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Title: A History of Art for Beginners and Students - Painting, Sculpture, Architecture
Author: Waters, Clara Erskine Clement, 1834-1916
Language: English
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[Illustration: FIG. 58.--THE VENUS OF MILO. (_See page 87._)]



A

HISTORY OF ART

FOR

BEGINNERS AND STUDENTS

PAINTING--SCULPTURE--ARCHITECTURE

WITH

_COMPLETE INDEXES AND NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS_

BY

CLARA ERSKINE CLEMENT

AUTHOR OF "HANDBOOK OF LEGENDARY AND MYTHOLOGICAL ART," "PAINTERS,
SCULPTORS, ENGRAVERS, ARCHITECTS AND THEIR WORKS," "ARTISTS OF THE
NINETEENTH CENTURY," ETC.

NEW YORK

FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY MDCCCXCI

COPYRIGHT, 1887,

BY FREDERICK A. STOKES,

SUCCESSOR TO WHITE, STOKES, & ALLEN.



CONTENTS.


   CHAPTER I.
                                                                    PAGE

   ANCIENT SCULPTURE:

   EGYPT,                                                              1

   ASSYRIA,                                                           10


   CHAPTER II.

   GREEK SCULPTURE,                                                   18


   CHAPTER III.

   ANCIENT ITALIAN SCULPTURE,                                         82


   CHAPTER IV.

   MEDIÆVAL SCULPTURE, FROM THE FIFTH TO THE FIFTEENTH
   CENTURY,                                                          105


   CHAPTER V.

   ITALIAN SCULPTURE IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY,                       136


   CHAPTER VI.

   SCULPTURE IN GERMANY, FRANCE, ENGLAND, AND SPAIN,
   FROM 1450 TO 1550,                                                160


   CHAPTER VII.

   ITALIAN SCULPTURE IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY--CELLINI,
   MICHAEL ANGELO, AND OTHERS,                                       181


   CHAPTER VIII.

   EUROPEAN SCULPTURE FROM MICHAEL ANGELO TO CANOVA,                 213


   CHAPTER IX.

   CANOVA, THORWALDSEN, AND OTHER RECENT SCULPTORS,                  235



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


                                                                    PAGE

   Venus of Milo,                                         _Frontispiece_

   Statue of Cephren in the Museum at Cairo,                           3

   Various Kinds of Dogs,                                              5

   Androsphinx,                                                        6

   Kriosphinx,                                                         6

   The Great Sphinx,                                                   7

   Hieracosphinx,                                                      8

   The Colossi at Thebes,                                              9

   Polishing a Colossal Statue,                                       10

   Mode of Transporting a Colossus from the Quarries (from a
    lithographic Drawing),                                            11

   Statue of Sardanapalus I. (from Nimrud),                           12

   Lion-Hunt (from Nimrud),                                           13

   Wounded Lion Biting a Chariot-wheel,                               15

   Arm-chair or Throne (Khorsabad),                                   16

   Mode of Drawing the Bow (Koyunjik),                                17

   Lion Devouring Deer,                                               22

   Heracles, Triton, and Nereids,                                     23

   Heracles and the Cecrops,                                          23

   Actæon and his Dogs,                                               24

   From the Harpy Monument, London,                                   25

   Figures from the Pediment of the Temple of Minerva, at Ægina,      27

   Archaistic Artemis at Naples,                                      28

   The Discobolus (Myron),                                            30

   Athenian Coins with the Minerva Promachos,                         34

   Coin of Elis with the Olympian Zeus,                               36

   Bust of Jupiter found at Otricoli,                                 37

   Torso of a Statue of Theseus (?),                                  38

   From the Frieze of the Parthenon,                                  43

   The Five Central Figures,                                          44

   Youths Preparing to join the Cavalcade,                            45

   Horsemen Starting,                                                 46

   Procession of Cavalry,                                             46

   Procession of Chariots,                                            47

   Train of Musicians and Youths,                                     47

   Cows for Sacrifice,                                                48

   Train of Noble Maidens,                                            48

   Head of Asclepius (in the British Museum),                         50

   A Wounded Amazon (Cresilas),                                       52

   Statue of Pericles (Cresilas),                                     52

   Eirene and the Young Plutus (Cephisodotus),                        56

   Portrait of Mausolus,                                              57

   From the Frieze of the Mausoleum,                                  58

   The Eros of Centocelle,                                            60

   Niobe and her Youngest Daughter,                                   62

   Brother and Sister,                                                63

   The Eldest Daughter,                                               64

   A Niobid,                                                          65

   Ganymede (after Leochares),                                        66

   Monument of Lysicrates (Athens),                                   67

   Bacchus and Lion (from the Lysicrates Monument),                   68

   The Apoxyomenos of Lysippus,                                       69

   The Laocoon Group,                                                 75

   The Farnese Bull,                                                  77

   Gallic Warrior (Venice),                                           78

   The Dying Gaul,                                                    79

   Boy and Goose,                                                     80

   Spinario,                                                          81

   Venus de' Medici,                                                  86

   The Farnesian Hercules,                                            89

   The Apollo Belvedere,                                              90

   Head of Apollo Belvedere,                                          91

   The Steinhäuser Head,                                              91

   The Stroganoff Apollo,                                             92

   _Diane à la Biche_,                                                95

   Athena of the Capitol,                                             96

   Triumphal Procession from Arch of Titus,                           97

   From the Reliefs of Trajan's Column,                               99

   Portrait of Sophocles,                                            101

   Statue of Augustus,                                               102

   Agrippina the Elder,                                              103

   Statue of St. Peter,                                              106

   From the Cathedra of Maximianus,                                  109

   Diptych (Zurich),                                                 110

   From the Façade of Chartres Cathedral,                            113

   From the North Transept of Rheims Cathedral,                      118

   From the West Façade of Strasburg Cathedral,                      120

   Duke Robert of Normandy,                                          121

   Ivory Relief (Hunting Scene),                                     124

   Relief by Nicola Pisano (Lucca),                                  128

   Relief from the Pulpit at Pisa (Nicola Pisano),                   129

   Campo Santo of Pisa (Giovanni Pisano),                            132

   Relief by Jacopo della Quercia (Bologna),                         138

   From the Eastern Gates (showing compartments 6, 8, and 10),       141

   The Annunciation (Donatello),                                     143

   Statue of St. George (Donatello),                                 144

   Dancing Boys (Luca della Robbia),                                 147

   Boy with Dolphin (Verocchio),                                     149

   Statue of Colleoni (Verocchio),                                   150

   Terra-cottas from the Ospedale Grande (Milan),                    156

   Count Eberhard von Grumbach (Rimpar),                             169

   Justice,                                                          170

   The Three Wise Virgins,                                           170

   Tomb of St. Sebald (Nuremberg),                                   172

   Peter Vischer's Statue,                                           173

   St. Sebald and the Burning Icicles (Vischer),                     174

   Peter (Vischer),                                                  175

   John (Vischer),                                                   175

   Man and Geese (Labenwolf),                                        176

   Pharisee, Levite (Rustici),                                       183

   Bacchus (Jacopo Sansovino),                                       185

   Perseus (Benvenuto Cellini),                                      191

   Michael Angelo's Angel (Bologna),                                 197

   Pietà (Michael Angelo),                                           199

   Michael Angelo's David,                                           201

   Giuliano de' Medici (Michael Angelo),                             205

   Statue of Moses (Michael Angelo),                                 207

   Mercury (Giovanni da Bologna),                                    215

   Relief by Berruguete (Valladolid),                                217

   Rape of Proserpine (Bernini),                                     225

   Caryatide (Quellinus),                                            231

   Heads of Dying Warriors (Schlüter),                               232

   The Great Elector (Schlüter),                                     233

   The Three Graces (Canova),                                        241

   Hebe (Canova),                                                    246

   Ariadne and the Panther (Dannecker),                              249

   Jason (Thorwaldsen),                                              256

   Ganymede and the Eagle (Thorwaldsen),                             260

   The Three Graces (Thorwaldsen),                                   261

   Statue of Queen Louise (Rauch),                                   270

   Nymph (by Bosio),                                                 273



SCULPTURE.



CHAPTER I.

ANCIENT SCULPTURE.

EGYPT.


No one can speak with exactness as to the time when sculpture was first
practised by the Egyptians; we only know that it was a very long time
ago. But we do know that in the time of the twelfth dynasty, which dates
from 2466 B.C., sculpture had reached a stage of excellence such as
could only have resulted from the experience of many years of training
and practice in this art.

In the Egyptian collection of the Louvre, at Paris, there is the
memorial stone of an old Egyptian sculptor which has an inscription that
reads as if he had written it himself; this was the way by which
Egyptians made these inscriptions sound as if the dead themselves spoke
to those who were still alive. This sculptor's name was Martisen, and he
lived about forty-four centuries ago. Brugsch-Bey, a very learned writer
on Egypt, says: "He calls himself 'a master among those who understand
art, and a plastic artist,' who 'was a wise artist in his art.' He
relates in succession his knowledge in the making of statues, in every
position, according to prescribed use and measure; and brings forward,
as his particular invention, an etching with colors, if I have rightly
understood the expression, 'which can neither be injured by fire nor
washed off by water; 'and, as a further explanation of this, states that
'no man has arisen who has been able to do this except himself alone and
the eldest son of his race, whom God's will has created. He has arisen
able to do this, and the exercise of his hand has been admired in
masterly works in all sorts of precious stones, from gold and silver to
ivory and ebony.'"

There is no doubt but that Martisen and his son, who was named
Usurtasen, were sculptors at the time when Egyptian art reached its
highest point.

The earliest works of Egyptian sculpture are the bas-reliefs found in
the chambers of the tombs; the walls are almost covered with them, and
they are painted with colors which are still bright and fresh, though
more than four thousand years have passed since they were put on. The
subjects of these reliefs are taken from the life of the persons buried
in the tombs, and even their possessions and occupations are thus
represented. These sculptures were made by tracing the designs on the
stone and then cutting it away between the figures. The mode of
arrangement in these reliefs does not satisfy our ideas of what it
should be. It seems as if the artists had no plan of their work in their
minds--no aim as to what the effect should be when finished. On the
contrary, the reliefs impress us as if the sculptors made one figure,
and then added another and another in such a way as to represent the
fact they wished to tell without any attention to the beauty of the
whole; and so it does not seem as if there was any unity in them, but as
if the large bas-reliefs were made up of disjointed parts which in one
sense really have no relation to each other.

The same is true of the Egyptian statues. It appears as if the different
parts might have been made separately or even by different sculptors,
and then joined together. All this is because the Egyptians seemed to
think of an object in parts and not as a whole. Then, too, the position
of the early statues was so unnatural and awkward. The arms were placed
close to the sides of the body, and there was no separation between the
legs; and though in some of their articles of furniture, their pottery,
and in the details of their architecture, the Egyptians made a great
advance, they did not equally improve in their sculpture.

One great hindrance to the progress of Egyptian sculpture was the fact
that figures were never represented in action. They were not figures
moving and living in stone; they were like figures petrified and fixed:
they were _statues_, and no one can forget this for a moment while
looking at them. I can learn of but one Egyptian figure sculptured as if
in action; this is a quoit-thrower in the Tombs of the Kings. A sitting
statue, whether of a man or a woman, had the hands rested on the knees
or held across the breast (Fig. 1).

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--STATUE OF CEPHREN IN THE MUSEUM AT CAIRO.]

There were very few groups in Egyptian sculpture, and these seldom had
more than two figures. It was customary to represent a husband and wife
sitting on the same chair holding each other's hands, or having their
arms around one another's waists or shoulders. Sometimes the principal
figure is of large size, and the inferior persons are made much smaller
and placed at the sides of the larger figure. In short, very few
attitudes are represented in Egyptian sculpture, and it almost seems as
if there must have been fixed rules for a certain limited number of
positions after which all sculptured figures were made.

In spite of this sameness and stiffness, Egyptian sculpture is
remarkable, and it is probable that if they had not been fettered by
prejudices and rules the Egyptians would have excelled both in sculpture
and painting.

The sides of obelisks and, more especially, the walls of temples were
covered with sculptures which gave the history of kings--of their wars
and conquests, and of their great works in their kingdoms. The
sculptures upon the temple walls could be estimated by square rods, or
even acres, better than by lesser measures. Their amount and the labor
it required to make them are simply marvellous.

I will describe the subjects depicted upon one inner wall in the
palace-temple of Medemet Haboo, and will quote from Wilkinson's "Egypt
and Thebes." On the west wall "the Egyptian princes and generals conduct
the 'captive chiefs' into the presence of the king. He is seated at the
back of his car, and the spirited horses are held by his attendants on
foot. Large heaps of hands are placed before him, which an officer
counts, one by one, as the other notes down their number on a scroll;
each heap containing three thousand, and the total indicating the
returns of the enemy's slain. The number of captives, reckoned one
thousand in each line, is also mentioned in the hieroglyphics above,
where the name of the Rebo points out the nation against whom this war
was carried on. Their flowing dresses, striped horizontally with blue or
green bands on a white ground, and their long hair and aquiline noses
give them the character of an Eastern nation in the vicinity of Assyria
and Persia, as their name reminds us of the Rhibii of Ptolemy, whom he
places near the Caspian." ...

The suite of this historical subject continues on the south wall. The
king, returning victorious to Egypt, proceeds slowly in his car,
conducting in triumph the prisoners he has made, who walk beside and
before it, three others being bound to the axle. Two of his sons attend
as fan-bearers, and the several regiments of Egyptian infantry, with a
corps of their allies, under the command of these princes, marching in
regular step and in the close array of disciplined troops, accompany
their king. He arrives at Thebes, and presents his captives to Amen-Ra
and Mut, the deities of the city, who compliment him, as usual, on the
victory he has gained, and the overthrow of the enemy he has "trampled
beneath his feet."

[Illustration: FIG. 2--VARIOUS KINDS OF DOGS.]

This description of these bas-reliefs, which are usually painted, will
give an idea of the great works of Egyptian sculptors.

The representation of the animals in these sculptures is as successful
as any part of them. There being no intellectual expression required,
they are more pleasing than the human beings, with their set, unchanging
features and expression. The Egyptians had several breeds of dogs, and
the picture here (Fig. 2) is made up from the dogs found in the
sculptures--No. 1, hound; 2, mastiff; 3, turnspit; 4, 5, fox-dogs; 6, 7,
greyhounds.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--ANDROSPHINX.]

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--KRIOSPHINX.]

One of the figures often repeated by the sculptors of Egypt was the
Sphinx. The colossal and most famous one (Fig. 5) is not far from the
great pyramid, and has the form of a recumbent lion with a human head.
It is one hundred and seventy-two feet long, and is _the_ Sphinx of the
world; but there were great numbers of these strange figures in
Egypt--in some cases there were avenues leading to the temples bordered
by them on each side. The form of the Sphinx was intended to express
some spiritual thought to the Egyptians, and the stories about it are
very interesting. Its form certainly denotes the union of physical and
mental power. The form of which we have spoken as being that of the
great Sphinx is called the _androsphinx_ (Fig. 3). Another has the body
of the lion with the head of the ram, and is called the _kriosphinx_
(Fig. 4); still another has the same body and the head of a hawk; this
is called the _hieracosphinx_ (Fig. 6). They all typified the king,
without doubt, and it is probable that the various heads were so given
to show respect for the different gods who were represented with the
heads of these creatures. Sometimes the androsphinx has human hands in
place of the lion's paws. The winged Sphinx has been found in Egypt, but
it is rare.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--THE GREAT SPHINX.]

The colossal statues of Egypt are very wonderful on account of their
vast weight and size. The most famous are two which stand on the west
bank of the Nile at Thebes (Fig. 7). Each of these colossi is made from
a single block of stone such as is not found within several days'
journey of the place where they stand. They are forty-seven feet high,
and contain eleven thousand five hundred cubic feet each. But a third is
still larger; it represents the King Rameses II., and, when whole, was
of a single stone, and weighed eight hundred and eighty-seven tons. It
was brought from Assouan to Thebes, a distance of one hundred and
thirty-eight miles. It is wonderful to think of moving such a vast
weight over such a distance, and one would naturally wish to know also
how the sculptors could work on such a statue. The plate here given
(Fig. 8) shows the process of polishing a statue, and the following one
(Fig. 9) illustrates the mode of moving one when finished. These
representations are found in tombs and grottoes, and tell us plainly
just what we wish to know about these things.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--HIERACOSPHINX.]

I have now pointed out the marked peculiarities of Egyptian sculpture,
and before leaving the subject will call your attention to the fact that
in most cases it was used in connection with and almost as a part of
Egyptian architecture. In the tombs the bas-reliefs are for the
decoration of the walls and to finish the work of the architect, while
at the same time they are an interesting feature of the art of the
nation and period. In the temple palaces this is also true--though the
reliefs serve the purpose of telling the history of the kings; they are,
as it were, framed into and make a part of the architectural effect. The
obelisks, colossal figures and Sphinxes were placed before the grand
buildings, and made a part of them architecturally. In general terms we
may say that sculpture never became an independent art in Egypt, but was
essentially wedded to architecture; and this fact largely accounts for
that other truth that sculpture never reached the perfection in Egypt
that it promised, or the excellence that would have seemed to be the
natural result of its earliest attainments.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.--THE COLOSSI AT THEBES.]

[Illustration: FIG. 8--POLISHING A COLOSSAL STATUE.]


ASSYRIA.

The works of sculpture in Assyria consisted of statues, bas-reliefs,
statuettes in clay, carvings in ivory, metal castings, and some smaller
works, such as articles for jewelry, made in minute imitation of larger
works in sculpture.

[Illustration: FIG. 9.--MODE OF TRANSPORTING A COLOSSUS FROM THE
QUARRIES. _From a Lithographic Drawing._

In a Grotto at Dayr E'Shake, near El Bersheh.

1. The statue bound upon a sledge with ropes. It is of a private
individual, not of a king, or a deity.

2. Man probably beating time with his hands, and giving out the verse of
a song, to which the men responded; though 3 appears as if about to
throw something which 2 is preparing to catch, or striking crotala.

4. Pouring a liquid, perhaps grease, from a vase.

5. Egyptian soldiers, carrying boughs.

6, 7, 8, 9. Men, probably captives and convicts, dragging the statue.

10. Men carrying water, or grease.

11. Some implements.

12. Taskmasters.

13, 14, 15, 16. Reliefs of men.]

The statues found in Assyria are by no means beautiful, according to our
idea of beauty. They are as set and stiff in design as the Egyptian
works of this sort, and they have suffered so much injury from the
weather and from violence that we cannot judge of the manner in which
they were originally finished.

[Illustration: FIG. 10.--STATUE OF SARDANAPALUS I.
_From Nimrud._]

The number of Assyrian statues that have been found is small; this one
given here (Fig. 10), of Sardanapalus I., is in the best state of
preservation of any of them. It is smaller than life size, being about
forty-two inches high. The statuettes of the Assyrians are less artistic
than the statues. They are made from a clay which turned red in baking,
and are colored so as to resemble Greek pottery. They are almost always
of a grotesque appearance, and usually represent gods or genii. They
also combine human and animal forms in a less noble and artistic way
than is done in the Egyptian representation of the Sphinx. There are
also small figures of animals in terra-cotta, principally dogs and
ducks. But the large and small statues of the Assyrians are their most
unimportant works in sculpture. It is in their bas-reliefs that their
greatest excellence is seen, and in them alone their progress in art can
be traced. This sort of sculpture seems to have been used by the
Assyrians just as painting was used in Italy after the Renaissance. It
was their mode of expressing everything. Through it they gave expression
to their religious feeling; they told the history of their nation, and
glorified their kings; they represented the domestic scenes which now
make the subjects of _genre_ pictures; and even imitated vegetables and
fruits, as well as to reproduce landscapes and architecture in these
pictures cut from stone. In truth, it is chiefly from the bas-reliefs
that we learn the history of Assyria, and in this view their sculptures
are even more important than when they are considered merely from an
artistic view.

[Illustration: FIG. 11.--LION-HUNT. _From Nimrud._]

The most ancient palaces at Nimrud furnish the earliest examples of
bas-relief. These date at about the end of the tenth century B.C. One
striking peculiarity in the design is that all the figures, both men and
animals, are given in exact profile. In spite of this sameness of
position they have much spirit and action. The picture of a lion-hunt
given here (Fig. 11) is one of the very best of these reliefs, and you
will notice that the animal forms are much superior to those of the
human beings. This is true of all Assyrian art in all its stages. In
these oldest bas-reliefs there are no backgrounds; but later on these
are added, and mountains, hills, streams, trees, and wild animals are
all introduced as details of the general design. The highest state of
this art was reached about 650 B.C. At this period the various forms
seem to be more varied and less arranged according to some rule. The
human faces and figures are more delicately finished, and there is an
air of freedom and a spirit in the handling of the subjects that is far
better than that of any other time. The plants and trees are far more
beautiful than before.

The figures of animals, too, are full of life and action in this period.
I shall only give one illustration, and shall choose the head of a lion,
probably the best specimen of animal drawing which is yet known in
Assyrian art. It represents the head of a wounded lion, who, in his
agony, rushes upon a chariot and seizes the wheel with his teeth. The
drawing of this head, as a portrayal of agony and fierceness, compares
favorably with anything of the same kind belonging to any age of art,
either classic or modern (Fig. 12).

There is a question which has not yet been decided as to the amount of
color used on the Assyrian bas-reliefs. From the traces of color
remaining on those that are found in the excavations, and from what we
know of the use of colors on the buildings to which the bas-reliefs
belonged, we may be sure that colors were used on them; but to what
extent cannot be told. It may have been applied with the freedom of the
Egyptians, or it may have been sparingly used, as was the manner of the
ancient Greeks. The colors that have been found in the ruins of Assyria
are white, black, red and blue.

Next to the sculpture, the metal work of the Assyrians was the most
important of their arts. This work was done in three ways: I. Whole
figures or parts of figures cast in a solid shape. II. Castings of low
bas-reliefs. III. Embossed designs made chiefly with the hammer, but
finished with the graver. In the solid castings there are only animal
forms, and lions are far more numerous than any other creature. Many of
them have a ring fastened to the back, which indicates that they were
used for weights. These castings are all small and their form good; but
we have no reason to think that the Assyrians could make large metal
castings.

[Illustration: FIG. 12.--WOUNDED LION BITING A CHARIOT-WHEEL. _From the
North Palace, Koyunjik._]

[Illustration: FIG. 13.--ARM-CHAIR OR THRONE.
_Khorsabad._]

The castings in relief were used to ornament thrones, furniture, and
perhaps chariots. They were fastened in their places by means of small
nails. They had no great merit. The embossed or hammered work, on the
contrary, is artistic and very curious. Large numbers of embossed bowls
and dishes have been found, and this work was used for the end of
sword-sheaths, the sides of chairs and stools, and various other
ornamental purposes. It is probable that the main part of the tables,
chairs, and so on were of wood, with the ornaments in embossed metals.
All this shows the Assyrians to have been an artistic people, and to
have reached an interesting stage in their arts, though their works are
coarse and imperfect when judged by Greek standards or by our own idea
of what is beautiful. If we had the space to consider all the various
designs of the bas-reliefs in detail, you would learn from them a great
many interesting facts concerning the domestic life of this ancient and
interesting people. From them we can learn all about the costumes worn
by the king and those of lesser rank; can see how their wars were
carried on, and what their chariots, weapons, and equipments were.
Their games, amusements, musical instruments, agricultural pursuits,
food, and, in short, everything connected with their daily life is
plainly shown in these sculptures, and, as I have said before, the whole
history of Assyria is better studied from them than from any other one
source. For this reason their great value cannot be over-estimated (Fig.
13).

Other very ancient nations had sculptors, and a few remains of their
arts still exist. This is true of the Medes, Babylonians, and Persians;
but the general features of their arts resembled those of the Assyrians,
though they were less advanced than that nation, and have left nothing
as interesting as the Egyptian and Assyrian remains which we have
considered. I shall therefore leave them and pass to the sculpture of
Greece.

[Illustration: FIG. 14.--MODE OF DRAWING THE BOW. _Koyunjik._]



CHAPTER II.

GREEK SCULPTURE.


We have seen that the Egyptians and Assyrians were skilful in sculpture,
but at the same time their works have not moved us as we wish to be
moved by art; there is always something beyond them to be desired, and
it remained for the Greeks to attain to that perfection in sculpture
which satisfies all our nature and fills our highest conceptions of
beauty and grace. In truth, in Greece alone has this perfection in
plastic art existed, and since the time of its highest excellence there
no other nation has equalled the examples of Greek sculpture which still
exist, though we have reason to believe that its finest works have
perished, and that those remaining are of the second grade.

There are many reasons for the high artistic attainments of the Greeks,
and a discussion or even a simple statement of them would require an
essay far too learned and lengthy for the scope of this book; but I will
speak of one truth that had great influence and went far to perfect
Greek art--that is, the unbounded love of beauty, which was an essential
part of the Greek nature. To the Greek, in fact, beauty and good had the
same meaning--_beauty was good_, and the good must be beautiful.

Sculpture deals almost exclusively with the form of man, and the other
features in it have some relation to the human element of the design;
and it would have been impossible for a true Greek to represent the
human form otherwise than beautiful. A writer on this point says: "The
chief aim of the enlightened Greek, his highest ambition and his
greatest joy, was to be a _man_ in the fullest sense of the word--man in
the most complete development of his bodily strength and beauty, in the
active exercise of the keenest senses, in the greatest because tempered
enjoyment of sensual pleasure, in the free and joyous play of an
intellect strong by nature, graced and guided by the most exquisite
taste, and enlightened by the sublimest philosophy." Thus, beauty was so
important to the Greek that every parent prayed that his children might
have this gift, and the names of beautiful persons were engraved upon
pillars set where all could read them; and at times there were
competitions for the prize of beauty.

The religion of the Greek, too, taught that the body was the beautiful
and godlike temple of his soul; and the truth that human beings have
something in common with a higher power than their own gave him a great
respect for humanity, and, in truth, he felt that if he could escape
death he should be content and almost, if not quite, a god. For we must
remember that the gods of the Greek were not all-wise, all-powerful, and
all-good, as we believe our God to be. If you read their mythology you
will find that with the power of the god much imperfection and weakness
were mingled. They did not believe that Zeus had been the greatest god
from the beginning, but that there was a time when he had no power. He
was not omniscient nor omnipresent, and was himself subject to the
decrees of Fate, as when he could not save his loved Sarpedon from
death. Not knowing all things, even the gods are sometimes represented
as depending upon mortals for information, and all these religious views
tended to make the human form far more noble to the Greek than it can be
to the Christian, with his different views of the relations of God and
man.

Greek sculpture existed in very early days, and we have vague accounts
of a person called DÆDALUS, who seems to have been a wood-carver. Many
cities claimed to have been his birthplace, and no one can give any
clear account of this ancient artist. He is called the inventor of the
axe, saw, gimlet, plummet-line, and a kind of fish-glue or isinglass. He
is also said to have been the first sculptor who separated the arms from
the bodies of his statues, or made the feet to step out; he also opened
their eyes, and there is a legend that the statues of Dædalus were so
full of life that they were chained lest they should run away.

We call the time to which Dædalus belonged the prehistoric period, and
his works and those of other artists of his day have all perished. Two
very ancient specimens of sculpture remain--the Lion Gate of Mycenæ and
the Niobe of Mount Sipylus; but as their origin is not known, and they
may not be the work of Greek artists, it is best for us to pass on to
about 700 B.C., when the records of individual artists begin.

Among the earliest of these was DIBUTADES, of whom Pliny said that he
was the first who made likenesses in clay. This author also adds that
Dibutades first mixed red earth with clay, and made the masks which were
fastened to the end of the lowest hollow tiles on the roofs of temples.
Pliny relates the following story of the making of the first portrait in
bas-relief.

Dibutades lived in Sicyon, and had a daughter called sometimes Kora, and
again Callirhoe. She could not aid her father very much in his work as a
sculptor, but she went each day to the flower-market and brought home
flowers, which gave a very gay and cheerful air to her father's little
shop. Kora was very beautiful, and many young Greeks visited her father
for the sake of seeing the daughter. At length one of these youths asked
Dibutades to take him as an apprentice; and when this request was
granted the young man made one of the family of the sculptor. Their
life was one of simple content. The young man could play upon the reed,
and his education fitted him to be the instructor of Kora. After a time,
for some reason that Pliny does not mention, it was best for the youth
to go away from the artist's home, and he then asked Kora if she would
be his wife. She consented, and vows of betrothal were exchanged, while
they were sad at the thought of parting.

The last evening of his stay, as they sat together, Kora seized a coal
from the brazier, and traced upon the wall the outline of the face that
was so dear to her; and she did this so correctly that when her father
saw it he knew instantly from what face it had been drawn. Then he
wished to do his part, for he also loved the young man. So he brought
his clay and filled in the outline which Kora had drawn, and so went on
to model the first portrait in bas-relief that was ever made. Thus did
this great art grow out of the love of this beautiful maiden of Sicyon,
about twenty-five hundred years ago.

After this beginning Dibutades went on to perfect his art. He made
medallions and busts, and decorated the beautiful Grecian structures
with his work, and work in bas-relief became the most beautiful
ornamentation of the splendid temples and theatres of Greece. He also
founded a school for modelling at Sicyon, and became so famous an artist
that several Greek cities claim the honor of having been his birthplace.

The bas-relief made from Kora's outline was preserved in the Nymphæum at
Corinth for almost two hundred years, but was then destroyed by fire.
She married her lover, and he became a famous artist at Corinth.

We have said that accounts of individual artists exist from about 700
B.C.; but these accounts are of so general a character and so wanting in
detail that I shall pass on about two hundred years, after saying a few
words of the advance made in the arts of sculpture, and mentioning a
few of the examples which remain from that early time, which is called
the Archaic period. This expression not only means an ancient period of
art, but carries also the idea of an obsolete art--of something that is
not only ancient, but something that is no longer practised in the same
manner or by the same people as existed in this ancient or archaic time.
During this archaic period a beginning was made in many branches of
plastic art. There were statues in metal and marble, bas-reliefs in
various kinds of stone and marble, as well as some chryselephantine
statues. This kind of work is often said to have been invented by
Phidias, but the truth seems to be that he was not its inventor, but
carried it to great perfection. These chryselephantine statues were made
of wood and then covered with ivory and gold; the ivory was used for the
flesh parts of the statue, and gold for the drapery and ornaments of the
figure, and the finished work was very brilliant in its effect.

[Illustration: FIG. 15.--LION DEVOURING DEER.]

The principal subjects represented in the sculpture of the archaic
period were connected with the religion of the Greeks, which is known to
us as mythology. Most statues were of the gods, but portrait statues
were not unknown, and the custom of setting up statues of the victors in
the Greek games dates back to this very early time. This was a custom
which afforded a large field for sculptors to work in, and must have had
a great influence to give life and progress to their art.

Of the remains of this art very interesting things have been written,
but I shall speak only of a few such objects of which pictures can be
given to aid you in understanding about them. Among the earliest reliefs
that have been preserved are those now in the Museum of the Louvre, at
Paris, which were found in the ruins of a Doric temple at Assos (Fig.
15).

[Illustration: FIG. 16.--HERACLES, TRITON, AND NEREIDS.]

The various designs upon these marbles seem to have no connection with
each other, and are executed in a rude manner. The most interesting one
represents Heracles, or Hercules, struggling with a Triton (Fig. 16).

The female figures represent Nereids, who are terrified by seeing
Heracles in contest with the sea-monster. There are many proofs that
these reliefs belong to a very ancient day.

[Illustration: FIG. 17.--HERACLES AND THE CECROPS.]

An interesting relief from the temple of Selinus represents Heracles
striding off with a pole across his shoulders, to which are hung two
Cecrops who had robbed and tormented him (Fig. 17).

A very fine work is also from Selinus, and represents Actæon torn by his
dogs. The mythological story was that Zeus, or Jupiter, was angry with
Actæon because he wished to marry Semele, and the great god commanded
Artemis, or Diana, to throw a stag's skin over Actæon, so that his own
dogs would tear him. In the relief Artemis stands at the left (Fig. 18).

[Illustration: FIG. 18.--ACTÆON AND HIS DOGS.]

There is in the British Museum a monument which was discovered at
Xanthos in 1838. It is thought to have been made about 500 B.C., and is
called "The Harpy Monument," It is a tower, round the four sides of
which runs a frieze at a height of about twenty-one feet from the
ground. The frieze is of white marble, and is let into the frieze which
is of sandstone. The Lycians, in whose country it was found, were
accustomed to bury their dead at the top of such towers.

There is very great difference of opinion among scholars and critics
concerning the meaning of the various scenes in these sculptures; and as
all their writing is speculation, and no one knows the truth about it, I
shall only say that it is a very interesting object in the history of
art, and shall speak of the four corner figures on the shortest parts of
the frieze, from which the whole work takes its name. The Harpies are
very curious; they had wings, and arms like human arms, with claws for
hands, and feathered tails. Their bodies are egg-shaped, which is a very
strange feature in their formation. We cannot explain all these
different things, but there is little doubt that, with the little forms
which they have in their arms, they represent the messengers of death
bearing away the souls of the deceased. In the Odyssey, Homer represents
the Harpies as carrying off the daughters of King Pandareus and giving
them to the cruel Erinnyes for servants. For this reason the Harpies
were considered as robbers, and whenever a person suddenly disappeared
it was said that they had been carried off by Harpies (Fig. 19).

[Illustration: FIG. 19.--_From the Harpy Monument, London._]

Before leaving this subject of existing sculptures from the fifth
century B.C., I will speak of the two groups which belonged to the
temple of Minerva in Ægina, and are now in the Glyptothek at Munich. The
city of Ægina was the principal city of the island of Ægina, which was
in the gulf of the same name, near the south-west coast of Greece. This
city was at the height of its prosperity about 475 B.C., at which time a
beautiful temple was built, of which many columns are still standing,
though much of it has fallen down. In 1811 some English and German
architects visited this place, and the marbles they obtained are the
most remarkable works which still exist from so early a period.
Thorwaldsen, the Danish sculptor, restored these reliefs, and the King
of Bavaria bought them.

