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Title: Tea Leaves - Being a Collection of Letters and Documents relating to - the shipment of Tea to the American Colonies in the year - 1773, by the East India Tea Company. (With an introduction, - notes, and biographical notices of the Boston Tea Party)
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Tea Leaves - Being a Collection of Letters and Documents relating to - the shipment of Tea to the American Colonies in the year - 1773, by the East India Tea Company. (With an introduction, - notes, and biographical notices of the Boston Tea Party)" ***

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public domain works from the University of Michigan Digital






  East India Tea Company








  Entered according to Act of Congress, at Washington, DC., 1884,
  By A.O. CRANE, Boston, Mass.

  Smith & Porter, Printers, Boston.


The collection of letters and documents which has occasioned the
preparation of the present volume, though it has been so long buried in
obscurity, appears to have been originally made with a view to
publication. It was for many years, and until his decease, in the
possession of Mr. Abel Bowen, a well-known engraver and publisher, of
Boston, sixty years ago, and was obtained by him from a person who
procured it in Halifax, N.S., whither many valuable papers, both public
and private, relating to New England, were carried, when in March, 1776,
the British and Tories evacuated Boston. It contains interesting
information relative to the tea troubles that preceded the American
Revolution, much of it new to students of that eventful period.

To the kindness of Mrs. Benjamin Phipps and Mrs. Charles G. Butts, of
Chelsea, daughters of Mr. Bowen, the publisher is indebted for
permission to make public this valuable contribution to American


When contemplating the publication of "Tea Leaves," we issued a
circular, stating our intention, and that, judging from the material
then in our possession, the book would contain about two hundred and
fifty pages, with six illustrations, three of them portraits.

We are happy to announce on the completion of the work, not only
fulfillment of our promises, but much that is additional thereto.
Included in its four hundred pages are twenty portraits, taken from
family paintings, (one-half never before published,) eight other
illustrations, fifty autographs, one hundred and twelve names of members
of the Tea Party, (fifty-eight more than have been heretofore publicly
known), and ninety-six biographies of the same.

Our circular called for a subscription book. All our paper-covered
copies have been subscribed for. The balance of the edition is nicely
bound in cloth, with embellished covers. Price, (as before), five

The publisher will welcome all new matter relating to the Tea question,
and will be especially grateful for any hitherto unpublished portraits.
Such material is desired for possible publication in a companion work to
"Tea Leaves."

All who desire the Portraits and Illustrations separate from this
volume, to be used in works on American history, can obtain them from
the Publisher.

In conclusion, we thank our friends who have kindly assisted us, and if
we have not given all credit by name, the neglect has been

                                         A.O. CRANE,

                                                2169 WASHINGTON ST.,

                                                          BOSTON, MASS.


Among the causes which led to the American Revolution, the one most
prominent in the popular judgment is the "tax on tea," imposed by Great
Britain on her American colonies. The destruction, in Boston harbor, in
December, 1773, of the cargoes of tea sent to that port by the East
India Company, was undoubtedly the proximate cause of that memorable
event, and in view of this fact, the occurrence,--"by far the most
momentous in the annals of the town," says the historian
Bancroft,--merits a more thorough and particular consideration than it
has yet received.

The silence necessarily preserved by the actors in this daring exploit,
respecting their connection with it, has rendered this part of the task
one of no little difficulty. Their secret was remarkably well kept; and
but for the family traditions which survive, we should know very little
of the men who composed the famous Boston tea party.

Nevertheless, the attempt to gather up the scattered fragments of
personal reminiscence and biography, in order to give a little more
completeness to this interesting chapter of our revolutionary history,
is here made. The fortunate recovery, by the publisher of this volume,
of the letters of the American consignees to the East India Company,
and other papers shedding light upon the transaction, affords material
aid in the accomplishment of our purpose.

       *       *       *       *       *

When King Charles II. had finished that first cup of tea ever brewed in
England,--the gift of the newly-created East India Company,--no sibyl
was at hand to peer into the monarch's cup and foretell from its dregs,
the dire disaster to his realm, hidden among those insignificant
particles. Could a vision of those battered tea chests, floating in
Boston harbor, with _tu doces_, in the legible handwriting of history,
inscribed upon them, have been disclosed to him, even that careless,
pleasure-loving prince would have been sobered by the lesson. It was
left for his successor, George III., who failed to read the handwriting
on the wall,--visible to all but the willfully blind,--to realize its
meaning in the dismemberment of an empire.

       *       *       *       *       *

A survey of the progress of the revolution up to the beginning of the
year 1773, will help us to understand the political situation. Ten years
of constant agitation had educated the people of the colonies to a clear
perception of their rights, and also to a knowledge that it was the
fixed purpose of the home government to deprive them of the one they
most valued, namely, that of being taxed with their own consent, through
their local assemblies, as had always been the custom, and not at the
arbitrary will of the British parliament--a body in which they were not
and could not be represented--three thousand miles away. The strange
thing about this is, that the people of Great Britain should not have
seen in the light of their own past history--what they have since seen
clearly enough--that the Americans were only contending for principles
for which their own ancestors had often fought, and which they had more
than once succeeded in wresting from the grasp of arbitrary and
tyrannical sovereigns.

Their difficulty seems to have been that they looked upon the Americans,
not as equals, but as inferiors, as their subjects, and as having no
rights that an Englishman was bound to respect. Even the celebrated
moralist, Dr. Johnson, could say of the Americans, "They are a race of
convicts, and ought to be thankful for anything we allow them short of
hanging." King George III., that obstinate but well-meaning monarch, and
his ministers, no doubt honestly believed that the republican tendencies
of the colonists endangered British supremacy. Perhaps they were right
in this, for it was the kind and degree of supremacy that was really in
question. But in entertaining the belief that these tendencies could be
eradicated at a blow, they were, as the event proved, grievously

Another moving cause for the new policy toward the colonies was the
heavy taxation at home,--a result of the late war. Some of this burden
they hoped to transfer from their own shoulders to those of their
transatlantic brethren.

       *       *       *       *       *

The stamp act of 1765, repealed in the year following, was in 1767,
succeeded by Charles Townshend's revenue acts, imposing duties on paper,
painters' colors, glass and tea. The Americans opposed this measure with
the only weapon at their command--the policy of non-importation. This
policy, while causing much inconvenience to themselves, yet helped them
materially in two ways. In the first place it stimulated home
manufactures, and accustomed the people to do without luxuries, and in
the second place by distressing British merchants and manufacturers, it
brought the united influence of these two powerful bodies to bear upon
parliament for a change in its policy.

The people of the colonies everywhere seconded the non-importation
movement, entering at once upon a course of rigid self-denial, and their
legislatures commended the scheme. An agreement, presented in the
Virginia House of Burgesses, by Washington, was signed by every member.
For more than a year, this powerful engine of retaliation waged war upon
British commerce, in a constitutional way, before ministers would listen
to petitions and remonstrances; and it was not until virtual rebellion
in the British capital, born of commercial distress, menaced the
ministry, that the expostulations of the Americans were noticed, except
with sneers. Early in the year 1770, the obnoxious act was repealed,
except as regarded tea. This item was retained in order that the right
of parliamentary taxation of the colonies might be upheld. The liberal
leaders of parliament did their best to prevent this exception, and the
subject was fully and ably discussed, but they were overruled.

Besides these acts, which had aroused in the colonies a sentiment of
union, and embodied an intelligent public opinion, there were others
which had contributed to the same result. Such were the royal
instructions by which, among other things, accused persons were to be
sent to England, for trial. Still another, was the publication of a
collection of letters from Governor Hutchinson, and other prominent
colonial officials, revealing their agency in instigating the obnoxious
measures. These and other aggravating causes had at length brought
about that, without which, no revolution can succeed,--organization.
Committees of correspondence, local and general, had been created, and
were now in full operation.

One thing more was essential to the success of the colonists,--union.
Instead of pulling different ways, as from a variety of causes they had
hitherto done, the different colonies must bring their combined efforts
to bear in order to effect the desired result. This was brought about by
the destruction of the tea in Boston harbor, and by the Boston port
bill, and other coercive measures, its immediate consequence.

The impolitic reservation of the duty on tea produced an association not
to drink it, and caused all the merchants, except a few in Boston, to
refuse its importation.

Three hundred women of Boston, heads of families, among them many of the
highest standing, had, as early as February, 1770, signed an agreement
not to drink any tea until the impost clause of the revenue acts was
repealed. The daughters of liberty, both north and south, did the same.
The young women of Boston followed the example of their mothers, and
subscribed to the following pledge:

    "We, the daughters of those patriots who have, and do now
    appear for the public interest, and in that principally
    regard their posterity, as such do with pleasure engage with
    them in denying ourselves the drinking of foreign tea, in
    hopes to frustrate a plan that tends to deprive a whole
    community of all that is valuable in life."

From this time forth tea was a proscribed beverage throughout the
colonies. "Balsamic hyperion," made from the dried leaves of the
raspberry plant; thyme, extensively used by the women of Connecticut;
and various other substitutes came into general use. The newspapers of
the day abound with details of social gatherings, in which foreign tea
was totally discarded. They also voiced the public abhorrence for it,
or what it represented, by applying to it all the objurgatory and
abusive epithets they could muster--and their vocabulary was by no means
limited--such as "detestable," "cruel," "villainous," "pernicious,"
"fatal," "devilish," "fiendish," etc.

Of course there were those who would not deny themselves the use of
tea,--drinking it clandestinely in garrets, or preparing it in
coffee-pots to deceive the eye, resorting to any subterfuge in order to
indulge in the use of their favorite beverage. These people, when found
out, did not fail to receive the condemnation of the patriotic men and
women, who, from principle, abstained. There was still a considerable
consumption of tea in America, as the article could be obtained more
cheaply from Holland than from the English East India Company, and on
arrival here could easily be smuggled ashore. It was supposed that of
the three millions of inhabitants of the colonies, one-third drank tea
twice a day, Bohea being the kind preferred; and it was estimated that
the annual consumption, in Massachusetts alone, was two thousand four
hundred chests, some eight hundred thousand pounds.

Tea continued to arrive in Boston, but as no one would risk its sale, it
was stored. The "Boston Gazette," in April, 1770, said: "There is not
above one seller of tea in town who has not signed an agreement not to
dispose of any tea until the late revenue acts are repealed."

John Hancock offered one of his vessels, free of charge, to re-ship the
tea then stored in Boston. His offer was accepted, and a cargo
despatched to London. So strict was the watch kept upon the traders,
that many of those suspected of illicit dealings in tea, among whom was
Hancock himself, found it convenient to publish cards declaring their
innocence. Governor Hutchinson wrote at this time (April, 1770,) to Lord
Hillsborough, the English secretary, "That the importers pleaded that
they should be utterly ruined by this combination, but the Boston
zealots had no bowels, and gave for answer, 'that if a ship was to bring
us the plague, nobody would doubt what was necessary to be done with
her;' but the present case is much worse than that." Theophilus Lillie,
who was selling tea contrary to the agreement, found, one morning, a
post planted before his door, upon which was a carved head, with the
names of some tea importers on it, and underneath, a hand pointing
towards his shop. One of his neighbors, an informer, named Richardson,
asked a countryman to break the post down with his cart. A crowd
gathered, and boys threw stones and chased Richardson to his house. He
fired into them with a shotgun, and killed a German lad of eleven years,
named Snider. At his funeral, five hundred children walked in front of
the bier; six of his school-fellows held the pall, and a large
procession moved from liberty tree to the town-house, and thence to the
burying-place. This exciting affair, preceded by a few days only, the
memorable "Boston massacre" of March 5, 1770.

       *       *       *       *       *

The application of the East India Company to the British government for
relief from pecuniary embarrassment, occasioned by the great falling off
in its American tea trade, afforded the ministry just the opportunity it
desired to fasten taxation upon the American colonies. The company asked
permission to export tea to British America, free of duty, offering to
allow government to retain sixpence per pound, as an exportation tariff,
if they would take off the three per cent. duty, in America. This gave
an opportunity for conciliating the colonies in an honorable way, and
also to procure double the amount of revenue. But no! under the existing
coercive policy, this request was of course inadmissible. At this time
the company had in its warehouses upwards of seventeen millions of
pounds, in addition to which the importations of the current year were
expected to be larger than usual. To such a strait was it reduced, that
it could neither pay its dividends nor its debts.

By an act of parliament, passed on May 10, 1773, "with little debate and
no opposition," the company, on exportation of its teas to America, was
allowed a drawback of the full amount of English duties, binding itself
only to pay the threepence duty, on its being landed in the English

In accordance with this act, the lords-commissioners of the treasury
gave the company a license (August 20, 1773,) for the exportation of six
hundred thousand pounds, which were to be sent to Boston, New York,
Philadelphia and Charleston, S.C., the principal American ports. As soon
as this became known, applications were made to the directors by a
number of merchants in the colonial trade, soliciting a share of what
promised to be a very profitable business. The establishment of a branch
East India house, in a central part of America, whence the tea could be
distributed to other points, was suggested. The plan finally adopted was
to bestow the agency on merchants, in good repute, in the colonies, who
were friendly to the administration, and who could give satisfactory
security, or obtain the guaranty of London houses.

The company and its agents viewed this matter solely in a commercial
light. No one supposed that the Americans would oppose the measure on
the ground of abstract principle. The only doubt was as to whether the
company could, merely with the threepenny duty, compete successfully
with the smugglers, who brought tea from Holland. It was hoped they
might, and that the difference would not compensate for the risk in
smuggling. But the Americans at once saw through the scheme, and that
its success would be fatal to their liberties.

The new tea act, by again raising the question of general taxation,
diverted attention from local issues, and concentrated it upon one which
had been already fully discussed, and on which the popular verdict had
been definitely made up. Right and justice were clearly on their side.
It was not that they were poor and unable to pay, but because they would
not submit to wrong. The amount of the tax was paltry, and had never
been in question. Their case was not--as in most revolutions--that of a
people who rose against real and palpable oppression. It was an abstract
principle alone for which they contended. They were prosperous and
happy. It was upon a community, at the very height of its prosperity,
that this insidious scheme suddenly fell, and it immediately aroused a
more general opposition than had been created by the stamp act. "The
measure," says the judicious English historian, Massey, "was beneficial
to the colonies; but when was a people engaged in a generous struggle
for freedom, deviated by an insidious attempt to practice on their
selfish interests?"

"The ministry believe," wrote Franklin, "that threepence on a pound of
tea, of which one does not perhaps drink ten pounds a year, is
sufficient to overcome all the patriotism of an American." The measure
gave universal offence, not only as the enforcement of taxation, but as
an odious monopoly of trade. To the warning of Americans that their
adventure would end in loss, and to the scruples of the company, Lord
North answered peremptorily, "It is to no purpose making objections, the
king will have it so. The king means to try the question with America."
How absurd was this assertion of prerogative, and how weak the
government, was seen when on the first forcible resistance to his plans,
the king was compelled to apply to the petty German states for soldiers.
Lord North believed that no difficulty could arise, as America, under
the new regulation, would be able to buy tea[1] from the company at a
lower price than from any other European nation, and that buyers would
always go to the cheapest market.

Before receiving intelligence of the passage of the new act, in the summer
of 1773, political agitation in the colonies had in great measure
subsided. The ministry had abandoned its design of transporting Americans
to England for trial; the people were prosperous; loyal to the king;
considered themselves as fellow subjects with Britons, and indignantly
repelled the idea of severing their political connection. The king,
however, was obstinately bent upon maintaining the supreme authority of
parliament to make laws binding on the colonies "in all cases whatsoever."
He was unfortunate in having for his chief adviser, Lord North, who sought
to please the king even against his own better judgment. He was still more
unfortunate in North's colleagues,--Mansfield, Sandwich, Germaine,
Wedderburne and Thurlow,--violent or corrupt men, wholly unfit for the
grave responsibilities they had assumed.

Governor Hutchinson[2] asserts that "when the intelligence first came to
Boston it caused no alarm. The threepenny duty had been paid the last
two years without any stir, and some of the great friends to liberty had
been importers of tea. The body of the people were pleased with the
prospect of drinking tea at less expense than ever. The only apparent
discontent was among the importers of tea, as well those who had been
legal importers from England, as others who had illegally imported from
Holland, and the complaint was against the East India Company for
monopolizing a branch of commerce which had been beneficial to a great
number of merchants."

The circular-letter of the Massachusetts Committee of Correspondence of
October 21, 1773,--by which time the public sentiment against the new
regulation had been thoroughly aroused,--said of it: "It is easy to see
how aptly this scheme will serve both to destroy the trade of the
colonies and increase the revenue. How necessary then it is that each
colony should take effectual methods to prevent this measure from having
its designed effects."

One of the Boston consignees writing to London, says, under date of 18th
October: "But what difficulties may arise from the disaffection of the
merchants and importers of tea to this measure of the East India
Company, I am not yet able to say. It seems at present to be a matter of
much speculation, and if one is to credit the prints, no small
opposition will be made thereto.... My friends seem to think it will
subside; others are of a contrary opinion." Another, under date of
October 30th, gives it as his opinion that the uneasiness is fomented,
if not originated, by persons concerned in the Holland trade, a trade
which, he is informed, is much more practiced in the Southern
governments than here.

In a letter dated New York, November 5th, Abraham Lott, one of the New
York consignees, says, that if the tea arrives subject to duty, "there
will be no such thing as selling it, as the people would rather buy so
much poison, as they say it is calculated to enslave them and their
posterity, and are therefore determined not to take what they call the
nauseous draught." The tenor of these letters and of the American
newspapers, must have given the British public an inkling of what was to

It was thought by all the colonies that this was the precise point of
time when it was absolutely necessary to make a stand, and that all
opposition to parliamentary taxation must be for ever given up, if this
critical moment was neglected. The only practical way open to defeat the
measure seemed to be through popular demonstrations.

The press now became more active than ever in its political discussions.
As to the mode of payment of the tea duty, it said: "We know that on a
certificate of its being landed here, the tribute is, by agreement, to
be paid in London. The landing, therefore, is the point in view, and
every nerve will be strained to obtain it." It was asked in New York,
"are the Americans such blockheads as to care whether it be a hot red
poker, or a red hot poker which they are to swallow, provided Lord North
forces them to swallow one of the two?"

"All America is in a flame on account of the tea exportation," wrote a
British officer at New York to a friend in London. "The New Yorkers, as
well as the Bostonians and Philadelphians, it seems, are determined that
no tea shall be landed. They have published a paper in numbers called
the 'Alarm.' It begins, 'Dear countrymen,' and goes on exhorting them to
open their eyes, and then, like sons of liberty, throw off all
connection with the tyrant--the mother country.' They have on this
occasion raised a company of artillery, and every day almost, are
practicing at a target. Their independent companies are out, and
exercise every day. The minds of the townspeople are influenced by the
example of some of their principals. They swear that they will burn
every tea-ship that comes in; but I believe that our six and twelve
pounders, with the Royal Welch Fusileers, will prevent anything of that

Philadelphia, the largest town in the colonies, led off in the work of
opposing the plans of the home government. In a handbill signed
"Scævola," circulated there, with the heading, "By uniting we stand, by
dividing we fall," the factors appointed, by the East India Company were
characterized as "political bombardiers to demolish the fair structure
of liberty;" and it was said that all eyes were fixed on them, and they
were urged to refuse to act.

At a large meeting held at the State House on October 18, resolutions
were passed declaring that the duty on tea was a tax imposed on the
colonists without their consent, and tended to render assemblies
useless; that the shipment by the East India Company was an attempt to
enforce the tax, and that every one who should be concerned in the
unloading, receiving or vending the tea, was an enemy to his country. In
accordance with one of the resolutions of the meeting, a committee was
appointed to wait on the consignees in that city, to request them, from
regard to their own characters and the public peace, and good order of
the city and Province, immediately to resign their appointment. The
Messrs. Wharton gave a satisfactory answer, which was received with
shouts of applause. Groans and hisses greeted the refusal of another
firm to commit themselves, until the tea arrived. So general and so
commanding was the movement, however, that in a few days they also
resigned. "Be assured," wrote Thomas Wharton, one of the consignees,
"this was as respectable a body of inhabitants as has been together on
any occasion, many of the first rank. Their proceedings were conducted
with the greatest decency and firmness, and without one dissentient

A few days after the action of Philadelphia, a meeting was held at the
city hall, New York, (October 26,) when the tea consignees were
denounced, and the attempted monopoly of trade was stigmatized as a
"public robbery." The press was active, and handbills were circulated
freely among the people. A series of these called the "Alarm," has been
already mentioned. "If you touch one grain of the accursed tea you are
undone," was the sentiment it conveyed. "America is threatened with
worse than Egyptian slavery.... The language of the revenue act is, that
you have no property you can call your own, that you are the vassals,
the live stock, of Great Britain." Such were the bold utterances of the
New Yorkers. Within three weeks the New York agents withdrew from the
field. It was thereupon announced that government would take charge of
the tea upon its arrival.

The New York Sons of Liberty at once reorganized; owners and occupants
of stores were warned against harboring the tea, and all who bought,
sold or handled it, were threatened as enemies to the country. Handbills
were issued, notifying the "Mohawks" to hold themselves in readiness for
active work. At the very moment when the tea was being destroyed in
Boston, handbills were circulating in New York calling a meeting of "all
friends to the liberties and trade of America," for one o'clock the next
day, at the city hall, "on business of the utmost importance."

John Lamb, one of the most active of the Sons of Liberty of New York,
afterwards a colonel of artillery in the Revolutionary army, was the
speaker at the meeting, and the large assembly unanimously voted that
the tea should not be landed. The governor sent a message to the people
by the mayor, engaging upon his honor that the tea should not be sold,
but should remain in the barracks until the council advised to the
delivery of it, or orders were received from England how to dispose of
it, and that it should be delivered in an open manner at noon-day. The
mayor having asked if the proposals were satisfactory, there was a
general cry of "no! no!" The people were at length quieted with the
assurance that the ship should be sent back.

It was at Boston, the ringleader in rebellion, that the issue was to be
tried. It was then the most flourishing commercial town on the
continent, and contained a population of about sixteen thousand, almost
exclusively of English origin. Though there were no sidewalks in the
town, and, except when driven aside by carts or carriages, every one
walked in the middle of the street, "where the pavement was the
smoothest," an English visitor had twenty years before pronounced it to
be, "as large and better built than Bristol, or any other city in
England except London." The only land communication between Boston and
the surrounding towns at that period, was by way of the narrow neck at
its southern extremity. Her inhabitants were industrious, frugal and
enterprising, and were equally distinguished for their pertinacity and
independence. They were nearly all of the same church, and were strict
in the observance of Sunday. Though many had acquired a competence, few
were very rich or very poor, and their style of living had little
diversity. In her free schools all were taught to read and write. A
score of enterprising booksellers, among them Henry Knox, imported into
the colony all the standard books on law, politics, history and
theology, while a free press and town meetings instructed her citizens
in political affairs. Her mechanics, many of whom were ship-builders,
were active in all town meetings. Ever jealous of her rights, she had
grown up in their habitual exercise, and was early and strenuous in her
opposition to the claims of parliamentary supremacy. Even her divines,
many of whom were distinguished by their learning and eloquence, gave
the sanction of religion to the cause of freedom. For these reasons
Boston was the fittest theatre for the decisive settlement of the grave
question at issue.

Two men of very different metal were especially prominent in Boston at
this time,--Thomas Hutchinson, the royal governor, and Samuel Adams, the
man of the people. Both were natives of the town, and graduates of
Harvard College. Hutchinson, during a public life of over thirty years,
had held the offices of representative, councillor, chief justice and
lieutenant-governor. No man was so experienced in the affairs of the
colony, no one so familiar with its history, usages and laws. As a
legislator and as a judge he had manifested ability and impartiality.

Unfortunately for his peace of mind, and for his reputation, he set
himself squarely against the popular movement. He advised altering the
charters of the New England provinces; the dismemberment of
Massachusetts; the establishment of a citadel in Boston; the stationing
of a fleet in its harbor; the experiment of martial law; the
transportation of "incendiaries" to England, and the prohibition of the
New England fisheries, at the same time entreating of his correspondents
in England to keep his opinions secret.

For these errors of judgment he paid dearly in the obloquy heaped upon
him by his countrymen, and his exile from his native land, in which he
earnestly desired that his bones might be laid. The recent publication
of his diary and letters shows that he not only acted honestly and
conscientiously in opposing the popular current, but that he, at the
same time, used his influence to mitigate the severe measures of
government. He counselled them against the stamp act; against closing
the port of Boston, and against some features of the regulating act, as
too harsh and impolitic. It was his sincere wish that his countrymen
would admit the supremacy of parliament, and he believed that such a
result could be attained without bloodshed. He was courteously received
in England,--where his course was very generally approved,--and offered
a baronetcy, which, however, he declined on the score of the
insufficiency of his estate. His judgment in American affairs, though
often sought by the ministry, seems to have been seldom followed. Candor
requires that in the light of his letters and diary, in which his real
sentiments appear, the harsh judgment usually passed upon Hutchinson,
should be materially modified.

His opponent, Samuel Adams, the great agitator, possessed precisely
those qualities that the times required. His political creed was, that
the colonies and England had a common king, but separate and independent
legislatures, and as early as the year 1769, he had been a zealous
advocate of independence. He was the organizer of the Revolution,
through the committees of correspondence, which he initiated, and was
one of those who matured the plan of a general congress. A genuine lover
of liberty, he believed in the capacity of the Americans for
self-government. It was Samuel Adams who, the day after the "massacre"
of March 5, 1770, was chosen chairman of the committee, to demand of the
governor the immediate removal of the troops from the town of Boston.
The stern and inflexible patriot clearly exposed the fallacy of
Hutchinson's reply to the demand, and compelled the governor to yield.
No flattery could lull his vigilance, no sophistry deceive his
penetration. Difficulties did not discourage, nor danger appall him.
Though poor, he possessed a lofty and incorruptible spirit, and though
grave and austere in manner, was warm in his feelings. His affable and
persuasive address, reconciled conflicting interests, and promoted
harmonious action. As a speaker he was pure, concise, logical and
impressive, and the energy of his diction was not inferior to the depth
of his mind. As a political writer he was clear and convincing, and was
the author of able state papers. No man had equal influence over the
popular mind with Samuel Adams, who has been aptly styled, "the last of
the Puritans."

At Boston, where the feeling against receiving the tea was strongest,
the consignees were, "by a singular infelicity," either relatives of the
hated governor, or in sympathy with the odious administration. Two of
them were his sons. Richard Clarke was his nephew. One of Clarke's
daughters married Copley, the painter, and became the mother of Lord
Lyndhurst, the future lord-chancellor of England. Benjamin Faneuil and
Joshua Winslow were respectable merchants. All but Faneuil were
connected by marriage. They were well aware of the temper of the people,
and of the proceedings in Philadelphia and New York; and would doubtless
have yielded to the popular demands, but for Hutchinson. Public
sentiment was stimulated against them by representing them as crown
officers, whereas they were only factors. They were thus put upon the
footing of the obnoxious stamp officers.

       *       *       *       *       *

The North End Caucus,[3] composed mostly of mechanics, met frequently to
consider what should be done, and voted (October 23d,) that they would
oppose with their lives and fortunes, the vending of any tea that might
be sent to the town for sale by the East India Company. "We were so
careful," says Paul Revere, "that our meetings should be kept secret,
that every time we met, every person swore upon the Bible not to
discover any of our transactions, but to Hancock, Warren or Church, and
one or two more leaders."

The Caucus and the Long-Room Club were local organizations, and were all
included in the larger and more important one, known as "The Sons of
Liberty." This association pervaded nearly all the colonies. It was
first known in Boston as the "Union Club," and gained its later name
from the phrase employed in the British parliament by Col. Barré, in his
famous speech. It was formed in 1765, soon after the passage of the
stamp act, and had among its members most of the leading patriots of the
day. Their organization was secret, with private pass-words, to protect
them from Tory spies. On public occasions, each member wore, suspended
from his neck, a medal, on one side of which was the figure of a
stalwart arm, grasping in its hand a pole, surmounted with a cap of
liberty, and surrounded by the words, "Sons of Liberty." On the reverse
was a representation of Liberty Tree. It was under this tree, in the
open space known as "Liberty Hall,"--at the junction of Newbury, Orange
and Essex Streets,--that their public meetings in Boston were held.

The Sons of Liberty issued warrants for the arrest of suspected persons;
arranged in secret caucus the preliminaries of elections, and the
programme for public celebrations; and in fact were the mainspring,
under the guidance of the popular leaders, of every public demonstration
against the government. In Boston they probably numbered about three
hundred. The 14th of August,--the anniversary of the repeal of the stamp
act,--was celebrated by them for several years, with grand display and

Under date of January 15, 1766, John Adams says, in his diary: "I spent
the evening with the Sons of Liberty, at their own apartment, in Hanover
Square, near the Tree of Liberty. It is a counting-room, in Chase &
Speakman's distillery; a very small room it is. There were present, John
Avery, a distiller, of liberal education; John Smith, the brazier;
Thomas Crafts,[4] the painter; Benjamin Edes,[5] the printer; Stephen
Cleverly, brazier; Thomas Chase, distiller; Joseph Fields, master of a
vessel; Henry Bass; George Trott, jeweller; and Henry Welles. I was very
cordially and respectfully treated by all present. We had punch, wine,
pipes and tobacco, biscuit and cheese, etc. They chose a committee to
make preparations for grand rejoicings upon the arrival of the news of a
repeal of the stamp act." The counting-room of which Adams speaks,
could, from its small size, have been the committee-room of the body

Governor Bernard wished to send some of the leading Sons of Liberty to
England, for trial, but did not dare do so. New York was the centre of
the organization, to which all communications from the other colonies
were sent. A correspondent in London kept them informed of the
proceedings and designs of the British ministry.

       *       *       *       *       *

At one o'clock in the morning of the 2d of November, 1773, the
consignees were aroused from their slumbers by a violent knocking at
their doors, and a summons was left for them to appear at Liberty Tree
on the following Wednesday, to resign their commissions; and not to fail
at their peril. A handbill was, at the same time, posted about the town,
notifying the people of Boston and the vicinity to be present at the
same time and place, to witness their resignation.

[Illustration: Signature, Benjamin Church]

On the appointed day, a large flag was hung out at Liberty Tree. The
public crier announced the meeting, at the top of his voice, and the
church bells, were rung for an hour. At noon, five hundred persons
assembled. Samuel Adams, John Hancock and William Phillips,
representatives of Boston, were present, with William Cooper,--the
patriotic town clerk,--and the board of selectmen. The consignees
failing to appear, a committee, consisting of William Molineux, William
Dennie, Dr. Joseph Warren, Dr. Benjamin Church,[6] Henderson Inches,
Edward Proctor, Nathaniel Barber, Gabriel Johonnot,[7] and Ezekiel
Cheever, waited on them at Clarke's warehouse, at the foot of King (now
State) Street, where they, together with a number of their friends, had
assembled. As they passed the town house, still standing at the head of
this street, Hutchinson, who saw the procession, says that "the
committee were attended by a large body of the people, many of them not
of the lowest rank."

[Illustration: Signature, Henderson Inches]

Molineux was the spokesman. "From whom are you a committee?" asked
Clarke. "From the whole people," was the reply. "Who are the committee?"
"I am one," said Molineux, and he named the rest. "What is your
request?" "That you give us your word to sell none of the teas in your
charge, but return them to London in the same bottoms in which they were
shipped. Will you comply?" "I shall have nothing to do with you," was
the rough and peremptory reply, in which the other consignees, who were
present, concurred. Molineux then read the resolve, passed at Liberty
Tree, declaring that those who should refuse to comply with the request
of the people, were "enemies to their country," and should be dealt with

When the committee reported the result to the crowd outside, the cry was
raised, "Out with them! out with them!" Those within attempted to close
the doors; but the people unhinged them, and carried them off. Justice
Nathaniel Hatch, who, in the king's name, now commanded the peace, was
hooted at and struck, when the people were persuaded to desist. The
committee returned to Liberty Tree, where they reported to the meeting,
which quietly dispersed. Of those composing this gathering, the
consignees wrote to the East India Company, as follows: "They consisted
chiefly of people of the lowest rank; very few respectable tradesmen, as
we are informed, appeared amongst them. The selectmen say they were
present to prevent disorder." There can be little doubt that the
political assemblies of that day, as do those at the present time,
fairly represented the body of the people. The mechanics of Boston,
whatever their rank in the social scale, were the active patriots of the
revolutionary period.

The Sons of Liberty having failed, and the Tories asserting that the
meeting at Liberty Tree was irregular, petitioners for a town meeting
declared that the people were alarmed at a report that the tea had been
shipped to America, and feared that the tribute would be exacted, and
that the liberties, for which they had so long contended, would be lost
to them and their posterity. A meeting was therefore called by the
selectmen for the next day, at ten o'clock in the forenoon.

That night a threatening letter was placed under the door of Mr.
Faneuil, one of the consignees, warning them that a much longer delay in
complying, would not fail to bring upon them "the just reward of their
avarice and insolence."

The town meeting, held on the 5th of November, was fully attended, and
was presided over by John Hancock. After due consideration, it adopted
the resolves of the Philadelphians of October 18, declaring that freemen
have an inherent right to dispose of their property; that the tea tax
was a mode of levying contributions on them without their consent; that
its purpose tended to render assemblies useless, and to introduce
arbitrary government; that a steady opposition to this ministerial plan
was a duty which every freeman owed to his country, to himself, and to
his posterity; that the East India Company's importation was an open
attempt to enforce this plan; and that whoever countenanced the
unloading, vending or receiving the tea, was an enemy to his country. A
committee, consisting of the moderator, Henderson Inches, Benjamin
Austin, and the selectmen of the town, were chosen to wait on the
consignees and request them, from a regard to their own characters, and
the peace and good of the town and province, immediately to resign their

At this meeting, a Tory handbill, called the "Tradesmen's Protest,"
against the proceedings of the merchants on the subject of tea
importation, was introduced. After the reading, without comment, the
tradesmen present were desired to collect themselves at the south side
of the hall, where the question was put whether they acknowledged the
"Tradesmen's Protest," and the whole, amounting to at least four
hundred, voted in the negative. The paper, its printer, and those who
circulated it, were denounced as base, false and scandalous. This gave a
finishing blow to the "Protest," of which nothing more was heard.

After voting that it was the just expectation of the town that no one of
its merchants should, under any pretext whatever, import any tea liable
to duty, the meeting adjourned until three o'clock.

[Illustration: Signature, Joseph Warren]

At that hour there was again a full assembly. The committee reported
that they had communicated the resolves of the town to the Messrs.
Clarke and Mr. Faneuil, who informed them that they must consult Thomas
and Elisha Hutchinson, the other consignees, who were at Milton, and
could not give an answer until the following Monday. Samuel Adams,
Joseph Warren, and Molineux were then desired to acquaint Messrs. Clarke
and Faneuil, that the town expected an immediate answer from them. This
was very soon received, and pronounced unsatisfactory, by a unanimous
vote. John Hancock, John Pitts, Samuel Adams, Samuel Abbott, Joseph
Warren, William Powell, and Nathaniel Appleton,[8] were chosen a
committee to wait on the Hutchinsons, and request an immediate
resignation, and the meeting adjourned until the next day.

On Saturday, Faneuil Hall was again crowded. The committee reported that
it could not find Elisha Hutchinson, either at Milton or Boston. Thomas
Hutchinson, Jr., informed them, in a letter, that when he and his
brother were appointed factors, and the tea arrived, they would be
sufficiently informed to answer the request of the inhabitants.

This reply stirred up some of the hot blood in the assembly, and a cry
of "to arms! to arms!" was received with applause and clapping of hands.
Discretion, as usual, prevailed, and the meeting voted that the replies
were "daringly affrontive" to the town, and then dissolved. The governor
tried to collect evidence of the inflammatory speeches that had been
made, but could find no person willing to give it.

A quiet week followed. The tea-ships were nearing the harbor, and the
journals were filled with political essays generally, strong, well put,
and elevating in tone. Locke, in the "Boston Gazette," said: "It will be
considered by Americans whether the _dernier ressort_, and only asylum
for their liberties, is not an American Commonwealth." It was evident to
the leaders on both sides, that a crisis was at hand. Hutchinson foresaw
that this "would prove a more difficult affair than any which had
preceded it;" and in his letters admits that the mass of the people
acted in the conviction that their rights were invaded. Believing the
supremacy of parliament was in issue, he determined, though standing
almost alone, and in opposition to the advice of his political friends,
to make no concession. In a letter written at this period, to Lord
Dartmouth, Secretary for the Colonies, he describes, with minuteness,
the state of political affairs. He says:

    ... "At present, the spirits of the people in the town of
    Boston are in a great ferment. Everything that has been in
    my power, without the Council, I have done, and continue to
    do, for the preservation of the peace and good order of the
    town. If I had the aid, which I think the Council might
    give, my endeavors would be more effective. They profess to
    disapprove of the tumultuous, violent proceedings of the
    people, but they wish to see the professed end of the people
    in such proceedings attained in the regular way; and,
    instead of joining with me in proper measures to discourage
    an opposition to the landing of the teas expected, one and
    another of the gentlemen, of the greatest influence,
    intimate that the best thing that can be done to quiet the
    people, would be the refusal of the gentlemen to whom the
    teas are consigned, to execute the trust; and they declare
    they would do it if it was their case, and would advise all
    their connexions to do it. Nor will they ever countenance a
    measure which shall tend to carry into execution an act of
    parliament which lays taxes upon the colonies, for the
    purpose of a revenue. The same principle prevails with by
    far the greater part of the merchants who, though in general
    they declare against mobs and violence, yet they as
    generally wish the tea may not be imported. The persons to
    whom the teas are consigned, declare that whilst they can be
    protected from violence to their persons, they will not give
    way to the unreasonable demands which have been made of
    them. I wish the vessels bound to New York may arrive before
    those designed to this Province. Governor Tryon I know to be
    well disposed to do his duty, and the people there are less
    disposed to any violent proceedings, as I have reason to
    think, than they are here, and an example of peace and good
    order there may have its influence here."

Samuel Adams, Hancock, Warren, Molineux and Young, the most prominent of
the popular leaders, apprehended fully the responsibilities of the hour.
They had a great principle to maintain, and the courage to uphold it.
They knew that, though the people were with them, the failure to obtain
the resignation of the consignees had inspired doubt in other quarters,
as to whether Boston would meet the expectations of the patriots of
other colonies. To such as questioned whether it was not premature to
push matters to extremities, they replied, that if fidelity to the
common cause was likely to bring on a quarrel with Great Britain, this
was the best time for it to come. "Our credit," they said, "is at stake;
we must venture, and unless we do, we shall be discarded by the Sons of
Liberty in the other colonies, whose assistance we may expect, upon
emergencies, in case they find us steady, resolute and faithful." With
men like these "to the fore," though independence was scarcely dreamed
of, revolution was a foregone conclusion.

Thomas Mifflin, an active patriot of Philadelphia, subsequently a
general, and governor of Pennsylvania, when in Boston, said to some of
these men, "will you engage that the tea shall not be landed? if so, I
will answer for Philadelphia." And they pledged their honor that its
landing should be prevented.

On November 11, Hutchinson issued the following order:

    "Massachusetts Bay. By the Governor.

    To Colonel John Hancock, Captain of the Governor's Company
    of Cadets, &c.

    The Cadet company, under your command, having signalized
    itself heretofore upon a very necessary occasion, and the
    late tumultuous proceedings in the town of Boston requiring
    that more than usual caution should be taken at this time
    for the preservation of the peace, I think it proper that
    you should forthwith summon each person belonging to the
    company to be ready, and to appear in arms at such place of
    parade as you think fit, whensoever there may be a
    tumultuous assembly of the people, in violation of the laws,
    in order to their being aiding and assisting to the civil
    magistrate as occasion may require."

This company, which was immediately under the governor's orders, had
been of service during the stamp act riots, and had often been
complimented for its discipline. The evident intent of this order, to
use military force to suppress public assemblages, and the stationing of
companies of British troops in the neighboring towns, augmented the
uneasiness already felt. There was now, besides the soldiers at the
castle, a considerable naval force in the harbor, under Admiral John

       *       *       *       *       *

On the morning of November 17, a little party of family friends had
assembled at the house of Richard Clarke, Esq., known as the "Cooke
House," near the King's Chapel, on School Street, to welcome young
Jonathan Clarke, who had just arrived from London. All at once the
inmates of the dwelling were startled by a violent beating at the door,
accompanied with shouts and the blowing of horns, creating considerable
alarm. The ladies were hastily bestowed in places of safety, while the
gentlemen secured the avenues of the lower story, as well as they were
able. The yard and vicinity were soon filled with people. One of the
inmates warned them, from an upper window, to disperse, but getting no
other reply than a shower of stones, he discharged a pistol. Then came a
shower of missiles, which broke in the lower windows, and damaged some
of the furniture. Influential patriots had by this time arrived, and put
a stop to the proceedings, and the mob quietly dispersed. The consignees
now called on the governor and council for protection.

During the day, an arrival from London brought the news that three
ships, having the East India Company's tea on board, had sailed for
Boston, and that others had cleared for Philadelphia.

A petition for a town meeting was at once presented to the selectmen,
representing that the teas were shortly expected, and that it was
apprehended that the consignees might now be sufficiently informed on
the terms of its consignment, to be able to give their promised answer
to the town. A meeting was therefore appointed for the next day.

John Hancock was the moderator of the last town meeting, in which public
sentiment was legally brought to bear upon the consignees. It was held
on the 18th. The meeting was quiet and orderly, and its business was
speedily transacted.

A committee was appointed to wait on the consignees for a final answer
to the request of the town, that they resign their appointment. This was
their reply:

    "BOSTON, November 18, 1773.

    Sir,--In answer to the message we have this day received
    from the town, we beg leave to say that we have not yet
    received any order from the East India Company respecting
    the expected teas, but we are now further acquainted that
    our friends in England have entered into general engagements
    in our behalf, merely of a commercial nature, which puts it
    out of our power to comply with the request of the town.

    We are, sir, your most humble servants,

                                RICHARD CLARKE & SONS,
                                BENJ. FANEUIL, JR., for self and
                                  JOSHUA WINSLOW, Esq.,
                                ELISHA HUTCHINSON, for my
                                  Brother and self."

Immediately on receiving this answer, the meeting, without vote or
comment, dissolved. "This sudden dissolution struck more terror into the
consignees," says Hutchinson, "than the most minatory resolves;" and but
for his efforts, they would have followed the example of those of
Philadelphia, who had resigned six weeks before.

Next day (November 19), the consignees, in a petition to the governor
and council, asked leave to resign themselves, and the property
committed to their care, to his Excellency and their Honors, as
guardians and protectors of the people, and that means might be devised
for the landing and securing the teas, until the petitioners could
safely dispose of them, or could receive directions from their
constituents. Their action was the cause of much comment in the
newspapers, and debate in the council. It was urged in opposition to the
scheme, that it was no part of the legitimate functions of this body to
act as trustees and storekeepers for certain factors of the East India

In a letter to a friend, dated November 24, Hutchinson thus expresses
his views of the situation. He says:

    "When I saw the inhabitants of the town of Boston, assembled
    under color of law, and heard of the open declaration that
    we are now in a state of nature, and that we have a right to
    take up arms; and when in a town meeting, as I am informed,
    a call to arms was received with clapping and general
    applause; when a tumultuous assembly of people can, from
    time to time, attack the persons and the property of the
    king's subjects; and when assemblies are tolerated from
    night to night, in the public town hall; to counsel and
    determine upon further unlawful measures, and dark proposals
    and resolutions are made and agreed to there; when the
    infection is industriously spreading and the neighboring
    towns not only join their committees with the committee of
    Boston, but are assembled in town meetings to approve of the
    doings of the town of Boston; and, above all, when upon
    repeated summoning of the Council, they put off any advice
    to me from time to time, and I am obliged to consent to it,
    because all the voices there, as far as they declare their
    minds, I have reason to fear, would rather confirm than
    discourage the people in their irregular proceedings,--under
    all these circumstances, I think it time to deliberate
    whether his majesty's service does not call me to retire to
    the castle, where I may, with safety to my person, more
    freely give my sense of the criminality of these proceedings
    than whilst I am in the hands of the people, some of whom,
    and those most active, don't scruple to declare their
    designs against me."

And he concludes this doleful story with the question, "What am I in
duty bound to do?" His position was certainly a very uncomfortable one.

Frequent conferences with the consignees were held by the selectmen of
Boston. "Though we labored night and day in the affair, all our efforts
could not produce an agreement between them and the town." So wrote
John Scollay,[9] chairman of the Board of Selectmen, who also informs
us, in a letter written December 23, that there was a way by which the
consignees might have avoided trouble. "Had they," writes he, "on the
terms of first application to them, offered to have stored the tea,
subject to the inspection of a committee of gentlemen, till they could
write their principals, and until that time (agreed that) no duty should
be paid,--which no doubt the customs officers would have consented
to,--I am persuaded the town would have closed with them."

The selectmen told the consignees plainly that nothing less than sending
the tea back to England would satisfy the people. Some of their Tory
friends also urged them to arrange matters in this way, but they would
only agree (Nov. 27) that nothing should be done in a clandestine way;
that the vessels should come up to the wharves, and that when they
received the orders that accompanied the teas, they would hand in
proposals to the selectmen, to be laid before the town. They meant only
to gain time. They were determined to make the issue with the popular
leaders on this question. They were backed by the governor and the
influential Tories, and no doubt believed that they could carry their

On Monday, the 22d, the committees of correspondence of Dorchester,
Brookline, Roxbury and Cambridge, met the Boston committee at the
selectmen's chamber, Faneuil Hall.

They resolved unanimously to use their joint influence to prevent the
landing and sale of the teas; prepared a letter to be sent to the other
towns, representing that they were reduced to the dilemma, either to sit
down in quiet, under this and every burden that might be put upon them,
or to rise up in resistance, as became freemen; to impress the absolute
necessity of making immediate and effectual opposition to the detestable
measure, and soliciting their advice and co-operation. Charlestown was
"so zealous in the cause," that its committee was added to the others.
This body continued to hold daily conferences, "like a little senate,"
says Hutchinson.

The "Gazette" of November 22, said: "Americans! defeat this last effort
of a most pernicious, expiring faction, and you may sit under your own
vines and fig trees, and none shall, hereafter, dare to make you

On the 26th, the men of Cambridge assembled, and after adopting the
Philadelphia resolves, "very unanimously" voted, "That as Boston was
struggling for the liberties of their country, they could no longer
stand idle spectators, but were ready, on the shortest notice, to join
with it, and other towns, in any measure that might be thought proper,
to deliver themselves and posterity from slavery."

[Illustration: (_From the original, in the possession of_ GEORGE H.
ALLAN, _Boston_.)]

[Illustration: Signature, Francis Rotch

1750-1822. Bond, April 3^d 1773. £1000.]

On Sunday, the 28th, the ship "Dartmouth," Captain Hall, owned by the
Quaker, Francis Rotch,[10] arrived in Boston harbor, with one hundred
and fourteen chests of tea, and anchored below the castle. As the news
spread, there was great excitement. Despite the rigid New England
observance of the Sabbath, the selectmen immediately met, and remained
in session until nine o'clock in the evening, in the expectation of
receiving the promised proposal of the consignees. These gentlemen were
not to be found, and on the next day, bidding a final adieu to Boston,
they took up their quarters at the castle.

[Illustration: Signature, F. Rotch]

Hutchinson advised the consignees to order the vessels, when they
arrived, to anchor below the castle, that if it should appear unsafe to
land the tea, they might go to sea again, and when the first ship
arrived she anchored there accordingly, but when the master came up to
town, Mr. Adams and others, a committee of the town, ordered him at his
peril to bring the ship up to land the other goods, but to suffer no tea
to be taken out.

The committee of correspondence, who also held a session that day,
seeing that time was precious, and that the tea once entered it would be
out of the power of the consignees to send it back, obtained the promise
of the owner not to enter his ship till Tuesday, and authorized Samuel
Adams to summon the committees and townspeople of the vicinity to a mass
meeting, in Boston, on the next morning. The invitation read as follows:

    "A part of the tea shipped by the East India Company is now
    arrived in this harbor, and we look upon ourselves bound to
    give you the earliest intimation of it, and we desire that
    you favor us with your company at Faneuil Hall, at nine
    o'clock to-morrow forenoon, there to give us your advice
    what steps are to be immediately taken, in order effectually
    to prevent the impending evil, and we request you to urge
    your friends in the town, to which you belong, to be in
    readiness to exert themselves in the most resolute manner,
    to assist this town in its efforts for saving this oppressed

The journals of Monday announced that the "Dartmouth" had anchored off
Long Wharf, and that other ships with the poisonous herb might soon be
here. They also contained a call for a public meeting, as announced in
the following handbill, already printed and distributed throughout the

    "Friends! Brethren! Countrymen! That worst of plagues, the
    detested tea, shipped for this port by the East India
    Company, is now arrived in this harbor; the hour of
    destruction or manly opposition to the machinations of
    tyranny stares you in the face; every friend to his country,
    to himself, and posterity, is now called upon to meet at
    Faneuil Hall, at nine o'clock this day, (at which time the
    bells will ring,) to make a united and successful resistance
    to this last, worst and most destructive measure of

    Boston, November 29, 1773."

[Illustration: Signature, Jon Williams]

At nine o'clock the bells were rung, and the people, to the number of at
least five thousand, thronged in and around Faneuil Hall. This edifice,
then about half as large as now, was entirely inadequate to hold the
concourse that had gathered there. Jonathan Williams,[11] a citizen of
character and wealth, was chosen moderator. The selectmen were John
Scollay, John Hancock, Timothy Newell, Thomas Newhall, Samuel Austin,
Oliver Wendell,[12] and John Pitts. The patriotic and efficient town
clerk, William Cooper,[13] was also present. Samuel Adams, Dr. Warren,
Hancock, Dr. Young and Molineux took the lead in the debate. The
resolution offered by Adams, "that the tea should not be landed; that it
should be sent back in the same bottom to the place whence it came, at
all events, and that no duty should be paid on it," was unanimously
adopted. On hearing of this vote the consignees withdrew to Castle
William. For the better accommodation of the people, the meeting then
adjourned to the Old South Meeting House.

The speeches made at the Old South have not been preserved. Some were
violent, others were calm, advising the people by all means to abstain
from violence, but the men in whom they placed confidence were unanimous
upon the question of sending back the tea. Dr. Young held that the only
way to get rid of it was to throw it overboard. Here we find the first
suggestion of its ultimate fate. Both Whigs and Tories united in the
action of the meeting. To give the consignees time to make the expected
proposals, the meeting adjourned till three o'clock.

Of this assembly Hutchinson says: "Although it consisted principally of
the lower ranks of the people, and even journeymen tradesmen were
brought to increase the number, and the rabble were not excluded, yet
there were divers gentlemen of good fortune among them." With regard to
the speeches he observes: "Nothing can be more inflammatory than those
made on this occasion; Adams was never in greater glory." And of the
consignees he says: "They apprehended they should be seized, and may be,
tarred and feathered and carted,--an American torture,--in order to
compel them to a compliance. The friends of old Mr. Clarke, whose
constitution being hurt by the repeated attacks made upon him, retired
into the country, pressed his sons and the other consignees to a full

A visitor from Rhode Island who attended the meeting, speaking of its
regular and sensible conduct, said he should have thought himself rather
in the British senate than in the promiscuous assembly of the people of
a remote colony.

At the afternoon meeting in the Old South, it was resolved, upon the
motion of Samuel Adams, "that the tea in Captain Hall's ship must go
back in the same bottom." The owner and the captain were informed that
the entry of the tea, or the landing of it, would be at their peril. The
ship was ordered to be moored at Griffins' wharf, and a watch of
twenty-five men was appointed for the security of vessel and cargo, with
Captain Edward Proctor as captain that night. It was also voted that the
governor's call on the justices to meet that afternoon, to suppress
attempted riots, was a reflection on the people.

Upon Hancock's representation that the consignees desired further time
to meet and consult, the meeting consented, "out of great tenderness to
them," and adjourned until next day. This meeting also voted that six
persons "who are used to horses be in readiness to give an alarm in the
country towns, when necessary." They were William Rogers, Jeremiah
Belknap, Stephen Hall, Nathaniel Cobbett, and Thomas Gooding, and
Benjamin Wood, of Charlestown.

The guard for the tea ships, which consisted of from twenty-four to
thirty-four men, was kept up until December 16. It was armed with
muskets and bayonets, and proceeded with military regularity,--indeed it
was composed in part of the military of the town,--and every half hour
during the night regularly passed the word "all's well," like sentinels
in a garrison. It was on duty nineteen days and twenty-three hours. If
molested by day the bells of the town were to be rung, if at night they
were to be tolled. We have the names of those comprising the watch on
November 29 and 30. They are:

  For November 29. Captain, EDWARD PROCTOR.

  Henry Bass.
  Foster Condy.
  John Lovell.
  John Winthrop.
  John Greenleaf.
  Benjamin Alley.
  Joshua Pico.
  James Henderson.
  Josiah Wheeler.
  Joseph Edwards.
  Jonathan Stodder.
  Stephen Bruce.
  Paul Revere.
  Moses Grant.
  Joseph Lovering.
  Dr. Elisha Story.
  Thomas Chase.
  Benjamin Edes.
  Joseph Pierce, Jr.
  Captain Riordan.
  John Crane.
  John McFadden.
  Thomas Knox, Jr.
  Robert Hitchborn.

