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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 72, March 15, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 72, March 15, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 72.]
[Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                   Page
  Illustrations of Chaucer                                    201
  Inedited Poetry, No. II., by K. R. H. Mackenzie             203
  On a Passage in Marmion                                     203
  Gloucestershire Provincialisms, by Albert Way               204
  The Chapel of Loretto                                       205
  Folk Lore:--"Nettle in Dock out"--Soul separates
  from the Body--Lady's Trees--Norfolk Folk Lore
  Rhymes                                                      205
  Minor Notes:--Note for the Topographers of Ancient
  London, and for the Monasticon--Gray and Burns--
  Traditional Notice of Richard III.--Oliver Cromwell--
  Snail-eating                                                206

  Biddings in Wales                                           207
  Minor Queries:--Lord of Relton--Beatrix de Bradney--
  "Letters on the British Museum"--Ballad
  Editing: The "Outlandish Knight"--Latin Epigram
  on the Duchess of Eboli--Engraved Portrait--
  Blackstone's Commentaries and Table of Precedence--
  The Two Drs. Abercromby--Witte van Haemstede--J.
  Bruckner: Dutch Church in Norwich                           208

  MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--The Hereditary Earl
  Marshal--The Beggar's Petition--"Tiring-irons
  never to be untied"                                         209

  The Meaning of Eisell, by H. K. S. Causton                  210
  Replies to Minor Queries:--William Chilcott--Fossil
  Elk of Ireland--Canes Lesos--"By Hook or by
  Crook"--Suem--Sir George Downing--Miching
  Malicho--Cor Linguæ--Under the Rose--"Impatient
  to speak, and not see"--Bishop Frampton--Old
  Tract on the Eucharist--Was Hugh Peters ever on
  the Stage?                                                  212

  Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                      214
  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                215
  Notices to Correspondents                                   215
  Advertisements                                              215

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. iii., pp. 131. 133.)

I am glad to perceive that some of the correspondents of "NOTES AND
QUERIES" are turning their attention to the elucidation of Chaucer. The
text of our father-poet, having remained as it were in fallow since the
time of Tyrwhitt, now presents a rich field for industry; and, in offering
free port and entry to all comments and suggestions, to be there sifted and
garnered up, the pages of "NOTES AND QUERIES" may soon become a depository
from which ample materials may be obtained for a new edition of Chaucer,
now become an acknowledged desideratum.

One excellent illustration has lately been added, at page 133., in a note
without signature upon "Nettle in, dock out." If _confirmed_[1], it will
furnish not only a most satisfactory explanation of that hitherto
incomprehensible phrase, but also a curious example of the faithful
preservation of an exact form of words through centuries of oral tradition.

And if the note which precedes it, at page 131., upon a passage in Palamon
and Arcite, is less valuable, it is because it is deficient in one of the
most essential conditions which such communications ought to possess--that
of originality. No suggestion ought to be offered which had been previously
published in connexion with the same subject: at least in any _very
obvious_ place of reference, such as notes or glossaries already appended
to well-known editions of the text.

Now the precise explanation of the planetary distribution of the
twenty-four hours of the day, given by [Greek: e]. in the first portion of
his communication, was anticipated seventy or eighty years ago by Tyrwhitt
in his note upon the same passage of Palamon and Arcite. And with respect
to [Greek: e].'s second explanation of the meaning of "houre inequal," that
expression also has been commented upon by Tyrwhitt, who attributes it to
the well-known expansive duration of ancient hours, the length of which was
regulated by that of the natural day at the several seasons of the year:
hence an _inequality_ always existed; except at the equinoxes, between
hours before, and hours after, sunrise. This is undoubtedly the true
explanation, since Chaucer was, at the time, referring to hours before and
after sunrise upon the same day. On the contrary, [Greek: e].'s ecliptic
hours, if they ever existed at all (he has cited no authority), would be
obviously incompatible with the planetary disposition of the hours first
referred to.

I shall now, in my turn, suggest explanations of the two new difficulties
in Chaucer's text, to {202} which, at the conclusion of his note, [Greek:
e]. has drawn attention.

The first is, that, "with respect to the time of year at which the
tournament takes place, there seems to be an inconsistency." Theseus fixes
"this day fifty wekes" from the fourth of May, as the day on which the
final contention must come off, and yet the day previous to the final
contention is afterwards alluded to as "the lusty seson of that May,"
which, it is needless to say, would be inconsistent with an interval of
fifty _ordinary_ weeks.

But fifty weeks, if taken in their literal sense of 350 days, would be a
most unmeaning interval for Theseus to fix upon,--it would almost require
explanation as much as the difficulty itself: it is therefore much easier
to suppose that Chaucer meant to imply the interval of a solar year. Why he
should choose to express that interval by fifty, rather than by fifty-two,
weeks, may be surmised in two ways: first, because the latter phrase would
be unpoetical and unmanageable; and, secondly, because he might fancy that
the week of the Pagan Theseus would be more appropriately represented by a
lunar quarter than by a Jewish hebdomad.

Chaucer sometimes makes the strangest jumble--mixing up together Pagan
matters and Christian, Roman and Grecian, ancient and modern; so that
although he names Sunday and Monday as two of the days of the week in
Athens, he does so evidently for the purpose of introducing the allocation
of the hours, alluded to before, to which the planetary names of the days
of the week were absolutely necessary. But in the fifty weeks appointed by
Theseus, the very same love of a little display of erudition would lead
Chaucer to choose the _hebdomas lunæ_, or lunar quarter, which the Athenian
youth were wont to mark out by the celebration of a feast to Apollo on
every seventh day of the moon. But after the first twenty-eight days of
every lunar month, the weekly reckoning must have been discontinued for
about a day and a half (when the new moon was what was called "in coitu,"
or invisible), after which a new reckoning of sevens would recommence.
Hence there could be but four hebdomades in each lunar month; and as there
are about twelve and a half lunar months in a solar year, so must there
have been fifty lunar weeks in one solar year.

It will explain many anomalies, even in Shakspeare, if we suppose that our
early writers were content to show their knowledge of a subject in a few
particulars, and were by no means solicitous to preserve, what moderns
would call _keeping_, in the whole performance.

The next difficulty, adverted to by [Greek: e]., is the mention of the
THIRD as the morning upon which Palamon "brake his prison," and Arcite went
into the woods "to don his observaunce to May."

There is not perhaps in the whole of Chaucer's writings a more exquisite
passage than that by which the latter circumstance is introduced; it is
well worth transcribing:--

 "The besy larke, the messager of day,
  Sal[=e]weth in hire song the morw[=e] gray;
  And firy Phebus riseth up so bright,
  That all the orient laugheth at the sight;
  And with his strem[=e]s drieth in the greves
  The silver drop[=e]s hanging on the leves."

Such is the description of the morning of the "thridde of May;" and
perhaps, if no other mention of that date were to be found throughout
Chaucer's works, we might be justified in setting it down as a random
expression, to which no particular meaning was attached. But when we find
it repeated in an entirely different poem, and the same "observaunce to
May" again associated with it, the conviction is forced upon us that it
cannot be without some definite meaning.

This repetition occurs in the opening of the second book of _Troilus and
Creseide_, where "the thridde" has not only "observaunce to May" again
attributed to it, but also apparently some peculiar virtue in dreams. No
sooner does Creseide behold Pandarus on the morning of the third of May,
than "_by the hond on hie, she tooke him fast_," and tells him that she had
thrice dreamed of him that night. Pandarus replies in what appears to have
been a set form of words suitable to the occasion--

 "Yea, nece, ye shall faren well the bet,
  If God wull, all this yeare."

Now unless the third of May were supposed to possess some unusual virtue,
the dreaming on that morning could scarcely confer a whole year's welfare.
But, be that as it may, there can at least be no doubt that Chaucer
designedly associated _some_ celebration of the advent of May with the
morning of the third of that month.

Without absolutely asserting that my explanation is the true one, I may
nevertheless suggest it until some better may be offered. It is, that the
association may have originated in the invocation of the goddess Flora, by
Ovid, on that day (_Fasti_, v.), in order that she might inspire him with
an explanation of the Floralia, or Floral games, which were celebrated in
Rome from the 28th of April to the _third_ of May.

These games, if transferred by Chaucer to Athens, would at once explain the
"gret feste" and the "lusty seson of that May."

Supposing, then, that Chaucer, in the _Knight's Tale_, meant, as I think he
meant, to place the great combat on the anniversary of the fourth of
May--that being the day on which Theseus had intercepted the duel,--then
the entry into Athens of the rival companies would take place on {203}
(Sunday) the second, and the sacrifices and feasting on the _third of May_,
the last of the Floralia.

A. E. B.

  Leeds, March 4, 1851.

[Footnote 1: [Of which there can be no doubt. See further p. 205. of our
present Number.--ED.]]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Harleian MSS., No. 367. fo. 154.)

 "Is, is there nothing cann withstand
          The hand
      Of Time: but that it must
      Be shaken into dust?
  Then poore, poore Israelites are wee
          Who see,
  But cannot shunn the Graue's captivitie.

 "Alas, good Browne! that Nature hath
          No bath,
      Or virtuous herbes to strayne,
      To boyle[2] thee yong againe;
  Yet could she (kind) but back command
          Thy brand,
  Herself would dye thou should'st be unman'd.

