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Title: The Brochure Series of Architectural Illustration, Volume 01, No. 11, November, 1895 - The Country Houses of Normandy
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Illustration: LXXXI. Ferme la Vallauine, Normandy.]



VOL. I.   NOVEMBER, 1895.   No. 11.


The houses chosen for illustration in this number are of different
types, of different dates, built for men of different stations in
life, and are constructed of different materials. They are, however,
all in the province of Normandy, in northern France, and they are all
situated outside the towns; further than this it may not be well to go
in attempting to classify them under one head. Like the subjects
chosen for our last issue, they contain many suggestive ideas for
treatment of similar problems in our own country, and for this reason
they deserve special attention.

The tendency among the French has always been strong to build their
houses in compact groups, and detached buildings with free space on
all sides are the exception even in the country. Mr. Louis H. Gibson,
whose book "Beautiful Houses" we have noticed in another column, says
of the French domestic architecture:--

"Excepting the châteaux, the structures of which we have the
completest record are almost entirely buildings fronting directly on
the street or road. In France it is rare indeed that one sees an
isolated building with a free passage around it, as is common in our
American towns and cities. It is not at all uncommon for a farm
building to be constructed within a wall; again, the farmer's house
may be almost flush with the road. Little farm communities, with the
buildings abutting on one another, are very common, because of the
companionship which such association brings. This was not alone true
in the early history of France, but obtains in the construction of
to-day. The small towns, as well as the cities, are almost universally
built very compactly. Thus we may expect to see very few examples of
isolated structures in France."

In this respect it will be seen the taste of the French house builder
differs from ours where open space about a dwelling-house is
considered one of its important attractions. Consequently the examples
here shown should not be considered as typical of French domestic
architecture. The town house is, if anything, the type.

Most of the examples which we have chosen belong to the sixteenth
century or thereabouts. The Manoir d'Ango, of which we gave four views
in last month's issue and of which three more are now shown, was built
about the middle of the sixteenth century, and the _manoir_ at
Archelles was also built about the same time. It was also during this
century that the best and most interesting of the French half-timber
work was done, and although we have no data at hand for determining
the matter, we judge that the two examples here illustrated date from
about this time. The construction in these buildings is doubtless the
same as that commonly used in others of this character--a strong
framework of timber filled in with brick masonry and then plastered.
Many of the town houses built in this way were very elaborate and were
adorned with exquisite carved wood ornament. In Verdier and Cattois'
"Architecture Civile et Domestique" may be found numerous examples,
and in a future number of THE BROCHURE SERIES we shall give place to
some of the most attractive.

[Illustration: LXXXII. Manoir at Archelles, Normandy.]

One consideration has influenced the selection of some of the subjects
included in the illustrations of this number which has not before been
mentioned, and it is not necessary to dwell upon it now. It has been
our experience that architectural students are constantly looking
about for appropriate subjects for sketching, and some are so
fastidious that they find very few satisfactory ones. We commend the
views here given, and also those in the last issue, as excellent and
appropriate subjects for treatment either in water-color, pen-and-ink,
or pencil. Next to working directly from nature, it would be hard to
find better practice than can be had by translating these photographic
views into drawings.



With the resources at our command we are unable to further identify
this house than the above title indicates. In fact, it tells its own
story. Judging by analogy, it probably dates from the sixteenth
century. Nothing could well be more picturesque.



Archelles is a small village near Arques, and its principal attraction
is this beautiful _manoir_ with a garden at its back, and surrounded
by fine trees. It dates from the sixteenth century and is built of
brick decorated in a sort of mosaic inlaid with a light colored stone.
The old walls overgrown with vines are especially attractive.



The form and proportions of this old porch are so good that in spite
of the rough and meagre detail it has an irresistible charm.



Ste. Andresse is a small community on the coast of Normandy a few
miles north-west of Havre.



This _manoir_ has already been referred to in the preceding number,
where four other views are given.

Architectural Schools.


