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Title: Scientific American, Volume 40, No. 13, March 29, 1879 - A Weekly Journal of Practical Information, Art, Science, - Mechanics, Chemistry, and Manufactures
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Scientific American, Volume 40, No. 13, March 29, 1879 - A Weekly Journal of Practical Information, Art, Science, - Mechanics, Chemistry, and Manufactures" ***

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[Illustration: Issue Title.]



NEW YORK, MARCH 29, 1879.

Vol. XL., No. 13. [NEW SERIES.]


       *       *       *       *       *



MUNN & CO., Editors and Proprietors.



O. D. MUNN.     A. E. BEACH.


One copy, one year, postage included       $3 20
One copy, six months, postage included      1 60

CLUBS.--One extra copy of THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN will be supplied
gratis for every club of five subscribers at $3.20 each; additional
copies at same proportionate rate. Postage prepaid.

Single copies of any desired number of the SUPPLEMENT sent to one
address on receipt of 10 cents.

Remit by postal order. Address

          MUNN & CO., 37 Park Row, New York.


is a distinct paper from the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. THE SUPPLEMENT
is issued weekly. Every number contains 16 octavo pages, with handsome
cover, uniform in size with SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. Terms of subscription
for SUPPLEMENT, $5.00 a year, postage paid, to subscribers. Single copies
10 cents. Sold by all news dealers throughout the country.

for one year, postage free, on receipt of _seven dollars_. Both papers
to one address or different addresses, as desired.

The safest way to remit is by draft, postal order, or registered letter.

          ADDRESS MUNN & CO., 37 PARK ROW, N. Y.


The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN Export Edition is a large and splendid
periodical, issued once a month. Each number contains about one
hundred large quarto pages, profusely illustrated, embracing: (1.)
Most of the plates and pages of the four preceding weekly issues of
the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, with its splendid engravings and valuable
information; (2.) Commercial, trade, and manufacturing announcements
of leading houses. Terms for Export Edition, $5.00 a year, sent
prepaid to any part of the world. Single copies 50 cents.
Manufacturers and others who desire to secure foreign trade may have
large, and handsomely displayed announcements published in this
edition at a very moderate cost.

The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN Export Edition has a large guaranteed
circulation in all commercial places throughout the world. Address
MUNN & CO., 37 Park Row, New York.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Illustrated articles are marked with an asterisk.)

  Africa crossed again                                      193
  Aluminum                                                  197
  Barometer, aneroid                                        201
  Bolt, door, improved*                                     198
  Bread, snow-raised                                        199
  Buffalo, domestication of the                             197
  Carpet beetle, remedy for the                             195
  Chimney flues                                             198
  Clocks, pneumatic                                         196
  Cooper, Peter, as an inventor                             193
  Crusher, ore, novel*                                      194
  Electricity, statical, phenom. in                         194
  Flour, banana                                             195
  Furnace, imp., for burn'g garbage*                        198
  Hardware, English & American                              201
  Ice cave of Decorah, Iowa                                 196
  Inventions, new agricultural                              199
  Iron, advance in                                          201
  Light, albo-carbon                                        201
  Magnetism, curious facts in                               194
  Motor, Gary, the*                                         196
  Natural science, charms of                                200
  Neutral line, Gary's                                      196
  Notes and queries                                         203
  Patent laws                                               192
  Patents, American, recent                                 194
  Pen, stencil, new*                                        195
  People, a strange                                         195
  Phosphorescence                                           199
  Plants protected by insects                               201
  Pleuro-pneumonia                                          192
  Railway, Vesuvius                                         200
  Reading and eyesight                                      199
  Reading, taste for                                        193
  Regulator, engine, novel*                                 195
  Spain a field for machinery                               193
  Sponges, glass*                                           200
  Table, ironing, new*                                      194
  Telegraph, writing                                        196
  Telegraph, writing, Cowper's                              197
  Telegraphy, ocean, progress of                            195
  Tiller, steam, new*                                       191
  Tree, pottery                                             200
  Vase, Greek, ancient*                                     199

       *       *       *       *       *



NO. 169,


Price 10 cents. For sale by all newsdealers.

I. ENGINEERING AND MECHANICS.--The Herreshoff Torpedo Boat, recently
built at Bristol, R. I., for the British Government. The novelties in
the placing of the screw, etc. The Peculiar Boiler. 4
figures.--Improved Hopper Steam Dredger. 2 figures.--The St. Gothard
Tunnel.--The Beacon Tower of Lavezzi. 3 figures.

II. ARCHITECTURE.--Bath Abbey Church. Full page illustration.

III. TECHNOLOGY.--The Achison Stone Cutting Machine. 1 engraving.--The
Deep Mines of the World.--Shoemakers' Wax.--Gruber's New Method of
Germination. 1 engraving.--Improved Process for Treating Wood, etc.,
for Paper Manufacture.--Bronzing Plaster of Paris Casts.--Sal Soda for
Unhairing Hides and Skins.--Sieburger's Paste.--To Tan Lace Leather
with Softsoap.

Practical Dyeing Recipes: Blue white zephyr, Scotch blue on worsted,
Scotch green on worsted, jacquineaux on worsted, drab on worsted, gold
on venetian carpet yarn, red brown slubbing, scarlet braid, slate
braid, light drab on cotton, blue on cotton, brown on cotton, chrome
orange on cotton carpet yarn, black on common mixed carpet yarn for
filling, black on cotton and wool mixed yarn.

Damar Varnish for Negatives.--To Make Vignetters by Means of
Gelatino-Chromate.--Resorcine Colors.--Phosphate Soaps.--Substitution
of Different Metals in Ultramarine Colors.--A Harmless Green for Paper
Hangings.--Siegwart's Bath for Etching Glass.--Composition of French
Bronzes.--A New Enemy to the Tea Plant.--The Bradford Oil Sand.

IV. CHEMISTRY AND METALLURGY.--Apparatus for Titration, 1
figure.--Palladium.--Hæmocyanin.--Test for Alcohol in Ethereal Oils
and Chloroform.--Reaction of Tartaric and Citric Acid.--A Peculiar
Observation.--Insolubility of Iodate of Lead.--Mode of Preventing the
Contamination of Water with Lead.--Separating Phosphorus from Iron and
Steel.--Production of Alcohol without Fermentation.

V. ELECTRICITY, LIGHT, HEAT, ETC.--Some Facts in regard to Telescopic
and Stereoscopic Vision.--The Centenary of the Birth of Sir Humphry
Davy. His boyish days. His first chemical experiments. His first
lecture at the Royal Institution. A very entertaining biographical
sketch.--Light and Heat in Gas Flames.--Nickel Needles for
Compasses.--The Nature of the Elements.--A New Compound Prism for
Direct Vision Spectroscopes.

M. D.--The Species of Tapeworm now Prevalent.--Nitrous Oxide under

VII. NATURAL HISTORY, GEOLOGY, ETC.--A Gigantic American Deep-sea
Crustacean, 1 engraving.--Glaciers in the United States.--The Toulomne
Cave.--Archæological Explorations in Tennessee. By F. W. PUTNAM. 6
figures.--Memorably Cold Winters.--Life at Timber Line. By Professor
C. E. ROBINS, Summit, Colorado.--The Walled Lake in Iowa.

various opinions that have been held in regard to the moon. The best
we can do with our present telescopes. The means we possess for
judging of the condition of the moon. Recent changes on the moon.
Photographs of the moon and their defects. Facts that have been
observed by the persevering eyes of astronomers.

       *       *       *       *       *


Steam is now made to perform almost everything in the way of heavy
labor, to the saving of muscle and energy that may be more profitably
employed; and since inventive genius has devised means of governing
steam with absolute accuracy, there seems to be no limit to its
economical application.

A recent invention in steam engineering, which exhibits in a marked
degree the controllability and adaptability of steam, is Mr. Herbert
Wadsworth's steam tiller, an engraving of which we present herewith.

[Illustration: Fig. 1, 2, 3.]

This machine (Fig. 1) is provided with a steam cylinder, similar to
the cylinder of a steam engine, containing a piston, the rod of which
is attached to a crosshead, A, that slides on ways, B, secured to the
bed supporting the cylinder.

The tiller, D, as it is carried to starboard or port, slides through a
socket, E, pivoted to the crosshead.

The motion of the rudder is communicated to the steam cut-off by means
of the shaft, C, crank, J, rod, K, crank, I, and the hollow valve
spindle. When the tiller is amidships the valve handle, H, is at right
angles to the cylinder, and parallel to the tiller. By moving the
lever, H, to right or left, steam is admitted to one end or the other
of the cylinder, which, acting on the tiller through the piston,
piston rod, and crosshead, moves the rudder; and when the rudder
reaches the desired position the cut-off will have been moved the
amount necessary to prevent further entrance of steam. When the rudder
is influenced by the waves or by the expansion or contraction of
steam, the cut-off alters its position in relation to the valve and
automatically arranges the steam passages so that the piston is
returned to its proper position. The details of the cut-off are shown
in Fig. 2; the valve, G, which covers the cut-off, F, acts like a four
way cock. The spindle of the cut-off, F, is connected with the lever,
I, and is moved by the rudder, as already described. By enlarging or
gradually narrowing the ends of the steam ports great rigidity or
elasticity may be given to the hold of this engine, according to the
requirements of the particular vessel.

Few and simple as are the parts of this machine it is possible, by
balancing the valves and suiting the diameter of the cylinder to the
work to be performed, to overcome great resistances with a slight
effort. The inventor says that this system of valves is considered by
experts to be novel and very valuable.

In Fig. 3 is shown a pattern of a slide valve suited to special
purposes. Its working is essentially the same as that of the valve
already described. The ports are set side by side, parallel with the
sides of the valve. The supply port is in the middle, the other ports
lead to opposite ends of the cylinder.

[Illustration: Fig. 4.]

In Fig. 4 is shown another application of the controlling valve and
cut-off described above. Two oscillating steam cylinders are employed
in working the rudder. They are placed on opposite sides of the chest,
A, and are supplied with steam through the controlling valve, B. The
piston rods of the two cylinders are connected with cranks placed on
opposite ends of the shaft, C, at right angles to each other. Upon
this shaft, half-way between the pillow blocks which support it, there
is a worm which engages a toothed sector, D, on the rudder-post, E. To
an extension of the rudder-post is secured an arm, F, which is
connected with the arm, G, of the controlling valve. By shifting the
lever, H, the supply of steam to the two cylinders may be increased or
diminished, or its direction may be changed, so that the engines will
be reversed or stopped. This engine is remarkable for its simplicity.
The cylinders may be detached and changed if required, one size of bed
answering for three different sizes of cylinder, which may vary only
in diameter, the stroke being the same, so that the castings for
engines of different power are the same except in the matter of the
cylinders and pistons, and all the parts are interchangeable--a
feature of modern engine building that cannot be too highly valued.

Further information may be obtained from Herbert Wadsworth, 26
Merchants' Bank Building, 28 State street, Boston, Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *


On another page we print in full a most suggestive paper recently
read before the Manchester (Eng.) Scientific and Mechanical Society,
by Mr. Frederick Smith, a prominent builder of that city, contrasting
the qualities, styles, and prices of American and English builders'
hardware--a paper which the _Ironmonger_ pronounces one of the most
serious indictments yet preferred against British workmanship in that

The field covered by the paper--the supplying of house builders'
hardware--embraces a multitude of conveniences, but no real
necessities. Why is it that America has been prolific in novel devices
and clever improvements in this department of manufacture as in so
many others, while England has gone on stolidly copying ancient forms,
changing only to cheapen by the introduction of poor material and sham
construction? Mr. Smith mentions several reasons that English
manufacturers have given him for the state of things he, as an
Englishman, so greatly deplores; but evidently he is not satisfied
with any of them, and very justly; for none of them touches the real
cause--the radically different attitude of the public mind toward
inventions, characteristic of the two countries.

In England the user of household inconveniences accepts them as
matters of fact; or if he grumbles at them he never thinks of trying
to change them. It is not his business; and if he should devise an
improvement, ten to one he could not get it made. To patent it is
practically out of the question, for if it were not condemned off-hand
as trivial, the patent fees would make it cost more than it was likely
to be worth. The mechanic who makes such things is trained to work to
pattern, and not waste his time on experiments. Besides, if he should
make a clever invention he would not be able to raise the necessary
fees for a patent, or to get any one to help him thereto. The
manufacturer "makes what his customers call for." Why should he spend
his money and spoil his plant to introduce improvements? So things go,
until some pestilent Yankees flood the markets with better articles at
a lower price; and British consumers suddenly discover that they want
something that the native manufacturer cannot make. The need was
there; but invention did not follow. How happened it that the American
manufacturer did not pursue the same uninventive course? What produced
the radically different attitude of the American mind toward
newfangled notions out of which inventions proceeded and flourished?

No doubt several causes have been at work: freedom of thought and
action; popular education; a blending of races; and the tide of
adventurous spirits naturally resorting to a new and free land. These
have had their influence undoubtedly; but all these have existed, more
or less completely, in other new lands, without that outburst of
creative energy which has made America the nursery of inventions,
great and small. The determining cause, the one condition that
prevailed here and not elsewhere, was the circumstance that almost
from the start new ideas were given a market value in this country.
Unlike all others, the American patent law directly encouraged
independent thinking in all classes. The fees were low and the
protection offered fairly good. Men soon found that it paid to invent;
that one of the surest roads to competency was a patented improvement
on something of general use. If a household utensil or appliance went
wrong or worked badly, every user was directly interested in devising
something better; and, more than that, he was interested in making his
invention known and in securing its adoption. The workman at his bench
had an ever-present inducement to contrive something at once cheaper
and better than the article he was hired to make. He could patent his
improvement, or the wholly original device he might hit upon, for a
few dollars; and his patent would count as capital. It would make him
his own master, possibly bring him a fortune. The manufacturer could
not rest contented with the thing he set out to make, for the meanest
hired man in his employ might suddenly become a competitor. He must be
constantly alert for possible improvements, or his rivals would get
ahead of him. The result is a nation of inventors, at whose hands the
newest of lands has leaped to the leadership in the arts, almost at a

There is talk of changing all this; of emulating the conservative
spirit of the Old World; of putting inventors under bonds; of stopping
the rush of industrial improvement--to enable a few short-sighted yet
grasping corporations to get along without paying license fees for
such inventions as they happen to approve of. They profess to want
inventors to go on making improvements. They are willing to ascribe
all honor to the successful inventor; but they are determined not to
pay him for his work. Still more they are determined to change the
attitude of the public mind toward inventors and inventions, if such a
change can be wrought by plausible misrepresentations. The fact that
they were able to inveigle one branch of the American Congress into
assenting to their unjust and mischievous scheme is one of the
anomalies of our recent history. It should be taken as a timely
warning of impending danger to all the industrial interests of the
country. It is outrageous that the inventors of the land, after having
raised their country to the first rank among industrial nations,
should have to defend their constitutional rights against
Congressional invasion; but the fact exists; and the defense should be
made a matter of personal interest and effort not only by every
inventor and manufacturer, but by every honest citizen.

       *       *       *       *       *


The cattle plague, which is creating so much anxiety throughout the
Eastern States, is a contagious fever, affecting cows chiefly,
characterized by extensive exudations into the respiratory organs, and
attended by a low typhus inflammation of the lungs, pluræ, and
bronchia. It has prevailed in Europe for ages, at times developing
into wide-spread scourges, causing incalculable loss. It was imported
into England in 1839, and again three years later; and it was
estimated that within twenty-five years thereafter the losses by
deaths alone in England had amounted to $450,000,000. In 1858 the
disease was carried to Australia by an English cow, and, spreading to
the cattle ranges, almost depopulated them.

In 1843 an infected Dutch cow brought the disease to Brooklyn, where
it has since lingered, slowly spreading among the cattle in Kings and
Queens counties. In 1847 several head of infected English cattle were
imported into New Jersey, and, spreading among a herd of valuable
cattle, made it necessary for them all to be slaughtered, the only
certain method of stamping out the disease. In 1859 four infected cows
were imported into Massachusetts from Holland; the plague spread
rapidly, and was stamped out only by persistent effort, the State
paying for over 1,000 slaughtered cattle. Since 1867 the disease has
not been known there. Meantime the pest had invaded Eastern
Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland, where it has since prevailed in
isolated localities. The absence of large herds of moving cattle in
these districts, except for speedy slaughter, has prevented the
disease from developing into a general plague.

The recent action of the British Council in forbidding the importation
of American live cattle is likely to prove of inestimable benefit to
this country, in forcibly calling attention to the grave risk that the
presence of the disease on Long Island and elsewhere constantly
entails. Fortunately the drift of the cattle traffic is eastward, and
as yet there has been no propagation of the poison in the great cattle
ranges of the West. Unless summarily arrested, however, the disease
will surely reach those sources of our cattle supply, and occasion
losses that can be estimated only in hundreds of millions of dollars.

The experience of all countries into which this disease has gained
access appears to prove that there is only one way of getting rid of
it--namely, the immediate killing of all infected cattle, and the
thorough disinfection of the premises in which they are found.

The disease is purely infectious, and is never found in regions where
it has not gained a foothold by importation. Palliative measures have
in every instance failed to eradicate the disease, and are only
justifiable, as in Australia, after the plague has reached dimensions
utterly beyond the reach of any process of extermination.

Professor Law, of Cornell University, one of our best informed
veterinary surgeons, most emphatically opposes every attempt to
control the disease by quarantining the sick or by the inoculation of
the healthy. "We may quarantine the sick," he says, "but we cannot
quarantine the air." To establish quarantine yards is simply to
maintain prolific manufacturers of the poison, which is given off by
the breath of the sick, and by their excretions, to such an extent
that no watchfulness can insure against its dissemination. Besides,
the expense of thorough quarantining operations would amount to more
than the value of the infected animals whose lives might be saved
thereby. Inoculation is still less to be tolerated at this stage of
the pest.

The Professor says: "Germany, Holland, Belgium, France, and England,
have been treating the victims of this plague for nearly half a
century, but the result has only been the increase of disease and
death. Our own infected States have been treating it for a third of a
century, and to-day it exists over a wider area than ever before.
Contrast this with the results in Massachusetts and Connecticut, where
the disease has been repeatedly crushed out at small expense, and
there can be no doubt as to which is the wisest course. As all the
plagues are alike in the propagation of the poison in the bodies of
the sick, I may be allowed to adduce the experience of two adjacent
counties in Scotland when invaded by the rinderpest. Aberdeen raised a
fund of £2,000, and though she suffered several successive
invasions, she speedily crushed out the poison wherever it appeared by
slaughtering the sick beasts and disinfecting the premises. The result
was that little more than half the fund was wanted to reimburse the
owners for their losses, and the splendid herds of the county were
preserved. Forfar, on the other hand, set herself to cure the plague,
with the result of a universal infection, the loss of many thousands
of cattle, and the ruin of hundreds of farmers. Finally the malady was
crushed out in the entire island by the method adopted by Aberdeen and
other well advised counties at the outset."

And again, "Cattle have been inoculated by the tens of thousands in
Belgium and Holland, and of all Europe these are the countries now
most extensively infected. France, Prussia, Italy, Austria, and
England have each practiced it on a large scale, and each remains a
home of the plague. Australia has followed the practice, and is now
and must continue an infected country. Our own infected States have
inoculated, and the disease has survived and spread in spite of it,
and even by its aid. Whatever country has definitively exterminated
the plague (Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Holstein, Mecklenburg,
Switzerland, Massachusetts, and Connecticut), that country has
prohibited inoculation and all other methods that prevail on the
principle of preserving the sick, and has relied on the slaughter of
the infected and the thorough disinfection of their surroundings. So
will it be with us. If any State adopts or allows any of these
temporizing measures, that State will only repeat the experience of
the past alike in the Old World and the New, will perpetuate the
disease in the country, will entail great losses on its citizens, will
keep up the need for constant watchfulness and great expense by the
adjoining States for their own protection, and will indefinitely
postpone the resumption of the foreign live stock trade, which, a few
months ago, promised to be one of the most valuable branches of our
international commerce."

We are persuaded that the position taken by Professor Law, and other
similar-minded veterinary surgeons, is the only safe one. The disease
can be stamped out now with comparatively small loss. If trifled with,
and tolerated, it cannot but result in a great national calamity.

       *       *       *       *       *


From a too lengthy communication to admit in full to our columns, a
resident of Madrid communicates to the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN some facts
relative to the fertility of the soil of Spain, her necessity for
improved agricultural and other implements, and closes with the
assertion that it is a good field withal for patents. We cull from the
letter as follows:

I have lived, says the writer, for a number of years in this beautiful
country, so little understood by foreigners, so little appreciated by
its own inhabitants. The Spain of romance, poetry, and song, is the
garden as well as the California of Europe. But it stands in great
need of the health-giving touch of the North American enterprise. We
have here the same mineral treasures, the same unrivaled advantages of
climate, that made Spain once the industrial and commercial emporium
of the world.

But Spain is awakening. She is endeavoring to shake off her lethargy.
The late Exhibition of Paris has proved this; and those who are
familiar with the past history and present condition of Spain have
been astonished at the result of this effort. A new era has commenced
for the country, and it is everywhere evident that a strong current of
enterprise and industry has set in. But it is with nations, as with
individuals, when they have remained long in complete inaction, brain
and muscles are torpid and cannot at first obey the will. Spain needs
the assistance of other nations hardened and inured to toil.

The plows now used to till the land are precisely such as were those
left by the Moors in the unfinished furrow, when with tears and sighs
they bade farewell to their broad fields, their mosques and palaces,
whose ideal architecture is still the wonder of the world, to go forth
as outcasts and exiles in obedience to the cruel edict that drove them
away to the deserts of Africa.

I doubt whether there is an American plow in Spain, much less a steam
plow. Sowing and reaping machines are here unknown, and grain is tread
out by oxen and mules just as it was in Scripture times, and cleaned
by women, who toss it in the air to scatter the chaff. Everything is
primitive and Oriental here as yet.

Spain could supply all Europe with butter and cheese, and, on the
contrary, these articles are imported in large quantities from
England, Holland, and Switzerland. The traveler crosses leagues and
leagues of meadow land where not a tree is to be seen, nor one sheep
pasture, and which are nevertheless watered by broad rivers that carry
away to the ocean the water that would, by irrigation, convert these
fields into productive farms. There are many places in Spain where the
wine is thrown away for want of purchasers and vats in which to keep
it. In the Upper Aragon, the mortar with which the houses are built is
made with wine instead of water, the former being the most plentiful.
Aragon needs an enterprising American company to convert into
wholesome table wine the infinite varieties there produced, and which
our neighbors the French buy and carry away to convert into Bordeaux.

We want American enterprise in Galicia and Asturias, where milk is
almost given away, to convert it into the best of butter and cheese;
and also in those same provinces, where delicious fruit is grown in
such abundance that it is left on the ground for the swine.

Spain needs many more railroads and canals, all of which, when
constructed, are subsidized by the government; the railroads at the
rate of $12,000 a kilometer, and many more additional advantages are
offered for canals.

With regard to commerce with Spain, we have to lament the same
indifference on the part of the Americans. I have, for instance, an
American double-burner petroleum lamp. All who see it admire and covet
it, but they are not to be had here. If we except one American in
Madrid, who brings mostly pumps and similar articles on a very small
scale, we have no dealers in American goods here. Wooden clothes pins,
lemon squeezers, clothes horses, potato peelers, and the hundreds of
domestic appliances of American invention, elsewhere considered
indispensable, are in Spain unknown.

We had confidently expected that the new Spanish law on patents would
draw the attention of American inventors toward this country, that
to-day offers a wide field for every new practical invention, but I am
sorry to see that, with the exception of Edison and a few others, the
Americans have not yet availed themselves of the easy facility for
taking patents for Spain, where new inventions and new industries are
now eagerly accepted and adopted. And while the Americans are thus
careless as to their own interests, the French take out and negotiate,
in Spain, American patents with insignificant variations.