 "But (ah!) the golden Ewer by [a] stroke,
          Is broke,
      And now the Almond Tree
      With teares, with teares, we see,
  Doth lowly lye, and with its fall
          Do all
  The daughters dye, that once were musicall.

 "Thus yf weake builded man cann saye,
          A day
      He lives, 'tis all, for why?
      He's sure at night to dye,
  For fading man in fleshly lome[3]
          Doth rome
  Till he his graue find, His eternall home.

 "Then farewell, farewell, man of men,
          Till when
      (For us the morners meet
      Pal'd visag'd in the street,
  To seale up this our britle birth
          In earth,)
  We meet with thee triumphant in our mirth."
                  _Trinitäll Hall's Exequies._

Now, to what does Hall refer in the third stanza, in his mention of the
almond-tree? Is it a classical allusion, as in the preceding stanza, or has
it some reference to any botanical fact? I send the ballad, trusting that
as an inedited morsel you will receive it.


    [We do not take _Hall_ here to be the name of a man, but Trinity Hall
    at Cambridge.]

[Footnote 2: The reader will recognise the classical allusion.]

[Footnote 3: Loam, earth; roam.]

       *       *       *       *       *


I venture for the first time to trespass upon the attention of your readers
in making the following remarks upon a passage in _Marmion_, which, as far
as I know, has escaped the notice of all the critical writers whose
comments upon that celebrated poem have hitherto been published.

It will probably be remembered, that long after the main action of the poem
and interest of the story have been brought to a close by the death of the
hero on the field of Flodden, the following incident is thus pointedly

  Short is my tale:--Fitz-Eustace' care
  A pierced and mangled body bare
  To moated Lichfield's lofty pile:
  And there, beneath the southern aisle,
  A tomb, with Gothic sculpture fair
  Did long Lord Marmion's image bear,
        &c. &c. &c.

 "There erst was martial Marmion found,
  His feet upon a couchant hound,
    His hands to Heaven upraised:
  And all around on scutcheon rich,
  And tablet carved, and fretted niche,
    His arms and feats were blazed.
  And yet, though all was carved so fair,
  And priest for Marmion breathed the prayer,
  _The last Lord Marmion lay not there._
  From Ettrick woods a peasant swain
  Follow'd his lord to Flodden plain,--
        &c. &c. &c.

 "Sore wounded Sybil's Cross he spied,
  And dragg'd him to its foot, and died,
  Close by the noble Marmion's side.
  The spoilers stripp'd and gash'd the slain,
  And thus their corpses were mista'en;
  And thus in the proud Baron's tomb,
  The lowly woodsman took the room."

Now, I ask, wherefore has the poet dwelt with such minuteness upon this
forced and improbable incident? Had it indeed been with no other purpose
than to introduce the picturesque description and the moral reflexions
contained in the following section, the improbability might well be
forgiven. But such is not the real object. The critic of the _Monthly
Review_ takes the following notice of this passage, which is printed as a
note in the last edition of Scott's _Poems_ in 1833:--

    "A corpse is afterwards conveyed, as that of Marmion, to the cathedral
    of Lichfield, where a magnificent tomb is erected to his memory, &c.
    &c.; but, by an _admirably imagined act of poetical justice_, we are
    informed that a peasant's body was placed beneath that costly monument,
    while the haughty Baron himself was buried like a vulgar corpse on the
    spot where he died."

Had the reviewer attempted to penetrate a little deeper into the workings
of the author's mind, he would have seen in this circumstance much more
than "an admirably imagined act of poetical {204} justice." He would have
perceived in it the ultimate and literal fulfilment of the whole penalty
foreshadowed to the delinquent baron in the two concluding stanzas of that
beautiful and touching song sung by Fitz-Eustace in the Hostelrie of
Gifford in the third canto of the poem, which I here transcribe:

 "Where shall the traitor rest,
    He the deceiver,
  Who could win maiden's breast,
    Ruin, and leave her?
  In the lost battle
    Borne down by the flying,
  Where mingles war's rattle,
    With groans of the dying--
      There shall he be lying.
  Her wing shall the eagle flap
    O'er the false-hearted,
  His warm blood the wolf shall lap
    Ere life be parted.
  _Shame and dishonour sit_
    _By his grave ever;_
  _Blessing shall hallow it,_
    _Never, O never!_"

Then follows the effect produced upon the conscience of the "Traitor,"
described in these powerful lines:--

 "It ceased. the melancholy sound;
  And silence sunk on all around.
  The air was sad; but sadder still
    It fell on Marmion's ear,
  And plain'd as if disgrace and ill,
    And shameful death, were near."
        &c. &c. &c.

And lastly, when the life of the wounded baron is ebbing forth with his
blood on the field of battle, when--

 "The Monk, with unavailing cares
  Exhausted all the Church's prayers--
  Ever, he said, that, close and near,
  A lady's voice was in his ear,
  And that the priest he could not hear--
    For that she ever sung,
 '_In the lost battle, borne down by the flying,_
  _Where mingles war's rattle with groans of the dying!_'--
    So the notes ring."

I am the more disposed to submit these remarks to your readers, because it
is highly interesting to trace an irresistible tendency in the genius of
this mighty author towards the fulfilment of prophetic legends and visions
of second sight: and not to extend this paper to an inconvenient length, I
purpose to resume the subject in a future number, and collate some other
examples of a similar character from the works of Sir Walter Scott.

I write from the southern slopes of Cheviot, almost within sight of the
Hill of Flodden. During the latter years of the great Border Minstrel, I
had the happiness to rank myself among the number of his friends and
acquaintances, and I revere his memory as much as I prized his friendship.


       *       *       *       *       *


_To burl, burling; to shunt, &c._--In the report of the evidence regarding
the death of Mrs. Hathway, at Chipping Sodbury, supposed to have been
poisoned by her husband, the following dialectical expression occurs, which
may deserve notice. One of the witnesses stated that he was invited by Mr.
Hathway to go with him into a beer-house in Frampton Cotterell, "and have a
tip," but he declined.

    "Mr. H. went in and called for a quart of beer, and then came out
    again, and I went in. He told me 'to burl out the beer, as he was in a
    hurry;' and I 'burled' out a glass and gave it to him."--_Times_, Feb.

I am not aware that the use of this verb, as a provincialism, has been
noticed; it is not so given by Boucher, Holloway, or Halliwell. In the
Cumberland dialect, a _birler_, or _burler_, is the master of the revels,
who presides over the feast at a Cumberland bidden-wedding, and takes
especial care that the drink be plentifully provided. (_Westmoreland and
Cumberland Dialects_, London, 1839.)

Boucher and Jamieson have collected much regarding the obsolete use of the
verb _to birle_, to carouse, to pour out liquor. See also Mr. Dyce's notes
on _Elynour Rummyng_, v. 269. (_Skelton's Works_, vol. ii. p. 167.). It is
a good old Anglo-Saxon word--byrlian, _propinare_, _haurire_. In the
Wycliffite versions it occurs repeatedly, signifying to give to drink. See
the Glossary to the valuable edition lately completed by Sir F. Madden and
Mr. Forshall.

In the _Promptorium Parvulorum_, vol i. p. 51., we find--

    "Bryllare of drynke, or schenkare: Bryllyn, or schenk drynke,
    _propino_: Bryllynge of drynke," &c.

Whilst on the subject of dialectical expressions, I would mention an
obsolete term which has by some singular chance recently been revived, and
is actually in daily use throughout England in the railway vocabulary--I
mean the verb "to shunt." Nothing is more common than to see announced,
that at a certain station the parliamentary "shunts" to let the Express
pass; or to hear the order--"shunt that truck," push it aside, off the main
line. In the curious ballad put forth in 1550, called "John Nobody"
(Strype's _Life of Cranmer_, App. p. 138.), in derision of the Reformed
church, the writer describes how, hearing the sound of a "synagogue,"
namely, a congregation of the new faith, he hid himself in alarm:

 "The I drew me down into a dale, wheras the dumb deer
  Did shiver for a shower, but I shunted from a freyke,
  For I would no wight in this world wist who I were."


In the Townley Mysteries, _Ascensio Domini_, p. 303., the Virgin Mary calls
upon St. John to protect her against the Jews,--

 "Mi fleshe it qwakes, as lefe on lynde,
  To shontt the shrowres sharper than thorne,"--

explained in the Glossary, "sconce or ward off." Sewel, in his _English and
Dutch Dictionary_, 1766, gives--"to shunt (a country word for to shove),
_schuiven_." I do not find "shunt," however, in the Provincial Glossaries:
in some parts of the south, "to shun" is used in this sense. Thus, in an
assault case at Reigate, I heard the complainant say of a man who had
hustled him, "He kept shunning me along: sometimes he shunt me on the
road," that is, pushed me off the footpath on to the highway.

I hope that the Philological Society has not abandoned their project of
compiling a complete Provincial Glossary: the difficulties of such an
undertaking might be materially aided through the medium of "NOTES AND


       *       *       *       *       *


Among the aerial migrations of the chapel of Loretto, it is possible that
our own country may hereafter be favoured by a visit of that celebrated
structure. In the mean time, as I am not aware that the contributions of
our countrymen to its history have been hitherto commemorated, the
following extract from a note, made by me on the spot some years ago, may
not be unsuitable for publication in "NOTES AND QUERIES." As I had neither
the time nor the patience which the pious, but rather prolix, Scotchman
bestowed upon his composition, I found it necessary to content myself with
a mere abstract of the larger portion.

