By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Scientific  American, Volume XXIV., No. 12,  March 18, 1871 - A Weekly Journal of Practical Information, Art, Science, - Mechanics, Chemistry, and Manufactures.
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Scientific  American, Volume XXIV., No. 12,  March 18, 1871 - A Weekly Journal of Practical Information, Art, Science, - Mechanics, Chemistry, and Manufactures." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.




NEW YORK, MARCH 18, 1871.

Vol. XXIV.--No. 12. [NEW SERIES.]

$3 per Annum [IN ADVANCE.]

       *       *       *       *       *


MUNN & CO., Editors and Proprietors.



O. D. MUNN.            S. H. WALES.            A. E. BEACH.

VOL. XXIV., NO. 12 ... [NEW SERIES.] _Twenty-sixth Year_


       *       *       *       *       *


(Illustrated articles are marked with an asterisk.)

  *Knots and Splices                                     175
  Influence of Cold on Iron and Steel.                   176
  Oak Graining in Oil Colors                             176
  Knots and Splices (Explanation)                        177
  Hartford Steam Boiler and Insurance Co.'s Report       177
  *Improved Spiral Spring for Railway Carriages          178
  *Portable Writing and Copying Case                     178
  How Walking-sticks are Made                            178
  Flowering of the Victoria Regia                        178
  Jute                                                   178
  Ventilation of the Liverpool Tunnel                    178
  *Impregnating Wood with Tar, etc.                      178
  *Boardman's Combined Tool                              179
  *Belt Tightener                                        179
  Some Things I don't want in the Building Trades        179
  *Action of the Reciprocating Parts of Steam Engines    179
  *Answer to Practical Problem                           179
  Reciprocating Parts of Steam Engines                   179
  Test for White Lead                                    180
  How to Build a Chimney                                 180
  Crystallized Honey                                     180
  Rambles for Relics.--No. 2                             180
  Silk Culture                                           181
  *Universal Boring Machine                              182
  *Combined Trunk and Rocking-chair                      182
  Cosmetics                                              182
  *Smith's Infant Dining-chair                           182
  The Medicines of the Ancients                          182
  *Barnes Ventilator for Mattresses                      182
  Exhibition of the National Photographic Association    182
  A Scientific and Technical Awakening                   183
  The Sherman Process                                    183
  Rubber Tires for Traction Engines                      183
  Central Shaft of the Hoosac Tunnel                     184
  A Museum of Art and Natural History                    184
  Report of Judges, American Institute Fair.
                    --The Allen Engine                   184
  Lyceum of Natural History                              184
  Warming and Ventilating Railroad Cars                  184
  The Mineral Resources of Missouri                      185
  Scientific Intelligence                                185
  American Institute of Mining Engineers                 185
  Consumption of Sugar, Coffee, and Tea                  185
  Unpleasant Discovery in the Patent Office              185
  Substitute for Albumen in Photography (omitted)        185
  Louisiana State Fair                                   185
  Test for Purity of Water                               185
  New Books and Publications                             185
  Business and Personal                                  186
  Answers to Correspondents                              186
  Applications for the Extension of Patents              186
  Recent American and Foreign Patents                    187
  Queries                                                187
  Inventions Patented in England by Americans            187
  List of Patents                                        187

       *       *       *       *       *


[Condensed from Nature.]

There has recently been a most interesting discussion at the Literary
and Philosophical Society, Manchester, on the above subject.

The paper which gave rise to the discussion was by Mr. Brockbank, who
detailed many experiments, and ended by stating his opinion that iron
does become much weaker, both in its cast and wrought states, under
the influence of low temperature; but Mr. Brockbank's paper was
immediately followed by others by Sir W. Fairbairn, Dr. Joule, and Mr.
Spence, which at once put an entirely new complexion on the matter.

Dr. Joule says:

"As is usual in a severe frost, we have recently heard of many severe
accidents consequent upon the fracture of the tires of the wheels of
railway carriages. The common-sense explanation of these accidents is,
that the ground being harder than usual, the metal with which it
is brought into contact is more severely tried than in ordinary
circumstances. In order apparently to excuse certain railway
companies, a pretence has been set up that iron and steel become
brittle at a low temperature. This pretence, although put forth in
defiance, not only of all we know, of the properties of materials, but
also of the experience of everyday life, has yet obtained the credence
of so many people that I thought it would be useful to make the
following simple experiments:

"1st. A freezing mixture of salt and snow was placed on a table. Wires
of steel and of iron were stretched, so that a part of them was in
contact with the freezing mixture and another part out of it. In every
case I tried the wire broke outside of the mixture, showing that it
was weaker at 50° F., than at about 12° F.

"2d. I took twelve darning needles of good quality, 3 in. long, 1/24
in. thick. The ends of these were placed against steel props, 2-1/8
in. asunder. In making an experiment, a wire was fastened to
the middle of a needle, the other end being attached to a spring
weighing-machine. This was then pulled until the needle gave way. Six
of the needles, taken at random, were tried at a temperature of 55°
F., and the remaining six in a freezing mixture which brought down
their temperature to 12° F. The results were as follow:--

        Warm Needles.          Cold Needles.
         64 ounces broke        55 ounces broke
         65   "      "          64   "      "
         55   "      "          72   "      "
         62   "      "          60   "    bent
         44   "      "          68   "    broke
         60   "    bent         40   "      "
         ---                    ---
Average, 58-1/3        Average, 59-5/6

"I did not notice any perceptible difference in the perfection of
elasticity in the two sets of needles. The result, as far as it goes,
is in favor of the cold metal.

"3d. The above are doubtless decisive of the question at issue. But
as it might be alleged that the violence to which a railway wheel is
subjected is more akin to a blow than a steady pull; and as, moreover,
the pretended brittleness is attributed more to cast iron than any
other description of the metal, I have made yet another kind of
experiment. I got a quantity of cast iron garden nails, an inch and
a quarter long and 1/8 in. thick in the middle. These I weighed,
and selected such as were nearly of the same weight. I then arranged
matters so that by removing a prop I could cause the blunt edge of a
steel chisel weighted to 4lb. 2oz., to fall from a given height upon
the middle of the nail as it was supported from each end, 1-1/16 in.
asunder. In order to secure the absolute fairness of the trials, the
nails were taken at random, and an experiment with a cold nail was
always alternated with one at the ordinary temperature. The nails to
be cooled were placed in a mixture of salt and snow, from which they
were removed and struck with the hammer in less than 5"."

The collective result of the experiments, the details of which need
not be given, was that 21 cold nails broke and 20 warm ones.

Dr. Joule adds, "The experiments of Lavoisier and Laplace, of Smeaton,
of Dulong and Petit, and of Troughton, conspire in giving a less
expansion by heat to steel than iron, especially if the former be in
an untempered state; but this, would in certain limits have the effect
of strengthening rather than of weakening an iron wheel with a tire of

"The general conclusion is this: Frost does _not_ make either iron
(cast or wrought), or steel, brittle.

Mr. Spence, in his experiments, decided on having some lengths of
cast iron made of a uniform thickness of ½ in. square, from the same
metal and the same mould.

He writes:--"Two of the four castings I got seemed to be good ones,
and I got the surface taken off, and made them as regular a thickness
as was practicable.

"I then fixed two knife-edged wedges upon the surface of a plank, at
exactly nine inches distance from each other, with an opening in the
plank in the intervening space, the bar being laid across the wedges,
a knife-edged hook was hung in the middle of the suspended piece of
the bar, and to the hook was hung a large scale on which to place

"The bar was tried first at a temperature of 60° F.; to find the
breaking weight I placed 56lb. weights one after another on the scale,
and when the ninth was put on the bar snapped. This was the only
unsatisfactory experiment, as 14 or 28lb. might have done it, but I
include it among others. I now adopted another precaution, by placing
the one end of the plank on a fixed point and the other end on to a
screw-jack, by raising which I could, without any vibration, bring the
weight to bear upon the bar. By this means, small weights up to 7lb.
could be put on while hanging, but when these had to be taken off and
a large weight put on, the scale was lowered to the rest, and again
raised after the change was made. I may here state that a curious
circumstance occurred twice, which seems to indicate that mere raising
of the weight, without the slightest apparent vibration, was equal in
effect to an additional weight. 3¾ cwts. were on the scale, a 14lb.
weight was added, then 7lb., then 4lb., 2lb., 1lb., and 1lb., making
4cwts. and 1lb. This was allowed to act for from one to two minutes,
and then lowered to take off the small weights, which were replaced by
a 56lb. with the intention of adding small weights when suspended; the
whole was then raised so imperceptibly by the screw, that the only way
of ascertaining that it was suspended, was by looking under the scale
to see that it was clear of the rest. As soon as it was half-an-inch
clear it snapped, thus breaking at once with one pound less than it
resisted for nearly two minutes.

"Six experiments were carefully conducted at 60° F., the parts of the
bars being selected so as to give to each set of experiments similar
portions of both bars; the results are marked on the pieces. My
assistant now prepared a refrigerating mixture which stood at zero,
the bars were immersed for some time in this, and we prepared for the
breaking trials to be made as quickly as could be, consistently with
accuracy; and to secure the low temperature, each bar, on being placed
in the machine, had its surface at top covered with the freezing
mixture. The bars at zero broke with more regularity than at 60°, but
instead of the results confirming the general impression as to cold
rendering iron more brittle, they are calculated to substantiate
an exactly opposite idea, namely, that reduction of temperature,
_cæteris paribus_, increases the strength of cast iron. The only
doubtful experiment of the whole twelve is the first, and as it stands
much the highest, the probability is that it should be lower; yet,
even taking it as it stands, the average of the six experiments at
60° F., gives 4cwt. 4lb. as the breaking weight of the bar at that
temperature, while the average of the six experiments at zero gives
4cwt 20lb. as the breaking weight of the bar at zero, being an
increase of strength, from the reduction of temperature, equal to 3.5
per cent."

Sir W. Fairbairn states: "It has been asserted, in evidence given at
the coroner's inquest, in a recent railway accident, that the breaking
of the steel tire was occasioned by the intensity of the frost, which
is supposed to have rendered the metal, of which this particular
tire was composed, brittle. This is the opinion of most persons, but
judging from my own experience such is not the fact. Some years since
I endeavored to settle this question by a long and careful series
of experiments on wrought iron, from which it was proved that the
resistance to a tensile chain was as great at the temperature of zero
as it was at 60° or upwards, until it attained a scarcely visible red

The immense number of purposes to which both iron and steel are
applied, and the changes of temperature to which they are exposed,
renders the inquiry not only interesting in a scientific point of
view, but absolutely necessary to a knowledge of their security under
the various influences of those changes. It was for these reasons
that the experiments in question were undertaken, and the summary of
results is sufficiently conclusive to show that changes of temperature
are not always the cause of failure. Sir W. Fairbairn adds: "The
danger arising from broken tires does not, according to my opinion,
arise so much from changes of temperature as from the practice of
heating them to a dull red heat, and shrinking them on to the rim of
the wheels. This, I believe, is the general practice, and the unequal,
and in some cases, the severe strains to which they are subject, has a
direct tendency to break the tires."

       *       *       *       *       *



There is a charm and feeling about work executed by the hand, which
gives it a value no mere machine work can possess. Machine work, from
its very nature, necessitates a repetition of pattern, which cannot
be avoided. Hand-work, on the contrary, can imitate every variety, and
follow nature so closely that no two pieces need be alike. There
is also in hand-work a wide scope for the inventive faculty and
the exercise of good taste (both in form and color) and skillful
workmanship. As a rule, strong contrasts between the ground and the
graining color should be avoided. The figure and grain should of
course be seen clearly, but only so clearly as to be distinct, without
interfering with the general and uniform quietness of tone necessary
to fulfil the conditions required by the laws of harmony and good
taste. Violent contrasts and gaudy coloring are always vulgar,
brilliancy and richness of color are not necessarily vulgar; it is
the absence of the guiding power of knowledge and pure taste in their
arrangement which degrades them to the rank of vulgarity. We have
before spoken of the importance of good combing, and of the various
kinds of combs used; we now proceed to describe how the work is done.
The graining color is brushed over the work, in the ordinary manner,
with a pound-brush, care being taken not to put too much color on,
or else it is very liable to be dirty. A dry duster is now used to
stipple with, which, if properly done, will distribute the color
evenly; it is now ready for combing. In the real oak it will be found,
as a rule, that the grain is invariably coarser on one side of the
panel than on the other; this arises from the very nature of the
growth of the tree; it is, therefore, well to imitate this
pattern, and in order to do so we take first a medium or coarse cut
gutta-percha comb, and draw it down one side of the panel; then use a
finer one to complete it. This comb will leave the marks of the grain
in clear unbroken lines from top to bottom of the panel. We now take a
fine steel comb and go over the whole of the previous combing, moving
it in a slanting or diagonal direction across the previous grain, or
with a quick and short wavy motion or curl; both the former and the
latter motion will break up the long lines, left by the gutta-percha
comb, into short bits, which of course represent the pores or grains
of the real wood. There are several other motions of the comb having
the same end in view; and by using the gutta-percha or cork combs, in
conjunction with the fine steel, an infinite variety of grain may be
produced. Steel combs, with one or more folds of thin rag placed
over the ends of the teeth are a style of comb which has nothing to
recommend it. A natural variation in the grain may be produced by one
comb alone, according to the manner in which it is held. For instance,
if we take a coarse or broad-toothed gutta-percha comb, and commence
at the top of a panel, with the comb, placed at its full width: if
drawn down in this position it will leave a grain of the same width
as the width of the teeth: but if we start with the full width, and
gradually turn the comb or slightly incline it to one side--that is to
say, on its edge, we thereby graduate the grain from coarse to fine
at pleasure, and by holding the comb at a certain inclination we may
actually make very fine the coarse comb. A very important point is
the formation of the joints in the wood, as much of the effect of
otherwise good work is lost in consequence of neglect in this respect.
In looking at a real oak door, the joints of the stiles and rails are
clearly and sharply defined, not by any defect of workmanship, but
by the difference in the run of the grain, the stiles being
perpendicular, and the rails horizontal. The rails being cut sharp
off by the stiles, show a perfectly straight line. The light also acts
differently upon the two, simply because the grain or fibre of the
wood is exposed to its influence under different aspects. This also
tends to produce a difference in the depth of the color of rails and
stiles, and panels also. It will be evident that no imitations can be
considered really good except they include these seemingly unimportant

It is a common practice for grainers to imitate a broad piece of heart
or sap of oak, upon the back rail of almost every door they do, and
many of them are not even content with that, but daub the stiles over
from top to bottom with it also. There is nothing so vulgar or in
such bad taste. It should only be done upon those parts of the work on
which it would appear on a real oak door, namely, on the edges of the
doors and on mouldings. There is a vulgar pretentiousness about what
we may call the sappy style of work which is very undesirable. The
figures cross the grain more or less abruptly and of course are of
different shapes, sizes, and forms, a knowledge of which can only be
acquired by study of the real wood. The figure may be wiped out with
a piece of soft rag, held tight over the thumb nail. This should have
two or three folds over the nail, the superfluous rag being held by
the other hand to prevent it hanging down and smearing the grain; and
every time a figure is wiped, the rag should be moved slightly, so
that the same part of the rag will not be used twice, thus insuring
clean work. It will often happen that the thumb-nail will get broken,
or is too weak to stand the work; in these cases, or, in fact, in
any case, a good substitute or artificial thumb-nail may be made of
gutta-percha, thus: A piece of thin sheet gutta-percha is put into
warm water, and, while soft, is wrapped around the end of the thumb up
to the first joint. It is then pressed with the hand, so as to fit
and take the shape of the thumb and nail. This cannot be done at one
heating, but will have to be put into the hot water again, and the end
pinched and squeezed into form to the shape of the nail, and to fit
easily upon the thumb. When this gets hard, it may be trimmed into
perfect form with a penknife. This artificial nail will answer the
purpose admirably if properly made; and even when the natural nail
is good, the gutta-percha will serve to save it from injury. Good
figuring may also be done by using the blank end of the steel
comb with a rag folded over its edge. We have also used a piece of
gutta-percha to take out the lights. This should be square-ended,
about one inch wide, and three or four inches long, and will do
successful work of a certain class, but not of the best. Many grainers
use a piece of thin horn, in shape something like a spatula, about
three or four inches long and three quarters of an inch wide, with
rounded ends, and quite flexible. With this tool the figure is cut
or scooped out--a sort of quick, side-long motion, very difficult to
describe, and requiring a very considerable amount of practice
before it can be worked with any success. There is, however, the same
objection to this tool as may be urged against the gutta-percha for
figuring, namely, that neither of them take the color clean away, but
leave an accumulation of color on the edge of the figure, which is
fatal to good work; and therefore we cannot honestly recommend the
use of any method but the wiping out with the thumb-nail or its
substitute. When the figure is wiped out it will require to be
softened. By softening, we mean the imitation of those half shades
seen upon and about the figures in the real wood. Between and around
the lights or figure in oak, there is always a lighter tint of color;
this is imitated by doubling a piece of rag into a small roll, and
with the side of this the grain is partially wiped away, but not to
the extent of taking off the whole of the grain. A recent but most
admirable system of graining oak, by means of over-combing, is worked
exactly the reverse of any of the foregoing methods; that is to
say, the figure is first wiped out, and the combing or grain is done
afterwards, when the graining color is dry, in this wise: The graining
color is mixed somewhat thinner than for ordinary graining, and is
brushed over the work sparingly, leaving it just sufficiently strong
to show a clear distinction between the ground and the color. The
light or figure is then softened by drawing the end of a flat hog-hair
fitch, or a small thin mottler, across each figure, and slightly
softening with the badger-hair softener. The figure is broken up a
little with fine lines across it in parts, such as may be seen in the
real wood; but previous to wiping out the figure, streaks of light
should be wiped out and softened on one side of the panel or across
the stiles, in imitation of the reflective lights seen in oak. The
color should also be partially wiped off the rails or stiles at their
junction; this tends to define the joint. The color is now let to
dry hard, when it will be ready for over-combing--that is, combing or
graining over the figure (hence its name), and this will have to be
done somewhat differently to the ordinary combing. As thus: The color
is rubbed in as before, and combed solely with the gutta-percha combs,
but these are specially cut for the purpose; they are best about 2 in.
wide. The first must be cut with teeth about three-sixteenths of an
inch in width, the next one-eighth, and the third about one-sixteenth.
The broad-toothed comb is first used, and must be drawn down the
panel, with a wavy motion, in short or long curls; either will
answer our purpose now. The next size of comb is then drawn straight
down--the straighter the better. This has the effect of breaking the
wavy combing into short and long straight bits, similar to the pores
or grain of the real wood. Both the first and second combing may be
varied by holding the comb in a slanting direction, and may be fine or
coarse, according to the width of the combs used; now take a soft rag
folded, and with this partially clear off the grain which runs over
the figure, leaving only a sufficient quantity crossing the light
or figure, to be just distinguished, exactly as it appears upon the
figure in real oak. The grain is also wiped off in parts on the plain
spaces between the figure, in order to break it up and take away any
formality. If this method be well and probably done, a thoroughly
deceptive imitation may be produced; and except this end be kept in
view, no really good work will result.

       *       *       *       *       *



1. Turn used in making up ropes.

2. End tapered for the purpose of passing it readily through a loop.
To make this, we unlay the rope for the necessary length, reducing
a rope diminishing in diameter towards the end, which is finished
by interlacing the ends without cutting them, as it would weaken the
work; it is lastly "whipped" with small twine.

3. Tapered end, covered with interlaced cordage for the purpose of
making it stronger. This is done with very small twine attached at
one end to the small eye, and at the other to the strands of the rope,
thus making a strong "webbing" around the end.

4. Double turn used for making rope.

5. Eye splice. The strands of the cable are brought back over
themselves, and interlaced with their original turns, as in a splice.

6. Tie for the end of a four-strand rope.

7. The same completed; the strands are tied together, forming loops,
laying one over the other.

8. Commencement for making the end by interlacing the strands.

9. Interlacing complete, but not fastened.

10 and 11. Shell in two views used in No. 65, showing the disposition
of it at the throat. This joining is advantageous, as it does not
strain the cords, and it prevents them from cutting each other; so
that the rings pass one into the other and are joined outside the
intermediate shell.

12. Interlacing in two directions.

13. Mode of finishing the end by several turns of the twine continued
over the cable.

14. Interlacing commenced, in one direction.

15. Interlacing finished, the ends being worked under the strands, as
in a splice.

16. Pigtail commenced.

17. Interlacing fastened.

18. Pigtail with the strands taut.

19. Dead eye, shown in two views.

20. Pigtail finished. We pass the ends of the strands, one under the
other, in the same way as if we were making a pudding splice: thus
bringing it in a line with the rope, to which it is seized fast, and
the ends cut off.

21. Scull pigtail; instead of holding the ends by a tie, we interlace
them again, as in No. 16, the one under the other.

22. Pigtail, or "lark's nest." We make this to the "pennant" of a
cable, which has several strands, by taking the requisite number of
turns over the pudding, in such a manner that the strands shall lay
under each other. This "pigtail" forms a knot at the end of the
rope. It thus draws together two ropes, as shown in No. 32, forming a
"shroud" knot. In these two pigtails, the strands are crossed before
finishing the ends, so that the button, a, is made with the strands,
a, and b, with those of the rope, b.

23. Slip clinch to sailors' knot.

24. Slip clinch, secured.

25. Ordinary knot upon a double rope.

26. Bowline knot for a man to sit in at his work.

27. Called a "short splice," as it is not of great length, and
besides, can be made quickly.

30. Long splice. This extends from a to b. We unlay the strands of
each of the ropes we intend to join, for about half the length that
the splice will be, putting each strand of the one between two strands
of the other.

31. Simple fastening on a rope.

32. A "shroud" knot.

33. The ends of the rope are prepared for making the splice (No.
29) in the same manner as for the "shroud" knot in No. 32. When the
strands are untwisted, we put the ends of two cords together as close
as possible, and place the ends of the one between the strands of the
other, above and below alternately, so as to interlace them as in No.
29. This splice is not, however, very strong, and is only used when
there is not time to make a long splice, which is much the best.

34 and 35. Marline spikes. Tools made of wood or iron, used to open
out a rope to pass the strands of another through it.

36. Shows strands arranged as described in No. 30.

37. Fastening when a lever is used, and is employed when hauling upon
large ropes, where the strength of several men are necessary.

38. A "pudding splice." This is commenced, like the others, by placing
the rope end to end, the turns of the one being passed between those
of the other; having first swelled out the yarns by a "rat's-tail," we
put them, two by two, one over the other, twisting them tightly, and
opening a way for them with the marlinspike. The inconvenience of this
splice is, that it is larger in diameter than the rope itself; but
when made sufficiently long, by gradually reducing the size of the
strands, it has great strength.

39. This shows two strands, a and b, of the ropes, A B, knotted
together, being drawn as tight as possible; we unlay the strand,
a', of the rope, A, for half the length of the splice, and twist the
strand, b', of the rope, B, strongly in its place, tying a' and b'
together tightly. The same process is again gone through on the rope,
B, the strand, a", of the rope, A, being knotted to the strand, b",
of the rope, B. When all the strands are thus knotted together, we
interlace them with the strands of the cable. Thus the strands, a a'
a", are interlocked by being passed alternately above and below the
turns of the cord, B, the ends being also sometimes "whipped." In the
same manner the strands, b b' b", pass alternately over and under
the strands of the rope, A, and are in like manner "whipped." It is
important that the several interlacings and knots should not meet at
one point; we reduce the size of the strands towards the end, so that
they loose themselves in the body of the splice, cutting off such
parts as may project. This splice is employed for joining the ends of
a rope when a chafed part has been cut out, and is quite as strong as
the rope itself.

40. Belaying-pin opened to serve as a button; these are used where it
is necessary to stop or check velocity.

41. Chain knot, or fastening.

42. Variable or regulating lashing. By laying the piece, a f,
horizontally, it can be slipped along the rope, b; by raising or
lowering this, we shall raise or depress the weight, c, the cord, b,
running over the two pulleys, d, from the piece, a f, in the direction
shown in the figure. The friction of the cord, b, passing through the
hole, e, sufficiently fixes the piece, a f, and holds the weight, c,

43. Cleet, with three ties.

44. Cleet, showing the mode of belaying the cord.

45. The piece, a f, of No. 42.

46. Fair leader.

47. Cleet to be fixed to a stay.

48. Loop for slipping other lines.

49. A "bend" which is only used for fear of the stoppers snapping.

50. Bastard loop, made on the end of the rope, and whipped with yarns.

51. Tie to pins: a, the pin; b, small cords fixed by a cross tie.

52. Cleet, fixed to the "rail," either with screws or nails, to which
the lines are belayed.

53. Waterman's knot.

54. Fair leader.

55. Tie, or bend to pier.

56. Simple fastening to tie.

57. Fastening by a loop. This can be tied or untied without loosening
the loop itself. It is made by following, towards the longer loop, the
direction as numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and is terminated by the loop, 6,
7, 6, finally passing it over the head of the post, A. This knot holds
itself, the turns being in opposite directions. To untie it, we slack
the turns of the cable sufficiently to again pass the loop, 6, 7, 6,
over the post, A, and turn the ends in the contrary direction to that
in which they were made (as 5, 4, 3, 2, 1).

58. Iron "shell," in two views.

59 and 60. "Wedding" knots; a b, eyelets; c d, the join; e, the

61. Lark's-head fastening to running knot.

62. A round turn; the cord, a, is passed through the bight of the
cord, b, over the button, c, where it is secured by an ordinary knot.

63. Belaying-pin splice. The cord, b, "stops" the pin, e, its end
being spliced upon itself, and "served" with yarn; this rope, with its
pin, is passed through the spliced eye, f of the line, g.

64. Round button.

65. Joint by a spherical shell, each loop, a and b, being made by ties
and splices, and surrounding the shell, c.

66. Belaying-pin, shown separately, before being stoppered.

67. Fastening to shears.

68. Square mooring. When the cable is round the post, A, and the
piece, c, without being crossed, it lays in the section 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, and the end is fastened by tying.

69. Wooden shell in section.

70. Crossed fastening. The turns of the cable, passing in front of the
post, B, are crossed at the back of C, in the direction 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, the end, 8, being secured to the cable.

71. Wooden shell.

72. Double-chain fastening.

73. Lashing for "ram" block, or "dead-eye." The ram blocks, a and b,
are strapped by the cords, e, which hold them; the small lanyards,
d, pass through the holes to make the connection, and as they are
tightened give the requisite tension to the cordage; the ends are
fastened to the main rope. Usually one of these dead-eyes is held by
an iron strap to the point where it is required to fix and strain the
cordage, which is ordinarily a shroud.

74. Chain fastening.

  1'. Simple band, showing the upper side.

  2'. The same, showing the under side and the knot.

  3'. Tie, with crossed ends, commenced; a turn is taken under the
  strands, to hold the ends of the cord.

  4'. The same, completed.