Let American inventors be assured that any new invention, useful and
practical, and above all, requiring but little capital to establish it
as an industry, will find a ready sale in Spain.

I could enlarge to a much greater extent upon the indifference of
American inventors, merchants, manufacturers, and business men, as to
the market they have in Spain in their respective lines, and upon the
importance of building up a trade with this country, but to do so
would require more space than I think you would feel justified in
occupying in your columns.

       *       *       *       *       *


The successes of Peter Cooper's long and useful life are well known.
Not so many are aware of his varied experience in the direction of
failure, particularly in the field of invention. More than once he has
found his best devices profitless because ahead of his time, or
because of conditions, political or otherwise, which no one could
foresee. He possessed the rare qualities, however, of pluck and
perseverance, and when one thing failed he lost no time in trying
something else. Before he was of age he had learned three trades--and
he did not make his fortune at either.

In a familiar conversation with a _Herald_ writer recently, Mr. Cooper
related some of his early experiences, particularly with reference to
enterprises which did not succeed. His father was a hatter, and as a
boy young Cooper learned how to make a hat in all its parts. The
father was not successful in business, and the hatter's trade seems to
have offered little encouragement to the son. Accordingly he learned
the art of making ale. Why he did not stick to that calling and become
a millionaire brewer, Mr. Cooper does not say. Most probably the
national taste for stronger tipple could not at that time be overcome,
and ale could not compete with New England rum and apple-jack. The
young mechanic next essayed the art of coachmaking, at which he served
a full apprenticeship. At the end of his time his employer offered to
set him up in business, but the offer was not accepted, through fear
of losing another's money. He felt that if he took the money and lost
it he would have to be a slave for life. So he quit coachmaking and
went to work for a man at Hempstead, L. I., making machines for
shearing cloth. In three years, on $1.50 a day, Cooper had saved
enough money to buy his employer's patent. Immediately he introduced
improvements in the manufacture and in the machine, which the war with
England made a great demand for by excluding foreign cloths. At this
time Cooper married. In due time the family numbered three, and the
young father's inventive faculty was again called upon.

"In those days," said Mr. Cooper to the reporter, smiling as the
remembrance came to his mind, "we kept no servants as they do
nowadays, and my wife and myself had to do all that was to be done.
After our first child was born I used to come into the house and find
my wife rocking the cradle, and I relieved her from that while I was
there. After doing that for a few days I thought to myself that I
could make that thing go of itself. So I went into my shop, and made a
pendulous cradle that would rock the child. Then I attached a musical
instrument which would sing for it, and at the same time the machine
would keep the flies off. The latter was very simple; by hanging
something to the cross bar, as the cradle swung under it, backward and
forward, it would create wind enough to drive away the flies. The
machine was wound up by a weight, and would run for nearly half an
hour without stopping. I took out a patent for it, and one day a
peddler came along with a horse and wagon, as they do in the country,
and saw the cradle. He struck a bargain with me and bought the patent
right for the State of Connecticut, giving for it his horse and wagon
and all the goods he had with him. They afterward made some there, but
nothing like as good as mine. It was a beautiful piece of furniture,"
said Mr. Cooper regretfully, as he thought of it as a thing of the
past. "They afterward substituted springs for the weight movement, but
that kind was not so good."

About this time the war with England ended and the market was spoiled
for the shearing machines. Then, we believe, Mr. Cooper tried his hand
at cabinetmaking, but that failed, and he set up a grocery store where
the Bible House now stands. While selling groceries Mr. Cooper made an
invention which ought to have made his fortune, but it did not. The
story is best told in Mr. Cooper's own words:

"It was just before the Erie Canal was completed, and I conceived a
plan by which to tow boats by the use of all the elevated waters on
the line of the canal. To demonstrate that that was practicable I made
with my own hands a chain two miles long, and placed posts 200 feet
apart in the East River from Bellevue dock down town about a mile.
These posts supported grooved wheels to lay the chain in, forming an
endless chain. The whole was moved by an overshot waterwheel placed at
the Bellevue dock. A reservoir twelve feet square and three deep held
the water to turn the wheel."

At the suggestion of Governor Clinton Mr. Cooper tightened his chain
and pulled up the end post just before the grand trial of his device
was to come off. He succeeded in getting stone enough to anchor the
post, however, and the experiment went off swimmingly. The boat was
hooked on to the chain, and the passage back and forward--two
miles--was made in eleven minutes.

"I ran that boat some ten days," says Mr. Cooper, "to let people see
what could be done, and carried nearly a thousand people. Part of the
time I ran two boats. Once I counted 52 people in one boat. I made the
whole chain myself and planted the posts. As I could find no wheels to
suit me I made the moulds and cast the wheels myself out of block tin
and zinc. It was no small job, I can tell you."

This was unquestionably a grand invention. In itself it was a perfect
success; but it was not used. Mr. Cooper tells why:

"It demonstrated completely that the elevated water power along the
line of the canal and every lock in the canal could be made use of to
drive the boats. Governor Clinton gave me $800 for the privilege of
buying the right to the plan in case he should want to use it on the
Erie Canal. In making the canal he had promised the people along the
route that as soon as it was finished they could sell their horses to
tow the boats, their grain and fodder to feed the horses, and their
provisions for the passengers. On reflection he thought that if he
took all that away from them he would have to run the gantlet again,
and he could not afford to do that. There never was anything done with
the plan until a few years ago, when Mr. Welch, president of the
Camden and Amboy Railroad and Canal, invented exactly the same thing
and put it in practice on his locks on the canal. He found it saved
half the time and great expense. He went to Washington to take out a
patent for it, and when he got there he found that I had patented the
same thing fifty-three years before. My patent had run out, so he
could use the plan on his canal. It has also been used on one lock on
the Erie Canal. If they could have used that chain on the whole length
of the Erie Canal it would have saved many millions of dollars."

This would not be a bad place, were there room for it, to speak of
"undeveloped" and therefore worthless inventions; and the assumption
that if an inventor does not make his invention immediately profitable
it must be good for nothing, and should be dispatented. But the moral
goes without telling.

Mr. Cooper's next attempt at invention was made about the same time,
but in quite a different direction. It was during the struggle of the
Greeks for independence, and wishing to do something for their
assistance, Mr. Cooper undertook to make a torpedo boat for them. Mr.
Cooper says:

"It was a small one that could be taken on board ship and used to
destroy any vessel that came to destroy them. It was fixed with a
rotary steam engine and a screw wheel to propel it. It was intended to
be guided from the ship or the shore. There were two steel wires fixed
to the tiller of the rudder, and the operator could pull on one side
or the other and guide the vessel just as a horse is guided with
reins. It was so arranged that at night it would carry a light with
its dark side toward the object to be destroyed, and by simply keeping
the light in range with the vessel it would be sure to hit it. The
torpedo was carried on a little iron rod, projecting in front of the
torpedo vessel a few inches under water. Contact would discharge the
torpedo and bend this iron rod. This would reverse the action of the
engine and cause the torpedo vessel to return right back from whence
it came, ready to carry another torpedo."

Unfortunately the torpedo boat was not ready in time to go with the
ship carrying the contributions for Greece. It was stored in Mr.
Cooper's factory (he had then turned his attention to glue) and was
destroyed by the burning of the factory. It seems to have been quite a
promising affair for the time. Mr. Cooper says:

"I experimented with it at once to see how far it could be guided. I
made a steel wire ten miles long and went down to the Narrows to test
the matter. I had steel yards fastened to one end of the wire, and to
the other end the torpedo vessel as attached. It got about six miles
away when a vessel coming into the harbor crossed the wire and broke
it. Although the experiment was not complete it showed that for at
least six miles I could guide the vessel as easily as I could guide a

Mr. Cooper's work as the pioneer locomotive builder in this country;
his later inventions and improvements in the manufacture of railway
iron and wrought iron beams for fireproof buildings; his application
of anthracite coal to iron puddling, and his other successes are
almost as widely known as his philanthropic efforts for the education
and advancement of the industrial classes of this city.

After all, we are not sure but the story of his long and varied and
always honorable career, told by himself, would not be worth, to young
people who have to make their way in life through many difficulties,
more even than the advantages of the noble institution which bears his

       *       *       *       *       *

TASTE FOR READING.--Sir John Herschel has declared that "if he were to
pray for a taste which should stand under every variety of
circumstance and be a source of happiness and cheerfulness to him
through life, it would be a taste for reading." Give a man, he
affirms, that taste, and the means of gratifying it, and you cannot
fail of making him good and happy; for you bring him in contact with
the best society in all ages, with the tenderest, the bravest, and the
purest men who have adorned humanity, making him a denizen of all
nations, a contemporary of all times, and giving him a practical proof
that the world has been created for him, for his solace, and for his

       *       *       *       *       *


Information has been received by way of Lisbon, March 12, that the
Portuguese explorer, Pinto, has succeeded in traversing Africa from
west to east, and has reached Transvaal. The latitude of his course
across is not mentioned.

       *       *       *       *       *


At the meeting of the New York Academy of Sciences February 17th, the
article in the March number of _Harper's Magazine_, entitled "Gary's
Magnetic Motor," was incidentally alluded to, and Prof. C. A. Seeley
made the following remarks: The article claims that Mr. Gary has made
a discovery of a neutral line or surface, at which the polarity of an
induced magnet, while moving in the field of the inducing pole, is
changed. The alleged discovery appears to be an exaggerated statement
of some curious facts, which, although not new, are not commonly
recognized. If a bar of iron be brought up, end on, near a magnetic
pole, the bar becomes an induced magnet, but an induced magnet quite
different from what our elementary treatises seem to predict. On the
first scrutiny it is a magnet without a neutral point, and only one
kind of magnetism--namely, that of the inducing pole. Moreover, the
single pole is pretty evenly distributed over the whole surface, so
that if iron filings be sprinkled on the bar they will be attracted at
all points and completely cover it. Now, if while the bar is covered
by filings it be moved away from the inducing pole, the filings will
gradually and progressively fall, beginning at the end nearest the
inducing pole and continuing to some point near the middle of the bar;
the filings at the remote end will generally be held permanently. When
the bar is carried beyond the field of the inducing pole it is simply
a weak magnet of ordinary properties--_i. e._, of two poles and a
neutral point between them.

A plausible and simple explanation of this case is that the inducing
pole holds or binds the induced magnetism of opposite name, so that it
has no external influence; the two magnetisms are related to each
other as are the positive and negative electricities of the Leyden
jar. Let the inducing pole be N.; the S. of the bar will be attracted
by it and bound, while the N. of the bar becomes abnormally free and
active. On moving the bar from the pole the bound magnetism is
released and a part becomes residual magnetism. Now when the residual
balances the free magnetism which is of opposite name, we are on
Gary's neutral line. In a restricted sense there is a change of
polarity over the half of the bar contiguous to the inducing pole; on
the other half there is no change of pole in any sense. Experiment
with a shingle nail in the place of the filings, _à la_ Gary,
bring the nail to the induced bound pole, and it may be held, except
at the neutral line. Now if one will read the magazine article with
such ideas as these he will feel pretty sure that the writer of it has
used words recklessly, that Gary has not made an original discovery,
and that the "neutral" line, whatever it be, has only an imagined
relation to the "principle" of the motor.

The Gary Motor as a perpetual motion scheme, of course, is not worthy
of serious notice from a society devoted to science. It has no
noteworthy novelty of construction or conception. Mr. Gary is
afflicted with the very old delusion of the cut-off or shield of
magnetism, which is to cost less than what comes from it. His cut-off
is a sheet of iron, which we know acts simply as an armature.

       *       *       *       *       *


M. E. Duter, in a paper read before the French Academy in December,
showed that when a Leyden jar is charged with either positive or
negative electricity its internal volume increases, and that this
effect is a new phenomenon, unexplainable by either a theory of an
increase of temperature or of an electrical pressure. The experiment
was performed by means of a flask-shaped Leyden jar with a long tube
attached to its neck, and containing a liquid which served as the
inner armature. The author's attention had been called to the fact
that this phenomenon had been observed ten years ago by M. Gori.

His researches, just made public, leave no doubt of the accuracy of M.
Duter's view, that the glass of the jar really expands. According to
the theory of elasticity, the effect of an internal pressure in a
hollow sphere is in the inverse ratio of its thickness. M. Duter,
therefore, had three flasks made of the same volume, but of
thicknesses of 4 mm., 0.8 mm., and 0.5 mm. respectively. They were
filled with water and enveloped by tin foil. Each carried a capillary
thermometer tube, in which the variations of the height of liquid
served to measure the changes in volume due to electrification. He
found that these changes were imperceptible in the thick glass, very
marked in the flask of mean thickness, and rose to 30 mm. in the
thinnest. The variations in volume were very nearly in inverse ratio
of the square roots of the thicknesses.

       *       *       *       *       *


The accompanying engravings represent an improved ore crusher, which
is said to be very effective and economical in the use of power.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.--BROWN'S ORE CRUSHER.]

[Illustration: Fig. 2.--HORIZONTAL SECTION.]

A short vertical cast iron cylinder, A, having in one side a discharge
opening, H, contains all of the movable parts.

The upper portion of the cylinder is lined with chilled iron plates,
L, and an inclined chute, X, leads to the discharge opening, H.

A rigid shaft, B, carries the circular crusher, C, and moves in a ball
and socket joint at the upper end, and extends eccentrically through
the boss of a bevel wheel, G, at its lower end, and rests on a step
supported by a lever that may be adjusted by the screw, R. The wheel,
G, is driven by the pinion, P, on whose shaft there are a pulley and a

The double gyratory motion of the crusher, C, causes it to approach
all portions of the lining, L, crushing whatever lies between.

It is said that this machine is capable of crushing 10 tons of the
hardest ore per hour. Its weight is 6,500 lbs.--_Musée de

       *       *       *       *       *


Enos Richmond, of Troy, N. Y., has invented a steak tenderer, having
a plunger studded with chisel-pointed rods, and arranged in a case in
connection with an elevating spring. A blow upon the knob at the top
of the plunger forces the chisel-pointed rods through holes in the
casing into the meat, the casing resting on the surface of the steak.

Messrs. A. W. Southard and Volney R. Sears, of Falls City, Neb., have
patented an improved invalid bedstead, which is provided with
ingenious mechanism for placing the invalid in different positions.

An improved spring attachment for carriage tops, which is designed to
prevent the rear bow from being bent by the weight of the top when
turned back, has been patented by Mr. Robert E. McCormick, of
Doylestown, O.

Mr. Espy Gallipher, of Schellsburg, Pa., has devised an axle journal
having a groove lengthwise upon its upper side which extends back upon
the surface of the axle and communicates with an oil cup. A sliding
rod occupies a portion of the groove; when this rod is drawn out it
permits the oil to fill the groove; when it is pushed into the groove
in the axle, the oil is ejected and a further supply is cut off.

An improved pill machine, invented by Messrs. W. N. Fort and R. R.
Moore, of Lewisville, Ark., is adapted to the manufacture of pills in
large quantities. The machine has mechanism for grinding and mixing
ingredients, a grooved wheel and trough for forming the pills, and a
device for applying powder.

An improvement in millstone adjustments has been patented by Mr.
Stephen P. Walling, of South Edmeston, N. Y. This invention consists
in a screw applied to the end of the mill spindle on which the stone
is rigidly held, so that the running stone may be forced by the screw
away from the stationary stone and held against the action of a spring
at the opposite end of the spindle, the object being to prevent the
stones from becoming dulled by contact with each other.

An improved attachment for sewing machines for soaking or waxing the
thread as it passes the needle, has been patented by Mr. Pedro F.
Fernandez, of San Juan, Porto Rico. The invention consists in a frame
secured to the arm of a sewing machine by a thumb-screw, and provided
with a clamping device for holding wax or soap.

A novel combination of a toggle and springs and levers for operating a
drag saw has been patented by Mr. Harvey Hughes, of Wheat Ridge, Ohio.
The saw, while properly guided, is free to move up or down without
affecting the leverage.

An improvement in filters, which consists in re-enforcing the felt
disk with a backing of wire cloth to enable it to resist heavy water
pressure, has been patented by Mr. B. P. Chatfield, of Aiken, S. C.

A basket having light sheet metal sides attached to a wooden bottom by
crimping the edges over a rib on the periphery of the bottom, has been
patented by Mr. Samuel Friend, of Decatur, Ill. The handle and lid may
be easily removed to permit of packing and storage.

An improved cross bar for fastening doors, patented by Mr. Richard
Condon, of La Salle, Ill., has a spring acted portion which engages a
socket on the door casing, and is retained in that position by a
spring catch.

       *       *       *       *       *


The accompanying engraving represents a convenient and inexpensive
table recently patented by Mr. Albert H. Hogins, of Morrisania, N. Y.
It is more especially designed for ironing, but it may be used for
other purposes when closed up. The top is made in two tapering
sections, A B. The section, B, is narrower than the other, and is
pivoted at its wider end to a bar, E, which slides into a socket
formed in the table. The table has five legs, one of which, D, is
attached to a sliding rail that supports the narrower end of the
movable part of the top. The table is provided with a drawer in one
end and with a tray, C, for containing blankets, etc.


The convenience and practicability of this table for general laundry
use, will be apparent without further explanation. The board, B, when
drawn out will be used for ironing skirts, shirts, and other garments
requiring a board of this character, and when the table is closed
together and fastened by the hooks, it may be used in ironing larger
articles. When closed it presents the appearance of an ordinary table
and may be used as such.

Further information may be obtained by addressing the inventor as

       *       *       *       *       *


The accompanying engraving represents two different styles of
regulator, invented by Mr. Stenberg, in which the effect of
centrifugal force is utilized. In a vessel, A, of parabolic shape is
placed a disk, C, which floats on glycerine contained by the vessel,
and is attached to the walls of the vessel by an annular membrane, so
that it may rise and fall in a vertical direction as the glycerine is
carried with more or less force toward the edge of the vessel by
centrifugal action. The inner surface of the vessel, A, is provided
with radial grooves, by which the rotary motion of the vessel is
communicated to the glycerine. To the center of the disk, C, is
attached a vertical rod, which extends downward through the hollow
shaft and is connected with governor valve. An increase of speed
throws the glycerine toward the periphery of the valve, and, raising
the disk, C, closes the steam valve; a diminution of speed permits the
glycerine to fall back, when the disk descends and the valve opens.


The disk, C, has a small aperture for the admission and escape of air,
and the apparatus is adjusted by pouring lead into the groove in the

The regulator shown in Fig. 2 operates upon the same principle, but it
is adjusted by means of a spring.

This apparatus is manufactured by Blancke Bros., Magdeburg.--_Musée de

       *       *       *       *       *


Botel Tobago is an island in the South Seas which has lately been
visited by a party of United States naval officers. They were
surveying a rock east of the South Cape of Formosa, and called at this
island. They found a curious race of Malay stock. These aborigines did
not know what money was good for. Nor had they ever used tobacco or
rum. They gave the officers goats and pigs for tin pots and brass
buttons, and hung around the vessel all day in their canoes waiting
for a chance to dive for something which might be thrown overboard.
They wore clouts only, ate taro and yams, and had axes, spears, and
knives made of common iron. Their canoes were made without nails, and
were ornamented with geometrical lines. They wore the beards of goats
and small shells as ornaments.

Such is the account of these strange people given by Dr. Siegfried, in
a letter read at the last meeting of the Philadelphia Academy of
Natural Sciences.

       *       *       *       *       *


Noticing a statement made by Mr. J. A. Lintner, to the effect that the
Persian insect powder would probably prove unavailing as a remedy
against the ravages of the new carpet beetle (_Anthrenus_), W. L.
Carpenter, of the U.S.A., was led to institute some experiments with
this well known insecticide, the results of which he communicates to
the current number of the _Naturalist_. A small quantity of the powder
was introduced, on the point of a penknife, under a tumbler beneath
which various insects were consecutively confined. The movements of
the insects brought them in contact with the poison, which readily
adhered to their body; in endeavoring to remove it from their
appendages a few particles would be carried to the mouth and thence to
the stomach, with fatal effect. The results were briefly thus: A honey
bee became helpless in 15 minutes; a mad wasp in 8 minutes; a small
ant in 5 minutes; a large butterfly resisted the effects for over an
hour, and apparently recovered, but died the next day; a house-fly
became helpless in 10 minutes; a mosquito in 15; and a flea in 3
minutes. In experimenting on beetles, an insect was secured as nearly
the size of the carpet beetle as could be found. It was easily
affected, and became helpless in 12 minutes.

In these, and experiments with various other insects, the scent from
the powder did not produce any bad effect on those subjected to its
odor where actual contact was not possible; but when carried to the
mandibles the effect was to produce complete paralysis of the motor
nerves. The experiments prove that all insects having open mouth parts
are peculiarly susceptible to this popular insecticide. As a result,
the writer does not hesitate to recommend the powder to housekeepers
as an infallible agent in destroying the carpet beetle and preventing
its ravages. The Persian insect powder liberally sprinkled upon the
floor before putting down a carpet, and afterward freely placed around
the edges, and never swept away, will suffice to preserve a large
sized carpet. No ill effects from its use need be feared by the
householder, since the drug is poisonous to no kinds of animals except

       *       *       *       *       *


The banana has recently found a new use in Venezuela. It has the
property of keeping the soil moist round it, in a country where
sometimes no rain falls for months; so it has been employed to give
freshness, as well as shade, to the coffee plant, whose cultivation
has been greatly extended (Venezuela produced 38,000,000 kilogrammes
of coffee in 1876). The Venezuelans can consume but little of the
banana fruit thus furnished, so that attention is being given to
increasing its value as an export. At the Paris Exhibition were
samples of banana flour (got by drying and pulverizing the fruit
before maturity) and brandy (from the ripe fruit) The flour has been
analyzed by MM. Marcano and Muntz. It contains 66.1 per cent of
starch, and only 2.9 of azotized matter.

       *       *       *       *       *


The accompanying engraving shows new form of stencil pen invented by
Mr. J. W. Brickenridge, of La Fayette, Ind. In Fig. 1 the entire
apparatus is shown in perspective; Fig. 2 is a longitudinal section of
the pen; and Fig. 3 is a vertical section of a portion of the driving
apparatus. In this instrument compressed air is used as a motive force
for driving the perforating needle. The inverted cup, shown in detail
in Fig. 3, has its mouth closed with a flexible diaphragm, which is
vibrated rapidly by a pitman having a convex end attached by its
center to the middle of the diaphragm. The pitman is reciprocated by a
simple treadle motion, which will be readily understood by reference
to Fig. 1.


The cup has a small aperture covered by a valve to admit of the
entrance of air when the diaphragm is drawn down. The pen, shown in
detail in Fig. 2, has a cup and flexible diaphragm similar to the one
already described. The diaphragm rests upon the enlarged end of a bar
which carries at its lower end a perforating needle. The pen is
connected with the driving mechanism by a flexible tube. The needle
bar is pressed lightly against the diaphragm by a spiral spring.

When the treadle motion is operated the impelling diaphragm is
rapidly vibrated, and through the medium of the air contained in the
flexible tube it communicates motion to the pen diaphragm and
consequently to the needle bar and needle. If, while the needle is
reciprocated in this way, the pen is moved over the surface of the
paper, a line of fine perforations will be made. With this instrument
stencils may be made for making multiplied copies of maps, drawings,
and manuscripts.

