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Title: The Brochure Series of Architectural Illustration, Volume 01, No. 06, June 1895 - Renaissance Panels from Perugia
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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THE BROCHURE SERIES

OF ARCHITECTURAL ILLUSTRATION.


VOL. I. JUNE, 1895. No. 6.

RENAISSANCE PANELS FROM PERUGIA.


The carved walnut panels from the choir stalls of the Church of San
Pietro de' Casinense in Perugia, designed by Stefano da Bergamo in 1535,
which are given as illustrations in this number, are excellent examples
of the ornament of the later period of the Italian Renaissance. This
form of ornament was first used in flat painted panels upon pilasters,
such as the well-known work of Raphael in the Loggia of the Vatican,
suggested by the Roman work discovered in his time upon the Palatine. It
was afterwards applied to all sorts of objects where rectangular spaces
were to be decorated. Its characteristics can hardly be better described
than in the following extract from Mr. C. Howard Walker's articles upon
the Study of Decoration in _The Technology Architectural Review_:--

"The motives on the pilasters were of two kinds: the continuous scroll,
starting from a strong base leaf and rising in equal volutes, with
alternating direction to right and to left, and filling the panel. This
motive needed always to be balanced by its opposite, and was
consequently seldom used. It had its prototype in the magnificent scroll
from the Forum of Trajan. The other motive was that usually used, and
capable of infinite variety, that of a central axis, the ornament
diverging from it symmetrically on either side. This motive was borrowed
from colored decorations on the Roman walls. It is a most difficult
class of ornament to handle, as so much depends upon relative
distribution, proportion, and relief of modeling. The motive usually
starts at the bottom and grows continuously to the top, with the base,
whether a mass of leafage, a vase, or other unit of ornament, well
defined and the crowning unit strong and rich. The central axis can be
actual or merely evidenced by the symmetry of the sides, preferably
actual. To prevent an effect of absolute perpendicular division or of
stringiness, this axis, between its base and crown, is divided either by
knots of ornament, concentrated masses, or horizontal motives. In making
these divisions the rules of cadence need to be carefully observed; the
divisions should be made equal in length, or alternate, or in sequence,
and the same method should be observed in the units of ornament marking
the divisions. In most cases there is more ground than ornament, which
always demands that the lines of the ornament should be most carefully
studied, and that the units used as terminals for these lines should be
exactly disposed, in relation to the axis, to each other, and to the
border of the panel. When one considers the number of factors which can
enter into the composition of one of these panels, it can be readily
conceived that their variety is wellnigh infinite; absolute symmetry on
either side of a central axis on which are threaded units of ornament,
and which starts from a mass of detail and terminates in a mass of
detail; systems of radial lines diverging from the central axis and
terminating in centres of ornaments of greater or less size, arranged in
all sorts of groupings; garlands, pendants, and ribbons, vases,
trophies, shields, birds, beasts, and nondescript combinations, foliage,
conventional and natural, forms, human and superhuman, all in varying
scales, all in surfaces undulating, now rising into sharp relief with
clear-cut edges, now sinking and melting into the background; and the
whole so carefully balanced, so exactly distributed, that no portion
should be too strong for another, no detail but should be equally
refined. It is not an easy matter to succeed in a design of such
requirements."

"It is well into the latter part of the fifteenth century before this
pilaster treatment is prevalent. The Quattrocento work contains much
less of it than the Cinquecento. The garlands and trophies, lions' and
bulls' heads, dolphins and griffins, tridents and shells and rosettes,
and numberless familiar forms appear in a new guise; the new forms
being, for the most part, heraldic motives or town arms, such as the
fleur-de-lis of Florence, the Biscione or viper of Milan, and lions
which are rampant, a condition unknown to their classic prototypes.
Shields, though used before, have a new form, and ribbons are developed
into all sorts of knots and waving ends, the loops having the same
cadences in relative size as other decorative compound motives."



[Illustration: XLI. Panel from the Choir Stalls, Church of S. Pietro,
Perugia, Italy.]

