, it is supposed, to the colour of the beverage,
which when mixed has the appearance, as it were, of grey blood _(sang
gris)_: but as there is reason to believe that the English were the first
to introduce the use of the thing, they having been the first to introduce
its principal ingredient, Madeira wine, I am disposed to look upon
_sangaree_ as the original word, and _sangris_ as nothing more than a
corruption of it. Can any of your readers (among whom I trust there are
many retired West India planters) give the etymology of this word?


    St. Lucia, Dec. 1850.

_King John at Lincoln._--Matthew Paris, under the year 1200, gives an
account of King John's visiting Lincoln to meet William, king of Scots, and
to receive his homage:

    "Ubi Rex Johannes, [he says] contra consilium multorum, intravit
    civitatem intrepidus, quod nullus antecessorum suorum attentare ausus

My Query is, What were they afraid of?

C. W. B.

_Canes lesi._--May I also put a question with respect to an ancient tenure
in Dorsetshire, recorded by Blount, edit. 1679, p. 46.:

    "Juliana, &c., tenuit dimidiam hidam terræ, &c., per serjantiam
    custodiendi _Canes_ Domini Regis _lesos_, si qui fuerint, quotiescunque
    Dominus Rex fugaverit in Forestâ suâ de _Blakemore_: et ad dandum unum
    denarium ad clancturam Parci Domini Regis de _Gillingham_."

Blount's explanation of _Canes lesos_, is "leash hounds or park hounds,
such as draw after a hurt deer in a leash, or liam;" but is there any
reason why we should not adopt the more simple rendering of "hurt hounds;"
and suppose that Dame Juliana was matron of the Royal Dorset Dog Hospital?

Ducange gives no such word as _lesus_; neither does he nor any authority,
to which I have access, help me to understand the word _clanctura_. I
trust, however, that some of your correspondents will.

C. W. B.

_Headings of Chapters in English Bibles._--The arguments or contents which
are prefixed to each chapter of our English Bibles seem occasionally to
vary; some being more full and comprehensive than others. When and by whom
were they compiled? what authority do they possess? and where can we meet
with any account of them?


_Abbot Eustacius and Angodus de Lindsei._--Can any of your learned readers
inform me in what reign an Abbot _Eustacius_ flourished? He is witness to a
charter of Ricardus de Lindsei, on his granting twelve denarii to St. Mary
of _Greenfeld_, in Lincolnshire: there being no date, I am anxious to
ascertain its antiquity. He is there designated "_Eustacius Abbe Flamoei_."
Also witnessed by Willo' decano de Hoggestap, Roberto de Wells, Eudene de
Bavent, Radulpho de Neuilla, &c. The latter appears in the Doomsday Book.
The charter is to be found among Ascough's Col., B. M.

I should also be glad to know whether the Christian name _Angodus_ be
German, Norman, or Saxon. Angodus de Lindsei grants a carrucate of land in
Hedreshille to St. Albans, in the time of the Conqueror. If this person
assumed the name of _Lindsei_ previous to the Doomsday inquisition, ought
not his name to have appeared in the Doomsday Book,--he who could afford to
make a grant of 100 acres of land to the Abbey of St. Albans?

J. L.

_Oration against Demosthenes._--Mr. Harris of Alexandria made a discovery,
some years ago, of a fragment of an oration against Demosthenes. Can you,
or any of your kind correspondents, favour me with an account of it? I
cannot recall the particulars of the discovery, but I believe the oration,
with a _fac-simile_, was privately printed.


_Pun._--C. H. KENYON (Vol. iii., p. 37.) asks if Milton could have
seriously perpetrated the pun "each tome a tomb." I doubt whether he
intended it for a pun. But his Query induces me to put another. Whence and
when did the aversion to, and contempt for, a pun arise? Is it an offshoot
from the Reformation? Our Catholic fellow-countrymen surely felt no such
aversion; for the claim which they make of supremacy for {142} their church
is based upon a pun, and that a very sorry one.

A. R.

_Sonnet (query by Milton?)_ (Vol. iii., p. 37.).--May I inquire from your
correspondent whether he possesses the book, _A Collection of Recente and
Witty Pieces by Several Eminente Hands_, London, 1628, from which this
sonnet is stated to be extracted. The lines look suspiciously modern, and I
should, before making any further observations upon them, be glad to be
assured of their authenticity through the medium of your pages.


_Medal given to Howard._--Hepworth Dixon, in his _Life of Howard_, mentions
a Russian General Bulgarhow, who was presented by his countrymen with a
gold medal, as "one who had deserved well of his country." The General's
reply stated that _his_ services to mankind reached his own country only;
but there _was_ a man whose extraordinary philanthropy took in all the
world,--who had already, with infinite toil and peril, extended his
humanity to all nations,--and who was therefore alone worthy of such a
distinction; to him, his master in benevolence, he should send the medal!
And he did so. Can any of your readers inform me who now possesses this
medal, and where it is to be found?

W. A.

_Withers' Devil at Sarum_.--Where is Withers' _Devil at Sarum_, mentioned
in Hudibras, to be met with? It is not in any of his collected works that I
have seen.


_Election of a Pope._--I have read somewhere that some cardinals assembled
in a water-closet in order to elect a pope. Can any of your readers refer
me to any book where such a fact is mentioned?


_Battle in Wiltshire_.--A pamphlet dated (in MS.) Dec. 12. 1642, describes
an engagement as taking place in Wiltshire between Rupert and Skippon. If
this be so, how comes it to pass that not only the general histories are
silent as to the event, but that even the newspapers omit it? We know that
Rupert was at the sack of Cirencester, in February, 1642-3; and Cirencester
is on the borders of Wiltshire: but is there any authority for the
first-mentioned visit to this county, during the period from the affair at
Brentford to the taking of Cirencester?


_Colonel Fell_.--Can you inform me who are the representatives or
descendants of Lieut.-Colonel Robert Edward Fell, of St. Martin's in the
Fields, London, where he was living in the year 1770? He was the
great-grandson of Thomas Fell, of Swarthmore Hall, co. Lancaster, Esq.,
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster during the Commonwealth, whose widow
married George Fox, founder of the Quakers.


_Tennyson's "In Memoriam."_--Perhaps some of your readers may be able to
explain the reference in the following verse, the first in this beautiful
series of poems:

 "I held it truth, with him who sings
  To one clear harp in divers tones,
  That men may rise on stepping-stones
  Of their dead selves to higher things."

The following stanza, also in the poem numbered 87., much needs

 "Or cooled within the glooming wave,--
  And last, returning from afar,
  _Before the crimson-circled star_
  _Had fallen into her father's grave._"

W. B. H.


_Magnum Sedile._--Can any of your correspondents throw light on the
singular arched recesses, sometimes (though rarely) to be found on the
south side of chancels, west of the sedilia. The name of _magnum sedile_
has been given to them, I know not on what authority; but if they were
intended to be used as stalls of dignity for special occasions, they would
hardly have been made so wide and low as they are generally found. A good
example occurs at Fulbourn, Cambridgeshire,--certainly not monumental; and
another (but more like a tomb) at Merton, near Oxford, engraved in the
_Glossary of Architecture_. Why should they not have been intended for the
holy sepulchre at Easter? as I am not aware that these were necessarily
restricted to the north side. Is there any instance of a recess of this
kind on the south side, and an Easter sepulchre on the north, in the same

C. R. M.

_Ace of Diamonds--the Earl of Cork._--In addition to the _soubriquets_
bestowed upon the nine of diamonds of "the Curse of Scotland," and that of
"the Grace Card," given to the six of hearts (Vol. i., pp. 90. 119.), there
is yet another, attached to the ace of diamonds, which is everywhere in
Ireland denominated "the Earl of Cork," the origin of which I should be
glad to know.

E. S. T.

_Closing of Rooms on account of Death._--In the _Spectator_, No. 110.,
July, 1711, one of Addison's papers on Sir Roger de Coverley, the following
passage occurs:

    "My friend, Sir Roger, has often told me with a good deal of mirth,
    that at his first coming to his estate he found three parts of his
    house altogether useless; that the best room in it had the reputation
    of being haunted, and by that means was locked up; that noises had been
    heard in his long gallery, so that he could not get a servant to enter
    it after eight o'clock at night; that the door of one of his chambers
    was nailed up, because there went a story in the family that a butler
    had formerly hanged himself in it; and that his mother, who lived to a
    great age, had shut up half the rooms in the house, in which either her
    husband, a son, {143} or daughter had died. The knight seeing his
    habitation reduced to so small a compass, and himself in a manner shut
    out of his own house, upon the death of his mother ordered all the
    apartments to be flung open, and exorcised by his chaplain, who lay in
    every room one after another, and by that means dissipated the fears
    which had so long reigned in the family."

The practice of shutting up rooms in which members of the family had died
was retained up to the end of the last century. I learn from a friend that,
in a country house in the south of England, his mother's apartment,
consisting of a sitting-room, bed-room, and dressing-room, was closed at
her death in 1775. The room in which his grandfather had died in 1760 was
likewise closed. These four rooms were kept locked up, with the shutters
shut, till the year 1793, when the next owner came into possession, who
opened them, and caused them to be again used. Probably other cases of the
same sort may be known to your correspondents, as having occurred in the
last century; but the custom appears to be now extinct.


_Standfast's Cordial Comforts._--I have lately procured a copy of an
interesting book, entitled

    "A Little Handful of Cordial Comforts: scattered throughout several
    Answers to Sixteen Questions and Objections following. By Richard
    Standfast, M.A., Rector of Christ Church in Bristol, and Chaplain in
    Ordinary to King Charles II. Sixth Edition. Bristol, 1764. 18mo. pp.

Can any of your readers give me further particulars of Mr. Standfast, or
tell me where to find them? In what year was the work first published? It
was reprinted in Bristol in 1764, "for Mr. Standfast Smith, apothecary,
great-grandson of the author." Has any later edition appeared?


_"Predeceased" and "Designed."_--J. Dennistoun, in his _Memoirs of the
Dukes of Urbino_, ii. p. 239., says--

    "His friend the cardinal had lately predeceased him."

Can any of your readers give me an instance from any one of our standard
classical authors of a verb active "to decease"?

The same author uses the word _designed_ several times in the sense of
_designated_. I should be glad of a few authorities for the use of the word
in this sense.

W. A.

_Lady Fights at Atherton._--A poem, published in 1643, in honour of the
King's successes in the West, has the following reference to a circumstance
connected with Fairfax's retreat at Atherton Moor:

 "When none but lady staid to fight."

I should be glad to learn to what this refers, and whether or not the real
story formed the basis of De Foe's account of the fighting lady at Thame,
laid about the same period, viz. the early part of the year 1643.


_Sketches of Civil War Garrisons, &c._--During the civil war, sketches and
drawings were, no doubt, made of the lines drawn about divers garrisons.
Some few of these have from time to time appeared as woodcuts: but I have a
suspicion that several remain only in MS. still. If any of your readers can
direct me to any collection of them in the British Museum or Oxford, they
would shorten a search that has long been made in vain.