  November 30. Captain, EZEKIEL CHEEVER.[14]

  Thomas Urann.
  William Dickman.
  Samuel Peck.
  Thomas Bolley.
  John Rice.
  Joseph Froude.
  Obadiah Curtis.
  George Ray.
  Benjamin Ingerson.
  Adam Collson.
  Daniel Hewes.
  Joseph Eayres.
  William Sutton.
  Ebenezer Ayres.
  William Elberson.
  Benjamin Stevens.
  James Brewer.
  Rufus Bant.
  William Clap.
  Nicholas Pierce.
  Thomas Tileston.
  Richard Hunnewell.

[Illustration: Signature, Ezekiel Cheever]


Slain at the Battle of Bunker Hill _June 17 1775_

(_Copied from the Boston print of 1782, it being from the London print
previous to this date._)

"May our land be a land of liberty, the seat of virtue, the asylum of
the oppressed, a name, a praise in the whole earth."--JOSEPH WARREN.

March 5, 1772.]

Hancock and Henry Knox were members of this volunteer guard. Volunteers
were, after the first night, requested to leave their names at the
printing-office of Edes and Gill; the duty of providing it having
devolved upon the committee of correspondence.

    Obadiah Curtis, born in Roxbury, Mass., in 1724; died in
    Newton, Mass., November 11, 1811. He was a wheelwright by
    trade, and his wife, Martha, kept an English goods store, at
    the corner of Rawson's Lane, (now Bromfield Street,) and
    Newbury (now Washington) Street, and accumulated a handsome
    estate. Becoming obnoxious to the British authorities, Mr.
    Curtis removed with his family to Providence, remaining
    there until after the evacuation of Boston. A person who saw
    him at this time thus describes his appearance: "He was
    habited according to the fashion of gentlemen of those
    days,--in a three-cornered hat, a club wig, a long coat of
    ample dimensions, that appeared to have been made with
    reference to future growth, breeches with large buckles, and
    shoes fastened in the same manner."

    James Henderson was a painter, in Boston, at the beginning
    of this century.

    Daniel Hewes, a mason by trade, resided on Purchase Street,
    where he died July 9, 1821; aged 77. He was a brother of
    George Robert Twelves Hewes.

    Robert Hitchborn was a cooper, on Anne Street, in 1789.

    Thomas Knox, Jr., a branch pilot, died in Charlestown,
    Mass., in April, 1817; aged 75. He joined the Masonic Lodge
    of St. Andrew in 1764. In 1789 his residence was on Friend

    Joseph Lovering was a tallow chandler. He lived on the
    corner of Hollis and Tremont Streets, opposite Crane and the
    Bradlees. Joseph Lovering, Jr., held the light by which
    Crane and others disguised themselves in Crane's carpenter's
    shop, on the evening of December 16. Lovering was a
    prominent member of the Charitable Mechanic Association, was
    many years a selectman and a fireward under the old town
    government of Boston, and was also a member of the first
    Board of Aldermen, under Mayor Phillips. He followed his
    father's business, and was some years a partner in the firm
    of J. Lovering & Sons.

    Joshua Pico, a cooper, on Sheaffe Street, residing on Clarke
    Street; died in January, 1807.

    Joseph Pierce, Jr., was a merchant, at 58 Cornhill, in 1799.

    Nicholas Pierce was a bricklayer, on Back (Salem) Street, in

    John Rice was deputy-collector at Boston, 1789.

    Benjamin Stevens was a tailor, at 33 Marlboro' Street, in

    Jonathan Stodder was a member of St. Andrew's Lodge of
    Freemasons, in 1779.

    Thomas Tileston, born September 21, 1735, was a carpenter on
    Purchase Street, in 1789. His father, Onesiphorous Tileston,
    also a housewright and a man of wealth, was captain of the
    Artillery Company in 1762.

    John Winthrop resided in Cambridge Street, and died February
    12, 1800; aged 53.

The power and influence of the Boston committee of correspondence, which
played so important a part in the tea affair, can best be estimated by a
glance at the list of names of its members. They were, Samuel Adams,
James Otis, Joseph Warren, William Molineux, Dr. Benjamin Church,
William Dennie, William and Joseph Greenleaf, Dr. Thomas Young, William
Powell, Nathaniel Appleton, Oliver Wendell, Josiah Quincy, Jr., John
Sweetser, Richard Boynton, John Bradford, William Mackay, Nathaniel
Barber, Caleb Davis, Alexander Hill, and Robert Pierpont.

After the dissolution of the meeting of November 29, the committee met,
and called on the committees from other towns to join them on all
necessary occasions. Besides sending accounts of these events to all the
towns, they also wrote to the committees of Rhode Island, New Hampshire,
New York and Philadelphia, explaining their course, acting, as they
said, "in the faith that harmony and concurrence in action uniformly and
firmly maintained, must finally conduct them to the end of their wishes,
namely, a full enjoyment of constitutional liberty." They received
cheering replies and encouraging assurances from all quarters.

At the meeting next morning, a letter to John Scollay from the
consignees, containing their long-delayed proposals, was read. They
expressed sorrow that they could not return satisfactory answers to the
two messages of the town, as it was utterly out of their power to send
the teas back, but said they were willing to store them until they could
communicate with their constituents, and receive their further orders
respecting them. This letter irritated the meeting, and it declined to
take action upon it.

Before taking final leave of these obstinate gentlemen, I make a few
citations from the recently published volume of "The Diary and Letters
of Thomas Hutchinson." Writing to his son at the castle on November 30,
Hutchinson says: "The gentlemen (consignees), except your uncle Clarke,
all went to the castle yesterday. I hope they will not comply with such
a monstrous demand." Hancock and Adams, he says, were two of the guard
of the tea ship.

Thomas Hutchinson, Jr., to his brother Elisha:

    "CASTLE WILLIAM, December 14, 1773.

    ... I imagine you are anxious to know what the poor banished
    commissioners are doing at the castle. Our retreat here was
    sudden, but our enemies do not say we came too soon. How
    long we shall be imprisoned 'tis impossible to say.... I
    hear there is a meeting of the _mobility_ to day, but don't
    know the result. I hardly think they will attempt sending
    the tea back, but am more sure it will not go many leagues.
    The commissioners are all with us, and we are as comfortable
    as we can be in a very cold place, driven from our families
    and business, with the months of January and February just
    at hand.

    P.S.--Our situation is rendered more agreeable by the polite
    reception we met with from Col. Leslie, and the other
    gentlemen of the army."

And on January 9, 1774, he writes:

    "The Bostonians say we shall not return to town without
    making concessions. I suppose we shall quit the castle
    sometime this week, as we are all provided with retreats in
    the country. I have had a disagreeable six weeks of it, but
    am in hopes the issue will be well."

And again, on January 21, dated Milton:

    "I wrote you some time ago I was in hopes our harassment was
    drawing to a close, and that we should leave the castle last
    week. Mr. Faneuil and myself coming off caused a supposition
    that we intended for Boston, which was the cause of
    Saturday's notification which I sent you.[15] Mr. Faneuil is
    since returned to the castle, and I am really more confined
    than if I was there, as I keep pretty close to my home. Mr.
    Jonathan Clarke sails in a few days for England, of which I
    am very glad, as it may prevent misapprehension of our
    conduct on that side of the water.

A proclamation from the governor was brought in to the meeting by
Sheriff Greenleaf, which he begged leave of the moderator to read.
Objection was made, but at the suggestion of Samuel Adams the meeting
consented to hear it. The governor charged that the meeting of the
previous day "openly violated, defied and set at naught the good and
wholesome laws of the Province, and as great numbers were again
assembled for like purposes, I warn," he said, "exhort and require you,
and each of you, thus unlawfully assembled, forthwith to disperse, and
to surcease all further unlawful proceedings at your peril." The reading
was received with general and continued hisses, and a vote that the
meeting would not disperse. Mr. Copley, the son-in-law of Mr. Clarke,
inquired whether the meeting would hear the Messrs. Clarke, and whether
they would be safe while coming to and returning from the meeting, and
whether two hours would be allowed him in which to consult with them.
The request of Copley, who was sincerely desirous of effecting a
peaceful solution of the difficulty, was granted, and the meeting then
adjourned until two o'clock.

The proceedings of this afternoon briefly stated were, the promise of
Rotch, the owner, and Hall, the captain of the "Dartmouth," and the
owners of the two other vessels expected with teas, that that article
should not be landed, but should go back in the same ships, and the
apology of Mr. Copley for the time he had taken, he having been obliged
to go to the castle, where the consignees decided that it would be
inexpedient for them to attend the meeting, but added to their former
proposal that the tea should be submitted to the inspection of a
committee, and also saying that as they had not been active in
introducing the tea, they should do nothing to obstruct the people in
returning it.

This was voted unsatisfactory. Resolves were then passed to the effect
that all who imported tea were enemies to the country; that its landing
and sale should be prevented, and that the tea should be returned to the
place whence it came. And the meeting also voted to send these resolves
to every seaport in the colonies and to England. The committee of
correspondence was charged to make provision for the continuation of the
watch, and "the brethren from the country" were thanked for their
"countenance and union," and desired to afford their assistance on
notice being given, and it was also declared to be "the determination of
this body to carry their votes and resolves into execution at the risk
of life and property."

Speaking of this meeting, Hutchinson says: "A more determined spirit was
conspicuous in this body than in any of the former assemblies of the
people. It was composed of the lowest as well, and probably in as great
proportion, as of the superior ranks and orders, and all had an equal
voice. No eccentric or irregular motions were suffered to take place.
All seemed to have been the plan of a few, it may be of a single

And in a private letter, dated December 1, Hutchinson writes:

    "While the rabble was together in one place, I was in
    another, not far distant, with his majesty's council, urging
    them to join with me in some measure to break up this
    unlawful assembly, but to no purpose. I hope the consignees
    will continue firm, and should not have the least doubt of
    it if it was not for the solicitation of the friends of Mr.
    Clarke. If they go the lengths they threaten, I shall be
    obliged to retire to the castle, as I cannot otherwise make
    any exertions in support of the king's authority."

The committee of correspondence omitted no step that prudence or caution
could suggest to carry out the determination of the town. A letter from
Philadelphia, just then received, said: "Our tea consignees have all
resigned, and you need not fear, the tea will not be landed here nor at
New York. All that we fear is that you will shrink at Boston. May God
give you virtue enough to save the liberties of your country!"

A second and a third vessel soon arrived, and the selectmen gave
peremptory orders, to prevent clandestine landing of the tea, and
directed them to be anchored by the side of the "Dartmouth," at
Griffin's Wharf. One guard answered for the three vessels. As the time
drew near for the landing or return of the tea, the excitement of the
community increased. "Where the present disorder will end," wrote
Hutchinson, "I cannot make a probable conjecture; the town is as furious
as in the time of the stamp act." "The flame is kindled," so wrote the
wife of John Adams, "and like lightning, it catches from soul to
soul.... My heart beats at every whistle I hear, and I dare not express
half my fears."

Twenty days after her arrival in the port, a vessel was liable to
seizure for the non-payment of duties on articles imported in her, nor
on landing a portion of her cargo, could she be legally cleared. On
official advice from the governor to Colonel Leslie, commander of the
castle, and Admiral Montagu, the latter ordered the ships of war,
"Active" and "King Fisher," to guard the passages to the sea, and permit
no unauthorized vessels to pass. "The patriots," said Hutchinson, "now
found themselves in a web of inextricable difficulties." "But where
there is a will there is a way," and the patriots had more resources
than the governor dreamed of.

Rotch, the owner of the "Dartmouth," was summoned before the committee
(December 11), and was asked by Samuel Adams, the chairman, why he had
not kept his pledge, to send his vessel and tea back to London. He
replied that it was out of his power to do so. He was advised to apply
for a clearance and a pass. "The ship must go," said Adams, "the people
of Boston and the neighboring towns absolutely require and expect it."

The journals of the day are filled with items concerning the tea
question. Little else was now thought of. They contained the resolves of
the Massachusetts towns, encouraging Boston to stand firm, and assuring
her of their support, and accounts from Philadelphia and New York of the
determination to nullify the tea act, and of the declination of the
consignees in the latter place.

The "Gazette," of December 13, editorially says: "The minds of the
public are greatly irritated at the delay of Mr. Rotch, to take the
necessary steps towards complying with their peremptory requisition." On
this day an important session of the committee of the five towns already
named took place at Faneuil Hall. "No business transacted matter of
record," is the brief but suggestive entry as to its doings.

Dorchester, in legal town meeting, declared that, "should this country
be so unhappy as to see a day of trial for the recovery of its rights by
a last and solemn appeal to Him who gave them, they should not be behind
the bravest of our patriotic brethren." Marblehead affirmed that the
proceedings of the brave citizens of Boston, and of other towns, in
opposition to the landing of the tea, were rational, generous and just;
that they were highly honored for their noble firmness in support of
American liberty, and that the men of the town were ready with their
lives to assist their brethren in opposing all measures tending to
enslave the country." Under date of December 3, the people of Roxbury
voted that they were in duty bound to join with Boston, and other sister
towns, to preserve inviolate the liberties handed down by their
ancestors. Next day the men of Charlestown declared themselves ready to
risk their lives and fortunes. Newburyport, Malden, Lexington,
Leicester, Fitchburg, Gloucester, and other towns, also proferred their
aid when needed.

The "Gazette," under date of Salem, December 7, has the following: "By
what we can learn from private intelligence, as well as the public
proceedings of a number of principal towns contiguous to the capital,
the people, if opposed in their proceedings with respect to the tea, are
determined upon hazarding a brush, therefore those who are willing to
bear a part in it in preserving the rights of this country, would do
well to get suitably prepared." This looked like business.

On the morning of December 14, the following handbill appeared in

    Friends! Brethren! Countrymen! The perfidious act of your
    reckless enemies to render ineffectual the late resolves of
    the body of the people, demands your assembling at the Old
    South Meeting House, precisely at ten o'clock this day, at
    which time the bells will ring."

The meeting thus called was largely attended. Samuel Phillips
Savage,[16] of Weston, was chosen moderator. Bruce, the master of the
"Eleanor," promised to ask for a clearance for London, when all his
goods were landed, except the tea, but said that, if refused, "he was
loth to stand the shot of thirty-two pounders." Rotch, accompanied by
Samuel Adams, Benjamin Kent, and eight others, applied to the collector
of the port for a clearance, and reported, on his return, that the
collector desired to consult with the comptroller, and promised an
answer on the following morning. The meeting then adjourned until

[Illustration: Signature, Sam Phillips Savage]

Next day Rotch, with the Committee, proceeded to the Custom House.
Harrison, the Collector, and Comptroller Hallowell, were both present.
The owner said that he was required and compelled at his peril by the
meeting to make the demand for the clearance of his vessel for London,
with the tea on board, and one of the committee stated that they were
present only as witnesses. The Collector unequivocally and finally
refused to grant his ship a clearance until it should be discharged of
the teas. The result was reported to the meeting on the following

       *       *       *       *       *

The eventful Thursday, December 16, 1773, a day ever memorable in the
annals of the town, witnessed the largest gathering yet seen at the Old
South Meeting House. Nearly seven thousand persons constituted the
assembly. Business was laid aside, and notwithstanding the rain, at
least two thousand people flocked in from the country for twenty miles
around. This time there was no need of handbills--there were none. No
effort was required to bring together the multitude that quietly but
anxiously awaited the outcome of the meeting. The gravity of the
situation was universally felt. Immediate action was necessary, as the
twenty days allowed for clearance terminated that night. Then the
revenue officials could take possession, and under cover of the naval
force land the tea, and opposition to this would have caused bloody
work. The patriots would gladly have avoided the issue, but it was
forced upon them, and they could not recede with honor.

The committee having reported the failure of its application for a
clearance, Rotch was directed to enter a protest at the Custom House,
and to apply to the governor for a pass to proceed on this day with his
vessel on his voyage for London. He replied that it was impracticable to
comply with this requirement. He was then reminded of his promise, and
on being asked if he would now direct the "Dartmouth" to sail, replied
that he would not. The meeting, after directing him to use all possible
dispatch in making his protest and procuring his pass, adjourned until
three o'clock.

At the afternoon meeting, information was given that several towns had
agreed not to use tea. A vote was taken to the effect that its use was
improper and pernicious, and that it would be well for all the towns to
appoint committees of inspection "to prevent this accursed tea" from
coming among them. "Shall we abide by our former resolution with respect
to the not suffering the tea to be landed?" was now the question. Samuel
Adams, Dr. Thomas Young and Josiah Quincy, Jr.,[17] an ardent young
patriot devotedly attached to the liberties of his country, were the
principal speakers. Only a fragment of the speech of Quincy remains.
Counselling moderation, and in a spirit of prophecy, he said:

    "It is not, Mr. Moderator, the spirit that vapors within
    these walls that must stand us in stead. The exertions of
    this day will call forth the events which will make a very
    different spirit necessary for our salvation. Whoever
    supposes that shouts and hosannas will terminate the trials
    of the day, entertains a childish fancy. We must be grossly
    ignorant of the importance and value of the prize for which
    we contend; we must be equally ignorant of the power of
    those who have combined against us; we must be blind to that
    malice, inveteracy and insatiable revenge which actuates our
    enemies, public and private, abroad and in our bosom, to
    hope that we shall end this controversy without the
    sharpest, the sharpest conflicts; to flatter ourselves that
    popular resolves, popular harangues, popular acclamations,
    and popular vapor will vanquish our foes. Let us consider
    the issue. Let us look to the end. Let us weigh and
    consider before we advance to those measures which must
    bring on the most trying and terrific struggle this country
    ever saw."

But the time for weighing and considering the business in hand had
passed. Time pressed and decisive action alone remained. "Now that the
hand is at the plough," it was said, "there must be no looking back."

At half-past four it was unanimously voted that the tea should not be
landed. An effort was now made to dissolve the meeting, but it was
continued at the request of some of those present from the country, who
wished to hear the result of Rotch's application to the governor.

It was an unusual time of the year to be at a country seat, but Governor
Hutchinson was found at his Milton residence by Rotch, who renewed his
request for a pass. Questioned by the governor as to the intentions of
the people, Rotch replied that they only intended to force the tea back
to England, but that there might be some who desired that the vessel
might go down the harbor and be brought to by a shot from the castle,
that it might be said that the people had done everything in their power
to send the tea back. "Catching at this straw, with the instinct of a
drowning man," Hutchinson offered Rotch a letter to Admiral Montagu,
commending ship and goods to his protection, if Rotch would agree to
have his ship haul out into the stream, but he replied that none were
willing to assist him in doing this, and that the attempt would subject
him to the ill will of the people. Hutchinson then sternly repeated his
refusal of a pass,[18] as it would have been "a direct countenancing and
encouraging the violation of the acts of trade." Thus closed the last
opportunity for concession.

[Illustration: Signature, John Rowe

"Who knows how tea will mingle with salt water?"--JOHN ROWE. _Old South
Church, Boston, Dec. 16, 1773._]

It is only fair to say that the performance of what he honestly believed
to be his duty was as vital a consideration with Thomas Hutchinson, the
royal governor, as opposition to measures which he believed to be
hostile to the liberties of his country was to Samuel Adams, the popular
leader. We can at this day well afford to mete out this tardy justice to
a man whose motives and conduct have been so bitterly and unscrupulously
vilified and maligned as have been those of Thomas Hutchinson.

[Illustration: Signature, John Rowe]

When Rotch returned and told the result of his application, it was
nearly six o'clock. Darkness had set in, and the Old South, dimly
lighted with candles, was still filled with an anxious and impatient
multitude. "Who knows," said John Rowe,[19] "how tea will mingle with
salt water?" The people hurrahed vehemently, and the cry arose, "A mob!
a mob!" A call to order restored quiet. Dr. Young then addressed the
meeting, saying that Rotch was a good man, who had done all in his power
to gratify the people, and charged them to do no hurt to his person or

To the final question then put to him, whether he would send his vessel
back with the tea in her, under the present circumstances, he replied,
that he could not, as he "apprehended that a compliance would prove his
ruin." He also admitted that if called upon by the proper persons, he
should attempt to land the tea for his own security.

Adams then arose and uttered the fateful words, "This meeting can do
nothing more to save the country." This was doubtless the preconcerted
signal for action, and it was answered by the men who sounded the
war-whoop at the church door. The cry was re-echoed from the gallery,
where a voice cried out, "Boston harbor a tea-pot to-night; hurrah for
Griffin's wharf!" and the "Mohawks" passed on to cut the Gordian knot
with their hatchets.

Silence was again commanded, when the people, after "manifesting a most
exemplary patience and caution in the methods they had pursued to
preserve the property of the East India Company, and to return it safe
and untouched to its owners," perceiving that at every step they had
been thwarted by the consignees and their coadjutors, then dissolved the
meeting, giving three cheers as they dispersed.

Meanwhile a number of persons, variously estimated at from twenty to
eighty, (their number increasing as they advanced,) some of them
disguised as Indians, and armed with hatchets or axes, hurried to
Griffin's (now Liverpool) wharf, boarded the ships, and, warning their
crews and the customs officers to keep out of the way, in less than
three hours time had broken and emptied into the dock three hundred and
forty-two chests of tea, valued at £18,000. The deed was not that of a
lawless mob, but the deliberate and well-considered act of intelligent,
as well as determined, men. So careful were they not to destroy or
injure private property, that they even replaced a padlock they had
broken. There was no noise nor confusion. They worked so quietly and
systematically that those on shore could distinctly hear the strokes of
the hatchets. As soon as the people learned what was going forward, they
made their way to the scene of operations, covering the wharves in the
vicinity, whence they looked on in silence during the performance. The
night was clear, the moon shone brilliantly, no one was harmed, and the
town was never more quiet. Next day, the Dorchester shore was lined with
tea, carried thither by the wind and tide. The serious spirit in which
this deed was regarded by the leaders, is illustrated by the act of one
who, after assisting his apprentice to disguise himself, dropped upon
his knees and prayed fervently for his safety, and the success of the

Among the spectators of the scene were Dr. John Prince, of Salem; John
Andrews, and Dr. Hugh Williamson, who afterwards underwent an
examination respecting the affair before the British House of Commons.

Where is now the wide Atlantic Avenue, the old footpath under Fort Hill,
known as Flounder Lane, and afterwards as Broad Street, wound around the
margin of the water. Sea Street was its continuation to Wheeler's Point
(the foot of Summer Street). Opposite where Hutchinson (now Pearl)
Street entered Flounder Lane, was Griffin's Wharf. The laying out of
Broad Street and Atlantic Avenue, and the consequent widening and
filling in, have resulted in obliterating Griffin's Wharf, although in
Liverpool wharf it has a legitimate successor. The old dock logs were
found near the centre of the avenue. The coal office of the Messrs.
Chapin now occupies the site rendered memorable by the exploit of the
Boston tea party.

       *       *       *       *       *

The destruction of the tea is said to have been planned in the "Long
Room," over Edes & Gills' printing-office, on the easterly corner of
Franklin Avenue and Court Street, where the "Daily Advertiser" building
recently stood. In their back office some of the party it is said were

Among the members of the "Long Room Club," as those who usually met here
were styled, were Samuel Adams, Hancock, Warren, Otis, Church, Samuel
Dexter, Dr. Samuel Cooper, and his brother, William Cooper, Thomas
Dawes, Samuel Phillips Savage, Royal Tyler, Paul Revere, Thomas Fleet,
John Winthrop, William Molineux, and Thomas Melvill.

A similar claim is also made for the "Green Dragon" tavern, then known
as the "Freemasons' Arms," which stood near the northerly corner of
Union and Hanover Streets, where the Masonic Lodge of St. Andrew held
its meetings. The honor belongs equally to both. In both, the
consultations of the popular leaders were undoubtedly held and their
plans laid. Prominent members of this Lodge, who were also active "Sons
of Liberty," and members of the tea party were, Paul Revere, Edward
Proctor, Thomas Chase, Adam Collson, Samuel Peck and Thomas Urann. Its
later members, also identified with the tea party, were Samuel Gore,
Daniel Ingersoll, Henry Purkitt, Amos Lincoln, James Swan, Robert Davis,
Abraham Hunt, Eliphalet Newell and Nathaniel Willis. Other prominent
Free Masons active in the tea affair were Dr. Warren and John Rowe. The
tradition of the Lodge is, that the preliminaries of the affair were
arranged here, and that the execution of them was committed mainly to
the North End Caucus, with the co-operation of the more daring of the
"Sons of Liberty." The committee of safety also met here. The record
book of the lodge, under date of November 30, 1773, says:

    "Lodge met and adjourned. N.B.--The consignees of the tea
    took the brethren's time."

And on the eventful 16th of December:

    "The Lodge met and closed on account of the few members in
    attendance. Adjourned until to-morrow evening."

Three different parties, one or two of whom were disguised, had been
prepared beforehand for this event, by the leaders. Certain it is that
there were several squads in different parts of the town, who disguised
themselves at their own or their neighbors' houses, and who then
rendezvoused at points previously designated, before going to the wharf.
Quite an Indian village was improvised at the junction of Hollis and
Tremont Streets. John Crane, Joseph Lovering, and the Bradlees occupied
opposite corners of this locality, the house and carpenter shop of Crane
adjoining the residence of the famous Dr. Mather Byles. Captain Thomas
Bolter and Samuel Fenno, also of the tea party, were near neighbors of
Crane, and like him, were carpenters. Joseph Lovering, Jr., related
that he held the light for Crane and some of his neighbors, to disguise
themselves, in Crane's shop. The four brothers Bradlee, and a
brother-in-law, were prepared for the occasion at their house opposite.

       *       *       *       *       *

Perhaps the best contemporaneous account of the affair is the following,
from the "Massachusetts Gazette," of December 23:

    "Just before the dissolution of the meeting," says the
    'Gazette,' a number of brave and resolute men, dressed in
    the Indian manner, approached near the door of the assembly,
    and gave a war-whoop, which rang through the house, and was
    answered by some in the galleries, but silence was
    commanded, and a peaceable deportment enjoined until the
    dissolution. The Indians, as they were then called, repaired
    to the wharf, where the ships lay that had the tea on board,
    and were followed by hundreds of people, to see the event of
    the transactions of those who made so grotesque an
    appearance. The Indians immediately repaired on board
    Captain Hall's ship, where they hoisted out the chests of
    tea, and when on deck stove them and emptied the tea
    overboard. Having cleared this ship, they proceeded to
    Captain Bruce's, and then to Captain Coffin's brig. They
    applied themselves so dexterously to the destruction of this
    commodity, that in the space of three hours they broke up
    three hundred and forty-two chests, which was the whole
    number in these vessels, and discharged their contents into
    the dock. When the tide rose it floated the broken chests
    and the tea insomuch that the surface of the water was
    filled therewith a considerable way from the south part of
    the town to Dorchester Neck, and lodged on the shores. There
    was the greatest care taken to prevent the tea from being
    purloined by the populace; one or two being detected in
    endeavoring to pocket a small quantity were stripped of
    their acquisitions and very roughly handled. It is worthy of
    remark that although a considerable quantity of goods were
    still remaining on board the vessel, no injury was
    sustained. Such attention to private property was observed,
    that a small padlock belonging to the captain of one of the
    ships being broke, another was procured and sent to him. The
    town was very quiet during the whole evening and the night
    following. Those who were from the country went home with a
    merry heart, and the next day joy appeared in almost every
    countenance, some on account of the destruction of the tea,
    others on account of the quietness with which it was
    effected. One of the Monday's papers says the masters and
    owners are well pleased that their ships are thus cleared."

Another Boston paper says:

    "The people repaired to Griffin's wharf, where the tea
    vessels lay, proceeded to fix tackles and hoist the tea upon
    deck, cut the chests to pieces, and throw the tea over the
    side.... They began upon the two ships first, as they had
    nothing on board but the tea, then proceeded to the brig,
    which had hauled to the wharf but the day before, and had
    but a small part of her cargo out. The captain of the brig
    begged they would not begin with his vessel, as the tea was
    covered with goods belonging to different merchants in the
    town. They told him 'the tea they wanted, and the tea they
    would have, but if he would go into his cabin quietly, not
    one article of his goods should be hurt.' They immediately
    proceeded to remove the goods, and then to dispose of the

From the "Evening Post" of Monday, December 20, 1773:

    "Previous to the dissolution, a number of persons, supposed
    to be the aboriginal natives, from their complexion,
    approaching the door of the assembly, gave the war-whoop,
    which was answered by a few in the galleries of the house,
    where the crowded assembly was convened. Silence was
    commanded, and prudent and peaceable deportment again
    enjoined. The savages repaired to the ships which contained
    the pestilential tea, and had begun their ravages previous
    to the dissolution of the meeting."

Extract from the log-book of the "Dartmouth:"

    "Thursday, December 16. This twenty-four hours rainy
    weather, terminating this day. Between six and seven o'clock
    this evening, came down to the wharf a body of about one
    thousand people, among them were a number dressed and
    whooping like Indians. They came on board the ship, and
    after warning myself and the custom-house officers to get
    out of the way, they undid the hatches and went down the
    hold, where was eighty whole, and thirty-four half chests,
    of tea, which they hoisted upon deck, and cut the chests to
    pieces, and hove the tea all overboard, where it was damaged
    and lost."

       *       *       *       *       *

John Andrews, an eye-witness, in a letter to a friend relates
particulars not elsewhere mentioned. While drinking tea at his house he
heard "prodigious shouts," and went to the Old South Meeting House to
ascertain the cause:

    "The house was so crowded," he says, "that I could get no
    further than the porch, when I found the moderator was just
    declaring the meeting to be dissolved, which caused another
    general shout out-doors and in, and three cheers. What with
    that and the consequent noise of breaking up the meeting,
    you'd thought the inhabitants of the infernal regions had
    broke loose. For my part, I went contentedly home and
    finished my tea, but was soon informed what was going
    forward. Not crediting it without ocular demonstration, I
    went and was satisfied. They mustered, I'm told, upon Fort
    Hill, to the number of about two hundred, and proceeded, two
    by two, to Griffin's wharf, where Hall, Bruce and Coffin
    lay.... The latter arrived at the wharf only the day before,
    and was freighted with a large quantity of other goods,
    which they took the greatest care not to injure in the
    least, and before nine o'clock in the evening every chest on
    board the three vessels was knocked to pieces and flung over
    the sides. They say the actors were Indians from
    Narragansett; whether they were or not, to a transient
    observer they appeared as such, being clothed in blankets,
    with their heads muffled, and copper-colored countenances,
    being each armed with a hatchet or axe, or pair of pistols,
    nor was their dialect different from what I conceive these
    geniuses to speak, as their jargon was unintelligible to all
    but themselves. Not the least insult was offered to any
    person save one Captain Connor, a letter of horses in this
    place, not many years since removed from dear Ireland, who
    had ript up the lining of his coat and waistcoat under the
    arms, and watching his opportunity, had nearly filled them
    with tea, but being detected, was handled pretty roughly.
    They not only stripped him of his clothes, but gave him a
    coat of mud, with a severe bruising into the bargain, and
    nothing but their utter aversion to making any disturbance
    prevented his being tarred and feathered."

       *       *       *       *       *

Many interesting details are supplied by the reminiscences of the actors
themselves, long afterwards. In the "Recollections of a Bostonian,"
published in the "Centinel," in 1821-22, the writer says he spent the
night but one before the destruction of the tea as one of the guard
detached from the new grenadier corps, in company with Gen. Knox, then
one of its officers, on board one of the tea ships. He heard John Rowe
suggest to the meeting in the Old South, "Who knows how tea will mingle
with salt water?" a suggestion received with great applause. He further
states that when the answer of the governor was reported to the

    "An Indian yell was heard from the street. Mr. Samuel Adams
    cried out that it was a trick of their enemies to disturb
    the meeting, and requested the people to keep their places,
    but the people rushed out and accompanied the Indians to
    the ships. The number of persons disguised as Indians is
    variously stated,--none put it lower than sixty, nor higher
    than eighty. The destruction was effected by them, and some
    young men who volunteered. One of the latter collected the
    tea which fell into the shoes of himself and companions, and
    put it in a phial and sealed it up,--now in his
    possession.... The hall of council is said to have been in
    the back room of Edes' printing-office, at the corner of the
    alley leading to Brattle Street Church, from Court Street."

In 1827, Joshua Wyeth, of Cincinnati, related the following particulars
of the affair to Rev. Timothy Flint. Wyeth, then sixteen years old, was
a journeyman blacksmith in the employ of Watson and Gridley. He says:

    "Our numbers were between twenty-eight and thirty. Of my
    associates I only remember the names of Frothingham, Mead,
    Martin and Grant. Many of them were apprentices and
    journeymen, not a few, as was the case with myself, living
    with Tory masters. I had but a few hours warning of what was
    intended to be done. We first talked of firing the ships,
    but feared the fire would communicate to the town. We then
    proposed sinking them, but dropped that project through fear
    that we should alarm the town before we could get through
    with it. We had observed that very few persons remained on
    board the ships, and we finally concluded that we could take
    possession of them, and discharge the tea into the harbor
    without danger or opposition. One of the ships laid at the
    wharf, the others a little way out in the stream, with their
    warps made fast to the wharf. To prevent discovery, we
    agreed to wear ragged clothes and disfigure ourselves,
    dressing to resemble Indians as much as possible, smearing
    our faces with grease and lamp black or soot, and should not
    have known each other except by our voices. Our most
    intimate friends among the spectators had not the least
    knowledge of us. We surely resembled devils from the
    bottomless pit rather than men. At the appointed time we met
    in an old building at the head of the wharf, and fell in one
    after another, as if by accident, so as not to excite
    suspicion. We placed a sentry at the head of the wharf,
    another in the middle, and one on the bow of each ship as we
    took possession. We boarded the ship moored by the wharf,
    and our leader, in a very stern and resolute manner, ordered
    the captain and crew to open the hatchways, and hand us the
    hoisting tackle and ropes, assuring them that no harm was
    intended them. The captain asked what we intended to do. Our
    leader told him that we were going to unload the tea, and
    ordered him and the crew below. They instantly obeyed. Some
    of our number then jumped into the hold, and passed the
    chests to the tackle. As they were hauled on deck others
    knocked them open with axes, and others raised them to the
    railing and discharged their contents overboard. All who
    were not needed for discharging this ship went on board the
    others, warped them to the wharf, when the same ceremonies
    were repeated. We were merry, in an undertone, at the idea
    of making so large a cup of tea for the fishes, but were as
    still as the nature of the case would admit, using no more
    words than were absolutely necessary. We stirred briskly in
    the business from the moment we left our dressing-room. I
    never worked harder in my life. While we were unloading, the
    people collected in great numbers about the wharf to see
    what was going on. They crowded around us so as to be much
    in our way. Our sentries were not armed, and could not stop
    any who insisted on passing. They were particularly charged
    to give us notice in case any known Tory came down to the
    wharf. There was much talk about this business next morning.
    We pretended to be as zealous to find out the perpetrators
    as the rest, and were all so close and loyal, that the whole
    affair remained in Egyptian darkness."

       *       *       *       *       *

In 1835, a small volume appeared, entitled "Traits of the Tea Party,"
with a memoir of G.R.T. Hewes. From it we glean the following incidents.

Mr. Hewes thinks that among the speakers at the meeting on the afternoon
of December 16, was John Hancock, who said that "the matter must be
settled before twelve o'clock that night." Hewes positively affirms that
he recognized Hancock, who worked by his side in the destruction of the
tea, not only by his ruffles, which were accidentally exposed, and by
his figure and gait, but by his voice and features, notwithstanding his
paint, and the loosened club of hair behind. In this he was undoubtedly
mistaken. Neither Hancock, Adams nor Warren were among the disguised
Indians. There were enough who were competent for the business without

Just before the meeting dissolved, some one in the galleries (Mr. Pierce
thinks it was Adam Collson) cried out with a loud voice, "Boston harbor
a tea-pot to-night! Hurrah for Griffin's wharf!" This is probably the
disorder checked by the chairman, and which was in response to the
war-whoops outside. Three cheers were given by the meeting as it broke

The disguise of the Indians was hastily prepared. Many of them arrayed
themselves in a store on Fort Hill. The original number of one of the
parties was fifteen or twenty. Many others joined in the act of breaking
up the boxes, who disguised themselves as best they could, and some,
chiefly extempore volunteers, were not disguised at all. Hewes himself,
while the crowd rushed down Milk Street, made his way to a blacksmith's
shop, on Boylston's wharf, where he hastily begrimmed his face with a
_soot_-able preparation, thence to the house of an acquaintance near
Griffin's, where he got a blanket, which he wrapped around his person.

When he reached the wharf, there were many there, but no crowd. The moon
shone brightly. From one hundred to one hundred and fifty were engaged.
The whole were divided into three equal divisions, with a captain and
boatswain for each. Hewes's whistling talent--a matter of public
notoriety--procured him the position of boatswain in the party, under
Captain Lendall Pitts, which boarded the brig. Many were fantastically
arrayed in old frocks, red woolen caps or gowns, and all manner of like

One of Pitts's first official acts was to send a message to the mate,
who was in his cabin, for the use of a few lights and the brig's keys,
so that as little damage as possible might be done to the vessel. The
keys were handed over without a word, and he also provided candles. The
three parties finished their separate tasks nearly at the same time, and
without unnecessary delay. A number of sailors and others had joined
them from time to time, and aided them in hoisting the chests from the

Collecting on the wharf, which was now covered with spectators, a fresh
inspection was instituted, and all the tea men were ordered to take off
their shoes and empty them, which was supposed to be done. Pitts, who
was a military man, and a prominent Son of Liberty, was appointed
commander-in-chief; the company was formed in rank and file by his
directions, with the aid of Barber, Proctor, and some others, and
"shouldering arms,"--such as they had, tomahawks included,--they marched
up the wharf, to what is now the east end of Pearl Street, back into
town, and then separated and went quietly home.

All was done in plain sight of the British squadron, which lay less than
a quarter of a mile distant. Admiral Montagu witnessed most of the
affair from a more convenient point--the house of a Tory, named Coffin,
on Atkinson Street, near the head of the wharf. Raising the window as
they came along, he said, "Well, boys, you have had a fine, pleasant
evening for your Indian caper, haven't you? But mind, you have got to
pay the fiddler yet!"

"Oh, never mind!" shouted Pitts, "never mind, squire! Just come out
here, if you please, and we'll settle the bill in two minutes." This
caused a shout, the fife struck up a lively air, the admiral put the
window down in a hurry, and the company marched on.

When Hewes reached home he told his wife the story. "Well, George," said
she, "Did you bring me home a lot of it?" The only tea known to have
been brought that night from the wharf was in the shoes of Thomas
Melvill. A sample gathered on the Dorchester shore by Dr. Thaddeus M.
Harris, is now preserved in the cabinet of the Antiquarian Society, at

TO THE WHARF. (_See dotted lines._)]

One O'Connor, an Irishman, formerly a fellow apprentice with Hewes,
attempted to secrete some of the tea. Hewes noticed a suspicious
movement of his hands along the lining of his coat, and informed Pitts.
Catching him by the skirts of his coat, he pulled him back as he was
trying to escape, and he was quickly relieved of his cargo, as well as
the apparel which contained it, and a few kicks were applied to hasten
his retreat.

Early on the morning of the 17th, a long windrow of tea, "about as big
as you ever saw of hay," was seen extending from the wharves down to the
castle. A party of volunteers soon turned out in boats, and stirred it
up in the "pot" pretty effectually.

       *       *       *       *       *

Those who undertook to preserve any of the poisonous herb were sharply
looked after by the patriots. A Boston paper of January 3, 1774, says:

    "Whereas, it was reported that one Withington, of
    Dorchester, had taken up and partly disposed of a chest of
    the East India Company's tea, a number of the Cape or
    Narragansett Indians went to the house of Captain Ebenezer
    Withington, and his brother Phillip, last Friday evening,
    and thoroughly searched their houses, without offering the
    least offence to any one. Finding no tea, they proceeded to
    the house of old Mr. Ebenezer Withington, at a place called
    Sodom, below Dorchester Meeting House, where they found part
    of a half-chest, which had floated, and was cast up on
    Dorchester Point. This they seized and brought to Boston
    Common, where they committed it to the flames."

Benjamin Simpson, a bricklayer's apprentice, says:

    "After the meeting in the Old South was over, there was a
    cry in the gallery of 'every man to his tent.' We repaired
    to the wharf. I went on board both ships, but saw no person
    belonging to them. In a few minutes a number of men came on
    the wharf, (with the Indian pow-wow,) went on board the
    ships, then lying at the side of the wharf, the water in the
    dock not more than two feet deep. They began to throw the
    tea into the water, which went off with the tide till the
    tea grounded. We soon found there was tea on board the brig
    also. A demand being made of it, the captain told us the
    whole of his cargo was on board; that the tea was directly
    under the hatches, which he would open if we would not
    damage anything but the tea, which was agreed to. The
    hatches were then opened, a man sent down to show us the
    tea, which we hoisted out, stove the chests and threw tea
    and all overboard. Those on board the ships did the same. I
    was on board the ships when the tea was so high by the side
    of them as to fall in, which was shovelled down more than
    once. We on board the brig were not disguised. I was then
    nineteen years old; I am now (1830) seventy-five."

Peter, the son of Benjamin Edes, the printer, in a letter to his
grandson, Benjamin C. Edes, written in 1836, says of the tea party:

    "I know but little about it, as I was not admitted into
    their presence, for fear, I suppose, of their being
    known.... I recollect perfectly well that in the afternoon
    preceding the evening of the destruction of the tea, a
    number of gentlemen met in the parlor of my father's
    house,--how many I cannot say. As I said before, I was not
    admitted into their presence; my station was in another
    room, to make punch for them, in the bowl[20] which is now
    in your possession, and which I filled several times. They
    remained in the house till dark,--I suppose to disguise
    themselves like Indians,--when they left the house, and
    proceeded to the wharves where the vessels lay. Before they
    reached there they were joined by hundreds. I thought I
    would take a walk to the wharves as a spectator, where was
    collected, I may say, as many as two thousand persons. The
    Indians worked smartly. Some were in the hold immediately
    after the hatches were broken open, fixing the ropes to the
    tea-chests, others were breaking open the chests, and others
    stood ready with hatchets to cut off the bindings of the
    chests and cast them overboard. I remained till I was tired,
    and fearing some disturbance might occur, went home, leaving
    the Indians working like good, industrious fellows. This is
    all I know about it."

The account given by General Ebenezer Stevens to his son, Horatio Gates
Stevens, is as follows:

    "I went from the Old South Meeting House just after dark.
    The party was about seventy or eighty. At the head of the
    wharf we met the detachment of our company (Paddock's
    Artillery) on guard, who joined us. I commenced with a party
    on board the vessel of which Hodgdon[21] was mate, (the
    'Dartmouth') and as he knew me, I left that vessel with some
    of my comrades and went aboard another vessel, which lay at
    the opposite side of the wharf. Numbers of others took our
    places on board Hodgdon's vessel. We commenced handing the
    boxes of tea on deck, and first began breaking them with
    axes, but found much difficulty, owing to the boxes of tea
    being covered with canvas,--the mode that the article was
    then imported in. I think that all the tea was destroyed in
    about two hours. We were careful to prevent any being taken
    away. None of the party were painted as Indians, nor, that I
    know of, disguised, excepting that some of them stopped at a
    paint shop on the way, and daubed their faces with paint."

[Illustration: Signature, Alexander Hodgdon]

Robert Sessions, of South Wilbraham, (now Hampden) Mass., another actor
in the scene, says:

    "I was living in Boston at the time, in the family of a Mr.
    Davis, a lumber merchant, as a common laborer. On that
    eventful evening, when Mr. Davis came in from the town
    meeting, I asked him what was to be done with the tea. 'They
    are now throwing it overboard,' he replied. Receiving
    permission, I went immediately to the spot. Everything was
    as light as day, by the means of lamps and torches; a pin
    might be seen lying on the wharf. I went on board where they
    were at work, and took hold with my own hands. I was not one
    of those appointed to destroy the tea, and who disguised
    themselves as Indians, but was a volunteer; the disguised
    men being largely men of family and position in Boston,
    while I was a young man, whose home and relations were in
    Connecticut. The appointed and disguised party proving too
    small for the quick work necessary, other young men,
    similarly circumstanced with myself, joined them in their
    labors. The chests were drawn up by a tackle,--one man
    bringing them forward, another putting a rope around them,
    and others hoisting them to the deck and carrying them to
    the vessel's side. The chests were then opened, the tea
    emptied over the side, and the chests thrown overboard.
    Perfect regularity prevailed during the whole transaction.
    Although there were many people on the wharf, entire silence
    prevailed,--no clamor, no talking. Nothing was meddled with
    but the teas on board. After having emptied the whole, the
    deck was swept clean, and everything put in its proper
    place. An officer on board was requested to come up from the
    cabin and see that no damage was done except to the tea. At
    about the close of the scene, a man was discovered making
    his way through the crowd with his pockets filled with tea.
    He was immediately laid hold of, and his coat skirts torn
    off, with their pockets, and thrown into the dock with the
    rest of the tea. I was obliged to leave the town at once, as
    it was of course known that I was concerned in the affair."

William Tudor, then a law student in the office of John Adams, and
acquainted with some of the members of the tea party, gives in his "Life
of James Otis," the following account of it:

    "A band of eighteen or twenty young men (no one of whom was
    in any disguise), who had been prepared for the event, went
    by the Meeting House giving a shout. It was echoed by some
    within; others exclaimed, 'the Mohawks are come!;' the
    assembly broke up and a part of it followed this body of
    young men to Griffin's wharf. Three different parties,
    composed of trust-worthy persons, many of whom were in after
    life among the most respectable citizens of the town, had
    been prepared, in conformity to the secret resolves of the
    political leaders, to act as circumstances should require.
    They were seventy or eighty in all, and when every attempt
    to have the tea returned had failed, it was immediately made
    known to them, and they proceeded at once to throw the
    obnoxious merchandise into the water. One, if not two of
    these parties, wore a kind of Indian disguise. Two of these
    persons, in passing over Fort Hill to the scene of
    operations, met a British officer who, on observing them,
    naturally enough drew his sword. As they approached, one of
    the Indians drew a pistol, and said to the officer, 'The
    path is wide enough for us all; we have nothing to do with
    you, and intend you no harm; if you keep your own way
    peaceably, we shall keep ours."

Henry Purkitt, Samuel Sprague and John Hooten, (all living in 1835,)
were apprentices of about the same age. Purkitt and Dolbear were
apprentices with Peck, the cooper, in Essex Street. While at their work
they heard a loud whistle, which startled them, and which they followed
till it brought them to the wharf. Their part of the play was on the
flats, by the side of one of the vessels,--for it was nearly low
tide,--and with other boys, by direction of the commander, to break up
more thoroughly the fragments of chests and masses of tea thrown over in
too great haste. They found their return upon deck much facilitated by
the immense pile which had accumulated beneath and around them. The
commander acted as an interpreter for those persons,--apparently five or
six aboard each vessel,--who especially assumed the Indian guise. These
were no doubt among the principal directors of the whole affair. They
affected to issue their orders from time to time in an Indian jargon,
the interpreter communicating what the chiefs said; attended to the
procuring of keys and lights, the raising of the derricks, trampling the
tea into the mud, sweeping the decks at the close of the scene, calling
up the mate to report whether everything (except, of course, the tea)
was left as they found it, etc.

Purkitt and Dolbear went home early. Peck, who was believed to be one of
the chiefs, came in rather softly, at one o'clock in the morning. The
boys noticed some indications of red paint behind his ears, next day.
The only tools they used were staves, which they made before starting.

       *       *       *       *       *

David Kinnison, the last survivor of the tea party, died at Chicago in
1852, at the great age of one hundred and fifteen. He was one of
seventeen inhabitants of Lebanon, Maine, who had associated themselves
together as a political club, and, who had determined, at all hazards,
to destroy the tea, whether assisted or not. Some of them repairing to
Boston, joined the party, and twenty-four, disguised as Indians,
hastened on board the ships, twelve armed with muskets and bayonets, the
rest with tomahawks and clubs. They expected to have a fight, not
doubting that an effort would be made for their arrest, and agreed at
the outset to stand by each other to the last. They also pledged
themselves not to reveal the names of the party. Owing to the great age
of Kinnison, when this relation was made to Mr. Lossing, it is possibly
in some particulars erroneous, and is given only as a piece of original
evidence, and simply for what it is worth.

With a British squadron and British troops so near at hand, it seems
strange that the party was not interrupted. The probable reason is, that
something far more serious was expected on any attempt to land the tea,
and that the authorities, the owners of the ships, the consignees of the
tea, and all others concerned, were glad to be thus extricated from a
serious dilemma. They, however, could not be called upon to interfere,
except by the civil authorities, in case of a riot.

Governor Hutchinson says "the tea could have been secured in the town in
no other way than by landing marines from the men-of-war, or bringing to
town the regiment which was at the castle, to remove the guards from the
ships and to take their places." This would have brought on a greater
convulsion than there was any danger of in 1770, and it would not have
been possible, when two regiments were forced out of the town, for so
small a body of troops to have kept possession of the place. He did not
suppose such a measure would be approved of in England, nor was he sure
of support from any one person in authority. There was not a justice of
peace, sheriff, constable or peace officer in the province who would
venture to take cognizance of any breach of law against the general
bent of the people. So many of the actors were universally known that a
proclamation, with a reward for discovery, would have been ridiculed.
Hutchinson submitted the consideration of the affair to the council, and
that body promised to give it attention, but nothing came of it. "Of the
thousands concerned in the transaction," wrote General Gage to the
historian Chalmers, "or who were spectators of it, only one witness
could be procured to give testimony against them, and that one
conditionally that the delinquents should be tried in England." So far
as is known, only a single person was arrested,--a Mr. Eckley, and he
was never brought to trial.

A fourth tea-ship, destined for Boston, was wrecked on Cape Cod. The few
chests of tea saved from her cargo were, by the governor's order, placed
in the castle. Twenty-eight chests, brought a little later by another
vessel from London, on the joint account of Boston merchants, were
destroyed by a disguised party, on March 7, 1774. The people of
Charlestown destroyed, in the market place, all the tea they could find
in the town, paying the owners its value. Other towns did the same.

An account of the transaction, drawn up by the Boston committee, was
carried by Paul Revere, to New York and Philadelphia. When the news
reached New York, vast numbers of the people collected. They were in
high spirits, one and all declaring that the ships with tea on board,
designed for that port, should on arrival be sent back, or the tea
destroyed. They highly extolled the Bostonians for what the people had
done, and immediately forwarded the news to Philadelphia. When Revere,
on his return, brought word that Governor Tryon had engaged to send the
New York tea-ships back, all the bells in Boston were rung next morning.

Extract from a letter to the Sons of Liberty, in New York, dated Boston,
December 17, 1773:

    "The bearer is chosen by the committee from a number of
    gentlemen, who volunteered to carry you this intelligence.
    We are in a perfect jubilee. Not a Tory in the whole
    community can find the least fault with our proceedings....
    The spirit of the people throughout the country is to be
    described by no terms in my power. Their conduct last night
    surprised the admiral and English gentlemen, who observed
    that these were not a mob of disorderly rabble, (as they
    have been reported,) but men of sense, coolness and

The tea shipped to South Carolina (two hundred and fifty-seven chests)
arrived on the second of December. So strenuous was the opposition to
its being landed, that the consignees were persuaded to resign. Though
the collector, after the twentieth day, seized the dutiable article, as
no one would sell it or pay the duty, it perished in the damp cellars
where it was stored.

On December 25, news reached Philadelphia that its tea-ship was at
Chester. The Delaware pilots had been warned, by printed handbills, not
to conduct any tea-ships into the harbor, as they were only sent for the
purpose of enslaving and poisoning the Americans. Four miles below the
town it came to anchor. On the 27th, news of what had occurred in Boston
having arrived, five thousand men collected in town meeting at an hour's
notice. At their suggestion, the consignee, who came as passenger,
resigned, and the captain agreed to take his ship and cargo back to
London the very next day.

The ship "Nancy," Captain Lockyer, destined for New York, having been
blown off the coast, refitted at Antigua, and proceeding thence to New
York, arrived there April 18, 1774. Some of the committee went on board
and prevented her coming up to the city, but the captain was allowed to
procure some necessary stores, and then, by the advice of the
consignees, returned to London without breaking bulk. A quantity of
tea--private property--was imported from London, and an application from
the consignee to have it returned to England was refused by the
custom-house officers. A number of "Mohawks" then took charge of the
business, and emptied the whole of it into the sea.

A few days later, Captain Chambers, master of the ship "London," trading
to New York, who had on a former occasion received the thanks of her
citizens for refusing to bring the East India Company's tea, was
detected in introducing eighteen boxes of fine tea, curiously concealed
between blankets, etc., which he intended to smuggle, but the people
having discovered it, immediately threw it into the sea, and the
captain, to escape the wrath of the people, took refuge in Captain
Lockyer's vessel, and sailed for England.

