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Title: Somerset
Author: Wade, G. W., 1858-1941, Wade, J. H.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Somerset" ***

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[Illustration: A MAP OF THE RAILWAYS OF SOMERSET]

[Illustration: THE PINNACLES, CHEDDAR]



SOMERSET


By

G.W. WADE, D.D.
and
J.H. WADE, M.A.


_With Thirty-two Illustrations and Two Maps_


"Upon smooth Quantock's airy ridge we roved."


London
Methuen & Co
36 Essex St. Strand


[Illustration: Hand drawn Routes of the Somerset & Dorset Railway]



PREFACE


The general scheme of this Guide is determined by that of the series of
which it forms part. But a number of volumes by different writers are
never likely to be quite uniform in character, even though planned on
the same lines; and it seems desirable to explain shortly the aim we
have had in view in writing our own little book. In our accounts of
places of interest we have subordinated the historical to the
descriptive element; and whilst we have related pretty fully in the
Introduction the events of national importance which have taken place
within the county, we have not devoted much space to family histories.
We have made it our chief purpose to help our readers to see for
themselves what is best worth seeing. If, in carrying out our design,
we appear to have treated inadequately many interesting country seats,
our excuse must be that such are naturally not very accessible to the
ordinary tourist, whose needs we have sought to supply. And if churches
and church architecture seem to receive undue attention, it may be
pleaded that Somerset is particularly rich in ecclesiastical buildings,
and affords excellent opportunities for the pursuit of a fascinating
study.

In the production of our book we have used freely such sources of
information as circumstances have enabled us to consult; and in this
connection we wish to make specific acknowledgment of our indebtedness
to C.R.B. Barrett's "Somersetshire," the Rev. W.H.P. Greswell's "Land
of Quantock," and the "Proceedings of the Somerset Archaeological and
Natural History Society." We have likewise profited by the kindness of
several friends and correspondents, amongst whom we desire to mention
the late R.P. Brereton, Dr F.H. Allen, Mr F.R. Heath, the Rev. C.W.
Whistler, the Rev. E.H. Bates, and the Rev. J.S. Hill, B.D. (the last
especially in regard to the origin of certain place-names). But our
descriptions are, for the most part, based upon notes taken on the
spot. Almost all the localities that are included in the alphabetical
list have been visited by one or other of us: those of any interest,
which from various causes we have failed to reach, can (we believe) be
counted upon the fingers. We cannot expect our work to be wholly free
from errors and omissions, but we have done our best to make it
accurate and to render it as complete as the size of the volume allows.

G.W.W.

J.H.W.



CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION:--

I.    SITUATION AND EXTENT

II.   CLIMATE

III.  COMMUNICATIONS

IV.   PHYSICAL FEATURES AND GEOLOGY

V.    FAUNA AND FLORA

VI.   HISTORY

VII.  ANTIQUITIES

VIII. INDUSTRIES

IX.   CELEBRITIES

DESCRIPTION OF PLACES ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY

APPENDIX

INDEX OF PERSONS



SOMERSET

TARR STEPS, EXMOOR
(_From a Photograph by Messrs Valentine, Dundee_)

MARKET PLACE, FROME
(_From a Photograph by Messrs Valentine, Dundee_)

ST JOSEPH'S CHAPEL, GLASTONBURY
(_From a Photograph by Mr Walter Raymond_)

GLASTONBURY TOR
(_From a Photograph by Messrs Frith, Reigate_)

ALFOXDEN HOUSE, NEAR HOLFORD
(_From a Photograph by Messrs Frith, Reigate_)

HORNER WOODS AND PORLOCK VALE
(_From a Photograph by Messrs Frith, Reigate_)

THE HANGING CHAPEL, LANGPORT
(_From a Photograph by Messrs Frith, Reigate_)

LUCCOMBE VILLAGE
(_From a Photograph by Messrs Frith, Reigate_)

MELLS VILLAGE
(_From a Photograph by Messrs Valentine, Dundee_)

MINEHEAD
(_From a Photograph by Messrs Frith, Reigate_)

MONTACUTE HOUSE
(_From a Photograph by Messrs Frith, Reigate_)

THE GEORGE INN, NORTON ST PHILIP
(_From a Photograph by Messrs Valentine, Dundee_)



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


NUNNEY CASTLE AND VILLAGE
(_From a Photograph by Messrs Valentine, Dundee_)

OLD BANK, PORLOCK
(_From a Photograph by Messrs Valentine, Dundee_)

ALLERFORD
(_From a Photograph by Messrs Frith, Reigate_)

SHEPTON MALLET CROSS
(_From a Photograph by Mr Walter Raymond_)

NETHER STOWEY
(_From a Photograph by Messrs Frith, Reigate_)

TAUNTON FROM THE RIVER
(_From a Photograph by Messrs Valentine, Dundee_)

WELLS CATHEDRAL
(_From a Photograph by Messrs Frith, Reigate_)

VICARS' CLOSE, WELLS
(_From a Photograph by Messrs Frith, Reigate_)

THE PALACE GATEWAY, WELLS
(_From a Photograph by Messrs Valentine, Dundee_)

WESTON-SUPER-MARE
(_From a Photograph by Messrs Valentine, Dundee_)

NINE SPRINGS, YEOVIL
(_From a Photograph by Messrs Valentine, Dundee_)

MAP OF SOMERSET



INTRODUCTION

I. SITUATION AND EXTENT


SOMERSET is one of the S.W. counties of England. On the N. it is washed
by the Bristol Channel; on the N.E. the Avon, like a silver streak,
divides it from Gloucestershire; it is bordered on the E. by Wiltshire;
its S.E. neighbour is Dorset; and on the S.W. it touches Devon. Its
shape is so irregular that dimensions give a misleading indication of
its extent. Its extreme length is about 60 m., and its greatest width
38; but it narrows so rapidly westwards that where it abuts on Devon
its average width is only 15 m. In point of size it stands seventh on
the list of English counties, having an area of over a million acres,
or 1633 square m. It lies between 2° 10' and 3° 50' W. longitude, and
50° 50' and 51° 30' N. latitude. Its population in 1901 was 508,104. It
is one of the few counties which was originally the settlement of a
single tribe, the Somersaetas, from whom it takes its name; and the
fact that "Somerset" (like Dorset) is thus a tribal name is in favour
of its dispensing with the suffix _shire_, though "Somersetshire" has
been in common use since the time of the "Saxon Chronicle."



II. CLIMATE


The climate is mild and equable, though from its diversified surface
the county experiences some varieties of temperature. The seaboard is
warm, but its considerable southward trend gives it a good Atlantic
frontage, which prevents it from being relaxing. Weston is said to be
ten degrees warmer than London. The breezes on the uplands are bracing
but never searching. The Mendips have been considered a suitable site
for a consumptive sanatorium. The central flats are damp. They lie so
low that in places the coast has to be protected by sea walls, and the
prevalence of large "rhines" or drains makes for humidity. The
sheltered vale of Taunton Dean (for the term cp. _Hawthorndean,
Rottingdean_) is warm and sunny. The rainfall is abundant, but, except
in the neighbourhood of Exmoor, cannot be said to be excessive.



III. COMMUNICATIONS


_Roads_.--Everywhere highways and byways are numerous, and some
districts are prodigally supplied with footpaths. With the exception of
Exmoor, which is best explored on foot, even the remotest parts are
accessible to the wheelman. But the cyclist will find the travelling
somewhat unequal. Like the curate's fabled egg, the roads are best
described as "good in parts." Amongst the hills they are firm but
arduous, in the plains easy but soft. The main thoroughfares, however,
can be recommended both for breadth and surface.

_Railways_.--The Somerset railway system is extensive. The G.W.R. (the
chief service of the county) unites Bath with Bristol, and throwing
itself round the N.W. extremity of the Mendips, runs down an almost
ideal track to Taunton and Wellington. A loop from Worle to Uphill
serves Weston-super-Mare, whilst short branches, one from Bristol and a
second from Yatton, afford communication with Portishead and Clevedon.
Another section skirts the E. side of the county from Frome to Yeovil,
and by taking a short cross-country cut from Castle Cary to Langport
unites again with the trunk line near Taunton. From Taunton branches
radiate to Minehead, Dulverton, Chard, and Yeovil. A branch line again
connects Bristol with Frome, and access is obtained to Wells and
Cheddar by a line from Yatton, skirting the W. base of the Mendips as
far as Witham. The S. & D. constitutes a link between the Midland on
the N. and the L. & S.W. on the S. It boldly attacks the Mendips from
Bath, and after clambering over the summit at Masbury, drops down
suddenly to Evercreech, from which point it diverges either westwards
to Burnham (with branches to Wells and Bridgewater), or southwards to
Templecombe. A light railway serves the Wrington Vale, and another
connects Weston with Clevedon.



IV. PHYSICAL FEATURES AND GEOLOGY


There is a prevalent belief that the picturesque part of the West of
England begins with Devon and ends with Cornwall, to which Somerset
is merely a stepping-stone. This opinion is no doubt fostered by the
impression which the tourist derives of the county through the carriage
windows of the "Cornishman." But the considerations that appeal to
the railway engineer are mechanical rather than aesthetic; and,
unfortunately for the reputation of Somerset for scenery, the line of
least resistance is the line of least interest--the dead level skirting
the coast between Bristol and Taunton. As a matter of fact, there are
few districts which afford such a variety of physical features as
Somerset. Hill and valley, cliff and chasm, moor and seaboard, are all
to be found there; and, in addition to its wealth of scenery, Somerset
is rich in antiquities of different kinds; whilst it has also been the
theatre of some of the most stirring events in English history.

The physical skeleton of the county may be roughly described as
consisting of three parallel ranges of hills running transversely
across it--the Mendips and their outliers in the N.E., the
insignificant Poldens in the centre, and the Quantocks and Exmoor in
the W., with the Blackdowns occupying the S.W. corner. The intervening
basins are filled with a rich alluvial deposit washed down from the
hills or left by the receding sea. The _Mendips_ spread themselves
across the E. end of the county in a N.W. direction from Frome to
Weston-super-Mare, where they lose themselves in the Channel, to
re-appear as the islets of the Steep and Flat Holms. On their S.W. side
they descend into the plain with considerable abruptness; and when
viewed from the lower parts of the county, present a hard sky-line,
like some enormous earthwork. On the opposite side their aspect in
general is far less impressive, and towards Bath they lose themselves
in a confusion of elevations and declivities. The main ridge is an
extended tableland, some 25 m. long, and in places 3 m. broad. It rises
to its greatest heights at Blackdown (1067 ft.) and Masbury (958).
Geologically, it consists of mountain limestone superimposed on old red
sandstone, which here and there comes to the surface. Near Downhead
there is an isolated outburst of igneous rock. The Mendips are
honeycombed with caverns, the most notable being at Banwell, Harptree,
and Burrington; and a large one has been recently discovered some 4 m.
from Wells. At Cheddar their W. edge is broken by a remarkable gorge,
in the sides of which caves also occur. The level of the tableland is
indented with "swallet holes," the chief of which are the East Water
Swallet and the Devil's Punch-Bowl. The _Quantocks_ are much less
extensive, though their highest summits rise to a greater altitude.
Like the Mendips, they turn their steepest flank westwards, the ascent
on the E. being gradual; and on this side they are cut by a number of
well-timbered and delightful combes. Few caves have been discovered in
them, though there is one at Holwell near Asholt. W. of the Quantocks
are the _Brendons_ and the highlands of _Exmoor_, the latter extending
into Devon, though their highest point, Dunkery Beacon, is included in
Somerset. Dunkery is 1707 ft. above the sea-level; and other
conspicuous hills in this district are Lucott Hill (1516), Elworthy
Barrow (1280), Selworthy Beacon (1014), and Grabbist Hill. The
Quantocks, Brendons, and Exmoor consist of older rocks than the
Mendips, belonging as they do to the Devonshire series of old red
sandstones. Bordering the Brendons are found the red marls of the
Permian series; whilst between Dunster and Williton, and along the base
of the Quantocks, in the neighbourhood of Taunton Dean, as well as in
some other localities, Keuper and Rhaetic beds occur. The _Blackdowns_
in the S.W. are not quite so elevated as their neighbours; near
Otterford and Chard they consist of greensand, whilst chalk appears at
Combe St Nicholas and Cricket St Thomas. The centre of the county is
alluvial, and beneath it the limestone of the Mendips sinks, coming to
the surface again in the W. only at a single spot, near Cannington. Out
of this central plain rise several isolated, cone-like hills, the most
notable being Glastonbury Tor and Brent Knoll. These belong to the lias
and lower oolite rocks. The _Poldens_ consist of lias; and the same
formation constitutes the rising ground that bounds the plain on the S.
and E. of the county. The southern side of the Poldens is edged with
Rhaetic beds, which also extend to High Ham. Oolite rocks occur
abundantly near Bath, furnishing the famous Bath building-stone; and
they likewise form the prominent eminence of Dundry. Near Frome they
rest upon the mountain limestone. The same series of rocks occupies the
S.E. corner of the county, extending from Milborne Port to Bruton. On
the E. they are flanked with the Oxford clay, which reaches from
Henstridge to Witham Friary, whilst a ridge of higher ground near
Penselwood consists of greensand. Near Radstock coal is found.

The Somerset sea-coast, though destitute of ruggedness and grandeur,
possesses undeniable charm, at least at its W. and E. extremities; but
it lapses into unquestioned tameness where the sea washes the central
flats. The waters of the Bristol Channel as far down as Minehead are
discoloured; and, with the exception of a range of low cliffs near St
Andries and Watchet and a stony foreshore at Clevedon, there are no
rocks worth mentioning. Brean Down and the North Hill near Minehead are
the only headlands, but notwithstanding this, the watering places of
Somerset are breezy and healthy. Weston-super-Mare in particular has a
high reputation for salubrity, and has long been one of the most
popular seaside resorts in England.

Somerset is peculiarly deficient in large rivers, for the Avon can
hardly be included amongst its belongings, since it is the dividing
line between the county and Gloucestershire. The Parrett is the one
stream of any moment. It is a sluggish and uninteresting bit of water,
rising in Dorset, entering Somerset near Crewkerne, and flowing, when
it meets the tide near Bridgwater, with a wearisomely circuitous course
of some 12 m. before it mixes with the Bristol Channel. The other
rivers, the Frome and Chew, which join the Avon; the Axe, which rises
in Wookey Hole and enters the sea near Brean Down; the Brue and Cary,
which empty themselves into the estuary of the Parrett; and the
Parrett's own tributaries, the Yeo, Ivel, and Tone, are unimportant.
Exmoor is drained by the Exe and Barle, which, when united, flow
southward into Devon.

Such, however, is the character of Somerset scenery that the absence of
water in it is hardly noticed. From what has been said it will be seen
that the county has much in it to arrest the attention of the traveller
who can appreciate quiet beauty, and, as will appear, even more to
appeal to one who is interested in his country's-past, whilst upon the
affection of its sons its hold is indisputable. As one of them
writes:--

  "Fair winds, free way, for youth the rover;
    We all must share the curse of Cain:
  But bring me back when youth is over
    To the old crooked shire again.

  Ay, bring me back in life's declining
    To the one home that's home for me,
  Where in the west the sunset shining
    Goes down into the Severn sea."



V. FAUNA AND FLORA


The really interesting _fauna_ of Somerset belongs to a past age, when
mammoths, elephants, and rhinoceroses, cave lions, bisons, bears, and
hyaenas roamed over its surface. Their remains have been found in the
caverns of Hutton, Bleadon, Banwell, and Wookey, and are preserved in
Taunton Museum. Of the wild creatures which at present occur in the
county, the only one which confers real distinction upon it is the red
deer, which roams at large on both Exmoor and the Quantocks. Badgers
are not uncommon near Dulverton and in the more uncultivated districts.
The very diversified character of Somerset makes it the home of a large
variety of birds, the Quantocks and Exmoor sheltering many of the
predatory kinds, the long coast-line attracting numerous seafowl, and
the fenny country of the centre affording a feeding ground for the
different kinds of waders. Of the resident species which are
comparatively uncommon elsewhere may be mentioned the hawfinch, the
greater and lesser spotted woodpecker, the carrion crow, the raven, the
buzzard, the hen-harrier, and the peregrine falcon. Among the regular
visitors are included the white wagtail, the pied flycatcher, the
nightjar, the black redstart, the lesser redpole, the snow bunting, the
redwing, the reed, marsh, and grasshopper warblers, the siskin, the
dotterel, the sanderling, the wryneck, the hobby, the merlin, the
bittern, and the shoveller. As occasional visitors may be reckoned the
wax-wing, golden oriole, cross-bill, hoopoe, white-tailed eagle, honey
buzzard, ruff, puffin, great bustard, Iceland gull, glaucous gull, and
Bewick's swan. Visitors that may be supposed to have reached the county
only by accident have scarcely a claim to be noticed here, though
perhaps allusion may be made to an Egyptian vulture seen at Kilve in
1825, and specimens of Pallas's sand-grouse observed near Bridgwater,
Weston-super-Mare, and Bath.[1]

As regards the _flora_ the elevated position of parts of the county
makes it the home of a number of plants which do not commonly occur in
the South of England. Thus there are found on Exmoor the crowberry
(_Empetrum nigrum_), the parsley fern (_Cryptogramme crispa_), and the
oak fern (_Phegopteris dryopteris_). _Asplenium septentrionale_ is
found at Culbone; _Listera cordata_ grows on Dunkery and near
Chipstable; and the cranberry (_Oxycoccus palustris_) is said to occur
at Selworthy and on the Brendons. On the other hand, Somerset likewise
furnishes congenial conditions for those plants that love low-lying,
marshy ground, and on the peat-moors in the Glastonbury district the
flowering fern (_Osmunda regalis_) and the bog myrtle (_Myrica Gale_)
are met with. Within the British Isles the following are found only in
Somerset: _Dianthus gratianopolitanus, Hieracium stinolepis, Verbascum
lychnitis_, and _Euphorbia pilosa. Arabis stricta_ occurs only on the
limestone near Clifton; _Helianthemum polifolium_ is confined to
Somerset and Devon; _Pirus latifolia_ to Somerset and Denbigh.[2]


  [1] For the birds of Somerset, see a paper by the Rev. Murray A. Mathew,
  M.A., F.L.S., in the "Proceedings of the Somerset Archaeological
  and Natural History Society," vol. xxxix., from which we have
  borrowed.

  [2] For fuller information, see "The Flora of Somerset," by the Rev.
  R.P. Murray, M.A., F.L.S., from which the above facts are taken.



VI. HISTORY


Somerset gets its name from a Saxon tribe, but its earliest
inhabitants, like those of the southern half of bur island generally,
were Britons or Celts, and the Saxon invasion was preceded by the
Roman. Reminders that the county was once occupied by a Welsh--speaking
race occur in the constituents of many place-names, such as _Pen_
Selwood, _Maes_ Knoll, and the numerous _combes_ (cp. Welsh _cwm_). The
name of the British king, Arthur, is associated with Cadbury (near
Sparkford); and the neighbouring villages of Queen Camel and West Camel
recall the legendary Camelot. The earliest church at Glastonbury
(_Avalon_) is believed to have been of British origin, and it is
Arthur's reputed burial-place. In the dedication of the churches at
Porlock (Dubricius or Dyfrig) and Watchet (Decuman or Tegfan) is
preserved the memory of certain British saints, though these probably
came on an evangelistic mission from the other side of the Bristol
Channel. But of the primitive population the most trustworthy memorials
are the numerous earthworks and other material remains which survive in
various parts of the county, and these will be more appropriately
noticed under another heading (see pp. 20-21).

Of the Roman occupation the traces are more varied. Bath and Ilchester
are Roman towns, and from and through them Roman roads run across the
county. In constructing these, the Romans probably used in many
instances existing British trackways. The principal was the Fosse Way
(as it is called), entering the county near Chard from Seaton, and
leaving it at Bath for Lincoln. Within Somerset it is still a very
important artery of traffic. From near Chard a road is thought to have
diverged from it to the N.W., towards the Quantocks, passing by Castle
Neroche. The Fosse Way was, and is, cut at Ilchester by a road coming
from Dorchester and continuing to Glastonbury, and near Masbury, on the
Mendips, by a second, connecting Old Sarum with Axium (Uphill, near
Brean Down). At Bath it was joined by two more roads, one coming from
London and the other (the _Via Julia_) from Aust and South Wales. The
road along the Mendips was doubtless largely used for the transport of
the lead which was mined at Priddy and elsewhere, and shipped at
Uphill. Somerset, during its occupation by the Romans, seems to have
enjoyed tranquillity, for their villas, pavements, and other remains
indicative of peaceful possession are not confined to the neighbourhood
of their large cities (see p. 21).

When the Saxons made themselves masters of England, Somerset became
part of the kingdom of Wessex. Its subjugation was accomplished in
three stages. The first is associated with the name of Ceawlin, who,
after defeating the British at Deorham (in Gloucestershire), captured
Bath, and by 577 reduced the northern part of the county between the
Avon and the Axe. _Englishcombe_ near Bath recalls this occupation, and
the Wansdyke probably served as a barrier between Saxon and Briton. But
between this conquered territory and Dorset, which was also Saxon,
there still remained in the hands of the Britons a large strip of
country; and from this they were not expelled until the time of
Cenwealh (652), who defeated them in 658 at "The Pens" (identified by
many with Penselwood), and drove them westward to the Parrett. Somerton
now became the capital of the Somersaetas, the Saxon tribe that gave
its name to the county (just as the Dorsaetas and Wilsaetas have done
to Dorset and Wilts). The third stage of the conquest was completed by
Ina (688-726), who subdued the rest of Somerset, forcing the British
(whose king was Geraint) into Devon and Cornwall, and building Taunton
as a fortress against them. _Williton_ and _Willsneck_ (in the
Quantocks) perhaps preserve the name of the defeated Welsh. Ina is
famous for more than his military prowess, for he was the first King of
Wessex to issue written laws for the guidance of his subjects.

During the Saxon period Somerset did not escape the raids of the Danes;
and in the reign of Alfred it was the scene of one of the most eventful
crises in English history. Alfred, after many battles against the
invaders, had at last seen Guthrum their leader retire from Wessex into
Mercia. But in 878, in midwinter, Guthrum suddenly surprised Chippenham
and made himself master of Wessex, and Alfred was forced to withdraw to
the fens of Athelney. To the narrow limits of the "Isle of the Nobles"
the Saxon dominions in the W. were for some months reduced. Here in the
Eastertide of 879 Alfred, in the words of the "Saxon Chronicle,"
"wrought a fortress [of which perhaps the Mump at Borough Bridge is the
site], and from that work warred on the (Danish) army, with that
portion of the men of Somerset that was nearest."[3] Seven weeks after
Easter, Alfred emerged from his place of refuge to join the men of
Somerset, Wilts, and Hants, who had gathered in force at "Ecgbryhtes
Stane" (Brixton Deveril in Wilts). Putting himself at their head, he
covered the distance that separated him from the foe in two stages;
for, halting for the night at "Iglea," the next day he defeated the
Danes at "Ethandune," and then besieged and reduced their fortress or
fortified camp. Guthrum, after his defeat, was baptised at Aller; and
at Wedmore subsequently a treaty of peace was concluded between him and
Alfred. The site of the battle of "Ethandune" is unfortunately
difficult to determine. There is an Edington in Somerset on the Polden
Hills; and the fact that the battle was followed by Guthrum's baptism
at Aller and the treaty at Wedmore (places near the Somerset Edington)
is in favour of this being the scene of the encounter. Those who accept
this identification assume that the Danes had moved from Chippenham to
the Poldens, and here, whilst watching Athelney, were taken in the rear
by Alfred, whose single night-halt at "Iglea" on the march from Brixton
Deveril is placed at Edgarley, a locality near Glastonbury.[4] But the
distance between Brixton Deveril and Glastonbury seems too great to be
accomplished by a large body of men along indifferent roads in a single
day; and by many authorities "Ethandune" is identified with Edington,
near Westbury, or Heddington, W. of Melksham, both in Wilts. However
this may be, it was from the Somerset marshes that Alfred issued forth
to his victory, and it was at a Somerset town that he secured the
fruits of it.

The importance of Somerset during the reign of the Saxon kings who
succeeded Alfred is evidenced by the many noteworthy incidents that are
connected with its chief city, Bath, and its great abbey of
Glastonbury. It was at Bath that King Edgar was crowned in 973; and at
the same place at a later date (1013) the Danish king, Sweyn, received
the submission of the western thegns. At Glastonbury were buried three
of the Saxon kings, Edmund (son of Edward the Elder), Edgar, and Edmund
Ironside. Here too was born Dunstan, who was so prominent an
ecclesiastic in the reigns of the first Edmund and five of his
successors. He was made abbot of the abbey by Edmund, and, after
becoming Archbishop of Canterbury, was buried at Glastonbury (988). Two
other Somerset men who filled the see of Canterbury during the Saxon
period were Ethelgar and Alphege.

Under the Plantagenets the history of the county was not very eventful,
though some localities suffered severely in the disturbances of the
Norman period. In William Rufus' reign it was the scene of several of
the movements directed against the king in favour of his brother
Robert. The powerful baron-bishop, Geoffrey of Coutances, with his
nephew Robert of Mowbray, after seizing Bristol, burnt Bath, but was
unsuccessful in the siege of Ilchester (1088). On the death of Henry I.
Somerset favoured the claims of Matilda, and the castles at Cary, E.
Harptree, and Dunster were held by their owners for her against
Stephen, to the no small discomfort of their respective neighbourhoods.
Castle Cary and Harptree were taken by Stephen, but he seems to have
regarded Dunster (defended by William of Mohun) as impregnable.

In Tudor times Somerset witnessed the attempt made on the throne by
Perkin Warbeck in 1497, who was supported by Lord Audley of Nether
Stowey and other Somerset gentlemen. The pretender advanced from
Devonshire to seize Taunton; but when Henry VII. entered Somerset,
passing in his progress through Bath, Wells (where he stayed with the
Dean), and Glastonbury, to Taunton, Warbeck lost heart and fled. When
captured and brought into Henry's presence he was spared; but the
king's clemency did not extend to his supporter Lord Audley, who was
executed on Tower Hill.

During the Great Rebellion in the 17th cent. Somerset was the field of
many important operations. At the outbreak of war in August 1642, the
royal cause was maintained by the Marquis of Hertford, who was
supported by Lord Powlett, Sir Ralph Hopton, Sir John Stawell, and
other leading gentlemen of the county. But the sympathies of the yeomen
and manufacturers were with the Parliament, and Hertford had to
withdraw from Wells, where he had taken up his position, to Sherborne.
In 1643, however, the king's Cornish army entered Somerset, and was
joined by the Marquis and Prince Maurice at Chard; and the Royalists
then rapidly became masters of Taunton, Bridgwater, and Dunster. To
oppose them, Sir William Waller was despatched to the West, and a
cavalry skirmish between the two forces took place on the Mendips near
Chewton. Waller's main army was posted at Bath; and the Royalists,
advancing by way of Wells and Frome, had another skirmish near
Claverton. They kept E. of Bath and reached Marshfield in
Gloucestershire, 5 m. N. of the city. Then on July 5 Waller gave battle
on Lansdowne Hill, and was forced to retire back to Bath, abandoning a
quantity of arms and stores; but the triumph of the victors was clouded
by the loss of Sir Bevil Grenville, who was killed in the fight. (The
monument to him on the site of the encounter was erected in 1720.) The
next year the king's cause in Somerset was less prosperous, for Taunton
was lost, and repelled all the efforts of Colonel Wyndham, Governor of
Bridgwater, to recover it. In 1645 the siege of Taunton was undertaken
by Goring. The town was defended by Blake, who vowed (it is said) that
he would eat his boots before he would surrender it, but he was saved
from that extremity by Fairfax. On the approach of the latter Goring
drew off from Taunton, and fixed his quarters at Langport, where he was
attacked and defeated. This success on the part of Fairfax not only
saved Taunton, but enabled him to besiege Bridgwater, which was
defended by Wyndham with little resolution, and fell on July 23, within
a fortnight of Goring's defeat at Langport. Fairfax also took Nunney
Castle; and as in 1646 Dunster, the last place in Somerset supporting
the king, also submitted, the entire county passed into the hands of
the Parliament. Dunster was defended by another Wyndham, but he offered
a much more prolonged resistance than his brother at Bridgwater, and
withstood the besiegers for 160 days. After the execution of the king
the small rising in favour of Charles II., under Colonel Penruddock and
Sir Joseph Wagstaff, was crushed near Chard in 1655.

In the reign of James II. Somerset was the soil upon which was fought
the last battle that has taken place in England. In 1680, the Duke of
Monmouth, in the course of a tour through the county, greatly
ingratiated himself with its people; and at Whitelackington held a
great reception under a gigantic chestnut tree, which was standing as
recently as 1897, when it was unfortunately blown down. When in 1685
Charles II. died, and Monmouth made his attempt to disturb the
succession of James, it was to Somerset that he looked for support.
After landing at Lyme, he entered the county at Chard, and passing
through Ilminster, was proclaimed king at Taunton and Bridgwater. From
the latter town (where he had stayed at the castle), he started on his
luckless campaign, which was wholly confined within the borders of
Somerset. He proceeded through Glastonbury (where some of his troops
bivouacked in the Abbey), Wells, and Shepton Mallet, intending to
attack Bristol, but at Keynsham he turned aside on finding the city
defended by the Duke of Beaufort. He threatened Bath, but it refused to
surrender; and he thereupon retired to Norton St Philip, intending to
enter Wilts. There he had a skirmish with the advanced guard of the
royal forces which had marched from London to meet him; and shirking a
more general engagement, he withdrew to Frome. The townspeople of
Frome, like those of Taunton and Bridgwater, gave him their sympathy,
but nothing else; and disappointed at the lack of support, and wearied
with his march along miry roads in drenching rain, he abandoned the
advance into Wiltshire. A report that a rising in his favour had taken
place at Axbridge decided him to return to Bridgwater. On the way he
again passed through Wells, where some of his men tore the lead from
the Cathedral roof to make bullets, and inflicted other damage on the
building. Soon after his arrival at Bridgwater, the royalist general,
Feversham, with about 4000 troops, reached Weston Zoyland from
Somerton, disposing some of his forces at the neighbouring villages of
Middlezoy and Chedzoy. As the royal troops were said to be in a state
of disorder, Monmouth, who had about 6000 men, very badly armed,
determined to attack him by night; and late on Sunday, July 5, he
started from Bridgwater under cover of darkness. But in the passage of
some of the "rhines" which cut up the Sedgemoor plain a mismanaged
pistol gave the alarm; and in the engagement that followed his
ill-equipped followers, though they fought bravely, had little chance
against the regulars, and more than 1000 of them fell on the field. The
battle had a sad sequel for Somerset. James knew no clemency; and
Jeffreys' bloody assize left a crimson trail across the country, which
even time found some difficulty in obliterating. Macaulay estimates
that the number of the rebels hanged by Jeffreys was 320, and though
the assize extended into Hampshire, Dorset, and Devon, most of its
victims were Somerset folk. A certain poetic justice may perhaps be
discerned in the fact that when, in 1688, the Prince of Orange drove
James from his throne, his march took him through Somerset, and he had
a skirmish with the royal troops at Wincanton. In connection with
Somerset's share in the events of James's reign, it deserves to be
mentioned that Bishop Ken, of Bath and Wells, was among the seven
prelates who presented the famous petition against the king's
Declaration of Indulgence.

The ecclesiastical history of Somerset may be briefly related. When
Cenwealh of Wessex (who had been converted to Christianity by the King
of East Anglia) established the bishopric of Winchester, such parts of
Somerset as belonged to the West-Saxon kingdom were included in that
see. Ina divided his augmented territories between two bishoprics,
Winchester and Sherborne, the latter including Somerset, with Wilts,
Berks, and Dorset. The first Bishop of Sherborne was Aldhelm (705), who
only filled the see for four years, dying at Doulting in 709. Ina also
founded Wells, but as a collegiate church of secular canons, not as the
cathedral of a diocese. It was not until 909 that Somerset had a bishop
all to itself, who was styled the Bishop of the Somersaetas, with his
seat at Wells (the first appointed being Aethelm.) In 1088, in
accordance with the policy of removing bishoprics from localities of
little importance, the see was transferred from Wells to Bath, the
bishop (John de Villula) at the same time becoming the abbot of the
monastery. In 1192 Bishop Savaric procured for the see the rich abbey
of Glastonbury, and became its abbot; and he and his immediate
successor, Joceline, the builder of the W. front of Wells, were styled
Bishops of Bath and Glastonbury. In 1224, however, another change was
made, and the bishop took his title from Bath and Wells, as he has done
ever since. Up to the Reformation the title was justified, both the
monks of Bath and the canons of Wells taking part in episcopal
elections; but, with the suppression of its monastery, Bath naturally
lost this distinction.

Of religious houses Somerset possessed a fair proportion. The chief
were Glastonbury, Bath, Bruton, Dunster, Muchelney, Stogursey (which
were Benedictine), Cleeve, Barlynch (Cistercian), Hinton, Witham
(Carthusian), Taunton, Woodspring, Stavordale (Augustinian), Montacute
(Cluniac). The Templars had a preceptory at Templecombe, and the
Knights of St John had establishments at Bridgwater and Mynchin
Buckland (near Durston).


  [3] Thorpe's translation.

  [4] See a paper on "Ethandune" by the Rev. C.W. Whistler (reprinted
  from "The Saga-book"--"Proceedings of the Viking Club," 1898), who
  thinks that the Danish fortress may have been Bridgwater.



VII. ANTIQUITIES


The principal antiquities of Somerset may be classified as (1) earthworks
and other survivals of a primitive time; (2) the Roman remains at Bath
and elsewhere; (3) the ecclesiastical and other buildings of the Middle
 Ages.

1. The British _camps_ are numerous. They are probably not the sites of
permanent settlements, but were used for defensive purposes in times of
war. The most notable are Worlebury (near Weston), Combe Down and
Solsbury (near Bath), Hamdon, Brent Knoll, Masbury, Dolbury,
Stantonbury, and the three Cadburys (near Sparkford, Tickenham, and
Yatton respectively). Worlebury is remarkable for having a large number
of pits sunk into the ground within its rampart. (Castle Neroche and
Castle Orchard, which have usually been regarded as of British origin,
are now thought to owe their fortifications to the Normans.)

The remains of _megalithic circles_ occur at Stanton Drew. There are
_barrows_ at Stoney Littleton, Dundry, and Priddy. There is a
lake-village of the _crannog_ type at Godney. Other antiquities of
British origin that deserve notice are the Wansdyke and Pen Pits (the
latter near Penselwood).

2. The most interesting Roman remains are at Bath, where a splendid
system of _baths_ has been brought to light. _Villas_ and other
buildings of Roman origin have been discovered at Whitestaunton and
Wadeford (near Chard), Whatley (near Frome), Wellow, Newton St Loe,
Bratton Seymour, Pitney, Camerton, etc. Traces of Roman _mines_ (such
as tools and pigs of lead) have been found at Priddy and Blagdon, and
an amphitheatre at Charterhouse-on-Mendip. Many of the British camps
enumerated above have at different times been occupied by the Roman
legions.

3. The ancient ecclesiastical buildings of Somerset are very
interesting. Some of them, chiefly monastic foundations, are more or
less in ruins--Glastonbury, Cleeve, Woodspring, Muchelney, Stavordale,
Hinton Charterhouse. Of those that are still used for religious
purposes, the most conspicuous are Wells Cathedral and Bath Abbey. But
the parish churches, in their way, are almost as remarkable. Their
excellence is largely due to the splendid building-stone which abounds
in different parts of the county, especially near Bath, Dundry,
Doulting, and Ham Hill. Of Saxon architecture Somerset has no example
such as Wilts possesses in Bradford, though some of the ancient _fonts_
may possibly be of pre-Norman origin. The majority of early fonts,
however, are _Norman_, and the number of them shows how thickly Norman
churches once covered the country. But surviving instances of churches
wholly or mainly Norman are rare: the best examples are Compton Martin,
Christon, and Stoke-sub-Hamdon. There is herring-bone work at Elm and
Marston Magna. Of Norman chancel arches and doorways retained when the
body of the church has been re-constructed the examples are numerous;
noteworthy are those at Glastonbury, Milborne Port, Stoke-Courcy,
Lullington, Huish Episcopi, Portbury, St Catherine, South Stoke, Flax
Bourton, Langridge, Clevedon, Chewton Mendip, Englishcombe. Wells
Cathedral contains some splendid _Transitional_ work, of which there
are also specimens at Clutton. Complete churches of the _Early English_
and _Decorated_ periods are few, but many buildings preserve specimens
of these styles in combination with work of a later date. The W. front
of Wells is a beautiful example of E.E., and windows of this period
occur at E. Stoke, Bathampton, Chedzoy, Martock, Keynsham, Somerton.
There are E.E. arcades at St Cuthbert's, Wells, and further
illustrations of E.E. work are furnished by Compton Bishop, Creech St
Michael, Stoke St Gregory, etc. Decorated windows are found at
Ditcheat, Compton Dundon, Huish Champflower, Shipton Beauchamp,
Barrington, Montacute, Brympton, and very fine ones in the choir and
lady chapel at Wells. In many parish churches the chancels have been
retained when the rest of the building was reconstructed, with the
result that, whilst they often preserve early work, and are accordingly
of the greatest interest, they appear relatively to their surroundings
insignificant and mean.

But it is in _Perpendicular_ churches that Somerset is richest; and
examples of this style are too abundant to require to be cited. It is,
indeed, a source of wonder that funds and skilled workmen were
forthcoming in sufficient quantity to erect or rebuild so many churches
within a comparatively short period. It was upon the _Towers_ that the
greatest skill of the Perp. builders was lavished. They are generally
lofty, are often beautifully crowned with pinnacles and embattled or
pierced parapets, and not unfrequently abound with niches and statuary.
The quality of the tracery, however, varies with the stone employed;
and the towers W. of the Quantocks are, as a rule, inferior to those of
the centre and east of the county. Most have large external
stair-turrets (commonly at the N.E. or S.E. angle), which, when carried
above the parapet and surmounted by spirelets, add dignity to the
plainer structures, but which are less appropriate where the pinnacles
are sufficiently prominent and graceful to give of themselves an
adequate finish. In the case of some of the finest towers the staircase
is wisely suppressed before reaching the summit. In most instances the
tower is at the W. end, and is square; but a few churches have
octagonal towers, which are usually central (S. Petherton, Stoke St
Gregory, Doulting, N. Curry, Barrington). _Spires_ are comparatively
rare, but they occur at E. Brent, Congresbury, Bridgwater, Croscombe,
Yatton, Pitminster, Castle Cary, Frome, Worle, Whatley, Porlock.

The classification of Somerset Perp. towers has often been attempted,
perhaps most successfully by Dr F.J. Allen, with whom the late R.P.
Brereton was in general agreement. By these careful observers they are
grouped according to the number and character of the windows inserted
in each stage. Adopting their principle of classification, though
arranging the order of the classes rather differently, we should
separate the best towers (viz. those that have _two_ or more windows
_side by side_ on the W. front) into two main divisions, according as
(I.) perpendicular, (II.) horizontal lines predominate. The first
division (I.) has the windows of the belfry stage (_three_ or _two_ in
number) prolonged as panels into the stage below. The group is a small
one, but includes, perhaps, the finest towers in the county (Batcombe,
Evercreech, Wrington, St Cuthbert's, Wells). The second division (II.)
has the stages clearly marked off by string-courses or horizontal
tracery, and may be subdivided into subordinate classes according as
there are (i.) _three_ windows in _two_ tiers, the belfry and the stage
below (Mells, Leigh-on-Mendip, Ilminster); (ii.) _three_ windows in
_one_ tier (belfry) only (Bruton, Shepton, Cranmore, Winscombe,
Banwell, Weston Zoyland, etc.); (iii.) _two_ windows in _three_ tiers,
the belfry and two stages below (St Mary's, Taunton); (iv.) _two_ in
_two_ tiers, the belfry and one stage below (Chewton Mendip, St John's,
Glastonbury); (v.) _two_ in _one_ tier (belfry) only (St James',
Taunton, Bishop's Lydeard, N. Petherton, Staple Fitzpaine, Huish
Episcopi, Kingsbury Episcopi, Ile Abbots, etc.). A few towers have only
one window in the belfry stage, but two in the stage below (Hemington,
Buckland Denham). Among the towers with a single window in the belfry
should also be noticed a few where the window is long enough, or placed
low enough, to break the string-course that divides the topmost stage
from the one beneath (Hinton St George, Norton-sub-Hamdon, Shepton
Beauchamp, Curry Rivel).

Many Somerset churches are remarkable for their carved pulpits and
churchyard crosses, or for their woodwork. Fine _stone pulpits_ are
found at Kewstoke, Hutton, Wick St Lawrence, Worle, Locking, Loxton,
Shepton, Cheddar, St Catherine. _Crosses_ with carved heads or shafts
survive at Bishop's Lydeard, Crowcombe, Spaxton, Doulting, Broadway,
Barton St David, Chewton Mendip, Stringston, Horsingtoo, Wedmore. Fine
_screens_ are to be found at Dunster, Norton Fitzwarren, Long Ashton,
Bishop's Lydeard, Long Sutton, Halse, Minehead, Banwell, Croscombe,
Kingsbury. There are carved _oak pulpits_ at Trull and Thurloxton;
remarkable Jacobean pulpits at Croscombe and Long Sutton, and quaint
_bench ends_ at many places, especially at Bishop's Lydeard, S. Brent,
Trull, Crowcombe, Spaxton, Milverton, Bishop's Hull, Stogumber,
Broomfield. The finest _wood roof_ is at Shepton Mallet; there are
others of great merit also at Somerton, Long Sutton, Martock, St
Mary's, Taunton, Evercreech.

Good examples of _ancient glass_ occur at Trull, Nettlecombe, Curry
Rivel, Winscombe, Broomfield, E. Brent. Interesting _brasses_ are
preserved at Banwell, Hutton, Middlezoy, Tintinhull, Yeovil,
Dowlishwake, St Decuman's, Beckington, Bishop's Lydeard.

Besides its stately churches, Somerset possesses some interesting
specimens of mediaeval and Tudor _domestic architecture_. Amongst the
best are Lytescary, Meare (fish house), Martock, Clevedon Court, S.
Petherton, Barrington, Brympton, Dodington, etc. Ancient _hostelries_
survive at Norton St Philip, Glastonbury, and Dunster. _Castles_ are
infrequent in the county, the chief remains being at Taunton, Dunster,
and Nunney, and a few fragments at Stoke-Courcey, Harptree, Farleigh
Hungerford, and Nether Stowey.



VIII. INDUSTRIES


Somerset is _par excellence_ an agricultural county. With the exception
of its share in Bristol, it has no large manufacturing centre. Its
commercial insignificance, however, is quite a modern characteristic.
It once took a leading place in the manufacture of cloth, and its
productions were held in high esteem. Dunster, Watchet, and Shepton
were especially noted for their fabrics. Many quaint country villages
were once thriving little towns, and almost every stream had its string
of cloth mills. The introduction of steam, and the more enterprising
spirit of the North, stole the trade, and this former era of prosperity
is now hardly remembered. Cloth mills, however, still survive at Frome,
Tiverton, and Wellington. Collars are made at Taunton; gloves are
stitched at Yeovil and Martock. There are shoe factories at Street and
Paul ton. Crewkerne manufactures sailcloth. Chard has a lace factory.
Frome possesses a large printing establishment and art metal-works.
Bridgwater, besides abounding in brick-fields, is the only seat in the
country of the bath-brick, industry. Coal is extensively mined in the
Radstock district, and iron used to be obtained from the Brendons,
though operations now seem to have ceased, and the mineral railway
which brought the ore to Watchet for shipment is now disused. Quarries
are numerous. The Mendips in the N., Street in the centre, and Ham Hill
in the S., all afford plenty of material for the stone mason. There are
large breweries at Shepton, Oakhill, Frome, and Wiveliscombe. Paper is
made at Wookey, furniture is manufactured at Yatton, and there is a
large bacon factory at Highbridge. Extensive orchards in the
neighbourhood of Glastonbury and Taunton feed a large number of cider
presses. In the agricultural world Somerset is chiefly known as a
grazing ground. It is especially renowned for its cheese. Cheddar
cheese is held universally in high repute, and the "pitch" of cheese at
the Frome annual fair is said to be the heaviest in the kingdom.

In spite of its extent of seaboard Somerset has few ports. Apart from
the share it may claim to have in Bristol, it possesses only three,
Portishead, Bridgwater, and Watchet. Portishead, like Avonmouth on the
other side of the Avon, is subsidiary to Bristol. Bridgwater lies 12 m.
up the Parrett, though only half that distance from the sea in a direct
line. Watchet serves the district, between the Quantocks and Brendons.
Minehead has a little harbour, but is of no mercantile importance.



IX. CELEBRITIES


The roll of Somerset worthies, either natives of or residents in the
county, is long and illustrious. The Church, law, literature,
philosophy, arms, science, politics, and adventure are all
represented. The following alphabetic list contains the most
important names, with dates and brief particulars.[5]

_Natives_

_Alphege_ or _Aelfeah_, b. 954, at Weston near Bath; successively
Bishop of Winchester and Archbishop of Canterbury; killed by the
Danes, 1011; canonised.

_Bacon, Roger_, b. about 1214, at or near Ilchester; became a friar
of the Franciscan Order; studied natural philosophy and wrote,
besides other works, the "Opus Majus" (described as "at once the
'Encyclopaedia' and the 'Organon' of the 13th century"); d. 1294.

_Bagehot, Walter_, b. 1826, at Langport; economist and author of "The
English Constitution"; d. 1877.

_Beckington, Thomas_, b. about 1390, at Beckington; successively
Bishop of Salisbury and Bishop of Bath and Wells; d. 1465.

_Blake, Robert_, b. 1599, at Bridgwater; took part in the Great Civil
War on the Parliamentary side, and defended Lyme and Taunton; made
admiral of the fleet, and fought against Holland and Spain; d. 1657.

_Coleridge, Hartley_, b. 1796, at Clevedon; poet and biographical
writer; d. 1849.

_Coryate, Thomas_, b. 1577, at Odcombe; travelled, first on the
Continent (his journal, entitled "Coryat's Crudities," was long the
only handbook for Continental travel), and subsequently in the East;
d. at Surat, 1617.

_Cudivorth, Ralph_, b. 1617, at Aller; Professor of Hebrew and Master
of Christ's College, Cambridge; author of "The True Intellectual
System of the Universe"; one of the "Cambridge Platonists"; d. 1688.

_Dampier, William_, b. 1652, at East Coker; explorer and scientific
observer; author of "A Discourse on the Winds" (said to have value
even now as a text-book); d. 1715.

_Daniell, Samuel_, b. 1562, probably near Taunton; poet and prose
writer (there appears to be no authority for the belief that he
succeeded Spenser as poet-laureate); d. 1619.

_Dunstan_, b. 924, at Glastonbury; successively Abbot of Glastonbury,
Bishop of Worcester and London, and Archbishop of Canterbury; d. 988;
canonised.

_Fielding, Henry_, b. 1707, at Sharpham, near Glastonbury; novelist
(best known work, "Tom Jones"); d. 1754 at Lisbon.

_Hood, Samuel_, b. 1724, at Butleigh; admiral (Nelson wrote of him as
"the best officer, take him altogether, that England has to boast
of"); made a viscount; d. 1816.

_Hooper, John_, b. 1495 (place unknown); Bishop of Gloucester and
Worcester; burnt at the stake, 1555.

_Irving, Henry_ (real name John Henry Brodribb); b. 1838, at
Keinton-Mandeville; actor; knighted; d. 1905.

_Kinglake, Alexander William_, b. 1809, at Taunton; wrote "Eothen"
and "Invasion of the Crimea"; d. 1891.

_Locke, John_, b. 1632, at Wrington; philosopher; author of "Essay on
the Human Understanding," and works on education and the currency; d.
1704.

_Norris, Edwin_, b. 1795, at Taunton; Oriental scholar; d. 1872.

_Parry, William Edward_, b. 1790, at Bath; Arctic explorer; knighted;
d. 1855.

_Prynne, William_, b. 1600, at Swainswick; Presbyterian pamphleteer;
wrote "Histriomastix" (directed against stage-plays); several times
pilloried; d. 1669.

_Pym, John_, b. 1584, at Brymore, near Cannington; politician; one of
the five members of the Commons whom Charles I. sought to arrest; d.
1643.

_Quekett, John Thomas_, b. 1815, at Langport; microscopist and
histologist; conservator of the Hunterian Museum; d. 1861.

_Speke, John Hanning_, b. 1827, at Ashill; African explorer;
discovered Lakes Tanganyika and Victoria Nyanza; accidentally shot,
1864.

_Young, Thomas_, b. 1773, at Milverton; scientist, and Egyptologist;
described as the founder of physiological optics, and one of the
first to interpret the hieroglyphics on the Rosetta Stone; d. 1829.


_Residents_

_Church, Richard William_, Rector of Whatley from 1852 to 1871.

_Coleridge, Samuel Taylor_, resided at Clevedon (1795) and Nether
Stowey (1796-98).

_Ken, Thomas_, Bishop of Bath and Wells from 1684 to 1691; wrote the
morning and evening hymns, "Awake, my soul, and with the sun," and
"Glory to Thee, my God, this night."

_More, Hannah_, resided for many years between 1786 and 1833 at
Barley Wood, near Wrington, and did much to spread education and
religion among the Mendip miners.

_Smith, Sydney_, the humorous Canon of St Paul's, and one of the
founders of the _Edinburgh Review_, held from 1829 till his death in
1845 the living of Combe Florey.

_Wolsey, Thomas_, the famous cardinal, held for a time the living of
Limington. Whilst here he is said to have been put in the stocks by
Sir Amyas Poulett of Hinton St George for drinking too much cider.
When he became Chancellor of England he revenged himself on the
knight, who was Treasurer of the Middle Temple, by forbidding him to
quit London without his leave.

_Wordsworth, William_, resided in 1797 at Alfoxden, a house near
Holford.

For distinguished persons who have resided at Bath, see p. 46.


  [5] Chiefly derived from the "Dictionary of National Biography."



DESCRIPTION OF PLACES IN SOMERSET ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY


_N.B._--The following abbreviations are adopted:--

  Norm.  = Norman (1066-1190).
  Trans. = Transitional (1145-1190).
  E.E.   = Early English (1190-1280).
  Dec.   = Decorated (1280-1377).
  Perp.  = Perpendicular (1377-1547).

[Proofreader's Note: Additional abbreviations found in the text are:
  G.W.R. = Great Western Railway
  S.& D. = Somerset and Dorset Railway.]

_Abbot's Leigh_, a village 4 m. W. from Bristol. The church, which
stands at the bottom of a long lane, is, with the exception of the
tower, entirely modern, the original fabric having been destroyed by
fire in 1848. Near the S. porch is the base of an old cross. The
churchyard commands a good view of the mouth of the Avon. _Leigh Court_
is a modern residence. A former mansion was one of the many
hiding-places of Charles II. when a fugitive.

_Aisholt_ (or _Asholt_), 8 m. W. of Bridgwater, is a little village on
the E. slope of the Quantocks. The church is hidden away in a small
combe, and its tower looks most picturesque against the green
background of Asholt Wood, but it is not in itself interesting. Note,
however, (1) little plain stoup and niche in the S. porch, (2) large
squint (now blocked) in the S. aisle, (3) old font. S. of Aisholt is
_Holwell Cavern_, a cave of considerable extent, and containing
stalagmites and stalagtites, but rather inconvenient of access.

_Alford_, a small village on the river Brue, 1-1/2 m. S.W. from Castle
Cary. In the fields on the S. side of the road is a mineral spring,
which once enjoyed a short-lived local popularity. The church stands in
the grounds of Alford House. It is a 15th cent. Perp. building, and
contains (1) some ancient benches, (2) old glass in one of the N.
windows, (3) a slender Perp. screen, (4) a pulpit dated 1625, (5)
piscina. Note massive corbels in chancel. The shaft of a cross with a
modern head stands in the churchyard.

_Aller_, a village 2-1/2 m. N.W. from Langport, lying at the base of
High Ham Hill. Aller witnessed the sequel to two stirring events. Here
Guthrum was baptised at Alfred's insistence after his defeat at
Ethandune (879), and here the Royalists made their last but ineffectual
rally after their rout at Langport in 1645. The church stands apart
from the village on a knoll rising from the marshes. It contains (1) an
ancient font, (2) an effigy of Sir W. Botreaux (1420) on the N. side of
choir. The internal arrangements of the tower are peculiar. It has
three arches, those on the N. and S. being apparently purposeless.

_Angersleigh_, a small parish 5 m. S. of Taunton (follow the Honiton
road to the fourth milestone, then turn to the right). It has a very
small church, perhaps originally Dec., but altered into Perp. It
contains a good carved oak reading-desk and lectern.

_Ansford_, or _Almsford_, a village 1/2 m. N. from Castle Cary.
Restoration has robbed the church of most of its interest; its tower
has some good gargoyles. A memorial-stone on the roadside near the
church marks the scene of a sudden death.

_Ash_, a parish including several small hamlets, 1 m. N.E. from
Martock. The church is modern.

_Ash Priors_, a small village 1 m. N.W. of Bishop's Lydeard Stat., owes
its name to the fact that it once belonged to the Priory of Taunton.
The church contains nothing of interest, though the N. pier of the
chancel arch preserves its squint.

_Ashbrittle_, 7 m. W. of Wellington (nearest stat. Venn Cross, 3 m.), a
parish standing on very high ground. The second element in the name is
a personal description, derived from the Norman Brittel de St Clare.
The parish church has been completely restored, and is devoid of
interest.

_Ashcott_, a parish on the Poldens, 3 m. S.W. of Glastonbury, with a
station (S. & D.J.R.) two miles away. The church has a W. embattled
tower with a carving on the W. face representing the sacred monogram, a
mitre, and a pastoral staff. There is a stoup in S. porch, but no other
feature of interest.

_Ashill_, a parish 3-3/4 m. N.W. of Ilminster, situated on rising
ground on the Taunton and Ilminster road. The church is interesting by
reason of the Norman work that it contains, including N. and S. doors
and triple chancel arch (restored). There are two effigies in recesses
in the nave wall, one representing a woman and her six children. At
Capland, 1-1/2 m. off, there is a chalybeate spring.

_Ashington_, 3 m. E.S.E. of Ilchester, has a small church dedicated to
St Vincent. It is remarkable for the large square bell-cot over the W.
gable (cp. Brympton and Chilthorne Domer) which is supported by a
massive buttress in the middle of the W. front. Within the building
note (1) the three lancets at the E. end; (2) the foliated interior
arches of the chancel windows (two of which are very small lancets);
(3) the pulpit, dated 1637. The glass in some of the windows is good.