_"Jurat? crede minus:" Epigram._--Can any of your learned readers inform me
by whom the following epigram was written? I lately heard it applied, in
conversation, to the Jesuits, but I think it is of some antiquity:--

 "Jurat? crede minus: non jurat? credere noli:
  Jurat, non jurat? hostis ab hoste cave."

F. R. R.

_Meaning of Gulls._--What is the origin of the word "gulls," as applied in
Wensleydale (North York) to hasty-pudding, which is a mixture of oatmeal
and milk or water boiled?

D. 2.

_The Family of Don._--Can any of your correspondents furnish me with
information regarding the family of Don, of Pitfichie, near Monymusk,
Aberdeenshire; or trace how they were connected with the Dons of Newton
Don, Roxburghshire?

A. A.


_Wages in the last Century._--I should like to have any particulars of the
price of labour at various periods in the last century, especially the
wages of domestic servants. May I be permitted to mention that I am
collecting anecdotes of the manners and customs, social and domestic, of
our grandfathers, and should be much obliged for any curious particulars of
their ways of living, their modes of travelling, or any peculiarities of
their daily life? I am anxious to form a museum of the characteristic
curiosities of the century; its superstitions, its habits, and its

A. A.


_Woman, Lines on._--Can any of your correspondents inform me who was the
author of the following lines:--

                     "She was ----
  But words would fail to tell her worth: think
  What a woman ought to be,
  And she was that."

They are to be found on several tombstones throughout the country.



       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. iii., p. 62.)

In answer to the question of an "INQUIRER" respecting the origin of the
peculiar form and first use of the episcopal mitre, I take the liberty of
suggesting that it will be found to be of Oriental extraction, and to have
descended from that country, either directly, or through the medium of
other nations, to the ecclesiastics of Christian Rome. The writers of the
Romish, as well as Reformed Churches, now admit, that most, if not all, of
the external symbols, whether of dress or ceremonial pageantry, exhibited
by the Roman Catholic priesthood, were adopted from the Pagans, under the
plea of being "indifferent in themselves, and applicable as symbolical in
their own rites and usages" (Marangoni, _Delle cose gentili e profane
trasportate nel uso ed ornamento delle chiesi_); in the same manner as many
Romish customs were retained at the Reformation for the purpose of inducing
the Papists to "come in," and conform to the other changes then made
(Southey, _History of the Church_). Thus, while the disciples of Dr. Pusey
extract their forms and symbols from the practices of Papal Rome, the
disciples of the Pope deduce theirs from the practices of Pagan Rome.

With this preface I proceed to show that the episcopal _mitre_ and the
papal _tiara_ are respectively the copies each of a distinct head-dress
originally worn by the kings of Persia and the conterminous countries, and
by the chiefs of their priesthood, the Magi. The nomenclature alone
indicates a foreign extraction. It comes to us through the Romans from the
Greeks; both of which nations employed the terms [Greek: mitra], Lat.
_mitra_, and [Greek: tiara], Lat. _tiara_, to designate two different kinds
of covering for the head in use amongst the Oriental races, each one of a
distinct and peculiar form, though as being foreigners, and consequently
not possessing the technical accuracy of a native, they not unfrequently
confound the two words, and apply them indiscriminately to both objects.
Strictly speaking, the Greek [Greek: mitra], in its primitive notion, means
a long _scarf_, whence it came to signify, in a secondary sense, various
articles of attire composed with a scarf, and amongst others the Oriental
_turban_ (Herod. vii. 62.). But as we descend in time, and remove in
distance from the country where this object was worn, we find that the
Romans affixed another notion to the word, which they used very commonly to
designate the Asiatic or Phrygian cap (Virg. _Æn._ iv. 216.; Servius,
l.c.); and this sense has likewise been adopted in our own language:

 "That Paris now with his unmanly sort,
  With _mitred_ hat."--Surrey, Virgil, _Æn._ iv.

Thus the word _mitra_ in its later usage came to signify a _cap_ or
_bonnet_, instead of a turban; and it is needless to observe that the
priests of a religion comparatively modern, when they adopted the term,
would have taken it in the sense which was current at their own day. Now,
though the common people were not permitted to wear high bonnets, nor of
any other than a soft and flexible material, the kings and personages of
distinction had theirs of a lofty form, and stiffened for the express
purpose of making them stand up at an imposing elevation above the crown of
the head. In the national collection at Paris there is preserved an antique
gem, engraved by Caylus (_Recueil d'Antiq._, vol. ii. p. 124.), on which is
engraved the head of some Oriental personage, probably a king of Parthia,
Persia, or Armenia, who wears a tall upstanding bonnet, _mitred_ at the top
exactly like a bishop's, with the exception that it has three incisions at
the side instead of a single one. These separate incisions had no doubt a
symbolical meaning amongst the native races, although their allusive
properties are unknown to us; but it is not an unwarrantable inference, nor
inconsistent with the customs of these nations as enduring at this day, to
conclude that the numbers of one, two, or three, were appropriated as
distinctions of different degrees in rank; and that their priests, the
Magi, like those of other countries where the sovereign did not invest
himself with priestly dignities, imitated the habiliments as they assumed
the powers of the sovereign, and wore a bonnet closely resembling his in
form and dignity, with the difference of one large _mitre_ at each side, in
place of the three smaller ones.

If this account be true respecting the origin of the mitre, it will lead us
by an easy step to determine the place where it was first used--at Antioch,
the "Queen of the East," where, as we are told in the Acts of the Apostles,
the followers of Christ were first called "Christians;" thus indicating
that they were sufficiently numerous and influential to be distinguished as
a separate class in that city, while those in Rome yet remained despised
and unknown. Antioch was the imperial residence of the Macedonian dynasty,
which succeeded Alexander, who himself assumed the upright bonnet of the
Persian king (Arrian. iv. 7.), and transmitted it to his successors, who
ruled over Syria for several hundred years, where its form would be ready
at hand as a model emblematic of authority for the bishop who ruled over
the primitive church in those parts.

The tiara of the popes has, in like manner, an Eastern origin; but instead
of being adopted by them directly from its native birth-place, it descended
through Etruria to the Pagan priesthood of ancient Rome, and thence to the
head of the Roman Catholic Church. The [Greek: tiara] of the Greeks, and
_tiara_ of the Latins, expresses the cloth cap or _fez_ of the Parthians,
Persians, Armenians, &c., {145} which was a low scull-cap amongst the
commonalty, but a stiff and elevated covering for the kings and personages
of distinction (Xen. _Anab._ ii. 5, 23.). This imposing tiara is frequently
represented on ancient monuments, where it varies in some details, though
always preserving the characteristic peculiarity of a tall upright
head-dress. It is sometimes truncated at its upper extremity, at others a
genuine round-topped bonnet, like the Phrygian cap when pulled out to its
full length, and stiffened so as to stand erect--each a variety of form
peculiar to certain classes or degrees of rank, which at this period we are
not able to decide and distinguish with certainty. But on a bas-relief from
Persepolis, supposed to have belonged to the palace of Cyrus, and engraved
by Ferrario (_Costume dell' Asia_, vol. iii. tav. 47.), may be seen a
bonnet shaped very much like a beehive, the exact type of the papal tiara,
with three bands (the _triregno_) round its sides, and only wanting the
cross at the summit, and the strawberry-leaved decoration, to distinguish
it from the one worn by Pio Nono: and on a medal of Augustus, engraved on a
larger scale in Rich's _Companion to the Latin Dictionary_, art. Tutulus,
we find this identical form, with an unknown ornament of the top, for which
the popes substituted a cross, reappearing on the skull of a pagan priest.
I may add that the upright tiaras represented on works of ancient art,
which can be proved, or are known to be worn by royal personages, are
truncated at the summit; whence it does not seem an improper inference to
conclude that the round and conical ones belonged to persons inferior to
the kings alone in rank and influence, the Magi; which is the more
probable, since it is clear that they were adopted by the highest priests
of two other religions, those of Pagan and of Christian Rome.

If space admits, I would also add that the official insignia and costume of
a cardinal are likewise derived from the pagan usages of Greece. Amongst
his co-religionists he is supposed to symbolize one of the Apostles of
Christ, who went forth ill clothed and coarsely shod to preach the Gospel;
whereas, in truth, his comfortable hat, warm cloak, and showy stockings,
are but borrowed plumage from the ordinary travelling costume of a Greek
_messenger_ ([Greek: apostolos]). The sentiment of travelling is always
conveyed in the ancient bas-reliefs and vase paintings by certain
conventional signs or accessories bestowed upon the figure represented,
viz., a broad-brimmed and low-crowned hat ([Greek: petasos], Lat.
_petasus_), with long ties (_redimicula_) hanging from its sides, which
served to fasten it under the chin, or sling it behind at the nape of the
neck when not worn upon the head; a wrapping cloak ([Greek: himation], Lat.
_pallium_) made of coarse material instead of fine lamb's wool; and a pair
of stout travelling boots laced round the legs with leathern thongs
([Greek: endromides]), more serviceable for bad roads and rough weather
than their representatives, red silk stockings. All these peculiarities may
be seen in the following engravings (Winhelm. _Mon. Ined. Tratt., Prelim._,
p. xxxv.; Id., tav. 85.; _Rich's Companion_, art. "Ceryx" and "Pallium").

I regret that the nature of your publication does not admit the
introduction of woodcuts, which would have enabled me to present your
readers with the best of all demonstrations for what I advance. In default
of that I have endeavoured to point out the most compendious and accessible
sources where the figures I refer to may be seen in engravings. But if any
reader of "NOTES AND QUERIES" should not have an opportunity of consulting
the books cited, and is desirous of pursuing the investigation to satisfy
himself, I would willingly transmit to him a drawing of the objects
mentioned through Mr. Bell, or any other channel deemed more convenient.


_The Episcopal Mitre_ (Vol. iii., p. 62.)--Godwyn, in his _Moses and
Aaron_, London, 1631, b. i., c. 5., says that--

    "A miter of fine linnen sixteene cubits long, wrapped about his head,
    and a plate of purple gold, or holy crowne, two fingers broad, whereon
    was graven Holinesse to the Lord, which was tied with a blew lace upon
    the forefront of the miter,"

was that "which shadowed and signified the kingly office of our Saviour
Christ," in the apparel of the Jewish high priest, and ordered (Lev. xvi.
4.): and again, in his _Romanæ Historiæ Anthologia_, Oxford, 1631, lib.
iii. sec. 1. cap. 8., he says that the

    "_Mitra_ did signifie a certaine attire for women's heads, as a coife
    or such like."

For further illustration see Virgil's _Æneid_, lib. iv. l. 216.:

 "Mæoniâ mentum mitrâ crinemque madentem."

Again, lib. ix. l. 616.:

 "Et tunicæ manicas et habent redimicula mitræ."

During the ennobling of the clergy by the Roman emperors, in the seventh
and eighth centuries, a crown was found necessary, and anciently cardinals
wore mitres; but, at the council of Lyons, in 1245, they were appointed to
wear hats.