The story of the holy House of Loretto is engraved on brass in several
languages upon the walls of the church at Loretto. Among others, there are
two tablets with the story in English, headed "The wondrus flittinge of the
kirk of our blest Lady of Laureto." It commences by stating that this kirk
is the chamber of the house of the Blessed Virgin, in Nazareth, where our
Saviour was born; that after the Ascension the Apostles hallowed and made
it a kirk, and "S. Luke framed a pictur to har vary liknes thair zit to be
seine;" that it was "haunted with muckle devotione by the folke of the land
whar it stud, till the people went after the errour of Mahomet," when
angels took it to Slavonia, near a place called Flumen: here it was not
honoured as it ought to be, and they took it to a wood near Recanati,
belonging to a lady named Laureto, whence it took its name. On account of
the thieveries here committed, it was again taken up and placed near, on a
spot belonging to two brothers, who quarrelled about the possession of the
oblations offered there; and again it was removed to the roadside, near
where it now stands. It is further stated that it stands without
foundations, and that sixteen persons being sent from Recanati to measure
the foundations still remaining at Nazareth, they were found exactly to

    "And from that tim fourth it has beine surly ken'd that this kirk was
    the Cammber of the B. V. whereto Christian begun thare and has ever
    efter had muckle devotione, for that in it daily she hes dun and dus
    many and many mirakels. Ane Frier Paule, of Sylva, an eremit of muckle
    godliness who wond in a cell neir, by this kirk, whar daily he went to
    mattins, seid that for ten zeirs, one the eighth of September, tweye
    hours before day, he saw a light descende from heaven upon it, whelk he
    seyd was the B. V. wha their shawed harselfe one the feest of her

Then follows the evidence of Paule Renalduci, whose grandsire's grandsire
saw the angels bring the house over the sea: also the evidence of Francis
Prior, whose grandsire, a hunter, often saw it in the wood, and whose
grandsire's grandsire had a house close by. The inscription thus

    "I, Robt. Corbington, priest of the Companie of Iesus in the zeir
    MDCXXXV., have treulie translated the premisses out of the Latin story
    hanged up in the seid kirk."


       *       *       *       *       *


"_Nettle in Dock out_" (Vol. iii., p. 133.).--If your correspondent will
refer to _The Literary Gazette_, March 24, 1849, No. 1679., he will find
that I gave precisely the same explanation of that obscure passage of
Chaucer's _Troilus and Creseide_, lib. iv., in a paper which I contributed
to the British Archæological Association.


    [We will add two further illustrations of this passage of Chaucer, and
    the popular rhyme on which it is founded. The first is from Mr.
    Akerman's _Glossary of Provincial Words and Phrases in Use in
    Wiltshire_, where we read--

    "When a child is stung, he plucks a dock-leaf, and laying it on the
    part affected, sings--

         'Out 'ettle
          In dock
      Dock shall ha a new smock;
         'Ettle zhant
          Ha' narrun.'"

Then follows a reference by Mr. Akerman to the passage in _Troilus and
Creseide_.--Our second illustration is from Chaucer himself, who, in his
_Testament of Love_ (p. 482 ed. Urry), has the following passage:

    "Ye wete well Ladie eke (quoth I), that I have not plaid raket, Nettle
    in, Docke out, and with the weathercocke waved."

Mr. Akerman's work was, we believe, published in {206} 1846; and, at all
events, attention was called to these passages in the _Athenæum_ of the
l2th September in that year, No. 985.]

_Soul separates from the Body._--In Vol. ii., p. 506., is an allusion to an
ancient superstition, that the human soul sometimes leaves the body of a
sleeping person and takes another form; allow me to mention that I
remember, some forty years ago, hearing a servant from Lincolnshire relate
a story of two travellers who laid down by the road-side to rest, and one
fell asleep. The other, seeing a bee settle on a neighbouring wall and go
into a little hole, put the end of his staff in the hole, and so imprisoned
the bee. Wishing to pursue his journey, he endeavoured to awaken his
companion, but was unable to do so, till, resuming his stick, the bee flew
to the sleeping man and went into his ear. His companion then awoke him,
remarking how soundly he had been sleeping, and asked what had he been
dreaming of? "Oh!" said he, "I dreamt that you shut me up in a dark cave
and I could not awake till you let me out." The person who told me the
story firmly believed that the man's soul was in the bee.

F. S.

_Lady's Trees._--In some parts of Cornwall, small branches of sea-weed,
dried and fastened in turned wooden stands, are set up as ornaments on the
chimney-piece, &c. The poor people suppose that they preserve the house
from fire, and they are known by the name of "_Lady's trees_," in honour, I
presume, of the Virgin Mary.

H. G. T.


_Norfolk Folk Lore Rhymes._--I have met with the rhymes following, which
may not be uninteresting to some of your readers as _Folk Lore, Norfolk_:--

 "Rising was, Lynn is, and Downham shall be,
  The greatest seaport of the three."

Another version of the same runs thus:

 "Risin was a seaport town,
    And Lynn it was a wash,
  But now Lynn is a seaport Lynn,
    And Rising fares the worst."

Also another satirical tradition in rhyme:

 "That nasty stinking sink-hole of sin,
  Which the map of the county denominates Lynn."


 "Caistor was a city ere Norwich was none,
  And Norwich was built of Caistor stone."


  King's Lynn.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Note for the Topographers of Ancient London, and for the Monasticon._--

    "Walter Grendon, Prior of the hospital of St John of Jerusalem,
    acknowledges to have received, by the hands of Robert Upgate and Ralph
    Halstede,--from Margaret, widow of S^r John Philippott K^t,--Thomas
    Goodlak and their partners,--4 pounds in full payment of arrears of all
    the rent due to us from their tenement called Jesoreshall in the city
    of London.

    "Dated 1. December, 1406."

From the original in the Surrenden collection.

L. B. L.

_Gray and Burns._--

    "Authors, before they write, should read."

So thought Matthew Prior; and if that rule had been attended to, neither
would Lord Byron have deemed it worth notice that "_the knell of parting
day_," in Gray's Elegy, "was adopted from Dante;" nor would Mr. Cary have
remarked upon "this plagiarism," if indeed _he_ used the term. (I refer to
"NOTES AND QUERIES," Vol. iii., p. 35.) The truth is, that in every good
edition of Gray's _Works_, there is a note to the line in question, _by the
poet himself_, expressly stating that the passage is "_an imitation of the
quotation from Dante_" thus brought forward.

I could furnish you with various _notes_ on Gray, pointing out remarkable
coincidences of sentiment and expression between himself and other writers;
but I cannot allow _Gray_ to be a plagiary, any more than I can allow
_Burns_ to be so designated, in the following instances:--

At the end of the poem called _The Vision_, we find--

 "And like a passing thought she fled."

In _Hesiod_ we have--

 "[Greek: ho d' eptato hôste noêma.]"--_Scut. Herc._ 222.

Again, few persons are unacquainted with Burns's lines--

 "Her 'prentice han' she tried on man,
  An' then she made," &c.

In an old play, _Cupid's Whirligig_ (4to. 1607), we read--

    "Man was made when Nature was but an apprentice, but woman when she was
    a skilful mistress of her art."

Pliny, in his _Natural History_, has the pretty notion that

    "Nature, in learning to form a lily, turned out a convolvulus."


_Richard III., Traditional Notice of._--I have an aunt, now eighty-nine
years of age, who in early life knew one who was in the habit of saying:

    "I knew a man, who knew a man, who knew a man who danced at court in
    the days of Richard III."

Thus there have been but three links between one who knew Richard III. and
one now alive.

My aunt's acquaintance could name his three predecessors, who were members
of his own family: {207} their names have been forgotten, but his name was
Harrison, and he was a member of an old Yorkshire family, and late in life
settled in Bedfordshire.

Richard died in 1484, and thus five persons have sufficed to chronicle an
incident which occurred nearly 370 years since.

Mr. Harrison further stated that there was nothing remarkable about
Richard, that he was not the hunchback "lump of foul deformity" so
generally believed until of late years.

The foregoing anecdote may be of interest as showing that traditions may
come down from remote periods by few links, and thus be but little
differing from the actual occurrences.

H. J. B.

  66. Hamilton Terrace,
  St. John's Wood, March 5. 1851.

_Oliver Cromwell._--Echard says that his highness sold himself to the
devil, and _that he had seen the solemn compact_. Anthony à Wood, who
doubtless credited this account of a furious brother loyalist, in his
Journal says:

    "Aug. 30, 1658. Monday, a terrible raging wind happened, which did much
    damage. Dennis Bond, a great Oliverian and anti-monarchist, died on
    that day, and then the devil took _bond_ for Oliver's appearance."

Clarendon, assigning the Protector to eternal perdition, not liking to lose
the portent, boldly says the remarkable hurricane occurred on September 3,
the day of Oliver's death. Oliver's admirers, on the other hand, represent
this wind as ushering him into the other world, but for a very different

Heath, in his _Flagellum_ (I have the 4th edit.), says:

    It pleased God to usher in his end with a great whale _some three
    months before_, June 2, that came up as far as Greenwich, and there was
    killed; and more immediately by a terrible storm of wind: the
    prognosticks that the great Leviathan of men, that tempest and
    overthrow of government, was now going to his own place!"