Opposition to the obnoxious tea duty had by no means subsided, when, in
October, 1774, the brigantine "Peggy Stewart" approached Annapolis,
Maryland, with a cargo of tea on board. At once there was a great
commotion. Terror seized the owners. They applied to Charles Carroll for
advice. He told them there was but one way to save their persons and
property from swift destruction, and that was to burn their vessel and
cargo instantly, and in sight of the people. It was done, and the flames
did for Annapolis what the "Mohawks" had done for Boston.

       *       *       *       *       *

"This," said Hutchinson, referring to the action of Boston, "was the
boldest stroke that had been struck in America." Writing to Sir Francis
Bernard, he spoke of it as "an unfortunate event, and what every body
supposed impossible after so many men of property had made part of the
meetings, and were in danger of being liable for the value of it. It
would have given me a much more painful reflection," he continued, "if I
had saved it by any concession to a lawless and highly criminal assembly
of men, to whose proceedings the loss must be consequently attributed,
and the probability is that it was a part of their plan from the

"We do console ourselves," wrote John Scollay, chairman of the Selectmen
of Boston, and prominent in the affair, "that we have acted

"The most magnificent movement of all," wrote John Adams in his diary.
"There is a dignity, a majesty, a solemnity in this last effort of the
patriots that I greatly admire. This destruction of the tea is so bold,
so daring, so firm, so intrepid and inflexible, and it must have so
important consequences, and so lasting, that I cannot but consider it as
an epoch in history. The question is whether the destruction of the tea
was necessary? I apprehend it was absolutely and indispensably so.... To
let it be landed would be giving up the principle of taxation by
Parliamentary authority, against which the continent has struggled for
ten years.... But, it will be said, it might have been left in the care
of a committee of the town, or in Castle William. To this many
objections may be urged."

The historian Ramsay says: "If the American position was right in
relation to taxation, the destruction of the tea was warranted by the
great law of self-preservation. For it was not possible for them by any
other means within the compass of probability to discharge the duty
they owed to their country."

"I cannot but express my admiration of the conduct of this people,"
writes an 'Impartial Observer' in the "Boston Evening Post" of December
20, 1773.... "I shall return home doubly fortified in my resolution to
prevent that deprecated calamity, the landing the tea in Rhode Island,
and console myself with the happier assurance that my brethren have not
less resolution than their neighbors."

"It became," says Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, "a simple question, which
should go under, British tea or American liberty? That volunteer band of
Liberty Boys performed their work 'better than they knew,' averting
contingencies which must have caused immediate bloodshed, and
accomplishing results of the greatest importance to the American cause."

Wm. C. Rives, in his Life of James Madison, says: "This memorable
occurrence was undoubtedly, in the immediate sequence of the events
which it produced, the proximate cause of the American Revolution."

A Tory pamphleteer of the time gives us the Loyalist view of the affair.
He says: "Now the crime of the Bostonians was a compound of the grossest
injury and insult. It was an act of the highest insolence towards
government, such as mildness itself cannot overlook or forgive. The
injustice of the deed was also most atrocious, as it was the destruction
of property to a vast amount, when it was known that the nation was
obliged in honor to protect it."

We subjoin some of the comments of candid British writers respecting the
affair. Mr. Massey says: "The question of taxation was virtually settled
by this signal failure to enforce the law, or rather by the absence of
any attempt to protect the property of merchants who had made their
ventures by the express authority, if not at the instance of the British

While speaking of the destruction of the tea as the "crowning outrage,"
Lecky says, "It will probably strike the reader that every argument
which shewed that the tea duty was not a grievance, was equally powerful
to show that it was perfectly useless as a means of obtaining a revenue.
It would be difficult indeed to find a more curious instance of
legislative incapacity than the whole transaction displayed."

Hear Carlyle:

    "Thursday, December 16, 1773. What a contention is going on
    far over seas at Boston, New England. The case is well known
    and still memorable to mankind. British parliament, after
    nine years of the saddest haggling, and baffling to and fro
    under constitutional stress of weather, and such east winds
    and west winds of parliamentary eloquence as seldom were,
    has made up its mind that America shall pay duty on their
    teas before infusing them, and America, Boston more
    especially, is tacitly determined that it will not, and that
    to avoid mistakes the teas shall never be landed at all....

    "Rotch's report done, the chairman (an Adams 'American
    Cato,' subsequently so called,) dissolves the sorrowful
    seven thousand, with these words, 'The meeting declares it
    can do nothing more to save the country," we'll naturally go
    home then and weep. Hark however! almost on the instant, in
    front of the Old South Meeting House, a terrific war-whoop,
    and about fifty Mohawk Indians, with whom Adams seems to be
    acquainted, and speaks without interpreter: Aha!

    "And sure enough, before the stroke of seven these fifty
    painted Mohawks are forward without noise to Griffin's
    wharf, have put sentries all round them, and in a great
    silence of the neighborhood, are busy in three gangs upon
    the dormant tea ships, opening their chests and punctually
    shaking them out into the sea. Listening from the distance
    you could hear distinctly the ripping open of the chests and
    no other sound. About ten P.M. all was finished, ... the
    Mohawks gone like a dream, and Boston sleeping more silently
    even than usual."

In England, the news of the destruction of the tea at Boston was
received with astonishment, not unmixed with anger. Men of all parties
were swept into the hostile current. Coercive measures were at once
brought forward in parliament. In the debates that ensued, a member
said, "The town of Boston ought to be knocked about their ears and
destroyed." Moderate and judicious men made a gallant stand against the
bill shutting up the port of Boston, but the current was irresistible,
and the measure, with others of like character, passed by overwhelming
votes. Burke, on the question of the repeal of the tea tax, made one of
his noblest efforts. Colonel Barré told the House that if they would
keep their hands out of the pockets of the Americans they would be
obedient subjects. Johnstone, formerly governor of Florida, who had
before predicted to the East India Company, that exporting tea on their
own account was absurd and would end in loss, now predicted that the
Port Bill would, if passed, be productive of a general confederacy to
resist the power of Britain, and end in a general revolt. His utterances
were prophetic indeed. These measures did unite the colonies, and
produced a general revolt ending in American independence.

Accounts vary greatly as to the number and appearance of the tea party.
The original body which arrived so opportunely at the door of the "Old
South," and which may have included Molineux, Revere, and the more
prominent leaders, was probably not numerous. They, however, had passed
the word, and trusty coadjutors were not long in following them. Colonel
Tudor and Colonel Stevens say they were not disguised, but all other
accounts state that they were in the Indian dress, or something
resembling it.

The historian, Gordon, places their number at seventeen, "though judged
to be many more as they ran across Fort Hill." "Our number was between
twenty-eight and thirty," says Wyeth, one of the party. Hutchinson says
about fifty, and many have since adopted his statement. Tudor, in his
"Life of Otis," says seventy or eighty. Colonel Ebenezer Stevens agrees
with him. "None put the number lower than sixty, nor higher than
eighty," is the recollection of "a Bostonian," fifty years after the
event. John Andrews was told that they mustered on Fort Hill to the
number of about two hundred. "From one hundred to one hundred and fifty
being more or less actively engaged" thought Hewes, one of the actors.
"Two or three hundred dressed like Indians," wrote Dr. Cooper to Dr.

These varying estimates may be accounted for in this way. Those who
report the smaller number either repeated what they were told, or saw
only one of the parties on its way to the ships, while the others speak
of the entire body after its separate parts had united at the wharf.
Some may mean only such of the party as were in Indian dress. If we
place the number on board the ships at fifty or sixty, and estimate
those at work by the sides of the vessels at sixty or seventy, we shall
probably not be far out of the way, the whole number then aggregating
from one hundred and ten to one hundred and thirty. The names of more
than one hundred of these have been preserved.

Who were these men? "Depend upon it," said John Adams to Hezekiah Niles
in 1819, "These were no ordinary Mohawks. The profound secrecy in which
they have held their names, and the total abstinence of plunder, are
proofs of the character of the men." But two of the recognized leaders
of the people were there,--Dr. Young and Thomas Molineux. Most of them
were mechanics and apprentices, but they were mechanics of the stamp of
Revere, Howard, Wheeler, Crane and Peck, men who could restrain and keep
in due subordination the more fiery and dangerous element, always
present in popular demonstrations. That element was not wholly absent on
this occasion, for Mackintosh, the leader in the Stamp Act riots, was
present with "his chickens," as he called them, and active in destroying
the tea. There were also professional men, like Dr. Young and Dr. Story,
and merchants, such as Molineux, Proctor, Melvill, Palmer, May, Pitts
and Davis, men of high character and standing, so that all classes were
fairly represented. As might be expected, those appointed for the work,
and who were in Indian dress, were largely men of family and position in

A writer in the American Magazine of History attempts to discredit the
statement that the party were in Indian dress, intimating that it was an
afterthought, intended to deceive the authorities, and lead them to the
belief that the disguise was too complete to allow of identification for
arrest or punishment. Cavils like this are superfluous in view of the
abundant testimony to the contrary. The sworn protest of Captain Bruce,
of the "Eleanor," one of the tea-ships, given on a subsequent page in
this volume, is of itself sufficient evidence upon this point. The
number of those who, prepared as they were, on the spur of the moment,
really bore any very great resemblance to Indians, was no doubt small. A
large number of the actors hastily assumed such disguises as were
nearest at hand.

No doubt the principals in this transaction pledged one another to keep
their connection with it a profound secret, and they did so, but the
young apprentices and volunteers, who, without premeditation, joined the
party on its way to the wharf, were under no such restraint, and we can
only wonder that they made no revelation concerning an event of such
importance. It was not until a very late period of their lives that any
of them opened their lips publicly about it, and when more than half a
century had elapsed since it occurred.

The names of fifty-eight of these men, given below, are taken from
Thatcher's "Traits of the Tea Party," published in 1835, while nine or
ten of them were yet living, the source whence all later lists have been
derived. Possibly this list is identical with that mentioned as having
once been in the possession of Peter, the son of Benjamin Edes, the
printer. Of this list it is safe to say that, while far from being
complete, it is correct as far as it goes. The names that follow the
list of 1835, have been gleaned from a great variety of sources,
principally family tradition.

"List of the tea party, furnished in 1835, by an aged Bostonian, well
acquainted with the subject, of the persons generally supposed, within
his knowledge, to have been more or less actively engaged." Those
starred were then living:

  *George R.T. Hewes.
  Joseph Shed.
  John Crane.
  Josiah Wheeler.
  Thomas Urann.
  Adam Collson.
  S. Coolidge.
  Joseph Payson.
  James Brewer.
  Thomas Bolter.
  Edward Proctor.
  Samuel Sloper.
  Thomas Gerrish.
  Nathaniel Green.
  *Benj. Simpson.
  Joseph Eayres.
  Joseph Lee.
  William Molineux.
  Paul Revere.
  John Spurr.
  Thomas Moore.
  Samuel Howard.
  Matthew Loring.
  Thomas Spear.
  Daniel Ingoldson.
  Richard Hunnewell.
  John Hooton.
  *Jonathan Hunnewell.
  Thomas Chase.
  Thomas Melvill.
  *Henry Purkitt.
  Edward C. Howe.
  Ebenezer Stevens.
  Nicholas Campbell.
  John Russell.
  Thomas Porter.
  William Hendley.
  Benjamin Rice.
  Samuel Gore.
  Nathaniel Frothingham.
  Moses Grant.
  *Peter Slater.
  James Starr.
  Abraham Tower.
  *William Pierce.
  William Russell.
  T. Gammell.
  ---- McIntosh.
  Dr. Thomas Young.
  Joshua Wyeth.
  Edward Dolbear.
  ---- Martin.
  Samuel Peck.
  Lendall Pitts.
  *Samuel Sprague.
  Benjamin Clarke.
  Richard Hunnewell, Jr.
  *John Prince.

Additional names of the tea party, derived principally from family

  Nathaniel Barber.
  Samuel Barnard.
  Henry Bass.
  Edward Bates.
  Nathaniel Bradlee.
  David Bradlee.
  Josiah Bradlee.
  Thomas Bradlee.
  Seth Ingersoll Brown.
  Stephen Bruce.
  Benjamin Burton.
  George Carleton.
  Gilbert Colesworthy.
  John Cochran.
  Gershom Collier.
  James Foster Condy.
  Samuel Cooper.
  Thomas Dana, Jr.
  Robert Davis.
  Joseph Eaton.
  ---- Eckley.
  William Etheridge.
  Samuel Fenno.
  Samuel Foster.
  John Fulton.
  Samuel Hammond.
  John Hicks.
  Samuel Hobbs.
  Thomas Hunstable.
  Abraham Hunt.
  David Kinnison.
  Amos Lincoln.
  Thomas Machin.
  Archibald Macneil.
  John May.
  ---- Mead.
  Anthony Morse.
  Eliphalet Newell.
  Joseph Pearse Palmer.
  Jonathan Parker.
  John Peters.
  Samuel Pitts.
  Henry Prentiss.
  John Randall.
  Joseph Roby.
  Phineas Stearns.
  Robert Sessions.
  Elisha Story.
  James Swan.
  John Truman.
  Isaac Williams.
  David Williams.
  Jeremiah Williams.
  Thomas Williams.
  Nathaniel Willis.



Boston Tea Party.


A prominent merchant and patriot of Boston, was one of the famous "Whig
Club" of ante-revolutionary days, in which were James Otis, Dr. Church,
Dr. Warren and other leaders of the popular party. In it Civil Rights
and the British Constitution were standing topics for discussion. He was
one of the committee of correspondence, from its creation in 1772, and
afterwards of the committee of safety, and was naval officer of the port
of Boston in 1784. He joined St. Andrew's Lodge of Freemasons in 1780,
and died at his house, in Bear Lane, (Richmond Street,) October 13,
1787; aged 59. Before the Revolution he kept an insurance office in Fish
(now North) Street.


A major in the Revolutionary army, was born in Watertown, Mass., June
19, 1737; died August 8, 1782.


A prominent "Son of Liberty," a merchant on Orange Street, residing in
Rawson's Lane, (Bromfield Street,) died June 5, 1813; aged 74. He was
the first volunteer on the roll of the guard of the tea-ship, November
29, 1773. Drake ("Old Landmarks of Boston,") says Samuel Adams and Major
Melvill often passed a convivial evening, and ate a Sunday dinner, at
his house.

[Illustration: Signature, Henry Bass]


A housewright, residing on Nassau (now Tremont) Street, died in August,
1811; aged 76. Mary, his widow, died May 30, 1813; aged 76.

[Illustration: Signature, Nathaniel Bradlee

"Owe no man anything. Be true to thyself, to thy country, and to thy

--C.D. BRADLEE, Blackstone Square, Boston.]


Were brothers, who lived in the house yet standing, on the southerly
corner of Hollis and Tremont Streets. Their sister, Sarah, assisted her
husband, John Fulton, and her brothers, to disguise themselves, having
made preparations for the emergency a day or two beforehand, and
afterwards followed them to the wharf, and saw the tea thrown into the
dock. Soon returning, she had hot water in readiness for them when
they arrived, and assisted in removing the paint from their faces. As
the story goes, before they could change their clothes, a British
officer looked in to see if the young men were at home, having a
suspicion that they were in the tea business. He found them in bed, and
to all appearance asleep, they having slipped into bed without removing
their "toggery," and feigning sleep. The officer departed satisfied.
Mrs. Fulton helped to dress the wounds of the soldiers who were in the
battle of Bunker Hill. She died in Medford, Mass., in 1836, and is the
authority for the above statement. Of the brothers,--

David, was born November 24, 1742; died March 10, 1811.

[Illustration: Signature, David Bradlee]

Thomas, born December 4, 1744; died Oct. --, 1805.

Nathaniel, born February 16, 1746; died May 8, 1813.

Josiah, born March 24, 1754; died October 2, 1798.

The old house, built by Nathaniel, in 1771, is now the residence of his
grandson, Nathaniel Bradlee Doggett, to whose son, Samuel Bradlee
Doggett, I am indebted for the above facts.


Pump and blockmaker, in Summer Street, died in April, 1805. He took an
active part in the early movements of the Revolution; was one of the
volunteer guard on the "Dartmouth," November 30, 1773, and prominent in
the destruction of her cargo, and was also one of the young men who
removed at noon-day, and while it was under guard, the cannon from the
gun-house on West Street, which afterwards found its way to
Washington's camp. Some of the tea party met at his house, and were
assisted in preparing themselves by his wife and daughter, who blackened
their faces with burnt cork. He was a confidential messenger between
Governor Hancock and Washington, and was afterwards a prisoner of war,
having been taken in a privateer, in 1781. He was an early member of the
Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association, and was also a member of
the Massachusetts Lodge of Freemasons in 1792. His son, Thomas, a member
of the City Council of Boston in 1825-26, died June 4, 1859; aged 78.


Was born in Cambridge, Mass., March 13, 1750. He was the son of William
Brown, born in 1683. Mr. Brown's trade was that of a house carpenter. In
the lower part of his shop, in Charlestown, was stored the ammunition
afterwards used in the battle of Bunker Hill. He was in full sympathy
with the cause of liberty; was one of the "Mohawks" on the memorable
16th of December, and on that occasion was masked and painted, and bore
a club. He used to relate to his daughters, that on returning home from
the scene of destruction, he had to fight his way through the excited
crowd, with his back to the houses, to avoid discovery. They kept his
connection with the affair a profound secret many years, and when it was
spoken of in their old age, excused their silence regarding it on the
ground that they thought it was a disgrace, like a riot or a mob, and
ought not to be told. At Bunker Hill he was wounded in the leg, and
also received an injury to his eye. He said he should never forget the
cry that went up during the battle, of "No ammunition! no ammunition!"
Mr. Brown served as an assistant commissary during the siege of Boston,
and continued with the army until the war closed. He was paid off in
worthless Continental money--there was no other--and it is related that
his spunky little wife, indignant at the poor reward of such sacrifices
as her husband had made, on receiving it from him, threw it all into the
fire. She is described as short, stout and handsome, with long,
straight, black hair, that fell almost to her feet.

After the war, Mr. Brown, with impaired health and eyesight, kept a
tavern successively in Charlestown, Cambridge, Newton Corner, the Punch
Bowl in Roxbury, and finally the Sun tavern, in Wing's Lane, (Elm
Street,) Boston. He died in Charlestown, Mass., March 9, 1809, leaving
several children by his second wife, Sarah Godding, of Cambridge. Three
of his daughters, Cynthia, Harriet and Angeline--lived to be over
eighty,--retained their memories and their mental faculties to the last,
and preserved many interesting reminiscences of their father's
revolutionary career. Mr. Brown was a good singer, and they recall this
verse of a song, having reference to the battle of Bunker Hill:

    "We marchèd down to Charlestown ferry,
      And there we had our battle;
    The shot it flew like pepper and salt,
      And made the old town rattle."

The name of Seth Ingersoll Brown is recorded on the monument, in Hope
Cemetery, Worcester, Mass., erected in 1870, to the memory of Captain
Peter Slater, and his associates of the Boston tea party. He is buried
in the Granary burying-ground.

Of Mr. Brown's descendants, known in public life, may be mentioned Rev.
John W. Hanson, D.D., of Chicago, Ill.; Rev. Warren H. Cudworth, D.D.,
formerly of East Boston; Harriet H. Robinson, who married William S.
Robinson, ("Warrington,") journalist, and clerk of the Massachusetts
House of Representatives from 1862 to 1873, and their elder daughter,
Harriet R. Shattuck.

"Though none of his descendants will continue to bear his name,--the
male branch being extinct in the third generation," writes his
grand-daughter, Mrs. H.H. Robinson, "some of them have inherited his
spirit of resistance to laws that compel them--his only surviving
representatives,--"to submit to taxation without representation." To
this lady we are indebted for the materials from which this notice is

Some lines, written in 1773, by Susannah Clarke, "Warrington's" great
grandmother's sister, serve to manifest the spirit that pervaded the
country when non-tea drinking was held to be a religious duty by
American women:

    "We'll lay hold of card and wheel,
    And join our hands to turn and reel;
    We'll turn the tea all in the sea,
    And all to keep our liberty.

    We'll put on home-spun garbs,
    And make tea of our garden herbs;
    When we are dry we'll drink small beer,
    And FREEDOM shall our spirits cheer."


Was a merchant, doing business at 28 State Street, and was one of the
volunteer guard on the "Dartmouth." He was the first inspector of beef
and pork, appointed by the State of Massachusetts, and was a man of
sound judgment and inflexible integrity. He became a member of the
Masonic Lodge of St. Andrew in 1779, and master in 1782. He died July
26, 1801.


Was born in the old Burton House, Thomaston, Maine, December 9, 1749,
and died in Warren, Maine, May 23, 1835. Happening to be in Boston on a
visit on the memorable 16th of December, 1773, he went with the crowd to
the Old South Meeting House, and at the close of the meeting, heard the
cry "Tea party! tea party!" Joining the party that boarded the
tea-ships, he labored with all his might in throwing the tea into the
water. It being about low tide, the tea rested on the bottom, and when
the tide rose it floated, and was lodged by the surf along the shore. He
was subsequently an officer in the Revolutionary army; was present at
the surrender of Burgoyne, and himself fell into the hands of the enemy,
in February, 1781, sharing in the imprisonment of General Peleg
Wadsworth, at Castine, and in the daring escape of that officer. After
the war, he was eight years a magistrate, and was often a member of the


A native of the Island of Malta, died in Warren, R.I., July 23, 1829;
aged ninety-seven. He came to this country just previous to the
Revolution, during a great part of which he was employed in the marine
service, and by many deeds of noble daring, aided the cause of liberty,
and evinced his attachment to his adopted country. He had been a
resident of Warren fifty-four years.


One of the most active of the "Sons of Liberty," was a distiller, near
the famous Liberty Tree, at the junction of Orange, Essex and Newbury
Streets. In the office of Chase & Speakman the meetings of the committee
of the "Sons" were held, of one of which John Adams has left an account.
Chase was one of those who prepared and suspended the effigies of Bute
and Oliver from Liberty Tree, on August 14, 1765. He was one of the
volunteer guard on the "Dartmouth," on the night of November 29, 1773;
was a member of the "Anti-Stamp Fire Society," formed soon after the
passage of the Stamp Act, in 1765, and joined St. Andrew's Lodge of
Freemasons in 1769.

[Illustration: Signature, Thomas Chase]


Was a cooper, in Ship Street, and in 1807 resided in Prince Street. He
became a member of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association in
1801; of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company in 1806, and died
in 1840.

[Illustration: Signature, Benjamin Clarke]


Born in East Boston, in 1750; died in Belfast, Maine, October 30, 1839.
The monument there erected to his memory bears the following
inscription: "He was one of the memorable tea party at Boston, December
16, 1773." His only surviving son, of the same name, now (1884) resides
at Belfast, at the age of eighty-three.


Born in Boston, December 23, 1744, removed to Nantucket, Mass., and died
there in 1818.


Of Chesterfield, Mass., died about the year 1825.


Was a leather dresser, near the "Great Trees," on Essex Street, as we
learn by his advertisement soon after the passage of the Stamp Act, in
which he says: "Understanding that many worthy tradesmen had agreed to
wear nothing but leather for their working habits, 'he offers' to dress
all sorts of skins suitable for that purpose." Collson was one of the
volunteer guard on the "Dartmouth" on the night of November 30, 1773,
and was said to be the person who, at the close of the meeting of
December 16th, at the Old South, shouted from the gallery, "Boston
harbor a tea-pot to-night!" He became a member of St. Andrew's Lodge of
Freemasons in 1763, and at the time of his death, February 16, 1798,
aged sixty, resided at 59 Marlboro' (Washington) Street. He was a member
of the "Long Room" Club.


A bookseller in Boston before the Revolution, doing business in Union
Street, "opposite the cornfields," died in Haverhill, Mass., July 12,


Was born in Boston, in 1755, and was living in Georgetown, D.C., in
1838. He was commissioned second lieutenant in Crane's artillery
regiment, February 1, 1777; quartermaster 14th May, 1778; lieutenant
and adjutant in 1783. He was inspector of pot and pearl ashes in New
York city and county, from 1808 to 1830. Adjutant-General Samuel Cooper,
of the United States army, afterwards a general in the Confederate army,
who died in 1877, was his son.


Colonel of the Massachusetts regiment of artillery in the Continental
line of the Revolutionary army, was born in Milton, Mass., 7th December,
1744, and died in Whiting, Maine, 21st August, 1805. His education was
scanty. In 1759, when only fifteen years of age, his father, Abijah was
drafted as a soldier in the French war. John offered to go in his
father's stead, and was laughed at on account of his youth.
Nevertheless, the boy went and proved himself a brave lad, saving the
life of a lame fellow-soldier, who had fallen when pursued by a party of
Indians, at St. John's. He came to Boston in early life, married, and
established himself in business as a house carpenter,--his house and
shop being in Tremont Street, opposite Hollis. He assisted Major Paddock
in setting out the elm trees on the Tremont Street mall, about the year
1765. These trees were old acquaintances of Crane's, having, like him,
been transplanted from Milton. Naturally enough, in one of his ardent
temperament, he at once identified himself with the active Sons of
Liberty. One of the famous tea party, his career came near being
permanently ended by the fall of a derrick, used in hoisting out the
tea, which, falling upon him, knocked him senseless. His comrades,
supposing him killed, bore him to a neighboring carpenter's shop, and
secreted the body under a pile of shavings. They afterwards took him to
his home, where good nursing and a strong constitution, soon brought him
round. The late Colonel Joseph Lovering, who lived opposite to Crane,
used to relate that he held the light on that memorable evening, while
Crane, and other young men, his neighbors, disguised themselves for the
occasion. House building and other branches of industry having been
paralyzed by the "Boston Port Bill," Crane, with his partner, Ebenezer
Stevens, (also one of the tea party,) went to Providence, R.I., where
they followed their business with success, until the war broke out. Both
had been members of Paddock's artillery company, a corps famous for
having furnished a large number of valuable officers to that arm of the
service in the Revolutionary army, among whom may be named John Crane,
Ebenezer Stevens, William Perkins, Henry Burbeck, John Lillie, and David
Bryant. Crane had been commissioned by Governor Wanton,
captain-lieutenant of the train of artillery of the colony of Rhode
Island, December 12, 1774, (barely one year after the destruction of the
tea,) and immediately after receiving the news of the battle of
Lexington, he was made captain of the train attached to the Rhode Island
"Army of Observation," commanded by General Nathaniel Greene. Crane's
command, "all well accoutred, with four excellent field-pieces marched,
in the latter part of May, to join the American army near Boston. They
made a very military appearance, and are, without exception, as complete
a body of men as any in the king's dominions." Stevens was a lieutenant
in this company. Possessing a remarkably keen vision, Crane was
exceedingly skilful as an artillerist, a talent he had frequent
opportunities to display during the siege of Boston. Early in the
morning of July 8, 1775, Majors Tupper and Crane, with a number of
volunteers, attacked the British advance guard at Brown's House, on
Boston Neck, (near the corner of Newton Street and Blackstone Square,)
routed them, and burned two houses. This was regarded as a brave and
well-executed affair, and is noteworthy as being the only hostile
encounter that has ever taken place in the old limits of Boston. During
the siege he was stationed at the Roxbury line, and was engaged in
several skirmishes on the islands in the harbor. Commissioned major of
Knox's regiment, January 1, 1776, he accompanied the army to New York,
and while cannonading a British frigate which was passing his batteries
at Corlaers Hook, was severely wounded by a cannon ball, which carried
off a part of his foot, disabling him for several months, and finally
causing his death--the wound having closed. He raised in Massachusetts,
in 1777, the 3d regiment of Continental artillery, which he commanded
till the war ended, when he was brevetted a brigadier-general, (October
10, 1783,) his commission as colonel dating from January 1, 1777. This
corps, officered chiefly from those who had been trained under Paddock,
Gridley and Knox, was not exceeded in discipline, valor, and usefulness
by any in the service. It was principally employed with the main army,
and was an essential auxiliary in the most important operations.
Portions of it were also with Sullivan in the Rhode Island campaign,
with Gates at Saratoga, and in the heroic defence of Red Bank, on the
Delaware. After the peace, Crane formed a partnership with Colonel
Lemuel Trescott, in the lumber business, in Passamaquoddy, Maine, in
which they were unsuccessful. The connection was soon dissolved, and
Crane finally settled in Whiting, Washington County, Maine, where he had
a grant of two hundred acres of land, for his Revolutionary services,
from the legislature of Massachusetts. Colonel Crane was five feet eight
inches in height, stout and thick set. He possessed great energy,
resolution and courage, and at critical moments was perfectly cool. In
1790, he was commissioned judge of the Court of Common Pleas, by
Governor Hancock. While at the lines on Boston Neck, Crane aimed a ball
at a house near his own, belonging to Rev. Dr. Byles, the Tory, but
succeeded only in knocking the ridge pole from his own dwelling. He
became a Freemason in 1781, joining an army lodge at West Point, and was
also a member of the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati. Colonel
Crane, in 1767, married Mehitabel Wheeler, believed to have been a
sister of Captain Josiah Wheeler, a member of the tea party. His three
daughters married three sons of Colonel John Allan, who, with his Indian
allies, rendered valuable service to the patriot cause in protecting
throughout the Revolutionary war, the exposed north-eastern frontier.
William Allan, who married Alice Crane, was the grandfather of George H.
Allan, of Boston, from whom many of the above facts have been derived,
and who has made extensive collections relative to the Allan and Crane

[Illustration: Signature, John Crane]


Merchant, importer of groceries, wines and liquors, did business at No.
1 Cornhill, and resided in Orange Street. He was the son of Joshua and
Sarah (Pierpont) Davis, and was born 24th January, 1747. He was a Son of
Liberty, and as an officer in Crafts's artillery regiment, took part in
the expulsion of the British fleet from Boston harbor, ultimately
attaining the rank of major. Member of the Ancient and Honorable
Artillery Company in 1786. His brothers, Caleb and Amasa, were also
prominent Revolutionary characters,--the latter having been forty years
quartermaster-general of Massachusetts. Robert Davis became a member of
St. Andrew's Lodge of Freemasons in 1777, and died in November, 1798.
His daughter, Clarissa, widow of William Ely, was living in Hartford in
1873, at the age of eighty-two.


Was a fellow-apprentice, and afterwards a partner with Henry Purkitt, in
the business of a cooper, in South Street. His residence was near Dr.
Eliot's Meeting House, where he died, in April, 1796.


Was an eccentric and excitable, but patriotic citizen, a hatter by
trade. He claimed to have hauled down the first British colors at the
outset of the Revolution, and to have loaded a cannon in State Street
to prevent the regulars from landing, in 1774. He was a member of the
Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company; was an ardent democrat, and
late in life wore a cocked hat, and styled himself "general."


Was one of the volunteer guard on the "Dartmouth" on the night of
November 30, 1773. He was a housewright in Essex Street, in 1789.

---- ECKLEY,

A barber, was informed against for his participation in the destruction
of the tea, and committed to prison. The Sons of Liberty supported him
while in confinement, and also provided for his family. He was finally
liberated, and the person who informed against him was tarred and
feathered, and paraded through the town with labels on his breast and
back bearing his name, and the word "informer" in large letters.


Who was a mason, while engaged in throwing the tea overboard, was
recognized by his apprentice, Samuel Sprague.


A housewright, was born in Boston, in 1745, and died in 1806. He lived
in a large wooden house on Tremont Street, near Hollis Street, and was
a near neighbor of Crane, Lovering and the Bradlees. He was a man of
unusual reticence, but noted for courage and patriotism. From 1773 till
his death, he kept a vow never to drink tea. In 1797 he married Mary,
the sister of Joseph Hiller, the first collector of the port of Salem,
and was the father of Captain John Fenno, a pioneer in the China trade.


Of Roxbury, was a sergeant in Captain Moses Whiting's minute company, at
Lexington, and as a captain in Greaton's regiment, served at
Ticonderoga, and in other campaigns of the Revolutionary war.


A coachmaker, at No. 5 West Street, died January 22, 1825; aged

[Illustration: Signature, Nathaniel Frothingham]


Was of Scotch descent, his father bearing the same name, having come to
Boston about the year 1740. The son was born in Boston, in 1749, and
died there in 1827. His trade was that of a carpenter, in which capacity
he served seven years in the construction department of the
Revolutionary army. He was a participant in the Stamp Act riots, and in
the destruction of the tea, and in his later years used to describe the
latter affair, with great minuteness, in the presence of his family, and
on the anniversary of the day would act over again the part he then
performed. He married Margaret Urann, by whom he had fifteen children.
As the initials J and T were in old times interchangeable, there is no
doubt but this is the person mentioned in the list of 1835.

    Communicated by Prof. Wm. Gammell, of Brown University, and
    Rev. Sereno Dwight Gammell, of Wellington, O., grandsons of
    John Gammell.


Born in Boston, February 6, 1751; died November 16, 1831. Captain John
Gore, his father, a lieutenant in the Ancient and Honorable Artillery
Company, in 1753, had, by industry, acquired considerable wealth. Being
a Tory, he left Boston with the British army in 1776, but afterwards
returned. Samuel followed his father's trade, that of a painter, in
Court Street, at the corner of Gore's Alley, (Brattle Street,) but,
unlike him, was an ardent patriot. He was one of the party of young men
who, at noon-day, and under the eyes of the British guard, carried off
and secreted the cannon from the gun-house that stood opposite the mall
at the corner of West Street. His companions in this daring feat were
Nathaniel Balch, James Brewer, Moses Grant, Jeremiah Gridley and
----Whiston. Mr. Gore was one of those who established the glass-works
in Essex Street, a speculation by which he unfortunately lost all the
accumulations of many years of untiring industry. He was a member of the
Masonic Lodge of St. Andrew, in 1778, and was the first treasurer of the
Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association. Governor Christopher Gore
was a younger brother. He was a man of superior intelligence, kindness
of heart, and courtesy of manner.

[Illustration: Signature, Samuel Gore]


Son of Samuel, and father of Deacon Moses Grant, was born in Boston,
March 13, 1743; died December 22, 1817. He was an upholsterer, on Union
Street, and his son, Moses, was a partner with him until his death. He
was an ardent patriot; was one of the volunteer guard on the
"Dartmouth," on the night of November 29, 1773; was one of those who
seized and carried off the cannon from the gun-house, on West Street,
and one of the renowned "tea party." Member of the company of cadets,
and a deacon of Brattle Street church.

[Illustration: Signature, Moses Grant]


Was in 1789 register of deeds, at 42 Cornhill. He was an ardent Son of
Liberty, and was present at the public celebration in Dorchester, where
three hundred of them gathered, August 14, 1769.

[Illustration: Signature, Nathaniel Greene]


One of the tea party, died at Wadsborough, Vt., January 4, 1842; aged
ninety-three. In 1774, he began a settlement near Otter Creek, N.Y., but
the hostility of the Indians drove him to Vermont, and he fixed his
residence at Wadsborough. He was an industrious farmer, and an active


A Revolutionary pensioner, formerly of Roxbury, died at Waldoborough,
Me., in February, 1830; aged eighty-two. He was a mason, on Newbury
Street, Boston, in 1796.


Born in Boston, September 5, 1742, died at Richfield, Otsego County,
N.Y., November 5, 1840, at the great age of ninety-eight. His education
was scanty; farming, fishing, and shoemaking being his chief
occupations. Excitable and patriotic, he took part in numerous
ante-Revolutionary disturbances in Boston, and engaged in the naval, and
afterwards in the military, service of his country during the war. His
residence was at the Bulls Head, an old house that stood on the
north-east corner of Congress and Water Streets. The most detailed
account we have of the destruction of the tea in Boston, was given by
him, in "Traits of the Tea Party," by B.B. Thatcher, published in New
York, in 1835. An oil portrait of Hewes is in the possession of his
grandson, Mr. Henry Hewes, of West Medford, Mass.


Born in Cambridge, May 23, 1725, was one of the earliest martyrs to the
cause of American liberty, having been killed by the British on their
retreat from Lexington, April 19, 1775. John, his son, was a printer,
and became in 1773, a partner with Nathaniel Mills, in the publication
of the "Post Boy," a Tory sheet.


Born in Lincoln, Mass., in 1750, died at Sturbridge, Mass., in May,
1823. While in the employ of Simeon Pratt, a tanner, of Roxbury, he
aided in throwing the tea overboard, and afterwards said that chests of
Bohea, weighing three hundred and sixty pounds, were rather heavy to
lift. He settled in Sturbridge, as a farmer, also carrying on his trade
of tanner and currier. By his wife, Lucy Munroe, of Lexington, he had
four children.


An apprentice, while at work on the tea, saw a person who looked like a
countryman, coming up with a small boat to the ship's side, evidently
intending to secure a cargo for his own use. He, and three or four other
"North Enders," as full of spirit as himself, being directed to dislodge
the interloper, jumped over and beat the canoe from under him "in the
twinkling of an eye." Hooton was an oarmaker, at Hooton's wharf, Fish
Street, in 1789. In 1806, he was a wood-wharfinger, on North Street,
residing in Prince Street. In 1838, his residence was in Chelsea, Mass.


A Boston shipwright, resided at the "Mansion House," as it was called,
which stood on the site of the Mariner's Church, North Square. He died
here in January, 1797, at the age of forty-five, and was buried in
Copp's Hill. His wife, Anna Lillie, the sister of Major John Lillie, of
the Revolutionary army, died in North Andover, in 1804. Two of our
well-known fellow citizens, Henry Lillie Pierce and Edward L. Pierce,
are grandsons of Major Lillie. Theophilus Lillie, the Tory trader, who
was mobbed during the tea excitement, was Major Lillie's uncle.
Caroline, the youngest child of Samuel and Anna Lillie Howard, born
October 3, 1794, married Rev. Samuel Gilman, D.D., of Charleston, S.C.
She is still living, at the age of ninety, and resides at Tiverton,
R.I., with a daughter Mrs. Bowen.



Ropemaker, died in September, 1821, aged seventy-nine. E.C. Howe & Son
(Joseph) dissolved partnership August 1, 1800. Howe's rope-walk was one
of seven, on the west side of Pearl Street, all of which were burnt in
July, 1794.


The son of Richard, followed his father's trade, of a mason. He was born
in Boston, May 19, 1759; died in April, 1842. He was several times a
selectman of Boston, and member of both branches of the legislature; was
connected with many benevolent institutions, and was for nine years
president of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association. He was
one of the principal agents in the establishment of the glass-works, in
Boston and Chelmsford, and its failure, in 1822, made him a poor man.
For many years he had a country residence at Newton, which was the seat
of a generous hospitality. The latter part of his life was passed in
seclusion, at Roxbury, where, in 1800, he married the widow Theoda
Davis. Jonathan, his brother, and Richard, his father, were also in the
tea party.


A mason, member of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association,
died in October, 1805. He resided in Essex Street; was an active Son of
Liberty, and was one of the volunteer guard on the "Dartmouth," on the
night of November 30, 1773. His two sons, fourteen and sixteen years of
age, were with him at the throwing overboard of the tea.


Was born in 1753. He lived for many years on Brighton Street, and was a


Was born in Braintree, Mass., June 2, 1748; died December 5, 1793. He
was apprenticed, in 1763, to Edmund Quincy, who kept a wine-store, and
was afterwards connected with him in the trade. In 1789, his place of
business was in Middle (Hanover) Street, and his residence on Federal
Street. He served as lieutenant and adjutant at the siege of Boston; was
in the Ticonderoga campaign, remaining some years in the service, which
he quitted with the rank of captain. June 24, 1781, he was agent for the
privateer "Buccaneer," Captain Hoysted Hacker. For a time he was
inspector of the ports of Boston and Charlestown. In 1777, he became a
member of St. Andrew's Lodge of Freemasons. October 15, 1771, he married
Mary St. Leger. His orderly books for June and July, 1775, are in the
possession of his grandson, ---- Urann, Esq.


Housewright, formerly of Boston, died in Keene, N.H., October 17, 1829,
aged seventy-nine. He was a member of St. Andrew's Lodge, in 1782.

[Illustration: Signature, David Kinnison]


The last of the tea party, born in Old Kingston, near Portsmouth, Maine,
November 17, 1736; died in Chicago, February 24, 1852; aged one hundred
and fifteen years. Up to the Revolution he was a farmer, at Lebanon,
whence, with a few comrades, members of a political club, he went to
Boston, with the express purpose of destroying the tea. He was in active
service during the war, participating in many battles, and was a
prisoner among the Indians at its close. He was a farmer, at Wells,
Maine, when the war of 1812 broke out, and was in the battles at
Sackett's Harbor and Williamsburg, and in the latter was badly wounded
in the hand, by a grape-shot. He afterwards lived at Lyme, and at
Sackett's Harbor, N.Y., and in July, 1845, went to Chicago. At Lyme,
while felling a tree, he was struck down by a limb, which fractured his
skull, broke his collar bone, and two of his ribs. While engaged in
discharging a cannon, at a training at Sackett's Harbor, both legs were
broken and badly shattered. Up to 1848 he had always made something by
his labor, and was the father of twenty-two children. He learned to read
when past sixty. A daughter, who survived in 1848, was made acquainted
in that year with her father's existence, by the publication of Mr.
Lossing's "Field Book of the Revolution." Hastening to him, she smoothed
the patriarch's pillow in his passage to the grave.


Merchant, on Long Wharf, afterwards at 9 Doane Street, was a member of
Massachusetts Lodge of Freemasons, in 1773, and died February 6, 1831;
aged eighty-six.

[Illustration: signature, Joseph Lee]


Born in Hingham, Mass., March 17, 1753, died at Quincy, Mass., January
15, 1829. He was apprenticed to a Mr. Crafts, at the North End, who, on
the evening of December 16, 1773, secretly procured for him an Indian
disguise, dressed him in his own chamber,--darkening his face to the
required tint,--and then, dropping on his knees, prayed most fervently
that he might be protected in the enterprise in which he was engaged.
Joining Stark's New Hampshire regiment, he was in the battle of Bunker
Hill; was afterwards a captain in Craft's artillery regiment, and was at
one time in charge of the castle, in Boston harbor. When Shays'
insurrection broke out, he assisted in its suppression. He was a
housewright of much skill. The wood-work of the State House was under
his charge, and evinces the grace and beauty of his workmanship. He
married a daughter of Paul Revere. His grandson, Frederick W. Lincoln,
has been mayor of Boston. He joined St. Andrew's Lodge of Freemasons,
in 1777. Governor Levi Lincoln, of Massachusetts, and Governor Enoch
Lincoln, of Maine, were nephews of Captain Amos Lincoln.

[Illustration: Signature, Amos Lincoln]


Was a cordwainer, on Devonshire Street, residing on Brattle Street. He
died November 7, 1829; aged seventy-nine.


Was born in Staffordshire, England, 20th March, 1744; was employed by
Brindley in canal construction, and in 1772 came to America, and settled
in Boston. He was wounded at Bunker Hill, while acting as lieutenant of
artillery; 18th January, 1776, was commissioned second lieutenant in
Col. Knox's artillery regiment, and was employed from April to June in
that year in laying out the fortifications for the defence of the town
and harbor of Boston; from July, 1776, to 1781, he was employed in
constructing the fortifications which were to render the Hudson
impassable to British vessels. In October, 1777, when Forts Montgomery
and Clinton were taken by the British, Captain Machin was wounded by a
musket-ball, which entered his breast and passed out under his right
shoulder. In April, 1779, he accompanied Colonel Van Schaick's
expedition against the Onondagas, of which he kept a journal, and in
June joined Sullivan's expedition to the Genesee Valley, as engineer. A
map of this expedition, executed by him, was in the possession of his
son, Captain Thomas Machin. In the fall of 1781, he aided in laying out
the works of the American army, then besieging Yorktown. In 1783, he
began a settlement at New Grange, Ulster County, and in the following
year erected several mills at the Great Pond, a few miles west of
Newburgh. March 12, 1793, he was commissioned a captain, to take rank as
such from 21st August, 1780. In January, 1797, he removed to Montgomery
County, N.Y., where he practised surveying, and where he died, at his
residence in Charleston, a part of the old town of Mohawk, 3d April,
1816; Member of Army Lodge, West Point, 1782.


Died in Scituate, Mass., February 1, 1840; aged ninety.


Was a tradesman of Boston, who acquired great prominence in the local
disturbances of the town, prior to the outbreak of the Revolution, but who
disappears from her history after that period. He first came into notice
as the leader of the South End party, in the celebration of Pope Day,
which took place on the 5th of November, in commemoration of the discovery
of the gunpowder plot. In 1765, the two factions of the North and South
Ends harmonized, and after a friendly meeting in King (now State) Street,
marched together to Liberty Tree. The leaders,--Mackintosh of the South,
and Swift of the North End,--appeared in military habits, with small canes
resting on their left arms, having music in front and flank. All the
property used on such occasions was afterwards burnt on Copp's Hill.
Mackintosh was a ringleader in the riot of August 26, 1765, when
Lieutenant-Governor Hutchinson's house was destroyed, and was arrested in
King Street next day, but was immediately released by the sheriff, on the
demand of a number of merchants, and other persons of character and

From the Diary and Letters of Thomas Hutchinson, we take the following

    "The Governor had summoned a council the day after the riot.
    The sheriff attended, and upon enquiring, it appeared that
    one Mackintosh, a shoemaker, was among the most active in
    destroying the Lieutenant-Governor's house and furniture. A
    warrant was given to the sheriff to apprehend him by name,
    with divers others. Mackintosh appeared in King Street, and
    the sheriff took him, but soon discharged him, and returned
    to the council chamber, where he gave an account of his
    taking him, and that Mr. Nathaniel Coffin, and several other
    gentlemen, came to him and told him that it had been agreed
    that the cadets, and many other persons, should appear in
    arms the next evening, as a guard and security against a
    fresh riot, which was feared, and said to have been
    threatened, but not a man would appear unless Mackintosh was
    discharged. The Lieutenant-Governor asked, 'And did you
    discharge him?' 'Yes.' 'Then you have not done your duty.'
    And this was all the notice taken of the discharge. The true
    reason of thus distinguishing Mackintosh was that he could
    discover who employed him, whereas the other persons
    apprehended were such as had collected together without
    knowing of any previous plan."

Mackintosh was styled the "First Captain-General of Liberty Tree," and
had charge of the illuminations, hanging of effigies, etc. Long
afterward, in speaking of the tea party, he said, "It was my chickens
that did the job." My informant, Mr. Schuler Merrill, then a boy of ten,
remarks that it was a mystery to him, at that time, "how chickens could
have anything to do with a tea party!" Mackintosh is described by
Merrill as "of slight build, sandy complexion, and nervous temperament."
He died in extreme poverty, at North Haverhill, N.H., about the year
1812, at the age of seventy. His unmarked grave can be pointed out by
Mr. Merrill, who still resides in North Haverhill, at the age of


Born in Boston, November 24, 1748, died July 16, 1812. On the afternoon
of December 16, 1773, he went in haste to his home, on North Square, and
said to his young wife, "Nabby, let me have a beefsteak as quickly as
possible." While he was eating it, a rap was heard on the window, and he
rose at once from the unfinished meal and departed. He returned late,
tired and uncommunicative. In the morning, there was found in his shoes,
and scattered upon the floor, a quantity of _tea_. The inevitable
inference from these circumstances is strengthened by evidence of a very
different character. Near the close of Major Melvill's life, he gave,
while dining with a few friends, some anecdotes of the tea party, and
turning to Henry Knox May, the son of Colonel May, he said, "Harry,
there was one John there." The son, who knew the family tradition, was
eager to learn more. "Not now, Harry," said the major, "Come and see me,
and I will tell you all about it." Mr. May called repeatedly upon him,
but could never obtain any further satisfaction respecting the object of
his inquiry. Colonel May was a man of great energy and courage, an
ardent patriot, and one not likely to be overlooked in the making-up of
a company of picked men for such an enterprise. He was at one time
colonel of the Boston regiment, and was for many years a selectman, and
a firewarden of the town. He made a journey of exploration to the Ohio
region, in 1788 and 1789, an account of which has been published. Two
sons, Frederick and George Washington May, were skilful physicians, in
Washington, D.C. He has numerous grandchildren living, among them Prof.
Edward Tuckerman, of Amherst College, and Samuel P. Tuckerman, Mus.
Doc., resident in England.

    I am indebted for the above facts to my friend, John Joseph
    May, Esq., of Mayfield, Dorchester.

[Illustration: =The relic of the Tea=, destroyed in Boston, Dec. 16^th
1773. found on the following morning by Thomas Melville, in his shoes;
and put into this phial, for preservation.]

[Illustration: Signature, Thomas Melvill]


Was born in Boston, January 16, 1751, and died there September 16, 1832.
He was the grandson of Thomas, minister of Scoonie Parish, Fifeshire, a
cadet of the Scottish family of the Earls of Leven and Melvill. Allan,
his father, left Scotland, and established himself in business in
Boston, in 1743. Left an orphan at the age of ten, the care of his
education devolved upon his maternal grandmother, Mrs. Mary Cargill, a
relative of the celebrated surgeon, Dr. Abernethy. Young Melvill was
graduated at Princeton College, in 1769, with a view to the ministry,
but impaired health led him to make a visit to Scotland, in 1771.
Returning to Boston, in 1773, he established himself in business in that
town, just at the time when the tea excitement began, and being strongly
in sympathy with the "Sons of Liberty," and a member of the Long Room
Club, he took an active part in the event of December 16, 1773. Some of
the tea taken from his shoes, after his return home, was preserved, and
is now in the possession of Mrs. Thomas Melvill, of Galena, Illinois.
The picture here given is a fac-simile of the venerable relic itself. In
1773, he received the honorary degree of Master of Arts, from Harvard
College. In 1774, Melvill married Priscilla, daughter of John Scollay, a
prominent Boston merchant. He had been selected by General Warren as one
of his aids, just before the fall of the latter at Bunker's Hill, and
was successively captain and major in Colonel Thomas Crafts's regiment
of artillery, raised for the defence of the State. When, soon after the
evacuation of the town, in March, 1776, the British fleet was driven
from Boston harbor, Captain Melvill discharged the first guns at the
hostile ships, from his battery, at Nantasket. He afterwards served in
the Rhode Island campaigns of 1777 and 1779. After the war, he was naval
officer of the port of Boston, in 1786-89, and through the influence of
his friend, Samuel Adams, was, in the latter year, appointed inspector
under the United States Government, a post which he held until made
naval officer, in 1811. President Jackson removed him from this office
in 1829, after which period he was a member of the Massachusetts House
of Representatives. From 1779 to 1825, he was one of the firewards of
Boston, and on retiring from his forty-seven years' service, was made
the recipient of a silver pitcher as a testimonial of the appreciation
of his services, by his associates. Major Melvill's long and honorable
connection with the Boston Fire Department began in the good old times,
when the firewards carried staves, tipped at the end with a brass flame,
and marshalled the bystanders into lines for passing buckets of water to
the scene of conflagration. One of the town engines was named "Melvill,"
in honor of the major, whose death was finally caused by over-fatigue at
a fire near his house. He was a Democrat, and a firm friend of
Samuel Adams, of whom he had a small portrait, by Copley, now at
Harvard University. At the time of his death, he was president of the
Massachusetts Charitable Society. Major Melvill was a man of sound
judgment and strict integrity. He is still remembered by our older
citizens as the last to wear, in Boston, a cocked hat and small
clothes--the costume of the Revolution. Herman Melville, a grandson, has
attained popularity as an author. The front door of Major Melvill's
residence, which formerly stood near the easterly corner of Green and
Staniford Streets, now does similar duty for the house at the corner of
Bartlett and Lambert Streets, Roxbury. The accompanying portrait is from
an oil painting in the possession of his grand-daughter, Mrs. Samuel
Downer, of Dorchester. The beautiful garden at Downer Landing, Hingham,
near which is her summer residence, perpetuates the name of this worthy
and patriotic citizen of Boston. Admitted member Mass. Lodge, 1772.

[Illustration: Signature, Thomas Melvill

This print shows the Major in his Continental hat, the last he wore: now
carefully preserved and in possession of Mr. John L.D. Wolfe, Tremont
Street, Boston, near Brookline and Boston line, who has kindly allowed
us to sketch it for this work.]

[Illustration: Signature, Thomas Melvill]


A distinguished and patriotic merchant of Boston, died there October 22,
1774; aged fifty-eight. Like Revere and Johonnot, he was of Huguenot
ancestry. About the year 1760, he, with William Phillips and others,
established the "Manufactory House," on the east side of what is now
Hamilton Place. Here the people were taught spinning and weaving, free
of cost, and soon many were clad in garments of their own manufacture.
This building was put to other uses, in 1768. Molineux, from the very
beginning of the dispute with the mother country, was an active and
influential Whig. He was a member of the "Long Room Club," formed in
1762, and of the Sons of Liberty, in 1765; was one of the Boston
committee of correspondence, from its origin, in 1772; one of the
committee, and its spokesman, appointed by the Liberty Tree meeting,
November 4, to request the consignees of the tea to resign, and took an
active part in all the public meetings that followed. Molineux and Dr.
Young were the only prominent leaders of the people who were known to
have been actively present at the destruction of the tea. Molineux was a
member of a committee, of which Samuel Adams was the chairman, to demand
the removal of the British troops from Boston. John Adams relates that
Molineux was obliged to march by the side of the troops, to protect them
from the indignation of the people. With the exception of Samuel Adams,
no name is oftener found, in connection with the public acts of the day,
than that of William Molineux, and his death, a few months before the
war broke out, was a great loss to the patriot cause. While the Boston
Port Bill was under discussion in the British Cabinet, Governor
Hutchinson was told by Lord Mansfield that the Lords of the Council had
their pens ready to sign the warrant for the transportation to England
and trial of Adams, Molineux and others, for high treason, but were
prevented by the doubts of the Attorney and Solicitor-Generals as to the
sufficiency of the evidence to convict them. Molineux resided at the
corner of Beacon and Mount Vernon Streets, near John Hancock, where in
1760 he built a mansion-house that was considered as "quite splendid"
for those days.