_The Episcopal Mitre_ (Vol. iii., p. 62.).--AN INQUIRER will find much
curious matter respecting the mitre, collected both from classical writers
and antiquaries, in _Explications de plusieurs Textes difficiles de
l'Ecriture par le R. P. Dom._ [_Martin_], 4to., à Paris, 1730. To any one
ambitious of learnedly occupying some six or seven columns of "NOTES AND
QUERIES" the ample foot references are very tempting; I content myself with
transcribing two or three of the entries in the index:

    _"Mitre des anciens, leur nature, et leur forme; était la {146} marque
    du Sacerdoce; se portait ordinairement à la tête, et quelquefois aux
    mains. Forme des mitres dans leur origine, et dans les tems
    postérieurs,_" &c.

This dissertation, which is illustrated by several plates, will repay for
the time spent in reading it. I presume INQUIRER is acquainted with
Godwyn's _Moses and Aaron_, where he will find something.

W. DN.

_Episcopal Mitre._--The origin of the peculiar form of the episcopal mitre
is the cloven tongues which descended on the Apostles on the day of
Pentecost, with the gift of the Holy Spirit. Of this the mitre is an

L. M. M. R.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ii., pp. 422. 462.)

The Query proposed by your correspondent, as to the authorship of the
_Essay on Satire_, is a very interesting one, and I am rather surprised
that it has not yet been replied to. In favour of your correspondent's
view, and I think it is perhaps the strongest argument which can be
alleged, is Dean Lockier's remark:--

    "Could anything be more impudent than his (Sheffield's) publishing that
    satire, for writing which Dryden was beaten in Rose Alley (and which
    was so remarkably known by the name of the 'Rose Alley Satire') as his
    own? Indeed he made a few alterations in it, but these were only
    verbal, and generally for the worse."--Spence's _Anecdotes_, edit.
    Singer, p. 64.

Dean Lockier, it must be observed, was well acquainted with Dryden from
1685 to the time of his death; and appears to speak so positively that he
would seem to have acquired his knowledge from Dryden's own information.
His first introduction to that great poet arose from an observation made in
Dryden's hearing about his Mac Fleckno; and it is therefore the more likely
that he would be correctly informed as to the author's other satires. Dean
Lockier was, it may be added, a good critic; and his opinions on literary
subjects are so just, that it is to be regretted we have only very few of

I confess I do not attach much weight to the argument arising from the
lines on the Earl of Mulgrave himself contained in the poem. To transfer
suspicion from himself, in so general a satire, it was necessary to include
his own name amongst the rest; but, though the lines are somewhat obscure,
it is, after all, as respects him, compared with the other persons
mentioned, a very gentle flagellation, and something like what children
call a make-believe. Indeed Rochester, in a letter to his friend Henry
Saville (21st Nov. 1679), speaks of it as a panegyric.

On the other hand, Mulgrave expressly denied Dryden's being the author, in
the lines in his _Essay on Poetry_,--

    "Tho' praised and punished for another's rhymes."

and by inference claimed the poem, or at least the lines on Rochester, as
his own. Dryden, in the Preface to his Virgil, praises the _Essay on
Poetry_ in the highest terms; but says not a word to dispute Mulgrave's
statement, though he might then have safely claimed the _Essay on Satire_,
if his own; and though he must have been aware that, by his silence, he was
virtually resigning his sole claim to its authorship. It was subsequently
included in Mulgrave's works, and has ever since gone under the joint names
of himself and Dryden.

On the question of internal evidence critics differ. Your correspondent can
see in it no hand but Dryden's; while Malone will scarcely allow that
Dryden made even a few verbal alterations in it (Life, p. 130.); and Sir
Walter Scott is not inclined to admit any further participation on the part
of the great poet than "a few hints for revision," and denies its merit
altogether--a position in which I think very few, who carefully peruse it,
will agree with him.

I am disposed to take a middle course between your correspondent and
Dryden's two biographers, and submit that there is quite sufficient
internal evidence of joint ownership. I cannot think such lines as--

 "I, who so wise and humble seem to be,
  Now my own vanity and pride can't see;"


 "I, who have all this while been finding fault,
  E'en with my master who first satire taught,
  And did by that describe the task so hard,
  It seems stupendious, and above reward."


 "To tell men freely of their foulest faults,
  To laugh at their vain deeds and vainer thoughts:"

would proceed from Dryden, while it is to be noticed that the inharmonious
rhymes "faults" and "thoughts" were favourites of Mulgrave, and occur twice
in his _Essay on Poetry_.

Neither can I doubt that the verses on Shaftesbury,--the four "will any
dog;" the four "For words and wit did anciently agree," the four "Mean in
each action;" the two "Each pleasure has its price"--are Dryden's
additions, with many others, which a careful reader will instantly

I can find no sufficient authority for the statement of Malone and Sir W.
Scott, that Pope revised the _Essay on Satire_. It is well known he
corrected that on Poetry.


    Manchester, Feb. 10. 1851.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. iii., p. 88.)

I recollect having seen the stone in question in the collection of the late
Mr. Douce, in whose possession it had been for some years before his
communication of it to the Society of Antiquaries. It is quite evident that
he was satisfied of its authenticity, and it was most probably an
accidental purchase from some dealer in antiquities, who knew nothing about
it. I happen to know that it remained in the hands of Sir Henry Ellis at
the time of Mr. Douce's death, and your correspondent H. C. R. will most
probably find it among the other collections of Mr. Douce now in the museum
at Goodrich Castle.

The doubt expressed by your correspondent is evidently founded upon the
engraving and accompanying paper in the 26th volume of the _Archæologia_;
and as it conveys such a grave censure of the judgment of the director of
the council and secretaries of the Antiquarian Society, it appears to me
that it is incumbent upon him to satisfy his doubts by seeing the stone
itself, and, if he should be convinced of his error, to make the _amende

It is to be regretted that he did not state "the points which have
suggested this notion of its being a hoax." For my own part, I cannot see
the motive for such a falsification; and if it is one, it is the
contrivance of some one who had more epigraphic skill than is usually found
on such occasions.

There is nothing in the objection of your correspondent as to the size and
form of the stone which would have any weight, and it is not necessary to
suppose that it "must have been loose in the world for 858 years." On
pulling down the old church, the foundation-stone in which this was
imbedded may have been buried with the rubbish, and exhumed in
comparatively recent times. It had evidently fallen into rude and ignorant
hands, and suffered by being violently detached from the stone in which it
was imbedded.

Every one who knew the late Mr. Douce must have full confidence in his
intimate knowledge of mediæval antiquity, and would not easily be led to
imagine that he could be deceived on a point like this; but are we to
presume, from a vague _idea_ of your correspondent's, that the executive
body of the Society of Antiquaries would fail to detect a forgery of this

S. W. S., _olim_ F. S. A.

_Foundation-stone of St. Mark's, Venice_ (Vol. iii., p.88.).--This singular
relic is now preserved in the "Doucean Museum," at Goodrich Court,
Herefordshire, with the numerous objects of art and antiquities bequeathed
by Mr. Douce to the late Sir Samuel Meyrick. I believe that nothing can now
be ascertained regarding the history of this stone, or how it came into the
possession of Mr. Douce. Sir Samuel enumerates it amongst "Miscellaneous
Antiquities," No. 2., in his interesting Inventory of this Collection,
given in the _Gentleman's Magazine_, Feb., 1835, p. 198. The Doucean Museum
comprises, probably, the finest series of specimens of sculpture in ivory
existing in any collection in England. The Limoges enamels are also highly
deserving of notice.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. iii., pp. 4. and 72.)

I am not sufficiently familiar with Vossius or his works to form any
opinion as to the accuracy of the conclusion which MR. CROSSLEY has arrived
at. There is at least much obscurity in the matter, to which I have long
paid some little attention.

My Copy is entitled,--

    "The History of the Sevarambians: A People of the South continent. In
    _Five_ Parts. Containing an Account of the Government, &c. Translated
    from the Memoirs of Capt. _Siden_, who lived fifteen years amongst
    them. Lond. 1738." (8vo. pp. xxiii. and 412.)

I have given this to show how it differs from that spoken of by MR. C. as
being in _two_ parts, by Capt. Thos. _L_iden, and not a reprint, but a
translation from the French, which Lowndes says was "considerably _altered_
and _enlarged_."

If this be so, we can hardly ascribe to Vossius the edition of 1738. The
preface intimates that the papers were written in Latin, French, Italian,
and Dutch, and placed in the editor's hands in England, on his promising to
methodise them and put them all into one language; but I do not observe the
slightest allusion to the work having previously appeared either in English
or French, although we find that Barbier, in his _Dict. des Anon._, gives
the French edit. 1 pt. Paris, 1677; 2 pt. Paris, 1678 et 1679, 2 vols.
12mo.; Nouvelle edit. Amsterdam, 1716, 2 vols. 12mo.; and ascribes it to
Denis Vairasse d'Alais.

There is a long account of this work in _Dict. Historique_, par Marchand: à
la Haye, 1758, fo. sub. nom., Allais, as the author, observing--

    "Il y a diversité d'opinions touchant la langue en laquelle il a été
    écrit ou composé."

The earliest he mentions is the English one of 1675, and an edition in the
French, "à Paris, 1677;" which states on the title, _Traduit de l'Anglois_,
whereas the second part is "imprimée à Paris _chez l'Auteur_, 1678," from
which Marchand concludes that Allais was the writer, adding,--

    "On n'a peut-être jamais vu de Fiction composée avec plus d'art et plus
    d'industrie, et il faut avouer {148} qu'il y en a peu où le
    vraisemblable soit aussi ingénieusement et aussi adroitement conservé."

Wm. Taylor, of Norwich, writes to Southey, asking,--

    "Can you tell me who wrote the _History of the Sevarambians_? The book
    is to me curious. Wieland steals from it so often, that it must have
    been a favourite in his library; if I had to impute the book by guess,
    I would fix on Maurice Ashby, the translator of Xenophon's _Cyropædia_,
    as the author."

to which Southey replies,--

    "Of the Sevarambians I know nothing!" (See _Gent. Mag._ N.S. xxi. p.

Sir W. Scott, in his _Memoirs of Swift_, p. 304. (edit. 1834), speaking of
_Gulliver's Travels_, says--

    "A third volume was published by an unblushing forger, as early as
    1727, without printer's name, a great part of which is unacknowledged
    plunder from a work entitled _Hist. des Sévarambes_, ascribed to Mons.
    Alletz, suppressed in France and other Catholic kingdoms on account of
    its deistical opinions."

It would seem from this, that Sir Walter was not aware of the English work,
or knew much of its origin or the author.

F. R. A.

_Histoire des Sévarambes._--The second edition of Gulliver's Travels,
entitled _Travels into several Remote Nations of the World, by Lemuel
Gulliver_, 2 vols. 8vo., London, 1727, is accompanied with a spurious third
volume, printed at London in the same year, with a similar title-page, but
not professing to be a second edition. This third volume is divided into
two parts: the first part consists, first, of an Introduction in pp. 20;
next, of two chapters, containing a second voyage to Brobdingnag, which are
followed by four chapters, containing a voyage to Sporunda. The second part
consists of six chapters, containing a voyage to Sevarambia, a voyage to
Monatamia, a voyage to Batavia, a voyage to the Cape, and a voyage to
England. The whole of the third volume, with the exception of the
introduction and the two chapters relating to Brobdingnag, is derived from
the _Histoire des Sévarambes_, either in its English or French version.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. iii., pp. 42. 93.)