Upon the western pediment there were eleven figures which represented an
episode in the Trojan war; it was the struggle of Ajax, Ulysses, and
other Greek warriors to obtain the dead body of Achilles, which was held
by the Trojans. The story is that the goddess Thetis had dipped her son
Achilles in the river Styx for the purpose of making him invulnerable,
or safe from wounds by weapons. But as she held him by the ankles they
were not wetted, and so he could be wounded in them. During the siege of
Troy Apollo guided the arrow of Paris to this spot, and the great leader
of the Greeks was killed. It is believed that the warrior in this
picture who is about to send his arrow is Paris. In the central or
highest part of the pediment the goddess Minerva stands and tries to
cover the fallen body of Achilles with her shield. These figures are on
the side where the space grows narrower. You can judge of what the
action and spirit of the whole must be when these smaller figures have
so much. We are sure that the arrow will shoot out with such force as
must carry death to its victim, and the second warrior, who braces
himself on his feet and knee, will thrust his lance with equal power
(Fig. 20).

There are traces of color and of metal ornaments upon these Æginetan
statues; the weapons, helmets, shields, and quivers were red or blue;
the eyes, hair, and lips were painted, and there are marks upon the
garments of the goddess that show that she must have had bronze
ornaments. There was a famous sculptor of Ægina named Callon, who lived
about the time that this temple was built; and though it is not known to
be so, yet many critics and scholars believe that he may have been the
sculptor of these works, because they resemble the written descriptions
of his statues and reliefs.

[Illustration: FIG. 20.--_Figures from the Pediment of the Temple of
Minerva, at Ægina._]

There was a period which we call archaistic, and by this we indicate a
time when it was the fashion for the sculptors to imitate as nearly as
possible the works of the true archaic period. It has constantly
happened in the history of society that fashion has ordained this same
thing, though the objects of imitation have varied with the different
ages and nations. This archaistic "craze" to imitate old sculptures was
at its height in the times of the Roman emperors Augustus and Hadrian;
but here in America we have seen the same passion manifested in the
desire to have such furniture as Queen Anne and her people admired, or
such as "came over in the Mayflower;" and when the true original
articles were no longer to be found in garrets and out-of-the-way
places, then manufacturers began to imitate the old in the new, and one
can now buy all sorts of ancient-looking furniture that is only just
from the workmen's hands.

But among the Greeks there was a second motive for reproducing the works
of the earlier artists, which was the fact that the images of the gods
and such articles as belonged to religious services were sacred in their
earliest forms, and were venerated by the people. Thus it followed that
the advance and change in the taste of the people and the skill of the
artists was more suited to other subjects, while the religious images
were made as nearly as possible like the older ones. If it happened that
a rude ancient image of a god was placed side by side with a modern and
more beautiful statue of the same deity, the pious Greek would prefer
the ugly one, while he could well admire the most lovely. You should
remember that these temple images were really objects of actual worship.

Many of these archaistic works are in various museums of art.

[Illustration: FIG. 21.--ARCHAISTIC ARTEMIS AT NAPLES.]

This is a very beautiful temple image, and was discovered at Pompeii in
1760. It was found in a small temple or chapel, of which it must have
been the principal deity. It is in excellent preservation; the only
parts which are wanting are the fingers of the right hand and the object
which it held. Like many of these statues, it is less than
life-size--four feet and two inches in height. When it was first
discovered there were many traces of color about it. The hair was gilded
to represent the blonde hair which the poets ascribed to Artemis
(Diana). There was considerable red about the garments, and some flowers
were upon the border of the drapery. There is an archaic stiffness
about this statue, but the flowing hair, the form of the eyes, and the
free style of the nude parts all show that it belongs to the archaistic
period (Fig. 21).

It would be pleasant and satisfying if we could trace step by step the
progress of Greek sculpture from the rude archaic manner to that of the
Periclean age, or from such art as is seen in the sculpture of Ægina to
the perfections of the reliefs of the Parthenon. This we cannot do; but
we know some of the causes that led to this progress, and can give
accounts of a few sculptors who, while they did not equal the great
Phidias, were at least the forerunners of such a type of art as his.

The chief cause of the progress of art was the greater freedom of the
artist in the choice and treatment of his subjects. So long as the
subjects were almost entirely religious there could be little variety in
the manner of treating them. Each god or goddess had its own attributes,
which must be rendered with exact care; and any new mode of portraying
them was almost a sacrilege. But as time passed on and the Panhellenic
games and the national Pantheon at Olympia grew into their great
importance, new subjects were furnished for the artists, which allowed
them to show their originality and to indulge their artistic
imaginations to their fullest extent. The victors in the games were
heroes, and regarded even as demi-gods, and statues were allowed to be
erected to them, although this had hitherto been considered a divine
honor and was accorded to the gods alone. When these heroes were
represented, the artists, not being bound by any laws, could study their
subjects and represent them to the life as nearly as they were able to
do. This exaltation of the Olympian victors gave an opportunity for the
development of sculpture such as cannot be over-estimated in its
influence and results.

Another characteristic of the art of the time we are now considering
was the almost universal use of bronze. This metal is excellent for
displaying the minute features of the nude parts of statues, but it is
not equal to marble in the representation of draperies or for giving
expression to the face. PYTHAGORAS OF RHEGIUM was a famous artist who
worked entirely in bronze. The only copies from his works of which we
know are on two gems, one of which is in the Berlin Museum. He made
exact studies of the body in action, and gave new importance to the
reproduction of the veins and muscles. It is also claimed that
Pythagoras was the first to lay down clearly the laws of symmetry or
proportion which is governed by strict mathematical rules.

MYRON OF ELEUTHERÆ flourished about 500 to 440 B.C., and was reckoned
among Athenian artists because, though not born at Athens, he did most
of his works there, and his most famous work, the statue of a cow, stood
on the Acropolis of that city. This cow was represented as in the act of
lowing, and was elevated upon a marble base. It was carried from Athens
to Rome, where it stood in the Forum of Peace. Many writers mentioned
this work of Myron's, and thirty-seven epigrams were written concerning
it.

[Illustration: FIG. 22.--THE DISCOBOLUS.]

Though the cow was so much talked of, the artistic fame of Myron rests
more upon the "Discobolus," or quoit-thrower. The original statue does
not exist, but there are several copies of it. That in the Massimi Villa
is a very accurate one, and was found on the Esquiline Hill at Rome in
A.D. 1782; our illustration is made from this statue. Myron's great
skill in representing the human figure in excited action is well shown
in the quoit-thrower. To make such a figure as this requires great power
in a sculptor. No model could constantly repeat this action, and if he
could there is but a flash of time in which the artist sees just the
position he reproduces. This figure, however, is so true to life that
one feels like keeping out of the range of the quoit when it flies (Fig.
22). There are several other existing works attributed to Myron: they
are a marble copy of his statue of Marsyas, in the Lateran at Rome; two
torsi in the gallery at Florence; a figure called Diomed, and a bronze
in the gallery at Munich.

Myron made statues of gods and heroes, but he excelled in representing
athletes. His works were very numerous, and a list of those which are
only known through the mention of them by various writers would be of
little value here. While Myron reproduced the form and action of the
body with marvellous effect, he made no advance in representing the
expression of the face, nor in the treatment of the hair. He was daring
in his art, for he not only imitated what he saw in life, but he also
represented grotesque imaginary creatures, and in many ways proved that
he had a rich creative fancy.

A third sculptor of this time was CALAMIS, who was in his prime about
B.C. 450. He was not born in Athens, but he worked there. Calamis added
to the exact representations of Pythagoras and Myron the element of
grace beyond their powers in that direction. He made a greater variety
of figures than they, for to gods and heroes he added heroines, boys and
horses. His works were in bronze, gold and ivory, as well as marble. But
what we know of Calamis is gathered from the writings of Greek authors
rather than from works, or copies of works, by him still existing;
indeed, no statue remains known to be his own, though there are some
which critics fancy may be so. But we may be certain of his great
excellence from the many praises sung and said of him, and Lucian, who
knew all the best works of all the greatest masters of Greece, puts
Calamis before them all for elegance and grace, and for the finer
expression of faces; when imagining a beautiful statue of a young girl
he declares that he would go to Calamis to impart to it a chaste modesty
and give it a sweet and unaffected smile.

PHIDIAS is the most famous of all Greek sculptors, and as Greek
sculpture is the finest sculpture of which we have any knowledge, it
follows that Phidias was the first sculptor of the world. And yet, in
spite of his fame, we do not know the time of his birth. We know that he
was the son of Charmidas, but we know nothing of the father except that
he had a brother who was a painter, and this makes it probable that the
family of Phidias were artists.

As nearly as can be told, Phidias was born about B.C. 500. This would
have made him ten years old at the time of the battle of Marathon and
twenty years old when Salamis was fought, while he came of age at the
time of Platæa. He seems to have begun his artistic life as a painter,
and we know nothing of him as an independent sculptor until the
administration of Cimon, about B.C. 471. But his finest works belong to
the time of Pericles, who was his friend as well as patron, and made him
the master over all the great public works at Athens during what we
speak of as the Periclean age.

It seems that the favor of Pericles was a dear privilege to Phidias, for
it exposed him to bitter envy and hatred; and those who feared to attack
Pericles himself avenged themselves upon Phidias, and accused him of
dishonesty in obtaining the gold for the robe of the statue of Minerva
which he made for the Parthenon. He proved himself innocent of this,
but he was accused of other crimes, and one account says that he was
thrown into prison and died there of disease or poison. Another account
relates that the great sculptor went into exile at Elis, where he made
his most famous statue, the Olympian Zeus, and that he was there
convicted of theft and put to death. With such contradictory stories we
cannot know the exact truth; but we do know that he went to Elis
accompanied by distinguished artists. He was received with honor, and
for a long time the studio that he occupied there was shown to
strangers. The Olympians also allowed him an honor which the Athenians
never extended to him--that is, to inscribe his name upon the base of
the statue of Zeus, which he was not permitted to do in the case of the
Minerva (or Athena) of the Parthenon.

It often happens in the case of a very great man that the events which
have preceded his manhood have prepared the way for him and his work in
so striking a manner that it seems as if he could not have been great at
any other time, and that he could not avoid being so, when everything
had been shaped to his advantage. This was true of Phidias. When he came
to be a man the dreadful wars which had ravaged Greece were over, and
the destruction of the older structures prepared the way for the
rebuilding of Athens. Large quantities of "marble, bronze, ivory, gold,
ebony and cypress wood" were there, and a great number of skilful
workmen were at hand to work under his command. The Athenians were
ablaze with zeal to rebuild the temples and shrines of their gods, who,
as they believed, had led them to their victories, and not only the
public, but the private means were used to make Athens the grandest and
most beautiful city of the world.

The first great work with which the name of Phidias was connected was
the building of the temple of Theseus, called also the Theseion. This
was a very important temple, and was constructed in obedience to the
command of an oracle in this wise: In B.C. 470 the island of Scyros had
been taken by the Athenians, and upon this island Theseus had been
buried. After the battle of Marathon, in which he had aided the
Athenians, Theseus was much regarded by them, and in B.C. 476 they were
directed to remove his bones to Athens and build over them a shrine
worthy of so great a champion. Just then a gigantic skeleton was
discovered at Scyros by Cimon, and was brought to Athens with great
ceremony, and laid to rest with pompous respect, and the splendid temple
dedicated to Theseus was begun, and Phidias was commissioned to make its
plastic ornaments. The precincts of this temple later became a sanctuary
where the poor man and the slave could be safe from the oppressor.

[Illustration: FIG. 23.--ATHENIAN COINS WITH THE MINERVA PROMACHOS.]

Phidias executed many works under the patronage of Cimon, the greatest
of which was the colossal statue of Minerva, which stood on the
Acropolis. It was called the "Minerva Promachos," and was so gigantic
that "the crest of her helmet and the point of her spear could be seen
by the mariner off the promontory of Sunium glittering in the sunlight
as a welcome to her own chosen people, and an awful warning to her
foes." The meaning of Promachos may be given as champion or guardian,
and we know from existing descriptions that, with its pedestal, it must
have been at least seventy feet in height. It was made from the spoils
taken at Marathon; its pedestal was found, in 1840, standing between the
Parthenon and the Erechtheium. It has been called the "Pallas with the
golden spear," for this goddess was known as Athena, Minerva, and
Pallas, and it is said that Alaric was so impressed by its awful aspect
that he shrank from it in horror. The only representations of this
statue now in existence are upon Athenian coins, and the position of the
goddess differs in these, as you will see by the illustration (Fig. 23);
there are reasons for believing that the one in which the shield rests
upon the ground is correct, one of which is that some years after the
death of Phidias the inside of the shield was ornamented by a relief of
the battle of the Centaurs.

Though Phidias proved himself to be a great artist during the reign of
Cimon, it was not until the time of Pericles that he reached the
glorious height of his genius. Pericles and Phidias seem to have been
two grand forces working in harmony for the political and artistic
grandeur of Athens, and, indeed, of all Attica, for within a period of
twenty years nearly all the great works of that country were begun and
completed. Plutarch writes of these wonders in these words: "Hence we
have the more reason to wonder that the structures raised by Pericles
should be built in so short a time, and yet built for ages. For as each
of them, as soon as it was finished, had the venerable air of antiquity,
so now that they are old they have the freshness of a modern building. A
bloom is diffused over them which preserves their aspect untarnished by
time, as if they were animated with a spirit of perpetual youth and
unfading elegance."

It is quite impossible that I should speak here of the works of Phidias
in detail, and I have decided to speak only of the frieze of the
Parthenon, because the Elgin marbles enable us to give illustrations
from it and to know more about this than of the other works of the great
masters about whom whole volumes might be written with justice. But,
first, I will give a picture of a coin which shows the great Olympian
Zeus, or Jupiter, which Phidias made at Elis, after he was an exile from
Athens (Fig. 24). When Phidias was asked how he had found a model for
this Jupiter, he quoted the lines from Homer:

   "He said, and nodded with his shadowy brows,
   Waved on the immortal head the ambrosial locks,
   And all Olympus trembled at the nod."

[Illustration: FIG. 24.--COIN OF ELIS WITH THE OLYMPIAN ZEUS.]

The writings of the ancients have almost numberless references to this
statue, and its praise is unending. It was colossal in size and made of
ivory and gold, and one historian says that though the temple had great
height, yet the Jupiter was so large that if he had risen from his
throne he must have carried the roof away. It is related that when the
work was completed Phidias prayed to Jupiter to give him a sign from
heaven that he might know whether his work was pleasing to the great god
or not. This prayer was answered, and a flash of lightning came which
struck the pavement in front of the statue. This statue was reckoned
among the seven wonders of the world, and it is believed that the
magnificent bust called the "Jupiter Otricoli" is a copy from the
Olympian statue (Fig. 25).

[Illustration: FIG. 25.--BUST OF JUPITER FOUND AT OTRICOLI.]

I shall speak in another volume (upon Architecture) of the former glory
and the present ruin of the Parthenon at Athens, and tell how upon its
decoration Phidias lavished his thought and care until it surpassed in
beauty any other structure of which we have knowledge. Early in the
present century Lord Elgin, the English Ambassador to the Porte,
interested himself in having the sculptures found in the ruins taken to
England. In 1812 eighty chests containing these priceless works of the
greatest sculptor who ever lived were placed in Burlington House, and a
few years later Parliament purchased them for £35,000, and they were
placed in the British Museum, where they now are. There is a great
number of them, and all are of great interest; but I shall pass over the
metopes and the pediments, and shall pass to the frieze after speaking
of this one figure of Theseus, which is from the sculptures of the
eastern pediment. The sculptures upon this pediment represented the
story of the birth of Athena, and it was proper that Theseus should be
present, as he was king over Athens, of which city Athena, or Minerva,
was the protecting goddess. Torso is a term used in sculpture to denote
a mutilated figure, and many such remains of ancient sculpture exist
which are so beautiful, even in their ruin, that they are the pride of
the museums where they are, and serve as studies for the artists of all
time. This figure of Theseus is wonderful for the majesty and grace of
its attitude, for perfection of its anatomical accuracy, and for the
appearance of elasticity of muscle with which it impresses one, even
though made of marble. It really seems as if the skin could be moved
upon it, so soft does its surface look to be. It is ranked as the
greatest miracle of sculpture. Though it is called a Theseus, I ought to
state that some critics take exceptions to this name, and believe it to
be Hercules or Bacchus; but by almost general consent it is called a
Theseus (Fig. 26).

[Illustration: FIG. 26.--TORSO OF A STATUE OF THESEUS (?).]

We may imagine that the representation upon this eastern pediment must
have been magnificent. Of course the chosen goddess of Athens would be
made to appear with great glory. The myth relates that Athena was born
in an instant, by springing forth from the head of Zeus, or Jupiter,
fully armed. It is believed that in this sculpture she was represented a
moment after birth when she appeared in full, colossal majesty, shouting
her war-cry and waving her lance--something as these lines represent the
scene:

                 "Wonder strange possessed
   The everlasting gods, that shape to see
   Shaking a javelin keen, impetuously
   Rush from the crest of ægis-bearing Jove.
   Fearfully Heaven was shaken, and did move
   Beneath the might of the Cærulean-eyed
   Earth dreadfully surrounded far and wide,
   And lifted from its depths; the sea swelled high
   In purple billows."

It is very important, when considering the sculpture at Athens, to know
something about the character of this goddess whose power and influence
was so great there. I shall give an extract from an English writer on
Greek sculpture, Mr. Walter Copeland Perry:

"It is a very remarkable fact, and one which gives us a deep insight
into the character of the Athenians, that the central figure in their
religion, the most perfect representative of their feelings, thoughts,
and aspirations, was not Zeus or Hera (Juno), nor the most popular gods
of all times and nations, Ares (Mars) and Aphrodite (Venus), but Athena,
the virgin, the goddess of wise counsel and brave deed! She was
enthroned in the very heart of their citadel; and she stood in colossal
grandeur on the battlements to terrify their foes, and to give the first
welcome to the mariner or the exile when he approached his divine and
beautiful home, which reposed in safety under the protection of her
lance and shield."

The attributes of this goddess, as given in Greek literature and shown
forth in Greek art, are very varied and hard to be understood as
belonging to one person. She is the patroness of war, and in Homer's
Iliad she is represented as rushing into battle in this wise:

   "The cuirass donn'd of cloud-compelling force
   And stood accoutred for the bloody fray.
   Her tasselled ægis round her shoulders next
   She threw, with terror circled all around,
   And on its face were figured deeds of arms
   And Strife and Courage high, and panic Rout.
   There too a Gorgon's head of monstrous size
   Frown'd terrible, portent of angry Jove.
   . . . . . . . In her hand
   A spear she bore, long, weighty, tough, wherewith
   The mighty daughter of a mighty sire
   Sweeps down the ranks of those her hate pursues."

But this warlike goddess is also represented as the wise counsellor who
restrains Achilles from rash action; and though she does not shrink from
war and danger, yet the most precious gift to her people was not the
war-horse, but the olive, the emblem of peace, and to her honor was this
sacred tree planted. "She stands in full armor, with brandished lance,
on the highest point of the Acropolis, and yet she is the patroness of
all household and female work, in which she herself excels."

It is very interesting to notice that in the early representations of
Athena, while she is very warlike in her bearing and raises her lance in
her right hand, she also carries in her left the distaff and the spindle
and the lamp of knowledge. In the later art of Phidias she is still
stern and severe, but her face also expresses dignity and grandeur of
thought and character. Later still, her warlike attributes are made less
prominent: the shield rests on the ground, and the lance is more like a
sceptre, until, in the decline of art, she is represented as lovely and
gentle, and all her grand power is lost, and she is not above a great
number of other goddesses who are attractive for their soft, lovely
grace, but have no selfhood, no individuality to command our admiration
or respect.

We come now to speak of the Elgin marbles from the frieze of the
Parthenon. It was about thirty-five feet above the floor, three feet
three inches broad, and about five hundred and twenty-two feet long. It
represented a continuous procession, and the subject is called the
great Panathenaic Procession. About four hundred feet of this frieze
remains, so that a good judgment can be formed of it. First I must tell
you what this procession means. The festival of the Panathenæa was the
most important of all the splendid pomps which were celebrated at
Athens. It is probable that this festival was held every year about the
middle of August, but _the great Panathenaic_ occurred only in the third
year of each olympiad; an olympiad was a period of four years, extending
from one celebration of the Olympic games to another, which was an event
of great importance in reckoning time with the Greeks; thus we see that
the great procession represented on the frieze occurred once in every
four years. This festival continued several days, and all were filled
with horse-racing, cock-fighting, gymnastic and musical contests, and a
great variety of games; poets also recited their verses, and
philosophers held arguments in public places.[A] But the most important
day was that on which a procession went up to the Parthenon and carried
the peplos, or garment for the great goddess, which had been woven by
the maidens of Athens. This peplos was made of crocus-colored stuff, on
which the figures of the gods engaged in their contests with the giants
appeared in beautiful, rich embroidery. In later years, after the
Athenians had fallen from their first high-minded simplicity, they
sometimes embroidered on the peplos the likeness of a man whom they
wished to flatter, as thus placing him in the company of the gods was a
very great compliment.

[Footnote A: In the Persian invasion of Greece by Xerxes, B.C. 480, that
monarch was surprised to learn that the Olympic games were not suspended
at the approach of his army.]

The procession of the peplos was formed at daybreak in the Potters'
Quarter of the city, and passed to the Dromos, then to the market-place,
onward to the temple of Demeter, round the Acropolis along the Pelasgic
wall, through the Propylæa to the temple of Athena Polias. The
procession was as splendid as all the wealth, nobility, youth and beauty
of Athens could make it. Of the vast multitude which joined it some were
in chariots, others on horses and almost countless numbers on foot.
After the most important officers of the government come the envoys of
the Attic colonies with the noble Athenian maidens, the basket-bearers,
the aliens who resided in Athens dressed in red instead of white, and a
chosen company of aged men bearing branches of the sacred olive.

The peplos was not borne by hands, but was suspended from the mast of a
ship, upon wheels, which some writers say was moved by machinery placed
underground. When the temple was reached the splendid garment was placed
upon the sacred statue, which was believed to have fallen from heaven.
During the festival of the Panathenæa prisoners were permitted to enjoy
their freedom, men whose services to the public merited recognition
received gifts of gold crowns, and their names were announced by heralds
in public places, and many interesting ceremonies filled up the time. We
do not know the exact order in which all these things happened; but it
is believed that the procession of the peplos was the crowning glory of
it all, and was celebrated on the final day.

The plan of the Parthenon frieze which represented this great procession
was as follows: On the eastern side above the main entrance to the
temple there were two groups of the most important and powerful of the
many gods of the Greek religion. Each of these groups had six gods and
an attendant, so that there were seven figures in each of these groups,
as you will see by the illustration (Fig. 27).

[Illustration: FIG. 27.]

There has been much study of these sculptures, and many scholars have
written about them. There is still a difference of opinion as to which
gods are here represented, but I shall give you the most generally
accepted opinion, which calls _a_, Hermes, or Mercury, the messenger of
the gods; _b_, Apollo; _c_, Artemis, or Diana; _d_, Ares, or Mars; _e_,
Iris, who is attending upon _f_, Hera, or Juno; _g_, Zeus, or Jupiter;
h__, Athena, Minerva, or Pallas; _i_, Hephæstus, or Vulcan; _j_,
Poseidon, or Neptune; _k_, Dionysus, or Bacchus; _l_, _m_, _n_ are more
doubtful, but are probably Aphrodite, or Venus, Demeter, or Ceres, and
Triptolemus, the boy who was a favorite with Ceres, who invented the
plough and first sowed corn.

Now, these two groups of divinities were divided by a very singular
group containing five figures (Fig. 28).

There has been much controversy as to these figures and what they are
doing. They seem to be unconscious of the great gods who are near to
them on either side. The greater number of critics consider that the two
maidens, _e_ and _d_, are of the number who have embroidered the
peplos; the central figure, _c_, a priestess of Athena; _a_, the Archon
Basileus; and _b_, a consecrated servant-boy, who is delivering up the
peplos. Other critics believe, however, that these figures are all
preparing for the sacred ceremonies about to begin, and that the priest
is giving the boy-servant a garment which he has taken off. Other
theories may arise, and we can only listen to them all, and yet not know
the truth; but the more we study the more we shall admire these
exquisite figures.

[Illustration: FIG. 28.--THE FIVE CENTRAL FIGURES.]

Just here I will call your attention to one feature of these antique
bas-reliefs which is called _Isocephalism_, and means that all the heads
are at an equal height. You will see that all figures, whether standing
or sitting, walking, in chariots, or on horseback, have the heads on the
same level.

These three groups, the five central figures and the two groups of gods,
are approached on each side by long, continuous processions, and these
processions each start out from the south-west corner of the Parthenon,
so that one branch goes along the south and a part of the east side, and
the other and longer division marches on the whole of the west and
north, and a portion of the east side. I shall give here a series of
pictures which are all explained by their titles, and will give you an
excellent idea of this magnificent frieze, and doubtless many of my
readers have studied or will study and admire it in the British Museum
(Figs. 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35).

[Illustration: FIG. 29--YOUTHS PREPARING TO JOIN THE CAVALCADE.]

Though all this frieze was the conception of the great Phidias, it must
have been the work of many hands, and close examination shows that some
portions of it are done much better than others. These sculptures have a
double value; for while they are so priceless as treasures of art, they
tell us much of that prosperous, glorious Athens of which we love to
read and hear stories. These figures show us how the people dressed and
moved, and we see in them the "stately" magistrates and venerable seers
of Athens, the sacred envoys of dependent states, the victors in their
chariots drawn by the steeds which had won for them the cheap but
priceless garland, the full-armed warriors, the splendid cavalry, and
the noble youths of 'horse-loving' Athens on their favorite steeds,
in the flush and pride of their young life; and last, not least, the
train of high-born Athenian maidens, marching with bowed heads and quiet
gait, for they are engaged in holy work, with modest mien, and gentle
dignity and grace. All that was sacred, powerful, and grand--all that
was beautiful, graceful, and joyous in Athenian life, is represented
there, in ideal form, of course, but in strict conformity with the
realities of life.... It is by the study of such works as these that we
get the clearest insight into the essence and spirit of classical
antiquity; and they help us better to understand all that we may read in
history or poetry concerning the ancient, classic Greeks.

[Illustration: FIG. 30.--HORSEMEN STARTING.]

[Illustration: FIG. 31.--PROCESSION OF CAVALRY.]

[Illustration: FIG. 32.--PROCESSION OF CHARIOTS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 33.--TRAIN OF MUSICIANS AND YOUTHS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 34.--COWS FOR SACRIFICE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 35.--TRAIN OF NOBLE MAIDENS.]

We must now leave Phidias and speak of other sculptors who were his
contemporaries and pupils. Among the last ALCAMENES was the most
celebrated. He was born in Lemnos, but was a citizen of Athens; so he is
sometimes called an Athenian, and again a Lemnian. His statues were
numerous, and most of them represented the gods. One of Hephæstus, or
Vulcan, was remarkable for the way in which his lameness was concealed
so skilfully that no deformity appeared.

His most famous statue was a Venus, or Aphrodite, concerning which it is
related that Agoracritus, another celebrated pupil of Phidias, contended
with Alcamenes in making a statue of that goddess. The preference was
given to Alcamenes, and Agoracritus believed this to have been done on
account of his being an Athenian citizen, and not solely for the merit
of the statue. The Venus of Alcamenes stood in a temple of that goddess
in a garden beyond the eastern wall of Athens. This statue was very much
praised for its beauty by ancient writers, who all mention with especial
pride the _eurythmy_ of the action of the wrist. This is a term
frequently used in regard to sculpture, and is somewhat difficult to
explain. It means a harmony and proportion of action which corresponds
to rhythm in music. When a statue has the effect it should have it
appears as if the motion of the figure was arrested for a moment, and
would be resumed immediately. That is what we mean when we say a statue
has life; and, as in life, the motion of a statue may be awkward or it
may be graceful; it may be harmonious to the eye, just as music is
harmonious to the ear, or it may seem out of tune and time, just as
inharmonious sounds are to a correct ear for the rhythm of sound; so
when we speak of the eurythmy of sculpture we mean that its apparent
motion is in accord with the laws of proportion, and is harmonious and
graceful to the eye.

[Illustration: FIG. 36.--HEAD OF ASCLEPIUS. _In the British Museum._]

While Alcamenes had this power of imparting grace to his statues, he
also approached Phidias in majesty and a divine sweetness, which was the
sweetness of great strength. In truth, he is recognized as the sculptor
who most nearly approached the great Phidias. He represented also for
the first time the god Asclepius, or Æsculapius, who was very important
to the Greeks, who placed great value upon physical health. Alcamenes
represented him as a sort of humanized Zeus or Jupiter. Of the Asclepius
heads found at Melos we may regard this one given here as a free copy of
the type of god which this great sculptor represented the god of
medicine and health to be (Fig. 36).

Alcamenes was also the principal assistant of Phidias in his decoration
of the temple of Jupiter at Olympia, and is said to have himself
executed the relief upon the western pediment, in which the battle of
the Centaurs and Lapithæ was represented with great spirit.

AGORACRITUS of Paros, who has been mentioned as the rival of Alcamenes,
is called the favorite pupil of Phidias, and it is said that the master
even gave Agoracritus some of his works, and allowed the pupil to
inscribe his name upon them. For this reason the ancient writers were
often in doubt as to the authorship of the statues called by the names
of these sculptors. It is said that when the Venus of Alcamenes was
preferred before that of Agoracritus the latter changed his mark, and
made it to represent a Nemesis, or the goddess who sent suffering to
those who were blessed with too many gifts. It is said that this statue
was cut from a block of marble which the Persians brought with them to
Marathon for the purpose of making a trophy of it which they could set
up to commemorate the victory they felt so sure of gaining; in their
flight and adversity it was left, and at last served a Greek sculptor in
making a statue of an avenging goddess. This seems to be a striking
illustration of "poetic justice."

Agoracritus sold the Nemesis to the people of Rhamnus, who had a temple
dedicated to that goddess, and made a condition that it should never be
set up in Athens. In the museum of the Lateran at Rome there is a small
but very beautiful antique statue of Nemesis, which is thought to be a
copy of this famous work. As Nemesis was the goddess who meted out
fortune according to her idea of right, a measure was her symbol, and
the Greek measure of a cubit was generally placed in her hand. The word
cubit means the length of the forearm from the elbow to the wrist, and
in this statue of which we speak this part of the arm is made very
prominent, and the measure itself is omitted.

The sculptor Myron also had pupils and followers who executed many
works, and of this school was CRESILAS of Cydonia, in Crete. We are
interested in him because two copies from his works exist, of which I
give pictures here. Pliny, in speaking of the portrait statue of
Pericles, said it was a marvel of the art "which makes illustrious men
still more illustrious." The cut given here is from a bust in the
British Museum. There is reason to believe that Cresilas excelled Myron
in the expression of his faces (Figs. 37, 38).

[Illustration: FIG. 37.--A WOUNDED AMAZON. _Cresilas._]

[Illustration: FIG. 38.--STATUE OF PERICLES. _Cresilas._]

CALLIMACHUS is an artist of whom we know little, but that little is
interesting. We do not know where he was born, but as he was employed to
make a candelabra for the eternal lamp which burned before the sacred
statue of Athena Polias, we may suppose that he was an Athenian. Some
writers say that he invented a lamp which would burn a year without
going out, and that such an one made of gold was the work he did for the
temple of Minerva. Callimachus lived between B.C. 550 and 396, and is
credited with having invented the Corinthian capital in this wise: A
young girl of Corinth died, and her nurse, according to custom, placed a
basket upon her grave containing the food she had loved best in life. It
chanced that the basket was put down upon a young acanthus plant, and
the leaves grew up about the basket in such a way that when Callimachus
saw it the design for the capital which we know as Corinthian was
suggested to him, and was thus named from the city in which all this had
occurred.

While the plastic art of Athens, or the Attic school of sculpture,
reached its greatest excellence in Phidias, there was in the
Peloponnesus another school of much importance. Argos was the chief city
of this school, and its best master was POLYCLEITUS of Sicyon, who was
born about B.C. 482. He was thus about twelve years younger than
Phidias. Polycleitus was held in such esteem that many of the ancient
writers couple his name with that of Phidias. He was employed in the
decoration of the Heraion, or temple of Hera, at Argos. But his greatest
work was a statue of Hera, or Juno, for a temple on Mount Euboea,
between Argos and Mycenæ. This statue was chryselephantine, and as Juno
was the majestic, white-armed, ox-eyed goddess consort of Jupiter, it is
a striking coincidence that Phidias at Olympia and Polycleitus on Mount
Euboea should have made from ivory and gold two famous statues of this
renowned pair, who reigned over the mythical world of the Greek
religion. There are several copies of heads of Juno in various museums,
and some of them have been ascribed to Polycleitus; but the proof of the
truth of this is far from being satisfactory. This master made other
statues of divinities, but he excelled in representing athletes; and
however fine his other works may have been, it was in the reproduction
of strong, youthful, manly beauty that he surpassed other sculptors.
Some of his statues of this sort, especially a Doryphorus, or
spear-bearer, were considered as models from which all other artists
could work.

Polycleitus is said to have written a treatise in which he gave exact
rules for the proportions of the different parts of the body. This was
called "the canon" of Polycleitus, and there is good reason to believe
that the Doryphorus was called by the same name, "the canon," because it
was fashioned according to the rules laid down by Polycleitus in his
treatise. His pupils and followers are mentioned with honor by the Greek
authors of his time, but I need not mention them here.

The art of Phidias and Polycleitus was the art of Greece at its best
period. After the close of the Persian wars the people of Greece were a
religious and patriotic people. The Persian wars developed the best
quality of character, for these wars were waged against a foreign foe,
and the Greeks were defending their freedom and their civilization, and
at the end of the struggle Pericles, who guided them to their greatest
prosperity, was a statesman and a man of high aims; he was a gentleman
as well as a strong ruler. The Peloponnesian war, on the contrary, was a
civil war, and it divided the Greeks among themselves and roused the
evil passions of friend against friend all over their country. It was
the cause of selfishness, treachery, and immorality, and one of its
worst effects was seen in the loss of religious tone among the people:
their old contented simplicity of life and thought was gone; every man
thought only of himself, and the nation began to sink into the condition
which at last made it an easy prey to the Macedonians. We have studied
all these wars in our histories, but perhaps we have not thought how
much they affected sculpture and the other arts, and brought them down
from the lofty heights of the Periclean age.