[Illustration: Signature, W Molineux]


Son of Hugh Moore, wharfinger, on Fish Street, informs his father's
"good customers," in the _Gazette_ of November 24, 1773, that he
"carries on the business as usual, and solicits their custom." Ben.
Russell speaks of seeing Moore and his (Russell's) father blacking each
other's faces on the 16th of December, 1773. He died in August, 1813;
aged sixty.


"Anthony Morse, my father, afterwards a lieutenant during the
Revolutionary war, and Mr. Joseph Roby, now (1819) of Hanover, N.H.,
were active in the destruction of the tea, December 16, 1773."

--Niles' Acts and Principles of the Revolution, p. 326.


A cooper, on Prince Street, died in Pepperill, Mass., May 11, 1838; aged


Of Charlestown, repeatedly informed Dr. Joseph Bartlett, author of a
historical sketch of that town, that he was one of the Indians who
destroyed the tea in Boston harbor. He was a member of the Masonic Lodge
of St. Andrew, in 1778.

[Illustration: Signature, Eliphelet Newell]


Was the only son of General Joseph Palmer, a prominent actor in the
Revolutionary drama in Massachusetts, and Mary, the sister of Judge
Richard Cranch, who resided in that part of Braintree called Germantown.
Before the war he dealt in West India goods and hardware, at the town
dock. Of his share in the tea party his widow says: "One evening, about
ten o'clock, hearing the gate and door open, I opened the parlor door,
and there stood three stout-looking Indians. I screamed, and should have
fainted, but recognized my husband's voice saying, 'Don't be frightened,
Betty, it is I. We have only been making a little salt-water tea.' His
two companions were Foster Condy and Stephen Bruce. Soon after this,
Secretary Flucker called upon my husband, and said to him, 'Joe, you are
so obnoxious to the British Government, that you had better leave town.'
Accordingly we left town, and went to live in part of my father's house,
in Watertown." During the war, Mr. Palmer served in Boston and in Rhode
Island, first as brigade major, and next as quartermaster-general. Soon
after his father's death, in 1788, he went to Vermont, with Colonel
Keith, to examine the facilities for establishing themselves in some
branch of the iron business. Shortly after he reached Windsor he lost
his life, having accidentally fallen from a bridge, then erecting over
the Connecticut. He left a numerous family. His daughter, Mary, married
Royal Tyler, of Vt. Member Massachusetts Lodge, 1773.

[Illustration: Signature, Joseph Pearse Palmer]


Was a Roxbury farmer, a "high Son of Liberty," who safely brought
through the British lines on the Neck, and secreted in Muddy Pond Woods,
the two cannon which, by a clever stratagem, had been taken from the
gun-house, on Boston common, at noon-day. Next day, a party of Red Coats
were in Roxbury searching for them in every direction, but in vain.
These are supposed to be the same pieces now in the chamber at the top
of Bunker Hill Monument. Parker took the guns from the stable of the
second house west from the court house, on the south side of Court
Street. He brought a load of hay, and took home a load of stable manure,
the guns being in the bottom of the wagon.


Was a housewright, on Foster's wharf, in 1789, and at 5 Bennet Street,
in 1796. He was a descendant of Edward Payson, one of the first settlers
of Roxbury, and his wife, Mary, a sister of the Apostle Eliot, and was
born in 1743.


Was a cooper, and in 1789 did business at Hallowell's ship-yard, near
the foot of Milk Street. He was a prominent Son of Liberty, also a
leading and influential member of the North End Caucus. He was one of
the guard on the "Dartmouth," on the night of November 30, 1773, and on
the morning following the destruction of the tea, his apprentices
noticed traces of red paint behind his ears. He was thought to have been
one of the leaders in the affair. He joined the Masonic Lodge of St.
Andrew in 1756.

[Illustration: Signature, Samuel Peck]


A native of Lisbon, Portugal, died in Philadelphia, April 23, 1832, at
the great age of one hundred years, five months and twenty-three days.
He was able to attend to his business up to the close of 1831. He came
to America soon after the earthquake of 1755, and settled in Boston. He
was one of the tea party; was in the battles of Lexington and Bunker
Hill,--in which latter he lost a finger,--at Princeton, Monmouth and
Trenton. He was also at the capture of Burgoyne and of Cornwallis, was
again wounded, and after being discharged, in 1783, resided in
Philadelphia, where he reared a numerous family.


Born in Boston, December 25, 1744, died October 10, 1840. He served his
time with John Adams, a barber, in Dock Square, at the sign of the
"Great Boot," and opened a shop for himself in Marshall Street, some
years before the Revolution. His shop was a sort of exchange for the
gossip current at the North End, and was frequented by many celebrated
residents of that locality. He boasted of having shaved Franklin, and he
stated that Franklin told him that he was born in the house on the
corner of Union and Hanover Streets, at the sign of the "Blue Ball."
Hewes relates that Pierce was one of those that boarded the ships on
December 16, 1773. He continued actively engaged in his business until
the year 1835, having followed his profession seventy-six years!


Youngest son of Hon. James Pitts, a merchant and an active patriot of
Boston; born in 1747, died December 31, 1787, and being captain of a
volunteer company, was buried with military honors. According to Hewes,
Pitts commanded the division of the tea party that boarded the brig
"Beaver," and after the affair was over, formed the party in military
order, with the aid of Major Barber and Colonel Proctor, and marched
them back into town. A solemn pledge, for the protection of those
engaged in this affair, was entered into by the committee of
correspondence,--of whom Lendall's brother, John Pitts, was one,--about
a week afterwards, when it was currently supposed that those who had
borne a part in that daring performance would be arrested, if
discovered, and executed for treason. It was worded as follows:

    "The subscribers do engage to exert our utmost influence to
    support and vindicate each other, and any person or persons
    who may be likely to suffer for any noble efforts they may
    have made to save their country, by defeating the operations
    of the British Parliament, expressly designed to extort a
    revenue from the Colonies against their consent."

The names of four members of this family are prominently associated with
the tea episode at Boston. James Pitts, the father, (H.U., 1731,) an
eminent and wealthy merchant, who, as member of the Governor's Council,
thwarted the chief-magistrate, Hutchinson, in his efforts to have the
tea landed, and who died in Dunstable, Mass., January 25, 1776; aged
sixty-four. His sons,--JOHN, born in 1737, (H.U., 1757,) a selectman,
and on the committee to urge the consignees to resign; an active member
of the committee of correspondence, of the Provincial Congress of 1775;
Speaker of the House in 1778, and member of the senate in 1780-84, who
died at Tyngsboro', Mass., in 1815; SAMUEL, born in 1745, an officer in
the company of cadets, said also to have been one of the tea party, and
LENDALL, the leader of the party, noted above, who was clerk of the
market in 1775-6, and an officer in Hancock's cadets. The sons all had
Huguenot blood in their veins, their mother being a sister of James
Bowdoin. All were merchants, and active Sons of Liberty, and prior to
the Revolution, were in business together, engaged in extensive
commercial transactions. Pitts's wharf was just north of Faneuil Hall
Market. Pitts Street perpetuates the name and fame of this noted family;
no one of their descendants bearing the name now surviving in Boston.
The Pitts mansion, a favorite place of meeting for the Boston patriots,
occupied the ground now covered by the Howard Atheneum. The accompanying
portrait of Lendall Pitts is taken from a painting owned by his
grandson, Lendall Pitts Cazeau, of Roxbury.

    For many of the above facts I am indebted to the Pitts
    "Memorial," by Daniel Goodwin, Jr., of Chicago.

[Illustration: Signature, Lendall Pitts]


A merchant, formerly of Boston, died in Alexandria, Va., in June, 1800.


Born in Holliston, Mass., March 27, 1749, died in Medfield, Mass.,
August 31, 1821; son of Rev. Joshua, forty-five years pastor of the
Holliston church. Captain Prentiss served during the Revolutionary war,
at Cambridge, at Long Island, and at Trenton. He was an Overseer of the
Poor, in Boston, in 1784; a member of the Ancient and Honorable
Artillery Company in 1786; a sea captain in 1789, and was afterwards a
merchant of Boston. He, with his brother Appleton, was one of the first
to introduce into New England the art of printing calico,--producing a
coarse blue and red article on India cotton. Their place of business was
at the corner of Buttolph Street. Captain Prentiss' residence was in a
stone house, near the head of Hanover Street, the former residence of
Benjamin Hallowell, Comptroller of Customs, which was ransacked at the
time Gov. Hutchinson's House was mobbed. Member Massachusetts Lodge,

[Illustration: Signature, Henry Prentiss]


Was pastor of the First Church, in Salem, from 1779 to his death, June
3, 1836. He was a native of Boston, and was a witness only of the
destruction of the tea, as he informed Colonel Russell, of the
"Centinel," long afterward. Admitted member Massachusetts Lodge, 11th
January, 1780.


A prominent citizen and military officer of Boston, died there in
November, 1811; aged seventy-eight. He was an importer of West India
goods, at the sign of the "Schooner," in Fish Street, at the North End,
before the war, after which he was in the auction business, at No. 1
Union Street. He was an active patriot, and was placed on the committee
to obtain the resignation of the consignees of the tea, and commanded
the guard on the "Dartmouth," on the night of November 29, 1773.[22] In
1756, he joined the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, of
which his grandfather, Edward Proctor, had been a member in 1699; was in
the service during the Revolutionary war, and was a member of the
committees of correspondence and of safety. He became a member of the
Masonic fraternity in 1765, when he joined St. Andrew's Lodge; was
master in 1774-76, and was junior grand warden of the Massachusetts
Grand Lodge in 1781. For some years previous to his death, he was one of
the Overseers of the Poor, and was a fireward in 1784-89. Hannah, his
widow, died October 31, 1832, aged 87.



[Illustration: Signature, Edward Proctor]


Born in Boston, March 18, 1755, died March 3, 1846. He was educated at
the public schools of Boston; was afterwards apprenticed to Samuel Peck,
the cooper, a zealous "Son of Liberty," and member of the tea party, and
was himself active on that occasion, in disobedience to his master's
orders. His reminiscences of the affair have been related on a previous
page. Enlisting as a soldier in the Revolutionary army, he served
through the war, and was present at Trenton and Brandywine, and was at
one time a sergeant in Pulaski's Cavalry. After the war, he carried on
his trade of cooper successfully, in connection with his former
fellow-apprentice, Dolbear, in South Street. In 1803, appointed
inspector-general of pickled fish, and performed the duty satisfactorily
for thirty-five years. Joining a company of cavalry after the war, he
passed through all the grades, and rose to that of colonel. He was many
years a member of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association;
became a member of St. Andrew's Royal Arch Chapter of Freemasons, in
1798, and was master of St. Andrew's Lodge, in 1804-5. "Uprightness and
exactness were prominent traits of his character, and universal love and
charity for all mankind were sincerely exhibited in his social
intercourse. He had troops of friends, but it is not known that he ever
had an enemy." In 1834, a number of Polish refugees arrived here, after
the final partition of their native country. A collection for their
benefit was proposed. The call was nobly responded to, and among others,
Purkitt sent his check, as follows:

    "Pay to Count Pulaski, my commander at the battle of
    Brandywine, his brethren, or bearer, one hundred dollars."

There is in possession of the family a full-length silhouette likeness
of Purkitt, and a daguerreotype. The accompanying portrait is from an
oil painting, in the possession of Mr. Henry P. Kidder, of Boston.

[Illustration: Signature, Henry Purkitt]


Born in Watertown, Mass., October 2, 1750; married Sarah Barnard, 30th
December, 1778.

[Illustration: Signature, Henry Purkitt

_Better known as Colonel Purkitt._

"Uprightness and exactness were prominent attributes of his character,
and universal love and charity for all mankind were sincerely exhibited
in his social intercourse. He had troops of friends, but it is not known
that he ever had an enemy."--_Biographical Sketches St. Andrew's


Born in Boston, January 1, 1735; died at his residence, in Bennet
Street, May 10, 1818. He was of Huguenot ancestry, and learned the
goldsmith's trade of his father. Articles of silverware, with his
engraving, are still extant in Boston. He also engraved on copper, an
art in which he was self-instructed, producing a portrait of his friend,
the Rev. Jonathan Mayhew; a picture emblematical of the Stamp Act; a
caricature of the "Seventeen Rescinders," one of Lord North forcing the
tea down the throat of America; a picture of the Massacre in King
Street, and another representing the landing of the British troops in
Boston, in 1774. There were then but three engravers, besides Revere, in
America. In 1775, he engraved the plates, made the press, and printed
the bills of the paper money, which was ordered by the Provincial
Congress of Massachusetts. He was sent by this Congress to Philadelphia,
to obtain information respecting the manufacture of gunpowder, and on
his return was able, simply from having seen the process, to construct a
mill, which was soon in successful operation. Revere was an active
patriot during the whole of the struggle for Independence. He was one of
those who executed, as well as planned, the daring scheme of destroying
the tea in Boston harbor, and was one of a club of young men, chiefly
mechanics, who watched the movements of the British troops in Boston. He
acted an important part in rousing the country around Boston on the
morning of the memorable nineteenth of April, 1775, an event worthily
commemorated in Longfellow's poem,--"Paul Revere's Ride." Revere had
served at Fort Edward, near Lake George, as a lieutenant of artillery,
in 1756, and after the evacuation of Boston, was commissioned major in
Crafts' artillery regiment, raised for the defence of the State, in
which he attained the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and remained in
service until the close of the war, after which he resumed his business
as a goldsmith. He was in the unfortunate Penobscot expedition, in 1779.
At a later period, he erected an air-furnace, in which he cast brass
cannon and church bells. He also erected extensive works at Canton, for
rolling copper and casting guns,--a business still carried on there by
his successors. In 1795 he assisted in laying the corner stone of the
State House, at Boston. At the time of his death he was actively
connected with many benevolent and useful institutions, and was the
first president of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association;
member of the Masonic Lodge of St. Andrew's, in 1761, and grand master
of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, in 1794-96.

[Illustration: Signature, Paul Revere]


Resided in Prince Street, Boston, in 1807, but was living in Hanover,
N.H., in 1817.

[Illustration: Signature, Paul Revere

"Preserve union, and judge in all causes amicably and mildly, preferring
peace."--PAUL REVERE, 1795.]


Was by trade a mason, and died in Boston, in 1778. His son, the
well-known journalist, Colonel Benjamin Russell, though only a
school-boy at the time, remembered seeing, through the window of the
wood-house, his father and Mr. Thomas Moore, his neighbor, besmearing
each other's faces with lampblack and red ochre.

[Illustration: Signature, John Russell]



William, son of Samuel and Elizabeth Hacker Russell, was born in Boston,
24th May, 1748, and died 7th March, 1784, in Cambridge, Mass. He was
sometime usher in Master Griffiths' school, on Hanover Street, below the
Orange Tree. On returning to his home, on Temple Street, after the tea
party, he took off his shoes, and carefully dusted them over the fire,
in order that no tea should remain, and saw every particle consumed. He
afterwards taught school in Newton. Joining Crafts' artillery regiment,
he served as sergeant-major and adjutant in the Rhode Island campaign.
He next joined a privateer, as captain's clerk, was captured, and kept
in Mill Prison, Plymouth, England, from August, 1779, until January,
1782. Again in a privateer, he was again taken, and this time suffered
confinement in the horrible prison-ship "Jersey," at New York. These
privations and sufferings occasioned his early death. His son, Colonel
John Russell, was a publisher and journalist in Boston. He joined St.
Andrew's Lodge of Freemasons in 1778.


Whose interesting account of the tea party appears on page LXXIX, was
born in Pomfret, Conn., March 15, 1752, and died in Hampden, Mass., in
1836. His grandfather, Nathaniel, was one of the earliest settlers of
Pomfret, in 1704. Darius Sessions, Lieutenant-Governor of Rhode Island
at the opening of the Revolution, and an active patriot, was his uncle.
Robert Sessions served in the Revolutionary army, attaining the rank of
lieutenant. In 1778, he married Anna Ruggles, a descendant of the
Roxbury family of that name; settled in Pomfret, and in 1781 removed to
South Wilbraham, now Hampden, Mass. The high estimation in which he was
held by his fellow citizens, is evident from the number of offices of
trust and responsibility in which he was placed. He was for many years a
justice of the peace; town clerk and treasurer twelve years;
representative in the State Legislature for five years, (1814-19,) and
was almost always chosen moderator of the town-meeting. His sons,
William V. and Sumner Sessions, are yet living, at an advanced age.

    The above facts, as well as the narrative on page LXXIX,
    were furnished by my friends, Mr. John A. Lewis, of Boston,
    and Hon. William Robert Sessions, the well-known
    agriculturist, of Hampden County, and a member of the
    Massachusetts Senate of 1884, a grandson of Robert.

[Illustration: Signature, Robert Sessions]


Was born in Boston, June 17, 1732, and died there October 18, 1812. He
was the son of Joseph, (born October 26, 1698,) who was the son of
Zachary, (born June 17, 1656,) who was the son of Daniel, the original
settler of that name in Braintree, and afterwards at Billerica, Mass.
The subject of this notice was a carpenter by trade, and worked upon
Faneuil Hall during its rebuilding, or enlargement. He was associated
with Samuel Adams, and other patriots, before and during the
Revolutionary war, and later on was an ardent Jeffersonian
Democrat,--hating the very name of Federalist. His residence was on Milk
Street, on the spot now occupied by the Equitable Life Insurance
building. At his residence a party of persons dressed, who were
concerned in the destruction of the tea, he being one of the number. His
friend, Samuel Adams, was often a visitor at his house, and his grandson
has the china punch-bowl from which the old patriot drank, when
Independence was declared. During the latter part of his life he kept a
grocery store, on the spot where he lived so many years, on Milk Street.
He was buried in the Granary burial ground, where many other patriotic
citizens of Boston are also interred.

    Communicated by his grandson, Mr. Joseph G. Shed, of

[Illustration: Signature, Joseph Shed]


(Erroneously named Isaac in Thatcher's list of 1835,) whose story of the
tea party is told on pages LXXVII-VIII, was a bricklayer's apprentice.
He served in the Revolutionary army; removed to Saco, Maine, about
1790, and died at Biddeford, Maine, March 23, 1849.


Died in Worcester, Mass., October 13, 1831; aged seventy-two. He was
apprenticed to a rope-maker, in Boston. His master, apprehensive that
something would take place that evening relative to the tea, then in the
harbor, shut Peter up in his chamber. He made his escape from the
window; went to a blacksmith's shop, where he found a man disguised, who
told him to tie a handkerchief round his frock, to black his face with
charcoal, and to follow him. The party soon increased to twenty persons.
Slater went on board the brig, with five others; two of them brought the
tea upon deck, two broke open the chests, and threw them overboard,
while he, with one other, stood with poles to push them under water. Not
a word was exchanged between the parties from the time they left
Griffins' wharf till the cargo was emptied into the harbor, and they
returned to the wharf and dispersed. Slater served five years in the
Revolutionary army. A monument in Hope Cemetery, New Worcester, erected
by his daughter, Mrs. Howe, bears the names of Slater, and many of his
companions of the "tea party."

[Illustration: Signature, Samuel Sloper]

Was one of the party, of whom we have no further information.


Lived on Orange Street, in 1789. He was one of those whom Peter
Mackintosh remembered to have seen run into his master's blacksmith's
shop, and blacken their faces with soot.


The father of the poet, Charles Sprague, was born in Hingham,
Mass.,--the home of four generations of his ancestors,--December 22,
1753, and died in Boston, June 20, 1844. He was a mason by trade, and
was athletic and tall of stature. His share in the tea party he thus
related to his son: "That evening, while on my way to visit the young
woman I afterwards married, I met some lads hurrying along towards
Griffin's wharf, who told me there was something going on there. I
joined them, and on reaching the wharf found the 'Indians' busy with the
tea chests. Wishing to have my share of the fun, I looked about for the
means of disguising myself. Spying a low building, with a stove-pipe by
way of chimney, I climbed the roof and obtained a quantity of soot, with
which I blackened my face. Joining the party, I recognized among them
Mr. Etheridge, my master. We worked together, but neither of us ever
afterwards alluded to each other's share in the proceedings." Sprague
married Joanna Thayer, of Braintree, a woman of great decision of
character. They lived in a two-story wooden house, at No. 38 Orange
(now Washington) Street, directly opposite Pine Street.

[Illustration: Signature, Samuel Sprague]


Born in Dorchester, Mass., in 1748, died in Providence, R.I., November
1, 1822; after December 16, 1773, he went to Providence; joined the army
in 1775; was commissioned a captain in a Rhode Island regiment, in 1776,
major in 1777, and served throughout the Revolutionary war.


Born in New London, Conn., died in Jay, Maine, in January, 1831; aged
ninety years and six months. He served in the old French war; afterwards
settled and married in Boston, and removed thence to Bridgewater. During
the Revolutionary war, he was taken prisoner, carried to Halifax, and
detained fourteen months. Placed on board a transport for New York, and
destined to the horrible Jersey prison-ship; after being two days at
sea, the prisoners rose on the ship's company, captured the vessel, and
took her into Marblehead.

[Illustration: Signature, Samuel Sprague]


A farmer and blacksmith of Watertown, born February 5, 1736, died March
27, 1798. He was a soldier at Lake George in 1756, and commanded a
company at Dorchester Heights, when the British evacuated Boston. He,
with Samuel Barnard and John Randall, all of Watertown, were among the
famous Boston tea party. He was offered a colonel's commission in the
army, but the care of his young motherless children, and of a family of
apprentices and journeymen, prevented his continuing in the public
service. He was distinguished for his benevolent and cheerful
disposition, and for strong common sense and strict integrity.

[Illustration: Signature, Lendall Pitts]


A distinguished artillery officer in the Revolutionary war, son of
Ebenezer and Elizabeth Weld Stevens, of Roxbury, was born in Boston,
11th August, 1751, and died at his residence, in Rockaway, now Astoria,
N.Y., 22d September, 1823. He joined Paddock's artillery company, which
was composed almost entirely of mechanics, many of whom were active
members of the organization, which, under the name of Sons of Liberty,
did effective service in opposing the machinations of the crown. Under
its first lieutenant, Jabez Hatch, (Captain Paddock being a Tory,) this
company volunteered as a watch on the "Dartmouth." The Boston Port Bill
drove the mechanics out of the town, and Stevens went to Providence,
where he became a partner with John Crane, in the business of
carpentering. Commissioned first lieutenant of Crane's train of Rhode
Island artillery, 8th May, 1775, he accompanied it to Boston, and served
through the siege; made captain in Knox's artillery regiment, 1st
January, 1776; took part in the expedition to Canada; made major 9th
November, 1776; and in the campaign ending in the surrender of
Burgoyne; appointed lieutenant-colonel 3d April, 1778, and soon after
assigned to Colonel Lamb's regiment, with which he took part in
Lafayette's operations in Virginia, and at Yorktown commanded the
artillery alternately with Lamb and Carrington. After the war, he was a
leading merchant of New York; member of the New York assembly in 1800,
an alderman in 1802, and major-general of the State militia during the
war of 1812. He was a founder of the Tammany and the New England
Societies, and a member of the Society of the Cincinnati. General
Stevens's connection with the tea party is related on a previous page.


Born in Boston, December 3, 1743, died in Marblehead, Mass., August 27,
1805. His father, William Story, was Register of the Court of Admiralty.
His office, on the north-westerly corner of State and Devonshire
Streets, was broken into at the time of the Stamp Act riots, on the
supposition that the stamps had been deposited there for distribution,
and all the books and papers carried into King (now State) Street, and
burned. Elisha Story, fully sympathizing with the patriots of the day,
joined the "Sons of Liberty;" was one of the volunteer guard on the
"Dartmouth," on the night of November 29, and on the evening of December
16, convened, with other disguised Sons of Liberty, in an old
distillery, preparatory to their "little operation" in tea. He was a
pupil of Master Lovell, and studied medicine with Dr. Sprague. He was
surgeon of Colonel Little's Essex regiment, and fought as a volunteer at
Lexington, and at Bunker's Hill, until obliged to remove a wounded
friend to Winter Hill, where he passed the night in caring for the
wounded. He was with Washington at Long Island, White Plains and
Trenton. In 1774, he removed from Boston to Malden, and in 1777, settled
in Marblehead, where he practiced his profession, with success, until
his death. In 1767, he married Ruth, daughter of Major John Ruddock, by
whom he had ten children. By his second wife, Mehitabel, daughter of
Major John Pedrick, he had eleven children, the eldest of whom was
Joseph, afterwards Associate-Justice of the United States Supreme Court.
Isaac, the second son, was the father of Judge Isaac, of Somerville,
Mass. Dr. Story was a skilful physician, and a man of great benevolence.
"It is said that he at one time led a party of men to the Boston common,
near where is now the Park Street gate, where there was a sentinel
guarding two brass field-pieces. While Story overawed the sentinel, by
presenting a pistol at his head, and enjoined silence upon him, the
others came from behind and dragged away the guns, one of which was
afterwards placed in the Bunker Hill Monument."

    Communicated by Hon. Isaac Story, of Somerville.


Merchant, politician, soldier and author before the age of twenty-two;
born in Fifeshire, Scotland, in 1754, died in Paris, March 18, 1831. He
came to Boston when very young, and in 1772, when a clerk in a
counting-house, published "A Dissuasion to Great Britain and the
Colonies from the Slave-Trade to Africa." At the time of the tea party,
in which he was an actor, his place of business was next to Ellis
Gray's, opposite the east end of Faneuil Hall, and he boarded in Hanover
Street, where he and other young apprentices disguised themselves. Next
morning, at breakfast, the tea in their shoes, and smooches on their
faces, led to some mutual chaffing. He was a volunteer at Bunker's Hill;
was a captain in Crafts's artillery regiment; afterwards secretary to
the Massachusetts Board of War; member of the Legislature in 1778;
Adjutant-General of the State, and at the close of the war was major of
a cavalry corps. He acquired a fortune in France through government
contracts, but afterwards became deeply involved, through the dishonesty
of a partner, and was confined in St. Pelagie, a debtors' prison, in
Paris, for many years, keeping up all the while an indefatigable
litigation in the French courts. At the age of seventy he was, by French
law, released. In 1777, he joined the Masonic Lodge of St. Andrew. He
was a man of large enterprise and benevolence, manly in person, and
dignified in manner. He owned a fine estate in Dorchester, latterly the
residence of his daughter, Mrs. Sargent.

[Illustration: Signature, James Swan]


One of the volunteer guard on the "Dartmouth;" became a member of the
Masonic Lodge of St. Andrew, in 1760, and was master of the Lodge, in
1771-72. He was a ship-joiner, in Batterymarch Street, near Hallowell's
ship-yard. In 1784, he was surveyor of boards; and was sealer of woods,
in 1787-90. By Mary, his wife, whom he married in 1750, he had thirteen
children, nine of whom survived him. His will is dated May 7, 1791.

[Illustration: Signature, Thomas Urann]


Was a house-wright, who lived in half a double house, on Orange (now
Washington) Street, west side, between Pleasant and Warrenton Streets.
The other half was occupied by Sprague, also of the tea party. On the
afternoon of December 16, 1773, Mrs. Wheeler became aware that there was
something unusual on her husband's mind. It was late when he returned
home that evening, but she sat up for him, and as he pulled off his long
boots, a quantity of tea fell on the floor, revealing the cause of his
absence. Seeing the tea, a female neighbor, who had sat up with Mrs.
Wheeler to keep her company, in her husband's absence, exclaimed, "Save
it; it will make a nice mess." Taking down her broom, this patriotic
woman swept it all into the fire, saying, "Don't touch the cursed
stuff." Wheeler commanded a company of minute-men at the opening of the
Revolution, most of whom were skilled carpenters and joiners, and by
Washington's order, he superintended the erection of the forts, on
Dorchester Heights. He was also employed in building the State House, in
Boston. He died in Boston, in August, 1817; aged seventy-four. His
daughter, Mrs. Carney, was living in 1873, at Sheepscot, Maine, at the
age of eighty-six. George W. Wheeler, a grandson, many years City
Treasurer of Worcester, is now (1884) living in that city. Captain
Wheeler was one of the volunteer guard on board the "Dartmouth."


Was a blacksmith, who resided in the old mansion, yet standing, near Hog
Bridge, in Roxbury, known as the "John Curtis House." He was the brother
of Colonel Joseph, a distinguished citizen, and the father of Major
Edward Payson Williams, an officer of the Revolutionary army, who died
in the service.


Also of Roxbury, was one of the minute-men in Captain Moses Whiting's
company, at Lexington. He, with his brother-in-law, Thomas Dana, Jr.,
and other Roxbury men, rendezvoused at the house of his father, John
Williams, preparatory to the tea party, and returning home, Williams and
Dana refused to join in sacking the house of a Tory, regarding it as no
part of their enterprise. In 1812, Williams settled in Cazenovia, N.Y.,
and died in Utica, N.Y., July 31, 1817; aged sixty-three.


Journalist, born in Boston, February 7, 1755, died near Chillicothe, O.,
April 1, 1831. After serving an apprenticeship in a printing-office, in
Boston, he became one of the proprietors and publishers of the
"Independent Chronicle," a leading political journal, from 1776 to 1784.
He subsequently issued the first newspaper ever published in Ohio, the
"Scioto Gazette," and was for several years State printer of Ohio. His
son, Nathaniel, also a journalist, was the father of Nathaniel P.
Willis, Richard Storrs Willis, and Sarah Payson Willis, ("Fanny Fern,")
afterwards Mrs. Parton. Member of St. Andrew's Lodge in 1779.


Whose relation is given on a preceding page, was the son of Ebenezer
Wyeth, of Cambridge, and was born there in October, 1758. He served in
the Revolutionary army; afterwards removed to the west, and was residing
in Cincinnati, in 1827.

[Illustration: Signature, Joshua Wyeth]


A physician, was a conspicuous figure in the early Revolutionary
movements in Boston. He was the first president of the North End Caucus,
at which measures of importance to the town were initiated and
discussed, and delivered the first oration commemorative of the Boston
Massacre, March 5, 1771, at the Manufactory House, on Tremont Street. He
was an original member of the Boston committee of correspondence, whose
work was so important in uniting the Colonies, and was a talented and
vigorous contributor to the papers of the day, and to the Royal American
Magazine, on medical, political and religious topics. He was a popular
speaker in the public meetings of the day, and to him is attributed the
first public suggestion of throwing the tea overboard. He was John
Adams's family physician, and an army surgeon, in 1776, and was
afterwards a resident of Philadelphia. Several spirited letters from his
pen may be found in the "Life and Times of General John Lamb." "Tea,"
writes Young in the "Evening Post," "is really a slow poison, and has a
corrosive effect upon those who handle it. I have left it off since it
became a political poison, and have since gained in firmness of
constitution. My substitute is camomile flowers."

       *       *       *       *       *

It is not long, since an eminent Englishman, visiting Boston, asked the
committee of the city government, who attended him, to point out the
place where the tea was thrown overboard. He was taken to a distant
wharf, known by its form as the T, and popularly associated with that
event from the similarity of sound. Boston has appropriately marked many
of her historical sites; surely the spot rendered forever memorable by
the bold deed of the Sons of Liberty, on December 16, 1773, ought not
longer to remain unmarked. No stranger, at all familiar with American
history, would leave unvisited the scene of an event at once so unique
in its character, and so important in its consequences. The precise
locality is definitely known, and a tablet, suitably inscribed, or an
enduring monument of some kind, should be placed there without further


In this diagram the old boundaries are designated by dotted lines. The
place where the tea-ships lay, at the foot of Griffin's wharf, is
coincident with the lower end of the large coal-sheds of Messrs. Chapin
& Co., the present owners of the wharf. They have extended and widened
the wharf, and have built a three-story brick block at its head. A mural
tablet might be set in the front of the central building, at a small
expense. The wharf should be rechristened "Tea Party Wharf."



    No! never such a draught was poured
        Since Hebe served with nectar
    The bright Olympians and their Lord,
        Her over-kind protector;
    Since Father Noah squeezed the grape
        And took to such behaving,
    As would have shamed our grandsire ape,
        Before the days of shaving;
    No! ne'er was mingled such a draught,
        In palace, hall, or arbor,
    As freemen brewed, and tyrants quaffed,
        That night in Boston harbor!
    It kept King George so long awake,
        His brain at last got addled,
    It made the nerves of Britain shake
        With seven score millions saddled;
    Before that bitter cup was drained
        Amid the roar of cannon,
    The western war-cloud's crimson stained
        The Thames, the Clyde, the Shannon;
    Full many a six-foot grenadier
        The flattened grass had measured,
    And many a mother many a year
        Her tearful memories treasured.
    Fast spread the tempest's darkening pall,
        The mighty realms were troubled,
    The storm broke loose, but first of all
        The Boston tea-pot bubbled!

    An evening party,--only that,
        No formal invitation,
    No gold-laced coat, no stiff cravat,
        No feast in contemplation;
    No silk-robed dames, no fiddling band,
        No flowers, no songs, no dancing!

    A tribe of red men,--axe in hand,--
        Behold the guests advancing!
    How fast the stragglers join the throng,
        From stall and work-shop gathered;
    The lively barber skips along
        And leaves a chin half-lathered;
    The smith has flung his hammer down,
        The horse-shoe still is glowing,
    The truant tapster at the Crown
        Has left a beer-cask flowing;
    The coopers' boys have dropped the adze,
        And trot behind their master;
    Up run the tarry ship-yard lads;--
        The crowd is hurrying faster.
    Out from the mill-pond's purlieus gush,
        The streams of white-faced millers,
    And down their slippery alleys rush
        The lusty young Fort-Hillers.
    The rope-walk lends its 'prentice crew,
        The Tories seize the omen;
    "Ay, boys! you'll soon have work to do
        For England's rebel foemen,
    'King Hancock,' Adams, and their gang,
        That fire the mob with treason,--
    When these we shoot, and those we hang,
        The town will come to reason."
    On--on to where the tea-ships ride!
        And now their ranks are forming,--
    A rush and up the Dartmouth's side,
        The Mohawk band is swarming!
    See the fierce natives! what a glimpse
        Of paint and fur and feather,
    As all at once the full-grown imps
        Light on the deck together!
    A scarf the pig-tail's secret keeps,
        A blanket hides the breeches,--
    And out the cursed cargo leaps,
        And overboard it pitches!

    O woman, at the evening board,
        So gracious, sweet and purring,
    So happy while the tea is poured,
      So blest while spoons are stirring.
    What martyr can compare with thee?
      The mother, wife, or daughter,--
    That night, instead of best Bohea,
      Condemned to milk and water!

    Ah, little dreams the quiet dame,
      Who plies with rack and spindle,
    The patient flax, how great a flame
      Yon little spark shall kindle!
    The lurid morning shall reveal
      A fire no king can smother,
    When British flint and Boston steel
      Have clashed against each other!
    Old charters shrivel in its track,
      His worship's bench has crumbled,
    It climbs and clasps the Union Jack,--
      Its blazoned pomp is humbled.
    The flags go down on land and sea,
      Like corn before the reapers;
    So burned the fire that brewed the tea
      That Boston served her keepers!

    The waves that wrought a country's wreck
      Have rolled o'er Whig and Tory;
    The Mohawks on the Dartmouth's deck
      Shall live in song and story.
    The waters in the rebel bay
      Have kept the tea-leaf savor;
    Our old North-Enders in their spray
      Still taste a Hyson flavor.
    And Freedom's tea-cup still o'erflows,
      With ever-fresh libations,
    To cheat of slumber all her foes,
      And cheer the wakening nations!"



    Rally Mohawks! bring out your axes,
    And tell King George we'll pay no taxes
                  On his foreign tea;
    His threats are vain, and vain to think
    To force our girls and wives to drink
                  His vile Bohea!
    Then rally boys, and hasten on
    To meet our chiefs at the Green Dragon.

    Our Warren's there, and bold Revere,
    With hands to do, and words to cheer,
                  For liberty and laws;
    Our country's "braves" and firm defenders
    Shall ne'er be left by true North-Enders
                  Fighting Freedom's cause!
    Then rally boys, and hasten on
    To meet our chiefs at the Green Dragon.

                    * * *

       *       *       *       *       *


    Just by beauteous Boston lying
      On the gently swelling flood;
    Without Jack or streamers flying,
      Three ill-fated tea-ships rode.

    Just as glorious Sol was setting,
      On the wharf, a numerous crew--
    Sons of Freedom, fear forgetting,
      Suddenly appeared in view.

    Armed with chisel, axe and hammer,--
      Weapons new for warlike deed;
    Towards the herbage-freighted vessels,
      They approached with dauntless speed.

    O'er their heads aloft in mid sky,
      Three bright angel forms were seen;
    This was Hampden,--that was Sidney,
      With fair Liberty between.

    Soon they cried, "Your foes you'll banish,
      Soon the glory shall be won;
    Nor shall setting Phoebus vanish,
      Ere the matchless deed be done!"

    Quick as thought the ships were boarded,
      Hatches burst and chests displayed;
    Axe and hammers help afforded,--
      What a glorious crash they made!

    Quick into the deep descended,
      Cursed weed of China's coast;
    Thus at once our fears were ended,--
      Freemen's rights shall ne'er be lost!


(_From Thomas's "Massachusetts Spy."_)

    Farewell, the tea-board with its equipage
    Of cups and saucers, cream-bucket and sugar-tongs,
    The pretty tea-chest also lately stored
    With Hyson, Congo, and best Double Fine.
    Full many a joyous moment have I sat by you
    Hearing the girls tattle, the old maids talk scandal,
    And the spruce coxcomb laugh--at maybe nothing.
    No more shall I dish out the once-loved liquor,
    Though now detestable;
    Because I'm taught--and I believe it true,
    Its use will fasten slavish chains upon my country;
    And Liberty's the goddess I would choose
    To reign triumphant in America.


_And the memorable Suffolk County Resolves of 1774._

The mansion where the famous Suffolk County Resolves were passed,
September 9, 1774, is still standing. It is situated in Milton, Mass., a
few doors from the Boston and Milton line, on the Quincy road. It is a
low, two-story double house, 20 × 40 feet, with the main door in its
centre, and a chimney on each end. In its front there is inserted a
marble tablet, 14 × 28 inches, with the following inscription:

                      "IN THIS MANSION,

    On the 9th day of Sept., 1774, at a meeting of the delegates
    of every town and district in the County of Suffolk, the
    memorable Suffolk Resolves were adopted.

    They were reported by Maj.-Gen. Warren, who fell----in their
    defence in the battle of Bunker Hill, June 17, 1775.

    They were approved by the members of the Continental
    Congress at Carpenter's Hall, Phil^a., on the 17^th Sept.,

    The Resolves to which the immortal patriot here first gave
    utterance, and the heroic deeds of that eventful day on
    which he fell, led the way to American Independence.

    'Posterity will acknowledge that virtue which preserved them
    free and happy.'"

In Warren's oration, March 5, 1772, more than two years before these
Resolves were passed, the spirit of liberty burned within his heart.
Nine months after these Resolves the battle took place, which finally
resulted in the birth of American freedom. _See portrait, page_ XLVII.

[Illustration: Signature, Joseph Lovering

Signature of Joseph Lovering taken from a check dated May 3, 1848, one
month prior to his death.

N.P. Lovering]


Respecting Mr. Lovering's connection with the Tea Party, Mr. George W.
Allan, of West Canton Street, Boston, now eighty-two years of age,
relates that about the year 1835, he frequently conversed with that
gentlemen, who told him that on the evening of December 16, 1773, when
he was fifteen years of age, he held the light in Crane's carpenter's
shop, while he and others, fifteen in number, disguised themselves
preparatory to throwing the tea into Boston harbor. He also said that
some two hundred persons joined them on their way to the wharf, where
the tea-ships lay. Mr. George H. Allan, the son of George W. Allan,
received a similar statement from Mr. Lovering, a short time before the
latter's death, which occurred June 13, 1848, at the age of eighty-nine
years and nine months.

Mr. Lovering appears to have been the youngest person connected with
this affair, of whom we have any knowledge. His boyish curiosity led him
to accompany the party to the scene of operations at Griffin's wharf,
and on the following morning he was closely questioned and severely
reprimanded by his parents, for being out after nine o'clock at night,
as they were strict in their requirement that he should be in bed at
that hour.

His son, Mr. N.P. Lovering, now seventy-seven years of age, resides in
Boston, and is treasurer of the Connecticut and Passumpsic River
Railroad Company. To this gentleman, and to his grand-daughter, Mrs.
C.D. Bradlee, Boston, we are under obligation for the copy of a
photograph from Mr. Lovering's oil-painting of his father.


Was born in Boston, 1706; died in Philadelphia, in 1790, and was buried
in Christ Churchyard. A small marble slab, level with the ground, marks
the spot. "No monumental display for me," was his request as expressed
in his will.

Some years before his death he wrote his own epitaph. His usefulness to
his country during the Revolutionary period will warrant us in giving it
place in our "Tea Leaves:"


                  The body of
          Like the cover of an old book,
              its contents torn out,
      And stript of its lettering and gilding,
            Lies here, food for worms.
      Yet the work itself shall not be lost,
  For it will (as he believed) appear once more
                   in a new
          and a more beautiful edition
            corrected and amended
                by the Author.

It is believed that Benjamin Franklin was made a Freemason in St. John's
Lodge, of Philadelphia, early in the year 1731. In 1734 he printed and
published the first Masonic book ever issued in America, being the work
known as "Anderson's Constitution of 1723." Copies are now exceedingly
rare, and readily sell for fifty dollars each. One is now in the library
of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, in an excellent state of

                                               SERENO D. NICKERSON,
                        _Recording Grand Secretary, Grand Lodge of Mass._

[Illustration: Signature, Benjamin Franklin]

"As a philosopher he ranks high. In his speculations he seldom lost
sight of common sense, or yielded up his understanding either to
enthusiasm or authority."--GOODRICH.



No. 1.


_To the Directors of the East India Company._[24]


As the Act allowing a Drawback of the whole of the customs paid on tea,
if exported to America, is now passed, in which there is a clause
empowering the Lords of the Treasury to grant licences to the India
Company, to export tea, duty free, to foreign States, or America, having
at the time of granting such licences upwards of ten millions of pounds
in their warehouses, and as the present stock of tea is not only near
seventeen million, but the quantity expected to arrive this season does
also considerably exceed the ordinary demand of twelve months, and the
expediency of exporting tea to foreign States having been considered, I
presume to lay before this Court the following extracts, &c., from
letters relative to the consumption in America, and calculation of
advantages attending the exportation of tea by licence, and as an
assurance the same are formed upon some experience of this trade (having
not only been concerned in a great part of the tea which has been
shipped to America since the allowance of the drawback, in 1767; but
being now about to repurchase at your ensuing sale no small quantity of
Bohea tea for the same account,) I am desirous, at my own hazard, to
include in such purchase, an assortment of all other kinds, viz.:
Congou, Souchong and Hyson, but more particularly the several species of
Singlo, namely, Hyson, Skin, Twankay and First Sort, from a conviction
that, by degrees, the consumption of these species, also and
particularly Singlo tea, might be introduced into America, at least so
far for the benefit of the Company, as in part to relieve them from the
disagreeable necessity, they will, without some such vend, be subject
to, of forcing that species of tea to market, before it is greatly
damaged by age, provided you are of opinion the same may possibly tend
to the advantage of the Company; or, should it be the opinion of this
Court, an immediate consignment should take place, I am ready to give
such assistance towards carrying the same into execution as may be
thought most conducive to the interest of the Company, together with
such security as the nature of the trust may require. In the prosecution
of these consignments, I would propose to obtain a more exact
computation of the actual consumption; what quantity might probably find
a sale there, and the most probable means of success in such sales,
whether by waiting for a demand in the ordinary way, or by public sales
there; conducted upon the outlines of those made in England, by fixing a
future day of payment, and by a restriction in selling any future
quantity for a limited time, but particularly (under my mode) in what
manner, and within what time assurances can be given by remittances
being made on account of such sales.

              I am, gentlemen, your humble servant,

                                                           WM. PALMER.

London, 19th May, 1773.


_Extract from a Letter from Boston, dated 29th April, 1771, in Answer to
a Consignment made in February, 1771, at 3s. 1d., with the whole
drawback of £23 18s. 7-1/2d. pr cent.:_

"Were it not for the Holland tea, the vent of English would have
answered your expectation here, but the profit is immense upon the
Holland tea, which some say cost but 18d., and the 3d. duty here is
saved. Many hundred chests have been imported. What is shipped may go
off in time, without loss, for there must be buyers of English tea; the
transportation of the Dutch by water being attended with much trouble
and risk."

_Extract from a Letter from Boston, dated 11th July, 1771:_

"So much tea has been imported from Holland, that the importers from
England have been obliged to sell for little or no profit. The Dutch
traders, it is said, had their first teas at 18d. pr lb., the last at
2s.; either is much cheaper than from England, and they save the 3d.
duty here. The Company must keep theirs nearer the prices in Holland.
The consumption is prodigious."

_Extract from a Letter from Boston, 2d Sepr., 1771:_

"The consumption of Bohea tea thro' the Continent increases every year.
It is difficult for us to say how great it is at present. We imagine
there may be consumed in this Province, which is perhaps a seventh part
of the Continent, 3000 chests in a year. We are sure nothing can
discourage the running of it but the reducing the price as low, or
lower, than it was two or three years past in England"

_Extract from a Letter from Boston, (Messrs. Hutchinson,) dated 10th
Sepr., 1771:_

"From a more particular estimate of the consumption we are of opinion,
the two towns of Boston and Charlestown consume a chest, or about 340
pounds of tea, one day with another. These two towns are not more than
one-eighth, perhaps not more than one-tenth, part of the Province.
Suppose they consume but 300 chests in a year, and allow they are but
one-eighth, it will make 2400 chests a year for the whole Province. This
Province is not one-eighth part of the Colonies, and in the other
governments, especially New York, they consume tea in much greater
proportion than in this Province. In this proportion, the consumption
may be estimated at 19,200 chests per annum, or upwards of six millions
of pounds. Yet at New York or Pensylvania they import no teas from
England, and at Rhode Island very little. Here we find the Dutch traders
continually gaining ground upon us. If teas do not sail with you before
the spring shippings, we fear the Dutch will carry away all the trade of
the Colonies in this article."

_Extract of a Letter from Boston, dated 11th Sepr., 1772:_

"We have delayed answering your last enquiries relative to the tea
concern, in hopes of being able to form a better judgment, but to no
great purpose; the great importation from Holland, principally through
New York and Philadelphia, keeps down the price here, and consequently
the sale of teas from England. We have set ours so low we shall have no
profit from this years adventure, yet there are 50 chests still on hand.
You ask our opinion whether the difference between the English and Dutch
teas, if it did not exceed the 3d. duty and 9 pr cent., would be
sufficient encouragement to the illicit trader? If the difference was
not greater we think some of the smugglers would be discouraged, but the
greater part would not. Nothing will be effectual short of reducing the
price in England equal to the price in Holland. If no other burthen than
the 3d. duty in the Colonies, to save that alone would not be
sufficient profit, and the New Yorkers, &c., would soon break thro'
their solemn engagements not to import from England."

_Extract from a Letter from Boston, dated 25th Feb., 1773, in Answer to
a calculation sent of the supposed price at which the illicit trader can
now import tea into America from Holland:_

"In your calculation of the profits on Dutch teas, 12 pr cent. is too
much to deduct for the risque of illicit trade. We are confident not one
chest in five hundred has been seized in this Province for two or three
years past, and the custom house officers seem unwilling to run any risk
to make a seisure. At New York, we are told it is carted about at noon
day. There is some expence in landing, which we believe the importers
would give five pr cent. to be freed from."

_Copy of a Letter from Rotterdam, dated 12th June, 1772:_

"I have to acknowledge the receipt of your favor of the 5th instant,
desiring information of the present state and prices of tea at this
market, and also what the freight and charges are thereon to North
America, to all which I cheerfully give you every elucidation in my
power, and with the greatest pleasure, as neither you nor your friends
have any thought of engaging in said trade, which, with every other
branch of smuggling, must be held in abhorrence by all good men. The
present prices of tea are--

                                           _d._     _d._
  Dutch Bohea's, in whole chests,          20 @     22
    "      "        half     "             22       24
    "      "      quarter    "             24       25
  Swedish,        whole      "             21       22
  Danish,           "        "             21       22-1/2
  Congo,                                   28       45
  Souchon,                                 36       65
  Peco,                                    32       55
  Imperial,                                49       50
  Green,                                   48       50
  Tonkay,                                  52       53
  Heysan Skin,                             60       62
  Heysan,                                  90       95

The tare on whole chests is 84 lbs., if they weigh less than 400 lbs.,
and if they weigh 400 lbs. or upwards, then 90 lbs.; for the half
chests, under 200 lbs., tare 54 lbs.; if 200 lbs., or upwards, then 60
lbs.; for the quarter chests, under 100 lbs., tare, 23 lbs.; if 100
lbs., or upwards, then 30 lbs. The advantages on the tares are
calculated at 7 or 8 pr cent. on the whole chests, at 12 @ 13 pr cent.
on the half chests, and at 15 @ 16 per cent. on the quarter chests. The
quantity of teas on hand is not considerable, so that we do not
apprehend a decline; on the contrary, if any orders of the least
importance were to appear, the prices would go higher. There are now
about 400 chests shipping for America, from Amsterdam, from which port
the teas that go to North America from this country are always shipped,
and not from this city; they are sent to Rhode Island, and not to
Boston. Of Green teas there are hardly any left, neither fine Souchong
nor Congos, but ordinary, in abundance. The freight of a whole chest of
Bohea to St. Eustatius, one of the Dutch West India Islands, comes to
about 7-1/4s. pr chest. It is reckoned by the foot square, at 6s. the
foot to North America. It is generally £4 pr chest, New York currency,
but the captain is not answerable in any case of seizure.

Agreeable to your desire, I send you a pro forma invoice of 6 chests
Dutch Boheas, so as they come to stand on board if they were shipped
here; but as the shipping is at Amsterdam, the charges may be somewhat
higher. In regard to what they estimate, the risk that in America for
running in the teas I cannot inform you, this you may be better able to
learn from some of your New England houses, as our underwriters will not
sign against the risk of seizures; but I fancy the risk is not very
great, as the trade is carried on for so large parcels.

Pro forma invoice of 6 chests of Dutch Bohea tea:

  320 Tare of 4 chests, under       400
  360   at 84 lb. each,      336}   2270
  370                           }
  390 do. of 2 chests above     }   516
  410  400 @ 90 lb. each     180}  ---- 1754 @ 24s. £2104  16
  420                                off 1 pr cent.,   21   2
                                                    £2083  14


  Custom and Passport,                       £20  4s
  Sleding,                                     1  7
  1/2 weigh money,                            13  0
  Brokerage,                                  10  8
  Shipping,                                    3  0
  Commission, 2 per cent. on £2131 13s.       42 12
                                                      90 11
                                                   £2174  5[25]

_Estimate of the advantages attending the Tea trade to North America, if
carried on from England:_

Observe 1st. In the following calculation, no more than half the
consumption of the Continent, as estimated by Messrs. Hutchinson, in
their letter of the 10th Sepr., 1771, is assumed as the whole, as from
the mode in which they were under the necessity of making their
estimate, it was liable to error, and 19,200 chests is more than has
been hitherto annually imported from China by all foreign companies.

2ndly. That this calculation is formed upon Bohea tea only, the species
of tea already consumed there; yet it is probable by degrees other
species might be introduced, the vend of which may be more profitable to
the Company. 9600 chests of Bohea tea, each containing 340 lbs., makes
3,264,000 lbs., if sold at 2s. 6d. Boston currency, (which is 4d. lower
than it appears to have been even at the time it was purchased in
Holland, at 15 stivers, or under 18d. pr lb., amounts to

  Deduct 25 pr cent. for exchange,                 102,000
  Sterling,                                       £306,000
  Deduct 6 pr cent. for commission and charges,     18,360
  Annual net proceeds before the American  }      £287,640
    duty is deducted,                      }

_Application of those Net proceeds to the following purposes:_

  To the revenue for the duty on 3,264,000, @ 3d.        £40,800

  To the ship owners, for freight from England to
    America, if according to the present rate of
    15 pr chest,                                           7,200

  To the ship owners for freight from China to
    England, according to Sir Richard Hotham's
    plan, of £21 pr ton, of 10 hundred weight, or
    for every 3 chests of tea,                            67,200

  To the purchase at Canton, if at 15 tale pr pecul
    would amount thus: say 3,264,000 lb., divided
    by 133-1/3 for each pecul, makes peculs 24,480
    @ 15 each, is tales 367,200, which, at 6s. 8d. pr
    tale, is sterling,                                   122,400

  Commission on the purchase in China,                     6,120

  Charges of all sorts, rated at 10s. pr chest,            4,600

  To the Company for Net profit after all deductions}
  whatsoever upon the most reduced                  }     39,320
  estimate, upwards of 30 pr cent. on the purchase, }

No. 2.