[Illustration: XLII. Panel from the Choir Stalls, Church of S. Pietro,
Perugia, Italy.]

[Illustration: XLIII. Panel from the Choir Stalls, Church of S. Pietro,
Perugia, Italy.]

[Illustration: XLIV. Panel from the Choir Stalls, Church of S. Pietro,
Perugia, Italy.]

[Illustration: XLV. Panel from the Choir Stalls, Church of S. Pietro,
Perugia, Italy.]

[Illustration: XLVI. Panels from the Choir Stalls, Church of S. Pietro,
Perugia, Italy.]

[Illustration: XLVII. Panels from the Choir Stalls, Church of S. Pietro,
Perugia, Italy.]


XLI to XLVII.

PANELS FROM THE CHOIR STALLS, CHURCH OF S. PIETRO, PERUGIA, ITALY.

The principles governing the design of these panels so well explained in
the foregoing quotation can all be seen exemplified in the plates. They
are all built upon a central axis, and the proportion and distribution
of the various motives most carefully studied and beautifully carried
out. Although all are shorter than the usual pilaster, the design is
exactly similar to that usually employed for this purpose. Even the
horizontal panels in plates XLVI and XLVII follow precisely the same
rules of design.



[Illustration: XLVIII. Panel from the Chamber of Commerce, Perugia,
Italy.]


XLVIII.

PANEL FROM THE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, PERUGIA, ITALY.

This panel, although from a different building, is so similar in
treatment to the ones in the Church of S. Pietro that it can be classed
with them, and all that has been said of them applies as well to this.



Architectural Schools.


It is not many years since there was but one school in America to which
a young man could go with the expectation of getting instruction in
architecture, or at least where a special course of training was laid
out for this purpose. At present there are six well-equipped
architectural schools connected with as many colleges, each with its own
corps of instructors and each presenting special advantages to students.
In addition to these principal institutions there are a number of others
in which instruction in architecture is given, either independently or
in connection with other courses. To a young man intending to take up
the study of architecture this array of opportunities may not appear in
exactly the light of an embarrassment of riches, but it furnishes a wide
field from which to choose, and it may not be an easy matter to
determine which under the special circumstances connected with each case
presents the greatest advantages. For this reason a general statement of
the main features and practical equipment of the principal schools may
be of service in enabling intending students to choose intelligently
among them.


MASS. INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY.

The oldest, the most thoroughly appointed, and largest architectural
school in the country is the Department of Architecture at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston. It is in charge of
Professor Francis W. Chandler, with a corps of ten professors,
assistants, and special lecturers. The regular course consists of four
years' study. Special students are admitted after satisfying the faculty
by examination or otherwise that they are proficient in the preparatory
studies required and are qualified to pursue to advantage the special
work chosen.

The instruction in this department comprises the study of construction
and materials, the study of building processes, and of professional
practice, as well as that of composition and design, and of the history
of architecture. It is arranged to meet the wants both of those who
commence their professional studies at the beginning, and to some extent
of experienced draughtsmen who desire to make up deficiencies in their
training, or to qualify themselves for undertaking the responsibilities
of practice.

The more strictly professional work begins with the study of the five
orders and their applications, and of architectural history. During each
year there is regular instruction in freehand drawing, the last year
being from life. There is also a special class in pen-and-ink drawing
under Mr. D. A. Gregg. Instruction is given in watercolor drawing by Mr.
Ross Turner. The students are familiarized with the material elements of
their future work by a course in practical construction, illustrated by
lectures, problems, and by visits to buildings. The subject of
specifications and contracts is discussed. Problems in construction of
all kinds are given, to fix in the memory the principles already
learned.

For two and one-half years the students are continually engaged upon
architectural design under the charge of Professor Despradelle and Mr.
S. W. Mead. Each student's work is examined and criticized before the
classes by a jury from the Boston Society of Architects.

The Boston Society of Architects has established two prizes of the value
of fifty dollars each in books for students who at the end of the year
exhibit the best work.