In the series of articles in which we have undertaken to give an idea
of the scope of the courses of architectural study offered by the
various schools of the country, we can hardly do better, in referring
to Columbia College, than quote from a paper in which Professor
William R. Ware describes the methods used for the teaching of the
history of architecture at Columbia. Our extracts are made from a
portion of the paper printed in _The American Architect_ for November
30, 1895.

These four exercises, the Lectures on History and Ornament, with the
study of English, French, and German text-books, the Historical
Research, the Historical Drawing, and the Historical Design, occupy a
chief part of the student's time during the first three years of the
course. At the end of the third year the stated instruction by
recitations and the lectures is virtually finished, the fourth year
being, by an arrangement which is perhaps a novelty in places of
learning, quite free from lectures or recitations. The men give their
whole time by day to problems in design, to what may be called
"_atelier_ work," without interruption. Their evenings, throughout the
whole year, are devoted to historical study. As the college library,
including the Avery library, as well as the books and photographs
belonging to the Department of Architecture, is accessible every
evening until eleven o'clock, and the Metropolitan Museum is open
twice a week until ten, every facility is afforded for the prosecution
of this work. In order to make the most of these appliances, every
student of the Fourth-year class and all the special students (who are
of similar grade, being received only in advanced standing) prepares
once a month, under the name of Advanced Architectural History, an
original paper. This he illustrates by drawings and reads to the
class. All this affords an almost unexampled opportunity for serious

We exhibit to the students the architecture of the past as a series of
problems just as it appeared to the builders of its own day, and we
hope thus not only to give them a clearer insight into the real spirit
and character of the masterpieces that have come down to us, by
bringing to view the ideas and considerations which really influenced
their designers, but at the same time to exercise our own young men in
the practical application of those same ideas. We hope thus to develop
in them the same good sense and good taste, the same readiness of
invention and happy ingenuity, to which these masterpieces are due.

[Illustration: LXXXIII. Manoir at Archelles, Normandy.]

The exercises themselves may be described as a species of design by
description or by dictation. The attempt is made, by indicating the
conditions under which a given piece of work was executed, to present
to the student the same problem that the workman of old was called
upon to solve. The student can then compare his own solution of it
with the one that has come down to him, thus receiving correction and
guidance in his work from the hand of the master. It is plain that the
special excellencies of the original monument are likely to reveal
themselves with fresh distinctness, and to find special sympathy and
appreciation in the mind of one who has striven, however
unsuccessfully, to solve the same problem.

An example or two taken from widely different fields will suffice to
illustrate this. In studying vaulting, we once got so far as to
understand how oblong vaults were thrown across a nave, while square
vaults covered the aisles. A class of fifteen or twenty students were
then asked to find out how a semi-circular or polygonal apse could be
added to a choir roofed on this system. In the course of a couple of
hours' figuring I found that they had worked out among them all the
five solutions of this problem, which in the Middle Ages it took one
or two hundred years to develop. This was very encouraging. At another
time they were given a somewhat minute description of four pilaster
capitals from Blois or Chambord, and they made thumb-nail sketches on
the spot, according to their interpretation of the description. The
next day photographs and drawings of a dozen or twenty other such
capitals were given them, so that they might understand the fashion of
the time, and they were told to draw out their sketches on a larger
scale. The result was fifteen or twenty sets of capitals, all showing
the same four motives, but differing in a most interesting way,
according to the personal differences of taste and skill on the part
of the designers.

On another occasion the First-year class, after their studies in
Egyptian and Assyrian architecture, made a dozen or twenty
restorations of Solomon's Temple, according to the description in the
Book of Kings. The drawings they produced showed considerable
fertility of invention, especially in the designs for Jachin and Boaz,
and the whole series together seemed to be quite as creditable and as
reasonable as most of those which have from time to time been put
forth by the learned.

