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Title: Scientific  American, Volume XLIII., No. 25, December 18, 1880 - A Weekly Journal of Practical Information, Art, Science, - Mechanics, Chemistry, and Manufactures.
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Scientific  American, Volume XLIII., No. 25, December 18, 1880 - A Weekly Journal of Practical Information, Art, Science, - Mechanics, Chemistry, and Manufactures." ***

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[Illustration]



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN



(Entered at the Post Office of New York, N. Y., as Second Class Matter)

A WEEKLY JOURNAL OF PRACTICAL INFORMATION, ART, SCIENCE, MECHANICS,
CHEMISTRY, AND MANUFACTURES.


NEW YORK, DECEMBER 18, 1880.

Vol. XLIII., No. 25. [New Series.]

$3.20 per Annum. [POSTAGE PREPAID.]

       *       *       *       *       *



CONTENTS.


(Illustrated articles are marked with an asterisk.)

  Air engine, new                                385
  Amateur mechanics*                             390
  American Institute of Architects               389
  Architects, American Institute                 389
  Arctic winter, characteristics of              393
  Aquarium (29)                                  395
  Balance attach. for valves*                    386
  Band saw, hand power*                          387
  Barometer, chemical (15)                       394
  Battery, Leclanche, to renew (13)              394
  Beetle, Hercules, the*                         391
  Belts, capacity of (12)                        394
  Business colleges*                        383, 388
  Carbons, to solder (20)                        395
  Chinese women's feet*                          393
  Chisels, tempering                             389
  Colleges, business*                       383, 388
  Engine, air, new                               385
  Engine, steam, single-acting*                  390
  Eruption of Mauna Loa                          385
  Exhibition of bathing appliances               393
  Feet, Chinese women's*                         393
  Fires--causes and prevention                   384
  Glass spinning and weaving                     385
  Gun, submarine, new                            387
  Harbor at Montreal, the                        387
  Hercules beetle, the*                          391
  Horse-power of turbines (12)                   394
  Ice at high temperatures                       393
  Ice, removing from railroads*                  387
  Induction coil for transmitter (14)            394
  Induction coil, small (26)                     395
  Invention, schools of                          393
  Inventions, miscellaneous                      390
  Inventions, recent                             387
  Knots, learning to tie                         392
  Leaves, variegation of                         392
  Light, what is?                                384
  London underground railway                     389
  Mantis, the embrace of the                     391
  Mechanics, amateur*                            390
  Montreal, the harbor at                        387
  Noise, to deaden (9)                           394
  Nut, safety, improved*                         386
  Packard's Business College*               383, 388
  Patents, decisions relating to                 393
  Petroleum prospects                            386
  Photos, to color (10)                          394
  Poultry raising, mechanical                    391
  Railway, underground, London                   389
  Safety nut, improved*                          386
  Safety valve, improved*                        386
  Schools of invention                           393
  Screw-cutting foot lathe (11)                  394
  Steamers, Collins line of                      393
  Steam heating, return pipe (17)                394
  Steel, to tin (38)                             395
  Submarine gun, new                             387
  Sun dial, to adjust (27)                       395
  Telegraph insulator, new*                      387
  Telegraph wires underground                    385
  Valve, safety, improved*                       386
  Valves, balance attachment for*                386
  Vanilla, cinnamon, cocoanut                    392
  Vennor's winter predictions                    389
  Vessels, sunken, raising                       386
  Winter predictions, Vennor's                   389
  Zinc, to amalgamate (23)                       395

       *       *       *       *       *



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN.

ESTABLISHED 1845.

MUNN & CO., Editors and Proprietors.

PUBLISHED WEEKLY AT NO. 37 PARK ROW, NEW YORK.

O. D. MUNN.        A. E. BEACH.

       *       *       *       *       *


TERMS FOR THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN.

One copy, one year postage included        $3 20

One copy, six months, postage included      1 60

Clubs.--One extra copy of THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN will be supplied
gratis for every club of five subscribers at $3.20 each: additional
copies at same proportionate rate. Postage prepaid.

Remit by postal order. Address

MUNN & CO., 37 Park Row, New York.

To Advertisers--The regular circulation of the Scientific American
is now Fifty Thousand Copies weekly. For 1880 the publishers
anticipate a still larger circulation.


The Scientific American Supplement

Is a distinct paper from the Scientific American. THE SUPPLEMENT
is issued weekly. Every number contains 16 octavo pages, uniform in size
with Scientific American. Terms of subscription for Supplement,
$5.00 a year, postage paid, to subscribers. Single copies, 10 cents. Sold
by all news dealers throughout the country.

Combined Rates--The Scientific American and Supplement, will be sent for
one year, postage free, on receipt of _seven dollars_. Both papers to
one address or different addresses as desired.

The safest way to remit is by draft, postal order, or registered letter.

Address MUNN & CO., 37 Park Row, N. Y.


Scientific American Export Edition.

The Scientific American Export Edition is a large and splendid
periodical, issued once a month. Each number contains about one hundred
large quarto pages, profusely illustrated, embracing (1.) Most of the
plates and pages of the four preceding weekly issues of the Scientific
American, with its splendid engravings and valuable information; (2.)
Commercial, trade, and manufacturing announcements of leading houses.
Terms for Export Edition, $5.00 a year, sent prepaid to any part of the
world. Single copies 50 cents. Manufacturers and others who desire to
secure foreign trade may have large, and handsomely displayed
announcements published in this edition at a very moderate cost.

The Scientific American Export Edition has a large guaranteed
circulation in all commercial places throughout the world. Address MUNN
& CO., 37 Park Row, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *

NEW YORK, SATURDAY, DECEMBER 18, 1880.

       *       *       *       *       *


TABLE OF CONTENTS OF THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT NO. 259.

For the Week ending December 18, 1880.

Price 10 cents. For sale by all newsdealers.

                                                                    PAGE
  I. ENGINEERING AND MECHANICS.--Frager's Water Meter. 3 figures.--
  Vertical section, horizontal section, and plan                    4119
    Transmission of Power to a Distance.--Wire ropes--Compressed
  air--Water pressure.--Electricity                                 4120
    The Livadia at Sea                                              4120
    The Herreshoff Launch                                           4121
    New Steering Gear. 2 figures.--Steam steering gear for Herreshoff
  launch                                                            4121

  II. TECHNOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY.--Glucose                            4126
    American Manufacture of Corn Glucose                            4126
    The Conversions--Starch--Dextrine.--Complete glucose            4126
    Depreciation of a Glucose Factory                               4126
    The Fire Risks of Glucose Factories and Manufactures            4126
    Glucose Factory Fires and Ignitions                             4127
    The Hirsh Process. By Adolf H. Hirsh--Improvement in
  the manufacture of sugar from Corn                                4127
    Time in the Formation of salts. By M. Berthelot                 4127
    An Old Can of Preserved Meat By G. W. Wigner                    4127
    Chemistry for Amateurs. 6 figures.--Reaction between nitric
  acid and iron.--Experiment with Pharaoh's serpents.--Formation
  of crystals of iodide of cyanogen--Experiment with ammoniacal
  amalgam.--Pyrophorus burning in contact with the air.--Gold leaf
  suspended over mercury                                            4128
    Carbonic Acid in the Atmosphere. 2 figures                      4129
    On Potash Fulling Soaps By W. J. Menzies                        4129
    Photography of the Invisible                                    4134

  III. ELECTRICITY. LIGHT, HEAT, ETC.--Exhibition of Gas and
  Electric Light Apparatus, Glasgow                                 4125
    Electric Light in the German Navy. 1 illustration. Armored
  Frigates Friedrich Karl and Sachsen.--Dispatch Boat Grille, and
  Torpedo Boat illuminated by Electric Light                        4130
    Interesting Facts about Gas and Electricity.--Gas as Fuel.--Gas
  for Fire Grates                                                   4130
    A New Electric Motor and its Applications. 6 figures. Trouve's
  New Electric Motor                                                4131
    On Heat and Light. By Robert Ward                               4131
    Photophonic Experiments of Prof. Bell and Mr. Tainter. By A.
  Bregult                                                           4132
    Distribution of Light in the Solar Spectrum. By J. Mace and
  W. Nicati                                                         4132
    Mounting Microscopic Objects                                    4132
    New Sun Dial. By M. Grootten. 1 figure                          4132
    Antoine Cesar Becquerel, with portrait                          4132

  IV. HYGIENE AND MEDICINE.--On the Etiology of the Carbuncular
  Disease. By L. Pasteur, assisted by Chamberland and
  Roux. An extremely valuable investigation of the nature,
  causes, and conditions of animal plagues                          4133
    Report on Yellow Fever in the U. S. Steamer Plymouth. By the
  Surgeon-General in U. S. Navy                                     4134
    Fuchsin in Bright's Disease                                     4134

  V. ART, ARCHITECTURE, ETC.--Artists' Homes. No. 7. Sir Frederick
  Leighton's House and Studio. 10 figures. Perspective, plan,
  elevation details, etc.                                           4121
    Initials by Eisenlohr and Weigle, in Stuttgart. Full page       4123
    Suggestions in Decorative Art. 1 figure. Reserved part of a
  Great Saloon. By H. Penox, Paris                                  4124
    Great Saloon (Text)                                             4124
    Cologne Cathedral The Historical Procession                     4124
    Suggestions in Decorative Art. 1 figure. Mantlepiece in Walnut.
  By E. Carpenter                                                   4125

       *       *       *       *       *



ONE MORE NUMBER.


     The next issue will close another volume of this paper, and with it
     several thousand subscriptions will expire.

     It being an inflexible rule of the publishers to stop sending the
     paper when the time is up for which subscriptions are prepaid,
     present subscribers will oblige us by remitting for a renewal
     without delay, and if they can induce one or more persons to join
     them in subscribing for the paper, they will largely increase our
     obligation.

     By heeding the above request to renew immediately, it will save the
     removal of thousands of names from our subscription books, and
     insure a continuance of the paper without interruption.

     The publishers beg to suggest to manufacturers and employers in
     other branches of industry that in renewing their own subscriptions
     they add the names of their foremen and other faithful employes.
     The cost is small, and they are not the only ones that will derive
     benefit. The benefit to the employe will surely reflect back to the
     advantage of the employer. The hints, receipts, and advice imparted
     through our correspondence column will be found of especial value
     to every artisan and mechanic, as well as to students and
     scientists.

     For terms, see prospectus.

       *       *       *       *       *



FIRES--CAUSES AND PREVENTION.


It is estimated that the total annual losses of insured property by
fire, throughout the world, average nearly two hundred million dollars.
Add to this the annual destruction of uninsured property, and we should
probably have a total amounting to quite double these figures. How great
the loss, how severe the tax upon the productive industry of mankind,
this enormous yearly destruction amounts to, will come home to the minds
of most readers more directly if we call attention to the fact that it
just about equals the value of our total wheat crop during a year of
good yield. And it is a direct tax upon productive industry everywhere,
because, although here and there a nominal loser, fully insured, has
only made what is sometimes called "a good sale" to the companies
holding his risk, this is only a way of apportioning the loss whereby
the community at large become the sufferers. Thus it is that we find all
ably-managed insurance companies earnestly endeavoring to make it plain
to the public how fires should be guarded against, or most effectually
localized and controlled when once started.

During the fall, or from "lighting up" time till about New Year's day,
more fires occur ordinarily than in any other portion of the year. This
fact points to some of the most general causes of conflagrations--as in
the lighting and heating of houses, factories, etc., where this had not
been necessary during the summer months. It is also found that after the
first of the year the number of fires is greatly diminished, the
lighting and heating arrangements having been subjected to a period of
trial during which their most obvious defects would be remedied. While
it may readily be conceded that the utmost care of the owner of property
could not totally prevent great average losses from fire--for the
greater the holdings the more must the proprietor trust to the oversight
of others--it is evident that the above facts indicate the necessity of
more strenuous precautions at this season. Gas pipes and fittings should
then be tested; furnace flues and settings looked to; stove, heater, and
grate fixtures and connections examined--and in all these particulars
the scrutiny should be most closely directed to parts ordinarily covered
up or out of sight, so that any defect or weakness from long disuse may
be exposed. When to the above causes of fires we have added the
extremely fruitful one found in the extensive use of coal oil within a
few years past, we have indicated the most common sources of
conflagrations of known origin. An English authority gives the
percentages of different causes of 30,000 fires in London, from 1833 to
1865, as follows: Candles, 11.07; curtains, 9.71; flues, 7.80; gas,
7.65; sparks, 4.47; stoves, 1.67; children playing, 1.59; matches, 1.41;
smoking tobacco, 1.40, other known causes, 19.40; unknown causes, 32.88.
The foregoing figures do not give the percentage of incendiary fires,
and later statistics would, no doubt, show vastly more fires from the
use of kerosene than are here attributed to candles.

The prevention of fires, and the best means of minimizing the loss when
they do occur, are topics which cover a wide field, and a collection of
the literature on the subject would make a very respectable library. As
the question presents itself to-day, it may well be doubted whether the
general practice of large property holders of insuring all their
possessions does not tend to lessen the constant vigilance which is the
most essential requisite in preventing fires. Thousands of merchants
never mean to keep a dollar's worth of goods in store or warehouse that
is not fully covered by insurance, and they make this cost a regular
charge upon their business as peremptorily as they do the wages paid the
hands in their employ. But few manufacturers can so completely cover
their risks by insurance, yet a large portion of them do so as far as
they are able. It does not follow but that the larger portion of both
merchants and manufacturers exercise what the law will fully decide is
"due vigilance" in the care of the property so insured, but it is
evident that in most cases the thoughtfulness is much less complete--the
care wonderfully lacking in personal supervision--as compared with what
would be the case were each one his own insurer. Of course, this in no
way casts a doubt upon the general policy of business men being amply
insured, but in fact shows the greater necessity why they should be so,
that they may not suffer from the carelessness of a neighbor; it also
points to the necessity of continually increasing care and thoroughness
of inspection on the part of the insurance companies. These agencies, in
fact, must compel the insured to keep up to the mark in the introduction
of every improvement to ward off fires or diminish their
destructiveness. The progress made in this department during recent
years has been great. The almost universal use of steam has been
attended by the fitting up of factories with force pumps, hose, and all
the appliances of a modern fire brigade; dangerous rooms are metal
sheathed, and machinery likely to cause fire is surrounded by stationary
pipes from which jets of water may be turned on instantaneously from the
outside; stores and warehouses have standing pipes from which every
floor may be flooded with water under pressure, and the elevators, those
most dangerous flues for rapidly spreading a fire, are either bricked in
entirely or supposed to be closed at every floor. The latter point,
however, is sometimes forgotten, as sea captains forget to keep the
divisions of their vessels having watertight compartments separate from
one another; the open elevator enlarges a small fire as rapidly as the
open compartment allows the vessel to sink.

With the best of appliances, however, discipline and drill on the part
of the hands, in all factories, is of prime importance. It is always in
the first stages of a fire that thoroughly efficient action is
necessary, and here it is worth a thousand-fold more than can be any
efforts after a fire is once thoroughly started. Long immunity is apt to
beget a feeling of security, and the carelessness resulting from
overconfidence has been the means of destroying many valuable factories
which were amply provided with every facility for their own
preservation. The teachers in some of the public schools of New York and
Brooklyn, during the past year, set an example which some of our
millowners might profitably follow. There have been cases when, from a
sudden alarm of fire, children have been crushed in their crowding to
get out of the building. The teachers, in the instances referred to,
marched their children out, under discipline, as if there had been a
fire. Let owners of factories try some such plan as this, by which
workmen may be called upon to cope with an imaginary fire, and many of
them will, we venture to say, find means of improving their present
system or appliances for protection, elaborate as they may at present
think them to be.

       *       *       *       *       *



WHAT IS LIGHT?


If on opening a text book on geology one should find stated the view
concerning the creation and age of the earth that was held a hundred
years ago, and this view gravely put forward as a possible or
alternative hypothesis with the current one deducible from the nebula
theory, one would be excused for smiling while he turned to the title
page to see who in the name of geology should write such stuff.
Nevertheless this is precisely similar to what one will find in most
treatises on physics for schools and colleges if he turns to the subject
of light. For instance, I quote from a book edited by an eminent man of
science in England, the book bearing the date 1873.

"There are two theories of light; one the _emissive_ theory; ... the
other, the _vibratory_ theory;" just as if the emissive or corpuscular
theory was not mathematically untenable sixty years ago, and
experimentally demonstrated to be false more than forty years ago.
Unless one were treating of the history of the science of optics there
is no reason why the latter theory should be mentioned any more than the
old theory of the formation of the earth. It is not to be presumed that
any one whose opinion is worth the asking still thinks it possible that
the old view may be the true one because the evidence is demonstrable
against it, yet while the undulatory theory prevails there are not a few
persons well instructed otherwise who still write and speak as though
light has some sort of independent existence as distinguished from
so-called radiant heat; in other words, that the heat and light we
receive from the sun are specifically different.

A brief survey of our present knowledge of this form of energy will
help to show how far wrong the common conception of light is. For
fifteen years it has been common to hear heat spoken of as a mode of
molecular motion, and sometimes it has been characterized as
_vibratory_, and most persons have received the impression that the
vibratory motion was an actual change of position of the molecular in
space instead of a _change of form_. Make a ring of wire five or six
inches in diameter, and, holding it between the thumb and finger at the
twisted ends, pluck it with a finger of the other hand; the ring will
vibrate, have three nodes, and will give a good idea of the character of
the vibration that constitutes what we call heat. This vibratory motion
may have a greater or less amplitude, and the energy of the vibration
will be as the square of that amplitude. But the vibrating molecule
gives up its energy of vibration to the surrounding ether; that is to
say, it loses amplitude precisely as a vibrating tuning fork will lose
it. The ether transmits the energy it has received in every direction
with the velocity of 186,000 miles per second, whether the amplitude be
great or small, and whether the number of vibrations be many or few. It
is quite immaterial. The _form_ of this energy which the ether transmits
is _undulatory_; that is to say, not unlike that of the wave upon a
loose rope when one end of it is shaken by the hand. As every shake of
the hand starts a wave in the rope, so will every vibration of a part of
the molecule start a wave in the ether. Now we have several methods for
measuring the wave lengths in ether, and we also know the velocity of
movement. Let v = velocity, l = wave length, and n = number of
vibrations per second, then n = v/l, and by calculation the value of n
varies within wide limits, say from 1 × 10^{14} to 20 × 10^{14}. But all
vibrating bodies are capable of vibrating in several periods, the
longest period being called the fundamental, and the remainder, which
stand in some simple ratios to the fundamental, are called _harmonics_.
Each of these will give to the ether its own particular vibratory
movement, so that a single molecule may be constantly giving out rays of
many wave lengths precisely as a sounding bell gives out sounds of
various pitches at one and the same time.

Again, when these undulations in the ether fall upon other molecules the
latter may reflect them away or they may absorb them, in which case the
absorbing molecules are themselves made to vibrate with increased
amplitude, and we say they have been heated. Some molecules, such as
carbon, appear to be capable of stopping undulations of all wave lengths
and to be heated by them; others are only affected by undulations of
particular wave lengths, or of wave lengths between special limits. In
this case it is a species of sympathetic vibration. The distinction
between the molecular vibrations, and the undulations in ether that
result from them, must be kept in mind, as must also the effect of the
undulations that fall upon other molecules. To one the name _heat_ is
applied, to the other the name of _radiant energy_ is given; and it
matters not whether the undulations be long or short, the same molecule
may give out both.

Now let a prism be placed in the path of such rays of different wave
length from a single molecule, and what is called the dispersive action
of the prism will separate the rays in the order of their wave lengths,
the longer waves being less refracted than the shorter ones; but the
energy of any one of these will depend upon the _amplitude of
undulation_, which in turn will depend upon the amplitude of vibration
of the part of the molecule that originated it, but in general the
longer waves have greater amplitude, though not necessarily so.
Consequently, if a thermopile be so placed as to receive these various
rays, and their energy be measured by its absorption on the face of the
pile, each one would be found to heat it, the longer waves more than the
shorter ones, simply because the amplitude is greater, but for no other
reason, for it is possible, and in certain cases is the fact, that a
short wave has as much or more energy than a longer one. If the eye
should take the place of the thermopile it would be found that some of
these rays did not affect it at all, while some would produce the
sensation of light. This would be the case with any waves having a wave
length between the limits of, say, 1-37,000 of an inch and 1-60,000 of
an inch; any shorter waves will not produce the sensation of light. If
instead of the eye a piece of paper washed in a solution of the chloride
of silver should be placed where the dispersed rays should fall upon it,
it would be found that only the shorter waves would affect it at all,
and among these shorter ones would be some of those rays which the eye
could not perceive at all.

It was formerly inferred from these facts that the heat rays, the light
rays, and the chemical rays were different in quality; and some of the
late books treating upon this very subject represent a solar spectrum as
being made up of a heat spectrum, a light spectrum, and an actinic or
chemical spectrum, and the idea has often been made to do duty as an
analogy in trinitarian theology; nevertheless it is utterly wrong and
misleading. There is no such thing as an actinic spectrum; that is,
there are no such rays as special chemical rays; any given ray will do
chemical work if it falls upon the proper kind of matter. For instance,
while it is true that for such salts of silver as the chloride, the
bromide, etc., the shorter waves are most efficient; by employing salts
of iron one may get photographic effects with wave lengths much too long
for any eye to perceive. Capt. Abney has photographed the whole solar
spectrum from one end to the other, which is sufficient evidence that
there are no special chemical rays. As to the eye itself, certain of the
wave lengths are competent to produce the sensation we call light, but
the same ray will heat the face of a thermopile or produce photographic
effects if permitted to act upon the proper material, so there is no
more propriety in calling it a light ray than in calling it a heat ray
or an actinic ray. What the ray will do depends solely upon what kind of
matter it falls upon, and all three of these names, _light_, _heat_, and
_actinism_, are names of _effects of radiant energy_. The retina of the
eye is itself demonstrably a photographic plate having a substance
called purpurine secreted by appropriate glands spread over it in place
of the silver salts of common photography. This substance purpurine is
rapidly decomposed by radiant energy of certain wave lengths, becoming
bleached, but the decomposition is attended by certain molecular
movements; the ends of the optic nerves, which are also spread over the
retina, are shaken by the disrupting molecules, and the disturbance is
the origin of what we call the sensation of light. But the sensation is
generally a compound one, and when all wave lengths which are competent
to affect the retina are present, the compound effect we call white or
whiteness. When some of the rays are absent, as, for instance, the
longer ones, the optical effect is one we call green or greenness; and
the special physiological mechanism for producing the sensation may be
either three special sets of nerves, capable of sympathetic vibration to
waves of about 1-39,000, 1-45,000, and 1-55,000 of an inch in length, as
Helmholtz has suggested, or, as seems to the writer more probable, the
substance purpurine is a highly complex organic substance made up of
molecules of different sizes and requiring wave lengths of different
orders to decompose them, so that a part of the substance may be quite
disintegrated, while other molecules may be quite entire throughout the
visual space. This will account for most of the chromatic effects of
vision, for complementary colors, and for color blindness, by supposing
that the purpurine is not normally constituted. This is in accordance
with experimental photography, for it has been found that the long waves
will act only upon heavier molecules. It is true vision may be good when
there is no purpurine, but there is no doubt but that this substance is
secreted in the eye, and that it is photographic in its properties, and
so far must be taken as an element in any theory of vision; but the
chief point here considered is that objectively light does not exist
independent of the eye, that light is a physiological phenomenon, and to
speak of it otherwise is to confound a cause with an effect. It is,
hence, incorrect to speak of the velocity of light; it has no velocity.
It is _radiant energy_ that has the velocity of 186,000 miles a second.
It is incorrect to say we receive heat from the sun. What we do receive
is radiant energy, which is here transformed into heat. This is not
hypercritical, but is in accordance with the knowledge we have to-day.
The old nomenclature we use, but without definite meaning; the latter is
left to be inferred from the connection or context. If a man should
attach to the water main in a city a properly constructed waterwheel,
the latter will rotate; but it would not be proper to say that he
received rotation from the reservoir. What he received was water with a
certain pressure; in other words, a certain form of energy, which he
transforms into rotation by the appropriate means; but by substituting
other means he can make the same water pressure maintain a vibratory
motion, as with the hydraulic ram valve, or let it waste itself by open
flow, in which case it becomes ultimately molecular vibration that is
heat. The analogy holds strictly. The trouble all comes from neglecting
to distinguish between different forms of energy--energy in matter and
energy in the ether.

       *       *       *       *       *



GLASS SPINNING AND WEAVING.


Quite recently a Pittsburg glass firm has succeeded, to a notable
degree, in producing glass threads of sufficient fineness and elasticity
to permit of their being woven into fabrics of novel character and
quality. Their success is such as to warrant the assumption that
garments of pure glass, glistening and imperishable, are among the
possibilities of the near future. The spinning of glass threads of
extreme fineness is not a new process, but, as carried on at present by
the firm in question--Messrs. Atterbury & Co.--possesses considerable
interest. From a quality of glass similar to that from which table ware
is made, rods of glass averaging half an inch in diameter are drawn to
any desired length and of various colors. These rods are then so placed
that the flame of two gas burners is blown against that end of the rod
pointed toward the large "spinning" wheel. The latter is 81/2 feet in
diameter, and turns at the rate of 300 revolutions per minute. The
flames, having played upon the end of the glass cylinder until a melting
heat is attained, a thread of glass is drawn from the rod and affixed to
the periphery of the wheel, whose face is about 12 inches wide. Motion
is then communicated, and the crystal thread is drawn from between the
gas jets and wrapped upon the wheel at the rate of about 7,500 feet per
minute. A higher speed results in a finer filament of glass, and vice
versa. During its passage from the flame to the wheel, a distance of
five or six feet, the thread has become cooled, and yet its elasticity
is preserved to a notable degree. The next step in the process consists
in the removal of the layers of threads from the wheel. This is easily
accomplished, and after being cut to the desired lengths, the filaments
are woven in a loom somewhat similar to that used in weaving silken
goods. Until within the past few weeks only the woof of the fabric was
of glass, but at present both warp and woof are in crystal. Samples of
this cloth have been forwarded to New York and to Chicago, and the
manufacturers claim to be able to duplicate in colors, texture, etc.,
any garments sent them. A tablecloth of glass recently completed shines
with a satiny, opalescent luster by day, and under gaslight shows
remarkable beauty. Imitation plumes, in opal, ruby, pale green, and
other hues, are also constructed of these threads, and are wonderfully
pretty. The chief obstacle yet to surmount seems to lie in the
manipulation of these threads, which are so fine that a bunch containing
250 is not so thick as an average sized knitting needle, and which do
not possess the tractability of threads of silk or cotton.

  [The foregoing information is furnished by a correspondent in
  Pittsburg. A sample of the goods mentioned, a tablecloth of glass,
  is now on exhibition in this city.

  The weaving of such heavy fabrics of glass for ornamental purposes
  and for curiosities is no new thing; nor, in our estimation, does
  comparative success in such experiments warrant the enthusiastic
  claims of the Pittsburg manufacturers touching the adaptability of
  glass for wearing apparel. Unless it is in their power to change
  the nature of glass absolutely and radically, it does not seem
  possible for them so to overcome the ultimate brittleness of the
  separate fibers as to make the fabric fit to be brought in contact
  with the skin. The woven stuff may be relatively tough and
  flexible; but unless the entire fabric can be made of one
  unbreakable fiber the touch of the free ends, be they never so
  fine, must be anything but pleasant or beneficial, if one can
  judge by the finest filaments of glass spun hitherto. Besides, in
  weaving and wearing the goods, a certain amount of fiber dust must
  be produced as in the case of all other textile material. When the
  softest of vegetable fibers are employed the air charged with
  their fragments is hurtful to the lungs; still more injurious must
  be the spiculæ of spun glass.