       *       *       *       *       *


At the celebration in this city of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the
formation of the company for laying the first Atlantic cable, Monday,
March 10, the projector of the enterprise, Mr. Cyrus W. Field, spoke
as follows:

NEIGHBORS AND FRIENDS: Twenty-five years ago this evening, in this
house, in this room, and on this table, and at this very hour, was
signed the agreement to form the New York, Newfoundland and London
Telegraph Company--the first company ever formed to lay an ocean
cable. It was signed by five persons, four of whom--Peter Cooper,
Moses Taylor, Marshall O. Roberts, and myself--are here to-night. The
fifth, Mr. Chandler White, died two years after, and his place was
taken by Mr. Wilson G. Hunt, who is also present. Of my associates, it
is to be said to their honor--as might have been expected from men of
their high position and character--that they stood by the undertaking
manfully for twelve long years, through discouragements such as nobody
knows but themselves. Those who applaud our success know little
through what struggles it was obtained. One disappointment followed
another, till "hope deferred made the heart sick." We had little help
from outside, for few had any faith in our enterprise. But not a man
deserted the ship: all stood by it to the end. My brother Dudley is
also here, who, as the counsel of the company, was present at the
signing of the agreement, and went with Mr. White and myself the week
after to Newfoundland, to obtain the charter, and was our legal
adviser through those anxious and troubled years, when success seemed
very doubtful. At St. John's the first man to give us a hearty
welcome, and who aided us in obtaining our charter, was Mr. Edward M.
Archibald, then Prime Minister of Newfoundland, and now for more than
twenty years the honored representative of Her Majesty's Government at
this port, who is also here to-night. It is a matter for grateful
acknowledgment that we were spared to see accomplished the work that
we began; and that we meet now, at the end of a quarter of a century,
to look with wonder at what has been wrought since in other parts of
the world.

Our little company came into existence only a few weeks before the
Western Union Telegraph Company, which is entitled to share in our
congratulations, and has kindly brought a connecting wire into this
room, by which we can this evening communicate with every town and
village from the Atlantic to the Pacific; and by our sea cables, with
Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, the West Indies, and
South America. While our small circle has been broken by death but
once, very different has it been with the Atlantic Telegraph Company,
which was formed in London in 1856, to extend our line across the
ocean. At its beginning there were eighteen English and twelve
American directors, thirty in all, of whom twenty-nine have either
died or retired from the board. I alone still remain one of the

Many of the great men of science on both sides of the Atlantic, who
inspired us by their knowledge and their enthusiasm, have passed away.
We have lost Bache, whose Coast Survey mapped out the whole line of
the American shores; and Maury, who first taught us to find a path
through the depths of the seas; and Berryman, who sounded across the
Atlantic; and Morse; and last, but not least, Henry. Across the water
we miss some who did as much as any men in their generation to make
the name of England great--Faraday and Wheatstone, Stephenson and
Brunel--all of whom gave us freely of their invaluable counsel,
refusing all compensation, because of the interest which they felt in
the solution of a great problem of science and engineering skill. It
is a proud satisfaction to remember that while the two Governments
aided us so generously with their ships, making surveys of the ocean,
and even carrying our cables in the first expeditions, such men as
these gave their support to an enterprise which was to unite the two
countries, and in the end to bring the whole world together.

Others there are, among the living and the dead, to whom we are under
great obligations. But I cannot repeat the long roll of illustrious
names. Yet I must pay a passing tribute to one who was my friend, as
he was the steadfast friend of my country--Richard Cobden. He was one
of the first to look forward with the eye of faith to what has since
come to pass. As long ago as 1851 he had a sort of prophet's dream
that the ocean might yet be crossed, and advised Prince Albert to
devote the profits of the great London Exhibition of that year to an
attempt thus to unite England with America. He did not live to see his
dream fulfilled.

But though men die, their works, their discoveries, and their
inventions live. From that small beginning under this roof, arose an
art till then scarcely known, that of telegraphing through the depths
of the sea. Twenty-five years ago there was not an ocean cable in the
world. A few short lines had been laid across the channel from England
to the Continent, but all were in shallow water. Even science hardly
dared to conceive of the possibility of sending human intelligence
through the abysses of the ocean. But when we struck out to cross the
Atlantic, we had to lay a cable over 2,000 miles long, in water over
2 miles deep. That great success gave an immense impulse to submarine
telegraphy then in its infancy, but which has since grown till it has
stretched out its fingers tipped with fire into all the waters of the
globe. "Its lines have gone into all the earth, and its words to the
ends of the world." To-day there are over 70,000 miles of cable,
crossing the seas and the oceans. And, as if it were not enough to
have messages sent with the speed of lightning, they must be sent in
opposite directions at the same moment. I have just received a
telegram from Valentia, Ireland, which reads, "This anniversary
witnesses duplex working across the Atlantic as an accomplished
fact"--by which the capacity of all our ocean cables is doubled.

Who can measure the effect of this swift intelligence passing to and
fro? Already it regulates the markets of the world. But better still
is the new relation into which it brings the different kindreds of
mankind. Nations are made enemies by their ignorance of each other. A
better acquaintance leads to a better understanding; the sense of
nearness, the relation of neighborhood, awakens the feeling of
brotherhood. Is it not a sign that a better age is coming, when along
the ocean beds strewn with the wrecks of war, now glide the messages
of peace?

One thing only remains which I still hope to be spared to see, and in
which to take a part, the laying of a cable from San Francisco to the
Sandwich Islands--for which I have received this very day a concession
from King Kalakaua, by his Minister, who is here to night--and from
thence to Japan, by which the island groups of the Pacific may be
brought into communication with the continents on either side--Asia
and America--thus completing the circuit of the globe.

But life is passing, and perhaps that is to be left to other hands.
Many of our old companions have fallen, and we must soon give place to
our successors. But though we shall pass away, it is a satisfaction to
have been able to do something that shall remain when we are gone. If
in what I have done to advance this enterprise, I have done something
for the honor of my country and the good of the world, I am devoutly
grateful to my Creator. This has been the great ambition of my life,
and is the chief inheritance which I leave to my children.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *


_To the Editor of the Scientific American:_

In your article on the "Gary Motor," issue of March 8, page 144, you
say: "There is no neutral line in the sense that polarity changes when
Mr. Gary moves his piece of sheet iron with its attached shingle nail
across the pole or near the pole of a magnet." "The most delicate
instruments fail to detect such a change of polarity," etc. Mr. Gary's
claim of a neutral line is of course absurd, but you are wrong in
saying that the polarity does not change under the conditions
described in the _Harper's Monthly_ article. Mr. Gary is perfectly
correct in claiming a change of polarity in that experiment, although
his other claim of deriving from this change of polarity a continuous
motion without consuming energy are manifestly absurd.

[Illustration: Gary Motor A.]

[Illustration: Gary Motor B.]

The change of polarity is easily explained. If a bar of soft iron,
whose length is two or three times the distance between the poles of
the horseshoe magnet, be placed in front of the latter as in the
sketch, and at some distance, poles will be induced, as shown by the
letters N S. Now let the bar approach the magnet. When within a short
distance consequent points will be formed and the polarity at the ends
will be reversed, the bar having four poles, as in the second sketch.
The bar of soft iron must have certain dimensions depending on the
size and power of the horseshoe magnet. By using a powerful
electro-magnet in place of a permanent one, a soft iron bar of
considerable size may be used, and the change of polarity exhibited by
showing the repulsion in one case for the south pole and in the other
for the north pole of a heavy permanent magnet. When in the proper
position a very small movement of the soft iron bar is sufficient to
produce the change.


Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y., March 2, 1879.

       *       *       *       *       *


_To the Editor of the Scientific American:_

I have just read the article in the issue of March 8, on the Gary
Motor, and cannot refrain from offering a suggestion on the subject.
When I read the article referred to in _Harper's_, I formed the same
opinion of the so-called invention that the writer in the SCIENTIFIC
AMERICAN has expressed, and, in the main, such is my opinion still. I,
however, tried the experiment by which Gary claims to prove the
existence of his neutral line, and soon found the same explanation
that the writer in the AMERICAN has given. I then, curiously enough,
modified the experiment in precisely the manner he suggests, placing
the magnet in a vertical position, and using first a piece of sheet
iron and then an iron wire under it. This was before seeing the
article in the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. My experiment is well illustrated
by the writer's diagram, except that the nail should be at the end of
the iron wire, where its polarity is of course most strongly marked.
But the result is not as he states it. For, as the wire is brought up
toward the magnet, the nail drops off before the wire touches the
magnet. When the sheet iron is used, the point at which the nail drops
off is farther from the magnet than in the case of the wire, and when
it is brought nearer it will again pick up the nail, which then
continues to cling until the iron touches the magnet and afterwards.
Thus the existence of a line in which the soft iron, or induced
magnet, does not attract the nail, and above and below which it does
attract it, is demonstrated. That the polarity of the induced magnet
is reversed when it crosses this line may be demonstrated as follows:
When it is held beyond (or below) this line (Fig. 1), the negative
pole of the permanent magnet, the positive being kept at a distance,
may be made to approach the iron and touch it, without causing the
nail to drop. (Fig. 3.) But when contact occurs, the whole of the iron
must possess the polarity of that part of the magnet which it touches,
namely, negative. Hence in the position indicated in Fig. 1, the
polarity of the induced magnet does not correspond with that of the
permanent magnet, but is as indicated by the letters. On the other
hand, if the positive pole alone be made to approach, the nail will
drop; but when it is very near, or in contact, it again holds the
nail, and the iron is now positive; and if the negative pole also be
now brought into contact, the polarity of the soft iron will
correspond with that of the magnet, as shown in Fig. 2.

[Illustration: Gary's Neutral Line A.]

[Illustration: Gary's Neutral Line B.]

[Illustration: Gary's Neutral Line C.]

These experiments should be performed with the soft iron under both
poles of the magnet, and the ends of the former should extend somewhat
beyond the poles of the latter, or the nail is liable to jump to the
magnet as the "neutral" line is crossed. The position of the letters
in Fig. 1, of the previous article, represents the polarity of the
induced magnet to be the same as that of the permanent, which is true
only within (or above) the line described; and this, together with his
statement that no such line can be discovered, appears to indicate
that the writer relied upon his knowledge of the laws of magnetism to
state what would be the result, without testing it experimentally. It
is probable that this reversal of polarity is susceptible of
explanation by the known laws of magnetic currents, but if it has
hitherto escaped observation, its discovery is certainly deserving of
notice, and may lead to valuable results. Of the fact, any one may
easily convince himself by the simple experiments above described.


Haverhill, Mass., February 28, 1879.

       *       *       *       *       *


_To the Editor of the Scientific American:_

In the description of the pneumatic clock, copied from _La Nature_,
and published in your journal of date 1st of March, the invention is
credited to me. Such is not the case. By an arrangement between Mr.
Wenzel, Mr. Brandon of Paris, and myself, patents have been obtained
in France, England, etc., for the clock, and issued in my name; but
the honor of the invention belongs exclusively to Hermann J. Wenzel,
of San Francisco.

Yours faithfully,


San Francisco, Cal., February 27, 1879.

       *       *       *       *       *


_To the Editor of the Scientific American:_

Some years ago I visited the "Ice Cave" of Decorah, Winneshiek county,
Iowa, and having since been unable to receive any explanation of the
wonderful phenomenon exhibited by it, I write, hoping that you or some
correspondent may explain the paradox.

The thriving town of Decorah lies in a romantic valley of the Upper
Iowa River, and the cave is almost within its corporate limits.
Following the left bank of the stream, one soon reaches the vicinity,
and with a hard scramble through a loose shale, up the side of a
precipitous hill, forming the immediate bank of the river, the
entrance is gained--an opening 5 feet wide and 8 feet high. These
dimensions generally describe the cave's section. From the entrance
the course is a steep decline--seldom less than 40°. At times the
ceiling is so low that progress on hands and knees is necessary. About
125 feet from the entrance the "Ice Chamber" is reached. At this spot
the cave widens into a well proportioned room, 8 by 12 feet. The floor
is solid ice of unknown thickness, and on the right hand wall of the
room a curtain of ice drops to the floor, from a crevice extending
horizontally in the rock at the height of one's eyes. Close
examination discovers the water oozing from this crevice, and as it
finds its way down the side it freezes in the low temperature of the
chamber. Singularly this one crevice, and that no wider than a knife
edge, furnishes this, nature's ice house, with the necessary water. It
was a hot day in August, the thermometer marking 80° in the shade
when the visit was made, and comparatively the cold was intense. In
common with all visitors, we detached some large pieces of ice and
with them hurriedly departed, glad to regain the warmth of the outside

The most remarkable fact in connection with this wonder is that the
water only freezes in the summer. As the cold of actual winter comes
on the ice of the cave gradually melts, and when the river below is
frozen by the fierce cold of Northern Iowa, the ice has disappeared
and a muddy slush has taken the place of the frigid floor. I would add
that the ice chamber forms the terminus of the cave. Beyond a shallow
crevice in the crumbling rock forbids further advance. The rock
formation of this region is the Portland sandstone.

Why should the temperature of the ice chamber be such as to freeze the
water trickling into it? And above all, why should the ice disappear
with the cold of winter?

Mansfield, O. H. M. W.

       *       *       *       *       *


On the evening of February 26, 1879, the writing telegraph of Mr. E.
A. Cowper, of London, was exhibited in operation before the Society of
Telegraph Engineers, in that city. It is a curious and remarkable
invention. By its use the handwriting of the operator may be
transmitted, but a double circuit, that is, two telegraph wires, are
used. The operator moves with his hand an upright pointer or stylus,
with which he writes the message on paper. The stylus has two arms
connected with it, one of which arms, when the stylus makes an upward
movement, causes a current to be sent over one wire, while the other
arm causes a current to pass over the other wire when the stylus is
moved laterally. These two motions are, at the receiving end of the
line, made to operate on the needles of galvanometers, and the latter
are by silk threads combined or connected with a delicately suspended
ink tube, from which a minute stream of ink falls upon the strip of
paper below it; the arrangement being such that the combined motions
of the galvanometers so move the ink pen as to make it correspond to
the motion of the stylus at the sending end. The apparatus is said to
work very well, and it is expected that it will form a useful adjunct
to the art of telegraphy. We present herewith a facsimile of writing
done by this new instrument, which has been worked with success over a
line of forty miles length. It is hardly probable that it can compete
in rapidity with some of the telegraph instruments now in use; but for
many purposes it is likely to become important, while in point of
ingenuity it is certainly a great achievement, and the author is
deserving of the highest credit.

[Illustration: Writing Telegraph.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Rev. R. M. Luther, while absent in attendance upon the Missionary
Convention, held in Addison, Vt., obtained through the kindness of the
Rev. Mr. Nott a rare and curious geological specimen from the shores
of Lake Champlain. It is a slab of limestone, about eleven inches long
by six inches wide, which seems to be composed almost entirely of
fossils. There is not half an inch square of the surface which does
not show a fossil. There are many varieties, some of which have not
been identified, but among those which have been are many remains of
the Trinucleus conceniricus, some specimens of Petraia, fragments of
the Orthis, a number of Discinæ, several well preserved specimens of
Leptenæ, and impressions of Lingula. The latter is the only shell
which has existed from the first dawn of life until the present time
without change. The specimens of existing Lingula are precisely
similar to those found in the earliest geological formations. There
are also in the slab several rare specimens of seaweed, remains of
which are seldom found at so early an age in the geological history of
the world. The slab belongs to the lower Silurian formation, the first
in which organic remains are found. It is probably from the Trenton
epoch of that age. If geologists can be trusted, at the time the
little animals, whose remains are thus preserved, were living, the
only part of this continent which had appeared above the primeval
ocean was a strip of land along the present St. Lawrence River and the
northern shores of the great lakes, with a promontory reaching out
toward the Adirondacks, and a few islands along what is now the
Atlantic coast line.--_Bennington (Vt.) Banner._

       *       *       *       *       *


The most recent of the brilliant series of telegraphic marvels which
has from time to time, and especially of late, engaged the attention
of the world, is the "telegraphic pen" of Mr. E. A. Cowper, the well
known engineer of Great George street, Westminster. This ingenious
apparatus, which constitutes the first real telegraph, was publicly
shown by its inventor at the meeting of the Society of Telegraph
Engineers on Wednesday, February 26.

There had been no lack of copying telegraphs hitherto. We have
Bakewell's, Casselli's, Meyer's, and D'Arlincourt's, so recently tried
at our General Post Office by Mr. Preece. All of these instruments
telegraph an almost perfect copy of the writing or sketch submitted to
them by means of synchronous mechanism. But the process is necessarily
complex and slow; whereas by the new device a person may take the
writing pencil in his hand, and himself transmit his message in the
act of writing it.

The principle which guided Mr. Cowper to a solution of the problem
which he has successfully overcome, is the well known mathematical
fact that the position of any point in a curve can be determined by
its distance from two rectangular co-ordinates. It follows, then, that
every position of the point of a pencil, stylus, or pen, as it forms a
letter, can be determined by its distance from two fixed lines, say
the adjacent edges of the paper. Moreover it is obvious that if these
distances could be transmitted by telegraph and recombined so as to
give a resultant motion to a duplicate pen, a duplicate copy of the
original writing would be produced. But inasmuch as the writing stylus
moves continuously over the paper, the process of transmission would
require to be a continuous one; that is to say, the current traversing
the telegraph line, and conveying the distances in question (or what
comes to the same thing, the up and down, and direct sidelong ranges
of the stylus) would require to vary continuously in accordance with
the range to be transmitted.

Mr. Cowper effects this by employing two separate telegraphic
circuits, each with its own wire, battery, sending, and receiving
apparatus. One of these circuits is made to transmit the up and down
component writing of the pencil's motion, while the other
simultaneously transmits its sidelong component. At the receiving
station these two components are then recomposed by a pantograph
arrangement of taut cords, or levers, and the resultant motion is
communicated to the duplicate pen at that place. The plan adopted by
Mr. Cowper to transmit each continuously varying component is to cause
the resistance of the circuit to vary very closely with the component
in question. Fig. 5 shows how the apparatus is theoretically arranged
for this purpose. P is the writing style, which is held in the
writer's hand in the ordinary way, while he shapes the letters one by
one on paper pulled uniformly underneath by means of clockwork. To P
are attached, at right angles, two arms, a a, one for each circuit;
but as it is only necessary to consider one of the circuits, say that
sending up and down motions, we will confine our attention for the
present to the arm, a. One pole of the sending battery, B, is
connected to the arm, a, the other pole being connected to earth. Now
the arm, a, is fitted with a sliding contact at its free extremity,
and as the pencil, P, is moved in writing, a slides lengthwise across
the edges of a series of thin metal contact plates, C, insulated from
each other by paraffined paper. Between each pair of these plates
there is a resistance coil, C, and the last of these is connected
through the last plate to the line, L. It will be seen that as a
slides outward across the plates the current from the battery has to
pass through fewer coils, since a short-circuits a number of coils
proportional to its motion. But the fewer of these coils in circuit
the stronger will be the current in the line; so that the extent of
the motion of the arm, a, in the direction of its length, that is to
say, the direct component of the motion of the pencil along the line
of the arm, a, is attended by a corresponding change in the current
traversing the line. If the pencil makes a long up and down stroke
there will be a strong current in the line, if a short one there will
be a weak current, and so on. A precisely similar arrangement is used
to transmit the sidelong motion of the pencil along the line, L.

[Illustration: Fig. 5.]

The current from the line, L, flows at the receiving station through a
powerful galvanometer, G, to earth. The galvanometer has a stout
needle, one tip of which is connected to a duplicate pen, P, by a
thread, t, which is kept taut by a second thread stretched by a
spring, s'. The current from the line, L', flows through a similar
galvanometer, G', to earth. The needle of G' is also connected to the
pen, P, by a taut thread, t', stretched by means of the spring, s.
Now, since the needle of each of these galvanometers deflects in
proportion to the strength of the current flowing through its coil,
the points of these two needles keep moving with the varying currents.
But since these currents vary the motions of the sending pen, the
receiving pen controlled by the united movements of the needles will
trace out a close copy of the original writing. We give on another
page a facsimile of a sentence written by Mr. Cowper's telegraph.


The receiving pen is a fine glass siphon, drawing off aniline ink from
a small glass holder. There are thirty-two coils, C, in each circuit,
with a corresponding number of contact plates, c, so as to get
accuracy of working. A few Daniell's cells are sufficient to operate
the apparatus, and writing has been already sent successfully over a
line 40 miles in length. The writing may be received either of the
same size or larger or smaller than the original, as the case may be.
At present the writing must not be too hurried, that is, unless the
characters are bold and well formed; but further improvement will, of
course, quicken the working of the apparatus.

The engravings, Figs. 1 to 4, illustrate the actual apparatus. Fig. 4
is a plan of the sending instrument, with the writing pencil, a, the
traveling paper, b, the light connecting rods or arms, d (which
correspond to a in the theoretical diagram above), the series of metal
contact plates over which these arms slide, the resistance coils
connected to these plates, and the battery and line wires. It will be
seen that each arm, d, is connected to its particular battery, and
each set of contact plates to its particular line. Fig. 3 is an
elevation of the sending instrument, in which a is the pencil as
before, c c the contact plates over which the arms, d d, slide, f f
the coils, and b the traveling slip of paper.

Fig. 2 is a plan of the receiving instrument, in which h h are the
light pivoted needles surrounded by coils of fine insulated copper
wires, i i, and controlled in their zero position by the
electro-magnets, j j j j, placed underneath, the whole forming a pair
of galvanoscopes or current detecters, one for each line. It will be
understood that the varying currents from the lines are allowed to
flow through the coils, i i, so as to deflect the needles, and that
the deflections of the needles follow, so to speak, the variations of
the currents. The electro-magnets are magnetized by a local battery;
permanent magnets might, however, take their place with a gain in

Now the writing pen, k, is connected to the nearest tip of the needle,
h, of each galvanoscope by threads, n n, which are kept taut by the
fibers, o_{1} o_{2} o_{3}, the springs, o, and the pins, o_{4}. In
this way the motions of the needles are recombined in the motion of
the duplicate pen upon the paper, p.

Fig. 1 is an elevation of the receiving instrument, in which i i are
the coils as before, j j j j the controlling electro-magnets, k is the
writing siphon dipping with its short leg into the ink well, m, and l
is the bridge from which the writing siphon is suspended by means of a
thread and spring. The long leg of the siphon reaches down to the
surface of the paper, p, which is pulled along beneath it in contact
with the film of ink filling the point of the tube. When the siphon is
at rest its point marks a zero line along the middle of the paper, but
when the receiver is working, the siphon point forms each letter of
the message upon the paper as it passes.--_Engineering._

       *       *       *       *       *


The splendid exhibit of the French aluminum manufacturers at the late
Exhibition has again called attention to that metal, which is so
admirably adapted to many purposes on account of its great lightness
and its stability under the influence of the atmosphere. While
aluminum industry has heretofore been thought to be confined to France
solely, we are now told by Mr. C. Bambery, in the Annual Report of the
Society of Berlin Instrument Makers, that for some years past aluminum
has been extensively manufactured in Berlin.

Three firms especially (Stückradt, Häcke, and Schultze) are engaged in
this branch of industry.

The articles manufactured principally are nautical instruments, as
sextants, compasses, etc. The German navy is supplied throughout with
aluminum instruments. As a proof of the superiority of German
aluminum, it may here be mentioned that the normal sets of weights and
balances used by the International Commission for the regulation of
weights and measures, which lately was in session at Paris, were
obtained from Stückradt, in Berlin, and not from any of the firms
at Paris, the reputed seat of aluminum industry.

Aluminum is, in Berlin, generally used pure, and cast pieces only are
composed of aluminum containing about 5 per cent of silver.

Nevertheless the use of aluminum will remain limited, even in case the
cost of manufacturing it could be materially reduced, until some
method shall have been discovered by which aluminum may be soldered.

This difficulty has, in spite of all efforts, not yet been overcome,
and for some purposes, to which the metal would otherwise be well
adapted, it remains so far unavailable. Here then is a chance for some
ingenious mind.

       *       *       *       *       *


The accompanying engraving represents, in perspective and in section,
an improved door bolt, recently patented by Mr. Thomas Hoesly, of New
Glaras, Wis.

