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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 75, April 5, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 75, April 5, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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generously made available by The Internet Library of Early



       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 75.]
[Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                   Page

  Two Chancellors, by Edward Foss                        257

  Illustrations of Chaucer, No. III.                     258

  Folk Lore:--Cure of Hooping Cough--Charms from
  Devonshire--Lent Lilies--Oak Webs, &c.                 258

  The Threnodia Carolina of Sir Thomas Herbert, by
  Bolton Corney                                          259

  Minor Notes:--Shakspeare's Venus and Adonis--Moorfields
  in Charles II.'s Time--Derivation of Yankee--A
  Word to Literary Men                                   260


  Poems of John Seguard of Norwich, by Sir F. Madden     261

  Epitaph on the Countess of Pembroke                    262

  Minor Queries:--The Vellum-bound Junius--What is
  a Tye?--"Marriage is such a Rabble Rout"--Arms
  of Robert Nelson--Knebsend or Nebsend, co. York
  --Moore's Almanack--Archbishop Loftus--Matrix
  of Monastic Seal--Syriac Scriptures and Lexicon--
  Villiers Duke of Buckingham--Porci solidi-pedes--
  The Heywood Family--Was Charles II. ever in
  Wales?--Dog's Head in the Pot--"Poor Alinda's
  growing old"                                           262

  MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Who was the Author of
  "The Modest Enquiry, &c."?--William Penn's Family
  --Deal, Dover, and Harwich--Author of Broad
  Stone of Honour--Pope Joan--The Well o' the
  World's End--Sides and Angles--Meaning of Ratche
  --"Feast of Reason," &c.--Tu autem                     264


  Barons of Hugh Lupus                                   266

  Edmund Prideaux and the First Post-office              266

  Lady Jane of Westmoreland                              268

  Replies to Minor Queries:--Ulm Manuscript--Father
  Maximilian Hell--Meaning of "strained" as used by
  Shakspeare--Headings of Chapters in English Bibles     269


  Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                 269

  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                           270

  Notices to Correspondents                              270

  Advertisements                                         271

       *       *       *       *       *



Although neither your readers nor I are politicians enough to interfere in
the changes proposed with reference to the office of Lord Chancellor, I
doubt not that some of them, now the subject is on the _tapis_, may feel
interested in a fact connected with it, which our ancient records disclose:
namely, that on one occasion there were _two chancellors_ acting at the
same time for several months together, and both regularly appointed by the

It is an unique instance, occurring in the reign of Edward IV.: the two
chancellors being Thomas Rotheram, Bishop of Lincoln, and John Alcock,
Bishop of Rochester. The former received the Great Seal in May, 1474, in
the fourteenth year of the reign, and without any doubt continued
chancellor till the king's death; and yet, from April to September in the
following year, the latter was also addressed by the same title. During
that interval of five months, there are numerous writs of Privy Seal
addressed by the king to both, in which each of them is styled "our

This curious circumstance may be thus accounted for. King Edward had for
some time been contemplating an invasion of France; and when his
preparations were completed (about April), as he required his chancellor,
Bishop Rotheram, to attend him on the expedition, it became necessary to
provide some competent person to transact the business of the Chancery in
his absence. On previous occasions of this nature, it had been usual to
place the seal that was used in England, when the king was abroad, in the
hands of the Master of the Rolls, or some other master in Chancery, with
the title of Keeper: but, for some unexplained reason (perhaps because
Bishop Alcock was a man whom the king delighted to honour), this prelate
was dignified with the superior designation, although Bishop Rotheram still
retained it. The voyage being delayed from April to July, during the whole
of that period, each being in England, both acted in the same character;
Privy Seals, as I have said, being sent to both, and bills in Chancery
being addressed also to Bishop Alcock as chancellor. Rotheram was with the
king in France as his chancellor, and is so described on opening the
negotiation in August, which led to the discreditable peace by which Edward
made himself a pensioner to the French king. No Privy Seals were addressed
to Alcock after September 28; which may therefore be considered the close
of this double chancellorship, and the date of Bishop Rotheram's return to

Who knows whether the discovery of this ancient authority may not suggest
to our legislators the division of the title between two possessors {258}
with distinct duties, in the same manner that two chief justices were
substituted in the reign of Henry III. for one chief justiciary?

The immediate interest of this fact has prompted me to anticipate its
appearance in the volumes of my work, which you have been kind enough to
announce as being in the press.


       *       *       *       *       *


 "Now flieth Venus in to Ciclinius tour.
      *    *    *    *    *    *
 "Alas, and there hath she no socour,
  For she ne found ne sey no maner wight.
      *    *    *    *    *    *
 "Wherefore her selven for to hide and save,
  Within the gate she fledde in to a cave.
      *    *    *    *    *    *
 "Now God helpe sely Venus alone,
  But as God wold it happed for to be,
  That while the weping Venus made her mone,
  Ciclinius riding in his chirachee,
  _Fro Venus Valanus might this palais see;_
  And Venus he salveth and maketh chere,
  And her receiveth as his frende full dere."
              _Complaint of Mars and Venus._

Having in my last communication (Vol. iii., p. 235.) shown cause for the
alteration in the foregoing quotation of Ciclinius into Cyllenius, I shall
now endeavour to interpret the line in Italics, which in its present shape
is utterly without meaning.

Whatever word _Valanus_ may be supposed to represent, whether a proper or a
common name, still the construction of the whole line is evidently corrupt.

Taking Valanus, in the first place, as a proper name, the most probable
original would be VALENS; for the connexion of which with Mercury we must
refer to Cicero (_De Nat. Deor._ iii. 22.), where mention is made of it in
these words:--

    "Alter (Mercurius) _Valentis_ et Phoronidis filius, is qui sub terris
    habetur idem Trophonius."

Here the identification with Trophonius strikes us at once as affording a
clue to THE CAVE into which Venus fled, giving great probability to Valens
as the true solution of Chaucer's meaning.

But if we receive it as such, the following hypothesis becomes necessary,
viz., that Chaucer imagined a _double impersonation_ of Mercury--one
absent, the other present,--one sidereal, the other mythological,--one
Cyllenius, the other Valens.

When Venus first enters Mercury's "palais," she "_ne found ne sey no maner
wight_." This signifies the absence from home of _Cyllenius_, who was
abroad upon "his chirachee" in attendance upon the Sun; and here again is
an instance of the nice astronomical accuracy of Chaucer. It was impossible
that the _planet_ Mercury could be in the sign Gemini, because his greatest
elongation, or apparent distance from the sun, does not exceed 29 degrees;
so that the Sun having but just entered Taurus, Mercury could not be in
Gemini. Neither could Venus see Valens (the other impersonation of
Mercury), because of his concealment in the cave; but when she entered the
cave, then she was welcomed and received by him.

Now, to render the text conformable with this interpretation, some
alteration in the construction is necessary, as indeed it must be in any
attempt to render the passage intelligible.

Taking, away the word "Fro," and transposing "might" to the other side of
"Valanus," the lines would stand thus,--

         "---- it happed for to be
  That, while the weping Venus made her mone,
  (Cyllenius riding in his chirachee)
  Venus might Valens in this palais see;
  And Venus he salveth and maketh chere
  And her receiveth as his frende full dere!"

On the other supposition of "Valanus" being a common name, to which a
capital letter has been prefixed in mistake, then the only word for which
it would appear to be a probable substitution would be "Vallum," in the
sense of a border or rampart; but the application would be so far-fetched
that I shall not attempt it, especially as I look upon the explanation
afforded by "Valens" as most probably the true one.

A. E. B.

Leeds, March 20. 1851.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Cure of Hooping Cough._--There is a superstition in Cheshire that hooping
cough may be cured by holding a toad for a few moments with its head within
the mouth of the person affected. I heard only the other day of a cure by
this somewhat disagreeable process; the toad was said to have caught the
disease, which in this instance proved fatal to it in a few hours.

A. H. H.

_Charms from Devonshire._--The following charms were obtained from an old
woman in this parish, though probably they are all known to you already:

  (_a._) _For a Scald or Burn._

 "There were three angels came from The East and West,
  One brought fire and another brought frost,
  And the third it was the Holy Ghost.
  Out fire, in frost, in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the
      Holy Ghost. Amen."

  (_b._) _For a Sprain._

    "As our Blessed Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ was riding into
    Jerusalem, His horse tripped and sprained his leg. Our Blessed Lord and
    Saviour blessed it, and said,

 'Bone to bone, and vein to vein,
  O vein, turn to thy rest again!'

    M. N. so shall thine, in the Name," &c.


  (_c._) _For stopping Blood._

    "Our Blessed Saviour was born in Bethlehem and baptized in the river

 'The Waters were wild and rude.
  The child Jesus was meek, mild, and good.'

    He put His foot into the waters, and the waters stopped, and so shall
    thy blood, in the Name," &c.

  (d.) _For the Tooth-ache._

    "All glory! all glory! all glory! be to the Father, and to the Son, and
    to the Holy Ghost.