  5'. Bend with crossed strands, commenced, the one end being looped
  over the other.

  6'. The same, completed.

  7'. Necklace tie, seen on the upper side.

  8'. The same, seen underneath. The greater the strain on the cords,
  the tighter the knot becomes.

  9' and 10' are similar splices to 7' and 8' with slight

  11' shows the commencement of 13', the legs in elevation; 12' being
  a front view. An ordinary band, made by several turns of a small
  rope, is lapped round them and hauled taut, and then interlaced at
  the ends. This done, the legs are shifted into the shape of a St.
  Andrew's cross. Thus the lashing is tightened, and, for further
  security, we pass the line several times over the tie and between
  the spars, knotting the ends.

  13'. Portuguese knot. This is a lashing for shear legs, and must be
  tight enough to prevent the spars slipping on each other; the
  crossing of the two legs gives a means of securing the knot.

  14'. For binding timbers; a, knot commenced. Take several turns
  round the timbers, and fasten the ends by passing them under the
  turns; b, knot completed. The end of a round stick, m n, termed a
  packing stick, should be passed under the knob, the cord being slack
  enough to allow of this. By turning the stick, the turns can be
  tightened to any extent; when tight, we fasten the longer arm of the
  lever to some fixed point, by a rope, p q, so that it cannot fly
  back. Care must be taken not to turn the stick too far, or the rope
  may be broken. As the timber dries and shrinks, the lever may be
  used to make all taut again.

       *       *       *       *       *


The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company makes the
following report of its inspections in January, 1871:

During the month, there were 522 visits of inspection made, and 1,030
boilers examined--853 externally and 363 internally, while 106
have been tested by hydraulic pressure. Number of defects in all
discovered, 431, of which 163 were regarded as dangerous. These
defects were as follows: Furnaces out of shape, 24--3 dangerous;
fractures, 47--25 dangerous; burned plates, 29--14 dangerous;
blistered plates, 54--10 dangerous; cases of sediment and deposit,
97--18 dangerous; cases of incrustation and scale, 70--24 dangerous.
To show how little attention is paid to the internal condition of
boilers by incompetent engineers, we copy the following from a letter
of one of our inspectors:

"In one tubular boiler I found sediment in the back end, eight inches
deep, and extending forward more than four feet. It seemed to be an
accumulation of fine scale cemented together, so that it was necessary
to break it up with a hammer and chisel before it could be removed.
The engineer said _he had cleaned the boilers only three days before_,
and objected to my making another examination. This is one of the
many cases we find, where the proprietor trusts everything about his
boilers to his engineer, supposing him to be reliable."

With such accumulation of sediment and deposit, is it any wonder that
sheets are burned? A careful engineer will understand, if the feed
water be impure, that he must blow down two or three inches every day,
or oftener, that the sediment may be removed as it accumulates, and
then an internal examination once in two weeks, or once a month, will
insure a clean boiler.

Cases of external corrosion, 26--10 dangerous; cases of internal
corrosion, 17--5 dangerous; cases of internal grooving, 28--11
dangerous; water gages out of order, 50; blow-out apparatus out of
order, 15--7 dangerous; safety valves overloaded, 40--12 dangerous;
pressure gages out of order, 54--6 dangerous, varying from -15 to
+8 pounds. (We have found several gages entirely ruined from being
frozen). Boilers without gages, 4; cases of deficiency of water,
5--1 dangerous; broken braces and stays, 31--7 dangerous; boilers
condemned, 2--both dangerous.

Two engineers were found drunk on duty, and promptly discharged. There
were 9 serious explosions during the month, by which 99 persons were
killed, and 6 wounded. Eighty-seven of the killed were passengers on
the ill-fated steamer _H.R. Arthur_, on the Mississippi River. Many
were drowned, and some burned, but the origin of the calamity was the
bad quality of the boilers, which a careless management was unable
to detect. The upper and fore part of the boat was blown away by the
exploded boilers, and, to add to the horror, what remained took fire.

None of these exploded boilers were under the care of this company.

       *       *       *       *       *

Five ore-roasting furnaces are in full blast in Nevada.

       *       *       *       *       *


Our engravings illustrate an improved compound car-spring, which
appears to possess all the requisites of a first-class spring,
combining in its construction extreme simplicity with great strength,
and a feature whereby the power of the spring increases with increase
of the load, and _vice versâ_, so that its flexibility remains nearly
constant for all loads.

Fig. 1 is a perspective view of this spring, with a portion of the
side of the case broken out to show the interior arrangement of the
spiral springs. Fig. 2 is a section of the compressing plate. Fig. 3
is a plan view, showing the arrangement of the tubes which enclose the

_Fig. 1       Fig. 2        Fig. 3_]

The case is cast in two pieces. Its vertical wall is cast in a single
piece, and has at the top a flange or bead extending inwardly, against
which the compressing plate abuts when the spring is not compressed,
as shown in Fig. 2. A bottom plate completes the case.

The spiral components of the spring are inclosed in tubes, as shown in
Figs. 1 and 3. It is not deemed essential that these tubes should be
seamless, or that their edges, brought together in bending, should be
soldered, brazed, or welded. They act merely as guides to compel the
component springs to expand or contract in vertical lines, and need
only be strong enough for that purpose.

The compressing plate is formed with concentric steps or ledges,
as shown in Fig. 2, so that with light loads, only a portion of the
component spirals act. With a heavier load a new series of spirals is
brought into action, and so on, till the spring is loaded to its full
capacity. This feature is novel, and as important as novel, as it
gives the spring a far more easy and flexible carriage, with light
loads, than would be the case if all the spirals were permitted to

In putting the spring together, the vertical part of the case is
inverted. The compressing plate is then placed within the case,
resting upon the inner flange of the case above described. The tubes
with their inclosed springs are then arranged in position, as shown in
the plan view, Fig. 3. The bottom plate of the case is then placed in
position, and held to its place by lugs and rivets, as shown in Fig.
1; the spring is then ready for use.

The employment of tubes in the manner described, enables springs of
the greatest practical length to be used, without the sectional or
division plates met with in other spiral car springs. A greater
and easier movement is therefore obtained. These springs can, it
is claimed, compete in price with any spring in market, and are
guaranteed by the manufacturers. Patented through the Scientific
American Patent Agency, December 27, 1870, by Albert Potts, whom
address for further information, No. 490 North Third street,
Philadelphia, Pa.

       *       *       *       *       *


This device is the invention of A. G. Buzby, of Philadelphia, Pa. It
is a combined writing and copying case. Besides the usual recesses
or chambers for pen, ink, paper, etc., it is provided with a book of
copying paper, in which copies of important letters may be made, by
damping the letters in the usual way, and pressing them between the
leaves of the copying book; or the transfer paper may be used, so that
the letter will be copied as it is written, if preferred.


       *       *       *       *       *


Sticks are manufactured both from large timber of from two to six
feet girth, and from small underwood of about the thickness of a man's
thumb. The timber, which is chiefly beech, is first sawed into battens
of about three feet in length and as many inches in width; and
from each of these battens two square sticks, with square heads are
afterwards cut in opposite directions, so that the middle portion
is waste wood. The corners of each are afterwards rounded off by a
planing process called "trapping," and the square head is reduced, by
a small saw, to a curve or rectangular bend, so as to form a handle.
When the sticks are brought in this way to the exact size and pattern,
they are polished with great care, are finely varnished, and packed
in boxes or bundles for the market. Many sawn sticks, however, are
supplied with bone and horn handles, which are fastened on with glue;
and then of course there is less wood waste, as a larger number of
them may be cut from one batten.

A very different process takes place in the manufacture of sticks
from small underwood, in which there is no sawing required. The rough
unfashioned sticks, which are generally of hazel, ash, oak and thorn,
are cut with a bill in the same way as kidney bean sticks, and are
brought to the factory in large bavins or bundles, piled on a timber
tug. There must of course, be some little care in their selection, yet
it is evident that the woodmen are not very particular on this score,
for they have in general an ungainly appearance; and many are so
crooked and rough, that no drover or country boy would think it worth
while to polish the like of them with his knife. Having arrived at
this place, however, their numerous excrescences are soon pruned away,
and their ugliness converted into elegance. When sufficiently seasoned
and fit for working, they are first laid to soak in wet sand, and
rendered more tough and pliable; a workman then takes them one by one,
and securing them with an iron stock, bends them skillfully this way
and that, so as to bring out their natural crooks, and render them at
last all straight even rods. If they are not required to be knotted,
they next go to the "trapper," who puts them through a kind of
circular plane, which takes off knots, and renders them uniformly
smooth and round. The most important process of all is that of giving
them their elegantly curved handles, for which purpose they are passed
over to the "crooker." Every child knows that if we bend a tough stick
moderately when the pressure is discontinued, it will soon fly back,
more or less, to its former position; and if we bend it very much,
it will break. Now the crooker professes to accomplish the miracle of
bending a stick as it might be an iron wire, so that it shall neither
break nor "backen." To prevent the breaking, the wood is rendered
pliant by further soaking in wet sand; and a flexible band of metal
is clamped down firmly to that portion of the stick that will form the
outside of the curve; the top end is then fitted into a grooved iron
shoulder which determines the size of the crook, the other end being
brought round so as to point in the opposite direction; the metal
band during this process binding with increasing tightness against the
stretching fibers of the wood, so that they cannot snap or give way
under the strain. The crook having been made, the next thing is to fix
it, or remove from the fibers the reaction of elasticity, which would
otherwise, on the cessation of the bending force, cause it to backen
more or less, and undo the work. In the old process of crooking by
steam, as timber bending is effected, the stick was merely left till
it was cold to acquire a permanent set; but in the new process, a more
permanent set is given by turning the handle about briskly over a jet
of gas. The sticks being now fashioned, it only remains to polish
and stain or varnish them; and they are sometimes scorched or
burned brown, and carved with foliage, animal heads and other
devices.--_Chambers' Journal_.

       *       *       *       *       *

has succeeded in flowering the Victoria lily, in his pond in England.
The pond is perfectly open, but the water is heated by hot water pipes
coming from a boiler near the pond, carefully concealed. The seeds
of the Victoria were planted in May last, and the first flower was
produced Sept. 10th. Afterwards seven other flowers opened. The plant
has eight leaves, of which the largest is five feet two inches in
diameter. Mr. Mager has also succeeded in flowering a large number of
other tropical lilies in his pond.

       *       *       *       *       *

JUTE, a material largely used in combination with hemp, for making
cordage, sacking, mats, and carpets, is produced in India to the
extent of 300,000 tuns per annum. The scarcity of fuel prevents its
manufacture on the spot, except by the rudest and most primitive
means, so that the bulk of the growth is sent to Great Britain.

       *       *       *       *       *


This tunnel, which forms an ascending incline of a mile and a quarter
length from the terminal station in Lime-street London and N. W.
Railroad, was worked until recently by a rope and stationary engine,
to avoid fouling the air of the tunnel by the passage of locomotives;
but the increase of the traffic having necessitated the abandonment of
the rope and the substitution of locomotives for bringing the trains
up through the tunnel, it became requisite to provide some efficient
means of ventilation for clearing the tunnel speedily of the smoke and
steam after the passage of each train. A large exhausting fan has been
designed by Mr. John Ramsbottom for this purpose, which works in a
chamber situated near the middle of the length of the tunnel, and
draws the air in from the tunnel, through a cross drift; discharging
it up a tapering chimney that extends to a considerable hight above
the surface of the ground over the tunnel. The fan is about thirty
feet diameter, and is made with straight radial vanes; it revolves
on a horizontal shaft at a speed of about forty-five revolutions per
minute, within a brick casing, built concentric with the fan for the
first half of the circumference, and afterwards expanding gradually
for discharging into the base of the chimney, the air from the tunnel
being drawn in at the center of the fan at each side, and discharged
from the circumference of the fan by the revolution of the vanes.
The engine driving the fan is started by telegraph signal at each
departure of a train from the terminal station, and the fan is kept
running until the discharge from it becomes quite clear, showing that
no steam or smoke remains in the tunnel; this is usually the case in
about eight minutes after the time of the train entering the lower end
of the tunnel, the passage of the train through the tunnel occupying
about three minutes. The fan draws air in at both ends of the tunnel
simultaneously, and begins to clear the lower end immediately upon the
train entering; the clearing of the upper end commences as soon as the
train has passed out of the tunnel, and as the fan is situated nearer
the upper end of the tunnel than the lower, the clearing of both
lengths is completed almost simultaneously. The fan is so constructed
as to allow an uninterrupted passage through it, for the air, whilst
the fan is standing still; and the natural ventilation thus obtained
by means of the large chimney is found sufficient for clearing the
tunnel during the night and some portion of the day, without the fan
being worked at those times. This natural ventilation is aided by the
engine exhaust and the boiler discharging into the chimney. The fan
has now been in regular operation for three-quarters of a year, and
has been found completely successful.

       *       *       *       *       *


The preservation of wood is a problem which is attracting increased
attention, as year by year diminishes the material supply of timber,
and consequently gradually increases its price. Among other methods
employed, the impregnation of wood by the vapors of tar, creosote,
petroleum, etc., has been tried, and one of the practical difficulties
met with has been the obtaining of suitable apparatus for the purpose.


The engraving annexed is an invention intended to supply this want.
The wood is inclosed, in a tank kept hot by a steam jacket which
surrounds it, as shown. A boiler at one end is used to heat the
substance with which it is desired to impregnate the wood. An air pump
is also employed to remove the steam, generated in the heated timber,
and the air from the tank. The pores of the wood being thus rendered
vacuous, the hot liquid or vapors from the heating tank readily
penetrate the entire substance, and thoroughly impregnate it. This
apparatus is the invention of George Pustkuchen, of Hoboken, N. J.

       *       *       *       *       *


This tool, of which our engraving is a good representation, comprises
a screw wrench, a pipe wrench, a hammer, a nail claw, a screw-driver,
and a bit handle, or socket wrench.

The bit handle is the entire tool, the square socket or opening being
made in the end of the handle, in which the shanks of bits may be

The screw driver is formed on the end of the screw bar, attached to
the outer jaw of the wrench, and is taken out from the hollow of the
handle when required for use.

The use of the other parts of the tool will be apparent from the

The tool is very compact, and has this advantage over the ordinary
screw wrench, that its leverage increases as it is opened to receive
nuts of larger size.


This invention is protected by two patents, dated respectively, May
30, 1865, and July 10, 1866.

For further information address B. Boardman & Co., Norwich, Conn.

       *       *       *       *       *



This instrument will be found of great service in bringing together
the ends of belts, the weight of which is so great that they cannot
be held together by the hand while lacing. A strap engages with holes
made in the belt, at the back of the holes punched for lacing, the
tightening strap being provided with claws or hooks, as shown. A winch
axle and ratchet, adjusted in a frame as shown, are then employed
to pull the ends of the belt together and hold them firmly till the
lacing is completed.

This is the invention of T. G. Stansberry, of Medora, Ill. Patented in
September, 1867.

       *       *       *       *       *


I don't want my house put in repair, or rather out of repair, by a
master who employs "Jacks of all Trades."

I don't want my foreman to tell me too much at one time about the
faults of the workmen under him, as I may forget asking him about

I don't want a builder or carpenter to give a coat of paint to any
joinery work he may be doing for me, until I have examined first the
material and workmanship.

I don't want any jobbing carpenter or joiner, whom I may employ, to
bring a lump of putty in his tool basket. I prefer leave the use of
putty to the painters.

I don't want jobbing plumbers to spend three days upon the roof,
soldering up a crack in the gutter, and, when done, leaving fresher
cracks behind them. The practice is something akin to "cut and come

I don't want a contractor to undertake a job at a price that he knows
will not pay, and then throw the fault of his bankruptcy on "that
blackguard building."

I don't want any more hodmen to be carrying up the weight of
themselves in their hod, as well as their bricks; I would much prefer
seeing the poor human machines tempering the mortar or wheeling the
barrow, while the donkey engine, the hydraulic lift, or the old gray
horse, worked the pulley.

I don't want house doors to be made badly, hung badly, or composed of
green and unseasoned timber.

I don't want houses built first and designed afterwards, or, rather,
wedged into shape, and braced into form.

I don't want to be compelled to pay any workman a fair day's wages for
a half day's work.

I don't want an employer to act towards his workmen as if he thought
their sinews and thews were of iron, instead of flesh and blood.

I don't want any kind of old rubbish of brick and stone to be bundled
into walls and partitions, and then plastered over "hurry-skurry."
Trade infamy, like murder, will out, sooner or later.

I don't want men to wear flesh and bone, and waste sweat and blood,
in forms of labor to which machinery can be applied, and by which
valuable human life and labor can be better and more profitably

       *       *       *       *       *


_The Editors are not responsible for the opinions expressed by their

       *       *       *       *       *


MESSRS. EDITORS:--I have hesitated about the propriety of replying to
the criticisms of your correspondent, J. E. Hendricks, upon my paper,
on the action of the reciprocating parts of steam engines. It is not
to be expected that a truth so opposed to commonly received
notions--the reception of which requires so much to be unlearned--should
at once receive the assent of every one. Some odd fancies on the
subject are likely to be ventilated first.

But your correspondent touches the root of the matter, and perhaps the
fact questioned by him should be more clearly placed beyond dispute.

I will dismiss the introductory part of his letter, merely observing
that his "logical inference" is quite gratuitous and unwarranted. He
says himself that its absurdity is obvious, in which I quite agree
with him.

The real question is this: What is the figure representing the
acceleration of the motion of a piston, controlled by a crank which
revolves with a uniform velocity? I stated it to be a right-angled
triangle, and indicated, as I supposed, clearly enough, a simple
method by which this could be shown. Your correspondent claims that
the calculation, according to my own rule, gives a figure of a totally
different form, and one that shows the acceleration, as well as the
motion, to be reduced to zero at the commencement of the stroke. Let
us see. Let the straight line, AJ, in the following figure, represent
half the stroke of the piston, and let the distances, AB, AC, etc., on
this line, represent the versed sines of 10°, 20°, etc., up to 90°, or
the motion of the piston while the crank is moving through these arcs.
At the points A, B, C, etc., erect the perpendiculars, Aa, Bb, Cc,
etc., and let the length of each of these ordinates represent the
acceleration imparted in a given time at that point of the stroke.
Then will AJ be to Aa as IJ is to Ii, as HJ is to Hh, etc., showing
that the straight line, aJ, connects the extremities of all the
ordinates, and that the triangle, AJa, represents the acceleration of
the motion of the piston, from the commencement to the middle of the


The following table will enable any one to make the calculations
proving the truth of the above proposition:

Degrees.  Versed sine.     Motion for 10°   Acceleration during 1°.
   0°          .0000000                     _Aa_  .0003046
  10°   _AB_   .0151922   _AB_  .0151922    _Bb_  .0003001
  20°   _AC_   .0603074   _BC_  .0451152    _Cc_  .0002862
  30°   _AD_   .1339746   _CD_  .0736672    _Dd_  .0002638
  40°   _AE_   .2339556   _DE_  .0999810    _Ee_  .0002332
  50°   _AF_   .3572124   _EF_  .1232568    _Ff_  .0001958
  60°   _AG_   .5000000   _FG_  .1427876    _Gg_  .0001523
  70°   _AH_   .6579799   _GH_  .1579799    _Hh_  .0001041
  80°   _AI_   .8263518   _HI_  .1683719    _Ii_  .0000529
  90°   _AJ_  1.0000000   _IJ_  .1736482    _Jj_  .0000000

The method of obtaining the decimals representing the acceleration for
1°, at any point, was fully explained in the paper, and compared with
the similar method of showing the uniform acceleration of a body acted
on by a constant force. The ordinary tables in the hand-books, going
only to five places of decimals, are of no use for these computations.

I would suggest a practical experiment. Let any one having an engine
running at a good speed, loosen the crank pin brasses a little, so
that, at starting, it will thump heavily. Let the engine be lightly
loaded, so that only a small portion of the boiler pressure will need
to be admitted to the cylinder. As its speed increases, the thump
will die away; and, if at its full speed, the pressure of the steam
admitted is not so great as to overcome the centrifugal strain of the
reciprocating parts on the crank, as it passes the centers, the engine
will revolve in silence. Any one can ascertain, by the rule given
in the note to the paper, just what pressure can be admitted without
causing a thump, or this can be found by a little experimenting. I am
running an engine which does not thump with loose crank pin brasses,
under eighty pounds pressure, admitted sharply on the centers.

Charles T. Porter.

       *       *       *       *       *


MESSRS. EDITORS;--I submit the following solution of "Practical
Problem" on page 147:

Given AB, arm, C, arm, D, chord of half angle of oscillation of arm,
D, and angles of arms, with line AB.

To find angles, BAc', ABb, and length of link, E.

1. As the length of arm, D, is to the chord of arc, ab, divided by
2, so is the radius to the sine angle oscillation of arm, D, divided
by 4.

2. 360° is to the whole circumference as the angle bBa is to the
length of arc ab.

3. Now arc ab is equal to arc a'c'.

4. The whole circumference is to 360° as the length of arc a'e' is
to the angle oscillation of C divided by 2.

5. Half angle oscillation, C, taken from angle BAa' is equal to angle

6. Half angle oscillation, D, taken from angle ABa is equal to angle

7. The diagonal of the rectangle formed by the (sum of the sines of
the angles of the arms with AB) into (AB--sum of cosines of same) will
be the length of link, E.


G. R. NASH, Civil Engineer.

North Adams, Mass.

[We have received other solutions of this problem, but as this covers
the ground in a very simple manner, we think it will be sufficient.
Those forwarding the solutions not published will accept our thanks
and assurances that it is not because they lack merit that they are

       *       *       *       *       *


MESSRS. EDITORS:--In one of the late numbers of your journal, you
publish a paper, read by Mr. Porter before some learned society in New
York, on something about the possibility or practicability of running
a steam engine at a high rate of speed, and claiming to give a
scientific explanation of the why and wherefore. Now, scientifically,
I know nothing about a steam engine; practically, I know how to stop
and start one. Therefore, you will understand that what I say is not
as coming from one who claims to be wise above what is written, but as
simply being a statement of the case, as it appears to one who wants
to learn, and takes this way to draw out the truth. A scientific
theory, invested with all its sines, coefficients, and other
paraphernalia, is a very pretty thing to look at, no doubt, for those
who understand it, and, when properly applied, is invaluable; but
when, as in this case, a practical question is to be decided, by the
aid of a scientific demonstration, it will not do to throw aside the
main elements of the problem, or any, in fact, of the minor points, no
matter how trivial they may appear.

Mr. Porter's labors were strictly of a scientific nature. He starts
out with the proposition that what he is about to explain is very
simple, and very likely it is; but, for one, I can't see it, and I
want more light. He says that it takes a certain number of pounds to
overcome the inertia of the reciprocating parts of a certain weight,
to give it a certain speed. What is inertia? He says, "we will not
take into account the friction of parts." Now, my understanding of
this point is, that friction is practically one of the main elements
in the problem. How can we hope to obtain a correct solution when he
rubs out one of the terms of the equation? What is friction doing all
the time, while he is theoretically having his reciprocating parts
storing up power and then giving it out again, just at the right time,
and in the right quantity?

What an immense amount of iron has been wasted by being cast into fly
wheels, when a fraction of the amount, if only put into cross heads,
would render fly wheels unnecessary!

Mr. Porter stops short in his discussion. He should have added a table
giving the proportionate length of stroke, weight of parts, and number
of revolutions required to produce the effect of an engine running at
a high speed, without the least fraction of inequality in the strain
on the crank, and then the sun would have fairly risen in the "dawn of
a new era for the steam engine." But, as it is so very simple, we can
all figure it out for ourselves.

In the diagram Mr. Porter gives, to illustrate the travel of the
piston, he wets his finger and draws it over another term in the
equation (a method of elimination not taught by Hutton, Davies, and
other mathematicians). It is a quick way, but is it correct? He says,
"the distance traveled by the piston is the versed sine of an angle
formed by a line from the center of the crank pin, in any part of its
stroke to the center of the circle described by the crank pin, leaving
out of the calculation the angular vibration of the connecting rod."
What he means by the "angular vibration," I do not know. He is wrong
in the statement. If he will think of it he will see it. If he meant
to say that the piston's travel was measured by the versed sine of the
angle formed by the connecting rod and the line of horizontal centers,
he is wrong again, yet nearer the truth than before, just as the
proportion between the length of the connecting rod and the half
diameter of the circle described by the crank pin. This can quickly
be seen by supposing the connecting rod to be detached, and allowed
to fall down on the center line, at any part of the stroke. If he
understood this (as no doubt he did), he should not ignore the facts.

What I am aiming at is this. When a man attempts to demonstrate a
thing mathematically, he must take into his calculation everything
essentially connected with the problem, just exactly as it is, and not
as he would have it; otherwise, he cannot, by any possibility, attain
a correct result. When he claims, as now, the practicability of
running engines at a high speed, I think he is claiming too much.
Build an engine of proper materials, make it strong, and fit
everything as it should be, balance crank and fly wheel to a nicety,
keep everything snugly in its place, and the terrors of a quick stroke

S. W. H.

       *       *       *       *       *


MESSRS. EDITORS:--I have read, with much interest, Dr. Chandler's
colorimetric test of the purity of white lead, as published in the
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN sometime ago. I enclose another test, which,
though not new, is of value to all using white lead on account of its
simplicity and effectiveness. It has been in use here for nearly two
years, and has been found reliable. Having never seen it in print, I
have tried to put it in as simple words as possible.

FELIX MCARDLE, Analytical Chemist.
St. Louis, Mo.

Take a piece of firm, close grained charcoal, and, near one end of it,
scoop out a cavity about half an inch in diameter and a quarter of an
inch in depth. Place in the cavity a sample, of the lead to be tested,
about the size of a small pea, and apply to it continuously the
blue or hottest part of the flame of the blow pipe; if the sample be
strictly pure, it will in a very short time, say in two minutes, be
reduced to metallic lead, leaving no residue; but if it be adulterated
to the extent of ten per cent. only, with oxide of zinc, sulphate of
baryta, whiting or any other carbonate of lime, (which substances are
now the only adulterations used), or if it be composed entirely of
these materials, as is sometimes the case with cheap lead, it cannot
be reduced, but will remain on the charcoal an infusible mass.

Dry white lead, (carbonate of lead) is composed of metallic lead,
oxygen and carbonic acid, and, when ground with linseed oil, forms the
white lead of commerce. When it is subjected to the above treatment,
the oil is first burned off, and then at a certain degree of heat, the
oxygen and carbonic acid are set free, leaving only the metallic lead
from which it was manufactured. If, however, there be present in the
sample any of the above mentioned adulterations, they cannot of course
be reduced to metallic lead, and cannot be reduced, by any heat of
the blow pipe flame, to their own metallic bases; and being intimately
incorporated and ground with the carbonate of lead, they prevent it
from being reduced.