  However, although the manufacturers are likely to be disappointed
  in their expectation of finding in glass a cheap and available
  substitute for linen, cotton, and silk in dress goods, it is quite
  possible that a wide range of useful application may be found for
  their new fabric.]

       *       *       *       *       *



REMARKABLE ERUPTION OF MAUNA LOA.


Late advices from the Sandwich Islands describe the eruption of Mauna
Loa, which began Nov. 5, as one of the grandest ever witnessed. The
opening was about six miles from the summit of the mountain, and already
two great streams of lava had been poured out; one of them, from one to
two yards wide and twenty feet deep, had reached a distance of thirty
miles. Terrible explosions accompany the flow of the lava stream, which
for a time threatened the town of Hilo; at last reports the flow seemed
to be turning in another direction.

Mauna Loa, "long or high mountain" occupies a large portion of the
central and southern part of the island of Hawaii, and reaches an
elevation of 13,760 feet. It has been built up by lavas thrown out in a
highly fluid state, and flowing long distances before cooling; as a
consequence the slopes of the mountain are very gentle, averaging,
according to Prof. Dana, not more than six and a half degrees. Its
craters are numerous, and usually occur near the summit and on the
sides, new ones opening frequently, and furnishing, as in the latest
instance, magnificent lava streams. The terminal crater is circular,
8,000 feet in diameter, and in 1864 was about 1,000 feet deep. In 1859
an enormous lava fountain spouted from this crater for four or five
days, throwing a column of white hot fluid lava about 200 feet in
diameter to the height of two or three hundred feet. The lava stream ran
50 miles to the sea in eight days. Other great eruptions have occurred
in 1832, 1840, 1843, 1852, 1855, 1868 and 1873. The lava streams poured
out in 1840, 1859, and 1868, flowed to the sea, adding considerably to
the area of the island. Those of 1843 and 1855 are estimated to have
poured out respectively 17,000,000,000 and 38,000,000,000 cubic feet of
lava. In 1868 the lava stream forced its way under ground a distance of
twenty miles, and burst forth from a fissure two miles long, throwing up
enormous columns of crimson lava and red hot rock to the height of five
or six hundred feet.

On the eastern part of Mauna Loa, 16 miles from the summit crater, is
Kilauea, the largest continuously active crater in the world. It is
eight miles in circumference, and 1,000 feet deep. Its eruptions are
generally independent of those of Mauna Loa.

       *       *       *       *       *



NEW AIR ENGINE.


A valuable improvement in compressed air engines has recently been
patented in this country and in Europe by Col. F. E. B. Beaumont, of the
Royal Engineers, and we learn from accounts given in the London and
provincial papers that it has proved highly efficient and satisfactory.

The engine possesses some peculiar features which render it very
economical in the use of compressed air. It has two cylinders, one being
much larger than the other. Into the smaller of these cylinders the
compressed air is taken directly from the reservoir, and after doing its
work there it is discharged into the larger cylinder, where it is
further expanded, being finally discharged into the open air.

The admission of air to the smaller cylinder is regulated by an
adjustable cut-off apparatus, which admits of maintaining a uniform
power under a variable pressure. When the reservoir at first starting
contains air at a very high pressure, the cut-off is adjusted so that
the small cylinder receives a very small charge of air at each stroke;
when the pressure in the reservoir diminishes the cut-off is delayed so
that a larger quantity of air is admitted to the small cylinder; and
when the pressure in the reservoir is so far reduced that the pressure
on the smaller piston gives very little power, the supply passages are
kept open so that the air acts directly on the piston of the larger
cylinder. This arrangement is also available when the air pressure is
high and great power is required for a short time, as, for example, in
starting a locomotive.

It is, perhaps, needless to mention the advantages a motor of this kind
possesses over the steam locomotive. The absence of smoke and noise
renders it particularly desirable for tunnels, elevated roads, and, in
fact, for any city railroad.

Further information in regard to this important invention may be
obtained by addressing Mr. R. Ten Broeck, at the Windsor Hotel, New
York.

       *       *       *       *       *



TELEGRAPH WIRES UNDERGROUND.


Philadelphia newspapers report that the American Union Telegraph
Company are about to try in that city the experiment of putting their
wires underground. The plan works well enough in European cities, and
there would seem to be no reason why it should not succeed here, save
the indisposition of the companies to bear the first cost of making the
change. For some months the Western Union Telegraph Company has had the
matter under consideration, but will probably wait until pressed by a
rival company before it undertakes the more serious task of taking down
its forest of poles and sinking the wires which contribute so much to
the prevailing ugliness of our streets. Sooner or later the poles and
wires must come down; and it is altogether probable that the change will
be beneficial to the companies in the long run, owing to the smaller
cost of maintaining a subterranean system. It will certainly be an
advantage to the community.

       *       *       *       *       *



IMPROVED SAFETY NUT.


That a safety nut so simple and so obviously efficient as the one shown
in the annexed engraving should be among the recent inventions in this
line instead of being among the first, is a curious example of the
manner in which inventors often overlook the simplest means of
accomplishing an end. The principle on which this nut operates will be
understood by reference to the engraving. Two nuts are represented on
each bolt, simply for the purpose of showing the difference between the
nut when loose and when screwed down. In practice only one nut is
required to each bolt.

The square nut shown in Fig. 1 is concaved on its under side, so that it
touches its bearings only at the corners and in the outer face of the
nut there are two slots at right angles to each other. When this nut is
screwed home the outer portion is contracted so as to clamp the bolt
tightly.

The hexagonal nut shown in Fig. 2 has but a single transverse slot, and
the nut is made concave on the under surface, so that when the nut is
screwed home it will contract the outer portion and so clamp the bolt.

This nut may be removed and replaced by means of the wrench, but it will
not become accidentally loosened, and the bolt to which it is applied
will always remain tight, as the nut possesses a certain amount of
elasticity. The action of this nut is such as to prevent stripping the
threads of either bolt or nut.

As only one nut is used with each bolt, and as no washer or other extra
appliance is required, it is obvious that a great saving is effected by
this invention.

We are informed that several of the leading railroads have adopted this
nut, and use it on the tracks, engines, cars, and machinery. The Atwood
Safety Nut Company manufacture this article in a variety of forms.

[Illustration: THE ATWOOD SAFETY NUT.]

Further information may be obtained by addressing J. W. Labaree,
Secretary and Treasurer, Room 2, Agawam Bank Building, Springfield,
Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *



PETROLEUM PROSPECTS.


The total oil production of the Pennsylvania oil regions for the month
of October was 2,094,608 barrels. The conditions in the producing field
are gradually giving warrant for permanently higher prices of crude. The
confidence of the trade is daily becoming more fixed in the definiteness
and limit of the Bradford field, as the last of the several "rich
streaks" in the region are being worked.

We entertain an increased belief that the coming year will exhibit a
continued falling off in the volume of production, notwithstanding all
the modern improvements in drilling and the great energy with which they
are employed.

For the past few weeks the markets of both crude and refined seem to
have been rigorously and artificially held by the refining interest. The
refined has been quoted at 12 cts. for four weeks without change--and as
a consequence the exporter has taken oil very sparingly. The exports of
last year to November 1, as compared with the exports of this year to
November 1, show a decrease of 1,269,646 barrels in crude equivalent.
The falling off of production, taken together with the increased demand
which must result from the present reluctance of exporters, unite in
warranting us in the belief above expressed, in enhanced prices for the
coming year.

Our figures show a decrease in production for last month, compared with
the preceding month, of 933 barrels per day, notwithstanding the number
of wells drilled was slightly greater than in the preceding month. It
will be noticed, too, that the average per well of the new wells for
last month is a little less than that of the new wells for the month
before, besides, it is generally recognized that the force of the gas in
the region is gradually becoming less, and pumping is more commonly
resorted to. As nearly as we can ascertain, about one-eighth of all the
wheels of the Bradford region are now pumping. We believe, however, on
the whole, judging the character of the Bradford producing field, that
the falling off of production will be quite gradual. Our reason for this
is that the Bradford field is essentially different from its
predecessor--the Butler field. The wells in the Butler field were often
close together, many of them were very large and fell off rapidly; while
the wells of the Bradford region are smaller, farther apart, much
greater in number, have a greater area from which to draw oil, and
consequently decline very much more slowly.--_Stowell's Reporter_.

       *       *       *       *       *



TOOL FOR DRIVING AND CLINCHING NAILS.


A novel method of making a nail hole and driving and clinching the nail
is shown in the annexed engraving. The instrument for making the hole
has a notched end which leaves a ridge in the center of the hole at the
bottom. The nail driving tool consists of a socket provided with a
suitable handle, and containing a follower which rests upon the head of
the nail to be driven, and receives the blows of the hammer in the
operation of driving the nail. The nail is split for one half its
length, and the two arms thus formed are slightly separated at the
point, so that when they meet the ridge at the bottom of the hole they
will be still further separated and will clinch in the body of the wood.

[Illustration: TOOL FOR DRIVING AND CLINCHING NAILS.]

This invention was recently patented by Mr. Charles P. Ball, of
Danville, Ky.

       *       *       *       *       *



AUTOMATIC BALANCE ATTACHMENT FOR VALVES.


It is well known that in all air compressors and water pumps the
pressure in cylinder of air compressors or in working barrel or cylinder
of pumps is much greater at the point of opening the delivery valves
than the actual pressure in the air receivers of compressors or in water
column of pumps because of the difference in area between the top and
bottom of delivery valves. In some air compressors a hundred and
twenty-five pounds pressure to the square inch is required in the
cylinder to eighty pounds in the receiver, and in some instances a
hundred pounds pressure is required in the cylinder to eighty pounds
pressure in the receiver or column.

The engraving shows an invention designed to remedy this defect in air
compressors and pumps, to provide a device which will enable the
compressors and pumps to operate with equal pressure on both sides of
the delivery valve.

The invention consists of an auxiliary valve arranged outside of the
cylinder, where it is not subjected to back pressure, and connected with
the delivery valve by a hollow valve stem.

In the engraving, which is a sectional view, the cylinder of an air
compressor is represented, on the end of which there is a ring
containing delivery ports, through which the air from the cylinder is
forced into a receiver or conducting pipe. This ring is provided with an
inner flange or valve seat on which rests the delivery valve. These
parts are similar to those seen in some of the air compressors in common
use, and with this construction and arrangement one hundred pounds
pressure to the square inch in the cylinder is required to open the
valve against eighty pounds pressure in the receiver or in the
conducting pipes.

[Illustration: AUTOMATIC BALANCE ATTACHMENT FOR DELIVERY VALVES OF AIR
COMPRESSORS AND WATER PUMPS.]

A drum having an open end is connected with the cylinder head by
inclined standards, and contains a piston connected with the valve by
means of a rod that extends centrally through the cylinder head. On the
outer end of this rod is screwed an adjusting nut, by means of which the
piston may be adjusted. This rod is bored longitudinally, establishing
communication between the compressor cylinder and the drum containing
the piston.

It will be seen that the upper face of the piston is exposed so as to be
subjected to atmospheric pressure only, and when the compressor is in
operation a portion of the air in the compressor cylinder passes through
the hollow rod into the space beneath the piston, and there exerts
sufficient pressure, in combination with the pressure on the inner face
of the valve, to open the valve against an equal pressure in the
receiver or conducting pipes, so that when the pressure in the cylinder
equals the pressure in the receivers the valve is opened and held in
place until the piston in the cylinder starts on the return stroke, when
the pressure under the piston is immediately relieved through the hollow
rod and the main valve closes.

The space between the valve and its seat is made as shallow as possible,
so that the space may be quickly filled and exhausted. The piston may be
adjusted to regulate this space. This invention was recently patented by
Messrs. Samuel B. Connor and Henry Dods, of Virginia City, Nevada.

       *       *       *       *       *



IMPROVED SAFETY VALVE.


In the annexed cut we have represented a steam safety valve, which is
the invention of M. Schmidt, M. E., of Zurich, Switzerland. It consists
of a lever terminating in two prongs, one of which extends downward and
rests upon the cap, closing the top of the tube through which the steam
escapes. The other prong extends upward and catches under a projection
of the steam tube, and forms the fulcrum for the lever. The opposite end
of this lever is provided with an adjustable screw pressing upon a plate
that rests on the top of a spiral spring, which keeps the valve closed
by pressing the outer end of the lever upward. As soon as the pressure
of the steam overcomes the pressure of the spiral spring the valve will
be raised, permitting the steam to escape. The apparatus is contained in
a case having a central aperture for the escape of steam.

[Illustration: IMPROVED SAFETY VALVE.]

       *       *       *       *       *



RAISING SUNKEN VESSELS.


An experiment recently took place in the East India Dock Basin,
Blackwall, London, by permission of Mr. J. L. du Plat Taylor, the
secretary of the Dock Company, for the purpose of testing and
illustrating the mode of raising sunken ships by means of the apparatus
patented by Mr. William Atkinson, naval engineer, of Sheffield. The
machinery employed consists of the necessary number and size, according
to the power required, of oval or egg-shaped buoys constructed of sheet
iron, having an internal valve of a simple and effective character.
Captain Hales Dutton, the dock master, who assisted during the
operations, had placed his small yacht at the inventor's service for the
occasion. The vessel was moored in the basin, and a set of four buoys
were attached to it, one on each side near the bow and the stern. Air
was supplied from a pump on the quay by a pipe communicating with a
small copper globe resting on the deck of the vessel, and from which
place proceeded four other flexible tubes, one to each buoy, thus
distributing the air to each one equally. The vessel being flooded and
in a sinking condition, the buoys were attached and the valves opened;
they rapidly filled with water, and the vessel immediately sank in about
30 feet. Upon the first attempt an air chamber in the stern had been
lost sight of, causing the vessel to come up to the surface stern
uppermost; this being rectified, the vessel was again sent to the
bottom, and allowed to remain a short time to allow her to settle down.
When the order was given to work the pump, the vessel was brought to the
surface, perfectly level, in about three minutes. The apparatus used,
although only models, and on a comparatively diminutive scale (the buoys
measuring 3 feet 4 inches in height and 2 feet 6 inches in diameter),
was estimated to be capable of lifting a weight of nearly 20 tons, and
that it needed, as represented by the patentee, only a corresponding
increase in the lifting power to deal successfully with vessels of any
tonnage.

       *       *       *       *       *



NEW HAND POWER BAND SAW.


The engraving shows a new hand power band saw made by Frank & Co., of
Buffalo, N. Y., and designed to be used in shops where there is no power
and where a larger machine would be useless. It is calculated to meet
the wants of a large class of mechanics, including carpenters and
builders, cabinet makers, and wagon makers. It is capable of sawing
stuff six inches thick, and has a clear space of thirty inches between
the saw and the frame. The upper wheel is adjusted by a screw pressing
against a rubber spring which compensates for the expansion and
contraction of the saw.

The machine has a very complete device for raising, lowering, and
adjusting the wheel, and all of the parts are made with a view to
obtaining the best results in the simplest and most desirable way.

The machine is six feet wide and five feet high, and weighs 380 lb. The
wheels are covered with pure rubber bands well cemented.

[Illustration: HAND POWER BAND SAW.]

Further particulars may be obtained by addressing Messrs. Frank & Co.,
176 Terrace street, Buffalo, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE HARBOR OF MONTREAL.


A plan for the improvement of the harbor of Montreal, Canada, has been
submitted to the City Board of Trade by James Shearer, a well known
citizen. Mr. Shearer's plan is to divert the current of the St. Lawrence
opposite the city into the channels between St. Helen's Island and the
southern shore, and by having various obstructions removed from the
channel, and running a dam, or "peninsula," as he calls it, built from
Point St. Charles, in the west end of the city, to St. Helen's Island,
midway in the river, thus stopping the current from running through the
present main channel between the city and St. Helen's Island.

Among the practical advantages that will accrue to the city and harbor
from the carrying out of this project, Mr. Shearer sets forth the
following: The dam will prevent the shoring of ice opposite the city,
and the consequent flooding of the Griffintown district, which is
annually very destructive to property, and will make a still harbor,
where vessels may lie during the winter. It is estimated that the
construction of the dam, which would be 2,700 feet long and 900 feet
broad, would raise the water two feet in the river and lower it ten feet
in the harbor. This would give a head of twenty-five feet for mills,
elevators, and factories, and the transportation of freight. The dam
would afford a roadway across the river, upon the construction of a
bridge from St. Helen's Island to St. Lambert, thus removing the
necessity of a tunnel. The roadway could be utilized for a railway, a
road for carriages and foot passengers. The estimated cost of the
improvement is $7,000,000.

       *       *       *       *       *



APPARATUS FOR REMOVING ICE FROM RAILROADS.


The engraving shows an improved apparatus for removing snow and ice from
railroads and streets by means of heat. The invention consists of a
double furnace mounted on wheels, which are incased in the fire boxes of
the furnace, so that in use the entire apparatus, including the wheels,
will become highly heated, so that the snow and ice will not only be
melted by radiant heat, but by the actual contact of the hot surfaces of
the furnace and wheels. This apparatus was recently patented by the late
E. H. Angamar, of New Orleans, La.

[Illustration: APPARATUS FOR REMOVING ICE FROM RAILROADS.]

       *       *       *       *       *



ERICSSON'S NEW SUBMARINE GUN.


The protracted trials conducted on board the Destroyer to test its
submarine gun terminated last week. Having, says the _Army and Navy
Journal_, in a previous issue described this novel type of naval
artillery, it will suffice to remind our readers that its caliber is 16
inches, length of bore 30 feet, and that it is placed at the bottom of
the vessel, the muzzle passing through an opening formed in the wrought
iron stem.

We have hitherto, in discussing the properties of the Destroyer,
referred to its offensive weapon as a "torpedo," a term not altogether
inappropriate while it was actuated by compressed air. But Capt.
Ericsson having in the meantime wholly abolished compressed air in his
new system of naval attack, substituting guns and gunpowder as the means
of producing motive energy, it will be proper to adopt the constructor's
term, _projectile_. It will not surprise those who are acquainted with
the laws of hydrostatics and the enormous resistance offered to bodies
moving swiftly through water, that the determination of the proper form
of projectile for the submarine gun has demanded protracted experiments,
commencing at the beginning of June and continued up to last week, as
before stated. The greater portion of these experiments, it should be
observed, has been carried out with a gun 30 feet long, 15 inches
caliber--not a breech-loader, however, as in the Destroyer, but a
muzzle-loader, suspended under the bottom of two wrecking scows, the gun
being lifted above the water, after each shot, by shears and suitable
tackle. The present projectile of the Destroyer is the result of the
extended trials referred to; its length is 25 feet 6 inches, diameter 16
inches, and its weight 1,500 pounds, including 250 pounds of explosive
materials. We are not at liberty at present to describe its form, but we
may mention that the great length of the body and the absence of all
internal machinery enable the constructor to carry the stated enormous
quantity of explosive matter. With minimum charge of powder in the
chamber of the gun, the speed attained by the projectile reaches 310
feet in the first three seconds.

The question may be asked, in view of these facts, whether the boasted
costly steam ram is not superseded by the cheap aggressive system
represented by the Destroyer. Evidently the most powerful of the English
steam rams could not destroy an armored ship as effectually as the
projectile from the submarine gun, the explosion of which is capable of
shattering any naval structure.

It should be borne in mind, also, that being protected by heavy inclined
transverse armor, the Destroyer, attacking bows on, can defy ordnance of
all calibers. Again, the carrier of the submarine gun, in addition to
the swiftness of its projectile, can outrun ironclad ships.

       *       *       *       *       *



RECENT INVENTIONS.


Mr. Francis M. Osborn, of Port Chester, N. Y., has patented a covering
for a horse that protects him from the weather and from chafing. The
blanket has a band, also stays and straps, the use of which does away
with the surcingle and affords a most efficient protection for the
horse, and may be easily worn under harness in wet weather or at other
times, when desirable.

A novel device, designed especially for containing boxes of cigars and
protecting and displaying their contents, has been patented by Mr.
Robert B. Dando, of Alta, Iowa. The invention consists of a case
containing shelves, on which are fixed the covered cigar or other boxes,
cords connecting the box lids and case doors, so that the opening of the
case doors causes the box lids to open.

An improved bottle stopper has been patented by Mr. Andrew Walker, of
Cincinnati, O. The invention consists in combining with the stopper caps
connected by an intermediate spring.

Mr. James B. Law, of Darlington Court House, S. C., has patented an
improved construction of buckle for fastening the ends of cotton and
other bale bands; it consists in a buckle having a permanent seat for
one end of the bale band, a central opening, into which the other end of
the band is entered through an oblique channel, and a bar offsetting
from the plane of the buckle, notched or recessed to prevent lateral
movement of the band, and connecting the free ends of the buckle on each
side of the oblique channel to strengthen the buckle.

An improved buckboard wagon has been patented by Mr. William Sanford, of
Cohoes, N. Y. The invention consists in combining with the buckboards
curved longitudinal springs placed beneath the buckboards, and curved
cross springs connected at their ends with the buckboards by cap plates
so as to increase the strength and elasticity of the wagon.

An improved vehicle wheel has been patented by Messrs. George W. Dudley
and William J. Jones, of Waynesborough, Va. The main object of this
invention is to form a wheel hub for vehicles in such manner that the
wheel will yield sufficiently when undue and sudden strains or jars may
come upon it to receive the force of the blow and shield the other
portions of the vehicle from the destructive effects of such action, as
well as to afford ease and comfort of motion to the occupant; and the
improvement consists in securing the inner ends of the spokes to rim
plates, to form a fixed and solid connection therewith, the rim plates
being loosely secured to the butt flanges and box of the hub, so that it
is free to move in a vertical plane, but prevented from moving laterally
and limited in its vertical movement by an elastic packing interposed
between the inner ends of the spokes and the hub box.

Mr. Francis G. Powers, of Moweaqua, Ill., has patented an improvement in
the class of atmospheric clothes pounders, that is to say, pounders
which are constructed with one or more chambers or cavities in which the
air is alternately compressed and allowed to expand at each
reciprocation.

An improved means for connecting the body of a baby carriage to the
running gear has been patented by Mr. Charles M. Hubbard, of Columbus,
Ohio. It consists in supporting the rear end by one or more coil
springs, and hinging the front portion of the body to a pair of upturned
supports rising from the front axle.

An improved ferrule for awl handles has been patented by Mr. Jules
Steinmeyer, of St. Louis, Mo. The object of this invention is to prevent
splitting of the handle, to secure both the ferrule and leather pad
firmly in place, and to furnish a durable and serviceable awl handle.

       *       *       *       *       *



NEW TELEGRAPH INSULATOR.


The insulator represented in the annexed engraving was originally
designed to meet the requirements of South American telegraph service,
but it is equally well adapted to lines in other places. The main idea
is to avoid breakage from expansion and contraction in a climate subject
to sudden changes of temperature, and to avoid the mischief occasioned
by a well known South American bird, the "hornero," by building nests of
mud on the brackets and insulators. With this insulator these nests
cannot cause a weather contact or earth; on the contrary, the nest
rather improves the insulation. The sectional view, Fig 2, shows the
construction of the insulator and the manner of fastening it to the
cross arm or bracket. A rubber ring is placed between the upper end of
the porcelain insulator and the cross arm, and another similar ring is
placed between the head of the suspending screw and the bottom of the
insulator. It will be noticed that with this construction the insulator
cannot be broken by the contraction of the screw or by the swelling of
the cross-piece. This insulator can be used on an iron bracket and in
connection with either iron or wooden posts, and is in every way more
secure than the insulators in common use. The first cost of these
insulators compares favorably with the cheapest in market, while it is
less liable to breakage, lasts longer, and gives better results. It has
been patented in this country and in Europe.

[Illustration: IMPROVED TELEGRAPH INSULATOR.]

Further information maybe obtained by addressing Mr. J. H. Bloomfield,
Concordia, Entre Reos, Argentine Republic, South America.

       *       *       *       *       *



BUSINESS COLLEGES.

PACKARD'S BUSINESS COLLEGE.


[Illustration: THE FIRST DEPARTMENT]

[Illustration: SECOND DEPARTMENT]

[Illustration: THIRD DEPARTMENT]

[Illustration: FOURTH OR FINISHING DEPARTMENT]

[Illustration: THE BUDGET ROOM]

[Illustration: THE ASSEMBLY ROOM]

There are two very general prejudices against the class of schools known
as business colleges. One is that their chief aim--next to lining the
pockets of their proprietors--is to turn out candidates for petty
clerkships, when the country is already overrun with young men whose
main ambition is to stand at a desk and "keep books." The other is that
the practical outcome of these institutions is a swarm of conceited
flourishers with the pen, who, because they have copied a set or two of
model account books and learned to imitate more or less cleverly certain
illegibly artistic writing copies, imagine themselves competent for any
business post, and worthy of a much higher salary than any merely
practical accountant who has never been to a business college or
attempted the art of fancy penmanship as exhibited in spread eagles and
impossible swans.

As a rule popular prejudices are not wholly unfounded in reason; and we
should not feel disposed to make an exception in this case. When the
demand arose for a more practical schooling than the old fashioned
schools afforded, no end of writing masters, utterly ignorant of actual
business life and methods, hastened to set up ill managed writing
schools which they dubbed "business colleges," and by dint of
advertising succeeded in calling in a multitude of aspirants for
clerkships. In view of the speedy discomfiture of the deluded graduates
of such schools when brought face to face with actual business affairs,
and the disgust of their employers who had engaged them on the strength
of their alleged business training, one is not so much surprised that
prejudice against business colleges still prevails in many quarters, as
that the relatively few genuine institutions should have been able to
gain any creditable footing at all.

The single fact that they have overcome the opprobrium cast upon their
name by quacks, so far as to maintain themselves in useful prosperity,
winning a permanent and honorable place among the progressive
educational institutions of the day, is proof enough that they have a
mission to fulfill and are fulfilling it. This, however, is not simply,
as many suppose, in training young men and young women to be skilled
accountants--a calling of no mean scope and importance in itself--but
more particularly in furnishing young people, destined for all sorts of
callings, with that practical knowledge of business affairs which every
man or woman of means has constant need of in every-day life. Thus the
true business college performs a twofold function. As a technical school
it trains its students for a specific occupation, that of the
accountant; at the same time it supplements the education not only of
the intending merchant, but equally of the mechanic, the man of leisure,
the manufacturer, the farmer, the professional man--in short, of any one
who expects to mix with or play any considerable part in the affairs of
men. The mechanic who aspires to be the master of a successful shop of
his own, or foreman or manager in the factory of another, will have
constant need of the business habits and the knowledge of business
methods and operations which a properly conducted business school will
give him. The same is true of the manufacturer, whose complicated, and
it may be extensive, business relations with the producers and dealers
who supply him with raw material, with the workmen who convert such
material into finished wares, with the merchants or agents who market
the products of his factory, all require his oversight and direction.
Indeed, whoever aspires to something better than a hand-to-mouth
struggle with poverty, whether as mechanic, farmer, professional man, or
what not, must of necessity be to some degree a business man; and in
every position in life business training and a practical knowledge of
financial affairs are potent factors in securing success.