_Ashton, Long_, is a straggling village, noteworthy for its court
and church. _Ashton Court_, the seat of Sir J.H. Greville Smyth,
was erected by Inigo Jones in 1634, and is surrounded by a
beautifully-wooded park. Long Ashton church contains a fine screen,
gilded and painted (the old colours being reproduced), and a 15th cent.
tomb (in the N. chapel) with two effigies, belonging to Sir Richard
Choke and his wife. There are also two mutilated effigies, preserved in
the N. porch, which are supposed to belong to the de Lyons family, who
once owned the park.

_Ashwick_, 2 m. S.E. of Binegar. There is no village, but merely a
group of houses. The church has a graceful late Perp. tower, with
spirelet: this is the only original part of the fabric, the rest having
been rebuilt in 1825. _Ashwick Grove_ is a prettily-situated mansion,
said to contain a good collection of pictures.

_Athelney_, included within the parish of Lyng (with a stat.), is the
spot historically famous for having harboured Alfred in 878 when he had
to escape before a sudden inroad of the Danes (see p. 12). It was once
an island (the name means "isle of the nobles"), and in wet weather
must even now almost resume that condition. Alfred, after having
defeated the Danes at Ethandune, founded a monastery here, of which all
traces have unhappily disappeared. A small monument (best approached
from the main road between Lyng and Borough bridge) was erected in 1801
by Mr John Slade, the owner of the estate, to commemorate the events
connected with the locality; but the inscription is misleading in
giving 879 (instead of 878) as the year when Alfred took refuge here,
and in stating that he lay concealed for a whole year (instead of a few
months). The neighbourhood abounds in osier and reed-beds, producing
materials for basket-work.

AXBRIDGE, 10 m. N.W. of Wells, is an ancient town, which still
preserves an air of antiquity. It is situated in a neighbourhood
largely devoted to market gardens, in which quantities of strawberries
are grown. It was a borough as early as the reign of Edward the
Confessor, but its corporation was abolished in 1886. Its most notable
feature is the church of St John the Baptist. It is a large cruciform
structure with a central tower, having three windows in the belfry, and
rather shallow buttresses. The figure on the W. face of the tower is
supposed to be Henry VI. or Henry VII., that on the E. St John. Within
the church note (1) the roofs, that of the nave plaster with pendants
(1636), those of the aisles oak (15th cent.); (2) the carved capitals
of the S. arcade and squint in the S.E. tower pier; (3) the mural
monument to William Prowse in the N. aisle; (4) the altar before the
tomb of Anne Prowse (in S. aisle), covered with a cloth worked by her
own hands (1720); (5) brass in N. aisle to Roger Harper (1493); (6) in
S. wall of sanctuary piscina and sedilia. In the N. wall is a curious
hole, apparently connected with an external cell (where there are the
remains of a broken piscina). The purpose of this cell is a great
puzzle. The church seems to have possessed two rood-lofts (cp.
Crewkerne); and has a two-storied building on the S. of the W. door,
which is thought by some to be a treasury.

In the town there are some old houses with projecting upper storeys.
One of them, called _The Old Manor House_, deserves a visit for the
sake of a fine ceiling in one of its rooms. In the Town Hall are
preserved the old stocks, the apparatus used in bull-baiting, and a
money-changer's table, dated 1627.

_Babcary_ is a village a short distance E. of the Fosseway, 6 m. N.N.E.
of Ilchester (nearest stat., Sparkford). The first syllable of the name
is a personal appellation which doubtless appears in Babbicombe; the
second is derived from the neighbouring stream. There is a church of
ancient origin, but since its restoration it exhibits little of
interest except a piscina (with credence shelf) and a good Caroline
pulpit (1632).

_Babington_, 1 m. S. of Mells Road station. There is no village. The
church dates from the reign of George II. _Babington House_ is a
mansion of some age but little beauty.

_Backwell_, 1-1/2 m. S.E. of Nailsea station, a parish which perhaps
owes its name to the _back_ or ridge on which it stands. It has a
spacious church, prettily situated. The Perp. tower has double belfry
windows, and elaborate pinnacles, but the summit seems to have been
injured and rebuilt, for the upper lights are enclosed within an ogee
moulding which breaks the line of the parapet; and one of the pinnacles
is of unusual character. At the S. door note stoup, and within the
church observe (1) the 15th cent. screen; (2) the squints, high up in
the chancel pillars; (3) the E.E. sedilia on the S.; and (4) the chapel
on the N. side of the sanctuary. In front of the chapel is a large tomb
with a full length effigy of a knight in armour (probably a Rodney);
whilst within there is a mural brass and other memorials. The chapel is
the resting-place of Elizabeth, successively wife of Sir Walter Rodney
and of Sir John Chaworth, who died 1536.

_Badgworth_, 3 m. S.W. of Axbridge, lies a little way off the Bristol
and Bridgwater road. The church is dedicated to the saint that has
given his name to Congresbury, St Congar. It has a fair tower (with a
good open parapet), which contains two pre-Reformation bells, but the
interior contains little of note. The piscina looks like E.E. with a
restored drain.

_Bagborough, West_, 3-1/2 m. N. of Bishop's Lydeard station, is a
parish pleasantly situated on the S.W. side of the Quantocks. The
church (St Pancras) adjoins Bagborough House, and preserves its former
stoup and piscina. There are a few carved bench ends.

_Baltonsborough_, a village on the Brue, 4 m. S.W. of Glastonbury. It
possesses a 5th cent. church (St Dunstan's) containing a few features
of interest in the chancel, among them being the cornice, the piscina
and aumbry, and an old chair dated 1667. The screen is modern. The nave
retains a number of the old 15th cent. benches; to the end of one of
them is hinged a seat which, when raised, projects into the aisle,
perhaps to accommodate some youthful but unruly member of the
congregation. The old door and lock deserve a passing notice.

_Banwell_, a large village 1-1/2 m. W. of Sandford and Banwell station,
was once the site of a Saxon monastery, bestowed by Alfred upon Asser,
and is now famous for its church and caves. The place gets its name
from its large pond, fed by a copious spring, though the meaning of the
first syllable is obscure (perhaps from _bane_, ill, implying that the
spring was thought to have remedial qualities). The church has a tower
with triple belfry windows, which is lofty and finished with pinnacles
and spirelet. It should be compared with Winscombe, both being spoilt
by the flatness of the buttresses. It is regarded as early Perp., and
assigned to about 1380. The figures on the W. front are the Virgin and
St Gabriel; note the lilies (there should be only one, as at
Winscombe). The nave is lofty, with clerestory and plaster roof
(coloured like oak); the effigy at the W. is St Andrew. There is a very
fine rood-loft (1521) with fan-tracery both in front and rear: the
present colours are believed to reproduce the original; curiously, the
choir seats are _outside_ the screen. Note (1) the font (Norman) with
unusual carving on the bowl; (2) Perp. stone pulpit, attached to one of
the pillars of the arcade; (3) the seat ends and oak benches (the
original width of the latter may be seen in the last pew on the S.
side); (4) the brasses, three on the floor before the chancel, and
another (of John Martok, succentor of Wells, and physician to Bishop
King) in the vestry. This vestry contains some old Flemish glass
(brought from Belgium in 1855), depicting the story of Tobit; and there
is more ancient glass belonging to the church in the E. windows of the
aisles. Originally there was only a N. aisle, and the tower buttresses
can still be seen within the S. aisle.

_Banwell Court_, near the church, contains some remains of a manor
house, built by Bishop Beckington. In a shed near the fire brigade
station are (1) two old thatch-hooks (1610), used to drag burning
thatch from the roofs of houses; and (2) an old fire-engine of the same
date.

On the hill which rises above the church (in a field entered near the
junction of the roads) a large cross is traced on the surface of the
ground, and raised in relief to the height of 2 ft., the limbs being
between 50 and 70 ft. long. It is surrounded by a low stone or earth
fence, and its purpose is problematical. On the hill there is also a
camp, where flints of Neolithic date have been found; and near it is an
ancient track-way known as the _Roman Road_.

The _caves_ (two in number) are in private grounds belonging to Mrs
Law. They have probably been created by the action of water, and when
discovered were filled with the bones of wild animals (many of them now
extinct) embedded in silt, which had been washed into them. In one of
them there is now stacked a quantity of these bones, whilst a selection
of them is deposited in Taunton Museum. The caves are shown by some of
the outdoor servants of the house. Unlike the caves at Cheddar and
Burrington, they open upon the summit of the hill instead of into a
ravine.

_Barrington_, a village 4 m. N.E. of Ilminster, is worth visiting for
the sake of its church and its interesting Elizabethan house called
_Barrington Court_. The church is cruciform, with an octagonal central
tower. The tower arches are E.E., with plain chamfered piers; but there
is a good deal of Dec. work in the transepts (note windows and the fine
canopy over one of the piscinas). The E. window is Perp.: observe the
piscina and niches in the chancel, and the large squints. The N. porch
has an ogee moulding, and contains a niche with figures of the Virgin
and Child.

_Barrington Court_ (now a farm) is a magnificent E-shaped building,
with numerous twisted chimneys, turrets, and finials. It was built by
Henry Daubeny, the first Earl of Bridgwater, (d. 1548); and passed
successively into the possession of the Phelipses (afterwards of
Montacute) and the Strodes. It was here that William Strode in 1680
entertained the Duke of Monmouth. Recently an effort has been made to
purchase it for the nation.

_Barrow Gurney_ is a small village, prettily situated (1 m. from Flax
Bourton stat.), with a church about a mile away. Near the church there
once existed a Benedictine nunnery (said to have been founded before
1212); and what is now the S. aisle was formerly the nuns' chapel, and
it still retains an early doorway and a few other vestiges of
antiquity. At the W. end of the aisle is an enclosure with a number of
tiles, supposed to be the burial-place of one of the sisters. With the
exception of this S. aisle, the church has been entirely rebuilt and
enlarged. Note the mural monument to Francis James (of Jacobean date),
and the old bell beneath the tower. The churchyard contains a restored
cross. Adjoining the church is _Barrow Court_ (H.M. Gibbs) a fine
Elizabethan building. In the village is a house of the date 1687. Some
reservoirs of the Bristol waterworks are close by.

_Barrow, North_, a small village 2-1/2 m. N. from Sparkford Station
(G.W.R.). The church, rebuilt 1860, is without interest, except for a
very curious font of uncertain date, standing on a modern pedestal.

_Barrow, South_, is a village 1 m. N. from Sparkford. The church, a
small aisleless building, contains (1) ancient bench ends; (2) piscina
and aumbry in sanctuary; (3) brass to R. Morris on floor of nave. A
fragment of Norman work will be noticed over the N. door. The font,
dated 1584, has a curious E.E. look.

_Barton St David_, 5 m. S.S.E. of Glastonbury, 4 m. N.E. of Somerton,
gets its name from its church, dedicated to the Welsh bishop (who was
buried at Glastonbury hard by). The plan of the church is cruciform,
the tower (which is octagonal) being placed in the angle formed by the
N. transept and the chancel. The N. doorway is Norman, the arches of
chancel and transepts E.E. The chancel windows are lancets with
foliated heads and interior foliations. Note (1) the squint; (2) the
piscina. In the churchyard there is a headless cross, with the figure
of a bishop in his mitre on the shaft (perhaps St David).

_Barwick_, a small village 1 m. S. from Yeovil. The church--a rather
large building for so small a place--has the tower oddly placed at the
E. end of N. aisle (cp. E. Coker). The N. aisle is richer and evidently
later than the S. aisle. Observe the panelling of the arches of the
arcade and the external battlements. The character of the arcade on
both N. and S. is peculiar (cp. Shepton Mallet). The chancel has been
rebuilt, but it retains the original piscina. The church has some fine
bench ends (1533). The initials _W.H._ on the door of the reading-desk
are said to be those of William Hope, the patron of the living early in
the 16th cent. Note (1) position of Dec. piscina in S. aisle and dwarf
doorway, showing raising of floor; (2) squint and rood-loft stairs on
N.; (3) square fluted font with cable moulding; (4) consecration
crosses on jamb of W. door, on chancel buttresses, and on wall of S.
aisle (cp. Nempnett); (5) arched doorway into tower from chancel, made
up of a sepulchral slab with incised foliated cross.

_Batcombe_, a small village equidistant (3 m.) from Cranmore,
Evercreech, and Bruton stations, has an interesting church. The tower,
one of the finest in Somerset, is of marked individuality, combining
features belonging to two distinct types. It resembles Shepton in the
arrangement of its buttresses, and Evercreech and Wrington in the
character of its triple windows. The absence of pinnacles and of
superfluous ornamentation lends to it considerable dignity and
impressiveness. Note the figure of our Lord and censing angels on W.
front, as at Chewton. On exterior of church observe (1) debased S.
porch; (2) crucifix on E. gable of nave. The interior is disappointing.
The clerestory is spacious, and the roof fair, but a general sense of
bareness pervades the whole building. The shabbiness of the chancel in
particular is enhanced by a casement which does duty for an E. window.
Note (1) Dec. windows to aisle; (2) rood-loft stair; (3) curious
quatrefoil piscina in sanctuary; (4) some fragments of old glass in E.
window of S. aisle. At the W. end is a handsomely-carved font, and the
remains of another font from Spargrove Church (now destroyed) are under
the tower. An ugly monument to the Bisse family stands in one of the S.
window sills. The vestry is a nondescript chamber reached from the
chancel by a flight of stone steps.

BATH. A city and parliamentary borough on the Avon, 107 m. W. from
London, with a population (in 1901) of 52,751. It has stations both on
the G.W. and the Midland lines. Few cities are more romantically
situated than Bath, but it is not its situation which has given to it
its celebrity. Its prosperity has from time immemorial depended upon
its possession of the remarkable mineral springs in which the
fashionable world has at different periods discerned so many healing
and social virtues. The popular story of their discovery by the
legendary King Bladud is too trite to need re-telling. The real history
of Bath begins as early as A.D. 44, when it is known to have been a
Roman station. Its Latin name was _Aquae Sulis_, Sul being a local
divinity, whose name appears on several inscriptions in the Museum, and
may have some connection with the neighbouring hill of Solsbury. A
temple to this goddess existed on the site of the present Pump Room,
and the extensive ruins of the contiguous bathing establishment bear
eloquent testimony to the use which the Romans made of the waters.
Here, too, converged three of their chief highways, the Fosseway, from
Lincoln to Axminster, the _Via Julia_, which connected it with S.
Wales, and Akeman Street, the main thoroughfare to London. The
after-history of Bath is chequered. In 676 King Osric founded here a
nunnery (eventually transformed into a monastery), and in 973 it was
the scene of Edgar's coronation. After the Conquest it was a bone of
contention in the Norman quarrels, and was burnt to the ground by
Geoffrey of Coutances. After being harried by the sword, Bath passed
under the hammer. Its ecclesiastical importance begins when John de
Villula purchased it of the king, and transferred hither his episcopal
stool from Wells (see further, p. 19). In mediaeval days Bath was a
walled city, and fragments of its fortifications, crowned by a modern
battlement, may still be seen in "Borough Walls"; and two round-headed
arches of the old E. gate are visible in a passage behind the Empire
Hotel, leading to the river. The battle of Lansdown gives Bath a place
in the annals of the Great Rebellion. But the fame of Bath is social
rather than historical. It was not until the 18th cent. that the city
reached the zenith of its importance. The creator of modern Bath was
the social adventurer Nash. By sheer force of native impudence Nash
pushed himself into the position of an uncrowned king, and exercised
his social sovereignty with a very high hand. His rule was certainly
conducive to the better government of the city. From a mere haunt of
bandits and beggars, Bath became at a bound the most fashionable city
in the kingdom, and a school for manners to half England. Nash, though
very much the beau, was very little of the gentleman. To a hump-backed
lady who declared that she had "come straight from London," Nash
replied, "Then you must have picked up a d--d crook by. the way." But
polite society was not squeamish, and took him at his own valuation.
His assemblies became the rage, his social despotism was eagerly
acquiesced in, and the improvements he demanded were ungrudgingly
supplied. The social labours of Nash were admirably seconded by the
work of two architects called Wood (father and son). Terraces, squares
and crescents sprang up in generous profusion to accommodate the crowds
of visitors who were drawn into the vortex of fashion. The prosperity
of Bath did not decline with the fading fortunes of its favourite, for
it was not until the peace of Amiens opened up the continental watering
places that the fashionable world forsook Bath and went elsewhere. But
though its proud pre-eminence has passed for ever, Bath still retains
something of its former splendour. It can boast of several natives of
note, and a roll of still more distinguished residents. The birds of
passage, whose stay shed a transient glory on the gay city, are legion.
Amongst those who claim Bath as their birthplace are William Edward
Parry, the Arctic explorer, John Palmer, the postal reformer, and
William Horn, the author of the _Every Day Book_. The list of famous
residents includes Quin, the actor, R.B. Sheridan, Beckford, Landor,
Sir T. Lawrence, Gainsborough, Bishop Butler (who died at 14 Kingsmead
Square), Gen. Wolfe and Archbp. Magee. Nelson and Chatham, Queen
Charlotte, Jane Austen, Dickens, Herschell and Thirlwall, are to be
numbered amongst the visitors.

The general plan of Bath is easily grasped. The river throws itself
round the city like an elbow, and in the corner of land thus embraced
the streets are laid out something in the manner of an irregular chess
board. One main thoroughfare runs from the S. gate, and climbs by a
gradual ascent northwards; and as it goes, expands into the spacious
shopping quarters of Milsom Street. Another good string of streets runs
from the Abbey also northwards, and on its course extends a long arm
eastwards across the river to the suburb of Bathwick.

The chief sights, the Abbey, Pump Room, Roman Baths and Guildhall, lie
grouped together in convenient proximity. The imposing terraces,
squares and crescents of the once fashionable residential quarters are
to be found chiefly on the N. and W. sides of the city. A pretty view
of Pulteney Bridge with its singular parapet of shops may be obtained
from the terrace at the back of the Municipal Buildings.

The chief public buildings are the Pump Room, rebuilt in 1796, and
considerably extended in recent times; the Guildhall, built in 1768-75,
containing some good portraits; the Upper Assembly Rooms (1771); the
Royal Institution (1824), on the site of the old Assembly Rooms, the
scene of Nash's triumphs; the Mineral Water Hospital (1737); and the
Holbourne Art Museum (containing a large number of pictures, many of
which are unfortunately not the "old masters" they profess to be, some
good porcelain, and a fine collection of "Apostle" spoons). Hetling
House in Hetling Court was once a mansion of the Hungerfords. The
public grounds are the Victoria Park, Sydney Gardens, Henrietta Park,
and the Institute Gardens (subscribers only).

[Illustration: ROMAN BATHS, BATH]

_Roman Baths_. The waters from which Bath gets its fame are believed to
owe their origin to the surface drainage of the E. Mendips, which
percolates through some vertical fissure, perhaps at Downhead, to the
heart of the hills, and are conducted by some natural culvert beneath
the intervening coal measures, washing out as they go the soluble
mineral salts, and whilst still retaining their heat emerge again at
the first opportunity at Bath. The Romans were the first to make use of
this natural lavatory, and with their unrivalled engineering skill
founded here a magnificent bathing establishment. Though the fact of
their occupation of the site was long known, the extent and magnitude
of their arrangements have only lately been laid bare. Thanks to the
skill and intelligence with which a thorough investigation of the site
was made by the city architect in 1881, every visitor to Bath has now
an opportunity of examining the finest extant specimen of a Roman
bathing station in the world. The entrance to these antiquities is
through a corridor to the left of the Pump Room (admission 6d.). This
passage opens upon a modern balcony overlooking the great central
basin. To investigate the ruins, a descent must be made by the
staircase to the basement. The Great Bath is a rectangular tank 111
feet by 68 feet, originally lined with lead 1/4 inch thick. It was
surrounded with dressing-rooms, from which steps led down to the water.
The great hall which contained it was covered in with a roof of hollow
bricks and concrete (plentiful specimens of which lie scattered about),
supported by carved columns. On the left is another square bath with a
semi-circular tank at each end, and a series of vapour chambers behind
it. The greater part of this bath was unfortunately destroyed in the
18th cent., to furnish material for the construction of a new bath. To
the right of the great bath is a fine stepped circular bath, and beyond
this again are sudatories. Still further on, extending beneath the
street, in a part not always shown to the public and somewhat difficult
of approach, is a third rectangular basin of considerable size. Even
this does not complete the full tale of the bathing accommodation once
provided. Buried beneath the basement of the Pump Room itself has been
discovered the masonry of a large oval bath, the outline of which is
still marked out in the flooring. The huge Roman reservoir into which
were poured the healing waters as they bubbled up fresh and fervid from
the bowels of the earth cannot now be seen, for it lies immediately
beneath the floor of the King's Bath, but the visitor can still inspect
the overflow conduit which conveyed the surplus waters to the Avon. The
character of the lead and brick work should be carefully examined if
justice is to be done to the skill of the Roman workmen. The specimens
of the tessellated pavement that once formed the flooring of the great
hall are worthy of passing notice. The King's Bath, the great bathing
place of the fashionable world in Nash's day, is open to the air, and
may be seen from one of the windows of the corridor. The various modern
baths must be inquired for on the spot. Medicinal bathing is obtained
at the New Royal Bath, in connection with the Grand Pump Room Hotel.
The spring which keeps the whole of this vast array of bathing
appliances going yields three hogsheads per minute, and issues from the
earth at a temperature of 117° Fahr. The chief constituents of the
waters are calcium sulphate, sodium sulphate, magnesium chloride,
calcium carbonate, and sodium chloride, and there are traces of other
minerals.

[Illustration: BATH ABBEY]

_The Abbey Church_. The Abbey, though somewhat hemmed in by meaner
buildings, stands in a commanding position in the centre of the city.
Without any claims to be regarded as an architectural gem, it has
sufficient merit to adorn its situation. Its career has been a series
of vicissitudes. Though Bath takes precedence of Wells in the official
title of the see, it has seldom been the predominant partner. John de
Villula, with the intention of making the city the bishop's seat, built
here a church so spacious that the nave alone would swallow up the
existing building. Of this Norm. church there still survive (1) bases
of clustered pillars under a grating in N. aisle of choir, (2) a single
pillar in same aisle, (3) round arch and pillar in vestry, S. of choir,
(4) bases of pillars at exterior of E. end. With his successors' change
of plans, Villula's church fell on evil days, and was allowed to decay.
In 1495 Bishop Oliver King beheld, like Jacob, the vision of a heavenly
stairway and climbing angels, and heard a voice saying, "Let an olive
establish the crown, and let a king restore the church." In consequence
he, in imitation of the patriarch, vowed a "God's house" upon the spot.
With the help of Prior Bird, he projected the present edifice, and the
west front still commemorates his dream. But whilst the building was in
course of construction the Reformation intervened and put a stop to the
work. The monastery was dissolved, and the Crown offered the church to
the townspeople for 500 marks. The citizens, however, declined the
bargain, and the building passed from the hammer of the auctioneer to
that of the house-breaker. Stripped of all that was saleable, the shell
passed into the possession of one Edmund Colthurst, who made a present
of it to the town. For forty years it remained practically a heap of
ruins. Episcopal attention was again drawn to its unseemliness, not
this time by ascending angels, but by the more prosaic instrumentality
of a descending shower. Bishop Montague, seeking shelter one day within
its roofless aisles from a passing thunderstorm, was moved by the
discomfort of the situation to undertake the completion of the fabric.
He finished the work in 1609, but on somewhat economical lines. He
vaulted the roof with plaster, and it has been left to the modern
restorer to make good his work in stone. Externally the church is a
cruciform building with a central tower, characterized by two tiers of
double windows and spired octagonal turrets at the corners. The tower
is a rectangle, the N. and S. sides being shorter than the E. and W.,
and the transepts are correspondingly narrow. Though somewhat stiff and
formal, the general design derives a certain impressiveness from the
lofty clerestory, the immense display of windows, and a profusion of
flying buttresses. The fantastic reproduction of Jacob's Ladder, with
its beetle-like angels, on the W. front, should be carefully observed,
and note should also be taken of the elaborately carved wooden door and
the figures above and on either side (Henry VII. and SS. Peter and
Paul). The two ladders are flanked by representations of the Apostles,
whilst below the gable is the figure of our Lord, with adoring angels
beneath. The interior has something of the appearance of an
ecclesiastical Crystal Palace--one vast aggregate of pillars and glass.
The details are poor (note the absence of cusps in alternate windows of
nave), and the fan tracery (original in choir only) is exuberant. In
some of the clerestory windows are fragments of old glass, and the very
unusual feature of pierced spandrels to the E. window should be noted.
The one really beautiful thing in the interior is _Prior Bird's
Chantry_ at the S.E. of the choir. The delicate groining of the roof,
the foliage, and the panelling will be generally admired. Note the
constant reiteration of the Prior's relics, with mitre, though priors
did not wear mitres. There is an effigy of Bishop Montague under a
staring canopy between the columns of the N. aisle. In the sanctuary is
the tomb of Bartholomew Barnes, and a brass to Sir George Ivey. The oak
screen across the S.E. aisle is in memory of a former rector (Rev. C.
Kemble) who did much to restore the Abbey. As a reminder of Bath's once
fashionable days, the walls of the aisles are covered with memorials of
local celebrities; amongst them there is a tablet to Nash (S. wall near
S. transept). The tomb of Lady Waller in S. transept, and Garrick's
epitaph on Quin (N. aisle of choir) should perhaps also be noticed. As
Dr Harington's sprightly epigram suggests, this portentous display of
mortality is not an inspiring study for visitors who come to Bath to
take "the cure,"

  "These walls, adorned with monument and bust,
  Show how Bath waters serve to lay the dust."

Among objects and places of interest in the outskirts of the city that
deserve a visit are Sham Castle, an artificial antique on Bathwick
Hill; Widcombe Old Church (built by Prior Bird); the chapel of St Mary
Magdalen in Holloway (built by Prior Cantlow in 1495); Beckford's Tower
on Lansdowne, and Combe Down (where a portion of the Wansdyke may be
examined).

Bath gives its name, with sometimes more and sometimes less
justification, to quite a number of articles, including Bath stone,
Bath buns, Bath olivers, Bath chaps, Bath chairs, and Bath bricks (for
the last, see pp. 26, 64).

_Bathampton_, a prettily situated village, 2 m. N.E. of Bath. Its
church is in the main Perp., but the chancel arch is E.E., and the E.
window consists of three lancets. There are two recumbent figures of
the 14th cent., a knight and a lady, at the W. end of the S. aisle; but
the most remarkable feature of the building is a still earlier effigy,
much defaced, within a niche in the exterior wall of the E. end. It
seems to represent a bishop, since there are traces of a crosier,
though some have taken it for a prioress. Some small remains of a
priory are still to be found at the rectory near the church.

_Bathealton_, a parish 3 m. S.E. of Wiveliscombe. The church has been
rebuilt, and is of no antiquarian interest.

_Batheaston_, a large parish on the Avon, 2-1/2 m. N.E. of Bath
(nearest stat. Bathampton, 1/2 m. away). The church has been restored,
but it retains its well-proportioned Perp. tower. One of the bells
dates from pre-Reformation times, and has the inscription _Virginis
egregiae vocor campana Mariae_. To the N.E. of the village is _Solsbury
Hill_, with a British camp on the summit. It probably gets its name
from the British goddess Sul, who seems, from the inscriptions in Bath
Museum, to have been identified by the Romans with Minerva.

_Bathford_ is a village 3-1/2 m. E.N.E. of Bath (nearest stat.
Bathampton), standing on a hill sloping to the Avon, which was here in
Roman times crossed by a ford that gave its name (formerly Ford) to the
place. The church (ded. to St Swithin) is of E.E. origin, but has been
enlarged and modernised. The font is Norm.; some Norm. work remains in
the N. porch, and there is a Jacobean pulpit.

_Bawdrip_, a small village, 1 m. from Cossington, and 3-1/4 m. N.E. of
Bridgwater. It possesses an interesting little cruciform church, with a
central tower supported on E.E. or Early Dec. arches. There are three
piscinas, one in the sanctuary, the others in the transepts, that of
the N. transept being on the sill of the squint in the chancel pier. In
this N. transept is the effigy of a knight in plate armour under a
foliated canopy, said to be that of Joel de Bradney, d. 1350.

_Beckington_, a large village on the Bath road, 3 m. N.E. from Frome.
It was once famous for its cloth, and the number of old houses which it
possesses and its general appearance of spaciousness bear testimony to
its former importance. The church stands back from the main street, and
is well worth a visit. It is chiefly Perp., but has a Norm. W. tower
with Perp. windows, and a richly groined vault. A fine octagonal E.E.
font stands in the S. aisle. Note (1) squints, (2) piscinas in
sanctuary and S. aisle. The monuments are--(1) in N. wall of chancel,
the effigy of a knight in armour, supposed to be J. de Evleigh
(1360-70) and wife; (2) a little higher up, effigy of lady, Mary de
Evleigh (1380-1400); (3) brass on chancel floor to John St Maur and
wife (1485), though the lady, who, after John St Maur's death, married
Sir John Biconyll, lies elsewhere; (4) brass on S. pier of chancel arch
bearing a merchant's mark (said to belong to John Compton, d. 1510);
(5) in N. aisle, slab and bust to S. Daniell (1619), reputed to have
been poet-laureate (but see p. 29). Bishop Beckington of Wells
(1443-65) was born here. At the corner of the lane leading to the
church is _Beckington Castle_, a fine old gabled house with mullioned
windows. _Standerwick Court_, a Queen Anne mansion, is a mile away; and
in the neighbourhood is _Seymour Court_, a farmhouse, once the abode of
Protector Somerset.

_Beer Crocombe_, a small village 1-1/2 m. S.E. from Hatch Beauchamp
Station (G.W.R. branch to Chard). The church (Perp.) is uninteresting.
The prefix _Beer_ (thought to be a personal name) occurs in several
Dorset and Devon place-names.

_Berkley_, a small village, 2-1/2 m. N.E. from Frome. It possesses a
"classical" church--a very unusual thing for a country village--date
1751. It is an odd little building, with a balustraded W. tower and a
small central dome, said to have been copied from St Stephen's,
Walbrook. Within is a monumental slab tracing the descent of the
Newboroughs, from the time of the Conquest till 1680. _Berkley House_
dates from the time of William III.

_Berrow_, a parish 2 m. N. of Burnham, where there are good golf links.
The church is close to the shore, and contains little of interest.
Note, however, (1) stoup in S. porch, (2) curious piscina in chancel,
(3) small Jacobean pulpit, (4) gallery dated 1637. Outside of the S.
wall are two slabs with much defaced effigies, probably from an earlier
building.

_Bickenhall_, a parish 1 m. S.W. of Hatch Beauchamp station. The church
is modern, but contains on the chancel wall a monument, with a kneeling
effigy, to a lady of the Portman family (1632).

_Bicknoller_, a little village 2-1/2 m. S.E. of Williton, nestling
under the W. slopes of the Quantocks. Its name (and that of Bickenhall
likewise) is probably connected with _beech_ (cp. the numerous names
containing _ash-, oak-, elm-, withy-_). The church, which used to be a
chapel of Stogumber, has a picturesque parapet N. and S. In the
interior the chief features that call for remark are (1) the capitals
of the N. arcade, with their bands of "Devonshire" foliage, (2) the
fine screen (1726) with beautiful fan tracery, (3) some good seat-ends,
(4) monument to John Sweeting of Thornecombe (d. 1688), (5) squint in
chancel pier, (6) piscina. In the churchyard is the shaft of an ancient
cross.

A little above the village is _Trendle Ring_, the site of an
encampment; whilst on the road to Crowcombe is an old house called
_Halsway_, said to have been a hunting lodge of Cardinal Beaufort, the
son of John of Gaunt, and guardian of Henry VI.

_Biddisham_, a small parish 4 m. W. of Axbridge. The small church is
reached by a lane from the Bristol and Bridgwater road. It retains a
square Norm, font, a piscina, and a Jacobean pulpit. Outside is the
shaft of an old cross.

_Binegar_, a small village on the top of the E. Mendips, with a station
on the S. & D. The church, rebuilt 1859, has a plain Perp. tower with a
representation of the Trinity on one of its battlements.

_Bishop's Hull_ (_hull_ is merely _hill_), a village 1-1/2 m. W. from
Taunton. The church is a ludicrous example of Philistinism. A small but
interesting Perp. church has been enlarged by the simple expedient of
replacing the S. aisle by a spacious chamber furnished with galleries.
On the N. is a slender octagonal E.E. tower (cp. Somerton). In the
original part of the church note (1) on N. of sanctuary, elaborate
Jacobean tomb with effigy, in legal robes, of J. Farewell (1609); (2)
effigies of three grandchildren tucked away in a small recess in wall
opposite; (3) grotesque corbels on E. wall of N. chapel; (4) good
bench-ends (observe representation of the Resurrection in N. chapel,
and of a night watchman near font). By the side of the Taunton road is
a fine Elizabethan mansion of the Farewells, date 1586.

_Bishop's Lydeard_, a village 5 m. N.W. of Taunton, with a station on
the Minehead line. It gets its name from the land having been bestowed
by Edward the Elder upon Asser, Bishop of Sherborne, in 904. Its church
has an exceptionally fine tower, with double windows in the belfry. The
W. window is good and the tower arch very lofty. Note (1) the fine
screen, with the Apostles' Creed in Latin; (2) the series of quaintly
carved bench-ends, the designs (windmill, ship, stag, etc.) standing
out well against the coloured backgrounds; (3) the good, though plain,
roof; (4) oak pulpit; (5) brass in S. transept of Nicholas Grobham and
wife (d. 1585 and 1594). In the churchyard is a fine cross (14th
cent.), with the figure of St John the Baptist on the shaft, and
_bas-reliefs_ on each face of the octagonal base. There is also the
base and broken shaft of what was once the village cross.

_Bishop's Sutton_, a village 2-3/4 m. W. of Clutton, with a modern
church.

_Blackford_ (near Wedmore), a village 6 m. S.W. from Cheddar (G.W.R.).
The church is an eccentric octagonal structure built in 1823.

_Blackford_ (near Wincanton) is a small village, lying rather low, 3 m.
E. of Sparkford. The church, which formerly belonged to Glastonbury
Abbey, is small and plain, but possesses a Norm. S. doorway and a Norm.
font. There are also the remains of a stoup in the S. porch and of a
piscina in the S. wall.

_Blagdon_, a village on the N. slope of the Mendips, 12 m. S.W. from
Bristol. A light railway from Yatton has its terminus here. The beauty
of the neighbourhood, naturally considerable, has been enhanced by the
formation of a large artificial lake, 2-1/2 m. long, intended as a
reservoir for Bristol. A charming view across the valley is obtainable
from the hillside above the church. The church is remarkable only for
its elegant Perp. tower. The rest of the building is an ugly Victorian
substitute for the original fabric.

_Bleadon_, a village 1 m. E. of Bleadon and Uphill Station, lies at the
foot of Bleadon Hill. The church has a tall tower with triple windows
in the belfry; but it is inferior to others of the same class, since
too much space is left between the base of the windows and the string
course (cp. Long Sutton). The chancel (the oldest part) is Dec. and
possesses a low side-window (cp. Othery, East Stoke, Ile Abbots). The
position of this and of the recess in the S. wall points to the chancel
having once been longer, a conclusion confirmed by traces of
foundations said to exist in the churchyard E. of the present east end.
Note in the S. porch a _bas-relief_ of the Virgin and Child; and in the
interior of the church, (1) stone pulpit; (2) Norm. font; (3) two
effigies (attributed to the 14th cent.), one near the pulpit, the other
in the sanctuary (the slab upon which the latter is lying is supposed
by some to be an Easter sepulchre, though its position on the S. is
unusual); (4) piscina on the N. of chancel--perhaps displaced. In the
churchyard is a mutilated cross. On the hill above there are traces of
earthworks.

_Blue Anchor_, a hamlet 3 m. E. of Dunster, with station. There is a
pleasant little bay here which possesses possibilities as a future
watering-place, but at present the accommodation for visitors is
extremely limited. The cliffs that border the foreshore are strikingly
coloured and are veined with alabaster. The view towards Minehead is
charming. It is said that the sea at very low water uncovers the
remains of a submerged forest.

_Bossington_, a hamlet 1 m. from Porlock, lying under Bossington
Beacon, which is the W. end of the North Hill (see _Minehead_). It is a
picturesque place, noteworthy for its huge walnut trees. It is
separated from the sea by a stretch of shingle. There is a little
chapel of some antiquity, which has a good E. window (restored). The
summit of the Beacon may be reached either from the hamlet itself or
from Allerford (whence numerous zigzag paths lead through the woods).

_Bradford_, a parish on the Tone, 4 m. S.W. of Taunton, with a church
ded. to St Giles. The stair-turret is on the S. face of the tower (as
at Wellington). The piers of the arcade seem to be E.E. or Dec., with
two in the Perp. style at the E. end, one of them being of the normal
Somerset type, whilst the other has the "Devonshire" foliage. There is
an effigy of a knight of the time of Richard II. in the S. wall; and
there is also preserved the base of a Norm. font (with foot ornament),
supporting a bowl of later date. Under the W. window of the S. aisle
are the old stocks.

An ancient bridge across the Tone (perhaps dating from the 13th cent.)
carries the road to Nynehead and Milverton: the parapet is modern.

_Bradley, West_, a small village 4 m. E.S.E. from Glastonbury. The
church is an unattractive-looking little building, but of more interest
than its appearance suggests. It has a short, battlemented W. tower
(with pyramidal cap), supposed to date from 1400. The vault is groined.
In the S. porch is a mutilated stoup. Within, note (1) in chancel,
image brackets and defaced piscina; (2) rood loft stair and window. The
nave roof is original.

_Bratton Seymour_, a village conspicuously perched on a hill 3 m. W.
from Wincanton. The church has been rebuilt. Its prominent position
makes it an excellent landmark. W. of the church is a tumulus where
have been discovered the remains of a Roman watch-tower.

_Brean_, a scattered hamlet 4 m. N. of Burnham, near the estuary of the
Axe. Its little church, with its foundations much below the level of
the neighbouring sand-dunes, is noteworthy merely for its lonely
situation. To the N. is _Brean Down_, a narrow promontory extending
more than a mile into the sea, with traces of earthworks. From Weston
it may be reached in the summer months by a ferry; the road from the
same place is a circuitous one, by way of Bleadon or Lympsham.

_Brent, East_, a village 2 m. E. of Brent Knoll Station. The name may
refer to the knoll, _brent_ meaning a steep hill. The place has a
church with a stone spire. Its most interesting features are,
externally, the sculptures on the W. face of the tower ((1) Virgin and
Child, (2) the Father holding the Crucified Son, (3) Christ crowning
the Virgin), and, internally, the roof, the woodwork, and the ancient
glass. The nave roof, of plaster, may be compared with that of
Axbridge; its date is 1637. The Jacobean or rather Caroline pulpit
dates from 1634, and the columns supporting the gallery from 1635. The
seat-ends (15th cent.) are good: among the carvings note the symbols of
the Evangelists (that of St Mark is missing, both here and at S. Brent)
and the initials of John Selwood, the antepenultimate Abbot of
Glastonbury (d. 1473). The old glass (late 14th cent.) will be seen in
two windows in the N. aisle. Two effigies, one an ecclesiastic, the
other probably a layman, have been placed under two of the windows. The
frescoes (in S. porch and chancel) and the cross in the churchyard are
modern: on the latter are statuettes of apostles, and mediaeval and
modern ecclesiastics.

_Brent Knoll_ is a conspicuous eminence of lias, drowned with a cap of
inferior oolite, about 450 ft. above sea-level and four acres in
extent. On the summit is a camp with a single rampart (though there
are, in addition, external terraces in certain positions), British in
origin, but utilised by the Romans. It commands a splendid view,
embracing the Mendips and Quantocks, Glastonbury Tor, the Channel, and
the River Parrett.

_Brent, South_, 1 m. from Brent Knoll Station, has a church very
picturesquely situated on the side of the knoll. Though in the main
Perp., it contains examples of earlier work. The S. doorway is Norm, or
Trans. (12th cent.), and there is also a small Norm. pillar (perhaps
part of a piscina) attached to the E. wall of the N. aisle. The S. wall
is in E.E. (note the corbels); and a large S. chapel (note piscina),
now used as a vestry, is Dec. (about 1370). The Perp. W. tower, with
triple belfry windows, has unusually short buttresses for a tower of
its class. Within the church the most noticeable features are (1) fine
wooden roof of N. aisle; (2) mural monument of John Somersett (d. 1663)
and his two wives; (3) font of unusual shape; (4) the seat-ends
(assigned to the 15th cent.), with their curious carvings, partly
sacred emblems and partly humorous scenes, the latter depicting a fox
(1) in the robes of an abbot or bishop, (2) brought to trial, (3)
executed.

_Brewham, South_, a village 3 m. N.E. of Bruton. It lies in a dell
through which flows the Brue (whence its name). The church, chiefly
Perp., is not of much interest, though beneath the tower at the S.W.
corner is a doorway of rough construction but peculiar character; near
it is a stoup. In the churchyard is a cross and an old font. _North
Brewham_ is a small hamlet 1/2 m. away.

_Bridgwater_, a seaport of more than 15,000 inhabitants, on the tidal
part of the Parrett. It has a station on the G.W.R. main line to
Exeter, and is the terminus of the S. & D. branch from Glastonbury. The
general aspect of the town is uninviting, and its immediate
surroundings are almost as uninspiring as its buildings. The river,
which ministers largely to its prosperity, adds little to its
attractions. It, however, furnishes the town twice a day with a mild
sensation in the shape of a bore, which at the turn of the tide rolls
up the river-bed like a miniature breaker. Though the name,
_Bridgwater_, hardly savours of antiquity it really conceals quite a
venerable origin. The not uncommon combination of a bridge and water
has nothing to do with the nomenclature. The name appears to be a
corruption of _Burgh Walter_, from Walter of Douay, one of the
followers of William the Conqueror. In the Great Rebellion the place
proved to the Royal cause in the West a kind of Metz. The castle was
supposed to be impregnable, and was held in force for the king by
Colonel Wyndham, but on the destruction of the suburb of Eastover by
Fairfax, the royal colours were, much to the chagrin of Charles,
unexpectedly hauled down from the stronghold, and the garrison, 1000
strong, tamely walked out. The Parliamentary commander made a huge
"bag" by the capture. It was, however, in connection with Monmouth's
ill-starred enterprise that Bridgwater attained its chief historical
notoriety, for it was here that the Duke had his headquarters before
the fatal engagement on Sedgemoor. Of the castle--founded by a De
Briwere, who is said to have been the bearer of Richard I.'s
ransom--hardly a vestige remains. King's Square now occupies its place,
and a few fragments of its walls and portions of the water-gate are
incorporated in some of the cellars which border the quay. In the
centre of the town is the parish church of St Mary, a spacious building
with a low W. tower of red sandstone crowned by a tall and graceful
spire. It is chiefly Perp., with an ugly and inharmonious modern
clerestory; but there are some remains of the Dec. period in the N.
porch. Over the altar hangs a picture of the "Descent from the Cross,"
said to have been found in the hold of a captured privateer. The
noteworthy features are (1) black oak screens and pulpit, (2) the
blocked squints, in the porches, (3) stoup and geometric rose window in
N. porch, (4) mural monument to Sir Francis Kingsmill and two sons. In
the churchyard are two timeworn, recumbent figures recessed into the N.
wall of N. transept, and an altar-tomb to Oldmixon, mentioned in Pope's
"Dunciad." In front of the town-hall is a good statue of Blake, the
famous Cromwellian admiral, whose birthplace, much modernised, will be
found in Blake Street. An arched doorway in Silver Street is said to
have been the gateway of a college of Grey Friars. A house E. of the
churchyard has a fine panelled ceiling. The modern church of St John in
the suburb of Eastover (for the name, cp. Northover at Ilchester and
Southover at Wells) stands upon the site of a former hospital of the
Knights of St John, founded by William de Briwere in the 13th cent.
Besides its shipping trade, Bridgwater does a large business in bricks
and tiles, and possesses a unique industry in the manufacture of Bath
bricks--presumably so called from their resemblance to Bath stone. Beds
of mingled mud and sand are left by the tide in recesses excavated in
the river-banks. The deposit is dug out, moulded into bricks, and
dried, and then exported for cleaning metals.

_Brislington_, a rapidly growing suburb of Bristol, 1-3/4 m. S.E. of
the city, with a station on the Frome branch. The church has a tower
which is characteristic of a considerable class of Somerset towers. On
its S. face are two quaint little effigies (supposed to represent the
founders, Lord and Lady de la Warr), and each side of the parapet has a
niche containing a figure (cp. Tickenham and Wraxall). The S. aisle has
a waggon-roof, and there is a piscina in the S. chapel. The square font
is presumably Norm. _Brislington Hill House_ is a 17th-cent. brick
mansion.

_Broadway_, 2-1/2 m. N. of llminster, derives its name from its
situation on an ancient track cut through what was once a surrounding
forest. The church (dedicated to SS. Aldhelm and Edburga) is cruciform,
with E.E. lights at the E. end, though the W. tower and nave windows
are Perp. Its most interesting features are the 15th-cent. hexagonal
font with six figures (seemingly of apostles) at the angles, and the
churchyard cross, with two effigies under a single canopy on its W.
face.

_Brockley_ is a small parish on the road from Bristol to Weston
(nearest stat. Nailsea, 2 m.). The church lies a little to the R. of
the main road from Bristol; it is E.E., but retains a Norm, font. There
is an ancient court-house close by.

On the left of the road is _Brockley Combe_, a beautiful glen between
two wooded hills, flanked on one side for some distance by rocky
cliffs, which are unfortunately being quarried in places. The wealth of
foliage in summer makes the ascent of the combe a delightful walk or
drive. It affords access to Chew Magna and Stanton Drew.

_Brompton Ralph_, a parish 4 m. from Wiveliscombe, on the road to
Watchet. The church is conspicuous by its position and has a tall
tower, but is not otherwise remarkable, though it retains its old oak
seats.

_Brompton Regis_ or _King's Brompton_, a village 5-1/2 m. N.E. of
Dulverton Station, lying amongst the hills which form the more
cultivated fringe of Exmoor. The church has the usual local
characteristics--a plain tower of the Exmoor type, and the Devonshire
foliage round the arcade capitals. Note plain large squint on S., and
another, of more ornate character, on N. There is a plain Jacobean
pulpit.

_Broomfield_, a parish situated at the S. end of the Quantocks, 5 m. N.
of Taunton. In the church, which has a plain embattled tower and square
turret, the chief features of interest are: (1) stoup in S. porch, (2)
the foliaged capitals of the arcade (on one note the emblems of the
Passion), (3) the seat-ends, sadly needing repair, one of which bears
the name of Simon Warman (whose name occurs on the woodwork at Trull),
(4) the fine old glass in the S. window of the chancel. In the
churchyard is the headless shaft of a cross. The mansion close by is
_Fyne Court_. A mile away to the N.N.E. is _Ruborough Camp_. It is
remarkable for its shape, being triangular in plan (cp. Tedbury, near
Mells), and occupies the extremity of a ridge between two declivities.
It covers 27 acres, and is overgrown with firs, which make inspection
difficult. On the W., the only vulnerable side, it is defended by an
additional vallum and fosse, thrown across the ridge 100 yards from the
base of the triangle (where the entrance to the camp is supposed to
have been). It is regarded as Roman, the usual rectangular plan being
adapted to the nature of the ground.

_Brushford_, a parish near Dulverton Station, but 2 m. S. from
Dulverton itself. It has an aisleless church, interesting only for (1)
a good 15th-cent. screen, (2) a font, of which the bowl and base date
from the 13th cent. There is a splendid oak tree in the churchyard,
which is reputed to be 600 years old.

BRUTON, a small town of 1788 inhabitants, 7 m. S.E. from Shepton Mallet,
with a station on the G.W.R. Frome and Weymouth line. It is also served
by bus from Cole Station (S. & D.), 1-1/2 m. away. It is a quaint
little place, lying at the bottom of a deep valley watered by the Brue,
to the proximity of which it owes its name. Bruton makes no show of
business; its activities are chiefly educational. The antiquarian will,
however, find here much to interest him, for there is a fine church,
and the town has many ecclesiastical associations. It was at one time
the site of a Benedictine Priory, which was subsequently converted into
an abbey of Austin Canons in 1525. Of this foundation nothing now
remains but a three-storeyed pigeon-house (which stands out
conspicuously on the summit of a little knoll behind the town) and the
abbey court-house in High Street (see below). The abbey itself stood on
the site of the present rectory, which is said to incorporate one of
its walls. At the Reformation the monastery went down in the wreck of
the religious houses, and Sir M. Berkley, who as the king's
standard-bearer was not without friends at Court, came in for the
spoil. The church is a handsome Perp. building, with a noble W. tower
of the Shepton type, decorated with triple windows and a rich parapet.
A second small tower rises above the N. porch (a very unusual feature).
The interior is remarkable for the painful incongruity of the
chancel--a pseudo-classical structure, built in 1743, to replace the
dismantled monastic choir. It contains in a recess on N. recumbent
effigies of Sir M. Berkley and wives (1559-85), and on the opposite
wall a tablet to W. Godolphin (1636). The nave is extremely handsome,
and is covered with a fine roof. Note (1) niches between clerestory
windows (cp. St Mary's, Taunton), (2) stepped recess in N. aisle (cp.
Chewton), (3) indications, on N. and S. walls, of stairway to
rood-loft, which, unless the building was once shorter, must have stood
in an unusually forward position, (4) piscina in S. aisle, (5) fragment
of mediaeval cope in N.E. corner of nave, (6) chained copies of Jewel
(1609) and Erasmus (1548), (7) Jacobean screen under tower. At the W.
gateway is an ancient tomb, said to be that of Abbot Gilbert, whose
initials, _W.G._ are cut on one of the battlements of the N. wall. Near
the school is a quaint pack-horse bridge ("Bruton Bow") spanning the
river (cp. Allerford). In High Street (S. side) will be noticed the old
_Abbey Court-house_ (now a private residence), bearing on its wall the
"canting" device of Prior Henton (1448). On the same side of the street
is _Sexey's Hospital_, an asylum for a few old men and women, founded
in 1638 by Hugh Sexey, a Bruton stable-boy, who in the "spacious days"
of Good Queen Bess rose to be auditor in the royal household. It
consists of a quadrangle, the S. side of which is formed by a combined
hall and chapel of Elizabethan architecture, finely panelled with black
oak. The surplus revenues of Sexey's estate support a local Trade
School. Bruton also possesses a well-equipped Grammar School, of Edward
IV.'s foundation, which replaced an earlier school established here in
1520 by Richard Fitz-James, Bishop of London (1506-22).

_Brympton d'Evercy_, a small parish 3 m. W. of Yeovil. It gets its name
from the D'Evercys, who seem to have possessed the estate in the 13th
cent., but it subsequently passed to other families, till in the 15th
cent. it fell to the Sydenhams, changing hands again in the 18th cent.
The church is a very interesting structure of the Dec. period. It is
cruciform in plan, with a N. chapel of Perp. date, and has on its W.
gable a large bell-cot (cp. Chilthorne Domer). Within, note (1) stone
screen (Perp.), remarkable for the seat along its W. front, (2)
piscinas in chancel, transepts, and chapel, (3) font (Dec.), (4) pulpit
(Jacobean), (5) chandeliers (said to be Dutch), (6) squints. There are
several effigies, which are not in their original positions, but are
conjectured to have belonged to a chapel now destroyed. They are, (1)
in the N. transept an abbot and a nun beneath recesses carved with
modern reliefs; (2) in the chapel a knight in armour and a lady.
Between the chapel and chancel is the large coloured tomb of Sir John
Sydenham, 1626 (the curious epitaph is worth reading). In the chapel is
some ancient glass, and in the churchyard there is the base of an old
cross and two early fonts.

N. of the church is a building of two storeys, variously described as a
_chantry house_ (a chantry was founded here by Sir Peter d'Evercy,
1307) or a _manor house_, with an external octagon turret containing a
staircase. _Brympton House_ (the residence of Sir S.C.B. Ponsonby-Fane)
has a good W. front of Tudor date (note arms of Henry VIII.), with a
porch added in 1722, and a S. front built in the 18th cent., though
from designs by Inigo Jones (died 1697), with terrace leading to the
garden.

_Buckland Denham_, a village prominently perched on a hillside 3 m.
N.W. from Frome. It was once a busy little town with a flourishing
cloth trade. The church has a W. tower with an unusual arrangement of
windows (cp. Hemington). The Norm. S. doorway and the device by which
the upper part of the porch has been converted into a parvise should be
noticed. Three chapels are attached to the church. The one at the N.,
originally the chantry of Sir J. Denham, has on the floor the figures
of a knight and his lady in relief. In two of the chapels are piscinas,
and there is a large one in the chancel. Some ancient glass, with
emblems of the Evangelists, will be found in one of the chapels. The
Norm. font, with different mouldings on opposite sides, deserves
attention.

_Buckland St Mary_, a parish 5 m. N.W. of Chard, has a modern church
(1853-63), very richly decorated, which it owes to the munificence of
the rector, though to some its ornateness will seem a little out of
harmony with its rural surroundings. The wooden cover of the font is
said to be all that remains of the former church. Not far away are a
number of flint stones which are conjectured to be Celtic memorials.

_Buckland, West_, 5 m. S.W. of Taunton, has a Perp. church, preserving
earlier materials, but of no great interest to the ordinary observer.
The W. tower has the bell-turret on the S. side (cp. Wellington and
Bradford). Note (1) the Norm. font (on a modern base), (2) the entrance
to the former rood-loft. The churchyard commands a fine view.

_Burnett_, a small village 2-1/2 m. S.E. of Keynsham. The church is a
tiny late Perp. building of poor workmanship. In the organ-chamber is a
small brass to John Cuttle (1575), once Mayor of Bristol. An attendant
family are all quaintly labelled.

_Burnham_, a watering-place on the Bristol Channel, 24 m. S.W. from
Bristol and 8 N. from Bridgwater. The S. & D. branch line from Edington
Junction has a terminal station here. Neither art nor nature has done
much for Burnham. Though a good deal exploited by the local railway
company as a half-holiday resort, it possesses few attractions for the
summer visitor. It has shown recently some signs of improvement, but no
enterprise can make a first-rate watering-place out of a muddy estuary
and a strip of sandy shore. A small pier, a narrow esplanade, and some
small gardens form its chief artificial recommendations, and its one
natural merit is an invigorating breeze which never seems to fail. A
tall lighthouse, standing some considerable distance away from the sea,
is a conspicuous landmark on the N., and a supplementary light burns
from a wooden erection on the beach. The church of St Andrew, near the
esplanade, is early Perp. Its two features of interest are its leaning
W. tower, and an altar-piece designed by Inigo Jones for Whitehall
Chapel, but eventually erected in Westminster Abbey. It appears to have
been turned out of the abbey as lumber on the occasion of George IV.'s
coronation, and to have been placed in Burnham Church by the then
vicar, who was also Canon of Westminster.

