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Title: Prairie Farmer, Vol. 56: No. 3, January 19, 1884. - A Weekly Journal for the Farm, Orchard and Fireside
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Prairie Farmer, Vol. 56: No. 3, January 19, 1884. - A Weekly Journal for the Farm, Orchard and Fireside" ***

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A Weekly Journal for





[Transcriber's Note: The Table of Contents was originally located on
page 40 of the periodical. It has been moved here for ease of use.]


AGRICULTURE--The Corn Root Worm, Page 33; Biographical Sketch of Patrick
Barry, 33; Compiled Correspondence, 33; Illinois Tile-Makers Convention
Report, 34; Farmers Advice, 35; Cisterns on the farm, 35; Field and
Furrow Items, 35.

LIVE STOCK--Iowa Wool-Men, Page 36; Polled Cattle-Breeders, 36; Merino
Sheep-Breeders, 36; Cattle Diseases, 36; The Horse and His Treatment
36-37; Cost of Pork on 1883 Corn, 37.

VETERINARY--Grease, So-Called, Page 37; Foul in the Foot, 37; Founder,
37; Question Answered, 37.

THE DAIRY--Curing Cheese, Page 37; Items, 37.

HORTICULTURE--Southern Ills. Hort. Society, Page 38; Notes on Current
Topics, 38; Pear Blight, 38; Treatment of Tree Wound, 38; The Tomato
Pack of 1883, 38; Sweating Apples, 39; Prunings Items, 39.

FLORICULTURE--Smilax and its Uses, Page 39.

EDITORIAL--Will You? Page 40; Items, 40; The Wealth of the Nation, 40;
Contagious Animal Disease, 40, 41; Iowa State Fair, 41; Still Another
Fat Stock Show, 41; Questions Answered, 41; Letter from Champaign, 41;
Wayside Notes, 41.

POULTRY NOTES--Chicken Chat, Page 42; Business Still Running, 42.

THE APIARY--The Best Hive, Page 42.

SCIENTIFIC--Some Gossip About Darwin, Page 43.

HOUSEHOLD--"Going up Head" (poetry), Page 44; Too Fat to Marry, 44;
Ornaments for Homes, 44.

YOUNG FOLKS--Chat About a Bear, Page 45; A Fairy Story, by Little
Johnnie, 45.

LITERATURE--For Those Who Fail (poetry), Page 46; A Singular
Philosopher, 46.

HUMOROUS--The Donkey's Dream, Page 47; Tom Typo 47; Courtship of a
Vassar Girl, 47; Items, 47.


MARKETS--Page 48.


EDITOR PRAIRIE FARMER--I write you in regard to the corn question. I
would like to know if angle-worms damage corn.

Eight years ago I came to the conclusion that I could raise double the
number of bushels of corn that I was then raising. I then commenced
experimenting on a small scale. I succeeded very well for the first
three or four years. I got so that I could raise over ninety bushels per
acre. In one year I got a few pounds over 100 bushels per acre. Three
years ago my crop began to fail, and has continued to fail up to the
present year, with the same treatment. Last year it was so bad that I
concluded to examine the roots of the corn plants. I found both
angle-worms and grubs in the roots. This year I went into a thorough
examination and found nothing there but angle-worms, with a wonderful
increase. They were right at the end of the stalk where the roots were
thick, but the worms thicker.

The corn at first seems to do very well, but long before the grain gets
ripe the leaves begin to get dry and the stalks commence falling. The
consequence is that over one-half the corn is loose on the cob and the
ears very short. I am entirely headed in the corn line. Is it the
angle-worms? If so, what is the remedy? I plant my corn every year on
the same ground. I allow no weeds to grow in my cornfield. Farmers can
not afford to raise weeds. I remove all weeds and put corn in their

I have plowed my land for the next year's crop of corn and put on twenty
loads of manure to the acre and plowed it under. I have no faith in
planting the ground next year unless I can destroy the worms that I call
angle-worms. I have consulted several of my brother farmers, and they
say that the angle-worms never destroy a crop of corn.

I thought last year that my seed corn was poor and run out, so I went to
Chicago and got Sibley's "Pride of the North," but that was no better.

If you will kindly inform me how to remedy this looseness of the kernel
I will agree to show you how 100 bushels of corn can be raised on one
acre every good corn year.

        DESPLAINES, ILL., Jan. 2.

       *       *       *       *       *

We sent this communication to Professor Forbes, State Entomologist and
received the following reply:

EDITOR PRAIRIE FARMER--There can be hardly a shadow of a doubt that the
injury which your correspondent so graphically describes is due to the
corn root-worm (Diabrotica longicornis), a full account of which will be
found in my report for 1882, published last November.

The clue to his whole difficulty lies in the sentence, "I plant my corn
every year on the same ground." As the beetles from which the root-worms
descend lay their eggs in corn fields in autumn, and as these eggs do
not hatch until after corn planting in the following spring, a simple
change of crops for a single year, inevitably starves the entire
generation to death in the ground.

I inclose a slip, giving a brief account of this most grievous pest; but
the article in my last report already referred to will be found more

    S. A. FORBES.
        NORMAL, ILL., January 3.

P.S.--You will probably remember that I published a paper on this insect
in THE PRAIRIE FARMER for December 30, 1882.

       *       *       *       *       *

The following is the description referred to:

_From the "Crop Report" for 1882._

"The corn-root worm, in the form in which it affects the roots of corn,
is a slender white grub, not thicker than a pin, from one fourth to
three-eighths of an inch in length, with a small brown head, and six
very short legs. It commences its attack in May or June, usually at some
distance from the stalk, towards which it eats its way beneath the
epidermis, killing the root as fast as it proceeds. Late in July or
early in August it transforms in the ground near the base of the hill,
changing into a white pupa, about fifteen-hundredths of an inch long and
two-thirds that width, looking somewhat like an adult beetle, but with
the wings and wing-covers rudimentary, and with the legs closely drawn
up against the body. A few days later it emerges as a perfect insect,
about one-fifth of an inch in length, varying in color from pale
greenish-brown to bright grass-green, and usually without spots or
markings of any kind. The beetle climbs up the stalk, living on fallen
pollen and upon the silk at the tip of the ear until the latter dies,
when a few of the beetles creep down between the husks, and feed upon
the corn itself, while others resort for food to the pollen of such
weeds in the field as are at that time in blossom. In September and
October the eggs are laid in the ground upon or about the roots of the
corn, and most of the beetles soon after disappear from the field. They
may ordinarily be found upon the late blooming plants, feeding as usual
upon the pollen of the flowers, and also to some extent upon molds and
other fungi, and upon decaying vegetation. There can be no further doubt
that the insect is single-brooded, that it hibernates in the egg as a
rule, and that this does not hatch until after the ground has been
plowed and planted to corn in the spring probably in May or June.

"Although the adult beetles, when numerous, do some harm by eating the
silk before the kernels are fertilized by the pollen, and also destroy
occasionally a few kernels in the tip of the ear, yet the principal
injury is done by the larva in its attack upon the roots. The extent of
this injury depends not only upon the number of the worms, but also upon
the soil and weather and the general condition of the crop, being worst
on high land and in dry weather. Under specially unfavorable
circumstances the loss due to the insect may amount to from one-fourth
to one-half or even three-fourths of the crop; but when the conditions
are generally favorable, it rarely amounts to more than ten or twenty
per cent, and frequently even to less. Although the roots penetrated by
the larvæ die and decay, thrifty corn will throw out new ones to replace
those lost. The hold of the stalk upon the ground is often so weakened
that a slight wind is sufficient to prostrate the corn. Under these
circumstances it will often throw out new roots from the joints above
the ground, thus rallying to a certain extent against serious injury.

"As the result of numerous observations and comparisons, it is clearly
to be seen that little or no mischief is done except in fields that have
been in corn during the year or two preceding, and a frequent change of
crops is therefore a complete preventive. Beyond this, the life history
of the insect gives us little hope of fighting it effectually except at
too great expense, as the eggs and worms are scattered and hidden in the
ground, and the perfect beetle is widely dispersed throughout the

       *       *       *       *       *

California has about eighty thousand tons of wheat to ship to Europe.
Besides this a large amount is already stowed in ships.

       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration: Patrick Barry]

Our portrait this week is of Patrick Barry, Esq., the noted nurseryman
and horticulturist of Rochester, N. Y. Mr. Barry was born near Belfast,
Ireland, in 1816. His father was a small farmer, but he gave the boy a
good education, and at eighteen he was appointed to teach in one of the
national schools. At the age of twenty he resigned this position, and
came to America, where he began clerking in the Linnæan nurseries, at
Flushing, L. I. During his stay of four years here he mastered the
principles of the nursery business. In 1840 he moved to Rochester, and
forming a partnership with Mr. Ellwanger, started the famous Mount Hope
Nurseries. They began on a tract of but seven acres. In 1852 he issued
the "Fruit Garden," which is to this day a standard work among
horticulturists. Previous to this he had written largely for the
agricultural and horticultural press. In 1852 he also began editing the
Horticulturist, then owned by Mr. James Vick. Mr. Barry's second great
work, and the one involving most time and labor was the Catalogue of the
American Pomological Society.

Mr. Barry has long been President of the Western New York Horticultural
Society. He is also a member of the Board of Control of the New York
Experiment Station. He has served several terms in the city council of
Rochester and in the Board of Supervisors of the country. Mr. Barry is
an active business man and besides his great labor in conducting the
nursery affairs, he discharges the duties of President of many corporate
enterprises in which he has large financial interests. Mr. Barry was
happily married in 1847, and the amiable sharer of his hardships and his
successes is still living.


HANCOCK CO., Dec. 31.--Weather very disagreeable; snow six inches deep,
and from rain and sleet and thaw and freeze, has formed a hard crust, so
as to make bad traveling--in the roads icy and slippery. To-day cloudy,
damp and cool. A few days ago the mercury reached 8 degrees below zero,
the lowest of the season. It is very hard on stock, and many of the
cattle are without shelter, as usual. Accept New Year greetings for all

       *       *       *       *       *

MILLS CO., MO., Jan. 8.--Since the first of January we have had hard
winter weather. An old weather prophet says we are to have just such
weather for forty days. I sincerely hope not. On Friday night, January
4th and 5th, all the thermometers commonly used by farmers went clear
down out of sight. As they only mark about 30 degrees below zero it was
uncertain how cold it really was. Unsheltered stock suffered terribly. A
few farmers were caught without wood, and suffered from the storm in
securing a supply. We have had five days of snow so that there is a
heavy coat all over. A. J. L.

       *       *       *       *       *

ST. LOUIS, MO., January 13.--Advices from Mobile say the late cold snap
caused immense damage in that section. The loss to the orange groves is
estimated at nearly a $1,000,000, and the value of vegetables killed in
Mobile county alone will reach the same sum. Great damage was also done
to orange groves in Florida, but many orange growers profited by the
Signal Service warning and built fires in their groves, and thus saved
their trees. News from the Michigan peach belt is that the fruits are

       *       *       *       *       *

Strawberries are sold in New York city at fifteen cents each.

       *       *       *       *       *



Farmers, Write for Your Paper.

Illinois Tile-Makers.

The Illinois State Tile-Makers' Convention at Springfield, last week,
was more largely attended than in any previous year since the
association was formed. Nearly one hundred joined the association.

The convention was welcomed to the city by Governor Hamilton in an
appropriate address in which he expressed his deep sympathy with and
interest in all the manufacturing enterprises that are giving employment
to the people and adding wealth to the State. He announced himself as in
favor of protection and encouragement to the manufacturing interests. He
thought the tile men were greatly adding to the wealth and
productiveness of Illinois, and that they were also indirectly improving
the health of the people.

The President's address was brief but full of information and good
sense. He pointed out at length the improvements in tile kilns, and in
various appliances, which have been made in recent years, and declared
that valuable as these all are, they can not make up for the lack of
skill and experience. He believed the increased interest in terra cotta,
and in useful ornamental and out tiling points to the great source of
supply as the timber of the country decreases in quantity. The
drain-tile manufacture was simply the beginning of an era of skillful
clay working, which would not only add greatly to the fertility of the
soil, but to the means of the beauty and endurance in numerous forms of
building. Of the statistics of the business, he said the latest
information is that there are in the State 600 factories, built at an
average cost of $3,000 each, employing about 5,400 men seven months each
year, who receive about $250,000 and their board. The total annual
capacity of these factories he estimates at 56,100 miles annually. He
estimates the amount invested in the industry, including the value of
tile already laid, at $5,000,000, and the increased value of land
drained at $10,000,000.

The Secretary's report gave the general condition of the society. In
1879 it was composed of forty-five members; in 1880, of thirty-five; in
1881, of twenty-eight; in 1882, fifty-three; in 1883, of eighty-three,
and in 1884, of eighty-six. The first meetings of the association were
necessarily crude, the programme having been prepared after the
association met. Now, however, they were in working harness, and met
with a regularly prepared programme. The proceedings of the meetings and
a summary of the papers read and discussed, are now published in the
report of the State Board of Agriculture.

The treasurer, John McCabe, Esq., of Rushville, made his report of which
the following is the summary:

Amount on hand at last report                  $29 35
Received from members last year                 82 00
                                              $111 35
Paid out last year                              87 50
    Balance in the treasury                   $ 23 85

These reports were followed by an essay by Mr. C. G. Elliott, which is
of so much merit that we give it in full deferring a further report of
proceedings until next week.


To speak of our successes rather than our mistakes, is far more
agreeable to ourselves and also to others. We all take pride in giving
our experience in any work when we have been successful, but our errors
and mistakes we often carefully hide from public gaze. The transactions
of our industrial conventions are largely made up of the successful
parts of the experiences of members. Our tile manufacturers fail to
speak of their losses in correcting mistakes the number of kilns they
have rebuilt, the number of tile they weekly commit to the waste pile,
the percentage of good and poor tile in each kiln, and many other things
that your humble servant will probably never suspect until he attempts
to manufacture tile.

A similar statement may be made with reference to drainage mistakes. How
many dry weather drains do we hear mentioned in our conventions, or see
described in our newspapers. By such drains, I mean those which in
favorable seasons so operate as to permit the land to produce a heavy
crop--one worth publishing--while in wet years, merely a total loss
results. Cases of such drainage can be numbered by the score. How many
miles of drain tile have been taken up and relaid during the past year
because of some mistake in plan, size of tile, or execution of the work?
Much might be said of drainage mistakes in a general way, but it is
proposed in this paper to treat the subject in a specific and practical
manner. It may be encouraging to remember that it is only by comparing
success with mistakes that we make progress in any valuable science or
art. Great skill and success rest upon a foundation of corrected


We might more properly call this the cause of many mistakes. "Knowledge
is power," says the old adage, and we might add that knowledge in
drainage is success. This knowledge may be obtained in three ways:
First, from reliable books; second, by inquiring of others who have had
experience; third, by our own experience. The first is of prime
importance to the beginner, for in books are found statements of the
general principles and philosophy of drainage, together with the best
methods and practice known. The second is often unreliable, for the
reason that the error of one is often copied by another and becomes wide
spread before it is detected. The third, though valuable is costly, and
discouraging to the learner. Gleanings from all of these sources will,
perhaps, give the most complete satisfaction.

Tile drainage began to be practiced in my own neighborhood about seven
years ago. Those who were about to begin knew nothing about drainage,
except from hearsay knowledge that had crept into the community. Not a
single book upon the subject was consulted or even inquired for. Even
now they are as rare in farmers libraries as the classic poets. Farmer
A. wished to drain and consulted farmer B., who had put in some tile the
year before. Did he think it paid? Yes. What kind of tile did he use and
how was the work done? So A. planned and did his work in accordance with
information obtained from B. Neighbor C. followed A., and so the work
spread. It is now found that mistakes were made in the beginning which
were handed from one to the other, until now, no alternative remains but
to remove the whole work, and no little trouble and expense. This case
is but one out of many which might be stated illustrating the lack of
information at the beginning of drainage work. My observation upon this
point has been that those have availed themselves of information given
in books and papers upon drainage matters made fewer mistakes and did
better work than those who relied upon the general wave of progress to
push them along in the footsteps of their nearest neighbor. The theory,
as well as the art, of drainage should be studied, and all knowledge
adapted to the peculiarities of each case.


A mistake often made by the novice is, that at first, drains are located
without reference to the future drainage of other parts of the farm.
Drains are put in as experiments, very much as we would plant a new
variety of fruit or grain, expecting that probably the chances are
against their success. Subsequently, when plans for more extended
drainage are made, the drains already in operation were found to poorly
serve the desired purpose.

In order to guard against this mistake, have faith in drainage. Put it
down on the whitest page of your memorandum, and with your best pen and
ink, that drainage will pay, and the fewer mistakes made about it the
better it will pay. Put it down that the time will come when you will
drain all of your wet land, and make your plans accordingly. Many times
have I heard this objection to locating a drain so as to benefit a
certain field, "O no; I'll never drain that field. It's all right as it
is. If I can only get this wet over here dry I shall be satisfied." In
two years this same farmer was planning how he could drain the rejected
field, and regretting that he had not made provision for it from the
beginning. I have in mind several miles of tile that will be taken up
during the coming season and relaid with reference to the drainage of
all land having a natural slope in that direction.


Many of the drains first put in are at the head of the water shed
instead of at the lower part or outlet. They discharge improperly and
fail to fit into a more thorough system, where plans for better drainage
are laid out.

To avoid this error, begin at the outlet and work with reference to
ultimately draining the whole section naturally sloping toward this
outlet. If a surface ditch is necessary, make it. If tile can be used,
lay them, even if only a fraction of the entire work is done each year.
Drain laterally toward the main as it is carried upward. The outlay at
first, rod for rod, will be greater, but the final cost will be less,
and yearly profits greater.

I have in mind several cases of unsatisfactory drainage growing out of a
desire to avoid difficulty and expense in making a sufficient outlet.
Among them may be named the following: Putting a drain across one side
of a pond because sufficient depth can not be had to admit of its being
run through the center. Placing drains each side of a slough, parallel
to its center line, leaving the center undrained. Draining cultivated
fields and allowing the water to discharge upon land occupying a lower
level. All of these are make-shifts for the purpose of avoiding the
expense of a good outlet.

There is in this connection a difficulty which can not be overlooked,
one which is beyond the control of the individual farmer, and that is,
when the drainage section is owned by two or more parties. The
adjustment of such cases has occupied the attention of our legislators,
and some progress has been made in framing laws to meet the case, yet
many difficulties remain unprovided for. If all parties agree to accept
such awards and assessments as a commission may make, then the matter of
drainage outlets can be satisfactorily adjusted, but if any party is
disposed to resist, the desired drainage can be practically defeated. I
may, at present, be justified in saying that where only a few neighbors
are concerned, it is a mistake to attempt to use the law at all. Arrange
the matter by mutual agreement or by leaving it to disinterested men to


No mistake has become apparent sooner than this. The following
observations will account for this, and also aid in correcting it. The
whole area of land which naturally discharges toward the drain is not
always taken into account. It is generally thought that land lying at
some distance from the drain, though sloping toward it, does not affect
the capacity required for the drain, whereas in times of heavy rains,
when drains are taxed to their utmost, water flows from those more
distant parts over the surface to the ground acted upon by the tile
drain. We must then provide for the drainage not only of land contiguous
to the drains but for an additional amount of water coming from
adjoining slopes.

Another popular error is that the diameter of the tile is the measure of
its capacity, whereas the grade upon which it is laid is as important as
the size of the tile. The extreme porosity of many of our soils, and the
lack of thorough lateral drainage is another thing by reason of which
main drains become over-taxed, simply because drainage water is not held
in check by close soils, or distributed by lateral drains, but is
brought in large quantities over the surface to the drain line, and must
be taken away in a short time or injury is done to the land. In making
mains or sub-mains it is better to err in making them too large than too


We expect too much from a single line of tile. We often see a line of
tile put through a fifteen or twenty acre field with the expectation
that the field will be drained, and thanks to our tractable soil, and
the magic influence of tile, a great work is done for the field. It is,
however, the dry weather drains previously alluded to. Put in the
lateral drains so that the whole flat will come under the direct
influence of tile, and you will have a garden spot instead of a field
periodically flooded. Your sleep will not then be disturbed by fears
that the morning will reveal your tiled field covered with water, and
your corn crop on the verge of ruin. We often see a single line laid
through a pond containing from one half to three acres. Ponds with such
drainage always get flooded. Put in an abundance of laterals and the
difficulty is overcome.

I am glad to say that the tendency now among farmers who have practiced
random drainage is toward more thorough work in this direction. The loss
of an occasional crop soon demonstrates in favor of more thorough work.


Farmers have been too much under the rule of professional ditchers.
Having no well defined ideas of good drainage work, they have left the
matter largely to the judgment, or rather the cupidity of the ditcher
and the layer. There are many first-class, conscientious workmen, but it
is to be regretted that the average ditcher does work far below the
standard of excellence. If by some magic means the conditions of many of
the drains in our State could be spread out before us in open view, it
would be a wonder to this convention that tile drainage has wrought out
such favorable results as it has. We would see tile laid on the siphon
plan, good and poor joints, faulty connections, ditches crooked enough
to baffle the sagacious mole should he attempt to follow the line.
Patience would scarcely hold out to enumerate the exasperating defects
of much of our drainage work. Nothing can overcome the egotism and
self-confidence of the average ditcher except the constant supervision
of the employer. Such work is so soon covered, and errors placed beyond
immediate detection that nothing else will suffice. To guard against
such mistakes, know what work you want and how you want it done, and
then look after it yourself or employ some one in whom you have
confidence to superintend it. When any mistake is guarded against, from
beginning to end, the work will not be too well done. The cut-and-cover,
hurry-scurry methods of doing things, common on some Western farms, will
not do in drainage work. Carefulness in regard to every detail is the
only safe rule to adopt.


The farmers of Illinois have, in many sections, been avoiding the main
question in the drainage of our rich prairies, and that is the
improvement of the natural water courses so that they will carry off the
drainage water of sections for which they afford outlets. Every feasible
plan and device has been used to circumvent the forces of nature and
relieve valuable farm lands from surplus water. In the flat sections of
our State nothing will serve this purpose but the deepening of our large
sloughs by constructing capacious open ditches. Our land can not be
properly drained without them. They must be of ample depth and width,
and well made in every respect. No problem connected with the drainage
interests of our State should, at present, receive more careful
attention than this. Nature, has, in most cases, marked out the line for
work, and says, "let man enlarge and complete for his undivided use
according to his strength and skill." When such work is done, the demand
for tile to supplement the drainage thus made possible will be
unprecedented. The drainage of our roads will be facilitated, and the
greatest difficulty thus far encountered in the drainage of our flat
prairies will be overcome. Much has been attempted in this direction in
some portions of the State, but many open ditches are too shallow, too
small, and too carelessly made to serve the desired purpose.

In pointing out some of the mistakes made in drainage, I am well aware
that there are differences of opinion as to what may be properly
considered a mistake. The aim of drainage is to fit the wet land of the
entire farm for the successful cultivation of all the field crops at the
least expense consistent with thoroughness. Now, if experiments must be
tried by tiling here and there, and afterward take the tile up and
remold the whole work, there is a loss which, were it not for the large
profit resulting from the use of tile, would be disastrous.

Should a Board of Public Works build several bridges of insufficient
capacity in order to find out the necessary dimensions and strength of
one which will serve their purpose, we should at once regard them
incompetent and wasteful. I know of tile which have been taken up at
three different times, larger tile being used each time. This farmer
discards the use of lateral drains and rests his success upon single
lines of large tile. He will probably be disappointed in this and,
perhaps, finally hit upon the correct method. Would it not have been the
part of wisdom to have obtained some reliable information upon that
matter at first from books, from inquiring of others of longer
experience, from a competent engineer, or from all of these sources?
Anything which needlessly adds to the expense, or detracts from the
efficiency of the work, should be regarded as a mistake.