But there were still men who strove to be great and grand in morals and
in intellect, and perhaps strove all the more earnestly for this on
account of the decline they saw about them. Few countries in any age
have had more splendid men than Socrates, Plato, Euripides,
Aristophanes, Pelopidas, Epaminondas, Demosthenes, Dion, and Timoleon,
and these all lived between the Peloponnesian and the Macedonian wars.
And while the arts were less grand than before, they did not fall into
decline for some years, though they took on new features. The gods who
had been mostly represented were less often the subjects of the
sculptor, and when they were so they were softened and made less awful
in their effect. Other gods were more freely taken for models, such as
came nearer to human life and thought, because less sublime in their
attributes and characters. Among these were Venus as a lovely woman
rather than as the great mother of all living creatures, and Eros, or
Love; while Plutus, or Wealth, and satyrs, nymphs, and tritons were
multiplied in great numbers.

When the gods who were represented were more like human beings in their
character, it followed that the statues of them more nearly resembled
men and women, and gradually the old grandeur and sublimity were changed
to grace, beauty, and mirth. Many people would prefer these works
because they come nearer to the every-day life of the world; but
earnest, thoughtful minds look for something more noble in
art--something that will not come down to us as we are, but will help us
to rise above ourselves and to strive after better things.

CEPHISODOTUS was a sculptor who lived until about B.C. 385, or a little
later, and stood between the old and the new schools of Greek art. The
cut given here is from a group at Munich, which is believed to be a copy
of a work by him, and it is a combination of the simple dignity of the
art of Phidias (which is seen in the flowing drapery and the wavy edge
of its folds) and the later Attic style (which is seen in the dreamy,
gentle air of the face of the nurse of the little god). (Fig. 39.) We
know very little of the life of Cephisodotus, and as little is said of
his works by ancient writers.

[Illustration: FIG. 39.--EIRENE AND THE YOUNG PLUTUS. _Cephisodotus._]

SCOPAS of Paros was one of the greatest sculptors of the later Attic
school. The island of Paros, where he was born, was the place where the
finest Greek marble was found; but he worked so much at Athens that he
is spoken of as an Athenian. He was an architect as well as a sculptor,
and he superintended the erection of some splendid structures, which he
also ornamented with his sculptures. I shall speak especially of the
tomb of Mausolus, the King of Caria. Scopas executed the sculptures of
the east side, and as he was the best artist of the sculptors employed
there, it is probable that he had much to do with the design for all the
work. This mausoleum was reckoned as one of the "seven wonders of the
world," and has given a name to fine tombs the world over.

The most interesting of the sculptures from this tomb which are now in
the British Museum seems to me to be the statue of Mausolus himself. It
is plainly intended to be an exact portrait of the king, and it is so
designed and executed that we feel sure it must show him to us just as
he was when alive, more than twenty-two hundred years ago (Fig. 40).

A part of the frieze upon the mausoleum showed the battle of the Greeks
and the Amazons, and this illustration from it gives an idea of the
boldness of action and the correctness of the design (Fig. 41). This
picture is from a slab in the possession of the Serra family in Genoa.
On the right a warrior holds down an Amazon whom he has forced to her
knees and is about to kill, while she stretches out her right hand in
supplication. The figures to the left are full of spirit, and absolutely
seem to be in motion. We do not know that any of these figures were
executed by the hand of Scopas, but it is probable that they were, and
they give us an idea of the art of his time.

[Illustration: FIG. 40.--PORTRAIT OF MAUSOLUS.]

Scopas also carved one of the splendid pillars of the temple of Diana at
Ephesus, and did much architectural decoration, as well as to execute
many statues and groups of figures. The ancient writers say very little
of the art of Scopas, but when all that we can learn is brought
together, it shows that he had great fertility in expressing his own
ideas, that his genius was creative and his works original. He
represented the gods which the earlier sculptors had shown in their
works in quite a new manner, and he was the first to show the goddess
Venus in all the beauty which imagination could attribute to her. His
representations of nymphs of wood and sea, of monsters, and all sorts of
strange, imaginary beings were numberless, and he made his sculptured
figures to express every emotion that can be fancied or felt, from the
tenderest and sweetest affection to the wildest passions of the soul.

[Illustration: FIG. 41--FROM THE FRIEZE OF THE MAUSOLEUM.]

His works were always representations of gods or of sentiments as shown
by some superhuman beings; he never portrayed a hero, with the
exception of Hercules, and was ever busy with the ideal rather than with
realities about him. He worked in marble only, which is far more suited
to the elegant beauty of his style than are bronze and gold or ivory.

We are accustomed to call PRAXITELES the greatest sculptor of the second
school of Greek art, just as we give that place to Phidias in the first.
We have no fixed dates concerning Praxiteles. We know that he was the
son of a Cephisodotus, who was a bronze worker, and was thought to be a
son of Alcamenes, thus making Praxiteles a grandson of the latter.
Praxiteles was first instructed by his father. Later he came under the
influence of Scopas, who was much older than he; and by Scopas he was
persuaded to give up working in bronze and confine himself to marble.
Perhaps the most authentic date we have concerning him is that given by
Pliny, who says that he was in his prime from B.C. 364-360.

It is impossible to praise a sculptor more than Praxiteles was praised
by the Greek authors; and, although Athens was the place where he lived
and labored most, yet he was known to all Greece, and even to other
countries, and the number of his works was marvellous. There are
trustworthy accounts of forty-seven groups, reliefs, and statues by his
hand, and it is not probable that these are all that he executed.

Praxiteles represented youth and beauty and such subjects as are most
pleasing to popular taste. Thus it happened that his male figures were
the young Apollo, Eros, and youthful satyrs, while a large proportion of
his statues represented lovely women. Venus was frequently repeated by
him, and there is a story that he made two statues of her, one being
draped and the other nude. The people of Cos bought the first, and the
last was purchased by the Cnidians, who placed it in the midst of an
open temple, where it could be seen from all sides. It became so famous
that many people went to Cnidos solely for the purpose of seeing it, and
the "Cnidian Venus" acquired a reputation wherever art was known. When
the oppressor of the Cnidians, King Nicodemus of Bithynia, offered to
release them from a debt of one hundred talents (about $100,000) if they
would give him the Venus, they refused, and declared that it was the
chief glory of their State.

[Illustration: FIG. 42.--THE EROS OF CENTOCELLE.]

Another story relates that Phryne, a friend of Praxiteles, had been told
by him that she could have any work which she might choose from his
workshop. She wished to have the one which the artist himself considered
the best. In order to find out which he so esteemed she sent a servant
to tell him that his workshop was on fire. He exclaimed, "All is lost if
my Satyr and Cupid are not saved!" Then Phryne told him of her trick,
and chose the Cupid, or Eros, for her gift. Phryne then offered the
statue to the temple of Thespiæ, in Boeotia, where it was placed
between a statue of Venus and one of Phryne herself. This Cupid was
almost as celebrated as the Cnidian Venus, and was visited by many
people. The head given here (Fig. 42), which was found in Centocelle by
Gavin Hamilton, and is now in the Vatican, is thought by many to be a
copy of a Cupid by Praxiteles, and even of the Thespian statue; but we
have no proof of this. The Cupid, or Eros, of the art of Scopas and
Praxiteles is not the merry little creature who bears that name in later
art; he is a youth just coming into manhood, with a dreamy, melancholy
face, the tender beauty of which makes him one of the most attractive
subjects in sculpture. Caligula carried the Thespian Cupid to Rome;
Claudius restored it to its original place, but Nero again bore it to
Rome, where it was burned in a conflagration in the time of Titus.

I shall say no more of Praxiteles personally, because I wish to describe
to you the largest and grandest group of Greek statues which exists, or,
as I should say, of which we have any copies. We do not know whether
Scopas or Praxiteles made these famous figures, since they are
attributed to both these sculptors; perhaps we can never positively know
to whom to ascribe the fame of this marvellous work. The historian Pliny
tells us that they stood in the temple of Apollo Sosianus at Rome.
Sosius was the legate of Antony in Syria and Cilicia; he erected this
temple in his own honor, and brought many beautiful works from the East
for its decoration. It is believed that he brought the Niobe group from
Cilicia, and displayed it when celebrating his victory over Judea, B.C.
35.

In A.D. 1583 a large number of statues representing this subject were
found in Rome, and were purchased by the Grand Duke of Tuscany, who
placed them in the Villa Medici. In 1775 they were removed to the Palace
of the Uffizi, in Florence, where an apartment was assigned to them. The
figures were restored, and each one placed on its own pedestal, which
work was not completed until 1794.

The group must have had originally seventeen figures--Niobe and fourteen
children, a pedagogue and a female nurse. Now there are but
twelve--Niobe, six sons, four daughters, and the pedagogue. At first it
was supposed that these figures ornamented the temple pediment, but it
is now thought that they stood on an undulating rocky base, with a
background at a little distance. Niobe is the central figure, in any
case, and the children were fleeing toward her from either side; she is
the only one represented in such a way as to present the full face to
the beholder (Fig. 43). But we shall better understand our subject if I
recount as concisely as possible the story of Niobe, which, as you know,
is a Grecian myth. Niobe was the daughter of Tantalus, and was born on
Mount Sipylus. When a child Niobe played with Lato, or Latona, who
afterward married the great god Jupiter, or Zeus. Niobe became the wife
of Amphion, and had a very happy life; she was the mother of seven sons
and seven daughters, and all this prosperity made her forget that she
was mortal, and she dared to be insolent even to the gods themselves.
Lato had but two children, the beautiful Apollo and the archer-queen of
heaven, called Diana, or Artemis.

[Illustration: FIG. 43.--NIOBE AND HER YOUNGEST DAUGHTER.]

[Illustration: FIG. 44.--BROTHER AND SISTER.]

Amphion and Niobe were the King and Queen of Thebes, and when the
worship of Lato was established in that city Niobe was very angry. She
thought of Lato as her playmate and not a goddess, and was so imprudent
as to drive in her chariot to the temple and command the Theban women
not to join in this worship. Niobe also asserted that she was superior
to this Lato, who had but two children, while she had fourteen lovely
sons and daughters, any one of which was worthy of honor. All this so
enraged Lato that she begged Apollo, who was the god of the silver bow,
and Diana, her huntress daughter, to take revenge on Niobe. Obedient to
her commands, Apollo and Artemis descended to earth, and in one day slew
all the children of Niobe. Then this proud mother, left alone, could do
nothing but weep, and this she did continually until Jupiter took pity
on her and turned her into stone, and whirled her away from Thebes to
Mount Sipylus, the scene of her happy childhood. In this picture of
Niobe she clasps her youngest child, who has fled to her for
protection.

I cannot give pictures of all the figures, but one of the most
interesting is this brother and sister. She is wounded, and he endeavors
to raise his garment so as to shield her and himself from the deadly
arrows which pursue them (Fig. 44).

This figure of the eldest daughter is very beautiful. An arrow has
pierced her neck, and the right hand is bent back to the wound. The face
is noble and simple, and has been a favorite model to Guido Reni and
other Italian masters (Fig. 45).

[Illustration: FIG. 45.--THE ELDEST DAUGHTER.]

Fig. 46 shows one of the older sons, who, though wounded and fallen on
one knee, still looks toward his slayer with an air of defiance. There
is a world of interest connected with these statues, and they move us
with a variety of emotions. The poor mother, so prosperous a moment
before, and now seeing her children dying around her, slain by the sure
arrows of the unseen gods--how can we pity her enough! and then the
brave son who tries to shield his sister while he is dazed by the
suddenness of the misfortunes which he cannot account for; the old
pedagogue, to whom the youngest boy has run for protection--and,
indeed, all demand our sympathy for their grief and our admiration for
their beauty, which is still theirs in spite of their woe.

One of the young sculptors who was employed with Scopas in the work on
the mausoleum was LEOCHARES. We read of several statues of Zeus and
Apollo by this master, but his most celebrated work was the group of
Ganymede borne upward by the eagle of Zeus. There are several copies of
this sculpture, but that given here, from the Vatican figure, is the
best of all, and is very beautiful. We know very few facts concerning
Leochares, and cannot even say whether he was an Athenian or not (Fig.
47).

There is still standing at Athens, in its original place, the Choragic
monument of Lysicrates; and though we do not know the names of the
architects and sculptors who made it, there are traces upon it which
indicate that it belonged to the school of Scopas (Fig. 48).

[Illustration: FIG. 46.--A NIOBID.]

[Illustration: FIG. 47.--GANYMEDE. _After Leochares._]

This monument was erected B.C. 334, when Lysicrates was _choragus_--that
is, when it was his office to provide the chorus for the plays
represented at Athens. This was an expensive office, and one that
demanded much labor and care. He had first to find the choristers, and
then bring them together to be instructed, and provide them with proper
food while they studied. The choragus who gave the best musical
entertainment received a tripod as his reward, and it was the custom to
build a monument upon which to place the tripod, so that it should be a
lasting honor to the choragus and his family. The street in which these
monuments were erected was called "the street of the Tripods."

It was also the custom to dedicate each tripod to some special divinity,
and this of Lysicrates was dedicated to Bacchus, and had a frieze with
sculptures telling the story of that god and the Tyrrhenian robbers who
bore him off to their ship. In order to revenge himself he changed the
oars and masts into serpents and himself into a lion; music was heard,
and ivy grew all over the vessel; the robbers went mad and leaped into
the sea, and changed into dolphins.

[Illustration: FIG. 48.--MONUMENT OF LYSICRATES. _Athens._]

In the frieze, however, it is represented that the god is on shore
quietly amusing himself with the lion (Fig. 49), while satyrs and sileni
punish the robbers by beating them with sticks and chasing them with
fury, while they are turning gradually into dolphins and rushing into
the sea. The design is so fine that it might easily be attributed to one
of the best sculptors; but the execution is careless, and this is not
strange when we remember that it was all done at the expense of one
man, and he a private citizen.

We will return now to the Peloponnesian school, of which Polycleitus was
the head in its earliest period. After his time the sculptors of his
school continued to prefer the subjects in which he excelled, and
represented youthful heroes and victors with as much industry as the
artists of Athens bestowed upon their statues of womanly grace and
beauty. The subjects of the Peloponnesian school were especially suited
to the use of bronze, and the chief sculptor of his time, LYSIPPUS,
whose works are said to have numbered fifteen hundred, worked entirely
in bronze. In order to keep a record of the number of his works, he
adopted the plan of putting aside one gold coin from the price of every
statue, and at his death his heirs are said to have found the above
number of these coins thus laid away. His home was at Sicyon, and his
time of work is given as B.C. 372-316. This seems a long period for
active employment as a sculptor; but the number of his works accords
well with this estimate of his working years.

[Illustration: FIG. 49.--BACCHUS AND LION. _From the Lysicrates
Monument._]

[Illustration: FIG. 50.--THE APOXYOMENOS OF LYSIPPUS.]

Lysippus cannot be said to have followed any school; he was original,
and this trait made him prominent, for he was not bound by old customs,
but was able to adapt himself to the new spirit of the age, which came
to Greece with the reign of Alexander. This sculptor made a great number
of statues of Hercules; and as Alexander loved to regard himself as a
modern Hercules, Lysippus also represented the monarch in many different
ways, and with much the same spirit as that he put into the statues of
the hero-god. For example, he made a statue of "Alexander with his
Spear," "Alexander at a Lion Hunt," "Alexander as the Sun-God," and so
on through many changes of expression and attributes, but all being
likenesses of the great king. There is in the Capitol at Rome a head of
Alexander called _Helios_, which is thought by many critics to be the
best bust of him in existence. There are metal rays fastened to the
head; it has a wild, Bacchus-like air, and the hair is thrown back, as
if he had shaken his head furiously; and the defect of a wry neck, which
the monarch had, is cleverly concealed by this motion. Alexander was a
very handsome man, his faults being this twist in his neck and a
peculiar shape of the eye.

We cannot here give the long list of works by Lysippus, but will speak
of that which interests us most, because we have a beautiful copy of it.
I mean the Apoxyomenos, which is in the Vatican. It represents a youth
scraping himself (as the name denotes) with the strigil after a contest
in the arena (Fig. 50). The Vatican copy was found in the Trastevere at
Rome in 1849, and is well preserved. Without doubt it is a faithful
reproduction of the original, which was probably brought from Greece to
Rome by Agrippa, who set it up in front of his public baths. Here it
became such a favorite with the people that when Tiberius removed it to
his own house there was a demonstration in the theatre, and so violent a
demand was made for its restoration that the cunning emperor dared not
refuse. This statue may be called an example of a grand _genre_ style.
It represents a scene from common life in Greece, but it is so simply
natural, so graceful and free from restraint, that one could not weary
of it. The expression of the face is that of quiet content--his task has
been faithfully done, and the remembrance of it is pleasant. The hair is
finely executed; this was a point in which Lysippus excelled; but the
great charm of the whole is in the pose of the figure. In his occupation
of scraping one portion of the body after another he must constantly
change his position, and this one, in which he can rest but a moment,
seems to have the motion in it which he must almost instantly make,
while it is full of easy grace in itself. The art of Lysippus was not as
elevated as that of Phidias, who tried to represent the highest ideal
which a mortal may form of a god; but there was nothing mean or vulgar
in the works of the former; on the contrary, it was with a pure and
noble spirit that he endeavored to represent the perfections of
youthful, manly beauty, and his naturalism was of a healthy and
dignified sort.

The most important pupil of Lysippus was CHARES OF LINDOS, who was
prominent not only on account of his own works, but also because he
introduced the art of Sicyon into his native island of Rhodes. This
island is but forty-five miles long and twenty miles wide at its
broadest part, and yet its art became second only to that of Athens.

At the city of Rhodes alone there were three thousand statues, besides
many paintings and other rare and beautiful objects. Chares is best
known for the sun-god which he erected here; it was called the "Colossus
of Rhodes," and was reckoned as one of the seven wonders of the world.
One hundred statues of the sun were erected at Rhodes, and Pliny says
that any one of them was beautiful enough to have been famous; but that
of Chares was so remarkable that it overshadowed all the rest.

It stood quite near the entrance to the harbor of Rhodes, but we have no
reason to believe that its legs spanned the mouth of the port so that
ships sailed between them, as has often been said, although its size was
almost beyond our imagination. The statue was one hundred and five feet
high, and few men could reach around one of its thumbs with their arms,
while each finger was as large as most statues. Twelve years were
occupied in its erection, from B.C. 292 to 280, and it cost three
hundred talents, or about $300,000 of our money, according to its usual
estimate, though there are those who name its cost as more than four
times that amount. The men of Rhodes obtained this great sum by selling
the engines of war which Demetrius Poliorcetes left behind him when he
abandoned the siege of Rhodes in B.C. 303. We have no copy of this
statue, but there are coins of Rhodes which bear a face that is believed
with good reason to be that of the Colossus.

Fifty-six years after its completion, in B.C. 224, the Colossus was
overthrown by an earthquake, and an oracle forbade the restoration of it
by the Rhodians. In A.D. 672, nearly a thousand years after its fall,
its fragments were sold to a Jew of Emesa by the command of the Caliph
Othman IV. It is said that they weighed seven hundred thousand pounds,
and nine hundred camels were required to bear them away. When we
consider what care must have been needful to cast this huge figure in
bronze, and so adjust the separate parts that the whole would satisfy
the standard of art at Rhodes, we are not surprised that it should have
been reckoned among the seven wonders, and that Chares should have
become a famous master.

Chares also founded a school of art which became very important, and,
indeed, it seems to have been the continuance of the school of the
Peloponnesus; for after the time of Lysippus the sculpture of Argos and
Sicyon came to an end, and we may add that with Lysippus and his school
the growth of art in Greece ceased; it had reached the highest point to
which it ever attained, and all its later works were of its decline, and
foreshadowed its death.

The reign of Alexander the Great was so brilliant that it is difficult
to realize that it was a time of decline to the Greeks; and during the
life of Alexander perhaps this does not appear with clearness; but at
the close of his reign there arose such contentions and troubles among
his generals that everything in Greece suffered, and with the rest Greek
art was degraded. In the time of Pericles it was thought to be a crime
in him that he permitted his portrait to be put upon the shield of the
Parthenon, and he was prosecuted for thus exalting himself to a
privilege which belonged to the gods alone. Alexander, on the contrary,
claimed to be a god, and was represented by painters and sculptors until
his portraits and statues were almost numberless.

Soon after the death of Alexander the humiliation of Athens and its old
Periclean spirit was complete. If you read the history of Demetrius
Poliorcetes, who was even allowed to hold his revels in the most sacred
part of the Parthenon--the temple of Minerva--you will see that Athens
was enslaved and her people no longer worthy to lead the world in the
arts of peace, as they were no longer the brave men who could stand
first in war. In their degraded state the Athenians suffered three
hundred and sixty statues to be erected to Demetrius Phalereus, and
these were destroyed to make way for the golden images of the conquering
freebooter Poliorcetes. This last was hailed by the debased people as a
god and a saviour. His name and that of his father, Antigonus, were
woven into the sacred peplos.

At length, under the Diadochi, or successors of Alexander, order was
restored, and Antigonus, Ptolemy, Seleucus, and Lysimachus divided the
kingdom of Alexander into four Græco-Oriental monarchies. The dynasty of
the Ptolemies in Egypt was the most reputable of these, and gave much
encouragement to art and letters. But the sacred fire seems to have died
out, or did not burn clearly when transplanted from Athens to
Alexandria. The Alexandrines seem to have been mere imitators of what
had gone before, and there is nothing to be said of them that is of
importance enough for us to linger over it. Very few works remain from
this Diadochean period. The Metope of Ilium, which Dr. Schliemann has in
his garden in Athens, the Barberini Faun, in the Glyptothek at Munich,
and the Nile of the Vatican are the most important remnants of
Alexandrine sculpture.

Amid all the confusion and strife which followed the death of Alexander
the island of Rhodes remained undisturbed, and when the division of the
monarchies was made the Rhodians still retained their independence. They
were neutral, and so had a commerce with all the monarchies, and thus
gained great wealth; and theirs was the only independent State of the
old Hellenic world which was able to found and maintain a school of
art. Among the great works of the Rhodian artists none is more familiar
to us than the group of the Laocoon.

In the time of Pliny this work stood in the palace of Titus, and the
historian called it "preferable to all other works of pictorial or
plastic art." There is a difference of opinion as to the period when it
was made, and many date it in the time of Titus, who lived A.D. 40 to
81. But the weight of argument seems to me to rest with those who
believe that it was made at Rhodes in the time of the Diadochi.

The group in the Vatican is probably a copy, because Pliny says that the
original was made of one block, and that of the Vatican is composed of
six pieces. Pliny also tells us that the Laocoon was the work of three
sculptors, AGESANDER, POLYDORUS, and ATHENODORUS. The Vatican group was
found in 1506 in the excavation of the Baths of Titus, in Rome, and was
placed in its present position by Pope Julius II. (Fig. 51). The right
arm of Laocoon was missing, and Michael Angelo attempted to restore it,
but left it incomplete; Montorsoli made an unsatisfactory attempt for
its restoration, and the arm as it now is was made by Cornacini, and
more straight than it should be.

The story which these statues illustrate is told in the second book of
the Æneid, and says that Laocoon was a priest of Apollo at Troy, who,
when the Greeks left the wooden horse outside the city and pretended to
sail away, warned the Trojans against taking the horse inside the walls;
he also struck his spear into the side of the monster. But Sinon, who
had been left behind by the Greeks, persuaded the Trojans that the horse
would prove a blessing to them, and they drew it into the city, and
ordered feasts and sacrifices to be celebrated to do honor to the
occasion. Laocoon had much offended Pallas Athene by his words and acts,
and when he went to prepare a sacrifice to Neptune that goddess sent two
huge serpents up out of the sea to destroy him and his two sons, who
were with him by the altar. When the three victims were dead the fearful
creatures went to the Acropolis and disappeared.

[Illustration: FIG. 51.--THE LAOCOON GROUP.]

In the Laocoon group it appears that the eldest son will save himself,
and in certain minor points the sculptors seem not to have followed the
account of Virgil; but we see that it must be the same story that is
illustrated, and we know that it was told with some variation by other
poets. This group is a wonderful piece of sculpture, but it is not of
the highest art, and it is far from pleasant to look at. The same is
true of another famous group which is in Naples, and which is also from
the Rhodian school.

I mean the Farnesian Bull, or the Toro Farnese. This group was made by
APOLLONIUS and TAURISCUS, who are believed to have been brothers. It was
probably made at Tralles, in Caria, which was their native place, and
sent by them to Rhodes, the great art-centre; from Rhodes it was sent to
Rome, where it was in the possession of Asinius Pollio. This splendid
group, which is probably the original work, was found in the Baths of
Caracalla, in 1546, and was first placed in the Farnese Palace, from
which it was removed to the National Museum in Naples, in 1786 (Fig.
52).

This group tells a part of the story of Dirce, who had incurred the
hatred and displeasure of Antiope, the mother of Amphion, who was King
of Thebes and the husband of Niobe. In order to appease the wrath of his
mother, Amphion, with the aid of his twin-brother Zethus, bound Dirce to
the horns of a wild bull to be dashed to pieces. All this takes place on
Mount Cithæron, and it is said that after Dirce had suffered horrible
agonies the god Dionysus changed her into a fountain, which always
remains upon this mountain.

In this piece of sculpture, dreadful as the idea is, there is less of
horror than in the Laocoon, for the reason that the moment chosen is
that just before the climax of the catastrophe, while in the Laocoon it
is in its midst. The latter group is made to be seen from but one side,
and was probably intended for a niche; but the Farnese Bull is perfect,
and presents a finished aspect on all sides and from every point of
view. There are numerous accessories and much attention to detail, while
the rocky base represents Mount Cithæron and the wildness of the scene
in a manner not before known in sculpture. The group has been much
restored, but its excellences support the theory of its being the
original work of the Greek artists, and the skill with which the various
figures are brought into one stupendous moment is such as commands great
praise and admiration; it is doubtful if any other work of sculpture
tells its story with power equal to that of this celebrated group.

[Illustration: FIG. 52.--THE FARNESE BULL.]

[Illustration: FIG. 53.--GALLIC WARRIOR. _Venice._]

After the art of Rhodes that of Pergamon was important. When Attalus I.,
King of Pergamon, gained his victory over the Gauls, in B.C. 229, the
Greek artists were aroused to new efforts to record in sculpture the
great deeds of Attalus and to place him on a level with the glorious
heroes of their nation who had preceded him. It is recorded that the
conqueror himself offered four groups of statues at Athens, and that
they stood on the southern wall of the Acropolis. The subjects were:
"The Battle of the Gods and Giants," "The Battle of Athenians and
Amazons," "The Battle of Marathon," and "The Destruction of the Gauls in
Mysia by Attalus." Thus the different epochs of Greek history were
represented, and Attalus placed himself near the other great warriors
who had preserved the honor and freedom of their nation. These groups
consisted of many figures, and are estimated to have been from sixty to
eighty in number. It is believed that at least ten of them are now in
European collections--that is, three in Venice, four in Naples, one in
Paris, one in the Vatican, and the last in the Castellani collection in
Rome. This picture of one of those in Venice seems to represent a
warrior who has been suddenly thrown down; his weapons and shield--which
last was probably held in the left hand--have been dropped in the
violence of the shock which has prostrated him (Fig. 53). His face and
hair are of the barbarian type, and the power and elasticity of his
powerful frame are manifest even in this moment of his defeat. He is
yet unwounded, but the weapon of his adversary may be before his eyes,
and in another moment he may sink back in the agony of death.

[Illustration: FIG. 54.--THE DYING GAUL.]

It is now believed that the statue of the Dying Gaul, often called the
Dying Gladiator, was the work of a sculptor of Pergamon, and represents
a Gaul who has killed himself rather than submit as a slave to his
conquerors. The moment had come when he could not escape, and he chose
death rather than humiliation. We learn from history that when these
barbarians saw that all was lost they frequently slew their wives and
children and then themselves, to avoid being taken as prisoners, which
really meant being made slaves. This warrior has thrown himself upon his
shield; his battle-horn is broken, and the sword which has given him the
freedom of death has fallen from his hand. His eye is already dim, his
right arm can scarce sustain him, his brow is contracted with pain, and
it seems as if a sigh escaped his lips. He has not the noble form of the
Greeks; we do not feel the exalted spirit which is shown in the death
scenes of some of the Periclean statue heroes; here it is only a rude,
barbarous Gaul, suffering death as a brute might; it is very realistic,
and when we are near the marble itself we see the coarseness of the
skin, the hardened soles of the feet, the coarse hand, and we are sure
the artist must have made a true representation of this wild, savage
man, who yet had the nobility of nature which would not live to be
enslaved (Fig. 54).

[Illustration: FIG. 55.--BOY AND GOOSE.]

These illustrations and remarks will give you some idea of the art of
Pergamon, and I shall now leave the subject of Greek sculpture after
some account of BOETHUS OF CHALCEDON. His date is very uncertain, though
we have accounts of his works by ancient writers. Some scholars believe
that he lived about B.C. 275. Many works in chased silver made by
Boethus were in the temple of Athena in Lindus in the time of the
historian Pliny; there are accounts of a figure of a boy made in gold
and one of the youthful Asclepius; but the Boy Strangling a Goose, in
the gallery of the Louvre, is his most interesting work for us (Fig.
55). You will remember that even the ancient Egyptians made caricatures
and playful, mocking pictures not unlike some of our own day. This boy
and goose are of the same spirit, and is intended as a parody on the
representations of Hercules struggling with the Nemean lion, which had
been represented many times by Greek artists. The boy seems to be
working as hard as any giant could do. The execution of this work is
fine. It was probably made for a fountain, the water coming through the
beak of the goose. There are several works of ancient sculpture which
are of the same spirit, and for this reason are attributed to Boethus.
The Spinario, or Thorn-extractor, in the museum of the Capitol, at Rome,
is one of the most charming pieces of _genre_ statuary in existence
(Fig. 56).

[Illustration: FIG. 56.--SPINARIO.]

It represents a boy taking a thorn from his foot. His attitude is
natural and graceful, and the purity and simplicity of its style places
it on an equality with works of the best period of sculpture. The
expression of the face is that of perfect absorption in what he is
doing, and is given with great skill and truthfulness. The treatment of
the hair is like that of the archaic period, and there will always be
some critics who cannot think that such perfection could exist in the
sculpture of what we call the Alexandrian age.



CHAPTER III.

ANCIENT ITALIAN SCULPTURE.


Ancient Italian sculpture was essentially Greek in its spirit, and
originated with the Etruscans, a very ancient people in Italy. There are
traces of an Oriental influence in the art of Etruria--a suggestion of
the sculpture of Egypt and Assyria, just as there is in Greek archaic
art; but the real feeling and spirit of it is Greek, and must have been
borrowed from Greece in some way.

The different theories and opinions about the Etruscans and their origin
do not concern us here; we have to do only with their sculpture as it is
seen in the remnants of it now in existence. In the beginning the
Etruscans made their statues of clay; marble was very rarely used. Later
on they learned the art of working in bronze, and carried it to great
perfection. Their bronze works were so numerous that in B.C. 295 Fulvius
Flaccus is said to have carried away two thousand statues from Volsinii
alone. Some of their figures were colossal, but the greater number were
statuettes.

There are some Etruscan bronzes remaining in the museums of Europe. The
Etruscans always were copyists rather than original artists; but they
copied such excellent things, and did it so well, that their productions
are by no means to be despised, and the skill which they acquired caused
their bronze and metal work to be highly valued, even in Athens itself.

The Etruscans were physically a more luxurious people than the Greeks,
as may be seen in the pictures of them which still remain in the tombs
of Corneto and other places. They gave much attention to luxury of
living, and the richly decorated goblets and other articles of table
furniture which they made may be seen in the Vatican and British Museum,
while the delicate and artistic gold work of their personal ornaments is
still much admired and copied diligently.

The Romans as a people were patrons of art rather than artists. They
seem from very early days to have admired the plastic art of other
nations; but of Romans themselves there were very few sculptors; their
artists were architects of grand structures rather than workers in the
lesser monuments of artistic skill and genius. At first, as we have
said, they relied upon the Etruscans, who built their earliest temples
and adorned them with sculptures, and the first record which we have of
Greek artists working in Rome gives us the names of Damophilus and
Gorgasus, who decorated the temple of Ceres with paintings and
sculptures. This temple was consecrated in B.C. 493; if its adornment
was of the same date, the knowledge of Greek art was brought to Rome at
a very early period--at least fifty-six years before the completion of
the Parthenon.

But the means by which the whole Roman people were made familiar with
the beauties of Greek art are to be found in another direction. It was
not the building of their own temples, or any work done by Greek artists
in Rome, that gave the Romans their love and appreciation for art; it
was rather the art spoils seized by their victorious leaders and brought
home to adorn and beautify every portion of the Eternal City. In B.C.
212 Marcellus carried to Rome the spoils he had taken at Syracuse; he
exhibited them in his triumphal procession, and afterward consecrated
them in the temple of Honor and Valor which he built. From this time it
was the fashion to bring home all the choice things that Roman
conquerors could seize, and the number of beautiful objects thus gained
for Rome was marvellous.

When Flaminius defeated Philip of Macedon it required two days to gather
up the spoils. After Fulvius Nobilior conquered the Ætolians he brought
Greek artists to Rome to arrange his festivities, and he exhibited five
hundred and fifteen bronze and marble statues which he had taken from
the defeated people. When Perseus of Macedon was overcome by Æmilius
Paulus it required two hundred and fifty wagons to remove the pictures
and statues alone which he displayed in his triumphal procession; among
these treasures there was a statue of Athena by Phidias himself. This
work of spoiling the Grecian cities which came into their power was
diligently carried on by Mummius, Sulla, and others, until at length the
Emperor Augustus removed many of the archaic sculptures to Rome. But the
works which best pleased the Romans were those of the later school of
Athens. The ruling gods at Rome were Mars, Bacchus, and Venus, and the
statues of these deities were much valued.