Several thousand photographs, prints, drawings, and casts were
originally collected for the Department by means of a special fund
raised for the purpose. To these collections large additions have been
made, at first mostly by gifts, but later by regular appropriations.
Models and illustrations of architectural detail and materials are
arranged in the rooms of the department. The chief part of the
collection of casts of architectural sculpture and detail belonging to
the department has been deposited in the Museum of Fine Arts, together
with the architectural collection belonging to the museum. The students
of the Department have free access to the museum at all times; as the
building is close at hand no inconvenience results from the change, and
some of the advanced exercises in drawing are held there. The museum of
sanitary and building appliances contains models of plumbing apparatus,
specimens of metal work, tile work, glass work, and wood work, partly
purchased, but mostly deposited with the Department by the
manufacturers. The architectural library contains a large and carefully
selected collection of technical works and the leading periodicals, both
American and foreign. The resources of the Department have been much
enlarged by the erection of a special building devoted entirely to its
uses.

In 1894 a summer school of architecture was held in Salem and Portsmouth
for the study of colonial work. The courtesy of owners of houses built
at this epoch allowed the students to measure and sketch the best work
of this interesting locality, and in the future it is proposed to make
an exhaustive study of colonial architecture.

Both men and women are admitted to all departments of the Institute.
Candidates for admission must be at least seventeen years of age, and
must pass satisfactory examinations in algebra, plane geometry, either
French or German, English, history, and either advanced algebra or solid
geometry. A detailed account of these requirements and the general
conditions of the entrance examinations, which are held the last of June
and middle of September, can be found in the catalogue of the Institute,
which will be sent upon application by the secretary. The tuition fee is
$200.00 a year divided into two payments, $125.00 due in October and
$75.00 due in January.

During a number of years a special course of two years was maintained in
the school, which attracted many students who did not find it possible
to spend the time required for the full course of four years. This
arrangement has now been discontinued and no special provision is at
present made for other than regular students.

The Institute has from the beginning modeled its instruction very
largely upon that of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, and has ranked until the
last few years as the only American school in which a thorough academic
training in architectural design was attempted. Its professors of design
Professor E. Letang, who died in 1892, and Professor D. Despradelle,
both Frenchmen, have devoted their whole time to this branch of
instruction, and have maintained a standard which until recently other
schools have not approached.

Although the graduates from the full four years' course are
comparatively few, no other school can count so many of its former
students in prominent positions in the profession, and the Institute is
deservedly proud of its record in this direction.



The Brochure Series

of Architectural Illustration.

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY

BATES & GUILD,

6 BEACON STREET, BOSTON, MASS.


Subscription Rates per year 50 cents, in advance Special Club Rates for
five subscriptions $2.00

Entered at the Boston Post Office as Second-class Matter.

       *       *       *       *       *

Until the present year no American student of architecture has ever been
honored with the diploma of the Paris Ecole des Beaux-Arts, but on June
14 the degree of the school was conferred on three Americans--Messrs. J.
Van Pelt, J. H. Friedlander, and D. Hale. The first diplomas were
awarded in 1869, before that date there being no official recognition of
the completion of any required course in the school, except the awards
in the various _concours_, all leading up to the Grand Prize of Rome.

There are a number of Americans now in Paris who intend to present
theses for the diploma, and doubtless other awards will follow those
already made. Any present or former student of the school who has
reached the required standard in his work is allowed to submit a thesis
in competition for the diploma.

At the entrance examination of the Ecole this year sixteen American
students of architecture were received. Last year there were but eight,
which up to that time was the largest number recorded.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Chicago Architectural Club has given evidence this year of very
great activity, and its work has been directed in many channels and with
good effect. Its lectures, classes, competitions, smokers, Bohemian
nights, receptions, ladies' nights, expeditions to places of interest,
and finally its exhibition of last month have all been excellently
chosen to instruct, interest, and amuse its members, and incidentally
promote the general cause of architectural education. The long list of
attractions has held the interest of its members without flagging. In
the classwork it has had the services and advice of the best and most
competent men connected with the profession; and in all directions it is
to be congratulated upon the good work done.



Books.