As a summary of what has been said regarding mistakes and how to avoid
them, I append here a few


1. Become informed upon the theory and best methods known and used.

2. Do not literally copy the methods of others, but carefully adapt them
to your own case.

3. Provide good outlets and large mains.

4. Have faith in good tile and thorough work.

5. Study economy and efficiency in locating drains.

6. In difficult cases, or where you have doubt about the success of your
plans, submit the case to a good engineer before expending money or

7. Employ good help by the day, and work it under a competent
superintendent, rather than job out the work by the rod.

8. Drain as you would plant fruit trees--for the future as well as the

I have been prosy and practical enough and now have used my allotted
time and space. It may not be wholly out of place to further tax your
time and patience, and ask you to lift your eyes from taking a critical
view of defective drains, muddy ditches, and unattractive detail work,
and look at the result of careful and thorough labor. As the years come
and go with their changing seasons, your drained fields are ever your
friends, always cheering you with a bountiful harvest, always answering
to every industrious touch you may bestow upon them. "No excellence
without labor," says the scholar to the discouraged student. "No
excellence without labor," says the soil to the farmer, as he drains and
plows and digs, and so we all learn that success in dealing with nature
is brought about by thorough and honest work.

Our enthusiasm scarcely knows bounds when we see that by our drainage
work the apparently obstinate soil is made to reflect the sunlight from
a covering of golden grain; when gardens and orchards bloom and yield
fruit where once the willows dipped their drooping branches in the slimy
fluid below, and frogs regaled the passer-by with their festive songs.
Roses now twine over the rural cottage and send their fragrance into the
wholesome air, where once the beaver reared his rude dwelling, and
disease lurked in every breath, ready to seize his unsuspecting victim.

Think you that these changes can be wrought without earnest and careful
effort? I have but little sympathy with the glittering generalities and
highly colored pictures of success in industrial pursuits, held before
the public gaze by unpractical but well meaning public teachers. We need
the dissemination of ideas of thoroughness and the knowledge necessary
to put those ideas into practical use in order that the farmers of
Illinois may make the fewest possible mistakes in drainage.


Farmers get plenty of advice. Were we able to work as easy and as well
as the advice generally given to us would seem to indicate we could how
easy and independent our occupation would become. In no other line of
business is advice so freely given, and so much blame attached because
the advice is not followed.

The great trouble is that nearly everybody imagines they know how to
farm. Although these same people may never have been practical farmers,
they yet seem to think that anybody can farm, and, of course, they know
as much about it as any one, and can tell at least how it ought to be

Theoretical farming is always very fine--more so than any other calling.
Very few believe in theory in other branches in business. As a rule, to
be successful in other occupations, a long training is necessary; step
by step must one go until each detail is learned. And it is only by
industry, experience, and hard work that these are fully mastered.
Advice is offered sparingly, because it is known that experience is the
only true guide. But in farming theories are supposed to take the place
of experience, and men who have very little, if any, practical knowledge
can tell us how to farm. The fact is there is hardly a business or
occupation that practically requires more study and experience than
farming. A practical farmer, who makes his farm and farm work a study,
learns something every day, and unless he is willing to learn not only
by his own experience, but by that of others, he will soon discover that
he is falling behind.

Such a man is able to discriminate between the practical experience of
one and the theory of the other. If new plans or new methods are
presented, he can, in some degree, judge whether they are in any way
practical, and if they are, he is willing to give them a trial. He knows
that what might prove just the right thing to plant in one section of
country, under certain conditions, and in some soils would, under a
different climate and soil, result far from satisfactory. The large per
cent of this kind of real practical knowledge can only be gained by

Whenever we meet a man who will not learn, we can not help but conclude
that he will never make a successful farmer. We want to learn, too, not
only by our successes, but by our failures. If we try a new plan and
fail, we want to be able to know why we failed--just as much as to know
why we succeeded.

One great trouble with us in learning is that we are too apt to keep in
mind our successes and forget the failures. This is the great fault of
theoretical farming. If by a combination of favorable conditions success
is obtained, it is given out as a fact--no exception being given or
allowed for the very favorable conditions under which the method was
tried. Such things may rightly be compared to the many specifics given
to cure the various ills of life. A remedy is tried which, under
favorable conditions, effects a cure, and forthwith the cure is given
out as a specific. Others, with the same complaint but under different
conditions, try the same remedy and fail to receive the least benefit.
No mention is made of these failures, and, of course, others are induced
to give the remedy a trial. For this reason it is always interesting to
hear of failures as well as successes, provided the real cause can be

        N. J. SHEPHERD.


There is hardly any one thing on a well-regulated farm so much needed as
a cistern near the kitchen door, so the farmer's wife will have to go
but a little distance for water, and no man knows how much is used in a
farmer's kitchen, unless he carries it for his wife for six months or a
year, and if he has to carry it a hundred yards or so from the spring,
he will wonder what in the world his wife does with so much water.

The cistern should be a large one and hold not less than 200 barrels,
and well built, that is, walled up with brick and scientifically
plastered. All of the pipes from the roof should lead into one hopper,
and one pipe leading from the bottom of the hopper (under ground is the
best) into the cistern. In the bottom of the hopper should be fitted a
piece of woven wire, which can be readily taken out and put in again;
the meshes of the wire should not be larger than one-eighth of an inch.
This piece of woven wire should never be in its place except when water
is running into the cistern, when it will serve as a strainer to keep
leaves or trash of any kind from running into the cistern. A waste-water
pipe should be attached to the down pipe (all of the down pipes should
lead into one) which leads into the hopper, to waste all the water that
comes from the roof until the water is perfectly clear and free from
leaves or trash of any kind; then the waste-water pipe should be taken
off and a pipe of proper length slipped onto the down pipe conducting
the water, pure and clean, into the hopper. But before letting the water
into the hopper, the piece of woven wire should be put in its place in
the bottom of the hopper, and after the rain is over it should be taken
out and hung up in a dry place until wanted again, and the waste-water
pipe put on. If the piece of woven wire is left in the hopper the meshes
will get filled up, and the hopper will fill with leaves and trash of
all kinds and run over, and no water get into the cistern--and if it
does it will not be pure. By this arrangement only pure water will run
into the cistern; but even then it ought to be cleaned out very fall or
early in the spring. Farmers will find a cistern in their house lots or
inside the barn a great convenience--but the one near the kitchen is of
the greatest importance because the men will not carry water if they can
help it, and the farmer's wife, if she has any spunk, will insist upon
the water being carried for her or raise the roof off the house, and I
don't blame her--the hair on the top of my head is very thin--and

        E. F. C.


Mass. Ploughman: Farm accounts, even when kept in the most simple form,
not only afford great satisfaction, but they do much to aid the farmer
in his efforts to success. If at the end of the season he is able to
strike the balance, and thus learn the cost of his principal crops, he
is in a position to correctly judge what crops will promise the most
profit another year.

The Farm Economist has this to say in regard to marketing corn. While it
is contrary to general opinion, it is nevertheless true, as facts and
figures are capable of proving: "Farmers in discussing their declining
markets should remember that every bushel of corn sold in the form of
whisky cuts off the sale of ten bushels in the form of meat. It might be
well to consider this in discussing how the market for farm products can
be improved." This same paper further remarks, "Where's the sense in a
farmer growling because he is not represented in the government when he
won't go to a convention and see that he is represented. Quit your
growling and do your duty. One good vote in the primaries or in the
convention is worth 1,757,362 growls afterward."

The Wisconsin Tobacco Reporter states that the new phase to the Sumatra
question has brought out considerable discussion among dealers in the
Edgerton market and that the prevailing impression appears to be that
even if the recent decision be upheld, under the jugglery by which
Sumatra is run into the country, prices for 1883 Wisconsin leaf will not
be materially affected, as it can not entirely supplant its use and
there will be a good demand for all our product. The editor adds: The
scarecrow argument will doubtless be used by some buyers in bearing the
market, but we are inclined to look upon it more as a bugaboo than many
others, whatever the effect may be on future crops. We know of no good
reason why 1883 Wisconsin should sell for lower prices than have ruled
thus far this season and the report from Eastern markets seem to warrant
this view.

A. B. Allen, in N. Y. Tribune: My cistern is about five feet in diameter
and five feet deep. After cleaning it out in spring, I put about one
bushel of sand in the bottom, and then let the rain-water come in. This
keeps the water sweet and clear for a whole year. I have tried charcoal
and various things for this purpose, but find pure clear sand best of
all. It must not have other soil mixed with it, or any vegetable matter.
The kind I use is white, and very like such as is found at the sea
shore. Of course the roof end of the pipe should have wire gauze
fastened over it so that no foul stuff can be carried down, and the
eaves-troughs must be kept clean, the roof and chimneys also, and never
be painted, or the latter even whitewashed. The sand is an excellent
absorber of even the finest of foul stuff, and this is the reason, in
addition to its own purity, of its keeping the water so free from
generating the smell of ammonia.

Peoria Transcript: During some of the comparatively idle days of winter,
the farmer may combine pleasure with profit by hitching up, taking his
family, and driving to some one of his successful farm neighbors for a
friendly visit. Such an act may be looked upon by the man-of-toil as a
poor excuse to get out of doing a day's work, but we venture that he who
tries the experiment once will be very apt to repeat it as often as time
or opportunity will justify. In our neighborhood, and we presume the
same condition of affairs exists in nearly every locality, there are
farmers who have lived within a mile or two of each other for years, who
hardly know their neighbors from a stranger when they meet upon the
public highway or at town meeting, and as for going to the house,
nothing short of death in the family or some event of great importance
will ever bring them into the friendly relations which should exist
between neighboring farmers.

A New Jersey correspondent of the Rural New Yorker writes: My clear
water carp pond covers an area of about three-fourths of an acre, and is
located about eighty feet below springs in the hillside, which furnish a
never-failing supply of pure, clear water. The normal temperature of
these springs, where they empty into the pond, varies but little
according to season, but maintains an average of fifty degrees, Fah.
Several times through the summer I found the water in the pond indicated
an average of 80 degrees, Fah. The pond is so constructed that the water
is constantly drawn from the bottom, thus keeping the surface at this
high temperature. About one-half the pond is covered with mud to the
depth of two feet or more--an essential in all carp ponds for
hibernating. A limited supply of pure German carp fingerlings to place
in the pond was sent me by Prof. S. F. Baird, United States Commissioner
of Fish and Fisheries, Washington, D. C., and placed therein on April
6th last. No food was given besides that which grew in the pond. I saw
them at rare intervals during the summer, and was agreeably surprised,
when I drew the pond November 16th last past, to find that they had
grown to be sixteen inches in length, and a pair weighed eight pounds.

       *       *       *       *       *


On our 268th page appears the advertisement of the New Improved Monarch
Lightning Sawing Machine, manufactured by the Monarch Mfg. Co., 163
Randolph. St., Chicago. The result of long experience in the manufacture
of implements for cutting up wood is the superior and valuable machine
which is advertised in our paper.

Such of our readers who live in a timbered district, and who need such a
machine, should send for their large illustrated free catalogue. This
company is the largest and most successful corporation in this city
engaged in manufacturing one man power drag saws. The Monarch Lightning
Sawing Machine has been sold all over the Western States, and always
gives satisfaction. It is a first-class firm, thoroughly reliable, and
their machine is of superior excellence.--Farm, Field and Fireside,
January, 1884.

See their advertisement on another page of this issue.

       *       *       *       *       *




are sent any where on trial to operate against all other presses, the
customer keeping the one that suits best.

Order on trial, address for circular and location of Western and
Southern Storehouses and Agents.

TAKE NOTICE.--As parties infringing our patents falsely claim premiums
and superiority over Dederick's Reversible Perpetual Press. Now,
therefore, I offer and guarantee as follows:

FIRST. That baling Hay with One Horse, Dederick's Press will bale to the
solidity required to load a grain car, twice as fast as the presses in
question, and with greater ease to both horse and man at that.

SECOND. That Dederick's Press operated by One Horse will bale faster and
more compact than the presses in question operated by Two Horses, and
with greater ease to both man and beast.

THIRD. That there is not a single point or feature of the two presses
wherein Dederick's is not the superior and most desirable.

Dederick Press will be sent any where on this guarantee, on trial at
Dederick's risk and cost.


       *       *       *       *       *


Hay Knife!



Awarded "FIRST ORDER OF Merit" at Melbourne Exhibition, 1880.

Was awarded the FIRST PREMIUM at the International Exhibition in
Philadelphia, 1876, and accepted by the Judges as SUPERIOR TO ANY OTHER

It is the BEST KNIFE in the _world_ to cut _fine feed_ from bale, to
cut down _mow_ or _stack_, to cut _corn-stalks_ for feed, to cut _peat_,
or for ditching in marshes, and has no equal for cutting ensilage from
the silo. TRY IT.


Manufactured only by
HIRAM HOLT & CO., East Wilton, Me., U.S.A.

_For sale by Hardware Merchants and the trade generally_

       *       *       *       *       *



Guaranteed to load more Hay or Straw in a box car than any other, and
bale at a less cost per ton. Send for circular and price list.
Manufactured by the Chicago Hay Press Co., Nos. 3354 to 3358 State St.,
Chicago. Take cable car to factory. Mention this paper.

       *       *       *       *       *

Sawing Made Easy

Monarch Lightning Sawing Machine!

Sent on 30 Days test Trial.

A Great Saving of Labor & Money.


A boy 16 years old can saw logs FAST and EASY. MILES MURRAY, Portage,
Mich. writes, "Am much pleased with the MONARCH LIGHTNING SAWING
MACHINE. I sawed off a 30-inch log in 2 minutes." For sawing logs into
suitable lengths for family stove-wood, and all sorts of log-cutting, it
is peerless and unrivaled. Illustrated Catalogue, FREE. AGENTS WANTED.
Mention this paper. Address MONARCH MANUFACTURING CO., 163 N. Randolph
St., Chicago, Ill.

       *       *       *       *       *


2 TON WAGON SCALE, $40. 3 TON, $50.
4 Ton $60, Beam Box Included.

240 lb. FARMER'S SCALE, $5.

The "Little Detective," 1/4 oz. to 25 lb. $3.




40 lb. Anvil and Kit of Tools. $10.

Farmers save time and money doing odd jobs.

Blowers, Anvils, Vices & Other Articles


       *       *       *       *       *



is simple, perfect, and cheap; the BEST FEED COOKER; the only dumping
boiler; empties its kettle in a minute. OVER 5,000 IN USE; Cook your
corn and potatoes, and save one-half the cost of pork. Send for circular.
D. R. SPERRY & CO., Batavia, Illinois.

       *       *       *       *       *



A Ton per Hour. Run by two men and one team. Loads 10 to 15 tons in car.

Send for descriptive circular with prices, to GEHRT & CO., 216, 218
and 220 Maine St., Quincy, Ill.

       *       *       *       *       *

REMEMBER _that $2.00 pays for_ THE PRAIRIE FARMER _from this date to
January 1, 1884; $2.00 pays for it from this date to January 1, 1885.
For $2.00 you get it for one year and a copy of_ THE PRAIRIE FARMER
COUNTY MAP OF THE UNITED STATES, FREE! _This is the most liberal offer
ever made by any first-class weekly agricultural paper in this country._

       *       *       *       *       *



Stockmen, Write for Your Paper.

Iowa Wool Men.

The Iowa Wool-Growers' Association met at Des Moines last week. The
attendance was light. The general sentiment expressed was that sheep
growing was profitable in Iowa, if the dogs could be got rid of. The
Legislature will be importuned to abolish the curs. The session the last
evening was devoted to the tariff on wool. The petition of the Ohio
sheep-growers, presented to Congress, asking a restoration of the tariff
law of 1867 on wool, was read and unanimously accepted. Officers for the
ensuing year were elected as follows: S. P. McNeil, Gordon Grove,
President; J. C. Robinson, Albia, Samuel Russell, West Grove, and A. N.
Stewart, Grove Station, Vice-Presidents; A. J. Blakely, Grinnell,

Polled Cattle-Breeders.

Twenty-seven head of Galloway and Angus cattle, belonging to A. B.
Matthews, Kansas City, were sold at auction at Des Moines, Iowa, January
9th, at prices ranging from $235 to $610. The sale aggregated $10,425,
or $386 per head. In the evening of the same day some twenty-five polled
cattle-breeders met and organized a State association. An address was
read by Abner Graves, of Dow City, in which the breed was duly extolled.
An interesting discussion followed, in the course of which it was stated
that the polled breeds have two anatomical peculiarities in common with
the American bison, indicating a close relation to, or possible descent
from the buffalo family. The officers elected were: President, Abner
Graves, of Dow City; Vice-Presidents, Messrs. Bryan, of Montezuma, D. J.
Moore, of Dunlop, and Charles Farwell, of Montezuma; Secretary and
Treasurer, H. G. Gue, of Des Moines. Liberal subscriptions were made to
the articles of incorporation which were formed inside the organization,
after the meeting adjourned.

Merino Sheep Breeders.

The sixth annual meeting of the Northern Illinois Merino Sheep Breeders'
Association was held at Elgin, January 9th. The meeting was well
attended and enthusiastic. George E. Peck presided. The annual report of
Secretary Vandercook showed the association to be in a growing
condition. The discussion of the day was mainly on the tariff question.
A communication from Columbus Delano, President of the National
Wool-Growers Association was read, asking for the co-operation of the
society in a move upon Congress for the restoration of duties on
imported wools as they were established by the act of 1867 met with a
hearty reception. Thomas McD. Richards delivered an interesting address
on wool-growing and the merino as a mutton sheep. He argued that a
prevailing idea to the effect that good mutton could not come from
fine-wool sheep was entirely erroneous. Touching on the tariff question
he said the past year had been an unprofitable one to mere wool-growers,
and that sheep had been unsalable at paying prices. The removal of the
duty on wool had paralyzed the industry, and the tariff must be
restored. There was an abundance of competition among the wool-growers
of our own land without compelling them to compete with the stockmen of
South America and Australia. The farmers had not clamored for a removal
of the duty on wool. If the tariff was not restored the wool interests
of the country would be ruined. Already legislation had lowered the
price of wool several cents, and had depreciated the value of sheep at
least $1 per head. The tariff was also dilated upon by Col. John S.
Wilcox, of Elgin, Daniel Kelley, of Wheaton, and Asa H. Crary. The
conclusion arrived at was that energetic and united action for the
restoration of the duty was the thing desired. V. P. Richmond read an
interesting essay on "Merinos; Their Characteristics and Attributes."
The annual election of officers resulted as follows: President, George
E. Peck, Geneva; Vice-Presidents, Thomas McD. Richards, Woodstock, and
Daniel Kelley, Wheaton; Secretary and Treasurer, W. C. Vandercook,
Cherry Valley. It was decided to hold the association's annual public
sheep-shearing at Richmond, McHenry county, April 29 and 30, and C. R.
Lawson, L. H. Smith, and A. S. Peck were designated a committee to
represent the association at the annual sheep-shearing of the Wisconsin

Cattle Disease.

The House committee on agriculture last week discussed in a general way
the subject of pleuro pneumonia in cattle. Mr. Loring, Commissioner of
Agriculture, expressed his views upon the subject in a short speech. Mr.
Grinnell, of Iowa, chairman of the committee appointed by the convention
of cattle men, in Chicago, to visit Washington to influence Legislation
in reference to diseased cattle, was present. It was arranged that a
sub-committee, consisting of Congressmen Hatch, Dibrell, Williams,
Winans, Wilson, and Ochiltree, should meet the representatives of the
cattle interests at the Agricultural Department. Pleuro-pneumonia among
cattle will be the first subject considered. The House committee on
agriculture will report a bill at an early day.

The assistant Secretary of the Treasury has transmitted to the House the
report of the cattle commission, consisting of James Law, E. F. Thayer,
and J. H. Sanders, for the past year. The commission recommended that
the National Government prevent the shipment northward, out of the area
infected with Texas fever, of all cattle whatsoever, excepting from the
beginning of November to the beginning of March. Special attention is
invited by the Assistant Secretary to the recommendation of the
commission that the Secretary of the Treasury be empowered to order the
slaughter and safe disposal of all imported herds that may be found
infected on their arrival in the United States, or may develop a
dangerous or contagious disease during quarantine; and that he be also
empowered to have all ruminants (other than cattle) and all swine
imported into the United States, subjected to inspection by veterinary
surgeons, and if necessary to prevent the spread of contagious diseases,
slaughtered or submitted to quarantine until they shall be considered
uninfected; and that an appropriation of $1,500,000 be made to defray
the expenses of preventing a further spread of the lung plague among
cattle in this country, and for stamping out the plague now existing. A
supplemental report of the majority of commission, submitted by Law and
Thayer, and of a later date than the first report is also submitted.
This report deals especially with the inadequacy to the end sought to be
accomplished of the inspection of cattle at ports of export, and
recommends that such inspection and guarantee be delayed. Their reason
for doubting the adequacy of the inspection at ports of exports is that
neither lung plague nor Texas fever can be certainly detected by such
examination, because those diseases pass through an average stage of
incubation for thirty days, during which it is impossible for the most
accomplished expert to detect the presence of the germ in the system.
The result would be, if such an inspection were the only thing relied
upon, that cattle which had been exposed to infection in the stock yards
several days before inspection would pass that inspection, but three
weeks later, when they arrived at a foreign port, would show marked
symptoms of the disease. This result destroys absolutely the efficacy of
the certificates of inspection as to guarantees to foreign imported
cattle. The report closes with the statement that so long as the
infected districts in this country can not be secluded, the landing of
infected cattle in England from this country can not be prevented, and
so long as American cattle show these diseases on their arrival in
England we can hope for no modification of the present restrictions that
country places against American cattle.

       *       *       *       *       *

At the conference between House sub-committee on agriculture and the
Chicago convention committee a general discussion on contagious diseases
among cattle was indulged in. The committee of cattle men, in answer to
the inquiries of representatives, said diseases existed in Delaware, the
District of Columbia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Connecticut, New
York, and possibly in other places. In New York a few counties are
reported infected.

Mr. Hunt, of New Jersey, said if Congress would appropriate an adequate
amount payable to the order of the authorities of the different States
and protect New Jersey for six months from the importation of diseased
cattle, the State in that time would stamp out pleuro-pneumonia in its

Dr. Law, of the Cattle Commission of the Treasury Department, said the
disease was undoubtedly the result of importation. He said that with
plenty of money and a Federal law it could be eradicated in twelve
months. New York City had at one time stamped it out in three months. He
advocated the burning of buildings where the disease occurred.

Judge Carey, of Wyoming, gave the history of the disease, saying it was
like Asiatic cholera spreading through Europe and reaching New York
forty years ago. It existed on the continent of Europe, in Great
Britain, Australia, New Zealand, and this country. He said $100,000,000
was invested in the cattle business of the United States.

Representative Hatch said that Mr. Singleton, of Illinois, had offered
$1,000 reward for an animal afflicted with pleuro-pneumonia, but no one
had accepted.

Several members of the cattle committee at once offered to show the
disease to any one doubting its existence.

Representative Weller gave notice that he would offer a bill
appropriating $10,000,000 by the Government for suppressing contagious
diseases among cattle, to be distributed among the States and
Territories in the ratio of representation in Congress, provided that
each State appropriated a sum equal to the amount given by the

The legislation proposed is to make the shipment of cattle known to be
diseased a penal offense; to establish a cattle bureau in the Department
of Agriculture; increase the power of the Commissioner of Agriculture;
provide funds for an elaborate investigation of the diseases of cattle;
and provide an appropriation to purchase diseased cattle so they can be
destroyed. An appropriation will be asked the first year of $500,000.



First, as regards food. The horse is naturally a wild animal and
therefore, though domesticated, he demands such food as nature would
provide for him. But man seems to forget this. Nature's food would be
largely of grass. It is true that when domesticated and put to hard work
he needs some food of a more concentrated and highly nutritious nature
than grass; but while labor may necessitate grain, the health of his
system yet demands a liberal allowance of grass. In direct opposition to
this many farmers keep their horses off pasture while they are at work,
which comprises almost the entire season of green pasture. I have
frequently heard farmers say that their horses did best during the
spring and summer, if kept in the stable at night. I can only say that I
have found the very opposite to be true and I believe I have carefully
and faithfully tested the matter. I have found that when the horses were
allowed the range of a blue grass pasture at night, they endured work
the best because they digested their grain and hay better, and good
digestion made good appetites. In fact, I consider pasture the best food
and the best medicine a horse can be given. If his coat is rough, if he
is stiff and lifeless, if he is losing flesh and strength, turn him on
pasture and he will soon grow better.