How different, for example, would have been the history of our great
inventors had they all possessed that knowledge of business affairs
which would have enabled them to put their inventions in a business like
way before the world, or before the capitalists whose assistance they
wished to invoke. The history of invention is full of illustrations of
men who have starved with valuable patents standing in their
names--patents which have proved the basis of large fortunes to those
who were competent to develop the wealth that was in them. How often,
too, do we see capable and ingenious and skillful mechanics confined
through life to a small shop, or to a subordinate position in a large
shop, solely through their inability to manage the affairs of a larger
business. On the other hand, it is no uncommon thing to see what might
be a profitable business--which has been fairly thrust upon a lucky
inventor or manufacturer by the urgency of popular needs--fail
disastrously through ignorance of business methods and inability to
conduct properly the larger affairs which fell to the owner's hand.

Of course a business training is not the only condition of success in
life. Many have it and fail; others begin without it and succeed,
gaining a working knowledge of business affairs through the exigencies
of their own increasing business needs. Nevertheless, in whatever line
in life a man's course may fall, a practical business training will be
no hinderance to him, while the lack of it may be a serious hinderance.
The school of experience is by no means to be despised. To many it is
the only school available. But unhappily its teachings are apt to come
too late, and often they are fatally expensive. Whoever can attain the
needed knowledge in a quicker and cheaper way will obviously do well so
to obtain it; and the supplying of such practical knowledge, and the
training which may largely take the place of experience in actual
business, is the proper function of the true business college.

Our purpose in this writing, however, was not so much to enlarge upon
the utility of business colleges, properly so called, as to describe the
practical working of a representative institution, choosing for the
purpose Packard's Business College in this city.

This school was established in 1858, under the name of Bryant, Stratton
& Packard's Mercantile College, by Mr. S. S. Packard, the present
proprietor. It formed the New York link in the chain of institutions
known as the Bryant & Stratton chain of business colleges, which
ultimately embraced fifty co working schools in the principal cities of
the United States and Canada. In 1867 Mr. Packard purchased the Bryant &
Stratton interest in the New York College, and changed its name to
Packard's Business College, retaining the good will and all the co
operative advantages of the Bryant & Stratton association. The original
purpose of the college, as its name implies, was the education of young
men for business pursuits. The experience of over twenty years has led
to many improvements in the working of the school, and to a considerable
enlargement of its scope and constituency, which now includes adults as
well as boys, especial opportunities being offered to mature men who
want particular instruction in arithmetic, bookkeeping, penmanship,
correspondence, and the like.

[Illustration: LECTURE AND RECITATION ROOM.]

The teachers employed in the college are chosen for their practical as
well as their theoretical knowledge of business affairs, and every
effort is made to secure timeliness and accuracy in their teachings.
Constant intercourse is kept up with the departments at Washington as to
facts and changes in financial matters, and also with prominent business
houses in this and other cities. Among the recent letters received in
correspondence of this sort are letters from the Secretary of State of
every State in the Union with regard to rates of interest and usury
laws, and letters from each of our city banks as to methods of reckoning
time on paper, the basis of interest calculations, the practices
concerning deposit balances, and other business matters subject to
change. The aim of the proprietor is to keep the school abreast of the
demands of the business world, and to omit nothing, either in his
methods or their enforcement, necessary to carry out his purpose
honestly and completely. An idea of the superior housing of the college
will be obtained from the views of half a dozen of the rooms at No 805
Broadway, as shown in this issue of the Scientific American--the finest,
largest, most compact, and convenient suite of rooms anywhere used for
this purpose.

The college is open for students ten months of the year, five days each
week, from half past nine in the morning until half past two in the
afternoon. Students can enter at any time with equal advantage, the
instruction being for the most part individual. The course of study can
be completed in about a year. The proprietor holds that with this amount
of study a boy of seventeen should be able--

1. To take a position as assistant bookkeeper in almost any kind of
business; 2. To do the ordinary correspondence of a business house, so
far as good writing, correct spelling, grammatical construction, and
mechanical requisites are concerned; 3. To do the work of an entry clerk
or cashier; 4. To place himself in the direct line of promotion to any
desirable place in business or life, with the certainty of holding his
own at every step.

In this the student will have the advantage over the uneducated clerk of
the same age and equal worth and capacity, in that he will understand
more or less practically as well as theoretically the duties of those
above him, and will thus be able to advance to more responsible
positions as rapidly as his years and maturity may justify. It is
obvious that the knowledge which makes an expert accountant will in all
probability suffice for the general business requirements of
professional men, the inheritors of property and business,
manufacturers, mechanics, and others to whom bookkeeping and other
business arts are useful aids, but not the basis of a trade. For the
last-named classes, and for women, shorter periods of study are
provided, and may be made productive of good results.

A sufficient idea of the general working of the college may be obtained
by following a student through the several departments. After the
preliminary examination a student who is to take the regular course of
study enters the initiatory room. Here he begins with the rudiments of
bookkeeping, the study which marks his gradation. The time not given to
the practice of writing, and to recitations in other subjects, is
devoted to the study of accounts. He is required, first, to write up in
"skeleton" form--that is, to place the dates and amounts of the several
transactions under the proper ledger titles--six separate sets of books,
or the record of six different business ventures, wherein are exhibited
as great a variety of operations as possible, with varying results of
gains and losses, and the adjustment thereof in the partners' accounts,
or in the account of the sole proprietor. After getting the results in
this informal way--which is done in order as quickly as possible to get
the theory of bookkeeping impressed upon his mind--he is required to go
over the work again carefully, writing up with neatness and precision
all the principal and auxiliary books, with the documents which should
accompany the transactions, such as notes, drafts, checks, receipts,
invoices, letters, etc. The work in this department will occupy an
industrious and intelligent student from four to six weeks, depending
upon his quickness of perception and his working qualities. While
progressing in his bookkeeping, he is pursuing the collateral studies, a
certain attainment in which is essential to promotion, especially
correcting any marked deficiency in spelling, arithmetic, and the use of
language.

Upon a satisfactory examination the student now passes to the second
department, where a wider scope of knowledge in accounts is opened to
him, with a large amount of practical detail familiarizing him with the
actual operations of business. The greatest care is taken to prevent
mere copying and to throw the student upon his own resources, by
obliging him to correct his own blunders, and to work out his own
results; accepting nothing as final that has not the characteristics of
real business. Much care is bestowed in this department upon the form
and essential matter of business paper, and especially of
correspondence. A great variety of letters is required to be written on
assigned topics and in connection with the business which is recorded,
and thorough instruction is given in the law of negotiable paper,
contracts, etc. During all this time the student devotes from half an
hour to an hour daily to penmanship, a plain, practical, legible hand
being aimed at, to the exclusion of superfluous lines and flourishes. It
is expected that the work in the first and second departments will
establish the student in the main principles of bookkeeping, in its
general theories, and their application to ordinary transactions.

In the third department the student takes an advanced position, and is
expected, during the two or three months he will remain in this
department, to perfect himself in the more subtle questions involved in
accounts, as well as to shake off the crude belongings of schoolboy
work. He will be required to use his mind in everything he does--to
depend as much as possible upon himself. The work which he presents for
approval here must have the characteristics of business. His letters,
statements, and papers of all kinds are critically examined, and
approved only when giving evidence of conscientious work, as well as
coming up to strict business requirements. Before he leaves this
department he should be versed in all the theories of accounts, should
write an acceptable business hand; should be able to execute a faultless
letter so far as relates to form, spelling, and grammatical
construction, should have a fair knowledge of commercial law, and have
completed his arithmetical course.

The next step is to reduce the student's theoretical knowledge to
practice, in a department devoted to actual business operations. This
business or finishing department is shown at the upper left corner of
our front page illustration. The work in this department is as exacting
and as real as the work in the best business houses and banks. At the
extreme end of the room is a bank in complete operation, as perfect in
its functions as any bank in this city or elsewhere. The records made in
its books come from the real transactions of dealers who are engaged in
different lines of business at their desks and in the offices. The small
office adjoining the bank, on the right, is a post office, the only one
in the country, perhaps, where true civil service rules are strictly
observed. In connection with it is a transportation office. From fifty
to a hundred letters daily are received and delivered by the post
office, written by or to the students of this department.

The correspondence thus indicated goes on not only between the students
of this college, but between members of this and other similar
institutions in different parts of the country. A perfected system of
intercommunication has for years been in practice between co-ordinate
schools in New York, Boston, Brooklyn, Philadelphia, Chicago, Baltimore,
and other cities, by which is carried on an elaborate scheme of
interchangeable business, little less real in its operations and results
than the more tangible and obtrusive activity which the world recognizes
as business.

The work of the transportation office corresponds with that of the post
office in its simulation of reality. The alleged articles handled are
represented by packages bearing all the characteristic marks of freight
and express packages. They are sent by mail to the transportation
company, and by this agency delivered to the proper parties, from whom
the charges are collected in due form, and the requisite vouchers
passed. Whatever is necessary in the way of manipulation to secure the
record on either hand is done, and, so far as the clerical duties are
concerned, there is no difference between handling pieces of paper which
represent merchandise and handling the real article.

In the bank is employed a regular working force, such as may be found in
any bank, consisting of a collector or runner, a discount clerk, a
deposit bookkeeper, a general bookkeeper, and a cashier. The books are
of the regular form, and the work is divided as in most banks of medium
size, and the business that is presented differs in no important
particular from that which comes to ordinary banks. After getting a fair
knowledge of theory, the student is placed in this bank. He begins in
the lowest place, and works up gradually to the highest, remaining long
enough in each position to acquaint himself with its duties. He is made
familiar with the form and purpose of all kinds of business paper, and
the rules which govern a bank's dealings with its customers. He gets a
practical knowledge of the law of indorsement and of negotiability
generally, and is called upon to decide important questions which arise
between the bank and its dealers. Wherever he finds himself at fault he
has access to a teacher whose duty it is to give the information for
which he asks, and who is competent to do it.

Throughout the whole of this course of study and practice the students
are treated like men and are expected to behave like men.

The college thus becomes a self-regulating community, in which the
students learn not only to govern themselves, but to direct and control
others. As one is advanced in position his responsibilities are
increased. He is first a merchant or agent, directing his own work;
next, a sub-manager, and finally manager in a general office or the
bank, with clerks subject to his direction and criticism, until he
arrives at the exalted position of "superintendent of offices," which
gives him virtual control of the department. This is, in fact, an
important part of his training, and the reasonable effect of the system
is that the student, being subject to orders from those above him, and
remembering that he will shortly require a like consideration from those
below him, concludes that he cannot do a better thing for his own future
comfort than to set a wholesome example of subordination.

This, however, is not the only element of personal discipline that the
college affords. At every step the student's conduct, character, and
progress are noted, recorded, and securely kept for the teacher's
inspection, as well as that of his parents and himself. Such records are
kept in the budget room, shown in the lower left corner of the front
page.

This budget system was suggested by the difficulties encountered in
explaining to parents the progress and standing of their sons. The
inconvenience of summoning teachers, and of taking students from their
work, made necessary some simpler and more effective plan. The first
thing required of a new student is that he should give some account of
himself, and to submit to such examinations and tests as will acquaint
his teachers with his status. This account and these tests constitute
the subject-matter of his first budget, which is placed at the bottom of
his box, and every four weeks thereafter, while he remains in the
school, he is required to present the results of his work, such as his
written examinations in the various studies, his test examples in
arithmetic, his French, German, and Spanish translations and exercises,
various letters and forms, with four weekly specimens of improvement in
writing, the whole to be formally submitted to the principal in an
accompanying letter; the letter itself to exhibit what can be thus shown
of improvement in writing, expression, and general knowledge. These
budgets, accumulating month by month, are made to cover as much as
possible of the student's school work, and to constitute the visible
steps of his progress.

Besides this is a character record, kept in a small book assigned to
each student, every student having free access to his own record, but
not to that of any fellow student. Each book contains the record of a
student's deportment from the first to the last day of his attendance,
with such comments and recommendations as his several teachers may think
likely to be of encouragement or caution to him.

In addition to the strictly technical training furnished by the
college, there is given also not a little collateral instruction
calculated to be of practical use to business men. For example, after
roll call every morning some little time is spent in exercises designed
to cultivate the art of intelligent expression of ideas. Each day a
number of students are appointed to report orally, in the assembly room,
upon such matters or events mentioned in the previous day's newspapers
as may strike the speaker as interesting or important. Or the student
may describe his personal observation of any event, invention,
manufacture, or what not; or report upon the condition, history, or
prospects of any art, trade, or business undertaking. This not to teach
elocution, but to train the student to think while standing, and to
express himself in a straightforward, manly way.

Instruction is also given in the languages likely to be required in
business intercourse or correspondence; in phonography, so far as it may
be required for business purposes; commercial law relative to contracts,
negotiable paper, agencies, partnerships, insurance, and other business
proceedings and relations; political economy, and incidentally any and
every topic a knowledge of which may be of practical use to business
men.

In all this the ultimate end and aim of the instruction offered are
practical workable results. Mr. Packard regards education as a tool. If
the tool has no edge, is not adapted to its purpose, is not practically
usable, it is worthless as a tool. This idea is kept prominent in all
the work of the college, and its general results justify the position
thus taken. The graduates are not turned out as finished business men,
but as young men well started on the road toward that end. As Mr.
Packard puts it: "Their diplomas do not recommend them as bank cashiers
or presidents, or as managers of large or small enterprises, but simply
as having a knowledge of the duties of accountantship. They rarely fail
to fulfill reasonable expectations; and they are not responsible for
unreasonable ones."

       *       *       *       *       *



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS.


The fourteenth annual convention of the American Institute of Architects
began in Philadelphia, November 17. Mr. Thomas U. Walter, of
Philadelphia, presided, and fifty or more prominent architects were
present. In his annual address the president spoke of the tendency of
the architectural world as decidedly in the direction of originality.
But little attention is paid to the types of building drawn from the
works of by-gone ages or to the mannerisms of the more recent past.
Progress in the development of the elements of taste and beauty, and the
concretion of æsthetic principles with common sense in architectural
design, are now everywhere apparent. The responsibilities of architects
are greater than they have ever before been; the growing demand of the
times calls for intelligent studies in all that relates to architecture,
whether it be in the realm of æsthetics, in sciences that relate to
construction, in the nature and properties of the materials used, in the
atmosphere that surrounds us, or in the availability of the
thousand-and-one useful and ingenious inventions that tend to promote
the convenience and completeness of structures.

Papers were read by Mr. A. J. Blood, of New York, on "The Best Method of
Solving the Tenement House Problem;" Mr. George T. Mason, Jr., of
Newport, on "The Practice of American Architects during the Colonial
Period;" Mr. Robert Briggs, of Philadelphia, on "The Ventilation of
Audience Rooms;" Mr. T. M. Clark, of Boston, on "French Building Laws,
etc."

The following named officers were elected: President, T. U. Walter,
Philadelphia; Treasurer, O. P. Hatfield, New York; Secretary, A. J.
Blood. Trustees, R. M. Hunt, H. M. Congdon, J. Cady, Napoleon Le Brun,
New York. Committee on Publication, R. M. Upjohn, New York; T. M. Clark,
Boston; John McArthur, Jr., Philadelphia; A. J. Blood, H. M. Congdon,
New York. Committee on Education, W. R. Narr, Boston; Russell Sturgis,
New York; N. Clifford Ricker, Champagne, Ill.; Henry Van Brunt, Boston;
Alfred Stone, Providence. Corresponding Secretary, T. M. Clark, Boston.

The time and place of the next annual convention were left to the Board
of Trustees, with a request that Washington be selected.

       *       *       *       *       *



VENNOR'S WINTER PREDICTIONS.


He communicates as follows to the Albany _Argus_: "December will, in
all probability, open with little snow, but the weather will be cloudy,
threatening snow falls. During the opening days of the month, dust, with
the very light mixture of snow which may have fallen, will be swept in
flurries by the gusty wind. There will probably be some snow from about
the 4th of the month. With the second quarter of the month colder
weather will probably set in with falls of snow. The farmers will be
able to enjoy sleigh rides in the cold, exhilarating air, but good
sleighing need not be expected until after the middle of the month.
There will be a spell of mild weather about the 13th and 14th. After a
brief interval of mild weather, during which more snow will fall, the
third quarter of the month will probably see blustering and cold
weather--a cold snap with heavy snow storms and consequent good
sleighing. Very cold weather may be expected during this quarter. The
last quarter of the month will bring milder weather, but will terminate,
probably, with heavy snow-falls and stormy weather; in fact, the
heaviest snow falls will be toward the end of the month, and snow
blockades may be looked for, the snow falls extending far to the
southward, possibly as far as Washington, with very stormy weather
around New York and Boston." Mr. Vennor's latest predictions are that
the coming month will be "decidedly cold, with tremendous snow-falls
during the latter half and early part of January, causing destructive
blockades to railroads."

       *       *       *       *       *



THE LONDON UNDERGROUND RAILWAY.


The opening recently of the extension of the Metropolitan Railway to
Harrow, and the early commencement of another of the lines of the
company, give especial prominence to it. The Metropolitan Underground
Railway is emphatically the great passenger railway of the country, for
its few miles of line carry more than the hundreds of miles of line of
companies such as the London and North Western or Great Western.
Seventeen years ago--in 1868--the Metropolitan carried less than
10,000,000 passengers, and in the full year's work of the following
twelve months it carried less than 12,000,000. But year by year, almost
without exception, the number of passengers has grown. In 1865, over
15,000,000 passengers were carried; in 1867, over 23,000,000; and in
1870, over 39,000,000 passengers traveled on the line. The years that
have since passed have swollen that number. In 1872, over 44,300,000
were carried, but in the following year there was one of the few checks,
and not till 1875 was the number of 1872 exceeded. In 1875 it rose to
48,302,000; in 1877 it had advanced to 56,175,000; in 1878 to
58,807,000; and in 1879 to 60,747,000. In the present year there has
been a further advance, the number carried for the first six months of
the present year being 31,592,429. When it is borne in mind that this is
equal to 7,272 passengers every hour, and that the length of line worked
by the company's engines, including that of the "foreign" line worked,
is slightly less than 25 miles, the fecundity in traffic of the
metropolitan district must be said to be marvelous. It is to be
regretted that the official account from which these figures are given
does not give any idea of the number of passengers in the different
classes, for such a return would be of value. It is a marvelous fact in
the history of locomotion that this great passenger traffic is worked
with not more than 53 engines, while the total number of carriages, 195,
is in comparison with the number of travelers in them a marvel in
railway history. But it is tolerably clear that there is yet a vast
amount of undeveloped metropolitan traffic, and it is also certain that
as that traffic is developed the future of the Metropolitan as it
attains more completeness will be brighter even than it has been in the
past. The great city is more and more the mart of the world, and the
traffic and travel to and in it must increase. That increase will be
shared in considerable degree by the "underground" companies, and as
they have shown that their capabilities of traffic are almost boundless,
it may be expected that the oldest and the chief of these will in the
early future know a growth as continuous if less rapid than in the past.

We take the above from the _Engineer_, London. In this city there are
now existing 27 miles of elevated steam railways for local passenger
traffic. These roads have carried during the past year 61,000,000 of
passengers. In this service they employ 175 locomotives and 500
passenger cars. It is a terrible nuisance to have these locomotives and
cars constantly whizzing through the public streets; still the roads are
a great accommodation. The only underground railway in this city is that
of the New York Central and Hudson River, 4 miles in length, extending
under Fourth avenue from Forty-second street to Harlem River. Over this
road the enormous traffic of the Central, Harlem, and the New Haven
roads, with their connections, passes. But so removed from public sight
are the cars and locomotives that the existence of this underground
railway is almost forgotten.

       *       *       *       *       *



TEMPERING CHISELS.


A practical mechanic communicates to the Scientific American the
following: In hardening and tempering a cold chisel care should be taken
to have a gradual shading of temper. If there is a distinct boundary
line of temper color between the hard cutting edge and softer shank
portion, it will be very apt to break at or near that line. The cutting
edge portion of the chisel should be supported by a backing of steel
gradually diminishing in hardness; and so with all metal cutting tools
that are subjected to heavy strain. Not every workman becomes uniformly
successful in this direction, for, in addition to dexterity, it requires
a nice perception of degree of heat and of color in order to obtain the
best result.

       *       *       *       *       *


MR. A. A. KNUDSON, of Brooklyn, N. Y., has lately perfected and patented
a system of protecting oil tanks from lightning, which is approved by
several prominent electricians. The invention includes a device for
distributing a spray of water over the top of the tank for condensing
the rising vapor and cooling the tank; a system of lightning conductors
connected with a gutter surrounding the tank, and a hollow earth
terminal connected with the gutter by a pipe, and designed to moisten
the earth, and at the same time prevent the earth around the terminal
from becoming saturated with oil.

       *       *       *       *       *


A correspondant of the _Christian Union_, writing from Constantinople,
says that Abd ul-Hamid, the Sultan of Turkey, reads the Scientific
American, the engravings in which seem to specially interest him. The
writer adds that whatever in literature the Sultan may chance to hear of
which he thinks may interest him, he has translated into Turkish.

       *       *       *       *       *



AMATEUR MECHANICS.


A SIMPLE SINGLE-ACTING STEAM ENGINE.

The great bugbear staring the amateur mechanic in the face when he
contemplates making a small steam engine is the matter of boring the
cylinder. To bore an iron cylinder on a foot lathe is difficult even
when the lathe is provided with automatic feed gear, and it is almost
impossible with the ordinary light lathe possessed by most amateurs. To
bore a brass cylinder is easier, but even this is difficult, and the
cylinder, when done, is unsatisfactory on account of the difficulty of
adapting a durable piston to it.

The engravings show a simple steam engine, which requires no difficult
lathe work; in fact the whole of the work may be done on a very ordinary
foot lathe. The engine is necessarily single-acting, but it is effective
nevertheless, being about 1-20 H. P., with suitable steam supply. It is
of sufficient size to run a foot lathe, scroll saw, or two or three
sewing machines.

The cylinder and piston are made from mandrel drawn brass tubing, which
may be purchased in any desired quantity in New York city. The fittings
are mostly of brass, that being an easy metal to work.

The principal dimensions of the engine are as follows:


Cylinder.--Internal diameter, 1½ in.; thickness, 1/8 in.;
length, 3-3/8 in.

Piston.--External diameter, 1½ in.; thickness, 3-32 in.; length,
3¾ in.

Length of stroke. 2 in.

Crank pin.--Diameter, 1/4 in.; length of bearing surface, 1/2 in.

Connecting rod.--Diameter, 5/16 in.; length between centers, 5½
in.

Shaft.--Diameter, 5/8 in.; diameter of bearings, 1/2 in.; length. 6
in.; distance from bed to center of shaft, 1½ in.

Flywheel.--Diameter, 8 in.; weight, 10 lb.

Valve.--Diameter of chamber, 9-16 in.; length, 1¼ in.; width of
valve face working over supply port, 3/32 in.; width of space under
valve, 3/8 in.; length of the same, 1 in.; distance from center of
valve spindle to center of eccentric rod pin, 3/4 in.

Ports, supply--Width, 1/16 inch.; length, 1 in. Exhaust.--Width,
1/8 in.; length, 1 in.; space between ports, 5-16 in.

Pipes.--Steam supply, 1/4 in.; exhaust, 3/8 in.

Eccentric.--Stroke, 3/4 in.; diameter, 1-5/16 in. length of
eccentric rod between centers, 8-3/8 in.

Cut off, 5/8

Thickness of base plate, 1/4 in.

Wooden base, 6¼ in x 8 in.: 2-3/8 in. thick.

Thickness of plate supporting cylinder, 3/8 in.

Total height of engine, 13¼ in.

Distance from base plate to under side of cylinder head. 9¼ in.

Diameter of vertical posts, 9-16 in.; distance apart, 3½ in.;
length between shoulders 6¼ in.

Base plate fastened to base with 1/4 in. bolts.

The connecting rod, eccentric rod, crank pin, and shaft, are of
steel. The eccentric-strap and flywheel are cast iron, and the other
portions of the engine are of brass. The screw threads are all
chased, and the flange, a, and head of the piston, F, in addition to
being screwed, are further secured by soft solder.

Fig. 1 shows the engine in perspective. Fig 2 is a side elevation,
with parts broken away. Fig. 3 is a vertical transverse section.
Fig. 4 is a partial plan view. Fig. 5 is a detail view of the upper
end of the connecting rod and its connections; and Fig. 6 is a
horizontal section taken through the middle of the valve chamber.

The cylinder, A, is threaded externally for 1 inch from its lower
end, and the collar, a, 1/4 inch thick, is screwed on and soldered.
The face of the collar is afterward turned true. The same thread
answers for the nut which clamps the cylinder in the plate, B, and
for the gland, b, of the stuffing box, which screws over the beveled
end of the cylinder, and contains fibrous packing filled with
asbestos or graphite. The posts, C, are shouldered at the ends and
secured in their places by nuts. Their bearing surface on the plate,
D, is increased by the addition of a collar screwed on. The posts
are made from drawn rods of brass, and need no turning except at the
ends.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.--SIMPLE SINGLE-ACTING STEAM ENGINE]

The cylinder head, E, which is a casting containing the valve
chamber, is screwed in. The piston, F, fits the cylinder closely,
but not necessarily steam tight. The head is screwed in and
soldered, and the yoke, G, which receives the connecting rod pin, is
screwed into the head. The connecting rod, H, is of steel with brass
ends. The lower end, which receives the crank pin, is split, and
provided with a tangent screw for taking up wear. The crank pin is
secured in the crank disk, I, by a nut on the back. The eccentric
rod, J, is of steel, screwed at its lower end into an eccentric
strap of cast or wrought iron, which surrounds the eccentric, K. The
valve, L, is slotted in the back to receive the valve spindle, by
which it is oscillated. The ports are formed by drilling from the
outside, and afterward forming the slot, with a graver or small
sharp chisel. The supply port, for convenience, may be somewhat
enlarged below. The holes for the exhaust port will be drilled
through the hole into which the exhaust pipe is screwed. The chamber
communicating with the exhaust is cored out in the casting.

The easiest way to make the valve is to cut it out of a solid
cylinder turned to fit the valve chamber.

An engine of this kind will work well under a steam pressure of 50
lb., and it may be run at the rate of 200 to 250 revolutions per
minute.

[Illustration: SIDE ELEVATION. SECTIONAL, AND DETAIL VIEWS OF
SIMPLE STEAM ENGINE]

It is desirable to construct a flat pasteboard model to verify
measurements and to get the proper adjustment of the valve before
beginning the engine. M.

       *       *       *       *       *



MISCELLANEOUS INVENTIONS.


An improved finger ring has been patented by Mr. David Untermeyer,
of New York city. The object of this invention is to furnish finger
rings so constructed that they can be opened out to represent
serpents, and which, when being worn, will give no indication of
being anything more than rings.

An improved heel skate-fastener has been patented by Mr. Elijah S.
Coon, of Watertown, N.Y. This invention consists, essentially, of a
screw threaded hollow plug or thimble, a dirt plate for covering the
opening in the plug, and a spring for holding the dirt plate in
place. This fastener possesses several advantages over one that is
permanently attached to the heel. Being cylindrical, it is more
easily connected, because the hole for its reception can be made
with a common auger or bit without the necessity for lasting the
boot or shoe or using a knife or chisel. Being screw threaded it can
be readily screwed into place with a common screwdriver; this also
enables it to be screwed either in or out, in order to make it fit
the heel key. The screw thread permits of screwing it in beyond the
surface of the heel, so as to prevent it from wearing out by the
ordinary wearing of the shoe.