I have several works concerning Cromwell, but in no other do I find this
story very like a whale. Would some reader of better opportunities favour
us with a record of these two matters of natural history, not as connected
with the death of this remarkable man, but as mere events? Your well-read
readers will remember some similar tales relative to the death of Cardinal
Mazarine. These exuberances of vulgar minds may partly be attributed to the
credulity of the age, but more probably to the same want of philosophy
which caused the ancients to deal in exaggeration.

B. B.

_Snail-eating._--The practice of _eating_, if not of talking to, snails,
seems not to be so unknown in this country as some of your readers might
imagine. I was just now interrogating a village child in reference to the
addresses to snails quoted under the head of "FOLK LORE," Vol. iii., pp.
132. and 179., when she acquainted me with the not very appetising fact,
that she and her brothers and sisters had been in the constant habit of
indulging this horrible _Limacotrophy_.

    "We hooks them out of the wall (she says) with a stick, in winter time,
    and not in summer time (so it seems they have their seasons); and we
    roasts them, and, when they've done spitting, they be a-done; and we
    takes them out with a fork, and eats them. Sometimes we has a jug
    heaped up, pretty near my pinafore-full. I loves them dearly."

Surely this little bit of practical cottage economy is worth recording.

C. W. B.

       *       *       *       *       *



There is a nursery song beginning--

 "Harry Parry, when will you marry?
    When apples and pears are ripe.
  I'll come to your wedding, without any bidding,
    And," &c. &c. &c.

Does this mean that I will come without an invitation, or without a
marriage-present? It will be observed that Parry is a Welsh name, and that
bidding is a Welsh custom, as is shown by MR. SPURRELL (Vol. iii., p.
114.). He has anticipated my intention of sending you a bidding-form, which
has been lying upon my table for some weeks, but which I have not had time
to transcribe; I now send it you, because it somewhat varies from MR.
SPURRELL'S, and yet so much resembles it as to show that the same formula
is preserved. Both show that the presents are considered as debts,
transferable or assignable to other parties. Is this the case in all
districts of Wales where the custom of bidding prevails? I think I have
heard that in some places the gift is to be returned only when the actual
donor "enters into the matrimonial state." It will be observed, too, in
these forms, relations only transfer to relations. Is it considered that
they may assign to persons not relations? Some of your Welsh correspondents
may reply to these questions, which may elucidate all the varieties of
practice in a custom which contributes much to the comfort of a young
couple, and, in many instances, is an incentive to prudence, because they
are aware that the debt is a debt of honour, not to be evaded without some
loss of character.

    "December 26. 1806.

    "As we intend to enter the Matrimonial State on _Tuesday_ the 20th of
    _January_, 1807, we purpose to make a Bidding on the occasion the same
    day for the young man at his father's house, in the village of
    _Llansaint_, in the parish of _St. Ishmael_; and for the young {208}
    woman, at her own house, in the said village of _Llansaint_; at either
    of which places the favour of your good company on that day will be
    deemed a peculiar obligation; and whatever donation you may be pleased
    to confer on either of us then, will be gratefully received, and
    cheerfully repaid whenever required on a similar occasion, by

  Your humble servants,
              SETH REES,
              ANN JENKINS.

    "The young man's father and mother, and also the young woman's father
    and mother, and sister Amy, desire that all gifts of the above nature
    due to them, may be returned on the same day; and will be thankful for
    all favour shown the young couple."

E. H.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Lord of Relton_ (Vol. iii., p. 56.)--Will your correspondent MONKBARNS
favour me with the date of the paper from which he copied the paragraph
quoted, and whether it was given as being then in use, or as of ancient

Can any of your readers inform me from what place the Lord of Relton
derived his name? What was his proper name, and who is the present
representative of the family?

Is there any family of the name of Relton now existing in the neighbourhood
of Langholme, or in Cumberland or Westmoreland?


_Beatrix de Bradney._--In your "NOTES AND QUERIES" for January 25th, 1851,
p. 61., you have given Sir Henry Chauncy's Observations on Wilfred

Sir Bertin left a daughter named Lucy, of whom Master Bradene of
Northamptonshire is descended. Can F. R. R., or any genealogist, inform me
whether this Master Bradene is descended from Simon de Bradney, one of the
Knights of the Shire for Somersetshire in the year 1346? In Collins's
_Somersetshire_, vol. iii. p. 92., he mentions:

    "In St. Michael's Church, Bawdrip, under a large Gothic arch lies the
    effigy in armour of Sir Simon de Bradney or Bredenie.

    "The Manor of Bradney, in Somersetshire, supposed to have ended in
    Beatrix de Bradney, an heiress, and passed with her into other
    families; this Beatrix was living in the forty-sixth year of Edward

Can you inform me whom she married? About sixty-five years ago it was
purchased by the late Joseph Bradney, Esq., of Ham, near Richmond; and his
second son, the Reverend Joseph Bradney, of Greet, near Tenbury,
Shropshire, is the present possessor.


  Southcote Lodge, near Reading.

"_Letters on the British Museum._"--In the year 1767 was published by
Dodsley a work in 12mo. pp. 92., with the above title; and at p. 85. is
printed "A Pastoral Dialogue," between _Celia_ and _Ebron_, beginning, "As
Celia rested in the shade," which the author states he "found among the
manuscripts." I wish to know, first, who was the anonymous author of these
letters; and, secondly, in what collection of manuscripts this "Dialogue"
is to be found.


_Ballad Editing._--The "_Outlandish Knight_" (Vol. iii.,p. 49.).--I was
exceedingly glad to see Mr. F. Sheldon's "valuable contribution to our
stock of ballad literature" in the hands of Mr. Rimbault, and thought the
treatment it received no better than it deserved. _Blackwood_, May, 1847,
reviewed Mr. Sheldon's book, and pointed out several instances of his
"godfathership;" among others, his ballad of the "Outlandish Knight," which
he obtained from "a copy in the possession of a gentleman at Newcastle,"
was condemned by the reviewer as "a vamped version of the Scotch ballad of
'May Collean.'" It may be as the reviewer states, but the question I would
wish answered is one affecting the reviewer himself; for, if I mistake not,
the Southron "Outlandish Knight" is the original of "May Collean" itself. I
have by me a copy, in black letter, of the "Outlandish Knight," English in
every respect, and as such differing considerably from Mr. Sheldon's border
edition, and from "May Collean;" and, with some slight alterations, the
ballad I have is yet popularly known through the midland counties. If any
of your correspondents can oblige me with a reference to the first
appearance of "May Collean," sheet or book, I shall esteem it a favour.



_Latin Epigram on the Duchess of Eboli._--In his controversy with Bowles
touching the poetry of Pope, Byron states that it was upon the Princess of
Eboli, mistress of Philip II. of Spain, and Mangirow, the minion of Henry
III. of France, that the famous Latin epigram, so well known to classic
readers, was composed, concluding with the couplet:

 "Blande puer lumen quod habes concede parenti,
    Sic tu cæcus Amor, sic erit illa Venus."

Can any contributor to the "NOTES AND QUERIES" suggest what authority his
lordship has for his statement? Many years since, a curious paragraph
appeared in one of the public journals, extracted apparently from an
historical work, specifying the extraordinary political embroglios which
the one-eyed duchess occasioned, eliciting from one of the statesmen of her
times the complimentary declaration, that if she had had two eyes instead
of only one, she would have set the universe on fire. A reference to this
work--I fancy one of Roscoe's--would be of material service to an
historical inquirer.

C. R. H.


_Engraved Portrait._--

 "All that thou see'st and readest is divine,
  Learning thus us'd is water turn'd to wine;
  Well may wee then despaire to draw his minde,
  View here the case; i'th Booke the Jewell finde."

The above quatrain is placed beneath a portrait characteristically engraved
by Cross. Above the head is the following inscription:--

 "Ætatis Suæ 50º. Octob. 10. 1649."

Of whom is this a portrait? It is no doubt well known to collectors, and is
of course a frontispiece; but having never yet seen it _vis-à-vis_ with a
title-page, I am at a loss as to the author of whom it is the _vera
effigies_. Possibly some of your readers will be kind enough to enlighten
me upon the matter, and favour me with the name of the British worthy thus
handed down to posterity by Cross's admirable burin.


_Blackstone's Commentaries and Table of Precedence._--The first edition of
Blackstone was published at Oxford in 4to., in the year 1765; and the Table
of Precedence, in the 12th chapter of the First Book, found in subsequent
editions edited by Mr. Christian, does not occur in Blackstone's first
edition. Can any of your readers, having access to good legal theories,
inform me in which of Blackstone's _own_ editions the Table of Precedence
was first inserted?


_The Two Drs. Abercromby._--In the latter half of the seventeenth century,
there were two physicians of the name of Abercromby, who both graduated at
the university of Leyden, and were afterwards the authors of various
published works. The first work of David Abercromby mentioned in Watt's
_Bibliotheca_ is dated in 1684, and the first written by Patrick Abercromby
in 1707. As it was usual to compose an inaugural dissertation at obtaining
the doctorate, and such productions were ordinarily printed (in small
quarto), J. K. would feel obliged by the titles and dates of the inaugural
dissertations of either or both of the physicians above mentioned.