Some grasses make far better pasture than others. All in all, I consider
blue grass the best. It comes earliest in the spring, and while very
palatable and easily digested, seems to possess more substance than
other grasses. Next I would place timothy. Clover is good medicine for a
sick horse, but because of its action on the salivary glands is apt to
make work horses "slobber" at certain seasons.

For winter, hay is provided. But how is it provided in a majority of
cases? The grass is cut out of season; is cured negligently, very likely
is exposed to rain; and then piled up to mold and rot. A few tarpaulins
to put over the cocks in case of rain, and barracks or mow to protect
and preserve the hay would give the horse good hay, and be one of the
very best of investments. It should be remembered that the digestive
organs of none other of our farm animals are so easily deranged as those
of the horse. Musty, moldy hay is the moving cause of much disease. The
man who can not provide a good mow should sell his horses to some farmer
who can manage better.

Though blue grass is the best for pasture, timothy is the best for hay.
Clover makes better hay than blue grass. Corn fodder has substance, and
pound for pound contains about two-thirds as much nutriment as hay. But
it is not good forage for the horse. Where hay is procurable corn
fodder should never be fed.

I am convinced that the great majority of farmers do nor feed their
horses enough forage. I know of farmers who do not feed hay at all when
their horses are at work, which is more than half the year. Grain is fed
exclusively. Yet they wonder why their horses lose flesh and have rough
coats. Feeding a horse all grain is like feeding a man all meat. The
food is so oily and difficult of digestion that it soon deranges the
digestive organs. The horse should have all the hay he wishes to eat, at
all seasons of the year. This brings me to another error in his

When at work the horse should have at least ninety minutes for each
meal. My observation convinces me that a large number of farmers do not
give him this much time. Their reason for neglecting to do so is, that
it would be a loss of time. But the very opposite of this is the case.
Time is gained. The horse has opportunity to eat slowly, which is
essential to complete digestion; can eat all he wishes; and has time to
rest after eating, giving the organs of digestion a chance to work. Give
your horse an hour and a half to eat his noon-day meal, at least, and at
the end of the season you will find that by so doing you have gained
time. He may not have walked before the plow and harrow so many hours,
but he has stepped faster and pulled more energetically.

Another error is the feeding of too much grain. Some farmers have grain
in the feeding troughs all the time during the spring and summer. The
horse is sated. This manner may do for a hog, whose only business is to
lie around, grunt, and put on fat; but for a horse it will not do. A
horse should never be given all the grain he will eat. At every meal he
should clean out his box, and then be ready to eat hay for at least
fifteen minutes.

Another error is in confining the grain feed almost altogether to corn.
Corn is a heavy, gross diet. It contains a large proportion of oil, and
tends to produce lymph and fat, which are inimical to health, and
destructive of vigor and endurance. Oats is a much better food; yet it
is very rarely fed in the South, and not half of the farmers of the
North feed it. Corn heats the blood, and on this account should not be
fed in hot weather. Oats is a lighter, easier diet, does not heat the
blood, and makes muscle, rather than fat. All in all, oats is the most
economical food, at least for horses at work in hot weather.

One more error which I shall notice in feeding is the giving of too much
dry food. The horse does best upon moist food, or that which has a large
percentage of water in its composition. Carrots, turnips, beets,
pumpkins, etc., may be given in small quantities with decided advantage,
especially in the winter. In summer the hay should be sprinkled with
water, and the oats soaked. This will not only make the food more
palatable and easily digested, but will obviate the necessity of
watering after meals. Many object to watering after the horse has eaten,
because the fluid carries the grain into the intestines where it can not
be digested. But if grain and forage are dampened, the horse will not
require watering after a meal. He will rarely drink if water is offered
him, and the moisture will aid digestion. This is surely better and more
humane than to give a horse dry food and then work him for six or seven
hours in the hot sun, afterward, without any drink.

Of the quality of water given to the horse there is not much to condemn.
He generally gets better water than the hog, or sheep, because he is
very fastidious in this matter and will not drink foul water unless
driven to do so by dire necessity. But I believe that three times is not
often enough to water a horse at work in hot weather, though this is the
common and time honored practice. The stomach of the horse is
small--very small in proportion to the size of his body. When he has
labored in summer for half a day his thirst is intense, and when he is
permitted to slake it he drinks too much, producing really serious
disorders. No valid objection can be urged against watering five times
per day. The arguments are all in its favor.

The errors in stabling are fully as grievous as any we have noticed. I
have lately written of the evils of lack of light and proper ventilation
in these columns, and also discussed the problem of currying in various
phases, so shall not repeat here what I have heretofore written. One of
the other evils of stable management often allowed, is the accumulation
of manure. It is not within the scope of this article to notice the evil
the neglect to save manure works to the farm and the farmer. But that
the accumulation of the manure in the stable is a hurt to the horse, no
sensibly reasoning person can doubt. Its fermentation gives off
obnoxious gases which pollute and poison the air the horse is
compelled to breathe, and thus in turn poison the animal's blood. This
is a more fruitful cause of disease than is generally supposed. The
gases prove injurious to the eye, and when we consider the accumulation
of manure and the exclusion of light, we are not apt to wonder much at
the prevalence of blindness among horses. The manure should be cleaned
out in the morning, at noon, and again at night. Use sawdust or straw
liberally for bedding. It will absorb the urine, and as soon as foul,
should be removed to the compost heap with the dung, where it will soon
be converted into fine, excellent manure.

Another thing that deserves attention is the stable floor. I
unhesitatingly say that a composition of clay and fine gravel is best.
Pavement is the worst, and planks are next. The clay and gravel should
be put in just moist enough to pack solidly. Stamp till very firm and
then allow to dry and harden for a week. The stable floor should be kept
perfectly level. Do not make the horse stand in a strained, unnatural
position. The stall should be large enough for him to move around--at
least six feet wide. Narrow stalls are a nuisance but very common.



About three weeks ago the "Man of the Prairie" wanted to know how many
pounds of pork a bushel of corn would make this year. As I wanted to
know the same thing I have weighed my hogs every week and also the corn
I fed them, and for the benefit of your readers I will give the results:

December 10--15 hogs, weight 4,130
    "    17--"   "      "    4,280   ate 960 lbs Corn.
    "    24--"   "      "    4,410   "   864      "
    "    31--"   "      "    4,572   "   816      "

This gives a gain, in twenty-one days, of 442 lbs, and they ate in that
time 2,640 lbs., or 47-1/7 bu. corn.

The corn was planted about the eighth of May; was the large white
variety; is quite loose on the cob, and a good many of the ears are
mouldy. A common bushel basket holds of it in ear 35 lbs. The hogs were
fed the corn in ear twice a day, and had all the water they wanted to
drink. This gives 9-62/165 lbs. pork to the bushel. At the present price
of pork ($5.25) it would make the corn worth about 49-1/2 cts. per

    G. W. POWESS.

P.S. The weight of corn given is its weight shelled, as it shells out 55
lbs from 80 lbs. in ear.

    G. F. P.


Grease, So-Called.

This ailment occurs sometimes in the fore feet, but oftener in the hind
feet; and though neither contagious nor epizootic, it not unfrequently
appears about one time or within a brief period, on most or all of the
horses in a stable. It essentially consists in a stoppage of the normal
secretions of the skin, which is beneficially provided for maintaining a
soft condition of the skin of the heel, and preventing chapping and
excoriation; and it usually develops itself in redness, dryness, and
scurfiness of the skin; but in bad or prolonged cases, it is accompanied
with deep cracks, an ichorous discharge, more or less lameness, and even
great ulceration, and considerable fungus growth; and in the worst cases
it spreads athwart all the heel, extends on the fetlock, or ascends the
leg, and is accompanied with extensive swelling and a general oozing
discharge, of a peculiar strong, disagreeable odor.

Most of the causes of grease are referable to bad management, especially
in regard to great and sudden changes in the exterior temperature of the
heels. The feet of the horse may be alternately heated by the bedding
and cooled by draft from the open stable door; or they may first be made
hot and sensitive by the irritating action of the urine and filth on the
stable floor, and then violently reacted on by the cold breezes of the
open air, or they may be moist and reeking when the horse is led out to
work, and then chilled for a long period by the slow evaporation of the
moisture from them amid the clods and soil of the field; or they may be
warm and even perspiring with the labor of the day, and next plunged
into a stream or washed with cold water, and then allowed to dry partly
in the open air and partly in the stable; and in many of these ways, or
of any others which occasion sudden changes of temperature in the heels,
especially when those changes are accompanied or aggravated by the
irritating action of filth, grease is exceedingly liable to be induced.
Want of exercise, high feeding, and whatever tends to accumulate or to
stagnate the normal greasy secretion in the skin of the heels, also
operate, in some degree, as causes. By mere good management and by
avoiding these known causes, horse owners might prevent the appearance
of this disease altogether.

In the early, dry, scurfy stage of grease, the heels may be well cleaned
with soft soap and water, and afterwards thoroughly dried, and then
treated with a dilution of Goulard's extract--one part to eight parts of
water, or one part with six parts of lard oil. In the mildest form of
the stage of cracks and ichorous discharge, after cleansing, some drying
powder, such as equal quantities of white lead and putty (impure
protoxide of zinc), may be applied, or simply the mixture of Goulard's
extract with lard oil may be continued. In the virulent form of cracks,
accompanied with ulceration, the heels ought to be daily washed clean
with warm water, and afterwards bathed with a mild astringent lotion,
and every morning and evening thinly poulticed or coated with carbolized
ointment; and the whole system ought to be acted on by alteratives, by
nightly bran mash, and, if the animal be in full condition, with a dose
of purgative medicine. In the worst and most extensively spread cases,
poultices of a very cooling kind, particularly poultices of scraped
carrots or scraped turnips, ought to be used day and night, both for the
sake of their own action, and as preparatives to the action of the
astringent application; and the whole course of treatment ought to aim
at the abatement of the inflammatory action, previous to the stopping of
the discharge. Nothing tends so much to prevent grease and swelling of
the legs as frequent hand rubbing and cleansing the heels carefully as
soon as a horse comes in from exercise or work. In inveterate cases of
grease, where the disease appears to have become habitual, in some
degree, a run at grass, when in season, is the only remedy. If a dry
paddock is available, where a horse can be sheltered in bad weather, it
will be found extremely convenient; as in such circumstances, he may
perform his usual labor, and at the same time be kept free from the

Foul in the Foot.

This name is given to a disease in cattle, which presents a resemblance
to foot rot in sheep, but is different from this. It appears to be
always occasioned by the neglect and aggravation of wounds and ulcers
originating in mechanical injury--particularly in the insinuating of
pieces of stone, splinters of wood, etc., between the claws of the hoof,
or in the wearing, splitting, or bruising of the horn, and consequent
abrasion of the sensible foot; by walking for an undue length of time,
or a long distance upon gravelly or flinty roads, or other hard and
eroding surfaces. It is sometimes ascribed, indeed, to a wet state of
the pasture; but moisture merely predisposes to it, by softening the
hoof and diminishing its power of resisting mechanical injury.

The ulcers of foul in the foot usually occur about the coronet and
extend under the hoof, causing much inflammatory action, very great
pain, and more or less separation of the hoof; but they often originate
in uneven pressure upon the sole, and rise upward from a crack between
the claws, and are principally or wholly confined to one side or claw of
the foot. A fetid purulent discharge proceeds from the ulcers, and a
sinus may sometimes be discovered by means of a probe to descend from
the coronet beneath the hoof. The affected animal is excessively lame,
and may possibly suffer such a degree of pain as to lose all appetite
and become sickly and emaciated.

If the disease is of a mild form, or be merely in the initiatory stage,
it may be readily cured by cleaning, fomentation, and rest; if it be of
a medium character, between mild and violent, it may be cured by
cleaning, by carefully paring away loose and detached horn, by destroying
any fungus growth, and by applying, with a feather, a little butyr of
antimony; and if it be of a very bad form, or has been long neglected,
it will require to be probed, lanced, or otherwise dealt with according
to the rules of good surgery, and afterwards poulticed twice a day with
linseed meal, and frequently, but lightly, touched with butyr of


This disease consists in inflammation of the laminæ and of the vascular
parts of the sensible foot. It sometimes attacks only one foot,
sometimes two, and sometimes all four; but, in a great majority of
cases, it attacks either one or both of the front feet. A chronic form
sometimes occurs, and exhibits symptoms somewhat similar to those of
contraction of the hoof; but acute inflammation of the laminæ is what is
generally called founder.

This disease is occasioned by overstraining of the laminæ from long
standing, by prolonged or excessive driving over hard roads, by
congestion from long confinement, by sudden reaction from standing in
snow after being heated, or from covering with warm bedding after
prolonged exposure to cold, by sudden change of diet from a
comparatively cool to a comparatively heating kind of food, and by
translation of inflammatory action from some other part of the body,
particularly after influenza.

In the early stages of founder, a horse evinces great pain, shows
excessive restlessness of foot, and tries to lighten the pressure of his
body on the diseased feet. In the more advanced stages he is feverish,
breathes hard, has violent throbbing in the arteries of the fetlock,
lies down, stretches out his legs, and sometimes gazes wistfully upon
the seat of the disease; and in the ulterior stages, if no efficacious
remedies have been applied, the diseased feet either naturally recover
their healthy condition, or they suppurate, slough, cast part or all of
the hoof, and gradually acquire a small, weak, new hoof, or they undergo
such mortification and change of tissues as to render the animal
permanently useless.

The shoe of a foundered foot must be removed; the hoof should be pared
in such a manner that the sole and central portion of the same alone
come to sustain the weight of the body. Therefore, the wall of the hoof,
or that portion of the hoof which, under normal conditions, is made to
bear upon the shoe, should be pared or rasped away, all around, to such
an extent that it does not touch the ground when the animal stands upon
the foot. A well-bedded shed, or a roomy, well-bedded box-stall, should
be provided, with a view of allowing ample room for stretching out, as
well as for changing position on a floor which should not be slanting,
and which conveniences can not be had in a single stall, or when the
animal is kept tied up in a confined space. Fomentations, evaporating
lotions, wet cloths, and moist poultices should be applied to the feet.
The animal ought to have light and spare diet, and bran mashes. When
much fever exists febrifuges and diuretics should be given.


COW DRYING UP UNEVENLY. D. W., AUBURN, ILL.--1. What is the cause of a
cow going dry in one teat? She dropped her calf the 25th of May, and it
sucked till it was three months old two teats on one side; that was her
third calf; her next one will be due the last of April next. For some
six weeks past the quantity of milk has been diminishing, till now she
does not give more than a gill from one teat, while the opposite one
gives more than double that of either of the others. Can any thing be
done to remedy the difficulty? 2. If a cow gives more milk on one side
than the other, does it indicate the sex of the coming calf?

REPLY.--Most likely the cow will give milk from all four quarters after
calving. She should be allowed to gradually dry up now, and toward the
time of calving, she should not be fed exclusively on dry food. 2. No.



Dairymen, Write for Your Paper.

Curing Cheese.

The curing of cheese develops not only flavor, but texture and
digestibility. As a rule, says an English exchange, no American cheese
is well cured, and this is for want of suitable curing houses. Dr. H.
Reynolds, of Livermore Falls, Me., remarks upon this subject as follows:
"Increased attention needs to be given by cheese-makers to this matter
of curing cheese. Cheese factories should be provided with suitable
curing rooms, where a uniform temperature of the required degree can be
maintained, together with a suitable degree of moisture and sufficient
supply of fresh air. The expense required to provide a suitable curing
room would be small compared to the increased value of the cheese
product thereby secured. Small dairymen and farmers, having only a few
cows, labor under some difficulties in the way of providing suitable
curing room for their cheese. Yet if they have a clear idea of what a
curing room should be, they will generally be able to provide something
which will approximate to what is needed. Good curing rooms are
absolutely needed in order to enable our cheese-makers to produce a
really fine article of cheese. The nicer the quality of cheese produced,
the higher the price it will bring, and the more desirable will it
become as an article of food. In the curing of cheese certain
requisites are indispensable in order to attain the best results. Free
exposure to air is one requisite for the development of flavor. Curd
sealed up in an air-tight vessel and kept at the proper temperature
readily breaks down into a soft, rich, ripe cheese, but it has none of
the flavor so much esteemed in good cheese. Exposure to the oxygen of
the air develops flavor. The cheese during the process of curding takes
in oxygen and gives off carbonic acid gas. This fact was proved by Dr.
S. M. Babcock, of Cornell University, who, by analyzing the air passing
over cheese while curding, found that the cheese was constantly taking
in oxygen and giving off carbonic acid gas. The development of flavor
can be hastened by subjecting the cheese to a strong current of air. The
flavor is developed by the process of oxidation. If the cheese is kept
in too close air during the process of curding, it will be likely to be
deficient in flavor."

       *       *       *       *       *

An anonymous writer very truly remarks that the dairyman, by the force
of circumstances, has to become versed in the breeding and management of
stock, especially that of dairy breeds; hence, in the very nature of
things, he becomes a thoughtful, studious, observing man, and, what is
better, he attains a higher intelligence. The advantages of dairying
call out, among other things, enhanced revenues, because butter and
cheese have become necessities; it enriches the farm, and is perfectly
adapted to foster the breeding and raising of better and more stock. It
embodies thrift, progress, and prosperity. Under "new methods" it makes
fine butter and choice beef, not by any means less, but even more, and
affords better grain. It does not imply farm houses with added burdens,
but, on the contrary, relieved of drudgery, and the time thus gained can
be spent in cultivating the refining graces, and thus making farmers'
homes abodes of culture, refinement, and education, placing the dairy
farmer upon a level financially, socially, and intellectually with any
other class or profession.

       *       *       *       *       *



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For Sale or Rent.

Farm of four hundred and eighty acres situated in Marlon County,
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under plow, 180 acres timber. The latter has never been culled and is
very valuable. Farm is well fenced into seven fields. Has an orchard on
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    J. E. YOUNG,
        71 Park Avenue, Chicago.

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Horticulturists, Write for Your Paper.


The members of the Southern Illinois Horticultural Society recently held
a meeting at Alton, and resolved to put a little more life into the
organization. A new constitution was adopted, and the following officers
were elected for the ensuing year:

    President--E. A. Riehl, Alton.
    First Vice-President--G. W. Endicott, Villa Ridge.
    Second Vice-President--Wm. Jackson, Godfrey.
    Secretary and Treasurer--E. Hollister, Alton.

The following select list of fruits was recommended for the district, or
Southern grand division of the State:

     Apples--Summer--Red Astrachan, Keswick Codlin, Benoni, Saps of
     Wine, and Maiden's Blush.

     Fall--It was unanimously agreed that fall apples were not
     profitable for market purposes.

     Winter--Ben Davis, Rome Beauty, Jonathan, Wine-Sap, Winter May,
     Gilpin, and Janet.

     Apples for family use--Summer--Early Harvest, Red Astrachan,
     Carolina Red June, Benoni, Maiden's Blush, Bailey Sweet and

     Fall--Fall Wine, Rambo, Grimes' Golden, Yellow Belleflower.

     Winter--Jonathan, Rome Beauty, Winesap, Ben Davis, Janet, Gilpin,
     Moore's Sweet, Sweet Vandevere.

     Peaches for Market--Bartlett, Howell, and Duchess.

     Pears for Family Use--Bartlett, Seckel, Howell, White Doyenne,
     D'Anjou, and Sheldon.

     Peaches--For Family Use and Market--Alexander, Mountain Rose, L. E.
     York, Oldmixon Free, Crawford's Late Stump, Picquet's Late, Smock,
     Salway, and Heath Cling.

     Grapes--Home Use and Market--Worden or Concord, Cynthiana or
     Norton's Va., Mo. Reisling, Noah, Ives.

     Strawberries--Home and Market--Capt. Jack, Downing, and Wilson.

     Raspberries--Black Caps--Doolittle and Gregg.

     Reds--Cuthbert, Brandywine, and Turner for home use only.

Notes on Current Topics.


Now, if one wants to ascertain how many agricultural implements are used
by the farmers of the West, let him take a trip across the country for a
day or two, and he will see reapers and mowers, and hay rakes and
cultivators, and plows and seeders, standing in the fields and meadows,
at the end of the rows where they had last been used. A stranger might
think that this is not the place for them at this particular time of
year. But in this he shows his ignorance of Western farm economy--for it
is the very place for them; the identical locality where a great many of
our farmers choose to keep their costly implements. Besides--don't you
see, our farmers believe in fostering the manufactures of our country;
and this place of caring for their tools after using them adds 15 or 20
per cent to the business of the manufacturers.


I referred to the fact that I had lately been cutting away, digging up,
and making stove-wood of a number of dead and decaying apple trees. Some
of them had been dead and dying for two or three years. In splitting up
the body and roots of one of these, I dislodged scores of the borers, of
all ages and sizes--making quite a dinner for a hen and chickens that
happened to be nigh. This fact brought forcibly to my mind what I should
have thought of before, namely--that these dead and dying trees ought
not to be allowed to remain a day after their usefulness has departed;
but should be removed bodily and consigned to the flames. Otherwise they
remain as breeding places for the pests, to the great detriment of the
rest of the orchard. Cut away your decaying trees at once.


Now that coal has become so common as a substitute for wood for fuel,
not only on the railroads and manufactories, but in the villages and on
the farms, wood ashes will still be harder to procure. Though not near
so valuable for the purposes for which wood ashes is chiefly used in
horticulture, it is believed that ashes from the coal has too great a
value to be wasted. It should all be saved and applied to some good
purpose on the garden or orchard. Has any one tried it as a preventive
to pear blight? or mildew on the gooseberry? or the grape rot? or for
the yellows or leaf-curl in peach trees? or for the rust in the
blackberry and raspberry? In any or all of these it may have a decided
value, and should be faithfully experimented with. As an absorbent
alone it ought to be worth saving, to use in retaining the house slops
and other liquid manures that are too often wasted.


in our orchard trees, of which we read and hear so much in late years,
is doubtless to be found in the fact that we fail to feed them properly.
A hog will fail to put on fat if he is not fed; a hen will not lay eggs
if she is starved for food; and is it more reasonable to expect an apple
or a peach or a pear tree to thrive and grow and yield of its luscious
fruit in perfection while it is being starved? Our fresh soils--some of
them at least--contain a fair proportion of the food needed to support
the life of a tree; we plant our orchards, and for some years, more or
less, they give us paying returns for our investments. But that food
will not always last; it is gradually exhausted, and we fail to feed
them again, or in that proportion their necessities require. They
languish and die; a disease seizes them, and we complain and grumble at
the dispensations of Providence.

Think of it, fellow fruit-growers; let us begin to treat our fruit trees
as we do our hogs and our hens, and see if we can not be favored with
corresponding results. It is doubtless true that many of the diseases to
which our trees are subject are caused by starvation, or by improper
feeding; and a sickly tree is much more certain to be attacked by
insects than a healthy one.

Rare, indeed, is the case where a tree is carefully fed and cared for,
and its wants regularly and bountifully supplied, that it does not repay
as bountifully in its life-giving fruits.

T. G.



It is assumed that this pest has cost agriculturists many millions of
dollars during the past decade; not only in the loss of trees, but the
time--as it seldom appears until after the first crop--consequently the
land, manure, labor, enclosure, and taxes are not insignificant items.
Climate, soil, and cultivation have utterly failed, so also the
nostrums, such as "carbonate of lime" suggested by the best authority,
and the experts now admit that parasites (such as cause the rust or smut
in our cereals) are the cause of this mischief. The only question is
whether they act directly or indirectly: this question determines
whether it is remediable. If these parasites accomplish all this
mischief by direct contact, as in the case of rust, their ubiquitous
character is so demonstrated that we are utterly discouraged; whereas,
if we prove that their indirect action is the only one that is to be
dreaded, and that indirect action is remediable we are encouraged to
cultivate the pear, though we have lost more than five hundred of one
variety and almost all of the other varieties before we discovered the
real cause of the failure. "Where you lose you may find;" success does
not indicate merit, and "fools never learn by experience." As a
celebrated surgeon said in his lecture. "A good oculist is made at the
expense of a hatful of eyes."