So far, to the time of Augustus, the statues and other objects removed
had been the spoils of war; but Caligula and Nero did not hesitate to go
in times of peace and act the part of robbers. The first sent a consul
in A.D. 31 with orders to bring the best works of art from Greece to
Rome to adorn his villas; Nero went so far as to send his agents to
bring even the images of the deities from the most sacred temples,
together with the offerings made to them, for the decoration of his
Golden House; it is said that from Delphi alone he received five hundred
statues of bronze.

At first the larger number of these art spoils were so placed as to be
constantly seen by the whole Roman people, and there is no doubt that
their influence was very great and went far to refine their ideas and
to prepare the way for the polish and grace of the Augustan age. Very
soon the individual desire for works of art was felt, and wealthy men
began to decorate their homes with pictures and statues; and at last
these things were thought to be necessary to the proper enjoyment of
life.

From all these causes there came about a revival of Greek art under the
Romans, and in it many beautiful works were produced. Indeed, the
greater portion of the sculptures which are now the pride of the
collections all over Europe belong to this period. It cannot be said
that the artists of this date originated much, but they followed the
greatest masters that ever lived; and if they repeated their subjects
they so changed them to suit the spirit of their time that they gave
their works a certain effect of being something new, and threw their own
individuality about them.

The list of names which can be given as belonging to Greek sculptors who
worked at Rome is long, and would have little interest here. Instead of
speaking of the artists I shall speak of the most famous works of the
time which remain; most of these are so placed that they are seen by
travellers, and have become familiar to all the world.

The beautiful statue which is known as the Venus de' Medici is so called
because after its discovery it rested for a time in the Medici Palace in
Rome. It was found in the seventeenth century in the Portico of Octavia
at Rome, and was broken into eleven fragments. The arms from the elbows
down are restored; when it was found it had traces of gilding on the
hair; the ears are pierced, as if gold rings had sometimes been placed
in them. In 1680 Duke Cosmo III. removed it to Florence, where it is the
chief glory of the famous Tribune of the Uffizi Gallery. Many persons
believe this to have been a copy of the renowned Cnidian Venus by
Praxiteles, of which I have told you. This Venus de' Medici was the
work of an Athenian artist named Cleomenes. He was the son of
Apollodorus, a sculptor who lived in Rome in the first or second century
of the Christian era. (Fig. 57.)

[Illustration: FIG. 57.--VENUS DE' MEDICI.]

The aim of the sculptor was not to make a goddess, and his work lacks
the dignity which was thrown around the more ancient statues of Venus.
Cleomenes endeavored to produce a lovely woman in the youth of her
beauty. Some critics believe that this Venus is intended to represent
the moment when that goddess stood before Paris for judgment. If this
story is not well known I will tell how when Peleus and Thetis were
married they invited all the gods to their wedding save the goddess
Discordia, and she was so offended by this slight that she threw into
the midst of the assembly a golden apple on which were the words, "To
the fairest." Juno, Minerva, and Venus all claimed it, and Jupiter sent
Mercury to conduct these three beautiful goddesses to Paris, that he
might decide to which it belonged. His decision gave the apple to Venus;
and this so excited the jealousy and hatred of the others that a long
list of serious troubles arose until Paris was driven out of Greece,
and, going to the house of Menelaus, he saw and loved Helen, carried her
off to Troy, and thus brought on the Trojan war of which the world has
heard so much ever since. If I were writing a Sunday-school book I could
draw many lessons from this story; but as I am only writing about art, I
will go back and remind you that many persons try to study these old
statues and to find out exactly what they mean; some such students say
that the moment when Paris pronounced Venus to be the most lovely of the
goddesses is the time represented by the sculptor of the Venus de'
Medici.

As Venus was the goddess of Love and Beauty, it was natural that statues
of her should be multiplied. The Chigi Venus in the Vatican has much the
same pose as the Venus de' Medici, but she holds the end of a fringed
garment in her hand. The Venus of the Capitol, in Rome, is larger than
these; the Venus Callipiga, which was found in the Golden House of Nero,
and is now in the Museum of Naples, is also worthy of being mentioned in
company with these other exquisite sculptures.

However, there is yet another Venus more admirable and more praised than
these. She is called the Venus of Milo, or Melos, and is in the gallery
of the Louvre, at Paris. This statue is probably of a later date than
those of which we have spoken, and is thought to be the work of
Alexandros, the son of Menides of Antiocheia, or one of those sculptors
who are called Asiatic Greeks. It is said that the base of this statue
with the name of the artist upon it was destroyed, for the purpose of
leading the King of France to believe it to be more ancient than it
really is (Fig. 58, _frontispiece_).

This magnificent statue was discovered in 1820 by a peasant of the town
of Melos, or Milo, on the island of the same name. It was in a niche of
a wall which had long been buried. The Marquis of Rivière, who was the
French Ambassador at Constantinople, purchased it and presented it to
King Louis XVIII., who placed it in the Louvre. It is made from two
blocks of marble joined above the drapery which envelops the legs. As
the statue now stands it has the tip of the nose and the foot which
projects beyond the drapery as they have been restored by modern
artists.

This is the only Venus which has come down to us from the past which
represents a goddess rather than a beautiful woman. The form has beauty
of the highest type, but it has a grandeur which exalts it far above
mere beauty. The pure, majestic expression of the head and face speak
the calm dignity of a superior being. I shall quote from Perry, who
says: "The Venus de Milo is justly admired, not only for the grandeur of
its design, the perfection of its proportion, and the exquisite moulding
of the superb and luxuriant form, but for the vivid freshness of the
flesh and the velvet softness of the skin, in which it stands unrivalled
in ancient and modern art. The extraordinary skill with which minute
details, such as the folds of the skin in the neck, are harmonized with
the ideal beauty of the whole is beyond all imitation and all praise.
The life-like effect of this wonderful masterpiece is greatly enhanced
by the rare and perfect preservation of the epidermis and by the
beautiful warm, yellowish tinge which the lapse of centuries has given
to the marble."

In the Museum at Naples is the Farnesian Hercules, which was found in
the Baths of Caracalla, in Rome, in 1540. It was first placed in the
Farnese Palace, and from that circumstance received the name by which it
is known. It is the work of Glycon, an Athenian, and his name is
inscribed upon it. There is little doubt that this is a copy of a more
ancient statue by the great Lysippus; that master created
representations of Hercules in all ages and forms. Glycon probably
worked in the time of Hadrian; and though he copied the design and form
of Lysippus, he exaggerated some points so as to injure the effect of
the whole. For example, the head is small in proportion to the breadth
of the breast and shoulders; and because Hercules was a swift runner the
sculptor has made the legs too long to be natural. It is in such
particulars as these that the decline of art may be traced, even in
works that command admiration (Fig. 59).

The moment in which the god is represented is that which immediately
followed his securing the apples of the Hesperides, the wedding present
of Ge to Juno. Of all the labors of Hercules, perhaps this was the most
arduous. Juno had left these apples with the Hesperides for safekeeping.
These goddesses lived on Mount Atlas, and the serpent Ladon helped them
to guard their precious trust. Hercules did not know just where the
apples were kept, and this made his task all the more difficult. When,
therefore, he arrived at Mount Atlas he offered to hold up the world for
Atlas if he would go and fetch the apples. This Atlas did, but refused
to take the weight from Hercules again. However, Hercules took the
apples and hastened to his master, Eurystheus, with them. While
performing this labor he had a terrible struggle with Ladon, and some
accounts say that he killed the monster.

[Illustration: FIG. 59.--THE FARNESIAN HERCULES.]

Now, the statue represents the god with the apples in his right hand,
the world held on his back, while he leans heavily on his club covered
with a lion's skin. All the muscles of his body are swollen from his
struggle; his head droops, his whole expression of face and form is that
of sadness and weariness. The youthfulness and strength with which the
older sculptors invested him is not here. It is a splendid work, but it
is not of the best; it belongs to an age when there was too much
straining after effect, when the moderation of the best Greek masters
did not satisfy the spirit of the time; and no sculptor lived whose
power equalled that of Phidias or Lysippus.

There are some reliefs and vases of this Roman period that are very
interesting. I shall speak of but one relief--the Sacrifice of
Iphigenia, which is in Florence. It is called the work of Cleomenes, and
his name is inscribed upon it; but there is some doubt as to the
genuineness of the inscription. This relief is very beautiful. It
represents a priest cutting off the hair of the lovely maiden as a
preparation for her sacrifice.

[Illustration: FIG. 60.--THE APOLLO BELVEDERE.]

The story runs that Iphigenia was the daughter of Agamemnon, who killed
a hart sacred to Diana. To revenge this act the goddess becalmed the
Greek fleet on its way to Aulis. The seer Calchas advised Agamemnon to
sacrifice his daughter to appease Diana; this he consented to do, but
Diana put a hart in the place of the maiden, whom she bore to Tauris and
made a priestess. In this relief the maiden has an air of resigned
grief; her father stands by himself with his head covered. The sculptor
of this relief was not the first who had represented Agamemnon thus, for
a painter, Timanthes, had made a picture of this subject about B.C. 400,
and in describing it Quintilian said that "when he had painted Calchas
sad, Ulysses sadder, and had represented in the face of Menelaus the
most poignant grief that art can express, having exhausted the deepest
feelings and finding no means of worthily portraying the countenance of
_the father_, he covered his head and left it to every man's own heart
to estimate his sufferings."

[Illustration: FIG. 57.--VENUS DE' MEDICI.]

I come now to the Apollo Belvedere, one of the most celebrated of all
the statues in the Vatican, and the best known and most universally
admired of all the ancient statues which remain to us. It was found at
about the end of the fifteenth century at the ancient city of Antium,
where it probably made one of the ornaments of the Imperial Palace. The
authorities upon such subjects have never yet agreed as to whether the
marble from which it is cut is a marble of Greece or of Italy (Fig. 60).

[Illustration: FIG. 62.--THE STEINHÄUSER HEAD.]

This statue has been lauded in all tongues of the civilized world, and
nothing could be added to what has been said in its praise; and yet all
who see it wish to exalt it still higher if possible. A few years ago
another head of Apollo, of Greek marble, was found in a magazine in
Rome, by Herr Steinhäuser, by whose name it is known; it is now in the
museum at Basle (Figs. 61, 62).

Though this statue has been so much studied and admired it has never yet
been satisfactorily explained, and there are several important questions
about it which cannot be answered with certainty. Nothing is known of
its age or of the name of its sculptor. It is not described by any
ancient writer, neither can any one say whether it is an original or a
copy; and above all in importance is the question of what this beautiful
young god is doing--what is the meaning of it?

[Illustration: FIG. 63.--THE STROGANOFF APOLLO.]

The answers of the authorities to these queries vary so much that here I
shall only mention the theory which I love, and which is accepted by
many. When the statue was found the left hand was missing, and a bow was
believed to have been the article which it held; and it was said that
Apollo had just shot an arrow on some dreadful flight, and was watching
for its effect. This theory was the principal one until 1860, when a
scholar, Stephani, called attention to the fact that in St. Petersburg
there is a bronze statuette, less than two feet high, which is almost
exactly the same as the Apollo Belvedere--too nearly the same to be an
accidental likeness. Now, as this is an antique bronze, it seems to
prove that both it and the marble of the Vatican are copies of an
ancient work. The statuette is called the Stroganoff Apollo, because it
belongs to the collection of a nobleman of that name. It is believed to
be one of a number of bronzes which were found near Janina in 1792, and
given by the son of Ali Pasha to his physician, Dr. Frank (Fig. 63).

The chief importance of this discovery was the fact that the left hand
was perfect, and did not hold a bow, but some soft, elastic substance
which Stephani believes to be the ægis, or shield, of Jupiter, on which
was the head of Medusa. The sight of this shield paralyzed those who saw
it; and though it belonged to Jupiter and Minerva, Jupiter sometimes
lent it to his son Apollo to aid him in his warfare; such instances are
recorded by Homer. After Stephani had told his idea of it, the German
scholar Ludwig Preller pointed out what seems to be the true meaning of
it by suggesting that Apollo was extending this dreadful _ægis_ before
the sight of the Gauls at Delphi, in B.C. 279. History relates that when
the Gauls approached Delphi the people asked the oracle if they should
carry away and conceal the treasures of the temple. The oracle replied,
"I myself and the White Maidens (meaning Athena and Artemis) will take
care of that." Then four thousand Greeks stood by ready to defend the
sacred place; but in the midst of the battle the youthful god came down
through the roof of the temple, and the White Maidens left their own
altars to aid him in driving back the barbarous foe. A great tempest
arose, and rocks fell from Parnassus on the heads of the Gauls, and it
seemed as if all the powers of heaven and earth had united to sustain
the Greeks against their enemies. It is also written that the spectres
of Greek heroes who had long been dead were seen in the midst of the
battle dealing death upon the Gauls. But above all the fury of the
tempest and the noise of war the clashing of the shield and spear of
Athena and the twanging sound of the oft-discharged bow of Artemis were
heard, while the flash of the awful shield of Apollo was seen to be even
more vivid and terrific than the forked lightnings themselves.

It is recorded that after this victory two statues of Apollo and one
each of Athena and Artemis were offered in the temple of Apollo as
thank-offerings for its preservation and the victory over the Gauls. It
is delightful to regard the Apollo Belvedere as a copy of one of these,
and this view of it is most satisfying. Lübke, in speaking of this
theory, says: "Not till now have we understood the Apollo Belvedere. In
unveiled beauty we see the elegant form of the slender figure, the left
shoulder only being covered by the chlamys, which falls down over the
arm, which, far outstretched, holds the ægis with its Medusa head. The
right arm is slightly turned aside, but both hands have been unskilfully
restored. The attitude of the god is full of pathos, and is conceived at
a dramatic moment. Ardently excited and filled with divine anger, with
which is mingled a touch of triumphant scorn, the intellectual head is
turned sideward, while the figure, with elastic step, is hastening
forward. The eye seems to shoot forth lightning; there is an expression
of contempt in the corners of the mouth, and the distended nostrils seem
to breathe forth divine anger. It is a bold attitude thus transfixed in
marble, full of life-like and excited action."

In the Iliad Homer describes the scene when Jupiter gave the ægis to
Apollo, that he might put the Achæans to flight with it. In connection
with the Apollo Belvedere it is well to recall that description which is
thus translated by Lord Derby

   "While Phoebus motionless his ægis held,
   Thick flew the shafts, and fast the people fell
   On either side; but when he turned its flash
   Full in the faces of the astonished Greeks,
   And shouted loud, their spirits within them quailed,
   Their fiery courage borne in mind no more."

It is very interesting to know that many who believe that the Apollo
Belvedere represents that god when terrifying the Gauls, believe also
that the statues of the "White Maidens" rushing forth from their temples
to aid him are in existence, the Artemis being the statue at the Louvre
known as "_Diane à la Biche_" and the Minerva being the Athena with
spear and shield in the museum of the Capitol at Rome.

This statue of Artemis, or Diana, has been in France since the time of
Henry IV. Formerly it was at Versailles, but is now one of the treasures
of the Louvre. The left hand with the bow is restored. The effect of the
figure is that of lightness combined with strength. She is going forward
rapidly, with her eyes fixed on some distant object, and draws an arrow
from her quiver even as she flies. This figure corresponds to the Apollo
Belvedere in its spirit and apparent earnestness of purpose; it is of
the same proportions, and in such details of treatment as the rich
sandals it plainly belongs to the time and the school of the
Apollo--indeed, there is no reason why it might not have formed a part
of a group in which the Apollo stood. (Fig. 64.)

[Illustration: FIG. 64.--DIANE À LA BICHE.]

If we think of this Diana simply as an ideal huntress hastening to the
chase the statue is very beautiful, and a remarkable example of such a
subject; but when she is regarded as one of the "White Maidens" rushing
forth to aid her brother in defending his temple against a barbarous
enemy she is invested with a deeper interest; she becomes an important
actor in a terrible drama, and those of us who could have no sympathy
with her love for hunting are roused to an enthusiastic hope that she
will succeed in doing her part to turn the savage foe away from the
sacred hill of Pytho, and thus preserve its temple and its treasures.

The statue of Athena, advancing with spear and shield, is supposed to be
a third member of the group which commemorated the victory over the
Gauls. The position of the two goddesses would indicate that they were
represented as hastening from opposite directions toward the Apollo
Belvedere, the central figure of the whole. The whole bearing of this
statue carries out the impression which Homer gives of the delight with
which Athena led the Greeks to battle; she is full of eagerness, and
rushes forward with the undaunted vigor of the confidence and courage of
one who goes to fight for a just and holy cause (Fig. 65).

[Illustration: FIG. 65.--ATHENA OF THE CAPITOL.]


Whether this "Gallic theory," as it is called, concerning the Apollo,
Diana, and Athena be correct or no, it is the most satisfactory in
sentiment of any that has been advanced, and certainly, when we consider
the three statues in this connection, there is nothing inharmonious in
the supposition that they made the important parts of a whole which may
have had many other figures of lesser importance in it.

There are many other statues of the Roman period in various museums, but
I shall leave this part of our subject here, and speak briefly of the
historical sculpture in the reliefs upon the triumphal arches of the
Eternal City. In an age when martial glory was the chief desire of man,
and among a people who accorded to successful generals the highest
honors, it was most natural that the conquerors should desire to place
some monument of their exploits where it would be constantly before the
eyes of the people, and thus keep in perpetual remembrance their valiant
deeds and their great successes.

[Illustration: FIG. 66.--TRIUMPHAL PROCESSION FROM ARCH OF TITUS.]

We read that pictures of the foreign scenes of sieges and battles were
displayed in public places in Rome at a very early date. We cannot find
records of plastic works of this sort before the time of the emperors,
but after such sculptures came into favor they were multiplied rapidly.
The principal historical reliefs in Rome were upon the arches of
Claudius, Titus, Trajan, Marcus Aurelius, and Septimius Severus, and on
the architrave of the temple of Minerva in the Forum.

Of the arch of Claudius there are some remaining fragments of sculpture,
now in the Villa Borghese. The arch of Titus was erected to celebrate
the taking of Jerusalem in A.D. 70. It was restored in 1822. The frieze
represents both a triumphal procession and one of sacrifice. The picture
we give here shows a company of warriors in the dress of peace, who bear
articles of booty taken from the conquered city. They have the
candelabra with seven branches, the table of the shew-bread, the silver
trumpets, etc. This will give you a good idea of these reliefs. (Fig.
66.)

The arch of Trajan no longer stands, and its reliefs are now on the arch
of Constantine; but Trajan's Pillar is one of the best preserved of all
the antique monuments of Rome, and with some account of this column and
a picture from it we will leave the historical sculptures of Rome. The
Senate and people of Rome decreed that this column should be erected to
the memory of Trajan, and it was in the centre of the Forum which bore
the same name--the Forum Trajani. The column is about one hundred and
six feet high, and originally was surmounted by a bronze statue of
Trajan, which was replaced by one of St. Peter by Pope Sixtus V. A band
of reliefs runs around this pillar in a spiral form; this band is six
hundred feet long, and the sculptures represent Trajan's campaign
against the Dacians. Many of the figures lose their effect on account of
the height at which they are placed. There are more than a hundred
scenes upon it, in which are about twenty-five hundred human figures,
besides many horses and other objects. The whole is executed with the
greatest care.

The real object of the whole work was to glorify the Emperor Trajan, and
he is represented in many of the scenes; sometimes he is conducting
engagements, storming a fort, or encouraging his troops; again he is
holding an audience, protecting the women of a conquered city, or
sitting in judgment on captives. Fig. 67 represents the Dacians
assaulting a Roman fort. It is winter, and while some have crossed the
ice in safety, others have broken through. Everything about it is
represented in the most life-like and matter-of-fact manner, and this
shows distinctly the principal difference between the Greek and the
Roman art when the latter was not influenced by the former. It is pure,
realistic, historical sculpture, and this pillar shows this at its very
best estate; it is a splendid specimen of this kind of art. In all these
many scenes there are but two mythological figures: one is Selene, used
to represent Night, and the other is _Jupiter tonans,_ who indicates
Storm. But the correctness and elegance of the sculptures show what the
Greek teaching did for the Romans; for it was to the Greeks that the
latter owed their knowledge of the human form and their power to render
it properly in sculpture.

[Illustration: FIG. 67.--FROM THE RELIEFS OF TRAJAN'S COLUMN.]

The last sort of ancient sculpture of which I shall speak is portrait
sculpture, and perhaps this belongs also to historical sculpture, for it
is by means of statues and busts that we know the faces and forms of
many of the great men and women who hold their places in the regard of
the world through all the centuries, because they were concerned in the
events which make up what we call the history of the world. We have said
that in Greece in very early times there were no portrait sculptures;
gradually they were introduced until, in the time of Alexander, portrait
statues were almost numberless, and these and busts were used for the
decoration of libraries and public buildings, as well as for the
adornment of squares and places of resort in the open air.

The finest life-size statue which remains from the Greeks is that of
Sophocles, of which we give a picture (Fig. 68). It was not found until
about 1839, and was presented to Pope Gregory XVI. by Cardinal
Antonelli; it is in the museum of the Lateran. This engraving from it
shows its beauties so well that it is scarcely needful to speak of it in
detail. This statue is valuable not only as a portrait of Sophocles, but
as a representation of a true product of the highest and best of
Athenian civilization and culture; of an elegant, aristocratic man who
was trained in gymnastic and warlike exercises which developed his
physical parts, as well as in science, philosophy, and music--in various
deep studies and lighter accomplishments which rendered him profound and
scholarly, and at the same time elegant and graceful. "The attitude,
though simple, is well chosen to show the most graceful lines of the
figure; and the position of the arms--the one gracefully enveloped in
the himation, and the other firmly planted on the hip--gives to the
whole form an air of mingled ease and dignity. The face is handsome and
full of winning grace, and bears the stamp not only of the creative
genius of the poet, but of the experience of the active citizen; of one
who has felt both the joys and the sufferings of human lot, and
preserved amid them the constitutional calmness, the gentle benevolence,
the tranquil, meditative piety for which he was renowned and loved by
the people among whom he lived and sang."

[Illustration: FIG. 68.--PORTRAIT STATUE OF SOPHOCLES.]

Among the Romans portrait sculpture held a position of importance. This
people had always placed great value upon the likenesses of the dead,
and from the earliest times had used different means of making them. In
the very early days of the nation the custom prevailed of making masks
of the faces of the dead in wax, and these masks were worn in the
funeral procession by one of the mourners, who also wore the dress and
insignia of the departed. The first aim in these masks was to have an
exact resemblance to the dead; and this idea was carried on through all
the eras of Roman art, and is a strong distinguishing feature between
Greek and Roman sculpture; for while the Greeks wished to reproduce the
face of one of whom they made a bust or statue, they did not hesitate to
idealize that face; but the Romans labored to make an exact likeness of
the man, leaving him in his statue as nothing more than he looked to be.
This manner of portraiture often does great injustice to its model, for
the changing expressions which come with emotions and with conversation
often illuminate the plainest faces with a rare beauty; therefore the
aim of portraiture should be to give the very most and best that can be
imagined as coming to the face which is reproduced.

[Illustration: FIG. 69.--STATUE OF AUGUSTUS.]

I can speak of but a few of the almost numberless Roman portrait
sculptures.

This statue of Augustus was found in 1863 in a villa built by his wife,
Livia, about nine miles from Rome, at Porta Prima. It is a noble work,
and every minute detail of the ornamentation has a force and meaning
that can be explained. At the same time the whole work is full of
strength and dignity, which comes from the character of the man himself,
and is in no sense dependent on all the emblems of his rank and power,
with which the dress is loaded (Fig. 69). This statue is in the Vatican,
and there one can compare it with the exquisite bust known as the "Young
Augustus" and with the statue of the emperor when aged, in which he is
veiled as a priest. The study of these three sculptures, thus
fortunately near each other, is most interesting.

[Illustration: FIG. 70.--AGRIPPINA THE ELDER.]

The Roman women who held important positions were frequently honored
with statues. Among those that remain none is more interesting than this
of the elder Agrippina. She was a woman of great strength and equally
great purity of character, and as we study this statue we can easily
understand that she could perform the duties of a general when occasion
demanded this service, and when that necessity was past could nurse the
sick and wounded with all the tenderness of a true womanly nature. It is
in every way a noble work of art, combining grace, dignity, and the
aristocratic refinement of a high-born lady. The drapery of this and
other similar statues is very beautiful, and fully satisfies all
artistic demands. We have full proof that such garments were in actual
use by the women of Greece and Rome (Fig. 70).

It was not unusual for the great men and women of Rome to be represented
in portrait statues with the attributes of gods and goddesses. Livia
appears as Ceres, Julia as Flora, and so on; and during the best days of
Roman art these statues were very beautiful. But at last they, like all
other sculptures, grew less and less worthy, until they became
positively absurd, and lacked any power to command our admiration.

What is thus true of portrait sculpture is true of all Roman art. Its
decline kept step with the decline of the nation, and both fell at
length into a pitiable state of feebleness and corruption. From this we
are glad to turn to the study of Christian art, which, even in its
primary struggles, when groping its way through ignorance and
helplessness, was still a living thing, and held the promise of a new
life--a _renaissance_ of that which had gradually died in Greece and
Rome.



CHAPTER IV.

MEDIÆVAL SCULPTURE, FROM THE FIFTH TO THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.


The ancient or classic Italian sculpture of which we have spoken may be
said to have extended to about the middle of the fourth century of the
Christian era. The arch of Constantine was one of its latest works, and
is interesting as an example of the decline of art. The sculptures upon
it, which were taken from the arch of Trajan, executed two centuries
earlier, are so superior to those that were added in the time of
Constantine, that nothing could give one a clearer idea of the decadence
of sculpture than seeing the works of two periods thus placed side by
side.

After the time of Constantine, when the Christians were no longer forced
to hide their art in the catacombs, they began to have a sculpture of
their own. The first Christians in Rome were brought into contact with
the worship of Isis and Pan, Venus and Apollo, and were filled with
horror at the sight of the statues of these divinities. They believed
that any representation of the human form was forbidden by the
commandment which says, "Thou shalt not make to thyself any graven
image, nor the likeness of anything that is in the heaven above, or in
the earth beneath, or in the water under the earth." Thus it happened
that when the early Christians desired to represent the Saviour they
employed painting, such as is found in the catacombs, rather than
sculpture, and separate statues are the rarest remains of early
Christian art.

The oldest Christian statue which is known in marble is that of St.
Hippolytus, which is in the Museum of the Lateran Palace, where there
are also two small statues of Christ as the Good Shepherd, which were
found in the catacombs.

[Illustration: FIG. 71.--STATUE OF ST. PETER.]

The most important statue of this period is that of St. Peter, which is
held in great reverence by Roman Catholics, who kiss its toe as they
enter the church of St. Peter's at Rome, and press their foreheads
against the extended foot. The statue is of bronze, and some
antiquarians believe that it is the Jupiter of the Capitol changed so as
to answer for a statue of St. Peter; others say that it was cast from
the metal of the statue of Jupiter; and the usual belief is that it was
made by the order of Pope Leo I. about the middle of the fifth century
as a thank-offering for the deliverance of Rome from the barbarian
Attila by the miraculous protection of St. Peter and St. Paul. This
statue is too rude to belong to classic art, though it is of remarkable
excellence for a work of the fifth century (Fig. 71).

The principal use of sculpture by the early Christians was for the
decoration of the sarcophagi, or burial-cases. These were cut in
bas-reliefs after the manner of the ancients, the subjects being taken
from the life of Christ; the ornaments were the Christian emblems, such
as the lamb, cross, vine, palm, dove, and the monogram of Christ. As
time passed the designs were more and more elaborate; stories from the
Old Testament were frequently illustrated, and numerous figures were
crowded together, with many symbols ingeniously inserted to make the
meaning of the whole more clear.

The largest number and the best of these sarcophagi are now in the
museums of the Lateran and the Vatican. In the centre of one of the
finest of these is a shell, in which are the half figures of the two who
were buried in this sarcophagus. At the upper left hand is the Saviour
before the tomb of Lazarus; one of the sisters of the dead man kisses
the hand of Jesus; next to this is the Denial of Peter; nearest the
shell Moses reaches up to receive the Table of the Law. On the right of
the shell, in the upper row, is the Sacrifice of Isaac and the Washing
of Pilate's Hands. On the lower row, beginning at the left, is Moses
causing the Water to flow from the Rock; next is the Apprehension of
Peter, and next, Daniel in the Lions' Den. Besides these there are the
Healing of the Blind and the Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes. This will
show how elaborate the carving is on these burial-cases, and how the
subjects from the Old and New Testaments are mingled without order or
apparent reason. These sarcophagi have been found in various parts of
Italy and in France, and are seen in many museums.

In no part of the Roman Empire was sculpture as favorably regarded by
the early Christians as at Byzantium. Several attempts to adorn the city
with statues and other works of art were made there, and many of the
Greek sculptures which had been carried to Rome were again borne off to
decorate this new Capitol. The Emperor Constantine there erected a
column a hundred feet high, and placed his statue on it; Theodosius also
erected a column and an obelisk; but Justinian excelled all these, and
about 543 A.D. set up a monument with a colossal equestrian statue of
himself in bronze upon it. The column which supported this statue was of
brick masonry covered with plates of bronze. From the accounts we have
of it we conclude that this was a fine work for its time; it was called
the Augustio, and was placed on the Augusteum near the church of St.
Sophia; in the sixteenth century it had been overthrown and broken in
pieces, and the metal was then melted down. The artist who executed the
Augustio was Eustathius of Rome, who was sent to Byzantium for this
purpose.

But the Byzantine Christians soon grew into a fixed disapproval of
statues, and favored only the lesser works of art. Ivory-carving, which
long before had been brought from the East by the Greeks, now came into
special favor, and the Byzantine artists devoted all their talent to
making beautiful works of this sort. The most important of these
carvings which remains is in the cathedral of Ravenna. It is the
episcopal chair or cathedra of Maximianus, and was made between 546 and
552 (Fig. 72).

This chair is composed entirely of carved plates of ivory; scenes from
the life of Joseph and other similar designs are represented, and these
are surrounded by a great variety of small figures, which form a sort of
framework around the principal parts; for example, animals and birds
among vine-branches, and all arranged in a life-like and artistic
manner. So large a work as this chair in ivory is unusual. The greater
number of ivory carvings are upon small objects, such as drinking-cups
and other vessels, book-covers and diptychs, or tablets for writing, of
which fine specimens remain and are seen in art collections.

Diptychs were carved ivory tablets, with the inner surface waxed for
writing, and were used by the early Christians, as they had been by the
ancients. The illustration given here is from the diptych of the Consul
Areobrudus, and belongs to the year 506 (Fig. 73). The whole design upon
it represents a contest with lions and bears; the scene is where--the
circus gates being thrown open--the animals rush into the arena to be
slain by the gladiators. Some diptychs are ornamented with subjects from
the life of Christ and other religious themes.

[Illustration: FIG. 72.--FROM THE CATHEDRA OF MAXIMIANUS.]

About the beginning of the tenth century ivory-carving was much used for
church purposes. The smaller altars were covered with it, the vessels
used for the Holy Sacrament were made of it, magnificent covers for
church books, were carved, and as much thought seems to have been given
to the designs upon these small objects as had formerly been devoted to
the splendid temples of the ancients. Ivory-carving extended from
Byzantium into Germany and other Western countries, and along with it
went the working in rich and precious metals, which had also been
practised somewhat by the earlier Christians.

[Illustration: FIG. 73.--DIPTYCH. _Zurich._]

During the tenth century the metal works were very costly, and the
different cathedrals and churches rivalled each other in possessions of
this sort. Altar tables were covered with embossed metal plates, which
were extended down from the top of the table to the floor, forming
antependiums, as they are called, in the same way that those of cloth
are now used. These plates of metal were worked into designs in relief,
ornamented with delicate filigree work, with paintings in enamel, and
even with rare antique cameos and exquisite gems. Crucifixes were also
made of metals and richly adorned, as well as all the vessels and
smaller articles used in the service and ceremonials of the
church--incense-burners, candlesticks, tabernacles and reliquaries, or
caskets for preserving relics. In the sacristies of many old churches
and in art collections these rare, costly articles are still preserved,
and are of great interest in the study of art.

Many of the designs used on these objects were quaint and even
grotesque, while the drawing of the figures and the arrangement of the
subjects is often done in the crudest and most inartistic manner.
Vessels for church use were made in the shapes of griffins, dragons,
cranes, lions, and other curious birds and beasts, while the human faces
represented sometimes had enamelled or jewelled eye balls. In one case
the eyes of the Saviour were made of large carbuncles; you can
understand that this would give an expression quite the opposite of that
gentleness and peace which we look for in the face of the Redeemer. In
truth, there is so much of the grotesque and even barbarous element in
many of these works, that we can but ridicule while we recognize the
industry and care which was expended upon them. It is also difficult to
understand how the feeling for art and the practice of it which had
attained to such perfection among the ancients could have died out of
the world so completely, for in these mediæval days it existed nowhere
on the face of the earth.

About the beginning of the eleventh century bronze casting came to hold
an important place in the art of Germany, and as architecture now
received more attention, and bronze gates, and occasionally bronze
figures of bishops and other church dignitaries, were used for the
decoration of church buildings, we may say that bronze works made the
medium through which sculpture in connection with architecture was again
brought into use. At Hildesheim there is still a bronze gate at the
principal entrance to the cathedral, which was cast in 1015, and in
various places in Germany, France, and Northern Italy works of this kind
are seen which belong to the eleventh century, while a bit of stone or
wood sculpture of this period is very rarely met.

The twelfth century brought about a great change in sculpture and its
uses. This century was a period of remarkable activity in every
department of human life. The Crusades were then preached, and armies of
zealous Christians went forth to redeem Jerusalem from the power of the
Pagans; in this century all the institutions of chivalry flourished; the
nations of the world had more intercourse with each other than had
before existed; commerce was extended into new channels; men were more
individual and thought more independently for themselves than they had
done hitherto; and, in short, human intellect all over the Western world
seemed to be awakening from a long, deep sleep, and to be inspired with
strength and activity.