There is ample evidence that the French monarchs performed the ceremony of
touching for the evil.

In a MS. in the University Library, Cambridge[18], is this memorandum:--

    "The Kings of England and _Fraunce_ by a peculiar guift cure the King's
    evill by touching them with their handes, and so doth the seaventh
    sonne."--_Ant. Miraldus_, p. 384.

Fuller intimates that St. Louis was the first king of France who healed the
evil. "So witnesseth Andrew Chasne, a French author, and others."[19]

Speaking of the illness of Louis XI., "at Forges neere to Chinon," in
March, 1480, Philip de Commines says:

    "After two daies he recovered his speech and his memory after a sort:
    and because he thought no man understood him so wel as my selfe, his
    pleasure was that I should alwaies be by him, and he confessed himselfe
    to the officiall in my presence, otherwise they would never have
    understood one another. He had not much to say, for he was shriven not
    long before, because the Kings of Fraunce use alwaies to confesse
    themselves when they touch those that be sick of the King's evill,
    which he never failed to do once a weeke. If other Princes do not the
    like, they are to blame, for continuall a great number are troubled
    with that disease."[20]

Pierre Desrey, in his _Great Chronicles of Charles VIII._, has the
following passage relating to that monarch's proceedings at Rome in
January, 1494-5:--

    "Tuesday the 20th, the king heard mass in the French chapel, and
    afterwards touched and cured many afflicted with the king's evil, to
    the great astonishment of the Italians who witnessed the miracle."[21]

And speaking of the king at Naples, in April, 1495, the same chronicler

    "The 15th of April, the king, after hearing mass in the church of the
    Annonciada, was confessed, and then touched and cured great numbers
    that were afflicted with the evil--a disorder that abounded much all
    over Italy--when the spectators were greatly edified at the powers of
    such an extraordinary gift.

    *   *   *   *   *

    "On Easter day, the 19th of April, the king was confessed in the church
    of St. Peter, adjoining to his lodgings, and then touched for the evil
    a second time."[22]

Fuller, in remarking upon the cure of the king's evil by the touch of our
English monarchs, observes:--

    "The kings of France share also with those of England in this
    miraculous cure. And Laurentius reports, that when Francis I., king of
    France, was kept prisoner in Spain, he, notwithstanding his exile and
    restraint, daily cured infinite multitudes of people of that disease;
    according to this epigram:

      _'Hispanos inter sanat rex chæradas, estque_
        _Captivus Superis gratus, ut antè fuit.'_

     'The captive king the evil cures in Spain:
      Dear, as before, he doth to God remain.'

    "So it seemeth his medicinal quality is affixed not {149} to his
    prosperity, but person; so that during his durance, he was fully free
    to exercise the same."[23]

Cavendish, relating what took place on Cardinal Wolsey's embassy to Francis
I., in 1527, has the following passage:--

    "And at his [the king's] coming in to the bishop's palace [at Amiens],
    where he intended to dine with my Lord Cardinal, there sat within a
    cloister about two hundred persons diseased with the king's evil, upon
    their knees. And the king, or ever he went to dinner, provised every of
    them with rubbing them and blessing them with his bare hands, being
    bareheaded all the while; after whom followed his almoner distributing
    of money unto the persons diseased. And that done, he said certain
    prayers over them, and then washed his hands, and so came up into his
    chamber to dinner, where as my lord dined with him."[24]

Laurentius, cited by Fuller in the page already given, was, it seems,
physician in ordinary to King Henry IV. of France. In a treatise entitled
_De Mirabili Strumarum Curatione_, he stated that the kings of England
never cured the evil. "To cry quits with him," Dr. W. Tucker, chaplain to
Queen Elizabeth, in his _Charismate_, denied that the kings of France ever
originally cured the evil

    "but _per aliquam propaginem_, 'by a sprig of right,' derived from the
    primitive power of our English kings, under whose jurisdiction most of
    the French provinces were once subjected."[25]

Louis XVI., immediately after his coronation at Rheims, in 1775, went to
the Abbey of St. Remi to pay his devotions, and to touch for the evil. The
ceremony took place in the Abbey Park, and is thus described in a paper
entitled _Coronation of the Kings of France prior to the Revolution_, by
Charles White, Esq.:--

    "Two thousand four hundred individuals suffering under this affliction,
    having been assembled in rows in the park, his majesty, attended by the
    household physicians, approached the first on the right. The
    physician-in-chief then placed his hand upon the patient's head, whilst
    a captain of the guards held the hands of the latter joined before his
    bosom. The king, with his head uncovered, then touched the patient by
    making the sign of the cross upon his face, exclaiming, 'May God heal
    thee! The king touches thee.' The whole two thousand four hundred
    having been healed in a similar manner, and the grand almoner having
    distributed alms to each in succession, three attendants, called _chefs
    de goblet_, presented themselves with golden salvers, on which were
    three embroidered napkins. The first, steeped in vinegar, was then
    offered to the king by Monsieur; the second, dipped in plain water, was
    presented by the Count d'Artois; and the third, moistened with orange
    water, was banded by the Duke of Orleans."[26]

The power of the seventh son to heal the evil (mentioned in the MS. I have
cited) is humourously alluded to in the _Tatler_ (No. 11.). I subjoin the
passage, which occurs in a letter signed "D. Distaff."

    "_Tipstaff_, being a seventh son, used to cure the _king's evil_; but
    his rascally descendants are so far from having that healing quality,
    that by a touch upon the shoulder, they give a man such an ill habit of
    body, that he can never come abroad afterwards."

I imagine that by the seventh son is meant the seventh son of a seventh


    Cambridge, Feb. 4. 1851.

P.S. Since the above was written, I have observed the following notice of
the work of Laurentius in Southey's _Common Place Book_, 4th Series, 478.
(apparently from a bookseller's catalogue):

    "Laurentius (And.) De Mirabili Strumas Sanandi VI. Solis Galliæ Regibus
    Christianissimis divinitas concessa, (_fine copy_,) 12s. Paris, 1609.

    "This copy possesses the large folded engraving of Henry IV., assisted
    by his courtiers in the ceremony of curing the king's evil."

[Footnote 18: _Dd._ 2. 41. fo. 38 b.]

[Footnote 19: Fuller, _Church History_, edit. 1837, i. 228.]

[Footnote 20: Danett's Translation. edit. 1614, p. 203.]

[Footnote 21: Monstrelet edit. 1845, ii. 471.]

[Footnote 22: Ibid. 476.]

[Footnote 23: Fuller, _Church History_, edit. 1837, i. 227.]

[Footnote 24: Cavendish, _Life of Wolsey_, edit. Singer, 1825, vol. i. p.

[Footnote 25: Fuller, _Church History_, edit. 1837, i. pp. 227, 228.]

[Footnote 26: _New Monthly Magazine_, vol. liii. p. 160.]

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Forged Papal Bulls_ (Vol. ii., p. 491.).--In your Number, 20th Dec., J. E.
inquires where is the instrument for counterfeiting the seal of the Pope's
Bulls, which was dredged up from the ruins of old London Bridge. It is in
my possession, and your correspondent will find an account of it, with
woodcuts of the instrument itself and the seal, in the _Proceedings of the
Archæological Association_, 11th Feb. 1846.



_Obeism._--As your correspondent T. H. (Vol. iii., p. 59.) desires "any
information" on the subject of _Obeism_, in the absence of more and better,
I offer my mite: that in the early part of this century it was very common
among the slave-population in the West Indies, especially on the remoter
estates--of course of African origin--not as either a "religion" or a
"rite," but rather as a superstition; a power claimed by its professors,
and assented to by the _patients_, of causing good or evil to, or averting
it from them; which was of course always for a "consideration" of some
sort, to the profit, whether honorary, pecuniary, or other, of the
dispenser. It is by the pretended influence of certain spells, charms,
ceremonies, amulets worn, or other such incantations, as practised with
more or less diversity by the adepts, the magicians and conjurers, the
"false prophets" of all ages and countries.


On this matter, a curious phenomenon to investigate would be, the process
by which the untonsured neophyte is converted into the bonneted doctor; the
progress and stages of his mind in the different phases of the practice;
how he begins by deceiving himself, to end in deceiving others; the first
uninquiring ignorance; the gradual admission of ideas, what he is taught or
left to imagine; the faith, of what is fancied to be so, the mechanical
belief; then the confusion of thought from the intrusion of doubt and
uncertainty; the adoption of some undefined notions; and, finally, actual
unbelief; followed by designed and systematic injustice in the practice of
what first was taken up in sincerity, though even this now perhaps is not
unmixed with some fancy of its reality. For this must be the gradation more
or less gone through in all such things, whether Obeism, Fetichism, the
Evil Eye, or any sort of sorcery or witchcraft, in whatever variousness of
form practised; cheats on the one hand, and dupes on the other the _primum
mobile_ in every case being, some shape or other of _gain_ to the

It seems, however, hardly likely that Obeism should now be "rapidly gaining
ground again" there, from the greater spread of Christianity and diffusion
of enlightenment and information in general since the slave-emancipation;
as also from the absence of its feeding that formerly accompanied every
fresh importation from the coast: as, like mists before the mounting sun,
all such impostures must fade away before common sense, truth, and facts,
whenever these are allowed their free influence.

The conclusion, then, would rather be, that Obeism is on the decline only
more apparent, when now seen, than formerly, from its attracting greater


_Obeahism._--In answer to T. H.'s Query regarding Obeahism, though I cannot
answer his question fully, as to its origin, &c., yet I have thought that
what I can communicate may serve to piece out the more valuable information
of your better informed correspondents. I was for a short time in the
island of Jamaica, and from what I could learn there of Obeahism, the power
seemed to be obtained by the Obeah-man or woman, by working upon the fears
of their fellow-negroes, who are notoriously superstitious. The principal
charm seemed to be, a collection of feathers, coffin furniture, and one or
two other things which I have forgotten. A small bundle of this, hung over
the victim's door, or placed in his path, is supposed to have the power of
bringing ill luck to the unfortunate individual. And if any accident, or
loss, or sickness should happen to him about the time, it is immediately
imputed to the dreaded influence of Obeah! But I have heard of cases where
the unfortunate victim has gradually wasted away, and died under this
powerful spell, which, I have been informed by old residents in the island,
is to be attributed to a more natural cause, namely, the influence of
poison. The Obeah-man causes a quantity of _ground glass_ to be mixed with
the food of the person who has incurred his displeasure; and the result is
said to be a slow but sure and wasting death! Perhaps some of your medical
readers can say whether an infusion of _powdered glass_ would have this
effect. I merely relate what I have been told by others.

While speaking of the superstition of the negroes, I may mention a very
curious one, very generally received and universally believed among them,
called the _rolling calf_, which, if you wish, I will give you an account
of in my next.