The celebrated Johnson who wrote the Encyclopedia of Agriculture a few
years since, is now regarded as an old fogy, because he assumed that the
spores of smut travel from the manure and seed of the previous crop in
the circulation of the plant to the capsule, and thus convert the grain
into a puff-ball, so also the ears of corn, the oats, and rye. This
monstrosity on the rye grains is called ergot, or spurred rye, and when
it is eaten by chickens or other fowls their feet and legs shrivel or
perish with dry gangrene, not because the spores of the fungus which
produced the spurred rye circulate in the blood of the chicken, nor that
the spawn or mycelium thus traverses the fowl, but the peculiar and
specific influence acts upon the whole animal precisely like the poison
of the poison oak, producing its specific effect on the most remote
parts of the system, and not as mustard confined to the part it touches.
The mustard acts directly, but the "poison Ivy" acts indirectly; so also
the virus of cow-pox poisons the whole system, but usually appears in
but one spot unless the lymphatics of the whole arm are weak, and in
that case crops of umbilicated pustules precisely like the original, may
recur on all parts of the arm for several months. The specific effect of
ergot or the fungus when indirect is manifested by contracting and even
strangulating the tubes or capillaries causing them to pucker up (as a
persimmon acts directly on the mouth), but in this case permanently
though indirectly, so that rye bread sometimes causes dry gangrene in
the human subject; the shins and feet shrivel precisely as those parts
of the limbs of the pear do, moreover a dark fluid exudes (as the
circulation is arrested where a patch occurs) in both cases alike,
consequently if the remedy in both cases is based on the same
principles, and is demonstrated to be equally effectual, the cause and
the disease are similar.

I have seen dry gangrene in the human subject originate apparently from
an old "frost bite;" which means merely chronic debility of the
capillaries of the foot or shin. Thus the extremities of the pear, or
the weakest part, always succumb first, and the most vigorous trees
never manifest it until they are weakened by their first crop of fruit.
All are familiar with the fact that an old frost bite will swell or
succumb to a temperature which will be innocuous to any other part of
the body. The microscope may invariably reveal fungi in the patch of
pear blight precisely as the housewife discovers the mold plant in her
preserves and canned fruit, and even in the eggs of fowls, the mycelium
(or spawn) penetrating the fruit or preserve though it be covered while
boiling hot. If so, the reason why all parts of the tree are not
attacked at the same time, is not because the fungus is not ubiquitous.
We first notice the action of strychnia in the legs, or in paralyzed
limbs exclusively, because they are weaker and become subject to its
influence more easily; so also the same tree may escape for a long time
after the limb which has succumbed is removed. Moreover the grafts,
however numerous, may all be blighted, but the standard seedling on
which so many varieties were grafted has survived more than fifty
winters, and it fruited last year.

        PORT PENN, DEL.


Valuable trees that have been wounded or mutilated are often sacrificed
for lack of the discreet surgery which would repair the injury they have
suffered; and Professor C. A. Sargent, of the Bussey Institution, has
done good service to farmers, fruit-raisers, and landscape-gardeners, by
translating from the French the following practical hints, which we give
with slight abridgment:

Bark once injured or loosened can never attach itself again to the
trunk; and whenever wounds, abrasures, or sections of loose bark exist
on the trunk of a tree, the damaged part should be cut away cleanly, as
far as the injury extends. Careful persons have been known to nail to a
tree a piece of loosened bark, in hope of inducing it to grow again, or
at least of retaining on the young wood its natural covering.
Unfortunately the result produced by this operation is exactly opposite
to that intended. The decaying wood and bark attract thousands of
insects, which find here safe shelter and abundant food, and, increasing
rapidly, hasten the death of the tree. In such cases, instead of
refastening the loosened bark to the tree, it should be entirely cut
away, care being taken to give the cut a regular outline, especially on
the lower side; for if a portion of the bark, even if adhering to the
wood, is left without direct communication with the leaves, it must die
and decay. A coating of coal-tar should be applied to such wounds.

LOOSENED BARK.--It is necessary to frequently examine the lower portions
of the trunk, especially of trees beginning to grow old; for here is
often found the cause of death in many trees, in large sheets of bark
entirely separated from the trunk. This condition of things, which often
can not be detected, except by the hollow sound produced by striking the
trunk with the back of the iron pruning-knife, arrests the circulation
of sap, while the cavity between the bark and the wood furnishes a safe
retreat for a multitude of insects, which hasten the destruction of the
tree. The dead bark should be entirely removed, even should it be
necessary, in so doing, to make large wounds. Cases of this nature
require the treatment recommended for the last class.

CAVITIES IN THE TRUNK.--Very often, when a tree has been long neglected,
the trunk is seriously injured by cavities caused by the decay of dead
or broken branches. It is not claimed that pruning can remove defects of
this nature; it can with proper application, however, arrest the
progress of the evil. The edge of the cavity should be cut smooth and
even; and all decomposed matter, or growth of new bark formed in the
interior, should be carefully removed. A coating of coal-tar should be
applied to the surface of the cavity, and the mouth plugged with a piece
of well-seasoned oak securely driven into the place. The end of the plug
should then be carefully pared smooth and covered with coal-tar,
precisely as if the stump of a branch were under treatment. If the
cavity is too large to be closed in this manner, a piece of thoroughly
seasoned oak board, carefully fitted to it, may be securely nailed into
the opening, and then covered with coal-tar. It is often advisable to
guard against the attacks of insects by nailing a piece of zinc or other
metal over the board in such a way that the growth of the new wood will
in time completely cover it.

Coal-tar, a waste product of gas-works, can be applied with an ordinary
painter's brush, and may be used cold, except in very cold weather, when
it should be slightly warmed before application. Coal-tar has remarkable
preservative properties, and may be used with equal advantage on living
and dead wood. A single application, without penetrating deeper than
ordinary paint, forms an impervious coating to the wood-cells, which
would, without such covering, under external influences, soon become
channels of decay. This simple application then produces a sort of
instantaneous cauterization, and preserves from decay wounds caused
either in pruning or by accident. The odor of coal-tar drives away
insects, or prevents them, by complete adherence to the wood, from
injuring it. After long and expensive experiments, the director of the
parks of the city of Paris finally, in 1863, adopted coal-tar, in
preference to other preparations used, for covering tree wounds. In the
case of stone fruit trees it should, however, be used with considerable
caution, especially on plum trees. It should not be allowed to
needlessly run down the trunk; and it is well to remember, that the more
active a remedy is the greater should be the care in its application.
The practice of leaving a short stump to an amputated branch, adopted by
some to prevent the loss of sap, although less objectionable in the case
of coniferous trees than in that of others, should never be adopted.
Such stumps must be cut again the following year close to the trunk, or
cushions of wood will form about their base, covering the trunk with
protuberances. These greatly injure the appearance and value of the
tree, and necessitate, should it be found desirable, the removal, later
on, of such excrescences, causing wounds two or three times as large as
an original cut close to the trunk would have made.


Through the co-operation of packers in all parts of the United States,
the American Grocer was enabled to present its annual statement of the
1883 pack of tomatoes some weeks earlier than usual. Despite a cold,
backward spring, unusually low temperature throughout the summer, with
cool nights in August and September, drouth in some sections, early and
severe frosts in others, the trade is called upon to solve the question:
Can the demand absorb a supply of three million cases?

The pack of 1883 is heavily in excess of that of 1882, due to an
increase in the number packers, and to an unusually heavy yield in New
Jersey and Delaware. In detail, the result in the different States is as

             Cases, two
             doz. each.
Maryland      1,450,000
New Jersey      612,703
Delaware        156,391
California      117,000
Ohio            112,000
Indiana          90,000
Virginia         75,000
Kansas           65,000
New York         59,344
Iowa             47,925
Missouri         34,500
Michigan         30,700
Massachusetts    25,000
Canada           20,000
Connecticut      18,000
Illinois         14,516
Pennsylvania     15,000
   Total      2,943,579

The above total of 2,943,579 cases, of two dozen tins each represents
seventy million, six hundred and forty-five thousand, eight hundred and
ninety-six cans, as the minimum quantity of canned tomatoes packed in
the United States this year.

Never in recent years have the holdings of the jobbers been as light as
at present. Undoubtedly there is an unusually large stock of tomatoes in
packers' hands, but there are innumerable parties in all the great
centers of trade ready to take hold freely at 80 cents.

At no time has the stock of extra brands been equal to the inquiry, and
hence we have seen the anomaly of a range in prices of from 80 cents to
$1.40 per dozen. There is room for improvement in quality, as well as
for methods of marketing the large production of Harford county. A move
in the right direction has been started by the forming of associations,
which seek to build extensive warehouses and aid weak packers to carry
stock, instead of forcing it upon a dull market.

Three million cases or seventy-two million cans means a supply of only
one and two-fifths cans per capita per annum, or seven cans per annum
for every family of five persons. With tomatoes retailing from 8 to 15
cents per can, the consumption could reach three times that quantity,
and then each family would only find tomatoes upon its bill of fare once
every fortnight.

While many packers have failed to secure a fair return for their work,
others have been well paid. Some few have made heavy losses, and will,
in the future, be less inclined to bet against wet weather, drought and

If general business is good during the first half of 1884, The Grocer
can see no good reason why the stock of tomatoes should not go into
consumption between 85 cents and $1 per dozen for standards. Any marked
advance would be sure to check demand, and, therefore, low prices must
rule if the stock is absorbed prior to the receipt of 1884 packing.

The year closes with Maryland packed obtainable from 75 to 85 cents; New
Jersey and Delaware, 90 to 95 cents; fancy brands, $1.10 to $1.35,
delivered on dock in New York.


According to the Popular Science News, apples do not sweat after they
are gathered in the autumn. Here is an account of what takes place with

The skin of a sound apple is practically a protective covering, and
designed for a two-fold purpose: first, to prevent the ingress of air
and moisture to the tender cellular structure of the fruit; and, second,
to prevent the loss of juices by exudation. There is no such process as
sweating in fruits. When men or animals sweat, they become covered with
moisture passing through the skin; when an apple becomes covered with
moisture, it is due to condensation of moisture from without. Apples
taken from trees in a cool day remain at the temperature of the air
until a change to a higher temperature occurs, and then condensation of
moisture from the warmer air circulating around the fruit occurs, just
as moisture gathers upon the outside of an ice-pitcher in summer. This
explains the whole matter; and the vulgar notion of fruits "sweating"
should be dispelled from the mind.

It is almost impossible to gather apples under such conditions of
temperature that they will not condense moisture after being placed in
barrels. It would be better if this result could be avoided, as dryness
of fruit is essential to its protracted keeping.

Our northern autumns are characterized by changes from hot to cold, and
these occur suddenly. The days are hot, and the nights cool, and this
favors condensation. Apples picked on a moderately cool day, and placed
in a moderately cool shed, protected from the sun, will not gather
moisture, and this is the best method to pursue when practicable.


Mr. N. Atwell, one of the Michigan commissioners, whose duty it is to
look after the peach districts of that State and check if possible the
ravages of the destructive disease known as "yellows," claims that there
is no known remedy, and that the only safe plan is to uproot and burn
the trees upon the first appearance of the disease.

       *       *       *       *       *

If you are going to set a new orchard this spring, remember that it is
an excellent thing to prepare a plan of the orchard, showing the
position of each tree, its variety, etc. If a tree dies it can be
replaced by one of the same sort. Some fruit-raisers keep a book in
which they register the age and variety of every tree in the orchard,
together with any items in regard to their grafting, productiveness,
treatment, etc., which are thought to be desirable.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cor. California Rural Press: The first generation of codling moth begins
to fly about the first of May. To make sure gather some in the chrysalis
state in March or April, put in a jar, and set the jar in a place where
you will see it every day. When they begin to have wings, prepare your
traps thus: The half of a kerosene can with the tin bent in at the top
an inch; a half inch of kerosene in the can, a little flat lamp near the
oil. The light reflected from the bright tin will draw the moth five
rods at least. If your orchard is forty rods square, sixteen traps will
do the work. The moth will fly about the light until it touches the oil.
This will end it.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Industrial South has the following in relation to Albemarle and
Nelson (Virginia) apple orchards in the space of fifteen square miles:
"What would you think of an orchard planted, if not since the war, as I
think it was, a very short time before, and away up on the side of the
Blue Ridge, that to look from below you would think of insuring your
neck before setting out to it, producing eighteen hundred barrels? This
was the produce of picked fruit, to say nothing of the fallen--enough to
keep a big drying establishment running for months. These are true
figures--and it is the property of a worthy citizen of Richmond, who, in
its management, has cause to exclaim "ab imo pectore," save me from my
friends. Then there is another from which the owner, with a dryer of his
own, has sold five thousand dollars of the proceeds besides cider,
vinegar, and brandy. There is yet another, that the lady-owner sold as
the fruit hung in the orchard, for forty-five hundred dollars. The fruit
in the area referred to brought over fifty thousand dollars, bought by
the agent of a New York house, and doubtless much of it will reach

       *       *       *       *       *

Prof. Cook in the New York Tribune: The Rev. W. W. Meech writes that he
has seen in several papers of high standing "the beetle Saperdabivitati,
parent of the borer," described as a "a miller"--"a mistake very
misleading to those who are seeking knowledge of insect pests." He adds
that among hundreds of quince trees growing he has had but three touched
by this enemy in eight years. He simply takes the precaution to keep
grass and weeds away from the collar of the tree, "so that there is no
convenient harbor for the beetle to hide in while at the secret work of
egg-laying." He thinks a wrap of "petroleum paper around the collar"
would be found a preventive, as it is not only disagreeable but hinders
access to the place where the eggs are deposited. It is an unfortunate
error to refer to a beetle as a moth. It would be better if all would
recognize the distinction between "bug" and "beetle," and between
"worms" and "larva," in writing popular articles. I notice that some of
the editors of medical journals are referring to bacteria as "bugs."
Surely reform is needed. I am not so sure of Mr. Meech's remedy. I
imagine that fortune, not his pains, is to be thanked for his grubless
trees. I have known this borer to do very serious mischief where the
most perfect culture was practised. The caustic wash is much safer than
a petroleum wrap. The eggs are often laid high up on the trunk or even
on the branches. Nothing is better for the borers than the soap and
carbolic acid mixture.



Gleanings by an Old Florist.


Smilax, as now used by florists, is but a very recent affair. Although
introduced first into Europe from the Cape of Good Hope as early as
1702, it remained for the florist of our time to find out its great
adaptability for decoration and other uses in his art or calling. To
Boston florists belong the credit of its first extensive culture and
use, and for several years they may be said to have had the monopoly of
its trade, and Boston smilax, along with Boston tea roses, which was
pre-eminently the variety called the Bon Silene, was, for years, shipped
to this and other cities. It is scarcely a decade of years ago, in this
city, when a batch of one hundred strings could not be bought here,
home-grown; now there would be no difficulty in getting thousands. Like
everything else of like character, the first introducers reaped a golden
harvest, so far as price is concerned, having often obtained a dollar a
string; while now, the standard price, even in mid winter, is $2 per
dozen, and often in quantity, it can be obtained at less. But where
there was one string used then, there are now thousands. In olden times
the florist was often put to his wits to find material to go around his
made-up pieces and for relief as a green; now, everything green is
smilax, and it must be confessed, that with the choice ferns, begonia
leaves, and the like, that he used to have to prepare with, his work
then was really often in better taste, so far as relief to flowers is
concerned, with the old material than the new.

But for the purpose of festooning buildings, churches, and the like,
smilax is by all odds the very thing wanted, and as much ahead of the
old-time evergreen wreathing, that we had to use, as the methods now in
use for obtaining cut flowers are ahead of the old. It is hard to say
what the florist could do without smilax, so indispensable has it
become. There are now probably twenty of the principal growers of this
city that have at least one house in smilax, who will cut not less than
three thousand strings in a winter, while of the balance of smaller fry
enough to make up the total to 100,000 strings per year. In times of
scarcity of material, it is cut not over three feet long; again, when
the supply exceeds the demand, the buyer will often get it six to nine
feet long, and at a lower price than he can buy the short--supply and
demand ruling price, as a rule, between $1 and $3 per dozen.

The plant now under consideration is called, botanically, Myrsiphyllum
asparagoides; by common usage it is called smilax, although not even a
member of the true smilax family, some of which are natives of this

The plant seeds readily, hence every one who grows smilax may, by
leaving two or three strings uncut, grow his own seed; it is then sure
to be fresh--which is sometimes not the case when purchased. The seed is
more likely to germinate if soaked twelve hours in warm water or milk
before sowing.

A bed may be formed any time of the year, but the usual custom is to
prepare it so as to be ready to cut, say, in the fall, for the first
time. Take a pan or shallow box and sow the seed any time during the
winter before March. When well up, so they can be handled, transplant
into small pots, and from these shift into larger, say to three or four
inch pots. Keep the shoots pinched back so as to form a stout, bushy
plant. During winter they will require an artificial temperature of not
less than 50 degrees. When summer comes they may be kept in the house or
stand out of doors until the bed in which they are to grow is ready.
This may be prepared any time most desirable, but if to cut first in the
fall, so manage it that they may have two or three months to perfect
their growth.

The common practice is to give the whole house to the use of the plant,
but this may be varied at pleasure, growing either the center bunch, the
front bunch, or both, as may be desirable.

The best soil is decayed sod from a pasture enriched with cow manure. It
requires no benches to grow this plant; all that is necessary is to
inclose the space designed by putting up boards one foot high to form a
coping to hold the soil. Into this the plants are set evenly over the
entire space, in rows nine inches to one foot apart. At the time of
planting, a stake is driven into and even with the soil at each plant,
being careful to have them in true lines both ways, and driven deep
enough to be quite firm; on the top of this stake is driven a small nail
or hook. Directly over each nail, in the rafter of the house, or a strip
nailed to them for the purpose, is placed another nail, and between the
two a cord similar to that used by druggists or the like--but green, if
possible, in color, for obvious reasons--is stretched as taught as may
be, so that when finished the whole house or space used is occupied by
these naked strings, on which, as the growth proceeds, the plants
entwine themselves. Some care will be required at first to get them
started, after which they will usually push on themselves.

The most convenient height of the rafters above the soil is from four to
ten feet, which will give long enough strings, and, what is important
for quick growth, keep the plants when young not too far from the glass.

In planting, some make a difference of a month or two in the time, so
that the crop may not come in all at once; but usually the plants will
vary some in their growth, and hence, by cutting the largest first, the
same result is obtained. If a heat of 55 degrees can be obtained as a
minimum, and care is taken in keeping a moist, growing temperature, a
crop can be taken off every three months at least. So as soon as ready
to cut and a market can be obtained for the crop, strings should be
strung again at once, leaving some of the smaller shoots when cutting
for a starter of the next crop. Like everything else, heavy cropping
requires heavy manuring, and hence a rich compost should be added to the
soil at each cutting.

Some plant their beds fresh every year, others leave them longer. The
root is perennial in character, and consists of fleshy tubers, not
unlike asparagus, and may be divided for the new beds; but the general
practice is to grow new plants. Always beware of buying old, dry roots,
as they will sometimes refuse to grow, even if they look green and
fresh. With many, in cutting, the practice is to cut clear through at
the bottom, string and all, then by a deft movement of the hands the
smilax is slipped from the string which, with the addition of a foot or
two to tie again, is at once ready for the next, while others bring to
market string and all, these being simply matters of practice or


       *       *       *       *       *

Was Noah's voyage an arktic expedition?

       *       *       *       *       *



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       *       *       *       *       *


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       *       *       *       *       *

The Prairie Farmer



       *       *       *       *       *



       *       *       *       *       *

[Transcriber's Note: Original location of Table of Contents.]

       *       *       *       *       *

1841.        1884.





For forty-three years THE PRAIRIE FARMER has stood at the front in
agricultural journalism. It has kept pace with the progress and
development of the country, holding its steady course through all these
forty-three years, encouraging, counseling, and educating its thousands
of readers. It has labored earnestly in the interest of all who are
engaged in the rural industries of the country, and that it has labored
successfully is abundantly shown by the prominence and prestige it has
achieved, and the hold it has upon the agricultural classes.

Its managers are conscious from comparison with other journals of its
class, and from the uniform testimony of its readers, that it is
foremost among the farm and home papers of the country. It will not be
permitted to lose this proud position; we shall spare no efforts to
maintain its usefulness and make it indispensable to farmers,
stock-raisers, feeders, dairymen, horticulturalists, gardeners, and all
others engaged in rural pursuits. It will enter upon its forty-fourth
year under auspices, in every point of view, more encouraging than ever
before in its history. Its mission has always been, and will continue to

To discuss the most approved practices in all agricultural and
horticultural pursuits.

To set forth the merits of the best breeds of domestic animals, and to
elucidate the principles of correct breeding and management.

To further the work of agricultural and horticultural organization.

To advocate industrial education in the correct sense of the term.

To lead the van in the great contest of the people against monopolies
and the unjust encroachments of capital.

To discuss the events and questions of the day without fear or favor.

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To be, in brief, an indispensable and unexceptionable farm and home
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The style and form of the paper are now exactly what they should be. The
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arranged. The editorial force is large and capable. The list of
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talent than is employed on any similar paper in this country. We
challenge comparison with any agricultural journal in the land.

THE PRAIRIE FARMER is designed for all sections of the country. In
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has ever been before.

       *       *       *       *       *


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1884, we will mail a copy of THE PRAIRIE FARMER FOR ONE YEAR, AND ONE OF
CANADA--showing all the Counties, Railroads, and Principal Towns up to
date. This comprehensive map embraces all the country from the Pacific
Coast to Eastern New Brunswick, and as far north as the parallel of 52
deg., crossing Hudson's Bay. British Columbia; Manitoba, with its many
new settlements; and the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, completed
and under construction, are accurately and distinctly delineated. It
extends so far south as to Include Key West and more than half of the
Republic of Mexico. It is eminently adapted for home, school, and office
purposes. The retail price of the Map alone is $2.00. Size, 58 × 41
inches. Scale, about sixty miles to one inch.

       *       *       *       *       *






Every housekeeper ought to have this very useful scale. The weight of
article bought or sold may readily be known. Required proportions in
culinary operations are accurately ascertained. We have furnished
hundreds of them to subscribers, and they give entire satisfaction.
During January, 1884, to any person sending us THREE SUBSCRIBERS, at
$2.00 each, we will give one of these scales, and to each of the three
subscribers Ropp's Calculator, No. 1.

       *       *       *       *       *


Remember that every yearly subscriber, either new or renewing, sending
us $2, receives a splendid new map of the United States and
Canada--58 × 41 inches--FREE. Or, if preferred, one of the books offered
in another column. It is not necessary to wait until a subscription
expires before renewing.

       *       *       *       *       *


in every locality. We offer very liberal terms and good pay. Send for
sample copies and terms to agents.

       *       *       *       *       *


    Read about Patrick Barry,
    about the corn-root worm,
    about mistakes in drainage,
    about the change in prize rings at the Fat Stock Show,
    about improvement in horses,
    about the value of 1883 corn for pork making,
    about Fanny Field's Plymouth Rocks,
    about the way to make the best bee hive,
    about that eccentric old fellow Cavendish,
    about the every day life of the great Darwin,
    about making home ornaments and nice things for the little folks?
    Will you

    Read the poems, the jokes, the news, the markets, the editorials,
    the answers to correspondents? In short, will you

    Read the entire paper and then sit down and think it all over and
    see if you do not conclude that this single number is worth what
    the paper has cost you for the whole year? Then tell your neighbors
    about it, show it to them and ask them to subscribe for it. Tell
    them that they will also get for the $2 a copy of our superb map.
    By doing this you can double our subscription list in a single


       *       *       *       *       *

The Illinois State Board of Agriculture will hold a meeting at the
Sherman House in Chicago, on the 4th of March next. The principal
business of the meeting will be to complete arrangements for the next
State Fair and the Fat Stock Show.