_Æsthetic Principles_: By Henry Rutgers Marshall, M. A. Macmillan & Co.
1895. 201 pages. $1.25.

Probably many readers of THE BROCHURE SERIES have struggled as has the
writer (and possibly some are still in an unsettled state of mind in
consequence) over the abstruseness of the current works upon the
philosophy of art, trying to find some obscure foundation on which to
build for themselves a theory of æsthetics. To such, and to all others
who have any wish to reason connectedly on art matters, Mr. Marshall's
little book will be interesting and instructive reading. It is
remarkably clear and understandable even to a reader with no special
training in metaphysical reasoning, and in point of literary style and
carefully considered use of language it is a genuine treat. Its object
is to explain, in as direct and simple language as possible, the nature
and origin of our ideas of the beautiful, and the logical deduction to
be made from the premises, which will guide us in the practice of the
fine arts, or the production of beauty of some special type.

As Mr. Marshall is an architect, many of his illustrative examples are
drawn from architecture, and the book on this account is especially
interesting to architects.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Rational Building_: Being a translation of the article "Construction"
in the _Dictionnaire Raisonnè de l'Architecture Française_ of M.
Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc. By George Martin Huss, Architect. New
York: Macmillan & Co. 1895. 367 pages. Illustrated. $3.00.

This book, although confined entirely to the consideration of the French
Gothic, will be found of great value to students. Many of our readers
are of course familiar with it in its original form, while others may
have followed the translation as it has appeared from time to time in
the pages of the _American Architect_.

It will be mainly useful from its historical and theoretical bearing, as
all that is here included which is of practical value for application
to modern uses can be found elsewhere in more available shape. The
illustrations form a most important feature in the usefulness of the
book. The remarkable diagrammatic drawings of Viollet-le-Duc are famous
for their clearness and the amount of information which they convey.

The table of contents includes the following headings: Discussion of
General Conditions and Principles; Roman and Romanesque Vaults; Origin
of the Pointed Arch; Development of Principles; Vaults; Materials;
Thirteenth Century Developments; Civil and Military Construction.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Catalogue of the Premiated Drawings of the Department of Architecture,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1895._ Published by the
Architectural Society. Forty-four illustrations.

The work of the Department of Architecture at the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology is without doubt the most fully developed
students' work in architecture now done in this country, and the
drawings shown in this catalogue, giving a selection of the best designs
from the year's work just finished, do credit alike to the system
followed at the school, the fidelity of the instructors, and the
earnestness and talent of the students. The premiated designs in the
competitions of the Society of Beaux-Arts Architects made in the course
of regular school work are reproduced in this catalogue, and also the
first-mentioned designs in the regular monthly problems forming the
drill in design of the school. The program for the latter is given in
each case. These problems make up a graded series of considerable
interest, and are worth careful study and comparison.



Building Exhibit.


The many recent developments in the building arts have rendered it
practically impossible for those not directly connected with them to
keep informed of the latest and most improved methods of construction,
or, in fact, to easily obtain information when desired. To architects,
whose business it is to be familiar with the best and most economical
method of solving any building problem, it is often difficult to find
the information desired, as the field is so wide and the inventions and
improvements multiply so rapidly. To meet the requirements of intending
builders, as well as architects, permanent exhibits of building
materials have been established in several of the principal cities of
the United States, where it is possible to see specimens of the actual
materials, appliances, and latest inventions used in modern
construction. There are such exhibits in Chicago, Philadelphia, New
York, and Brooklyn; and all are proving indispensable in their special
fields.

The Chicago exhibit, known as the Institute of Building Arts, located at
from 63 to 69 Washington Street, is owned and managed directly by the
Illinois Chapter of the American Institute of Architects, and has been
controlled in this way for the past five years.

It was established for the purpose of centralizing information relating
to buildings, and collecting in a permanent exhibition all materials,
appliances, or inventions of a practical or ornamental character. Its
advantages are: First, educational, by placing before the interested
public an aggregation of building intelligence in the form of exhibits
of the actual materials, appliances, and inventions employed in modern
construction. Second, that in the fact of such centralization of
materials, a vast amount of time is saved to the public concerned in
building interests. For those who desire to build, information is not
only gained regarding a large variety of improvements, but obtained in a
minimum quantity of time.