D. P. W.

_Pillgarlick_ (Vol. ii., p. 393.; Vol. iii., pp. 42. 74.).--It seems to me
that the passage quoted from Skelton by F. S. Q. completely elucidates the
meaning of this word. Let us premise that, according to all principles of
English etymology, _pill-garlick_ is as likely to mean "the pillar of
garlick" as to be a syncopated form of "_pill'd garlick_." Now we see from
Skelton's verse that in his time the peeling of garlick was proverbially a
degraded employment--one which was probably thrust off upon the lowest
inmate of the servants' hall, in an age when garlick entered largely into
the composition of all made dishes. The disagreeable nature of the
occupation is sufficient to account for this. Accordingly we may well
suppose that the epithet "a poor pill-garlick" would be applied to any
person, in miserable circumstances, who might be ready to undertake mean
employment for a trifling gratuity.

This, I think, satisfactorily answers the original question, "Whence comes
the expression?" The verse quoted by F. S. Q. satisfactorily establishes
the orthography, viz., pi_ll_ garlick. A Query of some interest still
remains--In what author do we first find the compound word?

R. D. H.

_Pillgarlick_ (Vol. iii., p. 74.).--That _to pill_ is merely another form
of the word _to peel_, appears from the book of Genesis, c. xxx., v. 37,
38: "And Jacob took him rods of green poplar, and of the hazel and chesnut
tree: and _pilled_ white strakes in them, and made the white appear which
was in the rods. And he set the rods which he had _pilled_ before the
flocks," &c.

On first seeing your correspondent's Query, it occurred to me that perhaps
"poor Pillgarlick" was in some way akin to "Pillicock," of whom Edgar, in
_King Lear_, records that "Pillicock sat on Pillicock's hill;" but the
connexion between these two worthies, if any, I confess myself quite unable
to trace.

I conceive that Pillgarlick means "peeler of garlick," _i.e._ scullion; or,
to borrow a phrase from a witness in a late case at the Middlesex sessions,
{151} which has attracted some attention, "a person in a low way of life."

The passage from Skelton, cited by your correspondent F. S. Q., may, I
think, be explained thus: the will is so powerful in man's moral
constitution, that the reason must content itself with an inferior place
(as that of a scullion compared with that of the master of the house); or
if it attempts to assert its proper place, it will find it a hopeless
endeavour--as hopeless as that of "rosting a stone."

X. Z.

_Hornbooks_ (Vol. ii., pp. 167. 236.).--In answer to MR. TIMBS, I send you
the following particulars of a _Hornbook_ in the British Museum, which I
have this morning examined.

It is marked in the new catalogue (Press Mark 828, a. 55.). It contains on
one side the "Old English Alphabet"--the capitals in two lines, the small
letters in one. The fourth line contains the vowels twice repeated (perhaps
to _doubly_ impress upon the pupil the necessity of learning them). Next
follow, in two columns, our ancient companions, "ab, eb, ib," &c., and "ba,
be, bi," &c. After the formula of exorcism comes the "Lord's Prayer" (which
is given somewhat differently to our present version), winding up with "i.
ii. iii. iiii. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x." On the other side is the following
whimsical piece of composition:--

    _"What more could be wished for, even by a literary gourmand under the
    Tudors, than to be able to Read and Spell; To repeat that holy charm
    before which fled all unholy Ghosts, Goblins, or even the old Gentleman
    himself to the very bottom of the Red Sea, and to say that immortal
    prayer, which secures heaven to all who _ex animo_ use it, and those
    mathematical powers, by knowing units, from which spring countless

Now for my "Query." Can any of your correspondents oblige me with the
probable date of this _literally_ literary treasure, or refer me to any
source of information on the subject?


_Bacon_ (Vol. iii., p. 41.).--The explanation given in a former number from
old Verstegan, of the original meaning of the family name of Bacon, and the
application of the word to the unclean beast, with the corroboration from
the pages of Collins's _Baronetage_, is very interesting. The word, as
applied to the salted flesh of the _dead_ animal, is another instance of
the introduction of a foreign term for a _dead_ animal, in opposition to
the Anglo-Saxon name of the living animal. It was used in this sense in
France at a very early period; and Ampère, in his _Histoire Littéraire de
la France avant le 12ième Siècle_, iii. 482., mentions the word among other
instances of Gallicisms in the Latin of the Carolingian diplomas and
capitularies, and quotes the capitularies of Charles the Fat. _Bacco, porc
salé,_ from the _vulgar_ word _bacon_, _jambon_. The word was in use as
late as the seventeenth century in Dauphiné, and the bordering cantons of
Switzerland, and is cited in the _Moyen de Parvenir_, ch. 38. The passage
is curious, as it would seem to intimate that Lord Bacon was one of the
personages introduced in that very extraordinary production of the
Rabelaisian school.

I have frequently heard the word employed by the country people in the
markets of Geneva.

J. B. D.

_Lachrymatories_ (Vol. ii., pp. 326. 448.).--In illustration of the
question as to the _probable_ use of those small vases so commonly found in
sepulchral monuments, I extract the following from _Wayfaring Sketches
among the Greeks and Turks_. 2d edit. Introduction, pp. 6, 7. London:
Chapman, 1849.

    "The poorest of the sepulchres is certain to contain (in Greece) at
    least a few of these beautiful vases, the lachrymatories, &c.

    *   *   *   *   *

    When found in the graves of females, their form would generally seem to
    indicate that they had been used for containing scents, and other
    requisites of the toilet; in one that was found not long since, there
    was a preparation evidently (?) of rouge or some such paint for the
    face, &c., _the mark left by the pressure of two fingers of a small
    hand was distinctly visible_ (?)."

To me, ignorant as I am of antiquarian matters, this sounds very curious;
and I send it you in case you may find it worthy of insertion, as
provocative of discussion, and with the utilitarian idea that _I_ may gain
some information on the subject.


    Greenock, Jan. 16. 1851.

_Scandal against Queen Elizabeth_ (Vol. iii., p. 11.).--An intercepted
letter, apparently from a popish priest, preserved among the Venetian
correspondence in the State Paper Office, gives the following account of
the death-bed of the Queen; which, as illustrative of the observations of
your correspondent CUDYN GYWN, may not be uninteresting:--

    "London, 9 Martii, 1603.

    "About 10 dayes synce dyed the Countess of Notingham. The Queene loved
    the Countess very much, and hath seemed to take her death very
    heavelye, remayning euer synce in a deepe melancholye, w^{th} conceipte
    of her own death, and complayneth of many infirmyties, sodainlye to
    haue ouertaken her, as impost[=u]mecoñ in her head, aches in her bones,
    and continuall cold in her legges, besides notable decay in iudgem^t
    and memory, insomuch as she cannot attend to any discourses of
    governm^t and state, _but delighteth to heare some of the 100 merry
    tales, and such like, and to such is uery attentiue;_ at other tymes
    uery impatient, and testye, so as none of the Counsayle, but the
    secretary, dare come in her presence."

May we not class this story of her majesty's {152} predilection for the
hundred merry tales among the "black relations of the Jesuits?"


_Meaning of Cefn._--What is the meaning of the Welsh word "Cefn" used as


1. The first meaning of the word "Cefn" is, "the back;" _e.g._ "Cefn dyn,"
"the back of a man."

2. It also signifies "the upper part of the ridge of some elevated and
exposed land." As a prefix, its meaning depends upon the fact whether the
word attached to it be an adjective or a substantive. If an adjective be
attached, it has the _second_ signification; _i.e._ it is the upper part of
some exposed land, having the particular quality involved in the adjective,
such as, "Cefndu," "Cefngwyn," "Cefncoch," the black, white, or red

When a substantive is attached, it has the _first_ signification; _i.e._ it
is the _back_ of the thing signified by the substantive; such as,
"Cefnllys," the back of the court.

E. L.

_Portrait of Archbishop Williams_ (Vol. iii., p. 8.).--There is a portrait
of this prelate in the library of the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, in
the Cloisters. The greater part of the archbishop's library was given to
this library, but only one volume of it seems to have been preserved. It is
of this library the remark is made in J. Beeverell, _Délices de la Grande
Bretagne_, p. 847., 12mo., 1707:

    "Il se trouve dans le cloistre une bibliothèque _publique_, qui s'ouvre
    soir et matin pendant les séances des Cours de Justice dans


_Sir Alexander Cumming_ (Vol. iii., p. 39.).--In answer to an inquiry
relative to Sir Alexander Cumming, of Culter, I may refer to the _Scottish
Journal_ (Menzies, Edin. 1848) _of Topography, Antiquities, Traditions,
&c._, vol. ii. p. 254., where an extract from a MS. autobiography of the
baronet is given. The work in which this occurs is little known; but, as a
repertory of much curious and interesting information, deserved a more
extensive circulation than it obtained. It stopped with the second volume,
and is now somewhat scarce, as the unsold copies were disposed of for waste

_Pater-noster Tackling_ (Vol. iii., p. 89.).--_Pater-noster
fishing-tackle_, so called in the shops, is used to catch fish (perch, for
instance) which take the bait at various distances between the surface and
the bottom of the water. Accordingly, hooks are attached to a line at given
intervals throughout its length, with leaden shots, likewise regularly
distributed, in order to sink it, and keep it extended perpendicularly in
the water.

This regularity of arrangement, and the resemblance of the shots to
_beads_, seems to have caused the contrivance to have been, somewhat
fancifully, likened to a _chaplet_ or _rosary_. In a rosary there is a bead
longer than the rest, for distinction's sake called the _Pater-noster_;
from whence that name applies to a rosary; and, therefore, to anything
likened to it; and, therefore, to the article of _fishing-tackle_ in

The word _pater-noster_, i.e. _pater-noster-wise_, is an heraldic term
(_vide_ Ash's _Dictionary_), applied to _beads_ disposed in the form of a


_Welsh Words for Water_ (Vol. iii., p. 30.).--

    "It is quite surprising," says Sharon Turner (_Trans. of the Royal
    Society of Literature_, vol. i. pt. i. p. 97.), "to observe that, in
    all the four quarters of the world, many nations signify this liquid by
    a vocable of one or more syllables, from the letter M."

He mentions the Hebrew word for it, _mim_; in Africa he finds twenty-eight
examples, in Asia sixteen, in South America five, in North America three,
in Europe three; and elsewhere, in Canary Islands one, in New Zealand one.
He adds--

    "We trace the same radical in the Welsh _more_, the sea, and in the
    Latin _mare, humor, humidus._[27]

    "All these people cannot be supposed to have derived their sound from
    each other. It must have descended to them from some primitive source,
    common to all."

From the expression used by J. W. H., "the connexion of the Welsh _dwr_
with the Greek [Greek: hudôr] is remarkable," he appears not to have known
that Vezron found so many resemblances in the Doric or Laconic dialect, and
the Celtic, that he thereupon raised the theory that the Lacedæmonians and
the Celts were of the same--the Titanic--stock.

T. J.

[Footnote 27: He may have added the Armoric or Breton _mor_, _mar_; and the
Irish _muir_, _mara_.]

_Early Culture of the Imagination_ (Vol. iii., p. 38.).--The germ of the
thought alluded to by MR. GATTY is as ancient as the time of Plato, and may
be found in the _Republic_, book ii. c. 17. If this will aid MR. GATTY in
his research, it is gladly placed at his disposal by


    January 20. 1851.