_Burrington_, a small village in the Vale of Wrington, with a station
on the Light Railway. It possesses a remarkable ravine, which would be
considered fine by any one unacquainted with Cheddar. It has the
magnitude but not the grandeur of its famous competitor. The hillsides
present merely a series of steep slopes broken by protruding masses of
rock. The combe runs up to the shoulders of Blackdown, and is
throughout wild and picturesque. Like the Cheddar gorge, it abounds in
caverns, there being no fewer than four, all of which have been
prolific in "finds." It was whilst taking shelter here that Toplady
composed "Rock of Ages." On one of the hills above the combe is a Roman
encampment fenced with a rough wall of stone, locally known as
_Burrington Ham_. Another picturesque spot in the neighbourhood is a
glen called Rickford. The church, which stands in some fields near the
mouth of the gorge, is a Perp. building with a low W. tower and a
peculiarly graceful spirelet over the rood-loft turret. There are some
good parapets to the aisles, but the roof of one of the chapels
projects in an ugly manner above that of the chancel (cp. Yatton). Note
(1) ancient glass in window above N. door, (2) pieces of an old bell
with maker's mark (a ship), _c._ 1470.

_Burrow_ (or _Borough) Bridge_, 1-1/2 m. N.E. of Athelney Station. It
is noteworthy for its conical hill, locally called the _Mump_, crowned
by a ruined church (St Michael's). It affords an extensive view over
the surrounding plain, and may be the site of Alfred's fort (see p.
13).

_Burtle_, a parish 1 m. N. of Edington Station. (S. & D.). The church
is modern.

_Butcombe_, a village 2 m. N. of Blagdon, prettily situated in a nook
of the Wrington Vale. Several monastic bodies originally owned property
here, but the church does not seem to have benefited largely by their
proprietorship. It is a small Perp. structure, of no great interest.

_Butleigh_ is a pleasant village, 4 m. S. of Glastonbury. Of its church
the only old portions are the tower (which is central), the nave, the
porch, and the chancel, to which N. and S. transepts and a N. aisle
have been added in modern times. Most of the windows of the nave and
chancel are Dec., with foliated rear arches. The large W. window is
Perp., and contains some ancient glass. In the S. transept is a
monument to the three brothers Hood, with a long epitaph in blank verse
by Southey. In the N. aisle are preserved figures (Jacobean) of a man
and woman, with a kneeling child between them, obviously portions of an
old tomb. The neighbouring mansion is _Butleigh Court_ (R.N.
Grenville). The tall column which is so conspicuous from the
Glastonbury Plain was erected to the memory of Sir Samuel Hood.

_Cadbury Camp_, near Tickenham. See _Tickenham_. The name is perhaps
connected with the Welsh _câd_ (battle). There is another near Yallon.

_Cadbury, North_, a village 2-1/2 m. E. from Sparkford Station
(G.W.R.). It possesses a remarkably fine Perp. church, built by Lady
Eliz. Botreaux (1427) for a college of eight priests. The tower, of
more than ordinarily plain design, is of rather earlier date, and the
arcades have probably been preserved from some previous structure. The
interior, though not rich, is imposing, owing to its size and excellent
proportions. The chancel is of great dignity, and some elaborately
carved tabernacles, bearing traces of colouring, flank each side of the
E. window, and form a fine architectural addition to the E. end. The
roofs and bench ends (1538) should also be observed. Note (1) altar
slab fixed to N. wall of sanctuary, (2) rood-loft stair and turret, (3)
three altar-tombs under tower, one (early 15th cent.) bearing effigies
of Sir W. and Lady Eliz. Botreaux, (4) fragments of glass in W. window.
Of this church, Ralph Cudworth, the famous Cambridge philosopher, was
once rector.

At the S.E. of the church is _Cadbury Court_, a fine gabled Elizabethan
mansion, with a curiously incongruous modern front on the S.

_Cadbury, South_ (2-1/4 m. E. of Sparkford), is a village on the N.E.
side of Cadbury Camp, with a church dedicated to St Thomas à Becket,
who is perhaps intended by the fresco of a bishop which is on the splay
of a window in the N. aisle. The responds of the aisle arches are
curiously banded. There is a good reredos, a piscina, and a hagioscope.

_Cadbury Castle_, near Sparkford (2 m. away), is the most remarkable of
all the Somerset earthworks. Besides its antiquarian importance, the
"Castle" derives a romantic interest from its popular association with
the fabled Camelot. The hill is best ascended by a lane near a
farm-house to the S. of S. Cadbury Church. Though much covered with
timber, the fortifications are still clearly traceable, and consist of
a quadruple series of ramparts and ditches. The interior "ring" is
faced with wrought masonry. The fortifications enclose an area of some
18 acres, and the crest of the hill is crowned by a mound locally known
as King Arthur's Palace. The defensive works must originally have been
of great strength, and are impressive even in their decay. The S. face
of the hill is fashioned into a series of terraces, possibly with a
view to cultivation. A well, called King Arthur's Well, will be found
within the lowest rampart by taking the path to the right of the
entrance gate. Another well--Queen Anne's--is in the neighbourhood of
the keeper's cottage. The country-side is rich in Arthurian traditions.
King Arthur and his knights are said on moonlight nights to gallop
round the fortifications on steeds shod with silver shoes. A hardly
traceable forest-path runs at the base of the hill in the direction of
Glastonbury. This is King Arthur's hunting track. Apart from these
legendary associations, Cadbury must have played a considerable part in
the British struggle for freedom. It may have been here (instead of at
Penselwood) that the West Welsh made their last effort against
Cenwealh, when he drove them to the Parrett (see p. 12). For so low an
eminence, the "castle" commands a remarkably extensive view. The great
plain of Central Somerset spreads away at the foot of the hill. In the
foreground is the ever-conspicuous Glastonbury Tor; the Mendip ridge
closes the horizon on the right; the Quantocks and Brendons are in
front; and the Blackdowns and Dorset highlands lie jumbled together on
the left.

_Camel, Queen_ (1 m. S.W. of Sparkford Station), is a large and
attractive village, owing its name to the neighbouring stream, the Cam.
Its church is a dignified structure with a lofty tower, which has its
turret unusually placed at the N.W. angle (cp. Yeovil and Martock). The
arcade has octagonal piers. Two of them have small niches, and there is
a clerestory above. The roof has embattled tie-beams, the space above
them being filled with Perp. tracery. The E. window is lofty. The
chancel has a screen and rood-loft, with fan tracery E. and W.; the
staircase is in the S. pier of the arch. At the E. end is a piscina and
a sedile, each under an elaborate triple ogee canopy. The Perp. font is
unusual, being supported on pillars which have niches containing
figures. On the S. side of the church there is an incongruous
"classical" porch (cp. Sutton Montis). In the parish is a mineral
spring with properties resembling those of Harrogate waters.

_Camel, West_, a village 2 m. S.W. of Sparkford Station, has a church
with many features of interest. In plan it is cruciform, the S.
transept being under the tower, which is on the S. side, and is crowned
by a small spire. The arches of the tower, chancel, and N. transept are
probably Dec. The E. window is Dec., with the interior arch foliated.
The rest are Perp. The nave roof deserves notice. The chancel contains
a double piscina under a large foliated arch, and triple sedilia. The
font is Norm., with shallow arcading round the basin. Near it is a
fragment of the shaft of a cross, ascribed to the 9th cent., with the
interlaced carving generally associated with Celtic and Irish crosses.
In a window behind the pulpit there is some ancient glass.

_Camely_, a parish about 1-1/2 m. S.W. from Clutton Station, deriving
its name from another Cam. The church is a solitary building standing
back from the roadside. It has a good Perp. W. tower, but a very
uncouth-looking nave and chancel.

_Camerton_, a flourishing colliery village lying in a deep valley about
2 m. N.N.E. of Radstock. It has a terminal station on a small branch
line running up from Hallatrow. The church, which is rather obscurely
situated at the back of the rectory, has been well restored, and is
handsomely furnished. The chancel is new. A side chapel contains two
altar-tombs to members of the Carew family (1640-86), said to be mere
replicas of the original tombs in Carew Church, Pembrokeshire. Note (1)
stoup inside N. doorway, (2) piscina in organ chamber. _Camerton Court_
(Miss Jarrett), a modern building with a colonnade, stands over against
the church on the other side of the dale.

_Cannington_, a large village 4 m. N.W. of Bridgwater, is a place of
some interest. It is the birthplace of a distinguished man, for at
_Brymore House_, hard by, John Pym was born. The church has some
unusual features, for a single roof covers nave, aisles, and chancel;
and there is no chancel arch. The whole building is very lofty, and it
has good E. and W. windows. The tower, which will be seen to be out of
line with the axis of the nave, is richly ornamented with niches. Note
externally the turret above the rood staircase, and the series of
consecration crosses (12) on the E. and S. wall of the chancel; and in
the interior observe (1) the carved oak cornice, (2) the screen (the
upper part restored), (3) Norm. pillar (a survival of an earlier
church) in the vestry, (4) old Bible of 1617. A priory of Benedictine
nuns, founded by a De Courcy (of Stoke Courcy) in 1138, once existed
here. The large house with mullioned windows, near the church, now
occupied by a Roman Catholic industrial school, was once a court-house
belonging to the Clifford family.

Down a road running E. from the church is _Gurney Street Farm_, an old
manor-house. It has a small chapel, with piscina, aumbry, niches, and
carved roof; above is a chamber (probably for the priest), reached by
stairs, each of which consists of a single block of oak, while behind
is a room panelled in oak, with a window looking into the chapel.

A mile from the village on the Stowey road (take path to left) is
another manor house, _Blackmoor Farm_. It has a good porch, and retains
its chapel (note piscina and niches), over the W. end of which some of
the chambers on the first floor project.

_Carhampton_, a village on the Dunster and Williton road, 2 m. S.E. of
Dunster. The church has been restored and in parts rebuilt. It still
contains a fine and richly coloured screen, evidently copied from the
one at Dunster (cp. Timberscombe), but there are no indications of a
stairway. Note (1) piscinas in S. aisle and chancel, (2) carved
wall-plate in S. aisle. There is the base of a cross in the churchyard.
On the road to Blue Anchor there is an ancient manor-house, called
_Marshwood Farm_, which has in its porch some curious plaster figures.

CASTLE CARY, a small market town at S.E. corner of the county, with a
station (1 m.) at the junction of the G.W.R. Weymouth line with the
Langport loop. Its population in 1901 was 1904. The town has a pleasant
air of old-fashionedness about it. The castle which gave it its name
long since disappeared from history, and until recently from knowledge.
It was only in 1890 that its site was revealed. Some excavations in a
field at the bottom of Lodge Hill brought to light the foundations of a
large square Norm. keep. Its outlines are now marked by pillars. It
seems to have acquired notoriety chiefly in the disorderly days of
Stephen. The Church possesses a good spire, and is conspicuously
situated. But though outwardly picturesque, it has little of interest
within. Note, however, (1) piscina in chancel, (2) oak screen, (3)
carved pulpit, (4) panel and canopied effigy over S. porch. There is
also a shallow font (_temp._ Henry VI.) on a pedestal of curious
design.

_Castle Neroche_, locally known as Castle Ratch, a remarkable earthwork
of problematical origin, 7 m. S. of Taunton. It crowns the edge of a
precipitous hillside, over which runs the main road to Chard. The camp
is of quite exceptional strength, and occupies a position of great
strategic importance. Recent excavations have proved it to have been
occupied and strengthened, if not originally made, by the Normans. On
the accessible side looking towards Chard the station is defended by a
triple row of ramparts and ditches, but the side overlooking the vale
of Taunton is so precipitous that the only protection provided appears
to have been a kind of citadel surmounted probably by a keep. The
centre of this once formidable military position is now incongruously
occupied by a farm-house. The view from the citadel or beacon across
Taunton Dean is far-reaching and exhilarating. The outlook on the other
side is circumscribed by the high ground beyond.

_Castle of Comfort_, a lonely public-house on the top of the Mendips,
standing by the side of the Bristol and Wells road. For the tourist it
forms a very convenient landmark from which to indicate the more
interesting features of the Mendip plateau. (1) The Roman road from
Uphill to Old Sarum may be traced across a field near the house. (2)
The Devil's Punch Bowl, one of the most notable swallets on the
Mendips, is 1/4 m. nearer Bristol (climb a wall on the R. and the
swallet, a funnel-shaped hollow, partly overgrown with brushwood, will
be seen in a field about 100 yards from the roadside). (3) The old
Roman lead mines are 2-1/2 m. away on the road to Charterhouse. (4) The
"Lamb's Lair" cavern (now unexplorable) lies 2 m. to the N. near the
Bristol road. (5) Nine Barrows, to find which take the Wells road; 1/2
m. to the S. is another solitary inn, and opposite are the barrows.

_Catcott_, a village on the Poldens, 3 m. S. of Edington Station. The
church is quaint; note, in particular, the old oak seats, and the odd
means by which they can be lengthened. There is an old octagonal font.

_Chaffcombe_, a secluded village on the slope of Windwhistle Hill,
2-1/2 m. N.E. from Chard. The church is a small Dec. building with a
Perp. W. tower containing a pre-Reformation bell.

_Chantry_, or _Little Elm_, a small village 4-1/2 m. S.W. from Frome.
The church is a beautiful bit of modern Gothic, designed by Sir G.
Scott.

_Chapel Allerton_, a village 4-1/2 m. S.W. from Axbridge. The church is
a 13th-cent. building which has been subsequently altered and enlarged.
In the parish are the remains of an old "hundred stone," marking the
boundaries of the hundred of Bempstone.

CHARD, a market town of 4437 inhabitants, at the S. extremity of the
county, served by both the G.W.R. and L. & S.W.R. Chard is a pleasant
variant upon the usual cramped type of Somerset county town. It spreads
itself out up the side of a hill with a magnificent disregard for
ground values in one broad and breezy street a mile long. Its situation
is remarkable for the impartiality of its maritime predilections, for
the runnels at the side of the thoroughfare are said to discharge their
contents, the one into the Bristol, the other into the English Channel.
Its early name, Cerde (for Cerdic), implies its Saxon origin, but it
was a benefaction of Bishop Joceline, who gave half his manor for its
extension, which really made the town. Chard has figured a little in
history. Charles I. and Fairfax both made some stay in it. Penruddock
suffered a severe reverse in the neighbourhood in 1655, and Monmouth,
in 1685, marched through Chard _en route_, as he thought, for the
throne, a circumstance which Jeffreys did not allow the town to forget.
"Hangcross tree," which once stood near the L. & S.W. station, was long
locally reputed to be the gibbet on which some of the Duke's
sympathisers expiated their treason. The town is nowadays chiefly
dependent upon a large lace works and some collar factories. The
church, which stands in the "old town" (turn down Axminster Road), is
said to have been erected about 1400, and is a spacious Perp. building
without a clerestory. It has a squat W. tower, some good porches (cp.
N. porch with Ilminster), and some bold gargoyles. Within note (1)
squints, (2) rood-loft stair with external turret, (3) indistinct
traces of mural paintings in N. transept, (4) Brewer monument (early
17th cent.) in N. transeptal chapel. The main street contains some
notable examples of domestic architecture--(1) gabled hostelry, "The
Choughs" (opposite street leading to church), (2) fine old house
opposite Town Hall, date about 1580, supposed to have been the court
house of the manor (containing an exceptionally fine room, with two
mullioned windows of 20 lights, and a moulded plaster ceiling), (3)
grammar school, at foot of the town opposite a fountain. A leaden pipe
carries the date 1583, though the present school was not founded till
1671.

_Charlcombe_ is a parish 2 m. N. of Bath, with a very small church,
which has a Norm. S. door. Note (1) the font (probably Norm.), (2) the
massive stone pulpit, (3) the reredos. There is a fine yew tree near
the porch.

_Charlinch_, a parish 5 m. W. of Bridgwater. The second syllable
(recurring in _Moorlinch, Redlynch_) means a level terrace on the side
of a hill; the first is probably a personal name. Its church
illustrates many periods of architecture, for it has a Norm. font and
S. door (with depressed arch), a Trans. chancel arch (pointed), a Dec.
E. window, and Perp. tower, chapel (or transept), and nave windows. The
altar-piece, in memory of Lady Taunton, is a modern copy of the
15th-cent. painter Francia. There are two interesting epitaphs, one on
the S. wall of the chancel, the other on a brass on the floor. There
are also some fragments of ancient glass; and a stone, with a
consecration cross, is built into the porch.

E. of the church, on the road to Wembdon, is _Gothelney Hall_, an old
manor house, with a good front, and walls of great thickness. The
banqueting-hall (now divided into rooms) was on the first floor and had
a minstrel gallery, whilst the chapel was probably at the top of the
tower. There is an interesting collection of portraits of (it is
believed) former owners of the house.

_Charlton Adam_, a village 3 m. E. of Somerton, has a church which
contains a few features of interest. The chancel has two foliated
lancets; in the S. chapel there is the canopied tomb of Thomas Baker
(d. 1592); and in both chancel and chapel are some curious old seats.
Note also (1) the piscina, (2) Norm. font, (3) a Jacobean pulpit, (4)
rudely carved figures in S. porch. There seems to have been here a
chantry of the Holy Spirit from 1348 to 1547.

_Charlton Horethorne_ is a pleasant village 1-1/2 m. N.W. of Milborne
Port Station. The church has a well-proportioned Perp. tower with bold
buttresses; the rest of the building appears to be earlier. Note (1)
the recesses and niches in the N. and S. walls, (2) piscina, (3) heavy
cylindrical font. The church porch is old. In the parish are some
barrows which have been opened and found to contain remains.

_Charlton Mackrell_, 3 m. E. of Somerton, has a cruciform church with a
central tower, in the piers of which are large foliated squints. The
church contains little of interest; but note (1) the roof of the
chancel, with the angels above the corbels, (2) the piscina, (3) the
carved seat-ends (especially the figure of a satyr). The churchyard
cross has figures carved on it, perhaps the symbols of the four
Evangelists. Within the parish but nearer the village of Kingsdon is
_Lytes Cary House_, situated a little distance from the Glastonbury and
Ilchester road. It is an interesting example of domestic architecture,
the chapel dating from 1340, the rest of the building from the 15th
cent. The E. front has two oriels, whilst the S. front, crowned with a
parapet, bears the arms of Lyte (a chevron between 3 swans) and Horsey
(3 horses' heads), and the initials _I, E_ (John Lyte and Edith
Horsey). The chapel has a Dec. window and ruined piscina and stoup. The
hall, now divided by a wall, has a fine roof and cornice. An upper room
retains a good moulded ceiling, decorated with heraldic blazons.

_Charlton Musgrove_, a small village 1 m. N. of Wincanton. The church
is early Perp. and has a fair W. tower. Note (1) panelled chancel arch,
(2) square blocked squint, (3) odd-looking font. One of the bells is
pre-Reformation, and has the inscription _Regina coeli, laetare_.

_Charterhouse on Mendip_, a lonely hamlet at the W. end of the Mendips,
3 m. N.W. of Priddy. Here the Carthusians of Witham had a cell (hence
the name), but all traces of the building have now disappeared. The
locality is, however, still of interest as the scene of the Roman
mining industry. Here lead was unearthed and transported across the
hills for shipment at Uphill. The settlement seems to have been a sort
of Roman "Roaring Camp," where the miners relaxed the tedium of their
exile by the excitements of the gaming-table. The surrounding heaps of
slag have been rich in revelations. Discarded trinkets, spoons, forks,
beads, and dice bear eloquent testimony to their habits, whilst on a
shoulder of the neighbouring upland is an amphitheatre. (Take Blagdon
road and turn up a grassy lane on L.: the amphitheatre is in a field
near the top). The workings have now been abandoned, but many attempts
have been made since Roman times to re-start them. A Roman road is
distinctly traceable in the fields beyond the mines. It ran in a
straight line from Uphill to Old Sarum. The rounded upland on the N.W.,
a mile or so farther on, is Blackdown (1067 ft.), the highest point of
the Mendips.

_Cheddar_, a large village 2-1/2 m. S.E. of Axbridge and 12 S.E. from
Weston-super-Mare. The G.W.R. line from Yatton to Wells has a station
here. There are few to whom Cheddar is not known by name as possessing
one of the most remarkable bits of scenery in the British Isles. The
gorge, the sides of which form the famous cliffs, cleaves the edge of
the Mendips very abruptly, and at its mouth lies the village. The most
impressive introduction to the sight is to approach Cheddar by road
from Priddy and to descend the ravine from the top of the hills, as the
cliffs increase in grandeur in the course of the descent, and the best
is thus kept till last. To the majority of sightseers who arrive by
train this is, of course, a counsel of perfection, but it is as well
that those who ascend from the village should be warned that the top of
the pass emerges upon open tableland, and that nothing remarkable
awaits them at the end of their climb. The grand _cañon_ is only a
quarter of a mile or so from the mouth of the gorge. Here the road
winds in and out like a double S at the foot of the cliffs, which,
gracefully festooned with creepers, tower above the spectator like the
bastions of some gigantic castle. Possibly there are higher walls of
rock elsewhere, but there are none which, for their height, have the
same perpendicularity. In some cases they rise sheer from the roadway
with a vertical face of 450 ft. Unfortunately an energetically worked
quarry has wrecked one side of the ravine, and the clatter of the
machinery detracts considerably from the repose of the scene. Near the
entrance of the pass a detached mass of rock roughly resembling a
crouching lion guards it like a sentinel. At its feet is spread a
pretty little sheet of water fed by subterranean streams. In these
hidden rivulets we have no doubt the instrument which nature has used
to fashion the cliffs. Geologists assert that the gorge is but the
ruins of a collapsed tunnel which once carried the water of some
primeval river. A series of caverns at the entrance of the valley are
vigorously exploited by their owners as "side shows" to this exhibition
of natural marvels. Of these caves _Cox's_, the one nearest the
village, was discovered as early as 1832, and has long been known to
excursionists as one of the sights of Cheddar (entrance fee 1s.). The
stalactites within are highly fantastic in shape and peculiarly rich in
colour. There is, however, more to be seen for the money at _Gough's_,
a little higher up, where a similar charge is made. A long natural
gallery, rendered in places more accessible by excavation, runs for a
quarter of a mile into the heart of the rock and opens up a series of
vast chambers elaborately hung with stalactites. When the electric
light is thrown on these pendants an almost pantomimic effect is
produced. The scientific interest of the cavern consists in the
abundant remains of extinct animals that from time to time have been
discovered here. Amongst other specimens on show at the entrance are
the bones of a pre-historic man unearthed in 1903. At a point along the
gallery will be heard the rumble of a hidden river.

[Illustration: CHEDDAR VILLAGE]

The village itself is not particularly picturesque. In its centre is an
ancient hexagonal cross (cp. Shepton) of no great merit, and much
doctored. The cheeses for which Cheddar is also famous are not the
exclusive product of the locality but are extensively made throughout
Somerset. The church is worth inspection. It is a fine Perp. building,
with a lofty W. tower of four stages. It has triple belfry windows, and
a spired stair turret, but the shallowness of the buttresses detracts
from its impressiveness. Within there is a good coloured roof, some
Perp. screens, a good 15th-cent. stone pulpit (also coloured), some
carved benches, and a rich S. chantry chapel of the Fitz-Walters. In
the sanctuary note the fine piscina and the brasses to the De
Cheddars--one to Sir Thomas on a recessed altar-tomb on the N., and a
smaller one to his wife on the floor below. The piers of the arcade
stand on some curious bases, probably the foundations of earlier
columns. The general effect of the interior is spoilt by the fantastic
modern colouring at the E. end.

_Cheddon Fitzpaine_, a parish 2 m. N.E. of Taunton, preserving, like
Stoke Courcy, Stoke Gomer, Norton Fitzwarren, the name of its Norman
lord. It has a nice church, which, however, contains little that is
noteworthy. The piers of the S. arcade have figures on the capitals
(cp. Taunton St Mary's), and there are a few bench ends and two
piscinas.

_Chedzoy_ (2-1/2 m. from Bridgwater) is, with its neighbour Weston
Zoyland, a village of great historic interest, since between the two is
the field of Sedgemoor. The final _-oy_ is probably identical with the
_-ey_ (isle) which occurs in Athelney and Muchelney, whilst _chedz-_
may be the possessive of _Cedda_, a Saxon personal name. The church of
St Mary well deserves inspection. The embattled tower has double belfry
windows, and is noteworthy for the unusual way in which the buttresses
are finished. From its summit, in 1685, the approach of the royal
troops towards Sedgemoor was discovered through a telescope. Over the
S. porch is the date 1579, and the initials R.B. (Richard Bere, Abbot
of Glastonbury), R.F. (Richard Fox, Bishop of Winchester), and H.P.
(unknown). The interior is remarkable for the difference in the width
of the aisles, which are separated from the nave by an E.E. arcade,
above which there is a clerestory. Over the N. aisle there is a curious
arch, with some defaced carving (apparently a crucifixion) above it.
The chancel originally had a lateral chapel on the S., of which traces
are visible both within and without. On the W. buttress of the S.
transept there are still marks where Monmouth's rustics sharpened their
scythes and axes. On both the S. and N. walls of the church there are
consecration crosses. One of its most notable features is the
excellence of its woodwork: note in particular (1) the bench ends, one
of which has _M_ (Queen Mary), surmounted by a crown, with the date
1559; (2) the lectern, dated 1618; (3) the pulpit, with linen-pattern
carving; (4) the railings near the organ, and the base of the tower,
bearing the dates 1620 and 1637. The rood-screen is partly modern, but
contains some old work. Note also the holy-water stoup, squint,
sedilia, and double piscina. Three altar frontals have been constructed
out of a beautiful cope which was discovered under the pulpit. There is
a good brass (about 1490), said to belong to a Sydenham, near the S.
entrance. Recently (1904) a curious sale took place in accordance with
a custom which is said to have been observed since 1490, when a piece
of land was left to be sold every twenty-one years to provide for the
repairs of the church, the auction to last during the burning of half
an inch of candle, and the last bidder before the candle was consumed
to become the purchaser. A similar method of sale is stated to prevail
at Tatworth, near Chard.

_Chelvey_ is a village 1 m. S.W. of Nailsea Station. Its church, ded.
to St Bridget, preserves a Norm. door within the S. porch, and a Norm.
font on the S. side of the building. There is a large chapel containing
three recesses beneath ogee canopies. Note the corbels on either side
of the chancel to support the Lenten veil, and some curious old seats.
There is some old glass in the windows, and a cross in the churchyard.
In a farmhouse near are the remains of _Chelvey Court_, once the
residence of the Tynte family, who have memorials in the church.

_Chelwood_, a small parish 2 m. S.E. of Pensford. Its little church
contains nothing of interest except an ancient font (probably Norm.)
and a medley of early glass (probably French) in the W. window.

_Cheriton, North_, a pleasant village 3 m. S.W. of Wincanton. It has a
restored church, which preserves a pulpit of Charles I.'s time (1633),
and a tub font. The screen is, in the main, modern, though part dates
from the 15th cent.

_Chesterblade_, 2 m. N.E. of Evercreech, perhaps owes the first part of
its name to its contiguity to the camp on Small Down (mentioned below).
Its church has a Norm. S. door. Note also (1) the quaintly carved Norm.
corbels at the N.E. and S.E. angles of the nave, (2) the Norm. font,
(3) the stone reading-desk (16th cent.), (4) the bell-cot, (5) the base
of a very ancient cross in the churchyard. On the adjoining height of
_Small Down_ there is a camp, defended on the E. side by two ditches.
In it remains of flint implements and pottery have recently been found,
and are now preserved in the Taunton Museum.

_Chew Magna_ (originally Bishop's Chew) is a village on the Chew, 3 m.
W. from Pensford Station. As its appearance suggests, it was once a
small town. The main street has a raised causeway and several old
houses. The church, supposed to have been built by Bishop Beckington,
whose arms appear on the fabric, is a large and stately building with a
lofty Perp. W. tower. It has N. and S. aisles, but no clerestory. The
S. arcade is Dec. A fine gilded Perp. screen stretches right across the
church. Note (1) round-headed piscinas in sanctuary and S. aisle, (2)
Norm. font. There are several interesting monuments: (1) in S. chapel
an elaborate Elizabethan tomb with recumbent effigies of E. Baber and
wife (1575), (2) in N. chapel an altar-tomb with effigies of a gigantic
knight and a diminutive lady (Sir J. St Loe and wife), (3) in recess
beneath window in S. aisle a gaudily painted wooden figure of Sir John
Hautville (_temp._ Henry VII.), said to have been brought from Norton
Hautville Church (see _Stanton Drew_). The churchyard contains the base
of a cross. At the entrance to the churchyard is a fine old mediaeval
building with a good roof, where the manorial courts were once held.
Hard by is _Chew Court_, an old manor house, possessing a Tudor gateway
with a solar above. Down a lane leading off from the Chew Stoke road is
the _Manor House_, rebuilt in 1656 on the site of an earlier residence.

_Chew Stoke_, a village 4-1/2 m. S.W. from Pensford Station. The church
stands back from the road, and has a graceful tower (restored), with
spirelet. The building is Dec., but much restored. On the R. hand side
of lane leading to the church is the old rectory, a quaint 15th-cent.
building, with small octagonal turrets and a front much decorated with
heraldic devices.

_Chewton Mendip_, a prepossessing village, held in some repute by
sightseers, on the N.E. edge of the Mendips, 5 m. N.N.E. from Wells. It
may be reached from either Hallatrow (G.W.R.) or Binegar (S. & D.)
Stations. Its chief attraction is its singularly interesting church,
which possesses one of the most stately towers in the county. This, as
the most meritorious feature, should perhaps be noticed first. The
arrangement of double belfry windows in the _two_ upper stages is
unusual, and the conventional lines of the elaborately pierced parapet
above are relieved by the projecting stair turret and spirelet. The
general effect is rich and impressive. The figure of our Lord,
surrounded by four pairs of adoring angels, over the W. doorway should
also be observed (cp. Batcombe). In the body of the church note should
be taken of the good Norm. doorway forming the N. entrance. The
interior is remarkable for an ugly bit of mediaeval vandalism. To
render the altar observable from all parts of the church, a Norm.
triplet, which once formed the chancel arch, has been mutilated; a
pointed arch has been inserted, and the corner of the S. wall pared
away. The chancel contains the only extant specimen in Somerset of a
_frid stool_, a rough seat let into the sill of the N. window of the
sacrarium for the accommodation of any one claiming sanctuary. Note (1)
piscinas of different dates in chancel; (2) change of design in
arcading of nave, showing subsequent lengthening of church--the earlier
columns stand on Norm. bases; (3) rood-loft doorway and ancient pulpit
stairs near modern pulpit; (4) Jacobean lectern and Bible of 1611. The
"Bonville" chantry, S. of chancel, contains a 15th-cent. altar-tomb
with recumbent effigies of Sir H. Fitzroger and wife, and a modern
mural tablet with medallion to Viscountess Waldegrave. In the
churchyard is a weather-worn but fine cross, with a canopied crucifix.
The Communion plate is pre-Reformation, dating from 1511. The
neighbouring _Priory_ (Earl Waldegrave) is an unpretentious modern
building, occupying the site of an ancient Benedictine house,
afterwards tenanted by Carthusians. Portions of the old causeway which
once connected the priory with the church are still traceable.

_Chilcompton_, a village picturesquely situated at the bottom of a
valley through which flows a rivulet. The stream forms a pretty margin
to the village street. The church was entirely rebuilt in 1839, and a
chancel of better type added in 1897. On the hill above, which commands
an attractive view of the vale, is a station (S. & D.).

_Chillington_, a small village 4 m. N.W. from Crewkerne. It has a Perp.
church possessing an early font and some well-preserved early Communion
plate.

_Chilthorne Domer_, a village 3 m. N.W. of Yeovil, has a small church
with some interesting features. Like the churches of Ashington and
Brympton, it has no tower but a curious square bell-cot over the W.
gable. There is a piscina attached to the N. pier of the chancel arch.
Some of the windows are Dec., and a lancet in the S. wall has the
interior arch foliated. The remains of a second piscina are observable
on the sill of one of the chancel windows. Under a recess in the
chancel is an effigy of a knight in chain armour, supposed to be Sir
William Domer or Dummer (_temp._ Edward I.). The Jacobean pulpit bears
the date 1624.

_Chilton Cantelo_, a village 5 m. N. of Yeovil (nearest stat. Marston
Magna, 2-1/2 m.), which gets its name from the Cantilupe family. The
church, which has been rebuilt, has a good tower, with pinnacled
buttresses and a row of quatrefoils under the belfry storey. The body
of the building retains four piscinas (in the chancel and the two
transepts). Most of the windows have foliated rear arches. Note, too,
the screen and the massive font.

_Chilton-upon-Polden_ a village 1 m. S.E. of Cossington Station,
possessing a church rebuilt in 1888-89.

_Chilton Priory_ is the church-like structure by the side of the main
road from Bridgwater to Wells, about half a mile from Chilton village.
It is a modern building, though incorporating old material said to
belong to a Benedictine priory, and was once a museum. The top of the
tower commands a fine view both of the plain of Sedgemoor and the Brue
Level, with the Quantocks and Mendips in the background.

_Chilton Trinity_, a parish 1-1/2 m. N. of Bridgwater. Its church is of
little antiquarian interest.

_Chinnock, East_, a village 5 m. S.W. of Yeovil, has a church which
retains no remains of antiquity except a piscina and a font.

_Chinnock, West_, 3 m. N.N.E. of Crewkerne, is a parish on the Parrett.
Its church has been wholly rebuilt (1889), the only parts of the
original fabric retained seemingly being a lancet-window in the N. wall
of the chancel and a Perp. one in the S.

Included in this parish is the village of _Chinnock, Middle_, which
lies a little to the E. of W. Chinnock. The church has been restored,
but retains several features of interest. The low embattled tower has a
very wide staircase-turret. The S. door is Norm., with the zigzag
moulding on the jambs and arch, and a carved tympanum. Under one of the
stone seats in the porch is a canopy, protecting the head and shoulders
of a small effigy (apparently an ecclesiastic). There is a (late) Norm.
font, with an unusual moulding. Note, too, an old carved stone built
into the exterior of the N. transept. The gable of the porch carries a
curious sundial (as at Tintinhull).

_Chipstable_, a picturesquely situated village, 3 m. W. from
Wiveliscombe. The church is of ancient origin, but it is difficult to
say how much of the original fabric survives. The Perp. W. tower
appears to have been restored merely, but the nave and aisles were
rebuilt in 1869. The window tracery is good, and the clustered columns
with angel capitals on the S. are noteworthy.

_Chiselborough_, a parish near the Parrett, 4-1/2 m. N.N.E. of
Crewkerne. Its church has a central tower and spire, built over
unusually low E.E. arches, with a groined vault. One of the bells bears
the inscription "_Carmine laetatur Paulus campana vocatur_," and the
name of the maker. The body of the church was rebuilt in 1842. The
chancel is a makeshift.

_Christon_, a parish 3 m. S.W. of Sandford and Banwell Station, has a
small but very interesting church. It is without aisles or transepts,
but has a low central tower. The tower-vault has quadripartite
groining, with curious ornaments at the base of the ribs, and is
supported by two Norm. recessed arches, with double chevron and other
mouldings, resting on fluted pillars. The S. door has likewise a fine
Norm. arch with the lozenge moulding. The chancel windows have rear
foliations. The other windows are modern restorations.

A fine view is obtainable by crossing the hill on the N. which
separates Christon from Hutton.

_Churchill_, a parish 1-1/2 m. E. of Sandford and Banwell Stations.
Like Wellington, it is associated (though perhaps distantly) with one
of the greatest soldiers our history has known, for _Churchill Court_,
a mansion near the church, was once the home of the family from a
branch of which the Duke of Marlborough sprung. The church itself is
not without interest. There are two aisles, separated from the nave by
arcades of different styles. The N. aisle has a good wooden roof,
whilst the S., in which are hung some pieces of armour, contains a
brass (protected by a carpet) to "Raphe Jenyns" and his wife (1572),
who are said to have been ancestors of Sarah Jennings, who became
Duchess of Marlborough. Note (1) the old font, (2) the carved seat
ends, (3) the squint looking from the S. aisle, (4) the monument to
Thomas and Sarah Latch, with a quaint inscription, said to have been
written by Dr Donne.

A little way S.E. of Churchill, on the summit of a conspicuous hill, is
_Dolbury Camp_. It occupies 22 acres, is irregularly oblong in shape,
and is defended by a rampart, constructed of fragments of limestone
piled together, outside of which is a ditch, traceable in places. The
camp is presumably British in origin, but was used by the Romans, who
seem to have made their ramparts within the British earthwork.

_Clandown_, a small unlovely village on a hillside a little to the R.
of the Bath road, 1-1/2 m. N. from Radstock. The church, which is
almost screened from observation by the workings of a colliery, is a
small, modern building, rather foreign in appearance. The Fosse Way
strikes right through the village, and may here be inspected with
advantage. The modern Bath road deserts the Roman trackway to make an
easier descent into Radstock, but the Roman road, _more suo_,
regardless of obstacles, clambered up hill and down dale, and made
straight for Stratton. The lane which passes in front of the
post-office and mounts the opposite embankment keeps the line of the
original route.

_Clapton-in-Gordano_, a parish 4 m. N.E. of Clevedon. The description,
_in Gordano_, still attached to four places in this neighbourhood,
Clapton, Easton, Walton, and Weston, and formerly affixed to Portbury
and Portishead besides, goes back to the 13th cent. The prevailing
English form seems to have been _Gorden_ or _Gordene_, and the name was
probably applied to the triangular vale in which all these places are
situated, from _gore_, a wedge-shaped strip of land (cp. the
application of the term to a triangular insertion in a garment), and
_dean_ or _dene_, a valley (as in Taunton Dean). Clapton Church and
manor house are both of considerable antiquity. The church has a plain
W. tower, which is said to be of the 13th cent., though the main
building has Perp. windows; it contains a large monument to the Winter
family. At the entrance to the tower is a curious wooden screen, which
is not ecclesiastical but domestic, and originally belonged to _Clapton
Court_, the 14th-cent. manor house mentioned above, which is near the
church.

_Clatworthy_, a village 4 m. N.W. from Wiveliscombe. The church is a
small Dec. building, of no particular interest, though it contains an
ancient font. About a mile away is an encampment.

_Claverton_ (said to be a corruption of _Clatfordton_; cp. Clatworthy)
is a parish 3 m. E.S.E. of Bath, situated near the Avon in very
picturesque surroundings. In 1643 it had its peace rudely disturbed by
an engagement between the Parliament forces (under Sir W. Waller) and
the Royalists. The parish church, which has a squat tower surmounted by
a gable, contains within the chancel rails the coloured effigies of Sir
W. Bassett and his wife, whilst in the churchyard is buried Ralph
Allen, the friend of Fielding and Pope. His tomb is under an ugly
canopy, supported on arches. Above the village, to the N.W., is
_Hampton Down_, where there is a large British encampment.

_Cleeve_, a parish 2 m. E. from Yatton, on the Bristol and Bridgwater
road, with a modern church. Near it is _Goblin Combe_ (take the road
that leaves the highway near the "Lord Nelson" inn, and when past a
schoolhouse enter through a gate). It is a long cleft in the mountain
limestone, wild and solitary, and covered with tangled vegetation. The
whole neighbourhood round is picturesque.

[Illustration: ENTRANCE TO CLEEVE ABBEY]

_Cleeve Abbey_, the ruins of a Cistercian monastery, 1/2 m. S. from
Washford Station (G.W.R. branch to Minehead). Leave the station by the
Taunton road, and take first turning to R. It is only recently that
these interesting remains have been rescued from the farmer and made
accessible to the public. The abbey was founded in 1188. With the
proverbial monkish eye for a fine situation and a trout stream, its
builders set it in a fertile valley, to which old chroniclers gave the
name of the Flowery Vale. Contrary to the usual fate of such ruins, the
domestic portions of the monastery have survived; the church has gone.
Entrance is gained through a gatehouse standing well apart from the
main block of buildings. It is generally believed to have been a kind
of combined guest-house and porter's lodge, where the casual visitor
found temporary entertainment. Over its hospitable doorway is graven
the salutation "_Patens porta esto, nulli claudaris honesto_" (This
gate shall ever open be To all who enter honestly). The floor which
divided the upper chamber from the passage below has disappeared. Note
on the front face (1) Perp. window; (2) empty niche; (3) niched figure
of Virgin and Child; and on the back (1) name of the last abbot,
Dovell; (2) crucifix flanked by two empty niches. Crossing a rough
field, the visitor enters the monastery proper by a doorway pierced in
the cloister wall. (Admission 1s. for one, 6d. for each additional
person.) The entrance opens at once into the quadrangle. Immediately on
the L. are the W. cloisters (Perp.), once surmounted by the sleeping
apartments of the lay brothers. Opposite on the E., and easily
distinguishable by its E.E. lancet windows, is the large dormitory
which occupies the whole length of the upper storey of the E. side of
the quadrangle. The chambers beneath this on the ground floor should be
carefully inspected. In succession, from L. to R., are (1) sacristy,
lighted by a broken rose window and containing a painted piscina and
aumbry; (2) treasury; (3) chapter-house, partly vaulted and entered
from the quadrangle by a beautiful E.E. doorway; (4) library and
staircase to dormitory; (5) a passage; (6) entrance to monastic common
room. This last was a kind of parlour running under the S. end of the
dormitory and divided from it by a vaulted ceiling of which only the
supporting piers now remain. On the R., or S. side, of the quadrangle
is the refectory, the most striking feature of the whole group of
buildings. It is a beautiful room, finely proportioned, and well
lighted by some lofty Perp. windows. It still retains its original roof
and some faded wall paintings. Note the stairs for reader's pulpit, and
contrast outer doorway of entrance staircase with doorway of dormitory.
The basement below is taken up by various offices of E.E. date, and the
rest of the block consists of the buttery, abbot's lodgings, and
kitchens. The "lie" of the refectory (parallel with the church) is
unusual for a Cistercian house, but it is the exception which proves
the rule, for in the garden outside, standing in the orthodox position
at right angles to the present structure, is the tiled floor of the
original building. The church stood on the N. side of the quadrangle
and was divided from the cloister garth by a blank wall in which will
be noticed a recess. It has now entirely disappeared, but the site may
be inspected by passing through an opening at the N.E. corner of the
quadrangle. The foundations are traceable, and a few fragments of the
tiled pavement and the bases of the piers are still visible. A stone
cross in the turf marks the site of the high altar.

_Cleeve, Old_, village half way between Washford Station and Blue
Anchor, 5 m. from Minehead. From the Minehead road the church tower
will be seen picturesquely protruding above the trees. The village has
nothing to recommend it but its rural seclusion. The church has a fair
Perp. W. tower, in which the usual string course is replaced by a band
of quatrefoils. Within, it contains by N. wall under an ogee canopy an
effigy in lay costume (cp. Norton St Philip), with a cat at its
feet--perhaps some local Dick Whittington. Note also (1) foliated
squint; (2) good Perp. font. In the porch are some rough oak benches.
The churchyard contains the base and shaft of a cross, and the remains
of another cross will be passed on the road to Washford. Between here
and Blue Anchor is an ancient lady chapel, once a shrine of
considerable local repute.

[Illustration: CLEVEDON]

CLEVEDON, a watering-place 12 m. W. of Bristol, reached by a line from
Yatton. A light railway thrown across the intervening mud flats
connects it directly with Weston. The population in 1901 was 5898. Like
Weston, Clevedon is the outcome of the modern craze for health resorts.
It is now a fashionable collection of comfortable villas, profusely
disposed over the W. and N. slopes of a range of hills which run with
the channel on its way to Bristol. Though approached on the E. by miles
of uninviting marshes, the situation of the town is pleasant and
picturesque. Clevedon offers several points of contrast with its
enterprising rival and neighbour. Besides other things it retains some
remnants of ruder days. A humble row of cottages to the L. of the
station, and an ancient church dumped down in a hollow of the W.
headland, preserve the savour of a former simplicity. To one of these
"pretty cots" Coleridge is said to have brought his bride in 1795. The
reputed house still stands in Old Church Road, but the identification
is now questioned. Along the sea-front there is a pleasant little
promenade, flanked with turf and shrubs. The shore is rocky, and though
the ebb tide uncovers a considerable stretch of mud in the bay, along
the road to Walton the sea is never far away, even at low water. There
is nothing romantically bold about the coast scenery, but it is
pervaded by an air of quiet retirement much in keeping with its
literary associations. The esplanade leads at one end to a pleasant
walk along the cliffs in the direction of Walton, and at the other to a
pathway across the meadows towards the "old church." The main interest
of the church is its association with "In Memoriam," but
archaeologically, too, it is well worth a visit. It is a building with
a low central tower, which is pierced with some Norm, belfry windows,
and rests upon fine Norm. arches N. and E., cut with rather unusual
mouldings. The pointed arches leading to the nave and S. transept are
later (14th cent.). The arcading of the nave is peculiar; above is a
Perp. clerestory. A quaint little altar-tomb, with recumbent effigy of
a child, stands on the S. side of the tower arch, and within the arch
is a slab with the rudely incised figure of a knight. The S. transept
(Dec.) is spacious. Beneath its floor lie the hero of "In Memoriam" and
his father, H. Hallam, the historian. The memorial tablets in marble
are hung against the W. wall. Note also the roof corbels, the windows,
and the founder's niche. The corresponding chapel on the N. is
unusually small, and deserves notice (observe window at E.). In the
nave remark (1) Dec. W. window, defaced to carry modern glass, (2)
stone pulpit and adjoining window. In the porch is a staircase, said to
have once led to a priest's chamber over the S. aisle. The other
churches in the town are modern.

_Clevedon Court_, "one of the most valuable relics of early domestic
architecture in England," dates from the reign of Edward II. It
underwent both restoration and extension in the days of Elizabeth, and
has been considerably modified since. The porch (containing a
portcullis groove), hall, and kitchen are part of the original fabric.
A room in the first floor, with a window of reticulated tracery, is
believed to have been the chapel. The place is, of course, closely
associated through the Hallams with Tennyson, and Thackeray worked at
"Esmond" whilst a visitor here. The grounds are open to the public on
Thursdays, _Walton Castle_, on the top of a hill E. of Clevedon, is an
old house, octagonal in shape, and surrounded by a low wall with round
towers at the angles. The hill offers a very picturesque view.

[Illustration: CLIFTON SUSPENSION BRIDGE]

_Clifton Suspension Bridge_, one of the famous sights of Bristol. It is
a structure of remarkable grace, thrown across the gorge of the Avon,
which affords a much-needed means of communication between the Somerset
and Gloucestershire banks of the river. The history of the bridge is a
strange record of commercial vicissitudes. It was originally projected
by a Mr Vick of Bristol (d. 1753), who, with an inadequate conception
of the cost, left £1000 for its construction, which was to be
undertaken when the accumulated earnings of the sum had multiplied it
tenfold. In 1830, the amount in the bank was £8000, and an Act of
Parliament was obtained sanctioning the raising of additional capital,
With £45,000 in hand, the work was commenced under the direction of
Brunel; but funds gave out long before the bridge was complete. For
thirty years the work was at a standstill, but in 1861 another start
was made, and in 1864 the bridge was opened for traffic. The supporting
chains, which were brought from old Hungerford Bridge, are thrown over
lofty turrets, resting in one case on a projecting bastion of rock, and
in the other on a solid pier of masonry. These slender suspenders carry
a roadway and two footpaths across a span of 700 feet. The bridge
stands 245 feet above high-water level, and its altitude seems to
furnish an irresistible temptation to people of a suicidal tendency.
The prospect from the footway is extraordinarily impressive. Looking
down the river, the spectator commands the romantic gorge of the Avon,
and turning round he can view the panorama of Bristol shut in on the
right by the lofty height of Dundry.

_Cloford_, a small village, 2 m. N.E. of Wanstrow. The church, rebuilt
in 1856, has a tiny side chapel, containing a monument to Maurice
Horner (d. 1621), and a tablet with some quaint-coloured busts to Sir
G. Horner and his wife (1676).

_Closworth_, a village 2 m, S.E. of Sutton Bingham (L. & S.W.). The
church is Perp. In the churchyard is the shaft of a cross. The rectory
bears date 1606.

_Clutton_, a parish (with station) 2 m. S. of Bristol, with collieries
in its neighbourhood. The church has been rebuilt (1865), but preserves
a good Trans. S. doorway, and a chancel arch of the same date. The
tower, rebuilt in 1726, is constructed of rather curious stone.

_Coker, East_, a village 3 m. S.S.W. from Yeovil. The church and hall
are prettily grouped together on rising ground above the roadway. The
church is chiefly Perp. with debased transepts and a N.E. tower of the
same character but greater dignity. Note (1) cylindrical arcade on S.,
(2) panelled arches to transept, (3) old oak door on N., (4) Norm, font
with cable moulding. In the churchyard is the effigy of a woman, and
another old tomb with incised figure stands near the church door. The
_Court_ hard by is a modernised 15th-cent. hall. A dignified row of
17th-cent. alms-houses lines the common roadway to the church and
court. Near the bridge on the Yeovil road is the old manor house, now a
farm. It has a two-storeyed Perp. porch and some good windows. It was
the birthplace of Dampier, the navigator (1652). A Roman pavement,
bronzes, and coins have been discovered in the neighbourhood. _Naish
Priory_, 1-1/2 m. away, is now a private residence. It retains its
chapel and one or two other relics of its early conventual days. It is
assigned to the 14th cent. or 15th cent.

_Coker, West_, a large village 3 m. S.W. of Yeovil, on the London and
Exeter road. The church is spacious, with an unusually low tower; some
small windows in the turret are of horn. The body of the church seems
to be partly Dec. and partly Perp. It contains some seats dated 1633,
and a monument to two daughters of Sir John Portman. In the village is
a 14th-cent. manor house, formerly belonging to the Earls of Devon.

_Coleford_ (4 m. S. from Radstock) is an unattractive colliery village,
with a modern church (1831). The tower is of fair design.

_Combe Down_ (a large parish 2 m. S.E. from Bath) possesses some large
freestone quarries. The church is modern (1835).

_Combe Florey_, a very pretty village 1-1/2 m. N.W. of Bishop Lydeard
Station, which gets its name from the Floreys, the ancient owners of
the manor. Its church, Perp. in the main, contains some interesting
memorials. There are three effigies in the N. aisle--a knight (supposed
to be one of the Merriet family, to which the manor passed from the
Floreys) and two ladies (perhaps his successive wives). In the N. wall
the heart of a lady, "Maud de Merriette," who was a nun of Cannington,
is recorded to have been buried. On the floor at the W. end of the N.
aisle is a brass to Nicholas Francis, who possessed the manor
subsequently to the Merriets. Sydney Smith was rector here (1829-45),
and the glass in the E. window is in memory of him. Note also (1)
angels on piers of arcade (cp. St Mary's, Taunton), (2) carved seat
ends, (3) restored cross in churchyard. In the village is a Tudor manor
house.

_Combe Hay_, a small village 1-1/2 m. N. of Wellow. The Paulton Canal
here boldly climbs the hillside by a series of locks. The church, which
has been much altered and enlarged, is the burial-place of Sir Lewes
Dyves, the defender of Sherborne Castle.

_Combe St Nicholas_ (21 m. N.W. of Chard) has a spacious Perp. church,
preserving in the N. aisle a jamb of a doorway belonging to the
original Norm. church, and in the chancel a piscina of the succeeding
E.E. building. There are also piscinas in the N. and S. chapels. Near
the organ are some remains of the old rood-screen, whilst two ancient
fonts are kept in the W. end of the church. In the neighbourhood some
barrows have been discovered, and at _Higher Wadeford_ a Roman pavement
has been found, forming part of a villa.

_Compton Bishop_, a small parish under the shadow of Crook's Peak, 2 m.
W.N.W. of Axbridge. The church contains a Norm. font (with a wooden
cover dated 1617) and some E.E. work (note especially the jambs of the
S. doorway and the fine double piscina). There is a very good carved
stone pulpit, some ancient glass in the E. window, and a cross with
traces of carving on the shaft.

_Compton Dando_, a small village on the Chew, 2-1/2 m. E. of Pensford.
The church is of 14th-cent. workmanship, but the chancel and S. porch
respectively bear the dates 1793 and 1735 (probably referring to
repairs). Within is a piscina and Norm. font. The churchyard contains a
good sundial.

_Compton Dundon_, a village 5 m. S. from Glastonbury Station (S. & D.),
on the main road to Somerton. In the centre of the village of Compton
is the remnant of an old cross. The church, in the hamlet of Dundon, is
half a mile away on higher ground at the foot of Dundon Beacon. It has
a Perp. nave and a Dec. chancel, with a fine E. window. The whole
fabric has been carefully restored. There is a good specimen of a
Caroline pulpit (1628), let into the N. wall, and reached by means of
the rood stairway. The sanctuary contains a sedile and piscina, and a
stoup and a rougher piscina will be found in the nave. In the
churchyard is a very fine yew tree, locally credited with an age of
almost 1000 years.

To the E. of the church rise the wooded sides of _Dundon Beacon_, a
striking-looking hill with the summit encircled by a camp. A cist,
containing a skeleton and some metal rings, is said to have been
discovered here.

_Compton Martin_, a village 3 m. E.S.E. of Blagdon. The church is quite
remarkable, and is one of the finest bits of Norm. work in the county.
The nave is entirely late Norm., and possesses the unusual feature of a
clerestory. The fine arcades, with their cylindrical columns and
circular abaci, are too obvious to escape notice, but particular
attention should be paid to the twisted pillar on the N.E. The chancel
has an extremely low quadripartite vault, the effect of which is rather
spoilt by the distortion of the chancel arch through some defect in the
foundations. The aisles are Perp., and the one on the S. curiously
encloses the clerestory. Note (1) the junction of the Perp. arch and
Norm. pillars, (2) recessed effigy of a lady at E. end of N. aisle, (3)
semi-circular recess, probably for additional altar (cp. Cudworth); (4)
Norm. font on a fluted pedestal, (5) Perp. screen, said to have been an
importation. There is a Perp. W. tower of weak design and poor
workmanship, opening into the nave by a panelled arch.

_Compton Pauncefote_, a village 2-1/2 m. from Sparkford. It lies in
pretty country, and has a church to which the possession of a slender
spire adds picturesqueness. Internally there is little that calls for
remark. There is a squint in one of the piers, and a piscina in the
chancel.

_Congresbury_ (pronounced Coomsbury), a parish 2 m. S. of Yatton. It is
said by tradition to derive its name from St Congar, an Eastern prince
who took refuge here to avoid an unwelcome marriage, and became a
hermit. In Alfred's time the village had a monastery, given by the king
to Asser. The church has a W. tower surmounted by a good spire, a rare
feature in Somerset. The S. arcade is E.E., with modern detached
shafts, which, unlike the original which they have replaced, do not
support the arches above them. The N. arcade is later (early Perp.).
The clerestory is rather unusual, with curious coloured figures between
the windows. Note (1) the parvise or gallery over the S. porch, (2) the
elaborate sedilia and double piscina, (3) the rood-screen on a stone
base, (4) the Norm. font.

Near the church is the _Vicarage House_, with a fine carved doorway on
the S. side (15th cent.), bearing, amongst other heraldic devices, that
of Bishop Beckington. There are the remains of two ancient crosses, one
in the churchyard, the other in the roadway.