The principal features of this bolt will be understood by reference to
the engraving. On the plate or body are cast two loops or guides for
the bolt, and the plate is slotted under the bolt, and a lug projects
into the slot and bears against a spring contained by a small casing
riveted to the back of the plate. The end of the bolt is beveled, and
its operation is similar to that of the ordinary door latch. Two
handles are provided, one of which is of sufficient length to reach
through the door, and a pawl or dog accompanies the bolt, which may be
attached to the door with a single screw, and is to be used in locking
the door. The bolt is very simple and strong, suitable for shops,
out-buildings such as barns, stables, etc., and some of the doors of

[Illustration: HOESLY'S DOOR BOLT.]

Further information may be obtained by addressing the inventor, as

       *       *       *       *       *


Messrs. W. H. Jackson & Co., of this city, whose long experience in
treating refractory flues gives weight to their opinion, communicate
to the _American Architect_ the following useful information:

To secure a good draught the chimney should be of sufficient size,
should be carried up above surrounding objects, should be as straight
as possible throughout its length, and should be as smooth as possible
inside, to avoid friction. As a draught is caused by unequal
temperatures, the chimney should be so arranged as to avoid a rapid
radiation of heat. If in an exterior wall there should be at least 8
inches of brickwork between the flue and the exterior surface. For
country houses it is much better to have the chimneys run up through
the interior, as the flue is more easily kept warm, and the heat that
is radiated helps to warm the house. The most frequent cause of a
"smoky chimney" is the insufficient size of the flue for the grate or
fireplace connected therewith. The flue should not be less than one
eighth the capacity of the square of the width and height of the grate
or fireplace. That is, if the grate has a front opening 20 inches wide
and 26 inches high, the flue should be 8 in. × 8 in.; or, with an
opening 36 inches wide and 32 inches high, the flue should be 12 in. ×
12 in.; and, to get the best result, the opening into the flue from
the grate or fireplace should be of a less number of square inches
than the square of the flue, and never larger, as no more air should
be admitted at the inlet than can be carried through the flue. Where
there is more than one inlet to the same flue, the sum of all the
inlets should not more than equal the size of the flue. A number of
stoves may be connected with the same flue, one above another, if this
rule is observed.

A square flue is better than a narrow one, as in two flues containing
the same number of square inches the square flue would have the
smallest amount of wall surface, and consequently less friction for
the ascending currents, and less absorption of heat by the walls.
Chimneys should be closely built, having no cracks nor openings
through which external air may be drawn to weaken the draught. If they
could be made throughout their length as impervious to air as a tube
of glass, with interior surface as smooth, one cause of smoky chimneys
would be removed. A downward current of air is frequently caused by
some contiguous object higher than the chimney, against which the wind
strikes. This higher object may sometimes be quite a distance from the
chimney, and still affect it badly. A good chimney top constructed to
prevent a down draught will remedy this difficulty. Each grate or
fireplace should have a flue to itself. Under very favorable
conditions, two grates or fireplaces might be connected with the same
flue, but it is not a good plan. We have known grates and fireplaces
connected with two flues, where they have been built under a window
for instance, and, owing to there being insufficient room for a flue
of suitable size, a flue has been run up on each side of the window.
This is a very bad plan, and never can work well; it requires too much
heat to warm both flues, and if the room in which the grate or
fireplace is situated should be pretty close, so that there was no
other entrance for air, there is danger that it would circulate down
one flue and up the other, forcing smoke out of the fireplace into the

       *       *       *       *       *


The refuse matter and garbage of large cities is in the main composed
of animal and vegetable offal of the kitchens; of the sweepings of
warehouses, manufactories, saloons, groceries, public and private
houses; of straw, sawdust, old bedding, tobacco stems, ashes, old
boots, shoes, tin cans, bottles, rags, and feathers; dead cats, dogs,
and other small animals; of the dust and sweepings of the streets, the
condemned fruit, vegetables, meat, and fish of the markets, all of
which compose a mass of the most obnoxious and unhealthy matter that
can be deposited near human habitations.

The inventor of the furnace shown in the accompanying engravings aims
to produce a change of form and of chemical nature and a great
reduction in bulk of all such refuse and garbage within the limits of
the city where it accumulates, without screening, separating,
preparing, or mixing, without the expense of using other fuel, without
any offensive odors being generated in the operation, and to produce
an entirely unobjectionable residuum or product that may be made


As a rule organic matter largely preponderates in the refuse, being as
high in some instances as 94 per cent. There is always more than
enough to generate sufficient heat to fuse the earthy or inorganic
portion, which is mainly composed of sand, clay, and the alkalies from
the coal and vegetable ashes, etc.

By producing a high degree of heat in the combustion of the organic
portion of the refuse with a forced blast or forced draught, the
non-combustible elements are fused, and form a vitreous slag, which is
entirely inodorous and unobjectionable, and which may be utilized for
many purposes.

The upper section or cone of the consuming furnace is built of boiler
iron, and lined with fire brick resting upon an iron plate, which is
supported by iron columns.

The hearth is made of fire brick, and is in the form of an inverted
cone, being smaller at the bottom and larger at the top, as shown in
Fig. 2.

The sides of the hearth are perforated near the bottom with arches for
the tuyeres or blast pipes, and also in front for the special blast
pipe and the tapping hole. The top of the furnace is closed with an
iron plate, provided with a circular opening, through which the hopper
enters the top of the furnace.

At the left in the larger engraving is seen an elevator, operated by a
steam engine, for conveying the garbage and refuse to a platform,
whence it is projected into the furnace by an inclined plane or chute.

Gas or smoke conductors convey the gas from the top of the furnace to
the furnace of the boiler and to the heating oven, where it is used in
heating air, which is conveyed through the iron pipes passing through
the heating oven into a wind box, from which it enters the furnace at
several points near the bottom by means of the tuyere pipes.

[Illustration: SECTION OF FURNACE.]

The consumption of the garbage is effected near the bottom of the
furnace, where the air is forced in, and is continued as long as the
blast is applied, and while burning at the base it is continually
sinking down at the top, so that it is necessary to keep filling all
the time. The odoriferous gases and the hot products of such
combustion are forced upward through the superimposed mass, and escape
to the fires of the boiler and heating oven, and, being largely
composed of carbonic oxide and the hydrocarbon gases distilled from
the animal and vegetable offal of the garbage, are thoroughly
consumed; and it is said that by this means not only are all the
offensive odors destroyed, but the heat generated is utilized for
making steam and heating the air used for blast.

The refuse in its descent through the high furnace is exposed to the
drying action of the hot gases of distillation and the hot products of
combustion, its temperature increasing in its descent the nearer it
approaches the tuyeres, and becomes completely desiccated and
combustible when it reaches the blast. The high heat in this way
obtained by the combustion of the organic portion melts all of the
inorganic portion, forming a vitreous slag or glass, which may be
allowed to run continuously, or by closing the tap may be allowed to
accumulate, and can be drawn off at intervals. If there is an adequate
supply of clay and sand in the refuse to combine with the ashes, the
slag will run hot and free. The combination of silex or alumina and an
alkali in proper portions always yields a fusible, easy-running

The molten slag, as it runs from the furnace, may be discharged into
tanks of cold water, which will pulverize or granulate it, making it
like fine sand, or as it pours over a runner, through which it flows,
if struck with a forcible air or steam blast it will be spun into fine
thread-like wool.

The furnace once lighted and started may be kept running day and night
continuously for days, months, or years, if desired; but if it becomes
necessary to stop at any time, the tuyere pipes may be removed and the
holes all stopped with clay, so as to entirely shut off the supply of
air, and it will then hold in fire for many days, and will be in
readiness to start again at any time the pipes are replaced and the
blast turned on.

This furnace is the invention of Mr. Henry R. Foote, of Stamford,

       *       *       *       *       *


The vase shown in the accompanying engravings must not be classed with
ordinary ceramic ware, as it is a veritable work of art. It is the
celebrated cup of Arcesilaus, which is preserved in the collection of
the library of Richelieu street after having figured in the Durand
Museum. It was found at Vulsei, in Etruria. It was made by a potter of
Cyrene, the capital of Cyrenaica, founded by Greeks from the island of
Thera. It is remarkable that Cyrene, removed from the center of
Grecian manufacture, should possess a manufactory of painted vases
from which have come so many works of art. The traveler, Paul Lucas,
discovered in the necropolis of Cyrene, in 1714, many antique vases,
both in the tombs and in the soil. One of them is still preserved in
the Museum at Leyden. The Arcesilaus, who is represented on this vase,
is not the celebrated skeptical philosopher of that name; it is
Arcesilaus, King of Cyrenaica, who was sung by Pindar, and who was
vanquished in the Pythian games under the 80th Olympiad (458 years

The height of this vase is 25 centimeters, its diameter 28
centimeters. The paste is very fine, of a pale red. It is entirely
coated with a black groundwork, which has been generally re-covered
with a yellowish white clay, baked on.

According to M. Brongniart, this piece has been subjected to the
baking process at least two or three times, thus indicating that the
ceramic art had made considerable progress in Cyrene even at that
remote epoch.

The following description of this vase is given in the catalogue of
the Durand Museum: The King Arcesilaus is seated under a pavilion upon
the deck of a ship. His head is covered with a kind of hat with a
large brim, and his hair hangs down upon his shoulders. He is clothed
in a white tunic and embroidered cloak or mantle, and he carries a
scepter in his left hand; under his seat is a leopard, and his right
hand he holds toward a young man, who makes the same gesture, and he
is weighing in a large scale assafoetida, which is being let down
into the hold of the ship. We know that he deals with assafoetida
because one of the personages (the one who lifts up his arm toward the
beam of the scale) holds in his right hand something resembling that
which is in the scale, and the Greek word traced near it signifies
"that which prepares _silphium_." Assafoetida, the resinous
matter of the silphium, is used largely by the Greeks in the
preparation of their food. The Orientals to-day make frequent use of
it and call it the delight of the gods; while in Europe, because of
its repulsive odor, it has long been designated as _stircus diaboli_.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.--ANCIENT GREEK VASE.]

[Illustration: Fig. 2.--TOP OF GREEK VASE.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Somebody thinks he has discovered that snow, when incorporated with
dough, performs the same office as baking powder or yeast. "I have
this morning for breakfast," says a writer in the _English Mechanic_,
"partaken of a snow-raised bread cake, made last evening as follows:
The cake when baked weighed about three quarters of a pound. A large
tablespoonful of fine, dry, clean snow was intimately stirred with a
spoon into the dry flour, and to this was added a tablespoonful of
caraways and a little butter and salt. Then sufficient cold water was
added to make the dough of the proper usual consistence (simply
stirred with the spoon, not kneaded by the warm hands), and it was
immediately put into a quick oven and baked three quarters of an hour.
It turned out both light and palatable. The reason," adds the writer,
"appears to be this: the light mass of interlaced snow crystals hold
imprisoned a large quantity of condensed atmospheric air, which, when
the snow is warmed by thawing very rapidly in the dough, expands
enormously and acts the part of the carbonic acid gas in either baking
powder or yeast. I take the precise action to be, then, not due in any
way to the snow itself, but simply to the expansion of the fixed air
lodged between the interstices of the snow crystals by application of
heat. This theory, if carefully followed out, may perchance give a
clew to a simple and perfectly innocuous method of raising bread and
pastry." And stop the discussion as to whether alum in baking powders
is deleterious to health or otherwise.

       *       *       *       *       *


An improved gate, invented by Messrs. P. W. McKinley and George L.
Ellis, of Ripley, O., is designed for general use. It is operated by
cords and pulleys, and can be opened without dismounting from the
horse. It is constructed so that it cannot sag, and is not liable to
get out of order.

An improved apparatus for pressing tobacco has been patented by Mr. F.
B. Deane, of Lynchburg, Va. It consists mainly in the construction of
a suspended jack, arranged to travel over a row of hogsheads, so that
a single jack gives successively to each hogshead the desired

An improved combined harrow and corn planter has been patented by Mr.
M. McNitt, of Hanover, Kan. In this machine the opening, pulverizing,
planting, and covering teeth are combined with a single frame.

A machine, which is adapted to the thrashing and cleaning of peas and
seeds, and for cleaning all kinds of grain, has been patented by Mr.
J. J. Sweatt, of Conyersville, Tenn.

Mr. Amos M. Gooch, of Farmington, W. Va., has patented an improved
corn planter, which drops the fertilizer simultaneously with the seed,
and is provided with a device for pressing the soil around the seed,
leaving over the seed a portion of loose earth.

An improved machine for harvesting cotton has been patented by R. H.
Pirtle, of Lowe's, Ky. This machine carries two vertical cylinders
armed with teeth or spurs, and two inclined endless belts provided
with teeth. The teeth of the cylinders and the belts remove the cotton
from the plants, and deliver it to a receptacle carried by the

Messrs. Julius Fern and Samuel Bligh, of Oneonta, N. Y., have patented
an improved power for churning and other purposes where little power
is required. It consists in the combination of a drum and weight, a
train of gearing, and a pallet wheel arranged to oscillate a balanced

An improvement in the class of feed cutters in which two or more
knives work between parallel bars attached to the cutter box, has been
patented by Messrs. J. N. Tatum and R. C. Harvey, of Danville, Va. The
improvement consists in arranging the knives so that one begins and
finishes its cut in advance of the other.

Mr. William Bradberry, of Darrtown, O., has invented an improvement in
reciprocating churns. The aim of this inventor is to utilize the
resistance of the milk as a source of power. To accomplish this a
peculiar combination of mechanism is required, which cannot be clearly
described without an engraving.

       *       *       *       *       *


M. Javel, in a recent lecture, tries to answer the question, "Why is
reading a specially fatiguing exercise?" and also suggests some
remedies for this fatigue. First, M. Javel says reading requires an
absolutely permanent application of eyesight, resulting in a permanent
tension of the organ, which may be measured by the amount of fatigue
or by the production of permanent myopy. Secondly, books are printed
in black on a white ground; the eye is thus in presence of the most
absolute contrast which can be imagined. The third peculiarity lies in
the arrangement of the characters in horizontal lines, over which we
run our eyes. If we maintain during reading a perfect immobility of
the book and the head, the printed lines are applied successively to
the same parts of the retina, while the interspaces, more bright, also
affect certain regions of the retina, always the same. There must
result from this a fatigue analogous to that which we experience when
we make experiments in "accidental images," and physicists will admit
that there is nothing more disastrous for the sight than the prolonged
contemplation of these images. Lastly, and most important of all in M.
Javel's estimation, is the continual variation of the distance of the
eye from the point of fixation on the book. A simple calculation
demonstrates that the accommodation of the eye to the page undergoes a
distinct variation in proportion as the eye passes from the beginning
to the end of each line, and that this variation is all the greater in
proportion to the nearness of the book to the eye and the length of
the line. As to the rules which M. Javel inculcates in order that the
injurious effects of reading may be avoided, with reference to the
permanent application of the eyes, he counsels to avoid excess, to
take notes in reading, to stop in order to reflect or even to roll a
cigarette; but not to go on reading for hours on end without stopping.
As to the contrast between the white of the paper and the black of the
characters, various experiments have been made in the introduction of
colored papers. M. Javel advises the adoption of a slightly yellow
tint. But the nature of the yellow to be used is not a matter of
indifference; he would desire a yellow resulting from the absence of
the blue rays, analogous to that of paper made from a wood paste, and
which is often mistakenly corrected by the addition of an ultramarine
blue, which produces gray and not white. M. Javel has been led to this
conclusion both from practical observation and also theoretically from
the relation which must exist between the two eyes and the colors of
the spectrum. His third advice is to give preference to small volumes
which can be held in the hand, which obviates the necessity of the
book being kept fixed in one place, and the fatigue resulting from
accidental images. Lastly, M. Javel advises the avoidance of too long
lines, and therefore he prefers small volumes, and for the same reason
those journals which are printed in narrow columns. Of course every
one knows that it is exceedingly injurious to read with insufficient
light, or to use too small print, and other common rules. M. Javel
concludes by protesting against an invidious assertion which has
recently been made "in a neighboring country," according to which the
degree of civilization of a people is proportional to the number of
the short sighted shown to exist by statistics; the extreme economy of
light, the abuse of reading to the detriment of reflection and the
observation of real facts, the employment of Gothic characters and of
a too broad column for books and journals, are the conditions which,
M. Javel believes, lead to myopy, especially if successive generations
have been subjected to these injurious influences.

       *       *       *       *       *


M. Nuesch records, in a recent number of the _Journal de Pharmacie_,
some curious observations regarding luminous bacteria in fresh meat.
Some pork cutlets, he found, illuminated his kitchen so that he could
read the time on his watch. The butcher who sent the meat told him the
phosphorescence was first observed in a cellar, where he kept scraps
for making sausages. By degrees all his meat became phosphorescent,
and fresh meat from distant towns got into the same state. On
scratching the surface or wiping it vigorously, the phosphorescence
disappears for a time; and the butcher wiped carefully the meat he
sent out. All parts of the animal, except the blood, acquired the
phenomenon over their whole surface. The meat must be fresh; when it
ceases to be so, the phosphorescence ceases, and _Bacterium termo_
appear. None of the customers had been incommoded. It was remarked
that if a small trace of the phosphorescent matter were put at any
point on the flesh of cats, rabbits, etc., the phosphorescence
gradually spread out from the center, and in three or four days
covered the piece; it disappeared generally on the sixth or seventh
day. Cooked meat did not present the phenomenon but it could be had in
a weak manner, from cooked albumen or potatoes. No other butcher's
shop in the place was affected. The author is uncertain whether to
attribute the complete disappearance of the phenomenon to the higher
temperature of the season, or to phenic acid, or to fumigation with

       *       *       *       *       *


The Earl of Derby, in an address at the Edinburgh University, said:
"Of the gains derivable from natural science I do not trust myself to
speak; my personal knowledge is too limited, and the subject is too
vast. But so much as this I can say--that those who have in them a
real and deep love of scientific research, whatever their position in
other respects, are so far at least among the happiest of mankind....
No passion is so absorbing, no labor is so assuredly its own reward
(well that it is so, for other rewards are few); and they have the
satisfaction of knowing that, while satisfying one of the deepest
wants of their own natures, they are at the same time promoting in the
most effectual manner the interests of mankind. Scientific discovery
has this advantage over almost every other form of successful human
efforts, that its results are certain, that they are permanent, that
whatever benefits grow out of them are world-wide. Not many of us can
hope to extend the range of knowledge in however minute a degree; but
to know and to apply the knowledge that has been gained by others, to
have an intelligent appreciation of what is going on around us, is in
itself one of the highest and most enduring of pleasures."

THE VESUVIUS RAIL WAY.--The Italian Ministry of Public Works, in union
with the Ministry of Finance and the Prefecture of Naples, has issued
the concession for the construction of the Vesuvius Railway. The line
will run along that part of the mountain which has been proved, after
the experience of many years, to be the least exposed to the
eruptions. The work is to be commenced immediately, and it is believed
that it will come into use during the present year. A sufficient
number of carriages are being built to convey 600 persons during the
day. The line is to be constructed upon an iron bridge, built after a
patented system.

       *       *       *       *       *


Among the various economic products of the vegetable kingdom,
scarcely any hold a more important place than barks, whether for
medicinal, manufacturing, or other purposes. The structure and
formation of all barks are essentially very similar, being composed of
cellular and fibrous tissue. The cell contents of these tissues,
however, vary much in different plants; and, for this reason, we have
fibrous or soft, woody, hard, and even stony barks. To explain
everything which relates to the structure of bark would lead us into
long details which our space will not permit. Briefly stated, the bark
of trees (considering, now, those of our own climate) consists of
three layers. The outermost, called the "cortical," is formed of
cellular tissue, and differs widely in consistency in different
species; thus, in the cork oak, which furnishes man with one of his
most useful commercial products, the cortical layer acquires
extraordinary thickness. The middle layer, called the "cellular" or
"green bark," is a cellular mass of a very different nature. The cells
of which it is composed are polyhedral, thicker, and more loosely
joined, and filled with sap and chlorophyl. The inner layer (next the
wood), called the "liber," consists of fibers more or less long and
tenacious. It is from the liber that our most valuable commercial
fibers are obtained. In some plants the fibrous system prevails
throughout the inner bark; but what we wish to refer to more
particularly at present is a remarkable example of the harder and more
silicious barks, and which is to be found in the "Pottery Tree" of
Para. This tree, known to the Spaniards as _El Caouta_, to the French
as _Bois de Fer_, to the Brazilians as _Caraipe_, is the _Moquilea
utilis_ of botanists, and belongs to the natural order _Ternstroeiaceæ_.
It is very large, straight, and slender, reaching a height of 100 feet
before branching; its diameter is from 12 to 15 inches; and its wood
is exceedingly hard from containing much flinty matter. Although the
wood of the tree is exceedingly sound and durable, the great value of
the tree to the natives exists in the bark for a purpose which, to say
the least, is a novel one in the application of barks--that of the
manufacture of pottery. The Indians employed in the manufacture of
pottery from this material always keep a stock of it on hand in their
huts for the purpose of drying and seasoning it, as it then burns more
freely, and the ashes can be gathered with more ease than when fresh.
In the process of manufacturing the pottery the ashes of the bark are
powdered and mixed with the purest clay that can be obtained from the
beds of the rivers; this kind being preferred, as it takes up a larger
quantity of the ash, and thus produces a stronger kind of ware. Though
the proportions of ash and clay are varied at the will of the maker,
and according to the quality of the bark, a superior kind of pottery
is produced by a mixture of equal parts of fine clay and ashes. All
sorts of vessels of small or large size for household or other
purposes are made of this kind of ware, as are also vases or
ornamental articles, many of which are painted and glazed. These
articles are all very durable, and are able to stand almost any amount
of heat; they are consequently much used by the natives for boiling
eggs, heating milk, and indeed for culinary purposes generally. A
brief glance at the structure of the bark will show how it comes to be
so well adapted for this purpose. The bark seldom grows more than half
an inch thick, and is covered with a skin or epidermis; when fresh, it
cuts somewhat similar to a soft sandstone, but when dry, it is very
brittle and flint like, and often difficult to break. On examination
of a section under the microscope, all the cells of the different
layers are seen to be more or less silicated, the silex forming in the
cells when the bark is still very young. In the inner bark the flint
is deposited in a very regular manner, the particles being straight
and giving off branches at right angles; that of the porous cells of
the bark, however, is very much contorted, and ramifies in all
directions. In the best varieties of the tree, those growing in rich
and dry soil, the silex can be readily detected by the naked eye; but
to test the quality of the various kinds of bark, the natives burn it
and then try its strength between their fingers; if it breaks easily
it is considered of little value, but if it requires a mortar and
pestle to break, its quality is pronounced good. From an analysis of
this singular bark, that of old trees has been found to give 30.8 per
cent of ash, and that of young 23.30 per cent. Of the different layers
of old bark, the outer gave 17.15 per cent, the middle 37.7, and the
inner 31. The wood of the tree, in comparison with the bark, is
relatively poor in silex, the duramen of an old tree giving only 2.5
per cent of silex.

       *       *       *       *       *


The natural history of sponges had, up to the middle of this century,
been comparatively neglected. Until 1856, when Lieberkuhn published
his treatise on sponges, very little or nothing had been written on
the subject. Later, Haeckel did much to determine their exact nature,
and it is now universally admitted that sponges form one of the
connecting links between the animal and the vegetable kingdom.