    "As our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ was walking in the garden of
    Gethsamene, He saw Peter weeping. He called him unto Him, and said,
    Peter why, weepest thou? Peter answered and said, Lord, I am grievously
    tormented with pain, the pain of my tooth. Our Lord answered and said,
    If thou wilt believe in Me, and My words abide with thee, thou shalt
    never feel any more pain in thy tooth. Peter said, Lord, I believe,
    help Thou my unbelief. In the Name, &c.

    "God grant M. N. ease from the pain in his teeth."

(_e._) _For Fits._--Go into a church at midnight and walk three times round
the communion table. This was done in this parish a few years since.

(_f._) An inhabitant of this parish told me that his father went into
Lydford Church, at twelve o'clock at night, and cut off some lead from
every diamond pane in the windows with which he made a heart, to be worn by
his wife afflicted with "_breastills_," i.e. _sore breasts_.

(_g._) The skin cast by a snake is very useful in extracting thorns, &c.
from the body, but, unlike I other remedies, it is repellent, not
attractive; hence it must always be applied on the opposite side to that on
which the thorn entered. In some cases where the skin has been applied on
the same side, it has forced the thorn completely through the hand.

_Lent Lilies.--Oak Webs, &c._--In this part of Cornwall, the native yellow
narcissus, known in most counties, and in the books, as _daffodils_ (the
"Daffy Down Dilly" of your correspondent, Vol. iii. p. 220.), are called
only by the name of _Lent lilies_, or simply _Lents_, and are commonly sold
by the poor children, frequently in exchange for _pins_. The pleasing name
reminds one of Michaelmas Daisy (_Chrysanthemum_), Christmas rose
(_Helleborus niger_), and the beautiful pasque flower (_Anemone

The common beetle called cockchafer is here known only as the _oak-web_,
and a smaller beetle as _fern-web_. It seems hard to guess why they should
be named _web_ (which in Anglo-Saxon means _weaver_), as they do not, I
think, form any cocoon.

H. G. T.


       *       *       *       *       *


The _Threnodia Carolina_ of sir Thomas Herbert is a jewel of historical
composition, and I am persuaded that a new edition of it, if formed on a
collation of the best manuscripts, and illustrated by extracts from the
principal historians of the same period, would not only be received by the
public with thanks, but with expressions of surprise that so rare a
treasure should have been suffered to remain in such comparative obscurity.

There are four manuscripts of the work in public libraries, two of which I
am enabled to describe.

1. The Harleian Ms. in the British Museum, No. 7396.

This Ms. is in folio. The preliminary leaves have the notes marked 1, 2,
3--the second being in the handwriting of sir William Dugdale. The
narrative occupies thirty-six pages, with interlinear corrections and
additions. This Ms. does not contain the words _This brief narrative_, &c.
nor the letter dated the 3d Nov. 1681.


    (1) "This book contains S^r Tho. Herberts memoirs being the original in
    his own hand sent to S^r W^m Dugdale in 1678."

    (2) "A true and perfect narrative of the most remarkable passages
    relating to king Charles the first of blessed memory, written by the
    proper land of S^r Thomas Herbert baronet, who attended upon his
    ma^{tie} from Newcastle upon Tine, when he was sold by the Scotts,
    during the whole time of his greatest afflictions, till his death and
    buriall; w^{ch} was sent to me S^r Will^m Dugdale knight, garter
    principall king of armes, in Michaellmasse Terme a^o. 1678, by the said
    S^r Thomas Herbert, from Yorke, where he resideth."


    (3) "Court passages in the two last yeares of the raigne of king
    Charles the first, during y^e time of his affliction."

    2. The Harleian Ms. in the British Museum, No. 4705.

    This Ms. is in small folio. It was formerly in the possession of Peter
    le Neve, norroy. A preliminary leaf has the subjoined attestation by
    sir William Dugdale. The narrative is much more ample and
    circumstantial than in the former Ms., but it is not all in the
    handwriting of sir Thomas Herbert. The letter dated 3 November 1681,
    and the relations of Huntington, Cooke, and Firebrace, are added in the
    handwriting of Dugdale; also, the names of persons who corresponded
    with Charles I. while he was a prisoner in the Isle of Wight. The
    passages transcribed by the REV. ALFRED GATTY appear in this Ms.--also
    in the edition of 1702. The edition of 1813 is a _verbatim_ reprint of
    the first and second articles of that of 1702. It was edited by Mr.
    George Nicol.


    "This booke containeth a large answer to a short letter sent by S^r
    Will^m Dugdale kn^t (garter; principall king of armes) unto S^r Thomas
    Herbert baronet, {260} residing in the citty of Yorke. By w^{ch} letter
    he did desire the sayd S^r Thomas Herbert to informe him of such
    materiall passages, as he had observed touching the late king Charles
    the first (of blessed memory) during the time that he the sayd S^r
    Thomas did attend him in person; B^t for the two last yeares of his
    afflicted life."

The other Mss. alluded to are preserved in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford.
The most important is No. 1141., which is minutely described in the
admirable catalogue compiled by Mr. Black. A transcript of the _Threnodia
Carolina_ by Ant. à Wood, also in the Ashmolean Museum, is recorded by

As there were two _recensions_ of the narrative, I have added a specimen of
each of the Harleian Mss., which may serve as a clue to the nature of other
copies, whether in public libraries, or in private hands.

    "The Lords ordered a girdle or circumscription of Capitall Letters to
    be cutt in Lead and putt about the Coffin. being onely these wordes


    The kings body was then brought from the chamber to Saint Georges hall.
    whence after a Little pause, it was w^{th} a slow pase & much sorrow
    carrye'd by those gentlemen that were in mourninge: the Lords in blacks
    following the royall Corpes & many gentlemen after them, and their
    attendants."--THRENODIA CAROLINA, p. 36. Harleian MS. 7396.

    "The girdle or circumscription of Capitall Letters in Lead putt about
    the Coffin had onely these words.


    The Kings body was then brought from his Bed-chamber, downe into S^t
    Georges-hall; whence after a little stay, itt was with a slow and
    solemn pace (much sorrow in most faces discernable) carryed by
    gentlemen that were of some quallity and in mourning. the Lords in like
    habitts followed the Royall Corps. the Governor, and severall
    gentlemen, and officers, and attendants came after."--CAROLINA
    THRENODIA, p. 80. Harleian MS. 4705.


_Sir Thomas Herbert's Memoirs of Charles I._--The question suggested by MR.
GATTY'S first note upon this subject was one of some importance, viz.,
whether the original MS. in the possession of his friend contained anything
of Sir Thomas Herbert's not hitherto published? There is no doubt that the
"Memoir of the two last years of King Charles I." was written by Sir Thomas
Herbert, after his retirement to his native city of York, at the request of
the author of the _Athenæ Oxonienses_, who made use of nearly the whole of
it in compiling that great work, adapting different portions to his
biographical notices of the persons to whom they principally related. The
notices of Colonel Joyce and Colonel Cobbet are chiefly composed of
extracts from Herbert's Memoir; whilst under the name of Herbert himself
not more than about one-third of his own communication will be found.

The first edition of the _Athenæ_ was not published until 1691, several
years after Sir Thomas Herbert's death; and the memoir in a complete form,
with the title of _Threnodia Carolina_, did not appear until the year 1702,
when it was published by Dr. Charles Goodall, physician to the Charter
House, together with other tracts relating to Charles I. This is doubtless
the volume described by MR. BOLTON CORNEY (vol. iii., p. 157.), who will, I
hope, favour your readers with the information requested by MR. GATTY (p.

The Memoir, as published in 1813 by G. and W. Nicol, Booksellers, Pall
Mall, professes to be a faithful reprint of the former edition of 1702. The
commencing and concluding paragraphs in this reprint are precisely the same
as those transcribed by MR. GATTY'S friend from the MS. in his possession.
His idea, that an incorrect copy of his MS. was improperly obtained, and
published in 1813, seems to be without foundation.


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Shakspeare's Venus and Adonis._--The following extract from an
advertisement in the _St. James's Chronicle_, April 15, 1779, is worth a
note as illustrative of the altered value of the book referred to:--

    "If any person is possessed of an impression of Shakspeare's _Venus and
    Adonis_, 4to. Printed by Richard Field for John Harrison, 1593, and
    will bring it to Mr. Thomas Longman, bookseller, in Paternoster Row, he
    will receive one guinea for it."

Malone gave 25l. for the copy in his collection in the Bodleian.

J. F. M.

_Moorfields in Charles II.'s Time._--I copy this from _The New Help to
Discourse_, published about 1670:

    "Two gentlemen of Stepney going homewards over Moor-fields, about
    twelve of the clock at night, were staid by an impertinent constable
    with many frivolous questions, more by half to show his office than his
    wit; one whereof was, If they were not afraid to go home at that time
    of the night? They answered, 'No.' 'Well,' said he, 'I shall let you
    pass at this time; but if you should be knockt on the lead before you
    get home, you cannot but report that there was a good watch kept in


_Yankee, Derivation of._--The word _Yankee_ is nothing more than the word
_English_ so transformed by the imperfect pronunciation of the natives of
Massachusets--_Yenghis_, _Yanghis_, _Yankies_. The orthography of this
much-used epithet, which is not given, we believe, in any English or
American work, was communicated to M. Philarète {261} Charles by one of the
best-informed men of that province.