       *       *       *       *       *

The annual meeting of the Northern Illinois Horticultural Society will
be held at Elgin Tuesday, January 22d and continuing three days. Kindred
societies are invited to send delegates, and a large general attendance
is solicited. Further particulars will be gladly received by S. M.
Slade, President, Elgin, or D. Wilmot Scott, Secretary, Galena.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Brooklyn Board of Health petitions Congress to appropriate a
sufficient amount of money to stamp out contagious pleuro-pneumonia and
provide for the appointment of a number of veterinarians to inspect all
herds in infected districts, to indemnify owners for cattle slaughtered
by the Government, and to forbid the movement of all cattle out of any
infected State which will not take measures to stamp out the disease.

       *       *       *       *       *

Secretary L. A. Goodman, of the Missouri State Horticultural Society
writes THE PRAIRIE FARMER that on the 5th of January the mercury at
Westport, Wis., indicated 26 degrees below zero, the lowest point ever
recorded there. He adds: "The peaches are killed, as are the
blackberries. Cherries are injured very much and the raspberries also.
The dry September checked the growth of the berries and sun-burned them
some, and now the cold hurts them badly. Apples are all right yet and
prospects for good crop are excellent."

       *       *       *       *       *

It may be of interest to many readers to know that the I. & St. L. R. R.
will sell tickets from Indianapolis and intermediate points to St.
Louis, to persons attending the meeting of the Mississippi Valley
Horticultural Society, at one and one-third rates. Mr. Ragan informs us
that this is the only railroad line from central Indiana that offers a
reduction of fare. The Missouri Pacific system of roads, including the
Wabash, and embracing about ten thousand miles of road, extending as far
north and east as Chicago, Detroit and Toledo, and as far south and west
as New Orleans, Galveston and El Paso, will return members in
attendance, who have paid full fare over these lines, at one cent a
mile, upon the certificate of the Secretary of the Society. The Chicago
& Alton, C., B. & Q., Keokuk, St. L. & N. W., Chicago, B. & K. C.,
Illinois Central, Cairo Short Line, and Hannibal & St. Joe roads will
return members on the same terms. The Ohio & Mississippi will sell
tickets to St. Louis and return at one and one-third fare, to members
indorsed by the Secretary. The Louisville and Nashville will give
reduced rates to members applying to its General Passenger Agent, C. P.
Atmore, of Louisville, Ky.


The Census Bureau and Bradstreet's agency have made from the most
accurate examination possible an estimate of the wealth and business of
the nation: Aggregate wealth of the United States in 1880 was
$43,642,000,000 (forty thousand and a half billions); the total amount
of capital invested in business was $8,177,000,000 (over eight
billions); and the number of persons engaged in commercial business was
703,828. Twenty-two per cent of all the business capital of the country
is credited to the State of New York. Massachusetts ranks second,
Pennsylvania third, Ohio fourth, Illinois fifth, and Michigan sixth. The
aggregate business capital of these six States was $5,113,087,000,
leaving to all the other States $3,063,923,000. The total recorded
number of traders in the United States in June, 1880--those having
distinctive position in the commercial or industrial community--was
703,328; a trifle over 40 per cent were in the Western States. For the
United States as a whole the average amount of capital employed to each
venture--as indicated by the aggregate of capital in the country
invested in trade (as explained in the table compiled from the
forthcoming census work) and the total number of individuals, firms, and
corporations engaged in business--is, in round numbers, $11,600.

The wealth of the country is, or was June 1, 1880, distributed as

Farms                                                  $10,197
Residence and business real estate, capital employed
  in business, including water-power                     9,881
Railroads and equipment                                  5,536
Telegraphs, shipping, and canals                           410
Live stock, whether on or off farms, farming tools
  and machinery                                          2,406
Household furniture, paintings, books, clothing,
  jewelry, household supplies of food, fuel,
  etc.                                                   5,000
Mines (including petroleum wells) and quarries,
  together with one-half of the annual product
  reckoned as the average supply on hand                   780
Three-quarters of the annual product of agriculture
  and manufactures, and of the annual importation
  of foreign goods, assumed to be the
  average supply on hand                                 6,160
Churches, schools, asylums, public buildings of
  all kinds, and other real estate exempt from
  taxation                                               2,000
Specie                                                     612
Miscellaneous items, including tools of mechanics          650
      Total                                            $43,642

It will thus be seen that the farms of the United States comprise nearly
one-fourth of its entire wealth. They are worth nearly double the
combined capital and equipments of all the railroads, telegraphs,
shipping, and canals; more than double all the household furniture,
paintings, books, clothing, jewelry, and supplies of food, fuel, etc.
The live stock is more valuable than all the church property, school
houses, asylums, and public buildings of all kinds; more than all the
mines, telegraph companies, shipping, and canals combined. It would take
more than three times as much "hard" money as the nation possesses to
purchase all these domestic animals. The farms and live stock together
exceed the value of any two other interests in the country.


Congress seems bound to act at once upon the question of protection to
domestic animals from contagious diseases. The pressure brought to bear
upon members is enormous, and cannot be ignored. The action of European
States on swine importation from America, the restrictions on the
landing of American cattle in England, and the strong effort being made
there to prohibit their introduction altogether, the known existence of
pleuro-pneumonia in several of the Atlantic States, the unceasing clamor
of our shippers and growers of live stock, all conspire to open the eyes
of the average Congressman to the fact that something must be done. Mr.
Singleton, of Illinois, must be something above or below the average
Congressman, if the report is correct that he does not believe
pleuro-pneumonia exists anywhere within the borders of the United
States, and that he is willing to back his non-belief by a thousand
dollars forfeit, if an animal suffering from the disease can be shown
him. The former owner of Silver Heels, and breeder of fine horses and
cattle at his Quincy farm, must have his eyes shaded and his ears
obstructed by that broad brimmed hat, that has so long covered his
silvered head and marble brow. "The world do move," nevertheless, and
pleuro-pneumonia does prevail in this country to such an extent as to
furnish a reasonable excuse for unfriendly legislation abroad, and we
gain nothing by denying the fact, the Allerton and Singleton assertions
to the contrary, notwithstanding.


At the late meeting of the Iowa State Agricultural Society, President
Smith strongly advocated the permanent location of the State Fair. He
thought it had been hawked about long enough for the purpose of giving
different cities a chance to skin the people. The Legislature should aid
the society in purchasing grounds. Ample ground should be purchased, as
the fair is growing, and they should not be governed solely by our
present demands. Secretary Shaffer touched briefly on the weather of
last summer, the acreage and yield of crops, the demonstration of the
futility of trying to acclimatize Southern seed-corn in the North, and
the appointment of a State entomologist. He thought the State should
assist the society in distributing its publications. The improvement of
the Mississippi river was briefly handled. The state of the corn during
the past year, the seeding, the yield, etc., were summarized by months.
The corn crop was a failure. The sorghum industry in its various
bearings was discussed. Iowa will yet, he said, produce its own sugar.
The question was raised whether the State should not encourage the
growth of Northern cane. The sheep industry and its peril from worthless
dogs was duly treated. This society was the first to insist on the
necessity of Legislation on this subject looking to the extermination of
worthless dogs. The society proceeded to locate the fair for the next
year. Des Moines offered the present grounds for 10 per cent of the gate
money. Dubuque offered free grounds and $2,500 in money. The first
ballot resulted in seventy-one votes for Des Moines and twenty-three for
Dubuque. Officers were elected as follows: President, William L. Smith,
of Oskalossa; Vice-President, H. C. Wheeler, of Sac; Secretary, John
Shaffer, of Fairfield; Treasurer, George H. Marsh, of Des Moines.


At the meeting of the Indiana State Board of Agriculture last week, it
was decided to hold a Fat Stock Show at Indianapolis some time in
December of the present year. Liberal premiums will be offered. The
matter elicited a discussion of considerable length, and it was
generally believed that the show, if properly managed, could be made a
success. Even if it failed to realize expenses the first year, the
exhibition would be incalculably beneficial to the State. The election
of new members to the Board resulted as follows: First district, Robert
Mitchell, of Gibson county; Second, Samuel Hargrave, of Pike; Third, J.
Q. A. Seig, of Harrison; Fourth, W. B. Seward, of Monroe; Eighth, W. S.
Dungan, of Johnson; Fourteenth, L. B. Custer, of Cass; Fifteenth, W. A.
Banks, of La Porte; Sixteenth, R. M. Lockhart, of DeKalb.

Three Fat Stock Shows in the West! True, the success of the Chicago
exhibit is having a wide influence. The live stock interests of the
country are fully awakened to the important results from these shows.
They are, indeed, educators of the highest character, and they stimulate
to excellence unthought of by most farmers, ten years ago. Chicago,
Kansas City, Toronto, and now Indianapolis! Is there not room for a
similar exhibition in the great stock State of Iowa? Why do we not hear
from West Liberty or Cedar Rapids?


F. J. ST. CLAIR, URSA, ILL.--Who was the first President to issue a
Thanksgiving Proclamation?

ANSWER.--Washington, in 1798, on the adoption by the States of the
Constitution of the United States.

SUBSCRIBER, PEOTONE, ILL.--How many kinds of soils are there, and what
crops are best suited to bottom and what to upland soils?

ANSWER.--There are really but two soils, agriculturally considered,
fertile soils and barren soils. Generally speaking, fertile soils are
the result of the disintegration of mechanical forces and chemical
agencies of limestone rocks; and barren soils--sandy soils--are produced
by similar means, from rocks largely or wholly composed of silex or
quartz. The mixture of these two give rise to soils of an infinite
variety, almost, having many differing degrees of fertility, down to
barrenness. But you have practically but one soil to deal with, a true
limestone soil of high fertility, which has received considerable
accessions from silicious rocks. Your bottom lands do not differ
materially from the upland, except that the former have received
considerable vegetable matter, which the latter have lost. For the
lowlands, corn, grass, and potatoes are the best crops; for the
highlands, the small grains, sorghum, beans, etc. But provide as much
vegetable matter for the highlands as your lowlands possess, and make
the sum of mixture in both alike, and your highlands will grow corn,
grass, and potatoes as well as the low.

CHARLES VAN METER, SPRINGFIELD, MO.--What is the best work on Grape
Culture? My means are small, and I can not, of course, buy a work
costing ten or twelve dollars, however good it may be. Recommend, for
this latitude, something good and cheap.

ANSWER.--For your needs you will find nothing better than Hussman's
Grapes and Wine, a single volume, which will be sent you from THE
PRAIRIE FARMER office, on remittance of $1.50. But there is something
cheaper still, and very good, indeed, but covering different grounds
from Hussman. The Grape Catalogue of Bush & Son & Meissner. You may
obtain it by sending twenty-five cents to Bush & Son & Meissner,
Bushberg, Missouri.

CONSTANT READER, CHICAGO, ILL.--I am thinking of going down, one of
these days, to Florida, with a view to go into oranges and make more
money than I have, or lose it all. I have read a good deal about the
seductive business, in Florida, though but little of the details of
cultivation in other countries. Tell me where I can find something about
how they manage in Spain and the south of Europe.

ANSWER.--Most of the really valuable works on this subject are in
foreign languages--French, Spanish, or Italian. However, for a wonder, a
late publication of the Department of State, at Washington--Reports from
the consuls of the United States, No. 33--contains a valuable and
lengthy paper on Orange Growing at Valencia, Spain, contributed by the
consul there, which you may perhaps obtain through your member of

J. D. SLADE, COLUMBUS, GA.--I am interested in a large plantation near
this city with a friend who is a practical farmer. We have decided to
abandon the planting of cotton to a great extent and adopt some other
crops. Having concluded to try the castor bean, I wish to ask some
information. 1. Will you give me the names of parties engaged in the
cultivation of the crop in Illinois and Wisconsin? 2. Where can I get
the beans for planting? 3. Describe the soil, mode of preparation,
planting, and cultivation, and give me such other information as we may

ANSWER.--1. Winter wheat and corn have, to a very large extent, taken
the place of castor beans and tobacco in the agriculture of Southern
Illinois. As for Wisconsin, we question whether a bushel of castor beans
was grown there last year. The two sections where they are now mostly
cultivated are in Southwestern Missouri, by the old settlers, and in
Middle and Southern Kansas, by the first comers. For information on the
whole subject, write the Secretary of the Kansas State Board of
Agriculture for the quarterly report issued two or three years ago,
which was mostly devoted to castor-bean culture. The Secretary's address
is Topeka, Kansas. 2. Of the Plant Seed Company, St. Louis, and also
valuable information--that city being the chief market for the castor
beans. 3. The soil best suited to the crop is a light, rich, sandy loam,
though any dry and fertile soil will yield good crops. For some reason
not clearly understood, the castor bean has been found a powerful and
energetic agent in improving some, if not all soils, the experience in
Kansas being, that land which previously refused to yield good crops of
wheat or corn either, after being cultivated two or three years in
castor beans has borne great crops. This has been attributed to the
completeness and the long time the crop shades the ground, and also to
the long tap root of the plant, which makes it a crop of all others,
suited to dry soils, and hot climate. After preparing the land as for
corn, it should be laid off so the plants will stand, for your latitude,
five feet each way. Three or four seeds are usually planted, but when
the beans are five to six inches high, and out of the way of cut-worms,
they are thinned to one. The cultivation is after the manner of Indian
corn, and the planting should be at the same time. The beans for your
latitude will begin to ripen late in July, and continue to the end of
the season, when the plants are killed by severe frosts, light frosts
doing scarcely any damage. In harvesting, a spot of hard ground is
prepared and the pods as gathered are thrown on the ground and dried out
in the sun. And here is where the trouble with making a successful and
profitable crop comes in. The beans must be kept in the dry from the
time of gathering the pods--one soaking rain always seriously damaging,
and frequently destroying the merchantable value of so much of the
harvest as happens to be on the ground. As in the case of broom corn,
the hot, dry, and protracted late summer and fall months of that State,
afford the Kansas farmer something like a monopoly of the castor bean
crop. It is nevertheless giving place to corn and wheat.


The snow continues to accumulate, the last having fallen before midnight
the 11th. There were only about two inches, but it is drifting this
morning, for all it is worth, before a gale from the West. The first and
second snows stay where they were put at first, but the subsequent ones
are in drifts or scattered all abroad, in the many snows and the
excellence of the sleighing, this winter resembles '78-'79, but there is
more snow and the temperature is very much more severe. I suppose there
is well-nigh eighteen inches now on the ground, something quite unusual
in this latitude. Let us hope it will stay sometime longer yet, and save
the fall wheat.

The intensely cold weather of last week was rough on stock of all kinds
and in all conditions, and particularly hard on that portion having
short rations. But I have seen many worse storms and much harder weather
for stock; none however in which the fruits, small or large, suffered
worse. At least that is the general judgment at the present. Peach buds
are killed of course, and it will be lucky if the trees have escaped.
All blackberries, but the Snyder, are dead down to the snow line--and
some think the Snyder has not escaped, for reasons given further on.
Examinations made of the buds of Bartlett, Duchess, Howell, Tyson,
Bigarreau, Seckel, Buffum, Easter Buerre, and others yesterday, showed
them all to be about equally frosted and blackened, and probably
destroyed. Last year our pears suffered a good deal from the sleet of
the second of February, which clung to the trees ten days, and the crop
was a light one. This year, if appearances can be trusted, there will be
less. In the many intense freezes of the last twenty-five years, I have
never known pear buds to be seriously injured; last year being a marked
exception and this still more so. Hardy grapes have probably suffered as
much, and the tender varieties are completely done for. How well the May
cherry has resisted the low temperature remains to be seen. As for the
sweet cherries, it is probably the end of them.

There were buds set for an unusually abundant crop of apples in
1884--the Presidential year. The hardy varieties have escaped material
damage, no doubt, but some of the tender Eastern varieties, like the
Baldwin, Roxbury Russet, in all reasonable probability, have not only
lost their buds but their lives also.

       *       *       *       *       *

The disasters following the very low temperature of last week have no
doubt been increased by the immaturity of the wood, due to the cool,
moist summer. If summers like those of 1882-83 are not warm enough to
ripen the corn crop, buds and wood of fruit trees will not acquire a
maturity that resists intense cold as we see by our experience with
pears, grapes, and peaches in the fruit season of 1883, and which is
almost sure to be repeated with aggravations in 1884. Possibly the
ground being but lightly frozen and protected by a good coat of snow,
may save the apple trees and others from great disaster following thirty
to thirty-five degrees below zero, when falling on half ripened wood,
but the reasonable fear is that orchards on high land in Northern and
Central Illinois, have been damaged more than last year. If so perhaps
it were better after all, since it will open the eyes of a great many to
the mistakes in location heretofore made, and lead them to put out
future orchards where they ought to be.

       *       *       *       *       *

If my word of warning could reach those engaged in taking measures at
Washington to prevent the spread of epidemic and infectious diseases in
our stock, it would be "go slow." If the wishes of a few veterinarians
are met and the demands of a raft of pauper lawyers and politicians are
complied with, it will result in the creation of a half dozen
commissions. Each one of them, as previous ones have done, will find
sufficient reason for their continuance and reports will be made that
half the live stock in the country, South and West, is either in danger
from or suffering under some of the many forms of epidemic or infectious
diseases--and by the way, what justice is there in putting Detmers out
of the way, and clinging to Salmon and Laws, both of whom indorsed
nearly every thing the former did? Beware of commissions, and above all
of putting men upon them whose bread and butter is of more consequence
to them than the stock interest, vast as it is.

    B. F. J.



Of the 2,500,000 packages of seeds distributed by the United States
Agricultural Department during last year more than 2,000,000 packages
were furnished to Congressmen, and I notice that some of the papers are
making unfavorable comments on the fact. Now I do not discover anything
that seems to me radically wrong in this practice of the Department of
Agriculture, or rather in the instructions under which the practice
prevails. There are some men, mostly seedsmen, and some publishers,
mostly those interested in securing patronage through seed premiums, or
which are run in the interest of seed dealers, who grumble a great deal
about this matter, and who sneer at the department and derisively call
it the "Government seed store." But I imagine if the public was
thoroughly informed of the good the department has done by its seed
distributions, it would have a great deal better opinion of this branch
than it now has, and I wish Mr. Dodge, or some other efficient man, who
knows all about it from the beginning would give to the country a
complete history of what has been done in the way of introducing and
disseminating new seeds, plants, and cuttings. I believe if the whole
truth were told it would put an end to ridicule and denunciation. I am
aware that there have been some things connected with this work that
were not exactly correct. There may have been some helping of friends in
the purchase of seeds; there may have been some noxious weed seeds sent
out to the detriment of the country; Congressmen may have used their
quota of seeds for the purpose of keeping themselves solid with their
constituents. But, after all, it is my candid opinion the seed
distributing branch of the department has been an untold blessing to the
farmers of this country. As to this matter of giving a large proportion
of the seeds to Congressmen, I have not much fault to find about that
either, though perhaps a better system of distribution might be devised.
I have yet to learn that an application to a Congressman for seed has
been disregarded, if the seeds were to be had, whether that application
came from a political friend or a political foe. And I do wish that
farmers generally would make more frequent application to the members
from their respective districts than they do. It will be money in their
pockets if they will keep posted in what the department has to
distribute which is valuable, or new and promising, and solicit samples
either from Congressmen or direct from the Commissioner of Agriculture.

       *       *       *       *       *

"Put your thumb down there," said an experienced orchardist to me the
other day. We were talking about the recently started theory that the
best bearing orchards are to be found on the low lands of the prairies.
"You just wait and see if these brag orchards ever bear another crop! It
will be as it was after the severe winter of 1874 and '75, when the
following autumn many of our orchards bore so profusely. The succeeding
year the majority of the trees were as dead as smelts, and the balance
never had vigor enough afterward to produce a decent crop. Once before,"
said he, "we had a similar experience in Illinois. Put your thumb down
at this place and watch for results. Do not say anything about this in
your Wayside Blusterings, at least as coming from me," and of course I
don't. But I wanted the readers of THE PRAIRIE FARMER to help me watch
with fear and trembling for the fulfillment of this horticultural
prophesy, so I straightway make a note of it and ask you all to "put
your thumbs down here" and wait. My friend's theory is that the severe
cold of last winter destroyed a large portion of the roots of these
trees; that the root pruning caused the extra fruitfulness, but proved
too severe for the vitality of the trees to withstand, and that next
year the bulk of the trees will not leaf out at all; and further that
the old theory as taught by Kennecott, Whitney, Edwards, and the rest of
the "fathers," that apple trees cannot thrive with wet feet, was the
correct theory then and is the correct theory now. He would still plant
on high, well drained land.

       *       *       *       *       *

My neighbor up at the "Corners" has a large flock of grade Cotswold
sheep--Cotswolds crossed on large native Merinos. He keeps them to
produce early lambs for the Chicago market. For the last three or four
years he has received, on an average, four dollars per head for his
lambs, taken at his farm. It is a profitable and pleasant sort of
farming. Some day I may tell how he manages, in detail.

       *       *       *       *       *

REMEMBER _that_ $2.00 _pays for_ THE PRAIRIE FARMER _one year, and the
STATES, FREE! _This is the most liberal offer ever made by any
first-class weekly agricultural paper in this country._



Poultry-Raisers. Write for Your Paper.


Let me see--it was sometime during the month of December that the "Man
of the Prairie" went wandering all over the village, and even scoured
the country round about the village in search of an extra dozen eggs,
and went home mad, and, man fashion, threatened to kill off every hen on
the place if they didn't proceed to do their duty like hens and fellow
citizens. It was also during that same December that the fifty Plymouth
Rock hens that we are wintering in the barn cellar, laid, regardless of
the weather, 736 eggs--an average of nearly fifteen eggs apiece.

"Is it a fact that the corn is too poor for manufacture into eggs?"

I don't know anything about the corn in your locality, but I do know
that our Plymouth Rocks had whole corn for supper exactly thirty-one
nights during the month of December--not Western corn, but sound,
well-ripened, Northern corn, that sells in our market for twenty cents
more per bushel than Western corn. I also know that hens fed through the
winter on corn alone will not lay enough to pay for the corn, but in our
climate the poultry-raiser may feed corn profitably fully one-half the
time. When the morning feed consists of cooked vegetable and bran or
shorts, and the noon meal of oats or buckwheat, the supper may be of
corn. I believe the analytical fellows tell us that corn won't make
eggs, and I am sure I don't know whether it will or not, and I don't
much care; but I know that hens will eat corn, when they can get it, in
preference to any other grain, and I know that it "stands by" better
than anything else, and that it is a heat-producing grain, and
consequently just the thing to feed when the days are short and the
nights long, and the mercury fooling around 30 degrees below zero. Hens
need something besides egg material; they must have food to keep up the
body heat, and the poultry-raiser who feeds no corn in winter blunders
just as badly as the one who feeds all corn.

       *       *       *       *       *

Talking about corn for fowls reminds me that the agricultural papers are
full of wails from farmers who were taken in last season on seed corn.
If they had followed the plan of an old farmer of my acquaintance they
would not now be obliged to mourn a corn crop cut off by frost. When
this old chap went to farming forty years ago he bought a peck of seed
corn of the Northern yellow flint variety, and as he "don't believe in
running after all the new seeds that are advertised in the papers," he
is still raising the same variety--only it ripens some three weeks
earlier than it did then. Every fall he does through his field and
selects his seed corn from the best of the earliest ripened ears; when
these ears are husked one or two husks are left on each ear, and then
the husks, with the ears attached, are braided together until there are
fifteen or twenty ears in a string. These strings of seed corn are hung
up in the sun for a fortnight or so, and then hung from the rafters in a
cool, dry loft over the wood-shed; there it remains till seed time comes
again, and it never fails to grow.



"My own hens closed out business six weeks ago," not long since said
"Man of the Prairie." He mentioned also, that he had not much faith in
pure bred poultry. Now he severely complains that no eggs can be found
among the farmers nor in village stores. I will not say that pure
strains of poultry are better layers than common, but, when one pays a
good price for poultry, it is an incentive to provide good shelter and
bestow upon them some manifestations of interest which would not be done
with the common fowls. Herein may lay in part the secret of better
returns from pure strains.