It is well, after blowing upon the sample, say for half a minute, by
which time the oil will be burned off, to loosen the sample from the
charcoal, with a knife blade or spatula, in order that the flame may
pass under as well as over and against it. With proper care the lead
will run into one button, instead of scattering over the charcoal,
and this is the reason why the cavity above mentioned is necessary. A
common star candle or a lard oil lamp furnishes the best flame for use
of the blow pipe; a coal oil lamp should not be used.

By the above test, after a little practice, so small an adulteration
as one or two per cent. can be detected; it is, however, only a test
of the purity or impurity of a lead, and if found adulterated, the
degree or percentage of adulteration cannot be well ascertained by it.

Jewellers usually have all the necessary apparatus for making the
test, and any one of them can readily make it by observing the above
directions, and from them can be obtained a blow pipe at small cost.

If you have no open package of the lead to be tested, a sample can
most easily be obtained by boring into the side or top of a keg with
a gimlet, and with it taking out the required quantity; care should be
used to free it entirely from the borings or particles of wood, and it
should not be larger than the size mentioned; a larger quantity can be
reduced, but of course more time will be required, and the experiment
cannot be so neatly performed.

       *       *       *       *       *


MESSRS. EDITORS:--I am satisfied that a great many fires originate
through poorly constructed chimneys; and, although not a bricklayer
by trade, I would offer a few hints how to construct a fire-proof
chimney. Let the bed be laid of brick and mortar, iron, or stone; then
the workman should take a brick in his left hand, and with the trowel,
draw the mortar upon the end of the brick, from the under side, and
not from the outside edge, as is usual. Then, by pressing the brick
against the next one, the whole space between the two bricks will be
filled with mortar; and so he should point up the inside as perfectly
as the outside, as he proceeds.

By drawing the mortar on the edge of the brick, the space between
the ends will not always be entirely filled, and will make (where the
inside pointing is not attended to) a leaky and unsafe chimney, which,
if not kept clear of soot, will, in burning out, stand a good chance
of setting the building on fire. The best thing that I know of, to
put the fire out in a burning chimney is salt; but the matter of first
importance, after having a chimney properly constructed, is to keep it

Westfield, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *


MESSRS. EDITORS:--Please allow me to say to the querist who, through
your columns, asks what to do with crystalline honey, that if he will
"doctor" it with almost any artificial honey of the day, it will not
become like lard in cold weather, which change is a natural proof that
it is pure. For almost any purpose, pure honey is preferable to that
which has been adulterated, but purity is a minor consideration with

Next we shall hear of some fastidious customer who objects to pure
lard, because it looks white when cold. To such we would recommend
lard oil as a great improvement, especially for cooking purposes.

A. M. B.
Louisville, Ky.

       *       *       *       *       *

[For the Scientific American.]



At a depth of fifteen feet, we were about to suspend our labors,
supposing from the nature and uniformly dark color of the earth,
that we had reached the surface of the alluvium, when a sign of the
inevitable wood and bark layer was seen in a crevice. An excavation,
five or six feet, into the wall, revealed the skeleton of a man laid
at length, having an extra coverlid of wooden material. Eighteen large
oblong beads, an ax of polished green stone, eleven arrow points, and
five implements of bone (to be described) were deposited on the
left side; and a few small beads, an ornamental shell pin, two small
hatchets, and a sharp-pointed flint knife or lance, eight inches long,
having a neck or projection at the base, suitable for a handle, or for
insertion in a shaft, on the right side. The earth behind the skull
being removed, three enormous conch shells presented their open
mouths. One of my assistants started back as if the ghost of the
departed had come to claim the treasure preserved, in accordance with
superstitious notions, for its journey to the "happy lands." The alarm
seemed to be a warning, for at the moment the embankment, overloaded
on one side, caved in, nearly burying three workmen, myself, and a
spectator. Our tools being at the bottom of the heap, and the wall on
the other side, shaken by the falling earth, giving tokens of a change
of base, our prospects of a ready deliverance were not very hopeful.
The bystanders, however, went to work with their hands, and we were
soon relieved, not without casualty, the spectator having the worst of
it. Struggling to extricate himself, instead of abiding his time, he
dragged one leg out of the pile shorter than the other.

The occurrence of marine shells in a burial depository, especially of
the varieties pyrula and oliva, four or five hundred miles from the
Gulf and that portion of the Southern coast where the mollusks exist,
bears upon the question of migration and tribal intercourse, and
the commercial value of these articles. Obtained from a distance and
regarded as precious commodities, they were used in exchange, for the
material of ornaments, and for choice utensils. Only two or three of
these shells have been found in a perfect condition, but defective
ones are frequent, with fragments, "cuttings," and various trinkets
made out of them--such as ornamental pins, needles, crosses, buttons,
amulets, engraved plates, and beads. From one of the specimens
recovered from the mound sepulchre, the spire and columella had been
removed, leaving a hollow utensil. It would have been suitable for
a water vessel, but for a hole in the bottom, which had furnished a
button-shaped ornament, or piece of money, which was found with the
relic, and exactly corresponded to the orifice. The twirled end of the
shell, however, had been improved for a handle by shallow cavities,
one on the inside slanting from the middle longitudinal line, and one
crossing that line at right angles on the convex side, so as to be
fitted to the thumb and fore finger of the left hand, suggesting a use
of the implement as a shield, or a mask held before the face. Adair
speaks of large shells in use by the Indians of his time (1735),
suspended about the neck for shields, and regarded as badges of
priestly dignity.

A trench was dug on the east side of the mound, nearly corresponding
in dimensions to the one on the west side, making the length of the
whole excavation, including the central cavity, thirty-two feet.

In the last opening, eight skeletons were exhumed; the mode of burial
was the same throughout. The only article of value recovered was a
curiously wrought pipe of stone, having a "figure head" representing
the human face, which I have put down in a list of "articles stolen,"
and which the thief can describe better than the writer. After filling
up all the gaps, and levelling the surface to suit the taste of the
proprietor, we closed our labors on the mound in the Bent.

Of the skulls collected, it is sufficient to say that they belong to
the "short heads," the length and breadth having a comparative medium
proportion, a common form of cranium in the mounds of Tennessee.

Of stone implements I specify an ax of serpentine, ten inches long,
two thick, and four broad, having plain sides and a straight edge
ground down on both of the flat faces; hatchets ("tomahawks") of
green stone, flint, and diorite, from five to eight inches long, with
rounded faces and sides, contracted to an edge at one end, and to a
flat heel at the other; a wedge of black slate, seven inches long and
half an inch thick, of a square finish on the faces and sides and at
the heel, which was diminished two inches, as compared with the length
of the edge; hatchets with a serrated edge at each end, plane on both
sides, convex on one face and flat on the other.

With one skeleton was deposited a "set of tools," eight in number, of
the species of rock before mentioned, varying in length from two to
eight inches. Their peculiarity consists in a variety of shapes--no
two being precisely alike--and in their fitness to various uses,
such as carving, hacking, paring, and grooving. The smallest of them,
having a square finish, was held by the thumb and two fingers, and is
suitable for cutting lines and figures in wood and shells. Specimens
of this art were furnished from the mound. The largest number might
serve for hatchets, chisels, and gouges. One had been ground in the
form of a cylinder five inches long and an inch thick, and then cut
an inch on two sides to an edge, and worked into a handle with a round
bead, from the center of the elliptical faces. It might be used for
chipping wood and stone. One answered the purpose of a cold chisel;
another was somewhat similar, but had a hollow face reduced to a
curved edge for grooving. These polished instruments, wrought with
much care, seemed intended for use by the hand rather than for
insertion in a handle or socket, or attachment to a shaft by means
of a strap or withe. Only one was perforated. The drilling through
granite, quartz, and diorite, without the use of metal, was a severe
labor, even for savage patience. A long knife of silex, with a wrought
handle, lance heads, leaf shaped, of the same material, of beautiful
workmanship, arrow points of fine finish, furnished, with others
before mentioned, an assortment of arms. Several flint points, though
only an inch long, were curved like a cimeter, and used probably as
flaying instruments. True disks, of various mineral substances, from
an inch to five inches in diameter, having convex faces, complete the
list of stone implements. Those of bone comprise several like hollow
chisels, sharpened at one end, and pierced through one face, near the
other extremity, so as to be fastened to a handle; these were used
for dressing skins. One was formed like a poniard, with a worked hilt.
With these may be connected arrow heads and sharp pointed weapons of
the worked antlers of the stag, and tusks of the wild boar.

Of ornaments, I noticed pins used for dressing the hair, made of the
columns of large sea shells. The head is generally round, sometimes
oval, from an eighth to a half of an inch in diameter, retaining the
diagonal groove of the pillar from which it is made. The stems vary
in length from one to six inches. It would be tedious even to classify
ornamental beads and buttons of shell work, such as are usually found
in the mounds. These trinkets are perforated, and, in addition to
their being articles of dress, were used probably as "wampum," the
currency of the recent Indians.

A miscellaneous collection includes a hematite stone, wrought in
the shape of a cup weighing half a pound; when rubbed or ground it
furnished the war paint of the savages; also the extremity of a copper
tube, two inches long; needles in bone and shell, from an inch to
six inches long, with grooves round the head, to serve the purpose of
eyes; and plates of mica. The use of mica plates, which are found of
large size in some of the Western mounds, has excited some inquiry.
Of a certain thickness, they make good mirrors. Beside their use
for ornamental purposes, they were probably looking-glasses of the
beauties of the stone age. There was also found a pipe of soap stone,
having a stem five inches long, and a bowl with a broad brim, like a
Quaker's hat.

Of earthenware, there was an endless variety of fragments of the usual
black, grey, or red compressed clay, mixed with pulverized shells or
stones. One kind I have never seen described. The sherds had a red
coating on both sides, an eighth of an inch in thickness, evidently
not a paint or a glaze. The red coloring might have come from the
pottery being burnt in the open air, instead of baked in a furnace,
were not the layer of uniform thickness and of homogeneous paste,
unlike the material of the vessel, which was a gray mixture of clay
and particles of shells.

I give the above memoranda to the general fund of information,
touching a subject that invites inquiry on account of its novelty and
ethnological importance. Every examination of the monumental remains
of the ancient Americans brings to light some new feature in structure
or type of rudimental art. And since archæology has become a science,
investigators, for half a century, may be looking about for facts to
complete the system auspiciously introduced by the antiquarians of
Northern Europe, and advanced in our own country by the researches
of Caleb Atwater (_Archæologia Americana_) and by those of the
Smithsonian contributors to knowledge, especially Squier and Davis.

       *       *       *       *       *

A SMALL WATER WHEEL.--There is in the town of Meriden, Conn., a
Leffel double turbine wheel, running under 240 feet fall and driving
a manufactory. It uses only about one-half of a square inch of water,
and runs at the marvelous speed of 3,000 revolutions per minute, or 50
revolutions per second, which is by far the most rapid rate of motion
ever imparted to a water wheel. This is, also, beyond comparison the
greatest fall applied to the propulsion of a wheel in America. The
wheel at Meriden is of the most diminutive size, scarcely exceeding in
dimensions the old-fashioned "turnip" watches which our grandfathers
used to carry in their capacious vest pockets. The complete success of
this wheel has attracted much attention and affords further evidence
of the wide range of adaptability of the Leffel turbine.

       *       *       *       *       *

[For the Scientific American.]



A vague notion that silk culture ought to form one of the industrial
pursuits of the American people seems to be prevalent enough; but it
does not take practical hold upon anybody. The nearest approach to
anything practical which we have seen, in late years--excepting, of
course, what has been done in California--occurred in New York in July
last, when a number of gentlemen pledged themselves, according to a
report given in the _Tribune_ of July 30, "to promote the native silk

The gentlemen present at the meeting represented the most prominent
silk manufacturing and importing houses in this country. What these
gentlemen have since done towards promoting the native silk trade, I
do not know, but, having pledged themselves, it is presumed they have
done something.

At the meeting, of which the _Tribune_ article is a report, dags,
and other things, manufactured from California silk, were exhibited;
and the report goes on to say that "Mr. Warren also exhibited samples
of native and foreign cocoons, and of raw and thrown silk, together
with the common _Cecropia_ and _Bombyx Cynthia_, species of
silkworms which feed upon oak leaves.  *  *  Also the _Bombyx Yamamai_
which feeds upon mulberry leaves; also the _Bombyx Pernyi_, of
which the cocoons are early as good as the cocoons of worms fed upon
mulberry leaves."

I have given this extract, word for word, as it stands in the columns
of the _Tribune_, because it contains more blunders of one kind or
another than I remember ever to have seen in so many words. _Cecropia_
is certainly not very particular as to its food, but it is not an oak
feeder. _Cynthia_ will thrive on nothing except ailanthus, though it
will eat one or two other things, but not oak. The _Yamamai_, on
the other hand, will eat oak, indeed it is its natural food; but Mr.
Warren errs greatly when he says that it will feed on mulberry. The
last clause of the sentence, which says that cocoons of _Pernyi_ are
nearly as good as those of worms fed on mulberry leaves, must be a
sort of entomological joke, of which the point is not discoverable by
me, so I pass it over.

I do not, however, notice this report on account of its grammatical
and entomological mistakes. It is because of the evil effects it may,
and probably will, have on amateur silk culturists, that I notice
it; for most assuredly, failure will be the result of all attempts
to produce silk cocoons by feeding the caterpillars of the different
moths on the food prescribed by Mr. Warren. Any patriotic, money
making farmer, who believes in the _Tribune_, purchasing _Yamamai_
eggs and setting his worms to feed upon mulberry, which they refuse to
eat, and consequently, all die, will probably give up silk culture
as being nothing more or less than a humbug. And thus the cause is

For several years past, I have made some experiments in the rearing of
the silkworms, giving the result of my experience in the first year in
Vol. II., page 311, of the _American Naturalist_; and of a subsequent
year in the _Entomologist_, for November, 1869.

The paper in the _Naturalist_ is devoted to my experiments with the
ailanthus silkworm, _Samia Cynthia_ (G. & R.), a naturalized species
from the East. In that paper, I have said all that is necessary to
say at present, on that species, except perhaps that I am further
convinced, from the inspection of samples of sewing and other silks,
made from the cocoons of _Cynthia_, that one day it will be reared
very extensively in the United States. It is perfectly hardy, is
double brooded, and may be reared by any one possessed of a few acres
of land, which may be good enough for growing ailanthus trees, but
not good enough to grow any thing else. The labor of a few old men,
or women, or even children, is sufficient for the purpose. The cost is
therefore trifling.

The objection to the cultivation of _Cynthia_ is that the cocoon
cannot be reeled. But it can be carded, and if the Chinese can make
excellent silk goods from it, why cannot we? I suspect, too, that
_Cynthia_ silk can be worked in with cotton, or, perhaps, woolen
goods, adding to their beauty and durability (for it is indestructible
in wear), and thus open up branches of manufacture hitherto unknown.

For manufacturers of coarse goods, I have no doubt that the silk
from our native silk moths, _Cecropia_ and _Polyphemus_, may be used.
Indeed, I believe that M. Trouvelot is of opinion that _Polyphemus_
may fairly enter into competition with _Bombyx mori_, the ordinary
mulberry silkworm. The worm, however, is rather difficult to rear.

In reference, however, to _Bombyx mori_, it is well known that the
silk crop in France and Italy has been reduced greatly, and the price
of silk goods consequently enhanced, by prevalence of disease among
the worms. So much is this the case, that silk breeders have been
obliged to look around for some silk-producing moths whose products
may, at any rate, supplement the deficient crop. _Cynthia_, as already
mentioned as one of these, and two others mentioned by Warren in the
_Tribune_ reports above adverted to, are at present the subjects of

My article mentioned before as appearing in the _American
Entomologist_ is mainly devoted to my experiments, and those of my
correspondents, with _Yamamai_, which, as I said before, is an oak
feeder. In Japan, which is its native country, it feeds, in its wild
state, on _Quercus serrata_. Whether that oak be found in America, I
do not know, but it is of little importance, as the worm will feed on
almost any species of oak, although I think that it prefers white oak.
The importance of acclimatizing new species of silk moths is of so
much prospective importance, that I shall devote the remainder of this
article to the consideration of whether _Yamamai_ and _Pernyi_ may not
be naturalized here. Any one, who happens to have the number of the
_Entomologist_ containing the article above alluded to, may find it
worth while to read it, but as many persons may not be able to obtain
that number, I will here repeat the substance of my remarks, adding as
much new matter as subsequent experience has afforded.

The silk from the _Yamamai_ being considered superior to that produced
by any other of the substitute silk moths, great efforts have been
made in Europe to acclimatize it; but, it must be confessed, hitherto
with but slight success. There are exceptions, however, particularly
among amateurs in Germany, sufficient to show that success is
possible. The Baron de Bretton raises about 27,000 cocoons annually.

In this country but little has been done, or attempted, and that
little has not been very successful.

The fact is, that _Yamamai_ is a difficult moth to rear in a country
like this, where in early spring the temperature varies so much; but
that success is possible, I am convinced.

The moth emerges from the cocoon in the latter part of the summer,
copulates, lays its eggs, and of course dies. And now the trouble
commences; that is, with eggs laid, say in Japan, from whence we
mainly get our supplies.

As soon as the egg is laid, the young larva commences its formation,
which in a short time (about one month) is perfected. It lies in the
egg in a quiescent state till early spring. If the egg remain in the
country where it is laid, and is kept at a pretty even temperature,
and free from damp, the caterpillar emerges in a healthy condition.
But if it be removed some thousands of miles, passing in the transit
from heat to cold, and back to heat again: and if, in addition, it
be closely confined in a damp place, with little or no circulation of
air, the egg is attacked by a fungus which sometimes prevents the worm
from emerging at all; or, if it emerge, it is in a sickly condition.
That these conditions obtain in the transit of eggs, from Japan
to Europe, and thence to America, is evident enough; and it may,
therefore, require the efforts of many persons, continued for a long
time, to enable us to acclimatize the _Yamamai_. But this is all that
is required, and I feel confident that ultimate success is certain.

On hatching out, the worm is of a brimstone yellow, and thinly covered
with strong hairs; after the second month it is greenish, with black,
longitudinal streaks, and the thread a dull coral red color. After the
third month it becomes of a fine apple green, with yellow tubercles
on each segment, from which issue a few black hairs. The head and legs
are chocolate brown, the prolegs reddish, and the first segment edged
with pinkish color. The greatest care is necessary, as the spring
advances, to prevent the eggs from hatching before the oak buds
are ready for them, and the temperature must be regulated with the
greatest nicety. If the eggs can be kept somewhere about 50 deg. Fah.,
it would be quite safe; higher than that the mercury should not be
allowed to rise, till you are quite ready for the worms, and, on the
other hand, the eggs should not be allowed to freeze.

On emerging from the eggs, the worms should be allowed either to crawl
to the oak branches, or rather to sprigs obtained for that purpose,
the end of which should be placed in a jar, or bottle, of water, or
the worms may be placed on gently with a camel-hair brush. The leaves
should be well sprinkled with clean water that the caterpillars may

From some cause, not well understood, the young caterpillars have
a tendency to wander; and if care be not taken many may be lost. To
prevent this, it is well to cover the branches with a gauze bag, tied
tightly around the stems, and close to the bottle. Care must also
be taken that the caterpillars do not find their way into the water,
which they assuredly will if they have the opportunity, committing
suicide in the most reckless manner. If the number of caterpillars be
few, it is a good plan to place them at the outset with their food,
in a wide-mouthed bottle, covering the mouth with gauze. The branches,
particularly if the weather be warm, must still be occasionally
sprinkled, so that the caterpillars may have the opportunity of
drinking. It must be remembered that experiment is necessary in
rearing _Yamamai_, but one thing is ascertained, and that is, that the
worms must not be exposed to direct sunshine, at least not after seven
or eight in the morning. If the spring be warm, I am inclined to think
that a northeastern exposure is the best, and we may sum up by saying,
that comparatively cool and moist seasons are more favorable to
success that hot, dry weather. In America the worms suffer in the
early spring, from the rapid changes of temperature, 40° at 9 A.M.
increasing to 70° in the afternoon and falling off to freezing point
during the night. The worms cannot stand this. They become torpid,
refuse to eat, and consequently die. To prevent this, if the nights
be cold, they must be placed where no such change of temperature can

It is scarcely necessary to say that an ample supply of fresh food
must be always supplied, but it may not be amiss to say that it is
well, when supplying fresh branches, to remove the worms from the old
to the new. The best way of doing this is to clip off the branch, or
leaf, on which the worm is resting, and tie, pin, or in some way affix
the same to the new branches. If this be not done, they will continue
to eat the old leaf, even if it be withered, and this induces disease.
If the worm has fastened itself for the purpose of moulting, the best
way is to remove the entire branch, clipping off all the dried
leaves before so removing it. These remarks apply, in general, to the
treatment of all silkworms, except _Bombyx mori_.

The results of numerous experiments with _Yamamai_ go to show that it
is, as I said before, a difficult worm to rear; but it has been reared
near New York to the extent of eight hundred cocoons out of sixteen
hundred eggs, and this, although not a remunerative result, is

The Chinese silk moth, _Aulterea Pernyi_, also an oak feeder, has been
successfully raised by me and by others, for several years. Eggs have
been sold to persons in States widely separated, and the results show
that this worm is perfectly hardy.

The moth winters in the cocoon, emerges early in May, if the weather
be warm, pairs readily, and lays from 150 to 200 eggs. These hatch
out in about fourteen days, and like _Yamamai_, always about 5 or 6
o'clock in the morning. It is necessary to be on the alert to catch
them on hatching only, and to remember that they are vagabonds, even
to a greater extent than _Yamamai_. Consequently similar precautions
must be taken.

The worm on emerging from the egg is large, and of a chocolate-brown
color. After the first month it becomes of a yellowish green; head,
pale brown; feet and prolegs of nearly the same color. The body has
numerous reddish tubercles, from which issue a few reddish hairs. At
the base of some of the tubercles on the anterior segments are silvery

The _Pernyi_ worm is much more easily reared than that of _Yamamai_,
but still great care is needed; fresh food of course is essential, and
a slight sprinkling of the branches and worms in very warm weather is
advisable; although it is not so necessary as with _Yamamai_. It is
remarkable that _Pernyi_ worms, fed in the open air, on oak trees,
do not, at present, thrive so well as those fed in-doors, but this,
doubtless, is a question of acclimation. I advise white oak (_Quercus
alba_) as food, if it can be readily obtained, but failing that, pin
oak (_Quercus palustris_) will do; and I have no doubt that they will
feed on any kind of oak. They will, indeed, feed on birch, and on
sweet gum (_Liquidambar_), but oak is the proper food. It is worthy of
remark that _Pernyi_ bears a strong resemblance to our _Polyphemus_,
but it is more easily reared in confinement, and double brooded; an
important fact for the silk culturist. From American reared eggs, I
obtained cocoons as early as July 4th, the perfect insect emerging on
July 31. Copulation immediately ensued, and the resulting eggs hatched
only on August 12, ten days only from the time of laying; and as the
worm feeds up in about four or five weeks, this affords plenty of
time for rearing the second brood. It must be remembered that on the
quantity and quality of food, much depends, not only with _Pernyi_
but with all caterpillars. By furnishing food sparingly the time of
feeding would be much prolonged.

I have already said that both _Yamamai_ and _Pernyi_ should be fed
under shelter for the reasons given, but there is another reason of
less importance. The young worms are liable to be attacked by spiders
and wasps, and even after the second month, they are not safe from
these enemies. I have seen a wasp bite a large caterpillar in two,
carry off the anterior section and return for the posterior, which
had held on by its prolegs. Did the wasp anticipate this fact, and
therefore carry off the anterior part first? As to the spiders, they
form a series of pulleys and hoist the caterpillar off its legs,
sucking its juices at leisure.

And now I must devote a few words to the advisability of silk culture
from a pecuniary point of view. _Bombyx mori_, or the ordinary
mulberry silkworm, is, of course, the best to rear, if you can obtain
healthy eggs. But this is the difficulty, and thence arises the
necessity of cultivating other silk-producing species. I imagine
that silk can be produced in most of the States of the Union, and
manufactured from the cocoon at a large profit; but for the present,
we will leave the manufacture out of the question, and consider only,
whether it will not pay to rear eggs and cocoons for sale? It must
be remembered that European manufacturers are at this moment largely
dependent on foreign countries for the supply of both eggs and
cocoons; and this, because of the general prevalence of disease among
all the races of _Bombyx mori_. And now, to what extent does the
reader suppose this dependence exists? Of cocoons I have no returns at
hand, but, of raw silk, European manufacturers purchase, annually, not
less than $160,000,000 worth; and of eggs (_Bombyx mori_) to the
value of $10,000,000. This, then, is a business of no trifling amount.
California seems to be alive to the fact, and, I am informed, raised,
this last season, $3,000,000 cocoons; and, for sale, about 4,000
ounces of eggs, worth at least $4 per ounce, wholesale. Now, there is
no earthly reason why California should monopolize this business.
Why are not companies formed in other States for this purpose? or if
private individuals lack the enterprise or the means, why do not the
legislatures, of those States most favorably located, do something by
way of starting the business? A few thousand dollars loaned, or even
donated, may prove to be a valuable investment for the people at
large, and, even supposing a failure, would not be a very great loss
to any body.

So far as farmers are concerned, it may interest them to know that one
man in England, Capt. Mason, clears $50 per acre by rearing silkworms
(_Bombyx mori_ in this case), and I much doubt whether any crop raised
here pays as well.

By way of commencement, then, let everybody that has sufficient
leisure set to work, and rear as many silkworms, of the above-named
species, as he possibly can; and if the process be not remunerative in
a pecuniary sense, it most assuredly will be in the amount of pleasure
and knowledge obtained.

One caution I must give to those who cultivate _Bombyx mori_. Although
_Yamamai_ requires sprinkled branches, _Bombyx mori_ does not; nor
must the leaves be furnished to them while wet with rain or dew.

       *       *       *       *       *

EFFECT OF COLD UPON IRON.--The article upon this subject, giving
experiments of Fairbairn and others, referred to in our editorial
upon the same subject, in our last issue, was crowded out by press of
matter. The reader will find it in the present number.

       *       *       *       *       *


Our readers will recollect an illustrated description of an universal
wood-working machine, published on page 79, Vol. XIII. of the
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. The machine herewith illustrated is manufactured
by the same firm, and is a valuable addition to the many excellent
wood-working machines now in use. A boring machine, though one of the
simplest, is by no means an unimportant adjunct to a full outfit of
wood-working machines. The one shown in our engraving is one of the
most complete ever brought to our notice, and the great variety of
work it is capable of performing, renders the name chosen for it
peculiarly applicable. It is called the "Universal Boring Machine"
because the most prominent feature of its construction is its power to
bore a hole in any desired angle with the axis of the bit.

Any sized bit required is inserted into the chuck, which is adjustable
to fit large and small shanks. The mandrel which carries the chuck is
made to traverse by a foot lever, so as to bore any depth up to twelve
inches. The mandrel is driven by belt from a cone pulley of three
faces, which gives the proper speeds for different sized bits.