_Corfe_, a parish 3-1/2 m. S. of Taunton. It has a church which was
originally of Trans. character, but has been completely restored, the
only remains of the early building being part of the chancel, two
corbels in the nave, and a fine font bowl. The bells are ancient, and
have inscriptions.

_Corston_, a village 4 m. W. of Bath (nearest stat. Saltford, 1 m.).
Southey was at school here, and did not like it, but the place seems
pleasant enough to the casual visitor. The church, which has been
altered and enlarged, has an E.E. chancel and W. tower, capped by a
short octagonal spire. Note large unique foiled piscina built into the
E. wall of the church, and Norm. doorway.

_Corton Denham_, a village 2-1/2 m. E. of Marston Magna. The church is
modern, but stands on the site of the original fabric. Its tower is
good, and, standing against the green hillside beyond, makes a pretty
addition to the landscape. The fragment of a canopy will be noticed
built into a wall on the road-side. Some Roman remains have been found
in the neighbourhood.

_Cossington_, a picturesque village on the Poldens, with a station on
the S. & D.J.R. Its church is beautifully situated, but retains little
to interest the antiquarian, except a brass of the 16th cent.

_Cothelstone_, a parish at the base of the Quantocks, 2 m. N.N.W. of
Bishop's Lydeard Station, has a church dedicated to St Thomas of
Canterbury. Its most interesting feature is a large S. chapel,
separated from the nave by two arches supported on a Norm. or Trans.
pier, and containing two tombs (each with the effigies of a knight and
lady) belonging to the Stawell family. The one dates from the 14th, the
other from the 16th cent., and both are well worth examining. Note also
(1) stoup, (2) fine Perp. font, (3) large squint, (4) some good
bench-ends, (5) medallions of ancient glass, with figures of St Thomas
a Becket, St Dunstan, St Aldhelm, etc.

Adjoining the church is _Cothelstone Manor_, the home of the Stawells,
a Jacobean house, partially destroyed by Blake in the Civil War. It is
built round three sides of a quadrangle, the fourth being occupied by a
curious gatehouse or porter's lodge. Note the banded mullions of the
windows. On the arch by the road Judge Jeffreys hung two adherents of
Monmouth's by way of retort to Lord Stawell for remonstrating with him
for his cruelty. On the S. extremity of the Quantocks is _Cothelstone
Beacon_. a round tower, which is a conspicuous object from the valley.
The site affords a fine prospect over Taunton Dean and the adjoining
levels.

_Coxley_, a village 2 m. S. from Wells, served by Polsham Station, on
the S. & D. branch to Glastonbury. The church is modern (1839).

_Cranmore, East_, 1 m. E. from Cranmore Station (G.W.R.), has a small
modern church in close proximity to _Cranmore House_ (Sir R. Paget). On
the summit of the neighbouring hill is a tower, one of the most
conspicuous objects on the E. Mendip range. It is a square structure,
with projecting balconies, built in 1862. Though of no artistic merit,
it is worth a visit on account of the extensive panorama which it
commands.

_Cranmore, West_, a village with station on the G.W. branch line to
Wells. The church has a good Perp. W. tower of the Shepton type, with
triple belfry windows. Within is an ancient bier and some monuments to
the Strode family.

_Creech St Michael_ is a village lying 3 m. E. of Taunton, on the edge
of the alluvial plain, and perhaps owes its name to an inlet of the sea
which once covered the latter. The embankment which is cut by the road
from Taunton once carried the Chard Canal. The church, which is said to
date from the 12th cent., looks as if it had once been cruciform, with
a central tower. The latter is supported on piers, three of which are
E.E., and the fourth Perp. The present nave is Perp., but there is an
E.E.S. door, concealed by a porch. The chancel arch is exceptionally
wide, and there is an unusual number of niches. Note (1) the carved
reading-desk (1634), (2) the bench-ends in the choir, (3) the oak
cornice, (4) the tomb of Robert Cuffe (d. 1597), (5) carving on face of
the tower.

CREWKERNE, a market town of 4226 inhabitants, at the S. extremity of
the county, on the borders of Dorset. The station, on the L. & S.W.
line, is a mile away. Crewkerne is a clean and compact little place,
with some reputation for the manufacture of sailcloth, twine, and
shirts. The streets conveniently converge upon a central market-place.
It has, however, few features of interest, with the exception of its
church, which stands on rising ground above the market-place. This is a
fine cruciform structure, with a central tower and a quite remarkable
W. front. The doorway is enriched on either side by carved niches, and
flanked by a pair of octagonal turrets. The W. window is good, and is
surmounted by a niched dragon, which has lost its companion, St George.
Externally should also be noted (1) the vigorous, though defaced,
series of gargoyles above the S. porch, representing an amateur
orchestra; (2) the remains of a stoup; (3) the curious chamber at the
S.E. end of the S. transept. This last is a unique feature; it is
supposed to have been the cell of an anchorite. Beneath the E. window
is a railing which marks the former existence of a sacristy (cp.
Porlock, N. Petherton, Ilminster). The original doorways communicating
with it will be noticed inside. The interior is a trifle disappointing,
and contains few features of interest. Observe, however, (1) wooden
groining to tower, (2) windows and roof of N. transept, (3) ancient
square font on modern base. In the S. transept there are traces of an
earlier church: here, too, note the image of St George. There are
several brasses, but none of much interest. The earliest, on the
chancel wall, bears date 1525. One in the S. transept carries a crest
with a ludicrous resemblance to a well-known advertisement. Note also
two old chests. On the N. side of the churchyard is an old building,
once the grammar school, founded 1499. Some spacious new buildings for
the school have now been erected outside the town, on the Yeovil road.
The road to Chard, which crosses St Rayne's and Windwhistle Hills, is a
breezy highway, and affords an extensive prospect.

_Cricket Malherbie_, a parish 3 m. N.E. of Chard. The church is a
handsome modern building with a spire.

_Cricket St Thomas_, 3-1/2 m. E. of Chard, is a parish with a small
church charmingly situated above a valley through which flows the
Dorset Axe. It has a monument to Alexander Hood, Viscount Bridport, and
another to the Rev. William, Earl Nelson, brother of the famous
admiral. _Cricket House_ once belonged to Viscount Bridport, but is now
the property of F.J. Fry.

_Croscombe_, a quaint-looking village midway between Shepton and Wells,
situated in the pretty valley which connects the two towns. The name
perhaps comes from the Celtic _cors_, a marsh or marshy ground. The
church is late Perp., with aisles, clerestory, and a battlemented W.
tower with a good spire. The tower parapet has niches, some of which
still retain their figures. There is an E.E. doorway to the S. porch.
Within note (1) the unusual feature of a two storeyed vestry (cp.
Shepton), (2) curious little chamber at N.E. with ribbed stone roof.
The building, however, is chiefly remarkable for its elaborate display
of Jacobean woodwork. The screen is a fearful and wonderful piece of
carving, reaching almost to the roof, and the pulpit (the gift of
Bishop Lake, 1616) is of quite barbaric impressiveness. The dark oak
roof of the chancel is of the same date. Some fine candelabra hang from
the roof beams. The remains of a village cross stand at the bottom of
the pathway leading to the church. An old house at the Shepton end of
the village was an ancient hostelry, and is worth inspection. Behind
the church is the old manor house with a Perp. window. Overhanging the
road to Shepton is _Ham Wood_.

_Crowcombe_, a village 2 m. N. of Crowcombe Heathfield Station, and
1-1/2 m. E. of Stogumber, has a church ded. to the Holy Ghost. The roof
of the S. porch is covered with fine tracery and has a large room above
it, reached from within the church by a staircase in a recess topped by
a turret. Note (1) the large late Perp. windows; (2) the fine
bench-ends (one showing a man slaying a dragon, and another bearing the
date 1534); (3) the splendid octagonal font with carved figures on each
face; (4) the piscinas in chancel and S. aisle. There is a small
ancient screen and a modern reredos. The N. chapel belongs to the Carew
family. In the churchyard there is a good cross (13th cent.) with
niches on the shaft filled with figures now much worn. There is another
cross in the centre of the village. Opposite the church is an old
pre-Reformation building, the basement of which served as an
alms-house, and the upper floor as a school. It is now unfortunately
quite ruinous.

_Cucklington_ is a parish 3 m. E. of Wincanton, standing on a high
ridge. The church (St Lawrence) has the tower on the S. side, having
been reconstructed, after damage received in a storm, in 1703. The
arcade is severely plain, and is perhaps 13th-cent. work. The font is
Norm. The E. window of the chancel consists of three lancets. There is
a little ancient glass in the E. window of the S. chapel. The figure in
this window represents St Barbara, who is reputed to have suffered
martyrdom in the 3rd or 4th cent.; notice in her left hand the tower,
which is one of her emblems. St Barbara is said to be the patron saint
of hills; hence perhaps her connection with Cucklington.

_Cudworth_, a small isolated hamlet 3 m. S.E. of Ilminster. The church
is a very plain building without a tower, chiefly Perp., but retaining
some Dec. work, and examples of the still earlier Norm. period. Note
(1) Norm. doorway of the 12th cent.; (2) blocked doorway on the S.,
with gabled weather moulding; (3) very curious round-headed recess
beneath E. window of N. aisle, lighted by a tiny round-headed slit; (4)
piscina with stone shelf above; (5) Norm. bases to arcade columns; (6)
Norm. font.

_Culbone_, a small parish 9-1/2 m. W. of Minehead. It is reached from
Porlock Weir by a woodland walk of a mile along the coast, through the
Ashley Combe estate. Its little Perp. church is remarkable more for its
unusual and picturesque situation (by the side of a delightful combe)
and its diminutive size (35 ft. x 12 ft.) than for any great
architectural interest, though it contains some Norm. work in its font
and a chancel window of two lights, cut in a single stone. The
churchyard contains the base of a cross. The pathway from the Weir is
unfortunately very much broken by a landslip at one point, and
difficult for ladies to traverse.

_Curland_ is a scattered parish 6 m. S.E. from Taunton, on the road to
Chard (nearest stat. Hatch Beauchamp, 3 m.). Its church (restored) is
noteworthy for its small size but for nothing else.

_Curry Mallet_, a parish 2-1/2 m. E. of Hatch Beauchamp Station, gets
its distinguishing name from the same Norman lords who once owned
Shepton Mallet and who had a castle here. Its church, which has a good
deal of panel-work, contains a large altar-tomb, and some quaint
17th-cent. mural monuments. Note piscina in N. aisle.

_Curry, North_, is a considerable and attractive village, 2 m. S.E. of
Durston, lying off the main roads. It has a fine church resembling in
plan its neighbour of Stoke St Gregory, being cruciform, with a central
octagonal tower. In the main it is Perp., but preserves earlier work in
the N. door (Norm.), the base of the tower (E.E.), and the S. transept
(which has a Dec. window). Note (1) the fine S. porch; (2) the effigies
N. of the chancel and in the N. aisle; (3) piscina in N. aisle. Read,
too, the account (preserved in the vestry) of the _Reeves' Feast_,
dating from the time of King John, but discontinued in 1868. The
churchyard cross has a modern shaft on an old base.

_Curry Rivel_, 2 m. W.S.W. of Langport, is a large village with an
interesting church. It has a lofty tower, with the belfry window
intersecting the string course; the arch is panelled and the vault
groined. There is also a fine groined vault to the S. porch (which has
a good stoup outside). The oldest portion of the church is the N.
chapel, which has a good deal of Dec. work (note the ball-flower
ornament). This chapel contains three foliated recesses in the N. wall,
each with an effigy (said to belong to the L'Orti family), and also a
tomb of Robert Jennings (d. 1593). Between the chapel and chancel is
another tomb of later date with effigies of Marmaduke and Robert
Jennings, surrounded by figures of their families. Both the N. and S.
chapels retain their piscinas and have screens. There is some fine
ancient glass in the N. aisle; and both this and the S. aisle have good
roofs. Note, too, the bench-ends.

The tall column, visible from the Taunton road, is the _Parkfield
Monument_, erected in 1768 by the Earl of Chatham to the memory of Sir
William Pynsent, who bequeathed to him the neighbouring estate of
Burton.

_Cutcombe_, a large parish 7 m. S.W. from Dunster. It includes Wheddon
Cross, the highest point of the road between Dunster and Minehead
(nearly 1000 ft. above sea-level). The scenery is very beautiful,
Dunkery being a conspicuous feature in the prospect. The church, which
is 1/2 m. from the main road, has undergone extensive restoration, and
has for the archaeologist little interest. In the graveyard is the base
of an ancient cross, with modern shaft and head.

_Dinder_, a village 2 m. E. of Wells, picturesquely situated in the
valley which runs up from the city to Shepton. The church (Perp.) forms
a graceful addition to the landscape. Within is a Jacobean stone pulpit
(1621), and there is some old glass in a window above it. In the
churchyard is the base of a cross with modern shaft. _Dinder House_
stands directly in front of the house, and another mansion,
_Sharcombe_, crowns the hill behind. The serrated ridge on the other
side of the Wells road is _Dulcot Hill_.

_Ditcheat_, a village 1-1/4 m. S.W. of Evercreech Junction. Both the
church and the former rectory are interesting. The church is cruciform,
with an embattled central tower, crowned by a small pyramidal cap, and
is remarkable for possessing a clerestory to the chancel as well as the
nave. The building seems to have been originally Norm.; but the present
chancel is Dec. (note the lower windows, with their rear foliations),
and both it and the rest of the fabric were altered in the 15th cent.,
when the Perp. clerestory was added. Features to be observed are (1)
effigies on W. face of the tower, (2) groined tower-vault, (3) wooden
roof, with traces of paint and gilding, (4) fine wooden pulpit and
reading-desk of Charles I.'s time, (5) initials of John Selwood, Abbot
of Glastonbury (1456-93), on the chancel parapet. The house which was
once the rectory, was built by John Gunthorpe, Dean of Wells, in the
15th cent. (his monogram appears on one of the windows), though it has
undergone subsequent enlargement. The thickness of the walls is
noteworthy.

_Dodington_, a small parish 7 m. E. of Williton. It has a small church,
retaining a fine stoup and some fragments of ancient glass in the E.
window. Not far from it is a fine and well-preserved Elizabethan manor
house, dating from 1581. It contains a noble hall, with fine oak roof
and screen, minstrel gallery, and a large fireplace (1581), and two
smaller rooms, one of which opens from the hall by a 15th-cent. stone
doorway, which must have been transferred from elsewhere. Of these two
rooms the one has a good oak roof, and the other a curious plaster
cornice.

_Dolbury Camp_. See _Churchill_.

_Donyatt_, a village on the Ile, 2 m. S.W. of Ilminster, from which it
is most directly approached by a footpath. The church is Perp., and has
been well restored. There is a stoup at the W. entrance, and another in
the N. chapel. Note the foliage round the capitals of the chancel arch.
In the parish are the remains of an old manor house.

_Doulting_, a small village 2 m. E. from Shepton Mallet, on the road to
Frome. Its chief interest lies in its remarkable freestone quarries
from which the mediaeval builders hewed their blocks for the walls of
Wells and Glastonbury. The quarries are still of considerable
commercial importance, as the stone is easily wrought and of great
durability. Here, too, St Aldhelm was seized with a fatal illness and
carried into the church to die. His funeral procession to Malmesbury
was an imposing ecclesiastical function, the "stations" _en route_
being subsequently marked by crosses. A spring in the vicarage garden
is still called St Aldhelm's Well. The church is a small cruciform
building with a central octagonal tower and spire. It has some E.E.
features, but has been largely rebuilt (note the E.E. columns covered
with ivy in churchyard near W. end of church). The N. porch encloses a
Norm. door (note stoup). The S. porch is an elaborate Perp. structure,
beautifully finished and vaulted (cp. Mells). Within the church is a
piscina in S. transept, and a 17th-cent. brass near the vestry door. In
the churchyard opposite the N. porch is a notable sanctuary cross,
bearing the instruments of the Passion (cp. W. Pennard). A few paces
down the Evercreech road is one of the large tithe barns once belonging
to the Abbey of Glastonbury (cp. Pilton).

_Dowlish Wake_, a village at the bottom of a slight declivity 2 m. S.E.
of Ilminster. It owes the second part of its name to the family of
Wake, the last male representative of which died in 1348. The church is
a modern antique, with a central tower partly original (15th cent.).
The N. chapel is also original, and contains some interesting
monuments. These are (1) serpentine tomb with bust of Captain Speke the
African traveller, (2) effigy of a lady (_temp._ Edward I.), under a
recessed cinquefoiled canopy, the cusps of which are worked up into
faces, (3) altar-tomb, with effigies of a knight (in plate armour) and
a lady--believed to be John Speke (d. 1442) and his wife, (4) small
brass on floor to George and Elizabeth Speke (1528). Close by is a rude
font, probably early Norm. It was brought here from West Dowlish as the
only remains of a church which existed there prior to 1700.

_Downhead_, a straggling village 2-1/2 m. N.E. of Cranmore Station. The
church is small and devoid of interest. It has been "restored"
regardless of style.

_Downside_, a scattered parish without a village 1/2 m. S.W. of
Chilcompton station (S. & D.). The church is an ugly little structure,
pseudo-E.E., built in 1837. A quarter of a mile beyond the church in a
field on the right are the "fairy slats." Here is a crescent-shaped
British camp overlooking a picturesque ravine. The precipitous nature
of the ground on the S. side forms a natural defence and accounts for
the incompleteness of the rampart The "slats" are merely slight slits
in the ground caused by the slipping of the unsupported strata. Within
the parish, but contiguous to the village of Stratton, is _Downside
Abbey_, a modern settlement of Benedictine monks, who, after their
expulsion from Douai during the French Revolution, finally found a home
here in 1814. The Abbey Church is a building of noble dimensions but
somewhat lacking in symmetry. It is still incomplete. The present block
consists of choir, transepts, a multitude of chapels, and an unfinished
tower. The choir is rather severe in style, but the chapels are very
elaborate. Attached to the abbey is a large and well-equipped college
for boys.

_Draycott_, a hamlet 4 m. E.S.E. of Axbridge, with a modern church
(note font) and a station that serves Rodney Stoke. The locality
possesses some quarries of a hard kind of conglomerate, capable of a
high polish.

_Drayton_, a village 2 m. S. of Langport. The church has been restored,
and the chief feature of interest connected with it is the fine cross
in the churchyard, with a figure on the shaft of St Michael slaying the
Dragon.

DULVERTON, a market town on the Barle, 21 m. W. from Taunton, pop. (in
1901) 1369. The station on the G.W.R. branch line to Barnstaple is 2 m.
distant. Dulverton is a primitive and not very prepossessing little
place. Its quaintness is quite unpicturesque, and it is generally
unworthy of its situation. It is, however, deservedly beloved of the
angler and the huntsman. It possesses one of the best trout streams in
the W. of England, and its proximity to Exmoor, the haunt of the red
deer, makes it an excellent centre for the chase. But the rod and the
hounds are merely adventitious attractions to Dulverton. Its real merit
lies in its scenery. It not only enjoys undisputed possession of the
lovely valley of the Barle in which it lies, but a short connecting
road enables it to appropriate the beauties of the neighbouring vale of
the Exe. Both torrents descend from the highlands of Exmoor, and it is
difficult to say which is the more beautiful. The valleys are similar,
but have characteristic differences. The Barle has all the piquant
charm of the mountain torrent, whilst the beauties of the Exe are of a
sedater though not less pleasing character. Everywhere about Dulverton
delightful landscapes may be caught, but the "show sight" is Mount
Sydenham, just above the church (ascend lane at E. end of church and
turn in at gate on L. when the first hollow is reached). Dulverton will
find less favour with the antiquarian than with the artist. Such
antiquities as it does possess are more picturesque than important. The
church has been entirely rebuilt (1855) with the exception of the
tower, which is of the plain Exmoor type and is now almost hidden by a
huge sycamore. The other antiquities in the neighbourhood are (1)
_Mouncey Castle_ (a corruption of Monceaux), a rough encampment on the
summit of a wooded hill almost encircled by the Barle, a couple of
miles above Dulverton; (2) the ivy-covered ruins of _Barlynch Priory_,
a branch "cell" from Cleve Abbey, standing in a charming situation on
the banks of the Exe, a mile above Hele Bridge; (3) _Tarr Steps_, a
rude but highly picturesque footbridge over the Barle, 5 m. above
Dulverton. It crosses the river at a ford, and is constructed of large
flag-stones, uncemented, and resting on similar stones placed edgewise.
It is generally regarded as Celtic in origin, and is certainly a great
artistic addition to a charming bit of river. A most delightful walk is
to take the Winsford road through Higher Combe, cross the Barle at Tarr
Steps, and return by the opposite bank through Hawkridge. It is a round
of about 12 m., but well repays the fatigue involved. Another pleasant
excursion is to explore the valley of the Haddeo, a stream which flows
into the Exe from the opposite direction to the Barle, and which fully
maintains the reputation of the neighbourhood for river scenery. Near
Dulverton station is an interesting trout nursery. _Pixton Park_ (in
which there is a heronry) is the seat of the Countess of Carnarvon.

[Illustration: DULVERTON FROM MOUNT SYDENHAM]

_Dundry_, a small village 5 m. S.W. from Bristol, standing on the top
of a lofty hill, 790 ft. high. The church tower, which is a conspicuous
landmark for miles round, was built by the Merchant Venturers, _temp._
Edward. VI. It is a four-storeyed structure of plain design, crowned by
a very elaborate parapet. Its situation is remarkable. The view from
the summit is one of the most famous and extensive in Somerset. Bristol
lies spread out below on the N.E., and beyond are the Severn and the
Monmouthshire hills. On the R. are the highlands of Gloucestershire,
with Beckford's Tower indicating the position of Bath on the verge of
the picture. The S. side commands a different but scarcely less
fascinating landscape. The unbroken line of the Mendips bounds the
prospect in front. Peeping over them on the R. are the Quantocks, and
to the L. lie the Wiltshire Downs. At the foot is a wooded vale dotted
with villages. The church itself (rebuilt in 1861) is without interest.
In the churchyard are the lower portions of a cross, and a huge dole
table (cp. Norton Malreward).

_Dunkerton_, a small colliery village 2-1/2 m. N. from Wellow (S. &
D.), lying in a deep valley. The church has been rebuilt. The chancel
contains a Dec. piscina, and a fragment of diaper-work is inserted in
the porch.

[Illustration: DUNSTER CASTLE AND YARN MARKET]

_Dunster_, a village 24 m. N.W. from Taunton. It has a station 1/2 m.
distant on the G.W. branch line to Minehead. For many people
picturesque Somerset begins with Dunster, and its attractions are
hardly overrated. Here both the artist and the antiquary find
themselves in clover. The quaint wide street, with its gabled houses
commanded at one end by the frowning heights of the castle, and
overlooked at the other by a watch-tower, wears an air impressively
mediaeval. The village was once a noted emporium for cloth, and
"Dunsters" were quoted at reputable prices by every chapman. The
venerable yarn market still stands; the date 1647 is the date of its
repair by the grandson of the builder, George Luttrell. The _Castle_
claims first attention, as the history of Dunster is largely the story
of the Castle. It was, as might be expected, a legacy of the Conquest.
It was built by Wm. de Mohun, and by his successor was made a sad thorn
in the side of King Stephen. It passed into the hands of the Luttrells
(its present possessors) by purchase. In the Civil War it was
alternately held for the Parliament and the king, and in 1546 it was
regarded as Charles's last hope in Somerset. Its resistance was stout;
for 160 days Colonel Wyndham baffled the assaults of no less an
adversary than Blake, and only surrendered on the total collapse of the
Royal cause (p. 17). The grounds are entered under a gateway (Perp.),
built by Sir H. Luttrell. The oldest part of the castle lies to the R.
of this, flanked by two round towers (13th cent.), built by Reginald
Mohun. (Note door and huge knocker, replacing original portcullis:
another similar tower of the same date will be seen from the terrace).
Of the mansion the portion to the R. of the elaborate doorway is the
oldest (Elizabethan); the part to the L. dates from the 18th cent. In
the grounds should be noticed (1) a lemon tree 200 years old, (2)
cypresses, (3) magnificent yew hedge. The view obtainable from the
terrace is varied and comprehensive, embracing mountain, sea, and park.

The Mohuns had ecclesiastical sympathies as well as military ambitions,
for in addition to building the castle, they established a priory here
in connection with Bath Abbey. This explains the peculiarity of Dunster
_Church_, which possesses a separate monastic choir. The prior's
lodging, and the conventual barn and dovecot, may still be seen in a
yard on the N. side of the church. The church has a central tower of
rather weak design. Internally this forms the division between the
secular and monastic portion of the building. The chief feature of the
church is a magnificent rood-screen which spans the whole width of the
structure. It has been the model for many neighbouring imitations. The
western half of the church is Perp., with occasional traces of an
earlier Norm. building. The W. doorway is Norm., and on the W. side of
the tower are the piers of a Norm. chancel arch. At the base of the
tower there is a bit of masonry locally claimed as pre-Norman. The
monastic choir and its sanctuary have been restored from indications of
its original E.E. character. Besides transepts, the church has three
chapels--that of the Holy Trinity on the S., St Mary's on the N., and
beyond this the interesting chantry of St Lawrence, which contains a
fine altar slab and a tiled floor. The monuments which call for notice
are (1) in the monastic choir the effigy of a lady (said to be one of
the Everard family), under a canopy; (2) on the N. of the sanctuary the
recumbent figures of Sir Hugh Luttrell and wife (1428-33); (3) at E.
end of the Chapel of Holy Trinity an incised slab with figure of Lady
Eliz. Luttrell (1493); and (4) on S. of same chapel an altar with two
pairs of recumbent figures, also Luttrells. A small brass with the
figures of a man and woman will be found at the W. end of the S. aisle,
bearing date 1470. In addition to features already mentioned, note (1)
the unique E.E. arch at entrance of S. chapel, widened by Perp.
builders for ritual purposes; (2) old alms and muniment chests in N.
chapel; (3) old bench-end near W. doorway, from which the other
woodwork has been copied. Externally should be observed (1) priest's
house at S. entrance of churchyard; (2) recess for stocks in the wall
close by; (3) churchyard cross with round base at W. end of church; (4)
conventual barn and dovecot in yard on N.

The "Luttrell Arms," at the entrance of the village, has a mediaeval
porch with openings for cross bows, a fine timbered wing at the back of
the buildings, and some plaster work in one of the rooms. The _Watch
Tower_ on Conygar Hill (i.e. _Coney Garth_--"rabbit enclosure") is, as
will easily be seen, a mere shell, built (probably for ornament's sake)
in 1775. Amongst the old houses in which Dunster is peculiarly rich,
the curious three-storeyed building at the entrance of the street
leading to the church claims particular attention. It is locally known
as the _Nunnery_, a curious designation, which points to a possible
connection with the priory, perhaps in the capacity of guest house. The
three storeys overhang one another, and are faced with shingles. At the
bottom of the street which leads into the Dulverton road will be found
a lane to the L. This descends to a stream which is crossed by a
picturesque pack-horse bridge of two spans. There is an old market
cross (locally known as the butter cross) hidden by the hedge on the
right-hand side of the upper Minehead road.

_Durleigh_, a parish 1-1/2 m. W.S.W. of Bridgwater. It has a church
which retains its old tower (with a gabled roof); but all other traces
of antiquity have been obliterated, save for the remains of a stoup in
the porch. In this parish is an old manor house called _Bower Farm_,
with a picturesque front, showing a small window flanked by two towers.
The porch roof is, of course, modern. Belonging to the farm is a
curious _columbarium_, constructed of mud, in which the nesting niches
are said to number 900.

_Durston_, a village 5 m. N.E. of Taunton, has a church (rebuilt in
1853) which possesses a good tower. The Communion-table bears date
1635, and there are some carved bench-ends. Near here, at _Mynchin
Buckland_, there used to be a Preceptory of the Knights of St John of
Jerusalem, to which was attached a priory of women belonging to the
same order. It is said to have been very rare in this country for
communities of men and women under vows to exist side by side in this
way.

_Easton_, a village at the foot of the Mendips, 2-1/2 m. N.W. of Wells.
The church is modern (1843).

_Easton-in-Gordano_, a village 1 m. W. from Pill (G.W.R.). The church
is a large and dignified modern clerestoried structure (rebuilt in
1872), with a good Perp. W. tower (original).

_Edington_, a village on the Poldens, with a station 2 m. away. The
church has been rebuilt (1877-79), and contains no ancient features
except a very good Norm. font. On the locality, see p. 13.

_Elm_, or _Great Elm_, a village 3 m. S.W. from Frome, perched on the
edge of a vale of quite romantic picturesqueness (see _Vallis_). The
church is an unpretentious little building with a saddleback tower. It
bears one or two indications of high antiquity. Note (1) on S. external
wall, herring-bone masonry (cp. _Marston Magna_), (2) Norm, doorway to
tower, and E.E. arch within. The interior has been remodelled in
accordance with early Victorian ideas of ecclesiastical propriety.

_Elworthy_, a village 4 m. S.W. of Stogumber Station. The small church
(Perp.) contains a carved illuminated Caroline screen (1632). The
pulpit, approached by the rood staircase, is of the same date. In a
small window in the N. wall is some ancient glass. Above the village is
a British camp, called _Elworthy Barrows_, which can be reached from
near the church. Towards Wiveliscombe, on the L. of the road, rises
_Willett Hill_ (950 ft.), crowned by a tower.

_Emborrow_ (the first syllable perhaps a corruption of _Elm_), a small
hamlet on the Mendips, 1-1/2 m. N. of Binegar Station. The church is a
forlorn-looking building with a central tower containing a 14th-cent.
sanctus-bell. _Emborrow Pool_ is a dismal sheet of water bordering the
main road and surrounded by trees. It has the appearance of being
rapidly silted up.

_Englishcombe_, a small and rather uncouth-looking village 3 m. S.W.
from Bath, and 1-1/2 m. S.W. from Twerton Station (G.W.R.). It still
retains something of the aloofness which once characterised it as an
English outpost on the Welsh border, and is worth a visit. The church
is of considerable antiquarian interest. It consists of a Perp. nave, a
central Norm. tower, and a Norm. chancel. A Perp. chapel, now occupied
by the organ, adjoins the porch. Externally, note the fantastic corbel
table round chancel. Within, it has two good pointed Norm. arches, and
on the N. wall of tower a well-preserved Norm., arcade. Observe (1)
detached Norm. capitals on N. wall, (2) panelling round splay of W.
window of nave and S. window of chapel. Almost opposite to the S.
entrance to the churchyard is a tithe barn once belonging to Bath
Abbey, which still shows some indication of its ecclesiastical origin.
At the W. end of graveyard is a farm-house with orchard, and beyond
this is a field where may be seen a good specimen of the Wansdyke. Near
the village once stood a castle of the De Gourneys. The site is marked
by a mound on a neighbouring estate.

_Enmore_, a village 5 m. S.W. of Bridgwater, on the road leading to the
S.E. extremity of the Quantocks. Its church has a good tower,
noticeable for the pinnacles that crown the staircase turret. The
tower-vault is groined, the chancel arch panelled, and there is a Norm.
S. door (belonging to a former fabric) with carved capitals and good
mouldings. Note (1) the carved wooden pulpit, (2) the niche, supported
by an angel, on the S. face of the tower. In the churchyard there is
the broken shaft of a cross. _Enmore Park_ (W.B. Broadmead) is hard by.
It was formerly called Enmore Castle, and once belonged to the Malets.

_Evercreech_ is a large village 3-1/2 m. S.S.E. from Shepton Mallet,
with a station on the S. & D. J.R. The first syllable of the name
probably means "boar" (cognate with the Latin _aper_), and recurs in
Eversley. It is famed for its church, which has perhaps the most
graceful tower in all Somerset; its double, long-panelled windows,
buttresses, and clustered pinnacles are particularly fine. The earliest
part of the building is the chancel (14th cent.), with Dec. windows at
the E. and N.; the rest of the church is Perp., the S. aisle being
modern. Note (1) wooden roof of nave, the colours of which are believed
to reproduce the original; (2) carving of gallery in the tower; (3)
brackets (perhaps for lights) on piers of N. arcade; (4) quaint
inscription behind the organ, of the date 1596. Outside the churchyard
is a much defaced cross. S.S.E. of the village is the commanding
eminence of _Creech Hill_, where there seem to be traces of earthworks,
and whence a fine view is obtainable, with the town of Bruton in the
valley to the S., and Stourton Tower conspicuous on the hills to the E.

_Exford_, a village on the fringe of Exmoor "Forest," near the source
of the Exe, 12 m. N.W. from Dulverton Station. It is one of the many
rendezvous of the huntsman, as there are kennels here for staghounds
and harriers. The houses are dropped into a hollow of the moors through
which trickles the stream. The church braves the gale on the hill top
above. It is remarkable for nothing but its exposed situation, a
thousand feet above sea-level--a fact which has no doubt necessitated
its frequent renewal. The tower is original, but the nave and chancel
are modern. The S. aisle appears to have been built chiefly out of a
legacy left by a local blacksmith about 1532. Note the Devonshire
foliage on capitals. The churchyard contains the base of a cross
locally known as the "Crying Stone," from its appropriation by the
parish beadle as a pedestal for proclamations. At the churchyard gate
is a "lipping" or mounting stone.

_Exmoor_. Though generally associated in the popular mind with
Devonshire, Exmoor is really, in the main, a part of Somerset. It is
the highest, wildest, and most fascinating portion of the county--a
truly delightsome land, a veritable paradise for the sportsman and the
painter. The red deer run wild at will over the moors, or find a
congenial covert in the oak scrub which clothes the combes. Brawling
brooks abound on all sides to entice the angler and interest the
artist, and a charming strip of sea-coast must also be numbered amongst
its attractions. Though mainly given over to the sportsman and the
tourist, efforts have from time to time been made to civilise these
wilds. In general they have proved futile. Mines have been sunk only to
be abandoned, and the agriculturist has fared little better than the
miner. Early in the last century, a Mr Knight made an heroic effort to
enclose a large portion of the moor for the purposes of cultivation.
The heather, however, is still triumphant. The only memorial of his
ambition is a ruined mansion at Simonsbath. The hills are all of
considerable altitude--well over 1200 ft.--but with the exception of
Dunkery few can pretend to any marked individuality. The landscape is a
mere "tumultuous waste of huge hill-tops," which no one takes the
trouble to specify. Perhaps the least praiseworthy feature of Exmoor is
its weather. To adapt a Cornish description of something quite
different, "when it's bad, it's execrable; and when it's good, it's
only middlin'." It has a disagreeable partiality for haze and drizzle.
In such an untamed region "routes" are only an embarrassment. The
regulation drive is from Minehead to Dulverton, and from Dulverton
through Simonsbath to Lynton, which virtually circumscribes the moor.
The best way, however, is to turn oneself loose in the district, and
ramble over the moors at will. The sturdy tourist will find many an
exhilarating excursion. Winsford, Exford, Withypool, and Simonsbath are
all worth seeing. Dunkery Beacon (1707 ft.) may be conveniently
ascended on the Porlock side from Luccombe or Cloutsham, and on the
Dulverton side from Wheddon Cross, near Cutcombe.

[Illustration: TARR STEPS, EXMOOR]

_Exton_, a village 8 m. N. of Dulverton Station, picturesquely perched
on the hillside overlooking the valley of the Exe. The church is
without interest.

_Farleigh Hungerford_, a small village 7 m. S.S.E. of Bath. It is a
place of some interest to the antiquarian, and should be visited in
conjunction with Hinton Charterhouse from Freshford Station (2 m.). Its
attractions consist of a few crumbling fragments of a castle once
belonging to the Hungerfords, and the contents of the castle chapel.
The ruins stand on the shoulder of a deep defile descending into a
wooded bottom called Danes' Ditch. The annals of the castle are long
rather than stirring. An old manor house of the Montforts was
transformed into a castle by Sir Walter Hungerford (d. 1449), who spent
upon the alterations the ransom which he had obtained for the capture
of the Duke of Orleans at the Battle of Agincourt. In the Great
Rebellion it was, curiously enough, held for the king whilst its owner
was commanding the Parliamentary forces in Wilts. To one of the
existing towers a grim story is attached. In the unchivalrous days of
Henry VIII. a Sir W. Hungerford, who, like his royal master, was a much
married man, consigned his third wife to these uninviting quarters, and
kept her under lock and key, with a chaplain for her only attendant.
The lady, however, not only survived this knightly Bluebeard, but had
the courage to contract a second marriage. The general arrangements of
the castle are not very obvious to the casual observer. It seems to
have consisted of a gatehouse and an outer and inner court. The inner
enclosure was flanked by four cylindrical towers, and contained the
dwelling-rooms, which overlooked the ravine. On its accessible side the
castle was protected by a moat. Nothing now remains but the gatehouse,
a few fragments of the enclosing walls, the remains of two towers, and
the chapel. Passing under the gatehouse, the visitor will see the
chapel and inner court on the R. The Chapel of St Leonard (keys to be
obtained at inn above, fee 3d.) is now a museum, and contains a good
collection of armour. Amongst other curiosities on show are a "He"
Bible, a pair of Cromwell's boots, and one of his letters. A gigantic
fresco of St George adorns the E. wall, and beneath the E. window is
the original stone altar. The Chapel of St Anne, on the N., is shut off
by an iron grille, and contains some fine monuments: (1) in centre, a
costly marble cenotaph with effigies of Sir E. Hungerford, the
Parliamentarian, and his wife Margaret (1648), (2) within the grille,
Sir T. Hungerford and his wife Joan (1398-1412), (3) on N., Sir E.
Hungerford and wife (1607), (4) against W. wall, tomb of Mrs Shaa
(1613), with panel of kneeling figures. In the S.E. corner of main
building is a plain altar-tomb of Sir W. Hungerford and son (1596). The
font is said to have been brought from the church. At its foot is a
slab with incised figure of a chantry priest of unknown identity.
Beneath the side chapel is a vault (to which access can be obtained
outside) containing the leaded corpses of several members of the
family. The parish church of St Leonard stands on the other side of the
road on rising ground overlooking the ruins. It is a small plain Perp.
building with square W. tower surmounted by a short pyramidal spire. It
is somewhat quaint, but contains nothing of interest except an altar
made out of an ancient settle. Over the doorway is a semicircular stone
bearing a curious Latin inscription, said to be not later than 1200
A.D. It is supposed to have belonged either to an earlier building or
to some dismantled church in the neighbourhood. Below the church is
_Farleigh House_, a picturesque modern mansion.

_Farmborough_, a biggish village 8 m. S.W. from Bath (nearest stat.
Clutton, 2-1/2 miles). The church is modern, but has a Perp. W. tower.
The chancel contains a piscina, and there is a ribbed stone squint.
Near the village is _Barrow Hill_, a conical-shaped eminence.

_Farrington Gurney_, a pleasant village on the Bristol and Wells road,
8 m. N.E. from Wells (nearest stat. Hallatrow, 1 m.). On the Midsomer
Norton road is an old manor house. The church, which lies beyond the
house in a field, is modern (1843), but occupies an ancient
ecclesiastical site. Over the W. doorway is a small Norm. effigy,
called by the natives "Old Farrington." The churchyard contains the
base of an ancient cross.

_Fiddington_, a parish 7 m. N.W. of Bridgwater. Its church retains a
few carved seat ends, an oak pulpit, and a piscina, but presents no
other feature of interest.

_Fitzhead_, a village 2 m. N. of Milverton. The church has been
rebuilt, with the exception of the tower. In the churchyard is a good
specimen of an effigied cross (cp. Wiveliscombe). Hard by is _Fitzhead
Court_, an ancient manor house said to contain a good plaster ceiling.

_Fivehead_, a parish 5 m. S.W. of Langport. The church has two Dec.
windows in the chancel, the rest are Perp. There is a 16th-cent. tomb
of John Walshe, and an ancient Norm. font with double mouldings. Note
in the S. aisle (1) piscina, (2) remains of canopy. The manor house,
the home of the Walshes, now a farm, preserves the old hall.

_Flax Bourton_, a parish 5 m. S.W. of Bristol (with a station), is said
to owe the first part of its name to the abbey of Flaxley in
Gloucestershire, which possessed the principal estate in the parish.
The small Perp. church is noteworthy for the 12th-cent. Norm. work
preserved in it, which consists of (1) a S. door, exceptionally tall
and narrow, with banded pillars and a quaint carving of St Michael and
the Dragon; (2) a chancel arch, recessed, with curious carvings on the
chamfer of the abacus and on the capitals. Note also (1) terminals of
the label of the S. chancel windows, (2) font.

_Foxcote_ (or _Forscote_) is a small hamlet 2 m. E.N.E. of Radstock.
The church is modern, with the exception of the tower.

_Freshford_, a village near the confluence of the Frome and Avon (with
a station), 5 m. S.E. of Bath. The church is Perp., with a W. tower.
_Freshford Manor House_ once belonged to the priory of Hinton
Charterhouse.

[Illustration: MARKET PLACE, FROME]

FROME, a thriving market town of some 11,000 inhabitants, on the E.
side of the county, with a station on the G.W.R. line to Weymouth.
Though its surroundings are pretty, the town itself is an ill-arranged
collection of steep and narrow streets, one of which--Cheap
Street--deserves notice for its quaintness. The spaciousness of the
market-place redeems the narrowness of the streets. With the exception
of a little faint-hearted sympathy shown to Monmouth, Frome has never
helped to make history. Nowadays it does a brisk trade in woollen
cloth, and possesses some large printing-works, breweries, and
art-metal works. The visitor would do well to make his way at once to
the church, which is practically the only thing in Frome worth seeing.
It is a building of much greater dignity within than the exterior
suggests, and has been restored on a very elaborate scale by a former
incumbent, the Rev. W.J. Bennett (1852-66), a figure of note in the
early Ritualistic controversies. The tower, crowned with a spire, is
somewhat eccentricly placed at the E. end of the S. aisle. The interior
is remarkable for its heterogeneous mixture of styles and its multitude
of side chapels, of which St Nicholas's, the Lady Chapel, and St John
Baptist's are on the N., and St Andrew's on the S. A Saxon church was
built on the site by St Aldhelm, and possibly a couple of carved stones
built into the interior of the tower may have belonged to it. This was
succeeded in the 12th cent. by a Norm. church, of which a doorway
remains, leading from St Nicholas's Chapel to the Lady Chapel, and
perhaps a piscina opposite the latter; in the 13th cent. the chancel
arch, the lower part of the tower, and the eastern half of the arcade
were erected The rest of the arcade was added in the 15th cent. The
abrupt change in the mouldings is very noticeable. The Lady Chapel,
originally Norm. (see above), was rebuilt at this time, as well as St
John's Chapel (now the organ-chamber). The chapel of St Nicholas (the
baptistery) dates from the 16th cent.; the old glass in it bears the
rebus of Cable, the founder of it (K and a bell). St Andrew's Chapel is
said to have been founded in 1412 (though it looks like Dec. work).
Interesting features are (1) piscinas above the rood and in the S.
aisle, (2) a _memento mori_ in the Lady Chapel (said to be a Leversedge
of Vallis), (3) brass (1506) on tower wall. The rood-screen, the
statues at the W., the medallions above the arcade, and the _Calvary
Steps_ outside the building are all modern. In the churchyard, beneath
the E. window, is the tomb of Bishop Ken, who, after his "uncanonical
deposition," lived in retirement at Longleat, and, dying in 1711, was
buried at his own request "just at sunrising in the nearest parish
church within his own diocese."

GLASTONBURY, a small market-town of some 4000 people in the centre of
the county, 6 m. S. from Wells. It has a station on the S. & D. line
from Evercreech to Bridgwater. The site of Glastonbury is almost as
conspicuous in a Somerset landscape as its name is in Somerset history.
Its huge conical tor, crowned by a tower, rises like a gigantic
sugar-loaf from the surrounding plain, and is visible to half the
county. The neighbourhood is a happy hunting-ground for the antiquary,
and one of the "regulation" sights for the casual tourist. No one can
be said to have "done" Somerset who has not seen Glastonbury. Its
associations are romantic as well as historical. Though the modern town
is commonplace enough, poetry and piety, fact and fiction, have
conspired to make it famous. Here was the cradle of British
Christianity. In this "deep meadowed island, fair with orchard
lawns"--the fabled _Avalon_--blossomed the flower of British chivalry
in the persons of Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table. It was
when a Glastonbury monk that Dunstan made his vigorous onslaught on the
powers of darkness. And it was this "parcel of ground," already
consecrated by the bones of St Patrick, King Edgar, and St David, which
became the favourite burying-place of mediaeval saints and heroes. The
legend which accounted for its early pre-eminence is even in these
sceptical days worth retelling, for from its popularity the future
importance of the abbey sprang. Joseph of Arimathaea was despatched by
St Philip along with eleven companions "to carry the tidings of the
blessed Gospel" to the shores of remote Britain. Providential winds
wafted them across the waters of the Severn Sea, and at length the
wayworn travellers landed at Glastonbury, then an island. As their
leader, like Jacob, leant in worship on the top of his staff on
Wearyall Hill, the rod took root and became a thorn tree, which
blossomed every year as surely as the Feast of the Nativity came round.
The "Holy Grail" (the cup of blessing from the Last Supper), which
Joseph brought with him, he buried at the foot of Glastonbury Tor, and
from the place of its sepulchre gushed forth the Bloody Spring, which
may be duly inspected to this day. The pilgrims made more friends than
disciples, and the king, after a dilatory conversion, set apart for the
maintenance of the newcomers "twelve hides of land." Here the
evangelists possessed their souls in patience and built for worship a
little shrine of wattle and daub, which was many generations afterwards
found intact when fresh missionaries came to re-evangelise the
islanders. Round this _vetusta ecclesia_ gathered the subsequent
glories of the monastery. This long-cherished tradition enshrines
sufficient fact to justify Glastonbury's claim to be "the only tie
still abiding between the vanished Church of the Briton and the Church
of the Englishman." Its authentic history begins with its foundation as
a monastery by that ecclesiastically-minded layman, King Ina (688-726),
who built a church here and dedicated it to St Peter and St Paul.
Dunstan, himself a Glastonbury man, by the austerity of his conduct and
the vigour of his administration, made the fame of this early religious
house. With the coming of the Normans grander ideas prevailed. Abbots
Thurstan (A.D. 1082) and Herlewinus (1101-20) both projected buildings
of some pretensions, but Henry of Blois, brother of King Stephen, abbot
in 1126, was the first great builder. Henry's church was a fabric of
much magnificence, but it completely perished in a fire in 1184, and
Henry II., in one of his occasional fits of piety, charged himself with
its rebuilding, and entrusted the work to his chamberlain Ralph, who,
upon the site of Joseph's legendary shrine, erected the present
beautiful chapel of St Mary (_c._ 1186). With the death of the king the
work languished, for no funds were forthcoming from the empty pockets
of his "lion-hearted" successor; and it was not until 1303 that the
great church whose ruins still survive was finally dedicated. Even then
the fabric was not complete. It took two centuries to add the finishing
touches. Abbot Sodbury (1322-35) vaulted the nave, and it was left for
one of his successors, Walter Monington (1341-74), to fill in the
vaulting of the choir. Not content with the already considerable
dimensions of the church, Monington extended the chancel two bays
eastwards; and Abbot Bere (1493-1524) added another chapel, and propped
the tower by inverted arches. Characteristic traces of the respective
periods may still be observed. Until the Reformation the abbey had a
career of unrivalled influence and splendour. It yielded precedence
only to St Albans, and the abbot was said never to travel abroad with a
retinue of less than 100 retainers. Such wealth was not likely to elude
the comprehensive grasp of Henry VIII. Glastonbury was involved in the
general ruin of the monasteries. The fate of its last abbot, Richard
Whiting, is one of the tragic stories of the time. Though a "weak man
and ailing," he refused to surrender the property of his abbey. But
Thomas Cromwell had a "short way" with passive resisters. In his
private "remonstrances," amongst other jottings was found, "Item--The
Abbot of Glaston to be tried at Glaston, and also executed there." In
accordance with this pre-arranged programme Whiting was arraigned at
Wells, November 14, 1538, on a quite unsupported charge of treason, and
in the great hall of the palace sentenced to death. The next day he was
drawn on a hurdle to the tor, and there hanged, and his head fixed on
the abbey gateway. After this judicial murder the monastic property at
once fell to the Crown.

[Illustration: ST. JOSEPHS CHAPEL, GLASTONBURY]

The entrance to the ruins is through a gateway opposite the George
Hotel. The abbey cannot be seen from the street, but this obscure entry
conducts the visitor to the porter's lodge (entrance 6d.). The most
perfectly preserved portion of the buildings is the chapel of St Mary,
commonly known as _St Joseph's Chapel_. It stands on the site of St
Joseph's legendary shrine, and formed a kind of Galilee to the W.
entrance of the church. It is rectangular in plan, with a square turret
crowned by a pyramidal cap rising from each corner, only two of which
now remain. It is one of the most beautiful specimens of Trans. work in
England. The decoration is rich and abundant--"no possible ornament has
been omitted." Note (1) fine N. doorway (which should be compared with
the S. porch of Malmesbury), (2) arcading round interior face of wall,
(3) triplet at W. end, (4) remains of vaulting, (5) shallow external
buttresses. Beneath the now demolished flooring is a small crypt of
15th-cent. work. It was probably excavated to provide extra burial
accommodation. Observe on S. side a well within a round-headed recess.
The chapel originally stood apart from the great church, but was
eventually joined up to the larger building by a continuation of the
chapel walls. The extension is at once detected by the late character
of the work. Note change of arcading from Norm. to E.E., and the E.E.
entrance to the church. Of the latter very little now remains. There
still stand the piers of the chancel arch, portions of the walls of the
choir and nave aisles, and a little chapel which opened out of the N.
transept. But these remains, slight though they are, are sufficient to
indicate the general design of the church and its huge dimensions.
Though there is an evident attempt to keep up the character of the
ornamentation displayed in St Mary's chapel, the workmanship is much
later; and a still later development is noticeable in the two
easternmost bays of the choir, thrown out by Abbot Monington (1371-74).
Note (1) lancets of nave, pointed externally, rounded internally, (2)
pointed lancets of choir, (3) square abaci to pilasters of lancets (cp.
Wells), (4) traces of Dec. work in vaulting ribs of nave, (5) absence
of bench-table in Monington's additions, (6) fragment of Perp.
panelling on E. side of chancel arch. The general plan of the church
followed the arrangements of the great Benedictine abbeys, which were
all designed with a view to a stately ritual and imposing processions.
There was a lofty nave of ten bays, with corresponding aisles, a choir
of three bays, also with processional aisles (Monington's extension was
evidently intended to form a further path behind the high altar), and
N. and S. transepts, each with a pair of E. chapels. A large central
tower surmounted the whole, which, like that of Wells, is said to have
been braced internally with inverted arches. The cloisters abutted on
to the S. aisle of the church (note the higher sills of the windows),
and beyond these again were the cloister garth, the refectory,
dormitory, and domestic offices. The only remains of this part of the
monastery is the _Abbot's Kitchen_, with a contiguous fragment of the
almonry, and a portion of the great gateway of the monastery, now
incorporated in the "Red Lion" inn. The flowering thorn tree--a
descendant of Joseph's budding staff--should be noticed near the
porter's lodge. The _Abbot's Kitchen_ may be inspected at an extra
charge of 6d. (entrance in Magdalene Street, just below Museum). It is
a handsome stone building, now standing by itself in the middle of a
field, and not at all suggestive of culinary appointments. Externally
it is square at the base, but is crowned with an octagonal
superstructure carrying a pyramidal roof and lantern. Within, huge
fireplaces, once surmounted externally by chimneys, are set across the
four corners, making the interior altogether an octagon. On one face is
the effigy of a mitred abbot. The vaulted roof is supported by stone
ribs, and egress for the steam is cunningly contrived in the windows.
Its date is 1435-40. Another surviving remnant of monastic property
will be found in Bere Lane at the top of Chilk-wall Street. This is a
very fine cruciform barn similar to those at Doulting and Pilton, but
rather richer in detail. The windows are traceried, and have above them
figures of the four Evangelists, and ecclesiastical effigies stand as
finials on two of the gables.

The other objects of interest in Glastonbury are (1) the _George Inn_
in High Street opposite the abbey entrance--a fine 15th-cent. structure
(said to have been built by Abbot Selwood) which once served as the
pilgrims' hostelry; (2) the _Tribunal_--a few doors higher
up--probably the court-house where the abbey officials interviewed
their clients (observe escutcheon above doorway); (3) the almhouses and
chapel in Magdalene Street (entrance through Red Lion gateway, once
part of the main entrance of the monastery), founded by Abbot Bere in
1512 (note founder's rebus above gateway of court); (4) Market Cross, a
modern structure of good design standing on the site of an ancient
hexagonal cross; (5) museum in Magdalene Street, containing several
"finds" from the neighbouring lake village (see _Godney_); (6) the
churches of St John and St Benignus. The latter, in St Benedict Street,
has a well-designed tower, but is not otherwise noteworthy (observe
stoups in porch and Abbot Bere's rebus on parapet above porch). A flood
which in 1606 inundated the neighbourhood is said to have reached to
the foot of the tower. St John's Church in High Street, built by Abbot
Selwood in 1465, has, on the contrary, some pretensions to
magnificence. The tower especially is worthy of observation, as it is
considered by some to be amongst the finest in the county. This,
however, is an extravagant opinion. The arrangement of the windows
superficially resembles that at Chewton Mendip, those of the belfry
being reproduced in the stage below; but the lower pair are not an
exact repetition of the pair above. It will be noted that the string
courses are carried round the buttresses. The elaborate cresting is
rich but meretricious. The interior, Perp. throughout, is lofty and
spacious, but the general effect is spoilt by the timber supports which
are found necessary to shore up the chancel arch. Note externally (1)
bell-cot above chancel (cp. Wrington), (2) groined S. porch with
parvise above: internally (1) plain altar-tombs on either side of
sanctuary, (2) groined vault to tower, (3) at S.W. end the tomb, with
effigy, of one Camel, an abbey official (observe camels on panels
below), (4) finely carved stone pulpit, (5) wooden roof of nave, (6)
good E. window.

[Illustration: GLASTONBURY TOR]

A climb should be taken to the top of the _Tor_--500 ft. above
sea-level. The original chapel of St Michael was destroyed by a
landslide in 1271. The Perp. tower subsequently erected still remains,
though deprived of its upper storey. Note _bas-reliefs_ over doorway,
and tablet with figured eagle below parapet. A spring, called the
"Blood Spring," near the Tor is said to mark the spot where St Joseph
buried the Holy Grail. _Wirrall_, or _Weary All Hill_, near the
station, may also be scaled with advantage, if only for its traditional
associations. It was here that St Joseph landed, and his staff, taking
root, developed into the miraculous thorn tree. The tree, however, no
longer exists, for it was hewn in pieces by a Puritan soldier, who is
said to have cut off his leg in the process as a penalty for his
profanity. An offshoot of the parent thorn grows in the Abbey grounds.