    "Le mot Yankee, appliqué aujourd'hui comme sobriquet aux populations
    agricoles et commerçantes du nord, n'est autre que le mot _English_
    transformé par la prononciation défectueuse des indigènes du
    Massachusets: _Yenghis_, _Yanghis_, _Yankies_. Nous tenons de l'un des
    hommes les plus instruit de la province cette curieuse étymologie, que
    ne donne aucun ouvrage americain ou anglais. Les Anglais, quand ils se
    moquent des _Yankies_, se moquent d'eux-mèmes."--Philarète Charles,
    "Les Americains," in _Revue des Deux Mondes_, May 15, 1850.

J. M.

_A Word to Literary Men_ (Vol. iii., p. 161.).--Perhaps MR. KENNETH R. H.
MACKENZIE will allow me to add the following as a _rider_ to his

    "Even after all the labours of the Prussian scholars," says Dr. Arnold,
    "much remains to be done towards obtaining a complete knowledge of the
    number, and still more of the value, of the Greek MSS. now existing in
    Europe. It is not easy to know how many MSS. of any given writer are
    extant, where they are to be found, and, above all, whether from their
    age and character they are worth the trouble of an exact collation. A
    labour of this kind cannot be accomplished by individuals; but the
    present spirit of liberal co-operation, which seems to influence
    literary as well as scientific men throughout Europe, renders its
    accomplishment by the combined exertions of the scholars of different
    countries by no meals impracticable. It would be exceedingly convenient
    to possess an alphabetical list of all the extant Greek and Latin
    writers, with a _catalogue raisonnée_ of the MSS. of each; and if such
    a work were attempted, there is little doubt, I imagine, that in point
    of number a very large addition would be made to the stock of MSS.
    already known. What the result might be in point of value is another
    question; still it is desirable to know what we have to trust to; and
    when we have obtained a right estimate of our existing resources in
    manuscripts, we shall then be better able to judge what modern
    criticism will have to do from its own means towards bringing the text
    of the ancient writers to the greatest possible state of
    perfection."--Preface to _Thucydides_, vol. iii. page iv. 2d edit.

M. N.

       *       *       *       *       *



In the _Letters on the British Museum_, 1767 (referred to Vol. iii., p.
208.), at p. 33. is given a short Latin poem, which the writer states he
"found among the manuscripts;" and adds, "It was written by John Seward in
the time of Henry V., who conquered Charles VI. of France." The poem is as

 "Ite per extremam Tanaim, pigrosque Triones,
  Ite per arentem Lybiam, superate calores
  Solis, et arcanos Nili deprendite fontes,
  Herculeumque sinum, Bacchi transcurrite metas,
  Angli juris erit quicquid complectitur orbis.
  Anglis rubra dabunt pretiosas æquora conchas,
  Indus ebur, ramos Panchaia, vellera Seres,
  Dum viget Henricus, dum noster vivit Achilles;
  Est etenim laudes longe transgressus avitas."

If these lines are compared with the contemporary Leonine verses in praise
of Henry V., preserved in MS. Cott. Cleop. B. i. f. 173. beginning:

 "Ad Salvatoris laudes, titulos et honores."

their great superiority, in point of Latinity, will be perceived, and this
Query forthwith arises: Who was John Seward?

In reply to this, the following information has been collected. The name of
the author was not _Seward_, but _Seguard_. He is not mentioned by Leland,
but Bale calls him "insignis sui temporis rhetor ac poeta;" and states
further, that in the city of Norwich, "non sine magno auditorum fructu,
bonas artes ingenue profitebatur." He then gives a list of his writings,
among which is a work on Prosody, entitled _Metristenchiridion_, addressed
to Richard Courtney, Bishop of Norwich, who held the see only from Sept.
1413 to Sept. 1415, and therefore composed during that interval. He notices
also a tract _De miseria hominis_, together with _Carmina diversi generis_
and _Epistolæ ad diversos_; all of which, he says, he himself saw in
manuscripts in Merton College, Oxford, and in the Royal Library of Edward
VI. Pits, the next authority in point of date, chiefly follows Bale in his
account of John Seguard; but adds, "Equestris ordinis in Anglia patre
natus," and among his writings inserts one not specified by Bale, _De
laudibus Regis Henrici Quinti, versu_. Tanner copies the first of these
statements, yet, singular enough, omits all notice of the poem on Henry V.,
the very one, apparently, cited in the _Letters on the British Museum_. But
there are further difficulties. It was natural to suppose, that the MS.
seen by Bale in the Royal Library would be there still; and Tanner
unhesitatingly refers to the volume marked 15 A. xxii. art. 5., as the one
which contained the poem _De miseria hominis_, noted by Bale. On looking,
however, at this manuscript, it became apparent that both Bale and Tanner
are in error in ascribing this poem to Seguard. The handwriting is of the
early part of the thirteenth century, and consequently full a century and a
half before the Norwich poet was born! At the conclusion is this note, by
the same hand:

    "Hos versus, sicut nobis quidam veridicus retulit, Segardus junior de
    Sancto Audomaro composuit."

The writer here named is not mentioned in Fabricius, nor in the _Histoire
Littéraire de la France_. Besides the MS. in Merton College, Oxford,
referred to by Bale, which still exists there under the signature Q. 3. 1.,
I find another in Bernard's _Catt._ {262} _MSS. Angliæ_, 1697, vol. ii. p.
216., among the manuscripts of Sir Henry Langley of Shropshire, "No. 22.
Jo. Segnard [_read_ Seguard] Poemata." I would therefore close these
remarks by requesting attention to the following Queries:--

1. As Blomefield is silent on the subject, is anything more known
respecting the biography of John Seguard?

2. Can a list be obtained of the contents of the Merton manuscript?

3. What became of the Langley MS., and where is it at present?

4. In what manuscript of the British Museum is the poem on Henry V.


P.S. Since I wrote the above, I have found in the Sale Catalogue of the
Towneley library, 1814, pt. i. lot 396.:

    "_Seguardi Opuscula._ Manuscript on vellum. This volume contains
    several treatises not mentioned by Bale or Pits."

It was purchased by Mr. Laing for 1l. 1s. May I, therefore, add one more

5. Can the present owner of this MS. (which is probably the same as the
Langley copy) furnish a note of its contents?

F. M.

       *       *       *       *       *


Who was the writer of the oft-quoted lines,

 "Underneath this marble (sable) hearse," &c.

intended, as all know, for an epitaph on Mary Sidney, afterwards Countess
of Pembroke, but not inscribed upon any monumental stone? They are almost
universally attributed to Ben Jonson, and are included amongst his poems.
But this is not conclusive evidence, as we also there find the epitaph on
Drayton, which was written by Quarles. In Aubrey's MS. _Memoires of
Naturall Remarques in Wilts_, these verses are said to have been "made by
Mr. Willi[=a]. Browne, who wrote the Pastoralls, and they are inserted
there." Mr. Britton, in his _Life of Aubrey_ (p. 96.), adds:

    "It is essential to observe, that Aubrey is not alone in stating them
    to be by Browne; for, in his note upon the subject, he left a blank for
    the latter's Christian name, 'William,' which was filled up by Evelyn
    when he perused the manuscript. Indeed, Evelyn added as a further note,
    '_William_, Governor to the now Earl of Oxford.'"

But these lines are not to be found in Browne's _Pastorals_. In book ii.,
song 4., there is an epitaph, but which bears little resemblance to the one
in question. It concludes with the following conceit:

 "If to the grave there ever was assign'd
  One like this nymph in body and in minde,
  We wish here in balme, not vainely spent,
  To fit this maiden with a monument,
  For brass, and marble, were they seated here,
  Would fret, or melt in tears, to lye so near."

Addison, in _The Spectator_, No. 323., speaks of this epitaph as "written
by an uncertain author." This was not more than seventy-five or eighty
years after Jonson's death. In the lives of the Sidneys, and in Ballard's
_Memoirs of Celebrated Ladies_ (1752), no author is mentioned; but the
latter speaks of the epitaph as likely to be more lasting than marble or
brass. To the six lines which generally stand alone, the following are
added in the two last-mentioned works:

 "Marble pyles let no man raise,
  To her name, for after daies,
  Some kind woman, born as she,
  Reading this like Niobe,
  Shall turn marble, and become,
  Both her mourner and her tomb."

These are also given by Brydges in his _Peers Of James II._, but they are
not in Jonson's works. Did they originally form part of the epitaph, or are
they the production of another and later author?

That this epitaph should be attributed to Jonson, may possibly have arisen
from the following lines being confounded with it. Jacob, in his _English
Poets_, says--

    "To show that Ben was famous at _epigram_, I need only transcribe the
    epitaph he wrote on the Lady Elizabeth L. H.:

     "Underneath this stone doth lie
      As much virtue as could die,
      Which when alive did harbour give
      To as much beauty as could live.