_Venville_ (Vol. iii., p. 38.).--R. E. G. inquires respecting the origin of
this word, as applied to certain tenants round Dartmoor Forest. The name is
peculiar to that district, and is applied chiefly to certain _vills_ or
villages (for the most part also parishes), and to certain tenements within
them, which pay fines to the Lord of Lidford and Dartmoor, viz. the Prince
of Wales, as Duke of Cornwall. The fines are supposed to be due in respect
either of rights of common on the forest, or of trespasses committed by
cattle on it; for the point is a _vexata quæstio_ between the lord and
tenants of Dartmoor and the tenants of the Venville lands, which lie along
the boundaries of it. {153} In the accounts rendered to the lord of these
fines, there was a distinct title, headed _"Fines Villarum"_ when these
accounts were in Latin; and I think it cannot be doubted that the lands and
tenures under this title came to be currently called _Finevill_ lands from
this circumstance. Hence Fenvill, Fengfield, or Venvill; the last being now
the usual spelling and pronunciation. R. E. G. may see a specimen of these
accounts, and further observations on them, in Mr. Rowe's very instructive
_Perambulation of Dartmoor_, published a year or two ago at Plymouth.

E. S.

_Cum Grano Salis_ (Vol. iii., p. 88.) simply means, with a grain of
allowance; spoken of propositions which require qualification. The
Cambridge man's explanation, therefore, does not suit the meaning. I have
always supposed that salis was added to denote a small grain. I find in
Forcellini that the Romans called a small flaw in crystals _sal_.

C. B.

_Hoops_ (Vol. iii., p. 88.).--The examples given in Johnson's article
_Farthingale_ will sufficiently answer the question. Farthingales are
mentioned in Latimer with much indignant eloquence:

    "I trow Mary had never a verdingale."

If the question had been, not whether they were in use as early as 1651,
but whether they were in use in 1651, perhaps there would have been more
difficulty, for they do not appear in Hollar's dresses, 1640.

C. B.

_Cranmer's Descendants_ (Vol. iii., p. 8.).--It may be of some interest to
C. D. F. to be informed, that the newspapers of the time recorded the death
of Mr. Bishop Cranmer of Wivelescombe, co. Somerset, on the 8th April,
1831, at the age of eighty-eight. He is said to have been a direct
descendant of the martyred archbishop, to whose portraits he bore a strong
personal resemblance.

J. D. S.

_Shakspeare's Use of the Word "Captious"_ (Vol. ii., p. 354.).--Why may not
the word have the same meaning as it has now? A _captious_ person is not
primarily a deceitful person, but either one who catches at any argument to
uphold his own cause, or, more generally, one who catches or cavils at
arguments or expressions used by another, and fastens a frivolous objection
on them; one who takes exception to a point on paltry and insufficient

 "Yet in this captious and intenible sieve
  I still pour in the waters of my love."

_i.e._ yet into this sieve, which catches at, and yet never holds them, I
still pour the waters of my love.

There seems to me a double meaning of the word _captious_, indicating an
under-current of thought in the author; first, the literal sense, then the
inferential: "this sieve catches at and seems as if it would intercept the
waters of my love, but takes me in, and disappoints me, because it will not
uphold them." The objection to explaining _captious_ by simply
_fallacious_, is that the word means this by inference or consequence,
rather than primarily. Because one who is eager to controvert, _i.e._ who
is captious, generally, but not always, acts for a sophistical purpose and
means to deceive. Cicero, I believe, uses _fallax_ and _captiosus_ as
distinct, not as synonymous, terms.

E. A. D.

_Boiling to Death_ (Vol. ii., p. 519.).--

    "Impoysonments, so ordinary in Italy, are so abominable among English,
    as 21 Hen. 8. it was made high treason, though since repealed; after
    which the punishment for it was to be put alive in a caldron of water,
    and there boiled to death: at present it is felony without benefit of
    clergy."--Chamberlayne's _State of England_,--an old copy, without a

Judging from the list of bishops and maids of honour, I believe the date to
be 1669.


_Dozen of Bread_ (Vol. ii., p. 49.).--The Duchess of Newcastle says of her
_Nature's Picture_:

    "In this volume there are several feigned stories, &c. Also there are
    some morals and some dialogues; but they are as the advantage loaf of
    bread to the baker's dozen." 1656.


_Friday Weather_ (Vol. iii., p. 7.).--A very old friend of mine, a
Shropshire lady, tells me that her mother (who was born before 1760) used
to say that Friday was always the fairest, or the foulest, day of the week.


_Saint Paul's Clock_ (Vol. iii., p. 40.).--In reply to MR. CAMPKIN'S Query,
I send you the following extract from Easton's _Human Longevity_ (London,

    "James Hatfield died in 1770, aged 105. Was formerly a soldier: when on
    duty as a centinel at Windsor, one night, at the expiration of his
    guard, he heard St. Paul's clock, London, strike _thirteen_ strokes
    instead of twelve, and not being relieved as he expected he fell
    asleep; in which situation he was found by the succeeding guard, who
    soon after came to relieve him; for such neglect he was tried by a
    court-martial, but pleading that he was on duty his legal time, and
    asserting, as a proof, the singular circumstance of hearing St. Paul's
    clock strike thirteen strokes, which, upon inquiry, proved true--he was
    in consequence acquitted."


_Lunardi_ (Vol. ii., p. 469.).--I remember seeing Lunardi's balloon pass
over the town of Ware, previous to its fall at Standon. I have seen the
_moonstone_ described by your correspondent C. J. F., but all that I can
remember of an old song on the occasion is. "They thought it had been the
man in the moon," alluding to the men in the fields, who ran away
frightened. But a servant girl had {154} the courage to take the rope
thrown out by Lunardi, and was well rewarded. It caused a great sensation,
and many of the principal inhabitants of Ware and Wadesmill assembled with
Lunardi at the Feathers Inn, at the latter place.


    Newick, Sussex.

_Outline in Painting_.--J. O. W. H. (Vol. i., p. 318.) and H. C. K. (Vol.
iii., p. 63.) are earnestly referred, for resolution of their doubts, to
the work by Mr. Ruskin, in 2 vols. large 8vo., entitled _Modern Painters_,
by a _Graduate of Oxford_, published by Smith and Elder, 1846.


_Handbell before a Corpse_ (vol. iii., p. 68.).--Your correspondent
[Hebrew: B]. has too inconsiderately dismissed the Query which he has
undertaken to answer touching the custom of ringing a handbell in advance
of a funeral procession. He says, "I have never considered it as anything
but _a cast of the bell-man's office_, to add more solemnity to the

The custom is _invariably_ observed throughout Italy, and is common in
France and Spain. I have witnessed at least some hundreds of funerals in
various cities and villages of Piedmont, Sardinia, Tuscany, the Roman
States, Naples, Elba, and Sicily; and in Malta; yet never knew I one
without the handbell.

Its _object_, as first explained to me in Florence, is to clear the way for
the procession; to remind passengers and loiterers to take off their hats;
and to call the pious to their doors and windows to gaze upon the emblems
of mortality, and to say a prayer for the repose of the departed soul.


_Brandon the Juggler_ (Vol. ii., p. 424.).--Your correspondent T. CR. is
referred to Scot's _Discoverie of Witchcraft_, p. 308. (edit. 1584) for a
notice of this person and his pigeon.


"_Words are Men's Daughters_" (Vol. iii., p. 38.).--This line is taken from
Dr. Madden's _Boulter's Monument_ (Dublin, 1745, 8vo.), a poem which was
revised by Dr. Johnson, but to which little attention has been paid by his
biographers. Mr. Croker observes (edit. of Boswell, 1848, p. 107. note)--

    "Dr. Madden wrote very bad verses. The few lines in Boulter's monument
    which rise above mediocrity may be attributed to Johnson."

Those who take the trouble to refer to the poem itself, will,
notwithstanding Mr. Croker's hasty criticism, find a great many fine and
vigorous passages, in which the hand of Johnson is clearly distinguishable,
and which ought not to be allowed to remain unnoticed. Perhaps on a future
occasion I may, in support of this opinion, give some specimens from the
poem. The line as to which T. J. inquires,--

    "Words are men's daughters, but God's Sons are things,"--

and which is in allusion to Genesis vi. 2. 4., is, I entertain no doubt,
one of Dr. Johnson's insertions.


"_Fine by degrees, and beautifully less_" (Vol. iii., p. 105.).--This line
is from Prior's "Henry and Emma," a poem, upon the model of the "Nut-brown
Maid." I copy part of the passage in which it occurs, for the sake of any
of your readers who may be lovers of _context_, and may not have the poem
at hand to refer to.

     "_Henry_ [addressing Emma].
 "Vainly thou tell'st me what the woman's care
  Shall in the wildness of the woods prepare;                  420
  Thou, ere thou goest, unhappiest of thy kind,
  Must leave the habit and the sex behind.
  No longer shall thy comely tresses break
  In flowing ringlets on thy snowy neck;
  Or sit behind thy head, an ample round,
  In graceful braids with various ribbon bound:
  No longer shall the bodice aptly lac'd
  From thy full bosom to thy slender waist,
  That air and harmony of shape express,
  Fine by degrees, and beautifully less:                       430
  Nor shall thy lower garments' artful plait,
  From thy fair side dependent to thy feet,
  Arm their chaste beauties with a modest pride,
  And double every charm they seek to hide."


    Temple, Feb. 10.

    [We are also indebted for replies to this Query to Robert Snow, Fras.
    Crossley, A. M., J. J. M., A. H., S. T., E. S. T. T., V., W. K., R. B.,
    and other correspondents. C. H. P. remarks:

    "Pope, who died in 1744, twenty-three years after Prior, evidently had
    this line in view when he wrote as follows:--

     "'Ladies, like variegated tulips, show;
     'Tis to their changes half their charms they owe;
      Fine by defect, and delicately weak,
      Their happy spots the nice admirer take.'"

    And J. H. M. tells us, "The late Lord Ellenborough applied the line
    somewhat ignobly, when speaking of bristles, in a dispute between two

_"The Soul's dark Cottage"_ (Vol. iii., p. 105.).--The couplet "EFFARESS"
inquires for, is to be found in Waller's poems. It is a production of his
later years, and occurs in the epilogue to his "Poems of Divine Love," and
"Of the Fear of God," &c., thus:--

 "The soul's dark cottage, batter'd and decay'd,
  Lets in new light through chinks that time has made,
  Stronger by weakness, wiser, men become,
  As they draw nigh to their eternal home.
  Leaving the old, both worlds at once they view,
  That stand upon the threshold of the new."


There is another couplet worth citing--

 "The seas are quiet, when the winds give o'er;
  So calm are we, when passions are no more."

How different were the effusions of Waller's earlier muse! In the year
1645, Humphrey Mosley published "_Poems, &c_., written by Mr. Ed. Waller,
of Beaconsfield, Esquire, lately a Member of the Honourable House of
Commons." The title-page also states that--

    "All the Lyrick Poems in this Booke were set by Mr. Henry Lawes of the
    King's Chappell, and one of his Majesties Private Musick."