_Goathurst_ is a village lying at the foot of the S.E. spur of the
Quantocks, 4-1/2 m. S.W. from Bridgwater. It has an old church, with a
heavy battlemented tower. The N. chapel contains a large monument with
the effigies of Sir Nicholas Halswell (d. 1633) and his wife,
surrounded by the kneeling figures of their nine children. The S.
chapel belongs to the Kemeys-Tyntes, and is decorated with numerous
coats-of-arms round the cornice. Note the piscina in the chancel. Near
the church is _Halswell House_ (C.T.H. Kemeys-Tynte), originally built
in the Tudor period, containing some fine carving by Grinling Gibbons,
and pictures by Salvator Rosa, Van Dyck, Ostade, Ruysdael, Reynolds,
and others.

_Godney_ (1-1/2 m. N.E. of Meare, 2 m. N. of Glastonbury) is famous for
the remains of a lake village which have been discovered here. The
village consisted of a number of dwellings, each built on a
substructure of timber and brushwood, resting upon the marsh which once
occupied the site, and held in position by small piles. Upon this base
was laid a floor of clay, in the centre of which was a circular stone
hearth (about 4 ft. in diameter); whilst the walls of the huts were
made of timber, wattles, and daub. As the floors and hearths gradually
sank in the yielding marsh, they had to be renewed from time to time;
so that several successive layers of them have been found, resting upon
one another. Round the collective huts which formed the village ran a
palisade of piles, the enclosure being irregular in shape. The articles
found in the village (many of which are in the Glastonbury Museum) show
that the inhabitants practised agriculture, spinning, and weaving, and
were acquainted with iron weapons. They are supposed to have been Celts
by race; and the period to which they are assigned falls between 300
B.C. and 100 A.D.

_Greinton_, a small parish on the S.W. flank of the Poldens (nearest
stat. Shapwick, 4 m.). The church has an embattled tower with pyramidal
top. The interesting features within are(1) carved bench-ends, dated
1621 (note lily on one); (2) two good wooden doors, N. and S.; (3)
piscina on sill of S. window in chancel.

_Hallatrow_, a hamlet in the parish of High Littleton, 11 m. S. from
Bristol, with a station on the Frome branch.

_Halse_, a pleasant village, 2 m. N.W. of Milverton. It has a small but
very interesting church, standing in a beautifully kept churchyard,
which commands a fine view of the Quantocks. Its choicest possession is
a very fine rood-screen: note the old beam above, and window. Other
features deserving attention are (1) glass in E. window, (2) curious
font, probably early Norm., (3) medallions in spandrels of arcade, (4)
piscina on window-sill of sanctuary, (5) painted mural device on S.
wall of nave, (6) fragments of carving in porch, (7) squint. The large
windows in the porch are somewhat unusual.

_Ham, High_, a village occupying a fine breezy situation on the top of
High Ham Hill, 4 m. N. from Langport. The church in its centre is a
handsome building, typically and consistently Perp. It contains a fair
roof, some panelled bench-ends, and a curious lectern, but its
principal ornament is a fine Perp. chancel-screen. Note (1) stoup in
porch, (2) the vigorously executed gargoyles, especially the pair over
the porch, a mediaeval presentation of Darby and Joan.

_Ham, Low_, a village 2 m. N. of Langport. The church, which stands in
the middle of a field, is something of a curiosity (call for keys at
farm opposite). It is an excellent example of 17th-cent. imitative
Gothic. Its builder was Sir R. Hext, whose political sentiments may be
inferred from the motto with which he has adorned the chancel-screen,
"My son, fear the Lord, and meddle not with them that are given to
change." At the end of the N. aisle are effigies of the founder and his
wife, and at the corresponding end of the S. aisle is a marble tablet
to the memory of Lord Stawell, who has, however, left his own memorial
outside. The perplexing series of terraces overlooking the church are
all that remains of a fantastic scheme of his to build a mansion which,
like his wife and horse, should be the most beautiful thing of its kind
in the world. But _L'homme propose_...; Lord Stawell never got any
further than these embankments.

_Hambridge_, a village equidistant from Langport and Ilminster (5 m.).
The church is modern.

_Hamdon Hill_. See _Stoke, East_.

_Hardington_, a hamlet 5 m. N.W. of Frome. The church is a small
building with a W. tower. In the neighbourhood is Hardington Park.

_Hardington-Mandeville_, a village 4-1/2 m. S.W. of Yeovil. The church
was rebuilt in 1864, but retains some ancient features, including a
good Norm. arch and font, and a Jacobean pulpit.

_Harptree, East_, a village on a spur of the Mendips, 6 m. N. from
Wells. It possesses the attractions of a castle, a cavern, and a combe.
The last is a thickly wooded glen near the top end of the village. On
an inaccessible tongue of land at the far end of the gorge are the
remains of _Richmont Castle_, one of those lawless strongholds which in
the days of Stephen were a terror to the country side. In 1138 it was
strongly garrisoned by its owner, William de Harptree, on behalf of the
Empress Matilda, but was taken by Stephen by the ruse of a feigned
repulse. Now, only a fragment of the keep overlooks the glen. Half a
mile beyond is a remarkable cavern, the _Lamb's Lair_, entered by a
vertical shaft of some 70 fathoms. The chamber is of very considerable
dimensions, and is said by those who have seen it to be quite the
finest cave in the Mendips. The church is not particularly noteworthy
except for the odd device of avoiding a squint by an extension of the
arcading. The walls, font, and S. doorway are Norm. The S. porch is of
unusual size and contains a monument which must be a standing reproach
to a declining birthrate. Under a large Elizabethan canopy is an effigy
of Sir J. Newton (1568), attended by twenty children. At the other end
of the village are two mansions, _Harptree Court_ and _Eastwood_.

_Harptree, West_, about 1 m. N. of East Harptree. The church has a
Norman tower with an ugly slated spire. The rest of the building has
been reconstructed, but contains a Norman chancel arch, a large Norman
font, and a good piscina. In the churchyard are seven large conical yew
trees. Opposite the church is _Gournay Manor_, a fine Jacobean house,
and near it is _Tilley Manor_, a 17th-cent. building, deprived of its
top storey. They are now farmhouses.

_Haselbury Plucknett_, a village 2-1/2 m. N.E. of Crewkerne. It has a
Perp. church with an E.E. N. chapel, which is associated with the
memory of St Wulfric, who, born at Compton Martin, resided here, and
died in 1154. The body of the Church has an old font. A priory of
Austin canons, dating from the 12th cent., once existed here.

_Hatch Beauchamp_, 6 m. S.E. from Taunton, is a village (with station)
situated in very picturesque surroundings. The church (best reached
through the deer park) has a good tower, crowned with numerous
pinnacles. Note (1) the foliaged bands round the pillars of the arcade;
(2) the excellent bench-ends; (3) the fragments of old glass in the
windows of the N. aisle; (4) the large picture, a "Descent from the
Cross," by Perriss; (5) the window in the chancel to the memory of
Colonel J.R.M. Chard, of Rorke's Drift fame, with a wreath preserved
beneath it sent by Queen Victoria. The obelisk near the S. door is said
to have once been the churchyard cross.

_Hatch, West_, a village 1-1/2 m. W. of Hatch Beauchamp. The church has
been entirely rebuilt (1861).

_Hawkridge_, a parish 5 m. N.W. of Dulverton Station, consisting merely
of a cluster of cottages and a tiny church. It is perched on the top of
a ridge of high ground separating the Barle from its tributary stream
the Danes Brook. The valleys on either side are beautifully wooded, and
exhibit some of the most romantic scenery in Somerset. The church has a
plain Norm. doorway.

_Heathfield_, a parish 2-1/2 m. E. of Milverton. Its church is small,
and the only objects of interest which it contains are (1) a mural
monument on the N. of the chancel, with kneeling figures, of the 16th
cent.; (2) a carved oak pulpit (said to be reconstructed from ancient
materials). There is the shaft of an ancient cross in the graveyard,
with a mutilated figure.

_Hemington_, a village lying at the end of a wide vale, 3 m. E.S.E.
from Radstock. The church has a few features in common with the
neighbouring church of Buckland Denham, viz., (1) peculiar arrangement
of windows in tower, (2) clerestory to nave, though the building
possesses only one aisle. The interior shows (_a_) some good Dec. work
in windows, some of which have foliated rear arches, with detached
shaft; (_b_) plain Norm. chancel arch. Observe also (1) piscina on the
respond of the chancel arcade, (2) the central pier of the arcade (it
is surrounded by four detached shafts). On the hill above the village,
standing by the side of the Trowbridge road, is a square tower of as
much beauty as utility, locally known as "Turner's Folly." The "green"
of the neighbouring hamlet of Falkland retains its ancient stocks.

_Henstridge_, a large village 7 m. S. of Wincanton, with a station on
the S. & D.J.R. The church has been rebuilt (except the tower and part
of the N. and W. walls), but contains some ancient features. There is a
15th-cent. altar-tomb in the chancel under a carved and coloured
canopy, with two effigies. These represent William Carent (who
inherited the property of two wealthy families, the Carents and the
Toomers), and his wife Margaret (_née_ Stourton). The arms that adorn
the tomb are those of Carent and Stourton. The rhyming inscription
round the arch of the canopy is, _Sis testis Xte quod non tumulus iacet
iste corpus ut ornetur, sed spiritus ut memoretur_. There is also an
elaborately carved niche or tabernacle in the N.E. angle of the N. (or
Toomer) aisle. Note, too, (1) decorated piscina, (2) remains of figures
over the entrance to the N. chapel. The "Virginia Inn" at the
cross-road is said to be the spot where Sir Walter Raleigh's servant
emptied a stoup of beer over his master, who was smoking, in the belief
that he was on fire. At Yeaston, a hamlet between Henstridge and
Templecombe, there once existed a Benedictine priory, attached to an
abbey of that Order at Coutances (Normandy). A field is still said to
bear the name of the Priory Plot.

HIGHBRIDGE, a growing little town on the Brue, 1-1/2 m. S.E. from
Burnham. It has two stations, one on the G.W.R. main line to Taunton,
the other on the S. & D. Burnham branch. It possesses a town-hall, a
cattle market, and other evidences of prosperity. Brick and tile making
are carried on in the locality, and a large bacon factory and a
timber-yard are amongst its more important commercial undertakings. As
the river is navigable up to this point for small craft it also
encourages a coasting trade. Of antiquarian interest it has none. The
church is as modern as the town.

_Hill Farrance_, 3-1/2 m. N.E. of Wellington, is a village on the Tone.
Its church (ded. to the Holy Cross) has a massive-looking tower, with
an open-work parapet, bearing the initials I.P. It contains sedilia and
a piscina, and some carved bench ends. On the S. of the building is a
mortuary chapel (14th cent.) of one of the De Vernais (once lords of
the manor), which at the restoration of the church in 1857 was given to
the parish.

_Hinton Blewitt_, a small and secluded village, 4 m. S.W. from Clutton.
The church is Perp., with a fair W. tower. It possesses a stoup and a
rather poor piscina. The village, which is on the slope of a hill,
commands a pleasant view of the Mendips.

_Hinton Charterhouse_, a small village 6 m. S. of Bath, on the more
easterly of the alternative roads from the city to Frome. Its sole
attraction consists in a few fragments of a once considerable
Carthusian priory. About 1/2 m. N. of the village, in the corner of a
field near the main road, is what looks like a low gabled church tower,
with a small E.E. chancel and some other out-buildings. These remnants
are all that survive of a house founded here in 1232 by the widow of
William Longsword, for the accommodation of a settlement of
Carthusians; and it is worth noticing that of the Carthusian houses in
England, which never numbered more than nine, Somerset had two. The
ruins, which are very meagre, consist of two groups of buildings. (1)
One is a three-storeyed structure, containing on basement a vaulted,
chapel-like chamber, lighted by side lancets and a terminal triplet,
and possessing a large piscina and an aumbry. This is generally but
quite erroneously described as the "chapter-house." It may have been
the fratry. On the first floor is another vaulted chamber, supposed to
have been the library. It communicated at the end with a pigeon-cote,
and is reached by a good stone staircase, which also gives access to a
loft above. On the L. of the passage leading to the library will also
be noticed a small room lighted by a square-headed window. (2) The
second, in the stable-yard of the adjoining manor house, is the
refectory, a good, vaulted apartment, with a row of octagonal columns
down the centre. At the W. end it opens into the kitchen, in which will
be discovered a fireplace. Of the priory church, which abutted on the
N. wall of the so-called "chapter house," nothing is left but a single
trefoiled piscina and one of the vaulting shafts. The buildings have
evidently been freely used as a quarry for the erection of the
neighbouring manor house. In a dingle in the adjoining field is a
stone-faced, pointed archway, tunnelling the road. The parish church is
an unattractive, ivy-clad building near the village. _Hinton House_
(J.C. Foxcroft) is a modern mansion, with a fine open green in front of
it.

_Hinton St George_, a clean and attractive village equidistant (4 m.)
from Crewkerne and Ilminster. It possesses a very fine cross, having on
one face a representation of St John Baptist, which was originally
flanked by smaller figures. The shaft has been barbarously crowned with
a sundial and large ball. The church has a dignified tower with
numerous pinnacles, and a pierced, embattled parapet. The W. front has
a single large window which breaks the string course (cp. Shepton
Beauchamp and Norton-sub-Hamdon). The S. porch has a ribbed and
panelled roof and numerous niches. The interior of the church is not
very interesting, apart from the tombs and monuments of the Pouletts,
dating from the 16th and 17th centuries. Most are in a large N. chapel,
but there is one between the chapel and the chancel, and another in
front of the family pew. The font is carved with shields bearing
alternately a cross and the Poulett arms. There is a piscina in the
chancel. _Hinton House_, the mansion of Countess Poulett, in the
neighbouring park, has portions dating from the time of the first Sir
Amyas Poulett (d. 1537), but the rest is later. It has a fine
collection of pictures.

_Holcombe_, a colliery village 3-1/2 m. S. of Radstock. It has a small
modern church; but an old church, now disused, lies in a dingle in some
fields a mile away from the village. This possesses a good Norm. S.
doorway, with a curious inverted inscription scratched on one of the
capitals. The careless rebuilding of the columns shows that it is not
in its original position.

_Holford_, a village 6 m. E. from Williton, at the foot of the
Quantocks. Its church is picturesquely situated; in the graveyard is an
old cross with a mutilated figure on the shaft. Past the church, two
pleasant combes may be reached, Tannery Combe and Hodder's Combe (the
latter is perhaps a corruption of the name of Odda, the Earl of Devon
who aided Alfred, see p. 201). The hill between them bears the name of
_Hare Kanp_, possibly preserving the memory of the Saxon armies that
once marched along the trackway that crosses it (M.E. and A.S. _here_,
an army). Near Holford is _Alfoxden_, the residence of Wordsworth in
1797, when Coleridge was at Nether Stowey.

[Illustration: ALFOXDEN HOUSE, NEAR HOLFORD]

_Holton_, a village 2-1/2 m. S.W. of Wincanton. Its church is small and
contains a stone 15th-cent. pulpit and a Norm. font. On the S. porch is
an old sundial, and in the churchyard the base of a cross.

_Holms, The Flat and Steep_, two islands in the Bristol Channel,
forming familiar objects to all visitors to the Somerset sea-board.
Geologically they belong to the county, for they are the last expiring
protest of the Mendip chain against its final submergence in the sea.
The Steep Holm, the nearer and more conspicuous of the two islets, 5 m.
from the coast, is little better than a barren rock rearing its huge
bulk precipitously, nearly 300 ft. above the waves. It is almost
inaccessible, but has perhaps for this reason occasionally afforded an
asylum to refugees from the mainland, although the statement that
Gildas found security in this retreat appears to be an error. There
still remain some fragments of a priory. The Flat Holm, 2 m. farther
off, though of about the same circumference (1-1/2 m.), is a far less
imposing object in the sea-scape, but is more amenable to the
influences of civilisation. It is occupied by a lighthouse and a farm,
and is sometimes made the excuse for a channel trip by visitors from
the neighbouring watering-places, as it affords amongst other
attractions some facilities for bathing.

_Hornblotton_, a parish 3 m. N.W. of Castle Cary Station. The church,
which stands about a mile from the Fosse Way to Ilchester, is modern,
but the tower of the old church is left standing, and a piscina has
been removed from it to the new building.

[Illustration: HORNER WOODS AND PORLOCK VALE]

_Horner Valley_, one of the many charming walks which abound in the
neighbourhood of Porlock. Follow the Minehead road for about a mile and
then strike up the banks of the Horner Water by a lane on the R. On the
way will be noticed spanning the stream a quaint pack-horse bridge
beloved of photographers (cp. Allerford). At Horner village the road
winds round to Luccombe, but a broad path follows the course of the
Horner and leads up through the woods. The scenery is comparable with
that of the E. Lynn. It is a delightful combination of wood, mountain,
and rill, and is everywhere full of charm. The Horner Water descends
from the moors and babbles its way through the valley to the sea. It
receives on the right a contributary rill which flows through a combe
that rivals the main valley in romantic beauty. The second plank-bridge
across the water will lead up a very steep footpath to Cloutsham.

_Horrington, East and West_, two contiguous villages on the S. slope of
the Mendips, 2 m. E. from Wells, and overlooking the city. At E.
Horrington there is a small modern church (1838).

_Horsington_, a largish village 1 m. N. of Templecombe. The church is
spacious and has been rebuilt (1884-85), with the exception of the
tower. It contains a 15th-cent. octagonal font with, rudely carved
figures of angels at the angles. Near the church is a cross (said to be
13th cent.) with the canopied figure of an ecclesiastic on the shaft.

_Huish Champflower_, a village 3-1/2 m. N.W. from Wiveliscombe. The
church is one of the few Dec. churches in the county, but not a pure
example of the style, as the tower and window tracery are Perp. There
is a good arcade of clustered columns with foliated capitals dividing
the nave from the N. aisle. The window at the E. end of the aisle
should also be observed, as the tracery is particularly good, and it
retains some of its original glass. There is a barrow in the
neighbourhood which has recently been excavated.

_Huish Episcopi_ is a parish situated E. of Langport, the two churches
being less than half a mile apart. It is famed for its beautiful tower,
which, however, is perhaps a little over-praised, for the crown of
pinnacles, graceful in itself, does not seem to spring naturally from
the summit, but to be super-imposed upon it. The belfry storey has
double windows, and each stage is divided from the one below by bands
of quatrefoils which produce rather a formal effect. The S. door is
late Norm., its red colour being due to fire; in the upper corner of
the porch traces of stone stairs are visible. Some Dec. windows remain
in the chancel, but the majority are Perp.: the glass at the E. end of
the S. aisle is by Sir E. Burne-Jones. Note (1) the stoup near S. door;
(2) the piscina in the chancel; (3) the squint in the S. pier of the
chancel; (4) the Jacobean pulpit (dated 1625).

_Huntspill_, a parish 1-1/2 m. S.S.W. from Highbridge, supposed to
derive its name from Hun, a Somerset ealdorman in the reign of Egbert.
It has a very handsome church which has been rebuilt since it was
destroyed by fire in 1878. The pillars of the arcade still show traces
of the flames. The tower is good, with bold buttresses. The church
contains the effigies of a knight in armour and his lady, within a
recess in the S. wall. Note (1) stoup in S. porch; (2) piscina in S.
chapel; (3) fine black oak pulpit.

_Hutton_, a small village 3-1/2 m. S.E. of Weston-super-Mare. It lies
at the base of Bleadon Hill, and may be approached from Weston either
through Uphill or by a path that leaves the Worle road. Its small but
picturesque church has a good tower of three stages and preserves an
excellent stone pulpit, reached by a recess in the wall (which once led
to the rood loft), and two brasses to members of the Payne family (one
will be found immediately in front of the altar, the other in a recess
in the N. wall of the chancel). _Hutton Court_, which is close by, is a
15th-cent. building much altered.

ILCHESTER, a small, decayed town on the Ivel, 4-1/2 m. N.E. of Martock,
which was formerly of considerable importance. Its name recalls the
fact that it was a Roman station, and upon it several Roman roads
converge. It was besieged in the strife between William Rufus and his
brother Robert; and it was fortified in the Great Civil War. It once
had a nunnery, and it was the birthplace of Roger Bacon, who was born
here in 1214. But apart from its historic associations it has little
now to attract attention, its only noteworthy building being its church
(the last remaining of five). This has a short tower which is octagonal
throughout and does not rest, like others elsewhere, upon a square
base. Some Roman bricks seem to be among the materials of which it is
constructed, and there are a few old pieces of carving built into the
walls. The oldest parts of the building appear to date from E.E. times,
but it has undergone a good deal of restoration. Note (1) the E. window
(three lancets under a hood moulding); (2) niches; (3) squint. There is
a market cross, consisting of a cylindrical pillar supporting a sundial
(cp. Martock). Though Ilchester is not now a borough, it was so once,
and a very curious macehead (13th cent.) is still preserved.

_Ile (or Isle) Abbots_, a village 3-1/2 m. E. of Hatch Station. It gets
its name from its position on the little river Ile (or Isle) and its
former connection with Muchelney Abbey. It possesses an interesting
church with a fine tower, having double windows in the belfry and
numerous niches, which for the most part retain their statuary. The S.
porch has fair groining with a central pendant, and there are some
beautiful pierced parapets. The windows are of various dates--E.E.,
Dec., and Perp. Note in the chancel (1) low side-window (cp. Bleadon,
Othery), (2) piscina, surrounded by panelling, (3) triple sedilia. The
font, rudely carved, is Norm. The arcade piers are encircled with the
"Devonshire" foliage.

_Ile (or Isle) Brewers_ (the latter half of the name a corruption of
_De Bruyère_, the family that once owned the manor) is a parish 5 m. E.
of Hatch Station. The church has been rebuilt (1861), and the tower (on
the S.) is surmounted by a spire. Within is a Norm. font.

_Ilminster_, a small market town (with station) on the Ile, is a place
of great antiquity but of little present importance, though it has some
lace, shirt, and collar manufactories. It was attached to the Abbey of
Muchelney until the dissolution of the monasteries. It possesses a
noble church, the fine central tower having triple windows in double
tier (cp. Mells and Leigh), and being surmounted by clustered
pinnacles, whilst the vault is beautifully groined. The S. porch and
the transepts are also excellently designed, these parts of the
structure having been built by Sir William Wadham (15th cent.). The
nave (rebuilt in 1824) is much inferior. Note (1) large ribbed squints;
(2) font (probably once attached to a pillar); (3) vestry behind the E.
window (cp. N. Petherton, Kingsbury, Langport, and Porlock); (4)
piscinas in transepts; (5) grotesque corbels. In the N. transept are
the tombs and brasses of (1) Sir William Wadham (d. 1425) and his wife;
(2) Nicholas and Dorothy Wadham (1609 and 1618), the founders of Wadham
College, Oxford. In the S. transept is a monument to Humfrey Walrond
(d. 1580). The communion plate includes two Elizabethan chalices. The
only other building in the town of any interest is the Grammar School,
N. of the church. It bears a motto and the date 1586, and owes its
origin to Humfrey Walrond. It is now a girls' school, the boys having
been transferred to new buildings (reached from the street S. of the
church).

_Ilton_, a village on the Ile, 2 m. N. of Ilminster. It has a church of
some interest. The windows are partly Dec. and partly Perp., and the
tower is on the S. Note (1) piscinas in chancel and chapel; (2) brass
of Nicholas Wadham (d. 1508); (3) effigy of "Joan," wife of another
Nicholas Wadham (d. 1557).

_Keinton-Mandeville_, a large village 4 m. E.N.E. of Somerton, lying
for the most part along the Castle Cary road, with a station on the
Castle Cary and Langport loop-line. The church is in a field at the S.
extremity of the village. The nave was rebuilt in 1800, but the chancel
retains some indication of its E.E. origin, and the old Norm. font is
still preserved. The village was the birthplace of Sir Henry Irving,
whose real name was Brodribb.

_Kelston_, a parish 4 m. N.W. of Bath. The church, which is reached by
a lane to the left, has been rebuilt, with the exception of the tower
and N. porch. The latter has on its left jamb a very small carving of
the Crucifixion. Within note (1) in the chancel some interlaced work on
the N. and a piscina on the S.; (2) in the E. corner of the S. aisle a
musical epitaph; (3) in one of the N. windows of the nave some
fragments of ancient glass (the figure is said to be that of St
Barbara: cp. Cucklington).

_Kenn_, on the R. of the road between Yatton and Clevedon, was the
original home of Bishop Ken's family. The church retains its ancient
tower, which has a curious cap. The nave has been rebuilt, but contains
a quaint monument on the interior wall of the tower to Christopher Ken
(d. 1593), and a mural tablet to Sir Nicholas Staling, "Gentleman
Usher" to Queen Elizabeth and King James I. (d. 1605).

_Kewstoke_, a village 2 m. N.E. of Weston-super-Mare. It is best
reached by a delightful road through the woods on the seaward side of
Worle Hill. Its picturesque church is interesting, and, like so many
others, illustrates successive styles of architecture. The S. door is
Norm.; there is an E.E. lancet in the chancel, and the font perhaps
belongs to the same period; the E. window and some windows on the N.
side of the church are Dec. (with foliated rear arches); whilst the
tower and the clerestory (which is rarely found where there are no
aisles) belong to the Perp. period. Note (1) the fine stone 15th cent.
pulpit, a not uncommon feature in the neighbourhood (cp. Worle, Hutton,
Locking, Loxton, Banwell); (2) arch with quaint finial at entrance to
rood-loft stair; (3) old glass in S. chapel. In 1852 a small carved
figure, built into the N. wall of the church, was found to conceal, in
a recess at the back of it, a broken wooden cup, stained with human
blood, supposed to be that of St Thomas a Becket, and to have been
brought from Worspring Priory. It is now in Taunton Museum. Opposite
the church door is a series of steps leading up the hill, called _St
Kew's Steps_, the origin of which is unknown. On the top of the hill is
the village of _Milton_, with a modern church.

KEYNSHAM, a small town on the Chew near its confluence with the Avon.
It has a station on the G.W. main line to Bristol. Pop. nearly 3000. It
is a long straggling sort of place of not very lively appearance,
resembling an overgrown village. Its history is rather romantic than
reliable. Its patron saint, S. Keyne, a Welsh lady of exceptional
sanctity, dwelt in a neighbouring wood much infested with serpents. The
reptiles, not usually susceptible to the voice of the charmer, were at
her intercession turned into stone--a fact to which the ammonites in
the local quarry bear witness. St Keyne's name occurs also at
Kentisford, near Watchet. Later, the town acquired a borrowed lustre
from its association with one of the greater religious houses. In 1170
William of Gloster founded here on a magnificent scale a monastery of
Austin Canons. This glory has now departed. The Reformation and the
Bridges family between them made a clean sweep of everything. The abbey
was used as a quarry for building the family mansion, which has by the
irony of fate likewise disappeared. Monastic odds and ends may be
discovered here and there worked into houses and garden walls. A
gateway on the R. of lane leading to station is made up of such
fragments. A heap of débris to the E. of the church indicates the
whereabouts of the original buildings. The church is a spacious rather
than an inspiring edifice. A massive W. tower was built in 1634 to
replace a tower which stood at the E. end of the N. aisle, and was
destroyed by a thunderstorm. The chancel is the most interesting part
of the building, and should be examined externally where the original
E.E. lancets are visible. Within, it has been converted into a kind of
mausoleum for the Bridges family, some of whom are represented in
effigy. Note the round-headed double piscina in sanctuary. The S. aisle
is Dec., and contains a fine Perp. screen. The Caroline screen dividing
the S. chapel from chancel should also be observed. The window tracery
throughout the church is crude. A row of alms-houses near the Wingrove
Hotel were founded by Sir T. Bridges. A Roman tessellated pavement was
discovered in making the railway cutting, and was removed to Bristol.

_Kilmersdon_, a village 2 m. S. from Radstock. It lies prettily in a
hollow at the foot of Ammerdown Park. The church is a 15th cent. Perp.
building with a lofty W. tower which forms a graceful object in the
vale. The nave within and without bears traces of Norm. work. Note
corbels and scale work on S. external wall, and in the interior the
small Norm. window. In Perp. times the walls were raised, the old
corbel-table being left in its original position. The triple panelling
to the tower arch and the reduplication of the chancel arch is a little
peculiar. A triangular lychgate of unusual design has lately been added
to the churchyard. There is an Elizabethan communion cup dated 1566.
_Ammerdown House_ (Ld. Hylton) stands amongst the trees on the
hill-side behind the village. It is an Italian mansion, designed by
Wyatt. The summit of the hill above is crowned by a graceful memorial
column with a glittering lantern. As the hill is 800 feet high, it is a
conspicuous landmark.

_Kilton_ is a parish 7 m. E.N.E. of Williton. Its church has been
rebuilt, but retains a good Perp. font, and some small brasses on the
S. wall of the chancel. Two communion chalices belonging to the church
date from 1514 and 1572 respectively. Nearer the coast is _Lilstock_
church, of which only the chancel remains, serving as a mortuary
chapel.

_Kilve_, a village on the Channel, 5 m. E.N.E. of Williton, has had its
name enshrined in the verse of both Southey and Wordsworth. From the
shore some pretty coast views are obtainable. Its church retains its
stoup, piscina, and ancient font, and there is some 15th cent. woodwork
near the entrance to the tower. Close to the church are the remains of
a chantry. Though many of the walls are still standing, it is rather
difficult to trace the plan.

_Kingsbury Episcopi_, 2-1/2 m. N.W. of Martock, is a village wearing an
air of antiquity, and possessing a fine church. The church tower, with
double belfry windows, closely resembles that of its neighbour at Huish
Episcopi. It is inferior in its buttresses and mouldings, but has a
better W. window. The elaborate crown produces a more top-heavy effect
than at Huish. The niches which adorn the tower are noticeable for
retaining in many cases their figures, which are seated (cp. Ile
Abbots). The tower arch is finely panelled with niches on the E. face,
and there is a clerestory (note the angel corbels below the roof). The
piers of the chancel and transeptal arches are ornamented with foliage,
and the chancel windows are large, with traceried transoms. Note (1)
the screen; (2) the fragments of ancient glass in the N. transept; (3)
the piscina in the S. chapel; (4) the sacristy below the E. window (as
at N. Petherton and Langport); (5) the small crucifix over the S. porch
(which originally had a parvise).

_Kingsdon_, a village 2-1/2 m. S.S.E. of Somerton. Its church, in the
main Perp., has a plain embattled tower and some Dec. windows. The S.
porch has niches for images and a stoup; there are piscinas in the
chancel and the N. transept, and in the same transept the effigy of a
crusader, believed to be one Guy Bryan. On the road between Ilchester
and Somerton, which passes over the hill below which the church is
situated, a fine view may be obtained, embracing the Quantocks, the
Blackdowns, and part of the Mendips.

_Kingston St Mary_, a village 3 m. N. of Taunton. Its church, prettily
situated on rising ground, has a fine W. tower, crowned with numerous
pinnacles and a turret spirelet. On three sides are canopied niches,
the upper ones supported on cherubs or angels. The arcade of the nave
is Trans. or E.E., that of the chancel Perp., the junction being rather
clumsily effected. There is no chancel arch. The S. porch has a fine
groined roof, with niches and holy-water stoup. Note (1) the carved
seat-ends (one having the date 1522); (2) the large tomb (_temp._
Edward III.) in the S. aisle belonging to the Warres; (3) black-letter
Bible (1617) and Bishop Jewel's works (chained). The neighbouring
mansion of _Hestercombe_, once the possession of the Warres, but now
belonging to the Portmans, is said to preserve a sword taken by one of
the Warres from King John of France at Poitiers.

_Kingston Seymour_ is a village about 2 m. W. of Yatton, with a halt on
the Clevedon and Weston light railway. Its church has a tower
surmounted by a spire: the parapet, which is of an unusual character,
rises from the base of the latter. The S. aisle has an exceptionally
large squint, and a piscina; and the churchyard contains the base and
shaft of an old cross. The parish on more than one occasion has
suffered from destructive inundations of the sea.

_Kingstone_, a small village 1 m. S.E. of Ilminster. The church is
Perp., with a good central tower. The windows contain some fragments of
ancient glass. The shape of the font is curious.

_Kingweston_ (said to be a corruption of Kenwardston) is a parish 3 m.
N.E. of Somerton. Its church has been rebuilt (1855), and its octagonal
tower is crowned with a tall spire. The doorway and font of an earlier
Norm. church are still preserved, and in the chancel is an E.E.
piscina. The churchyard has the base and shaft of a cross.

_Kittisford_, a lonely parish 4 m. N.W. of Wellington, near the Tone.
The church has been restored, but retains a piscina and a pulpit of
1610. In the parish is an old manor-house called Cothay, of Tudor date.

_Knowle St Giles_, a small hamlet on a hillside, 2-1/2 m. N.E. of
Chard. The church has been rebuilt.

_Lambrook, East_, 2-1/2 m. S. by W. of Martock, is a hamlet belonging
to Kingsbury Episcopi, with a small towerless church. It has a Dec. E.
window with a foliated interior arch, a niche for a small piscina, and
two heads inserted in the walls (perhaps originally for the Lenten
veil). There are some remains of an old house at the post-office which
are worth observing.

_Lamyatt_, a parish on the slope of Creech Hill, 2 m. N.W. from Bruton.
The little church has a low tower, with a pyramidal top. Note the two
ancient corbel heads built into its W. front. Within there is a Norm.
font with cable moulding. The roof has tie beams with Perp. open-work
above them.

_Langford Budville_ (or _Botteville_), a parish 2-1/2 m. N.W. of
Wellington. Its church has a battlemented tower, with a turret on the
S. (cp. Wellington). The columns of the S. arcade, which have circlets
of foliage in place of capitals, deserve notice. On one of them is
carved a needle and thread, which has been conjectured to be connected
with some benefaction to the church by a member of Queen's College,
Oxford, where a ceremony is observed in which a needle and thread
(_aiguille et fil_) figures in memory of Queen Philippa. In this aisle
is a holy-water stoup. The N. aisle is modern.

[Illustration: THE HANGING CHAPEL, LANGPORT]

LANGPORT, a very small town on the Parrett, with two stations on the
G.W.R. It is built along a ridge rising above the level of the
surrounding marsh lands, and is an unattractive little place, but has
seen some history (it was the scene of a defeat of the Royalists in the
Civil War), and possesses an interesting church. The tower (embattled
and pinnacled) has three windows in the belfry storey, but is inferior
to many of its class, and should be compared with Long Sutton. The
chancel has unusually large Perp. windows, with traceried transoms; and
the E. window is remarkable for its ancient glass (representing ten
saints). The W. window has modern stained glass in memory of Bagehot,
the historian, who was born here. Among other features deserving notice
are (1) the squint in the N. pier of the chancel arch; (2) the niches
on the corresponding S. pier; (3) the piscina on the centre pier of the
S. chapel; (4) the sacristy behind and below the E. window (as at N.
Petherton, Kingsbury and Porlock); (5) the very curious carving in the
S. porch (now used as a vestry). A little way E. of the church there is
a curious little chapel (Perp.), which is built above an archway that
spans the road. It is known as the _Hanging Chapel_ (from its
position), and was once used as a grammar school.

_Langridge_, a small parish 4 m. N.W. of Bath, situated in a deep
hollow. Its church is remarkably small (50 ft. by 18 ft.), and contains
several features of interest. The doorway is Norm., and so is the
chancel arch. The latter, which has been restored, is exceptionally
narrow, and has above it a piece of sculpture representing the Virgin
and child. Note besides, (1) the stoup; (2) effigy of a lady; (3)
brasses of Robert Walsh (d. 1427) and his wife (the Walshes owned the
manor in the 14th and 15th cents.); (4) font (E.E.); (5) Jacobean
pulpit.

_Laverton_, a small village 4-1/2 m. N. from Frome. The church is a
small 13th cent. building, with a saddleback tower.

_Leigh on Mendip_ (pronounced Lye), a bleakly situated village on the
E. Mendips, 6 m. W.S.W. from Frome. It possesses a small Perp. church
with a mean chancel, but set off by the compensating attraction of a
remarkably noble W. tower, which well merits attention. It is of the
reduplicated triple window type (cp. Mells) with a finely pierced
parapet and profusely ornamented with pinnacles, but out of all
proportion to the church. The latter contains (1) a pillar stoup in the
porch; (2) a Norm, font; (3) some old oak benches; (4) fine granite
altar slab, found buried for safety's sake; (5) two small corbels in
the chancel, presumably for supporting a Lenten veil (cp.
Orchardleigh); (6) piscinas in chancel and S. aisle.

_Leigh Woods_, the hanging woods which cover the W. bank of the Avon,
near Clifton. They form a fine foil to the open downs opposite. To
enter them cross the Suspension Bridge into Somerset, take first
turning to R., cross the intervening combe, which runs up from the
river, by the first available footpath, and then wander at your will.
Hidden away amongst the trees are the remains of a rampart, _Stoke
Leigh Camp_, one of twin fortifications. The other, _Burgh Walls_, on
the Bristol side of the combe, was destroyed to make room for the
present villas. A British trackway, communicating with Cadbury Camp, is
said to have here crossed the river by a ford. From the edge of the
cliff delightful glimpses may be obtained of the bridge and gorge.

_Leighland_, a hamlet 5 m. S.W. of Williton. The church, originally a
chapelry belonging to Cleeve Abbey, was rebuilt in 1862. The
neighbouring Brendon Hills were once extensively mined for iron.

_Limington_, a village 1 m. E. of Ilchester. It is interesting as being
the first living held by Cardinal Wolsey (cp. p. 31); and its church
has some features that deserve notice. Chief among them is the N.
chapel (with ribbed roof) which was founded as a chantry in 1329 by Sir
Richard Gyvernay, and contains several effigies. One, a knight in full
armour, under a Dec. recess, is probably Sir Richard himself, with his
lady beside him on a separate slab. A second knight (with bared head)
reposes with his lady on an altar-tomb by the W. wall; this is supposed
to be Sir Gilbert Gyvernay, father of Sir Richard. There is a piscina
in the chapel and another in the chancel. Note (1) the carved ends of
the choir stalls, with the arms of Lord Harington, killed at Wakefield
1460; (2) the grotesque corbels supporting the tower arch.

_Littleton, High_, a large village 10 m. S.W. of Bath, on the road to
Wells (station, Hallatrow). The church has been more than once rebuilt,
and contains nothing of interest but some mural tablets (15th cent.) to
the Hodges family.

_Litton_, a village in a dale, 4 m. S.W. from Hallatrow Station. The
church is late 15th cent. Perp. of rather poor workmanship. The chancel
is out of centre with the nave, necessitating a large hagioscope on N.
An ungainly modern N. aisle needlessly emphasises this lop-sidedness.
The chancel contains a good piscina. In the neighbourhood is a large
reservoir in connection with the Bristol water-works.

_Locking_, a parish 3 m. S.E. of Weston-super-Mare, but most easily
reached from Worle Station, 1-1/2 m. away. The church was rebuilt in
1863, and its earlier features obliterated, with the exception of the
Perp. tower. It contains, however, a very interesting old square font
of Transitional date, with quaint figures at the angles, and a carved
stone pulpit (cp. the neighbouring churches of Loxton, Worle, Hutton,
Wick St Lawrence).

_Long Load_, a parish 2 m. N. of Martock, with a modern church built on
the site of an old chapelry or chantry.

_Lopen_, a parish 4 m. N.W. of Crewkerne, is noteworthy as being the
place where Cardinal Wolsey, when holding the cure of Limington, is
said to have been put in the stocks by Sir Amyas Poulett. The church
(Perp.) is ancient, but it has been restored and enlarged, and is of
little interest.

_Lovington_, a parish 3 m. N. of Sparkford. Its church has unusually
prominent buttresses to the tower, and preserves (1) remains of stoup
in S. porch; (2) piscinas in S. nave wall and chancel; (3) aumbry; (4)
poppy heads to seats. The churchyard contains some old stocks.

_Loxton_, a village 3 m. S.W. of Sandford Station, facing Crook's Peak.
It has an interesting church, which is not easily observed from the
road, as it is reached by a lane. It has a short tower (said to be
Norman) on the S. side, the lower part forming a porch: in this is a
curious squint. Within note (1) the fine Perp. pulpit, carved from a
single block of stone: (2) a good screen; (3) the piscina in the
vestry, showing that it was formerly a chapel; (4) some old glass.

[Illustration: LUCCOMBE VILLAGE]

_Luccombe_, a village at the foot of Dunkery, 2 m. S.E. from Porlock.
Its name ("the enclosed combe") is aptly descriptive of its situation,
for it is effectually screened from observation. A mountain brook and
some fine timber give the place a pretty air of rusticity. It has a
good church and some interesting old cottages--note the projecting
ovens and the curiously small windows that light some of the chimney
corners. The church has a Perp. W. tower, with nave and S. aisle.
Within is an altar tomb on S. and on N. a monument to Rector Byam
(1669), one of the fighting cavalier parsons who came by their own
again at the Restoration. Note (1) E.E. lancets to sanctuary; (2)
piscinas in sanctuary and S. aisle; (3) occasional "Devonshire"
capitals to pillars; (4) rood-loft stair, as at Porlock; (5) faces on
bosses of roof (cp. Selworthy); (6) fragment of stoup in porch. In the
churchyard are some fine cypresses, and the remains of a cross.

_Lufton_, a small parish 3 m. W. of Yeovil. The church has been
rebuilt, but preserves its Norman font (with cable moulding), and a
holy-water stoup (within the S. door).

_Lullington_, an obscurely situated village, 3 m. N. from Frome. It
should certainly be visited by anyone in the neighbourhood, as the
church is of exceptional antiquarian interest and contains one of the
finest Norm, doorways in the county. It is a small building having a
low central tower without transepts. A small S. chantry projects from
the nave. Features to be noted are: (1) the Norm, doorway mentioned
above, a little to the right of main entrance. The capitals are richly
carved, and support an arch ornamented with deeply cut chevron and
grotesque bird's beak mouldings. The tympanum bears in relief the
curious device of some winged creatures devouring a tree. Above is a
roundheaded niche containing the figure of our Lord, with hand uplifted
in blessing. (2) Tub-shaped Norm. font, bearing inscription, _Hoc
fontis sacro pereunt delicta lavacro_, and another legend
undecipherable. (3) Clusters of Norm. columns beneath tower supporting
an arch, evidently rebuilt out of original materials (observe S. pier
of chancel arch standing idle). (4) E.E. arch opening into chantry
chapel, and large piscina within. (5) Body stone built into W. wall of
vestry. The whole of the Norm. work is unusually rich for a small
country church, but it may possibly be accounted for by the fact that
Lullington at the Conquest, amongst other good things, fell to the
share of Geoffrey of Coutances, who perhaps brought here his staff of
continental workmen, as the figures on the capitals of the doorway are
known to occur also at Coutances and Caen. The body stone in the
vestry, which may at one time have marked the Bishop's own grave
outside, is also said to bear traces of continental craftsmanship. The
"mediaeval" gateway at the entrance of the neighbouring park is a sham.

_Luxborough_, a village 6 m. S. of Dunster, lying amongst the Brendon
hills. The gradients are discouraging to any but determined tourists.
The church, though ancient, has been too frequently restored to retain
much antiquarian interest.

_Lydeard St Lawrence_, a village 1-1/2 m. S W. of Crowcombe Station. It
climbs the hill-side that confronts the Quantocks, and has a church
near the summit, whence a fine view is obtainable. The church tower is
commanding; in spite of its height, it has only diagonal buttresses.
The oldest part of the present building is the chancel of the 14th
cent. (which has a good Dec. piscina and triple sedilia), though a
round-headed window (blocked), a survival of an earlier structure, is
inserted in the N. wall. The capitals of the arcade have very unusual
carving (including interlaced work, and the representation of a fox
seizing a goose). The screen (restored) has traces of painting; the
pulpit is Jacobean; and the font seems to be double, an inverted Norman
basin being surmounted by another of still older appearance. There is a
piscina in the S. wall, and over the S. porch a sun-dial of 1653.
Southey's father was a farmer here.

_Lydford, East_ and _West_, two small villages about 1/2 m. apart,
lying on either side of the Fosseway, 5 m. W. of Castle Cary. At the E.
hamlet is a small modern memorial church, with a spire (1866). The W.
village, which is traversed by the Brue, has a church which was rebuilt
in 1846, and has undergone several renovations since.

_Lympsham_, a parish 6 m. S.S.E. of Weston-super-Mare (nearest station
Brent Knoll, 2-1/2 m.). It has a church with a good tower (double
windows in the belfry), which is said to lean westward some, feet out
of the perpendicular. Within note (1) the fine wood roof of the N.
aisle, which was once a chapel (it has a piscina); (2) the 12th cent.
tub font.

_Lyng_, a village 1/2 m. W. of Athelney Station, situated on the Tone.
Its little aisleless church, which was once a chapelry of Alfred's
monastery at Athelney, has a beautiful, though small, Perp. tower (with
double belfry windows). One of the bells dates from 1609. The body of
the church (of earlier date than the tower) contains much that is
interesting, particularly a good Dec. sedile and some fine carved
bench-ends (16th cent.). Note also (1) the oak pulpit, (2) old glass in
a window on N. of chancel, (3) piscinas, (4) tub font, (5) old chest
hollowed from a single trunk (under the tower). The "isle" of Athelney,
with Alfred's monument, is in this parish.

_Maperton_ is a pleasant village 3-1/2 m. E. from Sparkford. Of the
church, which is rather screened from view by an adjoining mansion, the
only old portion is the tower. A few corbels of an earlier church and a
piece of interlaced carving are preserved in the S. porch. The piscina
deserves notice; it is said to be Norman.

_Mark_, a large but scattered village on the marshes between Highbridge
and Wells, 3 m. N.E. from Bason Bridge Station (S. & D.). The houses
straggle along the road-side for a considerable distance. The church,
which is at the far end of the village, is of some dignity, and has
been carefully restored. It has a Perp. tower, with triple belfry
windows of not very successful design, and there is a good parapet to
the nave. The S. aisle is evidently older than the rest of the building
(note the arcade). The fine panelled roof covering the N. aisle should
be observed, and the projecting figures on the wall-plate of the nave.
Other features claiming attention are (1) the unusual direction of the
squints in the chancel arch, (2) Perp. screens (1634), (3) rood-loft
stair and turret in N. aisle, (4) blocked priest's door in sanctuary,
(5) blocked squint in S. porch, (6) carved font under tower. The
chancel contains some finely carved figures of the Evangelists, brought
from Bruges Cathedral by a former rector.

_Marksbury_, a small village on the Keynsham and Wells road, 4 m. S.
from Keynsham. The church is an ugly little building with a plaster
ceiling and a chancel out of centre with the rest of the structure. The
tower is crowned with an eccentric set of pyramidal pinnacles, and has
a small 17th-cent. inscription on its W. face.

_Marston Biggott_, a small village 3 m. S.W. from Frome. The church,
which stands in a park, has been rebuilt. Marston House (until lately
the seat of the Earls of Cork) is a large modern "Italian" mansion,
imposingly situated on a wooded hillside. The site of the original
house, of which nothing remains, is locally known as _Marston Moat_.
Close by is a field traditionally called _Conqueror's Meads_, and is
popularly reputed to have been the scene of some ancient battle.

_Marston Magna_, a village 5 m. N.E. of Yeovil, with station on G.W.R.
line to Weymouth. The church, though devoid of picturesqueness, has
several features of architectural interest. Traces of herringbone work
will be discovered on the N. exterior wall of the chancel, where, too,
should be noted the flat buttresses and Norm. window. The peculiarity
of the church is, however, the little chapel adjoining the N. porch,
and divided from it by a rude screen surmounted by a gallery. Note the
elaborate niche on the N. The chancel is lighted at E. by an E.E.
triplet; and some old glass will be observed in a window on the S. The
font has a fluted basin, and is doubtless Norm. The central battlement
of each face of the tower bears the Tudor rose (cp. East Pennard). The
fine old Jacobean house near the W. end of the church should not escape
attention; and in the field to the S.E. is a moated paddock, locally
known as _Court Garden_, and generally reputed to be the site of an
ancient manor house.

MARTOCK is a small town (with station) 5-1/2 m. N.W. of Yeovil,
consisting virtually of one long street. It has no historic
associations to speak of, though in 1645 it was the scene of a public
thanksgiving by the Parliament forces for the capture of Bridgwater. At
the present time it is chiefly engaged in the manufacture of gloves and
jute matting. The population is about 3000. It has a noble church, the
earliest part of which is the E. wall (E.E.; note the five lancets and
gable-topped buttresses). In it, on a level with the floor, is a large
recess, perhaps intended for relics. The rest of the church is Perp.
The tower (with double belfry windows) is rather plain; but the nave is
very impressive, being exceptionally lofty, and having a clerestory
lighted by unusually large windows, divided by niches containing
paintings of the Apostles. There is a good deal of panel-work, and a
splendid oak roof, with embattled tie-beams. The pierced parapet is
remarkably good. Note (1) vault of S. porch; (2) piscina in S. chapel,
(3) brass to George Bisse and wife (1702 and 1685). At the extremity of
the graveyard is a defaced effigy.

Near the church are two ancient buildings. The one (approached through
a small ruined arch) is a 14th-cent. manor house, with a hall lighted
by windows that are square without and foliated within. Note (1) oak
roof, (2) curious brackets. The other (now the church-house) was
formerly a grammar school, founded by William Strode of Barrington in
1661; note arms and motto. A small building, surrounded by a moat, is
said to occupy the site of a manor house given to Lord Monteagle for
bringing about the discovery of the Gunpowder Plot. The market cross is
a column crowned by a sundial and ball (cp. Ilchester).

_Masbury_, a station on S. & D. line from Bath to Templecombe. Here the
railway, after an arduous ascent, at length reaches the summit of the
Mendips. To the E. of the station is Masbury Ring, a large circular
encampment. It is probably of British origin, but was, no doubt, also
occupied by the Romans, as it lies on the line of the old Roman road
from Uphill to Old Sarum. The fosse is now partly filled with trees.
The ring may be regarded as the summit of the E. Mendip range, which
here reaches 958 ft. About a mile to the E. is a thicker clump of fir
trees crowning _Beacon Hill_, another high spot. The view from Masbury
is most extensive. Below are the towers of Wells and Glastonbury Tor.
On the W. horizon are the Blackdowns and Quantocks; and on clear days
Dunkery and Exmoor are visible. To the E. are the Wiltshire Downs and
Alfred's Tower, whilst right in front, to the N., is Dundry Hill.

_Meare_, a village 3-1/2 m. N.W. from Glastonbury (nearest stat.
Ashcott, 1-1/4 m.). It betrays by its name the former condition of the
country round it, it having been an isle (like Athelney and Muchelney)
only approachable (it is said), even as late as 1808, by a bridle-path.
It belonged to the abbots of Glastonbury, who frequented it for
fishing; and of their connection with the place there are surviving
memorials in a _Manor House_ (where they stayed) and a _Fisher's
House_. The first (E. of the church) contains on the first floor a fine
dining-hall with large hooded fireplace and Dec. windows; the building
at right angles to it is said to have been the chapel. The second,
where the abbey fisherman lived, is in a field adjoining the Manor
House; it is roofless (the consequence of a fire), but the walk are
intact, and the building is a good example of a mediaeval
dwelling-house (erected 1335). The parish church has a 14th-cent.
chancel with a Dec. E. window; the nave (Perp.) dates from the 15th
cent., and has on the parapet of the S. aisle the monogram of Abbot
Selwood, the penultimate Abbot of Glastonbury. There is a 15th-cent.
stone pulpit.

_Mells_, a large village 3 m. W.N.W. from Frome (nearest stat. Mells
Road). Mells possesses a fine church, several old houses, and a
well-merited reputation for picturesqueness. The church is a rich
example of 15th-cent. Somerset Perp., with the usual low chancel and an
elaborately panelled and pinnacled W. tower (cp. Leigh). Note (1) fine
groined porch (cp. Doulting); (2) octagonal vestry on S. with chamber
above; (3) mural tablet with emblem of peacock, on N. wall of tower,
designed by Burne-Jones; (4) Norm. font. There are some modern brasses
to former incumbents, and in N. chapel a tablet to Sir J. Homer (1659).
Immediately adjoining the church on W. is a fine gabled Elizabethan
manor house. _Mells Park_ (J.F. Horner) is a plain freestone mansion,
standing in some well-timbered grounds at the farther end of the
village. The founder of the family is popularly reputed to be the
"little Jack Horner" of nursery fame. In the neighbourhood of Mells are
three camps, _Newbury_ and _Wadbury_, on the road to Elm, and
_Tedbury_, on the way to Frome. The last mentioned is triangular,
occupying a point of land between two ravines (cp. Ruborough).

[Illustration: MELLS VILLAGE]

_Mendips, The_, a chain of hills some 25 m. long, running in a straight
line across the county in a N.W. direction from Frome to the Channel.
On its S.W. face the ridge drops abruptly into the plain, but the
opposite side gradually shelves away in a series of irregular
undulations, though the descent becomes sharper as the hills approach
the coast. Viewed from the sea-board the outline of the chain is on
either side sharply defined, and forms a prominent and shapely feature
in the landscape. From the low-lying central flats of the county the
Mendips have a quite fictitious impressiveness. Nowhere does their
altitude reach 1100 ft., and their ridge-like summit is nothing but an
extended plateau, in places from 2 to 3 m. wide. They have, however,
even on the top a certain picturesqueness, for the undulating tableland
is relieved by copses, and diversified by little wooded "bottoms,"
scooped out by prehistoric torrents. Nearer the sea the uplands become
more desolate, the "bottoms" are replaced by rocky combes, like the
gorges at Cheddar and Burrington; villages become less frequent; and
traces of discarded mines give a weirdness to the solitude. The moors
are, however, healthy, and nowhere lacking in interest. Geologically
the structure of the Mendips is simple. A core of old red sandstone,
which occasionally crops out at the surface, and through which in one
spot, near Downhead, a vein of igneous rock has forced its way, is
thickly coated with a crust of mountain limestone. The once
superincumbent coal-measures are huddled together on one side in a
confused heap near Radstock, and on the other are probably buried
beneath the Glastonbury marshes. The detached hills in their
neighbourhood are doubtless only the remnants of an oolitic covering
which once completely enveloped them. A noteworthy feature of the
Mendips, but one shared by other limestone formations, is the number of
caverns and "swallet holes" with which they abound. Of the former the
_Cheddar Caves_ and _Wookey Hole_ are the most remarkable; and a good
example of the latter is the _Devil's Punch Bowl_ near E. Harptree. The
chief antiquities consist of the old Roman lead-mines and an
amphitheatre near Priddy, the old Roman road linking Uphill with Old
Sarum, and a few camps, such as those at Masbury and Burrington. The
hills are fairly uniform in height, the chief prominences being Beacon
Hill (near Shepton), Masbury Ring, and Blackdown (1067 ft.). A fairly
good road traverses the range from Frome to Cheddar or Burrington; and
a ramble taken anywhere along its length will repay the pedestrian.