An improved velocipede has been patented by Messrs. Charles E.
Tripler and William H. Roff, of New York city. The object of this
invention is to obtain a more advantageous application of the
propelling power than the ordinary cranks, to avoid the noise of
pawls and ratchets, and to guard the velocipedes against being
overturned should one of the rear wheels pass over an obstruction.

Mr. Philip H. Pax on, of Camden, N. J., has patented a machine that
will cut lozenges in a perfect manner, and will not be clogged by
the gum and sugar of the lozenge dough.

Mr. John H. Robertson, of New York city, has patented an improved
mat, which consists of longitudinal metal bars provided with
alternate mortised and tenoned ends, and composed of series of
sockets united by webs and of wooden transverse rods entered through
said sockets and held therein by vertical pins.

Mr. Charles F. Clapp, of Ripon, Wis, has patented a novel
arrangement of a desk attachment for trunks. The desk and tray may
be lifted from the trunk when the desk is either raised or lowered.

A combined scraper, chopper, and dirter has been patented by Messrs.
Francis A. Hall and Nathaniel B. Milton, of Monroe, La. The object
of this invention is to furnish an implement so constructed as to
bar off a row of plants, chop the plants to a stand, and dirt the
plants at one passage along the row, and which shall be simple,
convenient, and reliable.

Mr. Hermann H. Cammann, of New York city, has patented a basket so
constructed that it can be compactly folded for transportation or
storage.

Messrs. David H. Seymour and Henry R. A. Boys, of Barrie, Ontario,
Canada, have patented an improvement in that class of devices that
are designed to be applied to steam cylinders for introducing oil or
tallow into the cylinder and upon the cylinder valves. It consists
of an oil cup provided with a gas escape, a scum breaker, an
interior gauge, and an adjustable feed pipe extension.

Mr. John H. Conrad, of Charlotte, Mich., has patented a portable
sliding gate which will dispense with hinges and which can be used
in any width of opening. It may be readily connected with a
temporary opening or gap made in the fence.

An improved reversible pole and shaft for vehicles has been
patented by Mr. Francis M. Heuett, of Jug Tavern, Ga. The object of
this invention is to so combine the parts of shafts for vehicles
that they may be readily transposed and re-employed to form the
tongue without removing the thill arms or hounds from the Mr.
William Jones, of Kalamazoo, Mich., has patented an improved box
which is useful for various purposes, but is particularly intended
for shipping fourth class mail matter. The feature of special
novelty is the means of fastening the hinged cover.

Mr. Louis J. Halbert, of Brooklyn, N. Y., has patented an improved
slate cleaner, which is simple, convenient, and effective.

An improved boot, which is simple in its make, fits well, and is
convenient to put on and take off, has been patented by Ellene A.
Bailey, of St. Charles, Mo. The boot is provided with side seams,
one of which is open at its lower end, and is provided with lacing,
buttons, or a like device, so that it can be closed when the boot is
on the wearer's foot.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE HERCULES BEETLE.


In the handsome engraving herewith are shown the male and female of
the Hercules beetle (_Dynastes hercules_) of Brazil. The family of
the _Dynastidæ_ comprises some of the largest and most beautiful of
the beetle race, and all of them are remarkable for enormous
developments of the thorax and head. They are all large bodied and
stout limbed, and by their great strength abundantly justify their
generic name, _Dynastes_, which is from the Greek and signifies
powerful. The larvæ of these beetles inhabit and feed upon decaying
trees and other rotting vegetable matter, and correspond in size
with the mature insects. Most of them inhabit tropical regions,
where they perform a valuable service in hastening the destruction
of dead or fallen timber.

An admirable example of this family of beetles is the one here
represented. In the male of the Hercules beetle the upper part of
the thorax is prolonged into a single, downward curving horn fully
three inches long, the entire length of the insect being about six
inches. The head is prolonged into a similar horn, which curves
upward, giving the head and thorax the appearance of two enormous
jaws, resembling the claw of a lobster. The real jaws of the insect
are underneath the lower horn, which projects from the forepart of
the head. The under surface of the thorax-horn carries a ridge of
stiff, short, golden-yellow hairs, and the under surface and edges
of the abdomen are similarly ornamented.

The head, thorax, and legs are shining black; the elytra, or
wing-covers, are olive-green, dotted with black spots, and are much
wrinkled. The wings are large and powerful.

[Illustration: THE HERCULES BEETLE]

The female Hercules is quite unlike the male. It is much smaller,
being not more than three and a half inches long, is without horns,
and is covered with a brown hairy felt.

These beetles are nocturnal in habit, and are rarely seen in the
daytime, except in dark hiding places in the recesses of Brazilian
forests.

       *       *       *       *       *



A POULTERER'S VIEW OF MECHANICAL POULTRY RAISING.


A prominent dealer in poultry, Mr. H. W. Knapp, of Washington Market,
gives a discouraging opinion of the probable success of chicken raising
by artificial means in this country. He said recently when questioned on
this subject by a representative of the _Evening Post_:

"I went to France to study the matter, for if it can be made to succeed
it will make an immense fortune, as it has already done in Paris. I was
delighted with what I saw there, and the matter at first sight seems to
be so fascinating that I do not wonder that new men here are always
ready to take hold of it as soon as those who have bought dear
experience are only too glad to get out of it. Even clergymen and actors
are bitten with the desire to transform so many pounds of corn into so
many pounds of spring chicken. The now successful manager, Mackaye,
spent about a thousand dollars, in constructing hatching machines and
artificial mothers in Connecticut, but he found that the stage paid
better, and his expensive devices may now be bought for the value of old
tin.

"Enthusiasts will tell you that by the new discovery chickens may be
made out of corn with absolute certainty. In Paris this has been done;
but the conditions are entirely different here. There the land is
valuable, and they cannot devote large fields to a few hundred chickens;
the French climate is so uniform that the markets of Paris cannot be
supplied from the south with produce which ripens or matures before that
of the neighborhood of Paris; the price of chickens is so high and labor
so cheap that more care can be given with profit to one spring chicken
than one of our poultry raisers could give to a dozen. Here we have
plenty of land, the climate south of us is so far advanced in warmth
that even with steam we cannot raise poultry ahead of the south, and the
margin of profit is so small that one failure with a large batch of
chickens sweeps away the profits from several successful experiments.

"When persons wanted me to go into the project I declined and was called
an old fogy. One man spent a fortune on the enterprise in New Jersey,
and at first was hailed as a public benefactor. What was the result of
all his outlay and work? He managed to hatch quantities of young
chickens every February, but although he could fatten them by placing
them in boxes and forcing a fattening mixture down their throats, he
could not make them grow; they had no exercise; they remained puny
little things, and another defect soon appeared: though fat they were
tough and stringy. The breeder sent lots of them to me, and they looked
fat and tender; but my customers complained that they could not be
young, for they were tough and tasteless, and that I must have sold them
aged dwarfs under the name of spring chickens. It was found absolutely
necessary to let them run out of doors as soon as the weather allowed
it, and by the time that they were ready for market the southern
chickens were here and could be sold for less than these. The upshot of
the business is that this breeder has sold out, and another man has now
taken hold of a small part of his old establishment to try other methods
of making it a success.

"As to raising turkeys in that manner it will tail more disastrously
than the chicken business. Size and weight are wanted in turkeys; and
that reminds me," continued Mr. Knapp, "that the newspapers ought to
impress the country people with the necessity of improving their poultry
stock; breeding in and in is ruining poultry; every year the stock we
receive is deteriorating, and this is the cause. I could give you some
striking examples from my experience of forty years in the business.
Some years ago we poulterers thought that ducks were going to disappear
from bills of fare altogether; they were tasteless, worthless birds
which people avoided. On Long Island a farmer made experiments in
breeding with an old Muscovy drake, tough as an alligator, and the
common duck. The result was superb and has changed the whole duck
industry. If the farmers of Southern New Jersey, the sandy country best
suited to turkeys, would bring from the West a few hundred wild turkeys
we should have an immediate improvement. I see no such turkey now as we
had twenty years ago. The breast is narrow and the body runs to length;
it is all neck and legs, and can be bought by the yard. Rhode Island
sends us the best turkeys, but they are not what they used to be. If,
instead of attempting to beat nature at her own game, the rich men who
have money to spend would devote it to better breeding, there would be
an improvement. I do not yet despair of seeing immense farms wholly
devoted to raising better poultry than we yet have."

       *       *       *       *       *



THE EMBRACE OF THE MANTIS.


Mr. Addison Ellsworth favors us with a transcript of a letter from Mr.
Albert D. Rust, of Ennis, Ellis County, Texas, describing a remarkable
exhibition of copulative cannibalism on the part of the mantis. The
ferocious nature of these strange insects is well known, and is in
striking contrast with the popular name, "praying mantis," which they
have gained by the pious attitude they take while watching for the flies
and other insects which they feed upon.

About sunrise, August 28, 1880, Mr. Rust's attention was attracted by a
pair of mantis, whether _Mantis religiosa_ or not, he was not sure, but
from the length of the body and the shortness of the wings he was
inclined to think them of some other species. The female had her arms
tightly clasped around the head of the male, while his left arm was
around her neck. Mr. Rust watched intently to see whether the embrace
was one of war or for copulation. It proved to be both. As the two
abdomens began to approach each other the female made a ferocious attack
upon the male, greedily devouring his head, a part of the body, and all
the arm that had encircled her neck. A moment after the eating began,
Mr. Rust observed a complete union of the sexual organs, and the eating
and copulation went on together. On being forcibly separated the female
exhibited signs of fear at her headless mate, and it was with difficulty
that they were brought together again. On being suddenly tossed upon the
back of the female the male seized her with a grasp from which she could
not extricate herself, and immediately the sexual union was renewed, to
all appearances as perfectly as before.

The pair were accidentally killed, otherwise, Mr. Rush thinks, the
female would have continued her cannibalistic repast until she had
devoured the entire body of her companion.

This peculiarity of the mantis seems not to have been observed before,
though their mutually destructive disposition has been noted by several.
Desiring to study the development of these insects, M. Roesel raised a
brood of them from a bag of eggs. Though plentifully supplied with
flies, the young mantis fought each other constantly, the stronger
devouring the weaker, until but one was left.

M. Poiret was not more successful. When a pair of mantis were put
together in a glass they fought viciously, the fight ending with the
decapitation of the male and his being eaten by the female.

       *       *       *       *       *



VARIEGATION OF LEAVES.

BY JAMES HOGG.


At the meeting of the Association of Nurserymen in Chicago, last July,
one of our prominent horticulturists described leaf variegation as a
disease. Incidentally this brought up the question: Does the graft
affect the stock upon which it is inserted?

Much confusion of ideas exists upon this subject, largely due to a loose
application of the term disease. Strictly speaking, this term is only
applicable to that which shows the health of the plant to be impaired.
It should be distinguished from aberrant or abnormal forms, for these
are not necessarily indicative of disease. Nobody thinks of saying that
red or striped roses are diseased because they are departures in color
from the white flower of the type species; or that white, yellow, or
striped roses are diseased when the color of the type species is red.
Nobody thinks of saying that double flowers are evidences of disease in
the plant, or that diminution in the size of leaves or variation in
their form is a disease. Why then should it be said that because leaves
may become of some other color than green, or become party-colored,
therefore they are diseased? If it be said that flowers are not leaves,
and that therefore the analogy is not a good one, the reply is, that
flowers in all their parts, and fruits also, are only leaves differently
developed from the type. This fact is a proven one, and so admitted to
be by all botanists and vegetable physiologists of the present day. If
it be objected that by becoming double, flowers lose the power of
reproducing the variety or species, the answer is, that this loss of
power is not necessarily the result of disease, but may arise from
various other causes. Because an animal is castrated, it surely will not
be claimed that therefore it is diseased. In man and in the higher
animals the power of reproduction ceases at certain ages, but it cannot
therefore be said that such men or animals are diseased. Neither is a
redundancy of parts an unequivocal evidence of disease.

Topknot fowls and ducks are as healthy as those which do not have such
appendages, and a Shetland pony is as healthy as a Percheron horse,
notwithstanding the difference in their size and weight. Again, color in
block or in variegation is not positive evidence of disease in animal
life. The white Caucasian is as healthy as the negro, the copper-colored
Malay as the red Indian. The horse, ox, and hog run through white and
red to black both in solid and party-color, and all are equally healthy;
so with the rabbit, dog, cat, and others of our domestic animals. In
wild animals, birds, reptiles, fishes, and insects, it is the same, so
that mere difference in color or combinations of color are not _prima
facie_ evidence of disease.

But some will say this may be true of animal life, but not of plant
life. That there is a strong and evident analogy, the one with the
other, is now universally admitted by physiologists. Formerly many
physiologists considered leaf variegation a disease, because it
generally ran in stripes lengthwise of the leaf or in spots. In the
former case it was supposed to originate from disease in the leaf cells
of the leaf stalk, which, as the cells grow longitudinally, naturally
prolonged it to the end of the leaf. But the originating of varieties in
which the variegation did not assume this form, with other
considerations, has done much to upset this theory. In the variegated
leaved snowberry we have the center and border of the leaf green,
separated the one from the other by an isolated white or yellow zone. In
the zebra-leaved eulalia and the zebra-leaved juncus, from Japan, we
have the variegation of the leaf transversely instead of longitudinally,
so that according to the old theory we have the anomaly of a healthy
portion of the leaf producing an unhealthy portion, and that again a
healthy one, and thus alternately along the whole length of the leaf.

When we dissect a leaf in its primal development, we find that its cells
contain colorless globules, by botanists called chlorophyl or
phyto-color; these undergo changes according as they are acted upon by
light, oxygen, or other agents, producing green, yellow, red, and other
tints. This chlorophyl only exists in the outer or superficial cells of
the parenchyma or cellular tissue of the leaf, and thus differs from
starch and other substances produced in the internal cells, from which
the light is more or less excluded. It is a fatty or wax-like substance,
readily dissolved in alcohol or ether. The primal color of all leaves
and flowers is white or a pale yellowish hue, as can readily be seen by
cutting open a leaf or flower bud. The seed leaves of the French bean
are white when they come out of the earth, but they become green an hour
afterward under the influence of bright sunshine. A case is on record
where in a certain section, some miles in extent, in this country, about
the time of the trees coming into leaf, the sun did not shine for twenty
days; the leaves developed to nearly their full size, but were of a pale
or whitish color; finally, one forenoon the sun shone out fully, and by
the middle of the afternoon the trees were in full summer dress. These
facts show that the green color of leaves is due to the action of light.
Variegation is sometimes produced independently of the chlorophyl, as in
_Begonia argyrostigma_ and _Carduus marianus_, in which it is produced
by a layer of air interposed between the epidermis or outer skin of the
leaf and the cells beneath; this gives the leaf a bright, silvery
appearance.

To what, then, are we to ascribe leaf variegation? I think that it is
entirely due to diminished root power; by this I do not mean that the
roots are diseased, but that they are either in an aberrant or abnormal
state; but disease cannot be predicated upon either of these states. To
explain: everybody knows _Spirea callosa_ to be a strong growing shrub,
having umbels of rosy-colored flowers and strong, stout roots; the white
flowered variety is quite dwarf, is more leafy and bushy than the
species, and has more fibrous and delicate roots than the type; the
crisp-leaved variety is still more dwarf, very bushy, and very leafy,
and has very fine threadlike roots. This would indicate that the
aberrance is in the roots; the two varieties are much more leafy in
proportion to their size than the species, so that if the leaves
controlled the roots, the latter should have been larger in proportion
than those of the species. Again, once when, in the autumn, I was
preparing my greenhouse plants for their winter quarters, I cut back a
"Lady Plymouth" geranium, which chanced to be set away in a cool and
somewhat damp cellar. When discovered the following February and started
into growth in the greenhouse it produced nothing but solid green
leaves, and never afterward produced a variegated leaf. This I
attributed to its having gained greater root power during its long
season of rest. By this I mean that the roots had grown and greatly
increased in size, although there had not been any leaf growth. That
roots under certain circumstances do so is well known. The roots of fir
trees have been found alive and growing forty five years after the
trunks were felled. The same has occurred in an ash tree after its trunk
had been sawn off level with the ground. A root of _Ipomea sellowii_ has
been known to keep on growing for twelve years after its top had been
destroyed by frost; and in all that time it never made buds or leaves,
yet it increased to seven times its original weight. The tuberous roots
of some of the _Tropoeolums_ will continue to grow and increase in
size after the tops have been accidentally broken off; and potatoes
buried so deep in the earth that they cannot produce tops will produce a
crop of new potatoes.

On the other hand, I have had an oak-leaved geranium overlooked in a
corner of the greenhouse until it was almost dried up for lack of water.
When its branches were pruned back and it was started into growth only
one branch showed the almost black center of the leaf, all the rest were
clear green. This was an evident case of diminished root power, but the
plant grew as thriftily as ever. The lack of the dark marking in the
leaves was equivalent to the variegation in other varieties, only in a
reverse direction.

In practice, when gardeners wish to produce an abnormal condition in a
tree or plant, they will, if they wish to dwarf it, graft it on a
species or variety of diminished root power, and contrariwise, if they
wish to increase its growth, will graft it upon a stock of strong root
power. But in neither case can the graft be said to be diseased by the
action of the roots of the stock.

When this root power is so far diminished as to produce complete
albinism, the shoots from such roots appear to partake of this
diminished power, and to lose the power of making roots, and thus become
very difficult to propagate. It is sometimes said that albino cuttings
cannot be rooted at all, but this is a mistake, for I have succeeded in
striking such cuttings from the variegated leaved _Hydrangea_. It
required much care to do it; they did not, however, retain their albino
character after they rooted and started into growth.

Albinism and white variegation in leaves appear to be due to the
chlorophyl in such leaves being able to resist the action of the three
(red, yellow, and blue) rays of light. What we call color in any
substance or thing is due to its reflecting these different rays in
various proportions of combination and absorbing the rest of them, the
various proportions giving the various shades of color. White is due to
the reflection of all of them, and black to the absorption of them. In
some plants with variegated foliage we have the curious fact that the
cells containing chlorophyl reflecting one color produce cells which
reflect an entirely different color. In the coleus "Lady Burrill," for
instance, the lower half of the leaf is of a deep violet-crimson color,
and the upper half is golden yellow. In other varieties of coleus, in
_Perilla nankiensis_, and other plants, we have foliage without a
particle of green in it, and yet they are perfectly healthy. This shows
that green leaves are not absolutely necessary to the health of a plant.

As a proof of leaf variegation being a disease, the speaker alluded to
cited a case in which a green leaved abutilon, upon which a variegated
leaved variety had been grafted, threw out a variegated leaved shoot
below the graft. This can easily be explained. The growth of the trunk
or stem of all exogenous plants, or those which increase in size on the
outside of the stem, is brought about by the descent of certain
formative tissue called cambium, elaborated by the leaves and descending
between the old wood and the bark, where it is formed into alburnum or
woody matter. Some think that it is also formed by the roots and ascends
from them as well as descending from the leaves. Be this as it may,
there is no doubt about its descent. In such comparatively soft-wooded,
free growing plants as the abutilon the descent of the cambium is very
free and in considerable quantity, so that the stock would soon be
inclosed in a layer of it descending from the graft. When being
converted into woody matter it also forms adventitious buds which under
certain favorable circumstances will emit shoots of the same character
as the graft from which it was derived. The graft is such cases may be
said to inclose the stock in a tube of its own substance, leaving the
stock unaffected otherwise. The variegated shoot in this case was in
reality derived from the downward growth of the graft and not from the
original stock, which was not therefore contaminated by the graft. In
cases where the stock is of much slower growth than the graft, or the
graft is inserted upon a stock of some other species, the descending
cambium does not inclose the stock, but makes layers of wood on the stem
of the graft, which thus, as is frequently seen, overgrows the stock,
sometimes to such an extent as to make it unsightly. Nobody ever saw an
apple shoot from a crab stock, a pear from a quince stock, or a peach
shoot from a plum stock. This is one of the arguments in favor of the
view that cambium also rises from the roots.

Again, to show that the stock is not affected by the graft, or the graft
by the stock, except as to root power, let any person graft a white beet
upon a red beet, or contrariwise, when about the size of a goosequill,
and when they have attained their full growth, by dividing the beet
lengthwise he will find the line of demarkation between the colors
perfectly distinct, neither of them running into the other.

The theory that leaf variegation is a disease has been held by many
distinguished botanists and is in nowise new. But this theory has been
controverted, and we think successfully, by other botanists, and it is
not now accepted by the more advanced vegetable physiologists. There are
now so many acute and industrious students and observers in every
department of science, and the accumulation of facts is so rapid and so
great, that very many of the older theories are being set aside as not
in accord with the newly discovered facts. A student brought up in
institutions where the old theories are inculcated has afterward to
spend half his time in unlearning what he had been previously taught,
and the other half in studying the new facts brought to his notice and
testing the theories promulgated by men of science. Botanical science
does not wholly consist in the classification and nomenclature of
plants, but largely consists in a knowledge of vegetable anatomy and
physiology, and these require much study and some knowledge of other
sciences, such as chemistry, meteorology, geology, etc. Without such
general knowledge it is difficult to form a harmonious theory in regard
to any of the phenomena of plant life.

       *       *       *       *       *



VANILLA, CINNAMON, COCOANUT.


The following interesting facts concerning the cultivation of the above
products in the island of Ceylon, were given in Mr. H. B. Brady's recent
address before the British Pharmaceutical Conference at Swansea:

The vanilla plant is trained on poles placed about twelve or eighteen
inches apart--one planter has a line of plants about three miles in
length. Like the cardamom, it yields fruit after three years, and then
continues producing its pods for an indefinite period.

The cinnamon (_Cinnamomum zeylanicum_) is, as its name indicates, a
native of Ceylon. It is cultivated on a light sandy soil about three
miles from the sea, on the southwest coast of the island, from Negumbo
to Matura. In its cultivated state it becomes really productive after
the sixth year, and continues from forty to sixty years. The
superintendent of the largest estate in this neighborhood stated that
there were not less than fifteen varieties of cinnamon, sufficiently
distinct in flavor to be easily recognized. The production of the best
so injures the plants that it does not pay to cut this at any price
under 4s. 6d. to 5s. per lb. The estate alluded to above yields from
30,000 to 40,000 lb. per annum; a uniform rate of 4½ d. per lb. of
finished bark is paid for the labor. Cinnamon oil is produced from this
bark by distillation; the mode is very primitive and wasteful. About 40
lb. of bark, previously macerated in water, form one charge for the
still, which is heated over a fire made of the spent bark of a previous
distillation. Each charge of bark yields about three ounces of oil, and
two charges are worked daily in each still.

The cultivation of the cocoanut tree and the production of the valuable
cocoanut oil are two important Cingalese occupations. These trees, it
appears, do not grow with any luxuriance at a distance from human
dwellings, a fact which may perhaps be accounted for by the benefit they
derive from the smoke inseparable from the fires in human habitations.
The cultivation of cocoanuts would seem to be decidedly profitable, as
some 4,000 nuts per year are yielded by each acre, the selling price
being £3 per thousand, while the cost of cultivation is about £2 per
acre. In extracting the oil, the white pulp is removed and dried,
roughly powdered, and pressed in similar machinery to the linseed oil
crushing mills of this country. The dried pulp yields about 63 per cent
by weight of limpid, colorless oil, which in our climate forms the white
mass so well known in pharmacy.

       *       *       *       *       *



LEARNING TO TIE KNOTS.


A correspondent suggests that it would be a handy accomplishment for
schoolboys to be proficient in the handling, splicing, hitching, and
knotting of ropes. He suggests the propriety of having the art taught in
our public schools. A common jackknife and a few pieces of clothes line
are the main appliances needed to impart the instruction with. He
concludes it would not only be of use in ordinary daily life, but
especially to those who handle merchandise and machinery. Any one, he
adds, who has noticed the clumsy haphazard manner in which boxes and
goods are tied for hoisting or for loading upon trucks, will appreciate
the advantage of practical instruction in this direction. Probably a
good plan, he further suggests, would be to have one schoolboy taught
first by the master, and then let the pupil teach the other boys. Our
correspondent thinks most boys would consider it a nice pastime to
practice during recess and at the dinner hour, so that no time would be
taken from study or recitation time.

       *       *       *       *       *



DECISIONS RELATING TO PATENTS.


Supreme Court of the United States

PEARCE _vs._ MULFORD _et al._

Appeal from the Circuit Court of the United States for the Southern
District of New York.

1. Reissued patent No. 5,774 to Shubael Cottle, February 24, 1874, for
improvement in chains for necklaces, declared void, the first claim, if
not for want of novelty, for want of patentability, and the second for
want of novelty.

2. Neither the tubing, nor the open spiral link formed of tubing, nor
the process of making either the open or the closed link, nor the
junction of closed and open spiral links in a chain, was invented by the
patentee.

3. All improvement is not invention and entitled to protection as such.
Thus to entitle it it must be the product of some exercise of the
inventive faculties, and it must involve something more than what is
obvious to persons skilled in the art to which it relates.

The decree of the circuit court is therefore reversed, and it is ordered
that the bill be dismissed.


BY THE COMMISSIONER OF PATENTS.

DICKSON vs. KINSMAN.--INTERFERENCE.--TELEPHONE.

The subject matter of the interference is defined in the preliminary
declaration thereof as follows:

The combination in one instrument of a transmitting telephone and a
receiving telephone, so arranged that when the mouthpiece of the
speaking or transmitting telephone is applied to the mouth of a person,
the orifice of the receiving telephone will be applied to his ear.

1. While it is true that the unsupported allegations of an inventor,
that he conceived an invention at a certain date, are not sufficient to
establish such fact, the testimony of a party that he constructed and
used a device at a certain time is admissible.

2. Abandonment is an ill-favored finding, which cannot be presumed, but
must be conclusively proven.

The decision of the Board of Examiners-in-Chief is reversed, and
priority awarded to Dickson.

       *       *       *       *       *



CHARACTERISTICS OF ARCTIC WINTER.


Lieutenant Schwatka, whose recent return from a successful expedition in
search of the remains of Sir John Fanklin's ill-fated company, combats
the prevalent opinion that the Arctic winter, especially in the higher
latitudes, is a period of dreary darkness.

In latitude 83° 20' 20" N., the highest point ever reached by man, there
are four hours and forty-two minutes of twilight on December 22, the
shortest day in the year, in the northern hemisphere. In latitude 82°
27' N., the highest point where white men have wintered, there are six
hours and two minutes in the shortest day; and latitude 84° 32' N., 172
geographical miles nearer the North Pole than Markham reached, and 328
geographical miles from that point, must yet be attained before the true
Plutonic zone, or that one in which there is no twilight whatsoever,
even upon the shortest day of the year, can be said to have been entered
by man. Of course, about the beginning and ending of this twilight, it
is very feeble and easily extinguished by even the slightest mists, but
nevertheless it exists, and is quite appreciable on clear cold days, or
nights, properly speaking. The North Pole itself is only shrouded in
perfect blackness from November 13 to January 29, a period of
seventy-seven days. Supposing that the sun has set (supposing a
circumpolar sea or body of water unlimited to vision) on September 24,
not to rise until March 18, for that particular point, giving a period
of about fifty days of uniformly varying twilight, the pole has about
188 days of continuous daylight, 100 days of varying twilight, and 77 of
perfect inky darkness (save when the moon has a northern declination) in
the period of a typical year. During the period of a little over four
days, the sun shines continuously on both the North and South Poles at
the same time, owing to refraction parallax, semi-diameter, and dip of
the horizon.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE COLLINS LINE OF STEAMERS.