    I take the liberty to enclose for your consideration a
    memorial, regarding the establishment of a branch from the
    East India house in one of the principal cities in North
    America. Should the design meet with your approbation, as I
    am well acquainted with the teas most saleable in that
    country, shall be extremely happy in giving you every
    information in my power, I have the honor to be with due
    esteem, gentlemen,

             Your most obedt. & very humble servant,

                                                 GILB'T BARKLY.
    Lombard Street,
        26th May, 1773.



    _The Memorial of Gilbert Barkly, merchant, in Philadelphia,
    in North America, who resided there upwards of sixteen
    years, and who is well acquainted with the consumption of
    that country, particularly in the article of Teas, &c._

    Humbly proposes. In order to put a final stop to that
    destructive trade of smuggling:

    That the Company should open a chamber in one of the
    principal, & central cities, of North America, under the
    direction of managers, and that an assortment of teas from
    England should be lodged in warehouses, and sales to
    commence quarterly upon the same terms & conditions as those
    in London.

    By this means the merchants and grocers from the Southern
    and Northern Provinces will attend the sales and purchase
    according to their abilities. The goods thus brought from
    home to them, and sold cheaper than they can be smuggled
    from foreigners, the buyers will be bound by interest, and
    think no more of running that risk, to which may be added
    that they have them when paid for, immediately, for whereas,
    when commissioned from abroad, they generally wait six
    months before the receipt of them.

    This country is now become an object of the highest
    consequence, peopled by about three millions of inhabitants,
    one third of whom, at a moderate computation, drink tea
    twice a day, which third part, reckoning to each person one
    fourth part of an ounce pr day, makes the yearly consumption
    of 5,703,125 lbs. This quantity, at the medium price of 2s.
    6d. pr lb., amounts to £712,890 2s. 6d.

    The common people in all countries are the greatest body,
    few of those in North Briton or Ireland drink tea, this is
    not the case in America, all the planters are the real
    proprietors of the lands they possess; by this means they
    can afford to come at this piece of luxury, which has been
    greatly introduced among them by the example of the Dutch
    and German settlers.

    The great object to be considered is to bring the goods to
    market in such a manner as to afford them as cheap as they
    can be bought of foreigners. Should this be the case the
    success of the design is beyond a doubt.

    The duty of 3d. pr lb. some time ago laid on teas payable in
    America, gave the colonists great umbrage, and occasioned
    their smuggling that article into the country from Holland,
    France, Sweden, Lisbon, &c., St. Eustatia, in the West
    Indies, &c., which, from the extent of the coast,
    (experience has taught) cannot be prevented by custom
    officers, or the king's cruizers, and as the wisdom of
    Parliament reckons it impolitical to take off this duty, the
    colonists will persevere in purchasing that article in the
    usual manner if the above method is not adopted, and the
    goods brought into their country and sold as cheap as they
    can have them abroad.

    The freight, &c., of teas to America would not much exceed
    what they might cost to Holland, or any other foreign
    company, particularly as the ships may load back with masts,
    and other goods that might nigh pay the whole expence, and
    should the Company think of exporting their overstock of
    teas to Holland, or any other foreign country, it is not to
    be expected that the merchants abroad would buy them but
    with a view of profit. This, with freight, commission, duty,
    &c., would far exceed the expence of sales and freight to

    If this scheme should be approved of, the sooner it is
    executed the better, as the smugglers in America will soon
    be laying in their fall and winter stock of teas, unless
    they are prevented by this design, and as Spanish dollars
    are the current coin in that country, the Company can be
    furnished with any quantity they may require towards their
    payment, should they require it.

    The managers may be paid by a commission on the sales, and
    at the same time bound to obey such orders and directions
    as they may receive from time to time from the Hon'ble the
    Court of Directors, and as your memorialist is universally
    acquainted with the trade, and has respectable connections
    in that country, he humbly offers himself as a proper person
    to be one of the managers, and if required, will find
    security for the trust reposed in him. Your memorialist also
    presumes to mention John Inglis, Esq., of the city of
    Philadelphia, as another proper person, being universally
    esteemed in America, and well known in the city of London,
    as a man of probity, fortune and respect.

No. 3.


    Dear Sir:

    The annual consumption of teas in Nova Scotia is about 20
    chests Bohea, and 3 or 4 of good Common Green. Should the
    Company determine on sending any to that Province, I pray
    your interest in procuring the commission to Watson's &
    Rashleigh's agent there, John Butler, a man of long standing
    in the Province and in the Council, and by far the fittest
    person to be employed, for whom W. & R. will be answerable.
    At Boston I have two friends equally deserving. You would do
    the Company service, and me an acceptable kindness, by
    recommending them, Benjamin Faneuil, Jun., & Joshua Winslow.
    The consumption at Boston is large, say at least 400 chests
    Bohea & 50 of Green pr annum. The freight to both these
    places I should be glad to have if you could procure it
    without inconvenience to yourself.

                         Yours faithfully,
                                                BROOK WATSON.[26]
    4 June, 1773.

No. 4.


    _Received from the Hon'ble Mr. Walpole._[27]

    As Philadelphia is the capital of one of the most populous
    and commercial Provinces in North America, and is situated
    in the center of the middle British Colonies, it is

    That the East India Company should, by the middle of June at
    farthest, send to Philadelphia at least five hundred chests
    of black teas, one hundred half chests of green teas, and
    seventy five half chests of Congou and Souchon teas.

    That they should consign these teas to a house of character
    and fortune in Philadelphia, and direct the proceeds thereof
    to be remitted hither in bills of exchange or specie.

    That previous, however, to the teas being shipped, factors
    should be appointed in Philadelphia, and the directors of
    the East India Company should _immediately_ advise them of
    their intended consignation, and direct them to engage
    _proper_ warehouses for the reception thereof.

    That the factors should be authorized to sell the teas at
    public auction, (giving notice of the times of the sale in
    all the North American newspapers, at least one month before
    hand,) and in such small lots as will be convenient for the
    country storekeepers to supply themselves with such sales.

    That the factors should grant the purchasers the same
    allowance of tare, tret, discount, &c., as are customary at
    the company's sales in this city.

    That in case the factor should be of opinion, the sales of
    the tea would be encreased both in quantity and price, by
    having occasional auctions in Boston and New York, in the
    manner proposed at Philadelphia; that they should be at
    liberty to send from time to time to Boston & New York as
    many chests as they may think necessary for the consumption
    & _commerce_ of those places, but that the factors, or one
    of them, should always attend the sales in Boston and New

    That the East India Company should be at the charge &
    expence of the warehouse rent in America, the cartage, and
    the freight of the teas from Philadelphia to Boston & New
    York, and that the factors should be allowed for receiving
    and selling the teas, collecting the payment thereof and
    remitting the same, a commission of 2-1/2 pr cent. on the
    amount of the sales.

    N.B.--It is submitted whether it would not be proper for the
    directors of the East India Company to send two persons to
    Philadelphia, who have been accustomed to pack and repack
    teas at the India House, to the end that they may be
    employed for that purpose, and in dividing whole chests of
    black teas into half chests, for the greater accommodation
    of the country shopkeepers.

No. 5.



    Admitting that an exportation of tea to America by licence
    takes place immediately, in order to prevent the colonists
    from becoming purchasers at the sales of foreign companies,
    usually made from September to November, and consequently at
    least discourage those companies from encreasing their China
    trade, and also to obtain some information, though
    imperfect, before the investments for the China ships of the
    ensuing season are ordered. It is proposed that chests of
    Bohea tea, chests of each specie of Singlo tea, together
    with a smaller assortment of Hyson, Souchong, & Congou tea
    be consigned to such a number of merchants conjointly as may
    be thought sufficient, (for whom their correspondents in
    England shall give satisfactory security,) together with
    such persons as shall be thought proper for that purpose to
    be sent from thence. That upon the arrival of such tea in
    Boston public notice shall be given thereof through the
    Continent, and also that it is the intention of the East
    India Company, if the sales of this cargo should be found to
    answer, to repeat such consignments, in order to supply that
    Continent with teas at least equal in price to what they
    must pay for the same if obtained in a way of illicit trade.
    That in order to conduct these sales in the most
    advantageous manner, the parties to whom the cargoes shall
    be entrusted shall act as one body; that the concurrence of
    the majority shall be necessary for any act therein; that
    each party shall be answerable for himself only, but that no
    credit shall be given to bills received for paying without
    the assent of at least three of the persons so appointed;
    that it shall be the object of the person who may be
    appointed to go with the cargo to obtain all possible
    information respecting the actual consumption, mode of sale,
    species of tea that may be introduced, & opportunity of
    remittances at Boston, where it is proposed the first
    consignment shall be made, as it is the only considerable
    mart, where tea from England is at present received without
    opposition, and having so done he shall visit such other
    places on the Continent as may be thought proper, but
    particularly New York and Philadelphia, in order to obtain
    the same information at those several places, and learn,
    from being on the spot, how far the New Yorkers, &c., will
    hold their solemn engagements, when they find the advantages
    they will probably reap by receiving tea from England. They
    having obtained all such necessary information, he shall
    return to England & report the same, from which time it is
    presumed there will be full employ for such agent without
    any additional expence to the Company in preparing such
    assortments of tea as may from time to time be required for
    this market, and can be best spared from the necessary
    demand of Great Britain & Ireland, and also in negotiating
    the remittances that may from time to time be received on
    account of this concern.

    That such an appointment is absolutely necessary must appear
    to every one at all acquainted with the nature of the tea
    trade, not only properly to regulate these investments, but
    also from time to time to preserve proper assortments of tea
    for the consumption of Great Britain & Ireland, and indeed
    in this particular alone could the directors for some years
    past have had such information, from any person in whose
    abilities & integrity they could have placed a proper
    confidence, and who, from the nature of such trusts, must be
    placed above the temptation to any sinister practices the
    Company, from the resources of the tea trade alone, would
    probably never have been involved in their present



    We are informed that you have come to a resolution to ship
    tea to America, we therefore beg leave to recommend our
    friends, Mr. Andrew Lord, and Messrs. Willm. & George
    Ancrum,[28] of Charles Town, in South Carolina, merchants,
    for the consignments of such part as you may ship to that
    place. Both houses are of the first repute, and have been
    long established there, and also to tender to you our ship
    the London, Alexander Curling, Master, to carry the same
    out, who shall be ready to sail whenever you please to

                  We are, your most humble servants,
                                         GREENWOOD & HIGGINSON.

    London, 4 May, 1773.

  To the Hon'ble the Court of Directors
    of the United Company of Merchants
    of England, trading to the East Indies.



    Being informed you intend to export teas to several
    different settlements in America, to be sold there under
    the direction of agents to be appointed. I beg leave to
    acquaint the Court that I have a house established in New
    York, under the firm of Pigou & Booth, and I humbly solicit
    the favor of that house having a share of the consignments.

    Philadelphia being also a port to which the Company will
    most likely send teas, I beg leave to recommend Messrs.
    James & Drinker, of that city, to be one of your agents

    Should I be so happy to succeed in my request, I am certain
    the greatest attention will be paid by those gentlemen to
    the Company's orders, and that the Company's interest will
    be made their study in the sales and remittances. I also beg
    leave to observe that if ships should be wanted for this
    service, I have vessels now ready for the ports of
    Philadelphia and New York.

          I am, gentlemen,
                 Your most obed't & very humble serv't,
                                           FRED'K PIGOU, Jun^r.
    Mark Lane, 1st June, 1773.

    To the Hon'ble the Court of Directors
      of the United East India Company.


                                         London, 1st July, 1773.


    I intended to have made a purchase of teas at your present
    sale to have exported to America, but the candid intimation
    given by you of an intention to export them to the Colonies
    on account of the Company, renders it disadvantageous for a
    single house to engage in that article.

    I now beg leave, gentlemen, to make a tender to you of the
    services of a house in which I am a partner, Richard Clarke
    and Sons,[29] of Boston, New England, to conduct the sale of
    such teas as you may send to that part of America, in
    conjunction with any other houses you may think proper to
    entrust with this concern; altho' I have not the honor of
    being personally known to many of you, I flatter myself our
    house is known to the principal merchants who deal to our
    Province, and are known to have always fulfilled our
    engagements with punctuality & honor, and trust I shall
    procure you ample security for our conducting this business,
    agreeable to the direction, we may from time to time receive
    from you.

    In soliciting this favor, I beg leave to avail myself
    further of the circumstance of our having for a long time
    been concerned in the tea trade, and to greater extent than
    any house in our Province, with one exception. Of the
    disappointment I have met with in my intended adventure, by
    which we are deprived of a very valuable branch of our
    business, and on my being on the spot to take such
    instructions from you as may be requisite in disposing of
    what you may send. And give me leave to add my assurances
    that the interest of the East India Company will always be
    attended to by the house of Richard Clarke & Sons, if you
    think fit to repose this confidence in them.

                 I am, very respectfully, gentlemen,
                        Your most obed't & humble servant,
                                               JONATHAN CLARKE.

    To the Hon'ble Directors of the
      East India Company.

Mr. Clarke also enclosed two letters in his favor; one from Messrs.
Henry & Thos. Bromfield, the other from Mr. Peter Contencin, merchants.

                                               June 5th, 1773.


    The bearer, Mr. Barkly, is the person whom I took the
    liberty of recommending to you as a person able and
    qualified to give you information touching the quantity of
    tea that is now consumed in America, and to serve the
    Company in that part of the World in case the Directors
    shall judge it proper to make any establishment there for
    selling tea on the Company's account, & I am, sir,

            Your most obedient and most humble servant,
                                              GREY COOPER.[30]

    Received from Henry Crabb Boulton, Esq.

    Hon'ble Sirs:

    Being informed of your resolution to export a quantity of
    tea to different parts of America, we take the liberty of
    recommending our friends, Messrs. Willing, Morris & Co., to
    be your agents at Philadelphia, for whom we are ready to be

                   We are, very respectfully,

           Your honors most obedient, humble servants,
                                     ROBERTS, BAYNES & ROBERTS.

    8 June, 1773.

    To the Hon'ble the Committee of Warehouses.

                                        London, 9th June, 1773.


    I have understood that you propose fixing agents in the
    different colonies in America, to dispose of certain
    quantities of tea; if so, I am a native and merchant of
    Virginia, and think it will be in my power to execute your
    commands in that quarter, on terms equal, if not superior,
    to any one in it.

    There are some things respecting this business that come
    within my knowledge; which are too prolix for a letter, but
    if the Court chuses to notice my petition, I shall be happy
    and ready to give any intelligence in my power.

          I am, gentlemen,
                  Your very obed't & hum'ble serv't,
                                        BENJ. HARRISON, Jun^r.
                             At Webbs, Arundel Street, Strand.

    To the Hon'ble Court, &c.


    Being informed that you have it in contemplation to export
    tea to the different Provinces in North America, for sale on
    the Company's account, I beg leave to recommend my brother,
    Mr. Jonathan Browne, merchant, in Philadelphia, as an agent
    for any business you may have to transact at that place, and
    I flatter myself his activity & knowledge of the trade of
    that country, acquired by a residence of upwards of fifteen
    years, will render him deserving of your notice.

    Any security for his conduct I am ready to give, and to any
    amount you shall think necessary for the discharge of the
    trust you may be pleased to repose in him.

            I am, very respectfully, gent.,
                       Your most obed't & humble serv't,
                                                GEORGE BROWNE.

    London, Tower Hill, 11th June, 1773.

    To the Committee of Warehouses.


    As many difficulties seem at present to attend the
    exportation of tea to America in large quantities, on
    account of the Company, if the expedient is approved by this
    Court, of sending about 200 chests of Bohea tea, and a small
    assortment of other species to Boston, by way of experiment,
    and you should think proper to entrust such cargo to the
    care of Messrs. Hutchinson, merchants, there, I am ready, as
    a security, to advance upon the same the sum such tea shall
    amount to, at the prime cost in China & freight from hence,
    before the shipping thereof, provided I am permitted to
    charge interest upon such advance, until remittances for the
    same are received from America.

                         I am, gent.,
                                   Your humble serv't,
                                                    WM. PALMER.

    Devonshire Square, 24th June, 1773.

    To the Hon'ble Court of Directors, &c., &c.


    The Committee of Warehouses of the East India Company desire
    you will meet them at this house, on Thursday next, at
    twelve o'clock at noon, relative to the exportation of tea
    to America.

                             I am, sir,
                                    Your most humble serv't,
                                                   WM. SETTLE.

    East India House, 25th June, 1773.



    The enclosed newspapers contain the sentiments of the
    Americans with regard to the quantity of teas consumed in
    that country, and the fatal consequences attending buying it
    from foreigners, by leading them to purchase other articles
    of East India goods at the same markets which otherwise
    would not be an object, and which, of course, would be
    commissioned from the mother-country.

    The memorial, which I had the honor to deliver, lately
    points out an undoubted method for gaining this trade.

    The Company being the exporters, pays the American duty of
    3d. pr lb., of which they will be amply repaid by the
    advance on their sales, and as mankind in general are bound
    by interest, and as the duty of about a shill'g pr lb. is
    now taken off tea when exported, the Company can afford
    their teas cheaper than the Americans can smuggle them from
    foreigners, which puts the success of the design beyond a

    It may be suggested that the Americans have not money to pay
    for those goods. The Province of Pennsylvania alone ships
    yearly to the West Indies, Spain, Portugal & France, &c.,
    above 300,000 barrels of flour, large quantities of wheat,
    Indian corn, iron, pork, beef, lumber, and above 15,000
    hhds. of flax seed to Ireland, and the other Provinces are
    equally industrious. The principal returns are in silver and
    gold, with bills of exchange, an incredible part of which
    will center with the Company should the same be executed
    agreeable to the plan proposed, and smuggling will be
    effectually abolished without any additional number of
    officers and cruizers.

    Warehouse rent, &c., in America, will come as cheap as it is
    in England; and by the mode proposed for disposing of the
    teas, the grocers and merchants will be quickly served
    without any risk of loss by bad debts. I beg your
    forgiveness for the freedom I have taken. I have the honor
    to be, with due respect, gentlemen,

                        Your most obed't & humble servant,
                                               GILBERT BARKLY.

    Lombard Street, 29 June, 1773.

    To the chairman & deputy chairman of
      the East India Comp'y.

    (_See Mr. Barkly's letter in the miscellany bundle for the
    Pennsylvania packet of 17th May, 1773._)


    Upon my coming to town, I found a letter from the clerk of
    the Committee of Warehouses, desiring my attendance at the
    East India House, relative to the exportation of teas to

    I should have waited on the Committee of Warehouses at the
    time desired, if I had been in town, and I will attend them
    if they wish to see me any day next week, which may be
    convenient to them. I am, sir,

                     Your most obedi^t. humb. serv't,
                                                SAMUEL WHARTON.

    Argyle Street, June 30th, 1773

    Crabb Boulton, Esqr.


_Submitted to the consideration of Henry Crabb Boulton, Esq., Chairman
of the East India Company._

The usual exports to America, consisting of callicoes, muslins, and
other produce of India, (tea excepted,) have been seldom less than
£600,000 pr an., as such the consequence of that trade, and the interest
of the merchants concerned therein, ought to be well considered before
this measure of sending out teas to America should be adopted, lest it
might defeat the one and prejudice the other.

The merchants are much alarmed at this step of the Company, fearing it
will prevent, in a great degree, the remittances from their
correspondents by so much or near it as the sales of the teas amount to;
for it is beyond a doubt, that the people in America, if they admit the
teas, (which I much doubt,) will be tempted to purchase them with the
very money arising from the sales of muslins, callicoes, Persians, &c.,
bought of the Company instead of sending it to the merchants in England,
and thereby tend to encrease the distress which is already too severely
felt, for want of remittances. And I should not be surprized at the
merchants forming a resolution similar to that of the dealers, viz., not
to purchase anything from a Company who are interfering so essentially
with their trade, and striking at the root of their interests. I am of
opinion, if a proper application was made to the ministry, aided by a
petition from the American merchants, it might produce a relaxation of
that disagreeable and fatal duty of 3d. pr lb., and in case of success
I could almost promise that in the course of six months there would be
exported not less than one million of pounds of tea, and further, that
the usual annual export would be upon an average four millions of pounds
of teas. This mode would relieve the Company from its present load, and
place the correspondence and connection in its usual and natural
channel. But admitting that the ministry would not comply with such a
request, is it not too hasty a resolution before answers are come from
America if they will receive the teas through the channel of the
merchants, and particularly when they see the drawback is encreased from
14 to 24 pr cent. ad valorem, and thereby they are enabled to introduce
that article cheaper from hence than from Holland.

It is well known to every gentleman conversant in trade, that on account
of some disagreeable Acts of Parliament passed here, the people of
America formed a resolution, which was too generally adhered to, not to
import any goods from hence. This resolution continued for two years.
However, the merchants of New York, (who are men of understanding and
liberal principles,) foreseeing the fatal consequences that attend
England & the Provinces by a continuance of dis-union with the
mother-country, summoned a meeting of the principal inhabitants of the
town, and then came to a compromise with the people, that in case they
would agree to admit all other goods, they promised not to import any
teas from England, under very severe penalties, until the Act imposing a
duty of 3d. pr lb. was repealed, and the several captains of ships in
the trade were enjoined upon pain of forfeiting the good esteem of the
inhabitants to comply therewith. The like resolutions were agreed to in
Philadelphia & South Carolina.

There is another difficulty which occurs to me in this business, and
that is, there is not so much specie in the country as would pay for the
quantity said is intended to be exported. The Company should be very
cautious who they appointed to receive the produce of the sales, for
should the contractor for money have that power, who are the general
drawers of bills, it would enable them to make a monopoly of the ready
specie, and to make exchange advance 25 pr ct., to the loss of the

Thus have I stated the principal objections to the measure, and in
compliance with my promise, I shall give you my opinion relative to its
introduction, & the proper modes of sale, admitting the Company
persevere in their resolutions of exporting the teas on their own

A ship should be hired by the Company, capable of carrying the quantity
they intend to export, and at so much pr month. She should call in the
first place at Boston, and there land 300 chests, under the care of one
of the Company's own clerks; from thence to New York, and there land 300
chests, in the like manner as at Boston; from thence to Philadelphia,
and there land 300 chests, as before, and from thence to Carolina, and
there land 100 chests, under the care of the clerk of the Company, all
of which may be performed in the course of three months from her sailing
from hence, until her arrival at her last destined port, provided the
people in the different Provinces don't disturb the voyage upon the
arrival of the teas. Public notice should be given in the papers of each
Province at least one month preceding the sale, and the following
valuation prices affixed for the buyers to bid upon, subject to the
allowances, as limited in your own sales: Boston, @ 2s., lawful money,
pr lb.; New York, 2s. 9d., currency; Philadelphia, 2s. 3d., currency;
Charles Town, South Carolina, 10s. pr lb., currency. These prices are
for Boheas. The several clerks of the Company can with ease correspond
with each other, as there is a constant and regular communication by
post, so that if there should be an over quantity at one place, and a
deficiency at another, it may be supplied. The clerks should have
directions to pay the proceeds of the sales to some eminent merchant at
each Province, who should be a person well acquainted with the article,
and one who has great weight with the other merchants and people, both
as to esteem, rank and property; this merchant to remit the money by
good bills of exchange, which he must guarantee, and a security given
here for such a trust.

Great care should be had to regulate the sale by the consumption of each
Province, and not to be held at the same time, but to follow each other
by the distance of a fortnight, so that in case there should be more
buyers at one Province than the quantity will furnish, they may have an
opportunity of writing or going to the next sale at another Province.

I fear there may be an opposition made by some of the Provinces upon a
surmise that Government is aiding in this plan, and mean to establish
principle and right of taxation, for the purpose of a revenue, which at
present is very obnoxious, as such great care should be had not to
employ either paymaster, collector, or any other gentleman under the
immediate service of the Crown, to receive the money.

                                          Garlick Hill, 1st July, 1773.


In compliance with your desire, we have reflected on the business &
expence which will attend the sale of and remitting for such teas as the
East India Company may ship to North America, and considering that none
but gentlemen of known property, integrity and of experience in trade
can, with propriety and safety to the Company, be employed therein, we
humbly conceive that five pr cent. commission, and one pr cent. for
truckage, warehouse rent, brokerage, and other incidental charges,
making in the whole six pr cent. on the gross sales, is as little as the
business can be transacted for. And we further beg leave to suggest that
no person ought to be employed who will not give security to the
Company, in London, for faithfully following such instructions, as they
may from time to time receive from them, for remitting to the Company
all monies which they may receive on account of teas sold, first
deducting the above six pr cent., together with such freight and duties
as they may have paid on account thereof, and interest thereon, till
reimbursed, such remittances to be made in bills of exchange, within two
months after receiving the money, which bills, to be drawn upon their
security in London, payable sixty days after sight, or in specie, at the
Company's risk and expence; if in bills of exchange, the security to be
obliged to accept and pay them. Should the Company determine to ship
teas on their own account and risk to North America, we presume to
recommend to their service, Benjamin Faneuil, Junr., Esqr., & Joshua
Winslow, Esqr.,[31] of Boston, _jointly_, to transact their business,
for whom we are ready to give security to the amount of ten thousand
pounds for their performance of the before mentioned conditions, and in
like manner a security of two thousand pounds for John Butler, Esqr., of
Halifax, in Nova Scotia, who we also beg leave to recommend to the
Company's service. We are, with great respect, gentlemen,

                    Your obe't, hum^e serv'ts,
                                                    WATSON & RASHLEIGH.

  To the Hon'ble the Committee
  of Warehouse, &c., &c., &c.

[Illustration: Signature, J. Winslow]

                                                  London, July 2, 1773.


If it should be agreeable to you to consign to the house of Richard
Clarke & Sons, of Boston, New England, this summer or fall, I would beg
leave to propose to you, that I will find security to the amount of two
or three hundred chests, that in eight months after the sale of them in
America, the accounts shall be forwarded you, and the money for the net
proceedings paid to your order within that time, you allowing our house
five pr cent. commission on the sales, and one pr cent. for storage &
other charges, the freight and American duty to be chargeable on the
teas besides, & we to be free from the risk of fire or any other
accident that may occur before the delivery of the tea.

  I am, with the greatest respect, gentlemen,
                               Your most obed't, hum. ser't,
                                                       JONATHAN CLARKE.

To the Hon'ble Directors, &c., &c.

                                                 London, July 5, 1773.


The terms which I had the honor to converse with you upon, relative to
the sale of teas in America, I take leave to recapitulate as necessary,
to understand each other, viz.: You expect that the houses here who
recommend their friends abroad, and are in consequence appointed as
your factors to dispose of that article, should stipulate that it be
sold agreeable to such orders as you may think proper to give for that
purpose, and that the factors pay the cartage, warehouse rent,
brokerage, and other charges incidental to the sale, and remit the net
proceeds in two months from the last, prompt, in good bills of exchange
or bullion, for the whole of which service they are to retain a
commission of 6 pr cent. on the gross sales, the Company to be at the
risk and expence of shipping the tea out, to pay duty and entry abroad,
and to be also at the risk and expence of sending bullion home, which
terms I do agree to in behalf of those which I shall recommend, whose
names are at the foot. And as it seems prudent to guard against accident
by death, as well as that the Company be secured against the neglect &
misconduct of its servants in this business, I do hereby, for myself and
my house, here guarantee the safety of the houses named as above, for
the execution of this business, and also that such bills of exchange, as
they shall remit on the above account, shall be good.

The agents in this business hope to be indulged with giving their ships
in the trade the freight of the tea out, in preference to others.

  I am, with the highest respect, sirs,
                   Your most obed't & most hum. serv't,
                                                         WILLIAM KELLY.

To the Hon'ble the Com^tee of Warehouses, &c., &c., &c.

                      _For New York:_

                 Messrs. Abraham Lott & Co.[32]
                 Messrs. Hugh & Alex^r Wallace.

Mr. Lott has been a merchant of reputation there about 18 years, and
Public Treasurer of the Province about 7 years. The latter is a house of
long standing and of great credit, and is well known to many gentlemen
here, particularly Messrs. Bourdieu & Chollet.

                      _For Boston:_

                  John Erving, Jun^r.[33]
                  Henry Lloyd.[34]

Both men of fortune and established characters as merchants.

                      _For Philadelphia:_

                 Messrs. Francis Tilghman.
                 Messrs. Reese Meredith & Son.

Both houses of great credit & established reputation.

P.S.--Mr. Kelly, on consideration, thinks that one month from the last
prompt, will be too short a time for limiting the remittances to be
made, and therefore has taken the liberty to put down two.

                                                 London, 6 July, 1773.


Mr. Kelly will give the Committee my proposals for doing the Company's
business in Virginia, and if they require further knowledge of me,
Messrs. Harris & Co., and Mr. John Blackburn, will give them it. I am,

                                   Your hum. serv't,
                                                  Benj. Harrison.

  Mr. Wm. Settle, Clerk,
    to the Committee of Warehouses.

Hon'ble Gentlemen:

Pursuant to your request, I beg leave to lay before you the proposal of
my friend, Henry White, Esqr., of New York, for the sale of what teas
you may think proper to commit to his charge, and in justice to my
friend, I think it my duty to declare that there is no gentleman more
capable of transacting this business, seeing from his long experience in
that branch, that his consequence as a merchant of fortune he will be
capable of advancing the interest of the Company in the sale thereof, as
well as silencing any prejudices that may arise from the mode of its
introduction, viz.:

That the money arising from the sale of such teas shall be paid into the
hands of your treasurer in three months immediately following the receit
thereof, first deducting 6 pr cent. in lieu of all charges consequent to
their landing, save the duty of 3d. pr lb. and freight, and I hereby
engage to join myself with one or two more gentlemen of fortune in a
bond for the faithful performance of the above covenant.

    I am, with all due respect, hon'ble gentlemen,
                   Your most obedient, &c., &c., &c., &c.,
                                                        JOHN BLACKBURN.

  Scots Yard,
    Tuesday, 6 July, 1773.

N.B.--The firm of Mr. White's house is the Hon'ble Henry White, Esqr.,
at New York.

To the Hon'ble Directors, &c., &c., &c.


Your letter of the 30th ultimo, addressed to the chairman of the East
India Comp^y, having been read in a Committee of Warehouses, they
desire you will please to meet them at this house tomorrow, at twelve of
the clock at noon, relative to the exportation of tea to America.

                                I am, sir,
                                          Your most ob. serv't,
                                                            WM. SETTLE.

  East India House,
    7th July, 1773.

Samuel Wharton, Esqr.


_The Petition of Walter Mansell,[35] of the City of London, Merchant,
respectfully sheweth:_

That your petitioner, having received certain information of the Hon'ble
East India Company's intention to export large quantities of teas to His
Majesty's American Colonies, your petitioner therefore humbly begs leave
to acquaint this Committee, that he and his partner, Thos. Corbett, now
resident there have long carried on considerable business as merchants,
in Charles Town, South Carolina, where your petitioner has been resident
himself for near 20 y^rs and flatters himself that he is well acquainted
with the trade of that and the neighbouring Provinces. That your
petitioner has at a very considerable expence erected and built large
and commodious brick warehouses, for the reception of all kind of
merchandize, in Charles Town, and has a ship of his own, of the burthen
of two hundred tons, constantly employed in the Carolina trade only;
that your petitioner humbly hopes and doubts not, but that this Hon'ble
Com^tee will upon the strictest enquiry into his character and
circumstances, being possessed of houses and lands, in Charles Town, of
upwards of £500 sterling pr an., and from his American connections find
him not unworthy of their countenance and favor.

Your petitioner therefore humbly presumes to offer his services to this
Hon'ble Comm^tee to transact as their agent any business relative to the
exportation to and sale of their teas in South Carolina, or elsewhere in
the Colonies of America, as they shall think fitting to commit to his
care and management.

                                                         WALTER MANSELL.

       *       *       *       *       *

Hon'ble Sirs:

We take the liberty of recommending Messrs. Willing, Morris & Co.,[36]
of Philadelphia, to be your agents there for any quantity of tea you
may please to consign them for sale, and which they will dispose of in
the best manner they can for the benefit of the Com^y on the following

The tea to be sold at two months prompt, to be paid for on delivery, and
the money to be paid at the exchange, which shall be current at that
time, into the Company's treasury within three months after it is
received from Philadelphia. Willing, Morris & Co. to be allowed 5 pr
cent. for commission, and 1 pr cent. for warehouse room and all other
charges, except freight & duty.

Messrs. Peter & John Berthon are ready to become joint securities with
us for Messrs. Willing, Morris & Co.

              We are, very respectfully,
                   Your honors most obed^t humble servants,
                                             ROBERTS, BAYNES & ROBERTS.

  King's Arms Yard, July 8th, 1773.
    To the Hon'ble the Com^tee &c., &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

                                                  London, 8 July, 1773.

To the Hon'ble Committee of Warehouses.


We beg leave to recommend Messrs. James & Drinker, of Philadelphia, to
be one of your agents at the disposal of teas, which you may think
proper to send to Philadelphia, undertaking that they shall dispose of
such teas in no other manner than as you direct, on condition of your
allowing them 5 pr cent. for commission, for selling and making
remittance, and 1 pr cent. for truckage, warehouse rent or any charge
whatever; should any teas get damaged on board of ships, any expence
arising on them to be allowed by the Company. We do also engage, that in
two months after the prompt day, remittance in bills or specie, shall be
made to the Company, provided the teas are cleared, the specie to be at
the risk of the Company, they paying the charges attending it. We
further agree, that in case any bills are protested, we will pay the
Company the amount of them in two months after they become due. And we
are willing to enter into bond for the performance of the agreements,
provided the Directors think proper to allow the teas to be sent to any
other port, if the Pensilvanians refuse to admit the duty to be paid, or
to consume them in that country, in the latter case, our bond to be

                           We are, &c., &c.,

                                                          PIGOU & BOOTH.

  We beg leave to solicit the }
  freight to Pensilvania.     }

       *       *       *       *       *


Having been informed that the Directors of the East India Company
propose shipping teas to some of the American Colonies, to be there sold
by agents on the Company's account, and as I apprehend South Carolina
may be fixed upon as one of them, I beg leave to propose Mr. Roger
Smith, of South Carolina, for whose solidity I am willing to become

If the intended plan takes effect, and you do _give_ me the honor to
admit of my application, I shall be ready to attend you on the business
whenever you may be pleased to give me notice thereof. I have the honor
to be, gentlemen,

                                Your most obd^t h'ble serv^t
                                                          JOHN NUTT.
  New Broad Street Buildings,
  14^th July, 1773.

  To the chairman and deputy chairman
  of the Hon'ble East India Company.

       *       *       *       *       *


We beg leave to tender you the services of Mr. Samuel Chollet, merchant,
in Charlestown, South Carolina, and Messrs. Hugh and Alexander
Wallace,[37] merchants, in New York, for the sale of such teas as you
may think proper to send there, being persons in every respect well
qualified to dispose of them to the best advantage.

We are willing to enter into such covenants as may be required for the
security of the consignments & the remittances of the sales, on the same
terms as are to be granted to other houses on the Continent of America,
provided we are allowed a proper consideration for such guarantee.

  We have the honor to be, sirs,
                      Your most obed^t hble. serv^ts.
                                                    BOURDIEU & CHOLLET.

Lime Street, July 15, 1773.

       *       *       *       *       *

                                                London, 15th July, 1773.


Hearing that you are going to appoint agents in America for the sale of
your teas, permit us to propose our partner, Mr. Daniel Stephenson, of
Blandensburgh, Maryland, as one (should you adopt this measure,) and we
flatter ourselves, that from his long residence & connexions in Virginia
& Maryland, in business, that he will be thought an eligible person, &
for his responsibility, we are ready to give the security of our house,
should he be appointed on the same terms as the other gentlemen. We
apprehend his present situation is well calculated for this measure,
being at a proper distance between New York & James River, & near the
centre of the Maryland business.

  We are, respectfully, gentm^n your most odb^t servants,
                                                    GALE, FEARON & CO.

To the Committee of Warehouses.

       *       *       *       *       *


Upon considering the exportation of teas by the Company, having no
direction or power from our correspondents at Boston or New York, to
make terms, we decline offering any recommendation in the present state
of the affair, at the same time think our thanks are due to you, for
your readiness in attending to any propositions we might make. We are,

                                 Your most ob^t serv^ts
                                                   DAVISON & NEWMAN.

  Fenchurch Street, July 15, 1773.
  Edw^d Wheeler, Esq^r deputy chairman.

       *       *       *       *       *


The Committee of Warehouses of the East India Company desire you will
meet them at this house, on Thursday next, at twelve o'clock at noon,
relative to the exportation of tea to America. I am, sir,

                                     Your most obd^t serv^t
                                                            WM. SETTLE.

East India House, 17th July, 1773.

     FREDE'K PIGOU, Junr.,


In consequence of my conversation this day, with the gentlemen of the
Committee of Warehouses, relative to the rate of exchange from Boston, I
beg leave to confirm the offer I made, of abiding by the standard
exchange of £133 6s. 8d. currency for £100 sterling, upon an allowance
of 2-1/2 pr cent., with the proviso of the intended exportation being
made by way of experiment, that is not exceeding 500 chests to Boston,
before the success thereof is known.

                              I am, gentlemen,
                                        Your h'ble serv't,
                                                           WM. PALMER.

Devonshire Square, 22 July, 1773.

To the Hon'ble the Court of Directors, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *


It is so perfectly contrary to all mercantile usage, to fix a certain
rate of exchange for commission business, that we must beg leave to
decline making any further proposals for your intended consignments to
New York and Carolina, because the revolutions in all exchanges cannot
be foreseen. We have known the New York exchange at 168 & 190, at
present it is 177-1/2, the par between Philadelphia and New York is, as
160 at the former, to 170-2/3 at the latter.

If you should hereafter adopt the regular and usual mercantile form--of
receiving your remittances at the current exchange of the place at the
time of remitting, we shall be obliged to you for your consignments to
Messrs. Hugh and Alexander Wallace, of New York, and Samuel Chollett, of
Charlestown, South Carolina, for whom we will become security for the
usual commission of guarantee of 2-1/2 pr cent.

                    We are, sirs,
                           Your most obd^t h'ble serv^ts
                                                  BOURDIEU & CHOLLET.

Lime Street, July 23^rd 1773.

       *       *       *       *       *


The Committee of Warehouses of the East India Company desire you will
meet them at this house tomorrow morning, at eleven o'clock, relative to
the exportation of tea to America.

                           I am, sir,
                                   Your most obd^t servant,
                                                            WM. SETTLE.

East India House, 29^th July, 1773.


       *       *       *       *       *


I am directed by the Comm^tee to acquaint you that the Court of
Directors of the E.I.C. have agreed to ship for _Boston_ three hundred
chests of tea, and consign to your correspondents an equal proportion
thereof, of which please to inform them.

Shall be obliged to you to acquaint me the firm of your correspondents
at _Boston_. I am, sir,

                                 Your most hum. serv^t
                                                    WM. SETTLE.

East India House, 4^th Aug^t 1773.

     WM. PALMER,      } Esq^rs. Boston.

     JOHN BLACKBURN,      }
     WM. KELLY,           } Esq^rs. New York.
     FRED'K PIGOU, Jun^r. }

     GEO. BROWNE,    }
     FRED'K PIGOU,   } Esq^rs. Philadelphia.
     SAM'L WHARTON,  }

       *       *       *       *       *


At foot you have the firm of our correspondents at Boston, which we gave
into the Com^tee of Warehouses for partaking of the India Com^y's Tea
consignments, and for whom we are ready to give security.

  Benj^m Faneuil, Jun^r,               }  Esq^rs of Boston,
  Joshua Winslow, late of Nova Scotia, }               jointly.

  Security--Brook Watson, Rob^t Rashleigh,
  Watson & Rashleigh.

  London, 4^th Aug^t 1773.
  Mr. Wm. Settle.

Security offered for Mr. Gilbert Barkly,--Wm. Ross, Esq^r.--No. 24
Austin Fryars.

       *       *       *       *       *

Securities offered for Walter Mansell,--Henry Laurens, Fludyer Street,
Carolina Merchants; William Barrett, Old Palace Yard.

       *       *       *       *       *


The firm of the house I have recommended to the Court of Directors for
New York, is Pigou & Booth, and at Philadelphia, Messrs. James &
Drinker, as agents for the disposal of teas. I am, sir,

                                    Your most hum. ser^t
                                                   FRED'K PIGOU, Jun^r

  Mark Lane, 4 Aug^t
  Mr. Wm. Settle.

       *       *       *       *       *


I was favored with your letter of yesterday, _last_ night _after_ ten
o'clock, acquainting me that the Court of Directors of the E.I.C. had
agreed to ship for Philadelphia six hundred chests of tea, and consign
to my correspondents an equal proportion thereof, you will be pleased to
inform the Directors that I gave notice to my brothers, Thomas & Isaac
Wharton, (the persons whom I recommended,) by the last night's New York
mail, of the resolution of the Court of Directors to ship the above
quantity of teas to Philadelphia. I am, sir,

                            Your most hum. serv't,
                                                  SAM'L WHARTON.

Argyle Street, Aug^t 5, 1773.

Mr. Wm. Settle.

       *       *       *       *       *

Mr. Browne's compliments to Mr. Settle, and begs leave to inform him
that the address of the house at Philadelphia, whom he recommends for an
agent for the sale of tea, is Jonathan Browne, merchant, at

Aug^st 5, 1773.

       *       *       *       *       *


Last evening I had the pleasure to receive yours of yesterday,
mentioning the resolution of the Court of Directors of the Hon'ble East
India Company relative to the exportation of tea to New York, and
desiring me to acquaint you with the firm of my correspondent there,
which is Abraham Lott & Co. I am, sir,

                                              Yours, &c.,

                                                        WILLIAM KELLY.

Crescent, 5^th Aug^t 1773.

Mr. Wm. Settle.


The Bohea tea to be taken out of what was refused by the buyers last
sale; but particular care to be taken that none under the degree of
middling, or good middling, nor any damaged chests are sent, to be
marked & invoiced, not according to the King's numbers, but the
Company's, to be reweighed, by thus marking them, each bed will be kept
separate, and there will not only be no pretence abroad for finding
fault, as from No. to No., will be exactly of the same quantity, having
been packed from the said heap or pile at Canton, and since examined in
England. But the taste of the Americans will also be better known, that
is, whether they prefer a fresh middling tea, provided it is not
absolutely faint, or a strong, rough tea. A certain quantity of each of
these kinds to be sent to each place, that either may not have the
advantage over the other, by having teas of a superior quality, their
respective qualities to be remarked in the invoices. A small assortment
of about a dozen or twenty small chests of Hyson, Souchong, Congou, and
each specie of Singlo tea, viz.: Twankey, Skin and First Sort, to be
sent to each place, with proper remarks thereon in the respective
invoices, each of these species to be taken out of some bed or break of
teas now laid down, or intended so to be, for next September sale,
regard being had to their respective qualities, and to be taken out of
such beds or breaks, which shall be sufficiently large, not only to
supply each Colony with its quantity, but also to leave a considerable
part thereof to be sold at the ensuing sale, by which means the Company
may hereafter compare the prices to the same parcel of tea sells for,
not only at each Colony, but also at their own sales, which can no
otherwise be done, as each of these species, going under the same
general denomination of Hyson, Souchong, Congo and Singlo, vary almost
100 pr cent. in the price they sell for, according to quality, & not 10
pr cent. in the purchase.

As it would be a great object with the Company to introduce, if
possible, the consumption of Singlo tea into America, that being a kind
of tea which spoils by age, much more than Bohea, and also that of which
they are much more considerably overloaded with, and further, such an
introduction would have this advantage also, that the foreign countries
could not soon rival us, not being themselves importers of any
considerable quantity of this specie of tea. It should be recommended to
the agents, to endeavour all they can, at such introduction, which it is
conceived may be brought about, at least in some degree, from the
experience of the consumption here in England, which will appear to have
constantly gained ground proportionally, as its price at the Company's
sales has approached nearer to Bohea tea, and in the present situation
of this branch of the Company's trade, it might easily be made appear,
it would be for their advantage, even to sell it in America, at the
quoted price of Bohea, by which means they might be relieved from the
disagreeable alternative of selling it here under prime cost, or keeping
a greater quantity unsold in their warehouses, until it is spoiled by

                                       London, Aug^t 5^th 1773.
                                   St. Paul's Churchyard, N^o. 55.


I am favored with yours of yesterday's date, and agreeable to your
request, I shall immediately communicate the information therein
contained, to Richard Clarke, Esqr., & Sons, Merchants, in Boston, New
England, which is the house with which I am connected, and who I flatter
myself will acquit themselves of the trust the Hon'ble the Court of
Directors have been pleased to repose in them.

I would also beg leave to solicit part of the freight of the tea for a
vessel which I shall possibly have ready in ten days, provided it will
agree with the time you propose to ship them.

                         I am, sir,
                                   Your most hum. serv^t
                                                      JONATHAN CLARKE.

Mr. Wm. Settle, 17^th Aug^t

  Wm., Cap^t Joseph Royal
  Loring, will be ready in 5 days.

       *       *       *       *       *


The Committee of Warehouses desire you will inform them whether you have
a constant trader to Boston or South Carolina ready to sail, as the East
India Com^y intend to export teas to both those Colonies, and are
desirous of giving you the preference of the freight.

                              I am, sir,
                                     Your most obedi^t ser^t
                                                            WM. SETTLE.

East India House, 5^th Aug^t 1773.

  To George Hayley, Esq^r.
    Thos. Lane, Esq^r.
    Alex. Champion, Esq^r.

       *       *       *       *       *


The deputy chairman of the East India Com^y desires you would point out
to the Com^tee of Warehouses what sorts of tea and quantity of each are,
in your opinion, proper to be sent to Boston & South Carolina, to make
up to the former of those places, an export equal to 300 large chests of
Bohea tea, and the latter a quantity equal to 200 large chests Bohea.

Mr. Holbrook says if you can be with him this morning, you will expedite
his business very much, as the Com^tee have directed him to make ready
for shipping immediately.

                            I am, sir,
                                      Your most hum. serv^t
                                                          WM. SETTLE.

    East India House, 6^th Aug^t 1773.
  Mr. Wm. Settle.


                                  So.      New
                      Boston.  Carolina.  York.  Philadelphia.  Total.

  Bohea,   l. ch^ts.     268       182      568        568        1586
  Congo, sm^l   d^o.       20        10       20         20          70
  Singlo,       d^o.      80        50       80         80         290
  Hyson,        d^o.      20        10       20         20          70
  Souchong,     d^o.      10         5       10         10          35


  Bohea,                         562,421
  Singlo,                         22,546
  Hyson,                           5,285
  Souchong,                        2,392
  Congou,                          6,015
                   Total lbs.,   598,659

The Hayley, James Scott, is now ready to sail, & I mean to dispatch her
15^th Aug^t. The Dartmouth, James Hall,[38] will be here about 14 days
longer. These two are constant traders to Boston.

I have no connection with the Carolina trade, but I understand the
London, Curling, belonging to Greenwood & Higginson, is now ready for
sailing, and is a constant trader. Mr. Settle will please to inform the
Com^tee of the above & thereby oblige,

                                 His humble servant,
                                               GEORGE HAYLEY.

East India H^o 10 Aug^t 1773.

       *       *       *       *       *



By order of the Court of Directors of the United East India Comp^y, I
transmit you the enclosed petition, with their request that you will be
pleased to lay the same before the Right Hon'ble the Lords Commissioners
of the Treasury.

               I am, very respectfully, sir,
                           Your most obed^t & hum. ser^t
                                               PETER MITCHELL, Sec^y.

       *       *       *       *       *


_The humble Petition of the United Company of Merchants of England
trading to the East Indies._


That by an Act passed in the last session of Parliament, it is among
other things enacted, "That it shall and may be lawful for the
Commissioners of his Majesty's treasury, or any three or more of them,
or the High Treasurer for the time being, to grant a licence or licences
to the said United Company, to take out of their warehouses such
quantity or quantities of tea as the said Commissioners of the Treasury,
or any three or more of them, or the High Treasurer for the time being,
shall think fit, without the same having been exposed to sale in this
kingdom, and to export such tea to any of the British colonies or
plantations in America, or to foreign parts discharged from the payment
of any of the customs or duties whatsoever."

That the said United Com^ny have agreed to export to the British
colonies or plantations in America a quantity of teas, equal in weight
to 1700 large chests of Bohea tea, which quantity will not in the whole
exceed six hundred thousand pounds weight. And your petitioner having in
the affidavit hereunto annexed shewed unto your lords^ps that after the
taking out of their warehouses the said quantities of teas so intended
to be exported, that there will be left remaining in the warehouses of
the said United Company a quantity of tea not less than ten millions of
pounds weight, as by the said Act is directed.

Your petitioners therefore pray your lordships to grant them a licence
to take out of their warehouses the quantities of teas above mentioned,
not exceeding in the whole six hundred thousand pounds weight, without
the same having been exposed to sale in this kingdom, and to export such
tea discharged from the payment of any customs or duties whatsoever.

By order of the Court of Directors of the said Company.

                                                    P. MITCHELL, Sec^y.

East India Ho. 19^th April, 1773.


After our hearty commendations. Whereas, the united company of merchants
of England trading to the East Indies, have, by the annexed petition,
humbly prayed us to grant them, in pursuance of an Act passed the last
session of Parliament, a licence to take out of their warehouses a
quantity of teas, equal in weight to one thousand seven hundred large
chests of Bohea tea, which quantity will not in the whole exceed six
hundred thousand pounds weight, without the same having been exposed to
sale in this kingdom, and to export such tea discharged from the payment
of any customs or duties whatsoever, to the British colonies or
plantations in America. And it appearing to us by the annexed affidavit,
that there will be left remaining in their warehouses a quantity of tea
not less than ten millions of pounds weight, as by the said Act is
provided and directed. Now we, having taken the said application and the
several matters and things therein set forth into our consideration, do
think fit to comply with the request of the said petitioners. And in
pursuance of the powers given unto us by the said Act, we do hereby
authorise, permit and grant licence to the said Company to take out of
their warehouses the said quantity of tea, not exceeding in the whole
six hundred thousand pounds weight, without the same having been exposed
to sale in this kingdom, and to export such teas discharged from the
payment of any customs or duties whatsoever, to any of the British
colonies or plantations in America. Nevertheless, you are therein to
take especial care, that all and every the rules, regulations &
restrictions and orders directed by the said recited Act, relating to
the exportation of such teas, or any ways concerning the same, be in
all and every respect fully obeyed and observed. And for so doing, this
shall be as well to you as to the said Company, and to all other
officers & persons whatsoever herein concerned, a sufficient warrant.

[Illustration: LORD NORTH.]

Given under our hands and seals at the Treasury Chambers, Whitehall, the
20^th day of August, one thousand seven hundred and seventy three; in
the thirteenth year of the reign of our sovereign lord, George the
Third, King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, and so forth.

                                                           C. TOWNSHEND.
                                                           C.J. FOX.

To our very loving friends the Commissioners, for managing His Majesty's
Revenues of Customs and Excise, now and for the time being, and to all
other officers and persons herein concerned.

       *       *       *       *       *

_East India Company, Licence to Export Teas_

Hon'ble Sirs:

We have the ship Eleanor, James Bruce, about 250 tons, (a constant
trader,) which we intend for Boston, and should be much obliged for the
freight of the teas you intend exporting to that place.

We have no ship bound to South Carolina, but are much obliged for the
preference given us. We are, sirs,

                         Your most h'ble sert^s.
                                              LANE, SON & FRASER.

Nicholas Lane, 6^th Aug^st 1773.

The Hon'ble the Court of Directors, &c., &c.

John Dorrien, Esq^r. recommends for Boston, the Beaver, Capt^n Coffin.

       *       *       *       *       *


I wrote you under date of the 5^th inst^t that you would be pleased to
inform the Committee of Warehouses, whether you had a constant trader
ready to sail for Boston or South Carolina, but should have said to
Boston only. I am therefore to desire the favor of an answer whether you
have a constant trader ready for that colony.

                                          I am, &c., &c.,
                                                        WM. SETTLE.

  East India H^o. Aug^t 10, 1773.
  Alex. Champion, Esq^r.


In answer to your esteemed of the 5^th and 10^th current, am obliged by
the favor intended, but at present have only one ship under my care
bound to Boston, who will depart in a very few days, but she is not a
constant trader. It is not, therefore, in my power to accept of the

                                I am, sir,
                                         Your most hum. serv^t.
                                            ALEXANDER CHAMPION.

  Bishopgate Street, Aug^t 10, 1773.

Mr. Wm. Settle.

Hon'ble Sir:

Being informed you have some teas to ship to America, I have now a
vessel, British built, burthen about 160 tons, which should be glad to
lett to your honors for the above purpose.

   I am, with due regard, hon'ble sirs,
                               Your most obed^t servt^t,
                                                       THOS. WALTERS.

  Carolina Coffee House,
    Birchen Lane, 17^th Aug^t 1773.

  The Elizabeth, John Scott, for any part of America.

  To the Hon'ble Directors of
    the East India Company.