_Merriott_, 2 m. N. of Crewkerne, is partly, occupied, like the
neighbouring town, in the manufacture of sail-cloth. The church, in the
main Perp., has been restored, but retains its massive tower, which is
singularly plain, with a pinnacled turret in the middle of the S. face.
The tower arch looks like E.E., and there is a fine E.E. (restored)
piscina in the chancel. The S. entry has some intricate carving above
it, and there are some quaint figures on a stone inserted over the
vestry door.

_Middlezoy_ (6 m. S.E. from Bridgwater, 4 from Athelney Station) has a
church (ded. to the Holy Cross) which contains some interesting
features. The tower has double belfry windows (not triple, like Weston
Zoyland). The chancel is Dec. (the E. window being good), and has a
large piscina under a foliated canopy. There is a second piscina in the
S. aisle, which likewise has a low side-window (cp. Othery). Note (1)
the roof (with a few pendants); (2) the early Jacobean pulpit (dated
1606); (3) some carved seat ends; (4) Perp. screen; (5) old chest with
three locks; (6) some fragments of ancient glass in the N. chapel; (7)
a small brass (in the middle of the nave) to "Louis Chevaleir (_sic_)
de Misiers," a French gentleman serving in the English army, who was
killed at Sedgemoor (here called "the battle of Weston").

_Midford_, a station on the S. & D. line to Bath. There is a pretty
view to be obtained from the platform, which overhangs a deep valley.
Some of the S. surroundings of Bath may be conveniently explored from
here by good walkers. Midford Castle, a modern antique, built in the
shape of a triangle, stands just above the railway.

_Midsomer Norton_, a thriving and populous village 14 m. S.E. from
Bristol, with a station on the S. & D. line to Bath, and another at
Welton on the G.W. branch to Bristol. It obtains its name from a little
rivulet, the Somer, which partly embraces the village. Though situated
on the same coalfield, it is a more pleasing-looking place than its
neighbour Radstock. The church is a not very inspiring example of
modern Gothic (1830), and is said to have superseded a Norm, building.
The tower, which may embody some portions of the original structure, is
in keeping with the rest of the church, though of greater age. It
contains a niched effigy of Charles II., who, though an unlikely church
benefactor, is said to have given the bells. Besides having a large
output of coal, the locality does a brisk trade in boots and shoes.

MILBORNE PORT, a small town of some antiquity but of no modern
importance, situated on a southern projection of the county jutting
into Dorset. The station (L. & S.W. main line) is 1-1/2 m. N. of the
town. In pre-Reform days it was a pocket borough, returning two
members. It has now little save its quaint air of antiquity to make it
remarkable. The church, however, is interesting and will repay study.
Externally and internally it bears evidence of a very early origin. The
nave has been rebuilt and enlarged, but the tower and chancel should be
carefully observed. Without, note (1) fine Norm. S. doorway; (2) base
of tower with its peculiar stair turret; (3) Norm, panelling on S. side
of chancel and blocked low side-window; (4) Norm, lancets in E. and N.
wall of vestry; (5) traces of Norm, arcading on N. face of tower. The
original niches and stoups of the W. front will be found built into a
small mortuary chapel at the N.W. corner of the churchyard. Within, the
tower arch claims first attention as the most exceptional feature of
the church. It is of majestic dimensions, and the workmanship is bold
and rugged. The N. and S. transeptal arches retain their round heads as
originally constructed, but the E. and W. piers carry pointed arches.
The carving on the capitals is regarded by some as bearing traces of
Saxon craftsmanship, but this is doubtful; note in some cases absence
of abacus. The S. transept is also worthy of close examination; note
the effigy in recess in S. wall, the Norm. windows, and the piscina.
Other objects worthy of observation in the church are (1) fine old
font; (2) piscinas in sanctuary and S. wall of nave; (3) ancient
vestry. The chancel and N. transept are Perp. The massive severity of
the central arches lends an air of great impressiveness to the whole
interior, though the peculiar position of the pulpit indicates how
difficult it has been to adapt the building to congregational purposes.
In the central thoroughfare of the village are the remains of an old
market cross, and on the S. side of the street near the present market
hall is the old Guildhall, containing a Norm. doorway with good
details. At the E. end of the village by the side of the Salisbury road
is _Venn_, the seat of the Medlicotts. It is a Queen Anne mansion of
characteristically formal aspect. Between Milborne Port Station and the
little hamlet of _Milborne Wick_ is the site of a camp with steep
flanks, and defended on the most accessible side by a strong rampart.

_Milton Clevedon_, a small parish 2-1/2 m. N.W. of Bruton. The church
contains the effigy of an ecclesiastic (N. of the chancel), and there
is some ancient glass in the N. transept. Note, too, a curious
inscription on the external E. wall of the S. transept, date 1615.

MILVERTON, a small town of 1427 people, 4 m. N. of Wellington, with a
station on the G.W.R. Barnstaple branch. It is a poor little
place--more village than town--apparently existing on its past
importance. It once had a flourishing market, and did a big business in
woollen cloth. The church stands on a slight eminence, at the bottom of
which lies the town. It is a good stately building without a
clerestory, and is not quite in line with its tower, which is of the
rough Exmoor type with a square turret flush with the E. face. The
interior has a remarkable display of carved bench-ends (notice the
"aspergillum" in central aisle, and the arms of Henry VIII. near
pulpit). The screen is modern, but embodies some old panels. The aisles
(note octagonal piers) terminate peculiarly at the W. end in chambers
surmounted by galleries. The font is Norm. The churchyard has the
sculptured base of a cross. The vicarage is said to have once been the
country residence of Cardinal Wolsey. The country round Milverton is
pleasant, and some delightful views of the Quantocks are obtainable in
the neighbourhood.

[Illustration: MINEHEAD]

MINEHEAD, a seaside town of 2500 people, 25 m. N.W. from Taunton, with
a terminal station on the G.W. branch from the latter place. The name
seems to be a hybrid, the first syllable being the Celtic _maen_, stone
(cp. _Men_dip). Once a Channel port second in importance only to
Bristol, Minehead has of recent years abandoned merchandise, and given
itself over to the entertainment of visitors. It has blossomed into a
watering-place of some pretensions with a pier, an esplanade, and a
generous profusion of public walks. It has, moreover, one claim to
distinction peculiarly its own. Exmoor, the home of the red deer, lies
behind it, and Minehead is the metropolis of the hunt. The advent of
the stranger was not always so eagerly welcomed. The inaccessible
situation of "the old town," as it is called, suggests that one of the
chief perils of ancient Minehead was the frequent incursions of
marauding Danes and Welsh. But the proximity of the Cambrian coast
opposite nevertheless had its occasional conveniences. In the Civil War
Lord Hertford, foiled in his attempt on Dunster, found Minehead a
serviceable stepping-stone to security amid the Welsh fastnesses. The
general appearance of the town is eminently attractive. A promenade,
which might well be extended, borders the sands, and an avenue fringed
with lime trees runs up from the station to the market-place and shops.
The church and older portions of the town are perched amid modern
residences on the hill side above, and a quaint row of mariners'
cottages (Quay Town) lies at the seaward foot of the headland. The huge
bulk of the N. hill forms an effectual windscreen at the back of the
town, and the abundance of flowers in the gardens testifies to the mild
climate which Minehead enjoys in consequence. The parish church of St
Michael stands out conspicuously on the hill side. It has a
well-designed Perp. W. tower, and both within and without shows several
features of interest. Externally should be noted (1) the fine
projecting window which lights the rood-loft stairway; (2) the
_bas-reliefs_ on the E. and S. sides of the tower; (3) the figures
supporting the weather-mouldings of one of the E. windows (one of which
carries a shield with date 1529), and the inscription in the masonry
above. There is a plain cross on the N. side of the graveyard. Within
the church remark (1) fine rood-screen (cp. Dunster); (2) carved
Elizabethan altar; (3) oak box and black-letter books; (4) canopied
tomb of priest in eucharistic vestments, and holding fragment of
chalice; (5) curious wooden arch to vestry; (6) fine font; (7) defaced
brass of a lady under the tower. No visitor can leave the churchyard
unimpressed with the panorama spread at his feet. Beyond the cliffs at
Blue Anchor may be discerned Weston pier. A new church in the
market-place provides further accommodation for the influx of summer
visitors. Beneath the churchyard wall of the new building stands a
stout statue of good Queen Anne, which once adorned the parish church.
It was the gift of a Swede (Sir J. Bancks), who married in 1696 the
well-portioned widow of one of the Luttrells. In the main street,
opposite the Assembly Rooms, is a venerable building, once a
court-house. A lane leading off by the new Market Hall gives entry to a
quaint row of alms-houses, built by R. Quirck in 1630. The court
contains the stump of an old cross. Minehead abounds in pleasant walks.
The North Hill in particular furnishes many a pleasing ramble: its
summit may be gained by taking a scrambling path at the E. end of the
old church. The whole range of the hill can be traversed as far as
Selworthy Beacon, and a descent may be made either to Wood Combe or
Greenaleigh farm.

_Misterton_, a village 1/2 m. S.E. of Crewkerne. Its church is of no
antiquarian interest, though it possesses an ancient font.

_Monksilver_, a parish 3 m. S. of Williton, rather less from Stogumber
Station. The last half of the name is probably the Latin _silva_. The
little church does not retain many features of interest, but note (1)
the screen and pulpit; (2) a panelled altar-tomb, without inscription,
N. of the chancel; (3) the piscina; (4) a bracket for a figure at the
E. of the S. aisle; (5) the curious devices on some of the seat-ends;
(6) the grotesque gargoyles (one seems to represent the extraction of a
tooth); (7) some ancient glass (with symbols of the Evangelists) in a
window of the S. aisle.

_Monkton Combe_ is a village 1 m. W. of Limpley Stoke Station, with a
church that has been entirely rebuilt.

_Monkton, West_, a parish 4 m. N.E. of Taunton, which gets its name
from the fact that the monks of Glastonbury owned property in it. Its
church, mainly Perp., but containing in the chancel arch work of
earlier date (perhaps 13th cent.), is noteworthy for its lofty tower.
The nave has a clerestory, and a good oak cornice. Note (1) stoup in S.
porch; (2) piscinas; (3) mural tablet in chancel to the memory of
William Kinglake, a physician (d. 1660), with its curious inscription.
In the churchyard are the parish stocks. The old leper hospital in
Taunton (_q.v._) really belongs to this parish.

_Montacute_, 4 m. W. of Yeovil, is an attractive village (with station)
which derives its name from two neighbouring pyramidal eminences, one
of which, crowned by St Michael's Tower, is the site of a former
castle. There are several places of interest in or near it. Its church
preserves work of various periods, Norm. (chancel arch and moulding on
N. wall of nave), E.E. and Dec. (windows in chancel and transepts), and
Perp. (tower and nave). The tower is good, with its stages divided by
rows of quatrefoils. Note (1) groining of N. porch (the ribs are
inaccurately centred), (2) brackets beneath organ (the eastern alone is
ancient), (3) elaborate niches in chancel arch, (4) squint and piscina,
(5) texts round reredos, dated 1543, (6) effigies of the Phelipses, the
earliest dating from the 15th cent. In the churchyard is the carved
shaft of a cross. Near the W. end of the church is a beautiful
15th-cent. gateway, once belonging to a Cluniac Priory (founded in the
time of Henry I.), with oriel windows N. and S., the latter flanked by
two turrets of unequal height. Note over N. window a portcullis, and
over the S. the letters _T.C._, the initials of Thomas Chard, the last
prior but two. In the village square is a picturesque house with the
initials _R.S._ (Robert Sherborne, the last prior) between two figures
with fools' caps. _Montacute House_, the seat of the Phelipses, is
built in the form of the letter H, and dates from the reign of Queen
Elizabeth (1580-1601). The E. and W. fronts are handsome, the former
being decorated with nine large statues, supposed to represent various
martial characters, historical, legendary, and biblical. The two large
upper-storey windows that project from the N. and S. sides, light a
gallery running the whole length of the house. The building was
designed by John Thorpe, the architect of Longleat. Note the "gazébos"
in the garden (cp. Nether Stowey).

[Illustration: MONTACUTE HOUSE]

_Moorlynch_, a village on the S. edge of the Poldens, 4 m. S. of
Shapwick Station. The churchyard commands a good view of Sedgemoor,
with the towers of Othery, Middlezoy, and Weston Zoyland rising
conspicuously from it. The church (said to be E.E., but altered in
Perp. times) has some features of interest: (1) pillar piscina, (2)
carved bench-ends, (3) Norm. font, (4) effigy of lady (preserved under
the tower), (5) bits of old glass in chancel windows, (6) consecration
crosses on exterior chancel wall. There are some carved bench-ends and
old oak seats.

_Muchelney_, 2 m. S.E. of Langport, is a small village rich in
antiquities. Like Athelney, it was once a marsh-girt "island "--the
largest, or _muckleey_, amongst its peers. Its church has a fair tower
(double windows in the belfry), though much inferior to those of Huish
and Kingsbury. At the W. door there is a fine stoup. There are N. and
S. porches with parvises or chambers, and the vault of the S. porch is
groined. Within should be noticed (1) quaint paintings on the nave
roof, (2) piscina and sedilia with fine canopies, (3) group of canopied
niches E. of the S. aisle, (4) fine carved Perp. font. In the
churchyard, E. of the church, is a fine panelled tomb. S. of the parish
church are the foundations of the _Abbey Church_. The Abbey was founded
by the Saxon Athelstan, about 939. The remains may be traced of (1) an
apsidal Norm. Lady Chapel, (2) a square-ended Lady Chapel of later
date. A few tiles are preserved in the adjoining church. S. of the
churchyard is the _Abbot's House_, which exhibits much of interest
(especially a room with a settle of Henry VIII.'s time), if admission
can be obtained. A panelled (interior) wall may be seen from the road:
behind it is a cloister (now a cider cellar). N. of the parish church
is another interesting building, the old Vicarage House, dating from
the 14th or 15th cent. In another house hard by is a fragment of Norm.
carving. Note, too, the village cross (restored.)

_Mudford_ is a village on the Yeo, 3 m. N. of Yeovil. The church has a
good tower, but contains little of interest. The pulpit appears to be
Jacobean, and there is a curious bracket near one of the S. windows.

_Mudgeley_. See _Wedmore_.

_Nailsea_, a village (with station) 9 m. W.S.W. of Bristol. Its church
preserves some features of interest, among them being (1) stone pulpit,
entered through the wall by a staircase which formerly led to the
rood-loft, (2) curious carving on the capitals of the arcade, (3)
piscina, (4) monument to Richard Cole and his family, with its punning
Latin epitaph and free translation. Some way from the village is
_Nailsea Court_, a manor house of partly Tudor, partly Elizabethan
construction.

_Nempnett Thrubwell_, a small village 7 m. S.W. from Pensford Station,
and 10 S.S.W. of Bristol. It stands on high ground overlooking a deep
valley. In the neighbourhood some very fine views may be obtained of
the Mendip Hills, the Blagdon Reservoir, and the Wrington valley. The
church is a small building with a Perp. W. tower, from the W. face of
which project two curious and uncanny carved heads of a man and beast.
The walls of the nave still bear the original 13th cent. consecration
crosses. The chancel is modern, and contains a rich modern screen and a
good E. window of Munich glass. Note (1) rude Norm. S. doorway filled
with Perp. tracery; (2) Norm. font carved with a curious device by some
later craftsman. Near the porch in the churchyard is (1) base of
ancient cross; (2) tomb of first rector--Robert--bearing an incised
cross. The parish once contained a remarkably fine tumulus of masonry,
said to have been one of the finest in Britain, in the chambers of
which skeletons have been discovered. A few vestiges of it now only
remain, the rest has been used as a lime-kiln.

_Nettlecombe_, a parish 2-1/2 m. S.W. of Williton. Its church stands in
the park of _Nettlecombe Court_, the seat of Sir J.W. Trevelyan. Though
restored in 1869 it retains several features of interest. The tower has
the staircase turret at the N.W. angle (cp. Martock and Yeovil). In the
interior note (1) the foliage round the capitals of the arcade piers;
(2) the fine ancient glass in two windows in the N. aisle, representing
seven saints; (3) the octagonal font, with carved sides (much defaced),
seven of them supposed to represent the seven sacraments; (4) the
effigies under two E.E. recesses in the S. aisle, representing (i) a
crusader, (ii) a knight (hip-belted) and his lady. They probably belong
to the Raleigh family, the former owners of Nettlecombe Court. There is
also a slab with an inscription to John Trevelyan (d. 1623). The pulpit
is approached by the old rood staircase. The Communion plate dates from
the 15th cent. (1479).

_Newton, North_, a parish 4-1/2 m. S. of Bridgwater and 2 m. N. of
Durston Station. Its church has been wholly rebuilt with the exception
of its very ancient tower (which is thought by some to be of Saxon
origin). The only antiquities which the building contains are (1) a
beautiful screen, with four figures in relief, three of which represent
Faith, Hope and Charity (cp. the similar figures at Stoke St Gregory
and Thurloxton); (2) a carved door leading into the vestry, with
figures of the Ten Virgins; (3) a Caroline pulpit (1637). In this
parish there was found, in 1693 a jewel set in gold, with an
inscription on the rim: AELFRED MEE HEHT GEWYRCAN (Alfred directed me
to be made). It is now in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, whilst a copy
of it may be seen in Taunton Museum.

_Newton, St Loe_, a well-kept village 3-1/2 m. W. of Bath, standing on
high ground on the outskirts of _Newton Park_. The church has been much
restored, but retains on the S. the original Dec. arcade and a squint.
There is some good modern carving. In the graveyard are the base and
stump of what was once a fine cross. The church possesses a chalice of
the date 1555.

_Northover_, a parish adjoining Ilchester, on the opposite side of the
Ivel. Its church (restored 1878) has an ancient tower, and contains a
Norm. font and a plain Jacobean pulpit.

_Norton Fitzwarren_, a village 2 m. N.W. of Taunton. Its church
(restored) is of late 14th cent. origin, with Dec. windows, and the
tower is Perp. The edifice is interesting chiefly for its fine
rood-screen, supposed to date from about 1500; the carvings on it
deserve attention (note dragons, ploughman and team, and name of
churchwarden). The figures above it are modern. There are some carved
seat-ends in the body of the church. On the hill above is a circular
British camp, about 13 acres in extent.

_Norton Malreward_, a small and secluded village under Maes Knoll, 1 m.
N.W. of Pensford. The church (rebuilt 1861) retains its original tower,
a good Norm. chancel arch, and a Norm. font. In the churchyard is a
square dole-stone, similar to the one at Dundry, but smaller.

[Illustration: THE GEORGE INN, NORTON ST PHILIP]

_Norton St Philip_, a comely village equidistant (3 m.) from Midford
(S. & D.) and Freshford (G.W.R.) Stations. It stands on high ground
near the crossing of the roads from Frome to Bath, and from Radstock to
Trowbridge. In mediaeval days Norton was the scene of a considerable
cloth fair, the tolls of which were the perquisites of the prior of
Hinton. At a later date it was the scene of a sharp skirmish between
the Duke of Monmouth's forces and a body of regulars under the Duke of
Grafton. The church has an extraordinary W. tower, the eccentricities
of which have led some to conclude that it was constructed out of odds
and ends from the dismantled monastic buildings at Hinton. Note the
singularly deep buttresses and the _quasi_-porch formed between them.
The body of the church is likewise peculiar, but of more merit. It is
one of Sir G. Scott's restorations. In the S. wall of the nave is the
recumbent effigy of a layman (cp. Cleeve). Beneath the tower is a
tablet commemorating a local "freak"--the two ladies of Foxcote, who
appear to have been an early edition of the Siamese Twins. A
neighbouring garden contains a good Elizabethan dovecot. Norton St
Philip claims to possess the oldest licensed house in England--the
George--a stately 15th cent. hostelry standing at the top of the
village. It is a fine old half-timbered building, with a small bay
window in front and an octagonal projecting staircase and gallery at
the back, and is well worthy of inspection within and without. It was
probably built for the accommodation of the merchants of the staple in
the old cloth fair-days.

_Norton-sub-Hamdon_, a village at the foot of the S.W. flank of Hamdon
Hill, 2-1/2 m. S.W. of Montacute Station. The church has a fine tower,
which was rebuilt in 1894 after destruction by lightning; it is
characterised by large single windows extending from the belfry into
the storey below (cp. Shepton Beauchamp and Hinton St George). The body
of the church was restored in 1862; the oldest part would seem to be
the S. porch, which has a ribbed stone roof (cp. Tintinhall). The
interior is imposing by reason of the height of the nave and chancel,
but it contains little that calls for notice. In the E. wall is a
piscina and two niches. The modern and very ugly font is made of a
single block of alabaster. The most interesting object is in the
churchyard, which contains a circular dovecot, quite perfect, supported
by buttresses.

[Illustration: NUNNEY CASTLE AND VILLAGE]

_Nunney_, a village 3 m. S.W. from Frome. It possesses the unusual
attraction of a ruined _castle_. The castle is an excellent specimen of
a 14th cent. fortified dwelling-house. The walls are still complete,
but bear abundant traces of the ravages of time and warfare. In plan
the castle consists of a rectangular parallelogram with a cylindrical
tower at each angle The interior is gutted, but as the beam-marks still
remain, the general arrangements are easily reconstructed. It was
divided into four storeys by wooden floors, the dining-hall being (as
the large fireplace indicates) on the first floor. Access was gained to
the different apartments by a large spiral staircase winding round the
interior of the N. turret. The top storey of the S. turret, marked
externally by a Perp. window, was evidently furnished as an oratory; an
altar slab and piscina can still be seen projecting from the wall. The
position, not naturally strong, was rendered more defensible by a moat,
beyond which flows a stream. The castle was built by Sir J. de la Mere
in 1373 out of the spoils of the French wars. It afterwards passed
successively to the families of Pawlet and Prater, and during the Civil
Wars was held by Colonel Prater for the king. After a determined
resistance it surrendered on terms to Fairfax. The neighbouring church
has a picturesque Perp. tower with a projecting spiral stair turret. On
the W. face is a panel representing a key and a knotted cord, thought
to be a Delamere badge. Internally the fabric has been much pulled
about and altered. It contains a heavy Norman font and a small oak
chancel screen. Behind the organ in the N. aisle are two altar tombs
with double recumbent effigies (15th cent.), and a third (14th cent.)
with a single figure--that of the founder of the castle--is shelved on
the window-sill above. The effigies furnish excellent illustrations of
the armour of their periods.

_Nynehead_, a village 1-1/2 m. N. of Wellington. From the neighbouring
village of Bradford it is approached by a deep artificial cutting
picturesquely overhung with creepers. The church is something of a
"show place." Its chief attraction is a remarkable collection of marble
statuary and Della Robbia work. Notice in particular the tablet
representing the Trinity, by Mino da Fiesole, on the W. wall of S.
aisle, the Madonna and Child on same wall, and the "Nativity" beneath
the tower. The church itself is Perp., but largely rebuilt. It contains
a very fine oak screen. Note also (1) squint on N.; (2) rough piscina
in chancel; (3) monument to the Clarkes of Chipley (1679) in N. chapel.
In the beautifully-kept churchyard is the base of a fine cross, now
prettily overgrown with ferns and lichen. In close proximity to the
church is a large but uncomely-looking manor house.

_Oake_, a parish 3 m. S.E. of Milverton. Its little church, sadly
dilapidated, has the tower on the S. side. Over the porch (1601) is a
pierced parapet, bearing the monogram _I.P._ (cp. Hill-farrance). The
interior contains nothing of note except a carved pulpit and an old
font, and some fragments of ancient glass in a window of unusual size,
which is said to have been brought from Taunton Priory. Outside is a
stone for doles.

_Oakhill_, a large village on the N. slope of the Mendips, 2 m. S.E. of
Binegar Station (S. and D.). It is chiefly dependent upon a large
brewery. The church is modern (1861).

_Oare_, a small village 7 m. W. of Porlock, situated in a delightful
valley between heather-clad hills. It is a favourite drive from
Porlock, and may be reached by two routes, the better being along the
main Porlock and Lynton road almost as far as County Gate. Oare church
is quaint, but contains little of interest. 3/4 m. away is
_Malmesmead_, where the Oare Water joins the Badgeworthy Water, which
for some distance constitutes the boundary between Somerset and Devon,
and is familiar to readers of _Lorna Doone_.

_Odcombe_, a village 3 m. W. of Yeovil. The church occupies a very
elevated position and commands a good view. In plan it is cruciform,
with a central tower resting on piers which seem to belong to the Dec.
period, though the E. and W. arches have been altered in Perp. times.
There is a good piscina in the chancel, and the basin of the font is
ancient. The ribbed and panelled roof of the S. porch deserves notice.
Odcombe was the birthplace of Tom Coryate, who, early in the 17th
cent., tramped through Europe and the East. After his first journey he
is said to have hung up his boots in the church.

_Orchardleigh_, a modern mansion, 2 m. N. from Frome, built to replace
the ancient seat of the Champneys. In the park is a knoll crowned by
three huge stones, which were once a cromlech, and are supposed to mark
a place of sepulture. Upon an island in a lake is a small church, quite
a little gem in its way. It contains a carved cup-shaped font, a
beautiful Dec. priest's doorway, and an elaborately sculptured aumbry
and piscina. The unique features of the building, however, are the
small projecting figures on the N. and S. walls of the sanctuary; the
hand of the one on the S. will be seen still grasping the staple on
which was once suspended the Lenten veil (cp. Leigh-on-Mendip).

_Orchard Portman_, a parish 2 m. S. of Taunton, which represents in its
name an alliance between a Portman and the heiress of the Orchards. The
most noteworthy features of its small Perp. church is a Norm. S. door,
and an ancient font (likewise presumably Norm.) of curious shape. Note,
too, (1) carved wooden pulpit; (2) carved stalls; (3) brass on chancel
S. wall to "Humfredus de Collibus" (_Anglice_, Coles or Colles), who
died 1693 (cp. Pitminster).

_Othery_, a parish on the Sedgemoor plain, 3 m. N.E. of Athelney
Station. Its church has quite a number of interesting features. It is
cruciform in plan, with a central tower, and is said to be an E. E.
building, which has been altered in the Dec. and Perp. periods. The
tower is noticeable for its "batter," for its belfry window of four
lights, and for its niches and figures. The chancel, like some others
in the county, has a low side-window, outside of which a neighbouring
buttress is perforated to permit some object (possibly a lamp) placed
in the window to be seen. The cross on the E. gable is said to be
Norm., but if so, is probably not in its original position, since it is
little weathered. Within note (1) the manner in which the narrow
central tower is joined to the wider nave; (2) the ancient glass in the
N. transept; (3) squint and piscinas. Most of the woodwork is modern.
At the present churchwarden's house is preserved a 15th cent. cope,
which has been converted into an altar frontal.

_Otterford_, a parish 6 m. N.W. of Chard. The hamlet of Bishop's Wood,
the most thickly populated part of the parish, lies in a broad defile,
through which trickles the Otter brook. The church is 2-1/2 m. away on
the hill-top. It is not of great interest, but contains a stoup, a
piscina, and a Norm. font.

_Otterhampton_, a parish near the estuary of the Parrett, 7 m. N.W. of
Bridgewater. It has a small aisleless church, the most remarkable
feature of which is the wall separating the chancel (which is modern)
from the nave. It is pierced by a chancel arch without mouldings, and
has on its W. face several niches. There is a small but old screen, and
a Norm. font. Attached to Otterhampton is _Combwich_, identified by
some with "Cynuit," the scene of the battle between The Dane Hubba (one
of the murderers of St Edmund) and Earl Odda in 878, which by others is
placed near Appledore in Devon. The Saxon Chronicle, indeed, definitely
states that Hubba met his death in Devonshire; but at that time Devon
probably extended as far east as the Parrett, and Hubba was possibly
co-operating with the Danish force that was observing Alfred at
Athelney (see p. 13). (With Hubba's name cp. _Hobb's Boat_ on the Axe).

_Paulton_, a populous mining and manufacturing village, 1-1/2 m. S.E.
from Hallatrow Station. The church is an uninteresting bit of early
Victorian re-building (1839) with an 18th cent. tower, a woefully poor
imitation of Perp. work.

_Pawlett_, a parish 4 m. N. of Bridgwater (nearest station Dunball,
1-1/2 m.) It has a cruciform church (with W. tower), possessing (1) a
Norm. S. door, with some unusual but much defaced mouldings; (2) a tub
font (on a later base); (3) a screen with vine ornamentation; (4) a
Jacobean pulpit.

_Peasedown St John_, a bleakly situated colliery village, 6 m. S.W.
from Bath. It consists of a long string of cottages and a modern
church.

_Pendomer_, a small hamlet, 2 m. W.S.W. from Sutton Bingham (L. and
S.W.). A combination of situation and family associations is
responsible for its name (Dummer's Hill). The church is noteworthy only
as containing a remarkable monument. In a cinque-foiled recess on the
N., faced with a square canopy surmounted by pinnacles, is the
recumbent figure of a knight clad in coat of mail. It is believed to
represent Sir J. de Dummer (d. about 1321), son of Sir William buried
at Chilthorne Domer. Note (1) grotesque figures supporting canopy; (2)
cusps worked up into figures of angels (cp. Dowlishwake); (3) iron
prickets for lights. The church windows contain some old glass, and the
arms of the Stourton family. The neighbouring farmhouse is a 16th cent.
building.

_Pennard, East_, a village 1-1/2 m. N.W. from Pylle Station (S. and
D.). There is a painful neatness about this little group of cottages
characteristic of a manorial appurtenance. The church, which partakes
of the same trimness, is Perp. The tower is of rather an unusual type,
being low and squat, and unrelieved by battlements. The staircase is
only a flat projection on the S. side, carried half way up. Upon the N.
face of the tower is a Tudor rose (cp. Marston Magna). Note (1) stoups
in S. porch and outside N. door; (2) Jacobean stalls; (3) piscina and
aumbry; (4) niche in E. wall of N. aisle; (5) richly carved square
font. The nave retains its original 15th cent. roof supported on large
corbels. In the churchyard is the shaft of a cross. A good view is
obtainable from the neighbouring Wrax Hill.

_Pennard, West_, a village 5 m. S. from Shepton Mallet, with a station
on S. and D. line to Glastonbury. The church, which stands some little
distance away, is a large and strikingly handsome Perp. building of
uniform design (_temp._ Edward IV.). The W. tower carries a lead spire.
Its chief interest is its general comeliness. It has neither chapels
nor monuments. One or two features, however, are deserving of notice:
(1) good screen; (2) large squint (containing rood stairway) on N.; (3)
corresponding doorway on S.; (4) stoup at W. doorway. In the churchyard
is a good cross bearing emblems of the Passion on its base (cp.
Doulting).

_Penselwood_, a parish 4 m. N.E. of Wincanton. It occupies high ground,
which in early times has been strongly defended. Hard by are the
British earthwork known as Cenwealh's Castle, and the Norm, moated
mound called Orchard Castle. In the neighbourhood, too, are Pen-Pits,
circular cavities in the ground (extending over 200 acres), which are
believed to have been excavated for the purpose of obtaining
grindstones. The parish church, mainly Perp., retains a Norm. S. door
(note the carving on the lintel) and a Norm. font; and over the gable
of a door in the S. wall is another piece of carving (the Virgin and
Child and two kneeling figures), which probably was, once part of the
cross. There are some bits of early glass in one of the windows. One of
the bells is said to date from the 13th cent.

_Pensford_, a village with a station on the G.W.R. Frome and Bristol
line. It lies immediately at the foot of a lofty viaduct, which
commands a pretty prospect of the valley of the Chew. Like other places
on the bank of a stream, the village was once the centre of a brisk
cloth trade. The church has been rebuilt, but contains a Jacobean
pulpit and a Perp. font (cp. Dundry). The inverted fragment of a
piscina may be seen in the churchyard, built into the wall of a shed.

_Perrott, North_, a small village on the Parrett (which doubtless gives
it its name), 2 m. N.E. of Crewkerne. The church is a small cruciform
Perp. structure of rather poor workmanship, with a low central tower.
The tower arches are panelled, and there is a piscina in the chancel.
The manor house hard by is a handsome gabled modern mansion. In the
parish Roman remains have been discovered. The companion village of
_South Perrott_ is in Dorset.

_Petherton, North_, a village 3 m. S.W. of Bridgwater, deriving its
name from the neighbouring Parrett. In the time of Alfred the country
around was one of the royal forests, the others being Selwood, Mendip,
Neroche, and Exmoor. There is a fine church, with a noble tower,
perhaps the best of its class. It belongs to the type that is
characterised by double windows in the belfry, but is more elaborate
than most of its compeers. The stages are divided by bands of
quatrefoils (cp. Huish and Kingsbury), whilst the wall-face above the
belfry windows is beautifully panelled. The W., N., and S. sides are
decorated with niches containing figures; and the summit is finished
with an ornate crown. The turret (as at Lyng) ascends only half-way up.
There are two porches, the S. having a chamber, or gallery, looking
into the church. The most peculiar features of the building are the
slenderness of the piers carrying the chancel arch, and the sacristy
below the E. window (the latter peculiarity occurring also at Langport,
Kingsbury, Porlock, Ilminster, and formerly at Crewkerne). Note the
piscina at the end of the S. aisle. In the churchyard there is the
octagonal base, carved with quatrefoils, of an ancient cross.

PETHERTON, SOUTH, 3 m. S.W. of Martock, is a small town, interesting
mainly for its noble church, which has a central (rather attenuated)
octagonal tower on a square base. The oldest parts of the building
appear to be the basement of the tower, the chancel, the S. porch, and
the N. transept, the difference in the masonry between these portions
and the rest being instructive. The tower still retains some lancets of
the E.E. period; but the earliest windows in the chancel and N.
transept are Dec. The body of the church is Perp., and the W. window
deserves attention. Note, too, (1) stoup outside N. porch; (2)
fragments in S. porch of the same zodiacal signs that appear at
Stoke-sub-Hamdon; (3) piscinas (especially that in the chancel); (4)
tomb of Sir Giles Daubeny (d. 1445) and one of his wives, with a fine
brass (there is also a brass to his second wife on the floor, concealed
by matting); (5) 17th-cent. mural tablets in the S. and N. chapels.
_King Ina's Palace_ is the name of an interesting house on the Martock
road. It is said to date from Richard II.'s time (with later
alterations), and contains a hall, with minstrel gallery, and a good
fireplace. Near the church there are one or two other ancient houses
which invite notice.

_Pill_, a populous village, 6 m. N.W. of Bristol, standing on a muddy
creek of the Avon. A sufficient impression of the place may be obtained
from the station platform. The church is modern.

_Pilton_, 1-1/2 m. N.W. of West Pennard Station, lies in pretty
country. Its church is spacious, and contains much of interest.
Architecturally it belongs to various periods. The S. door is Norm.,
the porch later. The columns and arches which separate the nave from
the aisle are late Norm. or Trans.; the roof was raised at a later
date, and a Perp. clerestory was inserted. The chancel is Perp., with a
panelled arch and a clerestory. Note (1) the fine wooden roof; (2) the
screen that encloses what was once a chapel (it has a piscina); (3) the
"Easter sepulchre," under a recess in the N. wall, with a
representation of our Lord cut in the stone; (4) the fine brass
chandelier (1749); (5) the curious old chest at the base of the tower,
which contains the remains of an old 16th cent. cope, which has been
converted into an altar frontal; (6) the Jacobean pulpit (1618). The
communion plate includes a paten of about 1500. Near the church is a
noble cruciform barn, once belonging to the abbots of Glastonbury, with
the emblems of the Evangelists at the gables.

_Pitcombe_, a parish 1-1/4 m. S. of Bruton. The church, with the
exception of the tower, has been rebuilt, and contains nothing of
interest, except an ancient font.

_Pitminster_, a large village, 4-1/2 m. S. of Taunton. The church is
noticeable for its octagonal tower, which is surmounted by a spire.
There are two large monuments of the Coles family on either side of the
chancel, and a third at the W. end, dating from the 16th and 17th
cents. The font is elaborately carved. Note (1) the bench ends; (2) the
old glass in the tracery of the E. window of the N. aisle; (3) the two
piscinas.

_Pitney_, a village 2-1/2 m. N.E. of Langport. The church (Perp.) has
an interesting stoup in the porch, and a ribbed squint, with a curious
little recess beneath. A Roman pavement has been unearthed in the
parish; some specimens of the tiles are preserved in the Taunton
Museum.

_Podimore_, a village 2 m. N.E. of Ilchester. Its church has an
octagonal tower on a square base (cp. Weston Bampfylde), the upper part
of which is lighted with small lancets. The way in which the octagon
has been superimposed on the square may be observed from the interior.
The windows of the church are partly Dec., partly Perp. The E. window
has some fragments of ancient glass. The chancel arch is unusually
narrow. Note (1) the piscina and aumbry; (2) the old font; (3) the
stoup in the S. porch. There is the base of an old cross in the
churchyard.

[Illustration: OLD BANK, PORLOCK]

PORLOCK, a small town near the Devonshire border, 7 m. W. from
Minehead, from which it is reached by coach. Its name--"the enclosed
harbour"--indicates its former maritime character, but more than a mile
of meadow land now separates it from the sea. Its attenuated shipping
trade finds what accommodation it can at the _Weir_, 1-1/2 m. to the W.
The village enjoys a reputation second only to Cleveleys' for
west-country quaintness. It has certainly much to recommend it to the
lovers of the picturesque. It lies snugly ensconced at the bottom of a
wooded valley, enclosed on three sides by the heathery slopes of
Exmoor, but open in front to the sea. Southey has penned a testimonial
to its scenery; and its creeper-clad cottages, with roses and clematis
reaching to their round Devonshire chimneys, still furnish many a study
for the pencil or camera. In Anglo-Saxon times it was much raided by
the Danes, and Harold's sons also paid it a visit, which procured for
them a rough welcome from the shoresmen. The church (ded. to St
Dubricius), which stands in a rather cramped position in the centre of
the village, is externally much in keeping with the old-fashioned
aspect of the surrounding cottages. It consists of a Perp. nave and S.
aisle, with a truncated shingled spire at the W. end. Internally it is
comely and of interest. Its chief curiosities are a small sacristy at
the E. end (cp. Langport and N. Petherton), and a richly canopied tomb,
uncomfortably crowded under the E. bay of the arcade. The recumbent
effigies are finished in much detail, but a certain mystery hangs about
their identity. They are now regarded as those of Baron John Harington
of Aldingham (d. 1418) and his wife, Lady Elizabeth, _née_ Courtney
(1472). The lady's head-dress, in the shape of a mitre, is particularly
noteworthy. On the N. side of the sanctuary is an altar tomb panelled
with devices of the Five Wounds. It is supposed to have served as an
Easter sepulchre. An earlier model of the same tomb stands in the N.
porch. In the S. aisle is a round-headed founder's recess, containing
the mail-clad figure of a knight, supposed to be Simon Fitz-Roger
(_temp._ Richard I.); close by is a smaller recess. The rood-loft has
disappeared, but a stairway and window mark its former position. Note
the indications of the earlier character of the sanctuary in the E.
window and double-drained piscina. In the churchyard is a restored
cross. The "Ship" at the fork of the Lynton road is a venerable
hostelry, once patronised by Southey; and there is another quaint house
on the road to Minehead. Specimens of an oak jug peculiar to Porlock
may be obtained in the village. The nearest approach to the sea is by
the road to the _Weir_. Here a pebble ridge encloses the tide and forms
a natural pill, which a pair of dock gates transforms into a rude
harbour. The view across the bay to Hurlstone Point and Bossington is
delightful. Pretty views may also be obtained from Park Road, a long
zigzag ascent which finally joins the Lynton road. Another pleasant
walk can be taken in Hawkcombe valley (past W. end of church); whilst a
third, passing "Doverhay," may terminate at the Horner Valley (L.), or
at Stoke Pero (R.). A visit should be paid to _Allerford_, where there
is an ancient pack-horse bridge of two arches, and whence the summit of
Bossington Beacon may be reached by some charming zigzag paths through
the woods.

[Illustration: ALLERFORD]

_Portbury_, a village 8 m. N.W. of Bristol (nearest stat. Pill). It is
a place where many Roman remains have been found. It possesses a
spacious church, which has a fine Norm. recessed S. door. The chancel
arch is also of Norm. origin, but has undergone alteration. There is a
good E. window and a sanctuary bell-cot. The triple sedilia (E.E. or
Dec.) and the 17th-cent. brass in the N. aisle should be noticed. At
the junction of the roads to Portishead and Clapton are the remains of
a priory, which are now used as a school. It is said to have belonged
to an Augustinian Abbey at Bristol.

PORTISHEAD, a small town with a population of 2544, situated on the
Bristol Channel, 11-1/2 m. W. from Bristol and 8 from Clifton
Suspension Bridge. It is connected with the city by a G.W.R. branch
line, of which it is the terminus. Portishead makes a successful
attempt to combine business with pleasure. It has a biggish dock and
some large grain warehouses, and is a flourishing little port. It is
now awaking to its possibilities as a watering-place. Its chief
attraction is a wooded promontory rising behind the docks. Round this
is cut an excellent road, which finally ends in a queer little attempt
at a promenade. The "Point" has figured in history, for the possession
of a fort upon it was contested by the Royalist and Roundhead forces in
the Civil War. The church is in the middle of the old village, which
lies back from the sea. It has a stately Perp. tower crowned with a
spirelet. The interior is unreformed and disappointing. Note (1) music
gallery above S. porch, (2) Norm. font, (3) curious arch in N. aisle,
(4) sculptured heads built into chancel wall, perhaps removed from
original position as suspenders of Lenten veil (cp. Orchardleigh), (5)
pulpit reached through S. wall. Near the church is an ancient manor
house with an Elizabethan turret. Portishead possesses a fine new Naval
College, built to replace the old training-ship _Formidable.
Nightingale Valley_ is a favourite walk.

_Preston Plucknett_, a village 1-1/2 m. W. of Yeovil. Its church is not
particularly interesting, the ancient features being disguised by
recent restorations. The body of the building is thought to be late
Dec., the tower Perp. Note (1) piscina in S. transept or chapel, (2)
small doorway in N. transept, which probably once led to the rood-loft,
but now affords access to the pulpit. Hard by is a fine tithe barn with
finials on the gables, and a 15th-cent. house with a most picturesque
porch and panelled octagonal chimney.

_Priddy_, a lonely village on the top of the W. Mendips, 5 m. N.N.W. of
Wells. It enjoys a certain celebrity as one of the bleakest and most
remote spots in Somerset. Though some considerable distance from
Cheddar, it is generally regarded as part of the Cheddar _entourage_.
Nowhere can the characteristic scenery of the Mendips, with its moors,
mines, and swallets, be sampled to better advantage. Priddy, ever since
Roman times, has been the centre of the Mendip mining area (cp. p. 11),
and wild tales used to be told of the Priddy "groovers." Lead and zinc
ores are still worked in the locality. The village surrounds a large,
three-cornered green, which was once the scene of a considerable fair.
The church stands about a stone's-throw away on rising ground. It is a
Perp. building of irregular design and rough workmanship. It has a good
pillared stoup in the porch, a Jacobean screen, and fragments of a
stone pulpit. In the neighbourhood are two groups of barrows.

_Priston_, a village in a secluded dale 5-1/4 m. S.W. from Bath
(nearest stat. Camerton, 3 m.). The church is something of a deception,
for a good Norm. doorway and an exterior corbel table prepares the
visitor for the Norm. arches and arcading within; but these are
entirely modern. There is, however, some good Dec. work in the chancel;
and notice should especially be taken of the priest's doorway, the
foliated rear arches of the windows (cp. Frome), and the fine pillar
piscina. Observe also (1) old wooden door, (2) the lion serving as a
finial to W. gable. The tower, the base of which is perhaps Norm., is
incongruously finished with a balustrade and urn-like pinnacles.

_Publow_, a village on the Chew (nearest stat. Pensford). One of the
prettiest features of the landscape from Pensford Station is the
graceful tower of Publow Church. It is a stately structure of four
stages, with the customary projecting stone turret and spirelet. The
interior is not particularly interesting, but note (1) panelled arch on
N. of sanctuary, (2) aumbry in N. aisle, (3) square font. The pulpit
has been constructed out of two old pews. Near the church is an old
cylindrical "lock-up."

_Puckington_, a small village 3 m. N.E. of Ilminster. The oldest part
of the church (Perp.) is the chancel, which has Dec. windows, a
piscina, and triple sedilia (E.E.) (cp. Shepton Beauchamp). There is
also a Norm, font with cable moulding.

_Puriton_, a parish 3-3/4 m. N.N.E. from Bridgwater, 3/4 m. from
Dunball. The church, though old, has lost whatever features of interest
it once had. The S. porch seems formerly to have had a gallery or
parvise (note the staircase), and there is a small plain oak screen.
The neighbouring large house is _Puriton Manor_.

_Puxton_, a small village 7 m. E. of Weston-super-Mare, with a station
3 m. away. The church is a small building with a leaning tower.
Originally it was E.E. (note one of the windows), but many parts of the
fabric are much later. The porch is dated 1557. There is a good oak
pulpit, with hourglass holder, and some heavy 15th-cent. benches.

_Pylle_, a village with station (S. & D.), situated a little off the
Fosse Way, 4 m. S. of Shepton Mallet. The church (St Thomas à Becket)
has, with the exception of the tower (Perp.), been rebuilt (1868).
Opposite is a farmhouse, which was once a manorial residence of the
Berkeleys: part of the original Elizabethan building still remains.

_Quantocks, The_, a range of hills forming the W. boundary of the
spacious plain which occupies the centre of the county. Geologically,
they belong to the Devonian series of rocks. They are not of great
extent, being a comparatively narrow ridge, stretching from the
neighbourhood of Taunton in a north-westerly direction some 10 or 12 m.
to the sea, whilst their tallest summit (Will's Neck) is only 1270 ft.
But their natural attraction of woodland dells, heathy moorlands, and
mountain air are great, and are enhanced by interests which appeal both
to the lovers of sport and the lovers of literature, for upon them the
red deer is hunted (as well as upon Exmoor), and near them Coleridge
and Wordsworth made their homes. They are easily accessible on the E.
from Bridgwater, whence good roads lead to Cothelstone Beacon and
Nether Stowey (to the latter the G.W.R. runs a motor car), and on the
S. from Taunton, whence the railway to Minehead skirts their W. flanks
all the way to the coast, with stations at intervals (Bishop's Lydeard,
Crowcombe, Stogumber, Williton). On the E. side, they are cut by
numerous long and leafy combes (notably _Cockercombe_ and _Seven Wells'
Combe_), which afford easy ascents; but on the W. the slopes are much
steeper and barer. Their tops are covered with bracken, heather, scrub
oak, and quantities of whortle berries, the ripening of the last
marking the beginning of the summer holidays for the village children,
who then go "whorting." The most conspicuous summits in order from S.E.
to N.W. are _Cothelstone Beacon, Witt's Neck, Danesborough_ (where
there is a British camp), and _Longstone Hill_. A track (not fit for
cyclists) runs the whole length of the range, starting from where the
road from Bridgwater to Bagborough begins to descend to the latter
place, and ending where the hills slope towards the sea between E. and
W. Quantoxhead. _Triscombe Stone_, near the head of Cockercombe, is a
famous meet for the staghounds. At Adscombe, near Seven Wells' Combe,
are the remains of a chantry which is said to have belonged to the
monastery at Athelney. The W. window, with door beneath, still
survives.

_Quantoxhead, East_, a parish 4-1/2 m. N.E. from Williton, near the
shore. Its church retains a few interesting features, among them being
a tomb of Hugh Luttrell (1522), some carved seat ends (one with the
Luttrell arms), a Caroline pulpit (1633), and a piscina. In the
churchyard is the shaft of a cross. Near the church is Court House, an
old manor house, with the remains of a pierced parapet. It formerly
belonged to the Luttrell family.

_Quantoxhead, West_, a parish 1-1/2 m. E. of Williton. The church of St
Etheldreda (Audrey), which is beautifully situated, has been wholly
rebuilt (1856), the only ancient feature being the shaft of the
churchyard cross. In the parish is _St Audries_, the seat of Sir A.F.
Acland Hood.

_Queen Charlton_, a small village 2 m. S.W. of Keynsham, with the abbey
of which it once had an intimate connection. A fine Norm. doorway,
built into a garden wall, was originally the gateway of the abbey
court-house. The church has a central Norm, tower, but is otherwise
without interest. A Dec. arcade, now blocked, seems at one time to have
divided the sanctuary from some demolished chantry. The base and shaft
of a cross ornament the village green.

_Raddington_, a village on the border of Devonshire, 2 m. N. of Venn
Cross Station. The church contains a good panelled oak roof and a fine
screen. In the chancel is a mutilated piscina.

RADSTOCK, a small town 8-1/2 m. S.W. from Bath, with two stations close
together in the centre of the main street. It possibly derives its name
from its proximity to the Fosse Way. It is now the metropolis of the
Somerset coalfield. It is a rather disconnected sort of place, lying in
a deep valley surrounded by coal-pits, and throwing out long rows of
workmen's cottages up the hillsides. The church, originally a small
building (as the rood-stair on the S. wall indicates), has been
restored and enlarged out of all recognition. A curious _bas-relief_,
with the Crucifixion on one side and the Virgin and Child on the other,
has been built into the E. wall of the S. porch. Within the church is a
heavy Norm. font and a mutilated piscina.

_Redlynch_, a small hamlet 1-1/2 m. S.E. from Bruton. The church is
without interest. _Redlynch Park_ is the seat of the Earl of Ilchester.

_Rimpton_, a village 3/4 m. S.E. of Marston Magna Station. It has a
pretty church, cruciform in plan, with a chancel of E.E. or Dec.
origin. There is a niche for a stoup inside the S. door, and piscinas
in the chancel and S. transept. The pulpit is Jacobean, whilst some of
the carved bench-ends date from the 15th or 16th cent., and bear the
Tudor rose. Note the squint and ancient font.

_Road_, a village on the borders of Wiltshire, 4 m. N.N.E. from Frome.
The church has a heavy embattled tower, from the top of which Charles
II. is said to have reconnoitred the surrounding country after his
hurried flight from Worcester. The interior is disappointing. There is
an empty canopied recess in the S. aisle, and a piscina in the chancel.

_Rodden_, a small parish 1-1/2 m. E. from Frome. There is no village.
The church stands in a farmyard, and has to be reached by crossing the
fields. It is a quaint little pseudo-Perp. structure with a toy tower,
built 1640.

_Rowberrow_, 2-1/2 m. E. from Winscombe or Sandford Stations, is a
parish which was once the centre of a mining district, but the mines
are now disused. Its little church lies under Dolbury Camp. Above the
S. porch is a stone with interlaced carving.

_Ruborough Camp_. See _Broomfield_.

_Ruishton_, a village 3 m. E. of Taunton. Its church has a massive
tower, with double belfry windows and prominent buttresses, but the
absence of parapet and pinnacles gives it an unfinished appearance.
Traces of Norm. architecture remain in the S. porch, and there is some
Dec. work, in the S. chapel, but the nave is Perp. The font is richly
carved. A poor painting--the Adoration of the Magi--which is supposed
to be Flemish, forms an altarpiece. In the churchyard is the base of a
large cross.

_Runnington_, a village 1 m. N.W. of Wellington. Its church is a
characterless little building at the bottom of a lane. It retains its
rood stairway.

_St Catherine_, a parish 4 m. N.E. of Bath. It is reached by a road
from Batheaston (2 m.), through a very pretty valley (where the road
forks, turn to the L.), and has much that is interesting. Portions of
the church are late Norm. or E.E. (note the tower and chancel arches,
and the fine font, with its variety of mouldings); but it was rebuilt
by Prior Cantlow of Bath in the 15th cent. The beautiful E. window,
with its stained glass, bearing a Latin inscription, is of that date,
and so is the carved pulpit, the colours of which are believed to
reproduce the original. There is a monument, with figures, to William
Blanchard and his wife (1631), N. of the chancel. Note, too, the roof
of the choir, and the ancient glass in the S. windows. Near the church
is a cruciform tithe barn. The Grange, close by, is also the work of
Prior Cantlow; but the porch is a later addition, of Jacobean times.

_St Decuman's_. See _Watchet_.

_St Michael Church_, a small parish 1 m. N. of Durston. Its church is
correspondingly small, with a low N. tower surmounted by a pyramidal
roof. It contains one or two monuments of the Slade family.

_Saltford_, a large village (with station) 6 m. W.N.W. of Bath,
situated on the Avon. Its church, restored in 1851, is without
interest, though it has a good Norm. font, with roughly carved heads
below the bowl.

_Sampford Arundel_, a small village 2-3/4 m. S.W. of Wellington. Its
church, in which nave and aisles are covered by a single roof, has a
curious bit of sculpture (hands holding a heart) inserted in the N.
wall.

_Sampford Brett_, 1 m. S.E. of Williton, a village deriving its name
from the family of Brett, one of whose members took part in the murder
of Thomas à Becket. The church is cruciform, but the plan is obscured
by the position of the tower and a chapel on the S. side. The only
objects of interest are (1) the carved seat ends, one of which has the
figure of a lady (supposed to be Florence Windham, of whom it is
related that she was buried when in a trance, from which she was
awakened by the sexton, who opened her coffin in order to steal her
rings), (2) the effigy of a mailed warrior (in the vestry), presumably
one of the Bretts.

_Seavington St Mary_, a small village 3 m. E. from Ilminster, on the
road to Ilchester. The church stands by the wayside, a little apart
from the village. It is a fairly good specimen of a plain E.E. country
church. As examples of the style note (1) S. doorway, (2) chancel arch,
comprising two remaining members of a triplet, with squint; (3) lancets
in chancel, (4) plain round font. The tower, the internal arch of which
is peculiar, has been reconstructed in Perp. times. The sanctuary
contains a trefoiled piscina and an aumbry. Inside the church doorway
is a bench bearing date 1623; it was originally the parish bier.

_Seavington St Michael_, a parish 4 m. E. of Ilminster. The church is
small, without tower or aisles. It retains two piscinas and an ancient
font; and built into the side walls are two boldly carved heads
(perhaps originally supports of the Lenten veil). Outside, exposed to
the weather, is the effigy of a woman.

_Selworthy_, a charming village 4 m. W. of Minehead, on the road to
Porlock. It is best reached from Holnicote, along a pleasant shady
lane, 1/2 m. long. There is much to repay the visitor. The church
(Perp.) has a curious pew over the S. porch, and the S. aisle (rebuilt
in 1490) has a very good roof. The mouldings of the arcade piers should
be observed, and two of the capitals have the Devonshire foliage. Note,
too (1) piscinas in the chancel and S. aisle, (2) fragments of early
glass in the E. window of the N. aisle, (3) some 16th and 17th-cent.
brasses. On the road to the church is a 15th-cent. tithe-barn; whilst
W. of the church, lying in a hollow, are some interesting almhouses,
known as "Selworthy Green." _Selworthy Beacon_, rising above the
village, is 1014 ft. above the sea.

_Shapwick_, a village 4-1/2 m. W. of Glastonbury, situated on the
Poldens. Its church has a central tower (no transepts) supported on
E.E. arches. There are piscinas in the S. and N. walls of the aisles,
and a large mural monument of the 17th cent.; otherwise it contains
nothing of interest.