Sponges, generally considered, consist of fine porous tissue, covered,
during life, with viscid, semi-liquid protoplasm, and are held in
shape and strengthened by a more or less rigid skeleton, consisting
chiefly of lime or silica. The tissue consists of a very fine network
of threads, formed probably by gradual solidification of the threads
of protoplasm. The inorganic skeleton is formed by larger and smaller
crystals and crystalline threads. In the various families of sponges
the quantity of inorganic matter varies greatly; some sponges are
nearly devoid of an inorganic skeleton, while other families consist
chiefly of lime or silica, the organic tissue being only rudimentarily

As observed in their natural state, sponges are apparently lifeless.
When, however, a live sponge is placed in water containing some finely
powdered pigment in suspension, it will be noticed that in regular,
short intervals water is absorbed through the pores of the tissue and
ejected again through larger openings, which are called "osculæ."
Following up these into the interior, we find them divided into
numerous branches, the walls of which are, under the microscope, found
to be covered with minute cells, fastened at one end only and
oscillating continually. By means of these cells the sponge receives
its nourishment.

Sponges with very rigid inorganic skeletons may be divided into two
classes--calcareous and silicious--according to whether the skeleton
is chiefly composed of lime or silica.

Our engravings represent two species of the latter kind, which are, on
account of the peculiar appearance of their skeleton, called glass

Fig. 1 represents the "sprinkling pot sponge," _Eucleptella
aspergillum_. It is generally found in very deep water throughout the
Pacific. Specimens were found over fifty years ago, but, as they had
to be brought up from depths between 500 and 800 fathoms, they
remained very scarce and sold at fabulous prices.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.--SPRINKLING POT SPONGE.--(_Eucleptella

The skeleton is formed by small crystals and long threads of vitreous
silica, cemented together, during life, by protoplasm. They are
arranged in longitudinal and annular bands so as to form a long curved
cylinder, about nine to twelve inches long, the walls of which are
about one inch in thickness. The threads and bands are interwoven with
the greatest regularity, and when the skeleton is freed from the
adhering organic matter, it looks extremely beautiful.

The mode in which the intersecting bunches of crystals are connected
is shown in Fig. 2. The upper end of the cylinder is closed by a
perforated cover, which probably has given rise to the name of the
sponge. The upper portion of the cylinder is surrounded by a few
irregular, annular masses of organic tissue, which adheres loosely
only to the skeleton. The lower end is formed by a bunch of long
threads, rooting firmly in the ground.

[Illustration: Fig. 2.--SPONGE CRYSTALS MAGNIFIED.]

Up to about ten years ago the price of specimens of this sponge was
very high. At that time, however, a colony of Eucleptellas was found
near the cities of Cebu and Manila, in the East Indies, in a depth not
exceeding 100 fathoms, and since they have appeared in larger
quantities in the market. It is remarkable that, contrary to their
habits, these organisms have immigrated into regions to which they
were totally unaccustomed. Yet it must be regarded as a greater
curiosity that they have been accompanied to their new abode by a few
animals living in equally deep water and never met with before at
depths less than three or four hundred fathoms. Among these animals is
a _Phormosoma_ (water hedgehog), noted for its long spines.

Glass sponges are not confined to tropical regions. They are met with
in latitudes as high as the Färöe Islands, where the beautiful
_Holtenia Carpentaria_ abounds. It is represented in Fig. 3. Its
cup-shaped skeleton is similar in structure to that of the
_Eucleptella_; numerous crystalline needles protrude from the surface
of the upper part. Lately some specimens of _Holtenia_ have been found
on the coast of Florida.

[Illustration: Fig. 3.--HOLTENIA CARPENTERIA.]

Glass sponges serve as dwellings for numerous animals, especially
crustaceæ. A small shrimp inhabits the tubes of the _Eucleptella_, a
male and a female generally living together. They are shut up as in a
prison in their crystalline home, as they are generally too large to
pass through the meshes formed by the bundles of crystals. It was
formerly believed that these skeletons had actually been built by the
shrimps, and we can find no explanation for this curious circumstance,
other than that the shrimps entered these habitations while very small
and became too large to leave them.

       *       *       *       *       *


Mr. Francis Darwin, in a lecture on "Means of Self-Defense among
Plants," delivered lately at the London Institution, said that one of
the most curious forms of defense known is afforded by a recently
discovered class of plants, which, being stingless themselves, are
protected by stinging ants, which make their home in the plant and
defend it against its enemies. Of these the most remarkable is the
bull's-horn acacia (described by the late Mr. Belt in his book "The
Naturalist in Nicaragua"), a shrubby tree with gigantic curved thorns,
from which its name is derived. These horns are hollow and tenanted by
ants, which bore a hole in them, and the workers may be seen running
about over the green leaves. If a branch is shaken the ants swarm out
of the thorns and attack the aggressor with their stings. Their chief
service to the plant consists in defending it against leaf-cutting
ants, which are the great enemy of all vegetation in that part of
America. The latter form large underground nests, and their work of
destruction consists in gathering leaves, which they strip to form
heaps of material, which become covered over with a delicate white
fungus, on which the larvæ of the ants are fed, so that literally they
are a colony of mushroom growers. The special province of the little
stinging ants, which live in the thorns of the acacia, is, therefore,
to protect the leaves of the shrub from being used by the leaf-cutters
to make mushroom beds. Certain varieties of the orange tree have
leaves which are distasteful to the leaf-cutters, this property of the
leaves thus forming a means of defense. Other plants are unaccountably
spared by them--grass, for example, which, if brought to the nest, is
at once thrown out by some ant in authority. The bull's-horn acacia,
in return for the service rendered by the stinging ants, not only
affords them shelter in its thorns, but provides them with nectar
secreted by glands at the base of its leaves, and also grows for them
small yellow pear-shaped bodies, about one twelfth of an inch in
length, at the tip of some of its leaflets, which they use as food.
These little yellow bodies are made up of cells containing protoplasm
rich in oil, and afford the insects an excellent food. When the leaf
unfolds, the ants may be seen running from one leaflet to another, to
see if these little yellow bodies are ripe; and if they are ready to
be gathered they are broken up by the ants and carried away to the
nest in the thorn. Several small birds, also, build their nests in the
bull's horn acacia, thus escaping from a predatory ant which is
capable of killing young birds. The trumpet tree, another plant of
South and Central America, is also protected by a standing army of
ants; and, like the above mentioned acacia, grows for its protectors
small food bodies containing oil, but instead of secreting nectar in
its leaves it harbors a small insect (coccus), whose sweet secretion
is much relished by the ants. Dr. Beccari mentions an epiphytal plant
growing on trees in Borneo, the seeds of which germinate, like those
of the mistletoe, on the branches of the tree; and the seedling stem,
crowned by the cotyledons, grows to about an inch in length, remaining
in that condition until a certain species of ant bites a hole in the
stem, which then produces a gall-like growth that ultimately
constitutes the home of the ants. If the plant is not fortunate enough
to be bitten by an ant it dies. These ants, then, protect their plant
home by rushing out fiercely on intruders, and thus are preserved the
sessile white flowers which, in this plant, are developed on the tuber
like body.

       *       *       *       *       *

ADVANCE IN IRON.--At a meeting of the Philadelphia Iron Merchants'
Association, March 11, prices of all descriptions of merchant iron
were advanced fully 5 per cent.

       *       *       *       *       *


The aneroid barometer was invented by M. Vidi, of Paris. It consists
essentially of a circular box, the face of which is made of thin
elastic metal, rendered more elastic by being stamped and pressed into
concentric circular wave-like corrugations. This box is nearly
exhausted of air, and its elastic face supports the pressure of the
atmosphere, and yields to it with elastic resistance in proportion to
the amount of pressure. Thus, if the atmospheric pressure increases,
the face is pressed inward; if atmospheric pressure diminishes, the
elastic reaction of the metal moves the face outward. These movements
are communicated to an index by suitable and very delicate mechanism,
and registered in largely magnified dimensions, by the movements of
this index upon the face of the dial.

Aneroid barometers are now made of pocket size, compensated for
temperature, and with double scales, one reading the height of the
barometer column, the other the elevation obtained. I have, says Prof.
W. M. Williams, used one of these during many years, and find it a
very interesting traveling companion. It is sufficiently sensitive to
indicate the ascent from the ground floor to the upper rooms of a
three-storied house, or to enable the traveler sitting in a railway
train to tell, by watching its face, whether he is ascending or
descending an incline.

Such slight variations are more easily observed on the aneroid than on
the mercurial barometer, and therefore it is commonly stated that the
aneroid is the more sensitive instrument. This, however, is a
fallacious conclusion. It is not the superior sensitiveness of the
movements of the instrument, but the greater facility of reading them,
that gives this advantage to the aneroid, the index of which has a
needle point traveling nearly in contact with the foot of the
divisions; the readings are further aided by a needle point register
attached to a movable rim, which may be brought point to point against
the index, thus showing the slightest movement that human vision may
detect. A magnifying lens may be easily used in such a case.

It should be understood that the aneroid barometer is not an
independent instrument; it is merely a device for representing the
movements of the mercurial barometer. It is regulated by comparison
with the primary instrument, and this comparison should be renewed
from time to time, as the elastic properties of the metal may and do

An adjusting or regulating screw is attached to the back of the
instrument, and is usually movable by a watch key.

Besides this, the magnified reading of course magnifies any primary
error, and is largely dependent on the accuracy of the mechanism.

       *       *       *       *       *


We need hardly remind our readers that numerous unsuccessful attempts
have been made at various times to enrich ordinary coal gas by the aid
of volatile oils. Upon the present occasion we have to place before
them particulars of a process having the same object in view, but
which is so far dissimilar in that it deals with a solid substance
instead of a liquid oil. The invention has been brought into its
present practical shape by Mr. James Livesey, C. E., of No. 9 Victoria
Chambers, Westminster, in conjunction with Mr. Kidd, with whom it
originated. The process consists in the employment of a substance
called albo-carbon, which is the solid residuum of creosote. This
material is moulded into the form of candles, which in large lamps are
placed in a metallic vessel or receiver near the gas burner. The
albo-carbon is warmed by the heat of the burning gas, the heat being
transmitted to the receiver by a metallic conductor. Upon the
albo-carbon being raised to the necessary temperature it volatilizes,
and as the coal gas passes over it to the burner its vapor becomes
mingled with the gas, and greatly raises its illuminating power. Of
course when first lighted the coal gas only is burned, but in a few
minutes the albo-carbon communicates its enriching vapor to it. The
only alteration necessary to the present gas fittings is the
vaporizing chamber, which is of simple construction, although at
present the details of the various arrangements necessary for the
different kinds of lights have not yet been fully worked out. This
invention is now being tried experimentally in the eastern section of
the Westminster Aquarium, where we recently examined it, and found it
to afford a marked improvement upon the ordinary system of gas
illumination, although a smaller number of burners is being used.
Tried alternately with ordinary coal gas, the higher illuminating
power of the albo-carbon light was very remarkable. It appears that
there are 200 burners fitted at the Aquarium with the new light, and
these successfully take the place of 500 ordinary gas burners
previously in use. The illuminating effect is stated to be doubled,
with an additional advantage as regards economy. The reduction of cost
arises from the smaller quantity of gas consumed with the albo-carbon
process than without it, and the very small cost of the enriching
material. According to our information, 1,000 cubic feet of ordinary
gas as generally used will, by the albo-carbon appliance, give as much
illumination as 3,000 cubic feet without it, and the cost of the
material to produce this result is only 1s. 6d. Experiments have been
made with this light by Mr. T. W. Keates, the consulting chemist to
the Metropolitan Board of Works, who reports very favorably upon it,
as does also Dr. Wallace, of Glasgow, who has obtained some very
satisfactory results with it. It is claimed for the albo-carbon
material that it is perfectly inexplosive, safe and portable, that it
causes no obstruction and leaves no residuum, and that the receivers
can be replenished almost indefinitely without any accumulation taking
place, so perfect is the evaporation of the albo-carbon. On the whole
the display at the Aquarium speaks greatly in favor of the new process
of gas enrichment, which, other things being equal, bids fair to find
its way into practice.--_Engineering._

       *       *       *       *       *


Mr. Frederick Smith, Manager of the Union Land and Building Company
(limited), recently read a paper on the above subject before the
Manchester Scientific and Mechanical Society. Mr. H. Whiley,
Superintendent of the Manchester Health Department, presided. The
following is the text of the paper, as given in the London
_Ironmonger_. The lecturer said:

A spectator in any of our courts of justice will generally be struck
with the amount of hard swearing which is given to the court, under
the name of evidence. He will find one set of witnesses testifying,
under oath, to one thing, and another set, also under oath, to the
very opposite. Some prove too much, some too little, some are of a
totally negative character, proving nothing, and some are of no
character at all, and therefore are willing to prove anything. To some
extent the same phenomena are to be observed in reference to the
question of foreign competition. On the one hand the manufacturers
hold up to our affrighted vision the picture of our mills stopped, our
machine shops standing empty and idle, our hardware trade slipping
through our fingers, our ships rotting in our own and in foreign
ports, and our greatness as a producing nation for ever passed away.
On the other hand, the journalists who take the labor side of the
question, the trades-union leaders, and a large number of the workmen
themselves, hold that we have little or nothing to fear from our
foreign rivals; that the depression, like those atmospheric ones of
which our American cousins are constantly warning us, will pass away,
and leave us with better times to follow. I will, therefore, as far as
possible, keep out of the region of speculation, give you a few facts,
show you some examples, and leave you to draw your own inferences.
Some two or three years ago ordinary axle pulleys of English make were
difficult to get; the price was scandalously high, and the quality as
scandalously low. Out of a dozen probably four would not turn round
without sticking, and the casting was--well, simply vile. I show you a
sample rather above the average, and the retail price for this
inferior article was 22s. per gross. All at once the Americans deluged
the English market with the pulley which I now show to you, and it
needs no explanation of mine to satisfy the mechanical minds present
of the superiority of the transatlantic article; but when we also bear
in mind that the price of the American was from 25 to 33 per cent less
than the English pulley, you can understand how the builders exulted,
and how the Volscians of the Birmingham district were fluttered. Then,
and not till then, would the English maker condescend to believe that
it was possible to improve upon the wretched things which he had
foisted upon his customers, and he at once commenced to copy the
American pulley. He has not yet succeeded in producing such a
beautiful casting, but I venture to say that he has improved the
quality more in the last eighteen months than in the previous eighteen

Now take the ordinary door furniture. For generations the English
builder and householder has had to be content with the stereotyped,
with all its aggravating propensities. First, the little screw (so
small as to be scarcely perceptible to touch or to sight) shakes loose
from its countersunk depression in the spindle, gets lost, and lets
the knob go adrift; or next, the knob itself, formed of a bit of sheet
brass, turns round on its shank and the door cannot be opened, or the
shank, not having a sufficient bearing on the spindle, works loose,
and the whole thing is out of repair. It is the same thing to-day as
it was when it tormented my grandfather; for, of course, no
improvement could be made until Uncle Sam sent us his cheap, strong,
serviceable, and sensible "Mineral Knob."

The English maker says: "But look at the many devices which we have
invented for door furniture." Granted, and some of them very good, but
none of them so good as this--for the money. Plenty of them well
adapted for extraordinary use, but none of them cheap enough and
strong enough to be placed in competition with this in fitting up the
dwelling of the ordinary Englishman. The spindle and furniture of a
lock is the portion which is liable to and receives the most rough

I have here an ordinary cheap set of china furniture of English make,
which I dare not drop lest I should break it, but as you see, I dare
throw its Yankee competitor the whole length of this room. The retail
price of this English set is ninepence--the price of the American is
less than sixpence. The English spindle is fitted with the usual
little screw, the knob is loose, the roses are china, and liable to
break with the least strain or blow. The American set, as you see, has
a long shank; the form of the knob is a very oblate spheroid, giving a
good grip and free play for the fingers between the knob and the door.
The rose is japanned iron, and has small studs or teeth projecting on
its inner side effectually preventing it from turning round with the
spindle; the screw is strong, and is tapped through the spindle
itself, insuring both security and perfect steadiness. Several small
washers are supplied with each spindle, enabling the slack to be taken
up perfectly, and at the same time preventing the spindle from
sticking with any ordinary amount of friction.

I will now show you a cheap American rim lock. First, you will notice
that both sides are alike. Next, that by pulling the latch forward it
can be turned half round, and is thereby converted from a right hand
to a left hand, or _vice versa_, in an instant. This is an important
point to a builder, but our lockmakers do not seem to know it. Several
attempts have been made to introduce locks of this kind, but the fancy
prices put upon every article which departs, in ever so slight a
measure, from the antediluvian patterns mostly used, practically
prohibits their adoption. The carcass of the lock is of cast iron; the
casting, like all the small American castings, is simply perfect;
bosses are cast round the follower and keyholes; the box staple is one
piece of metal, neat and strong.

But there is another point, and, to my mind, the most important one.
Whatever opinions may be held as to the relative quality of this lock,
whether it is better or worse than an English one, it is at least an
honest article. It makes no pretensions to be any better than it is.
It does not entrap the unwary purchaser by pretending to be a
first-class article, when at the same time it may be a swindle.

I will now show you an ordinary 6 inch rim-lock of English
manufacture. At a short distance it looks like a superior article; the
follower and keyhole appear as if they were bushed with brass. But let
us take it to pieces, and see what we can find. The follower is a
rough casting, not turned at the bearings, and is in no sense a fit.
The screw holes are not countersunk, but merely punched in; the key is
of the roughest and worst fitting description; the inside is as rough
and cheap as possible; the key is cut so as to deceive the purchaser
into the belief that there are twice as many wards in the lock as is
really the case, and the bushes prove to be thin plates of brass
riveted on, and not bushes at all. In short, the whole article is a
vile fraud, and the maker was a swindler. This is strong language, but
I think you will agree with me when I maintain that it is not stronger
than the circumstances warrant.

But there are still its defects of bad design and useless workmanship.
The lock is of the usual form given to the English rim-lock, that is,
it has a flange which requires to be let into the edge of the door. I
have fixed hundreds of them, and have never yet been able to see a use
for this flange. It is one great obstacle to the general introduction
of a reversible lock; it adds to the labor of fixing without adding to
the security of the door, for if the door is to be forced from the
outside, the box staples give way first; if from the inside, the
unscrewing of the box staple is all that is necessary to give egress;
if the door requires easing, it effectually prevents it being done--in
fact, it is a nuisance, and nothing but a nuisance. But our lockmakers
do not appear to give these things a thought; their doctrine seems to
be, "As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be."

Again, notice that the edges of the iron which lie against the door
and the sham bushes are ground bright. Here is labor wasted, for as
soon as the lock is fixed these polished portions are hidden for
ever. Next, take the box staple. As is usual, it is fearfully and
wonderfully made up of sheet iron, square iron, and brass; the outcome
of which is that the showy brass striking piece comes unriveted, the
door comes unfastened, and the tenant's temper comes unhinged. Why, in
the name of common sense, could they not substitute a neat malleable
casting? In our own houses I have long since discarded the ordinary
box staple for draw-back locks, and find it cheaper to buy a cast iron
staple, and throw away the one supplied by the English lockmaker.

Bear in mind that I have shown neither of these locks as samples of
high-class goods, but as samples of the furniture fixed in the houses
of the working and middle classes of this country; and when I tell you
that the American lock, fitted with the mineral furniture, is at least
25 per cent cheaper than the English abortion I have shown to you, you
will begin to realize what our English markets have to fear from the

Here is a common, cheap English mortise lock, and you will naturally
ask why the outside of this lock is ground bright, when it is buried
in the door and never seen except it has to be taken out for repairs.
I have asked the same question, and for 20 years have paused for a
reply. This lock is not reversible, the follower is not bushed, and
the inside is rough and cheap. Contrast it with this neat American
lock, and notice again the bosses to receive the wear; notice also
that the bolts are brass; the latch-bolt is, of course, reversible--I
never saw an American lock which was not. The body of the lock is cast
iron; and, seeing that there are no strains upon a mortise lock, it is
quite as good as if it was of wrought iron. There is no unnecessary
grinding, but the iron is japanned, and the japan is as much superior
to the English compound as is the lacquer ware of the Japanese to that
which is executed in Birmingham and palmed upon the ignorant buyer as
Japanese work. In fact, as you can see for yourselves, the English
japan looks almost like gas tar beside the American. This American
lock is a two-lever, and there is no sham about the key, which is made
of some kind of white metal and is small and neat. This lock is only
2½ per cent higher in price than the English.

Before leaving these locks, let me say a word or two upon the
relative wear upon their different portions, and their relative
safety. The English maker appears to ignore the fact that
nineteen-twentieths of the wear of a lock is upon the latch, spindle,
and follower; the amount of actual wear upon the rest of the lock is
comparatively slight. Let any of you consider the number of times you
open and close a door, compared with the times you lock it. Our
drawbacks and large rim locks are used about once a day; the great
bulk of our mortise locks are not used, except as latches, once a
week. One argument used by our manufacturers against the American lock
is that, being made by machinery, there is necessarily a great
duplication of parts, and a consequent lowering of the standard of
security; while their own locks, being made by hand, are not alike,
and therefore cannot be so easily opened.

Let any of you put this argument to proof, by trying how many front
doors you can open with one key in a row of workmen's dwellings such
as are found in Manchester, ranging up to £25 rentals, and the result
will astonish you. If our own manufacturers made their locks
sufficiently well to give this security, there would be some force in
what they say; but so far as security is concerned, they might as well
make their locks by machinery as make them in the way they do.

I now show you two thumb latches, one of American and one of English
make. Notice the general finish of the American latch; the shape, the
mode of construction, and everything about it proves that brains were
used when it was designed and made. The English "Norfolk latch," on
the other hand, is ill designed, uncomfortable in hand, clumsily
finished, the japan hangs about it in lumps, the latch is clumsy, the
catch is clumsier, and the keeper, a rough piece of hoop iron, seems
as if designed to "keep" the latch from doing its duty. In this case
the American latch is 25 per cent cheaper than the English one; and
the English latch is of the same pattern as the one that was in use
when I was a boy, only that it is a greatly inferior article.

I will now introduce you to the well known nuisance which we have been
accustomed to use for fastening our cupboard doors--the cupboard
turn--and without further comment, ask you to compare it with this
neat and simple latch of American make, costing about 5 per cent more,
twice as efficacious, and five times as durable. In this case no
improvement has been made in the English fastener. It is just as it
was when I went to the trade, about 28 years ago, and although many
attempts have been made to improve it they have added so much to its
cost as to prevent the improved articles from coming into general use.

The difference between the English and American inventor and designer
seems to consist in this--that while an Englishman devotes all his
energies to the improvement of an existing shape, the American throws
the old article under his bench and commences _de novo_.

I think I have made out a case against the English hardware
manufacturer, but when I have pointed these matters out to merchants
and ironmongers, I have been met with various reasons for this
manifest inferiority. I do not know how far these excuses may be
valid, but one man says that the reason, as regards locks, is somewhat
as follows: The locksmiths of the district wherein they are made in
many cases work at their own homes; one man making one part of a lock,
while other men make other parts. This goes on generation after
generation, and the men become mere machines, not knowing how the
entire lock is constructed, and not caring to know. Another attributes
it to the influence of the trades-unions, and says that if a
manufacturer wants a different kind of lock, the price for the work is
immediately put higher, even though the actual labor may not be
increased. A third says it is due to the drunkenness of the hands, and
their consequent poverty and physical and social demoralization, which
prevents them from rising to such an intellectual level as will enable
them to see the evils of their system, and adopt the right means to
remove them. A fourth boldly says, "We make these goods because our
customers want them." How far the reasons assigned by the first three
are correct I am unable to say, but for the fourth, the extent to
which the builders of England have patronized the Americans is a
complete answer.

This defense, "Our customers want them," is as old as the hills, and
has been used to cover every kind of deception and inferior article
ever manufactured. Our Lancashire manufacturers use it when they are
charged with sending china clay and mildew (and call it calico) for
the mild Hindoo and the Heathen Chinee to dress themselves in. Our
butter merchants use it when they make up grease and call it butter;
and our hardware merchants use it when they send us sham locks, and
call them brass bushed, etc.