Slots and stops upon the table enable the work to be set at any
desired angle on the horizontal plane, while the table can be set on
an incline to any angle not exceeding forty-five degrees. The table
is twenty-one inches wide, with fifteen inches slide, and it can be
raised or lowered fifteen inches.

The countershaft rests in self-adjusting boxes, and has a tight and
a loose pulley eight inches in diameter. The traversing mandrel is of
the best quality of steel, and the machine is otherwise made of iron
in a substantial manner.


The several adjustments enable the operator to do all kinds of light
and heavy boring, with ease and with great rapidity.

This machine was awarded the first premium at the Cincinnati
Industrial Exposition, in October, 1870, and was patented through the
Scientific American Patent Agency, Aug. 16, 1870. It is manufactured
by McBeth, Bentel and Margedant, of Hamilton, Ohio, whom address for
machines rights to manufacture, or other information.

       *       *       *       *       *


A unique invention, calculated to increase the comforts of travellers
on steamboats, ships, and in crowded rooms of hotels, is illustrated
in the engraving published herewith. It is the invention of T. Nye,
of Westbrook, Me., and was patented by him, June 18, 1867. It is a
combined trunk and rocking chair. The rockers are made to fold into
recesses, where they are retained by suitable appliances till wanted.
The trunk being opened, as shown, forms a back to the seat, which
is held by metallic braces. When closed, the whole presents the
appearance of an ordinary trunk.


       *       *       *       *       *


The extensive use of preparations for hiding nature's bloom on the
human countenance, and presenting to our view a sort of metallic
plaster, suggests the inquiry, "how are these pigments made?" Without
going into an unnecessary analysis of the "Bloom of Youth," the
"Rejuvenator," the "Corpse Decorator," or the other inventions for
destroying the skin, with which the druggists' stores abound, we
may state again the fact, always unheeded, that all the detestable
compounds are injurious. They are nearly all metallic poisons, and,
if there be any that are innocent of this charge, they are in every
instance harmful to the health. The color and surface of the skin
cannot be changed by any application which does not close the pores;
the pores, which are so exquisitely fine that there are millions of
them to the square inch, and which must be kept open if a healthy and
cleanly body is to be preserved. There is more breathing done through
the pores of a healthy person than through the lungs; and we need not
remind our readers of a ghastly piece of cruelty once enacted in Paris
(that of gilding the body of a child, for a triumphal procession,
which killed the subject in two hours), to show that the stoppage, in
any degree, of the natural functions of so important an organ as the
skin, is injurious. The immediate effect of the use of such compounds
is to destroy the vitality of the skin, and to render it, in
appearance, a piece of shriveled parchment. We must warn our readers
that a temporary and meretricious "bloom" can only be attained at the
cost of future freshness and lively appearance, so that a year or two
of "looking like paint" is followed by a long period of "looking like

       *       *       *       *       *


The accompanying engraving illustrates a convenient and cheap infant
dining chair, which can be attached to any of the ordinary chairs in
common use.


It consists of a chair without legs, suspended by the posts of the
back, as shown, on pins engaging with hooked bars, which are placed
upon the back of an ordinary chair. The details of the device will be
seen by a glance at the engraving. The chair is adjusted in hight
by placing the pins in the proper holes in the posts made for this

For further information, address Smith, Hollenbeck & Co., Toledo,

       *       *       *       *       *


At the recent commencement of the Homeopathic College in this city,
Mr. S. H. Wales, of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN addressed the graduating
class, and from his remarks, we quote the following:

"Many writers of our time persist in regarding this, above all others,
as the best period in the history of our race; and, doubtless, it is
true in many important respects. But I cannot forbear the suggestion
at this moment that there was a time in the history of the world
when the science of medicine was unknown, when people lived to the
incredible age of many centuries; and, even after the span of life
had been reduced to threescore and ten, sickness was comparatively
unknown. In ancient times, it was looked upon as a calamity, that
had overtaken a tribe or people, when one of its members prematurely
sickened and died.

"Other arts and sciences flourished in Rome long before medicine
was thought of; and the historian tells us that the first doctor who
settled in Rome, some two hundred years before Christ, was banished on
account of his poor success and the very severe treatment applied to
his patients; and it was a hundred years before the next one came. He
rose to great popularity, simply because he allowed his patients to
drink all the wine they wanted, and to eat their favorite dishes.
Some writer on hygiene has made the statement that the whole code
of medical ethics presented by Moses consisted simply in bathing,
purification, and diet. This simplicity of life was not confined to
the wandering tribes who settled in the land of Canaan, but was the
universal custom of all nations of which history gives us any account.
This simple arrangement for health was considered enough in those
primitive times, when the human system had not been worn out and
exhausted by depletive medicines. The luxuries of public baths,
athletic sports and games were deemed ample, both to educate the
physical perceptions and to prevent disease.

"All this wisdom, which had its origin in ancient games and sports
of the field, led to the erection of extensive bath-houses, and the
adoption of other healthful luxuries to which all the people could
resort to recreate their wasted powers."

       *       *       *       *       *


Many diseases are caused by the use of beds not properly aired; and
it is difficult, if not impossible, to properly air, or ventilate,
a mattress, made in the usual manner. If this could be done more
thoroughly than it generally is, much sickness would be avoided.


To secure this object cheaply and efficiently is the design of the
invention herewith illustrated. By it a complete circulation of
air through the mattress is secured, which carries off all dampness
arising from constant use. Thus the mattress becomes more healthy for
sleeping purposes, more durable and better fitted for the sick room.
The ventilators consist of coiled wire, covered with coarse cloth
(to prevent the stuffing closing up the tube), running through the
mattress in all directions. The ends of the coils are secured to the
ticking by means of metal thimbles, inside of which are pieces of wire
gauze, to prevent insects getting in, but which admit air freely. The
cost of the ventilators is small, and they will last as long as any
mattress. They can be applied to any bed at small expense.

This invention was patented through the Scientific American Patent
Agency, January 10, 1871. The right to manufacture will be disposed
of in any part of the country. Further information can be obtained by
addressing the proprietors, Barnes & Allen, Hoosick Falls, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *

The third annual exhibition of the National Photographic Association
takes place at Horticultural Hall, Philadelphia, June 6, 1871. Prof.
Morton is to deliver two lectures on Light.

       *       *       *       *       *


Our English cotemporary, _Engineering_, appears to have seriously
exercised itself in the perusal of our good-natured article
on "English and American Scientific and Mechanical Engineering
Journalism," which appeared in the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, February
4th; at least, we so judge from the tenor of an article in response
thereto, covering a full page of that journal. The article in question
is a curiosity in literature. It deserves a much wider circulation
than _Engineering_ can give it, and we would gladly transfer it to our
columns, but for its exceeding length--a serious fault generally, not
only with _Engineering's_ articles, but most other technical journals
published in England. It would scarcely do for them to be brief in
their discussions, and above all other things, spice and piquancy
must always be excluded. _Engineering_ evidently labors under the
conviction that the heavier it can make its discussions, the more
profoundly will it be able to impress its readers. Hence, we are
equally astonished and gratified to find a gleam of humor flashing out
from the ordinary sober-sided composition of our learned contemporary.
The article came to us just as we were laboring under an attack of
dyspepsia, and its reading fairly shook our atrabilious _corpus_. We
said to ourselves, "can it be possible that _Engineering_ is about to
experience the new birth, to undergo regeneration, and a baptism of
fire?" The article is really worth reading, and we begin to indulge
the hope that at least one English technical is going to try to make
itself not only useful, but readable and interesting. And what is
most perplexingly novel in this new manifestation, is the display of
a considerable amount of egotism, which we had always supposed to be
a sinful and naughty thing in technical journalism. And, as if to
magnify this self-complaisance, it actually alludes to its "_own
extensive and ever-increasing circulation in America_." Now to show
how small a thing can impart comfort to the soul of our cotemporary,
we venture to say that the circulation of _Engineering_ in this
country cannot much exceed three hundred copies per week.

It evidently amazes our English cotemporary that a journal like the
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, which, according to its own notions, is chiefly
the work of "scissors and paste," should circulate so widely; and it
even belittles our weekly circulation by several thousand copies,
in order to give point to its very amusing, and, we will also add,
generally just criticism.

The writer in _Engineering_, whoever he may be, appears to be a sort
of literary Rip Van Winkle, just waking out of a long sleep; and
he cannot get the idea through his head that it is possible that a
technical journal can become a vehicle of popular information to
the mass of mankind, instead of being the organ of a small clique of
professional engineers or wealthy manufacturers, such as seems to
hold control of the columns of _Engineering_, and who use it either
to ventilate their own pet schemes and theories, or to advertise, by
illustration and otherwise, in the reading columns, a repetition of
lathes, axle-boxes brakes, cars, and other trade specialities, which
can lay little or no claim to novelty. It is, furthermore, a crying
sin in the estimation of our English critic that American technical
journals do not separate their advertisements from the subject matter;
and he thinks that when Yankee editors learn that trade announcements
are out of place in the body of a journal, they will see how to make
their journals pay by making them higher priced. Now we venture to
say, without intending to give offence, that Yankee editors understand
their business quite as well as do English editors; and it is
presumable, at least, that they know what suits their readers on
this side, much better than do English editors. We venture to
suggest--modestly, of course--that journalism in the two countries
is not the same, and should the editor of _Engineering_ undertake
to transfer his system of intellectual labor to this side of the
Atlantic, he would not be long in making the discovery that those
wandering Bohemian engineers, who, he tells us, are in sorrow and
heaviness over the short-comings of American technical journals, would
turn out after all to be slender props for him to lean upon. We think
it probable, however, that with a little more snap, a journal like
_Engineering_ might possibly attain a circulation, in this country, of
500 or 1000 copies weekly.

Why, American engineers have scarcely yet been able to organize
themselves into an association for mutual advancement in their
profession, much less to give the reading public the benefit of their
experience and labors! This fact alone ought, of itself, to satisfy
_Engineering_ that no such journal could profitably exist in this
country. Whenever our American engineers are ready to support such a
journal, there will be no difficulty in finding a publisher.

_Engineering_, in its casual reference to the various technical
journals of America, omits to name our leading scientific monthly, but
introduces with just commendation a venerable cotemporary, now upwards
of three score years of age. Now, it is no disparagement of this
really modest monthly to say, that perhaps there are not sixty hundred
people in the States who know it, even by name; and so far as the use
of "scissors and paste" are made available in our technical journals,
we venture the assertion that the editorial staff expenses of the
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN are as great, if not greater, than those of
_Engineering_. The question, however, is not so much one of original
outlay, but which of the two journals gives most for the money. In
this very essential particular, and with no intention to depreciate
the value of _Engineering_, we assert, with becoming modesty, that the
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN occupies a position which _Engineering_ will never
be able to attain.

       *       *       *       *       *


When people boast of extraordinary successes in processes the details
of which are kept profoundly hidden from public scrutiny, and when the
evidences of success are presented in the doubtful form of specimens
which the public has no means of tracing directly to the process, the
public is apt to be skeptical, and to express skepticism often in not
very complimentary terms.

For a considerable time, the public has been treated to highly-colored
accounts of a wonderful metallurgic process whereby the best iron and
steel were said to be made, from the very worst materials, almost
in the twinkling of an eye. This process has been called after its
assumed inventor, or discoverer, the "Sherman Process." The details of
the process are still withheld, but we last week gave an extract from
an English contemporary, which throws a little light upon the subject.

The agent relied upon to effect the remarkable transformation claimed,
is iodine, used preferably in the form of iodide of potassium, and
very little of it is said to produce a most marvellous change in the
character of the metal.

A very feeble attempt at explaining the rationale of this effect has
been made, in one or two English journals, which we opine will not
prove very satisfactory to chemists and scientific metallurgists. The
_Engineer_ has published two three-column articles upon the subject,
the first containing very little information, and the second a great
number of unnecessary paragraphs, but which gives the proportion of
the iodide used, in the extremely scientific and accurate formula
expressed in the terms "a small quantity."

Assertions of remarkable success have also been given. Nothing,
however, was said of remarkable failures, of which there have
doubtless been some. A series of continued successes would, we
should think, by this time, have sufficed for the parturition of
this metallurgic process, and the discovery would ere this have been
introduced to the world, had there not been some drawbacks.

We are not prepared to deny _in toto_ that the process is all that is
claimed for it; but the way in which it has been managed is certainly
one not likely to encourage faith in it.

The very name of "process" implies a system perfected, and if it be
still so far back in the experimental stage that nothing definite in
the way of results can be relied upon, it is not yet a process. If, in
the use of iodine, in some instances, fine grades of iron or steel are
produced, and in as many other experiments, with the same material,
failures result, it is just as fair to attribute the failures to the
iodine, as the successes. A process worthy the name is one that acts
with approximate uniformity, and when, in its use, results vary
widely from what is usual, the variation may be traced to important
differences in the conditions of its application.

On the whole, we are inclined to believe Mr. Sherman's experiments
have not yet developed a definite process, and we shall receive with
much allowance the glowing statements published in regard to it, until
such time as it can face the world and defy unbelief.

The patents obtained by Mr. Sherman seem to cover the use of iodine,
rather than the manner of using it, and throw no light upon the
rationale of the process.

A patent was granted by the United States Patent Office, Sept. 13,
1870, to J. C. Atwood, in which the inventor claims the use of iodide
of potassium in connection with the carbons and fluxes used in making
and refining iron. In his specification he states that he uses about
_fifteen grains_ of this salt to eighty pounds of the metal. This
is about 1/373 of one per cent. He uses in connection with this
exceedingly small proportion of iodide of potassium, about two ounces
of lampblack, or charcoal, and four ounces of manganese, and asserts
that steel made with these materials will be superior in quality
to that made by the old method. These claims we are inclined to
discredit. Certainly, we see no chemical reason why this small amount
of iodide should produce such an effect, and the specification itself
throws no light upon our darkness.

If the experiments in these so-called processes have no better basis
than is apparent from such information as at present can be gathered
respecting them, it is probable we shall wait some time before the
promised revolution in iron and steel manufacture is accomplished
through their use.

       *       *       *       *       *


When it was first discovered that a smooth-faced driving wheel,
running on a smooth-faced rail, would "bite," the era of iron railways
and locomotive engines may be said to have fairly commenced. The
correction of a single radical error was, in this case, the dawn of a
new system of travel, so extensive in its growth and marvelous in its
results, that even the wildest dreamer could not, at that time, have
imagined the consequences of so simple a discovery.

A popular and somewhat similar error regarding the bite of wheels on
rough and uneven surfaces, has also prevailed. We say popular error,
because engineers have not shared it, and it has obtained, to any
notable extent, only among those unfamiliar with mechanical science.
The error in question is, that hard-surfaced wheels will not bite on
a moderately rough surface, sufficiently to give an efficient tractile
power. It seems strange that this error should have diffused itself
very extensively, when it is remembered that a certain degree of
roughness is essential to frictional resistance. The smoothness of the
ordinary railway track is roughness compared to that of an oiled or
unctuous metallic surface; and it has been amply demonstrated that
the resistance of friction, of two bearing surfaces depends, not
upon their extent, but upon the pressure with which they are forced
together. A traction wheel, of given weight, resting upon two square
inches of hard earth or rock, would develop the same tractile power
as though it had a bearing surface of two square feet of similar

On very rough and stony ways, however, another element practically of
no importance on moderately rough ways, like a macadam surface or a
concrete road, where the prominences are nearly of uniform hight, and
so near together as to admit between their summits only very small
arcs of the circumference of the wheel; comes into action. This
element is the constantly recurring lifting of the superincumbent
weight of the machine. Even this would not result in loss of power,
could the power developed in falling be wholly applied to useful work
in the direction of the advance of the engine. The fact is, however,
that it is not so applied, and in any method of propulsion at present
known to engineering science, cannot be so applied. Above a certain
point where friction enough is developed to prevent slip, the more
uneven the road surface is, the greater the power demanded for the
propulsion of the locomotive. And this will hold good for both hard
and soft-tired wheels.

What then is the advantage, if any, of rubber-tired wheels? The
advantages claimed may be enumerated as follows: increased tractile
power, with a given weight, secured without damage to roadways; ease
of carriage to the supported machinery, whereby it--the machinery--is
saved from stress and wear; and economy of the power, expended in
moving the extra weight required by rigid-tired wheels, to secure the
required frictional resistance. The last-mentioned claim depends upon
the first, and must stand or fall with it. The saving of roadway,
ease of carriage, and its favorable result upon the machinery, are
generally conceded.

A denial of the first claim has been made, by those interested in the
manufacture of rigid-tired traction engines and others, in so far
as the rubber tires are employed on comparatively smooth surfaces;
although the increased tractile power on quite _rough_ pavements and
roads is acknowledged.

This denial is based upon results of experiments performed on the
streets of Rochester, England, between the 9th October and the 2nd
November, 1870, by a committee of the Royal Engineers (British Army),
with a view to determine accurately the point in question.

Care was taken to make the circumstances, under which the trials
took place, exactly alike for both the rubber and the iron tires. The
experiments were performed with an Aveling and Porter six-horse power
road engine, built in the Royal Engineers' establishment. The weight
of the engine, without rubber tires, was 11,225 pounds; with rubber
tires, it weighed 12,025 pounds. Without rubber tires it drew 2.813
times its own weight up a gradient of 1 in 11; with rubber
tires, it drew up the same incline 2.763 times the weight of engine,
with the weight of rubber tires added; showing that, although it drew
a little over 2,200 pounds more than it could do without the rubber
tires, the increase of traction was only that which might be expected
from the additional weight.

It is claimed, moreover, that the additional traction power and
superior ease of carriage on rough roads, secured with rubber tires,
is dearly bought at the very great increase in cost, of an engine
fitted with them, over one not so fitted.

This is a point we regard as not fully settled, though it will not
long remain in doubt. There are enough of both types of wheels now in
use to soon answer practically any question there may be of durability
(upon which the point of economy hinges), so far as the interest on
the increased cost due to rubber tires, is offset against the greater
wear and tear of iron rimmed wheels. It is stated, on good authority
that a rubber tired engine, started at work in Aberdeen, Scotland,
wore out its tires between April and September, inclusive, and when
it is taken into consideration, that the cost of these tires is
about half that of other engines, made with solid iron rimmed driving
wheels, it will be seen that, unless very much greater durability than
this can be shown for the rubber, the advantages of such tires are
very nearly, if not more than, balanced by their disadvantages.

The fact that one set of tires wore out so soon does not prove a rule.
There may have been causes at work which do not affect such tires
generally, and it would be, we think, quite premature to form
favorable or unfavorable judgment, of relative economy from such data
as have been yet furnished.

The difference in the current expenses of running the two most
prominent types of engines, with hard and soft tires, now in use, does
not affect the question of rubber tires, unless it can be shown that
these tires necessitate, _per se_, such a form of engine as requires
a greater consumption of fuel, and greater cost of attendance, to
perform a given amount of work.

       *       *       *       *       *


As many of our readers have evinced much interest and ingenuity on
the question of the propriety of placing reliance upon the accuracy of
dropping a perpendicular from the top to the bottom of a shaft 1,030
feet in depth, by means of an ordinary plummet, we take the earliest
opportunity of settling the matter beyond dispute, by reporting
the results lately obtained, through a series of experiments by the
engineers in charge, for the ultimate purpose of laying down the
correct line for the tunnel.

The perpendicular line has, of course, been dropped many times, and
the main result taken. The plummet used is made of steel, properly
balanced and polished, in shape something like a pineapple, and of
about the same size, weighing fifteen pounds. It was suspended, with
the large end downwards, by a thin copper wire, one fortieth of an
inch in diameter, immersed in water; and, after careful steadying with
the hand, occupied about an hour in assuming its final position or
motion, which, contrary to the expectation and theories of many,
resulted in a circular motion around a fixed point, the diameter of
the circle being a mean of one quarter of an inch. The suspending
wire in these operations was not quite the entire length of the shaft,
being only 900 feet; and before the plummet had settled, the wire had
stretched nearly twenty feet.

The suspension of the plummet in water was not considered necessary
for any other reason than that water was continually trickling down
the wire, and dropping on the plummet. The experiments so far have
not been of the perfect character it is determined to attain, when the
final alignment is made, as, until the headings east and west of the
shaft have advanced to a considerable distance, any slight error would
be of no account.

A neat and ingenious instrument has been constructed for determining
the variation of the plummet, and will be used when great accuracy is
desired; the plummet will also be suspended in oil.

The bearing of the tunnel is about S. 81° E.; but, independently of
its near approach to the line of revolution described by the earth,
it is not considered necessary to take into account any motion it may
derive from this cause. In fact, the opinion is, that the motion of
the earth will not practically have any effect.

On the whole, after the still imperfect experiments which have been
made, enough is established to show there is no difficulty to be
encountered, other than the accurate and delicate manipulation of the
plummet and its attachments.

The shaft headings are progressing favorably. The rock is not so hard
or varied as that met with at the west end markings. Already nearly
300 feet have been taken out, and with the proved energy of the
contractors, this great task will doubtless be prosecuted steadily and
surely to completion, within the contract time expiring March 1, 1874.

       *       *       *       *       *


Our recent articles on "Scientific Destitution in New York" and "The
Scientific Value of the Central Park," have called forth numerous
letters from correspondents, and have been extensively noticed by the
press. We now learn that the legislature of the State has taken
the matter in hand, and there is some prospect, with an honest
administration of the appropriations, of something being done to
relieve our city of the opprobrium that rests upon it. A bill is
pending, before the Senate, authorizing the Park Commissioners to
build, equip, and furnish, on Manhattan Square, or any other public
square or park, suitable fire-proof buildings, at a cost not exceeding
$500,000 for each corporation, for the purpose of establishing a
museum of art, by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and of a museum
of natural history, by the American Museum of Natural History, two
societies recently incorporated by the Legislature. This is a million
dollars to begin with, and an ample site, without cost, to the
aforementioned corporations.

Manhattan Square extends from Seventy-seventh to Eighty-first streets,
and from Eighth to Ninth avenues, and spans about eighteen acres.
Until it was set apart by the state Board of Commissioners, for the
purposes of a Zoological Garden, it was proposed, by a number of
enlightened citizens of New York, to devote it to the uses of four of
our existing corporations, giving to each one a corner, and an equal
share in the allotment of space. The societies were, "the Academy of
Design," for art, "the Historical Society," for public records and
libraries, "the Lyceum of Natural History," for science, and "the
American Institute," for technology. These have been incorporated
for many years, and are known to include the leading artists, men
of letters, science, and the arts, of the city, on their lists of
members. The committee went so far as to have plans of the building
drawn by competent architects; but, like many other well-meant
schemes, want of money compelled the originators of the plan to
abandon any further attempts. In the meantime, the Legislature
chartered the American Botanical and Zoological Society, and gave the
Commissioners of the Park authority to set apart a portion of it,
not exceeding sixty acres, for the use of the Society, for the
establishment of a zoological and botanical garden. This society
was duly organized under the act, and Mr. Hamilton Fish was made
its president, and considerable sums of money were subscribed. But,
according to the sixth annual report of the Board of Commissioners,
"the society never manifested its desire for an allotment of ground."
It appears to have died, and made no sign. Some of our citizens,
fearing that the Central Park would go the way of every other public
work in the city, made strenuous effort to revive the Zoological
Society, for the purpose of obtaining a perpetual lease of a suitable
site, on which to establish a zoological garden, similar to those in
London, Paris, Amsterdam, and Cologne. Their object was to remove this
part of the Park beyond the reach of political intrigue. Subsequent
events have shown that the fears of these gentlemen were well founded.
The Legislature of the State, on the 25th of March, 1862, gave ample
powers to the New York Historical Society to establish a Museum of
Antiquity and Science, and a Gallery of Art, in the Central Park.
They have submitted designs for a building, but, for some reason, no
decisive steps have been taken towards its construction.

The Lyceum of Natural History was also negotiating with the
Commissioners, for the use of the upper rooms of the arsenal for its
collections, and there is no doubt that an arrangement to this
effect would have been made, if a fire had not destroyed the entire
collections of the Lyceum. The Lyceum made great effort to raise money
to purchase a new collection, but without avail; and, although this
is the oldest scientific society in New York, and has inrolled in its
list of members, nearly every professional scientist of the city, it
is probably the poorest, in income and resources, of any academy of
sciences in the world. We do not know that the Academy of Design has
ever applied for a home in the Central Park; and we cannot speak for
the American Institute, nor for the Geographical Society, in this
particular. As we stated in our former article, the old Board of
Commissioners appears to have become weary of the unsuccessful
attempts on the part of numerous societies to divide up and apportion
the Central Park, and they applied to the Legislature for authority to
conduct matters in their own way. An act was duly passed, authorizing
the Board "to erect, establish, conduct, and maintain, on the Central
Park, a Meteorological and Astronomical Observatory, a Museum of
Natural History, and a Gallery of Art, and the buildings therefor, and
to provide the necessary instruments, furniture, and equipments for
the same."

Here would seem to be ample power for the establishment of museums of
science and art, but nothing is said about the manner of raising the
money. One would suppose, however, that, by means of the "Central Park
Improvement Fund," abundant means could have been raised. The bill
now before the Legislature puts matters in a new light. If it does not
conflict with previous enactments, nor destroy vested rights, it has
the appearance of being a thoroughly practical way of solving the
question of art and science for the city. The Metropolitan Museum of
Art and the American Museum of Natural History are in the hands of
the most respectable citizens of New York. It would not be possible to
find a body of men of more unimpeachable integrity and greater
worth, than the gentlemen who have founded these two societies. It is
impossible that they should lend their names to anything that will
not bear the closest scrutiny; hence the proposition, now before the
Legislature, to put up buildings for them, at a cost of a million
dollars, must attract unusual attention. If the State would
appropriate the money to these corporations, giving them the control
of its expenditure, we should have considerably more confidence in its
honest administration than, we are grieved to say, we can feel under
the present circumstances; and if we knew what other institutions
are to have the remaining portions of Manhattan Square, it would be a
great relief to our minds.

"We fear the Greeks bringing gifts," but are willing to accept the
gifts, if the officers of the two organizations are certain that it is
all right.

The need of a Museum of Natural History, and of a Gallery of Art, in
New York, is so pressing that there is some danger of our accepting
the appropriations without a proper regard to consequences. The Court
House is not yet finished, and the foundations of the Post-office are
scarcely laid.

       *       *       *       *       *


The labors of the judges in this department were much lighter in the
last exhibition than in the preceding one, and we are happy to say,
were, in our opinion, so far as the award of premiums is concerned,
much more fairly performed. The award of two first premiums to two
competing engines could scarcely be repeated this time, as there was
in reality no competition. The Allen engine was the only important
one entered, and of course received the first premium. The engine is,
however, one that evidently could have competed favorably with those
previously exhibited.

We are in receipt of advanced sheets of the judges' report pertaining
to the critical examination of this engine, being a record and account
of experiments performed under the supervision of Washington Lee, C. E.
The experiments were very comprehensive, and comprised approved tests,
of each important detail, usually made by expert engineers.