The breaking up of the Baltic, the last of the famous Collins line of
steamships, calls out a number of interesting facts with regard to the
history of the several vessels of that fleet. There were five in all,
the Adriatic, Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, and Baltic. They were built and
equipped in New York. Their dimensions were: Length, 290 feet; beam, 45
feet; depth of hold, 31½ feet; capacity, 2,860 tons; machinery, 1,000
horse power. In size, speed, and appointments they surpassed any
steamers then afloat, and they obtained a fair share of the passenger
traffic. A fortune was expended in decorating the saloons. The entire
cost of each steamer was not less than $600,000, and notwithstanding
their quick passages, the subsidy received, and the high rates of
freight paid, the steamers ran for six years at great loss, and finally
the company became bankrupt.

The Atlantic was the pioneer steamship of the line. She sailed from New
York April 27, 1849, and arrived in the Mersey May 10, thus making the
passage in about thirteen days, two of which were lost in repairing the
machinery; the speed was reduced in order to prevent the floats from
being torn from the paddle-wheels. The average time of the forty-two
westward trips in the early days of the line was 11 days 10 hours and 26
minutes, against the average of the then so called fastest line of
steamers, 12 days 19 hours and 26 minutes. In February, 1852, the Arctic
made the passage from New York to Liverpool in 9 days and 17 hours.

The Arctic was afterward run into by a French vessel at sea and only a
few of her passengers were saved. The Pacific was never heard from after
sailing from Liverpool, and all the persons on board were lost. The
Atlantic, after rotting and rusting at her wharf, was deprived of her
machinery and converted into a sailing vessel, and was broken up in New
York last year. The Adriatic, the "queen of the fleet," made less than a
half dozen voyages, was sold to the Galway Company, and is now used in
the Western Islands as a coal hulk by an English company.

The Baltic was in the government service during the war as a supply
vessel, and was afterward sold at auction; her machinery was removed and
sold as old iron. She was then converted into a sailing ship, and of
late years has been used as a grain carrying vessel between San
Francisco and Great Britain. On a recent voyage to Boston she was
strained to such an extent as to be made unseaworthy, and for that
reason is to be broken up.

One cannot but remark in this connection how small has been the advance
in steamship building during the quarter century since the Collins line
was in its glory.

       *       *       *       *       *



CHINESE WOMEN'S FEET.


[Illustration: CHINESE WOMEN'S FEET.]

An American missionary, Miss Norwood, of Swatow, recently described in a
_Times_ paragraph how the size of the foot is reduced in Chinese women.
The binding of the feet is not begun till the child has learnt to walk.
The bandages are specially manufactured, and are about two inches wide
and two yards long for the first year, five yards long for subsequent
years. The end of the strip is laid on the inside of the foot at the
instep, then carried over the toes, under the foot, and round the heel,
the toes being thus drawn toward and over the sole, while a bulge is
produced on the instep, and a deep indentation in the sole. Successive
layers of bandages are used till the strip is all used, and the end is
then sewn tightly down. The foot is so squeezed upward that, in walking,
only the ball of the great toe touches the ground. After a month the
foot is put in hot water to soak some time; then the bandage is
carefully unwound, much dead cuticle coming off with it. Frequently,
too, one or two toes may even drop off, in which case the woman feels
afterward repaid by having smaller and more delicate feet. Each time the
bandage is taken off, the foot is kneaded to make the joints more
flexible, and is then bound up again as quickly as possible with a fresh
bandage, which is drawn up more tightly. During the first year the pain
is so intense that the sufferer can do nothing, and for about two years
the foot aches continually, and is the seat of a pain which is like the
pricking of sharp needles. With continued rigorous binding the foot in
two years becomes dead and ceases to ache, and the whole leg, from the
knee downward, becomes shrunk, so as to be little more than skin and
bone. When once formed, the "golden lily," as the Chinese lady calls her
delicate little foot, can never recover its original shape. Our
illustrations show the foot both bandaged and unbandaged, and are from
photographs kindly forwarded by Mr. J. W. Bennington, R.N., who writes:
"It is an error to suppose, as many do, that it is only the Upper Ten
among the daughters of China that indulge in the luxury of 'golden
lilies,' as it is extremely common among every class, even to the very
poorest--notably the poor sewing women one sees in every Chinese city
and town, who can barely manage to hobble from house to house seeking
work. The pain endured while under the operation is so severe and
continuous that the poor girls never sleep for long periods without the
aid of strong narcotics, and then only but fitfully; and it is from this
constant suffering that the peculiar sullen or stolid look so often seen
on the woman's face is derived. The origin of this custom is involved in
mystery to the Westerns. Some say that the strong-minded among the
ladies wanted to interfere in politics, and that there is a general
liking for visiting, chattering, and gossip (and China women _can_
chatter and gossip), both and all of which inclinations their lords
desired, and desire, to stop by crippling them."

       *       *       *       *       *


To the alteration and metamorphism of rocks by the infiltration of rain
and other meteoric waters, M. De Koninck, of the Belgian Academy of
Sciences, assigns the cause of many hitherto unexplained phenomena in
geology.

       *       *       *       *       *



CORRESPONDENCE


ICE AT HIGH TEMPERATURES.

_To the Editor of the Scientific American:_

Your issues of October 23 and 30 contain some remarkable articles under
the heading of "Ice at High Temperatures."

Prof. Carnelley says; "In order to convert a solid into a liquid, the
_pressure_ must be above a certain point, otherwise no amount of heat
will melt the substance," as it passes at once from the sold state into
the state of gas, subliming away without previous melting. And, "having
come to this conclusion, it was easily foreseen that it would be
possible to have solid ice at temperatures far above the ordinary
melting point."

The first conclusion of the professor is correct, but not new. The
second conclusion is new, but very doubtful as to its correctness, and
certainly does not follow as a sequence from his premise.

If we try to heat ice in a vacuum, we cannot apply any heat to the ice
direct, but only to the vessel containing the ice. The vessel may be
much heated; but whether it will convey heat to the ice quick enough to
heat it over 32°, and whether at all it can be heated over 32°, this is
a question of a different nature. Before crediting such a conclusion we
must know more of the details of the experiments which the professor
made in order to verify its correctness. When saying that "on one
occasion a small quantity of water was frozen in a glass vessel which
was so hot that it could not be touched by the hand without burning it,"
he evidently assumes that if the vessel is hot, the ice inside must be
equally so; but this assumption is erroneous. Faraday has made water to
freeze in a red hot platina pot; the ice thus formed was not red hot
like the platina, but was below the freezing point. Just so with
Professor Carnelley's glass vessel: the vessel was hot, but the ice
inside no doubt was "ice cold." If the professor would surround a
thermometer bulb with ice and then make the mercury rise above the
freezing point, we would believe in "hot ice;" not before. Until he
does, we prefer to believe that the heat conveyed through the vessel to
the ice is all absorbed in vaporizing the ice, and not in raising its
temperature above 32°.

Professor Carnelley's further statement, apparently proving his theory,
that the ice at once liquefies as soon as pressure is admitted (say by
admitting air), is readily accounted for by the phenomena connected with
the "Leydenfrost Drop." Water in a red hot vessel will vaporize off much
slower than in a vessel heated a little above the boiling point, from
the reason that in the red hot vessel no _real contact_ takes place
between the vessel and the water. At the place where the two ought to
touch, steam is formed quicker than it can escape, which steam prevents
the contact between vessel and water; therefore, as no real contact
takes place, the heat from the vessel can pass into the water but
slowly, viz., in the proportion as it works itself through the layer of
steam, which in itself is a bad conductor. Just so in Prof. Carnelley's
experiment: The heated glass vessel will convey heat to the ice only at
those points where it touches the ice; at those points at once a
formation of vapor takes place, which prevents an intimate contact
between the glass and the ice, so that they do not really touch each
other, consequently the heat can pass into the ice but slowly, having to
work its way through the thin layer of rarefied vapor between the two.
As soon as pressure is admitted by admitting atmospheric air, vapors can
no longer form; an intimate contact will take place between the glass
and the ice, and consequently the heat be conveyed over quick enough to
make the ice melt away rapidly.

The professor's experiments, therefore, so far as published, do not
prove anything to justify his strange conclusion. It is perfectly true
that in a vacuum of less than 4.6 mm. mercury pressure, no amount of
heat will melt ice, all heat that can be conveyed to the ice being
absorbed by vaporization. But before crediting the professor's further
conclusion, that ice can be heated much above the freezing point, he
must actually produce "hot ice," not only a hot vessel containing ice.
N. J.

Brooklyn, N. Y., October 25, 1880.

       *       *       *       *       *



SCHOOLS OF INVENTION.


The school of invention has not yet been established, but its germ is
growing in the mechanical schools. This school, according to Hon. W. H.
Ruffner, in _Va. Ed. Journal_, will educate men, and women too, for the
special career of inventing new things. Why not? We already have
something closely analogous in schools of design, where the pupil is
trained to invent new forms or patterns, chiefly of an artistic or
decorative character. The same idea will be applied to the invention of
machinery, or improvements in machinery, or the adaptation of machinery
to the accomplishment of special ends. Inventions usually spring from
individuals striving to lighten their own labor, or from some idea
entering the brain of a genius. But we shall have professional inventors
who will be called on to contrive original devices, and his success will
depend on the sound and practical character of his prescriptions.

       *       *       *       *       *



PROPOSED EXHIBITION OF BATHING APPLIANCES.


The Board of Health of this city has recently been notified that a
Balneological Exhibition, to illustrate the various systems of bathing,
bath appliances, and kindred matters, is to be held in Frankfort-On-Main,
Germany, next summer. The exhibition will last from May to September,
1881.

H. H. Heinrich, No. 41 Maiden Lane, New York, Inventor Patentee, and
Sole Manufacturer of the Self-Adjusting Chronometer Balance, which is
not affected by "extremes of high and low temperatures, as fully
demonstrated by a six months' test at the Naval Observatory at
Washington, D. C., showing results in temperatures from 134° down to
18°, of 5-10 of a second only, unparalleled in the history of horology
and certified to by Theo F. Kone. Esq., Commander U. S. N. in charge of
the Observatory. Mr. Heinrich is a practical working mechanic and
adjuster of marine and pocket chronometers to positions and
temperatures, and is now prepared to apply his new balance wheel to any
fine timekeeping instrument, either for public or private use, he also
repairs marine and pocket chronometers, as well as all kinds of
complicated watches, broken or lost parts made new and adjusted. Mr.
Heinrich was connected for many years with the principal manufacturers
of England, Geneva and Locle, Switzerland, and for the last fifteen
years in the United States, and very recently with Messrs. Tiffany &
Co., of Union Square, New York. Shipowners, captains naval and army
officers, railroad and telegraph officials, physicians and horsemen, and
all others wanting true time, should send to him. Fine watches of the
principal manufacturers, for whom he is their agent, constantly on hand.
His office is connected by electric wires with the Naval Observatory's
astronomical clock, through the Western Union Telegraph, thus giving him
daily New York's mean time. Many years ago the British Government made
an offer of £6,000 for a chronometer for her navy, keeping better time
than the ones in use, but no European horologist ever discovered the
sequel which Mr. Heinrich has now worked out to perfection, overcoming
the extremes, as stated above. With him is connected Mr. John P.
Krugler for thirty years connected with the trade as salesman.--Adv.

       *       *       *       *       *


Toope's Felt and Asbestos Covering for Steam Pipes and other surfaces,
illustrated on page 357, present volume, received a Medal of Excellence
at the late American Institute Fair. See advertisement on another page.

       *       *       *       *       *



BUSINESS AND PERSONAL.


_The Charge for Insertion under this head is One Dollar a line for each
insertion; about eight words to a line. Advertisements must be received
at publication office as early as Thursday morning to appear in next
issue._

[Symbol: Hand] _The publishers of this paper guarantee to advertisers a
circulation of not less than 50,000 copies every weekly issue._

Chard's Extra Heavy Machinery Oil.

Chard's Anti-Corrosive Cylinder Oil.

Chard's Patent Lubricene and Gear Grease.

R. J. Chard, Sole Proprietor, 6 Burling Slip, New York.

Wanted--Superintendent for six thousand spindle cotton yarn mill. State
salary and references, Rosalie Yarn Mills, Natchez, Miss.

Use Vacuum Oil Co.'s Lubricating Oil. Rochester, N. Y.

50,000 Sawyers wanted. Your full address for Emerson's Hand Book of Saws
(free). Over 100 illustrations and pages of valuable information. How to
straighten saws, etc. Emerson, Smith & Co., Beaver Falls, Fa.

Interesting to Manufacturers and Others.--The worldwide reputation of
Asbestos Liquid Paints, Roofing, Roof Paints, Steam Pipe, Boiler
Coverings, etc., has induced unscrupulous persons to sell and apply
worthless articles, representing them as being made of Asbestos. The use
of Asbestos in these and other materials for structural and mechanical
purposes is patented, and the genuine are manufactured only by the H.W.
Johns M'f'g Co., 87 Maiden Lane, New York.

Three requisites--pens, pins, and needles. The two latter you can get of
any make, but when you want a good pen get one of Esterbrook's.

For Heavy Punches, etc., see illustrated advertisement of Hilles &
Jones, on page 380.

Frank's Wood Working Mach'y. See illus. adv., p. 382.

Painters' list of 65 good recipes. J. J. Callow, Clevel'd, O.

Improved Speed Indicator. Accurate, reliable, and of a convenient size.
Sent by mail on receipt of $1.50. E. H. Gilman, 21 Doane St., Boston,
Mass.

Astronomical Telescopes, first quality & low prices, Eye Pieces,
Micrometers, etc. W. T. Gregg, 75 Fulton St., N. Y.

Engines. Geo. F. Shedd, Waltham, Mass.

The Mackinnon Pen or Fluid Pencil. The commercial pen of the age. The
only successful reservoir pen in the market. The only pen in the world
with a diamond circle around the point. The only reservoir pen supplied
with a gravitating valve: others substitute a spring, which soon gets
out of order. The only pen accompanied by a written guarantee from the
manufacturers. The only pen that will stand the test of time. A history
of the Mackinnon Pen, its uses, prices, etc., free. Mackinnon Pen Co.
200 Broadway, New York.

Among the numerous Mowing Machines now in use, none ranks so high as the
Eureka. It does perfect work and gives universal satisfaction. Farmers
in want of a mowing machine will consult their best interests by sending
for illustrated circular, to Eureka Mower Company, Towanda, Pa.

Peck's Patent Drop Press. See adv., page 333.

The Inventors Institute, Cooper Union Building, New York. Sales of
patent rights negotiated and inventions exhibited for subscribers. Send
for circular.

Fragrant Vanity Fair Tobacco and Cigarettes. 7 First Prize
Medals--Vienna, 1873: Philadelphia. 1876; Paris, 1878: Sydney,
1879--awarded Wm. S. Kimball & Co., Rochester, N. Y.

Superior Malleable Castings at moderate rates of Richard P. Pim,
Wilmington, Del.

Wood Working Machinery of Improved Design and Workmanship. Cordesman,
Egan & Co., Cincinnati, O.

The E. Stebbins Manuf'g Co. (Brightwood, P. O.), Springfield, Mass., are
prepared to furnish all kinds of Brass and Composition Castings at short
notice; also Babbitt Metal. The quality of the work is what has given
this foundry its high reputation. All work guaranteed.

The "1880" Lace Cutter by mail for 50 cts.; discount to the trade.
Sterling Elliott, 262 Dover St., Boston, Mass.

The Tools, Fixtures, and Patterns of the Taunton Foundry and Machine
Company for sale, by the George Place Machinery Agency, 121 Chambers
St., New York.

Improved Rock Drills and Air Compressors, Illustrated catalogues and
information gladly furnished. Address Ingersoll Rock Drill Co., 1½
Park Place. N. Y.

Mineral Lands Prospected, Artesian Wells Bored, by Pa Diamond Drill Co.
Box 423. Pottsville, Pa. See p. 349.

Experts in Patent Causes and Mechanical Counsel. Park Benjamin & Bro.,
50 Astor House, New York.

Corrugated Wrought Iron for Tires on Traction Engines, etc. Sole mfrs.
H. Lloyd, Son & Co., Pittsb'g, Pa.

Malleable and Gray Iron Castings, all descriptions, by Erie Malleable
Iron Company, limited, Erie, Pa.

Power, Foot, and Hand Presses for Metal Workers. Lowest prices. Peerless
Punch & Shear Co. 52 Dey St., N. Y.

Recipes and Information on all Industrial Processes. Park Benjamin's
Expert Office, 50 Astor House, N. Y.

For the best Stave, Barrel, Keg, and Hogshead Machinery, address H. A.
Crossley, Cleveland, Ohio.

National Steel Tube Cleaner for boiler tubes. Adjustable, durable.
Chalmers-Spence Co., 40 John St., N. Y. For Mill Mach'y & Mill
Furnishing, see illus. adv. p. 349.

The Brown Automatic Cut-off Engine; unexcelled for workmanship, economy,
and durability. Write for information. C. H. Brown & Co., Fitchburg,
Mass.

Gun Powder Pile Drivers, Thos. Shaw, 915 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa.

For Separators, Farm & Vertical Engines, see adv. p. 349.

For Patent Shapers and Planers, see ills. adv. p. 349.

Best Oak Tanned Leather Belting. Wm. F. Forepaugh, Jr., & Bros., 531
Jefferson St., Philadelphia, Pa.

Stave, Barrel, Keg, and Hogshead Machinery a specialty, by E. & B.
Holmes, Buffalo, N.Y.

Split Pulleys at low prices, and of same strength and appearance as
Whole Pulleys. Yocom & Son's Shafting Works, Drinker St., Philadelphia.
Pa.

C. B. Rogers & Co., Norwich, Conn., Wood Working Machinery of every
kind. See adv., page 348.

National Institute of Steam and Mechanical Engineering, Bridgeport,
Conn. Blast Furnace Construction and Management. The metallurgy of iron
and steel. Practical Instruction in Steam Engineering, and a good
situation when competent. Send for pamphlet.

Reed's Sectional Covering for steam surfaces; any one can apply it; can
be removed and replaced without injury. J. A. Locke, Agt., 32 Cortlandt
St., N.Y.

Downer's Cleaning and Polishing Oil for bright metals, is the oldest and
best in the market. Highly recommended by the New York, Boston, and
other Fire Departments throughout the country. For quickness of cleaning
and luster produced it has no equal. Sample five gallon can be sent C.
O. D. for $8. A. H. Downer, 17 Peck Slip, New York.

Presses. Dies, and Tools for working Sheet Metal, etc. Fruit & other can
tools. Bliss & Williams, B'klyn, N.Y.

For Pat. Safety Elevators, Hoisting Engines. Friction Clutch Pulleys,
Cut-off Coupling, see Frisbie's ad. p. 349.

Nickel Plating.--Sole manufacturers cast nickel anodes, pure nickel
salts, importers Vienna lime, crocus, etc. Condit. Hanson & Van Winkle,
Newark, N. J., and 92 and 94 Liberty St., New York.

Sheet Metal Presses. Ferracute Co., Bridgeton, N. J.

Wright's Patent Steam Engine, with automatic cut off. The best engine
made. For prices, address William Wright, Manufacturer, Newburgh, N. Y.

Machine Knives for Wood-working Machinery, Book Binders, and Paper
Mills. Also manufacturers of Soloman's Parallel Vise, Taylor, Stiles &
Co., Riegelsville, N. J.

Rollstone Mac. Co.'s Wood Working Mach'y ad. p. 366.

Silent Injector, Blower, and Exhauster. See adv. p. 380.

Fire Brick, Tile, and Clay Retorts, all shapes. Borgner & O'Brien,
M'f'rs, 23d St., above Race, Phila., Pa.

Clark Rubber Wheels adv. See page 381.

Diamond Saws. J. Dickinson, 64 Nassau St., N.Y.

Steam Hammers, Improved Hydraulic Jacks, and Tube Expanders. R. Dudgeon,
24 Columbia St., New York.

Eclipse Portable Engine. See illustrated adv., p. 382.

Peerless Colors--For coloring mortar. French, Richards & Co., 410
Callowhill St., Philadelphia, Pa.

Tight and Slack Barrel machinery a specialty. John Greenwood & Co.,
Rochester, N. Y. See illus. adv. p. 380.

Elevators, Freight and Passenger, Shafting, Pulleys and Hangers. L. S.
Graves & Son, Rochester, N.Y.

Steam Engines; Eclipse Safety Sectional Boiler. Lambertville Iron Works,
Lambertville, N. J. See ad. p. 349.

Magic Lanterns, Stereopticons, and Views of all kinds and prices for
public exhibitions. A profitable business for a person with small
capital. Also lanterns for home amusement, etc. Send stamp for 116 page
catalogue to McAllister, M'f'g Optician, 49 Nassau St., New York.

Lenses for Constructing Telescopes, as in Sci. Am. Supplement, No. 252,
$6.50 per set; postage, 9 cts. The same, with eye piece handsomely
mounted in brass, 8.00. McAllister, M'f'g Optician, 49 Nassau St., N. Y.

For best low price Planer and Matcher, and latest improved Sash, Door,
and Blind Machinery, Send for catalogue to Rowley & Hermance,
Williamsport, Pa.

The only economical and practical Gas Engine in the market is the new
"Otto" Silent, built by Schleicher, Schumm & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. Send
for circular.

Penfield (Pulley) Blocks, Lockport N. Y. See ad. p. 381.

4 to 40 H. P. Steam Engines. See adv. p. 281.

Tyson Vase Engine, small motor. 1-33 H. P., efficient and non-explosive:
price $50 See illus. adv., page 380.

For Yale Mills and Engines, see page 381.

Lightning Screw Plates and Labor-saving Tools. p. 333.

       *       *       *       *       *



PATENTS ISSUED TO AMERICANS.

FROM NOVEMBER 9 TO NOVEMBER 12, 1880, INCLUSIVE.


  Book binding, L. Finger, Boston, Mass.
  Draining and sewerage. G. E. Waring Newport, R. I.
  Electric gas lighter, G. D. Bancroft. Boston, Mass.
  Electric signal. EH Johnson _et al._, Menlo Park, N. J.
  Horse nail manufacture, S. S. Putnam. Boston, Mass.
  Hygienic confection, T. S. Lambert _et al._, New York city.
  Looms, F. O. Tucker, Hartford, Conn
  Reflectors for lamps. J. S. Goldsmith, New York city.
  Railroad vehicles, E. R. Esmond _et al._. New York city.
  Sewing machine. G. F. Newell, Greenfield. Mass.
  Steam boilers, D. Sutton. Cincinnati. Ohio.
  Steam boilers, W. D. Dickey, New York city.
  Toy money box, J. E. Walter. New York city.
  Trucks, hand., E. J. Lyburn, Fredericksburg, U. S. A.


       *       *       *       *       *



NOTES AND QUERIES


HINTS TO CORRESPONDENTS.

No attention will be paid to communications unless accompanied with
the full name and address of the writer.

Names and addresses of correspondents will not be given to
inquirers.

We renew our request that correspondents, in referring to former
answers or articles, will be kind enough to name the date of the
paper and the page, or the number of the question.

Correspondents whose inquiries do not appear after a reasonable time
should repeat them. If not then published, they may conclude that,
for good reasons, the Editor declines them.

Persons desiring special information which is purely of a personal
character, and not of general interest, should remit from $1 to $5,
according to the subject, as we cannot be expected to spend time and
labor to obtain such information without remuneration.

Any numbers of the Scientific American Supplement referred to in
these columns may be had at this office. Price 10 cents each.

       *       *       *       *       *

(1) L. L. asks: 1. How can I grind and polish quartz and agate rock,
and what kind of grinding and polishing material should I use? A.
Quartz and agate are slit with a thin iron disk supplied with
diamond dust moistened with brick oil. The rough grinding is done on
a lead wheel supplied with coarse emery and water. The smoothing is
done with a lead lap and fine emery, and the polishing may be
accomplished by means of a lead lap, whose surface is hacked and
supplied with rottenstone and water. 2. What is the best method of
polishing steel? A. The usual method is to grind first on a coarse
wet stone, then on a fine wet stone, then on a lead lap supplied
with fine emery and oil, and finally polish on a buff wheel supplied
with dry crocus and revolving rather slowly.

(2) R. L. J. asks how to make copying black and red inks. A. 1.
Bruised Aleppo nutgalls, 2 lb.; water, 1 gallon; boil in a copper
vessel for an hour, adding water to make up for that lost by
evaporation; strain and again boil the galls with a gallon of water
and strain; mix the liquors, and add immediately 10 oz. of copperas
in coarse powder and 8 oz. of gum arabic; agitate until solution of
these latter is effected, add a few drops of solution of potassium
permanganate, strain through a piece of hair cloth, and after
permitting to settle, bottle. The addition of a little extract of
logwood will render the ink blacker when first written with. Half an
ounce of sugar to the gallon will render it a good copying ink. 2.
Shellac, 4 oz.; borax, 2 oz.; water, 1 quart; boil till dissolved,
and add 2 oz. of gum arabic dissolved in a little hot water; boil
and add enough of a well triturated mixture of equal parts indigo
and lampblack to produce the proper color; after standing several
hours draw off and bottle. 3. Half a drachm of powdered drop lake
and 18 grains of powdered gum arabic dissolved in 3 oz. of ammonia
water constitute one of the finest red or carmine inks.

(3) X. inquires: What is the rule for making a counterbalanced face
wheel for engines? A. It is a common practice to place the counter
weight directly opposite the crank, with its center of gravity at
the same distance from the center of the shaft as the center of the
crank pin, making its weight equal to weight of piston, piston rod,
crosshead, and crank pin, plus half the weight of the connecting
rod.

(4) A. R. asks: What is the best way to remove cinders from the eye?
A. A small camel's hair brush dipped in water and passed over the
ball of the eye on raising the lid. The operation requires no skill,
takes but a moment, and instantly removes any cinder or particle of
dust or dirt without inflaming the eye.

(5) D. F. H. asks: Can I move a piston in a half inch glass tube by
the expansion of mercury? A. Yes, but you will require a long tube
to get any appreciable motion of the piston.

(6) J. W. asks: What size of a bore and what length of a stroke I
would want for a rocking valve engine of half a horse power? A.
About 2 inches cylinder and 3 inch stroke, depending upon pressure
and velocity.

(7) R. W. H. writes: In a recent discussion on hot air and steam
portable engines it was decided to ask your opinion, which should be
final. Water is scarce, though enough to use steam is easily procured.
The country is hilly, so that lightness is desirable. The power wanted
is 6 horse, and movable, that is, on wheels. Which will be best, hot air
engine or steam engine? Which consumes most coal for a given power?
Which will be cheapest in above case? A. For small powers the hot air
engine is most economical, but we do not think it adapted to your
purpose. We would recommend the steam engine for a portable power.

(8) J. C. T. writes: 1. I have a water tank for supplying my boiler,
which is made of No. 22 galvanized iron; size 30 inches by 9 feet 4
inches. How many gallons will it hold? A. 342 gallons. 2. Will it be
better to have it painted inside? A. Yes. 3. How many years will the
tank wear under favorable circumstances, using well water? A.
Depends upon the care taken of it.