It is the duty of the manufacturer to invent for his customers, and it
is preposterous to say that the builder would prefer that embodiment
of fraud--the English rim-lock, which I showed to you--to the American
lock, which, at any rate, was an honest article, especially when the
latter had the great advantage of being considerably cheaper. I am
afraid that the swindling and greed of our merchants is having the
effect of thrusting us out of the markets of the world, including our
home markets; and when it is too late, these men who are making the
name of English goods a byword and a reproach, even among the Hindoos,
the Chinese, and the untutored savages of the South Sea Islands, will
find that "honesty is the best policy."

We have been accustomed to hear a deal of buncombe talked about the
honesty of the Englishman, and the want of honesty of the Yankee;
about the enterprise of our manufacturers and the skill of our
workmen; but if what I have shown to you is to be taken as a specimen,
it is time we set our house in order. Since commencing the paper I
have read the discussion between Messrs. Chubb and Hill, and am at a
loss to know why Messrs. Chubb entered into the arena. If all the
English makers tried to reach Chubb's standard we should keep our
markets, at least so far as high quality is concerned; and to see
Messrs. Chubb acting as champions of the English lockmakers is
something like seeing Messrs. Horrocks taking up the cudgels for those
people who manufacture china clay and call it calico, the proportion
of fiber in the material being just a little greater than that found
in hair mortar.

In conclusion, I wish it to be understood that I bring these facts
before you in no exultant spirit. I am an Englishman, and the future
welfare of myself and my children depends very much upon the future of
English manufactures; but we cannot be blind to the fact that the
apathy and conservatism of our manufacturers, the greed of our
Merchants, and the ignorance and drunkenness of our workmen, are
weighing us so heavily in the race for trade that a member of our own
family, whose leading business should be to produce food for us, is
outstripping us with the greatest ease. Our boasted supremacy as a
manufacturing people is leaving us, and leaving us under such
humiliating circumstances--and if the men of Birmingham and the
district are content to dwell in their present "fools' paradise," it
is the duty of every lover of his country to speak as plainly as
possible to them.

Of course I am prepared to be told that as I am not a lockmaker my
opinion is worthless; but I have been about 28 years as man and boy,
employer and workman, in the building trade, and if I have not got to
know something about builders' hardware during that period, I have
made but a poor use of my time. I do not know if I have added to your
stock of knowledge, but deeming the subject an important one, I have
done the best I could in the time at my disposal.

In the discussion which followed the opinion of the members present
was unanimously in favor of the American articles shown to them.

       *       *       *       *       *

A high Indian official reports that the people of Cashmere are dying
of famine like flies, and at the present rate of mortality the
province will be nearly depopulated by the end of the year.

       *       *       *       *       *


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contemplating the securing of patents abroad are invited to write to
this office for prices, which have been reduced in accordance with the
times, and our perfected facilities for conducting the business.

       *       *       *       *       *


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C. M. Flint, Fitchburg, Mass., Mfr. of Saw Mills and Dogs, Shingle and
Clapboard Machines. Circulars.

Blake's Belt Studs; strongest, cheapest, and best fastening for
Leather or Rubber Belts. Greene, Tweed & Co., New York.

No gum! No grit! No acid! Anti-Corrosive Cylinder Oil is the best in
the world, and the first and only oil that perfectly lubricates a
railroad locomotive cylinder, doing it with half the quantity required
of best lard or tallow, giving increased power and less wear to
machinery, with entire freedom from gum, stain, or corrosion of any
sort, and it is equally superior for all steam cylinders or heavy work
where body or cooling qualities are indispensable. A fair trial
insures its continued use. Address E. H. Kellogg, sole manufacturer,
17 Cedar St., New York.

The unprecedented demand for Kinney Bros.' New Cigarette, Sweet
Caporal, is a good recommendation as to their merit.

Wheels and Pinions, heavy and light, remarkably strong and durable.
Especially suited for sugar mills and similar work. Pittsburgh Steel
Casting Company, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Deoxidized Bronze. Patent for machine and engine journals.
Philadelphia Smelting Co., Phila., Pa.

For Sale.--4 H. P. Vertical Engine and Boiler (New York Safety Steam
Power Co.'s make), as good, and in some respects better, than new.
Address H. M. Quackenbush, Herkimer, N. Y.

Wood-working Machinery, Waymouth Lathes. Specialty, Wardwell Patent
Saw Bench; it has no equal. Improved Patent Planers; Elevators; Dowel
Machines. Rollstone Machine Company, Fitchburg, Mass.

Galland & Co.'s improved Hydraulic Elevators. Office 206 Broadway, N.
Y., (Evening Post Building, room 22.)

The only economical and practical Gas Engine in the market is the new
"Otto" Silent, built by Schleicher. Schumm & Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
Send for circular.

Dead Pulleys that stop the running of loose pulleys and their belts,
controlled from any point. Send for catalogue. Taper Sleeve Pulley
Works, Erie, Pa.

_Vick's Illustrated Monthly Magazine_ is one of the most beautiful
magazines in the world. Each number contains a chromo of some group of
flowers, and many fine engravings. Published monthly at $1.25 per
year. Address James Vick, Rochester, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: Notes and Queries]



No attention will be paid to communications unless accompanied with
the full name and address of the writer.

Names and addresses of correspondents will not be given to inquirers.

We renew our request that correspondents, in referring to former
answers or articles, will be kind enough to name the date of the paper
and the page, or the number of the question.

Correspondents whose inquiries do not appear after a reasonable time
should repeat them.

Persons desiring special information which is purely of a personal
character, and not of general interest, should remit from $1 to $5,
according to the subject, as we cannot be expected to spend time and
labor to obtain such information without remuneration.

       *       *       *       *       *

(1) S. Q.--The speed of a circular saw at the periphery should be from
6,000 to 7,000 feet per minute. The number of revolutions per minute
will of course vary with the diameter of the saw.

(2) T. J. F. asks (1) for the best way to fasten emery on a wooden
wheel, to be used in place of a solid emery wheel. A. Cover the wheel
with leather devoid of grease, and coat the leather surface, a portion
at a time, with good glue; immediately roll the glued surface in emery
spread out on a board. 2. How can I fasten small pieces of looking
glass on iron? A. Use equal parts of pitch and gutta percha together.

(3) W. C. asks: 1. What is the power of the simple electric light
described in SUPPLEMENT NO. 149? A. When supplied with a strong
current it is equal to 5 or 6 5-foot gas burners. It is designed for
temporary use only. 2. What is the cost of manufacturing the
dynamo-electric machine in SUPPLEMENT NO. 161? A. The one shown in the
article referred to cost about $35.

(4) L. D. asks: 1. Which is the better conductor, silver or copper? A.
Silver. 2. And the comparative resistance offered to the electric
current by water and the above? A. Taking pure silver as 100,000,000,
the conductivity of distilled water would be 0.01.

(5) H. J. F. writes: In SUPPLEMENT 162 a simple electric light is
described. I wish to light a room 20×20×10 feet. 1. How large is the
bell glass? A. 2½ inches. 2. Can I use battery carbon? A. Use a
carbon pencil made for electric lamps. 3. How can I make tray water
tight after putting wire through? A. With gutta percha. 4. I have one
large cell Bunsen and one Smee. How many more and of what kind shall I
get? A. One of the batteries described in SUPPLEMENTS 157, 158, 159,
will do, probably 8 or 10 Bunsen elements would be the best.

(6) W. B. F. writes: I tried to make an electric pen, like the one
described in your SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, of February 22d, 1879, using a
Smee's battery, a circuit breaker, and an induction coil, but it did
not work. Is there anything wrong, or is a condenser different from an
induction coil? A. A condenser consists of a number of sheets of tin
foil separated from each other by larger sheets of paper. One half of
the tin foil sheets are connected with one terminal of the primary
coil, the other half with the other terminal; the tin foil sheets
connected with one terminal alternate with those of the other
terminal. The condenser is essential to the working of the coil. For
complete directions for making induction coils, see SCIENTIFIC

(7) J. De F. asks: 1. Knowing the resistance of a wire of given
conductivity, length, and diameter, will the resistance of any other
wire be in proportion inversely? A. Yes. 2. Is there heat enough
developed in the secondary coil of an induction coil to prevent the
use of paraffine as an insulating material? A. With proper battery
power, no. 3. How high in the list of non-conductors does paraffine
stand? A. It is one of the best. 4. Will a cotton insulator soaked in
paraffine answer as well as silk? A. No, because it renders the
covering of the wire too thick. 5. Can you recommend any insulating
material for making induction coils which will dry rapidly? A.
Alcoholic shellac varnish. Rosin to which a little beeswax has been
added is an excellent insulator; it must be applied in a melted state.
6. What is the composition of the black material covering the
Leclanche porous cell? A. Gutta percha. 7. Is the magneto-electric
machine described in the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT patented? A.
To which do you refer? Most, if not all of them are patented.

(8) B. V. F. writes: With reference to item 8, on page 139, of
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, March 1, 1879, I think there is some mistake
about the coal you think required to heat 1,000 cubic feet space. I
burn some 8 tons coal to heat, in the whole year, such part of my
house as must exceed 25×20×18=9,000 cubic feet. We keep up a moderate
heat at night. Ventilate more than most families do; take part only of
the cool air, and only in part of the coldest weather, from the
cellar, which at such times is opened into the main entries. House
wood, back plastered, and stands alone. If 100 lbs. coal would heat
1,000 feet one day, I ought to burn 900 lbs. a day, or nearly 14 tons
in December and 14 more in January. A. We are glad to receive these
data, which correspond quite closely with some obtained by recent
accurate experiments. The estimate given in the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN
also agrees well with experiments on the use of hot air heaters for
very small buildings or rooms. Of course, the larger the space to be
heated, the more economically it can generally be done.

(9) W. M. S. asks: Will the coil described in SUPPLEMENT NO. 160 do
for the electric pen described in a recent number of the SCIENTIFIC
AMERICAN? If not how must it be changed? A. It is too large; make it
one half the size given.


(10) B. G.--In reply to your inquiry as to Mr. Stroh's telephone
experiment, we give the following, which we clip from the _English
Mechanic_: A singular experimental effect, of special interest just
now from its possible bearing on the theory of the source of sound in
the Bell telephone, has just been observed by Mr. Stroh, the well
known mechanician. If a telephone, T, with the circuit of its coil
left open, be held to the ear, and a powerful magnet, M, be moved
gently up and down along the length of the magnet, as shown by the
arrow, and at a distance of an inch or two from it, a faint breathing
sound will be heard, the recurring pulses of sound keeping time with
the up and down motion of the magnet. The sound may be aptly compared
to the steady breathing of a child, and there is a striking
resemblance between it and the microphonic sounds of gases diffusing
through a porous septum as heard by Mr. Chandler Roberts. We
understand that Professor Hughes is investigating the cause of this
curious sound by help of the microphone.

(11) "Enterprise" asks: What part of its volume will iron expand in
passing from a temperature of 60° to melting temperature? A. The
cubical expansion of iron for each degree (C.) between 0° and 100° is
0.00003546 of its volume, its volume being 1. This ratio however,
increases somewhat at higher temperatures, since the mean coefficient
of expansion for each degree between 0° C. and 300° C. is 0.00004405.
The question you ask has probably never been settled. You may form an
approximation by the use of the above ratios, knowing the melting
point of the iron.

(12) P. L. O. asks for a good chemistry for a beginner to study
without a teacher. A. Fownes' "Chemistry;" Gorup-Besanez, "Inorganic,
Organic and Physiological Chemistry."

(13) L. E. M. asks: What is the best method of keeping fine guns from
rusting, and what oil should be used? A. For the outside, clear gum
copal 1 part, oil of rosemary 1 part, absolute alcohol 3 parts. Clean
and heat the metal and apply a flowing coat of the liquid by means of
a camel's hair brush. Do not handle until the coat becomes dry and
hard. For the inside of the barrel a trace of refined sperm oil is as
good as anything, but an excess should be avoided.

(14) A. H. B. asks how much weight, falling 10 feet, will be required
to produce one horse power for five hours? A. One horse power for 5
hours = 33,000 × 300 = 9,900,000 foot pounds--so that the weight
required is 9,900,000 ÷ 10 = 990,000 lbs.

(15) A. D. R. asks: 1. In renewing a Leclanche battery, do the zincs
have to be amalgamated? A. They are usually amalgamated. 2. Will two
cells large size Leclanche battery give any light, using the simple
lamp described in SUPPLEMENT NO. 162? A. No.

(16) H. L. J. writes: In a recent issue of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN you
state that the floating of solid iron on melted iron is on the same
principle as the floating of ice in water. I do not quite understand
how it can be. Please explain. A. Solid iron, at an elevated
temperature, floats upon molten iron for the same reason that ice
floats upon molten ice-water--because it is specifically lighter. You
will find the subject discussed at length in Tyndall's "Heat as a Mode
of Motion."

(17) J. W. will find full directions for canning corn, etc., on p. 394

(18) "Amateur" writes: I wish to make some small bells that have a
clear ring. What metal or metals can I use that I can melt easily? A.
Use an alloy of tin and antimony. See SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT
NO. 17.

(19) H.--A nutritious mixed diet is unquestionably the best, care
being taken to avoid an excess of meat.

(20) W. F. writes: I have made an engine, and would like to find out
what size of boiler it will require. The cylinder has 2¼ inch bore and
3 inches stroke. A. It depends upon pressure and speed to be
maintained; probably a vertical tubular boiler, 15 inches diameter,
and 32 to 36 inches high, would suit you.

(21) R. G. (Salt Lake).--Please send full name.

(22) J. M. G. asks: If two persons each pull one hundred pounds on
opposite ends of a rope, what will be the strain on the rope? A. The
strain on the rope will be 100 lbs.

(23) W. M. M. asks: In laying off a mill stone in furrows, what
draught is given? What amount of the space of a stone is given to
furrows and what to grinding surface? A. There is considerable
difference in the practice of various millers, and we would be glad to
receive communications from those experienced in the art of dressing

MINERALS, ETC.--Specimens have been received from the following
correspondents, and examined, with the results stated:

S. (New Orleans.)--The powder consists of a mixture of zinc oxide and
finely powdered resin. A quantitative analysis would be necessary to
determine the proportions.

Any numbers of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT referred to in these
columns may be had at this office. Price 10 cents each.

       *       *       *       *       *


  Life Preserving Stone. By J. D. W.
  On Ventilation. By D. W.
  What is Mental Action? By N. K.
  Panama Railroad or Canal. By G. R. P.
  A Problem. By K.
  On the Gary Motor. By G. F. M.
  Magnetic Motor. By G. W. W., W. A. A., G. H. F.
  House Warming. By H. B. F.
  The Injector. By M. A. B.
  Columbus' Problem; Cure for Diphtheria; The Mullein
  Cure for Consumption. By R. W. L.
  A Visit to Tula. By L. R.
  On Vacuum in Pumps and the Atwood Machine. By P. J. D.
  On the Patent Bill. By R.

       *       *       *       *       *





February 18, 1879,


[Those marked (r) are reissued patents.]

A complete copy of any patent in the annexed list, including both the
specifications and drawings, will be furnished from this office for
one dollar. In ordering, please state the number and date of the
patent desired, and remit to Munn & Co., 37 Park Row, New York city.

  Air heater, W. Pickhardt                                        212,499
  Anchor, A. F. White                                             212,340
  Animal trap, S. J. Bennett                                      212,430
  Axle box, vehicle, P. K. Hughes                                 212,382
  Axle, carriage, C. H. Kendall                                   212,387
  Axle for wagons, trussed, J. Herby                              212,378
  Axle, vehicle, C. H. Kendall                                    212,386
  Barrel cover, C. Brinton                                        212,350
  Bed bottom, J. Flinn                                            212,451
  Bed bottom, spring, W. B. Crich                                 212,443
  Bedstead, sofa, A. N. Hornung                                   212,312
  Bedstead, wardrobe, H. P. Blackman                              212,348
  Belt hook templet, E. Card                                      212,353
  Boot and shoe laster, L. Graf                                   212,460
  Boot and shoe sole polisher, etc., O. Gilmore                   212,372
  Boot and shoe sole edge trimmer, C. H. Helms                    212,311
  Boot fronts, cutting in, C. H. Colburn                          212,357
  Boot, India-rubber, G. Watkinson (r)                              8,587
  Bottle filler, W. S. Paddock                                    212,494
  Bread board, H. Van Doren                                       212,334
  Brick, shed for drying, C. H. Roselius                          212,511
  Bridge gate, A. Stempel                                         212,329
  Broom corn tabler, G. W. Foulger                                212,454
  Button F. E. Williams                                           212,418
  Calculator, tax, P. F. Pettibone                                212,498
  Car coupling, G. R. Hamilton                                    212,462
  Car coupling, S. A. Haydock                                     212,464
  Car coupling, J. Worrall                                        212,529
  Car heaters, coupling for pipes of railway, J. W. Graydon       212,376
  Car heater, railway, J. W. Graydon                              212,375
  Car heating pipe coupling, railway, J. W. Graydon               212,374
  Car ventilation, J. Knipscheer                                  212,475
  Cars, heating, J. & J. W. Russell                               212,403
  Cars, supplying water to wash stands on, D. H. Jones            212,385
  Carbureter feed regulator, W. H. Reed                           212,502
  Card machine burr conveyer, W. C. Bramwell                      212,435
  Carpet beater, J. L. Leach                                      212,476
  Carriage, C. H. Palmer, Jr.                                     212,397
  Carriage bow, F. H. Niemann                                     212,491
  Carriage, child's, F. H. Way (r)                                  8,583
  Carriage top prop, J. P. Simpson                                212,519
  Carriage canopy top, D. Gleason                                 212,458
  Cartridge, W. W. Hubbell                                        212,313
  Chair foot or leg rest, M. E. Keiran                            212,474
  Chimney, locomotive engine, H. R. Walker                        212,414
  Chuck, lathe, J. H. Vinton                                      212,413
  Churn power motion, W. F. Witherington                          212,527
  Cigarette, C. C. Millaudon                                      212,392
  Coat, reversible, N. H. Lund                                    212,479
  Cock and faucet, etc., self-closing, J. Broughton               212,436
  Coffee pot, teapot, etc., stand, D. H. Murphy                   212,395
  Coffee roaster, R. Davis                                        212,445
  Corset, W. Thomas                                               212,411
  Corset steel, E. M. Smith                                       211,520
  Dental plugger, W. G. A. Bonwill                                212,434
  Door securer and combined tool, P. E. Rudel                     212,512
  Door sill and carpet strip, S. M. Stewart                       212,521
  Drip pan and self-oiler for bearings, R. B. Eason               212,449
  Egg cup and opener, D. H. Murphy                                212,394
  End gate, wagon, W. H. Parkin                                   212,398
  File, bill, E. H. Owen                                          212,493
  Files, recutting, M. J. Murphy                                  212,490
  Filter, J. W. Lefferts                                          212,477
  Firearm, breech-loading, H. Goodman                             212,459
  Firearm lock, Kaufmann & Warnant                                212,473
  Fire extinguisher, D. T. Perkins                                212,322
  Fires in buildings, extinguishing, C. Barnes                    212,346
  Fluid motor, Chase & Bowker                                     212,356
  Fountain tip, H. G. Fiske                                       212,368
  Furnace, G. B. Field                                            212,366
  Game apparatus, W. T. Ebert                                     212,304
  Garter, etc., clasp, L. Lobenstein                              212,390
  Gate, McKinley & Ellis                                          212,482
  Gate, G. W. Pyle                                                212,501
  Glassware, decorating, H. Feurhake                              212,365
  Glassware shaper and finisher, Atterbury & Beck                 212,421
  Glazier's tool, W. H. G. Savage                                 212,515
  Governor and friction brake for machinery, speed, T. A. Weston  212,337
  Grain drill, C. F. Davis (r)                                      8,589
  Harness breeching strap, H. Holt                                212,467
  Harrow, toothless, J. W. Mulvey                                 212,393
  Harvester, W. A. Wood                                           212,528
  Harvester cutter, B. Pratt                                      212,323
  Harvester, grain binding, J. F. Appleby                         212,420
  Harvester reel, B. Moreland                                     212,318
  Harvesting machine, Dutton & Tornquist                          212,303
  Hat formers, web tender for, R. Eickemeyer                      212,450
  Hay binder and elevator, P. H. Nichols                          212,319
  Hay elevator, H. Barlow                                         212,427
  Hay tedder, E. J. Knowlton                                      212,388
  Headlights, signal for locomotive, W. Kelley (r)                  8,591
  Heat regulator for furnaces, A. C. Norcross (r)                   8,582
  Hoisting bucket, F. H. C. Mey                                   212,317
  Hoisting drums, etc., friction brake and clutch for, T. A.      212,338
  Hoisting machine, T. A. Weston                                  212,339
  Horse toe weight, G. C. Clausen                                 212,440
  Hydrant, J. Snell                                               212,408
  Hydrant, street, G. C. Morgan                                   212,486
  Hydraulic motor, W. S. Puckett                                  212,500
  Injector, steam boiler, G. R. Buckman                           212,438
  Keg trussing machine, E. & B. Holmes                            212,381
  Kettle, H. C. McLean                                            212,483
  Kitchen cabinet, C. A. Adams                                    212,343
  Lamp, J. H. Irwin                                               212,470
  Lamp burner, E. B. Requa                                        212,401
  Lamp, fountain, C. Stockmann                                    212,522
  Lamp shade holder, Brown & Taplin                               212,437
  Lamp, street, J. Stewart                                        212,410
  Lamp wick, H. Halvorson                                         212,309
  Life preserver, T. Richards                                     212,402
  Life preserver, R. E. Rose                                      212,404
  Lock, W. E. Forster                                             212,452
  Lock gate, D. Risher, Jr.                                       212,506
  Mechanical movement, C. B. Hitchcock                            212,380
  Metal tube maker, A. Ball                                       212,425
  Middlings separator, J. Schoonover                              212,406
  Milker, cow, A. C. Baldwin                                      212,423
  Millstone adjustment, S. P. Walling                             212,525
  Millstone curb or hoop, J. S. Detwiler                          212,361
  Miter machine, J. J. Spilker                                    212,409
  Mop head, H. Murch                                              212,489
  Needle eye polisher, George & Payne                             212,455
  Oil cup, F. Lunkenheimer                                        212,480
  Ore concentrator, E. W. Stephens                                212,330
  Ore roaster, C. E. Robinson                                     212,508
  Oven bottom and slide, J. Jewett                                212,471
  Oysters, board bank for fattening, F. Lang                      212,389
  Package or box filler, Bolton & Strieby                         212,349
  Paper cutter, J. M. Jones                                       212,384
  Paper folder, R. M. Hoe                                         212,466
  Paper machines, method and apparatus for producing a vacuum in  212,362
    the suction box of, Dunn & Hollister
  Paper machines, wire guide for J. W. Moore                      212,485
  Paper making, treating pulp stock, S. & J. Deacon               212,447
  Paper scorer and cutter, G. L. Ingram                           212,314
  Paper scorer and cutter, W. F. Lodge                            212,315
  Permutation lock dial screen, Corbett & Miller                  212,359
  Picture exhibitor, A. L. High                                   212,465
  Pill machine, Fort & Moore                                      212,453
  Pipe wrench, S. W. Hudson                                       212,468
  Pipe wrench with cutter, Franklin & Gilberds                    212,369
  Plant protector, E. R. Frederick                                212,306
  Plants, etc., poison distributer for, G. Townsend               212,412
  Planter and drill, check row, G. J. Hyer                        212,469
  Planter, corn, J. A. Roderick                                   212,509
  Plow, E. Walker                                                 212,524
  Plow attachment, A. O. Bement                                   212,429
  Plow cutter, A. Aldrich                                         212,419
  Plow, sulky, J. R. Whitney                                      212,341
  Printer's roller, T. M. Fisher                                  212,367
  Printing machine, L. C. Crowell                                 212,444
  Pumping engine, duplex, G. F. Blake (r)                           8,585
  Radiator for steam heaters, Covert & Snyder                     212,360
  Railway crossing, Bernard & Perkins                             212,432
  Railway switch, C. F. Gessert                                   212,456
  Ratchet mechanism and clutch for machinery, T. A. Weston        212,336
  Rocking chair, J. W. Hamburger                                  212,461
  Rotary engine, A. B. Haughey                                    212,463
  Rubber mat, E. L. Perry                                         212,497
  Sad iron holder, A. Failor                                      212,363
  Safety pin, I. W. Stewart (r)                                     8,592
  Salt cellar, W. Sellers                                         212,518
  Sandpaper roll, O. Gilmore                                      212,371
  Sash cord guide, Clarkson & Kesler (r)                            8,586
  Sash fastener, J. Benson                                        212,431
  Sash fastener, G. W. Cary                                       212,354
  Sash fastener, J. B. Morris                                     212,487
  Saw, circular, G. Schleicher                                    212,516
  Saw handle, E. R. Osgood                                        212,396
  Saw, jig, G. W. Gary                                            212,355
  Saw mill, gang, H. D. & E. N. Wickes                            212,526
  Saw mill head block, J. T. James                                212,383
  Sawing machine, scroll, N. P. Selden                            212,326
  Scales, platform, F. Fairbanks                                  212,364
  Scales, weighing, G. L. C. Coulon                               212,300
  Scarf pins, etc., making ball heads of, J. N. Allen             212,297
  Scythe snath fastening, P. E. Rudel                             212,513
  Sewer trap, J. P. Cahill                                        212,352
  Sewing implement, A. J. Lytle                                   212,481
  Sewing machine, C. O. Parmenter                                 212,495
  Sewing machine attachment, J. B. Sulgrove                       212,523
  Sewing machine plaiter, White & Bowhannan                       212,417
  Sheet metal vessel bottom, F. W. Moseley                        212,484
  Shoe, Searl & Bly                                               212,517
  Skate, C. T. Day (r)                                              8,590
  Skylight, J. Friend                                             212,307
  Slate frame, E. Butler (r)                                        8,588
  Sled propeller, G. F. Shaver (r)                                  8,593
  Smelting furnace, iron, P. L. Weimer                            212,415
  Sole edge burnisher, T. P. Young                                212,342
  Spoke tenoning machine, A. J. Roberts                           212,507
  Sprinkling can, G. F. Payne                                     212,321
  Stamp, postage and revenue, K. Wheeler                          212,416
  Staple machine, W. M. Collins                                   212,441
  Staples in paper, etc., device for inserting metallic, G. W.    212,316
  Stave crozer and chamferer, H. H. Dunlevy                       212,448
  Steak tenderer, E. Richmond                                     212,505
  Steam boiler, fire tube, J. Cowhig                              212,301
  Steam brake for locomotives, etc., W. L. Card                   212,439
  Steam piping for heating, etc., B. F. Osborne                   212,420
  Steam trap, I. W. Merrill                                       212,391
  Stove and furnace grate, S. Smyth                               212,407
  Stove, cooking, G. H. Hess                                      212,379
  Stove, cooking, J. Jewett                                       212,472
  Stove, oil, Fleming & Hamilton                                  212,305
  Stove oven door and shelf, C. W. Brieder                        212,351
  Strainer, gravy, J. Scheider (r)                                  8,584
  Strap for garments, adjusting, T. O. Potter                     212,400
  Street motor, J. T. Cord                                        212,442
  Surveying instrument leveler, G. N. Saegmuller                  212,405
  Swing, J. Ryan                                                  212,514
  Telephone apparatus, speaking, E. Gray                          212,373
  Telephony, electric, Black & Rosebrugh                          212,433
  Telephony, electric, A. M. Rosebrugh                            212,510
  Thill coupling, D. C. Bacon                                     212,422
  Thill coupling, C. E. Gillespie et al.                          212,308
  Thill coupling, M. F. Ten Eyck                                  212,333
  Thill supporter, vehicle, H. O. Rector                          212,325
  Ticket, passenger, J. H. Purdy                                  212,324
  Tiles for use as stands, frame for holding ornamental or fancy  212,335
    pottery, C. A. Wellington
  Tiles, decorative, J. G. Low                                    212,478
  Tiles, paving blocks, etc., composition for drain, W. H. Haight 212,377
  Tire upsetter, B. K. Taylor                                     212,332
  Tobacco, curing, A. P. Poladura                                 212,399
  Tobacco cutter, Bauer & Seitz                                   212,347
  Tobacco flavoring compound, D. Sternberg                        212,331
  Tobacco manufacture, J. T. Harris                               212,310
  Tobacco presser, F. B. Deane                                    212,446
  Traction engine, J. Cooper                                      212,358
  Truss, J. R. Alexander                                          212,344
  Type distributer, A. C. Richards                                212,503
  Type setter, A. C. Richards                                     212,504
  Umbrella, M. Girbardt                                           212,457
  Umbrella runner, W. H. Belknap                                  212,428
  Undershoe or slipper, G. Gardner                                212,370
  Vehicle seat lock, W. G. Allen                                  212,345
  Vehicle spring, M. H. Crane                                     212,302
  Vehicle spring bolster, J. G. Snyder                            212,328
  Velocipede, E. C. F. Otto                                       212,492
  Wash boiler, F. J. Boyer                                        212,299
  Washing and bath tub, J. B O. Shevill                           212,327
  Washing machine, J. W. Patterson                                212,496
  Water meter diaphragm, W. B. Mounteney                          212,488
  Whip holder, Curtis & Worden (r)                                  8,581
  Wire measurer and cutter, G. A. Baron                           212,426
  Wire, winding tubes and rods with, A. Ball                      212,424
  Wrench, C. B. Billings                                          212,298