The report is too voluminous for reprint or even for condensation
in our columns. In looking it through, we are satisfied that the
experiments were accurately made, and that the engine exhibited great
working efficiency and economy.

As the engine has been recently illustrated and described in our
columns, we deem it unnecessary to dwell upon the details of its
construction. The water test of the previous exhibition was employed,
the water being this time measured, with indisputable accuracy, in a
tank, instead of by a meter as before.

The voluminous comparison of this engine with those previously
exhibited, seems unnecessary, and we think not in good taste in such a
report, however much it may possess of scientific interest. Moreover,
the circumstances under which the trials were respectively performed,
render the comparison difficult, if not unfair.

Mr. Lee concludes his report with a thorough endorsement of the theory
of Mr. Porter upon the action of the reciprocating parts of engines,
as set forth by the last named gentleman in recent articles in this
journal. He says:

"Under the resistance of 128.375 horse powers at the brake, the motion
of the engine was remarkably uniform; not the least diminution of
speed in passing the centers could be detected, illustrating very
satisfactorily the value, in this respect, of the speed employed, and
of the action of the reciprocating parts of the engine in equalizing
the rotative pressure on the crank through the stroke. The governor
was, during the trials and through the exhibition, nearly motionless,
while the load remained constant, and instantaneous in its action on
changes of resistance, maintaining a steadiness of running which left
nothing to be desired."

The judges--Prof. F. A. P. Barnard, Thos. J. Sloan, and Robert
Weir--speak in their report as follows:

"The performance of this engine has exceeded that of the two fine
engines which were on trial here last year. The results seem to be
without precedent in such engines. The engine ran from 11 to 12
hours repeatedly without showing a sign of a warm bearing, displaying
thorough perfection in all its parts. In all respects the engine is
first-class, and from the fact of its presenting weight with speed, as
a requisite for perfection in steam engines, it has opened a new era
in this necessary branch--its economy having been clearly demonstrated
in the careful trials, which ought to be published in full."

       *       *       *       *       *


There was an unusually large attendance of members at the meeting of
the Lyceum of Natural History, on Monday evening, the 6th inst.,
to listen to an address by Professor B. Waterhouse Hawkins, on the
progress of the work of the restoration of the forms of extinct
animals in the Central Park. Mr. Hawkins gave an account of the
difficulties he encountered at the outset, in finding any skeletons
of animals in New York, with which to make comparisons, and he was
finally compelled to go to Boston and Philadelphia for this purpose.
After much study and many delays, the casts of the _Hadrosaurus_ were
completed, and numerous smaller skeletons prepared. At this stage of
the proceedings an entire change in the administration of the Park
took place, and the newly appointed Commissioners decided to suspend
the work upon the Palæozoic Museum, and they dismissed Mr. Hawkins
from their service.

The announcement that an end had thus been summarily put to one of the
most important educational projects ever started in this country, was
received by the Lyceum with profound surprise. For a few minutes after
the close of Mr. Hawkins' report, no one felt disposed to make any
comment, but as the truth of the great damage became apparent, there
was considerable disposition manifested to have the Society give
expression to its sense of the value of Mr. Hawkins' services in the
cause of education, and their regret that so important a work should
be suspended at this critical period. Remarks were made by Dr.
Newbery, Professor Joy, Mr. Andrew H. Green, Professor Seely, Dr.
Walz, Mr. E. G. Squier, and others, and the following resolutions were
unanimously adopted:

  _Resolved_, That the Lyceum of Natural History, in the city of New
  York, has learned with deep regret of the temporary suspension
  of the work of restoration of the forms of extinct animals,
  as hitherto prosecuted in the Central Park, under the able
  superintendence of Professor Waterhouse Hawkins.

  _Resolved_, That the Society considers the proposed palæozoic
  museum not only a valuable acquisition to the scientific treasures
  and resources of the city, but also as a most important adjunct
  and complement to our great system of public education.

       *       *       *       *       *


There has been enough of denunciation against the present general
method of warming and ventilating railway cars. It produces no effect
on the corporations who could, if they would, adopt appliances that
would not burn people to death in cases of accident, nor regularly and
persistently poison them with bad air.

There is no lack of ways and means; the problem is simple and easily
solved; nay--a not very extensive search through the Patent Office
records will show that it has been solved already; perhaps not in the
most practical and perfect manner, but still solved so well, as, were
it not for corporation cupidity, would greatly add to the comfort and
safety of passengers.

The real problem is how to compel corporations to recognize the
fact that the public has rights they are bound to respect. It is the
disregard of these rights that fills our cars with smoke, dust, and
exhalations, and puts box stoves full of hot coals in the corners,
ready to cook the human stew whenever a frisky car shall take a
notion to turn a somersault. The invention needed is a conscience for
corporations--an invention, by the way, scarcely less difficult
than the one advertised for in our last issue, namely, a plan for
preventing the sale of intoxicating liquors and tobacco in New Jersey.

The _Railroad Gazette_, imitating the English ideal of prolixity in
discussion, for which _Engineering_ has recently patted it on the
back approvingly, treats us, in its issue of February 11th, to a page
article, to be continued, under the title of "Warming and Ventilation
of Railroad Cars." In this article the writer takes the ground that
people in general are ignorant of the effects of pure air, and not
being able to "see the foulness," they "therefore do not believe
it exists." It is quite possible they may not be able to see the
foulness, but if in the majority of railroad cars run in this country,
they are not able to feel it in gritty, grimy accumulations on skin
and linen, and smell it in suffocating stenches which serve, with
sneeze-provoking dust, to stifle anything like comfort, their skin
must be thicker, their linen more neglected, and their noses less
sensitive than those of the majority of fellow travellers it has been
our fortune to be cooped up with for a day's railroad journey.

The _Railroad Gazette_ makes this wholesale charge of ignorance
and insensibility the excuse for an essay on the physiology of
respiration, mostly extracted from Huxley's "Elementary Lessons in
Physiology," and therefore excellent in its way, though having a
somewhat remote bearing upon the subject as announced in the title of
the article. We trust that before this journal concludes its series of
articles thus commenced, it will tell how to breathe into the breasts
of the corporations which choke us in their human packing boxes,
something resembling the soul which they are universally acknowledged
to be destitute of. When this is done, carbonic acid, ammoniacal
smells, organic exhalations, smoke, and dust, will be invited to shun
the interiors of railway cars, and comparative comfort will descend
upon the peregrinating public.

       *       *       *       *       *


The incalculable wealth, which lies hid in the bosom of Mother Earth,
in our vast possessions of the West, is undoubtedly centered in the
State of Missouri; and the development of this fund of riches must
add to the national prosperity, not only by its immeasurable intrinsic
value, but by its affording occupation to armies of laborers, the
latter being the highest and most important consideration.

In 1852-3, a geological survey of the State was wisely decided upon,
and a liberal provision for its execution made. Two valuable reports,
by Professor Swallow, have been printed, in the year 1855, but the
notes of his subsequent investigations have not been made public.

In the session of 1869-70, further action, in this important public
work, was taken by the State legislature, and arrangements made for a
still more accurate and detailed examination, under the direction of
Professor A. D. Hager, of Vermont.

The distribution of metals all over the State will be seen in the
following figures, taken from the St. Louis _Journal of Commerce_,
which show the number of counties in which the various ores are found:
Iron in 46 counties, lead in 43, coal in 36, copper in 24, marble in
11, zinc in 27, fire clay in 16, barytes in 10, nickel in 6, granite
in 4, tin in 4, plumbago in 2, gypsum in 2, alum in 1, antimony in 4.

There is probably no country in the world so endowed as this. Of iron
alone, according to the State geologist's report for 1855, there is
ore of the best quality, sufficient to furnish 200,000,000 tuns of
iron; and this quantity lies in a small space, in the vicinity of
Pilot Knob and Iron Mountain, and within 100 miles of St. Louis.

The quality of the iron is highly spoken of by the manufacturers, and
the capacity of the smelting appliances has reached to over 150,000
tuns per annum. The coal is well suited for reduction of ores,
either by hot or cold blast treatment. The Scotia Iron Co. commenced
operations in January, 1870; and, although the materials for building
blast furnaces had to be carried 80 miles into a desert, the first
furnace was blown into blast in August, 1870. This furnace will run
about 24 tuns per day. The company procures ore from a hill, near the
furnace, in which there is an apparently inexhaustible supply of red
oxide and brown specular. This ore yields 60 per cent of pure metal.
The erection of mills for making wrought iron is contemplated, and the
high quality and prodigious quantity of the raw material will justify
and reward any outlay of capital in this direction.

The shipment of ore to other States goes on constantly, the last
year's account showing that 246,555 tuns were dispersed over Indiana,
Ohio, and others. The furnaces at Kingsland, South St. Louis, Lewis
Iron Co.'s Works, Carondelet, and Maramec are all well situated as
to coal and limestone, the Maramec Works having a most valuable
water-power. These latter works also ship about 40,000 tuns red
hematite ore yearly.

       *       *       *       *       *


According to _Petermann's Mittheilungen_, the new German empire,
including Alsatia and Lorraine, will embrace 9,901 square miles, with
40,148,209 inhabitants. Russia alone will exceed it in extent and
population, for Russia in Europe has 100,285 square miles with a
population of 69,379,500. France, after the loss of Alsatia and
Lorraine, will have 9,588 square miles of territory, with 36,428,548
inhabitants. Austria will number 35,943,592 inhabitants spread over a
larger extent of country, namely, 10,980 square miles. Great Britain
and Ireland has 5,732 square miles, with 30,838,210 inhabitants;
and Italy, including Rome, has 5,376 square miles, with 26,470,000
inhabitants. In the order of population, the Governments will stand:
Russia, Germany, France, Austria, and England; but in military power,
the first position must henceforth be accorded to Germany.


A circular has been issued by several mining engineers, proposing
a meeting at Wilkes-Barre, some time in April or May next, of all
persons interested in the general subjects of mining and metallurgy,
for the purpose of establishing an association, to be called "The
American Institute of Mining Engineers." The Institute will hold
meetings periodically "in the great mining and metallurgical centers,
when works of interest, such as mines, machine shops, furnaces, and
other metallurgical works, can be inspected, and the members exchange
their views, and consult, for mutual advantage, upon the difficulties
encountered by each." There will be the usual publication of
"Transactions" and "Proceedings."

The idea of forming an association of persons thus mutually interested
in each other's occupations, is an excellent one; but it has been
suggested by a number of scientific gentlemen that the American
Association for the Advancement of Science offers every facility for
the accomplishment of the objects set forth in the circular, while it
affords the very great advantage of an assemblage of men learned in
all departments of knowledge, whose acquaintance mining engineers
would do well to make, and from whom they could learn much, while at
the same time imparting of their own knowledge.

As a section of the American Association, the mining engineers would
have more influence before the country, and it would perhaps be
well for them to stop and consider before establishing a separate


E. Behm gives in his geographical year book, for 1870, the following
estimate of the consumption of sugar, coffee, and tea, _per capita_,
in various countries:

COUNTRIES.       Sugar, lbs.   Coffee, lbs.  Tea, lbs.

Great Britain       35.96        0.90          3.190
United States       24.63        5.68          .....
Holland             14.86        7.03          0.800
France              14.30        2.32          0.018
Norway              11.04        6.92          0.060
Sweden               9.80        0.80          0.060
Switzerland          9.60        5.28          .....
Germany              9.42        4.03          0.035
Denmark              9.00        3.40          0.400
Belgium              7.18        8.59          0.018
Portugal             6.33        0.69          0.040
Italy                5.20        0.90          0.020
Austria              4.93        1.30          0.012
Spain                4.23        0.01          0.040
Russia               2.40        0.007         0.160

The entire consumption of sugar in Europe has averaged, during the
last few years, three thousand four hundred and ten million pounds
(3,410,000 pounds), and for the whole world it is set down at nearly
twice that amount. It is estimated that three fourths of the sugar is
made from cane, and one fourth from the beet.

The consumption of coffee has doubled in most countries during the
last twenty years.

       *       *       *       *       *


"The Patent Office has been, during the past week, in a high state of
excitement, occasioned by the discovery of the operations of E. W. W.
Griffin, clerk in charge of the draftsmen's division, who, it appears,
has been levying black mail on the lady employés of the office, for
nearly two years. During the administration of Colonel Fisher, late
Commissioner of Patents, a large number of ladies were employed, for
the purpose of recopying drawings, when ordered by the inventors, of
patents already on file.

"These ladies were placed under charge of Griffin, with power to
retain them in office so long as their services were satisfactory. It
has been proved that Griffin hired the ladies at regular salaries of
$1,000 per annum, the most of whom he blackmailed to the amount of
$400 per year each. It is estimated that he has made $1,000 per month
for the past two years.

"The matter was brought to the notice of Commissioner Duncan, and an
investigation ordered, which resulted in the dismissal of Griffin.

"It is thought that there are other cases of this kind, and the
Commissioner expresses his determination to ferret them all out,
and make a clean sweep of all parties in his department engaged in
swindling operations, against the government or against individuals.

"The Patent Office has for a long time been considered a rich field
for operations of this kind, and investigations have often been
suggested, but passed unheeded by the proper authorities.

"It is openly stated that an investigation into the relations existing
between certain examiners of patents and certain patent agents, would
disclose a more fearful state of blackmailing than exists in all the
other government departments combined."

[We find the above sensational paragraph among the recent Washington
items of the _Evening Mail_. We are in a position to say that "the
high state of excitement" alluded to has existed only in the brain of
the newspaper correspondent. The facts, in brief, are these: In July,
1869, a lady, and wife of one of the clerks in the draftsmen's room,
made application to Commissioner Fisher for a position in the copying
division of the same department; and, upon the urgent solicitation and
recommendation of Mr. E. W. W. Griffin, chief of the division, she
was appointed, and has held the position from that time until now,
receiving as salary $1,000 per annum, which, with the full knowledge
of her husband, she has divided with Griffin, in consideration of his
services in procuring for her the appointment. About a month ago, one
of the lady's friends got hold of the matter, and reported it to the
Court, which resulted in an investigation and the subsequent dismissal
of Griffin. This is the only case of the kind that we have heard of,
and we have no reason to believe that there is any other, or that
corruption exists in the Examining Corps, as alleged.--EDS.

       *       *       *       *       *

A method of testing the purity of samples of water, by watching
the rapidity of its action on soap and similar compounds, has been
introduced by the French _savants_, MM. Boutron and Boudet. The
experiment tests, at the same time, the purity of the soap. Dissolved
in water in which lime is held in solution, the soap is precipitated
in hard white flakes. If the quantity of soap put in the lime water
be noted, it will be found that the smaller the quantity producing
precipitation, the purer the soap. The _Journal de Pharmacie et de
Chemie_ (of Paris) reports some experiments, on this subject, by M. F.

       *       *       *       *       *

LOUISIANA STATE FAIR.--The fifth State fair of the Mechanics, and
Agricultural Fair Association of Louisiana will commence in the city
of New Orleans, on Saturday, April 8, 1871, and continue nine days.
Over $20,000 in premiums are offered. Rules, regulations, and schedule
of premiums may be obtained of the Secretary and Treasurer, Luther
Homes, Esq., New Orleans, La.

       *       *       *       *       *

KNITTED GOODS.--John Kent advertises, in this paper, valuable
machinery for the manufacture of knitted goods, to which we invite the
attention of all who are interested in this branch of industry. Mr.
Kent has devoted many years to the perfection of these machines.

       *       *       *       *       *

KAOLIN, a white clay, used largely in the adulteration of flour,
starch, and candles, is found near Augusta, Ga., and is sent to the
Northern States in large quantities.

       *       *       *       *       *

We are indebted to James Vick, practical florist, Rochester, N. Y.,
for a choice variety of flower seeds.

       *       *       *       *       *


A COMPLETE GUIDE FOR COACH PAINTERS. Translated from the French of
M. Arlot, Coach Painter, for Eleven Years Foreman of Painting to M.
Eherler, Coach Maker, Paris. By A. A. Fesquet, Chemist and Engineer.
To which is added an Appendix, containing Information respecting the
Materials and the Practice of Coach and Car Painting and Varnishing,
in the United States and Great Britain. Philadelphia: Henry Carey
Baird, Industrial Publisher, 406 Walnut street. London: Sampson Low,
Son & Marston, Crown Buildings, 188 Fleet street. 1871. Price, by
mail, to any part of the United States, $1.25.

  This is another of the large number of practical works and
  industrial treatises issued from the press of Mr. Baird. It is
  intended as a practical manual for the use of coach painters, and
  we must say, upon examination of its contents, that we think it
  admirably adapted to meet the wants of that class of artisans
  for which it has been prepared. There is perhaps no department of
  decorative art in which there is greater room for the display of
  skill and taste than in coach painting. This work, however, does
  not deal with the subject of art, to any great extent. Its aim
  is to give information in regard to colors, varnishes, etc., and
  their management in carriage painting in the plainest manner, and
  in this way it thoroughly fulfils the intention of the author.

ON THE GENERATION OF SPECIES. By St. George Mivart, F. R. S. London:

  The Darwinian theory of the Origin of Species, has, perhaps,
  aroused more attention, excited more dispute, and won more
  converts in a shorter time among scientific and unscientific
  men, than any other of equal importance promulgated in the 19th
  century. It seems to be the rule either to swallow the theory
  whole, or reject it as unworthy of belief, and as conflicting with
  orthodoxy. The author of the work before us has, however, taken
  a middle ground, from which we opine it will be difficult to
  dislodge him, though it is within full range of the batteries of
  both the contending parties. While he admits the truth of Darwin's
  views regarding the operation of natural selection as a cause of
  the origin of species, he denies that it is the sole cause, yet
  maintains that if it could be demonstrated to be the sole cause,
  it would in no manner conflict with orthodox belief in the
  Scriptures as the revelation of God to mankind. The perfect candor
  of the author is one of the marked features of the discussion,
  and his style is a model of pure terse English writing, seldom,
  if ever, excelled by any scientific writer. The work is an octavo,
  most beautifully printed on tinted paper, and illustrated by many
  fine wood engravings.

Consisting of a Short but Comprehensive Epitome of Decimals,
Duodecimals, Geometry and Mensuration; with Tables of U. S. Measures,
Sizes, Weights, Strengths, etc., of Iron, Wood, Stone, and Various
Other Materials; Quantities of Materials in Given Sizes and Dimensions
of Wood, Brick, and Stone; and a Full and Complete Bill of Prices for
Carpenter's Work; also Rules for Computing and Valuing Brick and
Brick Work, Stone Work, Painting, Plastering, etc. By Frank W. Vogdes
Architect. Philadelphia: Henry Carey Baird, Publisher, 406 Walnut
street. Price by mail, postpaid, $2.

  This is a small work, but printed in small type, and containing a
  large amount of useful matter, thoroughly indexed for reference;
  bound in morocco; and provided with a clasp, so as to be
  conveniently carried in the pocket.

Brother, Gas Meter Manufacturers, Nos. 1115 and 1117 Cherry street,
Philadelphia. Philadelphia: Henry Carey Baird, Industrial Publisher,
406 Walnut street.

  We find in this pocket-book much of interest to gas consumers, as
  well as to gas makers. The subject of meters is fully discussed.
  The work is bound in pocket-book style, in flexible morocco
  binding. Price, by mail, postpaid, $2.

       *       *       *       *       *


_The Charge for Insertion under this head is One Dollar a Line. If
the Notices exceed Four Lines, One Dollar and a Half per Line will be

       *       *       *       *       *

The paper that meets the eye of manufacturers throughout the United
States--Boston Bulletin, $4.00 a year. Advertisements 17c. a line.

Half Interest for sale in established Machinery Depot, new and
second-hand. Steam fitting connected. Small capital, with energy,
required. Address T. V. Carpenter, Advertising Agent, Box 773, New

See advertisement of a Woolen Mill for sale. A bargain.

I am active, have a clear record, and some capital. How can I make
some money? F. Carmill, Box 1268, Boston, Mass.

Pattern Letters for Machinists, Molders, and Inventors, to letter
patterns of castings, all sizes. Address H. W. Knight, Seneca Falls,
N. Y.

Improved mode of Graining Wood, pat. July 5, '70, by J. J. Callow,
Cleveland, O. See illustrated S. A., Dec. 17, '70. Send stamp for

Can a round, spring-steel rod be drawn to any desired length, with
a true taper to a point, with equal elasticity the whole length, and
rolled temper? What is the price per hundred pounds, and where can
they be procured? Answer "Sportsman," Malone, N. Y.

Manufacturers of Foot Lathes and other light machinery please address
Geo. B. Kirkham, 167 E. 33d st., N. Y. city. Business of importance!

Safety Kerosene Lamps (Perkins & House's Patent). Explosion or
breaking impossible; light equal to gas, and no odor. Families
supplied and canvassers appointed, by Montgomery & Co., 42 Barclay
st., New York, or Cleveland, O.

All parties wanting a water wheel will learn something of interest by
addressing P. H. Wait, Sandy Hill, N. Y., for a free circular of his
Hudson River Champion Turbine.

Ashcroft's Low Water Detector, $15; thousands in use; 17 year's
experience. Can be applied for $1. Send for circular. E. H. Ashcroft,
Boston, Mass.

Wanted.--Machines for manufacturing Pails, Tubs, and Matches. Also,
competent man to superintend construction of buildings, and manage all
parts of business when complete. Address, with descriptive circulars,
price, etc., No. 266 Lexington avenue, New York.

Turbine Water Wheels, Portable and Stationary Engines, Gang and
Circular Saw Mills, Rolling Mill Machinery, and Machinery for Axe
Manufacturers, manufactured by Wm. P. Duncan, Bellefonte, Pa.

For best Power Picket Header in use, apply to Wm. P. Duncan,
Bellefonte, Pa.

New Blind Wirer and Rod Cutter. B. C. Davis & Co., Binghamton, N. Y.

Self-testing Steam Gage. There's a difference between a chronometer
watch and a "bull's eye." Same difference between a self-tester and
common steam gage. Send for Circular. E. H. Ashcroft, Boston, Mass.

See advertisement of L. & J. W. Feuchtwanger, Chemists, N. Y.

$3.50. Stephens' Patent Combination Rule, Level, Square, Plumb, Bevel,
etc. See advertisement in another column. Agents wanted.

American Boiler Powder Co., Box 315, Pittsburgh, Pa., make the only
safe, sure, and cheap remedy for "Scaly Boilers." Orders solicited.

Belting that is Belting.--Always send for the Best Philadelphia
Oak-Tanned, to C. W. Arny, Manufacturer, 301 Cherry st., Phil'a.

E. Howard & Co., Boston, make the best Stem-winding Watch in the
country. Ask for it at all the dealers. Office 15 Maiden Lane, N. Y.

For mining, wrecking, pumping, drainage, and irrigating machinery, see
advertisement of Andrews' Patents in another column.

The best place to get Working Models and parts is at T. B. Jeffery's,
160 South Water st., Chicago.

Brown's Coalyard Quarry & Contractors' Apparatus for hoisting and
conveying material by iron cable. W. D. Andrews & Bro, 414 Water st.,
N. Y.

Improved Foot Lathes. Many a reader of this paper has one of them.
Selling in all parts of the country, Canada, Europe, etc. Catalogue
free. N. H. Baldwin, Laconia, N. H.

Peteler Portable R. R. Co. contractors, graders. See adv'ment.

E. P. Peacock, Manufacturer of Cutting Dies, Press Work. Patent
Articles in Metals, etc. 55 Franklin st., Chicago.

Peck's Patent Drop Press. Milo Peck & Co., New Haven, Ct.

Millstone Dressing Diamond Machine--Simple, effective, durable. For
description of the above see Scientific American, Nov. 27th, 1869.
Also, Glazier's Diamonds. John Dickinson, 64 Nassau st., N. Y.

Steel name stamps, figures, etc. E. H. Payn, M'f'r, Burlington, Vt.

Cold Rolled-Shafting, piston rods, pump rods, Collins pat. double
compression couplings, manufactured by Jones & Laughlins, Pittsburgh,

Keuffel & Esser 116 Fulton st., N. Y., the best place to get 1st-class
Drawing Materials, Swiss instruments, and Rubber Triangles and Curves.

For Solid Wrought-iron Beams, etc., see advertisement. Address Union
Iron Mills, Pittsburgh, Pa., for lithograph, etc.

For the best Self-regulating Windmill in the world, to pump water for
residences, farms, city buildings, drainage, and irrigation, address
Con. Windmill Co., 5 College Place, New York.

The Merriman Bolt Cutter--the best made. Send for circulars. H. B.
Brown & Co., Fair Haven, Conn.

Taft's Portable Hot Air, Vapor and Shower Bathing Apparatus. Address
Portable Bath Co., Sag Harbor, N. Y. (Send for Circular.)

Glynn's Anti-Incrustator for Steam Boilers--The only reliable
preventive. No foaming, and does not attack metals of boilers. Price
25 cents per lb. C. D. Fredricks, 587 Broadway, New York.

For Fruit-Can Tools, Presses, Dies for all Metals, apply to Bliss &
Williams, successor to May & Bliss, 118, 120, and 122 Plymouth st.,
Brooklyn, N. Y. Send for catalogue.

2d-hand Worthington, Woodward and Novelty Pumps, Engines 25 to 100
H. P., 60 Horse Loc. Boiler. W. D. Andrews & Bro., 414 Water st., N. Y.

Agents wanted, to sell the Star Bevel. It supersedes the old style.
Send for Circular. Hallett & White, West Meriden, Conn.

English and American Cotton Machinery and Yarns, Beam Warps and
Machine Tools. Thos. Pray, Jr., 57 Weybosset st., Providence, R. I.

For small, soft, Gray Iron Castings, Japanned, Tinned, or Bronzed,
address Enterprise Manufacturing Company, Philadelphia.

Conklin's Detachable Rubber Lip, for bowls, etc., works like a charm.
For Rights, address O. P. Conklin, Worcester, Mass., or A. Daul,
Philadelphia, Pa.

To Ascertain where there will be a demand for new machinery
or manufacturers' supplies read Boston Commercial Bulletin's
Manufacturing News of the United States. Terms $4.00 a year.

       *       *       *       *       *


In 1870, Mrs. W. made, with her Wheeler & Wilson machine, 2,255 vests,
besides doing her family sewing for six persons.

       *       *       *       *       *


"The firm of Geo. P. Rowell & Co. is the largest and best Advertising
Agency in the United States, and we can cheerfully recommend it to
the attention of those who desire to advertise their business
scientifically and systematically in such a way; that is, to secure
the largest amount of publicity for the least expenditure of money."

       *       *       *       *       *

AFTER AN EXHAUSTIVE TRIAL, at American Institute Fair for 1870,
Pratt's Astral Oil was pronounced the safest and best.