       *       *       *       *       *

Mr. Abraham Dupies, in Gracechurch Street, will become obligated for
Richard Clarke & Sons, of Boston.

       *       *       *       *       *


I have a vessel in this port, which will be ready to return to America
in a few days, therefore take the opportunity to acquaint you that I am
willing to take on board her 600 chests of tea, either for New York or
Philadelphia, at the a customary freight given from hence to those

                    I am, gentl^n your most hum. servant,
                                                       JOSEPH CABOT.

    Threadneedle Street, 24 Aug^t 1773.
  To the Hon'ble Committee of Warehouses.

                                                 London, Aug^t 26, 1773.


We pray you to inform the Com^tee of Warehouses for the Hon'ble the East
India Company that we have a ship, _river built_, called the Nancy,
commanded by Captain Colville, compleately fitted and ready to receive
the tea for New York, which we beg leave to recommend to the Committee.
We are, sir,

                  Your most obedient and humble servants,
                                                        JOHN BLACKBURN.
                                                        PIGOU & BOOTH.
                                                        WM. KELLY & CO.

Mr. Wm. Settle.


Please to acquaint the Hon'ble Committee of Warehouses, that we have
taken up the Polly, Cap^t Ayres, for Philadelphia, to carry the
Company's tea to that port, which vessel lays at Princes Stairs,
Rotherhith, and was built at Ipswich, in the year 1765. She is now ready
to take in.

                           We are, sirs,
                                  Your most h'ble serv^ts.
                                                       PIGOU & BOOTH,
                              For selves & GEORGE BROWNE,
                                SAMUEL WHARTON & GILBERT BARKLEY.

    Mark Lane, 31st Aug^t 1773.
  Mr. Wm. Settle.

       *       *       *       *       *


Your remarks to the bond offered you, relative to the 600 chests of tea,
which are to be exported to New York, have been laid before the
Committee of Warehouses, and they are of opinion that the said bond is
according to the agreement made with the several gentlemen for the
different Colonies, and the merchants who are concerned for the tea to
Boston, have executed their bonds agreeable thereto, and Messrs.
Wharton, Pigou & Barkley have agreed also to execute on Thursday
morning. Therefore, I am to desire you to inform me whether you will
please likewise to execute the said bond.

                            I am, sir,
                                   Your most h'ble serv^t
                                                         WM. SETTLE.

  East India House, 31^st Aug^t 1773.

  To John Blackburn, Esq^r.
    William Kelly, Esq^r.

       *       *       *       *       *


As the several gentlemen mentioned in your polite note of this day have
executed the bond, I shall with pleasure follow their example, and on
Thursday next I propose waiting on you for that purpose. I am sir,

                                      Your most h'ble serv^t
                                                        JOHN BLACKBURN.

    Scot's Yard, 31st Aug^t 1773.
  Mr. Wm. Settle.

       *       *       *       *       *


Last evening I had the pleasure to receive your favor of yesterday,
relative to the bond which I am to sign for New York, and the objections
made to its draught by Mr. Blackburn, Pigou and myself, which at the
time appeared resonable to us, but as others have signed in the form
shewn to me, I don't mean to be particular, and therefore shall conform,
relying on the honor of the Com^tee in all future matters.

Tomorrow I am indispensably obliged to go out of town shall return on
Saturday next, wait on you, & execute the bond. I am, sir,

                    Your most obedi^t & most hum. serv^t
                                                        WM. KELLY.

    Crescent, Sep. 1^st 1773.
  Mr. Wm. Settle.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Freight of 568 whole, & 130 half chests of Tea, shipped on the Polly,
Cap^t Sam^l Ayres, for Philadelphia:_

  568 chests con^g for freight,         8748.6
  130 quarter d^o.       d^o             656.9

  9405.3 at 1s. 6d. pr foot, Philadelphia currency, is £705 7 10-1/2

  Primage on 235-1/3 at 2s. sterl^g pr ton, is £23 10 3

_Freight of Tea on the London, to South Carolina:_

  182   chests measure 2644.3 at 1s. pr foot     £132 4 3
   75     d^o.   d^o.   345.9  d^o.                17 5 9
  ----                                           --------
  257                                            149 10 0
        Primage, 5 pr cent                         7 10 0
                                                 £157 0 0

_Freight of Tea shipped on the William, for Boston:_

  58 chests measure 585.11, at 1s. 4d. pr foot,   £39 1 3 L.M.
                            Primage,                1 9 6 sterl^g.

_Freight of 698 chests Tea on the Nancy, for New York:_

  698 chests measure 9264.8, at 2s. 3d. pr foot, is
  Currency,                                         £1042 5 4
  Sterling, £30 8 2    Primage, 5 pr ct.               52 2 3
                                                    £1094 7 7

_Freight of 114 chests Tea on the Eleanor, for Boston:_

  114 chests measure 1383.4, at 1s. 4d.        £92 4 5 L.M.
                     Primage,                   £3 9 0

_Freight of 112 chests Tea on the Beaver, for Boston:_

  112 chests measure 1375, at 1s. 4d., is     £91 13 10 L.M.
      34-1/2 tons at 2s. pr ton primage,       £3 17  0

Whitehall, Dec^r 17^th 1773.

Lord Dartmouth presents his compliments to Mr. Wheler, and requests the
favor to see him at his office, at Whitehall, on Monday morning next, at
eleven o'clock, on the subject of some advices Lord Dartmouth has lately
received from America, respecting the importation of tea from England.

       *       *       *       *       *



The Com^tee of Warehouses of the E.I. Com^y desire you would please to
inform them whether you have receiv^d any advices from _Boston_ relative
to the said Com^ys exportation of tea to that colony, and if you have,
to communicate the purport thereof to the Committee. I am, sir,

                                  Your most obe. ser^t
                                                       WM. SETTLE.

East India House, 20^th Dec^r 1773.

  To Mr. Wm. Palmer,}
  Brook Watson,     }   _Boston._

  Wm. Greenwood,   }
  J^o. Nutt,       }    _South Carolina._

  Jn^o. Blackburn, }
  Wm. Kelly,       }    _New York._

  Fred^k Pigou, Jun^r.  _New York & Philadelphia._

  Geo. Browne,    }
  Sam^l Wharton,  }     _Philadelphia._



The Comm^tee of Warehouses desire the favor of an answer under your hand
to my letter of yesterday, relative to the exportation of tea to
_Boston_. I am, sir,

  Your most obd^t servant,


East India House, 21^st Dec^r 1773.

  Brook Watson, Esq^r. _Boston._
  Wm. Greenwood, Esq^r. }
  John Nutt, Esq^r.     } _South Carolina._
  John Blackburn, Esq^r. _New York._
  Geo. Browne, Esq^r. _Philadelphia._

       *       *       *       *       *




_From Mr. Palmer._

Mr. Palmer has received no material advices from Boston since the
consignment has taken place, but has letters of as late a date from
thence as the 3^d of Novem^r, one of which mentions there was no tea
then to be bought.

East India House, 21st Dec^r 1773

                                      Garlick Hill, 22d Decem^r 1773.

_To the Hon'ble the Committee of Warehouses, East India House._


In compliance with your request, we send you enclosed extracts from the
letters which we have lately received from Boston relative to the Com^ys
teas sent there.

                          We are, gent^m
                                    Your most hum. serv^ts
                                                    WATSON & RASHLEIGH.

_Extract of a Letter dated Boston, 18^th Octo^r., 1773:_

"But what difficulties may arise from the disaffection of the merchants
and importers of tea to this measure of the India Company, I am not yet
able to say. It seems at present to be a matter of much speculation, and
if one is to credit the prints, no small opposition will be made
thereto. However, I am in hopes it will be otherwise, and taking it for
granted that the tea should arrive, and no obstacle happen to prevent
its being landed and disposed of, agreeably to the instructions of the
Company, then I am to add that you may be assured I shall strictly
conform to the instructions which I may jointly receive respecting it,
paying all due regard to the contents of your letter.

"I know not how to write more fully hereon until the tea arrives, and
what may possibly be the consequences attending it. My friends seem to
think it will subside; others are of a contrary opinion."

_Extract of a Letter dated Boston, 30 Oct^r., 1773:_

"I omitted a letter to you in particular when I wrote to your house the
10^th inst., because I thought it was probable, both from the contents
of your letter then received, as well as from the public reports, that
the tea you mention as coming from the India Com^y might every day be
expected to arrive, as you say 4 Aug^t they intended shipping 300 chests
immediately, but by my letter, this day received by a vessel from
London, it is not to be sent.

"I perceive by the prints, that the clamour is still continued against
this measure of the India Company, and seems to be pursued with rather
more warmth in some of the Southern Colonies than in this. For my own
part I am not sufficiently skilled in politicks to see the pernicious
consequences which 'tis said must arise therefrom. If they would prevent
the Tea Act being enforced, or the payment of the revenue arising
therefrom to Government, methinks they should either not import any tea,
or rather not consume any, and then the end would be answered at once.
But while there is such a vast quantity exported every year by so
considerable a number of persons, who all pay the duty thereof on its
arrival, I do not see why every importer, nay, every consumer thereof,
do not as much contribute to inforce the Tea Act as the India Comp^y
themselves, or the persons to whom they may think proper to consign
their tea for sale. Nor can I but be of opinion that the uneasiness is
fomented, if not originated, principally by those persons concerned in
the Holland trade, and thereby introduce large quantities of tea, which,
paying no duty, by that means they can afford to undersell those who do
pay it, and this trade, I am informed, is much more practiced in the
Southern Governments than this way.

"To what lengths the opposition to this tea's being brought or landed,
or disposed of, may be carried, must be left to time to determine."

_Extract of a Letter dated Boston, 4 Nov^r., 1773:_

"Thus far I had wrote you with intentions to forward by first
conveyance, when I found there was to be a muster of the people, to
demand that the persons who are to be employed as agents for disposing
of the tea which may come from the India Company, would resign their
commissions & swear (under Liberty Tree) to return the tea by the same
or first vessels for London, &c. You will be fully acquainted of their
unreasonable proceedings. After the time had elapsed which was fixed
upon for the gentlemen to appear and resign, on their not complying with
the order, they marched down in a body to Mr. Clarke's store, where we
were, and not receiving such an answer as they demanded, they began an
attack upon the store and those within, breaking down doors, flinging
about mud, &c., for about an hour, when they began to disperse, and a
number of gentl^n, friends of those agents coming to their assistance,
they left the store and went upon change, but met with no further
insult, tho' there is much threatening. As the tea is not arrived, and
it is uncertain when it may, I purpose to write you again speedily.

"In the interim, I am, &c."


_Letter from Mr. Greenwood._


In answer to your letter of the 20^th inst., I beg you would be pleased
to inform the Com^tee of Warehouses that I have yet received no advices
from South Carolina, relative to the Comp^y's exportation of tea. When I
do, they may depend I will take the earliest opportunity to communicate
the same to them.

                                  I am, sir,
                                           Your most obe^t serv^t
                                                          WM. GREENWOOD

    Queen Street, 22^d Dec^r., 1773.
  Mr. Settle.

       *       *       *       *       *

_From Mr. Nutt._


In compliance with your desire, intimated to me by Mr. Settle,
respecting any information received from South Carolina, concerning the
teas exported by the East I. Com^y to that Colony, I have the honor to
acquaint you that the vessel in which they were shipped did not sail
from England before the 18^th October, and the latest dates from thence
are only the 1^st Nov^r., so that we cannot expect for some time to
hear of her arrival. I have the honor to be, gent^n.,

                                   Your most obed^t hum. serv^t.,
                                                             JOHN NUTT.

    Broad Street, 22^nd Decem^r, 1773.
  To the Com^tee of Warehouses, &c., &c., &c.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Letter from Mr. Blackburn._


I am honored with your two letters of the 20^th & 21st curr^t, desiring
me to inform the Com^tee of Warehouses if I have received any advices
from New York relative to the Com'^s exportation of tea to that Colony.

The vessel wherein the tea was shipped was not arrived when the last
letters were dispatched from thence, consequently no precise judgment
can be formed whether or not it would be permitted to be landed; but I
flatter myself from the disposition of the principal gentle^n of New
York, who are men of moderation, candour and prudence, and as firmly
attached to the Government and laws of this Kingdom as any of his
Majesty's subjects; that they will, by their example and influence, be
able to suppress every riot and disturbance occasioned by the opposers
of this measure.

I expect a ship from New York, which was to depart about the 26^th
Novem^r, by which I shall receive some fresh intelligence relative to
this business, and if I should be furnished with any advices that regard
the interest of the Company, I shall not fail to wait on the Directors
immediately. I have the honor to be, sir,

                                   Your most obed^t & hum. ser^t
                                                         JOHN BLACKBURN.

    Scots Yard, 22^nd Dec^r, 1773.
  Mr. Wm. Settle.

_Extract of a Letter from a merchant in New York, to Wm. Kelly, of
London, dated 5^th Nov^r, 1773:_

"The introduction of the East India Company's tea is violently opposed
here, by a set of men who shamefully live by monopolizing tea in the
smuggling way."

_Extract of a Letter from Abraham Lott, Esq^r., of New York, to Wm.
Kelly,[40] of London, dated New York, 5^th Nov^r., 1773, & received with
the above mentioned Extract of Mr. Kelly, 22^d Dec^r., 1773:_

"Herewith you will receive several papers relating to the importation of
the India Com^y's tea. If it comes out free of a _duty here_ on
importation, things I believe may go quiet enough, tho' you will
observe much is said against it even on that supposition. But if it
should be subject to a duty here, I am much in doubt whether it will be
safe, as almost every body in that case speaks against the admission of
it, so that, altho' I am well assured that the Governor will not suffer
the laws to be trampled on, yet there will be no such thing as selling
it, as the people would rather buy so much poison, than the tea with the
duty thereon, calculated (they say) to enslave them and their posterity,
and therefore are determined not to take what they call the nauseous
draft. A little time will determine how matters will terminate, that is,
if the tea comes out. If it does, I hope it may come free of duty, as by
that means much trouble and anxiety will be saved by the agents. I do
assure you they have all been very uneasy, tho' at the same time
determined to do their duty, but in the most prudent & quiet manner. It
is now two o'clock, P.M., when I received the paper signed Cassius, in
which you will find Mr. L---- R----de handsomely complimented, and
yourself severely handled, on a supposition that you should have spoken
words to the import, as asserted in the paper. Mr. R----e's name is not
mentioned, but there is no doubt but he is the person alluded to, as
upon the arrival of the London ships, who refused to bring the tea. It
was currently reported that he had wrote his partner nearly in the same
words as mentioned in the paper. You are the best judge of the truth of
the assertion, but whether true or not, his conduct is ungenerous and
mean. If the paper speaks truth, that he was offered part of the
consignment of tea, he must be a man of great influence to have so great
an offer made him, when so many other people of weight were applying for
it and could not obtain it."

       *       *       *       *       *

_From Mr. Fred^k Pigou, Jun^r._


Please to acquaint the Com^tee of Warehouses of the Hon'ble the East
India Company, that from the advices I have received from
_Philadelphia_, I should be of opinion the tea sent to that place will,
if landed, meet with much difficulty in being disposed of.

At New York, I am of opinion it will meet with less opposition, and may
possibly be sold in that city. It would have been fortunate if the New
York vessel could have arrived as soon or before the Philadelphia ship.

                     I am, sir, your most hum. serv^t
                                                   FRED'K PIGOU, Jun^r.

    Mark Lane, 21st Dec^r., 1773.
  To Mr. Settle.


_Letter from Mr. Geo. Browne._


The advice I have from my brother at Philadelphia, relative to the
Com^y's consignment of tea, is, that it was very doubtful how it would
be received there, the measure being looked upon in an unfavorable view
in general. He had only just received an account (from another hand) of
his being nominated one of the agents, and refers me to the public
prints for an account of the resolutions entered into by the people in
opposition to it. I am, sir,

                                  Your most obedi^t ser^t
                                                         GEO. BROWNE.

Mr. Settle.

       *       *       *       *       *

_From Mr. Sam^l Wharton._


I understand that Mr. Walpole, of Lincolns Inn Fields, had received some
advices from my brother, respecting the teas sent to Philadelphia. I
applied to him for them, and he requested that I would send them to you,
with what intelligence I had myself received. I am, sir,

                                      Your very hum. serv^t
                                                         SAMUEL WHARTON.

    Argyle Street, Decem^r 23, 1773.
  Mr. Settle.

_Extract of a Letter from Thomas Wharton,[41] Esq^r. of Philadelphia,
dated Oct. 5, 1773, to Sam^l Wharton, in London:_

"I have closely attended to the course of your arguments, and think they
are of great weight, but you know it is impossible always to form a true
judgment from what real motives an opposition springs, as the smugglers
and London importers may both declare that this duty is stamping the
Americans with the badge of slavery, and notwithstanding the Directors
of the East India Company have a just right to send their teas where
they think proper, yet the Americans allege they may and ought to refuse
to purchase and use it.

"A little time after the ship's arrival we shall know what is to be
done, and I expect we shall before that time have a conference with the
agents from New York, _which I proposed_, that our conduct might be
uniform, and as much as possible answer the end of _our appointment_."

_Extracts of two Letters from Tho^s. Warton, Esq^r., of Philadelphia,
dated Oct. 5 and Oct. 30, 1773, to the Hon'ble Tho^s. Walpole, of

"About a week before the arrival of the September mail, a letter reached
this city, informing us that particular persons (tho' not all of them
the proper ones) were nominated agents for the East India Directors.
This gave the inhabitants a knowledge of the intention of the Directors,
and some persons immediately declared, that as the duty was still
retained, that, tho' small, yet it as implicitly fixed the power and
established the badge of slavery, as if it had been greater. The same
sentiments, I am told, are expressed in letters from New York. At
present, therefore, it is impossible to say what measures the people
will take on this occasion, but I should expect they will not hinder the
tea being landed, if they insist on its not being sold, till the duty is
taken off by Act of Parliament, or the East India Directors satisfy the
Commissioners of the Customs in London. For, notwithstanding, it may
justly be urged that the Directors of the East India Comp^y have a right
to export their teas to North America, yet, as it is said, the
inhabitants have also a right of judgment respecting the purchase and
consumption. I should expect, that if the opposition takes place, it
will rest with _their_ adherence to an engagement of this kind.

"I can have no doubt that the India Com^y would find their sales
lucrative, and that an extension of trade would certainly take place, by
comprehending the articles of pepper, spices, and silks in their
exports; great quantities of the two first articles have certainly been
introduced in the Continent from Holland and thro' the West Indies, and
therefore it is that I apprehend the London merchants are mistaken when
they say they already ship as much as the Continent can consume, for
through them are imported only such quantities of spices, &c., as the
merchant here can vend, after the run goods are sold, they being
imported cheaper than those from England, are naturally first sold. But
if the East India Company should think proper to extend their trade, I
cannot doubt it would in a great measure put a stop to the importation
from Holland and the Dutch Islands, and large sums would annually pass
from America to London for those commodities. But perhaps little more
should be said until it is known in what manner our fellow countrymen
shall view this scheme of trade."

                                          "Philadelphia, Oct. 30, 1773.

"I shall endeavor to communicate a more full state of the sentiments of
my fellow citizens than I could in my last letter. I could then only
conjecture what might be the result of their judgments respecting the
Hon'ble the Directors of the East I. Com^y sending their teas to this
Continent. A communication of sentiments, taking place between the New
Yorkers & the Philadelphians, soon produced a number of pieces in the
public prints and otherwise, most absolutely asserting the rights of the
Americans, and denying the power of Parliament respecting the internal
taxation of the Colonies, which led into many comparisons, endeavoring
to shew that the agency of the tea was equally odious & dangerous as
the execution of the Stamp Act would have been. I may say with great
truth, that I do not believe one man in a hundred was to be met with who
approved of the sending the tea, while the duty was to be paid here. Yet
a great number of people acknowledged the right of the East India
Directors to export their teas to America, and declared that nothing
less than a confirmed belief that the admitting this mode of taxation
would render the assemblies of the people mere cyphers, could have
induced them to proceed in the manner they have done; for when it was
mentioned to them that by refusing to admit the tea to be landed, they
did as much deprive the India Company of the natural rights of English
merchants, as the subjecting us to the payment of duty possibly could
affect us, they replyed that the Act of Parliament hindered the tea from
being landed _until_ the duty was first paid or secured, and
consequently as the Directors knew this, and the opposition heretofore
given by the Americans, they must take what followed.

"You will perceive by the resolution formed and entered into on the
18^th, into what a situation the agents were driven, there being no
possibility of persuading the people to wait till we knew the real state
of facts. The meeting at the State House consisted, (it is said) of 6 or
700, and be assured, they were as respectable a body of inhabitants as
has been together on any occasion; many of the _first_ rank. The whole
of their proceedings were conducted with the greatest decency and
firmness, and without one dissenting voice. After the resolution had
passed, they appointed a Com^tee of 12 persons, who, on the 18^th inst.,
about 12 o'clock, called on James and Drinker, and then came down to my
house, where they conducted themselves with great decency, read the
resolution, and informed me they were appointed by their fellow citizens
to demand of Tho^s. & Isaac Wharton, whether we would execute the trust
_if_ the duty was to be paid here? We told them it involved us in a
difficulty which we could not solve, _because we had not received the
least intimation from the Directors_, and therefore it was impossible to
know the exact state the tea was to be shipped in, but that we would, on
being acquainted with the situation under which it came, openly
communicate the same, and that we would do nothing to injure the
property of the India Com^y or enslave America. This answer they
received with great satisfaction, and in the evening they reported to a
unanimous body of citizens the answers they had received, who gave
Tho^s. and Isaac Wharton very evident marks of their approbation for the
candid answer they gave.

"Should the tea be sent subject to the payment of the duty, I am
satisfied it will not be suffered to be landed, and that it must return
to London, (unless the India Directors have in such case directed the
captain where to proceed with it,) which intimation may be in time to
secure the property by insurance should they incline."

       *       *       *       *       *

Copies of the above advices were, by order of the Com^tee of Warehouses,
sent to Lord Dartmouth in the manner directed by their minute of the



                                Boston, New England, 17^th Nov^r., 1773.


After a long detention in the English channel, and a pretty long
passage, I arrived here this morning from England, and there being a
vessel to sail for London within a few hours, gives me an opportunity of
writing you a few lines on the subject of the consignment of tea, made
to our house by the Hon'ble East India Company, in which I had your
friendly assistance, and of which I shall always retain a grateful

I find that this measure is an unpopular one, and before my arrival some
measures have been taken to oblige my friends to make a resignation of
the trust, which they have not thought fit to comply with. They have
wrote to our friend, Mr. Abraham Dupuis, very particularly, respecting
the measures that have been adopted, and to that account I must beg
leave to refer you, as I have not time to repeat it by this opportunity,
but I shall keep the Company fully advised in future.

I fully see that we shall meet with difficulty in executing this trust,
but our utmost endeavors shall be exerted to fulfill the orders we may
receive from the Company.

  I am, very respectfully sir, your most obliged h'ble serv^t
                                                       JON^A CLARKE.
  Edward Wheler, Esq^r.

Received from the Deputy Chairman, 5^th Jan^ry, 1774.



Mr. Wheler, chairman of the East India Company, having received a letter
from Jonathan Clarke, Esq^r., dated Boston, 17^th November last, wherein
he begs leave to refer him to you for the measures that have been
adopted at Boston, relative to the Company's exportation of tea to that
Colony, I am directed by the chairman to desire you would be pleased to
communicate to him the advices you have received from Messrs. Clarke &
Sons, for the information of the Court of Directors of the East India
Company, which will be a favor conferred on him. I am, sir,

                                      Your most obd^t serv^t,
                                                           WM. SETTLE.

  East India House, 5^th Jan^y, 1774.
  Abraham Dupuis, Esq^r., Gracechurch Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Referred to in Mr. Clarke's Letter to the chairman, of the 17th Nov^r,

                                                  Boston, Nov^r., 1773.



We now embrace the first leisure we have, to give you an account of the
proceedings of some of the inhabitants of this town, relative to the
expected importation of teas into this port from the Hon'ble East India
Company. As soon as it was known here that the Company had determined on
this measure, and that certain gentlemen of this town were fixed upon as
factors, there appeared a dissatisfaction in many persons. But at first
there did not appear any resentment against the supposed factors, nor
was there, as far as we ever heard, any mention made of a design to
bring them under any obligations not to execute their trust, but the
general voice among the opposers of the Company's plan was, that the
teas must not be landed, or, if landed, not sold. About three or four
weeks ago, a printed anonymous address to the Company's factors was
brought to this place by the post, either from New York or Philadelphia,
but whether it was fabricated at either of those places, or this, we
cannot determine. The design of it was, to represent a number of
gentlemen, who cannot justly be considered in any other light than
commercial factors, as Crown officers, and they, in the said paper, are
expressly put on the same footing with the late stamp officers,
doubtless with a design to render them odious to the people, and much is
said in it to dissuade or intimidate them from executing their expected
trust. Soon after this, a second anonymous address, but much more
inflammatory, appeared here in one of the newspapers from New York. Both
these were printed in one or more of the newspapers of this town, and
several other pieces were also published here, to rouse the people to an
opposition to the Company's design, and their rage against us and the
other gentlemen, factors for the Company in this place. As things were
then circumstanced in this place, we judged it might tend to undeceive
many persons that were misled, to publish some observations on the
Company's plan, to answer the objections that were made against it, and
to point out some of the beneficial consequences attending the execution
of it. Accordingly we, by the assistance of a friend, got printed in
Messrs. Fleet's Evening Post, of the 24^th October, a piece signed
Z[42], in which this affair is canvassed with as much freedom as the
temper of the times would bear, and altho' this was penned in haste, and
under the restriction of the afore-hinted shackle, we have the
satisfaction to find, that in the opinion of the most judicious amongst
us here, every objection that has been started against the Company's
plan is fully answered, and altho' this publishment does not seem to
have had its designed effect as yet, it is to be hoped, when the
_people's_ temper is become more cool, that the aforesaid piece, with
what has since, and may hereafter be published on this subject, may not
entirely fail of the design proposed.

Besides these paper skirmishes, we would inform you that we were told
that there were about two or three weeks since, several nightly
meetings, held in various parts of the town, of a large number of
persons, to consult and conclude on some method to prevent the execution
of the Company's plan, but what was fixed at these meetings we could not
learn. But we were not lost in this uncertainty long, for in the morning
of the 2^nd instant, about one o'clock, we were roused out of our sleep
by a violent knocking at the door of our house, and on looking out of
the window we saw (for the moon shone very bright) two men in the
courtyard. One of them said he had brought us a letter from the country.
A servant took the letter of him at the door, the contents of which were
as follows:

                                                "Boston, 1st Nov., 1773.

Richard Clarke & Son:

The Freemen of this Province understand, from good authority, that there
is a quantity of tea consigned to your house by the East India Company,
which is destructive to the happiness of every well-wisher to his
country. It is therefore expected that you personally appear at Liberty
Tree, on Wednesday next, at twelve o'clock at noon day, to make a public
resignation of your commission, agreeable to a notification of this day
for that purpose.

Fail not upon your peril.


Two letters of the same tenor were sent in the same manner to the other
factors. On going abroad we found a number of printed notifications
posted up in various parts of the town, of which the following is a

"_To the Freemen of this and the other Towns in the Province._


You are desired to meet at Liberty Tree, next Wednesday, at twelve
o'clock at noon day, then and there to hear the persons to whom the tea,
shipped by the East India Company, is consigned, make a public
resignation of their office as consignees, upon oath. And also swear
that they will reship any teas that may be consigned to them by the said
Company, by the first vessel sailing for London.

Boston, Nov^r. 1st, 1773.

                                                          O.C., Secre^y."

In this you may observe a delusory design to create a public belief that
the factors had consented to resign their trust on Wednesday, the 3^d
inst., on which day we were summoned by the above-mentioned letter to
appear at Liberty Tree, at 11 o'clock, A.M. All the bells of the
meeting-houses for public worship were set a-ringing and continued
ringing till twelve; the town cryer went thro' the town summoning the
people to assemble at Liberty Tree. By these methods, and some more
secret ones made use of by the authors of this design, a number of
people, supposed by some to be about 500, and by others more, were
collected at the time and place mentioned in the printed notification.
They consisted chiefly of people of the lowest rank, very few reputable
tradesmen, as we are informed, appeared amongst them. There were indeed
two merchants, reputed rich, and the selectmen of the town, but these
last say they went to prevent disorder. The gentlemen who are supposed
the designed factors for the East India Comp^y, viz: Mr. Tho^s.
Hutchinson, Mr. Faneuil, Mr. Winslow & Messrs. Clarke, met in the
forenoon of the 3^rd instant, at the latter's warehouse, the lower end
of King Street. Mr. Elisha Hutchinson was not present, owing to a
misunderstanding of our intended plan of conduct, but his brother
engaged to act in his behalf. You may well judge that none of us ever
entertained the least thoughts of obeying the summons sent us to attend
at Liberty Tree. After a consultation amongst ourselves and friends, we
judged it best to continue together, and to endeavour, with the
assistance of a few friends, to oppose the designs of the mob, if they
should come to offer us any insult or injury. And on this occasion, we
were so happy as to be supported by a number of gentlemen of the first
rank. About one o'clock, a large body of people appeared at the head of
King Street, and came down to the end, and halted opposite to our
warehouse. Nine persons came from them up into our counting-room, viz:
Mr. Molineux, Mr. Wm. Dennie, Doctor Warren, Dr. Church, Major Barber,
Mr. Henderson, Mr. Gabriel Johonnot, Mr. Proctor, and Mr. Ezekiel
Cheever. Mr. Molineux, as speaker of the above Com^tee, addressed
himself to us, and the other gentlemen present, the supposed factors to
the East India Com^y, and told us that we had committed an high insult
on the people, in refusing to give them that most reasonable
satisfaction which had been demanded in the summons or notice which had
been sent us, then read a paper proposed by him, to be subscribed by
the factors, importing that they solemnly promise that they would not
land or pay any duty on any tea that should be sent by the East I.
Com^y, but that they would send back the tea to England in the same
bottom, which extravagant demand being firmly refused, and treated with
a proper contempt by all of us, Mr. Molineux then said that since we had
refused their most reasonable demands, we must expect to feel, on our
first appearance, the utmost weight of the people's resentment, upon
which he and the rest of the Com^tee left our counting-room and
warehouse, and went to and mixed with the multitude that continued
before our warehouse. Soon after this, the mob having made one or two
reverse motions to some distance, we perceived them hastening their pace
towards the store, on which we ordered our servant to shut the outward
door; but this he could not effect, although assisted by some other
persons, amongst whom was Nathaniel Hatch,[43] Esq^r., one of the
Justices of the inferior Court for this country, and a Justice of the
Peace for the county. This gen^m made all possible exertions to stem the
current of the mob, not only by declaring repeatedly, and with a loud
voice, that he was a magistrate, and commanded the people, by virtue of
his office, and in his Majesty's name, to desist from all riotous
proceedings, and to disperse, but also by assisting in person; but the
people not only made him a return of insulting & reproachful words, but
prevented his endeavors, by force and blows, to get our doors shut,
upon which Mr. Hatch, with some other of our friends, retreated to our
counting-room. Soon after this, the outward doors of the store were
taken off their hinges by the mob, and carried to some distance;
immediately a number of the mob rushed into the warehouse, and
endeavored to force into the counting-room, but as this was in another
story, and the stair-case leading to it narrow, we, with our
friends--about twenty in number--by some vigorous efforts, prevented
their accomplishing their design. The mob appeared in a short time to be
dispersed, and after a few more faint attacks, they contented themselves
with blocking us up in the store for the space of about an hour and a
half, at which time, perceiving that much the greatest part of them were
drawn off, and those that remained not formidable, we, with our friends,
left the warehouse, walked up the length of King Street together, and
then went to our respective houses, without any molestation, saving some
insulting behavior from a few despicable persons. The night following, a
menacing letter was thrust under Mr. Faneuil's door, to be communicated
to the other consignees, with a design to intimidate them from executing
their trust, and other methods have since been made use of in the public
papers and otherwise, for the same purpose. The next day, being the 4^th
inst., a notification was sent thro' the town, by order of the
selectmen, for the inhabitants of the town to meet on this affair the
next day, a transcript of which, and the proceedings of the town
thereon, at their meetings on the 5^th and 6^th inst., you have a full
account of in the enclosed newspapers, which, being long, we shall only
copy the message of the town to us, and our answer, which are as

"_Voted_, That a Com^tee be immediately chosen to wait on those gentle^n
who, it is reported, are appointed by the East India Com^y to receive
and sell said tea, and request them, from a regard to their own
character, and the good order and peace of the town and province,
immediately to resign their appointments. And the following gent^m,
viz.: the Moderator of the Meeting, Mr. Henderson Inches, Benj^n Austin,
Esq^r., and Mr. John Mason, & the select men of the town, were appointed
a com^tee accordingly."

These gent^m, all except Mr. Mason, came to our house about one o'clock,
P.M., but not having an authenticated copy of the Town's vote, we
desired to be favored with one, which was accordingly sent us, in a
short time, from the moderator, John Hancock, Esq^r., to which we
returned the following answer, viz.:--

                                                 "Boston, Nov^r 5, 1773.


It is impossible for us to comply with the request of the Town,
signified to us this day by their Com^tee, as we know not on what terms
the tea, if any of it should be sent to our care, will come out, nor
what obligations, either of a moral or pecuniary nature, we may be under
to fulfil the trust that may be devolved on us. When we are acquainted
with these circumstances, we shall be better qualified to give a
definite answer to the request of the Town.

                            We are, sir, your most humble servants,
                                                 RICH^D CLARKE & SONS,
                      BENJ^N FANEUIL, FOR SELF & JOSHUA WINSLOW, Esq^r.

  Hon'ble John Hancock, Esq^r.,
    Moderator of a Town Meeting
    at Faneuil Hall."

[Illustration: Signature, John Hancock


"It is true, sir, nearly all the property I have in the world is in
houses and other real estate in Boston; but if the expulsion of the
British army from it and the liberties of our country require their
being burnt to ashes, issue the order for the purpose immediately."]

This answer, you'll see by the enclosed news paper, was unanimously
voted to be not satisfactory to the Town, and the next day, on Mr.
Hutchinson's sending into the Town Meeting an answer of the same
purport, both his and ours were voted to be daringly affrontive to the
Town, but upon what reasons this vote was founded they have not been
pleased to declare. You may observe that the Town has resolved that they
will, by all means in their power, prevent the sale of the teas exported
by the East India Company, and in the preamble to this vote it is
asserted that the quantities of teas imported into this place since a
certain agreement, which we presume they designed should be understood
to commence in the fall of 1770, at which time the non-importation
agreement ceased, had been very small in proportion to what had been
usual before said agreement, and that by a few persons only. In order to
set those facts in a clear light, we obtained from the custom house an
account of teas imported into this place from the beginning of the year
1768, at which time the first teas that paid the American duty arrived
to this time, and got the same printed in the enclosed news paper, by
which it appears that the fact has been grossly misrepresented,
especially considering that this year's importation would probably be
encreased at the end of the year two or three hundred chests, if the
expected exportation on account of the East India Company had not
prevented it. Besides the public transactions relative to this affair,
before recited, we have repeated accounts of the continual nocturnal
meetings of the leaders of the mob, and we are informed that they are
determined to make the utmost efforts to prevent the sale of the teas;
that their present scheme, or part of it, is to endeavor, by all
methods, even the most brutal, to force the consignees to give up their
trust, and if they should fail in this, it is by some persons publickly
asserted that the tea shall not be landed, or if it should be, that it
shall be burnt.[44]

In our present unexpected and difficult situation, we have only to
desire you to assure the gentlemen, who may have consigned any part of
the Company's teas to our house, whom we cannot at present write to, as
we have not been advised who the gentlemen are, that we shall make use
of the best advice, and exert our utmost endeavors to carry into
execution the Company's design, which, as far as we are acquainted with
it, we judge to be beneficial to the Colonies, and to this Town and
Province especially, but whether it will finally be in our power to
accomplish our design, we are not at present certain. We beg the favor
of you, sir, to communicate the foregoing to the gentlemen who may have
had the direction of this affair. We are, with the greatest esteem and
highest sense of our obligations to them and you, sir,

                             Your most obedient & most humble servants,
                                             RICHARD CLARKE & SONS.

P.S.--Mr. Faneuil writes to his friend, Mr. Brook Watson, by this
opportunity, advising him of the transactions relating to this affair.
In case of miscarriage of his letter, we desire you to communicate this
letter to Mr. Watson.



Mr. Faneuil, after giving an account of the proceedings of the
inhabitants of the 3^rd instant, entirely agreeing in substance with Mr.
Clarke's relation, goes on--

"By comparing this account with what Mr. Clarke writes his friend, Mr.
Dupuis, of London, you will come at the exact state of the affair. The
Governor has given my Lord Dartmouth an account of the conduct of his
Council. I will only say that next day they voted that the
Attorney-General be ordered to prosecute the persons concerned in this
riot. The consequence, I suppose, will be, the grand jury will not find
a bill against them, and there the affair will end."

On Thursday, a letter, of which the following is a copy, was found in my

"Gentlemen: It is currently reported that you are in the extremest
anxiety respecting your standing with the good people of this Town and
Province, as commissioners of the sale of the monopolized and dutied
tea. We do not wonder in the least that your apprehensions are terrible,
when the most enlightened humane & conscientious community on the earth
view you in the light of tigers or mad dogs, whom the public safety
obliges them to destroy. Long have this people been irreconcilable to
the idea of spilling human blood, on almost any occasion whatever; but
they have lately seen a penitential thief suffer death for pilfering a
few pounds from scattering individuals. You boldly avow a resolution to
bear a principal part in the robbery of every inhabitant of this
country, in the present and future ages, of every thing dear and
interesting to them. Are there no laws in the Book of God and nature
that enjoin such miscreants to be cut off from among the people, as
troublers of the whole congregation. Yea, verily, there are laws and
officers to put them into execution, which you can neither corrupt,
intimidate, nor escape, and whose resolution to bring you to condign
punishment you can only avoid by a speedy imitation of your brethren in
Philadelphia. This people are still averse to precipitate your fate, but
in case of much longer delay in complying with their indispensable
demands, you will not fail to meet the just rewards of your avarice &
insolence. Remember, gent^n, this is the last warning you are ever to
expect from the insulted, abused, and most indignant vindicators of
violated liberty in the Town of Boston.

  Thursday evening, 9 o'clock.
    Nov. 4, 1773.                         O.C., Sec^y, pr order.[45]

  To Messrs. the Tea Commissioners.
    Directed to B---- F---- Esq^r."

On Friday we had a Town Meeting. What was done there, together with our
answers and their resolves, you'll see in the enclosed news paper. Just
before the meeting broke up, several gent^n, on my telling the purport
of our answer, advised me to leave the town for that night; but I have
not yet slept out of my own house, nor do I propose to do it, till I
find it absolutely necessary. I thought it best, however, to conceal
myself for two or three hours. But nothing took place more that evening
than is usual on the 5^th Nov^r. On Friday, we received an information,
which was repeated yesterday, that a number of picked men are determined
to break into our house one night this week. I can hardly believe it,
but these continued alarms are very disagreeable. I am, gentlemen,

                        Your most obed^t serv^t,
                                             BENJ^N FANEUIL, Jun^r.[46]

[Illustration: Signature, Benjamin Faneuil, Jr]


_Referred to by Messrs. Richard Clarke & Sons, & Benj^n Faneuil, Jun^r.,
in their above mentioned Letters, from the news papers enclosed._

[From the Massachusetts Gazette of Thursday, Nov. 11, 1773.]

The following notification was issued on Thursday last:

The freeholders and other inhabitants of the Town of Boston, qualified
as the law directs, are hereby notified to meet at Faneuil Hall, on
Friday, the 5^th day of November instant, at ten o'clock in the
forenoon, then and there to consider the petition of a number of the
inhabitants, setting forth, "that they are justly alarmed at the report
that the East India Company, in London, are about shipping a cargo or
cargoes of tea into this and the other Colonies, and that they esteem it
a political plan of the British administration, whereby they have reason
to fear, not only the trade upon which they depend for subsistence, is
threatened to be totally destroyed, but what is much more than any thing
in life to be dreaded, the tribute laid on the foundation of that
article will be fixed and established, and our liberties, for which we
have long struggled, will be lost to them and their posterity, and
therefore praying that a meeting of the freeholders and other
inhabitants, may be immediately called, that so the sense of the matter
may be taken, and such steps be pursued as to their safety and well
being shall appertain."

                    By order of the Select men,
                                           WILLIAM COOPER, Town Clerk.

Boston, Nov^r 4^th, 1773.

On Friday last there was a very full meeting of the freeholders, and
other inhabitants of this town, in Faneuil Hall, agreeable to a
notification issued by the Select men, when the Hon'ble John Hancock,
Esq^r., was chosen moderator, and the Town, after due deliberation, came
into the following resolutions, viz.:

Whereas, it appears by an Act of the British Parliament, passed in the
last session, that the East India Company, in London, are by the said
Act allowed to export their teas into America in such quantities as the
Lords of the Treasury shall think proper. And some persons, with an evil
intent to amuse the people, and others thro' inattention to the true
design of the Act have so construed the same as that the tribute of
three pence on every pound of tea is to be exacted by the detestable
task masters here. Upon the due consideration thereof,--

Resolved, That the sense of this Town cannot be better expressed than in
the words of certain judicious resolves, lately entered into by our
worthy brethren of Philadelphia. Wherefore,

Resolved, That the disposal of their own property is the inherent right
of freemen; that there can be no property in that which another can, of
right, take from us without our consent; that the claim of Parliament to
tax America is, in other words, to claim a right to levy contributions
on us at pleasure.

2^d. That the duty imposed by Parliament upon tea landed in America, is
a tax upon the Americans, or levying contributions on them without their

3^d. That the express purpose for which the tax is levied on the
Americans, namely, for the support of government, administration of
justice, and the defence of His Majesty's dominions in America, has a
direct tendency to render assemblies useless, and to introduce arbitrary
government and slavery.

4^th. That a virtuous and steady opposition to this ministerial plan of
governing America is absolutely necessary to preserve even the shadow of
liberty, and it is a duty which every free man in America owes to his
country, to himself and to his posterity.

5^th. That the resolution lately agreed to by the East India Company, to
send out their tea to America, subjected to payment of duties on its
being landed here, is an open attempt to enforce the ministerial plan,
and a violent attack upon the liberties of America.

6^th. That it is the duty of every American to oppose this attempt.

7^th. That whoever shall, directly or indirectly, countenance this
attempt, or in any wise aid or abet in unloading, receiving or vending
the tea sent or to be sent out by the East India Company, while it
remains subject to the payment of a duty here, is an enemy to America.

8^th. That a committee be immediately chosen to wait on those
gentlemen, who, it is reported, are appointed by the East India Company
to receive and sell said tea, and request them, from a regard to their
own characters, and the peace and good order of this Town and Province,
immediately to resign their appointments.

And the following gentlemen, viz., the Moderator, Mr. Henderson Inches,
Benjamin Austin, Esq^r., and the Select men of the Town, were appointed
a committee accordingly.

At the same time, the Town passed the following resolves, viz.:

Whereas, the merchants of this Continent, did enter into an agreement to
withhold the importation of teas until the duty laid thereon mould be
repealed, which agreement, as we are informed, has been punctually
observed by the respectable merchants in the Southern Colonies, while,
by reason of the peculiar circumstances attending the trade of this
place, some quantities, tho' very small in proportion to what had been
usual before said agreement, have been imported by some of the merchants
here. And whereas, it now appears probable to this Town, that the
British Administration have taken encouragement, even from such small
importations, to grant licenses to the East India Company, as aforesaid,

Resolved, That it is the determination of this Town, by all means in
their power, to prevent the sale of teas exported by the East India
Company, and as the merchants here have generally opposed this measure,
it is the just expectation of the inhabitants of this town that no one
of them will, upon any pretence whatever, import any tea that shall be
liable to pay the duty from this time, and until the Act imposing the
same shall be repealed.

[Illustration: Signature, Samuel Adams.]


"Mr. Adams, you have displeased His Majesty, made yourself liable to be
sent to England, and tried for treason. Change your political course,
you will receive personal advantages, and also make your peace with the

_Mr. Adams' Reply:_ "I have long since made my peace with the King of
Kings. No personal consideration shall induce me to abandon the
righteous cause of my country. Tell Gov. Gage it is the advice of Samuel
Adams, to him, no longer to insult the feelings of an already
exasperated people."

And then the Town adjourned till three o'clock in the afternoon.

       *       *       *       *       *

At 3 o'clock, there was again a very full assembly, and the committee
reported to the Town that they had waited on Richard Clarke, Esq^r. and
Son, and Benjamin Faneuil, Esq^r., said to be factors of the East India
Company, and communicated to them the resolve of the Town, whereby they
were requested, immediately, to resign their appointment, and that said
gentlemen informed the committee, that as Messrs. Thomas & Elisha
Hutchinson, (who are also reported to be factors of the said Company,)
were at Milton, and not expected in town 'till Saturday evening, and as
they chose to consult them, they could not return an answer to the Town
'till Monday morning.

Then another committee was chosen viz., Mr. Samuel Adams, Mr. Wm.
Molineux and Dr. Joseph Warren, to acquaint Messrs. Clarke & Faneuil,
that as they were not joint factors for the East India Company with the
Hutchinson's, it was supposed they could determine for themselves, and
therefore it was the expectation of the Town that they return an
immediate answer to the message, and this committee reported to the Town
that an answer might be expected in half an hour.

A motion was then made that a committee be appointed to repair to
Milton, and acquaint Messrs. Thomas and Elisha Hutchinson, with the
request of the Town, that they immediately resign their appointment, and
John Hancock, Esq^r., Mr. John Pitts, Mr. Samuel Adams, Mr. Samuel
Abbott, Dr. Joseph Warren, Mr. Wm. Powell, and Mr. Nath^l Appleton, were
appointed for that purpose.

A letter was brought into the hall, signed by Richard Clarke & Son, &
Benjamin Faneuil, for himself & Joshua Winslow, Esq^r., and directed to
the Moderator, to be communicated to the Town, viz:

                                           "Boston, 5^th Novm^r., 1773.


It is impossible for us to comply with the request of the Town,
signified to us this day by the committee, as we know not what terms the
tea, if any part of it should be sent to our care, will come out on, and
what obligations, either of a moral or pecuniary nature, we may be
under, to fulfil the trust that may be devolved on us. When we are
acquainted with these circumstances, we shall be better qualified to
give a definitive answer to the request of the Town.

                         We are, sir,
                                  Your most h'ble serv^ts,
                                               RICHARD CLARKE & SON,


Hon'ble John Hancock, Esq^r.,

Moderator of a Town Meeting, assembled at Faneuil Hall."

This letter was read, and unanimously voted to be not satisfactory to
the Town, and then the meeting adjourned 'till the next day, at eleven
o'clock, to receive the report of the committee appointed to wait on the

       *       *       *       *       *

The Town met by adjournment, on Saturday, (the meeting still continuing
very full,) and the committee reported, that they had seen Mr. Thomas
Hutchinson only, (his brother being neither at Milton or Boston,) and
that the Town might expect an answer from him immediately.

The following letter was soon after sent in to the Moderator, signed
Thomas Hutchinson, which was read, and unanimously voted to be an
unsatisfactory answer, viz.:


I know nothing relative to the teas referred to in the request or vote
of the Town, except that one of my friends has signified to me by
letter, that part of it, he had reason to believe, would be consigned to
me and my brother jointly. Under these circumstances, I can give no
other answer to the Town at present, than that if the teas should
arrive, and we should be appointed factors, we shall then be
sufficiently informed to answer the request of the Town. I am, for my
brother and self, sir,

                              Your h'ble serv^t,
                                               THOS. HUTCHINSON, Jun^r.

  Hon'ble John Hancock, Esq^r.,
    Moderator of a Town Meeting, now assembled.

It was then voted, that the letter, signed Richard Clarke & Son,
Benjamin Faneuil, for self and Joshua Winslow, Esq^r., and also the
letter signed Thomas Hutchinson, which had been read, were daringly
affrontive to the Town, and the meeting was immediately dissolved.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Referred to above, in Mr. Clarke's Letter, from the same._


Please to publish the following account of the importation of teas from
Great Britain, from the commencement of the year 1768, to the present
time, for the information of such of your readers as desire to be
acquainted therewith:

  In 1768,    942   by 82 diff^t persons.
     1769,    340      33  d^o.
     1770,    167      22  d^o.
     1771,    890     103  d^o.
     1772,    375      70  d^o.
     1773,    378      61  d^o.

N.B.--The merchants in London, not having executed the orders for tea
this fall, on account of the expected exportation from the East India
Company, greatly lessens the quantity of the present year.


       *       *       *       *       *


Mr. Michell presents his compliments to Mr. Watson, and by order
acquaints him, that the Court of Directors of the East India Company
have agreed that the Company's teas, which may be rejected at Boston,
and other places in America, should be sent to Halifax, in the manner
with which Mr. Watson was acquainted by the Committee, with whom he this
day conferred, and Mr. Michell is to desire Mr. Watson will, as soon as
may be, name to him the other house here, which is to join in that
business, and the other gentleman at Halifax, to be concerned in the
agency there with Mr. John Butler, that the necessary dispatch may be
given to the advices, to go from hence tomorrow, at 10 in the forenoon,
to the plantation office, and be there forwarded to America. He is also
to request Mr. Watson, will by that time, convey hither such letters as
he intends should go under the Company's cover, by the same dispatch to
Halifax, relating to this business

East India House,

Friday evening, 7^th Jan^y, 1774.

       *       *       *       *       *

  Joshua Mauger, Esq^r., Member of Poole, in £10,000.
  Brook Watson,    }
  Rob^t Rashleigh, } of London, merchants, and in £10,000.

Joint security for the due execution of the commission for the disposal
of the Company's teas by John Butler, Esq^r., and Tho^s Cochran, of

       *       *       *       *       *



_Referred to in their Letter of the 1^st Dec^r._


_The Memorial of Henry White, Abra^m Lott, & Benj^m Booth, of the City
of New York, merchants._

Humbly sheweth:

That your memorialists have, by the last packet, received advices of
their being appointed agents by the East India Com^y. for the sale of
certain teas by them shipped and daily expected to arrive in this port.

That your memorialists are informed by letter from the Directors of the
said Company, that they have given security in double the value of the
tea, that a certificate of its being duly landed shall be returned to
the custom house, in London.

That as the said tea, on its importation, will be subject to the
American duty, and as there is on that account a general and spirited
opposition to its being sold, and being well convinced from the nature
of the opposition, that so considerable a property of the Company will
not be safe unless Government takes it under protection, your
memorialists therefore humbly pray that your Excellency will be pleased
to direct such steps to be taken for the preservation of the said tea,
as your Excellency in your wisdom shall think most conducive to that

                                                  HENRY WHITE.[47]
                                                  ABR^M LOTT.
                                                  BENJ^M BOOTH.

  New York, 1st Dec^r., 1773.

[Illustration: Hutchinson]

       *       *       *       *       *


Proceedings of the inhabitants of the town of Boston, on the 18^th
Nov^r., 1773, referred to by the agents in their letter of the 2^d
Dec^r., are missing, supposed to be transmitted to Lord Dartmouth.[48]

       *       *       *       *       *


_Referred to by the Agents in their Letter of the 2^d Decem^r._


_The Petition of Rich^d Clarke & Sons, of Benj^n Faneuil, & Tho^s. &
Elisha Hutchinson._

That the Hon'ble East India Company, in London, have shipped a
considerable quantity of tea for the port of Boston, and as your
petitioners are _made_ to understand, will be consigned to their address
for sale.

That some of your petitioners have in consequence of this been cruelly
insulted in their persons and property; that they have had insulting and
incendiary letters left and thrown into their houses in the night; that
they have been repeatedly attacked by a large body of men; that one of
the houses of your petitioners was assaulted in the night by a
tumultuous and riotous assembly of people, and violent attempts made to
force the house for the space of two hours, that have greatly damaged
the same; that they are threatened in their persons and property, and
further with the destruction of the said tea on its arrival into the
port; and that the resolves and proceedings of the Town, in their
meetings on the 5^th and 18^th inst., are intended to be expressive of
the general sense of the Town, to which we beg leave to refer your
Excellency and the Honorable Board.

Your petitioners therefore beg leave to resign themselves, and the
property committed to their care, to your Excellency and Honors, as the
guardians and protectors of the people, humbly praying that measures may
be directed to, for the landing and securing the teas, until your
petitioners can be at liberty, openly and safely, to dispose of the
same, or until they can receive directions from their constituents.


                                             RICH^D CLARKE,
                                             BENJ^N FANEUIL, Jun^r.
                                             THO^S & ELISHA HUTCHINSON.

A true copy from the original.

  Petition on file.  Attest:
                     Signed,  THO^S. FLUCKER, Sec^y.

       *       *       *       *       *


_At a Council held at the Council Chamber, in Boston, upon Friday, Nov^r
19, 1773._


His Excellency Thomas Hutchinson, Esq^r., Governor.

  Isaac Royal,[49] }           James Bowdoin, }     James Pitts,
  John Erving,     } Esq^rs.   James Russell, } Esq^rs.
  Wm. Brattle,[50] }           James Otis,    }     Sam^l Dexter, Esq^rs.