J. H. M.


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_The Vellum-bound Junius._--Mr. Cramp, in his late publication, _Junius and
his Works_, conjectures that the printer having bound a copy of _Junius_
for and under the direction of the writer of the letters, followed the
pattern in the binding of other copies; and this, he says, "will account
for similar copies having been found in the libraries of so many persons,
which from time to time has occasioned so much speculation." With Mr.
Cramp's conjecture I do not concern myself; but I should be much obliged if
he would inform me, through your Journal, in what libraries, and where,
these many vellum-bound copies have been found, and where I can find the
speculations to which they have given rise.

V. B.

_The Vellum-bound Junius._--Some years ago, on reading the private letters
of Junius, addressed to H. S. Woodfall, and printed by G. Woodfall, 1812, I
was particularly struck by those of No. 58. and 59., wherein he states a
desire to have one set of his letters (which were published 3d March, 1772,
by Woodfall) _bound in vellum_.

Constantly bearing in mind the fact of the vellum copy, I invariably
examined all the book {263} catalogues that came in my way for it. At last
the long-wished-for object appeared in the Stowe sale, and I immediately
gave my agent instruction to purchase the book for me, and he might offer
as much as 10l.: he bid 8l., and then it was intimated that it was no use
to go on; that fifty guineas would not purchase it, or any other sum.

Query, Has this volume been in any other sale? if not, it certainly
connects the Buckingham family with Junius, though it does not prove the


    [The Stowe copy of Junius, it appears, was bought by Mr. Rodd for 9l.,
    no doubt upon commission.]

_What is a "Tye?"_--In Essex, many parishes have a place called "the tye,"
which I believe is always an out-lying place where three roads meet. In an
old map I have seen one place now called "Tye" written "Dei." Is it where a
cross once stood, and Tye a corruption of Dei? Forby, in his _East Anglian
Vocabulary_, mentions it, but cannot make it out.


_"Marriage is such a Rabble Rout."_--In D'Israeli's _Curiosities of
Literature_, Moxon's edition, in 1 vol. p. 118., or ed. edited by his son,
vol. i. p. 363., under the head "A Literary Wife," are the lines--

 "Marriage is such a rabble rout,
  That those that are out, would fain get in;
  And those that are in, would fain get out:"

quoted from Chaucer. I have heard these lines quoted as being from
_Hudibras_: as I cannot trace them in my editions of Chaucer of Butler,
perhaps some of your readers can tell me where I can find them?


_Arms of Robert Nelson._--Can any of the numerous readers and
correspondents of "NOTES AND QUERIES" describe the _armorial bearings_ of
_Robert Nelson, Esq._, the author of the _Companion for the Festivals and
Fasts of the Church of England_? He was buried in the burying-ground in
Lamb's Conduit Fields, January, 1714.

G. F.

_Knebsend or Nebsend, co. York._--Query, whereabouts in the county of York
is this place? I believe that one of the above is the way of spelling, but
at any rate they have the same sound.

J. N. C.

_Moore's Almanack._--Can any of your correspondents inform me as to the
history of _Moore's Almanack_?

What is the date of its first appearance? Was Francis Moore a real
personage, or merely a myth?

H. P. W.


_Archbishop Loftus._--I shall be deeply obliged to any of your
correspondents who will inform me whether, and _where_, any diary or
private memoranda are known to exist of Adam Loftus, who was Archbishop of
Dublin nearly forty years, from 1567 to 1605, Lord Chancellor of Ireland,
and the first Provost of Trinity College, Dublin. He was an ancestor of the
Viscount Loftus, and of the Marquess of Ely.


Thurles, Ireland, March 20.

_Matrix of Monastic Seal._--A brass matrix has fallen into my hands of a
period certainly not much anterior to the Revolution. Device, the Virgin
and Child, their heads surrounded with nimbi; the former holds in her right
hand three lilies, the latter a globe and cross. The legend is:

"* SIG[=IL] . MON . [=B] . [=M] . DE . PRATO . ALIAS . DE . BONO . NVNCIO."

In the field, a shield charged with three lions passant. Can any
correspondent aid me in assigning it rightly? There was an Abbey of St.
Mary de Pratis at Leicester (Vide _Gent. Mag._, vol. xciii. p. 9.); and
there is a church dedicated to "St. Mary in the Marsh at Norwich." In a
recent advertisement I find a notice of Scipio Ricci, Bishop of Pistoia and
Prato, so that the appellation is not very uncommon.


_Syriac Scriptures and Lexicon._--What edition of the Peschito-Syriac
version of the Old and New Testaments, respectively, is considered the
best? Also, what Syriac Lexicon stands highest for value and accuracy?

T. TN.

_Villiers Duke of Buckingham._--There is a tradition in Portsmouth, that in
the evening preceding his assassination, Villiers Duke of Buckingham killed
a sailor. Is there any authority for this?

E. D.

_Porci solidi-pedes._--Can any of your readers inform me if any pigs with
single hoofs are in existence in any county in England? They are mentioned
in a letter from Sir Thomas Browne to Dugdale the antiquary.

J. S. P. (a Subscriber).

_The Heywood Family._--I am anxious to know if Thomas Heywood, the
dramatist, was in any way related to Nathaniel Heywood or Oliver Heywood,
the celebrated Nonconformist ministers in the seventeenth century? Could
any of your correspondents give me information on this point?

H. A. B.

Trin. Coll. Camb.

_Was Charles II. ever in Wales?_--There is a tradition amongst the
inhabitants of Glamorganshire, that, after his defeat at the battle of
Worcester, Charles come to Wales and staid a night at a place called
Llancaiach Vawr, in the parish of Gelligaer. The place then belonged to a
Colonel Pritchard, an officer in the Parliamentary army; and the story
relates that he made himself known to his host, and threw himself upon his
generosity for safety. The colonel assented to his staying for {264} _one_
night only, but went away himself, afraid, as the story goes, that the
Parliament should come to know he had succoured Charles. I know that
Llancaiach was a place of considerable note long after that, and that an
old farmer used to say he had heard tile story from his father. The
historians, I believe, are all silent as to his having fled to Wales
between the time of his defeat at Worcester and the time he left the


    [Some accounts state that Charles I. was entertained by Colonel
    Prichard, when that monarch, travelling through Wales, lost his way
    between Tredegar and Brecknock. (See Lewis's _Topographical Dictionary
    of Wales_, art. "Gellygaer.")]

_Dog's Head in the Pot._--"Thomas Johnson, Citizen and Haberdasher of
London, by will, dated 3d Sept. 1563, gave 13s. 4d. annually to the
highways between Barkway and Dogshed-in-the-Pot, otherwise called

The Dogshed-in-the-Pot here mentioned was, as I infer, a public-house in
the parish of Great or Little Hormead in Hertfordshire, by the side of the
road from Barkway to London. In Akerman's _Tradesmen's Tokens current in
London_ I find one (numbered 1442) of the "Dogg's-Head-in-the-Potte" in Old
Street, having the device of a dog eating out of a pot; and the token of
Oliver Wallis, in Red Cross Street (No. 1610., A.D. 1667), has the device
of a dog eating out of a three-legged pot. In April, 1850, Hayward Brothers
(late R. Henly and Co.), wholesale and manufacturing builders ironmongers,
196. Blackfriars Road, and 117. and 118. Union Street, Borough, London (who
state their business to have been established 1783), put forth an
advertisement headed with a woodcut of a dog eating out of a three-legged

Can any of your readers elucidate this sign of the "Dog's-head-in-the Pot?"


Cambridge, May 24. 1850.

_"Poor Allinda's growing old."_--Charles II., to vex the Duchess of
Cleveland, caused Will Legge to sing to her--

 "Poor Allinda's growing old,
  Those charms are now no more."

(See Lord Dartmouth's note in _Burnet_, vol. i. p. 458. ed. 1823.) Let me
ask, through "NOTES AND QUERIES," Dr. Rimbault, Mr. Chappell, or any
readers, where are these verses to be found?


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries Answered.

_Who was the Author of "The Modest Enquiry, &c."?_--There is an anonymous
tract, entitled _A Modest Enquiry, &c._, (4to. London, 1687), on the
question of St. Peter's ever having been at Rome: proving, in so far as a
negative in the case can be proved, in the most logical, full, clear, and
satisfactory manner, that--_He never was at Rome_; and _never was, either
nominally or otherwise, Bishop_ _of the Church there_: and showing the
grounds for the contrary assertion to be altogether baseless and untrue;
being a tissue of self-contradicting forgeries and frauds, invented long
subsequently to the time, evidently for the sole purpose of justifying the
Papal pretensions of succession and derivation from the Apostle; as those,
and all its other claims, are founded alone upon that fact, and must stand
or fall with it.

The inquiry is conducted throughout with evidence of great acquaintance
with Scripture and much theological learning (though the writer states
himself to be a layman), without the least undue pretension, and with the
most perfect temperateness and impartiality. The work would seem now well
worth reprinting in a cheap and popular form.

Who was the author?


    [In Francis Peck's _Catalogue of Discourses in the Time of King James
    II._, No. 226., the name of HENRY CARE is given as the author. A list
    of his other works may be found in Watt's _Bibliotheca_.]