It is not a little remarkable that the same publisher, in the same year,
should have also given to the world the first edition of that precious
volume--Milton's _Minor Poems_; and, in the advertisement prefixed, he thus
adverts to the circumstance:--

    "That incouragement I have already received from the most ingenious
    men, in their clear and courteous entertainment of _Mr. Waller's_ late
    choice Peeces, hath onece more made me adventure into the world,
    presenting it with these _ever-green and not to be blasted laurels_."

Had Humphrey Mosley any presentiment of the deathless fame of Milton?


_"The Soul's dark Cottage," &c_. (Vol. iii., p. 105.).--This admired
couplet can never escape recollection. It was written by Waller. From the
tenor of some preceding lines, and the place which the verses occupy in the
edition of 1693, they must be among the latest of his compositions.


    [A. H. H., R. B., C. J. R., H. G. T., and other friends have replied to
    this Query.

    The Rev. J. Sansom points out a kindred passage in his poem of _Divine
    Love_, canto vi. p. 249.:

     "The soul contending to that light to fly
      From her dark cell," &c.

    H. G. sends a beautiful parallel passage from Fuller (_Holy State Life
    of Monica_): "Drawing near her death, she sent most pious thoughts as
    harbingers to heaven, and her soul saw a glimpse of happiness through
    the chinks of her sickness-broken body." And J. H. M. informs us that
    amongst Duke's Poems is a most flattering one addressed to Waller,
    evidently allusive to the lines in question.]

"_Beauty Retire_" (Vol. iii., p. 105.).--The lines beginning "Beauty
Retire," which Pepys set to music, taken from the second part of the _Siege
of Rhodes_, act iv. scene 2., are printed in the 5th volume of the
_Memoirs_, p. 250., 3rd edition.

I believe the music exists in the Pepysian Library, but any of the Fellows
of Magdalene College could ascertain the fact.


_Mythology of the Stars_ (Vol. iii., p. 70.).--I would here add to my
recommendation of Captain Smyth's _Celestial Cycle_ (_antè_, p. 70.), that
soon after it appeared it obtained for its author the annual gold medal of
the Royal Astronomical Society; and that it is a book adapted to the
exigencies of astronomers of all degrees, from the experienced astronomer,
furnished with every modern refinement of appliances and means of
observation, to the humbler, but perhaps no less zealous beginner,
furnished only with a good pair of natural eyes, aided, on occasion, by the
common opera-glass. Such an observer, if he goes the right way to work,
will make sure of a high degree of entertainment and instruction, and may
reasonably hope to light on a discovery or two, worthy, even in the present
day, of being recorded.


_Simon Bache_ (Vol. iii., p. 105.).--_Thesaurarius Hospitii_.--The office
of "Thesaurarius Hospitii," about which A. W. H. inquires, means, I
believe, "Treasurer of the Household." In Chauncy's _Hertfordshire_, vol.
ii. p. 102., the inscription on Simon Bache is given in the same terms as
by your correspondent. The learned author then gives, at p. 103., the
epitaph on another monument also in Knebworth Church, erected to the memory
of John Hotoft, in which occur these two lines:

 "Hospitii regis qui Thesaurarius olim
  Henrici sexti merito pollebat honore."

At p. 93. of the same volume, Sir Henry Chauncy speaks of the same John
Hotoft as an eminent man, and sheriff of the county, and adds:

    "He was also Treasurer of the King's Household afterwards; he dyed and
    was buried in the chancel of this church, where his monument remains at
    this day."

Who Simon Bache was, or how he came to be buried at Knebworth, I cannot
tell. The name of "Bach" occurs in Chauncy several times, as that of mayors
and assistants, at Hertford, between 1672 and 1689.

J. H. L.

_Winifreda_ (Vol. iii., p. 108.).--It may perhaps interest LORD BRAYBROOKE
and J. H. M. to know, that I have in my possession the copy of Dodsley's
_Minor Poems_, which belonged to John Gilbert Cooper, and which was bought
at the sale of his grandson, the late Colonel John Gilbert-Cooper-Gardiner.
The song of "Winifreda" is at page 282. of the 4th volume; and a manuscript
note, in the handwriting of the son of the author of _Letters concerning
Taste_, states it to have been written "by John Gilbert Cooper." The
_praise_ bestowed by Cooper on the poem, and which J. H. M. conceives to
militate against his claim to the composition, is obviously intended to
apply to the _original_, and not to Cooper's elegant translation.



_Queries on Costume_ (Vol. iii., p. 88.).--Addison's paper in the
_Spectator_, No. 127., seems to be {156} conclusive that hooped petticoats
were not in use so early as the year 1651. The anecdote in connection with
the subject related in Wilson's _Life of De Foe_, has always appeared to me
very questionable, not only on that consideration, but because Charles was
at the time a fine tall young man of more than twenty-one years of age, and
at the only period that he could have been in the neighbourhood referred
to, he was on horseback and attended by at least two persons, who were also
mounted. Neither can the circumstances related be at all reconciled with
the particulars given by Clarendon and subsequent writers, who have
professed to correct the statements of that historian by authority.

J. D. S.

_Antiquitas Sæculi Juventus Mundi_ (Vol. ii., p. 218.; Vol. iii., p.
125.).--Permit me again to express my opinion, with due deference to the
eminent authorities cited in your pages, that the comprehensive words of
Lord Bacon, "Antiquitas sæculi juventus mundi," were not borrowed from any
author, ancient or modern. But it would be a compliment which that great
genius would have been the first to ridicule, were we to affirm that no
anterior writer had adopted analogous language in expressing the benefits
of "the philosophy of time." On the contrary, he would have called our
attention to the expressions of the Egyptian priest addressed to Solon,
(see a few pages beyond the one referred to in his _Advancement of

    "Ye Grecians are ever children, ye have no knowledge of antiquity nor
    antiquity of knowledge."

The words of Bacon to me appear to be a condensation of the well-known
dialogue in Plato's _Timæus_, above quoted, as will, I hope, appear in the
following paraphrase:

    "Apud vos propter inundationes ineunte modò sæculo nihil scientiarum
    est augmentationis. Quoad nos _juventus mundi_ ac terræ Aegyptiacæ, quâ
    nulla hominum exitia fuerunt, progrediente tempore, _antiquitas_ fit
    _sæculi_, et antiquissimarum rerum apud nos momumenta servantur."

T. J.

_Lady Bingham_ (Vol. iii., p. 61.).--Lady Bingham, whose daughter,
afterwards Lady Crewe, was unsuccessfully courted by Sir Symonds D'Ewes
(for which see his autobiography), was Sarah, the daughter of John Heigham,
Esq., of Gifford's Hall in Urekham Brook, Suffolk, of the same family with
Sir Clement Heigham, Knt., of Barrow, Suffolk, Speaker of the House of
Commons. She was married by banns at St. Olave's, Hart Street, Jan. 11,
1588, to Sir Richard Bingham, Knt., of co. Dorset. She married, secondly,
Edward Waldegrave, Esq., of Lawford, Essex, to whom she was second wife,
and by him had Jemima, afterwards Lady Crewe. Edward Waldegrave, married to
his first wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Bartholomew Averell, of
Southminster, Essex, had by her an only daughter, Anne, who married Drew,
afterwards Sir Drew Drury, Bart., of Riddlesworth, Norfolk. He, Edward
Waldegrave, was descended from a younger branch of the family of
Waldegrave, of Smallbridge, in the parish of Bures, Suffolk, from whence
descends the present Earl Waldegrave.

Lady Bingham lies buried in the chancel of Lawford church, where a stone in
the floor states her age to have been sixty-nine, and that she was buried
Sept. 9. 1634. There is also another stone in the floor for Edward
Waldegrave, Esq., who married Dame Sarah Bingham, by whom he had one
daughter, Jemima, who was married to John Stearne (a mistake evidently for
Stene, the seat of James Lord Crewe). Edward Waldegrave was buried Feb. 13,
1621, aged about sixty-eight.

The large monument in Lawford church is for the father of this Edward
Waldegrave, who died in 1584.

D. A. Y.

_Proclamation of Langholme Fair_ (Vol. iii., p. 56.).--MONKBARNS wishes the
meaning of the choice expressions in the proclamation. They may be
explained as follows:--_Hustrin_, hustling, or riotously inclined, being so
consonanted to make it alliterate with _custrin_, spelt by Jamieson,
_custroun_, and signifying a pitiful fellow. Chaucer has the word _truston_
in this sense.

_Land-louper_, one who runs over the country, a vagabond.

_Dukes-couper_ I take to be a petty dealer in ducks or poultry, and to be
used in a reproachful sense, as we find "pedlar," "jockey," &c.

_Gang-y-gate swinger_, a fighting man, who goes swaggering in the road (or
_gate_); a roisterer who takes the wall of every one. _Swing_ is an old
word for a stroke or blow.

_Durdam_ is an old word meaning an uproar, and akin to the Welsh word
_dowrd_. _Urdam_ may be a corruption of _whoredom_, but is more probably
prefixed to the genuine word as a co-sounding expletive.

_Brabblement_ seems to be a derivative from the Scotch verb "bra," to make
a loud and disagreeable noise (see Jamieson); and _squabblement_ explains

_Lugs_, ears; _tacked_, nailed; _trone_, an old word, properly signifying
the public weighing-machine, and sometimes used for the pillory.

_A nail o' twal-a-penny_ is, of course, a nail of that size and sort of
which twelve are bought for a penny.

_Until he down of his hobshanks, and up with his muckle doubs_, evidently
means, until he goes down on his knees and raises his hands. _Hobshanks_
is, I think, still in common use. Of _doubs_ I can give no explanation.

W. T. M.

    Edinburgh, Jan. 29th.

_Burying in Church Walls_ (Vol. iii., p. 37.).--To {157} the examples
mentioned by N. of tombs in church walls, may be added the remarkable ones
at Bottisham, Cambridgeshire. There are several of these in the south
aisle, with arches _internally and externally_: the wall between resting on
the coffin lid. They are, of course, coeval with the church, which is fine
early Decorated. They are considered, I believe, to be memorials of the
priors of Anglesey, a neighbouring religious house. They will, no doubt, be
fully elucidated in the memoir of Bottisham and Anglesey, which is
understood to be in preparation by members of the Cambridge Antiquarian
Society. At Trumpington, in the same county, is a recessed tomb of
Decorated date, in the south wall of the chancel, externally.

C. R. M.

_Defender of the Faith_ (Vol. ii., pp. 442. 481.; Vol. iii., pp. 9.
94.).--Should not King Edward the Confessor's claim to _defend the church
as God's Vicar_ be added to the several valuable notices in relation to the
title _Defender of the Faith_, with which some of your learned contributors
have favoured us through your pages?

According to Hoveden, one of the laws adopted from the Anglo-Saxons by
_William_ was:

    "Rex autem atque vicarius Ejus ad hoc est constitutus, ut regnum
    terrenum, populum Dei, et super omnia _sanctam ecclesiam_, revereatur
    et ab injuriatoribus _defendat_," &c.