Years ago our chickens 'closed out business' for several months. Of late
this procedure is unknown. We crossed our best common hens with Plymouth
Rock stock, paying a good price. We furnished comfortable quarters, gave
variety of feed, and at present writing the lady-like biddies furnish
enough eggs for our own use and some to sell to stores and neighbors.

We still have a few common hens (not caring to have all pure) yet we
find that with same care and attention, the purer strains give best

Skeptical, like a good many others, we were loth to experiment. Thanks
to Fanny Field for her wise and instructive poultry writings. In a
recent number she seemed to be in doubt whether her writings were heeded
or doing any one good. Let me say in behalf of myself and a few others,
that a few married ladies now have pin money by following her
instructions, who, before, had to go to their lords (husbands) when they
wanted a little money, which was sometimes begrudgingly given, and often
times not at all.





In answer to many inquiries as to the best hive, we will here state that
is a mere matter of choice. Many good movable frame hives are now in
use, free from patents, and while we prefer the Langstroth, there may be
others just as good.

Apiarists differ as to what constitutes the best hive. Novices in bee
culture generally think that they can invent a better hive than any in
use, but after trying their invention for awhile, conclude that they are
not as wise as they thought they were. Many hives are patented yearly by
persons ignorant of the nature of the honey-bee, and few, if any, are
received with favor by intelligent apiarists.

The requisites for a good hive are durability, simplicity, ease of
construction and of working, and pleasing to the eye. We think the
Langstroth embodies these. It was invented by the father of modern
bee-culture. He gave to the world the movable frame; without its use, we
might as well keep our bees in hollow logs, as our fathers did.
Different sizes of movable frames are now in use, but two-thirds of the
apiarists prefer the Langstroth.

Upon many farms, bees may be found in salt barrels, nail-kegs, etc.,
doing little good for their owner, while if they were put into hives,
where the surplus could be obtained in good shape, they would become a
source of income. Specialists either manufacture their own hives, or buy
them in the flat, in the lumber region. As the farmer may need but a few
hives, he may find leisure in winter to make them.

Every farmer needs a workshop, and if he has none, should provide
himself with one. It need not be large, and can be made quite
inexpensively. In his barn, if it is large, partition off a room for a
workshop 12 × 14 feet, and if he not be blessed with a good large barn,
why a thousand feet of common boards, and a load of good stout saplings,
with a little mechanical skill and some muscle, will provide a very good
farm workshop.

Get a few tools, such as a saw, square, plane, hatchet, a brace, and a
few bits, and before twelve months pass away you will wonder how you
ever managed to do without one before; many a singletree or doubletree
can be made, or broken implements repaired during leisure, or the rainy
days of late winter or spring, and the boys will go there to try their
hands, and develop their mechanical skill; exercising both brain and
muscle. Remember that the school of industry is second to no university
in the land.

Now for the hives; in the first place you need a pattern. Purchase of
some dealer or manufacturer of apiarian supplies, a good Langstroth hive
complete with section boxes. Then get a couple of hundred feet (more or
less) of ten inch stock boards, mill dressed on both sides, then with
your pattern hive, workshop, and tools, you are master of the situation.
After your hives are made, don't forget to paint them; it is economy to
paint hives as well as dwelling houses.


For the benefit of those who may not be able to obtain a pattern hive,
or frame, we will give the dimensions. The sides of the Langstroth hive
are 10 inches wide, by 23 inches long, the ends are 12 inches long, the
back end the same width as the sides; front end, 3/8 inches narrower,
and recesses or sets back 3-3/8 inches from portico, all 7/8 inches
thick. The Langstroth frame is 17-1/4 × 9-1/4 inches outside measure.
The length of top bar of frame is 19-1/4 inches, the frame stuff is all
7/8 wide, the top bar is 5/8 × 7/8, and is V shaped on the under side
for a comb guide--the upright pieces 1/2 × 7/8, the bottom pieces
1/4 × 7/8.

The above are the dimensions of an eight frame hive. Strips 1/4 × 7/8
inches are nailed on the outside of the hive 1/4 inch from the upper
edge, and the cap or upper hive rests upon them. We make the cap 22-1/8
inches long by 13-7/8 inches wide in the clear, and ten inches high.

Some apiarists omit the porticos, but we like them, and the bees appear
to enjoy them. Right angled triangle blocks, made right and left, are
used to regulate the entrance. By changing the position of these blocks
on the alighting board the size of the entrance may be varied, and the
bees always directed to it by the shape of the block, without any loss
of time in searching for it--in case of robbing the hive, the hive can
be entirely closed with them. A board was formerly used to cover the
frames, but is now generally abandoned, apiarists preferring duck,
enameled cloth, or heavy muslin.


       *       *       *       *       *

NO SAFER REMEDY can be had for Coughs and Colds, or any trouble of the
Throat, than "_Brown's Bronchial Troches_." Price 25 cents. _Sold only
in boxes._

       *       *       *       *       *



TO FARMERS.--It is important that the SODA OR SALERATUS they use should
be _white_ and _pure_, in common with all similar substances used for

[Illustration: CHURCH & CO'S SODA & SALERATUS]

In making bread with yeast, it is well to use about half a teaspoonful
of the "ARM AND HAMMER" BRAND SODA or SALERATUS at the same time, and
thus make the bread rise better and prevent it becoming sour by
correcting the natural acidity of the yeast.




should use only the "ARM AND HAMMER" brand for cleaning and keeping
milk-pans sweet and clean.

_To insure obtaining only the_ "ARM AND HAMMER" _brand Soda or
Saleratus, buy it in_ "POUND _or_ HALF-POUND PACKAGES," _which bear our
name and trade-mark, as inferior goods are sometimes substituted for
the_ "ARM AND HAMMER" _brand when bought in bulk._

       *       *       *       *       *



(For all sections and purposes.) Write for FREE Pamphlet and Prices to
The Aultman & Taylor Co., Mansfield, Ohio.

       *       *       *       *       *


Monarch Lightning Sawing Machine




The boy in the picture on the left is sawing up logs into 20-inch
lengths, to be split into stovewood for family use. This is much the
BEST and CHEAPEST way to get out your firewood, because the 20-inch
blocks are VERY EASILY split up, a good deal easier and quicker than the
old-fashioned way of cutting the logs into 4-feet lengths, splitting it
into cordwood, and from that sawing it up with a buck saw into
stovewood. We sell a large number of machines to farmers and others for
just this purpose. A great many persons who had formerly burned coal
have stopped that useless expense since getting our Machine. Most
families have one or two boys, 16 years of age and up, who can employ
their spare time in sawing up wood just as well as not. The


will save your paying money and board to ONE hired man and perhaps TWO

The boy at the right in the picture is sawing up cordwood in a buck
frame. You can very easily use our machine in this way if you have
cordwood on hand that you wish to saw up into suitable lengths for

A boy sixteen years old can work the machine all day and not get any
more tired than he would raking hay. The machine runs VERY EASILY, so
easily, in fact, that after giving the crank half a dozen turns, the
operator may let go and the machine will run itself for THREE OR FOUR
REVOLUTIONS. Farmers owning standing timber cannot fail to see the many
advantages of this great LABOR-SAVING AND MONEY-SAVING MACHINE. If you
prefer, you can easily go directly into the woods and easily saw the
logs into 20-inch lengths for your family use, or you can saw them into
4-foot lengths, to be split into cordwood, when it can be readily hauled
off to the village market. Many farmers are making a good deal of money
with this Machine in employing the dull months of the year in selling

It makes a great difference in LABOR AND MONEY both in using our
machine, because you get away with a second man. It takes two men to run
the old-fashioned cross-cut saw, and it makes two backs ache every day
they use it. Not so with our saw.

We offer $1,000 for a sawing machine that is EASIER OPERATED and FASTER
RUNNING than ours. Every farmer should own our machine. It will pay for
itself in one season. Easily operated by a sixteen-year-old boy.

Lumbermen and farmers should GET THE BEST--GET THE CHEAPEST--GET THE

E. DUTTER, Hicksville, O., writes:--It runs so easy that it is JUST FUN
to saw wood.

C. A. COLE, Mexico, N. Y., writes:--With this machine I sawed off an elm
log, twenty-one inches in diameter, in one minute, forty-three seconds.

Z. G. HEGE, Winston, N. C., writes:--I have shown your machine to
several farmers, and all pronounce it a PERFECT SUCCESS.

WM. DILLENBACK, Dayton, Tex., writes:--I am WELL PLEASED with the

L. W. YOST, Seneca, Kan., writes:--I will bet $50 that I can saw as much
with this machine as any two men can with the old-fashioned cross-cut

T. K. BUCK, Mt. Vernon, Ill., writes:--I have given the Monarch a fair
trial, and can truly say it is ALL YOU CLAIM FOR IT, a complete success,
enabling a boy to do the work of two strong men, and indeed, more. I
would not take $75 for the MONARCH and be deprived of the privilege of
having another like it. I sawed off a twenty-inch solid water oak log
twelve times yesterday in FORTY-FIVE MINUTES.

J. M. CRAWFORD. Columbia, S. C., writes:--I tried the Monarch on an oak
log to-day before twenty farmers. All said it WORKED PERFECTLY.

N. B.--We are selling SIX TIMES as many Machines as any other firm,
simply because our Machine gives perfect satisfaction. Our factory is
running day and night to fill orders. Send in your order at once. The
BEST is the CHEAPEST. Our agent sold four machines in one day. Another
sold twenty-eight in his township. Another agent cleared $100 in one

AND CANADA. Write for Latest Illustrated Catalogue giving Special Terms
and scores of Testimonials.



       *       *       *       *       *

REMEMBER _that $2.00 pays for_ THE PRAIRIE FARMER _from this
date to January 1, 1885; For $2.00 you get it for one year and a copy
_This is the most liberal offer ever made by any first-class weekly
agricultural paper in this country._



The last number of the American Naturalist presents the following from
David S. Jorden, of Bloomington, Indiana. It is one of those gossipy
bits about the great scientist that every body enjoys reading.

In a recent visit to England, the writer strolled into the village of
Down in Kent, and talked with some of the villagers in regard to Mr.
Darwin, whose beautiful home is just outside the little town.

Some of this talk, although in itself idle and valueless, may have an
interest to readers, as showing how a great man looks to his smaller

The landlord of the "George Inn" said that "all the people wished to
have Mr. Darwin buried in Down, but the government would not let them.
It would have helped the place so much. It would have brought hosts of
people down to see his grave. Especially it would have helped the hotel
business which is pretty dull in winter time.

"Mr. Darwin was a very fine-looking man. He had a high forehead and wore
a long beard. Still, if you had met him on the street, perhaps, you
would not have taken much notice of him unless you knew that he was a
clever man."

"Sir John Lubbock (Darwin's friend and near neighbor) is a very clever
man, too, but not so clever nor so remarkable-looking as Mr. Darwin. He
is very fond of hants (ants), and plants, and things."

At Keston, three miles from Down, the landlady of the Grayhound had
never heard of Mr. Darwin until after his death. There was then
considerable talk about his being buried in Westminster, but nothing was
said of him before.

Several persons had considerable to say of Mr. Darwin's extensive and
judicious charity to the poor. To Mr. Parslow, for many years his
personal servant, Mr. Darwin gave a life pension of £50, and the rent of
the handsome "Home Cottage" in Down. During the time of a water famine
in that region, he used to ride about on horseback to see who needed
water, and had it brought to them at his own expense from the stream at
St. Mary's Cray.

"He was," said Mr. Parslow, "a very social, nice sort of a gentleman,
very joking and jolly indeed; a good husband and a good father and a
most excellent master. Even his footmen used to stay with him as long as
five years. They would rather stay with him than take a higher salary
somewhere else. The cook came there while young and stayed there till
his death, nearly thirty years later.

"Mrs Darwin is a pleasant lady, a year older than her husband. Their
boys are all jolly, nice young fellows. All have turned out so well, not
one of them rackety, you know. Seven children out of the ten are now

"George Darwin is now a professor in Oxford. He was a barrister at
first; had his wig and gown and all, but had to give it up on account of
bad health. He would have made a hornament to the profession.

"Francis Darwin is a doctor, and used to work with his father in the
greenhouse. He is soon to marry a lady who lectures on Botany in Oxford.

"For the first twenty years after Mr. Darwin's return from South
America, his health was very bad--much more than later. He had a stomach
disease which resulted from sea-sickness while on the voyage around the
world. Mr. Parslow learned the watercure treatment and treated Mr.
Darwin in that system, for a long time, giving much relief.

"Mr. Darwin used to do his own writing but had copyists to get his work
ready for the printer. He was always an early man. He used to get up at
half past six. He used to bathe and then go out for a walk all around
the place. Then Parslow used to get breakfast for him before the rest of
the family came down. He used to eat rapidly, then went to his study and
wrote till after the rest had breakfast. Then Mrs. Darwin came in and he
used to lie half an hour on the sofa, while she or someone else read to
him. Then he wrote till noon, then went out for an hour to walk. He used
to walk all around the place. Later in life, he had a cab, and used to
ride on horseback. Then after lunch at one, he used to write awhile.
Afterwards he and Mrs. Darwin used to go to the bedroom, where he lay
on a sofa and often smoked a cigarette while she read to him. After this
he used to walk till dinner-time at five. Before the family grew up,
they used to dine early, at half-past one, and had a meat-tea at
half-past six.

"Sometimes there were eighteen or twenty young Darwins of different
families in the house. Four-in-hand coaches of young Darwins used
sometimes to come down from London. Mr. Darwin liked children. They
didn't disturb him in the least. There were sometimes twenty or thirty
pairs of little shoes to be cleaned of a morning, but there were always
plenty of servants to do this.

"The gardener used to bring plants into his room often of a morning, and
he used to tie bits of cotton on them, and try to make them do things.
He used to try all sorts of seeds. He would sow them in pots in his

"There were a quantity of people in Westminster Abbey when he was
buried. Mr. Parslow and the cook were among the chief mourners and sat
in the Jerusalem chamber. The whole church was as full of people as they
could stand. There was great disappointment in Down that he was not
buried there. He loved the place, and we think that he would rather have
rested there had he been consulted."

       *       *       *       *       *


To Our Readers.

interests of the Farmer, Gardener, Florist, Stock Breeder, Dairyman,
Etc., and every species of industry connected with that great portion of
the People of the World, the PRODUCERS. Now in the Forty-Second Year of
its existence, and never, during more than two score years, having
missed the regular visit to its patrons, it will continue to maintain
AND FIRESIDE JOURNAL. It will from time to time add new features of
interest, securing for each department the ablest writers of practical

THE PRAIRIE FARMER will discuss, without fear or favor, all topics of
interest properly belonging to a Farm and Fireside Paper, treat of the
most approved practices in AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE, BREEDING, ETC.;
the varied Machinery, Implements, and improvements in same, for use both
in Field and House; and, in fact, everything of interest to the
Agricultural community, whether in FIELD, MARKET, OR HOME CIRCLE.

ETC.; ANSWER INQUIRIES on all manner of subjects which come within its
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Chicago. Ill.

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Discovered Barely in Time--The Most Deceptive and Luring of Modern Evils
Graphically Described.

(_Syracuse Journal._)

Something of a sensation was caused in this city yesterday by a rumor
that one of our best-known citizens was about to publish a statement
concerning some unusual experiences during his residence in Syracuse.
How the rumor originated it is impossible to say, but a reporter
immediately sought Dr. S. G. Martin, the gentleman in question, and
secured the following interview:

"What about this rumor, Doctor, that you are going to make a public
statement of some important matters?"

"Just about the same as you will find in all rumors--some truth; some
fiction. I had contemplated making a publication of some remarkable
episodes that have occurred in my life, but have not completed it as

"What is the nature of it, may I inquire?"

"Why, the fact that I am a human being instead of a spirit. I have
passed through one of the most wonderful ordeals that perhaps ever
occurred to any man. The first intimation I had of it was several years
ago, when I began to feel chilly at night and restless after retiring.
Occasionally this would be varied by a soreness of the muscles and
cramps in my arms and legs. I thought, as most people would think, that
it was only a cold and so paid as little attention to it as possible.
Shortly after this I noticed a peculiar catarrhal trouble and my throat
also became inflamed. As if this were not variety enough I felt sharp
pains in my chest, and a constant tendency to headache."

"Why didn't you take the matter in hand and check it right where it

"Why doesn't everybody do so? Simply because they think it is only some
trifling and passing disorder. These troubles did not come all at once
and I thought it unmanly to heed them. I have found, though, that every
physical neglect must be paid for and with large interest. Men can not
draw drafts on their constitution without honoring them sometime. These
minor symptoms I have described, grew until they were giants of agony. I
became more nervous; had a strange fluttering of the heart, an inability
to draw a long breath and an occasional numbness that was terribly
suggestive of paralysis. How I could have been so blind as not to
understand what this meant I can not imagine."

"And did you do nothing?"

"Yes, I traveled. In the spring of 1879 I went to Kansas and Colorado,
and while in Denver, I was attacked with a mysterious hemorrage of the
urinary organs and lost twenty pounds of flesh in three weeks. One day
after my return I was taken with a terrible chill and at once advanced
to a very severe attack of pneumonia. My left lung soon entirely filled
with water and my legs and body became twice their natural size. I was
obliged to sit upright in bed for several weeks in the midst of the
severest agony, with my arms over my head, and constant fear of

"And did you still make no attempt to save yourself?"

"Yes, I made frantic efforts. I tried everything that seemed to offer
the least prospect of relief. I called a council of doctors and had them
make an exhaustive chemical and microscopical examination of my
condition. Five of the best physicians of Syracuse and several from
another city said I must die!

"It seemed as though their assertion was true for my feet became cold,
my mouth parched, my eyes wore a fixed glassy stare, my body was covered
with a cold, clammy death sweat, and I read my fate in the anxious
expressions of my family and friends."

"But the _finale_?"

"Came at last. My wife, aroused to desperation, began to administer a
remedy upon her own responsibility and while I grew better very slowly,
I gained ground surely until, in brief, I have no trace of the terrible
Bright's disease from which I was dying, and am a perfectly well man.
This may sound like a romance, but it is true, and my life, health and
what I am are due to Warner's Safe Cure, which I wish was known to and
used by the thousands who I believe, are suffering this minute as I was
originally. Does not such an experience as this justify me in making a
public statement?"

"It certainly does. But then Bright's disease is not a common complaint,

"Not common! On the contrary it is one of the most common. The trouble
is, few people know they have it. It has so few marked symptoms until
its final stages that a person may have it for years, each year getting
more and more in its power and not suspect it. It is quite natural I
should feel enthusiastic over this remedy while my wife is even more so
than I am. She knows of its being used with surprising results by many
ladies for their own peculiar ailments, over which it has singular

The statement drawn out by the above interview is amply confirmed by
very many of our most prominent citizens, among them being Judge Reigel,
and Col. James S. Goodrich, of the Times, while Gen. Dwight H. Bruce and
Rev. Prof. W. P. Coddington, D. D., give the remedy their heartiest
indorsement. In this age of wonders, surprising things are quite common,
but an experience so unusual as that of Dr. Martin's and occurring here
in our midst, may well cause comment and teach a lesson. It shows the
necessity of guarding the slightest approach of physical disorder and by
the means which has been proven the most reliable and efficient. It
shows the depth to which one can sink and yet be rescued and it proves
that few people need suffer if these truths are observed.

       *       *       *       *       *


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The most promising field for men of talent and ambition at the present
day is the railroad service. The pay is large in many instances, while
the service is continuous and honorable. Most of our railroad men began
life on the farm. Of this class is the author of the accompanying books
descriptive of railway operations, who has been connected continuously
with railroads as a subordinate and officer for 27 years. He was brought
up on a farm, and began railroading as a lad at $7 per month. He has
written a number of standard books on various topics connected with the
organization, construction, management and policy of railroads. These
books are of interest not only to railroad men but to the general reader
as well. They are indispensable to the student. They present every phase
of railroad life, and are written in an easy and simple style that both
interests and instructs. The books are as follows:

Treatise on Construction and Operation.
In Two Volumes, 850 pages.                         $4.00

Directions for Keeping
the Expenditure Accounts.                           2.00

Explaining the Organization of
Railroads.                                          2.50

OF RAILROADS."--An interesting work
on this important service; 425 pages.               2.00

The Principal Rules and Regulations governing
Trains; 280 pages.                                  2.00

how they should be kept. Pamphlet.                  1.00

Uses Illustrated and Described. Pamphlet.            .50

"MUTUAL GUARANTEE."--A Treatise on Mutual
Suretyship. Pamphlet.                                .50

Any of the above books will be sent post paid on receipt
of price, by

150 Monroe St.          CHICAGO, ILL.

Money should be remitted by express, or by draft check or post office

       *       *       *       *       *



LOOK at this MAGNIFICENT OFFER for 1884. One of these beautiful Cluster
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HOUSEHOLD & FARM, 9 Spruce Street,
P. O. Box 2834. NEW YORK.


    For nothing lovelier can be found
    In woman than to study _household_ good.--_Milton._



    The low school-house stood in a green Wabash wood
      Lookin' out on long levels of corn like a sea--
      A little log-house, hard benches, and we,
    Big barefooted boys and rough 'uns, we stood
      In line with the gals and tried to get 'head
      At spellin' each day when the lessons was said.

    But one, Bally Dean, tall, bony, and green
      As green corn in the milk, stood fast at the foot--
      Stood day after day, as if he'd been put
    A soldier on guard there did poor Bally Dean.
      And stupid! God made him so stupid I doubt--
      But I guess God who made us knows what He's about.

    He'd a long way to walk. But he wouldn't once talk
      Of that, nor the chores for his mother who lay
      A shakin' at home. Still, day after day
    He stood at the foot till the class 'gan to mock!
      Then to master he plead, "Oh I'd like to go head!"
      Now it wasn't so much, but the way it was said.

    Then the war struck the land! Why the barefooted band
      It just nailed up that door: and the very next day,
      With master for Cap'en, went marchin' away;
    And Bally the butt of the whole Wabash band.
      But he bore with it all, yet once firmly said,
      "When I get back home, I'm agoin' up head!"

    Oh, that school-house that stood in the wild Wabash wood!
      The rank weeds were growin' like ghosts through the floor.
      The squirrels hulled nuts on the sill of the door.
    And the gals stood in groups scrapin' lint where they stood.
      And we boys! How we sighed; how we sickened and died
      For the days that had been, for a place at their side.

    Then one fever-crazed and his better sense dazed
      And dulled with heart-sickness all duty forgot;
      Deserted, was taken, condemned to be shot!
    And Bally Dean guardin' his comrade half crazed,
      Slow paced up and down while he slept where he lay
      In the tent waitin' death at the first flush of day.

    And Bally Dean thought of the boy to be shot,
      Of the fair girl he loved in the woods far away;
      Of the true love that grew like a red rose of May;
    And he stopped where he stood, and he thought and he thought
      Then a sudden star fell, shootin' on overhead.
      And he knew that his mother beckon'd onto the dead.

    And he said what have I? Though I live though I die.
      Who shall care for me now? Then the dull, muffled drum
      Struck his ear, and he knew that the master had come
    With the squad. And he passed in the tent with a sigh,
      And the doomed lad crept forth, and the drowsy squad led
      With low trailin' guns to the march of the dead.

    Then with face turned away tow'rd a dim streak of day,
      And his voice full of tears the poor bowed master said,
      As he fell on his knees and uncovered his head:
    "Come boys it is school time, let us all pray."
      And we prayed. And the lad by the coffin alone
      Was tearless, was silent, was still as a stone.

    "In line," master said, and he stood at the head;
      But he couldn't speak now. So he drew out his sword
      And dropped the point low for the last fatal word.
    Then the rifles rang out, and a soldier fell dead!
      The master sprang forward. "Great Heaven," he said,
      "It is Bally, poor Bally, and he's gone up head!"

    --_Joaquin Miller._


A very fat young woman came to my office and asked to see me privately.
When we were alone she said:

"Are you sure no one can overhear us?"