The Institute of Building Arts is free to the visiting public, who are
welcome to all its advantages of information and to the inspection of
the numerous exhibits it contains. It furnishes gratuitously, to any one
who may inquire, information relating to building improvements. It
maintains a series of tests of materials, the results of which may be
obtained by anyone asking for them. Courses of lectures given by skilful
specialists instructive in the many sciences and arts of Architecture
are given under its auspices.

The management of the Institute is strictly impartial as to the merits
of the exhibits, having no financial interest in any sale. The purchaser
has perfect liberty to examine the exhibits and negotiate with any
exhibitor. It is the duty of the management to protect each and every
display from any impositions or trespasses on their several rights, and
to explain to any inquirer the qualities and merits of the material or
invention, as claimed by the exhibitor, but to give no individual
expression of views for or against any exhibit. The examiners are to be
left perfectly free to judge and accept from their own standpoint.

The important work of the Institution has made of it a central point of
great interest to all connected with or interested in architecture and
its kindred arts, and those who are identified with the work will not
fail to be amply repaid for their interest or their labor in its
upbuilding.

It became necessary a year ago to increase the floor space, and nearly
one half as much more space was secured and the rooms are crowded with
beautiful and instructive exhibits. The Illinois Chapter, A. I. A., has
fitted up a fine library and meeting-room in the Institute, which it
throws open to the interested public, who find the many pictures and
books therein a great enjoyment and benefit.

The other exhibits above referred to are strictly commercial in
character, and conducted in the interests of the exhibitors, and
consequently may not command the prestige possessed by the Chicago
Institute. Nevertheless they are important educational factors in their
special localities and are a great convenience to all connected with the
building trades. Every large commercial centre should be thus supplied.
The success of those already established will doubtless lead to the
early establishment of others. Architects and manufacturers both need
only to observe the workings of any of the exhibits which we have
mentioned to be convinced of their great practical value, and each
individual will be enhancing his own interest while contributing to the
success of all the others concerned by lending whatever assistance he
can to this most praiseworthy enterprise.



Notes.


An architect cannot work to the best advantage without the best and most
convenient appliances. It is true that sometimes the cleverest and most
skilful draughtsmen appear least concerned about their instruments and
materials, and often produce work showing wonderful dexterity and
mastery of technique with the most imperfect working materials. But this
is exceptional. After years of study and practice one may be able to
produce with the sharpened end of a match, or with a toothpick, drawings
which it would tax the skill of an ordinary draughtsman to approach with
the best brushes and colors, but it is easy to see that this is no
argument why the latest and most improved methods should not be
employed.

[Illustration]

Most architects still hold to the old-fashioned drawing boards supported
upon trestles, and mostly from the simple inertia of custom. The
improved Morse Universal Drawing Table, which is made in all sizes, with
a single or double support, is conceded to be more convenient and
ship-shape in all respects than the ordinary drawing board, and is only
slightly more expensive in its first cost. The size which is shown in
the accompanying illustration which has a board 30x36 inches, costs only
$15 and is by far the cheapest and best device of its kind that we have
seen. All of these tables are made to fold so as to occupy as little
space as possible when not in use; will revolve or incline at any angle,
and independently of the attachments below. They are built of the best
materials (iron, brass, and wood) and are finely finished. The board can
be made of either polished chestnut or unfinished pine if desired, and
various additional attachments can be had for further convenience.

Architects and draughtsmen will be surprised to find what a saving can
be made in time and trouble by the use of this most essential article of
furniture, as well as the remarkably low price at which it can be
bought.

Many other articles of furniture which are necessary for the proper
equipment of an architect's office are also manufactured by the Morse
Machine Company of Rochester, such as cabinets of various descriptions,
desks, special drawing boards with a steel edge (a _sine qua non_ for
the production of fine, accurate drawings), and special furniture of all
descriptions. Architects will find it greatly to their profit, both in
money and saving of trouble, to take advantage of the experience and
facilities for manufacturing the best goods furnished by this company.