This practice in historical design we believe to be founded on sound
theoretical principles. To regard a work of art as far as possible
from the point-of-view of the artist is, indeed, the first principle
of fair and intelligent criticism. To foster the individuality and
personal initiative of a pupil by bringing authority to bear upon him
in a way of correction at the end of his task, and guidance and
suggestion at the beginning, rather than control during the course of
the work, is the first principle of intelligent teaching. Moreover,
the results, so far as we have gone, have justified the method. We
have, indeed, employed it hitherto mainly as a matter of experiment
when favorable circumstances have suggested it. But every year we use
it to a greater and greater extent, and it is gradually acquiring a
recognized place as an integral portion of our work.

(_To be continued_.)


Of the many fortunate ones who have come back to a winter of work
after a summer abroad are Messrs. Claude F. Bragdon, Charles M.
Sutton, and Howard Hatton, of Rochester. Messrs. Sutton and Hatton are
now with J. Foster Warner. Mr. Bragdon has temporarily opened an
office at 60 Trust Building, but will have offices in the new Cutler
Building when completed.

Mr. Wilson Eyre, Jr., of Philadelphia, has just finished designing a
second formal garden, which is said to be delightfully un-American;
and Mr. Frank Miles Day's Horticultural Hall is nearly ready to
receive the mural coloring and allegorical painting which Mr. Joseph
Lindon Smith is to execute. The latter will be a conspicuous departure
from ordinarily accepted models.

[Illustration: LXXXIV. Porch of Church at Beuvreil, Normandy.]

The Brochure Series
of Architectural Illustration.


       *       *       *       *       *

Subscription Rates per year ... 50 cents, in advance.
Special Club Rates for five subscriptions ... $2.00.

       *       *       *       *       *

Entered at the Boston Post Office as Second-class Matter.


Back numbers of THE BROCHURE SERIES _are not_ kept in stock. All
subscriptions will be dated from the time received and subscribers who
wish for the current numbers must place their subscriptions at once.

A hundred photographs are published in twelve issues of THE BROCHURE
SERIES. You may get some duplicates, but the new ones will be well
worth a subscription at fifty cents. _This is addressed to

       *       *       *       *       *

We have repeatedly called attention in this column to the question of
perennial importance to us--that of subscriptions. We have no apology
to offer for this insistence upon the publisher's business, for it
concerns every one who has any interest in the undertaking, in so far
as the support received in this quarter will make it either possible
or impossible, as the case maybe, to add to the attractions of the
magazine as conducted at present.

We have every reason to feel satisfied with the support thus far
accorded us, for our subscription list is now much larger than we
expected it would be at this time, but this is only a beginning. In
the advertising pages of this number will be found an announcement
which, we trust, will appeal to a large number of our present
subscribers who already know our work. In most cases it is only
necessary to show the magazine and state the price to at once secure a
subscriber. Try it and see; enter the prize competition, and help
yourself by helping us.

In the September issue we took occasion to notice the mural decoration
and color treatment of the staircase hall of the new Public Library
Building in Boston. Those who would judge for themselves of the merits
of our conclusions must see the building; but it is not necessary to
go to Boston in order to realize that here we have a remarkably
beautiful structure, and many of its features can be fully enjoyed and
appreciated in photographic views. In another column will be found a
notice of a very attractive and unusually satisfactory handbook of the
library, with numerous illustrations from the photographs of Mr. E.E.
Soderholtz. Further than this, we wish to call particular attention to
the set of photographs which is advertised on the front cover of this
number. As a photographer of architectural subjects Mr. Soderholtz
certainly has no superior in this country, and in this collection the
subjects and manner of presentation are equally worthy of the highest

Wanted Draughtsmen's Addresses.

We intend issuing, the coming year, a number of interestingly
illustrated announcements of new architectural publications and
importations. We want to send these to every architectural student and
draughtsman in the United States and Canada. If you are not on our
subscription list, send us your _residence_ address for our circular
mailing list. Address a postal card as below, putting simply your
address on the back. If you are in an office, have the other fellows
put their residence addresses on the same card. We prefer to address
mail matter to your residence, as there is less danger of miscarriage.
Do not get the idea that by sending your address you are ordering
something you will be asked to pay for. All the expense, except the
postal card, is on our side. If we can't get out announcements
interesting enough to attract your attention and occasionally secure
an order, it will be our loss. Address:--

  Bates & Guild,
    6 Beacon Street,
      Boston, Mass.