"Quite sure."

"You won't laugh at me, will you?"

"Madam, I should be unworthy of your confidence if I could be guilty of
such a rudeness."

"Thank you, sir; but no one ever called upon you on such a ridiculous
errand. You won't think me an idiot, will you?"

"I beg of you to go on."

"You don't care to know my name or residence?"

"Certainly not, if you care to conceal them."

"I have called to consult you about the strangest thing in the world. I
will tell you all. I am twenty-three years old. When I was nineteen I
weighed 122 pounds; now I weigh 209; I am all filling up with fat. I can
hardly breathe. The best young man that ever lived loves me, and has
been on the point of asking me to marry him, but of course he sees I am
growing worse all the time and he don't dare venture. I can't blame him.
He is the noblest man in the world, and could marry any one he chooses.
I don't blame him for not wishing to unite himself to such a tub as I
am. Why, Doctor, you don't know how fat I am. I am a sight to behold.
And now I have come to see if any thing can be done. I know you have
studied up all sorts of curious subjects, and I thought you might be
able to tell me how to get rid of this dreadful curse."

She had been talking faster and faster, and with more and more feeling
(after the manner of fat women, who are always emotional), until she
broke down in hysterical sobs.

I inquired about her habits--table and otherwise. She replied:

"Oh, I starve myself; I don't eat enough to keep a canary bird alive,
and yet I grow fatter and fatter all the time. I don't believe anything
can be done for me. We all have our afflictions, and I suppose we ought
to bear them with fortitude. I wouldn't mind for myself, but it's just
breaking his heart; if it wasn't for him I could be reconciled."

I then explained to her our nervous system, and the bearing certain
conditions of one class of nerves has upon the deposition of adipose
tissue. I soon saw she was not listening, but was mourning her sorrow.
Then I asked her if she would be willing to follow a prescription I
might give her.

"Willing? willing?" she cried. "I would be willing to go through fire,
or to have my flesh cut off with red-hot knives. There is nothing I
would not be willing to endure if I could only get rid of this horrible

I prepared a prescription for her, and arranged that she should call
upon me once a week, that I might supervise her progress and have
frequent opportunities to encourage her. The prescription which I read
to her was this:

1. For breakfast eat a piece of beef or mutton as large as your hand,
with a slice of white bread twice as large. For dinner the same amount
of meat, or, if preferred, fish or poultry, with the same amount of
farinaceous or vegetable food in the form of bread or potato. For
supper, nothing.

2. Drink only when greatly annoyed with thirst; then a mouthful of
lemonade without sugar.

3. Take three times a week some form of bath, in which there shall be
immense perspiration. The Turkish bath is best. You must work, either in
walking or some other way, several hours a day.

"But, doctor, I can't walk; my feet are sore."

"I thought that might be the case, but if the soles of your shoes are
four inches broad, and are thick and strong, walking will not hurt your
feet. You must walk or work until you perspire freely, every day of the
week. Of course, you are in delicate health, with little endurance, but,
as you have told me that you are willing to do anything, you are to work
hard at something six or seven hours every day."

4. You must rise early in the morning, and retire late at night. Much
sleep fattens people.

5. The terrible corset you have on, which compresses the center of the
body, making you look a great deal fatter than you really are, must be
taken off, and you must have a corset which any dress maker can fit to
you--a corset for the lower part of the abdomen, which will raise this
great mass and support it.

"This is all the advice I have to give you at present. At first you will
lose half a pound a day. In the first three months you will lose from
twenty to thirty pounds. In six months, forty pounds. You will
constantly improve in health, get over this excessive emotion, and be
much stronger. Every one knows that a very fat horse weighing 1,200
pounds, can be quickly reduced to 1,000 pounds with great improvement to
activity and health. It is still easier with a human being. That you may
know exactly what is being done, I wish you to be weighed; write the
figures in your memorandum, and one week from now, when you come again,
weigh yourself and tell me how much you have lost."

I happened to be out of the city and did not see her until her second
visit, two weeks from our last meeting. It was plain when she entered
that already her system was being toned up, and when we were again in my
private office, she said:

"I have lost six and a half pounds; not quite as much as you told me,
but I am delighted, though nearly starved. I have done exactly as you
prescribed, and shall continue to if it kills me. You must be very
careful not to make any mistakes, for I shall do just as you say. At
first the thirst was dreadful. I thought I could not bear it. But now I
have very little trouble with that."

About four months after our first meeting this young woman brought a
handsome young man with her, and after a pleasant chat, she said to me:

"We are engaged; but I have told my friend that I shall not consent to
become his wife until I have a decent shape. When I came to you I
weighed 209 pounds; I now weigh 163 pounds. I am ten times as strong,
active, and healthy as I was then, and I have made up my mind, for my
friend has left it altogether to me, that when I have lost ten or
fifteen pounds more, we shall send you the invitations."

As the wedding day approached she brought the figures 152 on a card, and
exclaimed, with her blue eyes running over:

"I am the happiest girl in the world, and don't you think I have
honestly earned it? I think I am a great deal happier than I should have
been had I not worked for it."

The papers said the bride was beautiful. I thought she was, and I
suppose no one but herself and husband felt as much interested in that
beauty as I did. I took a sort of scientific interest in it.

We made the usual call upon them during the first month, and when, two
months after the wedding, they were spending the evening with us, I
asked him if his wife had told him about my relations with her
avoirdupois? He laughed heartily, and replied:

"Oh, yes, she has told me everything, I suppose: but wasn't it funny?"

"Not very. I am sure you wouldn't have thought it funny if you could
have heard our first interview. It was just the reverse of funny; don't
you think so madam?"

"I am sure it was the most anxious visit I ever paid any one. Doctor, my
good husband says he should have married me just the same, but I think
he would have been a goose if he had."

"Yes," said the husband, "it was foreordained that we two should be

"To be sure it was," replied the happy wife, "because it was
foreordained that I should get rid of those horrid fifty-seven pounds. I
am going down till I reach one hundred and forty pounds, and there I
will stop, unless my husband says one hundred and thirty. I am willing
do anything to please him."--_Dio Lewis' Monthly._


It is not the most expensively furnished houses that are the most
homelike, besides comparatively few persons have the means to gratify
their love of pretty little ornaments with which to beautify their
homes. It is really painful to visit some houses; there naked walls and
cheerless rooms meet you yet there are many such, and children in them
too. How much might these homes be brightened by careful forethought in
making some little ornaments that are really of no expense, save the

Comb cases, card receivers, letter holders, match safes, paper racks,
cornucopias, and many other pretty and useful things can easily be made
of nice clean paste board boxes (and the boxes are to be found in a
variety of colors). For any of these cut out the parts and nicely sew
them together, and the seams and raw edges can be covered with narrow
strips of bright hued paper or tape. Ornament them with transfer or
scrap pictures.

I have seen very pretty vases for holding dried flowers and grasses,
made of plain dark brown pasteboard, and the seams neatly covered with
narrow strips of paper. Pretty ottomans can be made by covering any
suitable sized box with a bit of carpeting, and stuffing the top with
straw or cotton. Or, if the carpeting is not convenient, piece a
covering of worsteds. A log cabin would be a pretty pattern.

To amuse the children during the long winter months, make a scrap-book
of pictures. Collect all the old illustrated books, papers, and
magazines, and cut out the pictures and with mucilage nicely paste them
in a book, first removing alternate leaves so it will not be too bulky.
Perhaps this last remark is slightly wandering from my subject, but I
can't help it, I love the little folks and want them happy. Cares and
trouble will come to them soon enough. Autograph albums are quite the
rage nowadays, and children get the idea and quite naturally think it
pretty nice, and want an album too. For them make a pretty album in the
form of a boot. For the outside use plain red cardboard; for the inside
leaves use unruled paper; fasten at the top with two tiny bows of narrow
blue ribbon. A lady sent my little girl an autograph album after this
pattern for a birthday present and it is very neat indeed. Any of the
little folks who want a pattern of it can have it and welcome by sending
stamp to pay postage. For the wee little girl make a nice rag doll; it
will please her quite as well as a boughten one, and certainly last much
longer. I have a good pattern for a doll which you may also have if you
wish it. A nice receptacle for pins, needles, thread, etc., can be made
in form of an easy chair or sofa. Cut the part of pasteboard and cover
the seat, arms, and back with cloth, and stuff with cotton. Brackets
made of pasteboard will do service a long time.


       *       *       *       *       *





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As I promised you last week, I will try and tell you about the bear I
saw a few months ago away down in Nova Scotia, not many miles from that
quaint old city of Halifax. Do I hear some of THE PRAIRIE FARMER boys
and girls exclaim, as a real grown-up lady did just before I left
Chicago: "Halifax! why, yes, I have heard tell of the place, but did not
think that anybody ever really went there." People do go there, however,
by the hundreds in the summer time, and a most delightful, hospitable,
charming class of inhabitants do they find the Blue Noses, as they are
called--that is, when one goes to them very well introduced.

But we will have a little talk about Halifax and surroundings when you
have heard about the bear.

Well, in the first place I did not, of course, see the bear in the city,
but in a place called Sackville--a section of country about five miles
long, and extending over hill and dale and valley; through woods and
across streams. My host owned a beautiful farm--picturesquely beautiful
only, not with a money-making beauty--situated upon the slope of a hill,
where one could stand and look upon the most tender of melting sunsets,
away off toward the broad old ocean.

One morning as we were all gathered upon the front stoop, grandpa,
mamma, baby, kitten and all, we looked down the valley and saw coming up
the hill, led by two men, an immense yellow bear. One of the farm hands
was sent to call the men and the bear up to the house. The men, who were
Swiss, were glad enough to come, as they were taking bruin through the
country to show off his tricks and make thereby a little money.

The children were somewhat afraid at first, but soon felt quite safe
when they saw he was firmly secured by a rope. Old bruin's keeper first
gave him a drink of water, then poured a pailful over him, which he
seemed to enjoy very much, as the day was a warm one. One of the men
said something in Swiss, at which the bear gave a roar-like grunt and
commenced to dance. Around and around the great lumbering fellow went on
his two hind legs, holding his fore paws in the air. It was not what one
would call a very "airy waltz," however. Again the keeper spoke, and
immediately bruin threw himself upon the ground and turned somersaults,
making us all laugh heartily. He then told him to shake hands (but all
in Swiss), and it was too funny to see the great awkward animal waddle
up on his hind legs and extend first one paw and then the other. But
what interested us all most, both big and little, was to hear the man
say, "Kisse me," and then to watch the bear throw out his long tongue
and lick his keeper's face.

We then gave the bear some milk to drink, when suddenly he gave a bound
forward toward the baby. But he was securely tied, as we well knew. The
milk roused all the beast's savage instincts, one of the men said.

But what will interest you most of all will be the fact that on the farm
(which consisted of five hundred acres, nearly all woodland) there were
seen almost every morning the footprints of a real savage bear. The
sheep were fast disappearing, and the farmers about were not a little
worried. One day I went for a walk into these same woods, and such
woods! you Western boys and girls could not possibly imagine them--the
old moss-covered logs, and immense trees cut down years ago and left to
lie there until all overgrown with mosses and lichens. I never before
experienced such a feeling of solitude as in that walk of over a mile in
length through those deep dark woods, where sometimes we had literally
to cut our way through with our little hatchets (we always carried them
with us when in the forest).

As I sauntered on, those lines of Longfellow's in Evangeline, came
unconsciously to my mind, so exactly did they describe the place:

    This is the forest primeval. The murmuring pines and the hemlocks,
    Bearded with moss, and in garments green, indistinct in the twilight,
    Stand like Druids of old, with voices sad and prophetic.
    Stand like harpers hoar, with beards that rest on their bosoms.
    Loud from its rocky caverns, the deep voiced neighboring ocean
    Speaks, and in accents disconsolate answers the wail of the forest.

Nova Scotia is, as you all know the Acadian country of which our own
fireside poet writes so beautifully. It was but a few miles from where I
was visiting that the scene of Evangeline, that exquisitely tender
romance which so thrills the hearts of both old and young, was laid. As
I drove through the country, coming ever and anon unexpectedly upon one
of the many beautiful lakes from half a mile to two miles in length, in
fancy I pictured the fair Evangeline and her guide, the good Father
Felician, skirting these lakes in a light canoe as they traversed the
whole and through in the sad and fruitless search for the lost lover

No wonder the soul of the poet was filled with such strange, mystic
beauty which thus found expression in rhythm and song, for Acadia has an
enchantment all its own and can best be interpreted by the diviner
thought of the poet.

But I am afraid, boys and girls, that I have chatted with you so long
now that there will be scarcely room this week to touch upon Halifax.
But, however, if you wish, I will try and talk to you about it next
week, and tell you of some of the winter sports the little Blue Noses
indulge in in the winter time.



Me an Billy we ben readn fairy tales, an I never see such woppers. I bet
the feller wich rote em will be burnt every tiny little bit up wen he
dies, but Billy says they are all true but the facks. Uncle Ned sed cude
I tell one, and I ast him wot about, and he sed: "Wel Johnny, as you got
to do the tellin I'le leav the choice of subjeck entirely to you; jest
giv us some thing about a little boy that went and sook his forten."

So I sed: "One time there was a little boy went out for to seek his
forten, and first thing he see was great big yello posy on a punkin

Then Uncle Ned he sed: "Johnny, was that the punkin vine wich your bed
once had a bizness connection with?" But I didn't anser, only went on
with the story.

"So the little boy he wocked into the posy, and crold down the vine on
his hands and kanees bout ten thousan hundred miles, till he come bime
bi to a door, wich he opened an went in an found hisself in a grate big
house, ofle nice like a kings pallows or a hotell. But the little boy
dident find any body to home and went out a other door, where he see a
ocion with a bote, and he got in the bote."

Then Uncle Ned he sed a uther time: "Johnny, excuse the ignance of a man
wich has been in Injy an evry were, but is it the regular thing for
punkin vines to have sea side resorts in em?"

But I only sed: "Wen the little boy had saild out of site of land the
bote it sunk, and he went down, down, down in the water, like he was
tied around the neck of a mill stone, till he was swollowed by a wale,
cos wales is the largest of created beings wich plows the deep, but
lions is the king of beests, an the American eagle can lick ol other
birds, hooray! Wen the boy was a seekn his forten in the stummeck of the
wales belly he cut to a fence, an wen he had got over the fence he found
hisself in a rode runin thru a medder, and it was a ofle nice country
fur as he cude see."

Uncle Ned sed: "Did he put up at the same way side inn wich was
patternized by Jonah wen he pennitrated to that part of the morl

But I said: "Bimebi he seen a rope hangin down from the ski, and he
begin for to clime it up, a sayin, 'Snitchety, snatchety, up I go,' 'wot
time is it old witch?' 'niggers as good as a white man,' 'fee-faw-fum,'
'Chinese mus go,' 'all men is equil fore de law,' 'blitherum, blatherum,
boo,' and all the words of madgick wich he cude think of. After a wile
it got reel dark, but he kep on a climeing, and pretty sune he see a
round spot of dalite over his hed, and then he cum up out of a well in a
grate city."

Jest then my father he came in, and he said: "Johnny, you get the bucket
and go to the wel and fetch sum water for your mother to wash the

But I said it was Billy's tern, and Billy he sed twasent no sech thing,
and I said he lide, and he hit me on the snoot of my nose, and we fot a
fite, but victery percht upon the banners of my father, cos he had a
stick. Then wile me and Billy was crying Uncle Ned he spoke up and
begun: "One time there was a grate North American fairy taler--"

But I jest fetched Mose a kick, wich is the cat, and went out and pitcht
into Sammy Doppy, which licked me reel mean.

       *       *       *       *       *


The following list embraces the names of responsible and reliable
Breeders in their line, and parties wishing to purchase or obtain
information can feel assured that they will be honorably dealt with:



Mills, Charles F.....................Springfield, Illinois



Mills, Charles F.....................Springfield, Illinois



Mills, Charles F.....................Springfield, Illinois

Chester Whites.

W.A. Gilbert......................Wauwatosa Wis.



Mills, Charles F.....................Springfield, Illinois

       *       *       *       *       *


Jersey Bulls.

JERSEY BREEDERS desiring young bulls of the most approved form and
breeding, and representing the families most noted for large yields of
butter, will serve their interests by addressing the undersigned.

Stock recorded in A. J. C. C. H. R.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cotswold Sheep.

CHOICE representatives of this large and popular breed of sheep for sale
at prices satisfactory to buyers.

Ewes and rams of different ages.

Breeding stock recorded in the American Cotswold Record.


Springfield, Ill.

       *       *       *       *       *




Winner of First Prize Chicago Fat Stock Show 1878. Originators of this
famous breed. Also breeders of Pekin Ducks and Light Brahma Fowls. Stock
for sale. Send for circular A.


Dyer, Lake Co. Ind.

       *       *       *       *       *


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Address Consulting Physician of
MARSTON REMEDY CO., 46W. 14th St., New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


One said to the other "By the way how is that Catarrh of yours?" "Why
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    "All honor to him who shall win the prize,"
      The world has cried for a thousand years,
    But to him who tries and who fails and dies
      I give great honor and glory and tears.

    Give glory and honor and pitiful tears
      To all who fail in their deeds sublime,
    Their ghosts are many in the van of years,
      They were born with Time in advance of Time.

    Oh, great is the hero who wins a name,
      But greater many and many a time
    Some pale-faced fellow who dies in shame
      And lets God finish the thought sublime.

    And great is the man with a sword undrawn,
      And good is the man who refrains from wine;
    But the man who fails and yet still fights on,
      Lo, he is the twin-born brother of mine.

    --_Joaquin Miller._


Hon. Henry Cavendish was born in England, Oct. 10, 1731, and died Feb.
21, 1810. Cavendish was the son of Lord Charles Cavendish, a son of the
Duke of Devonshire; and his mother was Lady Anne Grey, daughter of
Henry, Duke of Kent. It is thus seen that the subject of this sketch
belonged to two of the two most aristocratic, noble families in England,
having for grandfathers the Dukes of Kent and Devonshire. This man, who
became one of the most distinguished chemists and physicists of the age,
born in high life, of exalted position and wealth, passed through the
period of his boyhood and early manhood in utter obscurity, and a dense
cloud rests upon his early life. Indeed, the place of his birth has been
in dispute; some of his biographers asserting that he was born in
England, others that he was born in France or Italy. It is now known
that he was born at Nice, whither his mother had gone for the sake of

It seems incredible that one highly distinguished, who lived and died so
recently, should have almost entirely escaped observation until he had
reached middle life. From fragments of his early history which have been
collected, we learn that he was a peculiar boy,--shy, reticent, fond of
solitary walks, without playfellows, and utterly insensible to the
attractions of home and social life. He was born with inflexible
reserve; and the love of retirement so manifest in in later life
mastered all his instincts even when a boy. If he had been of poor and
obscure parentage, it would not seem so strange that one who for nearly
fifty years was a Fellow of the Royal Society, and for a lengthened
period a member of the Institute of France, and an object of European
interest to men of science, had no one to record the incidents of his
early life. But he lost his mother when almost an infant, and this sad
event probably influenced greatly his early career, and isolated him
from the world in which he lived.

We find him at Dr. Newcome's school at Hackney in 1742, and from this
school he went directly to Cambridge, where he remained until 1753. He
did not graduate, true to his odd instincts, although he spent the full
period for a degree at Cambridge. No records of his college life have
been preserved, and, as he went to London, it is wonderful that the next
ten years of his life remain a blank. He joined the Royal Society in
1760, but contributed nothing until 1766, when he published his first
paper on "Factitious Airs." Cavendish was a great mathematician,
electrician, astronomer, meteorologist, and as a chemist he was equally
learned and original. He lived at a time when science was to a large
extent but blank empiricism; even the philosophy of combustion was based
on erroneous and absurd hypotheses, and the speculation of experimenters
were wild and fantastic. He was the first to submit these speculations
to crucial tests, to careful and accurate experiment; and the results
which were given to the world introduced a new era in scientific
knowledge. We have so much to say regarding the man, that we can only
present a brief outline of his great discoveries. Alone, in a spacious
house on Clapham Common, outside of London, did this singular man work
through many long years, until he filled it with every possible device
capable of unfolding or illustrating principles in science.

At the time of a visit to London in 1856 this famous house was standing,
and remained as it was when the owner left it, about a half century
before. The exterior of the house would not attract special attention;
but within, the whole world could not, perhaps, furnish a parallel.
Anvils and forges, files and hammers, grindstones and tempering-troughs,
furnaces and huge bellows, had converted the panelled and wall-frescoed
drawing-room into the shop of a blacksmith. In the spacious dining-room
chemical apparatus occupied the place of furniture. Electrical machines,
Leyden-jars, eudiometers, thermometric scales, philosophical
instruments, were distributed through the chambers. The third story,
save two bed-chambers,--one for the housekeeper, the other for the
footman,--had been fitted up for an observatory. The lenses and
achromatic glasses, tubes and specula, concave mirrors, and
object-prisms, and the huge, rough old telescope, peering through the
roof, were still there as their owner had left them. All appliances of
housekeeping were absent, and Cavendish House was destitute of all
comforts, for which the owner had no taste.

In this house Cavendish lived for nearly half a century, totally
isolated from the world and all human sympathies. He seldom or never
visited relatives, and they were never guests at his house. He had
several servants, all of whom were males, with one exception. He was shy
of women, and did not like to have them come in his way. If he saw his
female servant in any of the rooms, he would order her away instantly,
or fly himself to other quarters. Rarely, during all the years of his
solitary life, did a woman cross his threshold; and, when one did, he
would run from her as if she brought the plague. His servants were all
trained to silence, and in giving his orders the fewest words possible
were used. His meals were served irregularly, whenever in the intervals
of absorbing labors, he could snatch a fragment of time. He uniformly
dined upon one kind of meat,--a joint of mutton; and he seemed to have
no knowledge that there were other kinds in the market.

Upon one occasion he had invited a few scientific friends to dinner at
Cavendish House, and when his servant asked him what he should provide,
"A leg of mutton!" said Cavendish. "It will hardly be enough," said the
servant. "Well, then get two." "Anything else, sir?" "Yes, get four legs
of mutton."

His dress was peculiar,--a snuff-colored coat reaching to his knees, a
long vest of the same color, buff breeches, and a three-cornered hat.
With him the fashion never changed; he had but one suit; not an extra
coat, hat, or even two handkerchiefs. When his wardrobe gave out, and he
was forced to see his tailor, he became very nervous. He would walk the
room in agony, give orders to have the tailor sent for, and then
immediately countermand the same. His shoes for fifty years were of one
pattern; and when he took them off they were put in one place behind a
door, and woe to the servant who accidentally displaced them. He hung
his old three-cornered hat on one peg at his house, and when he attended
the meetings of the Royal Society he had a peg in the hall known as
"Cavendish's peg." If, through accident, it was taken by some member
before his arrival, he would stop, look at the occupied peg, and then
turn on his heel, and go back to his house. When he went to the
meetings, he walked in the middle of the street, never on the sidewalk;
and he invariably took the same route. Upon reaching the steps leading
to the rooms, he would stop, hesitate, put his hand on the door-handle,
and look about timidly, and sometimes return at a rapid pace.

His cane, which he carried for fifty years, he placed upright in his
left boot, which he took off at the door, covering his foot with a
slipper. Once inside the rooms of the Royal Society, and surrounded by
the most distinguished men of England and the world, he became
excessively shy, and read his wonderful papers in an awkward manner.
Applause of any kind he could not bear; and if in conversation any one
praised his researches or papers, he would turn away abruptly, as if
highly indignant. If he was appealed to as authority upon any point, he
would dart away, and perhaps quit the hall for the evening. This man of
great genius and vast acquirements was incapable of understanding or
enduring praise or flattery. He sought in every possible way to escape
recognition or notice, listened attentively to conversation, but seldom
asked questions; never spoke of himself, or of what he had accomplished
in the world of science.

Cavendish was a man possessed of vast wealth, and, when he died, he was
the richest bank-owner in all England.