_William Penn's Family._--Can any of your correspondents inform me to whom
his eldest surviving son (William) was married, and also to whom the
children of the said son were married, as well as those of his daughter
Letitia (Mrs. Aubrey), if she had any? This son and daughter were William
Penn's children by his first marriage with Miss Springett.

A. U. C.

    [William Penn, eldest son (of William Penn by Miss Springett), had two
    children, Gulielma Maria, married to Charles Fell, and William Penn of
    the Rocks in Sussex, who by his first wife, Christian Forbes, had a
    daughter and heir, married to Peter Gaskell. Mrs. Aubrey was living in
    1718. Our correspondent may also be referred to Mr. Hepworth Dixon's
    recently published _William Penn, an Historical Biography_.]

_Deal, Dover, and Harwich._--Where do the following lines come from?

 "Deal, Dover, and Harwich,
  The devil gave with his daughter in marriage;
  And, by a codicil to his will,
  He added Helvoet and the Brill."

J. H. L.

    [Francis Grose, in his _Collection of Proverbs_, speaks of them as "A
    satirical squib thrown at the innkeepers of those places, in return for
    the many impositions practised on travellers, as well natives as
    strangers. Equally applicable to most other sea-ports."]

_Author of Broad Stone of Honour._--Who is the author of the _Broad Stone
of Honour_, of which mention is made in the _Guesses at Truth_, 1st series,
p. 230., &c., and in the _Ages of Faith_, p. 236., works of some interest
in reference to the Papal discussions which are raging at present?


    [Kenelm M. Digby is the author of the _Broad Stone of Honour_.]


_Pope Joan._--Can any information be procured as to the origin of the game
called Pope Joan, and (what is of more importance) of the above title,
whether any such personage ever held the keys of St Peter and wore the
tiara? If so, at what period and for what time, and what is known of her
personal history?


    [That _Papissa Joanna_ is merely a fictitious character, is now
    universally acknowledged by the best authorities. "Clearer
    confirmations must be drawn for the history of Pope Joan, who succeeded
    Leo IV. and preceded Benedict III., than many we yet discover, and he
    wants not grounds that doubts it." So thought Sir Thomas Browne, in his
    _Vulgar Errors_, B. vii. Ch. 17. Gibbon, too, rejects it as fabulous.
    "Till the Reformation," he says, "the tale was repeated and believed
    without offence, and Joan's female statue long occupied her place among
    the Popes in the Cathedral of Sienna. She has been annihilated by two
    learned Protestants, Blondel and Bayle; but their brethren were
    scandalized by this equitable and generous criticism. Spanheim and
    L'Enfant attempted to save this poor engine of controversy, and even
    Mosheim condescends to cherish some doubt and suspicion."--_The Decline
    and Fall of the Roman Empire_, chap. xlix. Spanheim's work, _Joanna
    Papissa Restituta_, was printed at Leyden in 1692.]

_The Well o' the World's End._--I am very anxious to find out, whether
there still exists in print (or if it is known to any one now alive) an old
Scotch fairy tale called "The Weary Well at the World's End?" Charles
Kirkpatrick Sharpe, Esq., who is unhappily dead lately, knew the story and
meant to write it down; but he became too infirm to do so, and though many
very old people in the hilly districts of Lammermoor and Roxburghshire
remember parts of it, and knew it in their youth, I cannot find one who
knows it entirely.

L. M. M. R.

    [Some references to the story alluded to by our correspondent will be
    found in Dr. Leyden's valuable introduction to _The Complaynt of
    Scotland_; and the story itself in Chambers's admirable collection of
    Scottish Folk Lore, _Popular Rhymes of Scotland_, p. 236. of the third
    edition, which form vol. vii. of the _Select Writings of Robert

_Sides and Angles._--What is the most simple and least complicated method
of determining the various relations of the sides and angles of the acute
and obtuse-angled triangles, without the aid of trigonometry, construction,
or, in fact, by any method except arithmetic?

F. G. F.

St. Andrew's.

    [The relations of sides and angles cannot be obtained without
    trigonometry in some shape. A very easy work has lately been published
    by Mr. Hemming, in which there is as little as possible of technical

_Meaning of Ratche._--In John Frith's _Antithesis_, published in 1529, he

    "The pope and bishops hunt the wild deer, the fox, and the hare, in
    their closed parks, with great cries, and horns blowing, with hounds
    and _ratches_ running."

I should be glad to have the word _ratches_ satisfactorily explained.

H. W.

    [From a note by Steevens on the line in _King Lear_ (Boswell's
    _Shakspeare_, vol. x. p. 155.), it appears that the late Mr. Hawkins,
    in his notes to _The Return from Parnassus_, p. 237., says, "That a
    _rache_ is a dog that hunts by scent wild beasts, birds, and even
    fishes, and that the female of it is called a _brache_:" and in
    _Magnificence_, an ancient Interlude of Morality, by Skelton, printed
    by Rastell, no date, is the following line:

    "Here is a leyshe of ratches to renne an hare."

In a following note, Mr. Tollet, after saying "What is here said of a
_rache_, might, perhaps, be taken from Holinshed's _Description of
Scotland_, p. 14.," proceeds, "The females of all dogs were once called
_braches_; and Ulitius upon Gratius observes, 'Racha Saxonibus canem
significabat unde Scoti hodie _Rache_ pro cane foemina habent, quod Anglis
est _Brache_.'"]

_"Feast of Reason," &c._--Seeing your correspondents ask where couplets are
to be found, I venture to ask whence comes the line--

 "The feast of reason and the flow of soul."

I have often heard it asked, but never answered.

H. W. D.

    [It will be found in Pope's _Imitations of Horace_, Book ii. Satire i.:

     "There St. John mingles with my friendly bowl
      The feast of reason and the flow of soul."]

_Tu Autem._--In page 25. of "Hertfordshire," in Fuller's _Worthies_, there
is a story of one Alexander Nequam, who, wishing to become a monk of St.
Alban's, wrote thus to the abbot thereof:

    "Si vis, veniam. Sin autem, tu autem."

To which the abbot replied:

    "Si bonus sis, venias. Si Nequam, nequaquam."

Can any of your readers inform me of the meaning of "tu autem" in the first
line? as I have been long puzzled.

This puts me in mind of a form which there was at Ch. Ch., Oxford, on
"gaudy" days. Some junior students went to the "high table" to say a Latin
grace, and when they had finished it, they were dismissed by the Dean
saying "Tu autem;" on which, I remember, there was invariably a smile
pervading the faces of those present, even that of the Dean himself, as no
one seemed to know the meaning of the phrase. I believe that it was in my
time an enigma to all. Can any of your ingenious readers solve me this?

H. C. K.

----Rectory, Hereford.

    [Pegge in his _Anonymiana_, Cent. iv. Sect. 32. says, "At St. John's
    College, Cambridge, a scholar, in my time, read some part of a chapter
    in a Latin Bible; and after he had read a short time, the President, or
    {266} the Fellow that sat in his place cried, _Tu autem_. Some have
    been at a loss for the meaning of this; but it is the beginning of the
    suffrage, which was supposed to follow the reading of the Scripture,
    which the reading scholar was to continue by saying _Miserere mei,
    Domine_. But at last it came to mean no more than to be a cue to the
    reader to desist or give over."]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. iii., pp. 87. 189.)

The inquiry of P., in p. 87., seems to indicate an impression that all the
witnesses to the charter of Hugh Lupus to Chester Abbey were barons of the
Palatinate, but only a few of them were such, the rest being of England

The original barons of the Palatinate were clearly distinguishable by
possession of privileges confirmed to them by a well-known charter of Earl
Ranulph III.; and all the Norman founders of their baronies will be found,
under Cestrescire, in Domesday, as tenants in capite, from the Earl
Palatine, of lordships within the lyme of his county.

_Bigod de Loges_ (one of the subjects of P.'s inquiry) will not bear this
test, unless he was identical with Bigot, Norman lord of the manors
afterwards comprised in Aldford Fee, which is not known to have been the
case. For this last-named Bigot, whose lands descended through the Alfords
to Arderne, reference may be made to the _History of Cheshire_, I. xxix.,
II. 411.

_William Malbanc_, the other subject of inquiry, who has eluded M. J. T.'s
searches, is easily identified. He was the Norman baron of Nantwich, the
Willelmus Malbedeng of the _Domesday Survey_ (vol. i. p. 265. col. 2.), and
the name is also written thus in the copy of H. Lupus's charter referred
to, which was ratified under inspection by Guncelyn de Badlesmere,
Justiciary of Chester in 8 Edw. I.

The charter, with Badlesmere's attestation prefixed, will be found in
Leycester's _Cheshire Antiquities_, p. 109., and in Ormerod's _Hist. of
Cheshire_, vol. i. p. 12. In the latter work, in vol. iii., the inquirer
will also find an account of William Malbedeng or Malbanc, his estates, his
descendant coheirs, and their several subdivisions, extending from p. 217.
to p. 222., under the proper head of Nantwich or _Wich Malbanc_, a still
existing Palatine barony.