With all the other changes there came revivals of architecture and
sculpture, which went hand in hand, and in the beginning can scarcely be
separated from each other. The early Christians had been content with
the decoration of interiors; now the exteriors received much attention,
and the portals or entrances to the churches were richly decorated with
statues and other sculptured ornaments, and the exterior decoration soon
extended to many portions of the edifices. In the interiors, too, the
altars, fonts, choir-screens, and other objects were made of carved
stone or of stucco, which hardened like stone, and were all richly
ornamented with sculpture. A completely new spirit seemed to possess
the artists, who thus found a satisfactory field for their labors, and
the period known as the _Romanesque_ was thus ushered in.

[Illustration: FIG. 74.--FROM THE FAÇADE OF CHARTRES CATHEDRAL.]

We cannot claim that the works of the twelfth century were free from the
faults of the preceding eras, or were satisfactory to our artistic
sense; but we may say that they show the effect of the new life which
had come into the world, and give unerring promise of the progress which
followed. The same improvement is seen in bronze-casting as in
sculpture; and though to our eyes it still remains crude and ungraceful,
yet by comparing it with the work of the previous century we mark a
hopeful and important change.

Germany, in its different provinces, took the lead in this artistic
progress; but France was not far behind; and, indeed, in the cathedral
of Chartres the first promise was given of the splendid church portals
of the early Gothic style of architecture which followed the Romanesque.
In this cathedral, too, we see for the first time an attempt to make the
head and face a reproduction of nature rather than a repetition of the
classic head, which had come to be so imperfectly copied that it had
degenerated into a caricature. (Fig. 74.)

Other cathedrals at St. Denis, Le Mans, Bourges, and Paris are splendid
examples of the art of this time; and when we remember how Italy took
the lead of these northern countries in later days, it seems strange
that at this era she was far behind them. It is even true that the first
works in Northern Italy which indicated that the awakening which had
come north of the Alps had reached that country were executed wholly or
in part by German artists; but by the end of the twelfth century both
the sculpture and bronze-casting of Italy gave promise of the great
revival of true art which was to come in that home of the arts.

However, it is not possible to connect the art of Italy with that of any
other country in any comprehensive sense. Italian art may be said to
have died out more completely in the beginning of the middle ages than
did the art of northern nations; its period of decline, too, was longer;
but when its awakening came it aroused itself and took on new strength
by a method of its own, and may be said to have been distinct from
northern art in every respect, and divided from it by its different
spirit as clearly as Italy was divided from other lands by the towering
summits of the Alps.

About the beginning of the thirteenth century there dawned upon the
northern nations a new era in literature. Hitherto the written language
had been the monkish Latin; now the poets began to use their own
tongues. This new writing may be said to have commenced with the
Provençal poets, who were followed by those of Northern France; but it
was in Germany that such song broke forth as showed how the national
feeling had been repressed, and how, now that it had burst its bonds, it
resembled the freshets of spring when they escape from the icy hand of
Winter and rush from one point to another, brushing aside every obstacle
which lies in their way. I cannot here speak in detail of these poets
and their works, but Hartmann of Aue, Walther von der Vogelweid, Wolfram
and Gottfried of Strasburg are names which grow brighter with passing
centuries.

At the same time with this advance in letters there came, in
North-eastern France, the new Gothic style of architecture, which had
the effect to revive sculpture and in a degree restore to it the
importance it had in classic days. Now, the same artist was both
architect and sculptor, and the result was that architecture was so
arranged as to afford an honorable place to sculpture, which, in its
turn, added much to the grand and full effect of architecture.

Artists now began to study nature and the life about them in preference
to the antique, and the sculptors of the thirteenth century were
fortunate in living in a time when costumes were picturesque and suited
to artistic representations. The dress of a knight was as graceful as
one could wish, with its flowing lines and the mantle clasped at one
side of the neck, or thrown loosely over the arm and shoulder; and the
costume of the other sex, with the full folds of the lower garment
fastened by the girdle, and veiling without hiding the movement of the
figure, was scarcely less fitting for the artists use than were the
classic robes of the Greeks.

The effect of the sculpture of this period was frequently heightened by
the use of color. The draperies were enriched by gold ornaments, and
painted in rich blue and red, while the flesh parts were delicately
tinted. Colors were used with care, and often served to conceal the
defects in the sculpture itself, and were thus of great advantage. Color
was most frequently used in interior decoration, but it was not unknown
upon exterior portals, and porches were introduced to protect this
polychromy, as the painting of sculpture was called.

The subjects now represented in sculpture were far more numerous than
formerly. While the life of Christ and the Virgin still made the central
and most important topic, there were added scenes from the lives of the
saints, those who were regarded as the patrons of the city or those to
whom the edifice was dedicated being most frequently chosen. New
symbolic designs were made showing the flight of time by seasons and
months; others represented the virtues, and even the customs and habits
of the people were sometimes introduced. There were also humorous
representations, even on sacred edifices. Water-pipes and gutter-spouts
were ended with the heads of monsters and curious animals, and even with
grotesque faces; in short, the smaller details of the architecture of
this period show the vividness of the imagination of the time. For
example, the leaf-work which was used in the ornamental portions of
sculpture had hitherto copied the antique acanthus leaf; now the flowers
and leaves native to France were the models of the sculptors, and a
charming variety of life-like ornament was the result.

The church of Ste. Chapelle, at Paris, completed about 1248, was the
first edifice in which this style was seen in its full development.
Here, for the first time, the statues were not placed in the stiff,
perpendicular posture, but, by being inclined to different positions,
had a light appearance and an air of movement, which was a great relief
from the rigidity which had ruled up to this time.

The cathedral at Rheims, however, shows the perfection of
thirteenth-century art. It is conceded to be the best example of church
building of its time, and its façade the most beautiful structure of the
Middle Ages. Its wealth of sculpture is wonderful; its three great
portals, the buttresses, the space above the great window and various
other portions are so much ornamented that the whole effect is that of a
forest of sculpture, and it is difficult to turn from it to consider the
architecture of the edifice. It naturally follows that in this vast
amount of artistic work there is no equality of excellence; some of the
statues are like those of an earlier date: some are too tall and
awkward; others too short and rotund; but there are many elegant
figures, full of grace and dignity, with the drapery falling in natural
folds, and an air of life and freedom of movement about the heads quite
unknown before this time.

In one of the side portals of this cathedral there is a figure of Christ
which was not surpassed by any work of this period. The study of every
portion of the figure is so perfect as to surprise us when we remember
that anatomy was not then studied by artists as it had been in classic
times or as it has been in more recent days. This statue holds an orb in
the left hand, and the right hand is uplifted; not only the nails of the
fingers, but the structure of all the joints is skilfully indicated.

It frequently happens that the reliefs are far more excellent than the
statues of mediæval date. This is so noticeable that it would seem as if
the best sculptors preferred to make the reliefs, and that the figures
were left to those of less talent. On the pediment at Rheims the Last
Judgment is represented in five divisions, and these reliefs are among
the most beautiful sculptures of this century. The scene of the
Resurrection of the Dead is arranged in two rows of figures; a section
of it is here given (Fig. 75).

There are twenty-nine of these little figures in the whole subject, and
the variety of positions and the naturalness of the various expressions
are all that could be desired in any age of art. The forms are in good
proportions, and the faces are filled with fear, surprise, hope, and
supplication. A volume might be written upon the sculptures of the
Rheims Cathedral which would be full of interest to the student of
mediæval art.

[Illustration: FIG. 75.--FROM THE NORTH TRANSEPT OF RHEIMS CATHEDRAL.]

Critics have compared the progress and life which pervaded the art of
the thirteenth century with the spirit of the age of Phidias. The two
periods are alike in the fact that the artists of each broke away from
the traditions of those who had preceded them, and took up their work
with a desire to come nearer to nature. They were alike, too, in the
union of architecture and sculpture, and in the fact that all kinds of
sculpture were required for the adornment of a single structure.
Colossal and full-sized statues, statuettes, reliefs, and a great
variety of simply ornamental designs were lavished upon the Christian
cathedral, as they had been upon the Greek temple; and in one case as in
the other the various groups and scenes represented were intended to
show forth religious mysteries, and to illustrate the working of the
supreme power which controls the world in relation to human beings.

But I must leave this part of our subject and speak of the monumental
sculpture of the thirteenth century. While many of the tomb statues
still retained a general resemblance to those of the past, there were
many examples of new strength and progress. In a church near Le Mans the
statue of Berengaria, the wife of Richard Coeur de Lion, who died in
1219, was made with open eyes; this gives a very life-like appearance to
the face, and the whole head is as noble as that of an antique statue;
the drapery is full and free; the feet rest upon a dog, which is the
emblem of fidelity, and in the hands is a casket. There is something
about this statue which appeals to us--a human element which had been
sadly wanting in the monumental statues of the preceding centuries.

But the series of reliefs which were made for the Cathedral of St. Denis
were the most important tomb sculptures of this period. They were
sixteen in number, and represented princes of the early lines of French
sovereigns down to the thirteenth century. Of course those of the
Merovingians and Carlovingians could not be portrait statues, and the
heads of both kings and queens are all of the same type until those of
Philip the Bold, who died in 1285, and his wife, Isabella of Aragon, who
died in 1271, are reached. These two are intended to be portraits, and
they show the individual characters of these royal personages. In all
France there is no more interesting succession of monuments than these.

In Germany the Romanesque style of architecture and the sculpture which
went with it held their sway much longer than in France, and the new
Gothic style made its way very slowly in the countries north of France.
Slight traces of its influence in one way and another may be found about
the middle of the thirteenth century; but it was not until the very end
of this period that the Gothic style had affected German art, except in
the south-western portions of the country. These provinces bordered upon
France, and formed a sort of middle ground between the two nations. In
Strasburg, at the end of the century, a cathedral was built which was
one of the most splendid examples of a union of the two styles that
could be produced. The sculptures show the effect of the new French
manner in their life and ease of grouping and attitude, while they are
still crowded and over-decorated, as in the earlier days, and the fixed
architectural frame of the German style is preserved throughout. (Fig.
76.)

[Illustration: FIG. 76.--FROM THE WEST FAÇADE, STRASBURG CATHEDRAL.]

There is reason to believe that the relief of the Death of the Virgin,
at Strasburg, was the work of Sabina von Steinbach, a daughter of the
architect of the west façade of the cathedral. The grouping is fine, and
the transparent drapery, which reminds us of the same effects in
antique sculpture, is beautifully executed.

In the Cathedral of Freiburg, the nave of which was completed in 1270,
there are some very fine sculptures, which are like the Rheims works in
spirit and execution; a figure of the Madonna is one of the best statues
of the time in any country. There is much to admire in the whole of this
cathedral. Here and there in Germany there are some tomb-sculptures of
the thirteenth century, which are simple, noble, and individual; but the
progress of art here was much less rapid than in France.

Another marked event in the art history of the thirteenth century was
the introduction of sculpture into England. The few pieces of plastic
art which existed in that country before this date were not sufficient
in number or excellence to merit the name of English sculpture.

[Illustration: FIG. 77.--DUKE ROBERT OF NORMANDY.]

The first important step was made about the end of the twelfth century,
when Guillaume de Sens, a French architect, was employed to build a new
choir to Canterbury Cathedral. Not long after this the Temple Church was
erected; then Westminster Abbey followed, and at length, under Henry
III., all the arts were rapidly advanced in his kingdom. This king
summoned artists and skilled workmen from different countries, and
portrait-sculpture received especial attention in the England of that
day. By comparing English tomb-sculpture with that of other countries,
it is seen that the aim of the artists was to make the statues resemble
those whose memories they honored, far more than other nations had
done. The illustration given here, with its air of life--almost of
motion--is a good example of what I mean (Fig. 77).

The sculptures upon the English exteriors, and, indeed, upon the
interiors of edifices, were far less lavish than on the Continent; but
in Wells Cathedral, completed before 1250, there is a wealth of
sculpture for an English church of this date, and from this time forward
the plastic arts were of great importance in Great Britain.

With the beginning of the fourteenth century there were great changes in
the religious and political affairs of all Europe. The Pope no longer
held the supreme authority that had belonged to his office, and the
imperial power was also much shaken. We cannot speak of these subjects
in detail here, but the result to art of these changes was seen in a
development of individualism, and the effects of it did not show an
improvement when considered as a whole, though it has some new features
which were attractive.

In these days of which we now speak the word citizen had a far deeper
meaning than ever before, and the growth of wealth and prosperity in the
citizen classes gave a new impulse to all the activities of life, and to
art along with others.

This new life and spirit gave more freedom to artists, and they
attempted new effects, so that a far greater variety was made in their
works. The statue of the Madonna, for example, was so often repeated
that it afforded an opportunity for all sorts of experiments, by which
the sculptors tried to add to the deep feeling and the devotion that had
already been expressed in the representations of the sweet Mother of
Christ. But just here they failed; the new era brought more realism,
more likeness to nature, more freedom to the artist to put something of
himself into his work; but much of the deep thought and the devout
feeling of the thirteenth century was lost, and it cannot be said that
art was elevated in its tone.

There were influences, too, in the new state of society which permitted
details to be introduced into religious subjects which were far from
suitable or devotional; sometimes they were even comic in their effects.
For example, such scenes as allowed the representation of evil spirits
or devils were made to serve for all sorts of coarse, grotesque, and
burlesque side-play, and the little figures which represented these
powers were made to do all kinds of ridiculous capers side by side with
such serious subjects as the Last Judgment or the death scenes of
eminent men. This makes us feel, when we study the fourteenth century,
that the sculpture of the Middle Ages reached its highest point in the
thirteenth century, and soon after began to decline.

In Germany the most important sculptures of this period were executed at
Nuremberg. The Church of St. Laurence, that of St. Sebald, the
Frauenkirche, or the Church of Our Lady, are all great monuments to the
art of this city and the calm dignity and grace which marked the works
of the Nuremberg sculptors.

At the close of the century, between 1385 and 1396, Master Heinrich den
Balier erected the "Beautiful Fountain," which is still the pride of the
city and a splendid monument of the time. In Nuremberg many of the
dwelling-houses were decorated with sculptures, and it is now one of the
most interesting places in all Germany to the student of ancient art.

We have not the space to speak in detail of the sculpture of the time;
Augsburg, Prague, Stuttgart, Bamberg, Würzburg, Cologne, and many other
German towns and cities have rich treasures of its work, but its
character is everywhere much the same, and great activity, with a
tendency toward decline, are its prominent features.

In Germany in this century ivory-carving was much practised and used
for a great variety of purposes. In these smaller works the life and
freshness, the grace and spirit of the manner of the time were very
attractive (Fig. 78).

[Illustration: FIG. 78.--IVORY RELIEF. HUNTING SCENE.]

In France the fourteenth century was much less productive of works of
art than the preceding one had been. The fact that so much had been done
in the thirteenth century--so many new churches built and so many older
ones remodelled--is one reason for this change. In this direction there
was very little left to be done. Then, too, the country was so disturbed
by wars with England that the arts of peace suffered neglect. However,
there was still much to be done to complete the grand works already
begun, and during the early part of this century a great deal was
accomplished by way of interior decoration in edifices not yet
completed, and in the making of monuments in memory of persons of rank
and importance. Those in the Cathedral of St. Denis were much increased
in number, and in all parts of France these works were multiplied.

During this century many artists from the Netherlands were employed in
France; and in the city of Dijon, which was the residence of the dukes
of Burgundy, the works of Flemish artists were very numerous.

Perhaps the most skilful of these masters was CLAUX SLUTER, who was the
favorite of Philip the Bold, and executed the splendid monument to that
duke which is now in the Museum at Dijon. He was also the sculptor of
the Moses Fountain, the decorations of the Carthusian chapel, and other
works which still remain to show how fine a sculptor he was. Sluter had
a great influence upon art, and, in fact, may be said to have
established a school the effects of which endured long after his time.

In England sculpture made no progress during the fourteenth century.
Large architectural sculptures were neither numerous nor fine.
Tomb-sculptures and monuments with portrait reliefs and statues were the
principal plastic works of the time. The habit of erecting monuments to
the dead now extended to all classes, whereas it had formerly been
confined to noble and distinguished people. The result was that the
monuments of the higher classes were more and more splendid in order to
mark the differences of rank, and much grand effect was thus produced;
but the merits of the sculpture was less than formerly, and the
monuments of this age are wanting in spirit, stiff and unattractive. The
costume of the time, too, was so ugly that it served to give a grotesque
air to many figures, and thus added to the general appearance of decline
which marked the English tomb-sculpture of the fourteenth century. It
compares unfavorably with the German monuments of the same period, and
the realistic portrait element which ruled it makes it seem like a
monotonous and feeble system of mechanics rather than a style of art.

As we have said, the sculpture of Italy was quite different from that of
the more northern countries of Europe. One great reason for this was
that individualism in art was a strong power in Italy much earlier than
in more northern countries. In Germany the early sculptors of the Middle
Ages did not put their names upon their works; they practised their art
as a religious service, and their pious devotion made them forget
themselves. Not so in Italy: there each artist wished to be known in his
works, and regarded them as works of art, done for the sake of art, and
not as acts of piety. One result of this difference was that the
northern sculptures had more of deep feeling and profound thought in
them, while the Italian works had more perfection of form.

In Italy sculpture held the second place in the decoration of churches.
Painting was preferred before it, and in spite of the influence of the
Gothic style, which extended south of the Alps, the Italians would not
give up their large wall-spaces and the splendid Christian paintings
which were their glory. They built their edifices with this end in view,
and as the same person was frequently an architect, painter and
sculptor, he knew how to arrange his plans so as to suit his ideas of
the merits of each art.

So it happened that the principal works which the sculptors did for the
church were separate objects, such as altar-pieces, fonts, pulpits, and
tombs. It rarely occurred that whole fronts of churches were covered
with sculptures, as in Germany or France, and there were few richly
sculptured portals of churches in Italy. The material mostly used for
Italian sculpture was fine white marble, which was very rarely colored;
sometimes a little gilding was used; but as a rule painting and
sculpture were not united, as they had been north of the Alps.

However, the sculptors of Italy had a wider range in art than in other
lands; for being less devoted to the service of the church, they were
employed for more secular works. It is true that the separate statues of
the Madonna were very numerous, and that tomb-sculpture was important;
but added to these there were civil monuments to show forth the glory of
the cities and their great men, and there were public fountains and
other sculptures which told of the splendor and fame of each one of the
many petty powers into which the whole country was divided. The
council-halls of the free cities were very fine, and gave great
opportunity to Italian artists to give variety to their works, and the
sculptors very early excelled in reliefs, which told historical stones
with great clearness.

As early as the beginning of the thirteenth century we can trace the
progress of Italian sculpture by telling the story of the lives of
separate artists. The first man of importance who thus claims our
attention is NICOLA PISANO, who was born at Pisa between 1205 and 1207,
and who, according to the custom of his time, was both architect and
sculptor. When he was but fifteen years old he received an appointment
as architect to Frederic II., with whom he went to Naples; he served
this sovereign ten years, and then went to Padua, where he was employed
as the architect of the Basilica of St. Anthony.

In 1237 Nicola made his first essay in sculpture, and executed a relief
representing the Deposition from the Cross, which still remains in its
place over one of the side doors of the Cathedral of San Martino at
Lucca. This work was most excellent as the attempt of a young artist,
and it was also excellent when compared with the work of other Italian
sculptors who had preceded him. (Fig. 79.)

[Illustration: FIG. 79.--RELIEF BY NICOLA PISANO. _Lucca._]

During the twelve years following this time Nicola Pisano was chiefly
employed as an architect, and it was not until 1260 that he established
his fame as a sculptor; but when we consider the pulpit for the
Baptistery of Pisa, which he now did, it is plain that he must have
given much thought and study to sculpture since his first work at Lucca;
and this last work has such qualities as indicate that he had studied
the sculpture of classic days. The work upon this pulpit is a wonderful
advance upon the sculpture of the period; and though there are marks of
his inexperience in its arrangement, as a whole it is above criticism
when the time to which it belonged and the circumstances of its
sculpture are taken into account. (Fig. 80.)

Nicola went next to Bologna to make a sarcophagus to contain the remains
of St. Dominick, who had died there in 1221. This burial-case was
completed in 1267, and is very interesting as an illustration of the art
of the thirteenth century. The next work of this sculptor was a pulpit
for the Cathedral of Siena. When he undertook this work he agreed to
live at Siena until it was completed, with the exception of short visits
to Pisa--four in each year. He had assistants in this work, and it was
completed in about a year and a half. Meantime he exerted a great
influence upon the sculpture of Siena, which up to this time had
amounted to little more than good stone-cutting. Indeed, Nicola Pisano
had an effect upon the art of all Italy: in the north at Padua, in the
south at Naples, and in Central Italy at Pisa, Lucca, and Siena.

[Illustration: FIG. 80.--RELIEF FROM THE PULPIT AT PISA. _Nicola
Pisano._]

In 1269 he was commissioned to build a convent and an abbey at La
Scorgola, which are now in ruins. In 1274 Nicola commenced his last
work, the Fountain of Perugia. He did not remain constantly in that
city, but after making the plans he left his son Giovanni in charge of
the work, while he returned to Pisa and occupied himself with making the
figures for its decoration. This fountain was held in such esteem that
laws were enacted for its preservation, and it was called the most
valuable possession of the city, while some went so far as to say that
it could not be surpassed in the world. Even now, after all it has
suffered from time and weather, it commands our admiration.

In 1278 Nicola died, after a life of great achievements. He left an
untarnished name, too, for he had been loved and respected by all his
associates, and as patron, friend, and servant had done all his duty.
Mr. Perkins, in his "Tuscan Sculptors," says of him: "Inestimable were
the services rendered to art by this great man. He gave the death-blow
to Byzantinism and barbarism; established new architectural principles;
founded a new school of sculpture in Italy, and opened men's eyes to the
degraded state of art by showing them where to study and how to study;
so that Cimabue, Guido da Siena, the Masuccios and the Cosmati all
profited by his pervading and enduring influence. Never hurried by an
ill-regulated imagination into extravagances, he was careful in
selecting his objects of study and his methods of self-cultivation; an
indefatigable worker, who spared neither time nor strength in obedience
to the numerous calls made upon him from all parts of the peninsula; now
in Pisa, then in Naples, Padua, Siena, Lucca, or Florence; here to
design a church, there to model a bas-relief, erect a pulpit, a palace
or a tower; by turns architect and sculptor, great in both, original in
both, a reviver in both, laying deep and well the foundations of his
edifices by hitherto unpractised methods, and sculpturing his
bas-reliefs upon principles evolved from the study of antique models
long unheeded. Ever respected and esteemed by the many persons of all
classes with whom he came in contact, he was truly a great man--one to
whom the world owes an eternal debt of gratitude, and who looms up in
gigantic proportions through the mist of five centuries, holding the
same relation to Italian art which Dante holds to Italian literature."

FRA GUGLIELMO D'AGNELLO (1238-1314?), also a Pisan, was a pupil of
Nicola Pisano, and worked with him at Bologna. There is little to be
said of his works after his master's death.

GIOVANNI PISANO (about 1240-1320) was born at Pisa, and though a pupil
of his father and a co-worker with him, he seems to have fallen under
some other and a very different influence. In architecture he preferred
the Gothic style, and in sculpture he was fond of all sorts of fantastic
action and expression; his works were full of exaggeration. He was an
architect as well as sculptor, and was a master in his own right when
twenty years old, and in 1268 he went to Naples to design a church for
the Franciscans; he was also the architect of the episcopal palace
there.

After the death of his father the Pisans were anxious to retain Giovanni
in their service; he first transformed an old church into a new one in
the pointed style of architecture. It was named Santa Maria della Spina,
because a rich merchant had presented one of the thorns from the crown
of Christ to it. This was the first building in Italy of this style of
architecture. Giovanni next built the Campo Santo of Pisa. Many
shiploads of earth had been brought from Palestine to Pisa in order to
make a burial-place in which Christians could be laid in the sacred
earth. Giovanni Pisano inclosed the spot where this earth was laid with
walls and arranged the interior of the inclosure in such a way that it
could be extensively decorated with works of art. He made it the most
beautiful Campo Santo in Italy. Many of the sculptures are by his own
hand. (Fig. 81.)

This allegorical representation of Pisa was the first attempt at making
large statues in Italy since the days of the Emperor Constantine. The
city stands alone, and is a proud princess with a diadem, holding in her
arms two infants to indicate her fruitfulness. Below her are four
statues of the cardinal virtues, Temperance being a nude figure. It is a
very strange work, and in some respects not attractive, but it shows the
originality of the sculptor; the principal figure has much intensity of
expression.

[Illustration: FIG. 81.--CAMPO SANTO OF PISA. _Giovanni Pisano._]

From this monument and his other works in Pisa, Giovanni became famous,
and was called to Siena to build the front of the cathedral. The people
of Siena held out every inducement to him to make his home there, by
freeing him from taxes for life; but after three years he went to
Perugia, where he erected a monument which has been destroyed. After
this time he devoted himself entirely to sculpture, and executed a
variety of works at Arezzo, Pistoja, Florence, Perugia, and Cortona. In
1312 he commenced the rebuilding of the cathedral at Prato.

We have not the space to speak of his works in detail. The Campo Santo
has more of interest than the others, and is Romanesque in its
character; and yet it is true that he employed Gothic forms far more
than any other. Some authors credit Giovanni with having introduced an
independent art into Italy; but let that be as it may, he had not the
feeling for beauty, neither had he the repose which was such a charm in
the works of his father. At the same time his works are full of life and
dramatic action, and could never have been designed or executed by any
man who had not an uncommon genius.

ARNOLFO DI CAMBIO (1232-1310) was also a pupil of Nicola Pisano, and
though eight years older than Giovanni Pisano he did not become an
independent master until after Giovanni had won much fame. There are
some works in Rome which are attributed to Arnolfo, but as there are
uncertainties about his being their author, it is not best for us to
discuss them here. He erected at Orvieto, in the church of San Domenico,
a monument to the Cardinal de Braye. It was a very elaborate work, and
the statue of the Madonna, which is placed above that of the cardinal,
is full of majestic spirit and dignified repose. This is the only
well-authenticated sculptural work by Arnolfo, but this is one of the
most finished monuments of the art of the Pisan school, and is quite
sufficient to bring his name through the centuries with honor.

ANDREA PISANO (1270-1345) is principally famous as a bronze-caster, and
his chief work was the making of the gates to the Baptistery of
Florence, which have since been replaced by those of Ghiberti. When
these gates were finished, in 1339, the Signory went in procession to
view them; this proves in what esteem they must have been held, for the
Signory never left the Palazzo Vecchio in a body except on the most
important occasions. After examining the gates they conferred the honor
of citizenship upon the sculptor. These gates told the story of John
the Baptist, and the work is full of sentiment, beauty, and simplicity,
while the design is pure, the draperies full of elegant grace, and the
execution of the whole almost perfect.

NINO PISANO was the son of the latter. The time of his birth is not
known; he died before 1361. His works are pleasing, and he especially
excelled in drapery. They are not numerous, and are seen in the churches
of Pisa.

But by far the most important pupil of Andrea Pisano, and, indeed, the
most important Tuscan master of the end of the fourteenth century, was
ANDREA ARCAGNUOLO DI CIONE, commonly called ANDREA ORCAGNA (1329-1376?).
This artist was the son of Maestro Cione, a goldsmith of Florence.
Orcagna was an architect, goldsmith, sculptor, painter, mosaist, and
poet. Painting is the art by which he is best known and of which he
executed the greatest number of interesting works. In this place we
shall speak of his most important work as a sculptor, which was the
tabernacle in the church of Or San Michele, in Florence, made to hold
the picture of the Madonna painted by Ugolino da Siena. This tabernacle
is of white marble in the Gothic style. It rises from the centre high up
toward the roof of the church, and has sculptures in bas-relief,
statuettes and busts, all illustrating the life of the Virgin from her
birth to her death. It is also enriched with mosaics, intaglios,
enamels, gilded glass, _pietra dura_, and all of these arranged in a
whole which is quite unique in art. It may be regarded as a piece of
architecture or as a sculptural work, and it is full of symbolism; and
whatever view is taken of it, it commands admiration for the artist who
conceived and executed so difficult a task.

During the later years of the fourteenth century there were many
sculptors in Italy of whom we know very little more than their names.
They did a vast amount of work in all parts of the country, much of
which is still to be seen. One of these, of whom few personal facts are
known, exerted a large influence in Florence, where the fruits of his
industry were almost marvellous. He was called PIETRO DI GIOVANNI and
PIETRO TEDESCO, or "the German". The time and place of his birth are not
known, but the records show that he worked on the Cathedral of Florence
from 1386 to 1399. He worked in true German style; wherever scroll-work
and simple ornamental designs were required he mingled a variety of
leaves and flowers where the acanthus alone had before been used. He
also made fantastic little human beings, dwarfs and grotesque beings of
different sorts, and exhausted the animal world in his designs. Lions,
bears, apes, dogs, lizards, crabs, birds and fish, bees, butterflies,
and all manner of insects may be seen nestling among vines and branches,
while angels play on pipes and violas. The whole effect of these works
is cheerful and natural, and would be as suitable to decorate a music
hall or a theatre as they are for a church.

The works of this master are too extreme in the realistic element to be
taken as a fair example of the Italian sculpture of this time, but
NICCOLÒ OF ARREZZO, the MASSEGNE, and the BON or BUONI family, and many
others in different portions of the country contributed to put aside the
stiff, formal manner of the past, and to bring in the more sympathetic
and natural one of the fifteenth century. In truth, the last decades of
the fourteenth century were a transition period, when art was bursting
its bonds, and was preparing for the glorious works of the golden days
of sculpture in Italy.



CHAPTER V.

ITALIAN SCULPTURE IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.


There was no one great influence or circumstance which led up to the
revival of art and letters which took place in the fifteenth century,
and which is known under the general name of the Renaissance. Its causes
were many, and may be traced in every department of the life of the
Middle Ages--in religion, politics, learning, and the habits of the
people. This is far too great a topic for us to enter on here, and we
must keep to the one matter which we have in hand.

In Italy, heretofore, as we have shown, sculpture had been almost
entirely separated from other arts, and stood by itself. Its works had
been the smaller objects of which we have spoken; and though these were
oftentimes splendid in their design and execution, they did not afford
the sculptor the same broad field for his work as he has when his
productions are combined with architecture. Now all this was changed.
The French and German artists had brought out a style of architecture of
their own, the Italians pursued another course, and went back to classic
art for their teaching, and now every opportunity was given for
sculpture to assume its utmost importance; and the art of ancient Greece
was studied with all the enthusiasm of the Italian nature.

The masters of Florence, or, rather, of Tuscany, were of great
importance in the beginning of the new movement, and I shall speak
first of them. FRANCESCO SQUARCIONE, who lived from 1396 to 1474, was a
painter, and travelled into Greece to collect antique objects, and made
many drawings from the monuments which he saw. He established a school
in Padua, and his museum was of advantage to sculptors as well as to
painters. Other Tuscan artists who were in love with classic art
wandered among its remains in Rome and other parts of Italy, and brought
back to their homes a greater knowledge of sculpture, as well as the
drawings which they had made; and in this part of Italy the Renaissance
early made itself a living, active power.

Among the very first of these sculptors was JACOPO DELLA QUERCIA
(1374-1438), who was so called from the little market town of Quercia,
near Siena, in which he was born. His father was a goldsmith, and
instructed his son in his art; but the boy loved sculpture, and studied
it under one Luca di Giovanni. When but nineteen years old he made an
equestrian statue of wood, and covered it with cloth, and painted it to
represent marble in a manner which proved him to be an artist. About
this time he left his home, and the next that we know of him was about
ten years later, when his design for the gates of the Baptistery of
Florence was pronounced to be next in merit to those of Ghiberti and
Brunelleschi.

In 1408 Quercia went to Ferrara, where he did several works. While there
he was called by the Signory of Siena to make a new fountain in the
Piazza del Campo. This was a beautiful work, and even in this century,
though much injured, its remaining sculptures prove that it must have
been a wonder in its day. It has been restored after the original model
by Quercia, who was often called Jacopo della Fonte on account of this
work. He executed some sculptures in Lucca, but his masterpiece was the
decoration of the great portal of the Basilica of San Petronio, at
Bologna. (Fig. 82.)

The fifteen reliefs here represent the history of Adam and Eve, and
other stories from the creation to the deluge. They show the full
freedom and power of Quercia's style, and are among the most attractive
of all the Tuscan sculptures of this period. Duringd the last years of
his life this artist was employed as superintendent of the works upon
the Cathedral of Siena, in which city he died.

[Illustration: FIG. 82.--RELIEF BY JACOPO DELLA QUERCIA. _Bologna._]

We come now to speak of the famous LORENZO GHIBERTI (1378-1455), who was
born in Florence, and was both a goldsmith and sculptor; and though his
fame rests upon his bas-reliefs, yet the exquisite detail and careful
finish in them came from his practice of the goldsmith's art. In 1398 a
plague broke out in Florence, and Ghiberti fled to Rimini for safety.
While there he painted a few pictures; but his name is so linked with
the splendid gates which he made for the Baptistery of Florence that it
is of those that one naturally thinks when his name is heard.

We have spoken of the gates which Andrea Pisano had made to this
Baptistery long before; these were for the south side; and when, in
1400, the plague again visited Florence the people believed that the
wrath of Heaven should be appeased by a thank-offering. Accordingly the
Guild of Wool-merchants promised to add gates on the north and east of
the Baptistery of St. John the Baptist.

A time was appointed for the examination of designs, and many artists
entered into the competition, and sent in their drawings and models. A
great number of these represented the Sacrifice of Isaac. At length all
the models were set aside but two, and these were made by Brunelleschi
and Ghiberti; then the former declared that he thought his rival's
design the best, thus showing a nobility of character which cannot be
too much praised.

The commission was thus given to Ghiberti, who first executed the
northern gates. He began them in 1403, and finished them twenty-one
years later. They illustrate the life of Christ in twenty scenes; they
have also the figures of the evangelists and the four Fathers of the
Church in a beautiful framework of foliage, animals, and other
ornamental figures, which divides and incloses the larger compositions.
These gates are done in a manner much in advance of that of Pisano, and
yet they retain some features of an earlier style which are not found in
Ghiberti's later works. But from the first he showed original talent, as
one may see by his model of the Sacrifice of Isaac, which is preserved
in the Museum of the Bargello, beside that of Brunelleschi.