Which duty of princes was further enforced by the words--

    "Illos decet vocari reges, qui vigilant, _defendunt_, et regunt
    Ecclesiam Dei et populum Ejus, imitantes regem psalmographum,"
    &c.--Vid. _Rogeri de Hoveden Annal._, par. post., §. Regis Officium;
    ap. Rerum Anglicarum Scriptores post Bedam, ed. Francof. 1601, p. 604.
    Conf. Prynne's _Chronol. Records_, ed. Lond. 1666, tom i. p. 310.

This law appears always to have been received as of authority after the
Conquest; and it may, perhaps, be considered as the first seed of that
constitutional church supremacy vested in our sovereigns, which several of
our kings before the Reformation had occasion to vindicate against Papal
claims, and which Henry VIII. strove to carry in the other direction, to an
unconstitutional excess.


_Sauenap, Meaning of_ (Vol. ii., p. 479.).--The word probably means a
_napkin_ or _pinafore_; the two often, in old times, the same thing. The
Cornish name for _pinafore_ is _save-all_. (See Halliwell's _Arch. Dict._)
I need not add that _nap_, _napery_, was a common word for linen.



_Sir Thomas Herbert's Memoirs_ (Vol. ii., p. 476.).--The memoirs of Charles
I. by Sir Thomas Herbert were published in 1702. I transcribe the title
from a copy in my possession:--

    "Memoirs of the two last years of the reign of that unparall'd prince,
    of ever blessed memory, king Charles I. By sir Tho. Herbert, major
    Huntingdon, col. Edw. Coke, and Mr. Hen. Firebrace, _etc_. London, Rob.
    Clavell, 1702, 8vo."

The volume, for a publication of that period, is of uncommon occurrence. It
was printed, as far as above described, "from a _manuscript_ of the Right
Reverend the Bishop of Ely, lately deceased." The remainder of the volume
consists of reprinted articles.


_Robert Burton_ (Vol. iii., p. 106.).--The supposition that the author of
the _Anatomy of Melancholy_ was born at Fald, Staffordshire, instead of
Lindley, Leicestershire, seems probable from the fact, that in an edition
of the _History of Leicestershire_, by his brother William, I find that the
latter dates his preface "From Falde, neere Tutbury, Staff., Oct. 30.
1622." In this work, also, under the head "Lindley," is given the pedigree
of his family, commencing with "James de Burton, Squier of the body to King
Richard the First;" down to "Rafe Burton, of Lindley, borne 1547; died 17
March, 1619;" leaving "Robert Burton, bachelor of divinity and student of
Christ Church, Oxon; author of the _Anatomy of Melancholy_; borne 8 of
Febr. 1578;" and "William Burton, author of this work (_History of
Leicestershire_), borne 24 of Aug. 1575, now dwelling at Falde, ann. 1622."

T. T.


_Drachmarus_ (Vol. iii., p. 105.).--If your correspondents (Nos. 66 and
67.) who have inquired for a book called _Jartuare_, and for a writer named
"Drachmarus," would add a little to the length of their questions, so as
not by extra-briefness to deaden the dexterity of conjecturers, perhaps
they might be nearer to the reception of replies. Many stranger things have
happened than that _Drachmarus_ should be renovated by the context into
Christian _Druthmar_.

_Averia_ (Vol. iii., p. 42.).--I have long desired to know the exact
meaning of _averia_, but I have not met with a good explanation until
lately. It is clear, however, from the following legal expression, "_Nullus
distringatur per averia carucæ._" _Caruca_ is the French _charrue_, and
therefore _averia_ must mean either cart-horses or oxen which draw the


_Dragons_ (Vol. iii., p. 40.).--I think the _Draco_ of the Crusaders' times
must have been the _Boa constrictor_. If you will look into St. Jerome's
_Vitas Patrum_, you will find that he mentions the trail of a "draco" seen
in the sand in the Desert, which appeared as if a _great beam_ had been
dragged along. I think it not likely that a crocodile would have {158}
ventured so far from the banks of the Nile as to be seen in the Desert.


       *       *       *       *       *



The members of the Percy Society have just received the third and
concluding volume of _The Canterbury Tales of Geoffrey Chaucer, a new Text,
with Illustrative Notes, edited by Thomas Wright, Esq_. It is urged as an
objection to Tyrwhitt's excellent edition of the _Canterbury Tales_, that
one does not know his authority for any particular reading, inasmuch as he
has given what he considered the best among the different MSS. he
consulted. Mr. Wright has gone on an entirely different principle.
Considering the Harleian MS. (No. 7334.) as both "the oldest and best
manuscript he has yet met with," he has "reproduced it with literal
accuracy," and for the adoption of this course Mr. Wright may plead the
good example of German scholars when editing the _Nibelungen Lied_. That
the members of the Society approve the principle of giving complete
editions of works like the present, has been shown by the anxiety with
which they have looked for the completion of Mr. Wright's labours; and we
doubt not that, if the Council follow up this edition of the _Canterbury
Tales_ with some other of the collected works which they have
announced--such as those of Hoccleve, Taylor the Water Poet, &c.--they will
readily fill up any vacancies which may now exist in their list of members.

Mr. Parker has just issued another handsome, and handsomely illustrated
volume to gladden the hearts of all ecclesiologists and architectural
antiquaries. We allude to Mr. Freeman's _Essay on the Origin and
Development of Window Tracery in England_, which consists of an improved
and extended form of several papers on the subject of Tracery read before
the Oxford Architectural Society at intervals during the years 1846 and
1848. To those of our readers who know what are Mr. Freeman's abilities for
the task he has undertaken, the present announcement will be a sufficient
inducement to make them turn to the volume itself; while those who have not
yet paid any attention to this interesting chapter in the history of
Architectural progress, will find no better introduction to the study of it
than Mr. Freeman's able volume with its four hundred illustrations.

Mr. Foss has, we hear, gone to press with two additional volumes of his
_Judges of England_, which will carry his subject down to the end of the
reign of Richard III.

_The Athenæum_ of Saturday last announces that the remaining Stowe MSS.,
including the unpublished Diaries and Correspondence of George Grenville,
have been bought by Mr. Murray, of Albemarle Street, from the Trustees of
the Duke of Buckingham. The correspondence will form about four volumes,
and will be ready to appear among our next winter's novelties. The
Grenville Diary reveals, it is said, the secret movements of Lord Bute's
administration--the private histories of Wilkes and Lord Chatham--and the
features of the early madness of George III.; while the Correspondence
exhibits Wilkes, we are told, in a new light--and reveals (what the Stowe
Papers were expected to reveal) something of moment about Junius; So that
we may at length look for the solution of this important query.

Messrs. Puttick and Simpson (191. Piccadilly) will sell, on Monday and
Tuesday next, a collection of Choice Books, mostly in beautiful condition.
Among the more curious lots are, an unpublished work of Archbishop Laud, on
_Church Government_, said to have been presented to Charles I. for the
instruction of Prince Henry; and an unique Series of Illustrations for
Scotland, consisting of several thousand engravings, and many interesting
drawings and autographs.

We have received the following Catalogues:--Bernard Quaritch's (16. Castle
Street, Leicester Square) Catalogue (No. 24.) of Books in European and
Oriental Languages and Dialects, Fine Arts, Antiquities, &c.; Waller and
Son's (188. Fleet Street) Catalogue of Autograph Letters and Manuscripts,
English and Foreign, containing many rare and interesting Documents.

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Notices to Correspondents.

J. E., _The price of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES" _is_ 3d. _per Number. There was
an extra charge for the Index; and No. 65. was a double Number, price_ 6d.
_The taking of the Index was, as Lubin Log says, "quite optional."_ {159}

PHILO-STEVENS. _We do not know of any Memoir of the late Mr. Price, the
Editor of Warton's_ History of English Poetry. _There is not certainly one
prefixed to any edition of Warton. Mr. Price was a thorough scholar, and
well deserving of such a memorial._

E. S. T. _Only waiting for an opportunity of using them._

MARTIN FAMILY (of Wivenhoe). CLERICUS, _who sought for information
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       *       *       *       *       *

An unpublished MS. of ARCHBISHOP LAUD on Church Government, and very Choice
Books, Mahogany Glazed Book-case, Two Fine Marble Figures, &c.

PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property, will SELL by
AUCTION, at their Great Room, 191. Piccadilly, on MONDAY, February 24th,
and following Day, a Collection of very Choice Books in beautiful
Condition, Books of Prints, Picture Galleries, a Fine Set of Curtis'
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Catalogues will be sent on application.

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Highly Interesting Autograph Letters.

PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property, will SELL by
AUCTION, at their Great Room, 191. Piccadilly, on FRIDAY, February 28th, a
highly Interesting Collection of Autograph Letters, particularly Letters of
Modern Poets, CRABBE, BYRON, &c.; some very rare Documents connected with
the Scottish History; an Extraordinary Declaration issued by James III.,
the Old Pretender; and many others of equal consequence.

Catalogues will be sent on application.

       *       *       *       *       *

Valuable Library, late the Property of the Rev. GEORGE INNES, Head Master
of the King's School, Warwick, deceased. Six Days' Sale.

PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property, will SELL by
AUCTION, at their Great Room, 191. Piccadilly, on MONDAY, March 3rd, and
Five following Days, the valuable LIBRARY of the late Rev. GEORGE INNES,
consisting of Theology; Greek and Latin Classics; the Works of Standard
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       *       *       *       *       *

SOWERBY'S ENGLISH BOTANY. Now ready, Vol. IV. price 1l. 16s. cloth boards.

Vols. I. II. and III., price 1l. 19s. 6d. each, and cases for binding the
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       *       *       *       *       *

containing a Diary with the Lessons, Collects, and Directions for Public
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Oxford: JOHN HENRY PARKER; and 377. Strand, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Committee for the Repair of the TOMB OF GEOFFREY CHAUCER.

  JOHN BRUCE, Esq., Treas. S.A.
  THOMAS W. KING, Esq., F.S.A.
  HENRY SHAW, Esq., F.S.A.

The Tomb of Geoffrey Chaucer in Westminster Abbey is fast mouldering into
irretrievable decay. A sum of One Hundred Pounds will effect a perfect
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contribution; they themselves have opened the list with a subscription from
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Subscriptions have been received from the Earls of Carlisle, Ellesmere, and
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       *       *       *       *       *

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_Price, in Fancy Binding, 2s. 6d., or Post Free, 3s._

Dedicated to His Royal Highness Price Albert






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Just published, No. 5., price 2s. 6d.,

DETAILS OF GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, Measured and Drawn from existing Examples.
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ARCHÆOLOGICAL INSTITUTE.--The Volume of Transactions of the LINCOLN
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       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, February 22. 1851.

       *       *       *       *       *

Corrections made to printed original.

Contents, "Groatsworth of Witte": 'Groathsworth' in original ('Groatsworth'
twice in article).

pages 130 & 131, "The Lyars": 'Lyan' in original.

page 130, "Margaret Nicholson": 'Magaret' in original.

page 132, "which is similarly subject to Venus": 'smilary' in original.

page 139, "the first two parts of the Ecclesiastical History": 'patts' in

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 69, February 22, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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