His Excellency represented to the Council the tumults and disorders
prevailing in the town of Boston, and required their advice upon
measures proper for preserving the peace, and for supporting the
authority of Government. Whilst the Council were debating on the
subject, a petition from Rich^d Clarke, Benj^n Faneuil, and Messrs.
Tho^s. and Elisha Hutchinson, to the Governor and Council was presented,
setting forth that the Hon'ble East India Com^y, in London, have ship'd
a considerable quantity of tea for the port of Boston, which they are
made to understand, will be consigned to their address, for sale, and
that some of them have, in consequence of this, been cruelly insulted in
their persons and property. They therefore beg leave to resign
themselves, and the property committed to their care, to the Governor
and Council, as the guardians and protectors of the people, and pray
that measures may be directed to, for the landing and securing the teas,
until they can be at liberty, openly and safely, to dispose of the same,
or until they can receive directions from their constituents. After long
debate, it was proposed and agreed that his Excellency be desired to
appoint a future day for the Council to sit, and he appointed the 23^d
inst., and the Council adjourned the further consideration to that time

November 23^d, 1773. Present in Council: His Excellency Tho^s.
Hutchinson, Esq^r., Governor.

  Isaac Royal, } Esq^rs.    James Bowdoin, }            James Pitts,
  John Erving, }            James Russell, } Esq^rs.  John Winthrop,
                            James Otis,    }                  Esq^rs.

His Excellency directed the Council to proceed in the consideration of
the petition of Rich^d Clarke, Esq^r., and others, as entered the 19^th
inst., for which purpose he had ordered them to sit at this time, and a
debate being had thereupon, it was moved to his Excellency that the
Council might sit on a further day, there being only a bare quorum
present, to which his Excellency agreed; advised that all those members
of the Council who live within 40 miles of the town of Boston be
summoned then to attend, which was done accordingly, to meet on
Saturday, the 27^th inst.

       *       *       *       *       *

Novem^r 27^th. Present in Council: His Excellency Tho^s. Hutchinson,
Esq^r., Governor.


  Samuel Danforth,[51]  James Russel,   James Humphrey,
  Isaac Royal,          James Pitts,    Artemas Ward,
  John Erving,          Samuel Dexter,  John Winthrop, Esq^rs.
           James Bowdoin.   George Leonard.

His Excellency, after representing to the Council the disorders
prevailing in the town of Boston, recommended to them to proceed on the
petition of Rich^d Clarke, and others, relative to those disorders, and
required their advice. After a long debate, it was moved to his
Excellency that a Com^tee of the Council be appointed to prepare the
result of the said debate, to be laid before his Excellency, to which he
consented, and James Bowdoin, Sam^l Dexter, and John Winthrop, Esq^rs.,
were appointed accordingly. Mr. Bowdoin made a report, which was
considered and debated by the Council, and it was moved to his
Excellency that he would adjourn the Council to a future day for further
consideration, and he appointed Monday, the 29^th for that purpose.

Novem^r 29^th, 1773. Present in Council: His Excellency Tho^s.
Hutchinson, Esq^r., Governor.

  Samuel Danforth, Esq^r. James Bowdoin,      Geo. Leonard,
  Isaac Royal,            James Russell,      Artemas Ward,
  John Erving,            James Pitts,        John Winthrop,
                      Samuel Dexter, Esq^rs.

His Excellency directed that the Council proceed upon the business for
which it stands adjourned. After debate upon the report of the Com^tee
the question whether it should be accepted was put, which passed
unanimously in the affirmative as the advice of the Council to his
Excellency, in the words following, viz.:

Previous to the consideration of the petition before the Board, they
would make a few observations occasioned by the subject of it. The
situation of things between Great Britain and the Colonies has been for
some years past very unhappy. Parliament, on the one hand, has been
taxing the Colonies, and they, on the other hand, have been petitioning
and remonstrating against it, apprehending they have constitutionally an
exclusive right of taxing themselves, and that without such a right,
their condition would be but little better than slavery.

Possessed of these sentiments, every new measure of Parliament tending
to establish and confirm a tax on them renews and increases their
distress, and it is particularly encreased by the Act lately made,
empowering the East India Company to ship their tea to America. This
Act, in a commercial view, they think introductive of monopolies, and
tending to bring on them the extensive evils thence arising. But their
great objection to it is from its being manifestly intended (tho' that
intention is not expressed therein,) more effectually to secure the
payment of the duty on tea, laid by an Act of Parliament passed in the
7^th year of his present Majesty, entitled, "An Act for granting certain
duties in the British colonies and plantations in America," which Act in
its operation deprives the colonists of the right above mentioned (the
exclusive right of taxing themselves), which they hold to be so
essential a one that it cannot be taken away or given up, without their
being degraded, or degrading themselves below the character of men.

It not only deprives them of that right, but enacts that the monies
arising from the duties granted by it may be applied "as his Majesty or
his successors shall think proper or necessary for defraying the charges
of the administration of justice and the support of the civil
government, in all or any of the said colonies or plantations."

This clause of the Act has already operated in some of the colonies, and
in this colony in particular, with regard to the support of civil
government, and thereby has operated in diminution of its charter rights
to the great grief of the good people of it, who have been and still are
greatly alarmed by repeated reports, that it is to have a further
operation with respect to the defraying the charge of the administration
of justice, which would not only be a further diminution of those
rights, but tend in all constitutional questions, and in many other
cases of importance to bias the judges against the subject. They humbly
rely on the justice and goodness of his Majesty for the restitution and
preservation of those rights.

This short statement of facts the board thought it necessary to be given
to shew the cause of the present great uneasiness which is not confined
to this neighbourhood, but is general and extensive. The people think
their exclusive right of taxing themselves by their representatives,
infringed and violated by the Act above mentioned. That the new Act
empowering the East India Company to import their tea into America
confirms that violation, and is a new effort, not only more effectually
to secure the payment of the tea duty, but lay a foundation for
enhancing it, and in a like way, if this should succeed, to lay other
taxes on America. That it is in its attendants and consequences ruinous
to the liberties and properties of themselves and their posterity; that
as their numerous petitions for relief have been rejected, the said New
Act demonstrates an indisposition in ministry that Parliament should
grant them relief; that this is the source of their distress, a distress
that borders upon dispair, and that they know not where to apply for

These being the sentiments of the people, it is become the indispensible
duty of this Board to mention them that the occasion of the late demands
on Mr. Clarke and others, the agents of the East India Company, and of
the consequent disturbances, the authors of which we have advised should
be prosecuted, but to give a just idea of the rise of them.

On this occasion, justice impels us to declare that the people of this
Town and Province, tho' they have a high sense of liberty derived from
the manners, the example and constitution of the mother country, have,
'till the late parliamentary taxation of the Colonies, been as free from
disturbances as any people whatever.

This representation the Board thought necessary to be made prior to
their taking notice of the petition of the agents above mentioned, to
the consideration of which they now proceed.

The petitioners beg leave "to resign themselves, and the property
committed to their care, to his Excellency and the Board, as guardians
and protectors of the people, praying that measures may be directed to
for the landing and securing the tea," &c.

With regard to the personal protection of the petitioners, the Board
have not been informed that they have applied for it to any of the
justices of the peace, they being vested by law with all the authority
necessary for the protection of his Majesty's subjects. In the principal
instance of abuse of which they complain, the Board have already advised
that the authors of it should be prosecuted according to law, and they
do advise the same in the other instances mentioned in their petition.

With regard to the tea committed to the care of the petitioners, the
Board have no authority to take either that or any other merchandize out
of their care, and should they do it, or give any order or advice
concerning it, and a loss ensue, they apprehend they should make
themselves responsible for it. With respect to the prayer of the
petition, that measures may be directed to "for the landing and securing
the tea," the Board would observe on it, that the duty on the tea
becomes payable, and must be paid or secured to be paid on its being
landed, and should they direct or advise to any measure for landing it,
that would of course advise to a measure for procuring the payment of
the duty, and therefore by advising to a measure inconsistent with the
declared sentiment of both houses in the last winter session of the
General Court, which they apprehend to be altogether inexpedient and

The Board, however, on this occasion assure your Excellency that as they
have seen, with regret, some late disturbances, and have advised to the
prosecuting the authors of them, so they will in all legal methods
endeavor to the utmost of their power to prevent them in future.

Whereupon advised that his Excellency renew his orders to his majesty's
justices of the peace, sheriffs, and other peace officers, to exert
themselves to the utmost for the security of his Majesty's subjects; the
preservation of peace and good order, and for preventing all offences
against the laws.

His Excellency thereupon demanded of the Council whether they would give
him no advise upon the disorders then prevailing in the town of Boston,
and it was answered in general that the advise already given was
intended for that purpose.

A true copy from the minutes of the Council.

                                           THO^S. FLUCKER, Sec^y.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Referred to by the Agents there, in their Letter of the 2^d December,

At a meeting of the people of Boston and the neighbouring towns, in
Faneuil Hall, in said Boston, on Monday, 29^th Novem^r, 1773, nine
o'clock, A.M., and continued by adjournment to the next day, for the
purpose of consulting, advising, and determining upon the most proper
and effectual method to prevent the unloading, receiving or vending the
detestable tea sent out by the East India Company, part of which being
just arrived in this harbour, in order to proceed with due regularity,
it was moved that a moderator be chosen, and Jonathan Williams, Esq^r.,
was then chosen moderator of the meeting.

A motion was made, that as the Town of Boston had determined, at a late
meeting, legally assembled, that they would, to the utmost of their
power, prevent the landing of the tea, the question being put whether
this body be absolutely determined that the tea now arrived, in Cap^t.
Hall's ship, shall be returned to the place from whence it came, at all
events, and the question being accordingly put, it passed in the
affirmative, _nem. con._

It appearing that the hall could not contain the people assembled, it
was voted that the meeting be immediately adjourned to the Old South
meeting-house, leave having been obtained for this purpose.

       *       *       *       *       *

The people met at the Old South, according to adjournment.

A motion was made, and the question put, viz.: Whether it is the firm
resolution of this body, that the tea shall not only be sent back, but
that no duty shall be paid thereon, and passed in the affirmative, _nem.

It was moved, that in order to give time to the consignees to consider
and deliberate before they sent in proposals to this body, as they had
given reason to expect would have been done at the opening of the
meeting, there might be an adjournment to 3 o'clock, P.M., and the
meeting was accordingly adjourned for that purpose.

       *       *       *       *       *

Three o'clock, P.M. Met according to adjournment.

A motion was made whether the tea now arrived in Cap^t Hall's ship,
shall be sent back in the same bottom. Passed in the affirmative, _nem.

Mr. Rotch, the owner of the vessel, being present, informed that body
that he should enter his protest against their proceedings.

It was then moved and voted, _nem. con.,_ that Mr. Rotch be directed not
to enter this tea, and that the doing of it will be at his peril.

Also voted, that Cap^t. Hall, the master of the ship, be informed that,
at his peril, he is not to suffer any of the tea brought by him, to be

A motion was made, that in order for the security of Cap^t. Hall's ship
and cargo, a watch may be appointed, and it was voted that a watch be
accordingly appointed, to consist of 25 men.

Cap^t. Edward Proctor was appointed by the body to be cap^t. of the
watch for this night, and the names were given in to the moderator of
the townsmen who were volunteers upon the occasion.

It having been observed to the body that Governor Hutchinson had
required the justices of the peace in this town to meet and use their
endeavours to suppress any routs, or riots, &c., of the people, that
might happen, it was moved and the question put, whether it be not the
sense of this meeting that the Governor's conduct herein carries a
designed reflection upon the people here met, and is solely calculated
to serve the views of administration. Passed in the affirmative, _nem.

The people being informed by Colonel Hancock that Mr. Copley, son-in-law
to Mr. Clarke, sen^r., had acquainted him that the tea consignees did
not receive their letters from London 'till last evening, and were so
dispersed that they could not have a joint meeting early enough to make
their proposals at the time intended, and therefore are desirous of a
further space for that purpose.

[It is necessary to note that Mr. Copley, and some others, our friends
informing us, that to prevent immediate outrage, it was necessary for us
to send something in writing to the Select men, which we then did,
absolutely refusing to do what they had before informed us the people
expected; but Mr. Copley, on his return to town, fearing the most
dreadful consequences, thought best not to deliver our letter to the
Select men, he returned to us at night representing this. We then wrote
the letter you see printed in this paper.]

The meeting, out of great tenderness to these persons, and from a strong
desire to bring this matter to a conclusion, notwithstanding the time
they had hitherto expended upon them, to no purpose, were prevailed upon
to adjourn to the next morning, 9 o'clock.

                                         Thursday morning, nine o'clock.

Met according to adjournment.

The long-expected proposals were at length brought into this meeting,
not directed to the moderator, but to John Scollay, Esq^r., one of the
Select men. It was, however, voted that the same should be read, and
they were, as follows, viz.:

                                            "Monday, Nov^r 29^th, 1773.


We are sorry that we could not return to the Town satisfactory answers
to their two late messages to us respecting the teas. We beg leave to
acquaint the gentlemen, Select men, that we have since received our
orders from the Hon'ble East India Com^y.

We still retain a disposition to do all in our power to give
satisfaction to the Town; but, as we understood from you and the other
gentlemen, Select men, at Messrs. Clarke's interview with you last
Saturday, that this can be effected by nothing less than our sending
back the teas, we beg leave to say that this is utterly out of our power
to do, but we do now declare to you our readiness to store the teas
until we shall have an opportunity of writing to our constituents, and
shall receive their further orders respecting them, and we do most
sincerely wish that the Town, considering the unexpected difficulties
devolved upon us, will be satisfied with what we now offer. We are, sir,

  Your most humble servants,

                                   THO^S. & ELISHA HUTCHINSON.[52]
                                   BENJ^N FANEUIL, Jun^r., for self and
                                   JOSHUA WINSLOW, Esq^r.,
                                   RICHARD CLARKE & SONS.

To John Scollay, Esq^r."

Mr. Sheriff Greenleaf came into the meeting, and begged leave of the
moderator that a letter, he had received from the Governor, requiring
him to read a proclamation to the people here assembled, might be read,
and it was accordingly read.

Whereupon it was moved, and the question put, whether the sheriff should
be permitted to read the proclamation, which passed in the affirmative,
_nem. con._

The proclamation is as follows, viz.:

  "Massachusetts Bay.
                                                     By the Governor.

_To Jonathan Williams, Esq^r., acting as Moderator of an assembly of
people, in the Town of Boston, and to the people so assembled:_

Whereas, printed notifications were on Monday, the 29^th inst., posted
in divers places in the town of Boston, and published in the news papers
of this day, calling upon the people to assemble together for certain
unlawful purposes, in such notifications mentioned; and whereas, great
numbers of persons belonging to the town of Boston, and divers others
belonging to several other towns in the Province, did assemble in the
said town of Boston, on the said day, and did then and there proceed to
chuse a moderator, and to consult, debate, and resolve upon ways and
means for carrying such unlawful purposes into execution, openly
violating, defying and setting at naught the good and wholesome laws of
the Province, and the constitution of government under which they live;
and whereas, the people thus assembled, did vote or agree to adjourn, or
continue their meeting to this the 30^th inst., and great numbers of
them are again met or assembled together for the like purpose, in the
said town of Boston:

In faithfulness to my trust, and as his Majesty's representative within
the Province, I am bound to bear testimony against this violation of the
laws, and I warn and exhort you and require you, and each of you thus
unlawfully assembled forthwith, to disperse and to surcease all further
unlawful proceedings at your utmost peril.

Given under my hand, at Milton, in the Province aforesaid, the 30^th day
of Nov^r., 1773, and in the fourteenth year of his Majesty's reign.

                                                        T. HUTCHINSON.

  By his Excellency's command.
                   THO^S. FLUCKER, Sec^y."

And the same being read by the sheriff,[53] there was, immediately
after, a loud and very general hiss.

A motion was then made, and the question put whether the assembly would
disperse and surcease all further proceedings, according to the
Governor's requirement. It passed in the neg^e, _nem. con._

A proposal of Mr. Copley was made, that in case he could prevail with
the Messrs. Clarkes to come into this meeting, the question might now be
put, whether they should be treated with civility while in the meeting,
though they might be of different sentiments with this body, and their
persons be safe, until their return to the place from whence they should
come. And the question being accordingly put, passed in the affirmative,
_nem. con._

Another motion of Mr. Copley's was put, whether two hours shall be given
him, which also passed in the affirmative.

Adjourned 'till two o'clock, P.M.

       *       *       *       *       *

Two o'clock, P.M. Met according to adjournment. A motion was made and
passed, that Mr. Rotch and Capt^n Hall be desired to give their
attendance. Mr. Rotch appeared, and upon a motion made, the question was
put, whether it is the firm resolution of this body, that the tea
brought by Capt^n Hall shall be returned by Mr. Rotch to England, in the
bottom in which it came, and whether they accordingly now require the
same, which passed in the affirmative, _nem. con._

Mr. Rotch then informed the meeting, that he should protest against the
whole proceedings, as he had done against the proceedings on yesterday,
but that, tho' the returning the tea is an act in him, he yet considers
himself as under a necessity to do it, and shall therefore comply with
the requirement of this body.

Captain Hall being present, was forbid to aid or assist in unloading the
teas at his peril, and ordered, that if he continues master of the
vessel, he carry the same back to London, who replied, he should comply
with these requirements.

Upon a motion, resolved, that John Rowe, Esq^r., owner of part of Cap^t.
Bruce's ship, expected with tea, as also Mr. Timmins, factor for Cap^t.
Coffin's brig, be desired to attend.

Mr. Ezekiel Cheever was appointed captain of the watch for this night,
and a sufficient number of volunteers gave in their names for that

Voted, that the captain of this watch be desired to make out a list of
the watch for the next night, and so each captain of the watch for the
following nights, until the vessels leave the harbour.

Upon a motion made, voted, that in case it should happen that the watch
should be any ways molested in the night, while on duty, they give the
alarm to the inhabitants by the tolling of the bells, and that if any
thing happens in the day time, the alarm be by ringing of the bells.

Voted, that six persons be appointed, to be in readiness, to give due
notice to the country towns, when they shall be required so to do, upon
any important occasion, and six persons were accordingly chosen for that

John Rowe, Esq^r., attended, and was informed that Mr. Rotch had
engaged, that his vessel should carry back the tea she brought, in the
same bottom, and that it was the expectation of this body that he does
the same by the tea, expected in Cap^t. Bruce, whereupon he replied,
that the ship was under the care of the said master, but that he would
use his utmost endeavor, that it should go back as required by this
body, and that he would give immediate advice of the arrival of said

Voted, that it is the sense of this body, that Cap^t. Bruce shall, on
his arrival, strictly conform to the votes passed respecting Cap^t.
Hall's vessel, as they had all been passed in reference to Cap^t.
Bruce's ship.

Mr. Timmins appeared and informed, that Cap^t. Coffin's brig, expected
with tea, was owned in Nantucket. He gave his word of honor that no tea
should be landed while she was under his care, nor touched by any one,
until the owner's arrival.

It was then voted, that what Mr. Rowe and Mr. Timmins had offered, was
satisfactory to the body.

Mr. Copley[54] returned, and acquainted the body, that as he had been
obliged to go to the castle, he hoped that if he had exceeded the time
allowed him, they would consider the difficulty of a passage by water at
this season, as an apology. He then further acquainted the body, that he
had seen all the consignees, and though he had convinced them that they
might attend this meeting with safety, and had used his utmost endeavors
to prevail on them to give satisfaction to the body, they acquainted
him, that believing nothing would be satisfactory short of reshipping
the tea, which was out of their power, they thought it best not to
appear, but would renew their proposal of storing the tea, and
submitting the same to the inspection of a committee, and that they
could go no further without incurring their own ruin; but as they had
not been active in introducing the tea, they should do nothing to
obstruct the people in their procedure with the same.

It was then moved, and the question put whether the return made by Mr.
Copley from the consignees be in the least degree satisfactory to this
body. It passed in the negative, _nem. con._

Whereas, a number of merchants in this Province have inadvertently
imported tea from Great Britain, while it is subject to the payment of a
duty, imposed upon it by an Act of Parliament, for the purpose of
raising a revenue in America, and appropriating the same, without the
consent of those who are required to pay it, Resolved, that in thus
importing said tea, they have justly incurred the displeasure of our
brethren in the other Colonies.

And resolved further, that if any person or persons shall hereafter
import tea from Great Britain, shall take the same on board, to be
imported to this place, until the said unrighteous Act shall be
repealed, he or they shall be deemed by this body an enemy to his
country, and we will prevent the landing and sale of the same, and the
payment of any duty thereon, and we will effect the return thereof to
the place from whence it shall come.

Resolved, that the foregoing vote be printed and sent to England, and
all the sea ports in this Province.

Upon a motion made, voted that fair copies be taken of the whole
proceedings of this meeting, and transmitted to New York and
Philadelphia, and that Mr. Samuel Adams, Hon'ble John Hancock, Esq^r.,
William Phillips, Esq^r., John Rowe, Esq^r., Jonathan Williams, Esq^r.,
be a committee to transmit the same.

Voted, That it is the determination of this body to carry their votes
and resolutions into execution, at the risque of their lives and

Voted, That the committee of correspondence for this town be desired to
take care, that every other vessel with tea that arrives in this
harbour, have a proper watch appointed for her; also,

Voted, That those persons who are desirous of making a part of these
nightly watches, be desired to give in their names at Messrs. Edes &
Gill's printing office.

Voted, That our brethren in the country be desired to afford their
assistance upon the first notice given, especially if such notice be
given upon the arrival of Capt^n Loring, in Mr. Clarke's brigantine.

Voted, That those of this body who belong to the town of Boston, do
return their thanks to their brethren who have come from the
neighbouring towns, for their countenance and union with this body, in
this exigence of our affairs.

Voted, That the thanks of this meeting be given to Jonathan Williams,
Esq^r., for his good services as moderator.

Voted, That this meeting be dissolved, and it was accordingly dissolved.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Enclosing 3 news papers and an advertisement, in the name of the
people, threatening vengeance on those who favored the tea scheme._


The state and condition of the Hon'ble Company's tea in America is as
you will find in the enclosed papers. Unless the Tea Act is repealed,
no tea can be sold in America. Repeal the Act, and you may dispose of
all your teas. The Americans will not be slaves, neither are they to be
trapped under the notion of cheap teas. Death is more desirable to them
than slavery,--it is impossible to make the Americans swallow the tea.
The ministry may amuse the Company, by telling them their tea shall be
sold, and the Act preserved, but they are grossly mistaken. None of it
is yet landed, neither shall it be.

                          Your humble servant,
                                                ANGLO AMERICANUS.

  Boston, New England,
    Dec^r 13^th, 1773.

The papers enclosed contain an account of the proceedings of the town of
Boston, on the 29^th & 30^th November, and of the resolves of some of
the neighboring towns. (The papers are in the miscellany bundle.)

       *       *       *       *       *


_Enclosing a Boston news paper of the 16^th Dec^r., 1773._

                               Boston, New England, 17^th Dec^r., 1773.


Your tea is destroyed, which was brought in three ships, Cap^ts. Bruce,
Hall and Coffin, and the brig with tea is cast away. If the tea is got
on shore, it will share the same fate. Every possible means has been
used to send it home safe again to you, but the tea consignees would
not send it; then application was made to the commissioners of the
customs to clear out the vessel,--they would not do it, then to the
Governor to grant a pass, which he refused, and finally the people were
obliged to destroy it, (_se defendendo_,) or else, by an unlawful
unrighteous Act, imposing a duty this tea would have destroyed them.
This whole province, of some hundred thousand people, and the other
provinces on the continent, are determined neither to use it, or suffer
it to be landed, nor pay the duty. Force can never make them, and if the
Company can ever expect to sell any tea in America, they must use all
their interest to get this Tea Act repealed, otherwise they will never
sell one ounce.

There is the utmost detestation of tea; even some of our country towns
have collected all the tea they had by them, and burnt it in their
public common, as so much chains and slavery. Get the Tea Act repealed,
and you'll sell all your tea, otherwise you must keep all. The people
will risk life and fortune in this affair,--the very being of America
depends on it. I am sorry the Company are led into such a scrape by the
ministry, to try the American's bravery, at the expence of their
property. The artifice of the ministry is to dispose of your tea, and
preserve the vile Tea Act; but they'll miss their aim,--the Americans
will not swallow cheap tea, which has a poison in the heart of it. They
see the hook thro' the bait. I am a well wisher to the Company, and also
to America; but death to an American is more desirable than slavery.

    I am, gentlemen, with all due respect,
                  Your honors most obedient, humble servant,
                                                       ANGLO AMERICANUS.

       *       *       *       *       *


_As contained in the Boston news paper of the 16^th Dec^r._

                                   Boston, Thursday, Dec^r 16^th, 1773.

It being understood that Mr. Rotch, owner of the ship Dartmouth, rather
lingered in his preparations to return her to London, with the East
India Company's tea on board, there was, on Monday last P.M., a meeting
of the committee of the several neighboring towns in Boston, and Mr.
Rotch was sent for and enquired of, whether he continued his resolution
to comply with the injunctions of the body on Monday and Tuesday
preceding. Mr. Rotch answered that in the interim he had taken the
advice of the best counsel, and found that in case he went on of his own
motion to send that ship to sea in the condition she was then in, it
must inevitably ruin him, and therefore he must beg them to consider
what he had said at that meeting to be the effect of compulsion, and
unadvised, and in consequence that he was not holden to abide by it,
when he was now assured that he must be utterly ruined in case he did.
Mr. Rotch was then asked whether he would demand a clearance for his
ship in the custom house, and in case of a refusal enter a protest, and
then apply in like manner for a pass, and order her out to sea? To all
which he answered in the negative. The committee, doubtless informing
their constituents of what had passed, a very full meeting of the body
was again assembled at the Old South meeting-house, on Tuesday
afternoon, and Mr. Rotch being again present, was enquired of as before,
and a motion was made and seconded that Mr. Rotch be enjoined forthwith
to repair to the collectors and demand a clearance for his ship, and ten
gent^n were appointed to accompany him, as witnesses of the demand. Mr.
Rotch then proceeded with the committee to Mr. Harrison's lodgings, and
made the demand. Mr. Harrison observed he could not give an answer 'till
he had consulted the comptroller, but would, at office hours next
morning, give a decisive answer. On the return of Mr. Rotch and the
committee to the body with this report, the meeting was adjourned to
Thursday morning, at ten o'clock.


Having met on Thursday morning at ten o'clock, they sent for Mr. Rotch,
and asked him if he had been to the collector, and demanded a clearance.
He said he had; but the collector said that he could not, consistent
with his duty, give him a clearance 'till all the dutiable articles were
out of his ship. They then demanded of him whether he had protested
against the collector; he said he had not. They ordered him, upon his
peril, to give immediate orders to the captain, to get his ship ready
for sea to-day, enter a protest immediately against the custom house,
and then proceed directly to the Governor, (who was at his seat at
Milton, 7 miles off,) and demand a pass for his ship to go by the
castle. They then adjourned 'till three o'clock, P.M., to wait Mr.
Rotch's return.

       *       *       *       *       *

Having met according to adjournment, there was the fullest meeting ever
known. (It was reckoned that there were 2000 men from the country.)
They waited very patiently 'till 5 o'clock.

When they found Mr. Rotch did not return, they began to be very uneasy,
called for a dissolution of the meeting, and finally obtained a vote for
it. But the more moderate part of the meeting, fearing what would be the
consequences, begged that they would reconsider their vote, and wait
'till Mr. Rotch's return, for this reason, that they ought to do
everything in their power to send the tea back, according to their

They obtained a vote to remain together one hour longer. In about
three-quarters of an hour Mr. Rotch returned, his answer from the
Governor was, that he could not give a pass 'till the ship was cleared
by the custom house. The people immediately, as with one voice, called
for a dissolution, which having obtained, they repaired to Griffin's
wharf, where the tea vessels lay, proceeded to fix tackles and hoist the
tea upon deck, cut the chests to pieces, and threw the tea over the
side. There were two ships and a brig, Capt^s. Hall, Bruce and Coffin,
each vessel having 114 chests of tea on board. They began upon the two
ships first, as they had nothing on board but the tea; then proceeded to
the brig, which had hauled to the wharf but the day before, and had but
a small part of her cargo out. The captain of the brig begged they would
not begin with his vessel, as the tea was covered with goods belonging
to different merchants in the town. They told him the tea they wanted,
and the tea they would have; but if he would go into his cabin quietly,
not one article of his goods should be hurt. They immediately proceeded
to remove the goods, and then to dispose of the tea.

[Illustration: Signature, Samuel Phillips Savage per list]

(_See page_ LVII.)

Mr. Pownall[55] presents his compliments to Mr. Wheler, and sends him,
by Lord Dartmouth's directions, extract of a letter received yesterday
from the Lieutenant-Governor of South Carolina. If the India Company
have received any advices, Lord Dartmouth will be obliged to him for a
communication thereof.

Whitehall, 29^th Jan., 1774.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Dated Charles Town, 24 Dec^r., 1773, to the Earl of Dartmouth._

On the 2^d inst., Cap^t. Curling arrived here with 257 chests of tea,
sent by the East India Company, with the same instructions to agents
appointed here as at Boston, New York and Philadelphia. The spirit which
had been raised in those towns with great threats of violence to hinder
the landing and disposing of the tea there, was communicated to this
Province by letters, gazettes, and merchants. Several meetings of the
inhabitants of Charles Town were held, to consider of measures to effect
the like prohibitions here, but tho' the warmth of some were great, many
were cool, and some differed in the reasonableness and utility thereof.
The gentlemen who were appointed agents for the East India Com^y were
prevailed upon by threats and flattery to decline the trust, and in
imitation of the northern towns, declarations were made that it should
not be landed.

The tea was all this time kept on board the ship, the captain being
apprehensive of some violence on his attempting to land it, and there
being no persons empowered to take charge of it. When the period of 20
days after his arrival approached, at which time the collector of his
Majesty's customs, by his instructions, is required to seize goods
liable to pay duty, to secure the payment thereof, tho' the merchants of
the town had generally disagreed to this measure of prohibiting the
landing the tea, yet some warm, bold spirit, took the dangerous measure
of sending anonymous letters to Cap^t. Curling and some of his friends,
and the gentleman who owned the wharf where the ship lay, requiring
Curling to carry his ship from the wharf to the middle of the river,
threatening great damages on failure.

These letters being communicated to me, I summoned his Majesty's
council, that I might do everything in my power to prevent any such
dangerous attempts to disturb the public peace, and interrupt the
seizure and landing and storing by the collector. I accordingly, by
their advice, gave orders to the sheriff to be ready at the call of the
collector, (but not to move without,) with all his officers, to support
the collector, in landing it, and to seize and to bring to justice any
persons who should dare to interrupt him in the execution of his duty.
It being known that some measures were taken, tho' the extent thereof
was carefully concealed, the collector, on the 22^d, seized, landed, and
stored the teas in stores under the Exchange, without one person's
appearing to oppose him. The tea is to remain in store 'till the
collector shall receive further orders relative thereto.

Various were the opinions of men on the subject; some were for drinking
no tea that paid duty, and were confident of a supply of such; others
were for putting every dutied article on the same footing, as wine, &c.;
but others considered wine as a necessary of life. It is my opinion that
if the merchants who viewed this measure of importing tea in a
commercial rather than in a political light, had shewn their
disapprobation of the intended opposition to land it, by action rather
than by a refusal to subscribe to a proposed association, and a contempt
of the public meetings on this occasion, and the agents of the East
India Company had not been so hasty in their declining to accept their
trusts, all might have gone on well, according to the plan of the East
India Company, and to our benefit in purchasing that article, now become
one of the necessaries of life, at a much cheaper rate than at present.


_At Charles Town, South Carolina, to his Brother, at London._

                                        Charles Town, 22^d Dec^r., 1773.

Dear Brother:

Cap^t. Curling arrived here the 2^d inst., with 257 chests of tea. There
were many meetings of the merchants and planters, but by the result they
came to no determination; the gentlemen that the tea was consigned to
refuse receiving it. The tea staid on board 20 days. We then gave the
captain a permit to land it by sunrise. In the morning I went on board,
and called the captain out of his bed, begged he would begin to get the
tea out of his vessel. I expected that he would not have been permitted
to land it, but we immediately got six chests into the warehouse, and
the sailors hard at work hoisting out the rest. We began about 7
o'clock, and had by 12 about half the tea in the warehouse, and the rest
before the door. There was not the least disturbance; the gentlemen that
came on the wharf behaved with their usual complaisance and good nature
to me, and I believe the same to the rest of the officers that were
there. I thought it my duty to exert myself on this occasion, which I
did with great pleasure, (as I was serving my old masters,) as well as
doing my duty as a revenue officer.

                                        I am, &c., &c.,
                                                      JOHN MORRIS.[57]

  Corbyn Morris, Esq^r.,
    Custom House.


_Of the New York Establishment, to the Chairman._

                                       Cox & Mair's Office, 4^th Feb^y.


By the English papers I learn you are fully apprised of the proceedings
of the people of Philadelphia and Boston, and the resolves of the New
Yorkers. I have, notwithstanding, sent you the latest papers. The ship
with the teas bound to Charles Town, is made the property of the
customs, having neglected the usual forms of office in that port. This
intelligence I had by a ship from Carolina to New York, the 1st Jan^y.,
and may be depended on. I left New York the 2^d ultimo; the ship bound
to that port was not then arrived.

                    I have the honor to be, sir,
                                 Your very humble servant,
                                                   J.J. ELLIS,
                                                           18^th Regt.


                                      CASTLE WILLIAM, 7^th Dec^r., 1773.


_Who has now the Tea on board, consigned to Messrs. Richard Clarke &
Sons, Mr. Benj^n Faneuil, Messrs. Tho^s. & Elisha Hutchinson, and Mr.
Joshua Winslow, with the Answers of the Consignees, except Mr. Winslow,
who was absent. Referred to by the Consignees in their Letter of the
7^th Jan., 1774._


By Cap^t. Hall and F. Rotch, to the gentlemen, consignees, in writing:

We are now ready to deliver the tea, and beg to know if you, gentlemen,
are ready to receive it, and will produce the requisites usual and
necessary to the landing or delivering the said tea alongside the ship,
either in your own persons or by your agents?


Gentlemen: We understand that there was a large body of people assembled
in Boston on the 29^th & 30^th November, who voted that the tea shipped
by the East India Company, and consigned to us, should not be landed;
that the duty should not be paid, and that the tea should be returned in
the same ship that brought it out. It also appears by the printed
proceedings of that assembly, that you consented it should go back in
your ship. We also understand that there is continually on board your
ship a number of armed men, to prevent it being landed. We therefore
judge it out of our power to receive it at present, but when it shall
appear to us to be practicable, we will give the necessary orders
respecting it.


As your reply to our first question, gent^n., appears to us not to the
point, we must and do demand a categorical answer whether you will or
will not immediately, either by yourselves or your order, or otherwise,
qualify any other person or persons to receive the teas consigned to you
now on board our ship, as we are now entirely ready, and will, if in our
power, deliver the said teas immediately, if application is made?


Gentlemen: It appears to us that the answer we have made to your first
question is a full reply to the second.


As you, gentlemen, by the tenor of your first and second reply, refuse
to give us a direct answer to our questions, whether you will or will
not receive the teas mentioned therein, we now demand our bill of lading
given by Cap^t. Hall, in consequence of his receiving those teas on
board in London River, and the amount of the freight of the said tea,
say ninety-one pounds seven shillings and seven pence lawful money?


Gentlemen: We shall not deliver up Captain Hall's bill of lading, nor
pay the freight of the teas until we can receive them.

  [Copy.]   FRANCIS ROTCH.
            JAMES HALL.
            RICHARD CLARKE & SONS.
            BENJ^N FANEUIL, JUN^R.


                                            11^th Dec^r., 1773.


_Master of the ship Eleanor, burthen about 250 tons, now lying in the
harbour of Boston, in New England, with part of her cargo, from London,
consisting of one hundred and fourteen chests of tea, consigned to
Messrs. Richard Clarke & Sons, Tho^s. & Elisha Hutchinson, Benj^n
Faneuil and Joshua Winslow, of said Boston, Merchants._


Gentlemen: I am now ready to deliver the tea consigned to you on board
my ship, and beg to know if you, gentlemen, are ready and willing to
receive it, as I can produce the requisites usual and necessary for
landing or delivering the said teas alongside the ship, either by
yourselves, your agents or assigns; and as my cargo of lumber is ready
for shipping on discharge of the said tea, I demand an immediate and
positive answer to my question.


Sir: It appearing by the printed accounts of a number of people
assembled, at Boston, on the 29^th and 30^th Nov^r., that they voted the
teas shipped by the East India Company should not be landed, but that
they should be returned to England in the same bottoms in which they
came. And it further appearing that John Rowe, Esq^r., part owner of the
ship of which you are commander, was present at said meeting, and did
promise to use his utmost endeavors that the teas brought in your vessel
should be sent back, and was also chosen one of a com^tee by the said
meeting, and as you now tell us that you have received orders from
certain persons, called a com^tee of safety, not to land any part of
said tea, and that a number of armed men have been and still are kept
aboard or near your vessel. We reply, that for the reasons mentioned, we
think it at present out of our power to receive the teas, but that as
soon as it shall appear practicable, we will give the necessary orders
for doing it.


As I have no control upon, nor influence with, the people in Boston who
may oppose the landing of the teas, I cannot be chargeable with their
conduct. My business is with you, gentlemen, and it is to you only I can
and do make application for directions how to dispose of the said teas,
and you will oblige me and my owners, and I desire you would let me know
whether you will or will not receive or dispose of the said tea, either
on shore or otherwise?


As we see nothing in your second question essentially different from
your first, we must refer you to our answer already given.


Will you, gentlemen, or either of you, deliver the bills of lading,
which I signed for said tea at London, and pay me the freight for
bringing it to Boston?


Sir: We will not deliver the bills of lading, nor pay the freight of the
teas, until we can receive them.

  [Copy.]      JAS. BRUCE.
               RICH^D CLARKE & SONS.
               THO^S. & ELISHA HUTCHINSON
      Witness: BENJ^N FANEUIL, Jun^r.

  Signed, JN^O. MUNRO, Not. Pub.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Cap^t. James Bruce, of the Eleanor, against the Consignees, for
refusing to receive the teas at Boston, in New England, on the 11^th day
of December, 1773, and in the fourteenth year of His Majesty's reign._

Personally appeared before me, John Monro, Notary Public, by royal
authority, duly admitted and sworn. James Bruce, master of the ship
Eleanor, burthen about two hundred and fifty tons, then lying at
Griffin's wharf, with part of her cargo from London on board, amongst
which were eighty whole and thirty-four half chests of tea, consigned to
Messrs. Richard Clarke & Sons, Thomas & Elisha Hutchinson, Benjamin
Faneuil, and Joshua Winslow, of said Boston, merchants. And the said
James Bruce, having requested me, the said Notary Public, to attend him
to Castle William, in the harbour of said Boston, we went on the said
day, and then and there, the annexed questions and answers were entered.
Written questions were put by the said James Bruce, and the respective
answers were made in writing (also annexed) by the consignees then
present, and in my presence, and in the presence of each other,
inter-changeably subscribed and delivered by the said James Bruce and
the said Richard Clarke & Sons, Thomas and Elisha Hutchinson, and
Benjamin Faneuil, and declared by them to be their sentiments and

Wherefore, the said James Bruce, on behalf of himself, and all others
concerned, did, and I, the said Notary Public at his request, and on
behalf as aforesaid, do by these presents, solemnly protest against the
said consignees, and such of them aforesaid, for all and all manner of
damages whatsoever, already suffered, and which may, can or shall be
suffered, by their neglecting and refusing to receive, demand and take
possession of the tea aforesaid, agreeable to his request, made and
written, and annexed to these presents.

Thus done, protested and given under my notarial seal of office, in
presence of Robert Garland Cranch and John Dyer.

                In testimoniam veritas,
  Signed,        Signed,  JN^O. MONRO,
  JAS. BRUCE, [Symbol: L.S.] Not. Pub., 11^th Jan^y., 1774.


_Referred to in their Letter of the 8^th of Jan^y., 1774._

                                             Boston, 6^th Jan^y., 1774.


Annexed you have an account of the freight of 80 whole and 34 half
chests of tea, shipped by the Hon'ble East India Company, on our ship
Dartmouth, James Hall, master, from London, consigned to you, with the
damages we have sustained by the said tea being kept in our ship by your
not giving the necessary orders or directions about it, or by your not
qualifying yourselves, or otherwise, for receiving the same.

The charge of demurrage of the ship, &c., may possibly at first sight
appear extravagant, but when you consider the consequences of a ship
regularly established in any trade, (which, in the present case will, I
expect, eventually be of near two hundred guineas damage,) by the loss
of freight from London in the spring, when you consider this, with the
extra loss on a perishable commodity, as hers was of oil, the extra
stowage of three-quarters of that cargo, and the difference of advance
of the season, I cannot but think you must be reconciled to the
propriety of the charges I have made.

I enclose you a copy of Cap^t. Cooke's and our cooper's requests, to
support the charges of demurrage of the sloop Triton, and the wages and
expences of those coopers, and beg to know by the bearer (who will wait
your answer) whether you will or will not pay the amount of this
account, say, £289 19s. 6d. lawful money.

                     I am, very respectfully,
                              Your assured friend,
                                             FRANCIS ROTCH.

     BENJAMIN FANEUIL, Junr., and

_Owners, Shippers, Consignees, or concerned in 80 whole and 34 half
chests of Teas, shipped from London by the Hon'ble East India Company,
for Boston, consigned to Richard Clarke & Sons, Thomas & Elisha
Hutchinson, Benj^n Faneuil, Jun^r., and Joshua Winslow._

  _To the Owners of the Dartmouth_, JAMES HALL, _Dr._


  To freight of 80 whole and 34 half chests of tea from
       London,                                                     £91 17 7
  To demurrage of the ship from 7 to 20 Dec^r.,
       13 days.
  Deduct 2 days for grav^g the ship, 2 days, 11 at £12,             132 0 0
  To Cap^t. James Hall, and his mate's wages, 11 days,               3 18 3
  To demurrage sloop Triton, from 9 to 20 Dec^r., 12 days,
       at 48s.,                                                     28 16 0

  To the captain's wages, 6 days,                                     12  0

  To the mate's and 4 hands' wages and victuals,
  12 days each,                                                 7  9  8-1/2

  To Jas. Smith and 2 journeymen coopers from
  Dartmouth, their wages and expences from
  7^th to 20^th December, 13 days, at 6s.,                         11 14  0

  To cash paid Samson, S. Blowers,[58] and John
  Adams, Esq^r's advice,                                            7  4  0

  To wharfage the ship and sloop, 23 days, at
  6s. 8d. per week,                                                 1  2  0

  To cash paid for Protests, &c., £3  19s. 6d.
  sterling,                                                         5  6  0
                                                             £289 19  6-1/2

Boston, 31^st December, 1773.

Errors excepted.

In behalf of myself and the owners of the ship.

                                                         FRANCIS ROTCH.


_Mr. Francis Rotch, Pardon Cook, and Wm. Hayden, against Consignees and
Tea, at Boston, in New England, on the 10^th day of December, in the
year of our Lord 1773, and in the fourteenth year of His Majesty's

Personally appeared before me, John Monro, Notary Public by royal
authority, duly admitted and sworn, Pardon Cook, master, and Wm. Hayden,
mate of the sloop Triton, burthen about seventy-five tons, and Francis
Rotch, one of the owners of the said sloop, and they, the said Pardon,
Will^m. and Francis, being by the people called Quakers, solemnly
affirmed, and each of them for himself, doth affirm in manner following,
that is to say, the said Pardon and William affirm and say they sailed
from Dartmouth, in New England, with the said vessel, on the 28^th day
of last month, then loaded with spermaceti oil, and bound for said
Boston, where they arrived on the 8^th inst., and made application to
the said Francis to have the said cargo discharged on board the ship
Dartmouth, as agreeable to their orders and directions. And the said
Francis Rotch affirms that he could not in person, nor by his servants,
or any other, unload and reship the said cargo of oil on board the ship
aforesaid by reason of her not being cleared of a certain quantity of
teas shipped at London, and consigned to Messrs. Richard Clarke & Sons,
Thomas and Elisha Hutchinson, Benj^n Faneuil and Joshua Winslow, of said
Boston, merchants, who have all and each of them, except Joshua Winslow,
neglected to demand and refused to accept the said teas, by which the
said ship is detained in the harbour of said Boston, and unfit to
receive the said oil as intended by the said owner, master and mate;
wherefore, the said Francis Rotch, and the master aforesaid, did, on
behalf of themselves and all others concerned, and I, the said Notary
Public, at their request, and on behalf aforesaid, do by these presents
solemnly protest against the said consignees, and each of them, and
against the said tea, and against all others concerned, for all and all
manner of damages already suffered, and to be suffered, on account of
the said oils not being shipped as aforesaid, contrary to the intention
and strict meaning of the said owner and master, &c.

Thus done, protested, and given under my notarial seal of office, in
presence of Robert Garland Cranch and John Dyar.

                        In testimoniam veritas,
                                 Jn^o. Monro,
                                            Not. Pub., 11 Jan., 1774.

  WM. HAYDEN. [Symbol: L.S.]

       *       *       *       *       *


_Cap^t. James Bruce, of the Eleanor, against the Committee at Boston,
and others, who Prevented the Landing the Teas._

At Boston, in New England, on the 11^th day of Decem^r., in the year of
Our Lord 1773, and in the 14^th year of his Majesty's reign, personally
appeared before me, John Monro, Notary Public by royal authority, duly
admitted and sworn, James Bruce, master of the ship Eleanor, burthen
about 250 tons, and he being sworn on the Holy Evangelists of Almighty
God, deposed and doth depose and say, that on the 1^st day of this
instant Decem^r., he arrived with the said ship at Boston aforesaid,
then loaded with sundry goods or merchandize from London, amongst which
were 84 whole and 34 half chests of tea, consigned to Messrs. Richard
Clarke & Sons, Tho^s. and Elisha Hutchinson, Benjamin Faneuil and Joshua
Winslow of Boston, merchants, that on the 2^d inst., the deponent was
ordered to attend at 11 o'clock in the forenoon of the next day, on a
committee of the people of the said town, and he having attended
accordingly, was then and there commanded by Mr. Samuel Adams and
Jonathan Williams, Esq^r., in presence of, and assembled with, John
Rowe, John Hancock, Wm. Phillips and John Pitts, Esq^rs., and a great
number of others, in Faneuil Hall, not to land any of the said tea at
his peril, but to proceed to Griffin's wharf, in said Boston, and there
discharge the rest of his cargo. And that the said deponent was obliged
to comply with the said orders, and was and is nightly watched by 25
armed men on board the said ship, appointed, as he supposes and verily
believes, to prevent the said teas from being landed.

Wherefore, the said James Bruce, on behalf of himself and all others
concerned in the said ship or cargo, did, and I, the said notary public,
at his request, and on behalf as aforesaid, do by these presents
solemnly protest against the said committee and each of them above
mentioned, and against all others voluntarily acting, watching, and
proceeding by their directions, and all persons whatsoever opposing and
forbidding the landing the tea aforesaid for all, and all manner of
damage and damages suffered and to be suffered, by means of the
commands, watchings, opposition and prohibition aforesaid. Thus done,
protested, and given under my notarial seal, in the presence of Rob^t.
Garland Cranch and John Dyar.

  In testimoniam veritas,
                            Jn^o. Monro,
                                         Not. Pub., 11 Jan., 1774.

  JAMES BRUCE. [Symbol: L.S.]

       *       *       *       *       *


_Of the Eleanor, against the Destroyers of the Tea._

At Boston, in New England, on the 17^th day of December, in the year of
our Lord, 1773, and in the 14^th year of his Majesty's reign, personally
appeared before me, John Monro, Notary Public by royal authority, duly
admitted and sworn, James Bruce, master, Ja^s. Bruce, jun^r., mate, and
John Tinney, boatswain, of the ship Eleanor, burthen about 250 tons, and
the said James Bruce, jun^r., and John Tinney, being sworn on the Holy
Evangelists of Almighty God, severally deposed, and each of them doth
depose and say, that on the evening of the 16th inst., they, these
deponents, were on board the said ship, then lying at Griffin's wharf,
at said Boston, and part of her cargo from London on board, amongst
which were 80 whole chests and 34 half chests of tea, consigned to
Messrs. Rich^d. Clarke & Sons, Tho^s. and Elisha Hutchinson, Benj^n
Faneuil, and Joshua Winslow, of said Boston, merchants. That about the
hours of 6 or 7 o'clock in the same evening, about one thousand unknown
people came down the said wharf, and a number of them came on board the
said ship, some being dressed like Indians, and they having violently
broke open the hatches, hoisted up the said chests of tea upon deck, and
then and there stove and threw the said chests with their contents
overboard into the water, where the whole was lost and destroyed.
Wherefore, the said James Bruce, master of the said ship, on behalf of
himself and owners of the said ship, and all others concerned, did, and
I, the said notary public, at his request, and on behalf as aforesaid,
do by these presents solemnly protest against the said unknown persons
or people, and against all others whatsoever and however concerned, for
all and all manner of damage or damages already suffered, and which
hereafter may, can, or shall be suffered by the violence and proceedings
of the said unknown people, and the destruction of the tea as aforesaid.

Thus done, protested, and given under my notarial seal of office, in
presence of Robert Garland Cranch and John Dyar.

  In testimoniam veritas,
                                       JN^O. MONRO,
                                          Not. Pub., 11 Jan., 1774.

  JAMES BRUCE, Jun^r.,
  JOHN [Symbol: his x mark.] TINNEY. [Symbol: L.S.]

Cap^t. Hezekiah Coffin,[60] Master Jethro Coffin, mate, and Mr. Wm.
Hewkey, mariner, of the brig Beaver, and Mr. Francis Rotch, part owner,
James Hall, master, and Alex^r. Hodgdon, mate of the Dartmouth, made the
like protest, which are among the American papers.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Referred to in their Letter of the 27^th Dec^r., 1773._

                                              New York, Dec^r 27, 1773.


It is our intention that this letter should meet you below, at the Hook,
that you may be apprised of the danger of bringing your ship into this

All the tea shipped by the Hon'ble East India Company to Boston has been
destroyed on board the vessels that brought it. The ship Polly, Cap^t.
Ayres, arrived lately at Philadelphia with the tea destined for that
port, and was compelled to return with it without being suffered to come
into the harbour, and there are advices in town that Charles Town has
made the same determination with respect to the tea arrived at South
Carolina, and you may be assured the inhabitants of this city have
adopted the same sentiments, and are fully determined to carry them into

We therefore think it is a duty we owe to the said Company, as we can
neither receive the tea or pay the duty, to apprize you of your danger,
and to give you our opinion, that for the safety of your cargo, your
vessel, and your persons, it will be most prudent for you to return, as
soon as you can be supplied with such necessaries as you may have
occasion for on the voyage. Certain we are that you would fully concur
with us in the propriety of this advice were you as well acquainted with
the people's sentiments as we are, which you will learn from the
enclosed papers. We shall be glad to hear from you in answer hereto, and
to render you any services we can in your critical situation.

                               We are, your most obd^t serv^ts,

                                               HENRY WHITE,
                                               ABRAHAM LOTT & CO.
                                               PIGOU & BOOTH.

To Cap^t. Benj^n Lockyer, of the ship Nancy.

       *       *       *       *       *


    _With their Reply, referred to in their Letter of the 22^d.
    April, 1774._

                                 New York, April 20^th, 1774.


    Having considered the circumstances mentioned in your
    letters, which I received on my arrival, I have left the
    ship and cargo at Sandy Hook, for their safety. Have now
    waited on you with a tender of the cargo of tea shipped by
    the Hon'ble East India Company, and consigned to you. I am
    therefore ready to deliver the said cargo according to the
    bill of lading.

                              I am, &c.,
                                            BENJAMIN LOCKYER.

    Messrs. White, Lott & Booth.

       *       *       *       *       *

                                    New York, April 20, 1774.


    We have received your letter of this date, tendering to us
    the cargo of tea shipped on board the Nancy, under your
    command, by the Hon'ble East India Company, to our address,
    in reply to which we have only to observe that we some time
    ago acquainted the Hon'ble Court of Directors how violently
    opposed the inhabitants in general were to the landing or
    vending the tea in this Colony, while subject to the
    American duty, and that any attempts in us, either to effect
    one or the other would not only be fruitless, but expose so
    considerable a property to inevitable destruction. Under
    these circumstances it would be highly imprudent in us to
    take any steps to receive your cargo, and therefore we
    cannot take charge of the same, or any part thereof, under
    our case. We are, sir,

  Your most obed^t serv^ts,

                                              HENRY WHITE.
                                              ABR^M LOTT & CO.
                                              PIGOU & BOOTH.

    Cap^t. Benj^n Lockyer.



_On the Measure of the Company's Exporting Tea to that Place._

[Taken from a Philadelphia news paper.]

                                                Monday Dec^r 27, 1773.