These northern gates are very beautiful, but those on the east are far
more so; it is of these last that Michael Angelo declared, "They are
worthy to be the gates of Paradise!" These are divided into ten
compartments, representing: 1, Creation of Adam and Eve; 2, History of
Cain and Abel; 3, Noah; 4, Abraham and Isaac; 5, Jacob and Esau; 6,
History of Joseph; 7, Moses on Mount Sinai; 8, Joshua before Jericho; 9,
David and Goliath; 10, Solomon and the Queen of Sheba (Fig. 83).

This sculptor showed great skill for one in his age, but to us there is
some disappointment in them on account of the crowded appearance of the
figures. Familiarity with them, however, reveals their beauty, and we
find that, in truth, the stories Ghiberti wished to tell are brought out
with much distinctness. They will ever remain one of the great monuments
of the sculpture of the Renaissance.

Ghiberti endeavored to introduce fine backgrounds to his reliefs, which
gave him an opportunity to add figures illustrating other incidents than
the principal one of the work. His sculptures show the influence of the
Gothic style, the study of nature and that of the antique all combined;
with these are united his own power of conception, his ability in
design, and his wonderful delicacy of execution. These gates have been
continually studied by the artists of his own and succeeding
generations.

The next work of importance by Ghiberti is the sarcophagus of St.
Zenobius in the Cathedral of Florence. Other lesser sculptures are in
other churches in Florence and in the Cathedral of Siena.

We come now to one of the most interesting sculptors of the fifteenth
century. DONATELLO he was called, but his real name was DONATO DI BETTO
BARDI (1386-1468). He was born in Florence, and from his boyhood was a
member of the family of the rich banker Ruberto Martelli, who was the
firm friend of the sculptor for life, and when he died he provided in
his will that the works by Donatello which he bequeathed to his family
should never be pledged, sold, or given away, but kept as a perpetual
inheritance for his heirs. Donatello was a realist, and followed nature
with great exactness. This was not always productive of beauty in his
works; indeed, some of them are very ugly, and a story which illustrates
this is told of himself and Brunelleschi. Donatello had made a crucifix,
carved from wood, for the Church of Santa Croce, and when it was
finished he asked Brunelleschi's opinion of it. This latter artist was
principally an architect; but as he had learned the goldsmith's trade,
he executed some sculptures, and a close friendship existed between
himself and Donatello. Relying on their love for each other,
Brunelleschi frankly told Donatello that his crucifix was very ugly, and
his figure of Christ like that of a day-laborer, whereas it should
represent a person of the greatest possible beauty.

[Illustration: FIG. 83.--FROM THE EASTERN GATES. _Showing compartments
6, 8, and 10._]

Donatello was very angry at this, and exclaimed, "It is easier to
criticise than to execute; do you take a piece of wood and make a better
crucifix!" Brunelleschi determined to do this, and when his work was
finished he invited Donatello to sup with him. He placed the crucifix in
a conspicuous place in his house, and then took Donatello with him to
the market to buy their food. He gave the parcels to Donatello, and
asked him to go before to the house, saying that he would soon follow.
When Donatello entered and saw the crucifix he was so delighted at the
sight that he forgot everything else, and dropped the eggs, cheese, and
all on the floor, and stood gazing at the carving as motionless as if he
were a statue himself. When Brunelleschi came he said, "What are we to
do now? You have spoiled all the dinner!"

"I have had dinner enough for to-day," replied Donatello. "You may have
a better appetite. To you, I confess, belongs the power of carving the
figure of Christ; to me that of representing day-laborers."

This famous crucifix by Brunelleschi is now in the Gondi Chapel of the
Church of Santa Maria Novella; that by Donatello is in the chapel of
Saints Ludovico and Bartolommeo in the Church of Santa Croce.

The Annunciation cut from sandstone, which is in Santa Croce, is one of
his earliest works, and is full of grace and nobleness (Fig. 84). He
made some beautiful groups of dancing children, which are now in the
Uffizi Gallery; but he considered his David, which is in the same
gallery, as his masterpiece. He was so proud of it that he swore by it,
saying, "By the faith I have in my Zuccone!" This word means bald-head,
and had come to be used as the usual name for the David.

[Illustration: FIG. 84.--THE ANNUNCIATION. _By Donatello._]

But in spite of his liking for the David, it is generally thought that
his St. George, on the exterior of the Church of Or San Michele, is far
better. The German art-writer Grimm thus speaks of this work: "What a
man is the St. George in the niche of the Church of Or San Michele! He
stands there in complete armor, sturdily, with his legs somewhat
striding apart, resting on both with equal weight, as if he meant to
stand so that no power could move him from his post. Straight before him
he holds up his high shield; both hands touch its edge, partly for the
sake of holding it, partly in order to rest on it; the eyes and brows
are full of expectant boldness.... We approach this St. George, and the
mere artistic interest is transformed suddenly into a more lively
sympathy with the person of the master.... Who is it, we ask, who has
placed such a man there, so ready for battle?" (Fig. 85.)

[Illustration: FIG. 85.--STATUE OF ST. GEORGE. _By Donatello._]

Donatello's impetuosity led him into many rash acts. Among other
instances of this it is related that a rich Genoese merchant gave an
order for a portrait bust of himself in bronze; when it was finished the
great Duke Cosimo de' Medici, who was a friend of Donatello, admired the
work so much that he placed it on his balcony, so that all Florentines
who passed by could see it. When the merchant was given the price of the
bust he objected to it, and it was referred to Duke Cosimo for
settlement. In the conversation the Genoese said that the bust could be
made in a month, and that he was willing to pay the artist a dollar a
day for his time and labor.

When Donatello heard this he exclaimed, "I know how to destroy the
result of the study of years in the twinkling of an eye!" and he threw
the bust into the street below, where it was broken into fragments. Then
the merchant was deeply mortified, and offered the sculptor double the
price he had asked if he would repeat the work; but though Donatello
sadly needed the money he would not do this, and persisted in his
refusal, even when Cosimo de' Medici tried to persuade him to consent.

When Donatello was old Duke Cosimo gave him an allowance which would
support himself and four workmen; but in spite of this Donatello wore
such shabby clothes that Cosimo sent him a red surcoat, a mantle and
hood. These Donatello returned, saying they were far too fine for him.
When the sculptor at length became feeble and bedridden his benefactor
had died, but Piero de' Medici, the son of Cosimo, was careful to keep
him in comfort; and when he died his funeral was attended with much
ceremony. He was buried near Duke Cosimo, in the Church of San Lorenzo.

Several of Donatello's works are in this church, and are a more suitable
monument to his memory than any that could be made by other hands.

The works of Donatello are numerous, both in marble and bronze, and in
both these substances he made statues and reliefs. We cannot speak in
detail of all that he accomplished; but as he lived in an age when every
advance in art was an event in history, we must not forget to say that
he made the first equestrian statue which had been produced since the
time of the Romans. This statue is in Padua, in front of the Church of
San Antonio; it is of colossal size, and represents the Venetian General
Gattamelata; and though it does not satisfy our conception as an
equestrian statue, it is worthy of some praise when we remember all the
circumstances of its origin. It is not probable that Donatello had ever
seen an antique equestrian statue, unless it might have been that of
Marcus Aurelius, which was found in the Forum in 1187; no modern statues
existed as examples for him; he was not familiar with the modelling of
horses, and for every reason it was a bold thing for him to undertake
such a work.

Donatello had more influence upon the art of his time than any other
Tuscan sculptor, with the single exception of Michael Angelo. As a man
he was honest, simple, and upright in all his dealings; as a friend he
was loyal and faithful; as a Christian he was humble and charitable, and
left behind him a name which has been handed down through more than four
centuries with respect and honor.

LUCA DELLA ROBBIA (1400-1481) is another native of Florence, whose name
is widely known. Like many others, he began life as a goldsmith, and in
this way gained a mastery over detail and a finish of style that are
remarkable in all his works. He turned his attention to sculpture early
in life, and was so enthusiastic in his pursuit of this art that he
worked night and day, minding neither cold nor hunger and fatigue; in
the beginning he made numerous wax models, which have perished, and with
all his industry we have no work of his before he was forty-five years
old, except the reliefs of Music, Philosophy, Geometry, Grammar and
Astronomy, Plato and Aristotle, Ptolemy and Euclid, and a man playing a
lute, which are set into the side of the Campanile at Florence, and two
scenes from the life of St. Peter, which are in the Uffizi.

In the same gallery are also the series of reliefs which Luca began when
forty-five years old for the balustrade of an organ in the cathedral.
These reliefs represent boys singing, dancing, and playing on musical
instruments (Fig. 86). The attitudes are so graceful and so varied, and
the expressions on the faces are so many, that there is much to admire
in a subject which in unskilful hands would be very monotonous.

[Illustration: FIG. 86.--DANCING BOYS. _By Luca della Robbia._]

No sculptures since the classic days represent child-life with such
freshness and charming qualities, and these alone would have raised Luca
to a high rank as a sculptor. In the Uffizi one is able to examine these
works closely, and they gain by this nearness to the eye, which enables
one to see the minuteness of his finish. There are various works of his
in bronze and marble still to be seen in the churches of Florence, but
the special art to which he gave his attention was to the perfecting of
enamel upon terra-cotta--on the making of what is known as the Robbia
ware. In this he achieved a great success, and his bas-reliefs are very
beautiful. At first he used but few colors, but later he increased their
number, and was able to produce a combined effect of painting and relief
that is very pleasing.

These works were used for altar-pieces, medallions on exteriors,
fountains, wall decoration, and a great variety of purposes. Twelve
medallions representing the months, which are in the South Kensington
Museum, are said to have been made by Luca to decorate a writing cabinet
for one of the Medici.

Luca worked with his nephew, Andrea, who had four sons; and when Luca
died his secrets belonged to them, and made their fortunes. They were
occupied eleven years in making a frieze to a hospital in Pistoja; it
represented the Seven Acts of Mercy. One of them went to France and
decorated the Château of Madrid for Francis I. Pope Leo X. employed
another to pave the Loggie of the Vatican with Robbia tiles, and these
wares, in one form and another, were used in numberless ways, both
useful and decorative.

The Robbia family was followed by other workers in glazed ware, and
during about a century it was a prominent feature in art, and then was
gradually given up.

The most noted pupil of Donatello was ANDREA DEL VEROCCHIO (1432-1488).
He was born at Florence, and was early apprenticed to a goldsmith called
Verocchio, from whom the sculptor took his surname. It is said that this
name came from the fact that the elder Verocchio had remarkable
exactness of sight.

Neither the metal works nor the paintings which Verocchio did remain,
and after about 1466 he devoted himself entirely to sculpture. It is
difficult to associate him with Donatello; his execution is finished
like most sculptors who were also metal-workers; his nude parts are true
to nature, but not graceful or attractive, and his draperies are in
small folds, which give a tumbled, crumpled effect rather than that of
the easy, graceful falling of soft material.

His best works are a David in the Museum of the Bargello, Florence; a
bronze Genius pressing a Dolphin to itself on a fountain in the court of
the Palazzo Vecchio (Fig. 87); an equestrian statue of Colleoni before
the Church of San Giovanni e Paolo, Venice (Fig. 88); and a group of St.
Thomas examining the Wounds of Christ at the Church of Or San Michele,
Florence. This last work is in his best and latest manner; the
expression is powerful, but the drapery is still very faulty.

[Illustration: FIG. 87.--BOY WITH DOLPHIN. _By Verocchio._]

Although this equestrian statue is called by Verocchio's name, he did
not live to see it completed; and though it was without doubt made from
his design, still some credit for its execution is due to Alessandro
Leopardo, who finished it. When Colleoni died he left all his large
fortune to the Republic of Venice on condition that they should erect
an equestrian monument to him in the square of St. Mark. As it was
forbidden by the laws of Venice to place such things in the Piazza of
St. Mark, it was placed in its present position, before the Church of
San Giovanni e Paolo, on the square of the School of St. Mark, and it
was thought that this answered the requirements of the will.

[Illustration: FIG. 88.--STATUE OF COLLEONI. _By Verocchio._]

When Verocchio had gone to Venice and had modelled the horse, he was
told that the Signory intended to have the rider made by another
sculptor. He felt this to be an insult, and broke off the head and legs
of the horse, and left Venice for Florence. The Signory issued a decree
forbidding him to set foot again on Venetian soil under pain of death.
The sculptor replied that he should not take the risk, as he well knew
that the Signory could take off his head, and he could not put it on,
while he could replace his horse's head with a better one. The Venetians
knew that this was true, and repealed their decree, and doubling his
pay, asked him to come to complete his work. Verocchio consented to do
so, but had not been long in Venice when he died. Verocchio is said to
have spent much time in drawing from the antique, and his works prove
him to have been diligent and painstaking; these qualities made him the
sculptor that he was; but we see no traces in his work of the
heaven-born genius which makes the artist great, and so inspires himself
that his works fill all beholders with an enthusiasm in a degree akin to
his own; the works of such artists as Verocchio, who have only the
excellencies which come from patient industry, interest us, but they
cannot move our hearts.

It often happened in Italy that a number of artists belonged to the same
family, as in the case of the Robbias. One such family had the name of
GAMBARELLI, but were known in art as the ROSSELLINI. There were five
sculptors of this name, all brothers. Two of them had great ability,
Bernardo and Antonio. Bernardo was most distinguished as an architect,
and some very celebrated edifices were built from his designs; he also
executed some excellent sculptures, among which are the fine monument of
Lionardo Bruni in the Church of Santa Croce, and that of the Beata
Villana in Santa Maria Novella, Florence. The first is one of the best
monuments in Tuscany. In the Uffizi are a bust of St. John, a charming
work, and a portrait bust of Battista Sforza.

ANTONIO ROSSELLINO (1427-1490), called PROCONSOLO, from the quarter of
Florence in which he was born, was by far the best sculptor of the
family. He is called a pupil of Donatello, but his work very closely
resembles that of Ghiberti. Among his best works are the monument to
Cardinal Portogallo, in the Church of San Miniato, near Florence; that
of Mary of Aragon in Monte Oliveto at Naples; a relief of the Nativity
in the same church, and a relief of the Adoring Madonna in the Uffizi
Gallery. His characteristics were grace, delicacy of treatment,
sweetness of expression, and all these combined with a noble dignity.

Other Tuscan sculptors of this period were DESIDERIO DA SETTIGNANO, MINO
DA FIESOLE (1400-1486), ANDREA FERRUCCI (1465-1526), and BENEDETTO DA
MAJANO (1442-1498), who was eminent as an architect as well as for his
sculpture. His father was a stone-cutter, and two other sons in the
family were artists. Benedetto began life as a worker in wooden mosaics,
or intarsiatore, as it is called. He made two beautiful inlaid chests,
and carried them to Hungary as a gift to King Matthias Corvinus, whose
fame as a patron of art had reached his ears. But the young artist was
doomed to a dreadful disappointment, for when he unpacked his chests in
the presence of the king it was found that the sea-damp had spoiled
them, and the mosaics had fallen apart. Benedetto then determined to
work in more durable materials, and executed some sculptures in marble
and terra-cotta while he remained in Hungary.

After his return to Florence, Benedetto worked as an architect, and the
Strozzi Palace was built after his design. His masterpiece in sculpture
was the monument to Filippo Strozzi, in the Strozzi Chapel in Santa
Maria Novella, and it also merits mention among the best works of the
fifteenth century. A pulpit in Santa Croce, by Benedetto, is also very
fine, and his skill was shown here in his supporting the pulpit against
a column and putting the staircase by which the pulpit is entered inside
the column; thus it was concealed, and the building in no wise weakened,
while the pulpit is far more beautiful than it would be were the
staircase in sight.

Benedetto was summoned to Naples by the Duke of Calabria, who gave him
commissions which occupied him for two years. Few Tuscan sculptors have
produced more pleasing works than Benedetto's; though not profound they
are pleasing and unaffected, and in whatever frame of mind one may be,
they do not disturb, but rather soothe and charm, as they could not do
if they were false in sentiment or executed in an affected manner.

MATTEO CIVITALI DI GIOVANNI (1435-1501) was born in Lucca, but studied
art in Florence. His statue of St. Sebastian in the Cathedral of Lucca
was so much admired by the painter Perugino that he copied it in his
picture of the Entombment.

Civitali's chief work in sculpture was the tomb of Pietro da Noceto in
the same cathedral. In Genoa, in the Chapel of St. John the Baptist, he
executed six statues and five bas-reliefs. A bas-relief of Faith by
Civitali in the Uffizi Gallery is a fine work, full of earnestness and
deep religious feeling.

Civitali was also an accomplished architect, and did much to improve the
style of building in Lucca. The beautiful temple of the Volto Santo in
the cathedral was designed by him.

This sculptor may be said to have had four different styles of work. The
St. Sebastian was in his earliest manner, and is simply realistic; his
second manner was the best; it is pure and dignified in conception,
while deep feeling pervades all; the tomb of Noceto was in this second
style; his third manner was more free and less pure, while the fourth,
as seen in his work at Genoa, is full of extravagant exaggeration.

Next to the sculptors of the Tuscan or Florentine school of this period
were those of Venice in importance and independence of manner. This
school was much influenced by that of Tuscany because of the nearness of
the two cities and the constant communication between them, as well as
by the fact that Tuscan sculptors were more or less employed in Venice.
One of the earliest Venetian sculptors was ANTONIO GIOVANNI BREGNO,
called ANTONIO RIZZO or RICCIO (about 1430-1498?). Although he was born
in Verona, and there had the opportunity to study the Roman ruins which
are the pride of the city, he is yet essentially an artist of Venice,
since he spent most of his life there, and was even at the head of the
workshop for the sculptors who worked upon the palace. One little
episode in the life of this artist was an expedition to Scutari with the
Venetian soldiers, who went to its defence against the Turks. Rizzo
showed himself so brave in action, and was so severely wounded, that
after his return to Venice the Senate gave him a pension which lasted
through twenty years. Rizzo so won the confidence of the Venetians that
he was appointed to important offices with large salaries, and it is sad
to be forced to add that he proved to be a dishonest man, and when his
accounts were examined he fled to Foligno, where he soon died. We will
not speak of him as an architect; as a sculptor he is known by statues
of Adam and Eve in niches opposite the Giant's Staircase in the Ducal
Palace, and by sepulchral monuments in the Church of the Frari. While
his works cannot be highly praised for beauty, they do show the style of
the Renaissance distinctly.

LOMBARDO is the family name of three sculptors of this period in Venice.
They were PIETRO and his two sons, TULLIO and ANTONIO, and the three
together are spoken of as the Lombardi. Pietro, the father, was as much
an architect as a sculptor, and the works of the father and son are so
associated that it is difficult to speak of them separately. We know
that Tullio was the superior artist of the three, but there are no works
of theirs that command a detailed description here. The monument to the
Doge Pietro Mocenigo, in the Church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo, the angels
of the font in San Martino, an altar-relief in the altar of San Giovanni
Crisostomo, reliefs on the front of the Scuola di San Marco, and two
reliefs in the Church of San Antonio at Padua, are the principal
sculptures of the Lombardi.

ALESSANDRO LEOPARDO, who flourished about 1490, was the most eminent
bronze-caster of his time, and was distinguished for the happy manner in
which he adapted classic ideas to his needs in his works.

Very little is known of the life of this sculptor, and that little is
not to his credit. He lived in Venice, and had a studio in the Piazza
del Cavallo, and in 1487 committed a forgery, for which he was banished
from the city. But when Verocchio died, leaving the Colleoni statue
unfinished, the Senate desired to have it completed by Leopardo, so they
sent him a safe-conduct for six months, and he returned to Venice. As
there is no account of his again leaving the city, it is supposed that
he was allowed to remain as long as he chose. There has been much
difference of opinion as to which artist--Verocchio or Leopardo--should
be credited with the excellence of the Colleoni statue. The truth, as
near as it can be told, seems to be that Verocchio designed and modelled
it, that Leopardo completed and cast it, and made the lofty pedestal
upon which it stands, and which, taken by itself, is a splendid work. It
is of fine proportions, and has six Corinthian columns, in the capitals
of which there are dolphins, while the frieze is composed of trophies
and marine animals, all of which are symbols of the City on the Sea
which erected the monument.

After the Colleoni statue was unveiled the Senate gave Leopardo an order
for three standard bases of bronze to be placed in the Piazza of St.
Mark's. He also made three splendid candelabra for the Venetian Academy.
Leopardo was also an architect. The time of his death is very
uncertain, but a writer speaks of him in 1541 as "the new glory of our
age, who shines like a star in the Venetian waters."

Although an immense amount of sculpture of this period remains in
various parts of Italy, it is very difficult to trace the story of
separate artists and to give a satisfactory account of those whose works
are worthy of high praise. There is scarcely an Italian city of any size
which has not some splendid remains of this morning of the Renaissance.
In Ancona there are the portal of San Francesco and the front of
Mercanzia, with which the name of Giorgio da Sebenico is associated. At
Rimini the Church of San Francesco, with its wealth of plastic ornament,
cannot be ascribed to any one artist or to any number with surety; it is
in the style of Luca della Robbia and Donatello, but in the execution
does not reach their standard. In Cesena, Padua, and Verona there are
fifteenth-century sculptures, and in the Milanese territory the plastic
art of this period is very interesting.

[Illustration: FIGS. 89, 90.--TERRA-COTTAS FROM THE OSPEDALE GRANDE.
_Milan._]

In Milan, in the Church of Santa Maria delle Grazie, in the Ospedale
Grande, and in the cathedral there is a wealth of sculpture to reward
the student of this art who visits them; and in the Museum of the Breda
there are many interesting works. The terra-cotta decoration of the
Ospedale excels all other works of this sort in upper Italy, and the
immense façade of this edifice is a marvel in its way (Figs. 89, 90).
The differences between this hospital and the wonderful Milan Cathedral
afford a remarkable contrast in works of the same period.

GIOVANNI ANTONIO AMADEO, or OMODEO (1447-1520), was born on a farm near
the Certosa of Pavia. When but nineteen years old his name appears as
one of those who were employed upon this splendid edifice, and the
records of his payments show that his work was well considered, even
then. Omodeo was undoubtedly the best sculptor of his time in all
Lombardy, and his sculptures in the Colleoni Chapel at Bergamo would be
sufficient to make any artist famous. The whole work may be called his,
for he designed the building and the sculptures of the façade, which are
in the richest style of the Renaissance; there are statuettes,
colonettes, busts, medallions, and bas-reliefs, and wherever a flat
surface exists it is divided into diamond-shaped slabs of colored
marbles. The portal is very much ornamented: on each side of the rose
window above this entrance there are busts of Cæsar and Augustus in
contrast with numbers of angels' heads not far away. There are
bas-reliefs representing children playing upon musical instruments, and
the whole front of the chapel, with its numerous pilasters and
colonettes, has been compared to a gigantic organ, by Mr. Perkins, in
his "Italian Sculptors".

Of the interior decoration we can only say that it is much in Omodeo's
style, though the monument to Colleoni, the founder of the chapel, is
said to be the work of German sculptors, and to have been done after
Omodeo left Bergamo.

At Pavia, Omodeo succeeded Guiniforte as chief architect of the Certosa,
and designed the façade, which was made by him and his successors. The
bas-relief of the Deposition from the Cross, which is on the front of
the high-altar here, is the work of Omodeo. At Cremona and at Isola
Bella he executed some monuments, but at length, in 1490, he began his
work on the Cathedral of Milan. Here a cupola was commenced after his
model and under his direction; but when it was partly done doubts of its
solidity were expressed, and Omodeo was commanded to leave it and design
the north door to the cathedral. He also constructed the spiral
staircase leading to the roof through an elegant Gothic turret, where
the medallion portrait of Omodeo may be seen. It has since been proved
that the cupola of Omodeo was solid enough, for it has sustained the
spire which was put upon it in 1772; but he was tormented concerning it
in many ways, and died without justification.

Omodeo stands at the head of northern Italian sculptors in his dexterous
use of his chisel; his ease in composition and his skill in the
management of drapery would have made him eminent; but the effect of all
these good qualities was injured by his mannerism, and the fact that his
standard of beauty was not a high one. This may be partly accounted for
by the fact that in Lombardy an artist had no opportunity to study the
remains of classic art, and this one circumstance very largely excuses
the inferiority of the northern sculptors to those of Tuscany, whose
taste had been much improved by close study of ancient plastic art.

There are many sculptors mentioned as having done some part of the work
upon the Milan Cathedral, but very few are known, except by casual
remark. CRISTOFORO SOLARI, called "IL GOBBO, or DEL GOBBO," was one of
the most prominent, and yet we know almost nothing of his history until,
in 1490, he was so disappointed when Omodeo was made architect of the
cathedral instead of himself that he went to Venice, and remained there
during several years.

After a time Solari was appointed ducal sculptor to Ludovico Moro, and
the monument which he erected to Beatrice d'Este was one of his
principal works. When Ludovico lost his power Solari went to Rome, and
remained until he was recalled to Milan to execute sculptures for the
cathedral. He was very independent in his reply, and refused to go
unless his conditions were complied with; one of these conditions was
that he should not be under the direction of any one, but should select
his marbles and his subjects to please himself. The statues he made are
not as fine as we might expect them to be after this beginning; however,
he was at length appointed head architect. Soon after this he was
engaged in making a new model for a cupola, and then suddenly his name
ceases to appear upon the registers.

The Cathedral of Como is another of those vast edifices which afforded
opportunities for artists to make themselves famous. The principal part
of the façade to this cathedral was ornamented by TOMMASO and JACOPO
RODARI. The first was at one time architect of the cathedral, and
together they executed a large portion of the sculptures. Their best
work was in the ornamental parts.

In the southern parts of Italy, both in the states of the Church and in
Naples, there are many works of the fifteenth century which were
executed by artists from Florence and other parts of Italy. Thus there
is nothing new to be said concerning sculpture in Southern Italy during
this period, since the works which are not by foreign artists are in the
same style as theirs; for the native sculptors copied those from Central
and Northern Italy, and no great progress or original manner can be
found in these southern districts.



CHAPTER VI.

SCULPTURE IN GERMANY, FRANCE, ENGLAND, AND SPAIN, FROM 1450 TO 1550.


In Italy, as we have seen, the sculpture of the Renaissance was much
advanced by the fact that in the beginning of its growth the
architecture of the country was largely an imitation of Greek
architecture; and as the same artist was frequently an architect,
sculptor, and painter, edifices were designed with the purpose of
placing the works of the sculptor in the most favorable positions.

In the countries north of Italy sculpture had no such aid or advantages.
The Gothic style of architecture was a hindrance to the sculptor, whose
works were combined with it. The Gothic construction afforded no broad,
generous spaces for sculpture; all plastic work must be confined in
limited spaces between columns and baldachins, or in arched niches, or
between narrow flutings; and though something had been done to vary the
upright stiffness of the statues of its earliest days, there was no
freedom for the realistic and natural tendencies of the Renaissance art
to develop in.

Another advantage on the side of Italian art was the fact that Italy was
a land of grace and beauty; its people were more refined in manner, more
elegant and picturesque in their costumes than were those of Northern
Europe, and all the influences surrounding the Italian artist were far
more favorable to a development of his artistic nature than were those
of France or Germany. Then, too, the remains of antique art which were
within reach of the Italian sculptor were quite shut off from others.
For all these and other reasons the sculpture of the north was more
tardy in taking on the better spirit and form of the Renaissance, and as
a whole it never became as pleasing to most people as was the sculpture
of Italy.

In a former chapter we have spoken of the sculptor Claux Sluter and his
work at Dijon in the fourteenth century; the desire which he showed to
make his figures like the men they represented, and a general study of
nature rather than of older works of sculpture, had much effect upon the
sculpture of his time, and gradually became much exaggerated. German
sculptors tried not only to make exact portraits of the faces and heads
of their figures, but they gave the same attention to imitating every
detail of costume and every personal peculiarity of the model from which
they worked. This tended to weaken and narrow their own designs, and the
whole effect of their work is fantastic and exaggerated--an effect quite
opposed to the noble and harmonious treatment of the whole which the
best Italian masters strove to attain.

The attempt to produce startling effects in German art made such
subjects as the Passion of Christ, the Temptation of St. Anthony, and
the Martyrdoms of the Saints to be constantly repeated, and many reliefs
are overloaded with such details as may very properly be used in
painting, and which belong to _picturesque_ art, but which take away the
dignity and calm grandeur which should make the spirit of sculpture. But
there is one feature of German sculpture at this time which appeals to
our sympathy--that is, the deep, earnest feeling which pervades it, and
which constantly tried new methods of expression.

In Germany there were guilds or trade-associations, and the members of
these guilds were allowed to work in the special branch only of
sculpture which belonged to their company, so that this art was divided
by more fixed lines than in Italy, where, in truth, at the period of
which we speak, the Florentine school was a supreme power, and its
sculptors, as we have seen, worked in as many sorts of sculpture as
pleased them.

The schools of Germany were far more independent of each other, and the
entire organization of art in Germany was very different from that of
Italy.

One of the most prominent effects of the architecture of Germany was to
drive the sculptors to seek for such work as had no relation to
architecture, and an important result from this was the great attention
which they paid to wood-carving; indeed, this was the favorite pursuit
of the German sculptors for many years. About the middle of the
fifteenth century the importance of this art in Germany was far greater
than those of bronze-casting or stone sculpture.

The principal works in wood-carving were the altars, which finally came
to be colossal in size, and with their multitude of reliefs, statuettes,
and ornaments were marvellous monuments to the industry and skill of the
wood-carvers. The reliefs in these works are usually arranged on
landscape backgrounds, and so much resemble pictures in many ways that
the colors and gilding which were freely used on them do not seem out of
place, and it appears to be quite natural that wood-carvers should often
have been painters also.

The Swabian school, the principal seat of which was Ulm, was the
earliest to adopt the new, realistic style. There are works by Swabian
artists which show this tendency as early as 1431. JÖRG SYRLIN, who
flourished during the last half of the fifteenth century, was an eminent
wood-carver, and as he did not color his works he can be better judged
as a sculptor than he could be if the effect of the whole depended
partly upon painting. The choir-stalls in the Cathedral of Ulm and the
fountain in the market-place, called "Fischkasten," are his most
important works; but a singing-desk, now in the museum, and other lesser
pieces are also excellent examples of his style. The choir-stalls have
an immense number of figures and a mass of ornament, which made them far
richer than any such work of an earlier date, and none that have since
been made have equalled them. It is almost incredible that they were
completed in four years, and yet there are no marks of haste upon the
work. The figures are dignified and graceful, the faces delicate and
expressive, the hands well formed, and a beauty of design and execution
marks the whole. The lower figures, which come nearest the eye, are
finer than those which are higher up, so that a unity of effect is
preserved throughout the whole. He sometimes took occasion to give
touches of humor in his works, and in these stalls he introduced his own
portrait and that of his wife.

The "Fischkasten" is sculptured in stone, and has three knights upon it
which appear to be boldly advancing, as if about to step off and walk
away. Other works by this master are less important, and it is doubtful
if all that are called by his name are really his own. Jörg Syrlin, the
younger, trained by his father, adopted his style, and became an
excellent artist.

We have not space to speak of the Swabian sculptures in detail. Fine
works exist in Tiefenbronn, Rothenburg, Blaubeuren, Herrenberg, Gmünd,
Ravensburg, and many other places.

The influence of the Swabian school was very wide; it can be traced in
many parts of Germany, in Hungary and Transylvania, and even in
Switzerland, Austria, and Bavaria. Swabian artists were often summoned
to adjacent provinces, and thus did much work away from their homes. The
reliefs upon the door of the Cathedral of Constance were executed by
Simon Hayder, a Swabian, in 1470. The altar of the cathedral at Chur
was the work of Jacob Rösch, another Swabian master, who thus labored on
the very boundary of Italy. The school at Augsburg was the second
Swabian school in importance, and much influence went out from that
centre, though its sculptures were not as fine as those of Ulm.

In some cases fine old sculptures still exist in the churches and other
places for which they were intended. Again we find them either whole, or
in parts, in museums to which they have been removed when they were no
longer required for the uses for which they were made, or when they were
replaced by more modern works. So few facts are known concerning them
that it is almost impossible to do more than repeat descriptions of the
subjects they represent; and this is neither profitable nor entertaining
in a book of this kind; therefore I shall now speak only of such artists
as have left some record behind them, and of works whose authorship can
be given.

VEIT STOSS, who flourished about the middle of the fifteenth century,
was an eminent wood-carver. Very little is known about him. His name is
sometimes said to be Wit Stwosz, and Cracow and Nuremberg both claim to
have been his birthplace. But it is now believed that he was born in
Nuremberg, as it is known that in 1477 he gave up his citizenship there
and went to Cracow, and in 1496 he paid a small sum to be again made a
citizen of Nuremberg.

We also know that his reputation as a man was not good. In a Nuremberg
decree he is called a "reckless and graceless citizen, who has caused
much uneasiness to the honorable council and the whole town." He was
convicted of crimes for which he should have suffered death, but the
sentence was changed, and he was branded: both cheeks were pierced with
a hot iron. After this he broke the oath he had taken to the city, and
joined her enemies in plotting against her; he was subsequently
imprisoned, and at his death, in 1533, he was very old and perfectly
blind.

It seems almost like a contradiction to say that this master was one of
the most tender in feeling of all the wood-carvers of his time. He was
especially successful in representing the purity of the Madonna and of
youthful saints. His principal works are in the churches of Cracow and
Nuremberg. In the Frauenkirche at Cracow the high-altar, a part of the
stalls in the choir, and some other sculptures are his. In Nuremberg his
best works are a bas-relief of the Crowning of the Virgin, which is
preserved in the Burgkapelle; the great Madonna statue, which was placed
in the Frauenkirche in 1504; and the colossal Angel's Salutation, which
is suspended in the choir of the Church of St. Laurence. This last is an
unusual and important work. The angel appears as if flying, and the
drapery is much inflated; the Virgin is queenly and majestic, yet
graceful; all around are medallions in which are represented the Seven
Sorrows of the Virgin. The style of these reliefs is charming if we
except the drapery; that has the faults of the time, and is bad in
style; but the female heads are all that we could ask; the whole design
is distinct, and few reliefs could surpass these in simple beauty and
genuine artistic feeling.