_Shepton Beauchamp_, a village 4 m. N.E. of Ilminster, and about the
same distance S.W. of Martock. The church has a fair tower, which (like
that of Hinton St George) is lighted by a single large window, common
to the belfry stage and the stage below. The W. face has in a niche the
figure of a bishop or a mitred abbot; the S. side has St Michael. The
tower arch is panelled and the vault groined. The arcade has pointed,
chamfered arches, supported on octagonal pillars, and there is a small
clerestory. The massive character of one of the piers of the arcade
suggests that the church originally had a central tower. The chancel
has a Dec. E. window (restored), a piscina, and triple sedilia, E.E.
There is also a piscina in the N. chapel. The font is ancient. There is
an old Perp. house opposite the church, now used as an institute.

SHEPTON MALLET, a market town of 5238 inhabitants, on the S.E. slope of
the Mendips, 5 m. E. from Wells. It has two railway stations, one (S. &
D.) putting it in touch with Bath and Templecombe, the other (G.W.R.)
with Wells and Frome. The ancient Fosse Way skirts the town on the E.
It is a place of some antiquity, deriving its name from its former
connection with the Mallets of Curry Mallet, and has had a career of
respectable commercial mediocrity. Cloth, crape, and knitted stockings
once formed its staple trade; but its present prosperity rests chiefly
on beer, a gigantic brewery being now its principal business
institution. The town has few attractions for the casual visitor, for
the streets are narrow and inconvenient without being venerable. It
possesses, however, a remarkably fine late 15th-cent. hexagonal
market-cross, crowned with a very graceful spirelet: note brass on one
of the piers to Walter Buckland and Agnes, his wife. The church has a
good W. Perp. tower (spoilt by the stump of a spire), which has served
probably as the model for some of its neighbours (e.g., Cranmore).
The interior, originally E.E., was never handsome, and has been ruined
artistically by the erection of some huge aisles, with galleries, which
have absorbed the transepts. The wooden roof to the nave is, however,
the most splendid in the county. It contains 350 panels, each
displaying a different device. Note (1) E.E. chancel and transeptal
arches, and arcade of nave; (2) fine 15th-cent. stone pulpit, (3)
double pillar piscinas, E.E.; (4) effigies of knights in armour,
supposed to be Mallets, stowed away on the window sills; (5) organ
chamber, once a double-floored vestry; (6) old font and good brass to
Wm. and Joan Strode of Barrington, beneath tower. The proximity of the
town to the Fosse Way has led to the unearthing of several Roman
remains, which may be inspected in the museum near the church. The
foundations of a Roman brick-kiln were discovered on the site of the
brewery. A few old houses--the relics of the old cloth-working
days--may be found amongst the crowd of cottages on the banks of the
stream. The road to Wells runs through a beautiful valley, which, by
some sinister inspiration, has been chosen as the site of the town
sewage works.

[Illustration: SHEPTON MALLET CROSS]

_Shepton Montague_, a village 2 m. S. from Bruton. The church stands by
the side of the railway some distance away from the houses. It is a
Perp. building, with a tower on the S. side (cp. Stanton Drew). The
interior contains piscinas in chancel and on S. wall, and a circular
Norm. font. In the churchyard is the base of a cross.

_Shipham_, a village on the Mendips 2 m. E. from Winscombe (G.W.R.).
The church is modern.

_Skilgate_, a village 5 m. E. from Dulverton. The church has been
rebuilt (1872).

_Solsbury Hill_. See _Batheaston_.

SOMERTON, a small town of nearly 2000 people, 7 m. S. of Glastonbury,
with a station on the G.W.R. loop line from Castle Cary to Langport.
Though centrally situated and occupying a prominent position on high
ground, Somerton has all the appearance of a town which the world has
forgotten. An air of placid decadence hangs about its old-fashioned
streets, and few would guess that here was once the capital of the
Somersaetas, the Saxon tribe from which Somerset derives its name.
Beyond its possession of a small shirt and collar factory it has no
pretensions to modern importance, and it has evidently done its best to
cover up its traces of ancient dignity. Its castle has long ago been
absorbed by the "White Hart" (the thickness of its walls in one place
is very noticeable). A market cross of 1673, with an open arcade, still
stands as the memorial of its former merchandise. The church is a good,
dignified building, with one or two features of interest, notably a
splendid panelled roof, which will repay inspection. An octagonal tower
with a square E.E. chapel beneath it stands at the E. end of the S.
aisle. The rest of the church (with the exception of the chancel,
clerestory, and upper part of tower) is Dec. Within are a few old
bench-ends, a dated pulpit (1615) and altar (1626), and a somewhat
incongruous reredos, which is said to have been originally a screen.
Note (1) in the N. chapel, 17th-cent. brass; (2) in S. chapel, effigy
of female ascribed to the 11th cent.; (3) early piscina. In the wall of
porch is a recess which might be either a niche or a stoup. After the
Battle of Sedgemoor the key of the church (it is related) was turned
upon a batch of rebel prisoners, who relieved the tedium of their
captivity by playing ball. Some of their balls are said to have been
found in the roof during repairs. A good view of the surrounding
country is obtained from the road to Langport.

_Sparkford_, a village 7 m. N. from Yeovil, with a station on the
G.W.R. line to Weymouth. This is the nearest station for Cadbury Camp.
The church, with the exception of the tower, was rebuilt in 1824, in
the sham Gothic of the day. It is of interest only to the bell-hunter.
It possesses a pre-Reformation bell with an inscription, _Caterina, ora
pro nobisi_. _Sparkford Hall_ stands in a park bordering the Ilchester
road.

_Spaxton_, a village 5 m. W. of Bridgwater. Its church possesses
several features of interest. Though mainly Perp., it retains two Dec.
windows in the N. wall, and the E. window has plate tracery, though
this may not be original. Some of the pillars of the arcade exhibit the
Devonshire foliage. Note (1) in the chancel, the fine 14th-cent. tomb,
supporting two effigies in exceptionally good preservation--possibly
one of the Hulles (or Hills), who possessed the manor in the 14th and
15th cents.; (2) carved seat ends, one representing a fuller at his
work (cloth was formerly much made in the W.), and others bearing the
dates 1536 and 1561; (3) ancient alms-box, with its three locks; (4) in
the churchyard, a fine cross, with the rood carved on two sides of the
head (very rare), and a figure on each of the others. Near the church
are some ancient buildings (now a farm).

_Standerwick_. See _Beckington_.

_Stanton Drew_, a village 1-1/2 m. W. from Pensford Station. In summer
a conveyance meets some of the trains to carry visitors to the site of
the Somerset Stonehenge, for which the village is famous. There is a
more direct footpath across the fields. _En route_ should be observed,
on a spur of the hill to the R., a large tumulus, _Maes Knoll_. One of
the curiosities of the place is _Hautville's Quoit_, which, to save
time, should also be looked for on approaching the village. (Enter iron
gate on L. a few hundred yards before reaching tollhouse, and search
backwards along the hedge bordering road.) It is a large stone, which
legend says was hurled by Sir J. Hautville (whose effigy is in Chew
Magna Church) from the top of Maes Knoll. The famous "druidical remains"
will be found near the church. About 50 yards from the entrance to
the churchyard take a lane to the L. leading to an orchard: the stones
will be observed in the field beyond (admission free, but field closed
on Sundays). The "remains" consist of three contiguous circles. The
first is of considerable area, and is marked out by twelve large
stones, only three of which remain upright; a smaller circle of eight
stones lies just beyond; and a third circle of eight will be found
farther away in an orchard on the R. The two larger circles have each a
few scattered stones thrown off as a kind of avenue. Standing apart
from the circles is a curious group of three stones huddled together in
a garden abutting on the churchyard, from which they can be easily seen
by looking over the W. boundary wall. These mystic rings probably had
the same origin (whatever that may have been) as that of the more
famous circle at Avebury in Wiltshire, with which they should be
compared. The proximity of Maes Knoll is comparable with that of
Silbury Hill. A ridiculous theory suggests that the monoliths were
erected as a trophy after one of Arthur's victories. The country story
is that a local wedding once took place on a Sunday, when the frivolous
guests would insist on winding up with a dance. The penalty for a
"Sabbath" thus "profaned" was the prompt transformation of the bridal
party into stone. Hence the local appellation of "The fiddlers and the
maids." The church is of very secondary interest: there is nothing in
it calling for detailed notice. But the fine mediaeval rectory should
be observed. It stands near the bridge at the entrance of the village,
and bears the arms of its builder, Bishop Beckington. The farm near the
church has an ecclesiastical-looking window and some carved finials.

_Stanton Prior_, a small and secluded village 6 m. W.S.W. of Bath,
situated at the bottom of a lane a little to the E. of the Wells and
Keynsham Road. The church contains on N. wall a quaint memorial to some
member of the Cox family (1644-50). Some figures in Puritan costume are
carved in high relief, kneeling beside a bier. Note in porch (1) stoup
and recess at side of doorway, (2) in jamb of doorway within, an
earlier stoup, (3) Dec. tabernacle. Facing the village is the wooded
hill of _Stantonbury_ (to be distinguished from its barer neighbour
Wynbury). The summit contains a fine camp of considerable area, and
commands a remarkable prospect. (Take lane to Corston, turn into a
field adjoining an orchard on L., and ascend). The view from the far
side of the camp is striking. Bath and Keynsham lie near at hand; on
the N.W. are Dundry and the factory chimneys of Bristol, and in the
distance the Monmouthshire hills; to the S. is Stanton Prior in the
foreground, and beyond, the long line of the Mendips stretching away to
the R.; whilst on the L. may be discerned the Wiltshire Downs and
Alfred's Tower at Stourton.

_Staple Fitzpaine_, a parish 5-1/2 m. S.E. of Taunton. Its church is
distinguished for an exceptionally beautiful W. tower. Though it is not
lofty, its decoration is unusually rich. It has double windows in the
belfry stage, and the single windows in the stage below are flanked
with niches; whilst the summit is crowned with pierced battlements and
graceful crocketed pinnacles. The S. door is Norm., with rather
uncommon mouldings. The interior is of less interest: it contains a
small screen. The cross in the churchyard has a modern head,
elaborately carved with figures and scenes.

_Staplegrove_, a parish which is virtually a suburb of Taunton. Of the
church the only ancient part is the tower (on the S. side). The rest of
the fabric has undergone restoration, though it retains a hagioscope
and two piscinas.

_Stavordale_, a small hamlet 3-1/2 m. N.E. of Wincanton. Here an
Augustinian priory was founded in 1263 by R. Lovel, the existing
conventual church being built in 1443. The remains are now converted
into a private residence. The shell of the church is intact, and a
small bell-cot will be seen marking the division between the chancel
and the nave. The roof of the chancel is unusually flat. On the N. is a
projecting chapel containing a fan-traceried roof of considerable
merit, but the interior of the building is not now on view.

_Stawell_, a parish 3-1/2 m. S.W. of Edington Station. Its church
(restored in 1874) has a low gabled tower, and once had an aisle, the
piers of the arcade being still visible; but it has been restored, and
its early features lost.

_Stawley_, a village on the Tone, 3 m. S.E. of Venn Cross station. The
church is a small E.E. building with a W. tower, on the face of which
is a series of twelve panels bearing the inscription, _Pray for the
souls of Henry Hine and Agnes his wyffe_, A.D. 1522.

_Stockland Bristol_, which derives its name from the fact that it
formed part of the endowment of Gaunt's Hospital, in Bristol, is a
parish 7 m. N.W. from Bridgwater. Its church has been entirely rebuilt
(1865), but retains its Perp. font.

_Stocklinch_, a village 2-1/2 m. N.E. of Ilminster. Its small church
has no tower. The E. window is Dec.; there is a sun-dial of 1612, and
an ancient font.

_Stogumber_, 5 m. S. by E. of Watchet, with a station about a mile
away. It is a large village at the foot of the Brendons, and preserves
in its name the memory of its Norman lord, Stogumber being a corruption
of Stoke Gomer (cp. Stogursey). A spring on the hillside has medicinal
qualities, and the water is used for brewing a particular kind of ale.
The church, in the main Perp., is an interesting structure, with a
tower at the S.W. corner. The tower arches, pointed and recessed, are
supported on chamfered piers without capitals, and two piers of the S.
arcade have only rude capitals, and are constructed of different stone
from other parts of the church. They are presumably much older than the
rest of the building. There are two porches and two chapels, the N.
chapel having been built by Cardinal Beaufort, whose manor-house
(_Halsway_) is at the foot of the Quantocks (see _Bicknoller_). Note
(1) the squint, passing through two piers (very exceptional); (2) the
seat-ends, one with arms and motto, _Tyme tryeth troth_; (3) the tomb
of Sir George Sydenham (d. 1664), with his two wives beside him, and
three infants (swaddled) and their nurse at his feet; (4) the brass on
the N. wall to Margery Windham (d. 1585). On the exterior of the
building there are some very good animal gargoyles, and two curious
figures on the gables of the S. chapel. The churchyard cross is modern.
_Combe Sydenham_, 2 m. away, was the seat of the Sydenham family, one
of whose members became the wife of Sir Francis Drake.

_Stogursey_ or _Stoke Courcy_, a village 9 m. N.W. of Bridgwater. It
derives its name from the Norman family of De Courcy, and is a place of
much interest. Its spacious church, originally cruciform in plan, with
a central tower surmounted by a lead-covered spire of disproportionate
size, is remarkable for its series of Norm. arches (in parts restored)
which lead into the chancel, transepts, and chapels. The pier-capitals
exhibit great variety of carving, some having rough volutes of a
classical type, whilst several of the arches have the "tooth" ornament.
The font is also Norm. The body of the church dates from the 15th cent.
The W. window deserves notice, the upper lights representing the six
days of creation, with Our Lord as Creator. The N. transept was
dedicated to St Erasmus, the S. to "Our Lady of Pity." The chapel of
the latter contains two tombs (1) of Sir Ralph Verney (d. 1352); (2) of
Sir John Verney (d. 1461): note on the shield of the second the ferns
or "verns." Other features of interest in the church are (1) the three
piscinas, (2) carved seat-ends, (3) chamber over vestry, (4) door
leading from S. transept to neighbouring Priory. Of this Priory (which
was attached to the Benedictine Abbey of Lonlay, in Normandy) all that
remains is the dove-cot, the circular building in the farmyard near the
church.

The De Courcys had a castle here, of which there are a few fragmentary
remains, including the base of two round towers. In the course of its
history it underwent many changes of ownership, finally passing into
the hands of 1457, during the Wars of the Roses, by Lord Bonville,
brother-in-law of the Earl of Warwick.

In the village street is the base of an ancient cross; whilst a bell on
some alms-houses, which rings at six every morning and evening, is said
to date from the reign of Henry V.

_Stoke, East_ (or _Stoke-sub-Hamdon_), 1-1/2 m. W. from Montacute. It
has a remarkably interesting church, exhibiting an exceptional
combination of various styles of architecture. At present it is
cruciform in plan, with a tower on the N. (cp. Tintinhull) the basement
of which constitutes the N. transept; but originally it consisted of a
Norm. nave and chancel only. Of the Norm. church note (1) N. porch,
with quadripartite groining, supported on quaint corbels; (2) N.
doorway, with carved tympanum exhibiting the zodiacal figure
_Sagittarius_ aiming at a lion, with the _Agnus Dei_ above (King
Stephen is said to have assumed Sagittarius on his badge because he
obtained the kingdom when the sun was in that sign); (3) S. doorway,
now blocked; (4) two very small windows in nave, one displaying outside
a rude representation of St Michael and the Dragon; (5) recessed
chancel arch; (6) round-headed window in chancel, visible only on the
outside; (7) corbels under chancel roof; (8) flat buttresses at W. end;
(9) font with cable and lozenge mouldings. To this Norm. building an
E.E.N. transept was added, with a tower above (the groining supported
on beautifully-carved corbels) which has two lancets on each face. In
the Dec. period there was added the S. transept; foliated lancets were
inserted in the nave and chancel walls (those in the nave breaking the
splays of the Norm. slits); a large window (with reticulated tracery)
was placed at the W. end, and a second with flowing tracery introduced
into the ribbed chamber over the N. porch. Still later, Perp. windows
were inserted in the E. and S. walls. Other noteworthy features are (1)
the piscinas, one (double) being under a massive canopy at the S.E.
corner of the chancel, a second in the S. transept, and a third (for
the rood-loft altar) on the E. pier of the transept; (2) Perp. stone
screen under the tower (obviously not in its original position); (3)
squints; (4) effigies, one (in the chancel) of a knight under a
Renaissance canopy, the other (in the S. transept) of an ecclesiastic;
(5) Jacobean pulpit; (6) stand for an hour glass; (7) low side windows
in the chancel.

At the hamlet of _West Stoke_ is _Parsonage Farm_, originally a chantry
house, where should be noticed the Tudor gateway, the hall, a gabled
room surmounted by a bell-cot, and a circular columbarium. The chantry
which was served by the priests who resided here, no longer exists.

Above the village is _Hamdon Hill_, an eminence 426 ft. above sea
level. It consists of inferior oolite, which furnishes excellent
building stone, and the hill in consequence is honeycombed with
quarries. On the summit is a very extensive British camp covering 2O0
acres, part of which was subsequently occupied by the Romans in order
to command the ford where the Fosseway (which runs near) crossed the
Parrett. The rampart is nearly 3 m. in circumference. Near the N. side
of the camp is a hollow called the "Frying-pan," which is thought to
have been an amphitheatre; but it looks too small to have served for
this.

_Stoke, North_, a small village 5 m. N.W. of Bath (nearest stat.
Kelston, 1-1/2 m.). The church has a low tower originally Norm. The
tower arch is round-headed, without mouldings, whilst the chancel arch
is pointed and probably rather later than that of the tower. There is a
very massive rectangular font, said to be Saxon; note the roughly
carved heads at the corners. A very fine view of the neighbourhood may
be obtained by proceeding from the village to the Lansdowne golf links.

_Stoke Pero_ a parish on the edge of Exmoor, 3-1/2 m. S. of Porlock.
Its little church, with its gable tower, lies under a spur of Dunkery,
and is interesting more for its isolated situation than for anything
else. It may be reached either by the Horner woods and Cloutsham, or
from Porlock by a path that crosses Ley Hill. The wooden N. doorway is
ascribed to the 14th cent.

_Stoke, Rodney_, a village prettily situated at the foot of the
Mendips, 5 m. N.W. from Wells (nearest stat. Draycott, 1 m.). Its
little Perp. church (St Leonard) is principally noteworthy for a
mortuary N. chapel, containing several tombs and monuments of the
Rodney family. One of these--that of Sir Thomas Rodney--dates from the
15th cent.; the others are later. Other features which deserve
attention are (1) large stoup in N. porch; (2) ancient font (late
Norm.), with its cover; (3) screen (1624, given by Sir Edward Rodney
whose monument is among those referred to above); (4) carved pulpit.

_Stoke St Gregory_, a parish 2 m. S. of Athelney Station. It has an
interesting church, which, like that of its neighbour North Curry, is
cruciform with a central octagonal tower. The oldest parts are E.E.
(note in particular the E. windows of the S. transept, of which the
piers have E.E. capitals as bases, and the base of the tower). The rest
of the building was reconstructed in Perp. times. The figures (of
Apostles) on the outside of the tower are modern, though the pedestals
are ancient. There is a little ancient glass in one of the N. windows;
but the most noteworthy features of the church are the carved Jacobean
pulpit, a cupboard in the vestry made from the former reading-desk, and
the carved bench ends. The pulpit has five figures in relief which
should be compared with similar ones at Thurloxton and North Newton.
They represent Time, Faith, Hope, Charity, and (probably) the Virgin
and Child. There are also five carved figures on the vestry cupboard,
which are possibly the five Wise Virgins. The W. door is closed by a
bar inserted in the wall. Note the niched figure in the S. porch. At
_Slough Farm_ is an old moated manor house.

_Stoke St Mary_, a parish 2 m. E. of Thorne Falcon Station. Its church
(restored) is prettily situated, but contains nothing to interest the
antiquarian.

_Stoke St Michael_ (or _Stoke Lane_), a compact but uninteresting
village, 3 m. N. of Cranmore Station. Its church is an instructive
example of architectural depravity, but internally has been much
improved. The tower is ancient but poor. About a mile E. of the village
are the ruins of a villa once owned by the notorious Duke of
Buckingham.

_Stoke, South_, a parish 2-1/2 m. S. of Bath. The church has a fine
Norm. doorway, with carved tympanum and pillars, and zigzag and other
mouldings round the arch.

_Stoke Trister_ is a small hamlet of mean appearance, 2 m. E. of
Wincanton. It has a modern church (1841).

_Ston Easton_, a small wayside village, 2-1/2 m. S. of Hallatrow
station. The church is an unpretentious little Perp. building, with a
rather fine Norm. chancel arch, and has been well restored. _Ston
Easton House_ stands in a well-wooded park, and possesses an old carved
oak ceiling and an ancient staircase.

_Stowell_, a very small parish 1 m. W. of Templecombe, which probably
gets its name from the spring seen near the church. The church itself
was originally built in the 15th cent., but only the tower arch belongs
to this date. The nave is quite modern (1834), but it preserves a Norm.
font.

_Stowey_, a parish 2 m. W. of Clutton. It has a small church,
noteworthy for the irregularity of its windows (the small one in the S.
wall was originally the S. door). It has a 14th cent. font (note the
cockle-shell); and an interesting bit of sculpture is built into the
exterior N. wall of the chancel. Near it is an incised pair of shears
(a woolstaplers' mark). Not far from the church is an old manor house,
half of which has been destroyed. Within the parish is _Sutton Court_
(Sir E. Strachey), a house which has historical associations, for here
Bishop Hooper found an asylum during the Marian persecution. The
mansion is of considerable antiquity, parts of it dating from the reign
of Edward II., and others from Tudor times.

_Stowey, Nether_, a village 9 m. W. from Bridgwater (from which place
there is a motor service). It owes its interest to having been the
residence of S.T. Coleridge from 1796 to 1798: his cottage, marked by a
tablet, is at the end of the village on the Minehead road. Both
"Christabel" and "The Ancient Mariner," as well as several of his
shorter poems, are said to have been partly written in this
neighbourhood. Here he must have entertained Wordsworth, Charles Lamb,
William Hazlitt, and many others of his literary friends. A movement
has been recently started to purchase the cottage for the nation. The
church contains nothing of note except a mural tablet in memory of
Thomas Poole, described as the friend of "Wordsworth and Davy (i.e. Sir
Humphrey), Southey, and Coleridge": his tomb is on the W. side of the
S. door. The two painted mitres beneath the roof-beams commemorate two
vicars who became bishops (Majendie of Chester and Fisher of Exeter).

[Illustration: NETHER STOWEY]

Near the church is _Stowey Court_, a 15th cent. mansion which was
garrisoned in the Civil War. There are three fish ponds in the grounds,
and a curious summer-house (called the "Gazébo") overlooking the road
(cp. Montacute). On Castle hill (take road to left where the highway
from Bridgwater forks at the sign-post) are the foundations and
ramparts of a castle, the last owner of which, James, Lord Audley, was
executed for supporting Perkin Warbeck. The site is worth visiting for
the prospect alone.

_Stowey, Over_, a parish 9 m. W. of Bridgwater, situated on the slopes
of the Quantocks. Its church has some carved bench ends of an ordinary
type, but otherwise contains little of interest. _Quantock Lodge_ (E.J.
Stanley) is in the parish.

_Stratton on the Fosse_, a village standing (as its name implies) on
the old Roman road, 1 m. S.E. from Chilcompton Station. The parish
church (ded. to St Vigor) is entirely overshadowed by its Roman
neighbour, Downside Abbey. It is a poor little building, with a debased
tower; but preserves one or two remnants of Norm. work (e.g. a S.
doorway and a fragment of the original apse). Within is a small 15th
cent. stone pulpit, and a Norm. font.

_Street_, a populous village 1 m. S. from Glastonbury Station. It
spreads itself at considerable length along the Bridgwater road, and is
a busy and stirring place, devoted chiefly to the manufacture of boots
and shoes. It also possesses some large lias quarries which have been
prolific in fossils. The church is a disappointing building standing
well back from the village street, mainly Perp., with a rather poor
Dec. chancel; and is made still more depressing by the addition of a
very debased modern N. aisle. There is a piscina and double sedilia in
the chancel. The village is furnished with a good modern Institute,
which contains a large assembly hall and a small museum of local
geological specimens.

_Stringston_, a small village 6 m. E. of Williton. Its little church
has a broach spire of red tiles, a great rarity in this part of the
country, and retains its piscina and the fragments of a stoup. Its most
interesting possession is its cross (14th cent.), with carvings
supposed to represent (1) the Crucifixion; (2) the Virgin and Child;
(3) a knight; (4) a bishop.

_Sutton Bingham_, a small parish on the Dorset border, 3-1/2 m. S. from
Yeovil, with a station on the L. & S.W. main line. The church is of
considerable interest and should be visited. It is a 12th-cent.
building standing on rising ground on the farther side of the station,
and shows traces of the Norm., E.E., and Dec. styles. It has no tower
or projecting bell-cot, but a couple of bells are let into the W.
gable. A good Norm. arch, only 6 ft. wide, with zigzag ornament,
divides the aisleless nave from the chancel; and other indications of
Norm. workmanship are found in the N. porch and in two windows of the
nave. The chancel is E.E. and is lighted by lancets. Round the walls
and in the splays of the windows are a series of 14th-cent. frescoes,
representing the Coronation of the Virgin, and a number of bishops,
saints, and virgins. A figure in the splay of the E. window has been
carefully erased by some "conscientious objector." Note (1) E.E.
piscina in chancel; (2) late Norm. font. In the churchyard is a curious
cross, consisting of a headless shaft mounted on a raised slab,
seemingly a tombstone.

_Sutton, Long_, a village 3 m. S. of Somerton, said to have been the
quarters of Goring before the Battle of Langport. Its church (Perp.)
will repay inspection. The tower is unusually lofty, and has triple
belfry windows; but in workmanship it is inferior to most of its class,
too much space being left between the windows and the parapet. The most
interesting feature of the church is its woodwork. The nave roof is
very good, having embattled tie-beams, ornamented with angels, and open
Perp. tracery above. There is a rich painted and gilded Perp. screen,
with loft carrying the organ, and a highly decorated wooden pulpit of
the same period (restored 1868). Note also (1) stoup outside W. door;
(2) fine niche in N. porch; (3) piscinas on N. chancel pier and in
chancel; (4) blocked squints; (5) sedilia (resembling those at Shepton
Beauchamp). In the churchyard is the carved socket of a cross.

_Sutton Mallet_, a hamlet near the base of the Polden Hills, 4 m. S. of
Edington Station. Its church, of "debased" character, is of no
interest.

_Sutton Montis_, a parish 2 m. S.E. of Sparkford, lying under the S.
side of Cadbury Hill (hence its name). Its church has a low W. tower,
with a massive belfry staircase and a most incongruous "classical"
porch attached to the S. door (cp. Queen Camel). Inside is a good Norm.
chancel arch, Dec. chancel windows (restored), and a large piscina
(restored). One of the bells is of pre-Reformation date.

_Swainswick_, a village 3 m. N.N.E. of Bath, reached by a lane from the
Cheltenham road. Its name is perhaps connected with the Danish chief
Swegen (Sweyn); and it was the birthplace of William Prynne (b. 1600).
The church has a gable-topped tower, and retains some ancient features.
The S. door is Norm. (note the stoup), whilst the tower arch seems E.E.
A window in the S. wall has flowing tracery with an ogee moulding. Note
(1) in N. chapel a piscina; (2) in chancel a brass (said to have once
been on an altar-tomb) of the date 1439.

_Swell_, a parish 4 m. S.W. of Langport. It has a small Perp. church
(very dilapidated) which retains a Norm. door. Note in the interior (1)
piscina and niches; (2) fragments of ancient glass; (3) pulpit and
reading-desk of 1634.

_Tatworth_, a parish 2 m. S. of Chard. The church is modern, but a
Baptist place of worship, a plain, thatched building at South Chard, is
supposed to have been an ancient chapel. It is locally known as St
Margaret's, and over the doorway is an empty niche. For a curious
custom of holding a sale by candlelight, see under _Chedzoy_.

[Illustration: TAUNTON FROM THE RIVER]

TAUNTON, county town on the Tone (whence its name), 163 m. from London,
and 44-1/2 S.W. from Bristol; pop. 21,000. A spacious station on the
G.W.R. main line, Bristol to Exeter, forms a junction for the Yeovil,
Chard, Minehead, and Barnstaple branches. The town is commodious, and
its railway facilities make it an excellent centre. The streets are
spacious and well-built, and converge upon a triangular market place
which is rather spoilt by an ugly market hall in its centre. Though
Taunton wears a prosperous and progressive air, it has behind it a very
venerable history which is not without a flavour of stirring times. It
finds a place in our national annals on four notable occasions. (1) In
710 King Ina of Wessex pushed the West Welsh beyond the Tone and
erected a castle at Taunton as a barrier against their return. The site
was subsequently fortified afresh by the Normans. (2) In 1497 Perkin
Warbeck, in his dash for the throne, seized the town, but fled in
terror at the approach of the Royal forces. (3) During the Civil War it
was alternately occupied by the Royalists and Parliamentarians, and in
1643 Blake successfully withstood here attacks from Hopton and Goring;
and the town was punished at the Restoration for this robust resistance
by the demolition of its fortifications and the loss of its charter.
(4) In 1685 the sentiments of the place were again enthusiastically
"agin the government," and Monmouth was accorded here a royal ovation
and was proclaimed king in the market-place. But this _coup de théâtre_
was only an introductory farce to the grim tragedy which followed. When
Monmouth's hopes of sovereignty were rudely shattered by the _mêlée_ at
Sedgemoor the town was handed over for pacification to the tender
mercies of Kirke and the brutal justice of Jeffreys. The rebels got
short shrift from both. Kirke, without preliminary inquiry, swung the
culprits from the sign-board of his lodgings, and Jeffreys' law was
notorious for its despatch. So numerous were the executions that Bishop
Ken complained to the king that "the whole diocese was tainted with
death." The name Tangier still attaches to the district where Kirke
penned his "lambs," and the old "White Hart" (now a shop) at the corner
of Fore Street marks the Colonel's own quarters. Jeffreys' lodgings
have been demolished, perhaps under the impression that nothing was
needed to keep alive the memory of the "Bloody Assize." The
ecclesiastical interests of Taunton were from early days associated
with the see of Winchester, and the establishment of a priory here
early in the 12th cent. was the see's acknowledgment of its
obligations. Nothing of this benefaction now remains but the monastic
barn near St James's Church.

The parish church of _St Mary Magdalene_, though far the finest church
in Taunton, was originally only a subordinate chapel-of-ease to the
monastery. It is a spacious building, noteworthy for its imposing tower
and quadruple aisles. Its probable designer was Sir R. Bray, Henry
VII.'s architect, and the king is supposed to have contributed to its
erection. The present tower is claimed to be a conscientious
reproduction of the original fabric, removed in 1858 as dangerous. It
is a lofty and ornate structure of four storeys, decorated with a
triple tier of double windows, and divided at the stages by bands of
quatrefoils. A crown of elaborate tabernacle work--a perfect medley of
battlements and pinnacles--forms the cresting. The general design,
though highly artificial, is well balanced. Note (1) the stoups on
either side of the W. doorway; (2) the carvings (part of the original
fabric) in the spandrels above. The S. porch--a very successful and
noteworthy feature of the church--is dated 1508, The rest of the
building must be nearly contemporaneous. The interior is rich, but
somewhat devoid of interest. Note (1) the four aisles--an unusual
arrangement, occurring also at Manchester Cathedral and St Michael's,
Coventry; (2) the E.E. piers to N. aisle; (3) the fine oak roof of
nave; (4) canopied figure (modern) of St Mary Magdalene on one of the
nave piers; (5) monument of Robert Gray, with a laudatory and rhyming
epitaph in N. wall; (6) figures of apostles between clerestory lights
(cp. Bruton). _St James's Church_ has a good tower with turret and
spirelet--likewise rebuilt. The interior is well proportioned and gains
an air of great spaciousness from an unusually lofty chancel. The most
noteworthy feature of the church is its splendid font, richly adorned
with figures of apostles and ecclesiastics. The pulpit is dated 1633.
Hard by, and in close proximity to the county cricket ground, is the
_Priory Barn_, the only remnant of Taunton's once considerable and
wealthy priory: note the windows--perhaps insertions from other
fragments of the monastic buildings. _The Castle_, after centuries of
complete neglect, underwent a well-intentioned but unfortunate
restoration by Sir B. Hammet, but is now in the appropriate possession
of the Somerset Archaeological Society, who have transformed it into a
museum. The buildings, as they now stand, include (1) an outer
gateway--the Castle Bow--now incorporated with Clarke's Hotel (note the
portcullis groove); (2) a rectangular block consisting of Edwardian
additions to an original Norm. keep and a great hall (fee for entrance,
2d.). Note (1) the arms of Bishop Langton, of Winchester, and Henry
VII. over central gateway; (2) the drum tower (now the committee-room
and library) at S.W. corner; (3) the immense thickness of the walls of
the keep with its Norm. buttresses, and the lighter superstructure,
with its Dec. windows, above; (4) the Great Hall, the scene of the
Bloody Assize--a remarkably spacious chamber built by Bishop Horne,
1577. The shelves of the museum are stocked with a large collection of
antiquities add natural-history specimens: the case containing the
relics from Sedgemoor is of special interest. The exhibition as a whole
would gain in point by being confined to objects connected with the
county.

Other things worthy of attention in Taunton are (1) the old Grammar
School in Corporation Street, now incorporated with the Municipal
Buildings, (2) the two fine old houses opposite the Market Hall, (3)
Gray's and Pope's alms-houses in East Street, (4) the old thatched
alms-houses (originally a lepers' hospital) at the E. extremity of the
town, in East Reach, bearing on the wall Abbot Bere's monogram and
arms. A visit should be paid to _Vivary Park_ at the end of High
Street, a tastefully laid-out public recreation ground on the site of
the old monastic fishponds. The Shire Hall, in Shuttern, a somewhat
pretentious modern building, contains a number of busts of Somerset
worthies. A rough lane striking off to the R. from the Trull road leads
to an old Roman causeway crossing a narrow, one-arched bridge locally
known as _Ramshorn Bridge_.

_Tellisford_, a small village 1 m. S. of Farleigh Hungerford. Its
church has a passing likeness to that at Farleigh; it preserves within
the porch a stoup and a fair Trans. doorway.

_Templecombe_ (or _Abbas Combe_), an inconsiderable village at the S.E.
extremity of the county, with an important station on the S. & D. and
L. & S.W. lines. The church is ancient but uninteresting, and seems to
have been considerably altered. It contains a curious E.E. font. The
tower is somewhat peculiar, and forms the S. porch. On the rising
ground at the S. of the village are the remains of a _preceptory_ of
the Knights Templars, founded in the 12th cent. by Serlo Fitz-Odo. From
this foundation the place takes its name. A long building, which was
perhaps once the refectory, but which is now used as a barn, will be
noticed abutting on a farm-house along the road to Milborne Port. In an
orchard at the back of the farm are the ruins of a small chapel.

_Thorne_ (or _Thorne Coffin_), a parish 2-1/2 m. N.W. of Yeovil. Its
small church (without a tower) contains nothing of interest except a
pulpit of the date 1624 (cp. Chilthorne Domer).

_Thorne St Margaret_, a village 3 m. W. of Wellington. Its church has
been rebuilt, and the only object of interest that it retains is a
small brass (affixed to the W. wall) with an inscription in Latin and
English, of a punning character, to a person called Worth.

_Thornfalcon_, a parish 3-1/2 m. E. of Taunton, with a station on the
Taunton and Chard line. Its Perp. church preserves some good bench-ends
dated 1542. There is a holy-water stoup inside the S. door, and an
ancient font. Not far from the church, at a spot where four ways meet,
is a roadside cross.

_Thurlbear_, a parish 3-1/2 m. S.E. of Taunton. It has a small church
which is remarkable for having fine Norm. arcades N. and S., it being
one of a very small number of churches in the immediate neighbourhood
of Taunton that retain much Norm. work. The squint is peculiar, and
there is an early font under the belfry.

_Thurloxton_, a parish half way between Taunton and Bridgwater (lying a
little off the main road), and 3 m. N.W. of Durston Station. The small
church of St Giles is noteworthy for (1) the carved oak screen, which
has rests for books attached to it, (2) the fine oak pulpit (dated
1634), with four figures in relief, three apparently representing
Faith, Hope, and Charity (cp. Stoke St Gregory), (3) the W. door, made
of one solid block of wood; over the entrance is the date 1500.
Observe, too, the piscina and the old tub font.

_Tickenham_, a village 4 m. E. from Clevedon and 3 m. from Nailsea
Station. Its church, dedicated to SS. Quiricus and Julietta, is
interesting. The tower (as at Wraxall and Brislington) is characterised
by having niches on each face rising above the parapet between the
pinnacles, and containing effigies. Externally, there should be
observed (1) the square sanctus-bell cot, (2) the E.E. porch. The
interior is very plain. The square piers of the arcades have no
capitals, and are possibly Norm., though one has at two of its angles
small pilasters with carved capitals. The chancel arch is round-headed,
probably early Norm., without mouldings. In the N. aisle there are
three life-sized effigies (two knights in full armour and a lady),
assigned to the 13th cent., and supposed to be members of the Berkeley
family. Note (1) font, (2) ancient glass.

A neighbouring farm contains some remains of an old 15th-cent. house,
once the residence of the Berkeleys.

Above Tickenham on the N. lies _Cadbury Camp_, covering about 7 acres.
It is protected by double ramparts and ditches, the former consisting
of piled limestone fragments, now almost entirely covered with turf.
Roman coins have been found within it. The position commands a fine
view, both landward and seaward.

_Timberscombe_, a small wayside village, 3 m. S.W. of Dunster on the
Dulverton road. The church (Perp.) has an unimposing tower (rebuilt
1708) with slate pyramidal spire. Within is a small coloured
rood-screen resembling that at Carhampton, but with staircase intact.
Note (1) piscinas in chancel and aisle, (2) old wooden door to N.
entrance, (3) Devonshire foliage on one of the arcade piers (cp.
Luccombe). In the churchyard is a restored cross. Half a mile beyond
the village is the manor house of _Bickham_, one wing of which was
originally a chapel.

_Timsbury_, one of the colliery villages near Radstock, 1 m. N.W. from
Camerton. Like its neighbour Paulton it stands high, but it is both
more attractive and more pleasantly situated, commanding a pretty
prospect towards Camerton, which it overlooks. The church was rebuilt
in 1826, but the chancel was added later from designs by Sir G. Scott.

_Tintinhull_ (formerly _Tyncnell_), a village 1-1/2 m. N. from
Montacute Station, preserving some old houses and possessing an
interesting church. The latter appears to be E.E. with Dec. and Perp.
insertions and additions. The massive tower is unusually placed on the
N. side, and has in the basement a blocked squint. Features of the
church which deserve notice are (1) the S. porch, which has a ribbed
roof, and supports on its gable an odd kind of sundial (cp. Middle
Chinnock), (2) stone base of rood screen, on which is a mutilated
piscina, (3) double piscina (E.E.) in chancel, (4) bench-ends (1511),
with the old seats hinged to them, (5) ancient tiles (14th cent.), (6)
Jacobean pulpit; (7) brasses, one to John Stone (d. 1416), and another,
with effigy, to John Heth (d. 1464). At one end of the churchyard is a
gate-post with an inscription; and not far away is the former rectory
(now called the _Court House_). In the village, beneath a magnificent
elm, are the ancient stocks.

_Tolland_, a village 4 m. N. by E. of Wiveliscombe. Its small church
contains little of interest, except some ancient tiles and some carved
woodwork. In the parish is an old manor house called _Gaulden Farm_,
with a large hall decorated with a fine plaster ceiling, with pendant
and cornice, but inspection of it is not easily obtained. James
Turberville, Bishop of Exeter, is said to have lived here in seclusion,
when deprived of his see in 1559.

_Treborough_, a small village 6 m. S.W. of Williton. The district is
hilly, and the church small.

_Trull_, a village 2 m. S.W. of Taunton, on the Honiton road. Its
church is of no great architectural interest, but is remarkable for its
woodwork--rood-screen, pulpit, and seat ends. The screen is very good:
note above it the tympanum, projecting below the chancel arch and
formerly joined to the rood-loft by an oak addition. The pulpit has
five figures in high relief, which seem to represent an apostle, a
pope, a cardinal, and two bishops (or perhaps a bishop and a mitred
abbot). Among the bench-ends are panels representing figures in a
religious procession, including (1) a boy with a cross, (2) a man with
a candle, (3) a man with a reliquary, (4) and (5) two ecclesiastics (or
perhaps choristers) with books. The artist's name (Simon Warman) and
the date of his work (1560) are engraved at the W. end of the N. aisle.
There is also some excellent ancient glass in the E. and S. windows of
the chancel. In the churchyard, under a tree, are preserved the parish
stocks.

_Twerton_, a populous working-class suburb on the W. side of Bath, with
a station on the G.W.R. main line to Bristol. The name of the place
(the town at the weir) betrays its Saxon origin, but the only thing
known of its early history is that the Bath monks had a cloth mill
here. A large clothing factory, which is one of the chief industries of
the place, after a fashion perpetuates the tradition. The old village
and church lie on the S. side of the railway embankment, and may be
found by passing under the station archway. The church has more than
once been entirely rebuilt, but still retains a commonplace Perp.
tower. A photograph in the vestry shows a curious inscription on one of
the battlements. A good Norm. doorway, now built into the N. porch, and
a Norm. font, are relics of the original church. Henry Fielding lodged
in one of the houses in the village and penned a portion of "Tom Jones"
here.

_Ubley_, a village 2 m. S.E. of Blagdon. The church tower has rather an
odd appearance, as in addition to a low spire, it has a prominent stair
turret with pyramidal cap. Within, the N. arcade has been pushed out of
the perpendicular by the weight of the roof. At the entrance of the S.
chapel is a chained copy of Erasmus' Paraphrase of the Gospels, 1522
(cp. Bruton). The pulpit is Jacobean, and the altar bears date 1637.
The churchyard is beautifully kept, and a very handsome restored cross
stands on a little "green" fronting at the churchyard gate.

_Uphill_, a village at the mouth of the Axe, 2 m. S. of
Weston-super-Mare. It is an unattractive collection of cottages without
any present-day interest. Somewhere, however, in the neighbourhood once
existed the old Roman seaport of Axium, where the lead dug from the
Mendips was shipped for export. The church is early Victorian Gothic,
with a new chancel. The old ruined church on the hill is a conspicuous
landmark from Weston. It is a Norm. building, altered in Perp. times,
with a low central tower. Note (1) the restored Norm. N. doorway; (2)
three-faced gargoyle on S. side of tower. Near the church is the shell
of a watch-tower. The old Roman road which ran across the Mendips from
Old Sarum had its terminus here. Uphill was once notable for a bone
cavern, but this has now been destroyed by the encroachments of a
quarry. The contents, which included many valuable remains of extinct
animals, have been scattered amongst neighbouring museums.

_Upton_, a village on the Haddeo, 6 m. E.N.E. of Dulverton. The
neighbourhood is very picturesque. The church has been removed to a
more convenient position at Rainsbury, but the tower of the old fabric,
which has been allowed to remain, marks the original site.

_Upton Noble_, a parish 2-1/2 m. S.W. of Witham Friary. The church has
a small gable-roofed tower, and preserves in the E. wall of a S. chapel
a defaced crucifix within a nimbus. The font is early.

_Vallis_, 1 m. N.W. from Frome--a prettily-wooded bottom, through which
flows a stream pleasantly margined by a strip of pasture. The vale is
sufficiently romantic to make it a favourite trysting-place with the
neighbouring townsfolk, but it is being rapidly ruined by extensive
quarrying operations. The rocks, however, are geologically of much
interest, as upon the edge of the upturned strata of mountain limestone
will be noticed horizontal layers of oolite. On the side of the defile
is the old manor-house of the Leversedges, now applied to farm
purposes. The ruins of the original banqueting-hall (_temp._ Henry
VII.) will repay investigation. The pedestrian should approach the vale
from Frome across the Lees, and may either return to the town by
following the course of a tributary brook to Egford, or may prolong his
walk along the banks of the main stream to Elm and Mells.

_Venn Cross_, a rural station on the G.W.R. line to Barnstaple. It
stands on the very border of the county, and serves a number of
neighbouring villages.

_Vobster_, a small village 2 m. S. of Mells Road Station. Its uncouth
name is said to be derived from some Dutch weavers who once worked a
mill on the banks of the neighbouring stream. The church is a neat
little modern building.

_Walton_, a village 3 m. S.W. of Glastonbury. The church is modern. At
the W. end of it is a thatched 15th cent. parsonage with some
ecclesiastical windows, now a farm. From the hill behind the village
(marked by a windmill) an excellent view of the full extent of
Sedgemoor may be obtained.

_Walton-in-Gordano_, a village 1 m. N. of Clevedon, very prettily
situated near the Channel. Of the church, the only ancient part is the
base of the tower (15th cent.), under which a few fragments of carved
stones are preserved. The present building is said to be modelled on
the style of the old.

_Wanstrow_, a village 6 m. S.W. of Frome, with a station on the G.W.R.
branch to Wells. The church is ancient, but without interest.

_Washford_, a large hamlet in the parish of Old Cleeve, with a station
(on the G.W.R. branch to Minehead) which affords easy access to Cleeve
Abbey.

WATCHET, a small port of some 2000 inhabitants, situated on the Bristol
Channel. It has always been of some trading importance, as giving
access to the valley between the Brendons and Quantocks, and has seen
some history. In Saxon times it was more than once raided by the Danes,
and on the road to Williton is a spot called "Battle Gore," which may
preserve the memory of a fight with the invaders. Its church, _St
Decuman's_, on the way to Williton, is interesting. It has a good
tower, with a figure of the saint on the S. face. There is a stoup
outside the W. door, and remains of another in the S. porch. It will be
seen that the chancel roof is a continuation of that of the nave. In
the interior note (1) the group of four bishops, and St George (or St
Michael) with the Dragon on some of the arcade piers; (2) the oak roof,
pulpit and cornice; (3) the screen (which, however, is mostly modern).
There are two chapels, Holy Cross on the S. and St Peter's on the N.
The latter is filled with tombs and brasses of the Wyndham family,
chiefly 16th and 17th cent. In the churchyard is a restored cross. The
farm-house of Kentisford, near the church, was once a manor-house, and
preserves the name of St Keyne.

_Wayford_ is a village 3 m. S.W. of Crewkerne Station. Its church
occupies an elevated position, and displays several ancient features.
Its windows are E.E. or Dec., some having the interior arch foliated.
There is a good double piscina under a foliated canopy, and an old
octagonal font.

_Weare_, a large village near the Axe, 3 m. S.W. of Axbridge. It is
said to have been a borough in the early part of the 14th cent.,
sending two members to Parliament. The church has a good tower, rather
deficient in height, with triple belfry windows. The treatment of the
belfry staircase is unusual, and deserves notice. The interior of the
church contains comparatively little of antiquarian interest. In one of
the N. windows are some fragments of ancient glass, bearing seemingly
the initials of Thomas Beckington. Note (1) piscina and small brass
(late 15th cent.) in the sanctuary, (2) square Norm. font, (3) Jacobean
pulpit (1617). There is a cross in the churchyard.

_Wedmore_, a large village 4 m. S. of Cheddar, situated on rising
ground, which affords a good view of part of the Mendips and of the
hamlets resting upon their slopes. The place is famous as the scene of
Guthrum's "chrisom-loosing" after his baptism at Aller, and of his
treaty with Alfred (see p. 13). Its church (Perp.) is an interesting
building. The tower is central (as at Axbridge, Yatton, etc.), with
triple windows in the belfry; and as it has no pinnacles, it presents a
very plain outline (cp. Yeovil). The original cruciform plan of the
church is disguised by the N. and S. aisles and chapels. The oldest
parts are the tower arches and the S. doorway, which are late Trans.;
the S. chapel has a Dec. window; the rest of the structure is Perp.
Note (1) gallery or parvise over the porch; (2) groined vaulting under
tower; (3) wooden roof of N. chapel; (4) sedile, piscina, and squint;
(5) fine Jacobean pulpit; (6) mural brasses to Thomas and George Hodges
(1583 and 1630). There appear to be traces of a double rood-loft (as at
Axbridge and Crewkerne). There is a cross in the churchyard, and a
second (with defaced sculptures) in a garden on the L. hand of the
Glastonbury road.

At _Mudgeley_, a hamlet 1-1/2 m. away, King Alfred is believed to have
had a palace, and the foundation of walls have been discovered in the
course of recent excavations.

WELLINGTON, a market town 7 m. S.W. from Taunton, with a station on the
main G.W. line to Exeter. Population, 7283. No one seems to know why
the hero of Waterloo chose to immortalise this quiet little
west-country town: he does not appear to have had any original
connection with it. The reputation of Wellington, made by war, is now
maintained by woollens. The town is girdled by large cloth and serge
mills. In general appearance the place is not unprepossessing. The
streets are wide and airy, and their arrangement compact, but the shops
are poor, and create an impression of dullness. The only object of more
than passing interest is the Parish Church, inconveniently situated at
the E. extremity of the town. It is chiefly remarkable for a good Perp.
W. tower, distinguished by the local peculiarity of a stair turret
carried up the centre of its S. face. The interior--Perp. throughout,
with the exception of an E.E. east window--is lofty, but not
particularly impressive, and has an unusually high chancel. The
fragments of an elaborately carved reredos which the building once
possessed are now in Taunton Museum. There are two monuments of note:
(1) fine Jacobean tomb with canopy and effigies of Lord Chief-Justice
Popham and wife (1607); (2) defaced effigy of ecclesiastic in recess at
E. end of N. chapel. The other features to be observed are (1) old
carved reading-desk and pulpit; (2) very fine piscina in chancel; (3)
crucifix on mullion of E. window of S. chapel, now obscured by the
organ.

The _Wellington Monument_, a conspicuous landmark on the summit of one
of the Blackdowns, is nearly 3 m. S. of the town. It is a triangular
column, erected by public subscription to commemorate the Iron Duke,
and was originally intended to be surmounted by his statue. The site
commands an extensive prospect in the direction of the Quantocks,
Brendons, and Exmoor.

_Wellow_, a largish but somewhat declining village, lying in a valley 6
m. S. from Bath, with a station on the S. & D. line. St Julian's Church
is a fine specimen of early Perp. architecture (1372). It is
interesting within and imposing without. The tower is severe but
dignified, and a good effect is obtained by a small octagonal turret
over the rood-loft staircase. The chancel is new (1890). Within note
(1) the good bossed and panelled roof, (2) dark oak screen, (3) old
benches, (4) the E.E. font attached to one of the pillars and furnished
with a book rest, (5) effigy of a priest with an incised chalice on
breast (cp. Minehead), (6) piscina on splay of S. sanctuary window. The
Hungerford chapel--now filled by an organ--is an interesting little
chamber, with a gaily coloured roof and an effigy of some Lady
Hungerford under an Elizabethan canopy. At the bottom of a ditch in a
cottage garden to the E. of the church is the site of St Julian's well,
said to have been the trysting-place of the Hungerford family ghost. A
flat stone is now the only indication of this once uncanny fountain.
Opposite the school is a grim-looking gabled farmhouse, once a manorial
residence of the Hungerfords. It is said to contain an oak room and
some fine carving, but the occupants do not encourage visitors. Half a
mile to the W. of the village, in a field nearly opposite the cemetery,
the foundations of a Roman villa were unearthed in 1685. Four upright
stones at the top of the field mark the site, and portions of the
tessellated pavement are still said to lie beneath the sod. Another
antiquity of great interest will be found in the centre of a sloping
field nearly a mile S.S.W. of the village. This is _Stoney Littleton_,
a large Celtic tumulus composed of masonry, but now entirely overgrown
with brushwood. The mound is easily observable (call for key at
neighbouring farm-house). An inscription at the entrance claims that at
a restoration in 1858 everything was replaced as found. A low passage
gives access to a number of small chambers constructed of flagstones.
Skeletons are said to have been found within when these were first
opened.