       *       *       *       *       *

DYSPEPSIA: Its Varieties, Causes, Symptoms, and Cure. By E. P. MILLER,
M. D. Paper, 50cts.; Muslin, $1. Address MILLER, HAYNES & CO., 41 West
Twenty-sixth st., New York city.

       *       *       *       *       *

VITAL FORCE: How Wasted and How Preserved; or, Abuses of the Sexual
Function, their Causes Effects and Means of Cure. By E. P. MILLER M. D.
Paper, 50cts. Address MILLER, HAYNES & CO., 41 West Twenty-sixth st.,
New York city.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

_CORRESPONDENTS who expect to receive answers to their letters must,
in all cases, sign their names. We have a right to know those who seek
information from us; besides, as sometimes happens, we may prefer to
address correspondents by mail._

_SPECIAL NOTE.--This column is designed for the general interest and
instruction of our readers, not for gratuitous replies to questions of
a purely business or personal nature. We will publish such inquiries,
however, when paid for as advertisements at 1.00 a line, under the
head of "Business and Personal."_

_All reference to back numbers must be by volume and page._

       *       *       *       *       *

MIXING METALS.--All the hard gray American charcoal iron, of which
car wheels and all such work are made, requires more heat and a longer
time to melt than soft iron, especially Scotch pig, which is the most
fluid and the easiest to melt of any iron. Consequently, unless the
melter exercises good judgment in charging, the Scotch pig will
melt and run off before the car-wheel iron is melted. If G. H. P.
be particular in the quality and strength of his iron, he will make
better results by using soft American charcoal pig, with old car-wheel
iron. It will make stronger castings, mix better, and melt more
uniformly; but he should always recollect in charging his furnace that
soft iron will melt before hard in the same position, in the cupola. I
also think he had better use a larger proportion of soft pig, as every
time cast iron is melted it becomes harder, so much so that iron which
can be filed and turned with ease, when re-cast will often be found
too hard to work.--J. T., of N. Y.

HARDENING TALLOW.--If E. H. H. will use one pound of alum for every
five pounds of tallow, his candles will be as hard and white as wax.
The alum must be dissolved in water, then put in the tallow, and
stirred until they are both melted together, and run in molds.--F. O.

L. L., of N. Y.--According to Ure, strass is made as follows: 8 ounces
of pure rock crystal or flint, in powder, mixed with 4 ounces of
salt of tartar, are to be baked and left to cool. The mixture is then
poured into hot water, and treated with dilute nitric acid till it
ceases to effervesce, and the "frit" is then washed in water till the
water comes off tasteless. The frit is then dried, and mixed with 12
ounces of white lead, and this last mixture reduced to fine powder,
and washed with distilled water; 1 ounce of calcined borax is now
added to every 12 ounces of the mixture, the whole rubbed together in
a porcelain mortar, melted in a clean crucible, and poured out into
pure cold water. This melting and pouring into water must be done
three times, using a clean, new crucible each time. The third frit is
pulverized, five drachms of niter added, and then melted for the last
time, when a clean, beautiful white crystal mass results.

C. M. S., of Wis.--There are no precise proportions observed in
making the coal-tar and gravel walks of which you speak. The aim is to
saturate the gravel with the hot tar without surplus. The interstices
of the gravel are simply to be filled, and the amount required to
do this depends wholly upon the coarseness or fineness of the gravel

W. P. T., of Ohio.--Two teams of horses, of equal strength, pulling
against each other, by means of a rope, would create the same tension
in the rope, as one of the teams drawing against an immovable object.

W. H. B., of Va.--Ice can be made by compressing air, and, after it
has radiated its heat, allowing it to extract the heat of water with
which it is brought into contact. The temperature of air at 59° Fah.,
would be raised, by compressing the air to one fourth its original
volume, to 317° Fah; and the air would radiate and absorb again, in
expanding, about 190 units of heat.

E. T. H., of Ga.--The friable sandstone, a specimen of which you send
us, may, we think, be rendered firmer by soaking it in a solution of
silicate of soda, and allowing it to stand till dry.

J. A. V., of Ohio.--The use of steam expansively, by means of cut-off
appliances, enables the expansive force of the steam to be utilized,
which cannot be done when the pressure is maintained at one standard,
and steam admitted through the fall stroke. It takes no more power
to do a given amount of work in one case than in the other, but more
boiler capacity, and more fuel, as the working power of the steam is
more economically applied when the cut-off is used.

Geo. F. R., of Ohio.--Type metal is composed of 3 parts lead and 1
part antimony for smallest, hardest, and most brittle types; 4 of
lead and 1 of antimony for next grade; 5 of lead and 1 of antimony for
medium sizes; 6 of lead and 1 of antimony for larger types; and 7 of
lead and 1 of antimony for the largest.

E. J. M., of Texas.--The term "power of a boiler" means its
evaporating power, and in that sense is proper. If its evaporative
power be sufficient to perform a given amount of work, it is proper
to estimate that work in horse power. Water can not be pumped out of a
pipe from which atmospheric air is excluded. A pipe driven into a soil
impervious to air, can never yield water unless the water is forced up
by hydraulic power, as in the artesian system.

A. P. Y., of N. Y.--You will find descriptions of iron enamelling
processes, on pages 297 and 408, Vol. XII. of this journal. It can be
done in colors. See Ure's "Dictionary of Arts and Manufactures."

H. C., of Pa.--We do not think increasing the size of the journals of
your car axles from 2½ inches to 6 inches diameter, would make them
run lighter.

H. H. A., of N. Y.--The lining up of a beam engine, in a vessel, is
a process for which no definite mode of procedure is exclusively
applicable. It is an operation to which common sense and judgment must
be brought, and for which each engineer must be a law unto himself.

J. S., of Va.--The use of horizontal propellers to force balloons up
or down is not a new suggestion. It has been tried, but, we believe,
without much practical success.

J. T .S., of N. Y.--You will find further information on the subject
of transmitting power by compressed air, in our editorial columns of
last week.

       *       *       *       *       *


HARVESTERS.--William T. B. Read, Chicago, Ill., has petitioned for an
extension of the above patent. Day of hearing, May 17, 1871.

N. Y., has petitioned for an extension of the above patent. Day of
hearing, May 3, 1871.

METHOD OF PRINTING IN COLORS.--Rosalie Croome, Brooklyn, N. Y., has
petitioned for an extension of the above patent. Day of hearing, May
3, 1871.

N. Y., has petitioned for an extension of the above patent. Day of
hearing, May 10, 1871.

PLOWS.--John S. Hall, Pittsburgh, Pa., has petitioned for an extension
of the above patent. Day of hearing, May 17, 1871.

CARRIAGE WHEELS.--James D. Sarven, New Haven, Conn., has petitioned
for an extension of the above patent. Day of hearing May 24, 1871.

       *       *       *       *       *



       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

For Twenty-five years, MUNN & CO. have occupied the leading position
long experience they have examined not less than _Fifty Thousand
Inventions_, and have prosecuted upwards of THIRTY THOUSAND
APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS. In addition to this they have made, at the
Patent Office, _Twenty-Five Thousand_ Special Examinations into the
novelty of various Inventions.

The important advantage of MUNN & CO.'s American and European Patent
Agency is that the practice has been tenfold greater than that of any
other agency in existence, with the additional advantages of having
the aid of the highest professional skill in every department and a
Branch Office at Washington, that watches and supervises cases when
necessary, as they pass through Official Examination.




Inventors who desire to consult with MUNN & CO. are invited to call at
their office 37 PARK ROW, or to send a sketch and description of the
invention, which will be examined and an opinion given or sent by mail
without charge.


is made into the novelty of an invention by personal examination at
the Patent Office of all patented inventions bearing on the particular
class. This search is made by examiners of long experience, for which
a fee of $5 is charged. A report is given in writing.

To avoid all possible misapprehension, MUNN & CO. advise generally,
that inventors send models. But the Commissioner may at his discretion
dispense with a model--this can be arranged beforehand.

MUNN & CO. take special care in preparation of drawings and

If a case should for any cause be rejected it is investigated
immediately, and the rejection if an improper one set aside.


is made to clients for this extra service. MUNN & CO. have skillful
experts in attendance to supervise cases and to press them forward
when necessary.


MUNN & CO. give very special attention to the examination and
prosecution of rejected cases filed by inventors and other attorneys.
In such cases a fee of $5 is required for special examination and
report; and in case of probable success by further prosecution and the
papers are found tolerably well prepared, MUNN & CO. will take up the
case and endeavor to get it through for a reasonable fee to be agreed
upon in advance of prosecution.


Are desirable if an inventor is not fully prepared to apply for a
Patent. A Caveat affords protection for one year against the issue of
a patent to another for the same invention. Caveat papers should be
carefully prepared.

The Government fee on filing a Caveat is $10, and MUNN & CO.'s charge
for preparing the necessary papers is usually from $10 to $12.


A patent when discovered to be defective may be reissued by the
surrender of the original patent, and the filing of amended papers.
This proceeding should be taken with great care.


Can be patented for a term of years, also new medicines or medical
compounds, and useful mixtures of all kinds.

When the invention consists of a medicine or compound, or a new
article of manufacture, or a new composition, samples of the article
must be furnished, neatly put up. There should also be forwarded a
full statement of its ingredients, proportions, mode of preparation,
uses, and merits.

CANADIANS and all other foreigners can now obtain patents upon the
same terms as citizens.


MUNN & CO. have solicited a larger number of European Patents than
any other agency. They have agents located at London, Paris, Brussels,
Berlin, and other chief cities. A pamphlet containing a synopsis of
the Foreign Patent Laws sent free.

MUNN & CO. could refer, if necessary, to thousands of patentees who
have had the benefit of their advice and assistance, to many of the
principal business men in this and other cities, and to members of
Congress and prominent citizens throughout the country.

All communications are treated as confidential.


No. 37 Park Row,

       *       *       *       *       *


_Under this heading we shall publish weekly notes of some of the more
prominent home and foreign patents._

       *       *       *       *       *

Shrewsbury, Vt.--This invention relates to improvements in self-acting
shackles and car brakes, and consists in an improved connection of
the brakes with the shackle, for automatic operation, whereby the
connection may be readily so adjusted that the brakes will not be set
in action as when required to back up the train.

FEED BAGS FOR HORSES.--W. A. Hough, South Butler, N. Y.--This
invention relates to a new and useful improvement in feed bags for
horses, and consists in making the bag self-supplying, by means of
one or more reservoirs, the discharge orifices of which reservoirs are
closed by a valve or valves.

TRUSS.--Adam Hinoult, Montgomery, N. Y.--This invention has for its
object to furnish an improved truss, which shall be so constructed as
to yield freely to the various movements of the body of the wearer,
while holding the rupture securely in place.

GOVERNOR FOR STEAM ENGINES.--Charles A. Conde, Indianapolis,
Ind.--This invention relates to a new method of regulating the
movement of the balls of a steam governor, with a view of adjusting
the same in proportion to the increased or diminished centrifugal

CIRCULAR SAW GUARD.--G. W. Shipman, Ischua, N. Y.--This invention
relates to a new and useful improvement in means for protecting the
operator and others, near running circular saws, from injury, and it
consists in a movable guard, operated by means of the saw carriage, in
such a manner that, during the period of danger (when the saw is not
cutting), the guard covers the saw, and is thrown back from the saw
when the latter is in actual use.

CARPET-CLEANING MACHINE.--J. C. Craft, Baltimore, Md.--This invention
relates to a machine, through which a carpet may be passed, and so
beaten and brushed, during its passage, as to come out of the
machine thoroughly cleansed. The invention consists in the peculiar
construction and arrangement of beaters and brushes for effecting this

Miss.--This invention relates to improvements in machinery for
planting seed, and consists in a combination, in one machine, of a
seed-dropping apparatus, adapted for corn, and another adapted for
cotton, in a manner to utilize one running gear for the two kinds of
seed, and thereby save the expense of separate gear for each.

LIME KILN.--T. A. Kirk, Kansas City, Mo.--This invention has for its
object to furnish an improved lime kiln, which shall be so constructed
as to enable the kiln to be worked from the front, in firing and in
drawing the lime and ashes, which will not allow cold or unburnt rock
to pass through, and which will consume its own smoke.

CAR BRAKE.--S. D. Tripp, Lynn, and Luther Hill, Stoneham, Mass.--This
invention relates to improvements in railroad car brakes, and consists
in an arrangement, on the locomotive or tender, of a steam cylinder
and piston, and the arrangement, on the cars, in connection with the
brakes, of sliding rods, so that the rod of the car next to the
engine or tender, being moved backwards by the piston rod of the above
cylinder, will bring the brakes of the rear wheels down upon them, as
well as the brakes of the tender, and slacken the speed thereby, so
that the rear projecting end of the brake rod will come in contact
with the rod of the next car, and set its brakes in action in like
manner, and so on, throughout the train. The arrangement of the said
brake actuating rods is such that no matter which end of the car is
foremost, the wheels of one track will be acted on by the brakes.

Spartanburgh, S. C.--This invention relates to a new and useful
improvement in a combined ruler, blotter, and paper cutter, three
articles indispensable for the desk, combined in one.

REED FOR ORGANS AND MELODEONS.--Augustus Newell, Chicago, Ill.--The
object of this invention is to so construct the tongue-butts, or
shanks, of musical reeds, that the same cannot, during the vibratory
motion of the tongues, be raised from their seats.

ANTI-FRICTION COMPOUND.--Victory Purdy, Poughkeepsie, N. Y.--This
invention relates to a new and useful compound for lubricating
railroad car axle journals, and other journal bearings.

       *       *       *       *       *


[_We present herewith a series of inquiries embracing a variety of
topics of greater or less general interest. The questions are simple,
it is true, but we prefer to elicit practical answers from our
readers, and hope to be able to make this column of inquiries and
answers a popular and useful feature of the paper._]

       *       *       *       *       *

1.--EMERY WHEELS.--Can I make emery wheels similar to those used in
a foot lathe, that will answer for sharpening fine tools, such as
gouges, rounds, and hollows, and if so, how shall I proceed?--F. W.

2.--BOILER FURNACE.--I have two boilers, twenty-four feet long and
four feet in diameter each, with five ten-inch flues. The fire passes
under the boiler, and enters the flues at the back end, passes through
the flues, and enters the smoke stack at the front end. I use hard
pine wood for fuel. Will some of your many readers give me the best
way of constructing the flue under the boiler, from the end of the
grate bars to where it enters the flues at the back end, and also
state the proper distance from the back wall to the end of the
boiler?--N. H.

3.--MEDAL CASTS.--I have some medals which I should like to copy.
Having tried several times, and failed, I thought that I would ask
advice through your query columns. I do not know of what the medals
are manufactured. They are, I suppose, made to imitate bronze. I have
tried casting them in plaster of Paris molds, but have had very poor
success, as the surface of the medals was covered with small holes.
The metal used was lead and antimony, seven to one. I should like to
know, if there be any metal that I can cast them of, and bring out the
bronze color afterwards, or if there be any metal that I can cast them
of, and afterwards color by some solution. Also, of what should I make
my molds?--J. E. M.

correspondents tell me if rain water, which runs off a gravel roof,
and tastes very strongly of tar, is unhealthy, and if there be
anything that will prevent its tasting, as it is very disagreeable for
cooking purposes?--C. E. H.

5.--SORGHUM MOLASSES.--How can I separate the molasses from the sugar,
in sorghum sugar mush, to make a dry merchantable sugar?

6.--FLUX FOR ALUMINUM.--Will some of your readers tell me, through
your columns, the best flux to use in melting and mixing aluminum and

       *       *       *       *       *


[Compiled from the Commissioners of Patents' Journal.]


350.--BREECH-LOADING FIRE-ARMS.--Eli Whitney, New Haven, Conn.
February 10, 1871.

352.--GOVERNOR.--Stilliman B. Allen, ----, Mass. February 10, 1871.

357.--WINDMILL.--A. P. Brown, New York city. February 11, 1871.

332.--FURNITURE CASTERS.--F. A. Gardner and H. S. Turrell, Danbury
Conn. February 8, 1871.

339.--WIRE FABRICS FOR MATTRESSES.--Samuel Rogers, New York city.
February 9, 1871.

340.--SCREW PROPELLER CANAL BOATS.--Thomas Main, Pierpoint, N. Y.
February 9, 1871.

362.--FLYER FOR SPINNING MACHINERY.--Thomas Mayor and Geo. Chatterton,
Providence, R. I. February 14, 1871.

City, N. J. February 14, 1871.

381.--STEAM AND OTHER SAFETY VALVES.--Walter Dawson Scranton, Pa.
February 15, 1871.

SAME.--Eldridge Wheeler, Philadelphia, Pa. February 15, 1871.

       *       *       *       *       *




_Reported Officially for the Scientific American._


On each Caveat                                                   $10
On each Trade-Mark                                               $25
On filing each application for a Patent, (seventeen years)       $15
On issuing each original Patent                                  $20
On appeal to Examiners-in-Chief                                  $10
On appeal to Commissioner of Patents                             $20
On application for Reissue                                       $30
On application for Extension of Patent                           $50
On granting the Extension                                        $50
On filing a Disclaimer                                           $10
On an application for Design (three and a half years)            $10
On an application for Design (seven years)                       $15
On an application for Design (fourteen years)                    $30

_For Copy of Claim of any Patent issued within 30 years_          $1
_A sketch from the model or drawing, relating to such portion of
a machine as the Claim covers, from_                              $1
  _upward, but usually at the price above-named._

_The full Specification of any patent issued since Nov. 20, 1866 at
which time the Patent Office commenced printing them_          $1.25

_Official Copies of Drawings of any patent issued since 1836, we can
supply at a reasonable cost, the price depending upon the amount of
labor involved and the number of views._

_Full information, as to price of drawings, in each case, may be had
by addressing_


       *       *       *       *       *

112,309.--HOSE SPRINKLER.--William Anderson, San Francisco, Cal.

112,310.--LOCOMOTIVE SPARK ARRESTER.--J. G. Armstrong, New Brunswick,
N. J.

112,311.--TOOL FOR CARRIAGE MAKERS' USE.--George Atkinson, San
Francisco, Cal.

112,312.--POTATO PROBE.--John A. Beal, Waterford, N. Y.

112,313.--HINGE FOR CARRIAGE DOORS.--George W. Beers, Bridgeport,

112,314.--STOVE LEG.--James Birckhead, Jr., Baltimore, Md.

112,315.--CLOTHES PIN.--Orris A. Bishop, Chicago, Ill.

Brooklyn, N. Y.

112,317.--BEEHIVE.--Felix Brewer, Waynesville, Mo.

112,318.--THILL COUPLING.--Theodore Burr (assignor to Allen Muir and
Henry Muir), Battle Creek, Mich.

Bellows Falls, Vt., assignor to himself and James B. Williams,
Glastonbury, Conn.

112,320.--DOOR SECURER.--William H. Caldwell, Wheeling, W. Va.

112,321.--TOE-CALK BAR.--R. B. Caswell, Springfield, Mass. Antedated
March 2, 1871.

112,322.--GLASS FLATTENING FURNACE AND LEER.--James Clabby, Lenox,

112,323.--SPRING BED BOTTOM.--Alex. Cole, Manamuskin, N. J.

112,324.--WATER WHEEL.--E. E. Coleman, West Cummington, Mass.

112,325.--TOY HORSE AND CARRIAGE.--John B. Cuzner, Bridgeport, Conn.

112,326.--MACKEREL-LINE HOLDER.--E. L. Decker, Southport, Me.

112,327.--SEWING MACHINE.--J. William Dufour, Stratford, Conn.

112,328.--STEAM BOILER.--Edwards Evans, North Tonawanda, N. Y.

Field, Ostrander, Ohio.

Fisk, Wellsville, N. Y.

112,331.--MACHINE FOR MAKING HOOKS AND EYES.--Jeremy T. Ford, San
Francisco, Cal.

112,332.--CHURN.--Thompson Freeman, Westfield, Ill.

Godfrey, Leslie, Mich., assignor to himself and S. M. Loveridge,
Pittsburgh, Pa.

Dale, Va.

112,335.--SCREW PROPULSION.--E. C. Gregg (assignor to A. H. Gregg and
C. P. Gregg), Trumansburg, N. Y.

112,336.--SEEDING MACHINE.--P. M. Gundlach, Belleville, Ill.

112,337.--COMPOUND FOR KINDLING FIRES.--J. L. Hannum and S. H.
Stebbins, Berea, Ohio.

112,338.--LAWN MOWER.--Benjamin Harnish, Lancaster, and D. H. Harnish,
Pequea, Pa.

112,339.--COMPOSITION FOR PAVEMENTS.--C. B. Harris, New York city.
Antedated February 25, 1870.

112,340.--SPRING FOR VEHICLES.--John R. Hiller, Woodland, Cal.

112,341.--HARVESTER RAKE.--S. T. Holly, (assignor to John P. Manny),
Rockford, Ill.

112,342.--DOOR CLAMP.--Henry O. Hooper, Diamond Springs, Cal.

112,343.--TAPER HOLDER.--Thomas W. Houchin, Morrisania, N. Y.

112,344.--METALLIC GARTER.--Henry A. House, Bridgeport, Conn.

112,345.--BOBBIN WINDER.--Henry A. House, Bridgeport, Conn.

Bridgeport, Conn.

Howarth, Salem, Mass. Antedated March 1, 1871.

Howarth, Salem, Mass. Antedated March 1, 1871.

MATTERS.--Elias S. Hutchinson, Baltimore, Md.

ETC.--Elias S. Hutchinson, Baltimore, Md.

112,351.--CHANDELIER.--Charles F. Jacobsen, New York city.

112,352.--CULINARY VESSEL.--Carrie Jessup, New Haven, Conn.

112,353.--MACHINE FOR CUTTING LEATHER.--Aberdeen Keith, North
Bridgewater, Mass.

112,354.--ATTACHING KNOBS TO THEIR SPINDLES.--John F. Keller and
Nathaniel Sehner, Hagerstown, Md.

112,355.--MITER MACHINE.--T. E. King, Boston, Mass.

112,356.--TAKE-UP FOR CORSET LOOMS.--Julius Kuttner, New York city.

112,357.--ELEVATOR AND CARRIER.--T. W. Lackore, Worth, Ill.

Valley, Cal.

112,359.--BURGLAR ALARM.--Robert Lee, Cincinnati, Ohio.

112,360.--TELEGRAPH APPARATUS.--L. T. Lindsey, Jackson, Tenn.

112,361.--HARVESTER.--J. P. Manny, Rockford, Ill.

112,362.--HARVESTER.--J. P. Manny, Rockford, Ill.

112,363.--HARVESTER RAKE.--J. P. Manny, Rockford, Ill.

112,364.--CHEESE CURD SINK.--H. C. Markham, Collinsville, N. Y.

112,365.--MOWING MACHINE.--H. C. Markham and Dewitt C. Markham,
Collinsville, N. Y.

112,366.--PROPELLER.--Alex. J. Marshall, Warrenton, Va. Antedated
March 3, 1871.

112,367.--OILER.--Edward McDuff and E. D. Forrow, Warwick, R. I.

112,368.--WASH BOILER.--John McInnes, Oxford, Pa.

112,369.--PROPELLING CANAL BOATS.--H. B. Meech, Fort Edward, N. Y.
Antedated February 25, 1871.

ETC.--Peter E. Minor, Schenectady, N. Y.

112,371.--COOKING STOVE.--W. N. Moore, Neenah, Wis.

112,372.--BORING MACHINE.--J. H. Pardieck (assignor to himself and S.
M. Brown), Acton, Ind.

112,373.--VAPOR BURNER.--R. W. Park, Philadelphia, Pa.

Pedder and George Abel, West Pittsburgh, Pa.

112,375.--BALE TIE.--J. E. Perkins, San Francisco, Cal.

112,376.--LINING WALLS WITH FELT, ETC.--James Phillips, Chicago, Ill.

112,377.--COOKING STOVE.--Samuel Pierce, Boston, Mass.

112,378.--TACK.--A. A. Porter, New Haven, Conn. Antedated Feb. 25,

(assignor to the Pratt & Whitney Company), Hartford, Conn.

Philadelphia, Pa.

112,381.--PUNCHING MACHINE.--J. C. Rhodes, South Abington, Mass.

112,382.--WASHING MACHINE.--J. W. Ricker, Chelsea, Mass.

112,383.--CURTAIN FIXTURE.--Charles Robin. Chester, Conn.

112,384.--MACHINE FOR MAKING PRINTERS' LEADS.--Isaac Schoenberg, New
York city.

(assignor to William Sellers & Co.), Philadelphia, Pa.

112,386.--MACHINE FOR POLISHING THREAD.--Samuel Semple, Sr., John
Semple, Samuel Semple, Jr., and R. A. Semple, Mount Holly, N. J.

112,387.--PAINT BRUSH.--F. S. Shearer, Washington, Ill.

112,388.--BEE HIVE.--S. A. Short, F. J. Short, J. B. Short, and Jasper
Kile, Decatur, Ala.

MATTER.--Thomas Sim, Baltimore, Md.

Baltimore, Md.

Boston, Mass.

112,392.--PRUNING SHEARS.--Frank Smiley, Batavia, N. Y.

112,393.--WATER-CLOSET VALVE.--A. J. Smith, San Francisco, Cal.

112,394.--GANG PLOW.--J. W. Sursa, San Leandro, Cal.

112,395.--GRINDING PAN AND AMALGAMATOR.--W. H. Thoss, West Point, Cal.

112,396.--STREET LANTERN.--Augustus Tufts, Malden, Mass.

112,397.--COOKING STOVE.--Alvin Warren, Swanton, Ohio.

112,398.--SAFETY BRIDLE.--James Weatherhead, San José, Cal.

112,399.--FIRE GRATE.--George Wellhouse, Akron, Ohio.

112,400.--HAY KNIFE.--G. F. Weymouth, Dresden, Me.

112,401.--CLAW BAR.--Charles Winter, Chillicothe, Ohio.

112,402.--STEAM GENERATOR.--J. C. Woodhead, Pittsburgh, Pa.

112,403.--ANIMAL TRAP.--W. D. Wrightson, Queenstown England.

112,404.--BRUSH.--John Ames, Lansingburg, N. Y.

112,405.--CLOD FENDER.--F. L. Bailey, Freeport, Ind.

112,406.--RULER.--H. S. Ball, Spartanburg, S. C.

112,407.--FANNING MILL.--Benjamin Barney, Time, Ill.

112,408.--ICE-CUTTING MACHINE.--Lafayett Barnum (assignor to himself
and A. R. Hale), Bridgeport, Conn.

112,409.--MANUFACTURE OF ICE.--T. J. Bigger, Kansas City, Mo.

112,410.--MACHINE FOR HEADING BOLTS AND SPIKES.--Reinhold Boeklen,
Brooklyn, N. Y., assignor to himself and Henry Torstrick New York
city. Antedated Feb. 28, 1871.

112,411.--WASHING MACHINE.--Joseph Boswell, L. M. Boswell, Jonathan
Palmer, and J. H. James (assignors to themselves and Thomas Starbuck),
Wilmington, Ohio.