Upon the first advice of this measure a general dissatisfaction was
expressed, that at a time when we were struggling with this oppressive
Act, and an agreement subsisting not to import tea while subject to the
duty, our fellow subjects in England should form a measure so directly
tending to enforce the Act, and again embroil us with our parent state.
When it was also considered that the proposed mode of disposing of the
tea tended to a monopoly, ever odious in a free country, a universal
disapprobation shewed itself through the city. A public meeting of the
inhabitants was held at the State House, on the 18^th October, at which
great numbers attended, and the sense of the following resolves (which
are entered in page 296, the people of Boston having formed the same

In consequence of these resolutions, a committee waited upon the
gentlemen in this city who had been appointed consignees of the expected
cargo. They represented to them the detestation and abhorrence in which
this measure was held by their fellow citizens, the danger and
difficulties which must attend the execution of so odious a task, and
expressed the united desire of the city that they would renounce the
commission, and engage not to intermeddle with the ship or cargo in any
shape whatever. Some of the commissioners resigned in a manner that gave
general satisfaction, others in such equivocal terms as desired further
explanation. However, in a few days the resignation was complete. In
this situation things remained for a few days.

In the mean time the general spirit and indignation rose to such a
height that it was thought proper to call another general meeting of the
principal citizens to consider and resolve upon such further steps as
might give weight and secure success to the unanimous opposition now
formed. Accordingly a meeting was held for the above purpose, at which a
great number of respectable inhabitants attended, and it appeared to be
the unanimous opinion that the entry of the ship at the custom house, or
the landing any part of her cargo would be attended with great danger
and difficulty, and would directly tend to destroy that peace and good
order which ought to be preserved. An addition of twelve other gentlemen
was then made to the former committee, and the general meeting adjourned
'till the arrival of the tea-ship. Information being given of that, the
price of tea was soon advanced, though this was owing to a general
scarcity of that article, yet all the possessors of tea, in order to
give strength to the opposition, readily agreed to reduce the price and
sell what remained in their hands at a reasonable rate.

Nothing now remained but to keep up a proper correspondence and
connection with the other Colonies, and to take all prudent and proper
precautions on the arrival of the tea-ship.

It is not easy to describe the anxiety and suspense of the city in this
interval; sundry reports of her arrival were received, which were
premature, but on Saturday evening last an express came up from Chester
to inform the town that the tea-ship, commanded by Cap^t. Ayres, with
her detested cargo, was arrived there, having followed another ship up
the river so far. The committee met early the next morning, and being
apprized of the arrival of Mr. Gilbert Barkley, the other consignee, who
came passenger in the ship, they immediately went in a body to request
his renunciation of the commission. Mr. Barkley politely attended the
committee at the first request, and being made acquainted with the
sentiments of the city, and the danger to which the public liberties of
America were exposed by this measure, he, after expressing the
particular hardship of his situation, also resigned the commission in a
manner that affected every one present.

The committee then appointed three of their members to go to Chester,
and two others to Gloucester Point, in order to have the earliest
opportunity of meeting Cap^t. Ayres, and representing to him the sense
of the public respecting his voyage and cargo. The gentlemen who had set
out for Chester receiving intelligence that the vessel had weighed
anchor about 12 o'clock, and proceeded to town, returned. About 2
o'clock she appeared in sight of Gloucester Point, where a number of the
inhabitants from the town had assembled, with the gentlemen from the
committee, and as she passed along she was hailed, and the captain
requested not to proceed further, but to come on shore. This the captain
complied with, and was handed thro' a lane made by the people to the
gentlemen appointed to confer with him. They represented to him the
general sentiment, together with the danger and difficulties that would
attend his refusal to comply with the wishes of the inhabitants, and
finally desired him to proceed with them to town, where he would be more
fully informed of the temper and resolution of the people. He was
accordingly accompanied to town by a number of persons, where he was
soon convinced of the truth and propriety of the representations that
had been made to him, and agreed that, upon the desire of the
inhabitants being publicly expressed, he would conduct himself
accordingly. Some small rudeness being offered to the cap^t. afterwards
in the street by some boys, several gentlemen interposed and suppressed
it, before he received the least injury. Upon an hour's notice this
morning, a public meeting was called, and the State House not being
sufficient to hold the numbers assembled, they adjourned into the
square. This meeting is allowed by all to be the most respectable, both
in number and rank of those who attended, it that has been known in this
city. After a short introduction, the following resolutions were not
only agreed to, but the public approbation testified in the warmest

Resolved 1^st. That the tea on board the ship Polly, Cap^t. Ayres, shall
not be landed.

2^d. That Cap^t. Ayres shall neither enter nor report his vessel at the
Custom House.

3^d. That Cap^t. Ayres shall carry back the tea immediately.

4^th. That Cap^t. Ayres shall immediately send a pilot on board his
vessel, with orders to take charge of her, and proceed with her to Reedy
Island, next high water.

5^th. That he shall be allowed to stay in town 'till to-morrow, to
provide necessaries for his voyage.

6^th. That he shall then be obliged to leave the town and proceed to his
vessel, and make the best of his way out of our river and bay.

7^th. That Cap^t. Heysham, Cap^t. R. White, Mr. Benjamin Loxley and Mr.
A. Donaldson be a committee to see these resolutions carried into

The captain was then asked if he would conform himself to these
resolutions. He answered that he would.

The assembly were then informed of the spirit and resolution of New
York, Charles Town, South Carolina, and the conduct of the people in
Boston, whereupon it was unanimously resolved:

8^th. That this assembly highly approve of the conduct and spirit of the
people of New York, Charles Town and Boston, and return their hearty
thanks to the people at Boston for their resolution in destroying the
tea rather than suffer it to be landed.

The whole business was conducted with a decorum and order worthy the
importance of the cause. Cap^t. Ayres being present at this meeting,
solemnly and publicly engaged that he would literally comply with the
sense of the city, as expressed in the above resolutions.

A proper supply of necessaries and fresh provisions being then procured
in about 2 hours, the tea-ship weighed anchor from Gloucester Point,
where she lay within sight of the town, and proceeded with her whole
cargo on her return to the East India Com^y.

The public think the conduct of those gentlemen whose goods are returned
on board the tea-ship, ought not to pass unnoticed, as they have upon
this occasion generously sacrificed their private interest to the public

Thus this important affair, in which there has been so glorious an
exertion of public virtue and spirit, has been brought to a public
issue, by which the force of law, so obstinately persisted in, to the
prejudice of the national commerce, for the sake of the principle on
which it is founded, (a right of taxing the Americans without their
consent,) has been effectually broken, and the foundation of American
liberty more deeply laid than ever.

N.B.--It was computed by two different persons, unknown to each other,
that there were 8000 persons assembled, besides many hundreds who were
on their way, but did not reach the meeting in time, owing to the
shortness of the notice. Cap^t. Ayres and Mr. Barkley, late one of the
consignees, left Arch wharf on board a pilot boat (having been 46 hours
in town,) to follow the ship to Reedy Island. They were attended to the
wharf by a concourse of people, who wished them a good voyage.



JOHN SPURR (_see p. 164_).

John Spurr was, after the Revolution, a prominent citizen of Charlton,
Mass., and often represented the town in the State Legislature. He
married the daughter of Rev. Elijah Dunbar, and left two sons; Elijah
Dunbar Spurr, and Samuel Danforth Spurr. The widow of the latter, who is
now living, is the mother of the first wife of Senator George F. Hoar.


_Melvill's Tea Relic, as seen on page 131._

The publisher, in collecting illustrations for Tea Leaves, found one or
more New England Societies claiming possession of some of this tea.
Therefore it was necessary to look up the original Melvill stock of

We show an illustration of it (full size), copied from a photograph
(made by special request,) from a relative living in Illinois (since
deceased), from whom we learn it has been handed down to the present
generation, and has never been owned out of the family, and is now in
possession of Mrs. Thomas Melvill's son, Galena, Illinois, to whom we
are indebted for its use on this occasion.




  Samuel Adams, 21

  Annapolis Tea-Ship Burned, 85

  Biographical Notices of the Tea Party, and List of its Members, 92-171

  Biographical Sketches;
    Ancrum, Wm. 208
    Appleton, Nathaniel 30
    Blowers, S.S. 352
    Brattle, Wm. 311
    Bruce, Capt. 356
    Bull, Wm. 339
    Cheever, Ezekiel 46
    Church, Dr. Benjamin 26
    Clarke, R. 210
    Coffin, Capt. 358
    Cooper, Sir Grey 212
    Cooper, William 43
    Copley, John S. 329
    Crafts, Thomas 25
    Curtis, Obadiah 49
    Danforth, Samuel 315
    Edes, Benjamin 25
    Erving, John 226
    Faneuil, Benj. 294
    Hall, Capt. James 245
    Hatch, Nathaniel 285
    Hewes, Daniel 49
    Hodgdon, Alex. 79
    Hutchinson, Thos. & Elisha 324
    Johonnot, Gabriel 27
    Kelly, Wm. 269
    Knox, Thomas, Jr., 49
    Lloyd, Henry 227
    Lott, Abraham 226
    Lovering, Joseph 49
    Morris, John 342
    Pownall, John 339
    Quincy, Josiah 61
    Rotch, Francis 41
    Rowe, John 63
    Royal, Isaac 311
    Savage, Samuel Phillips 57
    Scollay, John 37
    Tileston, Thomas 50
    Wallace, Hugh and Alex 233
    Walpole, Thomas 204
    Watson, Brook 203
    Wendell, Oliver 43
    Wharton, Thomas 273
    White, Henry 306
    Williams, Jonathan 43
    Williams, Thomas 230
    Winslow, Joshua 223

  Ballads of the Tea Party, 172-176

  Boston, Opposition to the Tea Act, 19-23, 260-66, 278, 303
    Tea-Party, 64-82, 89-94, 95-171
    Destruction of the Tea, 58-94, 336-357
    Proceedings of the Town, 279-303, 320-36
    Proceedings of the Council, 309-20

  Clarke R. & Sons, Attack on Warehouse of 28, 266, 284
    Residence mobbed, 34
    Letter to chairman East India Company, 279-91

  East India Company, 11, 189

  Franklin, Benjamin 185

  Green Dragon Tavern, 66

  Hutchinson, Thomas 20

  Lamb, John 19

  Letters and Documents, 189, 370

  Letter from Mr. Wm. Palmer, enclosing Extracts of several Letters from
  Boston, &c., to show the state of the Tea Trade in America, and
  estimates of the advantages that will attend the Company's carrying on
  that trade to that place, 189

  Memorial of Mr. Gilbert Barkley, recommending a Plan for carrying on
  the Tea Trade to America, and offering himself, and Mr. John Inglis,
  Merchant, of Philadelphia, as agents, 199

  Letter from Mr. Brook Watson, to Daniel Wier, Esq., recommending Mr.
  John Butler, of Nova Scotia, and Messrs. Faneuil and Winslow, of
  Boston, as agents, 202

  A Proposal of the Hon. Mr. Walpole's, for sending Tea to Philadelphia,

  Plan of Mr. Palmer, for Exportation of Tea to America, 205

  Letter from Messrs. Greenwood & Higginson, recommending Messrs. Andrew
  Lord, and William and George Ancrum, of South Carolina, as Agents, and
  offering their ship, the "London," Capt. Curling, to carry Tea to that
  place, 208

  Letter from Mr. Fred'k Pigou, Jun., Esq., recommending Pigou & Booth,
  of New York, and James & Drinker, of Philadelphia, as Agents, and
  offering vessels for those places, 208

  Letter from Mr. Jonathan Clarke, offering Richard Clarke & Sons, of
  Boston, as Agents, 209

  Letter from Grey Cooper, Esq., recommending Mr. Barkley as an Agent,

  Letter from Messrs. Roberts & Co., recommending Messrs. Willing,
  Morris & Co., of Philadelphia, as Agents, 212

  Letter from Mr. Benjamin Harrison, offering himself as an Agent for
  Virginia, 213

  Letter from Mr. George Browne, recommending Mr. Jonathan Brown, of
  Philadelphia, as an Agent, 214

  Letter from Mr. Wm. Palmer, offering to advance the amount of 200
  chests of Tea, on terms therein mentioned, 215

  Letter to several American Merchants to meet the Committee, 215

  Letter from Mr. Gilbert Barkley, offering some further thoughts upon
  the Exportation, 216

  Letter from Samuel Wharton, Esq., offering an Apology for not
  attending the Committee, 217

  Some Thoughts upon the Company's sending out Teas to America, 218

  Letter from Messrs. Watson & Rashleigh, reciting terms on which the
  Tea Agency may be conducted, and offering Security for their
  recommendation, 222

  Letter from Mr. Jonathan Clarke, on the same, 224

  Letter from Mr. Kelly, on the same, and recommending several persons
  of the different Colonies, as Agents, 225

  Letter from Mr. Harrison, that Mr. Kelly will give his Proposals, 227

  Letter from Mr. John Blackburn, with an offer of Terms, 228

  Letter to Samuel Wharton, Esq., to meet the Committee, 229

  Request of Mr. Walter Mansell, for the Agency to South Carolina, 229

  Letter from Messrs. Roberts & Co., offering Terms and Security for
  Willing, Morris & Co., 231

  Letter from Messrs. Pigou & Booth, offering Terms and Security for
  Messrs. James & Drinker, 231

  Letter from Mr. John Nutt, recommending Mr. Roger Smith, of South
  Carolina, as an Agent, 233

  Letter from Messrs. Bourdieu & Chollet, recommending several persons
  as Agents, 233

  Letter from Messrs. Gale, Fearon & Co., recommending Mr. Daniel
  Stephenson, of Maryland, as an Agent, 234

  Letter from Messrs. Davidson & Newman, declining any propositions on
  the present state of the Tea affair, 235

  Letter to several American Merchants to meet the Committee, 235

  Letter from Mr. Palmer, upon the Rate of Exchange from Boston, 236

  Letter from Messrs. Bourdieu & Chollet, declining to offer any further
  proposals, 236

  Letter to sundry American Merchants to meet the Committee, 237

  Letter to sundry American Merchants, advising the quantities of Tea
  ordered to be shipped for the several Colonies, and requesting the
  firm of the houses they have recommended, 238

  Letter from Messrs. Watson & Rashleigh, advising the firm of their
  recommendation, 238

  Securities offered for Mr. Barkley and Mr. Mansell, 239

  Letter from Mr. Pigou, with the firm of his recommendation, 239

  Letters from Mr. Wharton, Mr. Browne, and Mr. Kelly, 240

  Mr. Palmer's Opinion in what mode to ship Tea to America, 241

  Letter from Mr. Clarke, with the firm of his house, and offering the
  "William" for freight, 243

  Letters to Geo. Hayley, Esq., Thos. Lane, Esq., and Alexander
  Champion, Esq., to know if they have any constant traders to Boston or
  South Carolina, ready to sail, 244

  Letter to Mr. Palmer, to point out what sorts of Tea are proper to be
  sent to Boston and South Carolina, 244

  Mr. Palmer's Assortment of Teas for America, 245

  Weight of Tea Exported to America, 245

  Letters from several Persons concerning Vessels for Carrying the Tea
  to America, 245

  Petition to the Lords of the Treasury, for Licence to Export Teas to
  America, 246

  Licence from the Lords of the Treasury to Export Teas to America, 247

  Letters from Sundry Gentlemen relating to Vessels to carry Tea to
  America, 251

  Letter from Mr. Settle to Mr. Blackburn and Mr. Kelly, to come and
  Execute the Bond, 255

  Letters from Mr. Blackburn and Mr. Kelly, in reply, 255

  Sundry Freight Bills, for Tea Shipped, 256

  _So far concerns the outset of the Tea._

  Note from Lord Dartmouth to the Chairman, to attend at Whitehall, on
  the subject of some Advices from America, respecting the Teas, 258

  Letters to American Merchants to communicate what Advices they may
  have received, 258

  Letters from American Merchants, in reply, 259

  Letter from Mr. Jonathan Clarke to Mr. Wheler, advising his arrival at
  Boston, 260

  Letter to Abram Dupuis, to communicate advice, referred in Mr.
  Clarke's Letter, 279

  Messrs. Clarke & Son's Letter to Mr. Dupuis, 279

  Mr. Faneuil's Letter to Mr. Watson, mentioned in Messrs. Clarke's, 292

  Proceedings of the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston, on the 5th and
  6th November, referred to in Messrs. Clarke's and Faneuil's Letters,

  Note from the Secretary to Mr. Brook Watson, advising the Tea is
  ordered to Halifax, and desiring the names of the Consignees, 304

  Security offered for Messrs. Butler & Cochran, consignees at Halifax,

  The Agents at New York's Petition to the Governor, referred to in
  their letter 1st December, 305

  Petition of the Agents at Boston, and the Proceedings of the Governor
  and Council thereon, 309

  Proceedings of the Town of Boston on the 29th and 30th November, 320

  Letter signed "Anglo Americanus," addressed to Geo. Dudley, Esq.,
  enclosing newspapers, 331

  Letter signed "Anglo Americanus," addressed to Geo. Dudley, Esq.,
  advising the Tea's being destroyed, 332

  Note from Mr. Pownall, to communicate Advices, and enclosing Letter
  from Lieut.-Gov. Bull, of Charles Town; also, Lieut.-Gov. Bull's
  Letter, 339

  Letter from Mr. Jo. Morris, to Corbyn Morris, Esq., advising of the
  Tea's being seized at South Carolina, 342

  Letter from Capt. Ellis, advising of the Tea's being seized at South
  Carolina, 343

  Questions proposed to the Boston Consignees, respecting landing the
  Teas, 344

  Protest of Capt. Bruce against said Consignees, for refusing to
  receive the Teas, 346

  Letter from Mr. Rotch, to said Consignees, with an account of Charges
  and a Protest, 350

  Protests of the several Captains against the Destroyers of the Tea,

  Letters from the Agents at New York, &c., to Capt. Lockyer, and one
  from him to them, 359

  Proceedings of the Inhabitants of Philadelphia, on the measure of
  Exporting Tea to that place, 361

Liberty Tree, 24

Long Room (Whig) Club, 66

  New York. Opposition to the Tea Act, 16-19, 269-271
    Arrival of Tea, 84-5
    Petition of the Consignees to the Governor, 305
    Letter from the Agents to Capt. Lockyer, 358-60

  North-End Caucus, 23, 67

  Philadelphia lends Opposition to Tea Act, 17
    Tea sent back, 84
    Proposed Tea Depot in America, 203
    Opposition to the Tea Act, 272-277
    Resolves and Proceedings of October 18, 361-65

  St. Andrew's Masonic Lodge of Boston, 66

  Sons of Liberty, 18, 24, 26

  South Carolina, Proceedings at 84-65, 339-43

  Spurr, John, 164

  Tea Act, 12
    Introduced into New England, 14
    Consignees, 23, 36, 51-53
    Guard on Boston tea-ship, 45-50
    State of Tea Trade in America, 191-98
    Shipments to America, 256-7

  Warren, Gen. Joseph, 178

  Additions, 367


  Tea Leaves, on cover,

  Destruction of the Tea in Boston Harbor, Frontispiece.

  Diagram Showing the Route from the Old South Church to Griffin's
  Wharf, 75

  Melvill's Tea Relic, 131

  Edward Proctor's Proclamation, 148

  Lord North Forcing the Tea down the Throat of America, 155

  Location of Tea Wharf, 173

  Plan of Boston, 1775, and the Burning of Charlestown, 264


  Adams, Samuel 299

  Bradlee, Nathaniel 97

  Franklin, Benjamin 185

  Gage, Gov. Thomas 313

  Hancock, John 288

  Hutchinson, Gov. Thomas 308

  Hewes, George Robert Twelves 117

  Kennison, David 122

  Lovering, Thomas 182

  Melvill, Thomas 133

  Melvill, Thomas, Hat on 180

  North, Lord 249

  Pitts, Lendall 142

  Purkitt, Henry 151

  Revere, Paul 157

  Rotch, Francis 40

  Rowe, John 62

  Savage, Samuel Phillips 338

  Sprague, Samuel 164

  Warren, Joseph 48


  Adams, Samuel 299

  Bradlee, Nathaniel 97

  Bradlee, David 97

  Bass, Henry 96

  Church, Benjamin 26

  Cheever, Ezekiel 46

  Chase, Thomas 102

  Clarke, Benjamin 103

  Crane, John 108

  Franklin, Benjamin 185

  Faneuil, Benjamin, Jr., 294

  Frothingham, Nathaniel 111

  Green, Nathaniel 114

  Grant, Moses 113

  Gore, Samuel 113

  Hodgdon, Alexander 79

  Hancock, John 288

  Hutchinson, Thomas 308

  Inches, Henderson 27

  Kennison, David 122

  Lovering, Joseph 182

  Lincoln, Amos 125

  Lee, Joseph 124

  Molineux, William 137

  Melvill, Thomas 135

  Newell, Eliphelet 138

  Purkitt, Henry 150

  Prentice, Henry 146

  Pitts, Lendall 145

  Peck, Samuel 140

  Palmer, Joseph P. 139

  Proctor, Edward 149

  Russell, John 159

  Revere, Paul 154

  Rowe, John 63

  Rotch, Francis 41

  Swan, James 168

  Sprague, Samuel 164

  Sloper, Samuel 162

  Shed, Joseph 161

  Sessions, Robert 160

  Savage, Samuel Phillips 57

  Urann, Thomas 169

  Winslow, Joshua 223

  Williams, Jonathan 43

  Warren, Joseph 30

  Wyeth, Joseph 171

[Illustration: _Plan of the Town of Boston with the Attack on
BUNKERS-HILL in the Peninsula of CHARLESTOWN_, the 17^th of June 1776.]


[1] Dr. Holmes, the annalist, says, that tea began to be used in New
England in 1720. Small quantities, must, however, have been made many
years before, as small copper tea-kettles were in use in Plymouth, in
1702. The first cast-iron tea-kettles were made in Plympton, (now
Carver,) Mass., between 1760 and 1765. When ladies went to visiting
parties, each one carried her tea-cup, saucer, and spoon. The cups were
of the best china, very small, containing about as much as a common

[2] Hist. of Mass., iii. 422.

[3] This body, which originally consisted of sixty-one members, with Dr.
Thomas Young for its president, was organized by Dr. Joseph Warren, who,
with one other person, drew up its regulations. Its usual place of
meeting was at William Campbell's house, near the North Battery, though
its sessions were sometimes held at the Green Dragon tavern. Here the
committees of public service were formed, and measures of defence, and
resolves for the destruction of the tea, discussed. It was here, when
the best mode of expelling the regulars from Boston was under
consideration, that John Hancock exclaimed, "Burn Boston, and make John
Hancock a beggar, if the public good requires it."

[4] Thomas Crafts was, in 1789, a painter and japanner, opposite the
site of the great tree (corner of Boylston and Washington Streets). He
became a member of the Masonic Lodge of St. Andrew in 1762.

[5] Benjamin Edes, journalist, born in Charlestown, Mass., Oct. 14,
1732; died in Boston, December 11, 1803. In 1755, he began, with John
Gill, the publication of the "Boston Gazette and Country Journal," a
newspaper of deserved popularity, unsurpassed in its patriotic zeal for
liberty,--the chosen mouth-piece of the Whigs. To its columns, Otis, the
Adamses, Quincy and Warren, were constant contributors. Their
printing-office, on the corner of Queen (now Court) Street and Dassett's
Alley (now Franklin Avenue), was the place of meeting of a party of the
"Mohawks," on the afternoon of December 16, 1773. During the siege of
Boston, the "Gazette" was issued at Watertown. It was discontinued
September 17, 1798. At the opening of the war, Mr. Edes possessed a
handsome property, which was wholly lost by the depreciation of the
currency. Edes was a member of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery
Company in 1760, and a prominent "Son of Liberty."

[6] Dr. Benjamin Church, physician, orator and poet, grandson of the
famous Indian fighter of the name; born in Newport, R.I., August 24,
1734; was lost at sea in May, 1776. He graduated at Harvard College in
1754; studied medicine in London, and after his return to Boston, became
eminent as a surgeon. For several years previous to the Revolution, he
was a conspicuous and leading Whig. He was a representative, a member of
the Provincial Congress of 1774, and physician-general to the patriot
army. Pecuniary embarrassment is supposed to have led to his defection
from the cause of his country. In September, 1775, an intercepted letter
of his, in characters, to Major Cain, in Boston, was deciphered; and
October 3, 1775, he was convicted by a court martial, of which
Washington was president, of "holding a criminal correspondence with the
enemy." Confined in jail at Norwich, Conn., he was released in May,
1776, on account of failing health; sailed for the West Indies, and was
never afterwards heard from.

[7] Gabriel Johonnot, born in Boston, 1748; died in Hamden, Me., October
9, 1820. Zacharie, his father, a Huguenot, was a distiller and merchant.
His dwelling-house and store was on Orange Street, and his distillery on
Harvard Street, directly opposite. At the bottom of the street was his
wharf, wooden distillery, storehouses, etc. The mansion house and store
were burned in the great fire, 20th April, 1787. Gabriel was a member of
St. John's Lodge, Boston, 1780, and a charter member of Hancock Lodge,
Castine, Me., 1794. He was chairman of a committee appointed by the
company of Cadets, of Boston, August 15, 1774, to proceed to Salem, and
return to Governor Gage, the standard presented to them; and was
Lieutenant-Colonel of the 14th Regiment of the Massachusetts line, known
as the Marblehead regiment, commanded by Colonel Glover. He removed to
Castine, Me., soon after the Revolutionary war; took a prominent part in
town affairs, and at one time represented the town of Penobscot in the
Massachusetts Legislature.

[8] Nathaniel Appleton, Commissioner of Loans for the State of
Massachusetts, a resident of Atkinson (now Congress) Street, son of Rev.
Dr. Nathaniel Appleton, of Cambridge; died in June, 1789, aged 66.

[9] The Scollays were an old Scotch family. A John Scollay, the first
mention of whom is found here, in 1692 leased the Winnisimmet ferry for
one year. John, whose name is conspicuous in the early Revolutionary
records of Boston, was a merchant, and was chairman of the Board of
Selectmen, from 1774 to 1790. His portrait, by Copley, represents a
portly, florid man, with a powdered wig, seated, his hand resting on a
ledger. Thomas Melvill married one of Scollay's daughters. Col. William
Scollay, apothecary and druggist, son of John, resided at first on or
near the spot where the Museum stands, and his garden extended back to
Court Square. He was associated with Charles Bulfinch and others, in the
improvement of Franklin Place, now Franklin Street, where they erected
the first block of buildings in Boston. Col. William was commander of
the Independent Company of Cadets.

[10] Francis Rotch, a Quaker merchant, part owner of the "Dartmouth" and
the "Beaver," was born in Nantucket, Mass., 30th September, 1750, and
died in New Bedford, in May, 1822. Joseph, his father, the founder of a
family of eminent merchants, was born in Salisbury, England, in 1704,
and died in New Bedford, 24th November, 1784. In early life he settled
in Nantucket, and rose from poverty to affluence by his industry, energy
and enterprise, gaining, at the same time, universal esteem for his
integrity. These characteristics he transmitted to his sons, William,
Joseph and Francis,--especially to William, whose commercial
transactions were of the most extensive character. All were largely
concerned in the whale fisheries of Nantucket, of which they may almost
be said to have been the founders. Francis was in England for a short
time in 1773, but had returned home before his tea ships arrived. This
affair was a very troublesome one for a young man of twenty-three to
manage, as there was a tremendous pressure brought to bear upon him by
Samuel Adams, and other influential patriots, to return the teas to
England. He yielded temporarily to this pressure, promising the meeting
of November 30th, that the tea should go back; but, probably after
consultation with his counsel, Sampson Salter Blowers and John Adams,
decided to withdraw his promise. Rotch pleaded that a compliance would
ruin him, and as he could not obtain a pass for his ships, they would
either have been sunk by the British batteries, or captured and
confiscated under the revenue laws. He succeeded eventually in escaping
loss in the affair, as the East India Company paid him the freight due
on the cargoes of teas. His ship, the "Bedford," is said to have been
the first to display the American flag on the Thames, after the war. The
family settled in New Bedford, in 1768. He married his cousin, Nancy
Rotch, who, at the time of her death, 24th April, 1867, was nine-two
years of age. The accompanying portrait is copied from a silhouette, by
Miers, profile painter, 111 Strand, London, apparently about 1795. It is
very delicately painted, on a hard plaster surface. The features are
well marked, and the lace ruffle at the bosom, and the queue, are
exceedingly well done. It is now in the possession of Mr. George H.
Allan, who received it from his uncle, A.A. Rotch.

[11] Jonathan Williams, a distinguished merchant and patriot, captain of
the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, in 1751; died March 27,
1788. Jonathan, his father, was a member of the Artillery Company in

[12] Judge Oliver Wendell, son of Hon. Jacob Wendell, was born in Boston
5th March, 1733; died, 15th January, 1818. Harvard College, 1753. His
daughter, Sarah, married Rev. Abiel Holmes, the father of the poet,
Oliver Wendell Holmes.

[13] William Cooper, son of Rev. William, and brother of Rev. Samuel, of
the Brattle Street Church, and forty-nine years town clerk of Boston;
died November 28, 1809; aged 89. The brothers were both active patriots
of the Revolution.

[14] Ezekiel Cheever, the great grandson of the famous schoolmaster of
that name, in the early days of New England, was born in Charlestown,
Mass., in May, 1720. He was by trade a sugar-baker (confectioner), and
from 1752 to 1755 was a selectman of Charlestown. Removing to Boston he
joined the Sons of Liberty, and was active in the ante-revolutionary
movements of the town, and prominent in its public meetings. He was
appointed commissary of artillery in the army before Boston, May 17,
1775. He died a few years after the conclusion of the war. His brother,
David, also a prominent Son of Liberty, was appointed moderator of the
Old South meeting of December 14, but declined. Ezekiel was a member of
the Committee that waited on the consignees and requested their

[15] Probably the following handbill is referred to:

"Brethren and Fellow Citizens!

You may depend that those odious miscreants and detestable tools to
ministry and government, the TEA CONSIGNEES, (those traitors to their
country--butchers--who have done and are doing everything to murder and
destroy all that shall stand in the way of their private interest,) are
determined to come (from the castle) and reside again in the town of
Boston! I therefore give you this early notice that you may hold
yourselves in readiness on the shortest warning, to give them such a
reception as such vile ingrates deserve.

(Signed), JOYCE, Junior,

_Chairman of the Committee for Tarring and Feathering._

--> If any person shall be so hardy as to tear this down, he may expect
my severest resentment.

J., Jun."

[16] A merchant and a former selectman of Boston, member of the
Provincial Congress, President of the Massachusetts Board of War during
the Revolution, and from Nov. 2, 1775, till his death, a Judge of the
Court of Common Pleas for Middlesex County. He died at Weston in
December, 1797; aged 79.

[17] Quincy visited England in 1774, and died on the passage home, in
sight of his native land, April 26, 1775. He was a lawyer, and in
conjunction with John Adams, defended the perpetrators of the "Boston

[18] Lord Mahon, a candid British historian, thinks this concession
unwisely denied.

[19] John Rowe, a prominent merchant and patriotic citizen of Boston,
died February 17, 1787; aged 72 years. He was many years a Selectman,
Overseer of the Poor, and representative to the General Court, and was
chairman of the committee chosen June 16, 1779, to fix the prices of
merchandise, and to bring to punishment all offenders against the act
against monopoly and forestalling. He was a member of the First Lodge of
Freemasons, Boston, in 1740; master of the same Lodge in 1749, and fifth
Provincial Grand Master in 1768. When, in 1766, Rowe was proposed for
representative, Samuel Adams artfully suggested another, by asking--with
his eyes on Mr. Hancock's house--"Is there not another John that may do
better?" The hint took, and the wealth and influence of Hancock were
secured on the side of liberty. Rowe's mansion,--subsequently that of
Judge Prescott, father of the historian,--stood on the spot lately
occupied by Dr. Robbins' church, in Bedford Street. A wharf and street
once bore the name of this true friend of his country, but the wharf
alone retains the title. Since 1856, Rowe Street has been absorbed in
Chauncy Street.

[20] This punch bowl is now in the possession of the Massachusetts
Historical Society.

[21] Alexander Hodgdon, mate of the "Dartmouth," was subsequently
(1787-92) Treasurer of the State of Massachusetts. Stevens was at that
time courting his sister (they were afterwards married), and was
naturally desirous not to compromise himself or his friend.

[22] The proclamation of the "King of the Mohawks," which accompanies
this notice, appears to be in Proctor's handwriting. The original is in
the possession of Mr. Jeremiah Colburn, of Boston.

[23] See ante pp. XLIX., CVI.

[24] The East India Company was a famous joint stock trading
corporation, formed in England early in the seventeenth century, to
carry on commerce with the East Indies. They established stations in
various places, and in 1702, were newly chartered as "The United Company
of Merchants Trading to the East Indies." The executive power of the
Company was vested in a court of twenty-four directors, each of whom
must own £2000 of stock, and held office four years. This Company became
a great territorial power, and laid the foundation of the British Empire
in India. Its monopoly of the China trade was abolished in 1833, and the
Company was then deprived of its original character as a commercial
association. The Sepoy Mutiny, in 1857, combined with other causes,
induced Parliament to transfer the dominion of India to the Crown. This
change was effected in 1858, after strenuous opposition from the
Company. Trading companies to the East Indies were also chartered by
Holland, France, Denmark, and Sweden; that of Holland being the oldest.

[25] In this sample invoice the amount seems extraordinary. The editor
of this volume, however, considers his duty ended when he gives a
faithful transcript of the manuscript in his possession, allowing the
facts alone to appear.

[26] Sir Brook Watson, a merchant of London, and Lord Mayor in 1796,
born in Plymouth, England, February 7, 1735, died October 2, 1807. Early
in life he entered the sea service, but, while bathing in the harbor of
Havana, in 1749, a shark bit off his right leg, below the knee, and he
was obliged to abandon his chosen profession. A painting, by Copley,
represents this scene. Watson then became a merchant, and was a
commissary to the British troops in Canada, in 1755 and in 1758.
Visiting the American colonies just before the Revolution, he professed
himself a Whig, but intercepted letters showed his true character to be
that of a spy. In 1782, he was commissary-general to his friend, Sir Guy
Carleton, in America; held the same office with the Duke of York, in
1793-95, and that of Commissary-General of England, in 1798-1806. He was
a member of Parliament from London, in 1784-93; sheriff of London and
Middlesex in 1785, and was made a baronet December 5, 1803. As a reward
for his services in America, Parliament voted his wife an annuity of
£500 for life.

[27] Hon. Thomas Walpole, merchant, banker, and member of Parliament,
second son of Horatio, first Lord Walpole, and nephew of the famous
statesman, Sir Robert Walpole, died at Chiswick, March 21, 1803. He was
born October 25, 1727.

[28] William Ancrum, was a loyalist, of Charleston, S.C., He was
banished in 1782, and his property was confiscated.

[29] Richard, son of Francis Clarke, merchant, graduated at Harvard
College, in 1729, and died in London, at the residence of his
son-in-law, John Singleton Copley, the artist, February 27, 1795. He,
with his sons, Richard and Jonathan, constituting the firm of Richard
Clarke & Sons, did business in King (now State) Street, and became
exceedingly obnoxious to the people, on their refusal to resign their
appointment as factors of the East India Company's tea. The residence of
the Clarke's, on School Street, (corner of Chapman Place,) was mobbed on
the evening of November 17, 1773, but no serious damage was done. (This
incident is fully detailed on a previous page.) Jonathan Clarke was in
London in the summer of 1773, and received verbal instructions
respecting the consignment of tea from the directors of the East India
Company. Richard Clarke arrived in London December 24, 1775, after a
passage of twenty-one days from Boston. The Clarkes were included in the
Act of Proscription, and their estates were confiscated. Richard Clarke
was a nephew of Governor Hutchinson. His wife, Elizabeth, was the
daughter of Edward Winslow, of Boston. Susan, his daughter, married
Copley, the painter, and became the mother of Lord Lyndhurst. Another
daughter, Mary, married Judge Samuel Barrett. Copley's portrait of
Richard Clarke represents him as a man of commanding presence, with
features resembling, in a remarkable degree, those of Washington, in the
Stuart portrait.

[30] Grey, afterwards Sir Grey Cooper, studied law at the Temple,
London; became an efficient supporter of the Rockingham party, and held
the office of Secretary of the Treasury throughout the American
troubles, covering the administrations of Chatham, Grafton, and North.
He was made a Lord of the Treasury in 1783, a Privy Councillor in 1793,
and died at Worlington, Suffolk, July 30, 1801; aged seventy-five. He
was an able speaker and parliamentarian.

[31] Joshua Winslow, son of Joshua and Elizabeth Savage Winslow, born in
Boston, in 1737, died there in March, 1775, after an illness of only
three days. Joshua, his father, (1694-1769,) third in descent from
Governor Edward, of Plymouth, was the son of Colonel Edward Winslow,
sheriff of Suffolk County. In 1720, he founded a mercantile house in
Boston, in which his brother Isaac (the Tory) was a partner, from 1736
to 1757, and in 1760 admitted his son, Joshua, to a share of the
business, he himself retiring with an ample fortune, in 1767. This firm
carried on an extensive and profitable trade. With the proceeds of
consignments from Bristol, England, vessels were built in Boston, and
loaded with fish for Leghorn, or some other foreign port, return cargoes
being taken for Bristol. They also became considerable shipowners, and
had one ship constantly in the London trade. Their place of business was
on the corner of King and Broad Streets. Joshua Winslow, who was one of
the consignees of the tea, seems to have been present when they were
called upon by the Sons of Liberty, at Clarke's warehouse, but does not
afterwards appear, except by proxy. He must have absented himself from
Boston soon after that occurrence, as he did not go with the other
consignees to the castle. He married Hannah, daughter of Commodore
Joshua Loring, and left her a widow, with one son and four daughters.

[32] Abraham Lott, of New York, was treasurer of that colony, and died
in New York, 1794; aged sixty-eight. In September, 1776, he was ordered
by the Whig Convention to settle his accounts as treasurer, and pay over
the balance to his successor. In August, 1781, some Whigs went in a
whale boat to his residence, robbed him of six hundred pounds, and
carried off two slaves. In 1786, the Legislature of New York passed an
Act, "more effectually to compel Abraham Lott to account for money
received while he was treasurer of the colony, and for which he has not

[33] Colonel John Erving, Jr., a flour merchant, on Kilby Street,
Boston, and a graduate of Harvard College, (1747,) was in 1778,
proscribed and banished, and in 1779 his property was confiscated under
the Conspiracy Act. His mansion, on the west corner of Milk and Federal
Streets, was afterwards the residence of Robert Treat Paine, a signer of
the Declaration of Independence. Prior to the Revolution Irving was
colonel of the Boston regiment. In 1760, he signed the Boston memorial
against the acts of the revenue officials, and was thus one of the
fifty-eight merchants who were the first men in America to array
themselves against the officers of the Crown. But, in 1774, he was an
addressor of Hutchinson, and was appointed a mandamus councillor. In
1776, he fled to Halifax, afterwards went to England, and died at Bath,
in 1816; aged eighty-nine years. His wife, Maria Catherina, youngest
daughter of Governor Shirley, died a few months before him. George
Erving, his brother, also a loyalist, died in London, in 1806; aged

[34] Henry Lloyd, a merchant of Boston, agent of the contractors for
supplying the royal army, was an addressor of Gage, in 1775. In 1776, he
went to Halifax, and was proscribed and banished in 1778. He died in
London, late in 1795, or early in 1796; aged eighty-six. His place of
business was at No. 5 Long Wharf.

[35] Mansell was a South Carolina loyalist, whose estate was
confiscated, in 1782.

[36] The firm of Willing, Morris & Co., established in 1754, was the
most extensive importing house in Philadelphia. They worked actively and
zealously for the non-importation articles of agreement, after the Stamp
Act and the Tea Act were inflicted on this country. Robert Morris
(1733-1806,) was the well-known financier of the Revolution. Thomas
Willing, (1741-1821,) from 1754 to 1807, held successively the offices
of Secretary to the Congress of Delegates, at Albany; mayor of the city
of Philadelphia; Representative in the General Assembly; President of
the Provincial Congress; delegate to the Congress of the Confederation;
President of the first chartered Bank in America, and President of the
first bank of the United States. He was a man whose integrity and
patriotism gained him the esteem and praise of his countrymen. From the
beginning of the Revolutionary war, Willing & Morris were the agents of
Congress for supplying their naval and military stores. To the great
credit and well-known patriotism of this house, the country owed its
extrication from those trying pecuniary embarrassments, so familiar to
the readers of our Revolutionary history.

[37] Hugh and Alexander Wallace, brothers, were merchants, of New York,
and partners in business. Hugh was a member of the Council, and second
President of the Chamber of Commerce. He was arrested as a loyalist, and
confined to the limits of Middletown, Conn., and his estate was
confiscated. At the peace he went to England, and died at Waterford,
Ireland, in 1788.

Alexander, his brother, also a loyalist, whose property was confiscated,
had originally been a member of the committee of correspondence, and
undoubtedly sympathized with the Whigs, but like many others, ultimately
fell off from the great body of his countrymen, and clung to the royal
cause. In August, 1776, he was arrested and confined at Fishkill. At the
peace he went to England, with his brother, and died at Waterford,
Ireland, in the year 1800.

[38] James Hall, captain of the "Dartmouth," the first tea-ship to
arrive in America, was a Boston loyalist, and was consequently
proscribed and banished in 1778.

[39] These two letters following each other so closely, plainly manifest
the anxiety of the Company, in reference to their shipments of tea to

[40] William Kelly is, I suppose, the person referred to in the
following paragraph in Leake's "Life of John Lamb," pp. 75, 76. "A
certain Mr. Kelly, former resident of the city, (New York,) then in
London, and canvassing some one of the Ministerial Boroughs for an
election to Parliament, ridiculed the apprehensions of those who refused
to insure the cargoes of tea from destruction, and declared that if
animosities should rise as high as during the time of the Stamp Act, the
tea might safely be shipped and securely landed. That then the Colony
had an old man to deal with (Colden); but now they would have to contend
with a vigorous military governor, (Tryon,) one who had shown his energy
in putting down insurrectionary movements in North Carolina. The
Committee of Vigilance took note of these offensive declarations, and on
November 5, called a meeting at the Coffee House. The people assembled,
denounced Kelly, and burnt his effigy, and after the representative was
consumed, a gentleman observed that it was matter of regret that the
principal could not be dealt with in the same summary and exemplary

[41] Thomas Wharton was a wealthy and influential merchant of
Philadelphia, and of the sect called Quakers. In the enterprise of
Galloway and Goddard to establish the "Chronicle," a leading newspaper,
he was their partner, and the parties supposed that Franklin, who was a
correspondent of Wharton's, on his return from England, would join them.
In 1777, he was apprehended, and sent prisoner to Virginia, and at a
later period was proscribed as an enemy to his country, and lost his
estate, under the Confiscation Acts of Pennsylvania. His son, Thomas
Wharton, Jr., was a distinguished Whig, and President of Pennsylvania.
In the early part of the Revolution, and indeed until the time when
blood was shed, father and son acted together, and were members of the
same deliberative assemblies and committees.

[42] A portion of this article, which fairly represents the views of the
consignees on the vexed tea question, is as follows:

"The objectors say the tea duty will be a means of supporting the
Parliament of Great Britain in raising money from us. How it can affect
this matter I am utterly at a loss to comprehend. Have not large
quantities of tea for some years past been imported into this Province
from England, both on account of the dealers in tea there and the
merchants here, all which have paid the American duty? How in the name
of common sense does it differ, unless it be in favor of America, for a
New England merchant to have his tea shipped from Great Britain, on his
own account, or receive it on commission from the grocers there, and on
its arrival, paying the customary duty, than if it had been shipped by
the East India Company, who were the original importers? What
consistency is there in making a clamour about this small branch of the
revenue, whilst we silently pass over the articles of sugar, molasses
and rum, from which more than three-fourths of the American revenue has
and always will arise, and when the Act of Parliament imposing duties on
these articles stands on the same footing as that respecting tea, and
the moneys collected from them are applied to the same purposes? Many of
us complain of the Tea Act, not only as it affects our liberties, but as
it affects our purses, by draining us annually of a large sum of money.
But if it be considered that by this step the East India Company have
taken of sending their tea to market themselves at their own cost, and
the saving that is thereby made to the merchants here of commissions,
freight and charges of importing it, which will be equal to the whole
annual tax that has yet been paid, it must silence that complaint." "Z."

[43] Nathaniel Hatch, of Dorchester, graduated at Harvard University, in
1742, and subsequently held the office of Clerk of the Courts. He
accompanied the British troops to Halifax, in 1776; was proscribed and
banished in 1778, and in 1779 was included in the Conspiracy Act, by
which his estate was confiscated. He died in 1780.

[44] The proposition to burn the tea is referred to by Wyeth. See ante
p. LXXI.

[45] This letter, with all its extravagance and exaggeration,
undoubtedly expresses the popular feeling, the public sentiment of the
time. It is easy to see from its style, as well as from the sentiments
it contains, that it could have emanated from none of the popular
leaders. These, however strongly they felt in relation to ministerial
aggression, were, though direct and forcible in their utterances,
invariably discreet and temperate in their tone and language.

[46] Benjamin Faneuil, Jr., was the son of Benjamin, a merchant of
Boston, (born, 1701; died, 1785. [Symbol: dagger]) and a nephew of Peter
Faneuil, to whom Boston is indebted for her "Cradle of Liberty." His
place of business was in Butler's Row, and he resided in the Faneuil
mansion, on Tremont Street. Before the building of Quincy Market and
South Market Street, Butler's Row entered Merchants Row, between Chatham
and State Streets. With the other tea consignees, Faneuil fled to the
Castle, in Boston harbor, November 30, 1773, and being a loyalist, went
to Halifax, when Boston was evacuated, in March, 1776. In the following
spring he was in London, and subsequently resided in Bristol, Eng.,
where he died. His wife was Jane, daughter of Addington Davenport. While
in London, in lodgings in the Strand, almost opposite Somerset House, he
wrote as follows to a friend: "As soon as the Xmas holidays were over,
the tea consignees presented a petition to the Lords of the Treasury,
praying a support until the affairs in America were settled. We are told
we shall be allowed £150 a year. This is a fine affair, and we can by no
means live upon it, but there are such a confounded parcel of us to be
provided for, that I am told no more will be allowed....

When we shall be able to return to Boston I cannot say, but hope and
believe it will not exceed one year, for sooner or later America will be
conquered, that you may depend on."

[47] Henry White was an eminent and wealthy merchant of New York, a
member of the Council, and an original member and finally president, of
the New York Chamber of Commerce. He acted for a time as commissary,
while the royal army occupied that city, and being a pronounced
loyalist, his estate was confiscated. After the peace he went to
England, and died in London, December 23, 1786. Eve, his widow, died in
New York, in 1836, at the great age of ninety-eight. Of his sons, John
Chambers White, became a vice-admiral in the British navy, and Frederick
Van Cortland, became a general in the army.

[48] See p. xxxv., ante.

[49] Isaac Royal, of Medford, died in England, in October, 1781. He was
a representative from Medford to the General Court, and for twenty-two
years a member of the Council. In 1774, he was appointed a Councillor
under the writ of mandamus, but was never sworn into office. Appointed a
brigadier-general in 1761, and the first who bore that title here. He
left the country April 16, 1775; was proscribed in 1778, and his estate
was confiscated. He bequeathed upwards of two thousand acres of land in
Worcester County, Mass., to found the first law professorship of Harvard
University, and his bequests for other purposes were numerous and

[50] William Brattle, F.R.S., lawyer, preacher, physician, soldier and
legislator, son of Rev. William, minister, of Cambridge, died in
Halifax, N.S., in October, 1776; aged seventy-four. He was graduated at
Harvard University, in 1722; was distinguished both for his talents and
eccentricities; was a representative from Cambridge, and many years a
member of the Council; a member of the Stamp Act Congress in 1765; a
major-general of militia, and was a member of every profession, and
eminent in all. For many years he pleased both the Government and the
people, but finally forfeited the good will of the Whigs, and
accompanied the British soldiers to Halifax on the evacuation of Boston,
and died there a few months after his arrival.

[51] Samuel Danforth, son of Rev. John, of Dorchester, died in Boston,
at the house of his son, Dr. Samuel Danforth, 27th October, 1777; aged
about eighty-one. He was graduated at Harvard University, in 1715;
taught school; was a Selectman in 1733-39; representative 1734-38;
member of the Council 1739-1774, and several years its president;
Register of Probate, 1731-45; Judge of Probate, 1745-75; and Judge of
the Court of Common Pleas, 1741-75. At the Revolution he passed out of
office, but was so quiet in his deportment that, though understood to be
a loyalist, he was not disturbed in the possession of his property. He
was distinguished for his love of the natural sciences.

[52] Thomas and Elisha Hutchinson, sons of Governor Hutchinson, were
merchants and partners in business, and consignees of one-third of the
tea shipped to Boston. I have seen no evidence of a pecuniary interest
in this shipment on the part of the Governor, as is asserted by the
historian Bancroft. Their names were given to the East India Company by
a London correspondent, who solicits the consignment for them, without
mentioning their connection with the Governor. Thomas, jr., born in
Boston, in 1740, was a mandamus Councillor and Judge of Probate, and was
proscribed and banished. When the condition of the country became
unpleasantly hostile, he left the mansion house at Milton, and took
shelter in Boston, but left all the furniture, silver plate, &c.,
expecting to be able to pass and repass at pleasure. When Boston was
evacuated, he and his family, and Peter Oliver and family, embarked for
London, in the "Lord Hyde" packet. He settled at Heavitree, near Exeter,
in Devonshire, and died there in 1811. His wife was Sarah Oliver.

Elisha, his brother, born in 1745, graduated at Harvard University, in
1762; was proscribed and banished, and died at Blurton Parsonage,
Trentham, Staffordshire, England, in November, 1824. His wife, Mary,
daughter of Col. George Watson, of Plymouth, Mass., died at Birmingham,
England, in 1803. "Neither of my sons," wrote the Governor, in March,
1774, "have dared to appear in Boston since the latter part of November,
to the total neglect and ruin of their business."

[53] Stephen Greenleaf, sheriff of Suffolk County, was arrested by the
Council of Massachusetts as a loyalist, in April, 1776. He died in
Boston, in 1795; aged ninety-one.

[54] John Singleton Copley, a famous painter, son-in-law of Richard
Clarke, and father of Lord Lyndhurst, was born in Boston, July 3, 1737,
and died in London, September 9, 1813. He was a self-taught artist, and
after painting many portraits in Boston, settled in London in 1775, and
acquired a high reputation.

[55] John Pownall, many years Clerk of the Reports, Secretary of the
Board of Trade (1754-68,) Deputy Secretary of State (1768-76,) and
afterwards a Commissioner of the Board of Customs, a Magistrate and High
Sheriff of Lincolnshire, died in London, July 17, 1795; aged seventy.
His brother, Thomas, Governor of Massachusetts in 1757-60, afterwards,
while a member of Parliament, opposed the American policy of the

[56] William Bull, M.D., Lieutenant-Governor of South Carolina, from
1764 to 1776, was the son of William, who held the same office from 1738
to 1743, and who was the son of Stephen, one of the early settlers of
South Carolina, and Surveyor-General of the Province. William studied
medicine at the University of Leyden, and was the pupil of the
celebrated Boerhaave. He settled in practice in his native Province;
became a member of the Council in 1751, and in 1763 was Speaker of the
Assembly. Faithful to the Crown, he accompanied the British troops to
England, on their departure in 1782, and died in London, July 4, 1791;
aged eighty-one.

[57] John Morris, Comptroller of Customs at Charleston, S.C., was
permitted, in November, 1775, on account of his impaired health, "to
pass and repass to his Island," during the pleasure of the Provincial
Congress, on condition of parole, to keep away from the King's ships. He
went to England, and died there in 1778.

[58] Sampson Salter Blowers, a distinguished lawyer and jurist, a native
of Boston, and a graduate of Harvard College, (1763,) was, in 1778,
proscribed and banished as a loyalist. In 1770, he was associated with
John Adams and Josiah Quincy in behalf of the British soldiers who were
on trial for their agency in the Boston Massacre. He settled in Halifax,
N.S.; became successively Attorney-General and Speaker of the House;
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and a member of the Council,
retiring from public life in 1833. Judge Blowers was born March 22,
1742, and died in Halifax, N.S., October 25, 1842, being over one
hundred years of age. The fact that he never wore an overcoat in his
life, told us on good authority, does not satisfactorily account for his
great longevity.

[59] Captain Bruce was a loyalist of Boston, and as such was proscribed
and banished. A loyalist of the same name was living at Shelburne, N.S.,
about the year 1805.--_Sabine._

[60] Captain Hezekiah Coffin, of Nantucket, married Abigail Colman, and
died in 1779. It is said that he saved from the destruction of his
cargo, tea enough to enable him to purchase a set of silver spoons.

Transcriber's Note:

This text is a compilation of letters written by individuals with varying
degrees of literacy. Spelling and punctuation have been preserved.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Tea Leaves - Being a Collection of Letters and Documents relating to - the shipment of Tea to the American Colonies in the year - 1773, by the East India Tea Company. (With an introduction, - notes, and biographical notices of the Boston Tea Party)" ***

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