_Witte van Haemstede._--Can any of your readers inform me whether there
still exist any descendants of _Witte van Haemstede_, an illegitimate scion
of the ancient house of _Holland_? _Willem de Water_, in his _Adelijke
Zeeland_, written in the seventeenth century, says that in his youth he
knew a _Witte van Haemstede_ of this family, one of whose sons became
pastor of the Dutch congregation in _London_.--_Navorscher_, Jan. 1851, p.

_J. Bruckner--Dutch Church in Norwich._--In the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for
1804 is a short memoir of the Rev. J. Bruckner. He was born in the island
of Cadsand, completed his studies at Leyden, where he enjoyed the society
of Hemsterhuis, Valckenaer, and the elder Schultens. In 1753 he became
pastor of the Walloon, and afterwards of the Dutch congregation in Norwich,
where he remained till his death in May, 1804. In 1767 he published at
Leyden his _Théorie du Système Animal_; in 1790 appeared his _Criticisms on
the Diversions of Purley_.

Could your correspondents furnish me with a complete list of Bruckner's
works, and direct me to a history of the Dutch church in Norwich, from its
origin to the present time?--_Navorscher_, Feb. 1851, p. 28.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries Answered.

    [Under this heading we propose to give such Minor Queries as we are
    able to reply to at once, but which are not of a nature to be answered
    with advantage in our Notices to Correspondents. We hope by this means
    to economise our space.]

_The Hereditary Earl Marshal._--Miss Martineau, in her _History of
England_, book iii. ch. 8., speaks (in 1829) of

    "three Catholic peers, the _Duke of Norfolk_, Lord Clifford, and Lord
    Dormer, having obtained entrance _at last_ to the legislative assembly,
    where their fathers sat and ruled when their faith was the law of the

In Lord Campbell's _Lives of the Chancellors_, there is an anecdote, vol.
vii. p. 695., of the Duke of Norfolk falling asleep and _snoring_ in the
House of Lords, while Lord Eldon was on the woolsack. Did not the Duke of
Norfolk (though Roman Catholic) sit and vote in the House of Lords, either
by prescription or special act of parliament, before 1829?

J. H. S.

    [The anecdote told by Lord Campbell (but much better by Lord Eldon
    himself in Twiss's Life of the great Chancellor), does not refer to the
    _late_ Duke of Norfolk, but to his predecessor Charles (the eleventh
    duke), who was a Protestant. The late duke never sat in parliament till
    after the Relief Bill passed. In 1824 a Bill was passed to enable him
    to exercise the office of Earl Marshal without taking certain oaths,
    but gave him no seat in the House. We may as well add, that Lord
    Eldon's joke must have been perpetrated--not on the bringing up of the
    Bill, when the duke was not in the House--but on the occasion of the
    _Great Snoring Bill being reported_ (April 2, 1811), when the duke
    appears to have been present.]

_The Beggar's Petition._--I shall feel obliged by your informing me who the
author is of the lines--

 "Pity the sorrows of a poor old man,
  Whose trembling limbs have borne him to your door."


    [The authorship of this little poem has at times excited a good deal of
    attention. It has been attributed, on no very sufficient grounds, to
    Dr. Joshua Webster, M.D.; but from the _Gentleman's Magazine_, vol.
    lxx., p. 41., it appears that it is the entire production of the {210}
    Rev. Thomas Moss, minister of Brierly Hill and Trentham, in
    Staffordshire, who wrote it at about the age of twenty-three. He sold
    the manuscript of that, and of several others, to Mr. Smart, printer,
    in Wolverhampton, who, from the dread which Mr. Moss had of criticism,
    was to publish them on this condition, that only twenty copies should
    have his name annexed to them, for the purpose of being presented to
    his relations and friends.]

"_Tiring-irons never to be untied._"--To what does Lightfoot (vol. vii. p.
214.) refer when, in speaking of the Scriptures, he says--

    "They are not unriddleable riddles, and tiring-irons never to be



    [The allusion is to a puzzle for children--often used by grown
    children--which consists of a series of iron rings, on to or off which
    a loop of iron wire may be got with some labour by those who know the
    way, and which is very correctly designated _a tiring-iron_.]

       *       *       *       *       *



    [This controversy is becoming a little too warm for our pages. But MR.
    CAUSTON is entitled to have some portion of the letter he has sent to
    us inserted. He writes with reference to the communications from MR.
    HICKSON and MR. SINGER in our 68th number, p. 119., in reply to MR.
    C.'S Article, which, although it had been in our hands a considerable
    time, was not inserted until out 65th Number, p. 66.; a delay which
    gave to that article the appearance of an attempt to revive a
    discussion, whereas it really was written only in continuance of one.]

To MR. HICKSON I suggest, that whether the notion of "drinking up a river,"
or "eating a crocodile," be the more "unmeaning" or "out of place," must
after all be a mere matter of opinion, as the latter must remain a question
of taste; since it seems to be his settled conviction that it is not
"impossible," but only "extravagant." Archdeacon Nares thought it quite the
reverse; and I beg to remind your readers that Shakspearian crocodiles are
never served _à la Soyer_, but swallowed _au naturel_ and entire.

MR. HICKSON is dissatisfied with my terms "mere verbiage" and "extravagant
rant." I recommend a careful consideration of the scene over the grave of
Ophelia; and then let any one say whether or not the "wag" of tongue
between Laertes and Hamlet be not fairly described by the expressions I
have used,--a paraphrase indeed, of Hamlet's concluding lines:

         "Nay, an thou'lt _mouth_,
  I'll _rant_ as well as thou."

Doubtless Shakspeare had a purpose in everything he wrote, and his purpose
at this time was to work up the scene to the most effective conclusion, and
to display the excitement of Hamlet in a series of beautiful images, which,
nevertheless, the queen his mother immediately pronounced to be "mere
madness," and which one must be as mad as Hamlet himself to adopt as feats
literally to be performed.

The offence is rank in the eyes of MR. SINGER that I should have styled MR.
HICKSON his friend. The amenities of literature, I now perceive, do not
extend to the case, and a new canon is required, to the effect that "when
one gentleman is found bolstering up the argument of another, he is not,
ever for the nonce, to be taken for his friend." I think the denial to be
expressed in rather strong language; but I hasten to make the _amende_
suitable to the occasion, by withdrawing the "falsehood and unfounded

MR. SINGER has further charged me with "want of truth," in stating that the
question remains "substantially where Steevens and Malone had left it."
Wherein, I ask, substantially consists the difference?

MR. SINGER has merely substituted his "wormwood wine" for Malone's vinegar;
and before he can make it as palatable to common sense, and Shakspeare's
"logical correctness and nicety of expression," as it was to Creed and
Shepley, he must get over the "stalking-horse," the _drink_ UP, which
stands in his way precisely as it did in that of Malone's more legitimate
proposition. MR. SINGER overleaps the difficulty by a bare assertion that
"to _drink_ UP was commonly used for simply to drink." He has not produced
any parallel case of proof, with the exception of one from Mr. Halliwell's
_Nursery Rhymes_. I adopt his citation, and shall employ it against him.

_Drink_ UP can only be grammatically applied to a determinate total,
whether it be the river Yssell or MR. HICKSON'S dose of physic. Shakespeare
seems to have been well acquainted with, and to have observed, the
grammatical rule which MR. SINGER professes not to comprehend. Thus:

             "I will drink,
  _Potions of_ eysell."
              Shaksp. _Sonnet_ cxi.


 "Give me to drink mandragora,"
              _Ant. and Cleop._, Act I. Sc. 5.

are parallel passages, and imply quantity indeterminate, inasmuch as they
admit of more or less.

Now MR. SINGER'S obliging quotation from the _Nursery Rhymes_,--

     "Eat UP your cake, Jenny,
  _Drink_ UP YOUR wine"--

certainly implies quite the reverse; for it can be taken to mean neither
more nor less than the identical glass of wine that Jenny had standing
before her. A parallel passage will be found in Shakspeare's sonnet

 "_Drink up_ the monarch's plague, _this_ flattery:"

{211} and in this category, on the rule exponed, since it cannot positively
appertain to the other, must, I think, be placed the line of Hamlet,--

 "Woo't _drink up_ eisell?"

as a noun implying absolute entirety; which might be a _river_, but could
not be grammatically applied to any unexpressed quantity.

Now what is the amount and value of MR. SINGER'S proposition? He says:

    "In Thomas's _Italian Dictionary_, 1562, we have 'ASSENZIO,
    _Eysell_'[4]; and Florio renders that word [ASSENZIO, not _Eysell_?] by
    'wormwood.' What is meant, however, is _wormwood wine_, a nauseously
    bitter medicament then much in use."