(9) W. H. C. asks: Is there any way of deadening the noise of machinery
overhead from the engine room below? The noise comes from machinery in
the weave room of an alpaca mill. A. This is generally accomplished by
setting the legs of the machines on thick pieces of India-rubber or
other non-conductor of sound.

(10) G. H. asks: How can I mount photos on glass and color them? A.
Take a strongly printed photograph on paper, and saturate it from the
back with a rag dipped in castor oil. Carefully rub off all excess from
the surface after obtaining thorough transparency. Take a piece of glass
an inch larger all round than the print, pour upon it dilute gelatin,
and then "squeegee" the print and glass together. Allow it to dry, and
then work in artists' oil colors from the back until you get the proper
effect from the front. Both landscapes and portraits can be effectively
colored by the above method without any great skill being required.

(11) C. W. S. asks: 1. Is there any practical and effective method known
for cutting screws by connecting the slide rest with the mandrel of the
lathe by gears or otherwise? A. This can be done in this way: attach a
spur wheel to the back of the face plate. Mount a similar wheel on a
short hollow shaft, and support the shaft by an arm bolted to the lathe
bed so that the two spur wheels will mesh together. Fit right and left
hand leading screws to the hollow shaft of the second spur wheel, and
drill a hole through them as well as through the hollow shaft to receive
the fastening pin. Now remove the longitudinal feed screw of the slide
rest and attach to one side of the carriage an adjustable socket for
receiving nuts filled to the leading screws. The number of leading
screws required will depend of course on the variety of threads it is
desired to cut unless a change of gear is provided. 2. A writer in a
foreign journal claims to make slides, or V-shaped pieces for slide
rests, eccentric chucks, etc., on his lathe. Is any such process known
here, or any process within the capabilities of an amateur mechanic by
which the planing machine can be dispensed with? A. For small work held
between the lathe centers a milling device fitted to the slide rest in
place of the tool post will answer an excellent purpose. This device
consists of a mandrel carrying at one end the cutter and at the other
end a large pulley. This mandrel is journaled in a hinged frame
supported by a block replacing the tool post, and is adjusted as to
height by a screw passing through an arm projecting from the supporting
block. The direction of the belt is adapted to this device by means of
pulleys.

(12) J. E. B. asks: 1. What is the best turbine water wheel now in use?
A. There are several wheels in market that seem equally good. You should
examine all of them and decide from your own observation which is best.
2. What is the rule for finding the horse power of water acting through
a turbine wheel which utilizes 80 per cent of the water? A. Finding the
weight of water falling over the dam and its velocity in feet per
minute, multiply the weight in pounds by the velocity, and the result is
foot pounds, divided by 33,000, the quotient is theoretical horse power;
if your wheel gives out 80 per cent. then 80 per cent of that result is
the horse power of the wheel. 3. How can I calculate the capacity of a
belt? A. You will find an exhaustive article on the subject of belts on
pp. 101, 102, Vol. 42, Scientific American, which contains the
information you desire. 4. What machine now in use is the best, all
things considered, for the manufacture of ground wood pulp? Where are
they manufactured? A. This information can probably be obtained by
inserting an advertisement in the Business and Personal column of this
paper.

(13) C. A. R writes: Wishing to renew my Leclanche batteries, which were
giving out, I bought some new empty porous cells. Please give the
following information: 1. Can I use the carbon plates of the old
elements over again? If so, do they need to undergo any washing or
soaking; or are they as good as ever? A. Yes. Soak them for a few hours
in warm water. 2. Is there anything I must add to the granular manganese
with which I fill the cells, in order to obtain maximum power and
endurance? Some makers add pulverized or even coarsely broken carbon. Is
it an advantage? A. It is an advantage to add granulated carbon to the
manganese. Use equal parts of each. 3. What is the exact composition of
the curdy mass which forms around and especially underneath the zincs of
newly mounted and old gravity batteries. Is this substance formed
naturally, or is it the result of using poor zinc or sulphate of copper?
A. It is copper, and should be removed, for it weakens the battery. It
is the result of placing the zinc in the sulphate of copper solution. 4.
Is there any real advantage in amalgamating the zincs of the above
batteries? A. No. 5. Is there a speedy way of cleaning them when coated
with this substance? A. They can be cleaned by scraping. 6. At certain
occasions my electric bells began ringing without anybody apparently
closing the circuit. I often notice that if I unjoin the batteries and
let them remain thus for a few hours, on reconnecting them the bells
would work all right for a week, sometimes a fortnight, when the same
trouble would again occur. Can you in any way explain this phenomenon?
The batteries are not placed in a very dry part of the house, but the
wires, which run pretty closely together, are nearly all exposed, so
that I can control the slightest corrosion or uncovering of the
conductors. A. There must be some accidental closing of the circuit. We
could not explain the action of your line without seeing it.

(14) J. E. E. asks: What is the number of layers of wire, and the size
used for the primary of the induction coil in the Blake transmitter, and
as near as you can the amount used for secondary? A. For primary, use
three layers of No. 20 magnet wire, and for the secondary use twelve or
fourteen layers of No. 36 silk covered copper wire. The resistance of
the secondary wire should be from 100 to 150 ohms.

(15) J. M. I. asks how to make a barometer by coloring ribbon, so that
they will change color, indicating weather changes. A. Use a moderately
strong solution of chloride of cobalt in water.

(16) O. C. H. writes: In reply to R. A. R., question 22, in Scientific
American, December 4, I will say that some months ago I was engaged in
running a saw mill, lathe, and shingle factory; was troubled with two
hot boxes, and frequently had to stop and apply ice. Seeing in the
Scientific American a reference to the use of plumbago, I sent for some,
and after three or four applications was troubled no more with hot
boxes.

(17) F. W. asks: What is the best way for return pipe to go into the
boiler from radiators--steam at 60 lb. per square inch, fall 15 feet? A.
If your job is properly piped you can bring your return pipe in at any
convenient place in your boiler below the water line. If you go into the
feed pipe, have your connection inside all other valves.

(18) L. T. G. writes: 1. I have four cells of carbon battery; the
solutions are bichromate of potash and sulphuric acid. Also three cells
of the Smee; sulphuric acid one part, to ten of water; and the four
cells of the carbon battery are not sufficient to run my small
electro-magnetic engine, for more than two or three minutes. I wish to
know if it would be injurious to either one of the batteries if I should
unite them both in one circuit, to run the engine, for about one or two
hours at a time. A. The batteries will not be injured, but they will not
work well together. Better increase the number of carbon elements. 2.
Will either of the above batteries freeze in winter, or will cold
weather affect their working? A. They will not freeze, but it is better
to keep them at a temperature above freezing 3. Is it always best to use
the largest wire in connecting batteries with any instrument, say, above
No. 11 or No. 12 wire, as the larger the wire the less the resistance,
thereby getting nearly the full power of the battery? A. Yes. 4. What
purposes are quantity and intensity electricity best suited for
respectively? A. Batteries are arranged for quantity or intensity
according to the work to be done. The maximum effect is obtained when
the battery elements are combined, so that the total resistance in the
elements is equal to the resistance of the rest of the circuit.

(19) J. H. asks: Which would be the strongest, two 2-inch by 4-inch
joists nailed together, or one 4-inch by 4-inch joist? A. One 4-inch by
4-inch.

(20) J. K. B. writes: I suppose every experimenter who uses a carbon
battery has been troubled by the uncertainty of the carbon connection.
The makers of the Grenet battery seem to have solved the problem. Can
you tell us through your correspondence column what solder they use, and
how they make it stick? A. The carbon is coated with copper by
electro-deposition; this coating is readily soldered to the carbon
support with common soft solder.

(21) M. D. M. asks: 1. Is there a difference in a steam engine between
the boiler pressure and the pressure on the piston when the piston is
moving 460 feet per minute? A. Yes. 2. About what difference? A. From 2
to 8 lb., depending upon size and length of steam pipe. 3. Does the
difference between them vary with a difference in the motion of the
piston in the same engine? A. Not appreciably within usual limits of
speed.

(22) F. writes: We have just closed up our steam stone works for this
season, and we wish to know what is best to coat the inside of our steam
boilers to keep them from rusting. Some say black oil, and others common
tallow: which do you recommend as the best? A. We think the black oil
quite as good and cheaper than tallow. Have the surfaces thoroughly
cleaned before applying the oil.

(23) O. H. asks for a cheap and easy way of amalgamating battery zincs.
A. It depends on the kind of battery. In the Fuller the mercury is
placed in the porous cell with the zinc. In bichromate batteries all
that is necessary is to dip the zinc in the bichromate solution and then
pour on a drop or two of mercury. It soon spreads over the entire
surface of the zinc. Another method is to dip the zincs in dilute
sulphuric acid and then pour on a little mercury, but these methods,
except in the case of the Fuller battery, are wasteful of mercury. It is
better to apply an amalgamating solution with a brush. This solution is
made by dissolving one part (by weight) of mercury in five parts of
nitro-muriatic acid (nitric acid one part, muriatic acid three parts),
heating the solution moderately to quicken the action; and, after
complete solution, add five parts more of nitro-muriatic acid.

(24) G. W. asks: 1. Would a perfectly round ball of the same specific
gravity throughout lie still on a level surface? A. Yes. 2. Can a
mechanic's square be made so true that a four-inch block may be made
exactly square by such an instrument? A. Yes.

(25) W. H. asks: 1. What is the weight of a boiler 24 feet long, 44
inches diameter, ¼ inch thick? A. With two flues, 16 inches diameter,
6,900 lb. 2. What is the contents (in gallons) of a tank 15 feet deep,
10 feet in diameter, top and bottom diameters being equal? Please give
me a formula. A. Area of 10 feet diameter = 78.54 x 15 feet deep = 1,178
cubic feet, and, allowing 7½ gallons per cubic foot = 1,178 x 7.5 =
8,835 gallons.

(26) C. L. W. writes: I have constructed a small induction coil to be
used for giving shocks. It is 3 inches long. The primary coil is wound
with 3 layers of No. 18 cotton covered wire, and the secondary consists
of about 12 layers of No. 38 silk covered. 1. How many cells and what
kind of battery shall I use to get the best results? A. For temporary
use one cell of Grenet battery would answer, but for continued use some
form of sulphate of copper battery is to be preferred. 2. Is it
necessary that the spring and screw in the interrupter should be coated
with platinum? A. Yes; otherwise they would soon burn out.

(27) H. C. P. writes: In the Scientific American of September 18, Mr. B.
Y. D., query 26, asks whether a sun dial, made for latitude 48° 15', can
be utilized in latitude 38° 50' for showing correct time. To make his
dial available in the lower latitudes, he has only to lift the south
side, so as to give the face a slope to the north, equal to the
difference of the latitude, in this case 9° 25'. For then the plane of
the gnomon being in the plane of the meridian, the edge of the gnomon
casting the shadow will be parallel with the earth's axis; and the face
of the dial will be parallel with the horizon of the latitude for which
the dial was made, and the graduation will show the time required; that
is, on the supposition that it was correctly made, and for a horizontal
dial.

(28) O. M. M. asks for a cheap process of plating steel case knives
with tin. A. Clean the metal thoroughly by boiling in strong potash
water, rinsing, pickling in dilute sulphuric acid, and scouring with a
stiff brush and fine sand. Pass through strong aqueous salammoniac
solution, then plunge in hot oil (palm or tallow). When thoroughly
heated remove and dip in a pot of fused tin (grain tin) covered with
tallow. When tinned, drain in oil pot and rub with a bunch of hemp.
Clean and polish in hot sawdust.

(29) V. R. P. writes: I have an aquarium which contains 4-2/3 gallons of
water. How many fish must I have in it--average length of fish 1½ to 2
inches to insure the health of the fish? At present, I refill the
aquarium semi-weekly. Please tell me a process by which I can lengthen
the time. A. Put in three fish, 1½ inches in length, to one gallon of
water, one small bunch of fresh water plants to one gallon of water.
Tadpoles (after they have cast their branchia or gills), newts, and rock
fish can be used to the extent of six to the gallon. The aquatic plants
will supply the fish with sufficient oxygen, so that the water will
seldom require changing.

(30) A. S. writes: I am about to construct an aqueduct 1,200 feet in
length, the water level differing 40 feet. By placing a forcing pump in
the valley I could then raise the water to a height of 40 feet, and
having erected a tank at that height and connected it by means of pipes
with another tank 1,200 feet distant, but on the same level, the water
according to a law of nature would travel over the distance of 1,200
feet. But finding it very difficult to erect tank 40 feet high, I would
prefer to construct the whole on the incline. Will the forcing pump
having just power enough to raise the water 40 feet perpendicularly into
the tank have sufficient power to force it into a tank of the same
elevation through 1,200 feet of pipe running on the incline, or must I
have more power, and how much more? A. The forcing pump must have enough
more power to overcome its own additional friction and the friction of
water in the long inclined pipe. Allow 20 per cent more power at least.

       *       *       *       *       *


MINERALS, ETC.--Specimens have been received from the following
correspondents, and examined, with the results stated:

Box marked C. H. (no letter.)--1. and 2. Garnetiferous quartz rock. 3
and 4. Micaceous quartz rock. 5. Granite. 6. Basalt with traces of
chalcopyrite.--L. C. G.--They are fossil sharks' teeth, common in marl
beds.--J. E. C.--1. Iron sulphide and lead sulphide. 2. Quartzite, with
traces of galena and molybdic sulphide. 3 and 4. Dolomite. 5.
Fossiliferous argillaceous limestone, containing traces of lead
sulphide. 6. Lead sulphide in argillite.--C. T. M.--1. A silicious
kaolin. 2. Similar to No. 1. Useful if mixed with finer clay for white
ware. 3. Silicions carbonate of lime--some of this would probably make
fair cement. 4. Brick--the clay from which this was made would probably
be useful to potters. 5 and 6 are very silicious clays.

       *       *       *       *       *



COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVED.


Liniment. By J. L. T.

Seen and Tangible and the Unseen and Intangible. By J.L.T.

On Cheap Railroads. By R. P. N.

On a Meteor. By W. E. C.

       *       *       *       *       *

[OFFICIAL.]



INDEX OF INVENTIONS

FOR WHICH

Letters Patent of the United States were Granted in the Week Ending:

November 16, 1880,

AND EACH BEARING THAT DATE.

[Those marked (r) are reissued patents.]

       *       *       *       *       *

A printed copy of the specification and drawing of any patent in the
annexed list, also of any patent issued since 1866, will be furnished
from this office for one dollar. In ordering please state the number and
date of the patent desired and remit to Munn & Co., 37 Park Row, New
York city. We also furnish copies of patents granted prior to 1866; but
at increased cost, as the specifications not being printed, must be
copied by hand.

Alloy for coating metals, J. B. Jones                          234,482
Axle box, car, H. Hazel                                        234,568
Bag holder and truck therefor, L. H. Aldrich                   234,381
Baling press, W. Duke                                          234,549
Band cutting and removing apparatus. W. Gray                   234,561
Basket splints, machine for shaving, A. B. Fisher              234,398
Belt shifting mechanism for washing machines, L. Sternberger   234,439
Belt shipper, B. H. Hadley                                     234,563
Bias cutter, W. F. Hood                                        234,476
Bit brace, N. Spofford                                         234,624
Bit stock, Q. S. Backus                                        234,517
Book case, M. C. Dodge                                         234,461
Book holder, W. B. Daugherty                                   234,460
Boot and shoe heel, J. G. Ross                                 234,430
Boot and shoe soles, machine for forming imitation fair
stitches to the edges of, Tayman & Bennor                      234,503
Boot treeing machine, E. F. Grandy                             234,401
Borer and excavotor, earth, J. W. Carley                       234,532
Bottle wrapper, M. V. Kacer                                    234,582
Bridle front, B. A. Wilson                                     234,445
Buckle, D. C. Bassett                                          234,453
Buckle, harness, B. H. Cross                                   234,394
Butter worker, Cornish & Curtis                                234,459
Button and stud, N. Nelson                                     234,604
Buttonhole for cuffs, etc., C. H. Shaw                         234,620
Can, E. P. Fox                                                 234,465
Can opener, W. E. Brock                                        234,527
Car brake, G. Bressler                                         234,525
Car brake, C. V. Rote                                          234,493
Car brake, G. A. Small                                         234,622
Car coupling, W. I. Ely                                        234,550
Car door fastener, Briggs & Dougherty                          234,526
Car, railway, G. L. Waitt                                      234,507
Car starter, J. Ladner                                         234,590
Car, stock, W. Neracher                                        234,420
Car wheel, E. L. Taylor                                        234,502
Cars, shield for railway Mason & Hanson                        234,416
Caster, trunk, J. Simmons                                      234,496
Chain, J. M. Dodge                                             234,548
Chains, device for making, H. Wexel                            234,444
Chair, W. R. Clough                                            234,537
Chandelier, extension, T. D. Hotchkiss                         234,477
Cheese curd sifter and picker, F. M. Cummings                  234,543
Churn, M. F. Mitchel                                           234,418
Clock, traveling, H. Reinecke                                  234,612
Clock winding and gas cock mechanism, combined, G. P. Ganster  234,557
Clothes wringer, S. Huffman                                    234,577
Coal fork, T. R. Way                                           234,633
Coin, device for holding, counting, and delivering,
Van Slyke & Nesom                                              234,441
Collar and cuff folding machine, M. Hermann                    234,571
Confectioners' forms and their application, W. E. H. Sommer    234,623
Corn husks, apparatus for cutting, W. A. Wright                234,640
Corn husks, disintegrating, W. A. Wright                       234,641
Corset, C. F. Allen                                            234,380
Cotton picker, G. Risler                                       234,613
Cotton press, S. Stucky                                        234,626
Cradle and carriage, combined, G. F. Doyle                     234,547
Crank movements, apparatus for overcoming the dead point in,
P. E. Jay                                                      234,496
Crimping pin, C. D. Thompson                                   234,629
Cuff fastener and supporter, A. B. Case                        234,533
Cultivator and seeder, combined, J. D. Chichester              234,390
Current and tide water wheel, H. Fake                          234,396
Currycomb, M. Sweet                                            234,501
Curtain fixture, H. Seehausen                                  234,495
Draught equalizer, F. H. Sandefer                              234 625
Drawer lock, G. E. Bendix                                      234,454
Drilling machine, T. Naish                                     234,603
Drip pan for oil barrels, C. E. Laverty                        234,411
Electric light burner, J. Sarcia                               234,618
Electric lights or motors, automatic cut-out apparatus for,
C. F. Brush                                                    234,456
Electric machines, rotating armature for dynamo, E. Weston     234,443
Electrical switch board, J. W. See                             234,432
Embroidering machines, jacquard attachment for,
M. Umstadter (r)                                          9,470, 9,471
End board, wagon, H. A. Riggs                                  234,614
Excelsior machine, C. Howes                                    234,475
Explosive compound, C. A. Morse                                234,489
Eyeglasses, R. Kabus                                           234.581
Faucet attachment, C. A. Raggio                                234,429
Feed bag, T. R. Lowerre                                        234,593
Fence post, wire, Ticknor & Bebee                              234,440
Ferric oxide and cupric chloride, manufacture of,
J. F. N. Macay                                                 234,595
Filter, coffee and tea, T. Fitzgerald, Jr.                     234,556
Filter, reversible, R. S. Jennings                             234,408
Firearm, breech-loading, J. L. Volkel                          234,632
Fire escape, Quintavalle & Lindberg                            234,611
Fires, process of and apparatus for extinguishing,
J. H. Campbell                                                 234,531
Foot, artificial, A. A. Marks                                  234,596
Fruit drier, G. P. & L. J. Lee                                 234,412
Fuel burning apparatus, J. Wolstenholme                        234,448
Galvanic battery, G. L. Leclanché                              234,413
Gas making apparatus, C. F. Dieterich                          234,546
Gas pressure regulator, P. Noyes                               234,421
Gas, process of and apparatus for manufacturing
illuminating, Granger & Collins, Jr.                           234,400
Gate, L. P. Allen                                              234,515
Gate, D. B. Hamilton                                           234,471
Gate, K. A. Scott                                              234,619
Gears, machine for cutting the teeth of metal, W.
Gleason (r)                                                      9,468
Gears, machine for cutting the teeth of wooden,
W. Gleason (r)                                                   9,469
Glassware, mould for pressed, W. Haley                         234,564
Glove, R. D. Burr                                              234,528
Grain binder, C. B. Withington                                 234,638
Harness, C. E. Berry                                           234,519
Harness, suspending swinging, C. E. Berry                      234,520
Harrow, W. H. Hulings                                          234,576
Harrow and cultivator tooth, G. C. Winslow                     234,639
Hat body, W. W. Thoman                                         234,505
Hat ironing machine, Hedden & McCormick                        234,569
Hatchway door mechanism, J. W. Evans                           234,464
Hay press, B. M. Watts                                         234,509
Head light, locomotive, W. Kelley                              234,410
Hides, machine for shaving wool or hair from, J. Curson        234,542
Hinge, gate, J. L. Anderson                                    234,382
Hopple, C. J. Gustaveson                                       234,562
Hydrocarbon burner, D. M. Graham                               234,468
Hydrocarbon furnace, W. D. Dickey                              234,395
Ice cutting machine, E. S. Field                               234,397
Inhaler, gas, H. R. Hurd                                       234,479
Instep holder, McKay & Fairfield                               234,488
Insulator, telegraph, C. Bigeon                                234,523
Iron with oxide, coating, G. & A. S. Bower                     234,524
Iron with zinc and alloys of zinc, coating, J. B. Jones        234,481
Ironing machine, J. Vandercar                                  234,631
Jewelers' use, tool for, L. G. Grady                           234,560
Keg, lager beer, J. B. Hayden                                  234,473
Knitting machines, feed mechanism for circular, H. Clarke      234,535
Knob attachment, W. H. Gonne                                   234,466
Ladder, C. D. Cannon                                           234,389
Lantern holder, P. G. Stephenson                               234,500
Lathe, gauge, F. W. Clough                                     234,536
Life preserver, C. D. Oatman                                   234,606
Lightning guard for oil tanks, A. A. Knudson                   234,484
Limb, artificial, A. A. Marks                                  234,597
Lock, A. Lemke                                                 234,592
Lock cylinder, H. R. Towne                                     234,630
Loom. A. L. & C. L. Bigsby                                     234,521
Lubricating apparatus, automatic, G. W. Baker                  234,383
Machine brake, automatic, E. Pitman                            234,426
Magnet, relay or sounder, G. Little                            234,415
Malt, compressed, Prendergast & Free                           234,428
Marble, etc., composition for cleaning, G. P. Cole             234,539
Meat cutter, R. Hübner.                                        234,470
Meat cutting machine, L. Steigert                              234,499
Mercurial fumes, apparatus for condensing, T. W. Dresser       234,462
Metals from their ores, machine for separating
precious, G. Hall                                              234,565
Mirror hanger, C. W. Prescott                                  234,609
Moulding machines, apparatus for turning cutters
for, L. Wenchel                                                234,635
Mower, lawn, H. G. Fiske                                       234,553
Musical string instruments, key for, J. Singer                 234,643
Needle wrapper, J. M. Woodward                                 234,514
Optometer, A. Mayer                                            234,598
Overalls, A. Clement                                           234,391
Overalls, L. H. Wise                                           234,512
Packing case, folding, W. H. Yaxley                            234,450
Paint cans, machine for filling, W. M. Shoemaker               234,434
Pantaloons elevator, C. B. Plympton                            234,427
Paper bag machine, O. E. Davidson                              234,544
Paper cutting machine, J. M. Jones                             234,409
Paper feeding machine, Griffith & Byrne                        234,469
Paper, machine for fringing, S. Garrett                        234,399
Paper machine pulp screen, S. L. Gould                         234,559
Paper pulp digesters, etc., slide valve gate for, J.
Saunders                                                       234,431
Paper pulp pail, E. Hubbard                                    234,405
Paner tool, H. Dewey                                           234,545
Planter, check row seed, G. W. Fink                            234,555
Planter, corn, Wickey & Brown                                  234,447
Planter, cotton seed, J. H. Walker                             234,508
Plow and seed planter, combined, Sapp & Mantz                  234,616
Plow, sulky, W. H. Ryer                                        234,615
Plumbers' traps, machine for making, F. N. Du Bois             234,463
Pocket, S. Marcus                                              234,487
Pocketbook, H. J. Lehman                                       234,414
Portable engine boiler, D. M. Swain.                           234,627
Preparations melting under 32° Fahrenheit, apparatus
therefor, and their application, S. H. Rouart                  234,494
Preserving animal and vegetable substances,
compound for, J. Hauff                                         234,567
Pressure regulator, fluid, N. C. Locke (r)                       9,466
Printing machines, stretching and drying apparatus
for calico, F. J. Crowley                                      234,541
Printing presses, traversing inking roller for, A. Shedlock    234,433
Propelling vessels, mechanism for, B. Palmer                   234,607
Pulley attachment, F. A. Kittell                               234,585
Pump, P. E. Jay                                                231,407
Pump, L. M. Canavel                                            234,583
Pump, air, W. Auteurietti                                      234,516
Pump bucket, chain, Laraway & Rockwell                         234,588
Pump, diaphragm ship's, J. Edson                               234,551
Pump, steam, E. E. Miller                                      234,601
Radiator, steam, H. Mooers                                     234,419
Railway chair, J. H. Collingwood                               234,458
Railway fish plate, W. Butcher                                 234,529
Railway signal, pneumatic, J. A. Emery                         234,552
Railway signaling apparatus, F. J. Wenker                      234,636
Railway switch, T. Solt                                        234,436
Railway time signal, H. A. Wayne                               234,634
Refrigerator, S. B. Clemmens                                   234,457
Riddle and sieve, E. Oliver                                    234,605
Roofing and paving material, C. M. Warren                      234,412
Roofing composition, C. F. Pearson                             234,425
Rudders, raising and lowering ships', R. F. Loper, Jr.         234,594
Saccharine substances, treatment and preparation
of, M. Weinrich                                       234,510, 234,511
Sash fastening, Burgess & Sanford                              234,387
Seed huller, cotton, S. Kitchens, Sr.                          234,584
Sewing machine, Koch & Wiese                                   234,587
Sewing machine, E. T. Thomas                                   234,628
Sewing machine, boot and shoe, E. Woodward                     234,513
Sewing machine, button hole, J. H. Applegate                   234,451
Sewing machine quilting gauge, J. H. Lavance                   234,485
Sewing machine treadle, R. Steel                               234,498
Seeding machines, spring hoe attachment for, S. B. Hart        234,566
Shirt, C. A. Gilbert                                           234,558
Sink outlet cover, J. W. Grows                                 234,102
Skate, roller, M. C. Henley                                    234,404
Smoke and gas consuming furnace, W. C. P. Bissell              234,885
Snow scraping machine, G. B. Gruman                            234,470
Soda water and other liquids, apparatus for cooling,
A. D. Puffer (r)                                                 9,465
Soldering irons, rotary benzine furnace for heating,
G. H. Perkins                                                  234,424
Sole edge burnishing machine, Tayman & Bennor                  234,504
Spinning frames, mechanism for supporting the
spindles of ring, J. Birkenhead                                234,522
Spout, sap, I. H. Spelman                                      234,437
Steam pipes, etc., covering for, J. Merriam                    234,417
Steam trap, J. H. Blessing                                     234,886
Stencil, D. W. Ream                                            234,492
Stereotype matrices, drying, W. J. Johnson                     234,480
Stove, gasoline, W. C. North                                   234,491
Stove grate, G. Froh (r)                                         9,463
Stove pipe shelf, S. Ayres                                     234,452
Stoves, portable extension top for, J. H. Hutchinson           234,575
String instruments, key for tuning, J. Singer                  234,642
Telegraph, duplex. A. Muirhead                                 234,490
Telephone, J. H. Irwin                                         234,579
Telephone, speaking, S. D. Field                               234,554
Telephone system, G. D'Infreville                              234,578
Thill coupling, P. Klipple                                     234,483
Thill coupling. L. B. Lathrop                                  234,591
Thrashing or hulling cylinder, J. I. McClung                   234,599
Thread cutter, M. D. Barringer                                 234,384
Tinned metal plates by heat and pressure, automatic
apparatus for uniting, G. H. Perkins                           234,423
Tobacco curing apparatus, A. Gordon                            234,467
Tobacco leaves, apparatus for coloring, J. M. Henningsen       234,474
Tobacco, marking plug, W. Painter                              234,608
Toilet case, C. Carroll                                        234,388
Tongue hound for wagons, R. W. McClelland                      234,600
Tongue support, wagon. G. F. Wingate                           234,446
Tool shank, A. H. Suplee (r)                                     9,472
Toothpick, E. Osgood                                           234,422
Toy horse and wagon, F. W. Carpenter                           234,534
Toy money bank, C. A. Bailey                                   234,518
Truck. E. J. Leyburn                                           234,486
Trucks, rub iron for car, D. E. Small                          234,621
Valve, J. P. Hillard                                           234,573
Valve, balanced, Moore & Pertz                                 234,602
Vehicle bow trimming, H. Higgin                                234,574
Vehicle sand band, J. Hitchcock                                234,572
Vehicle seat, F. Oppenheim (r)                                   9,464
Vehicle spring, G. E. Harris                                   234,403
Vehicle wheel, J. Ladner                                       234,589
Vehicle wheel, C. H. Triphagen                                 234,506
Wagon brake, Whitman & Igon                                    234,637
Wagon brake shoe, C. A. Skene                                  234,435
Washing machine, J. G. Crawford                                234,393
Washing machine, L. Sternberger                                234,438
Watch, acoustic, G. A. Bowen                                   234,455
Watch case, W. Calame                                          234,530
Watches, roller abstractor for, B. Frese (r)                     9,467
Water closet, S. S. Hellyer                                    234,570
Water elevator, J. R. Cluxton                                  234,538
Wells, drilling machine for Artesian and oil, F. Knowlan       234,586
Whiffletree hook, C. Wright                                    234,449
Wind wheel, J. Sander                                          234,617
Windmill, Coriell & Adams                                      234,392
Windmill, W. C. Jacob                                          234,580
Wood, ornamenting, Pruyn & Hyatt                               234,610
Wood turning machine, F. Hanson                                234,472
Wrench and screw driver, comb'd, J. K. Collins                 234,540

       *       *       *       *       *


DESIGNS.