_For Circular List_.

[Illustration: LXXXV. Manoir de Vitanval, Ste. Andresse, Normandy.]

Brochure Series Competition No. 2.

The first lot of drawings in the competition for a design for the
advertising page of The Boynton Furnace Co., in THE BROCHURE SERIES,
was due on December 10, and eleven designs were received.

The judges have awarded the prize to Mr. Edwin R. Clark of Lowell,
Mass., and his design appears in this issue as the advertisement of
the Boynton Furnace Co., on page xi. The reasons for the award may be
a guide to others engaged in similar work, and consequently we
reproduce several of the other designs for comparison with Mr.

It must be remembered that the first consideration in this problem is
the effectiveness as advertising matter of the design submitted--its
artistic merits, although important, are distinctly secondary to this
quality. The medium in which it is to be used and the clientage to
which it is intended to appeal must also be constantly borne in mind.

[Illustration: Design by Edwin R. Clark.]

Mr. Clark submitted three drawings, a second one of which is given
herewith. The first is superior in giving a more positive effect to
the page and in being a more unusual treatment than the second.
Although both are drawn with skill and are admirable in technique, the
type of design and ornament used in the second have come into such
common use that if for no other reason than this the first would be

[Illustration: Design by W.B. Olmsted.]

As decorative treatment Mr. Olmsted's design is in many respects the
most masterly of the lot, and if the personal choice of the judges had
been the only consideration upon which the award was to be made, this
would have been placed first, for it is remarkable for careful and
intelligent arrangement, subtle balancing and proportion of parts, and
especially for what may be called the decorative sense by which just
the right relation of black to white is preserved. It is seldom that
any but the most accomplished designers succeed in obtaining this just
proportion, which gives a sparkle to the design such as is seen in the
best of the Japanese stencil patterns used on printed stuffs. The
clever use of motives connected with the business advertised and the
idea of presenting the Boynton apparatus in attractive form and other
heaters thrown about in confusion is commendable. The only reason for
passing over this design in the award is the advertising value of the
attractive appearance of some of the more ornate designs.

[Illustration: LXXXVI. Manoir d'Ango, Normandy.]

One other drawing, that of Mr. Brown, deserves particular notice for
its intrinsic excellence. It is especially praiseworthy for its grace
of line and general arrangement. The figure is well placed and,
although faulty in drawing, is particularly effective in treatment. It
is essentially a poster design, but none the less appropriate for the
present purpose on this account. It lacks only in those qualities of
draughtsmanship which come with practice and experience.

[Illustration: Design by F. Chouteau Brown.]

The remaining drawing which we illustrate is a very interesting
although not especially forcible treatment of the class of ornament
adopted by Mr. Louis H. Sullivan, and in his hands having a wonderful
charm, but seldom used with entire success by others.

The result in this first series of designs is especially satisfactory
in the intelligence shown in grasping the essentials of the problem.
All of the remaining six drawings have points of excellence to commend
them, and if we had space to reproduce them would prove instructive in
showing the diversity of treatment possible while fully meeting the
conditions imposed.


_Beautiful Houses_. A study in house building.
     By Louis H. Gibson. Illustrated. Boston T.Y. Crowell & Co. 1895.
     pp. 346. $3.

This book is in many respects very attractive, and will be found
useful to architectural readers as well as to the general public.

It is divided into two parts, the first under the heading "The World's
Houses" and the second, "Some House Plans" and "Materials and

The first part is that which will be of most value to the
architectural reader. In it are described the principal types of
domestic architecture, giving most prominence to the work of France.
The illustrations of this portion of the work are well chosen and very
well printed. In fact, to the architect they form the most valuable
part of the book. The second part is devoted mainly to Mr. Gibson's
own designs. These are mostly good, straightforward work, although we
can hardly agree with all of his opinions. His use of language is not
always discriminating and is sometimes misleading.