Another remarkable work of his is a panel of roses, now in the
Burgkapelle. The panel is seven feet high by five wide; more than half
of this is covered by a wreath of roses; there are besides four rows of
small half-length figures arranged round a cross of St. Anthony, a
representation of the Last Judgment, scenes in the history of man from
the creation to the death of the Virgin, and many other saints and like
subjects in bits of reliefs, which fill up all spare spaces. The style
is very distinct, and the draperies better in this work than in others
from his hand.

There are other works in Nuremberg and elsewhere which are attributed
to Veit Stoss, but these that are known to be his are quite enough to
establish his fame as a gifted artist and a remarkable sculptor for his
time.

Though Stoss is among the early masters of Nuremberg, it is yet true
that others had been at work while he was in Cracow, and the way had
been prepared for him and his work when he returned to his native city
in 1496. Among the most active artists in Nuremberg was MICHAEL
WOHLGEMUTH (1434-1519), who is generally considered as a painter only;
but we know that he made contracts for entire works in which sculpture
and painting are combined, and must have had the oversight of the whole;
and in this view it is proper to mention this master's name. The altars
at Haller Cross Chapel, Nuremberg, one at Zwickau, another at Schwabach,
and that of the Heilsbronn Monastery, near Nuremberg, are all ascribed
to Wohlgemuth.

ALBRECHT DÜRER (1471-1528), who was one of the great masters of the
world, was an architect, painter, and sculptor. He was a pupil of
Michael Wohlgemuth, and sculpture was less practised by him than other
arts; yet the few works of his which remain are much valued.

Dürer probably executed his carvings about 1510-1520. In the British
Museum there is a relief of the Birth of St. John the Baptist, which was
purchased in the Netherlands more than eighty years since for $2500. It
is cut in a block of cream-colored stone, seven and one half by five and
one half inches in size, and is a wonderful work. The companion piece,
which represents the same saint Preaching in the Wilderness, is in the
Brunswick Museum, where there is also an "Ecce Homo" carved in wood.

Dürer executed many little carvings in stone, ivory, and boxwood, and
the existing ones are seen in various collections in Germany. It is
quite probable that others are in private hands.

There are in Nuremberg many most excellent wood-carvings by unknown
masters; one who cares for this art is well repaid for a visit to this
old city, and, indeed, this is true of other old German towns. Bamberg,
Marburg, Frankfort-on-the-Main, Dortmund, Halle, and many other towns
have riches in this kind of art.

The stone sculpture of Germany in the fifteenth century was of less
importance than the wood-carving until toward the close of the period.
The exteriors of the churches and other edifices erected at this time
had but little sculptural ornament, and that consisted principally of
traceries and figures in geometric designs. Some small detached works,
such as fonts, pulpits, or fountains, were made in stone, but the chief
use of stone sculpture was for monuments to the dead.

ADAM KRAFFT (about 1430-1507), of whose early history almost nothing is
known, is a very important master of this time, and his principal works
add another charm to the city of Nuremberg. A remarkable series of works
by Krafft are the Seven Stages, or seven bas-reliefs placed on the way
to the Johannis Cemetery, the designs representing the seven falls of
Christ on his way to Golgotha.

These reliefs are much crowded, and the only part that is at all
idealized is the figure of Christ; that is noble and calm in effect, and
the drapery is simple and dignified. The other figures are coarse and
dressed like the Nurembergers of the time in which Krafft lived.

In the churches of St. Sebald and St. Laurence and in the Frauenkirche
there are other splendid works of Krafft, and in some dwelling-houses of
Nuremberg there are sculptures of his. A Madonna on the houses, 1306, in
the Hirschelgasse, is one of the finest, perhaps the very best in all
Germany. We do not know whether this was by Krafft or not, but it has a
purity and nobleness that scarcely any other German sculptor attained.

That Krafft had a sense of humor is shown by a bas-relief above the
entrance to the Public Scales. The weigher stands observing the beam,
and beneath it is written, "To thyself as to others." Another man adds a
weight to one scale, and the man who is to be taxed puts his hand into
his money-bag very reluctantly.

Perhaps his most artistic work was the tabernacle in the Church of St.
Laurence. It is sixty-four feet high; the lower part is supported by the
kneeling figures of Krafft and two of his associates. Above this rises a
slender Gothic pyramid ornamented with bas-reliefs and statuettes. He
was employed upon this tabernacle from 1496 to 1500. It is believed that
a "Burial of Christ," in the chapel of the Johannis Cemetery, was his
latest work, and executed in 1507, the year in which he died, in the
hospital of Schwabach. Krafft led a most industrious life, and was so
skilful a workman that he could work with his left hand as readily as
with his right.

TILMAN RIEMENSCHNEIDER was an important sculptor, born at Osterode, in
the Hartz Mountains, probably about 1460. In 1483 he went to Würzburg,
and was elected to one honorable office after another, until, in 1520,
he was head burgomaster. After the Peasants' War, in 1525, he was
deprived of his office; he lived but six years after this, and kept
himself in close retirement, not even practising his art.

His sculptures are mostly in stone, and are quite numerous in Würzburg
and its vicinity. His monument to the Knight Eberhard von Grumbach, in
the church at Rimpar, was probably his earliest important work. In it he
has contrived to express strength and bravery of character in spite of
the stiff costume, every detail of which is worked out (Fig. 91).

[Illustration: FIG. 91.--COUNT EBERHARD VON GRUMBACH. _Rimpar._]

In 1495 Riemenschneider received the important commission to erect in
Bamberg Cathedral a splendid monument to the Emperor Heinrich II. and
his wife Kunigunde. This occupied him until 1513, and is a splendid
example of his skill. The figures of the two royal personages lie upon a
large sarcophagus; the statues are more than life-size, and are dressed
in the fantastic costume of the fifteenth century. Upon the sides of the
sarcophagus are five reliefs, representing as many scenes from the lives
of the emperor and empress. The monuments and religious subjects
executed by this sculptor are very numerous. In the church at Maidbrunn
there is a relief representing the "Lamentation over the Dead Body of
Christ," which is probably his latest work. It is cut from sandstone,
and the figure of Nicodemus is believed to be the sculptor's own
portrait.

We give here four figures from the portal of the cathedral at Berne, in
Switzerland. The really splendid sculptures were the work of Nicolaus
Künz, and from their style seem to belong to about 1520. They show the
influence of such artists as the painters Nicolaus Manuel (1484-1531)
and Hans Holbein (about 1459-1524). The statues of the Wise and Foolish
Virgins are fine, and that of Justice, whose pose is full of grace, and
whose almost transparent garment is an exquisite work, affords an
excellent illustration of the most pleasing sculpture of this period
(Figs. 92, 93).

[Illustration: FIG. 92.--JUSTICE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 93.--THE THREE WISE VIRGINS.]

Another art, which had its headquarters at Nuremberg in the fifteenth
century, is bronze-casting, and its chief master was the famous PETER
VISCHER, who was the son of another brasier, HERMANN VISCHER. The date
of Peter Vischer's birth is given as 1460, and he was admitted to be a
master in his art in 1489. Five years later than this he was summoned to
Heidelberg together with a sculptor, Simon Lamberger, to aid the Elector
Philip with advice and skill. Nothing is known of any work which Vischer
did there.

Vischer's foundry at Nuremberg enjoyed a great fame, and orders were
sent to it from far and near. No doubt a great many monuments were cast
here which were not designed by Vischer at all. His works were numerous,
but I shall only describe his masterpiece, which was the shrine or tomb
of St. Sebald, and occupied Peter Vischer from 1508 to 1519, he being
assisted by his five sons. The son Peter was admitted as a master in the
thimble trade in 1527. Hans was called "the caster," and seems to have
superintended the carving of models; Hermann went to Italy and brought
home designs and models; and Jacob and Paul seem to have had no special
departments. Between 1495 and 1508 so little was recorded of Peter
Vischer that it leads to the belief that these years must have been
given to study and to the improvement which the tomb of St. Sebald shows
over the work of the monument to Archbishop Ernst, in the Magdeburg
Cathedral, which was done in 1495.

The bones of St. Sebald had been inclosed in a sarcophagus of the Middle
Ages, and the work required of Vischer was a fitting tomb for such
precious and honored relics, for St. Sebald is the special patron saint
of Nuremberg, and dwelt in a cell near that city. His legend relates
that he was the son of a Danish king, who came to Germany as a
missionary and settled at Nuremberg, where he did many miraculous works
of charity. On one occasion, during very cold weather, he is said to
have found a family nearly frozen and without fuel; he commanded them to
bring the icicles hanging from the roof and make a fire of them. They
obeyed, and were thus warmed. Many such wonders are told of him, and
Vischer in his statue makes him to appear as a pilgrim, with shell in
hat, staff, rosary and wallet, while in his hand he holds a model of a
church intended to represent that in which the tomb is erected. This
Church of St. Sebald is now used for the Lutheran service, and the
shrine still stands in the centre of the choir. (Fig. 94.)

[Illustration: FIG. 94.--TOMB OF ST. SEBALD. _By Peter Vischer._
_Nuremberg._]

The architecture of this remarkable work is of the richest style of
Gothic, and the whole of it is in bronze, except that the oaken
sarcophagus is encased in silver plates. This rests beneath a fret-work
canopy supported on slender pillars. There is an abundance of ornament
everywhere, but the close examination of its detail shows beauty and
fitness in every part. For example, if we compare the statue of the
saint, of which we have spoken, which stands at the end of the shrine
most exposed, with the statue of Vischer himself, which is at the
opposite end, we shall see how the saint, with his symbols and his
flowing drapery, is an ideal work, and seems to be advancing with
authority and the air which befits the son of a king, while Vischer,
with his round cap, leather apron, and German face, is simply the
representation of a worker bent upon doing his best (Fig. 95).

[Illustration: FIG. 95.--PETER VISCHER'S STATUE.]

The sarcophagus rests upon a base on which are four reliefs of scenes
from the life of the saint, all in the purest manner of the time. One of
these represents the burning of the icicles recounted above (Fig. 96).

This base and sarcophagus and the fret-work above it form the centre of
the tomb. Then outside of this are eight pillars supporting a
baldachin, or canopy, in the richly ornamented Romanesque style, and the
combinations of the Gothic and the decorative architecture are so
skilfully made as not to offend our taste. But it is generally
acknowledged that the chief beauty of this work is the series of the
figures of the apostles, which are upon the pillars. They are slender in
proportion, gracefully draped, and bear their distinctive symbols. They
are perfectly free from the realism of the earlier works of Vischer, and
have more of the purity and nobleness of the works of Ghiberti than are
seen in the statues of any other German artist of this age (Figs. 97,
98).

[Illustration: FIG. 96.--ST. SEBALD AND THE BURNING ICICLES. _Vischer._]

Above the apostles are figures of prophets and other Biblical
personages; Perseus and Hercules are also represented, and other statues
typify Strength, Justice, Prudence, and Moderation. The figure of the
Infant Christ is upon the centre of the highest, or middle dome. Between
the pillars at their bases stand graceful candelabra, and the base
itself rests upon snails. Besides all these principal figures there are
almost numberless others and many ornamental designs. There are
harpies, sirens, satyrs, fawns, and all sorts of fantastic creatures.
The whole work is full of the deep feeling of the north and the beauty
and richness of the south, and is a most remarkable production.

We are told that Vischer was but poorly paid for this labor, with all
its thought and skill. He inscribed upon it these words: "... He
completed it for the praise of God Almighty alone, and for the honor of
St. Sebald, Prince of Heaven, by the aid of pious persons, paid by their
voluntary contributions." There is a satisfaction in remembering that
Vischer lived ten years after this tomb was completed, and must have
heard many praises of his work.

The later works of Vischer were a few reliefs and two important
monuments at Aschaffenburg and Wittenberg. His sons Hans and Hermann
executed a few monuments, which are done in the manner of their father,
but do not equal him in design or finish. There are numerous works which
must be regarded as productions of Vischer's studio and foundry of which
we cannot give clear accounts, not knowing whether they were the earlier
works of the father, or were executed by the sons or other pupils, of
which he had many.

[Illustration: FIG. 97.--PETER. _By Peter Vischer._]

[Illustration: FIG. 98.--JOHN. _By Peter Vischer._]

PANKRAZ LABENWOLF was one of Vischer's pupils, and completed the
splendid lattice-work over the Town-hall which the master left
unfinished; Labenwolf added some ornaments and coats-of-arms to it. In
1550 he cast the fountain in the court-yard of the same building, which
is a graceful and creditable work; but another fountain in the vegetable
market, behind the Frauenkirche, is truly original; the water flows from
the mouths of two geese held under the arms of a peasant; the whole
effect is droll and unique (Fig. 99).

[Illustration: FIG. 99.--MAN AND GEESE. _By Labenwolf._]

You will remember how, about 1390, Claux Sluter, by his works in Dijon,
had a great influence upon French sculpture. A century and more later
this art in France was largely under the influence of Italian masters,
who had been called into France by Francis I. and other patrons of art.
Splendid works of sculpture were also imported from Italy, and the
effect of the Italian Renaissance, which was so plainly seen upon the
painting of France, was also at work upon its sculpture.

Where the sculptures were a part of an architectural decoration, as in
the case of the choir screen in the cathedral at Amiens, and other like
works, the change was not as complete as in cases where the work was one
of independent sculpture, as in monuments and statues to commemorate the
dead, or in portrait sculpture.

The wealth and power of the nobility of France at this period enabled
them to gratify their desire to leave fine monuments of themselves, in
order to keep their names in memory in future centuries. In these the
Italian manner was adopted, and the works when completed were far more
splendid and elegant than were the corresponding works in Germany. But
they have a grave fault, which makes them much less interesting than are
the German sculptures: they are more conventional, less expressive, and
far less artistic in spirit. They impress one as if the soft, luxurious
court atmosphere had passed over them, and taking away their strong
points, had left them only a general air of being well-bred and
well-kept persons, of little importance to the real life of the world.

In the Louvre, in the Museum of Modern Sculpture, all this change can be
traced, and the traveller in France may see such monuments as we refer
to in all the cathedrals and most of the churches all over the country.
Many of them cannot be traced to any one master. A fine specimen is the
Amboise Monument in Rouen Cathedral, which is said to have been the work
of one Roulland de Roux and his assistants.

JEAN JUSTE of Tours was one of the best French artists of his day. In
the Cathedral of Tours is a monument to two young children of Charles
VIII., which proves him to have had much delicacy and tenderness of
execution. The sarcophagus is covered with graceful designs, and on the
lid lie the two babies, for the eldest was but three years old. The
whole work is exquisite, and gives one a feeling of satisfaction.

About 1530 Juste erected the splendid monument to Louis XII. and Anne of
Brittany in the Church of St. Denis. While the general form of the
monument is much like that of the Visconti in the Certosa at Pavia, the
figures of the dead couple are quite different from the Italian manner.
Below on a bier the two nude bodies are stretched in all the realism
possible, and the heads are noble and touching in expression. Above, on
the upper part of the monument, where in Italy the patron saint or some
other figure usually is placed, the king and queen again appear; they
are kneeling, with full drapery about them, while the faces are
characteristic and very expressive. This monument, taken all in all, is
in the perfection of the French art of the time. Another work by Juste
now in the Louvre is the monument to Louis de Poncher, one of the
ministers of Francis I., and his wife, Roberta. These statues are in
alabaster, and were formerly in the Church of St. Germain l'Auxerrois,
which was built by Poncher.

PIERRE BONTEMPS must have been a famous sculptor, as he was chosen to
erect the monument to Francis I., his wife Claude and their three
children. This is also at St. Denis, and is even more grand than that to
Louis XII. On the upper platform the five figures are kneeling; they are
noble and simple, with an air of great repose. These examples serve to
give an idea of the religious sculpture of the time.

Secular subjects were unusual. A house in Bourges is decorated with the
figures of the master and mistress above the entrance, as if they would
speak a welcome, while reliefs of industrial scenes, such as might be
seen outside and inside of the house, are placed in various positions
over the building and in the court-yard. Something of a like sort is
upon the Hotel Bourgtheroulde at Rouen, where the friezes show scenes
between Francis I. and Henry VIII. Biblical scenes are also distributed
over the building.

Bruges is almost the only city of the Netherlands that has any
sculptures of this period of which one would speak. Just at this time
the art of that country was painting preeminently, and the Van Eycks and
their followers had done such things as held the attention of all to the
neglect of other arts. At Bruges in the cathedral, the Church of St.
Jacques, and the Liebfrauenkirche there are some fine monuments, and the
Palais de Justice has a carved chimney-piece which is magnificent, and
a work of the highest rank.

In England sculpture was of less account even than in the Netherlands.
One circumstance is worthy of notice. Pietro Torrigiano, after
quarrelling with Michael Angelo and breaking his nose, fled to England,
and his monument of Henry VII. and his queen in Westminster Abbey,
erected in 1519, marks the introduction of the style of the Italian
Renaissance into England. The structure is of black marble; the statues
of the king and queen are in gilt bronze, and are grandly noble in
design and finished in execution. The smaller figures and all the
details of the monument are fine. The master received £1000 for this
work. Torrigiano executed other works, and entered into an agreement to
make a monument to Henry VIII. and Catherine of Aragon, but for some
reason he went to Spain in 1519 and never returned, as he was destroyed
by the Inquisition three years later.

It is probable that Torrigiano may have been led to Spain by hearing of
the revival of art which was taking place there. Flemish and Italian
artists went there, and the influence of their styles was felt by the
native masters. The result was that they brought forth a manner of their
own, combining certain features of northern and of southern art, and
used to express the thoughts of the Spaniards themselves. The carved
altars of Seville, Toledo, and Burgos show how splendid this art was;
and though we cannot trace the lives and works of Spanish sculptors as
we should like to do, we can be sure that there were men among them
equal to any demand that could be made upon decorative sculptors.

This is proved by the portals and fronts of the churches, by the highly
ornamented chapels, the wall niches and choir screens of the interiors,
while the monuments are also equal to those of other nations. That of
Ferdinand and Isabella in the Church of the Guardian Angel, at Granada,
is noble and magnificent. It is believed to have been erected before the
death of Ferdinand in 1516, and was probably the work of an Italian
sculptor. This monument has a large marble sarcophagus, with a structure
above it in the Renaissance style. At the corners of the sarcophagus
there are griffins of excellent workmanship, and on the sides reliefs
and statuettes of the Four Fathers of the Church; on the lid repose the
figures of the royal pair, executed in a grand and dignified
simplicity.



CHAPTER VII.

ITALIAN SCULPTURE IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY--CELLINI, MICHAEL ANGELO, AND
OTHERS.


By the beginning of the sixteenth century sculpture occupied a different
place with relation to architecture from that which it had held in the
previous centuries which we have just considered. The architecture of
Italy became much more plain, and its union with sculpture in any large
degree was rare.

Painting, too, had now an effect to lessen the sphere of sculpture. This
art was always preferred by the Christians, as has been shown before,
and now, when it had reached most satisfactory heights, it was used in
many places where sculpture had before been placed. One important
example of this is seen in the decoration of altars; where bas-reliefs
had been used paintings were now preferred, and the end of all was that
sculpture was limited to monuments and to separate pieces--reliefs or
single statues or groups of figures.

In some ways this separation of the arts was a benefit to all. Under the
old rule sculptors had often been forced to sacrifice their design to
the needs of the architecture their work adorned. At other times they
were compelled to put aside their own feeling and their artistic ideas
as to how a subject should be treated, and suit themselves to such forms
as were approved by the particular priest or bishop whose church they
decorated. Now, when left to itself, sculpture became more individual
in its expression, and far more free and interesting in itself. In the
beginning of the sixteenth century the works of Italian sculpture were
splendid in the extreme. It was delicate and beautiful; the drapery was
made to show the figure and its natural motion, while it added an
exquisite grace to the whole; many works of this period were fine in
conception, good in their arrangement, and executed in a noble, spirited
manner. Some critics believe that during the first four decades of this
era Italian sculpture equalled the antique art of the Romans. Others
make 1520, or the time of Raphael, the limit to the best epoch of this
art; but it is scarcely possible thus to fix an exact bound; the
important point is that this excellence was reached, and the regret
follows that it could not endure for a longer period.

A far greater variety of subjects was represented in this age of
sculpture than before. Formerly the rule was the production of religious
effects. Scenes from the life of Christ and his disciples, others from
those of the saints, or the illustration of scriptural stories, with the
portrait tomb-sculpture, had been the sculptor's work. Now all the
stories of mythology were studied as diligently as they had been in
classic days, and artists studied to clothe the pagan personages with
new forms; and in all this effort much appeared that was original. It is
easy to see that such sculpture from the hand of a Christian artist must
lack the important element of pure sincerity. An artist who believed in
Jesus Christ could not conceive a statue of Jupiter, with all the
glorious attributes, that an ancient Greek would have given to his god
of gods. In this view the sculpture of classic subjects of this
sixteenth century may be said to have been two-sided--the work
illustrated a religion in which the artist pleased his imagination, but
for which he had no reverence or love. But in spite of all it was a
golden age, and many of its works are a "joy forever."

[Illustration: FIG. 100. PHARISEE.
FIG. 101. LEVITE. _By Rustici._]

Although the first public work which Leonardo Da Vinci did at Milan was
to model an equestrian statue, we can scarcely speak of him as a
sculptor. But the first Florentine of this period whom I shall mention
is GIOVANNI FRANCESCO RUSTICI (1476-1550), who was a fellow-pupil with
Leonardo under Verocchio. Very few works by this master remain, but a
prominent and important one is the bronze group above the northern
portal to the baptistery at Florence. It represents the "preaching of
St. John The Baptist," and is grand in the free action of its figures.
The Drapery is in a pure style, very much like that of Ghiberti (figs.
100, 101). This work was ordered by a guild of merchants, and they
failed to pay the price which had been fixed for it. Rustici was so
embarrassed by this that he undertook no more large works, and after the
Medici were expelled from florence he went into the service of Francis
I. in France he had executed various works, and was finally commissioned
to model an equestrian statue of the king in colossal size, when the
sovereign died. Rustici survived but three years, and we are told that
he only executed small works, and those "for the most part for the sake
of kindness."

ANDREA CONTUCCI DAL MONTE SAN SAVINO, called SANSOVINO (1460-1529), was
a very important sculptor, because large works were committed to him,
and his name must remain associated with them. Like Giotto, Sansovino
was a shepherd-boy, and drew pictures upon the stones of the fields.
Like Giotto, too, he was sent to Florence to study, and in the school of
Pallajuolo made good progress. When thirty years old he was appointed
architect and sculptor to the King of Portugal. After an absence of ten
years he returned to Florence, and later to Rome, where Pope Julius II.
commissioned him to erect monuments to the Cardinals Rovere and Sforza,
in the Church of Santa Maria del Popolo.

These monuments were his best works, but they cannot be praised. The
statues are in positions which seem to be uncomfortable, and there is
such a mass of ornament and so many statuettes that the whole has an
effect of confusion.

In 1513 Leo X. sent Sansovino to Loreto to adorn the temple which
incloses the "Casa Santa" with bas-reliefs. This Casa Santa is believed
to be the house in which the Virgin Mary was born at Nazareth; and when
the Saracens invaded the land four angels are said to have borne the
house to the coast of Dalmatia, and later to a spot near Loreto; but
here some brigands entered it, and again it was removed to its present
position in the Church of Loreto; this is said to have been done in
1295. Naturally this "Casa Santa" is a sacred object to all Roman
Catholics, and it is visited by thousands and thousands of pilgrims each
year.

The decoration of this shrine was very important, and an honorable work
for any artist. Sansovino did not execute all the reliefs, and the
highest praise that can be given to those he did is to say that they are
superior to the others that are beside them. He was a most skilful
workman, and it seems as if marble became like wax under his hand; but
this very skill led him to multiply his ornaments, and to repeat
acanthus leaves and honeysuckle vines until the whole was a weariness
and confusion, and conveyed no meaning or sentiment whatever.

Sansovino's most important pupil was JACOPO TATTI, who, on account of
his master, is called JACOPO SANSOVINO (1477-1570). He was born at
Florence, and when Andrea Sansovino returned from Portugal Jacopo became
his pupil. Early in life he went to Rome, and there studied and copied
the works of antiquity; among other things he made a copy of the
Laocoon, which was cast in bronze at a later time. Soon after his return
to Florence, in 1511, Jacopo received orders for some works, but the
most important statue which he made about this time is the Bacchus, now
in the Uffizi. In this work he showed how completely he was in sympathy
with the classic spirit; this Bacchus is a triumph in this manner, and
has been called "the most beautiful and spirited pagan statue of the
Renaissance period." It is full of gladness, and is simple, delicate,
and beautiful. The young god is advancing and holding up a cup, which he
regards with an expression of delight; in his right hand he has a bunch
of grapes, from which a Pan is eating stealthily (Fig. 102).

[Illustration: FIG. 102.--BACCHUS.
_By Jacopo Sansovino._]

In 1514 Jacopo Sansovino was employed upon the decorations for the visit
of Leo X. to Florence. Soon after this he went again to Rome and
submitted plans for the Church of San Giovanni de' Fiorentini, which the
Florentines were about to erect--for this master was an architect as
well as a sculptor. The taking of Rome by Constable de Bourbon, in 1527,
drove Sansovino away; he went to Venice, intending to go to France, but
Venice charmed him, and his work pleased the Venetians, and the result
was that from 1529 he served the Venetians as long as he lived. He was
appointed Protomastro of the Republic of Venice, and had the care of St.
Mark's, the Campanile, the Piazza, and the surrounding buildings. He
received a good salary, and was provided with a handsome house to live
in.

He first restored the cupolas of St. Mark's; then completed the Scuola
della Misericordia; he next made the interior of San Francesco della
Vigna; then the Zecca, the Fabbriche Nuove, and the Loggietta of the
Campanile. He also erected other churches and palaces, besides smaller
sculptural works. But his architectural masterpiece was the Library of
St. Mark's. The bronze gate to the Sacristy of St. Mark's was one of his
principal works. It is subject to criticism as being too crowded; but it
is a fine work and full of strong feeling.

His statues are numerous and seen all over Venice; indeed, it is proper
to speak of him as a Venetian, so thoroughly did he adopt that city, and
so industriously did he work for it during forty years. Had he remained
in Florence he might have been a better artist; the splendor and luxury
of the Venetians brought out corresponding traits in Jacopo, and he fell
short of the purity which the influence of Florence might have given
him. He is one of the masters in whom the sensual influence of the study
of pagan art was fully manifested. Many of his subjects were
mythological; among them were the story of Phrixos and Helle, Mercury,
Apollo, Pallas, Mars, and Neptune, the last two being colossal figures
on the steps of the Doge's Palace.

Among the pupils and associates of Sansovino were NICCOLO BRACCINI
(1485-1550), called IL TRIBOLO, and FRANCESCO SANGALLO (1498-1570),
neither of whom were important artists, though many works by them are
seen in various places in Italy.

BENVENUTO CELLINI (1500-1572) is a far more interesting study than were
many sculptors of his time. His life was an eventful one, and his own
account of it is one of the most interesting books of its class in
existence. His statement of the origin of his family is that "Julius
Cæsar had a chief and valorous captain named Fiorino da Cellino, from a
castle situated four miles from Monte Fiascone. This Fiorino having
pitched his camp below Fiesole, where Florence now stands, in order to
be near the river Arno, for the convenience of the army, the soldiers
and other persons, when they had the occasion to visit him, said to each
other, 'Let us go to Fiorenza,' which name they gave to the place where
they were encamped, partly from their captain's name of Fiorino, and
partly from the abundance of flowers which grew there; wherefore Cæsar,
thinking it a beautiful name, and considering flowers to be of good
augury, and also wishing to honor his captain, whom he had raised from
an humble station, and to whom he was greatly attached, gave it to the
city which he founded on that spot."

When this artist was born his father was quite old, and named him
Benvenuto, which means welcome, on account of his pleasure in the child
of his old age. The father had a passion for music, and from the first
wished that his son should study this art; but the boy loved drawing,
and was determined to be an artist; thus his time was divided between
these two pursuits until he was fifteen years old, when he was
apprenticed to a goldsmith.

Benvenuto had a fiery temper, and when still very young he became
involved in so serious a quarrel that he was obliged to flee from
Florence. He went first to Siena, and thence to Bologna, and at last
back to Florence, where he resumed his work. It was not long, however,
before he became angry again because his best clothes were given to his
brother, and he walked off to Pisa, where he remained a year. He had
even then become so skilful in his art that some of his works done there
have never been excelled either in design or execution.

When Cellini was eighteen years old Torrigiano came to Florence to
engage artists to go to England to aid him in some works he was to
execute. He wished to have Cellini in the number; but Torrigiano so
disgusted Benvenuto by his boasting of the blow that he had given
Michael Angelo, that though he had the natural youthful desire to
travel, he refused to be employed by such a man as Torrigiano. We can
safely assume that this predisposed Michael Angelo in Cellini's favor,
and was the foundation of the friendship which he afterward showed to
the younger sculptor.

From his eighteenth to his fortieth year Cellini lived mostly at Rome.
He was employed by Pope Clement VII., the cardinals and Roman nobles.
The Pope desired to have a cope button made and a magnificent diamond
set in it. This jewel had cost Julius II. thirty-six thousand ducats.
Many artists sent in designs for this button, and Clement chose that by
Cellini. He used the diamond as a throne, and placed a figure of the
Almighty upon it; the hand was raised as if in blessing, and many angels
fluttered about the folds of the drapery, while various jewels were set
around the whole. When other artists saw the design they did not believe
that it could be executed successfully; but Cellini made it a perfect
work of art and of beauty.

Cellini writes of himself as being very active in the siege of Rome, May
5th, 1527. He says that he killed the Constable de Bourbon, who led the
siege, and that he wounded the Prince of Orange, who was chosen in
Bourbon's place. No one else saw him perform these feats. Cellini went
to the Pope, who was in the Castle of St. Angelo, and he there rendered
such services to the cause of the Church that the Holy Father pardoned
him for all the sins into which his temper had led him--"for all the
homicides he had committed or might commit in the service of the
Apostolic Church." A few years later, when Cellini was called upon to
take part in the defence of his own city, he put all his property into
the care of a friend, and stole away to Rome.

In 1534 Cellini killed a fellow-goldsmith, called Pompeo; Paul III. was
now Pope; and as he needed the services of Benvenuto very much he
pardoned him. But the sculptor felt that he was in ill favor with all
about him, and went to France. In about a year he returned to find that
he had been accused of stealing some jewels which the pope had commanded
him to take out of their settings. Cellini was held a prisoner nearly
two years, but his guilt was never proved.

At the end of this time the Cardinal Ippolito d'Este obtained his
release in order that he might go to France to execute some work for
Francis I. Cellini remained in France five years, and received many
honors and gifts; but as Madame d'Étampes and other persons to whose
advice the king listened were enemies of Cellini, he never was treated
as his artistic qualities merited. Francis I. really admired Cellini,
and presented him with the Hôtel de Petit Nesle, which was on the site
of the present Hôtel de la Monnaie; he also made him a lord, and on one
occasion expressed his fear of losing him, when Madame d'Étampes
replied, "The surest way of keeping him would be to hang him on a
gibbet."

Of all the objects which Cellini made during his five years in France
but two remain. One is a splendid salt-cellar, and the other is a nymph
in bronze, which was made for the Palace of Fontainebleau, and is now in
the Renaissance Museum of the Louvre. This salt-cellar is now in the
Ambraser Gallery at Vienna. The frieze around the base has figures in
relief which represent the hours of the day and the winds. The upper
part is made like the surface of the sea, and from it rise figures of
Neptune and Cybele. The first is a symbol of the salt of the sea, and
the second of the spices which the earth gives. The god is placing his
arm on a small ship intended for the salt, and a vessel for pepper, in
the form of a triumphal arch, is near the goddess. All this is made of
fine embossed gold, and has some touches of enamel-work. It is one of
the finest pieces of the goldsmith's art which remains from the
sixteenth century.

In 1545 Cellini returned to Florence, and remained there, with short
absences, until his death. Duke Cosmo de' Medici became his patron, and
commissioned him to make a statue of Perseus for the Loggia de' Lanzi.
The ambition of the artist was much excited by the thought of having his
work placed by those of Donatello and Michael Angelo, and all care was
taken from his mind, as the Duke provided him with a comfortable house
and gave him a salary sufficient for his support.

It was nine years before the statue was completed and in its place, and
in this time Cellini had suffered much. Baccio Bandinelli and others
were his enemies, and at times the Duke had been under their influence,
and would not furnish the money necessary to the work. But at last all
was ready for the casting; and just at this unfortunate moment for
Cellini to leave it he was seized with a severe illness; he was
suffering much, and believed himself about to die, when some one ran in
shouting, "Oh, Benvenuto, your work is ruined past earthly remedy!"

Ill as he was he rushed out to the furnace, to find that the fire was
too low, and the metal, being cool, had ceased flowing into the mould.
By almost superhuman efforts he remedied the evil, and again the bronze
flowed; he prayed earnestly, and when the mould was filled he writes: "I
fell on my knees and thanked God with all my heart, after which I ate a
hearty meal with my assistants, and it being then two hours before dawn,
went to bed with a light heart, and slept as sweetly as if I had never
been ill in all my life."

When the statue was unveiled Cellini's prediction that it would please
all the world except Bandinelli and his friends was fulfilled. Perseus
is represented just at the moment when he has cut off the head of
Medusa, who was one of the Gorgons, and had turned to stone every one
who looked at her. (Fig. 103.)

[Illustration: FIG. 103.--PERSEUS. _By Benvenuto Cellini._]

After the completion of the Perseus, Cellini went to Rome for a short
time. While there he made a bust of Bindo Altoviti; when Michael Angelo
saw this he wrote: "My Benvenuto, I have long known you as the best
goldsmith in the world, and I now know you as an equally good sculptor,
through the bust of Messer Bindo Altoviti." Cellini did no more
important works, though he was always industrious. He made a crucifix
which he intended for his own grave, but he gave it to the Duchess
Eleanora; this was afterward sent to Philip II. of Spain, and is now in
the Escurial.

Cellini's life was by no means a model one, but he had his good
qualities. He took a widowed sister with six children to his home, and
made them welcome and happy. At his death he was buried in the Church of
the Annunziata, beneath the chapel of the Company of St. Luke, and many
honors were paid to his memory.