When pressed by LORD BRAYBROOKE ("NOTES AND QUERIES," Vol. ii., p. 286.),
who proved, by an extract from _Pepys's Diary_, that wormwood wine, so far
from bearing out MR. SINGER'S description, was, in fact, a fashionable
luxury, probably not more nauseous than the _pale ale_ so much in repute at
the present day, MR. SINGER very adroitly produced a "corroborative note"
from "old Langham" ("NOTES AND QUERIES," Vol. ii., p. 315.), which,
curiously enough, is castrated of all that Langham wrote pertaining to the
question in issue. Treating of the many virtues of the prevailing tonic as
an appetiser, and restorer "of a good color" to them that be "leane and
evil colored," Langham says:

    ["Make wormwood wine thus: take _aqua vitæ_ and malmsey, of each like
    much, put it in a glasse or bottell with _a few leaves of dried
    wormwood_, and let it stand certain days,] and strein out a little
    spoonfull, and drink it with a draught of ale or wine: [it may be long

Thus it will be seen that the reason for "streining out a little spoonfull"
as a restorative for a weak stomach was less on account of the infusion
being so "atrociously unpalatable," than of the alcohol used in its

Dr. Venner also recommends as an excellent stomachic,

    "To drink mornings fasting, and sometimes also before dinner, _a
    draught of wormwood-wine_ or beer:"

and we may gather the "atrocious bitterness" of the restorative, by the
substitute he proposes: "or, for want of them," he continues:

    "white wine or stale beer, wherein a few branches of wormwood have, for
    certain hours, been infused."[6]

Dr. Parr, quoting Bergius, describes _Absinthium_ as "a grateful
stomachic;" and _Absinthites_ as "a pleasant form of the wormwood."[7]

Is this therefore the article that Hamlet proposed to _drink_ UP with his
crocodile? So far from thinking so, I have ventured to coincide with
Archdeacon Nares in favour of Steevens; for whether it be Malone's vinegar,
or MR. SINGER'S more comfortable stomachic, the challenge to drink either
"_in such a rant_, is so inconsistent, and even ridiculous, that we must
decide for the river, whether its name be exactly found or not."[8]

I am quite unconscious of any purport in my remarks, other than they appear
on paper; and I should be sorry indeed to accuse MR. SINGER of being
"ignorant" of anything; but I venture to suggest that those young gentlemen
of surpassing spirit, who ate crocodiles, _drank_ UP eisell, and committed
other anomalies against nature in honor of their mistresses, belonged
decidedly to a period of time anterior to that of Shakspeare, and went
quite out with the age of chivalry, of which Shakspeare saw scarcely even
the fag end. Your lover of Shakspeare's time was quite another animal. He
had begun to take beer. He had become much more subtle and self-satisfied.
He did sometimes pen sonnets to his mistress's eye-brow, and sing soft
nothings to the gentle sighing of his "Lewte." He sometimes indeed looked
"pale and wan;" but, rather than for love, it was more than probably from
his immoderate indulgence in the "newe weede," which he _drank_[9], though
I never discovered that it was _drank up_ by him. He generally wore a
doublet and breeches of satin, slashed and lined with coloured taffata; and
walked about with a gilliflower in one hand, and his gloves in the other.
His veritable portrait is extant, and is engraved in Mr. Knight's
_Pictorial Shakspeare_.[10]

It will be time enough to decide which of us has run his head against "a
stumbling-block of his own making," when MR. SINGER shall have found a
probable solution of his difficulty "by a parallelism in the poet's pages."


  Vassall Road, Brixton, Feb. 21. 1851.

[Footnote 4: This deduction is not warranted by the _Vocab. della Crusca_,
or any other Ital. Dic. to which I have had the opportunity of reference:
and _Somner_ and _Lye_ are quite distinct on the A.-Sax. words, _Wermod_
and _Eisell_.]

[Footnote 5: _Garden of Health_, 4to. London, 1633. The portions within the
brackets were omitted by MR. SINGER.]

[Footnote 6: _Via Recta ad Vitam Longam_, by Thomas Venner, M.D. 4to.
London, 1660.]

[Footnote 7: _Med. Dict._]

[Footnote 8: A description of the rivers Yssel will be found in _Dict.
Géograph. de la Martinière_, v. ix. fo. 1739.]

[Footnote 9: As the verb "to drink" was not limited to the act of bibition,
but for MR. HICKSON'S decision against drinking up the "sea-serpent," it
might yet become a question whether Hamlet's _eisell_ had not been a
misprint for _eosol_ (asinus).]

[Footnote 10: _Merchant of Venice_, Introduction.]


       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_William Chilcott_ (Vol. iii., pp. 38. 73.).--The few notes which follow
are very much at the service of your correspondent. William Chilcott, M.A.,
was rector of St. George's, Exeter, where he died on May 30, 1711, at the
age of forty-eight. The coat of arms on the tablet to his memory indicates
that he married a Coplestone. His daughter Catherine died in August, 1695.
The first edition of the _Practical Treatise concerning Evil Thoughts_ was
printed at Exeter in 1690, and was dedicated to his parishioners. Robert
Chilcott, whom I take to be the brother of William, was rector of St.
Mary-Major in Exeter, and died Feb. 7, 1689.

There does not appear to be any evidence that the persons above mentioned,
were descended from the Chilcotts of Tiverton, though the identity of the
Christian names renders it probable. If the object were to trace their
ancestors or their descendants, much might be added to the suggestions of
E.A.D. by searching the registers at Tiverton, and by comparing Prince's
_Worthies of Devon_, ed. 1810, p. 213., and Polwhele's _Devon_, vol. iii.
p. 351., with Harding's _Tiverton_; in various parts of which eight or nine
individuals of the name are mentioned; especially vol. i. book ii. p. 114.;
vol. ii. book iii. pp. 101, 102. 167. 183., and book iv., p. 20., where the
connexion of the Chilcotts with the families of Blundell, Hooper,
Collamore, Crossing, Slee, and Hill, is set forth. Failing these, the
object might be attained by reference to the registers at Stogumber, co.
Somerset, and of Northam, near Bideford, with the inscribed floorstones in
the church there. Something might perhaps be learned of their descendants
by reference to the registers at Exeter, and those at Morchard-Bishop,
where a John Chilcott resided in 1700; Nympton St. George, where a family
of the same name lived about 1740; North Molton, where C. Chilcott was
vicar in 1786; and Dean Prior, where Joseph Chilcott was vicar about 1830.
A Mr. Thomas Chilcott, who was an organist at Bath, married Ann, daughter
of the Rev. Chichester Wrey. This lady died in 1758, and was buried at
Tavistock, near Barnstaple. The coat of arms on the tablet to her memory is
almost identical with the coat of the Rev. William Chilcott of Exeter first
above mentioned.

J. D. S.

_Fossil Elk of Ireland_ (Vol. iii., p. 121.).--In the _Edinburgh Journal of
Science_, New Series, vol. ii., 1830, p. 301., is a curious paper by the
late Dr. Hibbert Ware, under the title of "Additional Contributions towards
the History of the Cervus Euryceros, or Fossil Elk of Ireland." It is
illustrated with a copy of an engraving of an animal which Dr. H. W.
believes to have been the same as the Irish elk, and which was living in
Prussia at the time of the publication of the book from which it is taken,
viz. the _Cosmographia Universalis_ of Sebastian Munster: Basiliæ, 1550.

Dr. H. W. in this paper refers to a former one in the third volume of the
first series of the same journal, in which he advanced proofs that the
Cervus was a race which had but very recently become extinct.


  Edinburgh, Feb. 19. 1851.

_Canes Lesos_ (Vol. iii. p. 141.).--In a note to Beckwith's edition of
Blount's _Jocular Tenures_, 4to. 1815, p. 225., Mr. Allan of Darlington
anticipates your correspondent C. W. B., and says, respecting Blount's
explanation of "Canes lesos," "I can meet with no such word in this sense:
why may it not be dogs that have received some hurt? _læsos_ from _lædo_."
_Clancturam_ should be _clausturam_, and so it is given in the above
edition, and explained "a tax for fencing."


"_By Hook or by Crook_" (vol. iii. p. 116.).--However unimaginative the
worthy Cit may be for whose explanation of this popular phrase J. D. S. has
made himself answerable, the solution sounds so pretty, that to save its
obtaining further credence, more than your well-timed note is needed. I
with safety can contradict it, for I find that "Tusser," a Norfolk man
living in the reign of Henry VIII., in a poem which he wrote as a complete
monthly guide and adviser for the farmer through the year, but which was
not published till 1590, in the thirty-second year of Queen Elizabeth, has
the following advice for March 30:

 "Of mastiues and mongrels, that many we see
  A number of thousands, to many there be:
  Watch therefore in Lent, to thy sheepe go and looke,
  For dogs will have vittels, by hooke and by crooke."

This must be a Norfolk phrase; for in January he advises farmers possessing
"Hollands," rich grass lands, to only keep ewes that bear twins,


This appears as a well-known proverbial expression long before the time
pointed out by J. D. S. Thus, in _Devout Contemplations_, by Fr. Ch. de
Fonseca, Englished by J. M., London, 1629, we read that the Devil

    "Overthroweth monasteries; through sloth and idleness soliciting
    religious men to be negligent in coming to Church, careless in
    preaching, and loose in their lives. In the marriage bed he soweth
    tares, treacheries, and lightness. With worldly men he persuadeth that
    he is nobody that is not rich, and therefore, _bee it by hooke or by
    crooke_, by right or wrong, he would have them get to be wealthy."

W. D--N.

_Suem._--Allow me to suggest to your correspondents C. W. G. (Vol. iii., p.
7.) and [Delta]. (Vol. iii., p. 75.), that _suem_ is probably a form of the
A.-S. word _seam_, a _horse-load_, and generally a _burden_. For cognates,
see Bosworth's _A.-S. Dict._ {213} I may add, that the word is written
_swun_ in a charter of Edward the Confessor, printed by Hickes in his
_Thesaurus_, vol. i. p. 159., as follows:

    "--ic ann [þæt] ðridde treow. [et] [þæt] ðridde swun of ævesan ðæs
    nextan wudes ðe liþ to kyngesbyrig," &c.