"At the age of forty, a large accession came to his fortune. His income
already exceeded his expenditure. Pecuniary transactions were his
aversion. Other matters occupied his attention. The legacy was therefore
paid in to his bankers. It was safe there, and he gave it no more heed.
One of the firm sought to see him at Clapham. In answer to the
inquiries of the footman as to his Business, the banker replied to see
Mr. Cavendish personally. 'You must wait, then,' responded the servant,
'till he rings his bell.' The banker tarried for hours, when the
long-expected bell rang. His name was announced. 'What does he want?'
the master was heard to ask. 'A personal interview.' 'Send him up.' The
banker appeared.

"'I am come, sir, to ascertain your views concerning a sum of two
hundred thousand pounds placed to your account.'

"'Does it inconvenience you?' asked the philosopher. 'If so, transfer it

"'Inconvenience, sir? By no means,' replied the banker. 'But pardon me
for suggesting that it is too large a sum to remain unproductive. Would
you not like to invest it?'

"'Invest it? Eh? Yes, if you will. Do as you like, but don't interrupt
me about such things again. I have other matters to think about.'"

With all his wealth it never occurred to him that others were in need,
and that he might do good by benefactions. Solicited on one occasion to
contribute to a charitable object, he exclaimed, "Give, eh! What do you
want? How much?" "Give whatever you please, sir," said the solicitor.
"Well, then, will ten thousand pounds do?"

On another occasion he was forced, from circumstances, to attend a
christening in a church; and, when it was intimated to him that it was
customary to bestow some little present upon the attending nurse, he ran
up to her, and poured into her lap a double handful of gold coins, and
hastily departed. This was the only occasion on which he was known to
cross the threshold of a church. Cavendish died possessed of five
million dollars of property, and yet at no time had he the slightest
knowledge of how much he had, and how it was invested. He despised
money, and made as little use of it as possible.

As regards matters of religion, he never troubled himself about them. He
would never talk upon the subject, and probably never gave it a thought.
All days of the week were alike to him: he was as busy on Sunday as on
any other day. When asked by a friend what his views were of God, he
replied, "Don't ask me such questions: I never think of them."

The circumstances of Cavendish's death are as remarkable as his career
in life.

"Without premitory disease or sickness, or withdrawal from daily duties,
or decadence of mental powers, or physical disability, he made up his
mind that he was about to die. Closing his telescopes, putting his
achromatic glasses in their several grooves, locking the doors of his
laboratories, destroying the papers he deemed useless, and arranging
those corrected for publication, he ascended to his sleeping-apartment
and rang his bell. A servant appeared.

"'Edgar,' said Cavendish, addressing him by name, 'listen! Have I ever
commanded you to do an unreasonable thing?'

"The man heard the question without astonishment, for he knew his
master's eccentricities, and replied in the negative.

"'And that being the case,' continued the old man, 'I believe I have a
right to be obeyed.'

"The domestic bowed his assent.

"'I shall now give you my last command,' Cavendish went on to say, 'I am
going to die. I shall, upon your departure, lock my room. Here let me be
alone for eight hours. Tell no one. Let no person come near. When the
time has passed, come and see if I am dead. If so, let Lord George
Cavendish know. This is my last command. Now, go.'

"The servant knew from long experience that to dispute his master's will
would be useless. He bowed, therefore, and turned to go away.

"'Stay--one word!' added Cavendish. 'Repeat exactly the order I have

"Edgar repeated the order, promised obedience once more, and retired
from the chamber."

The servant did not keep his promise, but called to his master's bedside
Sir Everard Home, a distinguished physician.

"Sir Everard inquired if he felt ill.

"'I am not ill,' replied Cavendish; 'but I am about to die. Don't you
think a man of eighty has lived long enough? Why am I disturbed? I had
matters to arrange. Give me a glass of water.'

"The glass of water was handed to him; he drank it, turned on his back,
closed his eyes, and died.

"This end of a great man, improbable as are some of the incidents
narrated, is no fiction of imagination. Sir Everard Home's statement,
read before the Royal Institution, corroborates every particular. The
mental constitution of the philosopher, puzzling enough during his
life, was shrouded certainly in even greater mystery in his death."

It is as a chemist that Cavendish stands preeminent. Without
instructors, without companionship, in the solitary rooms of his
dwelling, he meditated and experimented. The result of his researches he
communicated in papers read to the Royal Society, and these are quite
numerous. He was the first to demonstrate the nature of atmospheric air
and also of water. He was the discoverer of nitrogen and several gaseous
bodies. He did much to overthrow the phlogiston theory, which was
universally accepted in his time; and his researches upon arsenic were
of the highest importance. There is scarcely any department of chemistry
which he did not enrich by his discoveries. He was a close student of
electrical phenomena, and made many discoveries in this department of
research. He was also an astronomer and observed the heavens with his
telescopes with the deepest interest. Some of his most important
discoveries were unknown until after his death, as they were hidden in
papers, which, for some reason, he would not publish.

The life of this singular man was morally a blank, and can only be
described by negations. He did not love; he did not hate; he did not
hope; he did not worship. He separated himself from his fellow-men and
from his God. There was nothing earnest, enthusiastic, heroic, in his
nature, and as little that was mean, groveling, or ignoble. He was
passionless, wholly destitute of emotion. Everything that required the
exercise of fancy, imagination, faith, or affection, was distasteful to
Cavendish. He had a clear head for thinking, a pair of eyes for
observing, hands for experimenting and recording, and these were all.
His brain was a calculating engine; his eyes, inlets of vision, not
fountains of tears; his heart, an anatomical organ necessary for the
circulation of the blood. If such a man can not be loved, he can not be
abhorred or despised. He was as the Almighty made him, and he served an
important end in the world.

Such a man manifestly would never sit for his portrait. And he never
did. It was taken by Borrow the painter, unobserved by Cavendish, while
at a dinner-party given for the express purpose of securing the
likeness. It is now in the British Museum. Cuts of this painting are
rare.--_Popular Science News._

       *       *       *       *       *





It is not required that both papers be sent to one address, nor to the
same post-office.

  150 Monroe Street, Chicago.

       *       *       *       *       *





       *       *       *       *       *

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    A donkey laid him down to sleep,
    And as he slept and snored full deep,
    He was observed (strange sight) to weep,
              As if in anguished mood.

    A gentle mule that lay near by,
    The donkey roused, and, with a sigh,
    In kindly voice inquired why
              Those tears he did exude.

    The donkey, while he trembled o'er
    And dropped cold sweat from every pore,
    Made answer in a fearful roar:
              "_I dreamed I was a dude!_"


    Tom Typo was a printer good,
      A merry, cheerful elf;
    And whatsoever care he had,
      He still "composed" himself.

    Where duty called him he was found
      Still working in his place;
    But nothing tempted from his post--
      Which really was the "case."

    He courted pretty Emma Grey,
      One of earth's living gems--
    The sweetest Em, he used to say,
      Among a thousand "ems."

    So "chased" was Emma's love for Tom,
      It met admiring eyes;
    She "proved" a "copy" to her sex.
      And wanted no "revise."

    And Tom, he kept his "pages" clear
      And grew to be a "type"
    Of all that manhood holds most dear,
      When he with age was ripe.

    He made his last "impression" here
      While yet his heart was warm,
    Just in the "nick" closed his career,
      And death "locked up his form."

    He sank into his final rest
      Without one sigh or moan;
    His latest words--"Above my breast
      Place no 'imposing stone.'"


The parents and the old relatives are chatting over their darling's
future. Meanwhile the fiances have escaped into the back parlor.

Virginia--Where are you leading me to, John?

John--I wish to tell you, while others forget us, how happy I am to
marry you--you, so winning, so witty, the gem of Vassar College.

Virginia--Oh! how many compliments to a poor graduate who only won the
premium of rhetoric, and was second best in geometry.

John--I love you, and worship you just as you are.

V.--Oh, my friend, how anaphorical, and especially how epanaletical.

J.--I don't understand.

V.--I mean that you repeat yourself. It is the custom of lovers to abuse
of the gorgiaques figures from the very protasis and exordium.

J.--I love you because you are accomplished and perfect.

V.--Did I not know you, I should think that you favored asteisin and

J. (Somewhat abashed.)--Ah! do you see * * *

V.--Why this aposiopesis?


V.--This reticence?

J.--That is clearer. I acknowledge that the expressions you use annoy
and trouble me.

V.--You, on your side, speak a language stamped with schematism, while
to be correct, even in making love, your language should be discursive.
Allow me to tell you so frankly.

J.--Anyhow, you do not doubt my love?

V.--I pardon this epitrope, but pray use less metaphor and more litotes
in the prosopography you dedicate to my modest entity--

J.--What will you? Men love women; I am a man; therefore, I love you.

V.--Your syllogism is perfect in its premises, but the conclusion is

J.--Oh! you are a cruel angel!

V.--I like that catachresis, but once again I repeat, I am practical,
and prefer synedoche.

J. [Very much perplexed.]--Will you continue the conversation in the

V.--Yes. (They go into the garden.) Look, here is a very lovely
parallelogram of green surrounded by petasites. Let us sit under those
maritamboues will you?

J.--Willingly! Ah! here I am happy! My heart fills with joy; it seems to
me it contains the universe.

V.--You are speaking pure Spinozism.

J.--When I think that you will be my wife, and I your husband! What will
be our destiny!

V.--The equation being given you are looking for the unknown quantity.
Like you, I shall await the co-efficient.

J. (Who is determined to follow out his own thoughts)--With the world of
constellations above us, and nature surrounding us, admire with me those
orbs sending us their pure light. Look up there at that star.

V.--It is Allioth, neighbor to the polar star. They are nearing the
cosmical moment, and if we remain here a few moments longer the
occultation will take place.

J. (Resignedly.)--And there those thousands of stars.

V.--It is the galaxy. Admire also the syzygy of those orbs.

J. (Exhausted.)--And the moon; do you see the moon?

V.--It is at its zenith; it will be at its nadir in fifteen days, unless
there are any occultations in the movements of that satellite.

J.--How happy I am!

(They go indoors.)

       *       *       *       *       *

The owner of a soap factory, who had been complained of for maintaining
a nuisance, was terribly put out at the charge and explained to the
court: "Your honor, the odors complained of can not exist!" "But here
are twenty complaints." "Yes, but I have worked in my factory for the
last fifteen years, and I'll take my oath I can not detect any smells."
"As a rule, prisoner," replied the judge, as he sharpened his spectacles
on his bootleg, "the best noses are on the outside of soap factories.
You are fined $25 and costs." Moral: Where a soap factory and a
school-house are at loggerheads the school should be removed.

       *       *       *       *       *





It is not required that both papers be sent to one address, nor to the
same post-office.

  150 Monroe Street, Chicago.

       *       *       *       *       *

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Our Annual Catalogue, mailed free on application, published first of
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Dealer in Timothy, Clover, Flax, Hungarian, Millet, Red Top, Blue
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Warehouses  {115, 117 & 119 Kinzie St.
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OFFICE.      115 Kinzie St.


The State tax of Florida this year is but three mills.

Hog cholera is again raging in Champaign county, Ill.

A cat show is to be held in New York, beginning on the 23d inst.

Ice harvesters along the Hudson river are on a strike for higher wages.

The Ohio river is rapidly rising from the melting of heavy bodies of

Several heavy failures among grain dealers of New York occurred last

Senator Anthony is unable to attend to the duties as President pro tem
of the Senate.

The glucose works at Buffalo N. Y., have been removed to Peoria, Ill.,
and Levenworth, Kansas.

On Friday last one murderer was hung in Virginia, another in South
Carolina, and still another in California.

A very heavy snow storm prevailed in Western and Northern N. Y., last
week. It also extended to New England.

The State Senate of Texas has passed a bill giving the public domain,
except homesteads to actual settlers, to the public schools.

There were over four thousand suicides in Paris last year, which is
attributed to the tremendous pace at which the people live in France.

The starch-sugar industry of the country consumes forty thousand bushels
of corn per day, and the product is valued at about $10,000,000 per

In attempting to slaughter a flock of prairie chickens near Fort Sill, a
party of eight hunters grew so careless that three of their number were
badly wounded.

The employes in three of the nail-mills at Wareham, Mass., struck,
Saturday, against reducing their wages ten per cent. The nailers and
puddlers of Plymouth also struck.

Canada is raising a standing army of 1,200 men to serve for three years.
The full number applied at the recruiting office in Montreal, where the
quota was only one hundred.

The Grand Orient of France has issued an appeal to all the lodges of
freemasons in the world asking a renewal of unity between the Grand
Orient and all other branches of the masonic rite.

The situation in Tonquin effectually ties the hands of France. The
announcement of the blocking of Canton harbor is the only important
event of the week in the Franco-Chinese struggle.

Dr. Tanner, the famous faster, is practicing medicine in Jamestown, N.
Y. The physicians of that city have made a fruitless attempt to secure
his indictment by the grand jury as an illegal practitioner.

The French press are advocating an organized effort against the
prohibition of the importation of American pork. The prohibition, it is
estimated, will cost the French ports 100,000,000 francs, and deprive
the working people, besides, of cheap and wholesome food.

Articles of incorporation were filed at Springfield, Saturday, for the
building of a railroad from a point within five miles of the northeast
corner of Cook county to a point in Rock Island county, on the
Mississippi, opposite Muscatine, Iowa. The capital is $3,000,000, and
among the incorporators are Joseph R. Reynolds, Edgar Terhune Holden,
and Josiah Browne, of Chicago.


Senator Edmunds has again been chosen president pro tem of the Senate.
Mr. Anthony, of Rhode Island, declares himself too ill to perform the
duties of the position. On Monday nearly 500 bills were introduced into
the House. The total number of bills introduced and referred since the
session began, reaches nearly 4,000. There are many important measures
among them, while there are more that are of somewhat doubtful import,
especially those which look to a still further increase of the pension
appropriations. There are bills for the regulation of banks and banking;
several new bankruptcy acts; one reducing the fees on patents as
follows: The fee upon filing original application for a patent is
reduced from $15 to $5. The minimum fees for a design patent shall be $5
instead of $10 and the minimum term for which granted shall be five
instead of three and a half years; a bill to reorganize the infantry
branch of the army; for reorganizing and increasing the navy; several to
revise the tariff; to look after the forfeiture of land grants; to
restrict importation of foreign adulterated goods; to stamp out
contagious diseases of animals; to establish a department of commerce;
to repeal the act prohibiting ex-confederate officers from serving in
the United States army; to relieve Fitz John Porter, and hundreds of
bills for the relief or benefit of individuals in different parts of the
country. There are also bills for the regulation of transportation
companies and for the establishment of a system of government telegraph.
As yet no appropriation bills have been reported and the Ways and Means
committee has but recently organized into subcommittees and has not
begun the consideration of any subject. There is already business enough
before this Congress to keep it in continuous session for years.



CHICAGO. Jan 15, 1884.

There is an increased financial activity over last week. Bankers, on
Monday, felt quite certain of a brisk week and were correspondingly
cheerful. Interest rates are unchanged, being 6 and 7 per cent.

Eastern exchange sold between banks at 60@70c per $1,000 premium, and
closed firm.

There is no change in Government securities.

The New York stock market was weak, and it is reported that the New York
millionaires such as Gould, Vanderbilt, Sage, etc., have suffered to the
extent of several millions each by the late general shrinkage in the
value of stocks. Nevertheless, it is in such times as these that the
Vanderbilts of the country reap their richest harvests. They have money
to buy depressed stock with, and when the wheel turns their investments
again add to their wealth. The little fellows have to sacrifice all
their cash and then go to the wall.

Government securities are as follows:

4's coupons, 1907              Q. Apr.   123-1/4
4's reg., 1907                 Q. Apr.   123-1/4
4-1/2's coupon, 1891           Q. Mar.   114-1/8
4-1/2's registered, 1891       Q. Mar.   114-1/8
3's registered                 Q. Mar.   100


There was more of a speculative feeling in the Chicago grain and
provision markets yesterday than for some time. There was something of a
recovery from the panicky feeling of Saturday, when the bulls had
complete charge of the prices, but there was no advance.

FLOUR was unchanged, the article not yet feeling the uncertain condition
of the wheat market.

Choice to favorite white winters              $5 25@5 50
Fair to good brands of white winters           4 75@5 00
Good to choice red winters                     5 00@5 50
Prime to choice springs                        4 75@5 00
Good to choice export stock, in sacks, extras  4 25@4 50
Good to choice export stock, double extras     4 50@4 65
Fair to good Minnesota springs                 4 50@4 75
Choice to fancy Minnesota springs              5 25@5 75
Patent springs                                 6 00@6 50
Low grades                                     2 25@3 50

WHEAT.--Red winter, No. 2, 97@99c; car lots of spring. No. 2, sold at
89@90-1/2c; No. 3, do. 84-1/2@85c.

CORN.--Moderately active. Car lots No 2, 53@53-7/8c; rejected, 46-1/2;
new mixed, 49c.

OATS.--No. 2 in store, closed 32-1/2@32-3/4.

RYE.--May, in store 58@58-1/2.

BARLEY.--No. 2, 59 in store; No. 3, 52-1/2c.

FLAX.--Closed at $1 45 on track.

TIMOTHY.--$1 28@1 35 per bushel. Little doing.

CLOVER.--Quiet at $6 15@6 35 for prime.

PROVISIONS.--Mess pork, February, $14 75@ 14 78 per bbl; Green hams,
9-1/2c per lb. Short ribs, $7 47-1/2 per cwt.

LARD.--January, $9 20; February, $9 75.


Lumber unchanged. Quotations for green are as follows:

Short dimension, per M               $ 9 50@10 00
Long dimension, per M                 10 00@11 50
Boards and strips, No. 2              11 00@13 00
Boards and strips, medium             13 00@16 00
Boards and strips, No. 1 choice       16 00@20 00
Shingles, standard                     2 10@ 2 20
Shingles, choice                       2 25@ 2 30
Shingles, extra                        2 40@ 2 60
Lath                                   1 65@ 1 70


NOTE.--The quotations for the articles named in the following list are
generally for commission lots of goods and from first hands. While our
prices are based as near as may be on the landing or wholesale rates,
allowance must be made for selections and the sorting up for store

BEANS.--Hand picked mediums $2 00@2 10. Hand picked navies, $2 15@2 20.

BUTTER.--Dull and without change. Choice to extra creamery, 32@35c per
lb.; fair to good do 25@32c; fair to choice dairy, 23@28c; common to
choice packing stock fresh and sweet, 18@22c; ladle packed 10@13c; fresh
made, streaked butter, 9@11c.

BRAN.--Quoted at $11 87-1/2@13 50 per ton; extra choice $13.

BROOM-CORN--Good to choice hurl 6-1/2@7-1/2c per lb; green self-working
5@6c; red-tipped and pale do 4@5c; inside and covers 3@4c; common short
corn 2-1/2@3-1/2c; crooked, and damaged, 2@4c, according to quality.

CHEESE.--Choice full-cream cheddars 13@13-1/2c per lb; medium quality do
9@10c; good to prime full cream flats 13@13-3/4c; skimmed cheddars
9@10c; good skimmed flats 6@7c; hard-skimmed and common stock 3@4c.

EGGS.--In a small way the best brands are quotable at 25@26c per dozen;
20@23c for good ice house stock; 18@19c per pickled.

HAY.--No 1 timothy $10@10 50 per ton; No 2 do $8 50@9 50; mixed do $7@8;
upland prairie $8 00@10 75; No 1 prairie $6@7; No 2 do $4 50@5 50.
Small bales sell at 25@50c per ton more than large bales.

HIDES AND PELTS.--Green-cured light hides 8-1/4c per lb; do heavy cows
8c; No 2 damaged green-salted hides 6c; green-salted calf 12@12-1/2
cents; green-salted bull 6 c; dry-salted hides 11 cents; No. 2
two-thirds price; No. 1 dry flint 14@14-1/2c. Sheep pelts salable at
28@32c for the estimated amount of wash wool on each pelt. All branded
and scratched hides are discounted 15 per cent from the price of No. 1.

HOPS.--Prime to choice New York State hops 25@26c per lb; Pacific coast
of 23@26c; fair to good Wisconsin 15@20c.

POULTRY.--Prices for good to choice dry picked and unfrozen lots are:
Turkeys 13@14c per lb; chickens 9@10c; ducks 12@13c; geese 9@11c. Thin,
undesirable, and frozen stock 2@3c per lb less than these figures; live
offerings nominal.

POTATOES.--Good to choice 37@40c per bu. on track; common to fair
30@35c. Illinois sweet potatoes range at $3 50@4 per bbl for yellow.
Baltimore stock at $2 25@2 75, and Jerseys at $5. Red are dull and

TALLOW AND GREASE.--No 1 country tallow 7@7-1/4c per lb; No 2 do
6-1/4@6-1/2c. Prime white grease 6@6-1/2c; yellow 5-1/4@5-3/4c; brown

VEGETABLES.--Cabbage, $8@12 per 100; celery, 25@35c per doz bunches;
onions, $1 00@1 25 per bbl for yellow, and $1 for red; turnips,
$1 35@1 50 per bbl for rutabagas, and $1 00 for white flat.

WOOL.--from store range as follows for bright wools from Wisconsin,
Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, and Eastern Iowa--dark Western lots
generally ranging at 1@2c per lb. less.

Coarse and dingy tub                           25@30
Good medium tub                                31@34
Unwashed bucks' fleeces                        14@15
Fine unwashed heavy fleeces                    18@22
Fine light unwashed heavy fleeces              22@23
Coarse unwashed fleeces                        21@22
Low medium unwashed fleeces                    24@25
Fine medium unwashed fleeces                   26@27
Fine washed fleeces                            32@33
Coarse washed fleeces                          26@28
Low medium washed fleeces                      30@32
Fine medium washed fleeces                     34@35

Colorado and Territory wools range as follows:

Lowest grades                                  14@16
Low medium                                     18@22
Medium                                         22@26
Fine                                           16@24

Wools from New Mexico:

Lowest grades                                  14@16
Part improved                                  16@17
Best improved                                  19@23

Burry from 2c to 10c off: black 2c to 5c off.


The total receipts and shipments for last week were as follows:

                                  Received. Shipped.
Cattle                               38,913   18,801
Calves                                  216       37
Hogs                                169,076   42,205
Sheep                                24,595   14,225

CATTLE.--Notwithstanding a reported advance in England, cattle did not
improve in prices over Saturday. Indeed, there was a decline of a few
cents per hundred. The supplies were large and the quality inferior.
Indeed few really fat cattle came in during the week. Eastern markets
were reported as over stocked. Shippers and dressed meat operators
bought rather freely of common lots. We may quote as follows:

Fancy fat cattle                                  $7 00@ 7 25
Choice to prime steers                             6 25@ 6 85
Fair to good shipping steers                       5 60@ 6 20
Common to medium steers                            4 65@ 5 55
Butcher's steers                                   4 50@ 5 00
Cows and bulls, common to good                     3 25@ 4 50
Inferior cows and bulls                            2 30@ 3 20
Stockers                                           3 50@ 4 50
Feeders                                            4 25@ 4 75
Milch cows, per head                              25 00@55 00
Veal calves, per 100 lbs.                          4 00@ 7 25

HOGS.-There were fair receipts on Saturday and Monday--an aggregate of
21,000 head or some 7,000 more than for the same days last week. As city
packers are at work again, the market was quite active. They bought
about 15,000 head, and shippers took nearly all that were left. Prices
advanced from 5 to 10 cents. It may be said in general that the quality
of the hogs now coming in is poor. Heavy lots were sold at $5 15@6 25;
light hogs brought $5@5 60. Skips and culls $3 25@5.

Note.--All sales of hogs are made subject to a shrinkage of 40 lbs for
piggy sows and 80 lbs for stags. Dead hogs sell for 1-1/2c per lb for
weights of 200 and over and [Transcriber's Note: blank in original] for
weights of less than 100 lbs.

SHEEP.--The supply was sufficient to meet the demand, though
considerably less than on Monday of last week. Really choice animals
were scarce. Shippers and butchers bought freely. Common lots were dull,
bringing $5 25@5 50, while fancy lots sold at $5.75@6. Very inferior
sheep sold at $2 50.

       *       *       *       *       *





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