Your correspondent M. J. T. says it appears from--

    "_The MS. Catalogue_ of the Norman nobility before the Conquest, that
    Robert and Roger de Loges possessed lordships in the districts of
    Coutances in Normandy."

Will he be so good as to say what _MS. Catalogue_ he refers to? He seems to
speak of _the MS._ _Catalogue_ of Norman nobility as if it were some
well-known public and authentic record.

Q. G.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. iii., p. 186.)

In a recent number of "NOTES AND QUERIES" (which, by the way, I have only
recently become acquainted with) I saw the Queries of your correspondent
G. P. P. upon the above subject, and having some time ago had occasion to
investigate it, I accumulated a mass of notes from various sources,--and
these I send you, rough and unpolished as they are, in the hope that in the
absence of better information, they may prove to be acceptable.

Herodotus (viii. 98.) mentions the existence of a method of communication
among the Persians, by means of horsemen placed at certain distances.

In the Close and Misæ Rolls (_temp. King John et post_) payments are
recorded for nuncii who were charged with the carriage of letters.

In 1481, Edward IV., during his war with Scotland, established horse riders
at _posts_ twenty miles apart, by which letters were conveyed two hundred
miles in two days (Gale's _Hist. Croyland_); and the Scottish Parliament
issued an ordinance for facilitating the expedition of couriers throughout
the kingdom. Carriers of letters also existed in England about this time,
for in a letter from Sir J. Paston, written in 1471, we are informed that
"Courby, the carrier, hath had 40d. for the third hired horse," for a
journey from Norwich to London and back. (Fenn's _Paston Letters_, 4to.
vol. v. p. 73.)

In 1542, letters reached Edinburgh on the fourth day from their despatch
from London. (Sadler's _Letters and Negociations_.)

In 1548, the rate to be charged for post-horse hire was fixed by statute (2
& 3 Edw. VI. cap. 3.) at one penny per mile.

In 1581 (according to Camden), Thomas Randolph was appointed the first
Chief Postmaster of all England.

James I. established (date unknown) the office of Foreign Postmaster, which
was first held by Mathewe le Questor.

In 1631, Charles I. appointed William Frizell and Thomas Witherings (in
reversion) to the sole management of the foreign post-office. And at this
date it seems a regular home post was also carried on, as appears by the
following entry from the Corporation Books of Great Yarmouth:--"1631.
Agreed, June 6, with the Postmaster of Ipswich to have Quarterly 20s. paid
him for carrying and bringing letters to and from London to Yarmouth for
the vse of the Towne."

In 1635, Charles I. issued a proclamation for the establishment of "a
running post or two, to {267} run night and day between Edinburgh and
Scotland and the City of London, to go thither and come back again in six
days:" branch posts were also to be established with all the principal
towns on the road: the rates of postage were fixed at 2d. under 80 miles;
4d. for 140 miles; 6d. beyond; and 8d. to Scotland. This is conclusive
evidence that a regular post-office establishment existed nearly ten years
_before Prideaux had anything to do with the post-office_.

In 1640, a proclamation was issued by the Long Parliament, by which the
offices of Foreign and Inland Postmaster (then held by Witherings) were
sequestrated into the hands of one Philip Burlamachy, a city merchant. Soon
after this we find a Committee of the Commons, with "Master Edmund
Prideaux" for chairman, inquiring into the matter.

In 1644, a resolution of the Commons declared that "Edmund Prideaux, Esq.,
a member of the House," was "constituted master of the posts, messengers,
and couriers."

In 1649 Prideaux established a weekly conveyance to every part of the
kingdom; and also appears to have introduced other judicious reforms and
improvements,--indeed he seems to have been the Rowland Hill of those days;
but he has not the slightest claim to be considered as the "Inventor of the
Post-office." The mistake may have arisen from a misapprehension of the
following statement frown Blackstone: "Prideaux first established a weekly
conveyance of letters into all parts of the nation, _thereby saving to the
public the charge of maintaining postmasters_, to the amount of 7000l. per

I have not been able to obtain any particulars of Prideaux's personal


Jememutha Magna.

_Edmund Prideaux and the First Post-office._--See the Appendix to the
Report of the Secret Committee of the House of Commons on the Detaining and
Opening of Letters at the Post-Office, 1844, which contains copies of
numerous documents furnished by Mr. Lechmere and Sir Francis Palgrave.


    [We avail ourselves of this opportunity of inserting the following
    extract from Mr. Rowland Hill's _Post-Office Reform; its Importance and
    Practicability_, p. 86. of the third edition, published in 1837, as it
    shows clearly the use which Mr. Rowland Hill made of the story in his
    great work of Postage Reform; and that Miss Martineau had clearly no
    authority for fathering the story in question upon that gentleman:--

    "Coleridge tells a story which shows how much the Post-office is open
    to fraud, in consequence of the option as to pre-payment which now
    exists. The story is as follows:--

    'One day, when I had not a shilling which I could spare, I was passing
    by a cottage not far from Keswick, where a letter-carrier was demanding
    a shilling for a letter, which the woman of the house appeared
    unwilling to pay, and at last declined to take. I paid the postage, and
    when the man was out of sight, she told me that the letter was from her
    son, who took that means of letting her know that he was well; the
    letter was _not to be paid for_. It was then opened and found to be

    "This trick is so obvious a one that in all probability it is
    extensively practised."]

[Footnote 1: _Letters, Conversations, and Recollections of S. T.
Coleridge_, vol. ii. p. 114.]

The quotations of your correspondent G. P. P., from Polwhele's _Cornwall_,
relate to the same individual, and a more general construction must, I
think, be put upon the expression "our countryman," than that it inferred a
native of the county. The family of Prideaux was one of great antiquity,
and originated in Cornwall (their first seat being at Prideaux Castle
there), and had estates there in the time of the above Edmund. His father,
Sir Edmund Prideaux, of Netherton (the first baronet), studied the law in
the Inner Temple, where he became very eminent for his skill and learning.
He is stated to have raised a large estate in the counties of Devon and
Cornwall. He married  * * *; secondly, Catherine, daughter of Piers
Edgecombe, of Mount Edgecombe, Esq., by whom he had two sons, Sir Peter his
successor, and Edmund, the subject of your correspondent's Queries, who is
thus described in Prince's _Worthies of Devon_, p. 509.:--

    "This gentleman was bred to the law, and of so great a reputation, as
    well for zeal to religion as skill in the law, it is not strange he was
    chosen a Member of that which was called the Long Parliament, wherein
    he became a very leading man; for, striking in with the prevailing
    party of those times (though he never joined with them in setting upon
    the life of his Sovereign), he grew up to great wealth and dignity. He
    was made Commissioner of the Great Seal [1643. Rushworth, vol. iii. p.
    242.], worth 1500l. a-year and by ordinance of Parliament practised
    within the bar as one of the king's counsel, worth 5000l. per annum.
    After that he was Attorney General, _worth what he pleased to make it_
    [!!], and then _Postmaster General_ ... from all which rich employments
    he acquired a great estate, and among other things purchased the _Abbey
    of Ford_, lying in the Parish of Thorncombe, in Devonshire, where he
    built a noble new house out of the ruins of the old," &c.

Prideaux cannot be called the inventor of the Post-office, although to him
may be attributed the extension of the system. The first inland letter
office, which, however, extended to some of the principal roads only, was
established by Charles I. in 1635, under the direction of Thomas
Witherings, who was superseded in 1640. On the breaking out of the civil
war, great confusion was occasioned in the conduct of the office, and about
that time Prideaux's plan seems to have been conceived. {268} He was
chairman of a committee in 1642 for considering the rates upon inland
letters; and afterwards (1644) appointed Postmaster, in the execution of
which office he first established a weekly conveyance of letters into all
parts of the nation. Prior to this, letters were sent by special
messengers, or postmasters, whose duty it was to supply relays of horses at
a certain mileage. (_Blackstone_, book i. c. 8. s. 3.)

I am unable to discover when Edmund Prideaux died; but it appears that
either he, or one of his descendants, took part in the rising of the Duke
of Monmouth in the West of England, upon which occasion the "great estate"
was found of great service in providing a bribe for Lord Jeffreys. In the
Life of Lord Jeffreys, annexed to the _Western Martyrology; or, Bloody
Assizes_ (5th ed. 266. London, 1705), it is said that "A western
gentleman's purchase came to fifteen or sixteen hundred guineas, which my
Lord Chancellor had." And Rapin, vol. ii. p. 270., upon the authority of
Echard, iii. p. 775., states that in 1685 one Mr. Prideaux, of Ford Abbey,
Somerset, gave Jeffreys 14000l. [probably misprint for 1400l.] "to save his

I think it likely that your correspondent may find further information upon
the subject of this note, in the _Life of Dr. Humphrey Prideaux, Dean of
Norwich_ (born 1648, died 1724), published in 1748.


Eye, March 18. 1851.