Which Hickes thus renders:

    "Dono tertiam quamque arborem, et tertiam quamque sarcinam jumentariam
    fructuum, qui nascuntur in sylva proxime ad kyngesbyrig sita," &c.

R. M. W.

_Sir George Downing_ (Vol. iii., p. 69.).--The following extract of a
letter in Cartes' _Letters_, ii. 319., confirms the accuracy of the
memorandum as to Sir G. Downing's parentage, sent you by J. P. C. The
letter is from T. Howard to Charles II., written April 5, 1660, on the eve
of the Restoration. Downing had offered to Howard to serve the King,--

    "alleging to be engaged in a contrary party by his father, who was
    banished into New England, where he was brought up, and had sucked in
    principles that since his reason had made him see were erroneous."


_Miching malicho_ (Vol. iii., p. 3.).--Your correspondent MR. COLLIER is
probably not aware that his suggestion respecting the meaning of _Malicho_
had been anticipated upwards of twenty years since. In the unpretending
edition of Shakspeare by another of your correspondents, MR. SINGER,
printed in 1825, I find the following note:--

    "_Miching malicho_ is lurking mischief, or evil doing. _To mich_, for
    to skulk, to lurk, was an old English verb in common use in
    Shakspeare's time; and _Malicho_, or _Malhecho_, misdeed, he has
    borrowed from the Spanish. Many stray words of Spanish and Italian were
    then affectedly used in common conversation, as we have seen French
    used in more recent times. The Quarto spell the word _Mallicho_. Our
    ancestors were not particular in orthography, and often spelt according
    to the ear."

I have since looked at MR. COLLIER'S note to which he refers, and find that
he interprets _miching_ by _stealing_, which will not suit the context; and
abundant examples may be adduced that to _mich_ was to _skulk_, to _lurk_,
as MR. SINGER has very properly explained it. Thus Minsheu:--

    "To MICHE, or secretly hide himself out of the way, as TRUANTS doe from
    Schoole, vi. _to hide_, to cover."

and again--

    "A _micher_, vi. _Truant_."

MR. COLLIER'S text, too, is not satisfactory, for he has abandoned the old
word _Malicho_, and given _Mallecho_, which is as far from the true form of
the Spanish word as the old reading, which he should either have preserved
or printed _Malhecho_, as Minsheu gives it.

I am glad to see from your pages that MR. SINGER has not entirely abandoned
Shakspearian illustration, for in my difficulties I have rarely consulted
his edition in vain; and, in my humble opinion, it is as yet the most
practically useful and readable edition we have.


_Cor Linguæ, &c._ (Vol. iii., p. 168.).--The lines quoted by J. Bs. occur
in the poem "De Palpone et Assentatore," printed in the volume of _Latin
Poems_, commonly attributed to Walter Mapes, edited by Mr. T. Wright for
the Camden Society, 1841, at p. 112., with a slight variation in
expression, as follows:--

 "Cor linguæ foederat naturæ sanctio,
  Tanquam legitimo quodam connubio;
  Ergo cum dissonant cor et locutio,
  Sermo concipitur ex adulterio."

Mr. Wright's only source quoted for the poem is MS. Cotton, Vespas, E. xii.
Of its authority he remarks (Preface, p. xx.), that the writer's name was
certainly Walter, but that he appears to have lived at Wimborne, with which
place Walter Map is not traced to have had any connexion; and if Mr.
Wright's conjecture be correct, that the young king alluded to in it is
Henry III., it must of course have been written some years after Walter
Map's death.

J. G. N.

_Under the Rose_ (Vol. i., pp. 214. 458.; Vol. ii., pp. 221. 323.).--I am
surprised that no one has noticed Sir T. Browne's elucidations of this
phrase. (_Vulg. Err._ lib. v. cap. 21. § 7.) Besides the explanation
referred to by ARCHÆUS (Vol. i., p. 214.), he says:

    "The expression is commendable, if the rose from any _naturall_
    propertie may be the symbole of silence, as Nazienzene seems to imply
    in these translated verses--

     'Utque latet Rosa verna suo putamine clausa,
      Sic os vinela ferat, validisque arctetur habenis,
      Indicatque suis prolixa silentia labris.'"

He explains "the Germane custome, which over the table describeth a rose in
the seeling" (Vol. ii., pp. 221. 323.), by making the phrase to refer only
to the secrecy to be observed "in society and compotation, from the ancient
custome in Symposiacke meetings to wear chapletts of roses about their


"_Impatient to speak and not see_" (Vol. ii., p. 490.).--There is no doubt
of the fine interpretation of your correspondent; but it is not illustrated
by the Latin. Also, I apprehend, "indocilis pati" is not put for "indocilis
patiendi." It is a common use of _to_--proud to be praised; angry to be so

It illustrates a line in Hotspur, the construction of which Warburton would
have altered:

 "I then, all smarting, and my wounds being cold,
  _To be_ so pestered," &c., _i.e._ at being.

May I mention a change in _Troilus and Cressida_ which I have long
entertained, but with doubt:

 "And with an accent tun'd in self-same key,
  Retires to chiding fortune."


Pope reads "returns," Hanmer "replies." My conjecture is "recries."

C. B.

_Bishop Frampton_ (Vol. iii., p. 61.).--See an interesting notice of his
preaching in Pepys' _Diary_, Jan. 20, 1666-7; and what is said of him in
Lathbury's _Nonjurors_, p. 203. But probably MR. EVANS is already aware of
these references to Bishop Frampton, whose life is a desideratum which many
will be glad to hear is going to be supplied.

E. H. A.

_Old Tract on the Eucharist_ (Vol. iii., p. 169.).--The author of the tract
on the Eucharist, referred to by ABHBA, was the Rev. John Patrick. The
title of the tract, as given in the catalogues of Archbishop Wake, No. 22.;
of Dr. Gee, No. 73.; and of Peck, No. 286., of the _Discourses against
Popery during the Reign of James II._, is as follows:--

    "A Full View of the Doctrines and Practices of the Ancient Church
    relating to the Eucharist, wholly different from those of the present
    _Roman_ Church, and inconsistent with the Belief of Transubstantiation;
    being a sufficient Confutation of _Consensus Veterum_, _Nubes Testium_,
    and other late Collections of the Fathers pretending the contrary. By
    _John Patrick, Preacher at the Charter-house_, 1688. 4to."


  Exeter, March 3. 1851.

This tract is in 4to., and contains pp. xv. 202. It is one of the more
valuable of the numerous tracts published on the Roman Catholic controversy
during the reign of James II. In a collection of more than two hundred of
these made at the period of publication, and now in my library, the names
of the authors are written upon the titles, and this is attributed to _Mr.
Patrick_. In another collection from the library of the late Mr. Walter
Wilson, it is stated to be by _Bishop Patrick_. Bishop Gibson reprinted the
tract in his _Preservative against Popery_, London, 1738, fol. vol. ii.
tit. vii. pp. 176--252.; and in the table of contents says that it was
written by "Mr. Patrick, late preacher of the Charter-house." Not Bishop
Patrick therefore, but his brother, Dr. John Patrick, who died 1695, aged
sixty-three, was the author of this tract.


_Was Hugh Peters ever on the Stage?_ (Vol. iii., p. 166.).--I possess

    "A Dying Father's last Legacy to an Onely Child, or Hugh Peter's Advice
    to his Daughter. Written by his own Hand during his late Imprisonment
    in the Tower of London, and given her a little before his Death.
    London, 1660:"

which advice he ends, p. 94., with--

    "The Father of our Lord Jesus Christ preserve you to his Heavenly
    Kingdom, my poor child.


And then, after a poem at p. 97., he commences a short sketch of his life

    "I shall give you an account of myself and dealings, that (if possible)
    you may wipe off some dirt, or be the more content to carry it."

That part of his life which would bear upon this subject reads thus, p.

    "When (at Cambridge) I spent some years vainly enough, being but
    fourteen years old when thither I came, my tutor died, and I was
    exposed to my shifts. Coming from thence, at London God struck me with
    the sense of my sinful estate by a sermon I heard under Paul's."

The wonderful success of his lecture at Sepulchre's caused it to be
asserted by his enemies, that his enthusiastic style of preaching was but
stage buffoonery. (See p. 100.)

    "At this lecture the resort grew so great, that it contracted envie and
    anger ... There were six or seven thousand hearers ... and I went to

thereby leaving his character to be maligned. I do not believe, from the
tone of the condemned man's _Legacy_, that he would purposely avoid any
mention of the stage, had he appeared on it, and "usually performed the
part of a clown;" in fact it appears, that immediately on his coming into
London he was awakened by the "sermon under Paul's, which stuck fast:" he
almost directly left for Essex, and was converted by "the love and labours
of Mr. Thomas Hooker. I there preacht;" so that he was mostly preaching
itinerantly in Essex, when it is asserted that he was "a player in
Shakespeare's company." That _Legacy_ in question, and a book autograph of
Hugh Peters, are at the service of DR. RIMBAULT.