       *       *       *       *       *


  Boots, shoes, and brogans, W. F. Thorne & Co.                    7,037
  Cigars, Sullivan & Burk                                          7,035
  Cigars, cigarettes, and smoking and chewing tobacco, B. Hilson   7,038
  Cotton gins, Printup, Brother & Pollard                          7,042
  Fertilizers for flowers, W. H. Bowker & Co.                      7,041
  Grain fans, J. Montgomery                                        7,032
  Hair goods for ladies' wear, M. E. Thompson                      7,040
  Hoes, Semple & Birge Manufacturing Company                       7,039
  Medicine for the cure of neuralgia, and the like diseases,
    J. S. Nicolds                                                  7,033
  Roofing paper, carpet paper, or paper felt, and building paper,
    Watson & Janes                                                 7,043
  Soap, Gallup & Hewitt                                            7,036
  Spool cotton, J. & J. Clark & Co                                 7,031
  Table cutlery, John Russell Cutlery Company                      7,034

       *       *       *       *       *


  Carpet, T. J. Stearns                                           11,029
  Combined sleigh bell and terret ring, H. M. Richmond            11,027
  Crocheted body for shawls, L. Howard                            11,028
  Oil cloth, C. T. & V. E. Meyer                        11,024 to 11,026
  Statue, A. Bartholdi                                            11,023

       *       *       *       *       *


From February 18 to February 21, inclusive.

  Bed bottoms, etc.--C. D. Flynt, Brooklyn, N. Y.
  Berth.--D. Huston, Boston, Mass.
  Lead smelting furnace.--G. T. Lewis, Philadelphia, Pa.
  Locks.--A. P. Thomas _et al._, Baltimore, Md.
  Railway joint.--P. T. Madison, Indianapolis, Ind.
  Spikes for railroads.--R. Bocklen, New York city.
  Ventilating buildings.--F. S. Norton, New York city.

       *       *       *       *       *



(About eight words to a line.)

_Engravings may head advertisements at the same rate per line, by
measurement, as the letter press. Advertisements must be received at
publication office as early as Thursday morning to appear in next

       *       *       *       *       *


To be sold at Auction, at Charleston, South Carolina, on Tuesday, the
first day of April, 1879, the Taylor Iron Works, complete and in
operation, together with all stores, stock, and work on hand on day of

The above is a large, first-class engineering establishment, complete
within itself for all kinds of work, comprising iron and brass
foundries, boiler shop, machine shops, pattern and millwright shops,
with a large stock of patterns for local machinery, and Taylor
presses. Connected with the works is a large, well-stocked engineer
and mill supply store. All departments have the best of modern tools
in thorough repair. Buildings comparatively new, and conveniently
arranged on large grounds. The business was established 1844; has
always done a large business and maintained a high reputation. The
present works, built since 1866, have ample facilities to work 200
men. At present about 100 men are employed. For further particulars
apply to the works or to JOHN F. TAYLOR, Sharon Springs, N. Y., who
will meet parties at Albany, N. Y., by appointment, or New York, if

       *       *       *       *       *


of Plays, Dramas, Comedies, Farces, Ethiopian Dramas, Plays for Ladies
only, Plays for Gentlemen only. Wigs, Beards, Moustaches, Face
Preparations, Burnt Cork, Jarley's Wax Works, Tableaux, Charades,
Pantomimes, Guides to the Stage, and for Amateurs Make up Book, Make
up Boxes, New Plays. SAM'L FRENCH & SON, 38 East 14th St., Union
Square, New York.


       *       *       *       *       *

50 _Latest Style_ CARDS. _Bouquet, Lawn, Floral,_ etc., in case, _name
in gold_, 10c. SEAVY BROS., Northford, Ct.

[Symbol: Right index] RARE OPPORTUNITY. [Symbol: Left index]

The proprietor, advanced in years and desirous of retiring from active
control of business, would _sell at a bargain_, or convert into a
joint stock company and retain an interest himself, a Foundry and
Machine Shops, with all their machinery and fixtures complete, and now
crowded with custom work, having cost upwards of sixty thousand
dollars, and the only ones of magnitude for 120 miles on the
Mississippi River, on various points of which may be seen specimens of
work of these shops at Stillwater, Winona, McGregor. Dubuque, Fulton,
Lyons, Clinton, Muscatine, and on many of the boats. For particulars,
address the proprietor at Clinton, Iowa.

          A. P. HOSFORD.

       *       *       *       *       *


Been in use only eighteen months; will cut gears, both
Spur-Bevel-Miter and Spiral, from four feet to one inch in diameter.
Is complete with counter-shaft and several cutters. Machine made by
Pond, of Worcester. Index made by Browne & Sharpe. Cost $900. Will
sell for $250.

Address J. G. STOWE, 126 Main Street, Cincinnati, O.

       *       *       *       *       *


weighs but 1½ lbs. to the square foot, and saves daily four pounds of
coal. (Asbestos saves but 2 lbs.) Price 15 cts.--5 cts. cash and 10
cts. after satisfactory trial. Agents wanted. For circulars showing
WHY fuel is wasted and HOW 25 to 50 per cent., can be saved; also, HOW
to construct reduction works for mineral ores of half the present
weight and cost, to do three times the work with the fuel now used,
and save 98 per cent. of assay; also, the opinions of distinguished
engineers, address B. F. SMITH, New Orleans, La.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTO VISITING CARDS--Now all the rage in Paris. One dozen beautiful
gilt edged (round cornered) Cards with your name and photograph, only
60 cents; 2 dozen, $1. Full particulars and a 50-page book free. E.
NASON & CO., 111 Nassau St., New York.

       *       *       *       *       *

"BELL" TELEPHONES. _Any_ one can make in fifteen minutes. Send three
3c. stamps for "Where to get the Parts, Prices (Total $3.60 per pair),
and how put together."

A. H. DAVIS, 30 Hanover St., Boston, Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *

CATARRH. A SURE CURE. Samples by mail, 10c. GEO. N. STODDARD, Buffalo,
N. Y. It cures others. _It will cure you_. Sample will prove.

       *       *       *       *       *


to buy what you want or sell or exchange what you don't want, in the
_Property Journal_. Send 5c. for copy.

ANDERSON & CO., 252 Broadway, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *



Agents and country stores supplied. Illustrated circular _free_. J.
BRIDE & CO., Manufacturers, Salesroom,

297 B'way, New York. Address letters to P. O. Box 2773.

       *       *       *       *       *

send for circular to C. W. LE COUNT, S. Norwalk, Ct.

       *       *       *       *       *

Hatfield. With directions for construction. Four engravings.
SUPPLEMENT NO. 59. Price, 10 cents.

       *       *       *       *       *


Part 1st--MATHEMATICAL INSTRUMENTS, 160 pages; contains list and
prices of Drawing Instruments, Drawing Materials, Pocket Compasses,
Surveying Compasses, Engineers' Transits and Levels, Surveying Chains,
Tape Measures, Pocket Rules, and Books relating to Drawing,
Engineering, and Mechanics.

Part 2d--OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS, 144 pages; contains list and prices of
Spectacles, Eye Glasses, Lenses, Spy Glasses, Telescopes, Opera and
Field Glasses, Graphoscopes, Stereoscopes, Camera Obscuras, Camera
Lucidas, Microscopes, Microscopic Preparations, and Books on Optics
and Microscopy.

Part 3d--MAGIC LANTERNS AND SLIDES, 112 pages; contains list and
prices or Magic Lanterns for Toys, for Public and Private Exhibitions,
Sciopticons, Stereopticons, Scientific Lanterns, and accessory
apparatus to be used with them; Magic Lantern Slides, both colored and

Part 4th--PHYSICAL INSTRUMENTS, 188 pages; contains list and prices of
Instruments to illustrate Lectures in every department of Physics and
Chemical Science, Air Pumps, Electric Machines, Galvanic Batteries,
Barometers, Thermometers, Rain Gauges, Globes, Spectroscopes, Auzoux's
Anatomical Models, and Books relating to Scientific Subjects.

Optical and Philosophical Instrument Makers,

       *       *       *       *       *


Such as Woodworth Planing, Tonguing, and Grooving Machines, Daniel's
Planers, Richardson's Patent Improved Tenon Machines, Mortising,
Moulding, and Re-Saw Machines, and Wood-Working Machinery generally.

Manufactured by

26 Salisbury Street, Worcester, Mass.
(Shop formerly occupied by R. BALL & CO.)

       *       *       *       *       *


Town and County privileges for making DRIVEN WELLS and selling
Licenses under the established AMERICAN DRIVEN WELL PATENT, leased by
the year to responsible parties, by


       *       *       *       *       *


Coal and Ore Jigs, Dust Burning Appliances. Drawings and advice free
to customers. Jeanesville Iron Works (J. C. Haydon & Co.). Address

Supt., Jeanesville, Luzerne Co., Pa.

       *       *       *       *       *

IT PAYS to sell our Rubber Hand Printing Stamps. Goods delivered in
any country. Circulars free.

G. A. HARPER & BRO., Cleveland, O.

       *       *       *       *       *


we will insert a seven-line advertisement one week in a list of 269
weekly newspapers, or four lines in a different list of 337 papers, or
ten lines two weeks in a choice of either of four separate and
distinct lists containing from 70 to 100 papers each, or four lines
one week in all four of the same lists, or one line one week in all
six lists combined, being more than 1,000 papers. We also have lists
of papers by States, throughout the United States and Canada. Send 10
cents for our 100 page pamphlet. Address GEO. P. ROWELL & CO.,
Newspaper Advertising Bureau, 10 Spruce Street, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


2d hand Lathes, Drills, Planers, Hand Tools for Iron Work, new
Woodworth Planing Machines, Resawing, Tenoning, Moulding Machines,
Scroll Saws, Portable Steam Engine. Jos. R. Blossom, Ass'e, Matteawan,
N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *

Machinery of Every Description.
121 Chambers and 103 Reade Streets, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *

60 Chromo and Perfumed Cards [no 3 alike], Name in Gold and Jet, 10c.
CLINTON BROS., Clintonville, Ct.

       *       *       *       *       *


For $5, by Post Office Order or express, I will send the recipe for
making Langhorne's English Gum Coating Paint and other mineral paints,
with full instructions for roof and sidewall painting. This paint is
used by the U. S. Government. Address M. LANGHORNE,

708 E Street, Washington, D. C.

       *       *       *       *       *

Wilhide's Celebrated Noiseless Self-setting Rat and Mouse Traps.
Thoroughly introduced. Traps sold by all dealers. Address Owners and

J. T. WILHIDE & BRO., York Road, Carroll Co., Md.

       *       *       *       *       *

WATCHMAN'S TIME DETECTOR, capable of accurately controlling the motion
of a watchman or patrolman at the different stations of his beat. Send
for circular.


N. B.--The suit against Imhaeuser & Co., of New York, was decided in
my favor, June 10, 1874. A fine was assessed against them Nov. 11,
1876, for selling contrary to the order of the court. Persons buying
or using clocks infringing on my patent will be dealt with according
to law.

       *       *       *       *       *


furnished to large consumers of Croton and Ridgewood Water. WM. D.
ANDREWS & BRO., 414 Water St., N. Y., who control the patent for
Green's American Driven Well.

       *       *       *       *       *

A New and Valuable Work for the Practical Mechanic and Engineer.




Illustrated by 5,000 Engravings.

_Edited by PARK BENJAMIN, Ph.D._

This valuable work is now being published in semi-monthly parts, at
fifty cents each. Active agents wanted. For terms and territory
address GEO. W. DAVIS, care of D. APPLETON & CO., New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


Messrs. Munn & Co., in connection with the publication of the
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, continue to examine Improvements, and to act as
Solicitors of Patents for Inventors.

In this line of business they have had OVER THIRTY YEARS' EXPERIENCE,
and now have _unequaled facilities_ for the preparation of Patent
Drawings, Specifications, and the Prosecution of Applications for
Patents in the United States, Canada, and Foreign Countries. Messrs.
Munn & Co. also attend to the preparation of Caveats, Trade Mark
Regulations, Copyrights for Books, Labels, Reissues, Assignments, and
Reports on Infringements of Patents. All business intrusted to them is
done with special care and promptness, on very moderate terms.

We send free of charge, on application, a pamphlet containing further
information about Patents and how to procure them; directions
concerning Trade Marks, Copyrights, Designs, Patents, Appeals,
Reissues, Infringements, Assignments, Rejected Cases, Hints on the
Sale of Patents, etc.

_Foreign Patents_.--We also send, _free of charge_, a Synopsis of
Foreign Patent Laws, showing the cost and method of securing patents
in all the principal countries of the world. American inventors should
bear in mind that, as a general rule, any invention that is valuable
to the patentee in this country is worth equally as much in England
and some other foreign countries. Five patents--embracing Canadian,
English, German, French, and Belgian--will secure to an inventor the
exclusive monopoly to his discovery among about ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY
MILLIONS of the most intelligent people in the world. The facilities
of business and steam communication are such that patents can be
obtained abroad by our citizens almost as easily as at home. The
expense to apply for an English patent is $75; German, $100; French,
$100; Belgian, $100; Canadian, $50.

_Copies of Patents_.--Persons desiring any patent issued from 1836 to
November 26, 1867, can be supplied with official copies at reasonable
cost, the price depending upon the extent of drawings and length of

Any patent issued since November 27, 1867, at which time the Patent
Office commenced printing the drawings and specifications, may be had
by remitting to this office $1.

A copy of the claims of any patent issued since 1836 will be furnished
for $1.

When ordering copies, please to remit for the same as above, and state
name of patentee, title of invention, and date of patent.

A pamphlet, containing full directions for obtaining United States
patents sent free. A handsomely bound Reference Book, gilt edges,
contains 140 pages and many engravings and tables important to every
patentee and mechanic, and is a useful hand book of reference for
everybody. Price 25 cents, mailed free.



_BRANCH OFFICE--Corner of F and 7th Streets,
Washington, D. C._

       *       *       *       *       *


Forming a Complete Course of Mechanical, Engineering, and
Architectural Drawing. From the French of M. Armengaud the elder,
Professor of Design in Conservatoire of Arts and Industry, Paris, and
MM. Armengaud the younger, and Amoroux, Civil Engineers. Rewritten and
arranged with additional matter and plates, selections from and
examples of the most useful and generally employed mechanism of the
day. By William Johnson, Assoc. Inst. C. E. Illustrated by fifty folio
steel plates, and fifty wood cuts. A new edition, 4to....$10

Among the contents are: Linear Drawing, Definitions, and Problems.
Sweeps, Sections, and Mouldings, Elementary Gothic Forms, and
Rosettes. Ovals, Ellipses, Parabolas, and Volutes. Rules and Principal
Data. Study of Projections. Elementary Principles. Of Prisms and other
Solids. Rules and Practical Data. On coloring Sections, with
applications. Conventional Colors, Composition or Mixture of Colors.
Continuation of the Study of Projection--Use of Sections--details of
machinery. Simple applications--spindles, shafts, couplings, wooden
patterns. Method of constructing a wooden model or pattern of a
coupling. Elementary applications. Rules and Practical Data.

Intersection of Cylinders and Cones. The Delineation and Development
of Helices, Screws, and Serpentines. Application of the helix--the
construction of a staircase. The Intersection of Surfaces--applications
to stop cocks. Rules and Practical Data.

epicycloid. Involute, Cycloid. External epicycloid, described by a
circle rolling about a fixed circle inside of it. Internal epicycloid.
Delineation of a rack and pinion in gear. Gearing of a worm with a
worm wheel. Cylindrical or Spur Gearing. Practical delineation of a
couple of Spur wheels. The Delineation and Construction of Wooden
Patterns for Toothed Wheels. Rules and Practical Data.

wheels in gear. Construction of wooden patterns for a pair of bevel
wheels. Involute and Helical Teeth. Contrivances for obtaining
differential Movements. Rules and Practical Data.

ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF SHADOWS.--Shadows of Prisms, Pyramids, and
Cylinders. Principles of Shading. Continuation of the Study of
Shadows. Tuscan Order. Rules and practical data.

Screws. Application of Shadow to a Boiler and its Furnace. Shading in
Black--Shading in Colors.

THE CUTTING AND SHAPING OF MASONRY.--Rules and Practical Data. Remarks
on Machine Tools.

combinations: The Sketching of Machinery. Drilling Machines; Motive
Machines; Water wheels. Construction and Setting up of water wheels.
Delineation of water wheels. Design of a water wheel. Sketch of a
water wheel. Overshot water wheels. Water Pumps; Steam Motors;
High-pressure expansive steam engine. Details of Construction;
Movements of the Distribution and Expansion Valves; Rules and
Practical Data.



TRUE PERSPECTIVE.--Elementary principles. Applications--flour mill
driven by belts. Description of the mill. Representation of the mill
in perspective.


[Symbol: Right index] The above, or any of our Books, sent by mail,
free of postage, at the publication price.

pages, 8vo.--sent free to any one who will furnish his address.

810 Walnut Street, Philadelphia.

       *       *       *       *       *

239 Broadway, N. Y.    83 Water St., Boston.

Condensing or Non-Condensing. Used in over 100 Water-Works Stations.

STEAM PUMPS--Duplex and Single Cylinder.



       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: Truss]


Has a Pad differing from all others, is cup-shape, with Self-Adjusting
Ball in center, adapts itself to all positions of the body, while the
WITH THE FINGER. With light pressure the Hernia is held securely day
and night, and a radical cure certain. It is easy, durable and cheap.
Sent by mail. Circulars free.


       *       *       *       *       *



LONDON, ENG., Feb. 11, 1879.

I have just received an order from the English Government for 22
Number 15 Inspirators--making 24 machines in all for the Government
this month.

          B. H. WARREN, Agent.

       *       *       *       *       *

          OFFICE OF H. S. MANNING & CO., 111 Liberty St.,
NEW YORK, Feb. 26, 1879.