Polwhele was clearly wrong in designating Edmund Prideaux, the
Attorney-General, a Cornishman, as he belonged to the family long seated in
Devonshire, and was fourteenth in descent from Hickedon Prideaux, of
Orcharton, in that county, second son of Nicholas, lord of Prideaux, in
Cornwall, who died in 1169.

The four Queries of G. P. P. may be more or less fully answered by
reference to Prince's _Worthies of Devon_, ed. 1810, p. 651.; and an
excellent history of the Post-office in the _Penny Magazine_ for 1834, p.

Is it too much to ask of your correspondent, who writes from Putney under
my initials, that he will be so good as to change his signature? I think
that I have strong reasons for the request, but I will only urge that I was
first in the field, under the designation which he has adopted.[2]

J. D. S.

[Footnote 2: [Would J. D. S. No 1, and J. D. S. No. 2, add the final letter
of their respective names, _h n s y_, or whatever it may be, the difficulty
may probably be avoided. We have now so many correspondents that
coincidence of signature can scarcely be avoided.]]

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. i., p. 103.; Vol. ii., p. 485.)

_Jane_, Countess of Henry Neville, _fifth_ Earl of Westmoreland, was
daughter of SIR ROGER CHOLMLEY, of Kinthorpe and Roxby, co. York. (_Vis.
York. Harl. MS._ 1487. _fol._ 354.) She is often confused with his other
wife, Anne Manners, and also with her own sister, Margaret Gascoigne, both
in the Neville and Cholmley pedigrees as _printed_. (Burke's _Extinct
Baronetage_, art. _Cholmley_, and _Extinct Peerage_, art. _Neville_.) But
while the Manners pedigree in Collins's _Peerage_ (by Longmate, vol. i. p.
433.), as cited by Q. D., removes the former difficulty, that of Gascoigne
is disposed of by the Cholmley pedigree in Harl. MS. above quoted, as well
as by that (though otherwise very incorrect) in Charlton's _Whitby_, book
iii. pp. 290, 291. 313., and by the Gascoigne pedigree in Whitaker's
_Richmondshire_, vol. i. p. 77. Thus we possess _legal and cotemporary_
evidence who JANE, Countess of _Henry_, _fifth_ Earl of Westmoreland,
really was, without any authentic obstacle or unremoveable contradiction to
its reception, viz. that she was a _Cholmley_.

But I conceive your correspondent's identification is _totally_ erroneous.
It is true he only puts an hypothesis on the subject; but this hypothesis
has no solid foundation. In the first place, Henry, fifth Earl of
Westmoreland, died in 1549; and all authorities seem to agree that his
first wife was Anne Manners, and his second Cholmley's daughter. Thus, if
either of his countesses were living in 1585, it must have been the
_latter_, by which means all chance of appropriation is removed from
Manners to Cholmley. But I shall now give reasons for contending that
neither of these ladies was your correspondent's Countess of Westmoreland,
by referring him (2ndly) to Longmate's _Collins's Peerage_, vol. i. p. 96.,
where he will find that _Jane_, daughter of Henry Howard, the talented and
accomplished Earl of Surry, married Charles Neville, _sixth_ Earl of
Westmoreland. He has evidently passed her over, through seeing her called
_Anne_ in the Neville pedigrees: "Anne" and "Jane" being often mutually
misread in old writing, from the cross upon the initial letter of the last

I offer it to your correspondent's consideration, whether his "Jane,
Countess of Westmoreland," was not wife of the said Charles Neville,
_sixth_ Earl of Westmoreland, who was attainted 18 Eliz. (1575-6). His date
is evidently most favourable to this view. It is true the attainder stands
in the way; but if even this affords an obstacle, the next candidate for
appropriation would be Jane _Cholmley_. Assuming, however, that your
correspondent allows this lady as a candidate for the appropriation, her
pedigree corroborates the claim. I have found, by long and minute
observation, that hereditary talent, &c. usually descends by the _mesmeric_
{269} tie of affection and favoritism, from fathers to the eldest daughter,
and from mothers to the eldest son; and the pedigree of _Jane_, Countess of
Charles, _sixth_ Earl of Westmoreland, stands thus:--

  EDWARD STAFFORD, Duke of Buckingham; great,
  good, and accomplished, and fell a victim to envy.==
  _1st Dau._ ELIZABETH, wife of Thomas Howard, third
  Duke of Norfolk.  ==
  _1st Son._ HENRY HOWARD, Earl of Surry, the poet;
  great, good, and accomplished, and fell a victim to
  envy == as physical heir of his mat. grandfather.
  _1st Dau._ JANE, wife of Charles Neville, sixth Earl of
  Westmoreland (and qu. the authoress in question?).

Besides being eldest daughter of the celebrated poet, the said Jane,
Countess of Westmoreland, was sister of Henry Howard, the learned Earl of
Northampton, her father's younger son--(some younger son, like eldest
daughters, generally inheriting, physically, in some prominent feature,
from the father).


       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Ulm Manuscript_ (Vol. iii., pp. 60. 191.).--In addition to the information
supplied by MR. FOSS, it may be mentioned that this manuscript is so called
from having been referred to by Griesbach as the _Codex Ulmensis apud
Gerbert_. This takes us to the _Iter Alemannicum, Italicum et Gallicum_ of
Martin Gerbert, published in 1765, at p. 192. of which work he informs us,
that in the year 1760 this manuscript was preserved at Ulm in the library
of the family of Krafft, which consisted of 6000 volumes, printed and
manuscript. Of its history from this period till it came into Bishop
Butler's hands, I am ignorant. Its reference at present in the British
Museum is _MSS. Add._ 11,852.


_Father Maximilian Hell_ (Vol. iii., p. 167.).--A querist is in conscience
bound to be a respondent; I therefore hasten to tell you that Dr. Watt
(_Biblioth. Britan._ iv. MAGNETISM, ANIMAL) should have written _Hell_
instead of _Hehl_. It was that eminent astronomer, Maximilian _Hell_, who
supposed that magnets affected the human frame, and, at first, approved of
Mesmer's views. The latter was at Vienna in 1774; and perhaps got some
parts of his theory from Father Hell, of whom he was afterwards jealous,
and therefore very abusive. The life of Hell in Dr. Aikin's _General
Biography_ is an unsatisfactory compilation drawn up by Mr. W. Johnston, to
whom we are indebted for the current barbarism _so-called_. In that account
there is not one word on Hell's _Treatise on Arti__ficial Magnets_, Vienna,
1763; in which the germ of animal magnetism may probably be found.


_Meaning of "strained" as used by Shakspeare_ (Vol. iii., p. 185.).--The
context of the passage quoted by L. S. explains the sense in which
Shakspeare used the word "strain'd:"

 "_Portia._ Then _must_ the Jew be merciful.
  _Shylock._ On what _compulsion_ must I? tell me that.
  _Portia._ The quality of mercy is not strain'd," &c.

that is, there is nothing forced, nothing of compulsion in the quality of

Johnson gives: "To strain, to force, to constrain."

Q. D.

L. S. will find his difficulty solved by Johnson's Dictionary (a work to
which he himself refers), if he compares the following quotation with
Portia's reply to Shylock:--

 "He talks and plays with Fatima, but his mirth
  Is forced and strained," &c.


    [We have also to thank, for replying to this Query, our correspondents
    R. F., R. T. G. H., P. K., J. H. KERSHAW, C. M., Y., E. N. W., C. D.
    LAMONT, and also MR. SNOW, who remarks that "actresses rarely commence
    this speech satisfactorily, or give, or seem to feel, the point of
    contrast between the _must_ and _no must_, the _compulsion_ and _no
    compulsion_. In fact, the whole of it is usually mouthed out, without
    much reference to Shylock or the play, as if it had been learned by
    rote from a school speech-book. Hazlitt says, in his _Characters of
    Shakspeare's Plays_, 'The speech about mercy is very well, but there
    are a thousand finer ones in Shakspeare.'"]

_Headings of Chapters in English Bibles_ (Vol. iii., p. 141.).--The
summaries of the contents of each chapter, as found in the authorised
editions of our English Bible, were prefixed by Miles Smith, bishop of
Gloucester, one of the original translators, who also wrote the preface,
and, in conjunction with Bishop Bilson, finally reviewed the whole work.
Your correspondent will find full answers to his other queries in
Stackhouse and Tomlins; in Johnson's _History of English Translations_,
&c.; and in T. H. Horne's _Introduction_.


       *       *       *       *       *



The author of _The History of the Church of Rome to the end of the
Episcopate of Damasus_, A.D. 384, which has just been published by Messrs.
Longman, well remarks, "that he is not aware that there is any account of
the Church of Rome, framed on the simple and obvious principle of merely
collecting and arranging the testimony of history with regard to facts, and
so presented to the reader as that he should leave a right to believe that
when he has read what is before him, he {270} has learnt all that is to
known. This is strange, considering the points at issue, and the extent,
duration, and intensity of the controversies which have been carried on
between that Church and the rest of Christendom." It is indeed strange, and
it happens fortunately, looking at the all-important question which now
agitates the public mind, that the subject should have engaged for some
years the attention of a learned, acute, and laborious scholar like Mr.
Shepherd, so that he is enabled to put forth the result of his inquiries
upon this interesting topic at this moment. Mr. Shepherd's book is indeed a
startling one: and when we tell our readers that he "has proved, or, to say
the least, has given such indications as will lead to the proof that some
documents which have been quoted as authorities in the History of the Early
Christian Church, are neither genuine nor authentic;" that he has pretty
well resolved St. Cyprian into a purely mythic personage; and shown that
all the letters in his works passed between imagined or imaginary
correspondents,--we think we are justified in pronouncing his _History of
the Church of Rome_ a work calculated to excite the deepest interest in all
who peruse it (and by the omission of all long quotations in the learned
languages, it is adapted for the perusal of all), to exercise great
influence on the public mind, and to awaken a host of endeavours to combat
and overthrow arguments which appear to us, however, to be irresistible.