112,412.--WATER WHEEL.--E. C. Boyles, New York city.

112,413.--COTTON PRESS.--R. M. Brooks, Pike county, Ga.

112,414.--PAPER-CUTTING MACHINE.--Samuel Brown (assignor to himself
and C. R. Carver), Philadelphia, Pa.

112,415.--GOVERNOR FOR DIRECT-ACTING ENGINES.--A. S. Cameron, New York

112,416.--GOVERNOR FOR DIRECT-ACTING ENGINES.--A. S. Cameron, New York

112,417.--BUTT HINGE.--J. W. Carleton (assignor to the Union
Manufacturing Co.), New Britain, Conn.

112,418.--MACHINE FOR CUTTING SHEET METAL.--C. R. Choate, East
Saginaw, Mich.

112,419.--BIT BRACE.--William Cleveland, Lawrence, Mass., assignor to
himself and James Swan, Seymour, Conn.

112,420.--STEAM ENGINE GOVERNOR.--C. A. Condé, Indianapolis, Ind.

112,421.--CARPET-CLEANING MACHINE.--J. C. Craft (assignor to himself
and Antonio Rosello), Baltimore, Md.

112,422.--STEAM REGULATOR FOR PAPER DRYERS.--Daniel Crosby, Hampden,

Providence, R. I.

Rapids, Mich. Antedated Feb. 25, 1871.

112,425.--COOKING STOVE.--David Curtis, Mishawaka, assignor to himself
and C. B. Graham, South Bend, Ind.

112,426.--LIGHTNING ROD.--S. D. Cushman, New Lisbon, Ohio.

112,427.--HOSE BRIDGE.--Patrick Daily (assignor to himself and J. J.
Kehoe), New York city.

112,428.--COVER FOR OPENINGS IN SIDEWALKS.--William Dale, New York

112,429.--ROTARY PUMP.--F. O. Deschamps, Philadelphia, Pa.

112,430.--MACHINE FOR CUTTING FILES.--James Dodge, Manchester,
England, assignor to David Blake, Spencertown, N. Y.

112,431.--COUPLING FOR RAILWAY CARS.--Henry Dubs and S. G.
Goodall-Copestake, Glasgow, Great Britain.

112,432.--TOBACCO PIPE.--P. J. Dwyer, Elizabethport, N. J.

112,433.--BASKET FOR HOUSE PLANTS.--Albert P. Eastman, Washington, D. C.

112,434.--SULKY PLOW.--Milo A. Elliott, Stratford Hollow, N. H.

112,435.--STRETCHER FOR PAINTINGS.--James Fairman, New York city.

112,436.--BODY LANTERN HOLDER.--Samuel C. Fessenden, Stamford, Conn.

112,437.--STOVE LEG.--Amon L. Finch, Sing Sing, N. Y.

112,438.--PUMP PISTON.--John S. Follansbee and George Doolittle
(assignors to the Forrester Manufacturing Company), Bridgeport, Conn.

112,439.--SHOE.--Samuel W. Francis (assignor to himself and W. H.
Newton), Newport, R. I.

112,440.--GUARD-FINGER FOR HARVESTERS.--George Fyfe and Chester Hard,
Ottawa, Ill.

112,441.--DINING TABLE.--S. R. Gardner (assignor to himself and S. M.
Marquette), Independence, Iowa.

112,442.--STEP LADDER.--M. Boland Geary, New York City.

112,443.--OILCLOTH PRINTING MACHINERY.--Ebenezer A. Goodes (assignor
to Philadelphia Patent and Novelty Company), Philadelphia, Pa.

112,444.--TENONING MACHINE.--Lyman Gould, Norwich, Conn.

112,445.--PRINTER'S CASE.--Wm. H. A. Gresham, Atlanta, Ga.

112,446.--LAMP CHIMNEY.--Geo. W. Griswold, Factoryville, Pa.

112,447.--GRAIN SEPARATOR.--Philander Griswold, Hudson, Mich.

112,448.--CLAMP FOR THILL COUPLINGS.--John W. Guider (assignor to
himself and John Kiefer), St. Joseph, Mo.

112,449.--BIRD CAGE.--Gottlob Gunther, New York city.

112,450.--STOP COCK AND VALVE.--William Haas, New York city.

112,451.--VALVE FOR STEAM ENGINES.--Joseph L. Harley, Baltimore, Md.,
and Xaver Fendrich, Georgetown, D. C.

112,452.--METALLIC HUB.--John H. Harper, Pittsburgh, Pa.

(assignor to John C. Burroughs and Richard A. Springs) Charlotte, N. C.

112,454.--POST-HOLE DIGGER.--Bryant B. Herrick, Decatur, Mich.

112,455.--DOOR CHECK.--Levi S. Hicks (assignor to himself, J. Perrin
Johnson, and John Buell), Peoria, Ill.

112,456.--RAILWAY-CAR BRAKE.--Luther Hill, Stoneham, and Seth D.
Tripp, Lynn, Mass.

112,457.--TRUSS.--Adam Hinoult, Montgomery, N. Y.

112,458.--FEED BAG FOR HORSES.--Walter A. Hough, South Butler, N. Y.

112,459.--SHADE HOLDER FOR LAMPS--Mark W. House, Cleveland, Ohio.

112,460.--LAMP CHIMNEY.--Mark Wiggins House (assignor to the Cleveland
Non-Explosive Lamp Company), Cleveland, Ohio. Antedated March 1, 1871.

112,461.--HORSE HAY RAKE.--James Howard and E. T. Bousfield, Bedford,

112,462.--TONGS FOR ROLLING BARRELS.--Mark W. Ingle, Indianapolis, Ind.

112,463.--PITMAN.--George W. Jayson, Lodi, Ohio.

112,464.--PASTE FOR PAPER HANGINGS.--John Jones (assignor to himself
and Henry A. Smith), New York city.

112,465.--TWINE HOLDER.--Edward M. Judd, New Haven, Ct.

112,466.--CLOTHES PIN OR CLASP.--Amos L. Keeports and William Yount,
Littletown, Pa.

112,467.--PUTTING UP HAMS.--Samuel Edward Kelly, Philadelphia, Pa.

112,468.--LIMN KILN.--Thomas A. Kirk, Kansas City, Mo.

and John F. Robertson (assignors of one third their right to James H.
Holly), Warwick, N. Y.

112,470.--POTATO PLANTER.--George Knowlton (assignor for one-half his
right to N. Haynes), Johnstown, Pa.

112,471.--REVOLVING FIREARM.--Edwin S. Leaycroft, Brooklyn, N. Y.,
assignor by mesne assignment, to "Colt's Patent Firearms Manufacturing
Company," Hartford, Conn.

112,472.--REVOLVING FIREARM.--Edwin S. Leaycroft, Brooklyn, N. Y.,
assignor, by mesne assignment, to "Colt's Patent Firearms
Manufacturing Company," Hartford, Conn.

112,473.--RAILROAD CATTLE-GUARD GATE.--J. H. Mallory, La Porte, Ind.

112,474.--BACK-REFLECTING MIRROR.--Richard Mason (assignor to himself
and Matthew Ely), Newark, N. J.

112,475.--VENTILATOR AND CHIMNEY TOP.--James McGowan (assignor to
himself and Daniel H. Waring), New York city.

Measey (assignor to himself and Henry D. Fling), Philadelphia, Pa.

112,477.--TIN CAN.--John F. Merrill (assignor to himself and Alexander
Stewart), Cincinnati, Ohio.

112,478.--TAKE-UP MECHANISM FOR LOOMS.--John Michna and Joseph
Fischer, New York city.

112,479.--COMBINED BAKER AND BROILER.--Wm. H. Miller, Brandenburg, Ky.

112,480.--SHUTTLE FOR SEWING MACHINES.--James D. Moore, Grinnell,

112,481.--COTTON CHOPPER AND GRAIN CULTIVATOR.--Daniel Mosely, Osark,

112,482.--SAD AND FLUTING IRON.--Frederick Myers, New York city.

112,483.--REED FOR ORGANS AND MELODEONS.--Augustus Newell, Chicago,

112,484.--STRAW CUTTER.--Amon Park, Germanville, Iowa.

Peiffer and Samuel Richards, Valonia, Pa.

112,486.--COMBINED COTTON AND CORN PLANTER.--Louis A. Perrault
(assignor to himself and Joseph Huber), Natchez, Miss.

112,487.--FAUCET.--Solomon Pfleger, Reading, assignor to himself and
J. S. Pfleger, Tamaqua, Pa.

112,488.--TREADLE.--George K. Proctor, Salem, Mass.

112,489.--LUBRICATING COMPOUND.--Victory Purdy, Poughkeepsie, N. Y.

112,490.--FERTILIZER AND SEEDING MACHINE.--Archibald Putnam (assignor
to Elizabeth Putnam), Owego, N. Y.

112,491.--ROTARY PUMP.--George W. Putnam, South Glens Falls, N. Y.

112,492.--HAT BRUSH.--Robert Dunbar Radcliffe, Palmyra, N. Y.

112,493.--REFRIGERATING SHOW CASE.--Thomas L. Rankin, Lyndon, Kansas,
assignor to himself and D. W. Rockwell, Elyria, Ohio.

Carlisle, Pa.

112,495.--PIPE-MOLDING MACHINE.--George Richardson, Milwaukee, Wis.

112,496.--SULKY CULTIVATOR.--Richard B. Robbins, Adrian, Mich.

112,497.--HAND PLOW.--Nelson Rue, Harrodsburg, Ky.

112,498.--MECHANICAL MOVEMENT.--Edward G. Russell, Ravenna, Ohio.

112,499.--RAILWAY CAR BRAKE.--Lyman Alphonzo Russell, Shrewsbury, Vt.

112,500.--STOVEPIPE CLEANER.--David Sanford, Ashton, Ill.

112,501.--TWINE HOLDER.--Joseph B. Sargent and Purmont Bradford
(assignors to Sargent & Co.), New Haven, Conn.

112,502.--DOVETAILING MACHINE.--James M. Seymour, Newark, N. J.

112,503.--WOODEN PAVEMENT.--Eaton Shaw, Portland, Me.

112,504.--GUARD FOR CIRCULAR SAWS.--George W. Shipman, Ischua, N. Y.

112,505.--BREECH-LOADING FIREARM.--Dexter Smith and Martin J.
Chamberlin, Springfield, Mass.

112,506.--SPARK ARRESTER.--James Smith, Altoona, Pa.

112,507.--HORSE HAY RAKE.--Solomon P. Smith, Waterford, N. Y.

112,508.--PLOW.--S. M. Stewart, New Harrisburg, Ohio.

Swan, Mount Vernon, Ohio.

Thompson, Milford, Conn.

112,511.--COOLING JOURNAL OF CAR AXLES.--Henry G. Thompson, Milford,

112,512.--COOLING JOURNAL OF CAR-WHEEL AXLES.--Henry G. Thompson,
Milford, Conn.

Thompson, Milford, Conn.

112,514.--NON-HEATING HANDLE FOR SAD IRONS, ETC.--William H. Towers,
Boston, Mass.

112,515.--LUBRICATOR.--John Erst Uhl, Renovo, Pa.

112,516.--COMBINED CORN PLANTER AND CULTIVATOR.--Franklin Underwood,
South Rutland, N. Y.

112,517.--KING BOLT.--Wendel Vondersaar, Indianapolis, Ind.

112,518.--WHEAT ROASTER.--George W. Waitt (assignor to himself and
Robert B. Fitts), Philadelphia, Pa.

112,519.--PLASTER SOWER.--Thomas J. West, Alfred Center, N. Y.

112,520.--TICKET HOLDER.--Henry Wexel, Providence, R. I.

112,521.--TOBACCO PRESS.--Abraham N. Zell, Lancaster, Pa.

112,522.--COMBINED BAG HOLDER AND SCALES.--William Zimmerman, Lebanon,
Pa. Antedated February 25, 1871.

112,523.--BREECH-LOADING FIREARM.--James M. Mason, Washington, D. C.

       *       *       *       *       *


THEM.--Charles Alden, Newburg, assignor of part interest to Alden
Fruit Preserving Company, New York city. Patent No. 100,835, dated
March 5, 1870; reissue No. 4,011, dated June 7, 1870.

(assignor to himself and Peter W. Reinshagen), Cincinnati, Ohio.
Patent No. 98,144, dated December 21, 1839.

4,289.--SHAWL STRAP.--George Crouch, Westport, Conn. Patent No.
82,606, dated September 29, 1868.

4,290.--ATMOSPHERIC DENTAL PLATE.--Nehemiah T. Folsom, Laconia, N. H.
Patent No. 60,871, dated January 1, 1867.

4,291.--PESSARY.--William R. Gardner, Leonardsville, N. Y. Patent No.
105,191, dated July 12, 1870.

4,292.--DIVISION A.--SKATE.--James L. Plimpton, New York city. Patent
No. 37,305, dated January 6, 1863; reissue No. 3,906, dated April 5,

4,293.--DIVISION B.--SKATE.--James L. Plimpton, New York city. Patent
No. 37,305, dated January 6, 1863; reissue No. 3,906, dated April 5,

4,294.--APPARATUS FOR PITCHING BARRELS.--Louis Schulze, Baltimore, Md.
Patent No. 106,964, dated August 30, 1870.

       *       *       *       *       *


4,694.--PICTURE FRAME.--John H. Bellamy, Charlestown, Mass.

4,695.--BELL CRANK AND ESCUTCHEON.--Pietro Cinquini, West Meriden,
Conn., assignor to Parker & Whipple Company.

4,696.--PEDESTAL FOR A CAKE DISH.--George Gill (assignor to Reed &
Barton), Taunton, Mass.

4,697.--TABLE CASTER.--William Parkin (assignor to Reed & Barton),
Taunton, Mass.

4,698.--BUCKLE FRAME.--John E. Smith, Waterbury, Conn.

4,699.--BACK OF A CHAIR OR SOFA.--George Unverzagt, Philadelphia, Pa.

       *       *       *       *       *


182.--HAT.--Nathan A. Baldwin, Milford, Conn., James H. Prentice,
Brooklyn, and John R. Waller, New York city.

183.--SPOOL COTTON.--Lewis Coleman & Co., Boston, Mass.

184.--SALVE.--Robert Dobbins, Binghamton, N. Y.

185.--SOAP.--Leberman & Co., Philadelphia, Pa.

186.--MEDICINE.--Ridenour, Coblentz & Co., Springfield, Ohio.

187.--PAPER.--Union Manufacturing Company, Springfield, Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *


WAGONS.--Edgar Huson, Ithaca, N. Y. Letters Patent No. 16,648, dated
February 17, 1857; reissue No. 2,500, dated March 5, 1867.

OPERATING VALVE OF STEAM ENGINE.--Samuel R. Wilmot, Bridgeport, Conn.
Letters Patent No. 16,668, dated February 17, 1857.

HINGES.--John David Browne, Cincinnati, Ohio. Letters Patent No.
16,678, dated February 24, 1857.

Pa. Letters Patent No. 16,676, dated February 24, 1857.

SOLAR CAMERA.--David A. Woodward, Baltimore, Md. Letters Patent No.
16,700, dated February 24, 1857; reissue No. 2,311, dated July 10,

Wis., administrator of Andrew Leonard, deceased. Letters Patent No.
16,688, dated February 24, 1857; reissue No. 575, dated July 27, 1858;
reissue No. 1,229, dated October 8, 1861.

Wis., administrator of Andrew Leonard, deceased. Letters Patent No.
16,688, dated February 24, 1857; reissue No. 575, dated July 27, 1858;
reissue No. 1,228, dated October 8, 1861.

BREECH-LOADING FIREARMS.--William Cleveland Hicks, Summit, N. J.
Letters Patent No. 16,797, dated March 10, 1857; reissue No. 1,952,
dated May 9, 1865; reissue No. 3,798, dated January 18, 1870; reissue
No. 3,860, dated March 1, 1870.

SEEDING MACHINE.--Lewis B. Myers and Henry A. Myers, Elmore, Ohio.
Letters Patent No. 16,772, dated March 3, 1857.

       *       *       *       *       *


SOLAR CAMERA.--David A. Woodward, Baltimore, Md. Letters Patent No.
16,700, dated February 24, 1857; reissue No. 2,311, dated July 10,
1866. Filed February 23, 1871.

       *       *       *       *       *

every part of the city at $3.50 a year. Single copies for sale at the
News-stands in this city, Brooklyn, Jersey City, and Williamsburgh,
and by most of the News Dealers in the United States.

       *       *       *       *       *

RECEIPTS--When money is paid at the office for subscriptions, a
receipt for it will be given; but when subscribers remit their money
by mail, they may consider the arrival of the first paper a bona-fide
acknowledgment of their funds.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

_The value of the_ SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN _as an advertising medium
cannot be over-estimated. Its circulation is ten times greater than
that of any similar journal now published. It goes into all the
States and Territories, and is read in all the principal libraries and
reading-rooms of the world. We invite the attention of those who wish
to make their business known to the annexed rates. A business man
wants something more than to see his advertisement in a printed
newspaper. He wants circulation. If it is worth 25 cents per line to
advertise in a paper of three thousand circulation, it is worth $2.50
per line to advertise in one of thirty thousand._


  BACK PAGE   -   -  -  -     1.00 A LINE,
  INSIDE PAGE   -  -  -      75 CENTS A LINE,

_for each insertion_.

_Engravings may head advertisements at the same rate per line, by
measurement, as the letter-press_.

       *       *       *       *       *


JOHN KENT is now in England, completing arrangements so as to be able
to supply his American friends with his improved Knitting Machines
with greater dispatch, and with all the latest improvements. He would
beg to call especial attention to

The Improved Rib Top Frame, now so well known, and acknowledged to
be the best rib top frame ever built, for speed and quality of goods
produced. Price, delivered free in New York, $520, currency.

The Improved Circular Web Frame, for drawers and shirts, built of any
size and gage. Price for a 4-head set, 17 inch to 20 inch diameter,
$810, currency, delivered free in New York.

The Circular Stocking Frame, from 2 in. to 5½ in. diameter. These
circular frames, with my last improvements, are as near perfection as

The Patent Full-fashioned Shirt, Drawers and Stocking Frames produce
the most perfect goods ever made by steam-power machinery, and cost
fifty per cent less to keep in repair than any other Knitting Machine.
Built 10 to 24 gage, and from 30 to 140 inch wide, to order.

The Improved Circular Looping Frame, for putting on shirt cuffs,
drawers bands, clearing the top of circular shirts, &c., built to
order, of any size, from 2 in. to 22 in. diameter, and of any gage.

Steel Needles and Sinkers to pattern.

Persons wishing to order while Mr. Kent is in England, will please
address JOHN KENT, Nottingham, up to April 12th, or, if they prefer,
may send through depot.

Address JOHN KENT, 348 Pearl st., New York.

       *       *       *       *       *

PUMPS.--For Description, Price Lists etc., of the Best Centrifugal Pump
ever invented, with Overwhelming Testimony in its favor, send for
new illustrated pamphlet (40 pp.) to Messrs. HEALD, SISCO & CO.,
Baldwinsville, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *

BRICK PRESSES. FOR RED AND FIRE BRICK. Factory 309 S. Fifth street,
Philadelphia, Pa. S. P. MILLER.

       *       *       *       *       *

ST. JOSEPH, Mo., Nov. 10, 1870.


GENTLEMEN:--The Lathe you shipped me has arrived, and I have it in
full operation. It works perfectly, and I think it the best lathe made
in the world for Bedstead and Chair work. I would recommend it to any
one desirous of obtaining such a lathe. Yours truly,


       *       *       *       *       *


With House and 3 acres of land, Seymour, Ct., (Naugatuck Valley,) 2
miles from R. R. depot. Never-failing stream. 3 ft. fall, dam and wheel
in good condition. Inquire of JAS. ORMSBEE, on the premises.

       *       *       *       *       *

AND HOISTING ENGINES. A good article at low prices. Every machine
warranted. Send for descriptive Price List.


       *       *       *       *       *



Of the most approved kinds, of various sizes, to saw bevel as well as
square, without inclining the table, by FIRST & PRYIBIL, 452 to 456
Tenth ave., New York. Price $250, $275, $350, and $400. At present
(Oct. 16), there are in operation, in this city alone, 88 of our
machines. Send for circular. Manufacture, also, an improved saw-filing
apparatus; price, $30. Have also on hand a large stock of best FRENCH

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *


THIS invention is based on a strictly scientific principle, and is
a valuable improvement on old style suspenders. It is simple in
construction, and combines the qualities of Brace and Suspender. They
are unequaled for elegance, durability and comfort. Manufactured
at the Monumental Silk Works, Baltimore. JOHN M. DAVIES & CO., Sole
Agents, 384 & 386 B'd'y, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *




_Send for Circulars._

Formerly Armstrong & Welsh.

       *       *       *       *       *

FOR SALE.--An Engine, 12×36 in. cylinder, and two Boilers, 4×15 feet,
in good order, will be sold cheap. J. J. TAYLOR & CO., 68 Courtlandt
st., New York.

       *       *       *       *       *

HUNTING, Trapping and Fishing. All about it. SENT FREE. Address
"HUNTER," Hinsdale, N. H.

       *       *       *       *       *

FIRST PREMIUM awarded by Am. Inst., 1870
MICROSCOPES,    } Illustrated price list and catalogues
MAGIC LANTERNS, } free to any address.
T. H. McALLISTER, Optician, 49 Nassau st., N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *

Rare and Beautiful Flowers
Can always be obtained by Sowing



The Seventeenth Annual Edition of their celebrated "SEED CATALOGUE
about 300 choice Engravings of favorite Flowers and Vegetables, 136
pages of closely-printed matter, and a list of Twenty-five Hundred
species and varieties of Flower and Vegetable Seeds, with explicit
directions for their culture, and much other useful information upon
the subject of Gardening. A copy will be mailed to all applicants
inclosing 25 cts. Regular customers supplied gratis. Address

Nos. 23 Park Place, and 20 Murray st., P. O. Box No. 5712.
New York.

       *       *       *       *       *




WILLIAM A. ROLFE, A. M.,} Editors.


A paper which commends itself at once to Physicians, Druggists,
Chemists, Teachers, Farmers, Mechanics--in short, to Professional and
Practical Men of every class.

The Domestic Recipes and Formulæ for Art Processes are of themselves
worth many times the cost of subscription.


150 Congress st., Boston.

       *       *       *       *       *

And all kinds of small tools. Illustrated catalogue free.
GOODNOW & WIGHTMAN, 23 Cornhill, Boston, Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *

embraces a Rule, Level, Square, Plumb, Bevel, Slope Level, T Square,
etc., in one compact tool. These instruments retail at $3.50 each, and
energetic salesmen can make money by selling them among mechanics. We
warrant them in every particular, as the construction and graduation
is faultless. Send for descriptive circular, cuts, and terms.

STEPHENS & CO., Riverton, Conn.

       *       *       *       *       *

FELT. THE BEST, CHEAPEST and MOST DURABLE non-conductor known, for
sale by the Original Manufacturer, at the BOILER FELTING WORKS, 46
Courtland st., New York.

       *       *       *       *       *

UNIVERSAL WOOD WORKER. For Agricultural, Railroad, Car, Carriage, and
Wagon Works, Planing Mill, Sash, Door and Blind, Bedstead, Cabinet and
Furniture Factories.


       *       *       *       *       *

245 BROADWAY, N. Y.,
No goods received unless ordered.
B. F. KEMP, Proprietor.

       *       *       *       *       *

MACHINISTS' TOOLS, at greatly reduced prices. Also, some Woodworth
Planers and Second-hand Tools. 97 to 113 R. R. ave., Newark, N. J.

E. & R. J. GOULD, successors to Gould Machine Co.

       *       *       *       *       *

N. B. PATENTED Articles introduced.
Also, State and County Rights sold for Inventors.
STONE, PUGH & CO., 55 N. 6th st., Philadelphia.

       *       *       *       *       *

GOLDEN HILL Seminary for young ladies, Bridgeport, Conn. Miss EMILY
NELSON, Principal.

       *       *       *       *       *


The old standard remedy for Coughs, Colds, Consumption.
"Nothing Better." CUTLER BROS. & Co., Boston.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE CALVERT IRON ROLLING MILLS are offered at private sale. These
mills are situated in the city of Baltimore, and cover 1½ acres of
ground. The Machinery is of the most approved description, for
making all sizes of round and square bar iron, from ¼ in. to 3 in.
diameter, and flat bars of all widths, up to 7 inches.

The buildings are ample and commodious.

In addition to the Rolling Mills are two brick buildings (50×125
feet and 40×90 feet), now containing an 80 H. P. Engine, and Spike
Machinery, but which could be used for the manufacture of Nails,
Horseshoes, or any other branch of heavy hardware.

This property offers an unusual opportunity to capitalists, and will
be sold at a reasonable price.

For further description address

P. O. Box 1158, Baltimore, Md.

       *       *       *       *       *

BURDON IRON WORKS.--Manufacturers of Pumping Engines for Water Works,
High & Low Pressure Engines, Portable Engines and Boilers, of all
kinds, Sugar Mills, Screw, Lever, Drop, & Hydraulic Presses, Machinery
in general. HUBBARD & WHITTAKER, 102 Front st., Brooklyn.

       *       *       *       *       *

ENGINES AND MACHINERY FOR SALE, at a great sacrifice. Two new Steam
Engines, 12 and 20 horse power; 1 Faribain's Riveting Machine; 1 large
Power Shears; 1 ditto Table Punch; 2 ditto Flange Punches; 1 set Power
Bending Rolls; together with a large lot of Turning Lathes, Drilling
Machines, Machinists' and Smiths' Hand Tools, Pulleys, Hangers, and 6
Fairbanks' Platform Scales. Send for catalogue, or apply at the South
Brooklyn Steam Engine Works, cor. Imlay and Summit sts., Brooklyn.

       *       *       *       *       *


Law's Patent with Trevor & Co.'s Improvements. The Simplest and Best
in use. Also, Shingle, Heading and Stave Jointers, Equalizers,
Heading Turners, Planers etc. Address

TREVOR & CO., Lockport, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *

Boston, Mass., or St. Louis, Mo.

       *       *       *       *       *




See SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, Sept. 17, 1870.

For Descriptive Circular apply to


MACHINES can be seen in operation at the Company's Works, Chicago; at
rear 59 Ann st., New York city; and at Novelty Iron Works, corner of
Delord and Peter sts., New Orleans.