Coffin screw, E. A. Cuppers                                     12,033
Gem setting, Vennin & Peltier                                   12,037
Lamp bracket, F. R. Seidensticker                               12,036
Stove, cooking, H. L. Fennell                                   12,034
Type, font of printing, J. K. Rogers                            12,035

       *       *       *       *       *


TRADE MARKS.

Fish, manufactured, Ferguson, Walker & Co                        8,091
Hats, gentlemen's and boys' and ladies' and misses'
soft felt, Topping Maynard & Hobron                              8,096
Tobacco, plug, G. Wittler                                        8,097
Jewelry, comprising lace pins, scarf pins, earrings, ear drops,
brooches studs, sleeve buttons, and scarf rings.
Howard & Scherrieble                                             8,095
Soap, J. Oakley & Co.                                            8,094
Tobacco, smoking and chewing, Wilson & McCallay           8,092, 8,093
Yarn, cotton and woolen darning, H. C. Conkle                    8,090

       *       *       *       *       *



ADVERTISEMENTS.


Inside page, each insertion--75 cents a line. Back page, each
insertion--$1.00 a line.

_Engravings may head advertisements at the same rate per line, by
measurement, as the letter press. Advertisements must be received at
publication office as early as Thursday morning to appear in next
issue._

The publishers of this paper guarantee to advertisers a circulation of
not less than 50,000 copies every weekly issue.

       *       *       *       *       *


A SPLENDID HOLIDAY GIFT.

DR. SCOTT'S ELECTRIC HAIR BRUSH.

A REMARKABLE INVENTION,

Which has won its way to Royal favor in England, been cordially indorsed
by the Prince and Princess of Wales, and written upon by the Rt. Hon. W.
E. Gladstone, is now brought to the notice of the American public. It
cures by natural means, will always do good, never harm, and is a remedy
lasting for many years. It should be used daily in place of the ordinary
Hair Brush. The Brush Handle is made of a new odorless composition
resembling ebony; a combination of substances PRODUCING A PERMANENT
ELECTRIC VOLTAIC CURRENT WHICH ACTS IMMEDIATELY UPON THE HAIR GLANDS AND
FOLLICLES. This power can always be tested by a silver compass which
accompanies each Brush.

IT IS WARRANTED TO CURE NERVOUS HEADACHE IN 5 MINUTES!!! CURE NEURALGIA
IN 6 MINUTES!! PREVENT FALLING HAIR AND BALDNESS!! CURE DANDRUFF &
DISEASES OF THE SCALP!! PROMPTLY ARRESTS PREMATURE GRAYNESS!! MAKES THE
HAIR GROW LONG & GLOSSY!! IMMEDIATELY SOOTHES THE WEARY BRAIN MONEY
RETURNED IF NOT AS REPRESENTED.

IT RARELY FAILS TO PRODUCE A RAPID GROWTH OF HAIR ON BALD HEADS, WHERE
THE GLANDS and FOLLICLES ARE NOT TOTALLY DESTROYED.

Proprietors: The Pall Mall Electric Association of London.

5th New York Branch: 842 Broadway.

[From the Mayor of Saratoga.]

August 12, 1880.

"I cheerfully testify to the merits of Dr. Scott's Electric Hair Brush.
It cures my headaches within a few minutes. I am so pleased with it I
purchased another for my wife. It is an excellent Hair Brush, well worth
the price, aside from its curative powers."

JAS. B. CHAPMAN.

[From Rev. Dr. Bridgeman.]

Brooklyn, June 1st, 1880.

"Gents: I have never before given a testimonial, but am willing to
encourage the use of an honest remedy. I am so Pleased with your Hair
Brush that I deem it my duty to write you recommending it most
cordially. My hair, about a year since, commenced falling out, and I was
rapidly becoming bald; but since using the Brush a thick growth of hair
has made its appearance, quite equal to that which I had previous to its
falling out. I have tried other remedies, but with no success. After
this remarkable result I purchased one for my wife, who has been a great
sufferer from headache, and she finds it a prompt and infallible
remedy."

A. C. Bridgeman, D. D.

[Illustration]

218 Pulton Street, New York, August 31, 1880.

"I would Not take $1,000 for my Brush If I could not replace it."

PLINY F. SMITH.

Mr. Smith is a gentleman well known in this City as a Law Publisher, and
also as a Director in several Public Institutions of New York.

"Domestic" Sewing Machine Co., New York, August 16, 1880.

DR. GEO. A. SCOTT--Dear Sir: Permit me to add the testimony of my wife
to that of the many others who have been benefited by the use of your
Electric Brush. She has for years been a sufferer from Neuralgia in an
acute form, but since I obtained for her one of your Brushes, she has
experienced entire relief. Please accept her sincere thanks.--HENRY
BARTLETT.

Round Lake Camp-Meeting Grounds, Saratoga Co., N. Y., June 8, 1880.

Your Brush is certainly a remarkable cure. I am highly pleased with it.
Its effect is most wonderful, and you may be sure I shall recommend it
heartily among my friends. It is also a splendid Hair Brush, well worth
the money, and will last me for years.--Rev. J. D. ROGERS,
Superintendent.

Mention this Paper. Over 7,000 similar Testimonials can be seen at our
office.

Remember that this is NOT a "metallic" wire brush, but made of PURE
BRISTLES.

A BEAUTIFUL BRUSH, LASTING FOR YEARS.

We will send it, postpaid, on receipt of $3.00; or by Express C. O. D.
at your expense, with privilege of opening and examining. Or request
your nearest Druggist or Fancy Store to obtain one for you, FROM US.

MONEY RETURNED IF NOT AS REPRESENTED.

As soon as you receive the Brush, if not well satisfied with your
bargain, write us, and we will return the money. What can be fairer?

This paper will not knowingly publish any humbug, and I have placed a
Brush in the hands of Mayor Cooper and Postmaster James of New York, as
a guarantee of my good faith.

UP Remittances should be made payable to GEO. A. SCOTT, 842A Broadway,
New York. Agents wanted in every town.

They can be made in checks, drafts, post office orders, or currency.
Inclose 10 cents for registration, and we guarantee safe delivery of
Brush.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE SWISS WARBLER OR MOCKING-BIRD WHISTLE

IT IMITATES EVERY SOUND IN THE ANIMAL KINGDOM FROM THE THRILL OF THE
NIGHTINGALE TO THE HOWL OF THE WOLF

AFTER A LITTLE PRACTICE YOUR MOUTH WILL SEEM TO BE A COMPLETE MENAGERIE

YOU can raise a laugh or pierceing cry of horror at pleasure. Sample by
mail, only 10 cts., 6 for 25 cts., 15 for 50cts. Valuable catalogue of
agent's goods free.

WORLD MANUFACTURING CO., 122 Nassau Street, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


STEAM BOILERS;

THEIR DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND MANAGEMENT. BY WILLIAM M. SHOCK, Chief
of Bureau of Steam Engineering, United States Navy.

In one large quarto volume of 480 pages, and illustrated with 150
wood-cuts and 36 full-page plates (20 of which are double). Bound in
half crimson Morocco, gilt tops.

Price $15

D. VAN NOSTRAND. Publisher, 23 Murray and 27 Warren Sts., New York.

*** Copies sent by mail, postpaid, on receipt of price.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE HOLLY SYSTEM OF STEAM HEATING FOR CITIES AND VILLAGES, HOLLY STEAM
COMBINATION CO. LIMITED LOCKPORT, N. Y. SEE ILLUSTRATED AD IN LAST
NUMBER

       *       *       *       *       *


TOOPE'S PAT. FELT AND ASBESTOS

Non-Conducting, Removable Covering, as manufactured by Toope's Asbestos
Covering Co., Limited, London, England. Awarded a Medal of Excellence at
the late American Institute Fair. For steam Boilers and Pipes, Steam
Pans and Coppers, Hot and Cold Water Pipes, Refrigerators, Meat Cars,
etc. Samples free. A few first-class agents wanted. Address CHS. TOOPE,
Sole Manufacturing Agent in U. S. Office and Works, 353 East 78th
Street, New York City.

       *       *       *       *       *


Agents Wanted Sells rapidly. Particulars _free_.

S. M. Spencer, 112 Wash'n St., Boston, Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *


FOR SALE-LARGE MACHINE SHOP, WITH Machinery, Tools, Engine, etc., _ready
for running_. Inquire of A. MONNETT & CO., Bucyrus, Ohio.

       *       *       *       *       *


50 A Elegant, All New, Chromo & Scroll Cards, no 2 alike, Name Nicely
printed, 10c. Card Mills, Morthford, Ct.

       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration]

PATENT BENDING ROLLS,

For Heavy Punches, Shears, Boiler Shop Rolls, Radial Drills, etc., send
to

HILLES & JONES, Wilmington, Del.

       *       *       *       *       *


NO MORE USE FOR OIL ON MACHINERY

Oline Lubricating Compound, manuf'd by HOLLAND & THOMPSON, Troy, N. Y.
Avoids hot journals, dripping, and waste. Send for catalogue of Grease
and Cups for all kinds of machinery.

       *       *       *       *       *


PLAYS! PLAYS! PLAYS! PLAYS!

For Reading Clubs, for Amateur Theatricals, Temperance Plays, Drawing
Room Plays, Fairy Plays, Ethiopian Plays, Guide Books, Speakers,
Pantomimes, Tableaux Lights, Magnesium Lights, Colored Fire, Burnt Cork,
Theatrical Face Preparations, Jarley's Wax Works, Wigs, Beards, and
Moustaches at reduced prices. Costumes, Scenery, Charades. New
catalogues sent free containing full description and prices. Samuel
French & Son, 38 E. 14th Street, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


ICE AND ICE HOUSES--HOW TO MAKE

ice ponds; amount of ice required, etc., and full directions for
building ice-house, with illustrated plan. Contained in Scientific
American Supplement, No. 55. Price 10 cents. To be had at this office
and of all newsdealers.

       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration]

THE NEW TOY!

Old Folks Tickled and Children Delighted

Mechanical grasshopper, jumps 6 feet high. Samples free for 10 cents, 4
for 25 cents, 1 doz. for 50cts. By mail. Big Profit to Dealers.

Agents Wanted. Valuable Catalogue of Agents Goods free. Address, WORLD
M'F'G, CO. 122 Nassau St., New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


50 CHROMOS, name in new type, 10c. by mail. _40 Agts. Samples_, 10c. U.
S. Card Co., Northford, Ct.

       *       *       *       *       *


WANTED, BY THE SOUTHWARK FOUNDRY AND MACHINE CO., Philadelphia, a number
of first-class fitters on engine work.

       *       *       *       *       *


ICE-HOUSE AND COLD ROOM.--BY R. G. Hatfield. With directions for
construction. Four engravings. Contained in Scientific American
Supplement, 59. Price 10 cents. To be had at this office and of all
newsdealers.

       *       *       *       *       *


For Sale.--Engine for Steam Launch, at a bargain. Cylinder, 4½ in.
diameter, 5 in. stroke. For particulars, address

JAMES T. MILLER, 119 Monroe St., Chicago, Ill.

       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration]

Langdon Mitre Box Co, MILLERS FALLS MASS.

Langdon and New Langdon Mitre Box.

Send for Circular.

       *       *       *       *       *


SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT. Any desired back number of the
Scientific American Supplement can be had at this office for 10 cents.
Also to be had of newsdealers in all parts of the country.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE OPEN FIREPLACE IN ALL AGES.

By J. P. Putnam, Architect. One vol. 12mo. Price $2.

With 269 illustrations of famous fireplaces of historical and artistic
interest, together with original designs and suggestions for modern use.

*** For sale by all Booksellers, or will be sent, postpaid, on receipt
of price, by the Publishers,

JAMES R. OSGOOD & CO., BOSTON.

       *       *       *       *       *


STEAM PUMPS, THE NORWALK IRON WORKS CO., SOUTH NORWALK, CONN.

       *       *       *       *       *


GREAT IMPROVEMENTS Recently made in CRUSHING AND GRINDING GOLD and
SILVER ORES, BONES, PHOSPHATE ROCK, and CHEMICALS. We compel QUARTZ to
grind QUARTZ.

Address, for new circular, BAUGH & SONS, Philadelphia, Pa.

       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration]

BEST FOOT LATHES, Back geared and screw cutting. Small Lathes, Hand
Planers for Metal, Small Gear cutters, Slide Rests, Scroll and Circular
Saw Machines. Lowest Prices. Send for illustrated catalogue.

N. H. BALDWIN, Laconia, N. H.

       *       *       *       *       *


MECHANIC WANTED.

A skilled mechanic, capable of constructing and operating a works for
the manufacture of wrought iron pipe and tubing. Address

DUNMOYLE, Lock Box 1459, Pittsburg, Pa.

       *       *       *       *       *


CENTENNIAL, AND PARIS MEDALS.

Mason's Friction Clutches and Elevators.

"New and Improved Patterns."

VOLNEY W. MASON & CO., Providence, R. I., U. S. A.

       *       *       *       *       *


WANTED

A thoroughly competent and experienced man to take charge of a foundry
employing 200 men, doing engine and general work. Address A. & Co., Box
773, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


BLAKE'S PATENT POSITIVE STEAM TRAP.

[Illustration]

This Trap is adapted to all places where steam is used for _heating_ or
_drying_ purposes. It is simple in construction, _positive in its
working_ and much lower in price than any other Trap.

Descriptive Circular sent on application. Address SALAMANDER GRATE BAR
CO, 110 Liberty Street, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE PERFECTED STYLOGRAFIC

LITTLE [Illustration] GIANT

The most convenient and economical outfit for writing. Pen, Pencil, and
Inkstand in one. Writes 50 large pages without refilling. Lasts a
lifetime. Attaches to watch chain or neck cord, or fits vest pocket.
Price $2.50. Can be ordered by mail, and exchanged or returned if not
suited. For full description of various styles, send for circular.
READERS' AND WRITERS' ECONOMY CO., 25-33 Franklin Street, Boston; 4 Bond
Street, New York; 38 Madison Street, Chicago.

       *       *       *       *       *


Phosphor-Bronze Wire, Sheets, Rods, Bolts.

[Illustration]

Pamphlets and particulars on application to The Phosphor-Bronze Smelting
Co. Limited, 2038 Washington Ave., Phila., Pa.

OWNERS OF THE U S. PHOSPHOR-BRONZE PATENTS.

Sole Manufacturers of Phosphor-Bronze in the U. S.

       *       *       *       *       *


Magic Lantern Catalogue, 50 pp, and Lecture, 10cts.

MAGIC LANTERNS AND VIEWS

THE MAGICAL ORGANETTE, ONLY $8.00.

Double size Reeds, extra strength and finish. Circulars and beautiful
Set Fancy Cards, 8 Cents. THEO. J. HARBACH, 809 FILBERT ST., PHILA., PA.

       *       *       *       *       *


PERKINS' High Pressure Engine and Boiler, Etc.

On returning to England, I have arranged with Mr. James L. Howard, of
Hartford, Conn., to represent the interests of The Perkins' Engine
Company, Limited, of London, in this country. All communications
addressed to him on this subject will receive attention.

GEO. DEANE. Secretary, The Perkins' Engine Co., Limited.

       *       *       *       *       *


50 _Lithographed_ Chromo Cards, no 2 alike, 10c. Name in fancy type.
Conn. Card Co., Northford, Ct.

       *       *       *       *       *


DO YOUR OWN PRINTING

[Illustration]

Presses and outfits from $3 to $500 Over 2,000 styles of type. Catalogue
and reduced price list free.

H. HOOVER, Phila., Pa.

       *       *       *       *       *


STRAUSS'S LAST. THE HEKTOGRAPH SCHNELL POLKA

pronounced by critics as unrivalled, the rage at balls and parties, sent
on receipt of 15 cts. Hektograph Co. Pub's, 22 Church St., N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *


TOOPE'S PATENT FURNACE GRATE BAR.

Best and cheapest in the world. CHS. TOOPE, Manufacturing Agent, 353
East 78th Street, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


Wanted Manufactured on royalty, a valuable patented two-horse Corn
Planter. Box 1525, Terre Haute, Ind.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pond's Tools,

Engine Lathes, Planers, Drills, &c.

DAVID W. POND, Worcester, Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration]

THE GREAT WORK, splendidly illustrated with colored plates, now ready.
It sells at sight. Agents wanted. Send for particulars. Rich Masonic
goods, Kt. Templar outfits, and books at hard-pan prices. Send for
illustrated catalogue. REDDING & CO., Masonic Publishers, 731 Broadway,
New York. Beware of spurious works.

       *       *       *       *       *


SPARE THE CROTON AND SAVE THE COST.

Driven or Tube Wells furnished to large consumers of Croton and
Ridgewood Water. WM. D. ANDREWS & BRO., 235 Broadway. N. Y., who control
the patent for Green's American Driven Well.

       *       *       *       *       *


WOOD WORKING Machinery. Celebrated "Schenck" Planers and Matchers.
20,000 ft. flooring, 45,000 ft. surfacing per day. Re-sawers, Moulders,
Tenoners, Scroll Saws, etc. H. B. Schenck, Successor to Jno. B.
Schenck's Sons, Matteawan, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *


CARY & MOEN STEEL WIRE OF EVERY DESCRIPTION AND STEEL SPRINGS. 234 W. 29
ST. NEW YORK CITY

       *       *       *       *       *


"The 1876 Injector."

Simple, Durable, and Reliable. Requires no special valves. Send for
illustrated circular.

WM. SELLERS & CO., Phila.

       *       *       *       *       *


Shafts, Pulleys, Hangers, Etc.

Full assortment in store for immediate delivery.

WM. SELLERS & CO., 79 Liberty Street, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Two New and Important Books._

SOAP AND CANDLES, STARCH, DEXTRINE, and GLUCOSE. IN PRESS.

A Technical Treatise on Soap and Candles, with a Glance at the Industry
of Fats and Oils. By R. S. Cristiani. Fully illustrated. 500 pages 8vo,
handsomely printed on fine paper.

_Subscriptions will now be received at $6.00 per copy, payable on
delivery._

A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture of Starch, Dextrine, and
Glucose. Illustrated by about 75 engravings. 300 pages 8vo, handsomely
printed on fine paper.

_Subscriptions will now be received at $3.50 per copy, payable on
delivery._

HENRY CAREY BAIRD & CO., Industrial Publishers, Booksellers, and
Importers, 810 Walnut Street, Philadelphia.

       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration]

WITHERBY, RUGG & RICHARDSON, Manufacturers of Patent Wood Working
Machinery of every description. Facilities unsurpassed. Shop formerly
occupied by R. Ball & Co., Worcester, Mass. Send for Catalogue.

       *       *       *       *       *


$72 A WEEK. $12 a day at home easily made. Costly outfit free. Address
True & Co., Augusta, Me.

       *       *       *       *       *


Superior Wood Working Machinery, principally for Cabinet, Piano, and
Piano Action Makers. Shafting, Pulleys, and Hangers. P. Pryibil, 461 to
467 W. 40th St., New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


SURFACE FILE HOLDERS.

By their use a crooked file may be utilized as well as a straight one,
and _both_ are made to do better execution in filing broad surfaces than
has hitherto been possible.

No. 4 holds files 12 to 14 in. long. Price 75c. each.
No. 5 "     "     14 to 16 in. "     Price $1.00 each.

For sale by the trade generally. Manufactured only by the NICHOLSON FILE
CO., Providence, R. I.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE BIGGEST THING OUT. Illustrated book sent free. Address E. NASON &
CO., 111 Nassau St., New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


ORGANS $30 to $1,000; 2 to 32 Stops. Pianos $125 up. Paper free. Address
Daniel F. Beatty, Washington, N. J.

       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration]

Leffel Water Wheels, With recent improvements.

Prices Greatly Reduced. 8000 in successful operation.

FINE NEW PAMPHLET FOR 1879, Sent free to those interested.

James Leffel & Co, Springfield, O. 110 Liberty St., N. Y. City.

       *       *       *       *       *


THREE BEAUTIFUL GIFT BOOKS FOR THE HOLIDAYS.


"THE DORE BIBLE GALLERY."

Containing One Hundred of the choicest of Gustave Doré's illustrations
of the Bible, and a page of explanatory letter-press facing each
engraving, together with a superb portrait of the artist.

Large quarto, cloth, full gilt, $6; morocco, full gilt, $10.


"ATALA" By M. De Chateaubriand.

An American story, and one of the best efforts of the celebrated author.
Superbly illustrated with numerous full pages of some of our grandest
scenery, by Gustave Doré. Printed on heavy tinted paper, and richly
bound.

Large quarto, cloth, full gilt, $5; morocco, full gilt, $10.


"THE WANDERING JEW."

A series of twelve illustrations by Gustave Doré, picturing the weird
and unearthly scenes of the legend, with explanatory letter-press.

Large quarto, cloth, gilt, $2.50.

"A most beautiful production."--_Brooklyn Advance_.

"Published in very rich style."--_Publishers' Weekly_.

"Is meeting with deserved success."--_Bookseller and Stationer_.

"Such books are educators in the highest sense of the term."--_Chicago
Inter-Ocean_.

"One of the most successful productions that have done honor to the
pencil of Gustave Doré."--_Providence Journal_.

"Contains some of the most striking productions of Doré at a moderate
cost."--_N. Y. Tribune_.

"We are very glad they have been put within the reach of the
many."--_Hartford Courant_.

THE FINE ART PUBLISHING CO., 535 Pearl Street, New York.

For sale by all Booksellers, or sent, postpaid, on receipt of price, by
the Publishers.

       *       *       *       *       *


SASH DOVETAILING MACHINE.

[Illustration]

Planers, Moulding Machines, Mortisers and Borers, Tenoning Machines,
Blind Rabbeting Machines; also, a large variety of other wood working
machines, manufactured by LEVI HOUSTON, Montgomery, Pa.

       *       *       *       *       *


TELEPHONE Works 1 mile. Price $4. Pat'd. Circulars free. Holcomb & Co.,
Mallet Creek, Ohio.

       *       *       *       *       *


AGENTS WANTED TO INTRODUCE a new and novel Account Book to business men.
A rich harvest to competent parties during the next three months. All
particulars by return mail.

H. W. PAMPHILON, 30 Bond St., New York City.

       *       *       *       *       *


$5 to $20 per day at home. Samples worth $5 free. Address Stinson & Co.,
Portland, Me.

       *       *       *       *       *


CATALOGUE OF NOVELTIES FOR AGENTS Free. J. F. GAGE, Boston, Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *


ERICSSON'S NEW MOTOR.

ERICSSON'S NEW CALORIC PUMPING ENGINE, FOR DWELLINGS AND COUNTRY SEATS.

Simplest cheapest, and most economical pumping engine for domestic
purposes. Any servant girl can operate. Absolutely safe. Send for
circulars and price lists.

DELAMATER IRON WORKS C. H. DELAMATER & CO., Proprietors, No. 10
Cortlandt Street, New York, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *


SUPERIOR SUBSTITUTE FOR WOOD ENGRAVING.

_J. C. MOSS, Pres. and Sup't._
_R. B. MOSS, Assist. Sup't._
_M. A. MOSS, Treasurer._
_J. E. RAMSEY, Secretary._
_H. A. JACKSON, Assist. Sec._

MOSS ENGRAVING CO
INCORPORATED (MOSS'S NEW PROCESS.) APRIL 2, 1880
535 PEARL STREET, COR. ELM, NEW YORK.

LARGEST ESTABLISHMENT OF THE KIND IN THE WORLD.

ENGRAVINGS OF PORTRAITS, BUILDINGS, LANDSCAPES, MACHINERY, MAPS,
ORNAMENTAL LETTERING and GENERAL ILLUSTRATIONS FOR NEWSPAPERS, BOOKS,
CATALOGUES, etc. Much cheaper than Wood Cuts. _Mr. J. C. Moss, the
inventor of the Moss Process of Photo-Engraving, in withdrawing from the
Photo-Engraving Co., 67 Park Place, has retained for himself all
improvements made and used by him in Photo-Engraving since May, 1872._
Send green stamp for Illustrated Circular. Send copy for estimate.
Please mention this paper.

       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration]

THE BLAKE "LION AND EAGLE" CRUSHER,

A patented improvement of the former "New Pattern" Blake machine. Has
much greater efficiency than the old. It requires only about half the
power to drive, and is transported at much less expense (the size most
used weighing several thousand pounds less than the unimproved machine).
It requires less than half the time in oiling and other manipulation,
and less than half the expense for repairs. Address

E. S. BLAKE & CO., Pittsburgh, Pa., Sole Proprietors and Manufacturers.

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration]

W. C. WREN'S Pat. Grate Bar, Manufactured by D. & S. CRESWELL, Eagle
Iron Foundry, 816 RACE ST., PHILADELPHIA, PA.

       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration]

ROCK BREAKERS & ORE CRUSHERS.