The Council of the Shakspeare Society has just issued to the members the
first volume for the present year. It contains _Two Historical Plays on the
Life and Reign of Queen Elizabeth, by Thomas Heywood_, which are very ably
edited, with an Introduction and Notes, by Mr. Collier; and we have no
doubt will be very acceptable; first, from the interest of the plays
themselves, the second of which appears to have been extremely popular;
and, lastly, as a further instalment towards a complete collection of
Heywood's dramatic works.

Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson will sell on Tuesday and Wednesday next a
valuable portion of the Library of a gentleman, including the late Charles
Mathews' copy of the Second Shakspeare; a valuable series of works on
Annuities, &c.; and another on the History and Antiquities of London.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_Supplement on the Doctrine and Discipline of the Greek
Church._ We characterised Mr. Appleyard's interesting little volume,
entitled, _The Greek Church_, as historical rather than doctrinal. The
title of this Supplement shows that it expressly supplies the very material
in which the original work was deficient.--_Archæologia Cambrensis, New
Series, No. VI._ A very good number of this record of the Antiquities of
Wales and its Marches, and in which are commenced two series of papers of
great interest to the Principality: one on the Architectural Antiquities of
Monmouthshire, by Mr. Freeman; the other on the Poems of Taliessin, by Mr.

CATALOGUES RECEIVED.--W. Brown's (46. High Holborn) Catalogue Part 52. of
Valuable Second-hand Books, Ancient and Modern;--Cole's (15. Great
Turnstile, Holborn) List No. 33. of very Cheap Books; B. Quaritch's (16.
Castle Street, Leicester Square) Catalogue No. 27. of Antiquarian,
Historical, Heraldic, Numismatic, and Topographical Books; Charles Skeet's
(21. King William Street, Strand) List No. 2. of Miscellaneous Books just

       *       *       *       *       *


  WOOD'S ATHENÆ, by Bliss. Vol. 3. 4to.



  MEDE'S WORKS, by Worthington. 1664. Fol. Vol. 1.


  WARBURTON'S (BISHOP) WORKS. 4to. edition. Vol. 1.

  A MIRROR FOR MATHEMATICS, by Robert Tanner, Gent. London, 1587.

*** Letters stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

_We are reluctantly compelled, by want of room, to postpone until next
week_ MR. SINGER'S _Paper on a passage in Shakspeare's_ Anthony and
Cleopatra; _one by_ MR. DAWSON TURNER _on the Authors of the Rolliad; and
many other interesting communications._

CROMWELL'S DEVLINGS WITH THE DEVIL. S. H. H. _is thanked for the curious
MS. he has forwarded upon this subject, which shall appear next week, when
the original shall be carefully returned. We should be glad to see the
other paper referred to by_ S. H. H.

A. L. _is thanked. The only reason for the non-appearance of any of his
communications is, that they were not sent_ separately, _and we have not
had time to make a selection. We take this opportunity of again begging
correspondents who write to us on several subjects to oblige us by writing
on separate papers; and_ (_which does not refer to_ A. L.) _by writing_
plainly, _more particularly_ proper names _and_ quotations.

K. R. H. M. _Received._

NOCAB _has our very best thanks for his kind letter, and his endeavours to
increase our circulation. We are endeavouring to arrange for a permanent
enlargement of our paper, and propose shortly to make use of_ NOCAB'S
_communication and valuable hint._

SING'S _reminder, that Saturday last, the 29th of March, was "the centenary
anniversary of the death of Captain Coram, the worthy founder of the
Foundling," reached us too late for us to call attention to it._

MR. A. J. DUNKIN'S _communication on the subject of his proposed_ Monumenta
Anglicana _shall have our early attention._

KERRIENSIS _is thanked for several interesting communications of which we
propose to make an early use._

_Will_ L. M. M. R. _send his address? The book he wants has been reported
to the publisher._

REPLIES RECEIVED.--_Mathew's Med. Passage--San Grail--Nettle in. &c.--The
Tanthony--Treatise by Engelbert--Circulation of the Blood--Sir A.
Chadwick--Rowley Powley--Langholme Fair--Epitaph on a Turncoat--Gig
Hill--Damasked Linen--Endeavour--Meaning of Strained--Rack--Daughter of
James II.--Snail-eating--Munchausen's Travels--Mitre, &c.--Cloven
Tongues--"Going the whole hog"--Expression in Milton--Haybands in
Seals--King John at Lincoln--Handbell--Vineyards--Mazer Wood._

VOLS. I. _and_ II., _each with very copious Index, may still be had, price
9s. 6d. each._

NOTES AND QUERIES _may be procured, by order, of all Booksellers and
Newsvenders. It is published at noon on Friday, so that our country
Subscribers ought not to experience any difficulty in procuring it
regularly. Many of the country Booksellers, &c. are, probably, not yet
aware of this arrangement, which will enable them to receive_ NOTES AND
QUERIES _in their Saturday parcels._

_All communications for the Editor of_ NOTES AND QUERIES _should be
addressed to the care of_ MR. BELL, No. 186. Fleet Street.

_Errata._--P. 236, Col. 2. l. 26, for _Hanse town_ read _hamlet_; p. 238,
col. 1. l. 27, for "_cr_atus" read "_n_atus"; p. 217, col. 1. l. 29. for
"Cou_n_t" read "Cou_r_t"; p. 250, col. 1. l. 4, for "_T_edley" read
"_S_edley," col. 2. l. 23, for "tant_us_" read "tant_as_."


       *       *       *       *       *

On the 31st of March was commenced the Publication of a


In Monthly Volumes, each containing Three Hundred and Twenty Pages, and
from Thirty to a Hundred Engravings,

Price Half-a-Crown, Beautifully Bound.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Age in which we live is essentially of a _practical_ character, and the
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In carrying out their undertaking it will be the endeavour of the
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in the volumes of the "NATIONAL ILLUSTRATED LIBRARY."

       *       *       *       *       *

The following are the Volumes which appeared on the 31st of March,




       *       *       *       *       *

Office of the ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS, 198. Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, No. VII., price 2s. 6d., imperial 4to.

DETAILS of GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, measured and drawn from existing Examples,
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       *       *       *       *       *

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A HISTORY of the ARTICLES of RELIGION; to which is added a SERIES of
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       *       *       *       *       *


YEAST: a PROBLEM. Reprinted, with Additions and Alterations, from FRASER'S

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GREGORY OF NAZIANZUM: a Contribution to the Ecclesiastical History of the
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       *       *       *       *       *

THE PHILOSOPHY OF LIVING. By HERBERT MAYO, M.D., late Senior Surgeon to the
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       *       *       *       *       *

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       *       *       *       *       *

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       *       *       *       *       *


By the same Author,



       *       *       *       *       *


The present reprint was proposed by the editor--a master in a large public
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that which is here offered.

       *       *       *       *       *

BRAMPTON RECTORY; or, the LESSON OF LIFE. Second Edition. 8s. 6d.

By the same Author, 8s. 6d.


London: JOHN W. PARKER, West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

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    The Doctrine of the Syllogism.
    Is Mesmerism true?
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People and Parliament of England in 1395, 18 RIC. II. Now for the first
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Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford.


       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, in One large Volume, 8vo. price 14s. cloth.

THE HISTORY of the CHURCH of ROME, to the End of the Episcopate of Damasus,
A.D. 384. By EDWARD JOHN SHEPHERD, A.M. Rector of Luddesdown.


       *       *       *       *       *


This day is published, in 2 vo's, 8vo.,

"England under the House of Hanover, illustrated by the Caricatures and
Satires of the Day."

RICHARD BENTLEY, New Burlington Street, (Publisher in Ordinary to Her

       *       *       *       *       *

This day, crown 8vo cloth, price 4s. 6d.

EXHIBITION. With a Map and 300 Engravings on Wood.

1½d. To be completed in 12 Numbers.

London: H. G. CLARKE & CO., 4. Exeter Change.

       *       *       *       *       *



Payment of premiums may be occasionally suspended without forfeiting the
policy, on a new and valuable plan, adopted by this society only, as fully
detailed in the prospectus.

A. SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary and Secretary; Author of "Industrial
Investment and Emigration; being a Second Edition of a Treatise on Benefit
Building Societies, &c." Price 10s. 6d.

London: J. W. PARKER, West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, April 5. 1851.

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