       *       *       *       *       *




This new prepared production is ready coated, and can be applied on
the roof without further trouble. It is easy of application, and does
not require any repairs for a long time. It is more durable than
some slates, and has been found a suitable substitute for iron or
tin roofs. It has a sanded or stony surface, which renders it
UNINFLAMMABLE and FIRE-PROOF. Exposed to the most intense fire, and
sparks falling upon it, it will not propagate the fire. Under the
influence of the sun it will not run, which makes it specially adapted
to hot climates. Its easy application and pleasing appearance have
made it a favorite roofing material throughout all the Indies and
other colonies. Being not cumbrous for transport, it is of invaluable
service to settlers and farmers in far remote districts. When used for
temporary purposes it may be taken off and applied again to another
construction. It replaces common Asphalting on Terraces, Lobbies,
Counting-houses, Office Floors, etc.; is a great preservative against
dampness and vermin, and equalizes the temperature. It is 32 inches
wide, and made in rolls of 25 yards each. Send for circular to


       *       *       *       *       *



My Annual Illustrated Catalogue, containing a list of many new and
rare Vegetables, some of which are not found in any other catalogue,
and all the standard vegetables of the farm and garden (over one
hundred of which I grow on my three seed farms), with a carefully
selected list of flower seed, will be sent free to all. All my seed is
sold under three warrants:

  1st. That all money sent shall reach me.
  2d. That all seed ordered shall reach the purchaser.
  3d. That my seeds shall be fresh and true to name.

JAMES J. H. GREGORY, Marblehead, Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *




For Simplicity, Durability and Beauty they stand _UNRIVALLED!_ For
BRAIDING, GATHERING, Gathering & sewing on gathers, _they are

For particulars address

Wilson Sewing Machine Co.,
Cleveland, O., or
St. Louis, Mo.


       *       *       *       *       *


NEW AND 2d-HAND.--Send for Circular. CHAS. PLACE & CO., 60 Vesey st.,
New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


Illustrated Catalogue and Price List of all kinds of small Tools and
Materials sent free to any address. GOODNOW & WIGHTMAN, 23 Cornhill,
Boston, Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *


return motion, Agricultural Drills, Improved Engine Lathes, from 12
in. to 28 in. swing, Planers, Gear Cutters, Boring Mills, Hand Lathes,
and other first-class Machinists' Tools.

Jackson st., Worcester, Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *



Rights for States and Territories for sale. Address JOHN DOMINGOS and
BENJAMIN ESSIG, Sacramento, Cal.

       *       *       *       *       *


Boston, Mass., Publishers of "PATENT STAR", sell Patent Rights and
goods of all kinds. Orders solicited.


---> Send stamp for copy.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO THE WORKING CLASS.--We are now prepared to furnish all classes with
constant employment at home, the whole of the time or for the spare
moments. Business new, light and profitable. Persons of either sex
easily earn from 50c. to $5 per evening, and a proportional sum by
devoting their whole time to the business. Boys and girls earn nearly
as much as men. That all who see this notice may send their address,
and test the business, we make this unparalleled offer: To such as are
not well satisfied, we will send $1 to pay for the trouble of writing.
Full particulars, a valuable sample which will do to commence work on,
and a copy of _The People's Literary Companion_--one of the largest
and best family newspapers published--all sent free by mail. Reader,
if you want permanent, profitable work, address

D. C. ALLEN & CO., Augusta, Maine.

       *       *       *       *       *


TO MACHINISTS.--The Best Metal for all Machine Uses is the MARTIN
steel is made by an entirely different process from any other and is
tougher than wrought iron. It can be turned without annealing, being
entirely free from hard spots. Every one who uses it pronounces it
just what they have long wanted, for a multitude of uses, such as
Crank Pins, Lathe Spindles and Screws, Cotton Machinery Rollers, Saw
and Fan Spindles, etc., etc. Also, particularly adapted for Firebox
Plates. Prices low. Send for further information, or a sample, stating
use to which it is to be applied.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: TRADE MARK.]

Union Emery Wheels.

Solid and with Stone Center.
UNION STONE CO., Boston, Mass.
Branch Office, 93 Liberty st., N. Y.

General Agents for the Am. Twist Drill Co.'s Superior Grinder and
other Emery Wheel Machinery and Tools. Send for Circular.

       *       *       *       *       *

& Wood's Planers, Self-oiling Saw Arbors, and other wood working

  S. A. WOODS,        {91 Liberty street, N. Y.;
Send for Circulars.   {67 Sudbury street, Boston.

       *       *       *       *       *

RICHARDSON, MERIAM & CO., Manufacturers of the latest improved Patent
Daniels' and Woodworth Planing Machines, Matching, Sash, and molding,
Tenoning, Mortising, Boring, Shaping, Vertical, and Circular Re-sawing
Machines, Saw Mills Saw Arbors, Scroll Saws, Railway, Cut-off, and
Rip-saw Machines, Spoke and Wood Turning Lathes, and various other
kinds of Wood-working Machinery. Catalogues and price lists sent on
application. Manufactory, Worcester, Mass. Warehouse, 107 Liberty st.,
New York. 17 1

       *       *       *       *       *



The Oldest and Newest. All others only imitations of each other in
their strife after complications to confuse the public. We do not
boast but quietly excel them all in staunch reliable, economical
power. Beautiful pamphlet free. GEO. TALLCOT, 96 Liberty st., New


       *       *       *       *       *

Adams st., Brooklyn, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *

MODELS, PATTERNS, EXPERIMENTAL, and other machinery, Models for the
Patent Office, built to order by HOLSKE MACHINE CO., Nos. 528, 530,
and 532 Water st., near Jefferson. Refer to SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN
office. 14 tf

       *       *       *       *       *


And Re-Sawing Machines, Wood and Iron Working Machinery, Engines,
Boilers, etc. JOHN B. SCHENCK & SON, Matteawan, N. Y., and 118 Liberty
st., New York.

       *       *       *       *       *

WANTED--AGENTS, $20 PER DAY, TO sell the celebrated HOME SHUTTLE
SEWING MACHINE. Has the under-feed, makes the "lock stitch" alike on
both sides, and is fully licensed. The best and cheapest Family Sewing
Machine in the market. Address JOHNSON, CLARK & CO., Boston, Mass.;
Pittsburgh, Pa.; Chicago, Ill., or St. Louis, Mo.

       *       *       *       *       *

largest variety to be found in the country, on hand and finishing.
Workmanship, Material, and Design unsurpassed. Machines on exhibition
at Fair of American Institute. UNION VISE CO. OF BOSTON. Office 80
Milk st. Works at Hyde Park, Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *


414 Water street, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


A premium HORSE and WAGON for Agents. We desire to employ agents for
a term of seven years, to sell the Buckeye $20.00 Shuttle Sewing
Machine. It makes a stitch alike on both sides, and is the best
low-priced licensed machine in the world. W. A. HENDERSON & CO.,
Cleveland, Ohio, or St. Louis, Mo.

       *       *       *       *       *

ALLCOTT'S LATHES, for Broom, Hoe, and Rake Handles, for sale by

L. W. POND, 98 Liberty st., New York.

       *       *       *       *       *

UNRIVALLED Hand Saw Mill, Self-feeding, with ease. Rip 3-in. lumber;
guaranteed do work of 3 men. The only hand saw machine known, does as
represented. Thousands in use. Send for circular.

WM. H. HOAG, Sole Manufacturer, 214 Pearl st. N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *

U. S. PIANO CO. N. Y. Best in the World--$290. Sent on trial--See large
cut and terms in Scientific American. Oct. 1st 1870.

       *       *       *       *       *

AMERICAN, Jan. 11, '71. H. H. EVARTS, 93 Liberty st.; TREVOR & CO.,
Lockport N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *

FOSTER'S PATENT LOG-CANTING MACHINES, and Sawmill Machinery generally,
Agent, Sandy Hill, Wash. Co., N. Y. Send for Illustrated Circulars and
Price Lists.

       *       *       *       *       *

or single, with books of instruction, manufactured and sold by THOMAS
HALL, Manufacturing Electrician, 19 Bromfield street, Boston, Mass.
Illustrated catalogue sent free on application.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *


By E. E. ROBERTS & CO., Consulting Engineers, 15 Wall St., N. Y. Send
Stamp for Circular.

       *       *       *       *       *


A Book of 125 closely printed pages, lately issued, contains a list of
the best American Advertising Mediums giving the names, circulations,
and full particulars concerning the leading Daily and Weekly
Political and Family Newspapers, together with all those having large
circulations, published in the interest of Religion, Agriculture,
Literature, etc., etc. Every Advertiser, and every person who
contemplates becoming such, will find this book of great value. Mailed
free to any address on receipt of 25c.


Publishers, No. 40 Park Row, New York.

The Pittsburgh (Pa.) Leader, in its issue of May 29, 1870 says:

"The firm of G. P. Rowell & Co., which issues this interesting and
valuable book, is the largest and best Advertising Agency in the
United States, and we can cheerfully recommend it to the attention
of those who desire to advertise their business SCIENTIFICALLY and
SYSTEMATICALLY in such a way: that is, so as to secure the largest
amount of publicity for the least expenditure of money."

       *       *       *       *       *


This Shafting is in every particular superior to any turned Shafting
ever made. It is the most ECONOMICAL SHAFTING to buy, being so very
much stronger than turned Shafting. Less diameter answers every
purpose, causing a great saving in coupling, pulleys and hangers.
It is perfectly round, and made to Whitworth Gage. All who give it a
trial continue to use it exclusively. We have it in large quantities.
Call and examine it, or send for price list.

126 and 128 Chambers st., New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


GEORGE PLACE & CO., Manufacturers and Dealers in Wood and Iron Working
Machinery, of every description, Stationary and Portable Engines
and Boilers, Leather and Rubber Belting, and all articles needful in
Machine or Railroad Repair Shops. 126 and 128 Chamber st., New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


These are in every particular the best and most perfect Blower ever
made. A full assortment of every size on hand, ready to deliver.

126 and 128 Chamber St., New York.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: WROUGHT IRON Beams & Girders]

The Union Iron Mills, Pittsburgh, Pa. The attention of Engineers and
Architects is called to our improved Wrought-iron Beams and Girders
(patented), in which the compound welds between the stem and flanges,
which have proved so objectionable in the old mode of manufacturing,
are entirely avoided, we are prepared to furnish all sizes at terms
as favorable as can be obtained elsewhere. For descriptive lithograph
address Carnegie, Kloman & Co., Union Iron Mills, Pittsburgh, Pa.

       *       *       *       *       *

MILL OWNERS, ATTENTION.--Our Turbine Water Wheels still ahead. No
complications. Simple, compact, and durable. Prices moderate.

VALENTINE & CO., Ft. Edward, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *

Woodward Pat. Improved Safety Steam Pump and Fire Engine, Steam,
Water, and Gas Fittings of all kinds. Also Dealers in Wrought-iron
Pipe, Boiler Tubes, etc. Hotels, Churches, Factories, & Public
Buildings heated by Steam. Low Pressure. Woodward Building, 76 and 78
Center st., cor. of Worth st. (formerly of 77 Beekman st., N. Y.) All
parties are hereby cautioned against infringing the Pat. Right of the
above Pump. G. M. WOODWARD, Pres't.

       *       *       *       *       *

BUERK'S WATCHMAN'S TIME DETECTOR.--Important for all large
Corporations and Manufacturing concerns--capable of controlling with
the utmost accuracy the motion of a watchman or patrolman, as the same
reaches different stations of his beat. Send for a Circular.

P. O. Box 1,057 Boston, Mass.

N. B.--This detector is covered by two U. S. Patents. Parties using or
selling these instruments without authority from me will be dealt with
according to law.

       *       *       *       *       *

PORTABLE STEAM ENGINES, COMBINING the maximum of efficiency,
durability and economy, with the minimum of weight and price. They are
widely and favorably known, more than 750 being in use. All warranted
satisfactory or no sale. Descriptive circulars sent on application.

J. C. HOADLEY & CO., Lawrence, Mass.
46. Cortlandt st., New York.

       *       *       *       *       *

$5 TO $10 PER DAY.

MEN, WOMEN, BOYS and GIRLS who engage in our new business make from
$5 TO $10 PER DAY in their own localities. Full particulars and
instructions sent free by mail. Those in need of permanent, profitable
work, should address at once. GEORGE STINSON & CO., Portland, Maine.

       *       *       *       *       *


WE WILL PAY AGENTS A SALARY OF $30 PER WEEK and expenses, or allow a
large commission, to sell our new and wonderful inventions.

M. WAGNER & CO., Marshall, Mich.

       *       *       *       *       *


A sure cure for this distressing complaint is now made known in
a Treatise of 48 octavo pages, on Foreign and Native Herbal
Preparations, published by Dr. O. Phelps Brown. The prescription
was discovered by him in such a providential manner that he cannot
conscientiously refuse to make it known, as it has cured everybody
who has used it for Fits, never having failed in a single case. The
ingredients may be obtained from any druggist. Persons desiring a copy
may address Dr. O. Phelps Brown, No. 21 Grand Street, Jersey City,
N. J., and it will be sent by return mail.

       *       *       *       *       *

WOOD-WORKING MACHINERY GENERALLY. Specialties, Woodworth Planers and
Richardson's Patent Improved Tenon Machines. Nos. 24 and 26 Central,
corner Union st., Worcester, Mass. Warerooms 42 Cortlandt st., New


       *       *       *       *       *

CINCINNATI BRASS WORKS.--Engineers and Steam Fitters' Brass Work, Best
Quality at very Low Prices. F. LUNKENHEIMER, Prop'r.

       *       *       *       *       *


The simplest, cheapest, and best in use. Has but one needle! A child
can run it!


Send for Circular and Sample Stocking to


       *       *       *       *       *


from 4 to 36 inches. Also for car wheels. Address

E. HORTON & SON, Windsor Locks, Conn.

       *       *       *       *       *

SILICATE OF SODA, IN ITS VARIOUS forms, manufactured as a specialty,
by Philadelphia Quartz Co., 783 South 2d st. Philadelphia, Pa.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Advertisements will be admitted on this page at the rate of $1.00
per line for each insertion. Engravings may head advertisements at the
same rate per line, by measurement, as the letter-press._

       *       *       *       *       *

Hundreds are in use by Banks, Bankers, and Merchants.
            {265 Broadway, New York.
            {721 Chestnut st., Philadelphia.
Warehouses, {108 Bank st., Cleveland.
            { 93 Main st., Buffalo.

       *       *       *       *       *

L: L: SMITH & CO.,
Between Elm and Centre.

       *       *       *       *       *




Guaranteed to make from 5 to 10 lbs. more steam, with less fuel, than
any other bar. Adapted to all kinds of fuel; no alteration of furnace
required. Received Silver Medal at Cincinnati Industrial Exposition,
1870; Silver Medal at Worcester Co. Mechanics' Association, 1866;
Medal and Diploma at American Institute Fair, 1870; Honorable Mention
at Paris Exposition. Send for descriptive pamphlet. Now in use in
10,000 places.

L. B. TUPPER, 120 West st., New York.

       *       *       *       *       *



For Blast Furnaces, Bakers' Ovens, Boiler Flues, Superheated Steam Oil
Stills, Zinc and Lead Baths. E. BROWN, 311 Walnut st., Philadelphia.

       *       *       *       *       *


Send stamp for circulars. Carpenters and Builders can make from $10 to
$20 selling them. Address G. S. LACEY, care of Patterson Brothers, No.
27 Park Row, New York city.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPERM OIL, _strictly pure_, for SEWING MACHINES and fine Machinery, in
bottles and bbls.

Sample by mail, 25 cts. W. F. NYE, New Bedford, Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *


DOOLEY'S YEAST POWDER is preferred to any other Baking Powder in
market, are owing to its perfect purity, quality, quantity,
and economy. The ingredients are strictly free from deleterious
substances, and hence the full strength of each is obtained, and the
results are uniform every time it is used. This cannot be the case in
those of ordinary manufacture, and for proof of our assertion, we ask
those who have never used DOOLEY'S YEAST POWDER to give it a trial.
Your grocer keeps it. DOOLEY & BROTHER, Manufacturers, 69 New st., New

       *       *       *       *       *

PATENT CUTTERS for the Teeth of Gear Wheels, which can be sharpened by
grinding, without changing their form. Cutters made on this plan
will last many times as long as those of the common form, with the
advantage of being always ready for use. Descriptive circular, with
price list, sent per mail on application. BROWN & SHARPE M'F'G CO.,
Providence, R. I.

       *       *       *       *       *


111,542, delivers water from the well or cistern in the tank at the
top of the house. Is operated by the fire in the kitchen range without
additional fuel; is simple in construction, reliable and cheap.
Reliable parties wanted to introduce them into use in all the States
except New England. For drawings and full description address

CHARLES HOUGHTON, 41 State St., Boston, Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *

SHORT HAND.--150 words per minute in four weeks. Send stamp for

PROF. GRAY, P. O. Box 4847, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *



       *       *       *       *       *


EMBRACING Engines, Planers, Lathes, Smith and Boiler Makers' Tools,
and Machinery and Patterns of the most approved kinds, etc. Also,
1 High Pressure Engine, 12-inch diameter by 30-inch stroke: 2
Stevenson's Patent Turbine Water Wheels, 66-inch diameter, and 1
Marine Beam Engine, 60-inches by 10-feet stroke. Send for catalogue.


New York, March 1, 1871.

       *       *       *       *       *

believed to be the best and cheapest in the market, apply to

Wilmington, Delaware

       *       *       *       *       *

HOTCHKISS BRICK AND TILE MACHINE.--Send for Circular to Room 7, No. 19
Cliff street, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


Not the cheapest, but the best Illuminating Oil ever made. Does not
take fire or explode if the lamp be upset or broken. Over 100,000
families continue to use it, and no accidents of any description,
directly or indirectly, have occurred from it.

Established 1770, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


All goods warranted seasoned, and of the best quality.

Southwest cor. of Leopard and Otter sts., Philadelphia.

       *       *       *       *       *


Vertical & Horizontal
30-inch grinds 30 bus. per hour,
and 20-in. 15. Price $280 and $140.
New Haven, Conn.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *



WILL DO TEN PER CENT MORE WORK on small streams, in a dry season, than
any wheel ever invented. Gave the best results, in every respect, at
the Lowell Tests.

For Report of tests at Lowell, with Diagrams and Tables of Power,


       *       *       *       *       *


For outside of Studding, under Clapboards. A non-conductor of cold,
heat, and dampness.


a cheap and perfect substitute for lath and plaster; makes a smooth,
warm, and substantial wall, at less than half the usual cost.


and Quartz Cement, make a good water and fire-proof roof, for less
than $3.50 per square.

Sample and Circulars sent free, by
Chicago; or,
22 & 24 Frankfort street, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *

IRON PLANERS, ENGINE LATHES, Drills, and other Machinists' Tools,
of superior quality, on hand, and finishing. For sale low. For
Description and Price address NEW HAVEN MANUFACTURING CO. New Haven

       *       *       *       *       *


IMPORTERS and Manufacturers of Aniline Colors and Dyestuffs, Colors
for Paperhangers and Stainers. Reliable recipes for Dyeing and
Printing on Silk, Wool, and Cotton. All new improvements in the art of
Dyeing, and new Colors are transmitted to us by our friends in Europe,
as soon as they appear.

42 Beaver street, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


Runs 25 per cent more machinery, is nearly twice as strong, and wears
50 per c. longer than any other. Send for circular containing price
lists and discounts.


       *       *       *       *       *



From 4 to 500 horse power including Corliss Engines, Slide Valve
Stationary Engines, Portable Engines, etc. Also, Circular Saw Mills,
Shafting, Pulleys etc. Wheat and Corn Mills, Circular Saws, etc.

Send for Price List.


       *       *       *       *       *


FOR ALL KINDS OF ROCK DRILLING, Mining, Quarrying, Tunneling, Railroad
Grading, Well Boring, Prospecting, etc. Fifty to Seventy-five per cent
of cost and time of hand labor saved. "Test Cores," in form of solid
cylinders of rock or mineral taken out of mines from any depth not
exceeding one thousand feet, showing true value, stratification, etc.
No percussion. Never require sharpening. FIRST PREMIUMS awarded in
both American and Europe. Illustrated Circulars sent on application.
Beware of infringements.

Proprietors and Manufacturers,
Office 16 Wall st., New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


RIGHTS sold for the use of, and instruction given in the best method
of Nickel Plating. An experience of twelve years enables us to offer a
solution and apparatus that remain practically unchanged for years, in
constant use.


us by the AMERICAN INSTITUTE in 1870. Critical examination of our
work solicited. All goods sent to our Factory will meet with prompt

New York Office--4 DEV ST., ROOM 2.

       *       *       *       *       *


for Steam Boiler. Send for Circulars.
Agents wanted. MURRILL & KEIZER, Baltimore, Md.

       *       *       *       *       *

Mills, and Edge Tools. Northampton Emery Wheel Co., Leeds, Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *

Can afford to be without some of

My new and enlarged Catalogue of PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS, 82
pages, 8vo., will be sent, free of postage, to any one who will favor
me with his address.

Industrial Publisher, 406 Walnut St.,

       *       *       *       *       *


Will be held on the Fair Grounds of the Association, in the city of
New Orleans, commencing SATURDAY, APRIL 8, 1871, and continuing nine
days. Exhibitors are invited from every section of America. Railroads,
steamships, and other transportation lines, as named in the Premium
Catalogues, will carry exhibitors and their wares to and from the
Fair at one half the usual rates. For further information see Premium
Catalogue, which will be sent to any address free of charge.

LUTHER HOMES, Secretary and Treasurer,
New Orleans, La.

       *       *       *       *       *


For Pamphlets with Price
List and Testimonials, address
2d Ave., cor. 28th st., N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *


For Inclined Planes, Standing Ship Rigging, Bridges, Ferries, Stays,
or Guys on Derricks & Cranes, Tiller Ropes, Sash Cords of Copper
and Iron, Lightning Conductors of Copper. Special attention given
to hoisting rope of all kinds for Mines and Elevators. Apply for
circular, giving price and other information. Send for pamphlet on
Transmission of Power by Wire Ropes. A large stock constantly on hand
at New York Warehouse, No. 117 Liberty street.

       *       *       *       *       *

$732 IN 31 DAYS,

Made by one Agent, selling Silver's Broom. 100,000 in use. Recommended
by Horace Greeley and _Am. Agriculturist_. One county for each Agent.
_Prices Reduced_. C. A. CLEGG & CO., New York, or Chicago, Ill.

       *       *       *       *       *




And Perforated Circular and Long Saws. Also Solid Saws of all kinds.
No. 1 Ferry St., cor. Gold street, New York. Branch Office for Pacific
Coast, No. 606 Front street, San Francisco, Cal.

       *       *       *       *       *

For all purposes, with square, round, and
hexagon heads. A. W. GIFFORD & CO.,
Worcester, Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *


The fact that this Shafting has 75 per cent greater strength, a
finer finish, and is truer to gage, than any other in use, renders it
undoubtedly the most economical. We are also the sole manufacturers
of the CELEBRATED COLLINS PAT. COUPLING, and furnish Pulleys, Hangers,
etc., of the most approved styles. Price Lists mailed on application

120 Water street, Pittsburgh, Pa.

---> Stocks of this Shafting in store and for sale by

FULLER, DANA & FITZ, Boston, Mass.
GEO. PLACE & CO., 126 Chambers street, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *



       *       *       *       *       *


For Saving Fuel, and supplying Dry Steam of any desired temperature.
Safe, durable, easily attached.

H. W. BULKLEY Engineer, 98 Liberty st., N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *

pressure Steam Engines, address

PUSEY JONES & CO. Wilmington Delaware.

       *       *       *       *       *


First-class Medal, World's Fair, London, 1862. And American Institute
Fair, New York, 1869.

Over 1,000 Boilers in Use.



75,000 IN USE.

or, JOHN A. COLEMAN, Agent,
110 Broadway, New York, and 139 Federal st., Boston.

       *       *       *       *       *


The celebrated DOYLE BLOCKS have taken premiums over the differential
Blocks of all other makers at every Fair where they have been
exhibited at the same time. WHEN YOU BUY, SEE THAT THE BLOCKS ARE
MARKED J. J. DOYLE. Pat. Jan. 8, 1861. All others are infringements.


       *       *       *       *       *

Engine Builders & Founders, New Haven, Conn.

       *       *       *       *       *


$250 A MONTH with Stencil Dies. Samples free. Address

S. M. SPENCER Brattleboro Vt.

       *       *       *       *       *

Does not Glaze, Gum, Heat, or Smell. Address
Stroudsburg, Monroe Co., Pa.

       *       *       *       *       *

A. S. & J. GEAR & CO., Boston, furnish every description of Wood and
Iron Working Machinery and Supplies. The best in use, regardless of
maker, at lowest possible rates.

       *       *       *       *       *


And Experimental Machinery, Metal, or Wood, made to order, by J. F.
WERNER 62 Center st. N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *

McNAB & HARLAN, Manufacturers of Wrought Iron Pipe and Fittings,
Brass Cocks, Valves, Gage Cocks, Whistles, Water Gages, and Oil Cups,
Harlin's Patent Lubricator, Plumber's Brass Work, Getty's Patent Pipe
Cutter, Getty's Patent Proving Pump and Gage. No. 86 John st., New

       *       *       *       *       *


Fourth avenue and 130th and 131st sts., New York city Manufacturers of


Four first premiums were awarded to us at the Fair of the American
Institute, 1870.

Send for our illustrated circular.

       *       *       *       *       *



LATHES, PLANERS, DRILLS, of all sizes; Vertical Boring Mills, ten
feet swing, and under; Milling Machines, Gear and Bolt Cutters; Hand
Punches and Shears for Iron.

Office and Warerooms, 98 Liberty st., New York; Works at Worcester,

A. C. STEBBINS, New York, Agent.

       *       *       *       *       *


(No Tar), for Roofing, Sheathing, Ceilings, Oil-cloths, Shoe
Stiffenings, Tags, Trunks, Cartridges, Blasting, Pass-book Covers,
Grain and Flour Bins, etc., for sale by

Paper Warehouse, 59 Duane st., New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


FOR 1871.


EVERY NUMBER is printed on fine paper, and elegantly illustrated with
original engravings representing


Farmers, Mechanics, Inventors, Engineers, Chemists Manufacturers and
People of all Professions or Trades will find the


of great value and interest.

The Editors are assisted by many of the ablest American and European
Writers, and having access to all the leading Scientific and
Mechanical Journals of the world, the columns of the SCIENTIFIC
AMERICAN are constantly enriched with the choicest Information.

An Official List of all the Patents Issued is published Weekly.

The Yearly Numbers of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN make two splendid
Volumes of nearly ONE THOUSAND PAGES equivalent in size to FOUR
THOUSAND ordinary book pages.


TERMS--$3.00 a year, $1.50 half year; Clubs of Ten Copies for one
year, at $2.50 each, $25.00,

With a SPLENDID PREMIUM to the person who forms the Club, consisting
of a copy of the celebrated Steel Plate Engraving, "Men of Progress."



       *       *       *       *       *

THE "Scientific American" is printed with CHAS. ENEU JOHNSON & CO.'S
INK. Tenth and Lombard sts. Philadelphia, and 59 Gold st. New York.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Scientific  American, Volume XXIV., No. 12,  March 18, 1871 - A Weekly Journal of Practical Information, Art, Science, - Mechanics, Chemistry, and Manufactures." ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.