GENTLEMEN: We have authority from Mr. Martin, Chief Engineer Union
Ferry Co., Brooklyn, to state that they have 17 Inspirators at work on
17 of their boats, feeding their main boilers, and all giving
satisfaction, and to refer any one to him. Yours truly,

          H. S. MANNING & CO., Agents.



       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: Corrugated Iron]



Buildings, Roofs, Shutters, Doors, Iron Sashes, Skylights, etc.

5 Dey Street, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: Crusher]



For breaking hard and brittle substances to any size. Endorsed by the
leading MINING, MANUFACTURING, and RAILROAD corporations in the UNITED
hundreds of testimonials of the _highest character_.


[Symbol: Right index] ALL STONE CRUSHERS not made or licensed by us,
containing vibratory convergent jaws actuated by a revolving shaft and
fly-wheel, are infringements on our patent, and makers and users of
such will be held accountable. Address


       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: RIVAL STEAM PUMPS.
               $35. and UPWARDS
               JOHN McGOWAN & Co.
               CINCINNATI, OHIO. ]

       *       *       *       *       *


and all other diseases of the LUNGS AND THROAT. Mailed free on receipt
of $1. A. A. MARTIN, Pulmocura Man'f'g Co., sole depot for the U. S.,
60 East 12th St., cor. Broadway, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *

Soft, Strong,
and Smooth
Iron or Brass
Plain, Galvanized,
Bronzed or Nickled
to order promptly.

Also patterns and models. Light work a specialty.

LIVINGSTON & CO., Iron Founders, Pittsburg, Pa.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: Horse Shoe]


With Level Spring Platform--Continuous Calk. The best in the world.
Cures Tender and Contracted Feet, Corns, Interfering, Quarter-crack
Lameness, and all evils resulting from the use of the common shoe.
Responsible men can make money selling this Shoe. Send for pamphlet.
Trial set with nails, $1.00. To measure, place foot on paper, and draw
pencil around.

265 Broadway, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: Steel Stamps.
               N.Y. STENCIL WORKS, 87 Nassau St., N.Y.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Boiler Tubes, Steam Pipe, Light and Heavy Forgings, Engines, Boilers,
Cotton Presses, Rolling Mill and Blast Furnace Work.


       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration: Phosphor-bronze]

Apply to
2038 Washington Ave., Philadelphia, Pa.

       *       *       *       *       *


Drills, Bolt and Gear Cutters, Milling Machines. Special Machinery. E.

       *       *       *       *       *


More than 4500 in use.

Send for reduced Price List.
Deane Steam Pump Works

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: Gear Wheels]

Small Tools of all kinds; GEAR WHEELS, parts of MODELS, and materials
of all kinds. Catalogues free.

GOODNOW & WIGHTMAN, 176 Wash'n St., Boston, Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *

FINE PAMPHLETS printed for 75c. A PAGE per 1,000. 1,000 Fine 9×12
Circulars, $2.50. Price list or estimate and samples for stamp. 250
Bill Heads, $1.


       *       *       *       *       *

$77 a Month and expenses guaranteed to Agents.
Outfit free. SHAW & CO., AUGUSTA, MAINE.

       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration: Water Wheel]

With recent improvements.


7000 in successful operation.


Sent free to those interested

    Springfield, O.

109 Liberty St., N. Y. City.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: Medal]

  Paris,        1878
  Australia,    1877
  Phila.,       1876
  Santiago,     1875
  Vienna,       1873

J. A. FAY & CO'S

was awarded at the Paris Exposition over all competitors THE GOLD
MEDAL OF HONOR. Also highest award at Phila., Santiago, Australia, and
Vienna. It is


Railroad, Furniture, and Agricultural Implement Shops, Planing Mills,
etc., equipped at short notice, and the lowest cash prices. Send for

J. A. FAY & CO., Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A.

       *       *       *       *       *

Builders of Small Machinery and Fine Tools.
          26 Artisan St., New Haven, Ct.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: Emery Wheel.]

Emery Wheel.


The Oldest and Largest Manufacturers of the Original


All other kinds Imitations and Inferior. Our name is stamped in full
upon all our standard BELTING, PACKING, and HOSE.

          NEW YORK.


       *       *       *       *       *


Opens for the reception of goods AUGUST 20TH.

Opens to the public SEPTEMBER 10TH, and continues open until OCTOBER
11TH, in the


Machinery Tested and Fully Reported upon.

Send for Rules and Premium Lists after April 1.

          H. McCOLLUM, Sec'y.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: Amalgamating.]


of Norristown, Pa., will grant state rights or licenses or easy terms.
This system works up to assay, and recovers the mercury rapidly.

Apply as above.

       *       *       *       *       *

SUPPLEMENT, March 15, '79.) Address

          N. SPENCER THOMAS, Elmira, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: Rotary Pressure Blower.]


Warranted superior to any other.

2318 Frankford Ave.

       *       *       *       *       *


Simple, Durable, and Reliable. Requires no special valves. Send for
illustrated circular.

          WM. SELLERS & CO., Phila.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: Cold Rolled Shafting.]

The fact that this shafting has 75 per cent. greater strength, a finer
finish, and is truer to gauge, than any other in use renders it
undoubtedly the most economical. We are also the sole manufacturers of
the CELEBRATED COLLINS' PAT. COUPLING, and furnish Pulleys, Hangers,
etc., of the most approved styles. Price list mailed on application to

Try Street, 2d and 3d Avenues, Pittsburgh, Pa.
190 S. Canal Street, Chicago, Ill., and Milwaukee. Wis.

[Right index] Stocks of this shafting in store and for sale by

FULLER, DANA & FITZ, Boston, Mass.
Geo. Place Machinery Agency, 121 Chambers St., N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *



Descriptive Catalogues of 175 pages sent Free

_35 Cortlandt St., New York._

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: Engraving.]

L. SMITH HOBART, President.         JOHN C. MOSS, Superintendent.


Persons desiring illustrations for Books, Newspapers, Catalogues,
Advertisements, or for any other purposes, can have their work done by
us promptly and in the best style.

OUR RELIEF PLATES are engraved by photo-chemical means; are mounted on
blocks type-high ready for use on any ordinary press, and will wear
longer than the common stereotype plates.

They have a perfectly smooth printing surface, and the lines are _as
deep, as even,_ and _as sharp_ as they could possibly be cut by hand.

ELECTROTYPES may be made from them in the same manner as from

COPY. The engraving is done either from prints or pen-drawings. Almost
all kinds of prints can be re-engraved directly from the copy,
provided they be in _clear, black lines_ or stipple, and on _white_ or
only slightly tinted paper.

Pen drawings, suitable for engraving by us, must be made with
_thoroughly_ BLACK ink, on _smooth, white_ paper. They should usually
be made twice the length and twice the width of the plates desired.

When such drawings cannot be furnished us, we can produce them from
photographs, pencil sketches, or designs of any kind accompanied with
proper instructions. Photographs taken in the usual way, and of any
convenient size, we can use.

CHANGE OF SIZE.--Wood-cut prints of the coarser kind may often be
reduced to half their lineal dimensions, while others will admit of
very little reduction, and some of none at all.

Most lithographic and steel-plate prints will admit of no reduction.

Very fine prints of any kind may be _enlarged_ moderately without

Any prints which cannot be satisfactorily reduced or enlarged may be
_redrawn_ and thus brought to any desired size.

In all cases of reduction and enlargement, the relative proportions
remain unchanged.

PROOFS.--Whenever desired, we will furnish tintype proofs of the
drawings made by us, for approval or correction, before engraving. A
printed proof is furnished with each plate.

TIME.--We cannot usually engage to fill an order for a single plate in
less than from three to six days; larger orders will require longer

ESTIMATES will be promptly furnished when desired. That these may be
definite and correct, the copy to be used--whether print, photograph,
sketch, or drawing--should always be submitted for our examination,
together with a distinct statement of the size of plate wanted, and of
any other details to be observed.

TERMS.--To insure attention, all orders must be accompanied by an
advance of half the price charged, the balance to be paid on delivery.

ELECTROTYPING AND PRINTING.--We have recently added to our
establishment excellent facilities for making electrotypes, and also
three power presses specially fitted for printing plates of all sizes
in the finest manner.

ARTIFICIAL LIGHT.--We have just introduced this most important
facility, which enables us to prosecute our work _in cloudy weather_,
and to push forward hurried orders _in the night_.

REFERENCES.--Our plates are now used by the principal publishers in
this city, and by most of the leading houses in every State in the

OUR GENERAL CIRCULAR contains a few specimens of the various kinds of
our work, and will be sent on receipt of stamp. We have just prepared
five special circulars, as follows:

  No. 1.   Portraits and Figures.
  No. 2.   Buildings and Landscapes.
  No. 3.   Machinery and Apparatus.
  No. 4.   Maps, Autographs, and Ornamental Lettering.
  No. 5.   Reproductions from Wood-Cuts, Steel-Plate Prints, and

These will be furnished at _ten cents_ each.

       *       *       *       *       *



(About eight words to a line.)

_Engravings may head advertisements at the same rate per line, by
measurement, as the letter press. Advertisements must be received at
publication office as early as Thursday morning to appear in next


STILES & PARKER PRESS CO., Middletown, Conn.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: Illustrated Guide.]

136 pages beautifully illustrated, mailed to all applicants inclosing
10 cents. Regular customers free.

with colored chromo; 216 pages, price 35 CENTS.

P. O. Box 4129, New York City.

       *       *       *       *       *

special inducements in the way of VERY SUPERIOR QUALITY GUARANTEED,
and at fair prices. Being ourselves large consumers and requiring the
most perfect castings, other work is insured the same attention.


       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: Lawn Mower.]

_Stands_ "_Head of the Class._" Descriptive Circulars and Price Lists
sent on application. GRAHAM, EMLEM & PASSMORE, Patentees and
Manufacturers, 631 Market Street, Philadelphia, Pa.

       *       *       *       *       *

a specialty. Send for Price List to
A. & F. BROWN, 57-61 Lewis Street, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *


We make Burr Millstones, Portable Mills, Smut Machines, Packers, Mill
Picks, Water Wheels, Pulleys, and Gearing, specially adapted to Flour
Mills. Send for catalogue.

          J. T. NOYE & SON, BUFFALO, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *

HOW TO SELL PATENTS.--This little book fully explains how all patents
can be sold for good prices. Price 25 cents. L. D. SNOOK, Barrington,
Yates Co., N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *


Engine Lathes, Planers, Drills, &c.,

DAVID W. POND, Worcester, Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *

Manufacturer of First-class Engineers' Instruments.
Established in 1830. 226 Pear St., Phila., Pa.

       *       *       *       *       *


Manufacturer of

[Illustration: Wire Rope.]

every description, for Railroad and Mining Use, Elevators, Derricks,
Rope Tramways, Transmission of Power, etc. No. 81 John St., N. Y. Send
for price list. Plans and Estimates furnished for Suspension Bridges.

       *       *       *       *       *


OUR GREAT SPECIALTY is _growing_ and _distributing_ these BEAUTIFUL
ROSES. _We deliver_ STRONG POT PLANTS, suitable for _immediate_ bloom,
_safely by mail_ at all post-offices. 5 SPLENDID VARIETIES, _your
choice_, all labeled, for $1; 12 for $2; 19 for $3; 26 for $4; 35 for
$5; 75 for $10; 100 for $13.

[Symbol: Right index] Send for our NEW GUIDE TO ROSE CULTURE--60 pages,
elegantly illustrated--and _choose_ from over FIVE HUNDRED FINEST
SORTS. Address


       *       *       *       *       *


We send our 100 page book of instruction, containing valuable
information, free.

Send us your address. GEO. C. TRACY & CO., Cleveland, O.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: NO MORE
               OR GOUT
               ACUTE OR CHRONIC
               SURE CURE.]

Manufactured only under the above Trade-Mark, by the


used by all celebrated Physicians of Europe and America, becoming a
Staple, Harmless, and Reliable Remedy on both continents. The Highest
Medical Academy of Paris report 95 cures out of 100 cases within three
days. Secret--The only dissolver of the poisonous Uric Acid which
exists in the Blood of Rheumatic and Gouty Patients. $1.00 a Box; 6
Boxes for $5.00. Sent to any address on receipt of price. ENDORSED BY


       *       *       *       *       *




  AMOUNT OF LEDGER ASSETS, JAN. 1, 1878            $32,477,991.87
  Less Depreciation in Government Bonds, and
  Appropriation to meet any depreciation in
  other assets                                         369,553.27
  INCOME                                             8,217,943.24


  Paid Policy Holders for Claims by Death,
  Dividends, Surrender Values, Discounted
  and Matured Endowments and Annuities               4,935,171.43
  Other Disbursements as per extended
  statement                                          1,195,841.88
  NET CASH ASSETS, December 31, 1878               $34,195,368.53


  Bonds and Mortgages                              $12,437,584.93
  Real Estate                                        6,834,904.96
  United States Stocks                               5,638,768.54
  State, City, and other Stocks authorized by
  the Laws of the State                              6,201,978.16
  Loans secured by United States and other
  Stocks                                               928,000.00
  Cash and other Ledger Assets as per extended
  statement                                          2,154,131.94
  Market Value of Stocks over Cost                     129,796.41
  Accrued Interest, Rents, and Premiums, as
  per extended statement                             1,128,927.42
  TOTAL ASSETS, DEC. 31, 1878                      $35,454,092.36

  TOTAL LIABILITIES, including legal reserve
  for reinsurance of all existing policies          28,560,268.00
  TOTAL UNDIVIDED SURPLUS                           $6,893,824.36

RISKS ASSUMED IN 1878, 6,115 POLICIES, ASSURING $21,440,213.00

N. B.--For the details of the above statement, see the Society's
"Circular to Policy Holders," and other publications for 1879.

  E. W. SCOTT, Superintendent of Agencies.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: Bolt Cutters.]


Send for Catalogue of Schlenker's Automatic Bolt Cutters and Screw
Cutting Machines.


       *       *       *       *       *

BIG PAY to sell our Rubber Printing Stamps. Samples free. Taylor Bros.
& Co., Cleveland, O.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: LA CAISSE
               PARIS, FRANCE.]


  PAID UP CAPITAL                            $1,458,007.78
  NET SURPLUS, DEC. 31, 1876                    530,056.86
  CASH ASSETS IN U. S. JAN. 1, 1878             427,881.28
  NET ASSETS IN U. S. JAN. 1, 1878              220,000.00


  LOUIS DE COMEAU, ESQ., of De Rham & Co.
  CHAS. COUDERT, JR., ESQ., of Coudert Bros.
  CHAS. RENAULD, ESQ., of Renauld, Francois & Co.


       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration: Eclipse Engine.]

Furnishes steam power for all _Agricultural_ purposes, _Driving Saw
Mills_, and for every use where a first-class and economical Engine is
required. Eleven first-class premiums awarded, including Centennial,
'76. Refer to No. 7, issue of '77, No. 14, issue of '78, of SCIENTIFIC
AMERICAN, for Editorial illustrations.

          FRICK & CO., Waynesboro, Franklin Co., Pa.

When you write please name this paper.

       *       *       *       *       *


Also known as the "SPECIAL" PUMP, is the standard of excellence at
home and abroad. For Price Lists, address CAMERON PUMP WORKS,

Foot East 23d Street, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: Foot Lathe.]

$50 Screw Cutting Foot Lathe.

Foot and Power Lathes, Drill Presses, Scrolls, Circular and Band Saws,
Saw Attachments, Chucks, Mandrels, Twist Drills, Dogs, Calipers, etc.
Send for catalogue of outfits for amateurs or artisans.

333, 335, & 337 West Front Street,

       *       *       *       *       *

Established 1844.

ENGINEER and MACHINIST. Flax, Hemp, Jute, Rope, Oakum and Bagging
Machinery, Steam Engines, Boilers, etc. I also manufacture Baxter's
New Portable Engine of 1877. Can be seen in operation at my store. A
one horse-power portable engine, complete, $125; two horse-power,
$225; two and a half horse-power, $250; three horse-power, $275.
Manufactured exclusively by


Send for Catalogue

       *       *       *       *       *


From ¼; to 10,000 lbs. weight, true to pattern, sound and solid, of
unequaled strength, toughness and durability. An invaluable substitute
for forgings or cast-iron requiring three-fold strength. Send for
circular & price list.


       *       *       *       *       *

               & STEEL SPRINGS.
               CARY & MOEN
               234 W. 29. ST.
               NEW YORK CITY]

       *       *       *       *       *

Full assortment in store for immediate delivery.

       *       *       *       *       *

WEISSPORT, Carbon Co., Pa.

Manufacturers of Wheels and Machines.

       *       *       *       *       *

"New and Improved Patterns." 20 per cent. off list.
VOLNEY W. MASON & CO., Providence, R. I., U.S.A.

       *       *       *       *       *


and Sole Manufacturers of the Excelsior Steel Tube Cleaners. Price
$1.00 per inch. Send for circular.


       *       *       *       *       *

WOODWORTH SURFACE PLANERS, $125. Planers and Matchers, $350. S. C.
HILLS, 78 Chambers Street, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: Columbia Bicycle.]

Made by THE POPE M'F'G CO.,
89 Summer Street, Boston.

A practical road machine, easy to learn to ride, and when mastered one
can beat the best horse in a day's run over an ordinary road. Send 3c.
stamp for price list and 24-page catalogue with full informat'n.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: Bradford Mill Company Cin. O.]

Successors to Jas. Bradford & Co.,

Also, dealers in Bolting Cloths and General Mill Furnishings.

Office & Factory, 158 W. 2d St.
J. R. Stewart, _Pres._ W. R. Dunlap, _Sec._


       *       *       *       *       *

horse power, 15-horse power portable Engine, one 60-inch Lathe, two
Upright Drills, Blowers, etc., etc. For prices, etc., address JAMES F.
MANN, Utica, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

AIR COMPRESSORS to be run by Steam, Water Power, or Belt.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: Foot Power.]


13 Different machines with which Builders, Cabinet Makers, Wagon
Makers, and Jobbers in miscellaneous work can compete as to QUALITY
AND PRICE with steam power manufacturing; also Amateurs' supplies.

Say where you read this, and send for catalogue and prices.

Rockford, Winnebago Co., Ill.

       *       *       *       *       *


Mfrs. of Hand and Power Bolt and Pipe Cutters, Bolt Pointers, Bolt
Headers, Hot and Cold Pressed Nut Machinery, Taps and Dies, etc. Send
for Cir. Cleveland, O.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: ELEVATORS
               S. GRAVES & SON ROCHESTER N.Y.]

       *       *       *       *       *

Air Space Patents.

       *       *       *       *       *

LONDON--9 St. Andrews St., Holborn Viaduct, E. C.
LIVERPOOL--42 The Temple, Dale St.
GEO. PLACE, 121 Chambers St., New York Agent.

       *       *       *       *       *

               AIR COMPRESSORS
               FITCHBURG MASS.
               SEND FOR PAMPHLET.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Regular Monthly Sales. For terms, address N. Y.
PATENT EXCHANGE, 67 Liberty Street, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


Direct Pumping Plan. Combines, with other advantages, over older
systems, the following: 1. Secures by variable pressure a more
reliable water supply for all purposes. 2. Less cost for construction.
3. Less cost for maintenance. 4. Less cost for daily supply by the use
of Holly's Improved Pumping Machinery. 5. Affords the best fire
protection in the world. 6. Largely reduces insurance risks and
premiums. 7. Dispenses with fire engines, in whole or in part. 8.
Reduces fire department expenses. For information by descriptive
pamphlet, or otherwise, address the

          HOLLY MANUFACTURING CO., Lockport, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration: The Excelsior.]



Prints labels, cards etc. (Self-inker $5) 9 Larger sizes For business,
pleasure, young or old Catalogue of Presses, Type, Etc., for 2 stamps.


       *       *       *       *       *

PYROMETERS. For showing heat of ovens. Hot Blast Pipes, Boiler Flues,
Superheated Steam, Oil Stills, etc.

HENRY W. BULKLEY, Sole Manufacturer,
149 Broadway, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *


Send for new illustrated catalogue.

Lathes, Planers, Drills, &c.

          NEW HAVEN, CONN.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: Sanitary Closet.]


       *       *       *       *       *



Also thin lumber of all other kinds, 1/8 to 1/2 in., at corresponding
prices. All qualities. Equal in all respects to any made, and at
prices much under any to be obtained outside of our establishment.
Send for price list.

          186 TO 200 LEWIS STREET, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *

Sand, Old Crucibles, Fire Clay, Guanos, Oil Cake, Feed, Corn, Corn and
Cob, Tobacco, Snuff, Sugar, Salts, Roots, Spices, Coffee, Cocoanut,
Flaxseed, Asbestos, Mica, etc., and whatever cannot be ground by other
mills. Also for Paints, Printers' Inks, Paste Blacking, etc. JOHN W.
THOMSON, successor to JAMES BOGARDUS, corner of White and Elm Sts.,
New York.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: Watson Pump.]


       *       *       *       *       *

Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture. This is an essay embracing
complete and practical information, valuable not only to the farmer
but to every one. Showing how to Buy a Farm: Bargains that are not
Binding; Boundaries, and where they are in Streams, Ponds, Lakes, or
on the Seashore; what a Deed of a Farm includes; Rights in the Road.
Farm Fences: their Legal Height, etc. Railway Fences. Stray cattle;
Cattle on Railways; Impounding Cattle. The Farmer's Liability for his
Animals. The Law on the Dog. The Farmer not Liable for his Dogs. Water
Rights and Drainage; Damming; Diverting the Course of a Stream.
Surface Water; Underground Water. Trespassing, in Summer and in
Winter. Hunting and Fishing. Fruit Trees on Boundary Lines, etc., etc.
Contained in SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT 166. Price 10 cents.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: WROUGHT IRON.
               BEAMS & GIRDERS]

THE UNION IRON MILLS. Pittsburgh, Pa., Manufacturers of improved
wrought iron Beams and Girders (patented).

The great fall which has taken place in the prices of Iron, and
especially in Beams used in the construction of FIRE PROOF BUILDINGS,
induces us to call the special attention of Engineers, Architects, and
Builders to the undoubted advantages of now erecting Fire Proof
structures; and by reference to pages 52 & 54 of our Book of
Sections--which will be sent on application to those contemplating the
erection of fire proof buildings--THE COST CAN BE ACCURATELY
CALCULATED, the cost of Insurance avoided, and the serious losses and
interruption to business caused by fire; these and like considerations
fully justify any additional first cost. It is believed, that, were
owners fully aware of the small difference which now exists between
the use of Wood and Iron, in many cases the latter would be adopted.
We shall be pleased to furnish estimates for all the Beams complete,
for any specific structure, so that the difference in cost may at once
be ascertained. Address

          CARNEGIE, BROS. & CO., Pittsburgh, Pa.

       *       *       *       *       *

Room 51, Coal and Iron Exchange, P. O. Box 3083, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: H. W. JOHNS'

Fire Proof Coatings, Cements, &c. SEND FOR DESCRIPTIVE PRICE LIST.


       *       *       *       *       *

$10 TO $1000 Invested in Wall St. Stocks makes fortunes every month.
Books sent free explaining everything.

Address BAXTER & CO., Bankers, 17 Wall St., N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *

The "Scientific American" is printed with CHAS. ENEU JOHNSON & CO.'S
INK. Tenth and Lombard Sts., Philadelphia, and 59 Gold St., New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


[Symbol: right Index] and [Symbol: Left index] are used where the text
had a picture of a hand with the index finger pointing right or left,

Table of Contents: Article named "Buffalo, the domestication of" page
197 was not included in the original.

Table of Contents: Article named "Steamship, ocean, large" page 196
was not included in the original.

Table of Contents: Article named "Specimen, a rare geological" page
196 was not included in the Table of Contents.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Scientific American, Volume 40, No. 13, March 29, 1879 - A Weekly Journal of Practical Information, Art, Science, - Mechanics, Chemistry, and Manufactures" ***

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