There are very few manufacturers of sanitary goods that keep up with the
Dalton-Ingersoll Company in genuine improvements and novelties. Scarcely
a month passes without something in the way of improvement emanating
from this house; and the remarkable thing is the care and attention
bestowed upon the minutest details, nothing about a sanitary fixture
being considered too insignificant to command their best inventive
genius. Their monthly announcement preceding our frontispiece is worth
watching.

The palatial Jefferson Hotel at Richmond, Va., of which Carrère &
Hastings are the architects, is built of a very fine _white clay_ brick
manufactured by the Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company of Richmond. The
strong point of this particular brick is that it is made of a natural
white clay, and is not subject to the discoloration of some bricks made
by artificially whitening the clay.

The great success of the "Giant" Metal Sash Chain made by the Smith &
Egge Manufacturing Company, has of course led to imitation and
infringement of their patented methods of manufacture. Nothing is saved
by specifying "cheaper" goods, for there really are no cheaper goods
than the best; and when heavy sashes are to be hung "Giant" metal chain
is the proper specification.

The expense of getting up a working model, bronze finish sash lock
mounted on a base, for a paper weight, and sending this free to any
architect who desires one would deter most manufacturers from taking
this method of advertising. But the Ives Lock is such "a good thing"
that it well repays "pushing." The model works so perfectly and is so
simple and durable in construction that its introduction to architects
throughout the country, occupying a prominent place on their desks, is
securing the almost universal specification of the lock. Architects who
haven't one of these paper weights will be well repaid for asking Hobart
B. Ives & Co. of New Haven, Conn., to send them one. In this connection
let us add that this lock secured the medal and highest award at the
Columbian Exposition.



Personal.


Among the Americans who will return from abroad this summer are: Mr.
Walter H. Kilham, the holder of the Rotch Scholarship, who has now been
abroad two years; Mr. F. E. Perkins, who has been abroad three years;
and Mr. W. Atherton,--all of Boston. Messrs. D. Hale, W. W. Knowles,
G. O. Totten, Laflin, and Ramond, of New York, and Mr. A. D. Koch, of
Milwaukee, also return this summer.

Mr. J. Greenleaf Thorp announces his removal to the Constable Building,
111 Fifth Avenue, New York.

In bringing the affairs of the Architect Department of the city of
Boston to a final settlement pending its abolishment on July 1, Mr. Edw.
H. Hoyt has been acting as City Architect Wheelwright's assistant, in
place of Mr. Matthew Sullivan, now abroad, who has most acceptably
filled that position during the whole of Mr. Wheelwright's term of
office. In future the work of the city will be distributed among private
architects.

Mr. Frank E. Wallis has gone into partnership with Frank E. Freeman, and
opened an office on West Twentieth Street, New York City.

Mr. Harold Magonigle, the Rotch scholar who has now been abroad a year,
has during the last few months been doing important work in the way of
measuring and drawing Roman and Renaissance monuments in and near Rome.
Some of his later drawings will presently be published in _The
Architectural Review_.



NOTICE TO ADVERTISERS


  The letter below was written
  after a three months'
  trial advertisement

                                       Rochester, N. Y., July 27, 1895.

     BATES & GUILD,
         6 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass.

     _Dear Sirs_: Yours of the 26th received. In reply will say that we
     desire our advertisement to continue in the Brochure Series, and
     will state that this advertisement has given us better returns than
     any other we are carrying. We think that a magazine similar to
     yours is very much better than a trade journal, because the
     Brochure Series will be preserved, and will therefore be permanent.

     We were tempted recently to put an advertisement in the
     Architectural Review on account of the good results received from
     the Brochure Series. Please send us the bill for our account for
     the first quarter, so that we can have it audited and send you a
     check.

                                Very truly yours,

     Dic. W. F. M.                                   MORSE MACHINE CO.

  The advertisement which
  brought these results
          _is on page XV_

  It costs $72.00 a year





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operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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