       *       *       *       *       *



All who take an interest in English philology will join in the wish
expressed a few pages back by one of the highest authorities on the
subject, Mr. Albert Way--namely, "that the Philological Society has not
abandoned their project of compiling a complete Provincial Glossary;" and
will greet as a valuable contribution towards that great desideratum, every
skilful attempt to record a local dialect. As such, Mr. Sternberg's
valuable little book, _The Dialect and Folk Lore of Northamptonshire_, will
meet a hearty welcome from our philological friends; and no less hearty a
welcome from those who find in "popular superstitions, fairy-lore, and
other traces of Teutonic heathenism," materials for profitable speculation
on the ancient mythology of these islands. We are bound to speak thus
favourably of Mr. Sternberg's researches in this department, since some
portion of them were first communicated by him to our Folk-Lore columns.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_Vestiges of the Gael in Gwynedd, by the Rev. William
Basil Jones, M.A._ A learned essay on the subject of deep interest to the
antiquaries {215} of the Principality, involving, as it does among other
questions, that of the claim of the Gael, or the Cymry, to be the
aborigines of the country.

_The Book of Family Crests, comprising nearly every Family Bearing,
properly blazoned and explained, accompanied by upwards of Four Thousand
Engravings, with the Surnames of the Bearers, Dictionary of Mottoes, and
Glossary of Terms_, in 2 Vols., Sixth Edition. The best criticism on this
popular work, with its _well blazoned_ title-page bearing the words SIXTH
EDITION on its _honour point_, is to state, as a proof of its completeness,
that it records the Crests of upwards of ninety _Smiths_, and nearly fifty
_Smyths_ and _Smythes_.

_Illustrations of Medieval Costume in England, collected from MSS. in the
British Museum_, by T. A. Day and J. B. Dines. When before did English
antiquaries see four plates of costume, some of them coloured, sold for one
shilling? As an attempt at cheapening and so popularising archæological
literature, the work deserves encouragement.

CATALOGUES RECEIVED.--William and Norgate's (14. Henrietta Street, Covent
Garden) German Book Circular, No. 27.; G. Bumstead's (205. High Holborn)
Catalogue Part 49. of Interesting and Rare Books; Cole's (15. Great
Turnstile) List No. 33. of very Cheap Books; B. Quaritch's (16. Castle
Street, Leicester Square) Catalogue No. 26. of Books in all Languages.

       *       *       *       *       *




MORRISON'S EDIT. OF BURNS' WORKS, 4 Vols., printed at Perth.


BLIND HARRY'S "WALLACE," edited by Dr. Jamieson. 4to. Companion volume to

BARROW'S (ISAAC) WORKS. Vol. 1. 1683; or 8 leaves a--d, "Some Account of
the Life," &c.

*** Letters stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

R. C. P. "Thal," "Theam," "Thealonia," _in the Charter referred to, are
certain rights of toll, of which the peculiarities will be found in any Law
Dictionary; and "Infangethe" was the privilege of judging any thief within
the fee._

S. P. Q. R. _We must refer this correspondent also to a Law Dictionary for
a full explanation of the terms Sergeant and Sergeantcy. A Deed_ Poll _is
plain at the top, and is so called to distinguish it from a Deed_ Indented,
_which is cut in and out at the top._

TYRO. _The work quoted as_ Gammer Gurton _in the_ Arundines Cami, _is the
collection of_ Nursery Rhymes _first formed by Ritson, and of which an
enlarged edition was published by Triphook in 1810, under the title of_
Gammer Gurton's Garland, _or_ The Nursery Parnassus, &c.

R. C. _The music, &c. of_ "The Roast Beef of England," "Britons Strike
Home," _and_ "The Grenadier's March," _will be found in Mr. Chappell's_
Collection of National English Airs. _Webbe's Glee_, "Hail Star of
Brunswick," _the words of which are by Young, may doubtless be got at
Cramer's. We cannot point out a collection containing the words and music
of_ "Croppies lie down."

K. R. H. M. _All received._

A. E. B. _is thanked for his suggested monogram, which shall not be lost
sight of: also for his friendly criticism._

HERMES. _We have received a packet from Holland for our correspondent. Will
he inform us how it may be forwarded to him?_

M. or N. _The meaning of these initials in our_ Catechism _and_ Form of
Matrimony _is still involved in great obscurity. See_ "NOTES AND QUERIES,"
Vol. i., pp. 415. 476.; Vol. ii., p. 61.

DE NAVORSCHER. _Mr. Nult is the London Agent for the supply of our Dutch
ally, the yearly subscription to which is about Ten Shillings._

"Conder on Provincial Coins" _has been reported to the Publisher. Will the
person who wants this book send his address?_

REPLIES RECEIVED.--_Head of the Saviour--Borrow's Danish Ballads--Mistletoe
on Oaks--Lord Howard of Effingham--Passage in Merchant of
Venice--Waste-book--Dryden's Absolom--MS. of Bede--Altar
Lights--Auriga--Ralph Thoresby's Library--St. John's Bridge Fair--Closing
Rooms--North Side of Churchyards--Barons of Hugh Lupus--Tandem
D. O. M.--Fronte Capillatâ--Haybands in Seals--Hanger--Countess of
Desmond--Aristophanes on Modern Stage--Engimatical Epitaph--Notes on
Newspapers--Duncan Campbell--MS. Sermons by J. Taylor--Dr.
Dodd--D. O. M. S.--Hooper's Godly Confession--Finkle Street--"She was--but
words are wanting"--Umbrella--Conquest--Old Tract on the Eucharist--Prince
of Wales's Motto--By Hook or by Crook--Lights on the Altar--Derivation of
Fib, &c.--Extradition, Ignore, &c.--Obeahism--Thesaurus Hospitii--Christmas
Day--Camden and Curwen Families--Death by Burning--Organ Blower--Thomas
May--Friday Weather._

VOLS. I. and II., _each with very copious Index, may still be had, price
9s. 6d. each._

NOTES AND QUERIES _may be procured, by order, of all Booksellers and
Newsvenders. It is published at noon on Friday, so that our country
Subscribers ought not to experience any difficulty in procuring it
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aware of this arrangement, which will enable them to receive_ NOTES AND
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_All communications for the Editor of_ NOTES AND QUERIES _should be
addressed to the care of_ MR. BELL, No. 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE LONDON HOMOEOPATHIC HOSPITAL, 32. Golden-square: founded by the British
Homoeopathic Association, and supported by voluntary contributions.

  Patroness--H. R. H. the Duchess of CAMBRIDGE.
  Vice-Patron--His Grace the Duke of BEAUFORT, K.G.
  Treasurer--John Dean Paul, Esq. (Messrs. Strahan and Co., Strand).

The ANNUAL FESTIVAL in aid of the funds of the Charity, and in
commemoration of the opening of this the first Homoeopathic Hospital
established in London, will be held at the Albion Tavern,
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the birth of Samuel Hahnemann:

The Most Noble the Marquis of WORCESTER, M.P., V.P., in the chair.

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       *       *       *       *       *


Just ready, in two vols. 8vo., with portraits, 28s. bound.



Including numerous Original Letters, chiefly from Strawberry Hill. Edited


Perhaps no name of modern times is productive of so many pleasant
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       *       *       *       *       *

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Abstract of the subsequent History of the Abbey. By MARK ANTONY LOWER, M.A.


ESSAYS ON ENGLISH SURNAMES. The Third Edition, in 2 vols. post 8vo., cloth

CURIOSITIES OF HERALDRY, with numerous Engravings, 8vo., cloth 14s.

J. RUSSELL SMITH, 4. Old Compton Street, Soho, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, 8vo. price 4s. 6d.

of Queen's College, Oxford.

WILLIAM PICKERING, 177. Piccadilly, London.
R. MASON, Tenby.

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ATHENÆUM, WATERLOO PLACE, LONDON.--The Members of the Athenæum are informed
of SUBJECTS, containing all additions made to the close of the year 1850,
may be obtained upon their personal application or written order addressed
to the Librarian, Mr. Spencer Hall. The price of the Catalogue and
Supplement is Ten Shillings, 2 Volumes, royal 8vo. Members who purchased
the first part of the Catalogue printed in 1845 are entitled to the

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, New Edition, fcap 8vo., cloth, large type, price 3s. 6d.

HOOK, D.D., Vicar of Leeds.


Also a Cheap Edition, in small type, price 9d. cloth.

Leeds: RICHARD SLOCOMBE.   London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published,

The HISTORY of Our LORD and SAVIOUR JESUS CHRIST. With suitable Meditations
and Prayers. By WILLIAM READING, M.A. (Reprinted from the Edition of 1737.)
32mo., cloth, price 2s.


1s. cloth; and Vol. 1., containing Parts 1 and 2, price 2s. 6d. cloth.

Leeds: RICHARD SLOCOMBE.   London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

8vo., price 1s. 6d.


18mo., price 6d.

Observations on the Theory of Complementary Colours. By G. J. FRENCH.

GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

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THE SUBSCRIBER has prepared an ample supply of his well known and approved
SURPLICES, from 20s. to 50s., and various devices in DAMASK COMMUNION
LINEN, well adapted for presentation to Churches.

Illustrated priced Catalogues sent free to the Clergy, Architects, and
Churchwardens by post, on application to

GILBERT J. FRENCH, Bolton, Lancashire.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published,

H. RODD'S CATALOGUE, Part II. 1851, containing many Curious and Valuable
Books in all Languages, some rare Old Poetry, Plays, Shakspeariana, &c.
Gratis, per post, Four Stamps.

23. Little Newport Street, Leicester Square.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8 New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, March 15. 1851.

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