(THE "BLAKE" STYLE.)

This machine has for twenty years stood the Test, and found to be the
_best one_ made for breaking all kinds of hard and brittle substances,
such as Ores, Quartz, Emery, etc., etc. Mr. S. L. Marsden, for the past
twenty years connected with the manufacture of this machine,
superintends its manufacture.

FARREL FOUNDRY AND MACHINE CO., Manufrs., Ausonia, Conn.

       *       *       *       *       *


The Melodette, or Automatic Piano,

[Illustration]

The most marvellous mechanical invention of the age. It will play any
tune that ever was written, in a melodious and pleasing manner.
Difficult and simple music produced in a masterly style, and it can be
played by a child as well as by a grown person, and will furnish music
for social gatherings of any description, playing hour after hour,
without any knowledge of music being required in the operation. The most
wonderful of all musical inventions; a machine which in a purely
mechanical manner produces any kind of music, Waltzes, Polkas, Marches,
&c., &c., without any practice or knowledge of music whatever; in this
respect far superior to any music-box, even though it costs many times
as much, for there is no limit whatever to the number of tunes it will
play. This instrument is on a somewhat similar principle to the
wonderful Phonograph, the perforations in a flexible strip producing the
effect. It has just been perfected (the accompanying cut showing it in
its improved form), and is having the largest sale ever obtained by a
musical instrument in the country. It has solid metal cases in imitation
of green bronze; the notes or bars (the music producers) are metal, on
same principle as a tuning-fork, which produce clear and most melodious
notes, and never get out of tune; the bars are struck by strikers, the
same as the wires are in a piano, only they work automatically instead
of by the fingers. The strip of prepared paper in which the tune is
stamped or perforated, is about 10 inches wide, and as it passes through
the rollers and over the keys the strikers spring through the
perforations in the paper and strike the right note; this is all done
automatically, without any assistance from the operator (except turning
the rollers), and the tune is played perfectly. It would be one of the
most appropriate presents to make anyone, especially where there is no
other musical instrument. Its execution is admirable, and its capacity
or capability almost unlimited. It is selling faster than any musical
instrument ever invented. The music is fine, and everybody delighted.
The regular retail price of the Melodette is only $5, including a
selection of popular tunes. Address, The Massachusetts Organ Co., 57
Washington Street Boston, Mass., U. S. A., Sole Manufacturers. SPECIAL
OFFER--Agents Wanted--We wish a good Agent in every town, and big money
can be made selling these instruments. We will send a sample instrument
to any one wishing to act as our agent, for $3.25, Boxed Free, including
music price lists, etc., etc., and will give territory. Order at once.
$50 a week easily made. _We have 1000 testimonials_.

       *       *       *       *       *


RUBBER BACK SQUARE PACKING.

BEST IN THE WORLD.

[Illustration]

For Packing the Piston Rods and Valve Stems of Steam Engines and Pumps.

B represents that part of the packing which, when in use, is in contact
with the Piston Rod.

A the elastic back, which keeps the part B against the rod with
sufficient pressure to be steam-tight, and yet creates but little
friction.

This Packing is made in lengths of about 20 feet, and of all sizes from
¼ to 2 inches square.

JOHN H. CHEEVER, Treas. NEW YORK BELTING & PACKING CO., 37 & 38 Park
Row, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration]

THE STEARNS MANUFACTURING CO., ERIE, PENNSYLVANIA, make a specialty of
improved SAW MILL MACHINERY.

Designed in its construction for producing lumber economically and
rapidly. Plans and estimates for Mills of any capacity furnished on
request. Also build ENGINES, BOILERS, AND MACHINERY IN GENERAL.

       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration]

Forster's Rock & Ore Breaker and Combined Crusher and Pulverizer.

_The simplest machine ever devised for the purpose._

Parties who have used it constantly for six years testify that it will
do _double_ the work of _any other Crusher_, with one-third the Power,
and one-half the expense for keeping in repair. The smaller sizes can be
run with Horse Power.

Address TOTTEN & CO., Pittsburgh, Pa.

       *       *       *       *       *


The BELMONTYLE OIL

Prevents Rust, Tarnish, etc., on Firearms, Machinery, Tools, Cutlery,
Safes, Saws, Skates, Stoves, Hardware, etc., without injury to the
polish. In use over 10 years. Highest Testimonials. Samples 50 cents,
three for $1.00, sent free of expressage. Send for circular.

BELMONTYLE OIL CO., SOLE MANUFACTURERS, 150 Front Street, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


CARNEGIE BROS & CO UNION IRON MILLS PITTSBURGH PA WROUGHT IRON BEAMS
CHANNELS TEES & ANGLES

The attention of Architects, Engineers, and Builders is called to the
great decline in prices of wrought STRUCTURAL IRON. It is believed that,
were owners fully aware of the small difference in cost which now exists
between iron and wood, the former, in many cases, would be adopted,
thereby saving _insurance_ and avoiding all risk of _interruption_ to
_business_ in consequence of fire. Book of detailed information
furnished to Architects, Engineers, and Builders, on application.

       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration]

MICROSCOPES, TELESCOPES, FIELD GLASSES, MAGIC LANTERNS, ANEROID
BAROMETERS, SPECTROSCOPES, DRAWING INSTRUMENTS, PHILOSOPHICAL & CHEMICAL
APPARATUS.

Catalogues as follows sent on application: Part 1, Mathematical
Instruments, 162 pp.; Part 2, Optical Instruments, 186 pp.; Part 3,
Magic Lanterns, 112 pp.; Part 4, Philosophical and Chemical Apparatus,
160 pp. JAMES W. QUEEN & CO. 924 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa.

       *       *       *       *       *


"RELIABLE"

Engines a complete success. Prices still 40 per cent. below those of
other makers. Unequaled for efficiency, simplicity, and durability.
Prices from $250 for 10 H. P., to $400 for 30 H. P. All complete, with
Governor, Pump, and Heater. Address, for circular,

HEALD, SISCO & CO., Baldwinsville, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *


UNIVERSAL GRINDER.

These Grinders consist of a series of disks with beveled edges locked
together on a shaft. They revolve towards each other at different rates
of speed. They combine strength and durability. No friction; hence no
heat. They will grind all kinds of Grain, also Quartz Rocks, Ores,
Gypsum, Brimstone Shavings, Shells, Brick Clay, Cork, Rubber, Bone, Oil
Cake, Flax Seed, Cotton Seed, and any number of articles in use by
manufacturers and farmers. These Grinders are disposed of on reasonable
terms. Send for Illustrated Catalogue with terms. NEWELL & CHAPIN, foot
of West 19th Street, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration]

23 Sizes of Direct, 24 Sizes of Boilers, and the best Indirect
Radiation.

Send for circulars.

EUREKA STEAM HEATING CO. ROCHESTER, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *


OTIS' SAFETY HOISTING Machinery.

OTIS BROS. & CO., No. 348 Broadway, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


JOHN R. WHITLEY & CO.

European Representatives of American Houses, with First-class Agents in
the principal industrial and agricultural centers and cities in Europe.
London, 7 Poultry, E. C. Paris. 8 Place Vendême. Terms on application.
J. R. W. & Co. purchase Paris goods on commission at shippers'
discounts.

       *       *       *       *       *


ROOTS' NEW IRON BLOWER.

[Illustration]

POSITIVE BLAST. IRON REVOLVERS, PERFECTLY BALANCED IS SIMPLER, AND HAS
FEWER PARTS THAN ANY OTHER BLOWER.

P. H. & F. M. ROOTS, Manuf'rs, CONNERSVILLE, IND.

S. S. TOWNSEND, Gen. Agt., 6 Cortlandt St., 8 Dey Street, NEW YORK.

WM. COOKE, Selling Agt., 6 Cortlandt Street, NEW YORK.

JAS. BEGGS & CO., Selling Agts., 8 Dey Street, NEW YORK.

SEND FOR PRICED CATALOGUE.

       *       *       *       *       *


PROPOSALS FOR MAIL LOCKS.

POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, WASHINGTON. D. C., October 23, 1880.

SEALED PROPOSALS will be received at this Department, until 12 o'clock,
noon, on the 26th day of January, 1881, for furnishing a new kind of
mail locks and keys for the sole and exclusive use of the United States
through registered mails.

As the public exposure and searching examination necessary to
intelligent bidding on any prescribed model of a lock and key would tend
to impair, if not entirely destroy, the further utility of such locks
and keys for the purposes of the mails, the Postmaster General
prescribes no model or sample for bidders, but relies for a selection on
the mechanical skill and ingenuity which a fair competition among
inventors, hereby invited, may develop in samples submitted by them.

Specifications of the conditions and requirements relating to proposals,
samples, contract, etc., as well as forms of proposal, will be furnished
on application by letter to the Second Assistant Postmaster General.

No proposal will be considered unless it shall have been submitted in
accordance with such specification and forms.

The contracts which may be made will be in conformity to the
specifications and the accepted proposal. But the right is, however,
reserved to reject any and all of the proposals.

JAS. N. TYNER, Acting Postmaster General.

       *       *       *       *       *


SHEPARD'S CELEBRATED $50 Screw Cutting Foot Lathe.

[Illustration]

Foot and Power Lathes, Drill Presses, Scrolls, Circular and Band Saws,
Saw Attachments, Chucks, Mandrels, Twist Drills, Dogs, Calipers, etc.
Send for catalogue of outfits for amateurs or artisans.

H. L. SHEPARD & CO., 331, 333, 335, & 337 West Front Street, Cincinnati,
Ohio.

       *       *       *       *       *


HUB MACHINERY.--HUB TURNING, HUB MORTISING, and Hub Boring Machines.
Send for price list and circulars. DAVID JENKINS, Sheboygan, Wis.

       *       *       *       *       *


ROOFING.

For steep or flat roofs. Applied by ordinary workmen at one-third the
cost of tin. Circulars and samples free. Agents Wanted. T. NEW, 32 John
Street, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


PATENT COLD ROLLED SHAFTING.

The fact that this shafting has 75 per cent. greater strength, a finer
finish, and is truer to gauge, than any other in use renders it
undoubtedly the most economical. We are also the sole manufacturers of
the Celebrated Collins' Pat. Coupling, and furnish Pulleys, Hangers,
etc., of the most approved styles. Price list mailed on application to

JONES & LAUGHLINS, Try Street, 2d and 3d Avenues, Pittsburg, Pa.

190 S. Canal Street, Chicago, Ill.

Stocks of this shafting in store and for sale by FULLER, DANA & FITZ,
Boston, Mass. Geo. Place Machinery Agency, 121 Chambers St., N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *


Model Engines.

[Illustration]

Complete sets of CASTINGS for making small Model steam Engines 1½ in.
bore, 3 in. stroke, price,$4; ditto 2 in. bore, 4 in. stroke, price,
$10, same style as cut. Gear Wheels and Parts of Models. All kinds of
Small Tools and Materials. Catalogue Free. GOODNOW & WIGHTMAN, 176
Washington Street, Boston, Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *


SEND FOR THE BEST BAND SAW BLADE in the market to London, Berry & Orton,
Phila., Pa.

       *       *       *       *       *


COE BRASS MFG. CO. WOLCOTTVILLE CONN. BRASS AND COPPER IN SHEETS. WIRE
AND BLANKS MATERIALS FOR METALLIC. AMMUNITION A SPECIALTY.

       *       *       *       *       *


MACHINISTS' TOOLS.

New and Improved Patterns. Send for new illustrated catalogue.

Lathes, Planers, Drills, &c.

NEW HAVEN MANUFACTURING CO., New Haven, Conn.

       *       *       *       *       *


SKATES AND NOVELTIES. Send for Catalogue. R. SIMPSON, 132 Nassau St., N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *


PORTER MANUF'G CO.

[Illustration]

The New Economizer, the only Agricultural Engine with Return Flue Boiler
in use. Send for circular to Porter MFG. Co., Limited, Syracuse. N. Y.

[Illustration]

G. G. YOUNG, Gen. Agt., 42 Cortland St., New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


ADVERTISEMENTS.

Inside Page, each insertion--75 cents a line. Back Page, each
insertion--$1.00 a line. (About eight words to a line.)

_Engravings may head advertisements at the same rate per line, by
measurement, as the letter press. Advertisements must be received at
publication office as early as Thursday morning to appear in next
issue._

The publishers of this paper guarantee to advertisers a circulation of
not less than 50,000 copies every weekly issue.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE WONDERFUL CHRISTMAS "ST. NICHOLAS."

A special Holiday number, designed for boys and girls everywhere,
whether regular readers of the magazine or not;--the best, and, by
reason of its immense edition, 105,000, the cheapest Christmas book
published, Price 30 cents.

A brilliant Holiday cover; superb pictures by the best American artists;
a capital acting operetta for children "The Land of Nod," with words and
music; a splendid story by Washington Gladden, "A Christmas Dinner with
the Man in the Moon," the illustrations of which rival Dore's; "King
Arthur and his Knights," by Sidney Lanier; one of Frank R. Stockton's
inimitable FAIRY STORIES; the "Treasure Box of Literature," etc.,
etc.;--in all, thirty-three departments and contributions.

A Grand Holiday Gift-Book of 100 Pages, printed on tinted paper,
illustrated with scores of charming pictures, for only 30 cents. Ask for
the Christmas (December) St. Nicholas. Four editions of last year's
Holiday number were demanded. For sale everywhere. Subscription price,
$3.00 per year.

Scribner & Co., 743 Broadway, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *


$100 PRESENT! For a Machine that will Saw as Fast and Easy as this one.

[Illustration]

This is the King of Saw Machines. It saws off a 2 foot log in 2 minutes.
20,000 in use. The cheapest machine made, and fully warranted. Circular
free. United States Manufacturing Co., Chicago, Ill.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE NEW YORK BELTING AND PACKING COMPANY

LOOK FOR OUR STAMP on the goods whenever you buy BELTING, HOSE, OR
PACKING.

37 & 38 PARK ROW, NEW YORK.

       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration]

Watchman's Improved Time Detector, with Safety Lock Attachment, Patented
1875-6-7. Beware of Infringements. This Instrument is supplied with 12
keys for 12 different stations. Invaluable for all concerns employing
night watchmen. Send for circulars to E. IMHAUSER, P. O. Box 2875. 212
Broadway, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


Mill Stones and Corn Mills.

We make Burr Millstones, Portable Mills, Smut Machines, Packers, Mill
Picks, Water Wheels, Pulleys, and Gearing specially adapted to Flour
Mills. Send for catalogue.

J. T. NOYE & SONS, Buffalo, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE NEW PULSOMETER Is more economical in points of original cost,
expense for repairs and running expenses, than any other Steam Pump in
the World.

[Illustration]

Simple and compact, with no machinery whatever to oil, or get out of
order, it stands at the head of all means of elevating water or other
liquids by steam. _It needs no skilled labor to look after it._

Send for book giving full description, reduced prices and many letters
of commendation from leading manufacturers and others throughout the
country who are using them.

Pulsometer Steam Pump Co., Sole Owners of Hall's Patents in the U. S.,
131,515 to 131,543, both inclusive, and the NEW PULSOMETER, Office, No.
83 John St., P.O. Box No. 1533. New York City.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pictet Artificial Ice Co., Limited, P.O. Box 3083 142 Greenwich St., New
York. Guaranteed to be the most _efficient_ and _economical_ of all
existing Ice and Cold Air Machines.

       *       *       *       *       *


H.W. JOHNS' ASBESTOS LIQUID PAINTS, ROOFING, Steam Pipe & Boiler
Coverings, Steam Packing, Mill Board, Sheathing, Fire Proof Coatings,
&c.

Send for Descriptive Price List.

H. W. JOHNS M'F'G CO. 87 MAIDEN LANE, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *


$66 a week in your own town. Terms and $5 outfit free. Address H.
Hallett & Co., Portland, Me.

       *       *       *       *       *


The George Place Machinery Agency

Machinery of Every Description.

121 Chambers and 103 Beade Streets, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


EMERY WHEELS and GRINDING MACHINES.

[Illustration: EX INUTILI TRADE TANITE MARK UTILITAS]

THE TANITE CO., Stroudsburg, Monroe Comity, Pa.

Orders may be directed to us at any of the following addresses, at each
of which we carry a stock:

  New York, 14 Dey Street.
  Chicago, 152 and 154 Lake St.
  St. Louis, 209 North Third St.
  St. Louis, 811 to 819 North Second St.
  Cincinnati. 212 West Second St.
  Louisville, 427 West Main St.
  Indianapolis, Corner Maryland and
  Delaware Sts.
  New Orleans, 26 Union St.
  San Francisco, 2 and 4 California St.
  Philadelphia, 11 North Sixth Street.
  Boston, 21 Doane st.
  Portland, Oregon, 43 Front St.
  London. Eng., 9 St. Andrews St.,
  Holborn Viaduct, E. C.
  Liverpool, Eng., 42 The Temple,
  Dale St.
  Sydney, N. S. W., 11 Pitt St.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Before ordering engraving of any kind, send to us for estimates and
samples. We have the largest engraving establishment in the world, and
the best facilities for doing work of the best quality, quickly and
cheaply._

_PHOTO-ENGRAVING CO. 67 & 69 Park Place, New York._

       *       *       *       *       *


HARTFORD STEAM BOILER

Inspection & Insurance

COMPANY

W. B. FRANKLIN, V. Pres't, J. M. ALLEN, Pres't. J. B. PIERCE, Sec'y.

       *       *       *       *       *


COLUMBIA BICYCLE.

[Illustration]

The Bicycle has proved itself to be a permanent, practical road vehicle,
and the number in daily use is rapidly increasing. Professional and
business men, seekers after health or pleasure, all join in bearing
witness to its merits. Send 3 cent stamp for catalogue with price list
and full information.

THE POPE M'F'G CO., 89 Summer Street, Boston, Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *


AGENTS CAN MAKE $5,000.00

BY SECURING THE MANUFACTURERS' CABINET.

By employing Agents for 500 Manufacturers. By manufacturing rapid
selling articles. By getting, through means of the Cabinet, the best
agencies in the world.

Address J. B. CHAPMAN, 12 West St., Madison, Ind.

       *       *       *       *       *


TELEPHONE and Electrical Supplies Send for Catalogue.

C. E. JONES & BRO., CINCINNATI, O.

       *       *       *       *       *


Steam Fitters' & Plumbers' Supplies.

STURTEVANTS' FAN BLOWERS.

ALBERT BRIDGES, 46 Cortlandt Street, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


PUMPING, PISTON ROD, PLUNGER & WELL

THE WATSON PUMP, FOR ARTESIAN, OR DEEP WELL

ROD IN DIRECT LINE MACHINE SIMPLE, EFFICIENT.

JAMES WATSON 1608 S. FRONT ST. PHILA.

       *       *       *       *       *


BOILER COVERINGS.

Plastic Cement and Hair Felt, with or without the Patent "AIR SPACE"
Method.

ASBESTOS MATERIALS.

Made from pure Italian Asbestos in fiber mill board and round packing.
THE CHALMERS-SPENCE CO., 40 John Street, and Foot of E. 9th Street, New
York.

       *       *       *       *       *


Perfectly Smooth Thoroughly Seasoned CUT THIN LUMBER!!

Manufactured by our Patent Board Cutting Machines and Seasoning Presses.

Pronounced the only Perfect Cut Lumber!!

MAHOGANY, Rosewood, Satinwood, Walnut, Ash, Red Cedar, Cherry, Oak,
Poplar, Maple, Holly, French Walnut, etc., etc.. in Logs, Planks,
Boards, and Veneers.

Send for catalogue and price lists.

GEO. W. READ & CO., 186 to 200 Lewis St. foot 5th and 6th Sts., New
York.

       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration]

SNOW'S BEST Water Wheel Governor,

MANUFACTURED BY COHOES IRON FOUNDRY AND MACHINE, CO., COHOES, N.Y.

       *       *       *       *       *


$55.66 Agents' profit per week. Will prove it or forfeit $500.00. Outfit
and Samples worth $5.00 free. Address E. G. RIDEOUT & CO., 10 Barclay
Street, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


Steel Castings

From ¼ to 15,000 lb. weight, true to pattern, of unequaled strength,
toughness, and durability. 15,000 Crank Shafts and 10,000 Gear Wheels of
this steel now running prove its superiority over other Steel Castings.
Send for circular and price list.

Chester Steel Castings Co., 407 Library St., Phila, Pa.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pyrometers.

For showing heat of Ovens, Hot Blast Pipes, Boiler Flues Superheated
Steam, Oil Stills, etc.

HENRY W. BULKLEY, Sole Manufacturer, 149 Broadway, N.Y.

       *       *       *       *       *


WM. A. HARRIS PROVIDENCE, R. J. (PARK STREET), Six minutes walk West
from station.

Original and Only builder of the HARRIS-CORLISS ENGINE With Harris'
Patented Improvements, from 10 to 1,000 H. P.

       *       *       *       *       *


SHAFTS PULLEYS HANGERS

At Low Prices. Large Assorted Stock. A. & F. BROWN, 57-61 Lewis St., New
York.

       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration]

THE BAKER BLOWER, Centennial Judges Report.

"Good Design and Material. Very efficient in action. With the special
advantages that they can be connected for motion directly with engine
without the use of gearing or belting."

SEND FOR CATALOGUE.

WILBRAHAM BROS. No. 2518 Frankford Avenue, PHILADELPHIA, PA.

       *       *       *       *       *


MICROSCOPES, OPERA GLASSES, SPY Glasses, Spectacles, Thermometers,
Barometers, Compasses. R. & J. BECK,

Manufacturing Opticians. Philadelphia, Pa. Send for Illustrated Priced
Catalogue.

       *       *       *       *       *


The Oldest YANKEE NOTION HOUSE In the World.

HOWARD BROTHERS & READ, Successors to Howard, Sanger & Co., OWNERS OF
THE HOWARD MANUFACTURING CO., MANUFACTURE AND INTRODUCE PATENTED
NOVELTIES.

[Illustration]

THE ONLY Real Pocket Scale IN THE MARKET.

MADE OF METAL, Heavily Nickel Plated, COMPACT, STRONG, DURABLE.

Can be carried in the Vest Pocket.

Each one warranted absolutely accurate.

Weighs up to 8 lbs.

PRICE 25 CENTS.

Sample by mail on receipt of price.

A liberal discount to the trade.

No. 1--"Post Office," weighs to 8 ozs.
 "  2--"Pocket," weighs to 8 lbs.

Howard Manufacturing Co., Box 2295, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


BOGARDUS' PATENT UNIVERSAL ECCENTRIC MILLS--For grinding Bones, Ores,
Sand, Old Crucibles, Fire Clay, Guanos, Oil Cake, Feed, Corn, Corn and
Cob, Tobacco, Snuff, Sugar, Salts, Roots, Spices, Coffee, Cocoanut,
Flaxseed, Asbestos, Mica etc., and whatever cannot be ground by other
mills, Also for Paints, Printers' Inks, Paste Blacking, etc.

JOHN W. THOMSON, successor to JAMES BOGARDUS, corner of White and Elm
Sts., New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE New York Ice Machine Company, 21 Courtland St., New York, Booms 54,
55. LOW PRESSURE BINARY ABSORPTION SYSTEM Machines Making ICE AND COLD
AIR. Low Pressure when running. No pressure at rest. Machines guaranteed
by C. H. Delamater & Co.

       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration]

Our new Stylographic Pen (just patented), having the duplex
interchangeable point section, is the very latest improvement. THE
STYLOGRAPHIC PEN CO., Room 13, 169 Broadway, New York. Send for
circular.

       *       *       *       *       *


KNABE PIANOFORTES.

Unequaled in TONE, TOUCH, WORKMANSHIP, & DURABILITY.


Warerooms 112 Fifth Avenue. New York.
          204 & 206 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore.


       *       *       *       *       *


NON-CONDUCTOR COVERINGS, _FOR STEAM BOILERS AND PIPES._

THE RAYMOND M'F'G CO., 642 West 52d St., 108 Liberty St., New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


POWER SHEARS.

STILES & PARKER PRESS CO., Middletown, Conn.

       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration]

DO YOUR OWN PRINTING $3

PRESS prints &c. (Self-inker $4) Larger sizes for larger work. For old
or young. Great money saver. A paying business anywhere for all or spare
time. Send two stamps for a catalogue of all sizes. Presses, Type,
Cards, Paper &c., to the Manufacturers KELSEY & CO., Meriden, Conn.

       *       *       *       *       *


The Asbestos Packing Co., Miners and Manufacturers of Asbestos, BOSTON,
MASS., OFFER FOR SALE:

PATENTED ASBESTOS ROPE    PACKING,
    "       "     LOOSE      "
    "       "     JOURNAL    "
    "       "     WICK       "
    "       "     MILL BOARD,
    "       "     SHEATHING PAPER,
    "       "     FLOORING FELT,
    "       "     CLOTH.

       *       *       *       *       *


PROSPECTUS OF THE Scientific American FOR 1881.

The Most Popular Scientific Paper in the World.

VOLUME XLIV. NEW SERIES.

Only $3.20 a Year, including postage. Weekly, 52 Numbers a Year.

This widely circulated and splendidly illustrated paper is published
weekly. Every number contains sixteen pages of useful information, and a
large number of original engravings of new inventions and discoveries,
representing Engineering Works, Steam Machinery, New Inventions,
Novelties in Mechanics, Manufactures, Chemistry, Electricity,
Telegraphy, Photography, Architecture, Agriculture, Horticulture,
Natural History, etc.

All Classes of Readers find in The Scientific American a popular
_resume_ of the best scientific information of the day; and it is the
aim of the publishers to present it in an attractive form, avoiding as
much as possible abstruse terms. To every intelligent mind, this journal
affords a constant supply of instructive reading. It is promotive of
knowledge and progress in every community where it circulates.

Terms of Subscription.--One copy of The Scientific American will be sent
for _one year_--52 numbers--postage prepaid, to any subscriber in the
United States or Canada, on receipt of three dollars and twenty cents by
the publishers; six months, $1.60; three months, $1.00.

Clubs.--One extra copy of The Scientific American will be supplied
gratis _for every club of five subscribers_ at $3.20 each; additional
copies at same proportionate rate.

One copy of The Scientific American and one copy of The Scientific
American Supplement will be sent for one year, postage prepaid, to any
subscriber in the United States or Canada, on receipt of seven dollars
by the publishers.

The safest way to remit is by Postal Order, Draft, or Express. Money
carefully placed inside of envelopes, securely sealed, and correctly
addressed, seldom goes astray, but is at the sender's risk. Address all
letters and make all orders, drafts, etc., payable to

MUNN & CO., 37 Park Row, New York.

To Foreign Subscribers.--Under the facilities of the Postal Union, the
Scientific American is now sent by post direct from New York, with
regularity, to subscribers in Great Britain, India, Australia, and all
other British colonies; to France, Austria, Belgium, Germany, Russia,
and all other European States; Japan, Brazil, Mexico, and all States of
Central and South America. Terms, when sent to foreign countries, Canada
excepted, $4, gold, for Scientific American, 1 year; $9, gold, for both
Scientific American and Supplement for 1 year. This includes postage,
which we pay. Remit by postal order or draft to order of Munn & Co., 37
Park Row, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE "Scientific American" is printed with CHAS. ENEU JOHNSON & CO.'S
INK. Tenth and Lombard Sts., Philadelphia, and 50 Gold St. New York.





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