[Illustration: Design by Chas. F. Hogeboom, Jr.]

To the general reader there will be much of interest in all portions
of the book, especially if he contemplates building a house. And in
this case we sincerely trust that its perusal will result in another
commission for some fortunate architect.

[Illustration: LXXXVII. Manoir d'Ango, Normandy.]

_Handbook of the New Public Library in Boston._ Compiled by
     Herbert Small. Fully illustrated. Boston, 1895. Curtis & Co.
     78 pp. 16c.

The unusual interest which has been aroused in architectural circles
by the new building for the Boston Public Library is the reason for
devoting special attention to this little book in these columns.
Although intended for general readers, it has a very instructive
article by Mr. C. Howard Walker considering the building
architecturally, which will interest architectural readers. The
illustrations, made from photographs by E.E. Soderholtz, are excellent
and numerous, and the cover, printed in green and black, from the
design of B.G. Goodhue, is an additional attraction. On the whole,
even after so much in the way of illustration of this building has
been already published, it is worth the while of any architect or
draughtsman to send for this little pamphlet.

Club Notes.

The Chicago Architectural Club is keeping its members guessing to know
what scheme of work or entertainment will come next on its programme.

The annual meeting for election of officers was held October 7.
Several of the regular monthly competitions and an informal exhibition
have already come and gone, and a "Bohemian Night" with all its
accompaniments comes every fortnight.

The following classes have been arranged for some time ago: Water
Color, under Hugh M.G. Garden; Architecture, under George R. Dean; Pen
and Ink, under Charles E. Birge; Modeling, under Richard W. Bock.

A talk on "The Impecunious Draughtsman Abroad" was given by Mr. Myron
H. Hunt, and Mr. George R. Dean has given a lantern-slide exhibition,
illustrating the Château de Blois.

The club also held a joint meeting with the Chicago Society of
Artists, when Mr. N.S. Patton discussed the question of "The
Architectural and Artistic Possibilities of the Lake Front."

The annual banquet and meeting of the Cleveland Architectural Club was
held at the Hollenden Hotel Thursday evening, November 14, with about
forty present. Dinner was served at six o'clock, followed by toasts
from Messrs. John L. Culley, F.A. Coburn, and Charles W. Hopkinson,
with President Hubbell as toastmaster.

After the speaking the annual meeting was held, with an address by the
president, reports by the secretary, treasurer, librarian, chairman of
the Current Work Committee, and the chairman of the Entertainment and
House Committee.

The club has grown from a charter membership one year ago of fourteen
to a total membership of forty-five.

The newly elected officers are: President, Benjamin S. Hubbell;
Vice-President, Frederick Baird; Secretary, Herbert B. Briggs;
Treasurer, Albert E. Skeel; Librarian, G.B. Bohm; Directors, M. James
Bowman and C.S. Schneider.

A joint exhibition of the Cleveland Architectural Club and the
Cleveland Art Association will be held in the Garfield Building, from
January 20 to February 5, 1896. Works will be received until Monday,
January 6. The exhibition will include: Architectural sketches,
perspectives, and elevations in all renderings; photographs of
executed work; landscape architecture; interior architecture and
decoration; interior furnishings (samples and sketches); architectural
and decorative metal work (wrought iron, bronze, and brass); sculpture
(architectural and ornamental).

An illustrated catalogue will be issued.

All drawings must be framed or mounted.

A Good Endorsement.

The following letter from the office of Richard M. Hunt is of interest
to all users of shingle stains:--

     Dexter Bros., Boston:

     _Gentlemen_,--The shingle stains we have used on some of the
     buildings of Biltmore Village, N.C., furnished by you, have
     given absolute satisfaction as to quality and color. We
     consider your stains the best we have used so far.

                 Yours respectfully,
     (Signed)                 R.H. HUNT.

[Illustration: LXXXVII. Manoir d'Ango. Normandy.]

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