[Illustration: WELLS CATHEDRAL]

WELLS, a cathedral city of some 5000 people, 20 m. S.W. from Bath, 20
m. S. from Bristol, 20 m. E. from Bridgewater, 32 m. N.E. from Taunton.
Geographically the situation of Wells is fairly central, but it is
neither easy of approach by road nor particularly accessible by rail.
To reach the city from the N.E. the pedestrian or cyclist has to
clamber over the Mendips; and though two railways (S. & D. and G.W.R.)
have stations here, the connection is indirect and the service
leisurely. Wells has been enthusiastically described as "one of the
most beautiful things on earth," and though a cold-blooded visitor may
be disposed to cavil at the extravagance of the praise, yet it will be
universally admitted that this "city of waters," picturesquely planted
at the foot of the hills, with its antiquities mellowed but unimpaired
by age, is possessed of peculiar charm. There are other cities with
cathedrals, but the ecclesiastical atmosphere of Wells is almost
unique. It is a cathedral city pure and simple. It has come down to us
from the Middle Ages practically unchanged. Here may be seen the
machinery of a great mediaeval ecclesiastical foundation in actual
working order. Wells probably owes its immunity from change to the
secular character of its church, in consequence of which it escaped the
upheaval that overthrew religious houses like its neighbour
Glastonbury. Apart from its cathedral life, Wells has had few
interests. It is an unenterprising little town. Bishop Goodwin once
described it as a place of "little antiquity." It has less history. Its
civil annals are short and simple. It gave a loyal welcome to Henry
VII. on his return from stamping out Perkin Warbeck's fatuous
rebellion; and Monmouth's troops, as an interlude in their inglorious
campaign, found uproarious diversion by stabling their horses in the
canons' stalls, and holding a wild carousal in the sanctuary. The
peculiar interest of Wells lies not only in the cathedral itself, but
in its _entourage_. Secular chapters were communities for the purposes
of worship only. They had no "common life." Their only common room was
the chapter-house, where they met for the transaction of business. The
canons had their own separate establishments, and their residences
remain for the most part intact to-day. This secular character was
stamped upon the cathedral from the first. King Ina founded it as a
secular church, and though Bishop Giso, the last of the Saxon bishops,
made an attempt to reconstitute the chapter on "regular" lines, and is
said to have actually built a refectory and dormitory, the foundation
soon reverted to its original ideals, and the monastic offices were
removed as unnecessary. Like most cathedrals, Wells has been the
composition of many hands, and is carried out in many different styles.
Roughly, the work may be classified as follows: _Norm._ perhaps even
_Pre-Norm._ font; _Trans. Norm._ N. porch, nave and transepts: _E.E._
W. front; _Dec._ lady chapel and chapter-house, central tower and
choir; _Perp._ W. towers, cloisters, gate-houses, chain gateway, and
remains of destroyed cloister chapel. A casual glance will show that
the cathedral occupies the centre of a gated close, with deanery and
canons' houses to N., and bishop's palace to S. The attention is first
arrested, as was no doubt intended, by the view from the spacious
green. Here the spectator not only has before him the finest W. front
in England, but finds spread out for his study a mediaeval historical
picture-book. The statuary is not only designed to enhance the general
architectural effect of the building, but is a genuine attempt to teach
the unlearned the rudiments of ecclesiastical and secular history. The
idea, however, is so artistically carried out that the didactic purpose
of the sculpture is completely disguised. Quite in keeping with the
usual mediaeval notion, Church and State are regarded as two separate
kingdoms, and the events of sacred and profane history are kept
distinct. The S. half is assigned to the ecclesiastics, and the N.
occupied by the royalties. The figures and medallions have suffered
considerably from time and fanaticism, and are too distant to be now
easily deciphered. If, however, they are studied from photographs (some
of which are exhibited in a photographer's show-case in the Square),
their rare grace and workmanship, which caught the eye of Flaxman and
secured the admiration of Ruskin, will be at once discerned. This
unrivalled _façade_ was the work of Bishop Joceline, brother of Hugh of
Lincoln, in 1232, and is in the purest style of E.E. Joceline's design
ended on the N. and S. with the string courses above the top groups of
statuary. The towers, which add immensely to the general impressiveness
of the whole, were an afterthought. They are Perp. work. The S. tower
was built by Bishop Harewell in 1366-86, and its fellow did not follow
till 1407-24, when it was constructed by the executors of Bishop
Bubwith. The latter differs from its companion only in the possession
of two canopied niches let into the buttresses. To study the church
historically the visitor should enter the N. porch, the oldest part of
the present building. It is E.E., but was executed before the style had
divested itself of its Norm. traditions (observe the zig-zag ornament).
This exceedingly beautiful porch is considered by some to be the gem of
the cathedral. Note (1) foliaged weather-moulding, (2) the square
_bas-reliefs_ on either side of entrance, (3) deeply-recessed double
arcading, (4) sculptured capitals, (5) parvise. If on entering the
church the visitor will at once take his stand beneath the central
tower, and looking N. and S. down the transepts, E. as far as the
throne, and W. to the porch by which he entered, can picture the E. end
closed by an apse and the church lighted by narrow lancets, and can
further imagine the absence of the organ-screen and the unsightly
inverted arches, he will have a very fair idea of what the church
looked like when it left the hands of its first builder, Bishop Robert,
in 1166. The nave was carried westwards to its present limits in
1174-91 by his successor, Bishop Reginald, and to this Bishop Joceline
added the W. front, built the E. cloister, and consecrated the whole
edifice in October 1239. The architecture of the nave has been aptly
described as "improved Norman." Its peculiarities are assigned to the
idiosyncrasies of local builders. The general effect is a certain
monotonous severity, and the absence of vaulting shafts gives the
building a tunnel-like appearance. The inverted arches are disguised
struts inserted in 1338 to prevent the collapse of the central tower.
They give, it is true, character to the interior, but their effect is
ungainly. Bishop Robert's work can be distinguished from his
successor's by the larger stones employed, the transverse tooling (as
if done by an adze), and the existence of grotesques in the tympanum of
the arches of the triforium. Note in nave (1) humorous figures on
capitals of arcade, (2) _cinque cento_ glass in central light of W.
window (an importation), (3) the Perp. arches on each side of tower
archway, (4) the beautiful chantries, on N. of Bishop Bubwith, on S. of
Hugh Sugar (the details will repay study), (5) chapels under W. towers,
(6) ugly pulpit, given by Bishop Knight in 1540, (7) above S. arcade,
Perp. minstrels' gallery and projecting heads of a king with a falling
lad and a bishop with children. They may have been the support of a
small organ, but the local wiseacres were accustomed to declare that
they were intended as prophecies of the evil days which should befall
the church when a king should have a weakling for his heir and Wells
should receive as its bishop a married man. These predictions were held
to be fulfilled when Henry VIII., whose heir was Edward VI., nominated
to the see Bishop Barlow. In N. transept note curious astronomical
clock, which strikes the hours by a clumsy representation of a
tournament. It was originally constructed for Glastonbury Abbey by P.
Lightfoot, one of the monks. In S. transept note (1) vigorous
grotesques on capitals, (2) font, perhaps pre-Norm. The visitor should
now pay the customary 6d. and seek admission to the choir.
Historically, both lady chapel and chapter house preceded the present
choir; but the custodian's custom is to show the choir first. As it
stands it was the work of Bishop Ralph in 1329-63, who reconstructed
Bishop Robert's choir, removed the apse, and extended the building
three bays eastwards. Bishop Ralph's contribution to the fabric may be
distinguished within by the tall vaulting shafts running up from
basement to roof, and without by the flying buttresses. It is a stately
example of late Dec. work, verging on exuberance. The furniture of the
choir with the exception of the throne (15th cent.), and a few
misereres in the second row of stalls, is modern. Note fine old glass
in E. window. The lady chapel at the E. is justly considered one of the
finest extant examples of the more chaste Dec. style. Its builder was
Bishop Drokensford, 1326. The structural design is cunningly contrived.
An octagonal chamber is transformed within into a pentagonal apse by
the simple device of resting the three western sides on piers, and thus
throwing it into one building with the retrochoir, thereby considerably
enhancing the general artistic effect. The glass in the windows is
ancient, but is merely a medley of fragments. Before examining the
_Chapter House_ the visitor should dive through the doorway in the N.
choir-aisle, and take a look at the so-called _crypt_. It is really
only the basement of the chapter house, and was used as the cathedral
_Treasury_. It is an octagonal chamber with a low vault supported on
cylindrical columns. It now contains an assortment of mediaeval odds
and ends, from a fine 14th-cent. wooden door to an urn that once
contained a human heart. Note, besides other things, (1) stone lantern,
(2) piscina with carved dog and bone. The chapter house is reached by a
flight of stone steps leading out of the N. transept aisle (turn to the
R.). Note, in passing, the corbels with conventual figures. The
_Chapter House_ is an octagonal chamber of spacious dimensions. The
walls are indented with a recessed arcade, and carry a bench table. The
vaulting springs from single shafts, and is supported in the centre by
a massive clustered column. The building is a finely-executed example
of geometric Dec., and dates from the episcopate of William de Marchia
(1293-1319). Note (1) the excellent tracery of the windows, and the
fragments of old glass; (2) carved heads in arcading of wall, (3)
double archway of door. Before returning to the nave the visitor should
make an examination of the _Monuments_ in the transepts and choir
aisles. Their identity will best be discovered from a glance at the
plan provided by the verger. Here mention will only be made of the most
notable. In S. transept, against S. wall (1) William de Marchia (1319),
builder of the chapter house; (2) Viscountess Lisle, with coloured
canopy (14th cent.). In Chapel of St Calixtus (1) shrine of Bishop
Beckington, unhappily detached from its original position over his
tomb; (2) Treasurer Husee (1309); observe panel with representation of
the Trinity. In S. choir aisle (1) incised slab (said to be one of the
earliest in England) of Bishop Bytton, junior (1274), to touch which
was once held to be an infallible remedy for toothache (see grotesque
on a capital in S. transept); (2) modern recumbent effigy of Bishop
Hervey (d. 1894); (3) Bishop Beckington (1464), with skeleton beneath
(cp. Frome); (4) Bishop Harewell (1386), builder of S.W. tower; observe
hare at his feet (cp. sugar loaves in Sugar's chantry). In the Chapel
of St John the Evangelist--a sort of choir transept--(1) Dean Gunthorpe
(1475), builder of the Deanery; observe Dec. piscina in E. wall; (2)
Bishop Drokensford (1309-29), builder of the Lady Chapel; (3) shrine of
unknown person. In N. choir aisle, Bishop Ralph de Salopia (1363),
builder of the choir (possibly removed here from the sanctuary). The
effigies of the Saxon bishops in the choir aisles were probably an
after-thought of Bishop Joceline, who perhaps thought that this tardy
testimonial to the labours of his predecessors would be an effective
advertisement of the priority of his see. The labelled stone coffins of
Dudoc and Giso are said to have been unearthed within recent memory. In
S. transept aisle are (1) Bishop Still (1608); (2) Bishop Kidder, Ken's
successor, killed by the fall of the palace chimney-stack during a
memorable storm in 1703; (3) against N. wall, Bishop T. Cornish
(1513)--a tomb supposed to have been used as an Easter sepulchre (cp.
Pilton). The visitor should now inspect the cloisters, and should
observe in passing the fine external E.E. doorway ruthlessly obscured
by the Perp. vaulting. The cloisters form a covered ambulatory leading
from the S. transept to the S.W. corner of the nave. Bishop Joceline,
Bishop Bubwith's executors, and Bishop Beckington all seem to have had
a hand in their construction; Beckington has stamped his rebus on some
of the bosses of the roof. The cathedral library forms an upper storey
to the E. cloister, and a corresponding chamber runs the length of the
cloister opposite, now used as a choir practising room. Note in E.
cloister (1) external lavatories, (2) doorway in E. wall leading to a
quiet little burial-ground. This was the site of an additional lady
chapel (late Perp.) built by Bishop Stillington (1466-91). It was
destroyed at the instigation of Bishop Barlow by Sir John Gates, a
fanatical Puritan, the wrecker of the palace hard by. Some fragments of
the vaulting are piled up in the cloisters, and a few traces of
panelling remain on the exterior face of the doorway. The burial-ground
is a good position from which to view the external features of the
choir. The high architectural merit of Bishop Ralph's work will be
quickly discerned, and due note should be taken of the skilful way in
which a structural necessity has been turned to artistic advantage in
the erection of the flying buttresses. In the earlier work they exist,
but are hidden away as unsightly props beneath the roof of the aisles.
Their artistic possibilities having caught the eye of the builder, they
are here brought out into the light, and form a very pleasing feature
in the general design. The visitor should now return to the cathedral
in order to inspect the _Vicars' Close_, one of the unique features of
Wells. The flight of stairs which gives entrance to the chapter-house
leads also by a covered bridge--known as the _Chain Gate_--across the
street into the Close, and thus forms a private passage whereby the
singers may pass from the church to their quarters. The public have to
find their way by returning to the street. Pass under the chain-gate,
turn sharply to the left under another archway, and the Close is before
you. It is a quaint oblong court closed at one end by the entrance
gateway, and at the other by a chapel. On either side is a "quiet range
of houses" with picturesque gables and high chimneys. Note the
"canting" escutcheons of Swan, Sugar, and Talbot, Beckington's
executors, on some of the chimneys. The houses, which were intended as
the abode of the college of singing clerks, have been much modernised;
but one or two still retain some semblance of their original design.
The idea of gathering the singers together into a fraternity was Bishop
Ralph's. He provided them with these picturesque dwellings, and gave
them the common dining-hall which forms the upper storey of the
entrance gateway. This is said to be one of the most beautiful examples
of mid-14th-cent. domestic architecture in the country. It was enlarged
subsequently by Rich. Pomeroy (_temp._ Hen. VIII.), and Bishop
Beckington's executors are said to have built the chapel at the other
end of the Close. Regarded now-a-days as a devotional superfluity by
the singers, it has been turned over to the Theological College. The
chapel and muniment room above should be inspected, but admission
cannot now be obtained to the hall. Before leaving the Cathedral
precincts note on the same side of the road as the Vicars' Close (in
order, westwards): (1) the _Archdeacon's House_, now used as the
College library, (2) the _Deanery_--an embattled residence with
gatehouse and turrets, built by Dean Gunthorpe, 1472-98 (the imposing
character of the building is not discernible from the road, as the real
front faces the garden), (3) _Browne's Gate_, through which the Close
is entered from Sadler Street. The remainder of the official residences
of the chapter lie to the N. of the Deanery, outside the Close, in a
street called the E. Liberty--so named because it lay outside parochial
jurisdiction. Though much modernised, they are mostly mediaeval
buildings. The path which traverses the Cathedral green enters the
Market place by the third of the Close gate-ways--_Penniless Porch_,
where alms are said to have been periodically distributed. This was the
work of Beckington; note the prelate's arms on W. face, and rebus (a
beacon and tun) on the E. side. Beckington made the city his debtor by
giving it a water supply. He tapped the well in the palace garden,
which feeds the fountain in the square. Note the quaint method of
distributing the overflow.

[Illustration: VICARS' CLOSE, WELLS]

Next in interest to the Cathedral is _the Palace_. It is approached
either from the cloisters or through another of Beckington's porches,
called the _Palace Eye_. Both entrances give access to the outer court.
Within is a second court containing the palace. This inclosure is
protected by crenellated walls and surrounded by a moat. These
semi-fortifications were erected by Bishop Ralph, who perhaps found
that a mitre was as uneasy a headgear as a crown. A gate-house, with a
drawbridge commands the entrance. If the porter has not been too
worried by tourists a peep may sometimes be obtained at the sacred
enclosure. The actual palace forms the E. boundary of what was once a
stately quadrangle. The kitchens formed the N. wing, and on the S. was
the chapel and hall. The latter is now only a picturesque ruin. The
oldest part of the structure has oddly enough been the one to survive.
With the exception of the modern upper storey, the existing palace was
the work of Bishop Joceline (1206-42). It consists of a groined
basement, forming an entrance hall (note chimney piece) and dining
hall. Above are the household apartments and a picture gallery, hung
with portraits of former occupants of the see. The chapel and the now
dismantled great hall on the S. were built by Bishop Burnell (1274-92).
The chapel remains intact. It is a fine Dec. building, with groined
roof and some good window tracery. Of the hall only the N. and W. walls
and some detached turrets now survive. It was originally a chamber of
quite majestic proportions, covered by a wooden roof and lighted on
either side by some tall 2-light Dec. windows. At the W. end stood the
buttery and above it the solar (a "sunny" drawing-room). The palace
appears to have been sold by Bishop Barlow to Protector Somerset, and
upon the dispersal of Somerset's ill-gotten gains it passed into the
hands of Sir J. Gates, who unroofed the building for the sake of its
lead and timber. The ruin of the fabric was completed by Dean Burgess
(_temp._ Cromwell), who used it as a quarry for the repair of the
Deanery. A kind of poetic justice eventually overtook both these
depredators. Gates lost his head and Burgess his liberty. A
particularly picturesque bit of the palace is the N. face overlooking
the moat. The dead surface of the wall is prettily broken by some
projecting oriel windows, the insertion of Bishop Clarke (1523-40). The
gardens are delightful, and are watered by St Andrew's well which
gushes from its hidden sources to overflow into the moat. A visitor may
occasionally enjoy the mild sensation of seeing a bevy of swans ring a
bell for their dinner. To the right of the broad public walk which runs
along the W. side of the moat is the city recreation ground in which
will be noticed the old episcopal barn. It is a good example of a
mediaeval granary, and is said to be of the same age as the N.W. tower
of the Cathedral. It has an unusual number of buttresses.

[Illustration: THE PALACE GATEWAY, WELLS]

It is the misfortune, not the fault, of the subordinate churches of a
cathedral city that they arouse but a languid interest in the already
surfeited sight-seer. Wells has one other church which merits more than
a passing attention. St Cuthbert's is a Perp. building of generous
dimensions. It possesses an exceedingly fine tower of the best Somerset
type--massive and graceful--belonging to the same class as the towers
of Wrington and Evercreech, but spoilt by a want of proportion between
the upper and lower stages. The interior of the church is spacious and
imposing, and contains a good panelled roof. The E.E. capitals of the
piers and some old roof marks suggest that it was originally an E.E.
cruciform fabric, altered by Perp. builders, and heightened by the
erection of a clerestory. There is documentary evidence that a "public
collection" was made in 1561 to repair the havoc caused by the collapse
of the central tower. The transeptal chapels were once brilliant with
statuary and colour, but the axes and hammers of the image breakers
have successfully purged them of their original glory. All that is left
for the admiration of the modern visitor are a few gaping recesses and
a pile of gathered fragments. Note (1) double transepts, (2) oak
pulpit, (3) Dec. window with Jesse altar-piece in S. transept, (3)
piscinas, in chancel and S. choir aisle, (5) mutilated figure of knight
in ruff and armour at E. end of N. aisle, (6) tomb with figure (1614)
under tower. The other antiquities of Wells are (1) Bishop Bubwith's
alms-houses in Chamberlain Street (near St Cuthbert's Church)--an
eccentric building, containing a number of separate cells, a chapel and
a small hall under one roof (note old alms chest in hall, now called
the Committee room), (2) some ancient timber-work in the courtyard of
the Crown Inn.

Amongst the more interesting walks in the neighbourhood are (1)
Arthur's Point, offering a good view of the Glastonbury plain; (2) Tor
and Dulcot hills on the Shepton road; (3) Ebbor rocks near Wookey Hole.

_Wembdon_, a parish 1 m. N.W. of Bridgwater, of which it is virtually a
suburb. The church has been restored (after a fire in 1868), and its
ancient features have been obliterated. On the S. of the building is an
old cross.

_Westbury_ (stat. Lodge Hill), a village on the road between Wells and
Axbridge, 4 m. N.W. from the former town. It has an interesting church
(ded. to St Lawrence), with a W. tower of the prevailing Perp. type,
but supported on a Norm. arch (the flanking columns do not reach the
ground). There is also a Norm. door on the N. side, now blocked. In the
S. porch note the doors which once led to the parvise or gallery above,
and the holy-water stoup. The E. window is Dec., with the interior arch
foliated. The S. aisle has a small chapel at the E. end, containing a
tomb of George Rodney (d. 1586).

_Weston_, a parish forming a suburb of Bath. Of its church the only old
portion is the tower, with angular buttresses finishing in pinnacles.
The nave was rebuilt in 1832.

_Weston Bampfylde_, a parish 1 m. S. of Sparkford. Its little church
has a W. octagonal tower on a square base. Within the building should
be noticed (1) the rood staircase, which has been thrown open; (2) the
Norm. font with cable mouldings; (3) the two squints.

_Weston-in-Gordano_, a village 3 m. N.E. of Clevedon, on the Portishead
road. Its little church is well worth inspection. The tower (with a
pyramidal top) is said to be E.E., and is placed on the S. side of the
church (rather an exceptional position in this county). The most
interesting features are (1) indications of a gallery over the S. porch
(intended to be used by choristers on Palm Sunday); (2) holy water
stoup within S. door; (3) curious 13th-cent. stone reading-desk or
pulpit in S. wall; (4) "Miserere" seats in the choir, with their quaint
carvings (attributed to the 14th cent.); (5) Jacobean oak pulpit; (6)
Norm. font; (7) sanctus bell-cot; (8) fine 15th-cent. tomb (with French
epitaph) of "Rycharde Persyvale"; (9) piscina in S. wall. There is an
altar-tomb in the churchyard, said to belong to a Percival of the time
of Richard I.

WESTON-SUPER-MARE, a popular seaside resort on the Bristol Channel, 139
m. from London and 20 m. S.W. from Bristol, with a population of nearly
20,000. A loop thrown from the G.W.R. main line at Worle enables the
traveller to reach the place without the inconvenience of changing
trains. The town lies in the entrance of a crescent-like indentation
which the sea has scooped out of the flats that intervene between the
conspicuous promontories of Worle Hill on the N. and Brean Down on the
S. The rise of the town has been recent and rapid. A century has
transformed it from a mere handful of fishermen's cottages into one of
the most popular resorts of the West. The bay faces due W. and commands
an uninterrupted view of the Atlantic. Besides this advantageous
geographical position, the town possesses all the qualifications of a
first-class watering-place except the one essential feature of the
water. At ebb tide the sea beats a hasty retreat across the bay, and
leaves as its substitute many acres of dimpled mud--a peculiarity which
has caused the frivolous to nickname it _Weston-super-Mud_. But
enterprising Weston has turned even this gibe to advantage by claiming
that the ozone which exhales from the ooze is one of the chief elements
in its salubrity. Moreover the estrangement between the sea and the
shore is by no means permanent. At high tides the spray breaks over the
esplanade in showers, and under the stimulus of a brisk westerly breeze
these demonstrations of the "sad sea waves" are quite lively. Weston's
advantages have been exploited to the full by its townspeople. A broad
and well-paved esplanade, 2-1/2 m. long, encircles the shore. Two piers
are thrust out into the sea--the older one, with twin landing-stages,
connects the N. end of the town with the islet of Birnbeck; the new one
runs out from the centre of the parade for half a mile across the mud,
and is furnished with an elaborate pavilion. Sea-bathing of a sort is
occasionally obtainable, and some good public baths supply what in this
respect is lacking. A strip of sand at the foot of the esplanade
furnishes the children with a somewhat restricted playground. The shops
are good, the accommodation plentiful, and in amusements the town can
almost vie with Blackpool and Brighton. There are two public
parks--Grove Park in the centre of the town, and Clarence Park (more
spacious and pleasing) near the Sanatorium. In a mushroom-town like
Weston there are naturally not many antiquities. Such "finds" as
occasionally come to hand are treasured in a museum attached to the
Free Library in the Boulevard. The churches are modern. In the parish
church--an ingeniously ugly building--are one or two remnants of an
earlier structure. Note (1) font near chancel; (2) representation of
Trinity (cp. Binegar, S. Brent, and Yatton) built into interior wall of
N. vestry; (3) fantastic glass in E. window. In the churchyard are the
remains of a cross. Weston has, however, one antiquity of quite
remarkable interest in _Worlebury Camp_. As viewed from the parade the
crest of the hill behind the town will be seen to be crowned with an
extensive litter of stones. These are the débris of a primitive
fortification. To investigate make for the junction of South Road and
Edgehill Street (the old pier), turn down a lane on the L. and ascend a
flight of concealed steps at the bottom. The rampart is now largely a
confused heap of limestone fragments, but the general plan of it may be
easily detected. The camp is confined to the W. extremity of the hill
and covers an area of about 10 acres. On the S., or level side, it is
defended not only by the main rampart, but by two supplementary walls
separated by a fosse. Within the fortification will be found a number
of circular pits, some 93 in all. This circumstance gives the camp its
peculiarity. From remains of corn and other produce found at the
bottom, they are believed to have been receptacles for storage. The
pits vary in size, the average diameter being 6 ft. and the depth 5 ft.
They were, perhaps, originally protected by some kind. of roof,
constructed of wicker-work. Amongst their contents have been found some
human remains, many of them showing injuries produced by weapons. The
construction of the camp has been assigned to the 3rd cent. B.C. It had
three entrances, on the S.E. side, the N.E. corner, and the W. end of
the hill. Beyond the camp the hill is traversed by paths, any of which
will serve for a pleasant ramble. If the central path through the wood
be continued, a descent may be made to Kewstoke or Milton, or a more
prolonged walk may be taken to Worle. Weston's most charming walk is,
however, to skirt the N. base of Worle Hill and proceed through the
woods to Kewstoke, whence _Worspring Priory_ (q.v.) may be visited.
(Cycles and carriages pay toll at the lodge, pedestrians free.)

[Illustration: WESTON-SUPER-MARE]

_Weston Zoyland_, a parish 4 m. E.S.E. of Bridgwater. The village is
more closely associated even than its neighbour Chedzoy with the Battle
of Sedgmoor, for Feversham, the Royalist general, had his headquarters
here; and, after the battle many of the rebels were confined in the
church. The church, which, unlike Chedzoy, is mainly Dec. and Perp., is
remarkable for its unusually lofty tower (which has triple windows in
the belfry). The nave has a good roof, with pendants. The N. transept
is noteworthy for being carried above the base of the clerestory. The
parish belonged to Glastonbury, and in one of the chancel windows, on
one of the seat ends, and on one of the external buttresses of the S.
chapel, are the initials _R.B._ (Richard Bere, the last but one of the
abbots). In a recess under the window of the N. transept is the
15th-cent. effigy of a priest. Note (1) the font, with curious hoops;
(2) piscinas in N. and S. chapels; (3) old communion table. In the
fields between the church and Chedzoy were buried the slain of
Sedgemoor.

_Whatley_, a small village 3 m. W. from Frome. The church is a small
Dec. building with a rather dim interior. The W. tower, like the
neighbouring church of Frome, carries a spire. There is a plain Norm.
doorway within the porch. A projecting chantry chapel on the S. has a
squint (note the accommodating bulge in the external wall), and
contains an altar tomb with recumbent effigy of Sir Oliver de
Servington (1350). Some of the bells are of pre-Reformation date.
Amongst the "rude forefathers of the hamlet" sleeps Dean Church, who
held the rectory for nineteen years before his promotion to the Deanery
of St Paul's. His grave is near the S. wall of the chancel. Observe the
small ecclesiastical window in the farn at the back of the church.
_Whatley House_ (rebuilt 1861) is on the site of an older mansion. In a
neighbouring field is preserved (_in situ_) a Roman pavement and the
ruins of a bath. In the grounds is a cross (restored) removed here from
Nunney.

_Wheathill_, 5 m. S.W. from Castle Cary. The small church has been much
restored.

_Whitchurch_, a village on the main road between Bristol and Shepton
Mallet (nearest station Brislington, 2 m.). It has a small (originally
cruciform) church, with a low central tower, which is worth inspecting.
The tower arches seem to be Trans. and the chancel has three very small
lancets. There is a Norm. font, and outside the S. doorway is a stoup.

_Whitelackington_, a village 1-1/2 m. E.N.E. of Ilminster. Its church
is a handsome structure. The tower and body of the building are Perp.,
but there is Dec. work in the transepts (where note piscinas). In the
N. transept is the tomb of Sir George Speke (d. 1637), whilst under a
window in the N. aisle are some small inscriptions on metal in memory
of Anthonie Poole and his wife Margerie (d. 1587, 1606). In the park of
_Whitelackington House_ there formerly stood a splendid chestnut tree,
under which Monmouth met a large assemblage of his supporters in 1680.

_Whitestaunton_, a village 3-1/2 m. N.W. from Chard. As the only
approach is by a rough country lane, the place is somewhat
inaccessible, but it possesses much antiquarian interest. The church
(Perp.) is poor, but contains (1) rood-loft stair and part of a small
Perp. screen; (2) early Norm, font; (3) piscina in sill of sanctuary
window; (4) some mediaeval tiles near altar, bearing arms of Montacute
(according to some, Ferrers) and De Staunton; (5) curious squint,
looking towards S. chapel (cp. Mark); (6) a few old bench ends; (7)
pewter communion plate; (8) stone screen dividing small N. chantry from
chancel; (9) in N. chapel, two tombs with armorial bearings, and a
brass (1582) to the Brett family, former lords of the manor. Two of the
bells are mediaeval. In the churchyard is the base and shaft of a
cross. Close by the church is a manor house, some portions of which
date from the 15th cent., but altered in the 16th cent. by John Brett,
whose initials are carved on the wainscoting of the dining-room; and in
the grounds are the exposed foundations of a Roman villa, discovered in
1882. Beneath an archway is a well, near which, when discovered, were
traces of a Roman shrine. Old workings, supposed to be Roman mines,
exist in the neighbourhood.

_Wick St Lawrence_, a parish 2 m. N. of Worle, on the flats near the
coast. It has a Perp. church (formerly a chapel of Congresbury), a
building of no interest, but containing a fine stone pulpit. Note, too,
(1) ancient tub font; (2) carved chairs, with crown and Tudor roses, in
sanctuary; (3) remains of inscription at N.E. angle of nave. The S.
porch seems once to have had a gallery. Near the church, in the
roadway, is a fragment of a fine cross, on an exceptionally high
pedestal.

WILLITON, a pleasant little town (with station on the Minehead line),
once the abode of Reginald Fitzurse, one of the murderers of Becket. It
is rather curious that of the four knights concerned in the murder
three were connected with Somerset, viz., Fitzurse, Brito (of Sampford
Brett), and Moreville. The church, which is said to have been a chantry
chapel founded by Robert Fitzurse, Reginald's brother, has been
completely rebuilt; its only antiquities are the W. doorway, the font
(1666), a piscina, and two brackets on the E. wall. There are the
remains of an old cross in the graveyard, and of a second near the
"Egremont Hotel." Past the church the road leads to _Orchard Wyndham_,
a fine manor house.

WINCANTON, a trim-looking little market town in the S.E. corner of the
county, with a station on the S. & D. line to Bournemouth, and
possessing a population of more than 2000. It consists chiefly of one
long street, which descends a steepish declivity into the vale of
Blackmoor. The river Cale, from which the town derives its name
(_Wynd-Caleton_) flows at its foot. The history of Wincanton is
miscellaneous but unromantic. In 1553 travellers gave the place a wide
berth on account of the plague. In the Great Rebellion a Parliamentary
garrison used the town as a base of operations against Sherborne
Castle. In the Revolution the Prince of Orange (William III.) had here
a brisk but successful skirmish with a squad of James's Dragoons. The
prince's lodgings are still pointed out in South Street. The town,
however, contains no antiquities. It has a modern town hall, and
virtually a modern church, for of the original fabric nothing now
remains but an unimpressive Dec. tower. The present building is a twin
structure. The authorities, apparently disgusted at their predecessors'
ideas of reconstruction, have lately replaced the N. aisle by a new
church of much better design and proportions. The N. porch of the new
building contains a curious mediaeval _bas-relief_, brought here for
preservation.

_Winford_, a parish 4 m. S.S.E. of Flax Bourton station. Its church
possesses a stately tower, but retains no other feature of interest.

_Winscombe_ (with a station) is a parish 2 m. N.W. of Axbridge. Its
church, which stands conspicuously on rising ground and commands a fine
view, has a graceful tower resembling that of Cheddar, with triple
belfry windows. Its chief defect is the shallowness of its buttresses.
Note the lily on the stone-work of the central window (cp. Banwell).
There is a good parapet along the aisles, and the rood-loft stair has
an external turret. Within note (1) wooden roof of N. aisle; (2)
ancient glass in E. windows of N. aisle and N. window of chancel; (3)
some carved seat-ends; (4) old stone coffin in churchyard.

_Winsford_, a village on the Exe, 8 m. N. of Dulverton Station. It is a
pleasant and picturesque little place, situated in a valley just where
the Exe as a tumbling brook emerges from the moors to settle down into
a sober stream; and is a favourite meet for the staghounds. The church
is a good-sized building, with a gaunt-looking tower, but is of no
particular interest. The font, is Norm., and so probably is the
round-headed S. doorway. The windows at the E. of the nave are
peculiar.

_Winsham_, a village on the Axe, near the Dorset border, 2-1/2 m.
N.N.E. of Chard Junction. Its church, which has been extensively
restored, possesses a good central tower (though there are no
transepts), with a turret at the S.W. angle. The chancel inclines S.
from the axis of the nave. The walls of the nave are older than the
present Perp. windows, and traces of an earlier window are still
visible on the S. wall. The chancel lights are partly E.E., partly
early Dec. Note (1) the small squint; (2)the oak screen with its loft;
(3) the monument (1639), on the E. wall of the chancel; (4) the old
copy of Foxe's "Book of Martyrs"; (5) the much-defaced painting (on
wood) of the Crucifixion (said to date from the 14th cent.), which is
now hung on the N. wall under the tower, but was formerly placed above
the screen, serving to complete the separation of the sanctuary from
the nave. The Crucifixion as a subject for representation on such
_tympana_ is said to be rare, the Last Judgment being the one usually
selected. Opposite the "George Inn" is the base of an old market cross
with a modern shaft.

_Witham_, or _Witham Friary_ a small village 6 m. S. from Frome, with a
station (G.W.R.). Its only present-day interest is its church. Its
popular designation preserves its early ecclesiastical associations,
though with some degree of "terminological inexactitude." It was a
settlement not of Friars but of Monks. Here was established the first
of the few Carthusian houses in England, which only number nine in all.
It was Henry II.'s gift to the church, in part payment for the murder
of Becket. Witham had as one of its earliest priors the celebrated
Burgundian, Hugh of Avalon, who afterwards became Bishop of Lincoln.
The existing church is perhaps a surviving portion of his work. It is a
plain vaulted building of severe simplicity with an apsidal E. end,
containing a good E.E. triplet. Opinions differ as to whether the
present structure was the monks' church, the choir of the monks'
church, or the church of the lay brothers (for in Carthusian houses the
clergy and the laymen worshipped in separate buildings). In recent
years the church has been extended one bay westward, and a belfry
added. Note (1) the curious recess in exterior S. wall of apse; (2)
double square piscina in chancel; (3) rood-loft stair; (4) Norm. font,
which was once built into the tower erected in 1832. There is also a
modern font, which was used before the former one was recovered. The
buttresses are copies of those constructed by St Hugh for the
chapter-house at Lincoln. The domestic buildings have disappeared; they
are supposed to have stood N. of the church. One curious relic of the
"common life" of the monks has escaped the hand of the destroyer. This
is the dovecot, on the other side of the road, now converted into a
village reading-room. The building is of unusual size; but the
existence of some of the pigeon-holes puts its original purpose beyond
doubt (cp. Hinton Charter-house).

_Withiel Florey_, a village 7 miles N.E. from Dulverton. The church is
a small Perp. building with a low W. tower, to which a partial casing
of slate scarcely adds additional beauty.

_Withycombe_, a village 2-1/2 m. S.E. of Dunster. It has an aisleless
church, which contains a few objects of interest: (1) a screen; (2) a
font with cable moulding; (3) two effigies, both of females (one with
curious turret-like ornaments at the head and foot); (4) a large stoup
on the L. hand of the S. door.

_Withypool_, a village on the Barle, 8 m. N.W. from Dulverton. It is
one of the lonely outposts of civilisation on Exmoor. Though
picturesquely situated itself, it is best known as a sort of
halting-place on the way to the still more romantic neighbourhood of
Simonsbath. The church is E.E., but not interesting. The local farmers
are said to enjoy four harvests in a year--turf, whortleberries, hay
and corn.

WIVELISCOMBE, a market town 6 m. N.W. of Wellington, with a station on
the G.W.R. branch to Barnstaple. Population, 1417. It is a dull and
uninteresting, but clean and comely little place. Of antiquities it has
none, except traces, to the S. of the church, of a bishop's palace,
built by John Drokensford in the 14th cent., some windows of which have
found their way into neighbouring houses. The church is a tasteless
building, erected in 1829, with a showy semi-Italian interior. It has
an odd-looking S. aisle, containing a somewhat dilapidated monument,
with recumbent effigies of Humphrey Wyndham and wife, 1622-70. In the
churchyard is a time-worn cross, with an almost defaced effigy (cp.
Fitzhead). In the main street is a modern town hall and market house.
The town lies pleasantly in the lap of the surrounding hills, which
furnish many a pleasant ramble. A mile from the station, on the way to
Milverton, is a British camp, and a Danish camp is said to have existed
on the site of a neighbouring mansion. _Waterrow_ is a hamlet a couple
of miles to the W. on the Bampton road, lying at the bottom of a
picturesque combe, through which flow the beginnings of the Tone.

_Woodspring Priory_ (formerly _Worspring_, and perhaps containing the
same element as _Worle_) is about 5 m. N. of Weston, and is best
reached from Kewstoke, either by the shore as far as Sand Point, or by
a lane that leaves (L.) the road to Worle. It was a priory of Austin
canons, who were established here in 1210 by William Courtenay, whose
mother was the daughter of Reginald Fitzurse, one of the murderers of
Thomas à Becker, whose death the foundation was originally meant to
expiate. The remains, now used as farm buildings, consist of a church,
a chantry, a court-room, and a barn. The church, dedicated to the
Trinity, St Mary and St Thomas the Martyr, is approached through a Dec.
arch (14th cent.), which leads to an outer court at the W. of the
building. On the W. wall, flanked by angle turrets, will be seen the
outline of a Perp. window, and three niches with nearly obliterated
figures. From this outer court an inner court is reached, having on the
N. of it the S. wall of the church (with two large windows), at right
angles to which the dormitories extended (the mark of the gable is
still visible on the wall). Beyond the E. wall of the court are
supposed to have been the chapter-house and the prior's residence. At
the E. of the nave of the church is the tower, which was originally
central, the chancel having been destroyed. It is 15th-cent. work, but
is believed to case an earlier 13th-cent. core. The vault has fan
tracery. N. of the church are the remains of the chantry (now a cider
cellar), originally founded by Robert Courtenay, father of William,
showing on the outside three Perp. windows and buttresses, and
containing the shrine of St Thomas of Canterbury, with a ruined piscina
on the pier of one of the pillars. S.E. of the church is the court-room
(now a cow-house), which is sometimes styled the refectory, but
erroneously, since there is no fireplace. It is assigned to the early
part of the 15th cent. The barn (14th cent.) has Dec. doorways, rounded
buttresses on either side of the main entrance, and remains of finials.

_Wookey_, a village 2 m. W. from Wells, with a station on the G.W.R.
Cheddar branch. The church--chiefly Perp., with a blend of E.E.--is
interesting. The tower stair turret carries a lofty spirelet. Note
within (1) E.E. columns in N. aisle; (2) squints, especially the one on
N., combined with piscina. On the S. side of the sanctuary is a small
Perp. chapel decorated with modern frescoes, containing a plain
altar-tomb to Thos. Clarke and wife, 1689. In the churchyard is the
base of a cross. Near the church is Mellifont Abbey, built on the site
of the old rectory, and ornamented with fragments of the original
building. The Court, a farm-house in the fields, was once a manorial
residence of the Bishops of Bath and Wells. It has an E.E. doorway.

_Wookey Hole_ is a cavern (1-1/2 m. away) which gives its name (said to
be a corruption of _ogof_, Celtic for "cavern") to the village. It is
the oldest known cave in Great Britain, and was once inhabited (legend
asserts) by an ancient witch. It may be reached either from Wookey
Station or, just as easily, from Wells. Proceed through the hamlet to
the large paper-mill and inquire at the farm opposite for a guide (fee,
1s. 6d.; 1s. each for two or more). A pathway runs up the L. bank of
the stream which feeds the paper-mill, and ends abruptly in a
precipitous wall of rock. The stream, which is the source of the Axe,
will be seen issuing from a large natural archway at the base of the
cliff. An orifice in the rock enables the visitor to descend "Hell's
Ladder" to the "witch's kitchen"--a spacious chamber which, when
illuminated by the primitive device of igniting the scattered contents
of an oil-can, will be seen to contain some large stalagmites, the
witch and her dog on guard; and by pursuing a further series of
corridors, entry is gained to the witch's "drawing-room" and "parlour."
The three caverns are all of considerable extent, and have a strong
resemblance to Gough's caves at Cheddar, but are without the pendant
stalactites so profusely displayed at the latter. The gallery is 500
ft. long, and ends in a miniature lake. Geologically the series of
caverns is of much interest, on account of the varied assortment of
bones of extinct cave animals once contained in them. Cartloads of
these bones are said to have been thrown on the land as manure.
Recently another collection of bones has been discovered in a hitherto
unsuspected chamber near the roof of the main series. The visitor to
Wookey Hole should extend his peregrinations to _Ebbor Rocks_, which
are close by and are worth a visit.

_Woolavington_, a village 4-1/2 m. N.E. of Bridgwater (nearest stat.
Cossington, 1 m.). The church, restored in 1882, retains little of
interest. There are piscinas in the chancel and in a small N. chapel,
and a small squint in the N. chancel pier. Note the carved stone (with
sacred monogram) on the interior face of the tower.

_Woolverton_, a village 4 m. N. from Frome. The church is a small,
aisleless building with a diminutive W. tower and spire. The S. porch
has a ribbed stone roof.

_Wootton Courtney_, a small village 4 m. W. from Dunster. It is a
somewhat sequestered little place on the fringe of Exmoor, but in
summer not without a quiet charm derived from the neighbouring woods
and its proximity to the hills. The church has a plain saddle-back
tower, partly Norm. (observe corbel table), and one or two other
features of interest. The piers of the arcade have some canopied niches
on their S. face. Note (1) square columnar stoup in porch; (2) angels
on rear arches of windows within, and devils on dripstone without; (3)
rood staircase; (4) blocked squint on N. The churchyard contains some
fine yew trees and the shaft of a cross. The neighbouring hamlet of
Tivington possesses a vaulted 15th-cent. chapel, with a priest's house
attached. A fine view of Dunkery and the vale of Porlock is obtained
from here.

_Wootton, North_, a village 2 m. N. of West Pennard (S. & D.). The
church has a low W. tower, possessing one pre-Reformation bell. The
porch contains a curious stoup; the font is Norm.

_Worle_, a village 2-1/2 m. E. of Weston-super-Mare. Its church (ded.
to St Martin) has the rather rare addition of a short spire above its
W. tower. The most notable features of the building are the Norm.
remains, viz., the S. door, the octagonal font, and the little window
(cut out of a single stone), which is inserted in the later porch. Note
also (1) the carved stone pulpit (once in a different position, for
there is a piscina behind it), (2) the "Miserere" seats (only those on
the N. are ancient, one of them has the initials P.R.S., explained as
those of Richard Sprynge, Prior of Woodspring and Vicar of Worle at the
end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th cents.), (3) piscina,
sedilia, and aumbry in the chancel.

_Worlebury Camp_. See _Weston-super-Mare_.

_Wraxall_, a parish 5 m. E. from Clevedon and 2 m. from Nailsea
Station. Its church has a tower, the appearance of which is spoilt by
the windows rising above the string-courses. The pinnacles are good,
and projecting above the parapets are niches for figures (_cp._
Brislington, Tickenham). The S. porch (E.E.) originally had a chamber
over it; the door leading to it still remains. In the interior observe
(1) the roof, (2) some screen-work, partly ancient and partly modern,
(3) on the N. side of the chancel a tomb with two effigies, believed to
be those of Sir E. and Lady Gorges. In the churchyard is a fine
15th-cent. cross. The view of the church, as it is approached from
Clevedon, is particularly pretty, the woods near it seeming to embower
it; whilst from its vicinity a fine prospect is obtainable.

_Wrington_, a large and compact village 10 m. S.W. of Bristol. A light
railway connects it with Yatton. In size and arrangement it is
practically a little town, and is surrounded by some very pretty
country. The glory of Wrington is its church, which possesses one of
the finest towers in Somerset. It is a stately and harmonious
composition, with long and graceful belfry windows, and bears a strong
family likeness to the towers of Evercreech and St Cuthbert's, Wells.
The church as a whole is worthy of its tower, though the chancel is, as
usual, low and undignified. Both inside and out the design is rich
without being florid, and the workmanship good. The beauty of the
interior is much enhanced by the insertion of "vaulting shafts" beneath
the corbels of both nave and aisles. It contains few curiosities. Note
(1) aumbry in N. wall of sanctuary, (2) richly carved font. Externally
should be observed (1) panelled W. door, (2) canopied niches in
buttresses at E. end, (3) sanctus bell-cot. John Locke, the
philosopher, was born here, as his mother was at the moment staying in
the village. A tablet once fixed to his actual birthplace is built into
the churchyard wall. There is also a tablet in the church to Hannah
More, who resided at _Barley Wood_, a large house on the Redhill road.

_Writhlington_, a small colliery village on a hill 1 m. E. of Radstock.
The church, rebuilt in 1874, lies in a valley at the bottom of a steep
lane, half a mile from the village. Near the church is an old manor
house, at which Cromwell is said to have stopped on his march into
Somerset.

_Wyke Champflower_ (or _Wyke Chapel_), a hamlet 1-1/2 m. W. of Bruton.
The little chapel, said to have been built in 1482, was rebuilt in
1623. It contains a stone pulpit, and the ceiling is ornamented with
nine escutcheons, including those of the Tudor sovereigns. There is an
old black-letter Bible of 1623.

_Yarlington_, a village 3 m. S.E. from Castle Cary. The church, which
has been much altered and enlarged, contains a finely carved font. In
the wall of the churchyard is an old stone coffin, found during the
restoration of the building.

_Yatton_, a large village (with a station), 12 m. S.W. of Bristol. The
first syllable is perhaps the same as the second part of _Symond's
Yat_. The place has an interesting church, with a central tower which
is rendered conspicuous by being surmounted by a truncated spire, and
by having its stair-case attached to a diagonal buttress (instead of
replacing it, as is usual). The plan of the church is cruciform, the
transepts and chancel being short, and the latter very low. The oldest
part is the base of the tower, which belongs to the E.E. or Dec.
period; and there is a very good Dec. window in the S. transept; the
remainder of the building is Perp. Externally, the most impressive
feature is the W. front, with turrets at the corners (as at Crewkerne),
a recessed and richly carved doorway, and above the window a
representation of the Father holding the crucified Son (cp. S. Brent).
The S. door has a groined and panelled porch, and the N. door an ogee
moulding. Within, the nave is lofty, with slender pilasters ascending
to the roof. In the N. transept is the alabaster tomb of Sir Richard
Newton (d. 1448) and his wife; and under foliated recesses a male and
female effigy (attributed to the 13th cent.). Attached to this transept
is a chapel which is noticeable for being loftier than the adjoining
chancel, and has a fine turret at its N.E. angle. It contains a
pillar-piscina, and the tomb of Sir John Newton (son of Sir Richard)
and his lady, above which is a relief of the Annunciation. S.E. of the
church is the Rectory, dating from the 15th cent., whilst on the N. are
some old alms-houses.

YEOVIL, a town of some importance on the river Yeo, in the S.E. corner
of the county, doing a considerable trade in the manufacture of leather
and kid gloves. Its population in 1901 was 9838. It lies chiefly on a
slope which shelves down towards the little stream from which it takes
its name. The G.W.R. and L. and S.W.R. have a joint station in the
town, and another G.W.R. station is at Pen Mill just outside. Yeovil
seems to have outgrown its original intentions and is still rapidly
increasing. The older streets have the usual congested appearance of a
small country town, but more spacious thoroughfares are now spreading
outwards in every direction. The chief glory of the place is its fine
church, remarkable alike for architecture and situation. It is a
cruciform Perp. building, said to date from 1376, with a severe-looking
W. tower. The interior is of great impressiveness owing to the size of
its windows and the loftiness of its arches. The most noteworthy
feature of the church is its 13th-cent. crypt, now used as a vestry. A
groined roof rises from a central pillar, and the entrance to the
communicating stairway is groined also. Otherwise the church, though
noble as a whole, is somewhat devoid of objects of interest. Note,
however (1) the fine roof, (2) old brass lectern with ungrammatical
inscription, (3) 16th-cent. brass on floor of chancel, (4) 15th-cent.
brass to an ecclesiastic. Yeovil contains few old houses, as it was
burnt out in the 15th cent., but in Middle Street two buildings deserve
attention: (_a_) an old chantry house, now transformed into the
"Castle" Inn, (_b_) almost immediately opposite, the "George," a good
specimen of an old half-timbered hostelry. Some alms-houses in Bond
Street, called Woborne's alms-houses, go back, as a foundation, to the
reign of Edward IV. (1476). A good view of the low lying alluvial plain
which stretches around the foot of Glastonbury Tor may be obtained by
following for a short distance the road to Mudford. But this is only
one of the many interesting walks in the neighbourhood: Yeovil is a
good centre for excursions, and Windmill and Summerhouse Hills should
both be climbed.

_Yeovilton_, a parish 2 m. E. of Ilchester. Its church retains but few
features of interest, but notice should be taken of (1) the remains of
the stoups in the N. porch and at the W. door; (2) the two piscinas
(that in the chancel has a quaint carving below it); (3) the bracket in
the S. wall of the nave, and the old corbels built into the walls of
the chancel; (4) the fragments of ancient glass in the W. and E.
windows, the former displaying the arms of Bishop Beckington, and the
latter having the letters R.S. and the figure of a swan, the initials
and rebus of Richard Swan (one of Bishop Beckington's executors), who
was rector here. There is also an incised slab to the memory of Sir
John Hunt of Speckington (d. 1626). One of the bells dates from 1435.

[Illustration: NINE SPRINGS, YEOVIL]



APPENDIX


Places of interest mentioned in the text, but not entered under
separate headings in the alphabetical list. The figures refer to
pages.

Alfoxden                156
Allerford               209
Barlynch Priory         122
Blackmoor Farm           75
Bower Farm              127
Brymore House            77
Cockercombe             213
Combwich                201
Creech Hill             130
Danesborough            214
Devil's Punch Bowl  80, 182
Dundon Beacon           107
Ebbor Rocks             283
Gaulden Farm            246
Goblin Combe             98
Gothelney Hall           83
Gurney Street Farm       78
Halsway                  56
Halswell House          146
Hanging Chapel          169
Hare Knap               156
Hautville's Quoit       224
Hestercombe             167
Higher Wadeford         106
Holwell Cavern           32
King Ina's Palace       205
Lamb's Lair         80, 149
Lytes Cary House         84
Malmesmead              199
Marshwood Farm           78
Mouncey Castle          122
Mynchin Buckland        127
Naish Priory            105
Parkfield Monument      117
Richmont Castle         149
Sedgemoor       18, 88, 273
Seven Wells Combe       213
Sexey's Hospital         68
Small Down               90
Stantonbury             225
Stoney Littleton        254
Sutton Court            234
Tarr Steps              122
Walton Castle           103
Wansdyke        11, 52, 129
Weary All Hill          145



INDEX OF PERSONS


A

Aethelm, Bp.
Aldhelm, Bp.
Alfred, King
Allen, Ralph
Alphege, Archbp.
Arthur, King
Asser, Bp.
Audley, Lord
Austen, Jane

B

Bacon, Roger
Bagehot, Walter
Barbara, Saint
Barlow, Bp.
Barnes, Bartholomew
Beaufort, Cardinal
Beckford, William
Beckington, Bp.
Bennett, Rev. W.J.
Bere, Abbot
Berkeley family
Berkley, Sir M.
Bird, Prior
Bisse, George
Blake, Robert
Blanchard, William
Botreaux, Sir W.
Bradney, Joel de
Bray, Sir R.
Brett, John
Bridport, Visct.
Brito (Brett)
Briewere, William de
Bubwith, Bp.
Buckingham, Duke of
Buckland, Walter
Burgess, Dean
Burnell, Bp.
Burne-Jones
Butler, Bp.
Byam, Rector
Bytton, Bp.

C

Cantlow, Prior
Carent, William
Carew, family
Ceawlin
Cenwealh
Chard, Col.
Chard, Prior
Charles I.
Charles II.
Charlotte, Queen
Chatham, Lord
Cheddar, Sir T. de
Choke, Sir R.
Church, Dean
Clarke, Thomas
Clarkes of Chipley
Cole, Richard
Coleridge, Hartley
Coleridge, S.T.
Coles, Humphrey
Colthurst, Edmund
Coryate, Thomas
Courtenay, William and Robert
Coutances, Bp. Geoffrey of
Cromwell, Oliver
Cromwell, Thomas
Cudworth, Ralph
Cuffe, Robert

D

Dampier, William
Danbery, Henry
Danbery, Sir Giles
Daniell, Samuel
David, St
De Courcy family
Decuman, St
De la Mere, Sir J.
Denham, Sir J.
Douay, Walter de
Dovell, Abbot
Drokensford, Bp.
Dubricius, St
Dummer, Sir J.
Dummer, Sir W.
Dunstan, St
Dyves, Sir Lewis

E

Edgar, King
Edmund Ironside, King
Edmund, King
Ela, Countess
Ethelgar, Archbp.
Eveleigh, J. de
Everard family
Evercy, Sir Peter d'

F

Fairfax, Sir T.
Farewell, J.
Feversham, Lord
Fielding, Henry
Fitz-James, Bp.
Fitz-Odo, Serlo
Fitz-Roger, Sir H.
Fitz-Roger, Simon
Fitzurse, Reginald
Fitzurse, Robert
Fitzwalter family,

G

Gainsborough, Thomas
Gates, Sir J.
Gorges, Sir E.
Goring, Lord
Gray, Robert
Grenville, Sir B.
Grobham, Nicholas
Gunthorpe, Dean
Guthrum,
Gyvernay, Sir G. and Sir R.

H

Hallam, Arthur
Hallam, Henry
Halswell, Sir Nicholas
Hammet, Sir B.
Harewell, Bp.
Harington, Baron
Hautville, Sir J.
Henry VII.
Henry of Blois
Herlewinus, Abbot
Hertford, Marquis of
Hext, Sir R.
Hine, Henry
Hodges family
Hood, Viscount
Hooper, Bp.
Hopton, Sir R.
Horne, Bp.
Horner, Sir G.
Hubba
Hugh of Avalon
Hungerford family
Hunt, Sir J.
Husee, Treasurer

I

Ina, King
Irving, Sir H.

J

Jeffreys, Judge
Jennings, Robert
Jennings, Sarah
Joceline, Bp.
Jones, Inigo
Joseph of Arimathea

K

Kemble, Rev. C.
Ken, Bp.
Keyne, St
King, Bp. Oliver
Kinglake, A.W.
Kinglake, W.
Kingsmill, Sir F.
Kirke, Col.
Knight, Bp.

L

Lake, Bp.
Landor, W.S.
Langton, Bp.
Lawrence Sir T.
Leversedge family
Lightfoot P.
Locke, John
Lovel, R.
Luttrell family

M

Magee, Archbp.
Mallet family
Marchia, Bp. de
Marlborough, Duke of
Martok, John
Matilda, Queen
Maurice, Prince
Merriet family
Misiers, Louis de
Mohun, William de
Monington, Abbot
Monmouth, Duke of
Montague, Bp.
Monteagle, Lord
More, Hannah
Mowbray, Robert de

N

Nash, Richard
Nelson, Viscount
Nelson, Rev. Earl
Newton, Sir J.
Newton, Sir R.
Norris, Edwin

O

Odda, Earl
Oldmixon, John
Orange, Prince of
Osric

P

Palmer, John
Parry, Sir J.
Patrick, St
Penruddock, Col.
Percival, R.
Phelips family
Poole, Anthony
Poole, Thomas
Popham, Chief-Justice
Portman family
Poulett (Powlett)
Prowse, William and Ann
Prynne, William
Pym, John

Q

Queckett, J.T.
Quin, James

R

Raleigh, Sir W.
Raleigh family
Ralph, Bp.
Reginald, Bp.
Robert, Bp.
Robert of Normandy
Rodney family

S

Savaric, Bp.
Selwood, Abbot
Servington, Sir O. de
Sexey, Hugh
Shaa, Mrs
Sherborne, Prior
Sheridan, R.B.
Smith, Sydney
Sodbury, Abbot
Somerset, Protector
Southey, Robert
Speke family
Sprynge, Richard
Staling, Nicholas
Stawel (Stawell) family
Stephen, King
St Maur, John
Stone, John
Strode family
Sugar, Dean
Swan, Richard
Sydenham family

T

Tennyson, Lord
Thackeray, W.M.
Thomas à Becket
Thurstan, Abbot
Toplady, A.M.
Trevelyan, John
Turberville, Bp.

V

Vernais, De
Verney, Sir J.
Verney, Sir R.
Villula, Bp. John de

W

Wadham family
Wagstaff, Sir J.
Wake family
Waller, Lady
Waller, Sir W.
Walshe family
Walrond, Humfrey
Warbeck, Perkin
Warr, Lord de La
Warre family
Wellington, Duke of
Whiting, Abbot
William of Gloucester
Winter family
Wolfe, General
Wolsey, Cardinal
Wood (father and son)
Wordsworth, W.
Worman, Simon
Wulfric, St
Wyndham (Windham) family

Y

Young, Thomas





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