His autobiography was so rich in its use of the Florentine manner of
speech and so fine in its diction that it was honored as an authority by
the Accademia della Crusca. He also wrote valuable works on the
goldsmith's art and on bronze-casting and sculpture. He wrote poems and
various kinds of verses, but his large acquaintance with popes,
cardinals, kings, artists, and men of letters makes his story of his
life far more interesting than his other writings.

The artists of Upper Italy were much influenced by Florentine art, as
they had formerly been, and we can speak of no very great sculptor of
this century who belonged to this part of the country. ALFONSO LOMBARDO
(1488-1537) was a native of Lucca; his principal works are seen in
Ferrara, Bologna, and Cesena.

PROPERZIA DE' ROSSI (1490-1530) was born at Bologna, and is interesting
as the one Italian sculptress of that time. She was born about a year
after her father had returned from the galleys, where he had worked out
a sentence of eighteen years for the crime of manslaughter. Properzia
seems to have inherited her father's violent temper, and was twice
arraigned in court. She was very beautiful in person, and had a devoted
lover in Antonio Galeazzo Malvasia de' Bottigari, who did not marry
until many years after the death of Properzia.

Properzia studied drawing under Marc Antonio Raimondi, the famous
engraver. She first devoted herself to the cutting of intaglios, which
demanded an immense amount of patient labor. There is in the cabinet of
gems in the Uffizi Gallery, at Florence, a cherry-stone carved by
Properzia, on which sixty heads may be counted; the subject is a Glory
of Saints. Other like works of hers exist in the Palazzo Grassi, in
Bologna. Her next work was in arabesques, marble ornaments, lions,
griffins, vases, eagles, and similar objects.

Finally she essayed a bust of Count Guido Pepoli; it is now in the
Sacristy of San Petronio, in Bologna. In the same place are two
bas-reliefs by her hand, Solomon receiving the Queen of Sheba, and
Joseph and Potiphar's Wife. In the chapel Zambeccari in San Petronio
there are two large figures of angels by Properzia, which are near the
Ascension of the Virgin by Il Tribolo. Her manner was much influenced by
her contact with this sculptor. Properzia was employed, with other
artists, to finish the sculpture of the portal of San Petronio, left
unfinished by Jacopo della Quercia.

ANTONIO BEGARELLI (1499-1565), called also ANTONIO DA MODENA, from the
place of his birth, was a celebrated modeller in clay. It is said that
when Michael Angelo visited Modena in 1529 he saw Begarelli and his
works, and exclaimed, "Alas for the statues of the ancients, if this
clay were changed to marble!" Begarelli had a school for teaching design
and modelling, and he greatly influenced the manner of the Lombard
school of painting. Its foreshortening, its relief and grace are largely
due to him and his teaching.

Begarelli and Correggio were fast friends, and resembled each other in
their conception of the grand and beautiful. When Correggio was
decorating the cupola of the Cathedral of Parma, Begarelli was at work
in the same place, and made many models from which Correggio painted his
floating figures. Some works by Begarelli may be seen in the Berlin
Museum. His Descent from the Cross, in the Church of San Francesco, at
Modena, is one of his best works. He was also employed in the Church of
San Benedetto, in Mantua, and in San Giovanni, at Parma.

During the sixteenth century the works at the Certosa at Pavia and in
various edifices in Milan were constantly carried on. Frequently the
same sculptors worked in both cities, but there is no one artist of
great excellence among them of whom we can give an account. The same is
true of the works in Venice and in Southern Italy. The traveller sees
many pieces of sculpture belonging to this period, but there are no
great and interesting men whose story we can tell in connection with
them, and I shall now pass to an account of the great Florentine.

MICHAEL ANGELO BUONARROTI (1475-1564) was born in the Castle of Caprese,
where his father, Ludovico Buonarroti, was stationed at that time,
holding the office of Podesta, or Governor, of the towns of Caprese and
Chiusi. The Buonarroti family held good rank in Florence, and the mother
of the great artist was also a woman of good position. When his father
returned to Florence the child Michael was left at Settignano upon an
estate of the family, and was in the care of the wife of a stone-mason.
As soon as the boy could use his hands he drew pictures everywhere that
it was possible, and his nurse could show many of these childish
drawings with which he adorned the walls of her house.

At a proper time Michael Angelo was removed to Florence and placed in a
school, where he became intimate with Francesco Granacci, who was a
pupil of the artist Ghirlandajo. Michael Angelo's father and his uncles
were firmly opposed to his being an artist; they wished him to follow
the traditions of his family, and carry on the silk and woollen trade.
But the boy was firm in his determination, and after many trials was at
length, in 1488, apprenticed to the Ghirlandaji for three years.

Domenico Ghirlandajo was at this time engaged in the restoration of the
Church of Santa Maria Novella, and Michael Angelo came into the midst of
great artistic works. One day at the dinner hour he drew a picture of
the scaffolding and all its belongings, with the men at work on it; it
was a remarkable drawing for a boy, and when the master saw it he
exclaimed, "He understands more than I do myself!" The master really
became jealous of his pupil, more especially when Michael Angelo
corrected the drawings which Ghirlandajo gave his scholars for models.

About this time Michael Angelo was brought to the notice of Lorenzo de'
Medici, who was at that time at the head of the government of Florence,
and from him the boy-artist obtained admission for himself and Granacci
to study in the gardens of San Marco. The art treasures of the Medici
were placed in these gardens; works of sculpture were there, and
cartoons and pictures were hung in buildings erected for the purpose,
and art-students were admitted to study there and proper instructors
provided for them.

The master in sculpture was old Bertoldo, and Michael Angelo, forsaking
painting, obtained some instruments and a piece of marble, and copied a
mask of a faun. He changed his own work somewhat from the model, and
opened the mouth so that the teeth could be seen. When Lorenzo saw this
he praised the work, but said, "You have made your faun old, and yet you
have left all his teeth; you should have known that at such an age there
are generally some teeth wanting." When he came again he saw that a gap
had been made in the teeth, and so well done that he was delighted. This
work is now in the Uffizi Gallery.

Very soon Lorenzo sent for Michael Angelo's father, who had been sad
enough at the thought that his son might be a painter, and was now in
despair when he found that he inclined also to be a stone-mason. At
first he refused to see the duke, but Granacci persuaded him to go. He
went with a firm determination to yield to nothing, but once in presence
of Lorenzo he yielded everything, and returned home declaring that not
only Michael, but he himself, and all that he had were at the nobleman's
service.

Lorenzo at once took Michael Angelo into his palace; he clothed the boy
properly, and gave him five ducats a month for spending money. Each day
Lorenzo gave an entertainment, and it was the rule that the first person
who came should sit next the duke at the head of the table. Michael
Angelo often had this place, and he soon became a great favorite with
Lorenzo, and obtained besides the greatest advantages from the life in
the palace; for many eminent men from all parts of the world came to
visit there, and all sorts of subjects were discussed in such a manner
that a young man could learn much of the world and what was in it, and
acquire a feeling of ease with strangers and in society such as few
young persons possess.

Michael Angelo was but seventeen years old when Poliziano advised him to
attempt an original work, and gave him the marble for a relief of the
contest between Hercules and the Centaurs. This work surprised every
one, and is still preserved in the collection of the Buonarroti family.
In the year 1492 he also made a relief of the Madonna Suckling the Child
Jesus, which is also in the same place. In the same year Lorenzo de'
Medici died, and Michael Angelo, full of grief, went to his father's
house and arranged a studio there. After a time Piero de Medici invited
him to come back to the palace, and he went; but it was no more the
same place as formerly, and he was unhappy there. Soon political
troubles drove the Medici from power, and in 1494, in the midst of the
confusion, Michael Angelo escaped to Venice. There he made friends with
Gian Francesco Aldovrandi of Bologna, and was persuaded by that nobleman
to accompany him to his own city.

[Illustration: FIG. 104.--MICHAEL ANGELO'S ANGEL. _Bologna._]

While at Bologna he executed an angel holding a candelabra, which is one
of the most lovely and pleasing things he ever made (Fig. 104). When he
received the commission to ornament the sarcophagus which contained the
remains of San Domenico in the Church of San Petronio, the Bolognese
artists were so angry at being thus set aside for a stranger, and a
youth of twenty, that they threatened vengeance on him, and he returned
to Florence.

It was at this time that he executed a Cupid, which was the means of
leading him to Rome. The story is that when he had the statue completed
Lorenzo de' Medici, a relative of his first patron, advised him to give
it the appearance of an antique marble, and added that he would then
sell it in Rome and get a good price for it. Michael Angelo consented to
this plan, and in the end he received thirty ducats for the work. The
secret of its origin was not kept, and the cardinal who had bought it
sent an agent to Florence to find out the truth about it. This agent
pretended to be in search of a sculptor; and when he saw Michael Angelo
he asked him what works he had done. When he mentioned a Sleeping Cupid,
and the agent asked questions, the young sculptor found that the
cardinal had paid two hundred ducats for it, and that he had been
greatly deceived when attempting to deceive others.

Michael Angelo consented to go to Rome with this man, who promised to
receive him into his own house, and assured him that he would be fully
occupied in the Eternal City. The oldest writing by the hand of Michael
Angelo is the letter which he wrote to Lorenzo telling him of his
arrival in Rome; when this was written he was twenty-one years old. The
first work which he did after he reached Rome was the "Drunken Bacchus,"
now in the Uffizi Gallery; it shows a great knowledge of anatomy in one
so young, and the expression of drunkenness is given in the most natural
manner.

[Illustration: FIG. 105.--PIETÀ. _By Michael Angelo._]

But the work that established his fame as a great sculptor is the Pietà,
now in St. Peter's at Rome (Fig. 105). He was twenty-five years old when
he executed this work, and from that time was acknowledged to be the
greatest sculptor of Italy--a decision which has never been reversed.

Soon after this Michael Angelo returned to Florence, and his first
important work was a Madonna, now at Bruges; it is life-size, and one of
his finest sculptures. There was at this time an immense block of marble
which had lain many years in the yard to the workshops of the cathedral.
Several sculptors had talked of making something from it, and now
Michael Angelo was asked by the consuls to make something good of it. He
had just taken an order for fifteen statues for the Piccolomini tomb at
Siena; but when he saw the immense block he gave up the Siena work, and
contracted to make a statue in two years. He was to be paid six gold
florins a month, and as much more as could be agreed upon when the work
was done. He first made a model in wax of his David; it was very small,
and is now in the Uffizi. In the beginning of 1504, after about two
years and a half had been spent upon it, the work was done, and a
discussion then arose as to where it should be placed.

At length it was decided to put it where Michael Angelo himself wished
it to be, next the gate of the palace where the Judith of Donatello then
stood. The statue weighed eighteen thousand pounds, and its removal was
a work of great importance. I shall not give all the details of it here,
but shall quote what Grimm says: "The erection of this David was like
an occurrence in nature from which people are accustomed to reckon. We
find events dated so many years after the erection of the giant. It was
mentioned in records in which there was not a line respecting art."

[Illustration: FIG. 106.--MICHAEL ANGELO'S DAVID.]

In 1527 the statue was injured by a stone thrown in a riot. At length it
began to show the effect of time and weather, and the people of Florence
talked of removing it for better preservation. There was much feeling
against this; the Florentines feared that misfortunes would fall upon
them if this great work were disturbed; but at last, in 1873, it was
placed in the Academy of Fine Arts. It represents the youthful David at
the moment when he declares to Goliath, "I come unto thee in the name of
the Lord of Hosts." The beautiful figure is muscular and pliant, and
the face is full of courage. (Fig. 106.)

About the beginning of the year 1505 Pope Julius II. summoned Michael
Angelo to Rome, and after a time gave him a commission to build a
colossal mausoleum to be erected for himself. The design was made and
accepted, and then Michael Angelo went to Carrara to select marble;
after much trouble he succeeded in getting it to Rome, where all who saw
it were astonished at the size of the blocks. Pope Julius was delighted,
and had a passage made from the palace to the workshop of the sculptor,
so that he could visit the artist without being seen. Other sculptors
now became jealous of Michael Angelo, and when he went a second time to
Carrara, Bramante persuaded the pope that it was a bad sign to build his
tomb while he was still living. When Michael Angelo returned and the
workmen he had hired arrived from Florence, he found the pope much
changed toward him. He no longer hastened the work, neither would he
furnish money to carry it on.

Michael Angelo sought the pope for an explanation, and was refused an
audience. He wrote a letter thus: "Most Holy Father, I was this morning
driven from the palace by the order of your Holiness. If you require me
in future you can seek me elsewhere than in Rome." He ordered a Jew to
sell all he possessed in Rome, and started for Florence, and stopped not
until he was on the ground of Tuscany. The pope sent after him, but as
he was a citizen of Florence he threatened the messengers if they
touched him. He said he had been treated as a criminal, and he
considered himself free from his engagements, and would not return then
or ever.

When he reached home a letter came to the Signory of Florence urging his
return, and saying that he should be safe. But Michael waited until the
third letter was received, and only consented to go when it was
arranged that he should be sent as an ambassador of Florence, and be
under the protection of the Florentine Republic.

In November, 1506, when the pope had taken Bologna, he sent for Michael
Angelo to come to him there. Michael Angelo had not yet seen the pope
since he left Rome in anger. When he reached Bologna he went first to
San Petronio to hear mass. A servant of the pope recognized him and led
him to his Holiness. Julius was at table, but ordered that Michael
Angelo should come in, and said to him, "You have waited thus long, it
seems, till we should ourselves come to seek you." Michael Angelo
kneeled down and begged his pardon, but added that he had remained away
because he had been offended. The pope looked at him doubtfully, when
one of the priests, fearing what would happen, advised the pope not to
judge an ignorant artist as he would another man. Then the pope turned
upon him in great anger, and declaring that he himself was ignorant and
miserable, ordered him out of his sight. The poor ecclesiastic was so
terrified that the attendants were obliged to carry him out, and then
the pope spoke graciously to the sculptor, and commanded him not to
leave Bologna without his permission. The pope soon gave him an order
for a colossal statue in bronze to be erected in Bologna.

The first cast of this statue failed, and the work was not ready to be
put in its place until February, 1508. This being done, Michael Angelo
returned to Florence, where he had much to do; but Julius soon sent for
him to go to Rome, and insisted that he should paint the roof of the
Sistine Chapel, which occupied him a long time.

In 1513 Julius II. died, and Michael Angelo resumed his work upon his
mausoleum. The pope had mentioned it in his will, and his heirs wished
it to be completed. At this time he probably worked upon the statue of
Moses and upon the two chained youths. He devoted himself to the
mausoleum during three years.

Leo X., who was now pope, demanded the services of Michael Angelo to
erect a façade to the Church of San Lorenzo in Florence. The artist
objected to this great work, and declared that he was bound to complete
the tomb for which he had already received money. But Leo insisted upon
his going to Florence. He had much trouble to get his marble from the
quarries--the men were ill there. He was ill himself, and he passed a
year of great anxiety and trouble, when there came word from Rome that
the work must be given up; the building was postponed, and no payment
was made to Michael Angelo! He was much disheartened, but returned to
his work on the mausoleum.

About 1523, when, after many changes, Cardinal Medici was pope, the work
at San Lorenzo was resumed. But in 1525 the pope again summoned Michael
Angelo to Rome. The heirs of Julius were complaining of delay, but at
last the pope insisted upon his great need of the artist, and again he
was sent back to Florence, where the cupola of the new Sacristy to San
Lorenzo was soon finished. Great political confusion now ensued, and
little can be said of Michael Angelo as a sculptor until 1530, when he
again resumed his work on the Sacristy.

He worked with the greatest industry and rapidity, and in a few months
had nearly finished the four colossal figures which rest upon the
sarcophagi of Lorenzo and Giuliano de' Medici. The pope was forced to
command the sculptor to rest. His health was so broken by the sorrow
which the political condition of Florence caused him, and by his anxiety
about the mausoleum of Julius, that there was much danger of his killing
himself with work and worry. He went to Rome, and matters were more
satisfactorily arranged. He returned to Florence, and labored there
until 1534, when Clement VII. died, and Michael Angelo left his work
in San Lorenzo, never to resume it. Unfinished as these sculptures are,
they make a grand part of the wonderful works of this great man. The
statues of the two Medici and those of Morning, Evening, Day, and Night
would be sufficient to establish the fame of an artist if he had done
nothing more. (Fig. 107.)

[Illustration: FIG. 107.--GIULIANO DE' MEDICI. _By Michael Angelo._]

Under the new pope, Paul III., he was constantly employed as a painter,
and architectural labors were put upon him, so that as a sculptor we
have no more works of his to mention except an unfinished group which
was in his studio at the time of his death. It represents the dead
Christ upon his mother's lap, with Joseph of Arimathea standing by. This
group is now in the Church of Santa Maria del Fiore, or the Cathedral of
Florence. The mausoleum of Julius II. caused Michael Angelo and others
so much trouble and vexation that the whole affair came to be known as
the "tragedy of the sepulchre." When Julius first ordered it he intended
to place it in St. Peter's, but in the end it was erected in the Church
of San Pietro in Vincoli, of which Julius had been the titular cardinal.
Of all the monument but three figures can really be called the work of
Michael Angelo. These are the Leah and Rachel upon the lower stage, and
the Moses, which is one of the most famous statues in the world. Paul
III., with eight cardinals, once visited the studio of the sculptor when
he was at work upon this statue, and they declared that this alone was
sufficient for the pope's monument (Fig. 108).

The life of Michael Angelo was a sad one; indeed, it is scarcely
possible to recount a more pathetic story than was his. The misfortunes
which came to the Medici were sharp griefs to him, and his temperament
was such that he could not forget his woes. His family, too, looked to
him for large sums of money, and while he lived most frugally they spent
his earnings. In his old age he said, "Rich as I am, I have always lived
like a poor man."

[Illustration: FIG. 108.--STATUE OF MOSES. _By Michael Angelo._]

In 1529, when Florence was under great political excitement, Michael
Angelo was appointed superintendent of all the fortifications of the
Florentine territory. In the midst of his duties he became aware of
facts which determined him to fly. He went to Venice, and was proscribed
as a rebel. We cannot stay here to inquire as to his wisdom in this, but
must go on to say that at length he was so much needed that he was
persuaded to return. Then he had the dreadful experiences of hope and
fear, sickness and famine, and all the horrors of a siege, only to see
his beloved home deprived of its freedom, and in the possession of those
whom he despised and hated. To Michael Angelo this was far more bitter
than any personal sorrow; he never recovered from its effects, and it
was immediately after this that he worked in the Sacristy of San Lorenzo
as if trying to kill himself.

He was bold as he was angry. He was treated kindly, and advised to
forget the past; but he never concealed his views. When his statue of
Night was exhibited, verses were put upon it, according to the custom of
the time; one verse read, "Night, whom you see slumbering here so
charmingly, has been carved by an angel, in marble. She sleeps, she
lives; waken her, if you will not believe it, and she will speak."

To this Michael Angelo replied, "Sleep is dear to me, and still more
that I am stone, so long as dishonor and shame last among us; the
happiest fate is to see, to hear nothing; for this reason waken me not.
I pray you, speak gently." He had great courage to speak his anger thus
publicly in the midst of those who could easily destroy him.

In 1537 or 1538 his father died, and the artist suffered terribly from
his grief. He wrote a sonnet beginning:

   "Already had I wept and sighed so much.
   I thought all grief forever at an end,
   Exhaled in sighs, shed forth in bitter tears."

The religious views of Michael Angelo were very broad, and he had a
trustful and obedient dependence upon God, in whose mercy and love he
gratefully rested with the simple faith of a child. It was not far from
the time when his father died that Michael Angelo first met Vittoria
Colonna. He was now more than sixty years old; and though his poems show
that he had loved children and women all his life, yet he had allowed
himself no attachments; his life had been lonely and alone. Now, at this
late hour, he yielded his heart to this beautiful, gifted woman, who
returned his friendship with the fullest esteem. During these years he
was happier than he had ever been. But in 1541 she fell under the
suspicion of the Inquisition, and was obliged to leave Rome.

During two years they wrote constantly to each other, and each sent to
the other the sonnets they wrote. At this time all Italy read the poems
of Vittoria, and those of Michael Angelo still stand the test of time.
In them he shows the blessed effect of her influence over him. At length
she returned to Rome and entered a convent, where she died in 1547.
Michael Angelo was with her to the last, and years later he declared
that he regretted nothing so much as that he had only kissed her hand,
and not her forehead or cheeks in that last hour. His loss was far too
great to be told. (An engraving of a portrait of Michael Angelo can be
seen in Mrs. Clement's "Painting," p. 95.)

In the year following Vittoria's death all the hopes which he had
cherished for the freedom of Florence were crushed. High honors were
offered him to induce him to return there, but he would not go. His
health failed, his sadness increased, and his writings show how
constantly he mourned for Vittoria. After this he did much work as an
architect, and held the post of director of the building of St. Peter's.
He superintended the erection of the statue of Marcus Aurelius, and
completed the Farnese Palace, and had many improvements in mind.

Now, in his old age, he was authority itself in Rome. He had no rival,
and his advice was sought by artists as well as others. He lived very
simply: he dined alone, and received his visitors in the plainest
manner. Anatomy, which had always been a passion with him, was now his
chief pursuit. He made many dissections of animals, and was grateful
when a human subject could be allowed him.

When he could not sleep he would get up at night and work upon the group
of which we have spoken; he had a cap with a candle in it, so that it
cast a light upon his work. Vasari once entered when he was at work upon
this group, and had a lantern in his hand; he dropped it purposely, so
that the sculpture should not be seen, and said: "I am so old that death
often pulls me by the coat to come to him, and some day I shall fall
down like this lantern, and my last spark of life will be extinguished."

There are many very interesting circumstances told of his last years and
his strength of mind, and the work which he did was wonderful; but we
have not space to recount it here.

At length, in February, 1564, when almost ninety years old, he died. He
had asked to be buried in Florence. His friends feared that this would
be opposed, so they held burial-services in Rome, and his body was
afterward carried through the gates as merchandise. In Florence the body
was first laid in San Piero Maggiore, and on Sunday, at evening, the
artists assembled, and forming a procession, proceeded to Santa Croce,
where he was buried. The younger artists bore the bier upon their
shoulders, and the older ones carried torches to light the way. A great
multitude followed the procession, and in the Sacristy of Santa Croce
the coffin was opened; though three weeks had passed since his death,
his face appeared as if he had just died; the crowd was very great, but
all was quiet, and before morning it had dispersed. The Duke had thought
that a public funeral would recall old memories, and might cause a
disturbance; but Michael Angelo had left Florence thirty years before
his death, and his connection with the city was forgotten by many.

The July following was appointed for a memorial service in his honor;
San Lorenzo was splendidly decorated; Varchi delivered an oration.
Leonardo, his nephew, erected a monument to him in Santa Croce, for
which the Duke gave the marble. His statue stands in the court of the
Uffizi with those of other great Florentines, but with no especial
prominence. His house in the Ghibelline Street is preserved as a museum,
and visitors there see many mementos of this great man.

In 1875 a grand festival was held in Florence to celebrate the four
hundredth anniversary of his birth. The ceremonies were impressive, and
certain documents relating to his life which had never been opened, by
command of the king, were given to suitable persons for examination. Mr.
Heath Wilson, an English artist, then residing at Florence, wrote a new
life of Michael Angelo, and the last signature which Victor Emmanuel
wrote before his death was upon the paper which conferred on Mr. Wilson
the Order of the _Corona d'Italia_, given as a recognition of his
services in writing this book.

The national pride in Michael Angelo is very strong. "All Italians feel
that he occupies the third place by the side of Dante and Raphael, and
forms with them a triumvirate of the greatest men produced by their
country--a poet, a painter, and one who was great in all arts. Who would
place a general or a statesman by their side as equal to them? It is art
alone which marks the prime of nations."

The genius of Michael Angelo and his spirit were powerful forces. They
pervaded the whole art of Italy to such an extent that it may be said
that all sculptors were his imitators, both while he lived and after his
death. He loved to treat strong subjects, such as demanded violent
movement and unusual positions. It was only a man of his genius who
could raise such subjects above grotesqueness and the one effect of
strange and unnatural exaggeration. As we look over all his works it
seems as if the idea of beauty and such things as are pleasing to the
ordinary mind rarely, if ever, came to his mind. Noble feeling, depth of
thought, strength, and grandeur are the associations which we have with
him, and in the hands of weaker men, as his imitators were, these
subjects became barren, hollow displays of distorted limbs and soulless
heads and faces.

The result is, that there is little to be said of the immediate
followers of this great man. GUGLIELMO DELLA PORTA was one of his most
able scholars, and his chief work was a monument to Pope Paul III. in
the Church of St. Peter's. The figure of the pope is in bronze, is
seated, and holding the right hand in benediction. It is dignified and
well designed. The figures of Justice and Prudence are not as good, and
two others, Peace and Abundance, which were a part of this work, but are
now in the Farnese Palace, lack power, and show an attempt at a
representation of mere physical beauty.

BACCIO BANDINELLI (1487-1559) is more noticeable for his hatred of
Michael Angelo than for any other characteristic. He was a native of
Florence and a friend of Leonardo da Vinci. He was powerful in his
design and bold in his treatment of his subjects, but he was full of
affectation and mannerisms in his execution of his works. He was false
and envious, and his one good quality was that of industry. His best
works are on the screen of the high-altar in the Cathedral of Florence,
a relief on a pedestal in the Piazza of San Lorenzo, in Florence, and a
group in the Church of the Annunziata, which he intended for his own
monument; the subject is Nicodemus supporting Christ, and the Nicodemus
is a portrait of Bandinelli himself.



CHAPTER VIII.

EUROPEAN SCULPTURE FROM MICHAEL ANGELO TO CANOVA.


Not only Italian artists attempted to follow the great sculptor of
Italy, but those of other nations flocked to Rome, and whatever ideas
they may have had before reaching that city they seemed to lose them all
and to aim simply at one thing--to be Michaelangeloesque.

GIOVANNI DA BOLOGNA (1529-1608) was born in Douai, in Flanders, and was
called Il Fiammingo for this reason. Giovanni was intended for a notary
by his father, who planned his education with that end in view; but the
boy's passion for sculpture was so great that the father was obliged to
yield to it, and placed him under the instruction of a sculptor named
Beuch, who had studied in Italy. Later Giovanni went to Rome, and
finally settled in Florence, where his most important works remain.

He was an imitator of Michael Angelo, and one of his best imitators; but
when his works are compared with those of the great master, or with the
masterpieces of the fifteenth century, we see a decline in them. In
religious subjects Giovanni was not at home; his most successful works
were those which represented sentiment or abstract ideas, because on
them he could lavish his skill in execution, and use ornaments that did
not suit the simplicity of religious subjects. In the Loggia de' Lanzi,
at Florence, there are two groups by him, the Rape of the Sabines and
Hercules and Nessus. In the Piazza della Signoria is his excellent
statue of Duke Cosmo I., and in the Uffizi Gallery a bronze statue of
Mercury. The Rape of the Sabines is his masterpiece, and the Mercury is
one of the best works of its kind since the days of classic art. It is
the favorite Mercury of the world, and has been frequently copied. It is
seen in many galleries and collections in its original size, and a small
copy is much used in private houses. (Fig. 109.)

Giovanni was especially happy in his designs for fountains, and that
which he erected in Bologna, in 1564, in front of the Palazzo Pubblico,
is a splendid work of this kind. The statue of Neptune at its summit is
stately and free in its action; the children are charming and life-like,
and the Sirens at the base give an harmonious finish and complete the
outline with easy grace.

He also erected a magnificent fountain in the island of the Boboli
Gardens. In the Palazzo Vecchio is a marble group by Giovanni
representing Virtue conquering Vice. At Petraja there is a beautiful
Venus crowning a fountain remarkable for grace and delicacy, and, all in
all, his works prove him to have been the best sculptor of his own time.
Tuscany may claim him and be proud of him, for he was far more her son
than that of his native Flanders.

Giovanni da Bologna was far less successful in reliefs than in statues,
as may be seen in the bronze gates to the Cathedral of Pisa, which he
made in the last years of his life. In his character this master was
attractive and much beloved by his friends. One of them wrote of him:
"The best fellow in the world, not in the least covetous, as he shows by
his poverty; filled with a love of glory, and ambitious of rivalling
Michael Angelo."

Giovanni decorated a chapel in the Church of the Annunziata with several
reliefs in bronze and with a crucifix; he not only wished to be buried
here himself, as he was, but he also desired to provide a place of
burial for any of his countrymen who might die in Florence. The chapel
is called that of the Madonna del Soccorso.

[Illustration: FIG. 109.--MERCURY. _By Giovanni da Bologna._]

The decline of sculpture in Italy at this period makes its study so
unpromising that it is a pleasure to turn to France, where the works of
JEAN GOUJON show that he had the true idea of sculpture in relief. From
1555 to 1562 this sculptor was employed on the works at the Louvre, and
during the massacre of St. Bartholomew he was shot while on a scaffold
quietly working at a bas-relief on that palace.

Goujon was an architect as well as a sculptor, and also a medal
engraver, as is shown by the curious and rare medal which he made for
Catherine de' Medici. Many of his works are preserved in different parts
of France, and some bas-reliefs in the Museum of the Louvre are
excellent specimens of his style.

One also sees in France many works by GERMAIN PILON, who died in 1590.
He executed the monument to Francis I., and took a part in that of Henry
II. and Catherine de' Medici at the Church of St. Denis. He was the
sculptor of the group of the three Graces in the Louvre, which formerly
bore an urn containing the heart of Henry II., and was in the Church of
the Celestines.

But the sculptors of France at this time are not of such interest as to
hold our attention long. There was a certain amount of spirit in their
decorations of palaces and tombs, but there were no men of great genius,
and no splendid works upon which we can dwell with pleasure or profit.

In Germany, too, while there was much activity in sculpture, and public
fountains and luxurious palaces and rich ornaments employed many
artists, yet there was no originality or freshness in these works, and
they fell below those of the past. Bronzes are still made at Nuremberg,
but they only serve to make one regret that they are so inferior to
those of earlier days; and nowhere in all Germany does any one artist
stand out and present a man to be studied in his works or remembered as
one of the gifted of the earth. And yet a list of the names of German
sculptors of this time would be very long, for all over the land
churches were being decorated, monuments built, and statues and
fountains erected.

In England the best sculpture of the sixteenth century was seen in the
portrait statues on monuments, and we find no great artists there of
whom to give an account.

[Illustration: FIG. 110.--RELIEF BY BERRUGUETE. _Valladolid._]

In Spain ALONSO BERRUGUETE (1480-1561), who was the most eminent artist
of his time, had introduced the Italian manner. He went to Italy about
1503, and studied in Rome and Florence during seventeen years. This was
at the time when Italian sculpture was at the height of its excellence;
and Berruguete returned to Spain filled with the purest and best
conceptions of what art should be, and the ends it should serve. He has
been called the Michael Angelo of Spain, because he was an architect,
painter, and sculptor.

Upon his return to Spain he was appointed painter and sculptor to
Charles V. Among his most celebrated works in sculpture are the reliefs
in the choir of the Cathedral at Toledo; the altar in the Church of San
Benito el Real at Valladolid (Fig. 110), for which he was paid
forty-four hundred ducats, and his sculptures in the Collegio Mayor at
Salamanca. His final work was a monument to the Cardinal and Grand
Inquisitor, Don Juan de Tavera, which is in the Church of the Hospital
of St. John at Toledo. The sarcophagus is ornamented by reliefs from the
story of John the Baptist, which are executed in an excellent manner,
simple and expressive.

Other Spanish sculptors were ESTEBAN JORDAN, an eminent wood-carver,
GREGORIO HERNANDEZ (1566-1636), who has been called "the sculptor of
religion." His works are so full of a spirit of devotion that they seem
to have been executed under an inspiration. Hernandez was very devout in
his life, and did many works of charity; he often provided decent burial
for the very poor who died without friends who could bury them.

Many of his works have been removed from the chapels for which they were
designed, and are now in the Museum of Valladolid, where they are not as
effective as when placed in their original positions. He is superior to
other Spanish sculptors in his representation of nude figures and in the
grandeur of his expression.

JUAN DE JUNI (died 1614) studied in Italy, and acquired much mannerism;
his works are seen in Valladolid.

JUAN MARTINEZ MONTAÑES (died 1650) was a famous sculptor, and excelled
in figures of children and cherubs. His conceptions had much beauty and
depth of feeling, and his draperies were most graceful; and to this
power of thinking out clearly and well the subject he wished to
represent he added the ability to do his work in an artistic manner, and
to give it an elegance of finish without taking away its strength. A
Conception by him, in the Cathedral of Seville, is a noble work, and in
the university church of the same city there is an altar which is one of
his important works. Other sculptures by Montañes are in the Museum of
Seville.

The great ALONSO CANO (1601-1667) was a pupil of Montañes in sculpture,
and, like so many other artists of his time, was a painter and architect
as well as a sculptor. His personal history is very peculiar. He was a
man of violent temper, and was often involved in serious quarrels. He
was obliged to flee from Granada to Madrid on account of a duel, and
when his wife was found murdered in her bed he was suspected of the
crime. In spite of all this he took priest's orders, and was appointed
to a canonry in the Cathedral of Granada; but on account of his temper
he was deprived of this office by the chapter of the cathedral. He was
so angry at this that he would do no more work for the cathedral.

He devoted the remainder of his life to religious and charitable works.
He gave away the money he earned as soon as he received it, and when he
had no money to give away he was in the habit of making drawings, which
he signed and marked with a suitable price; these he gave to the person
he desired to assist, and recommended some person to whom application to
buy the work could be made. After his death a large number of these
charitable works was collected.

He hated Jews with such hatred that he could not endure to look at one,
and many strange stories are told of him in connection with these
people.

He loved his chisel better than his brush, and was accustomed to say
that when weary he carved for rest. One of his pupils expressed great
surprise at this, when Cano answered, "Blockhead, don't you perceive
that to create form and relief on a flat surface is a greater service
than to fashion one shape into another?"

The most beautiful sculpture by Cano which remains is a Virgin about a
foot high in the Sacristy of the Cathedral of Granada, where there are
several other statuettes by him. These are colored in a manner which the
Spaniards call "estofado;" it has the effect to soften the whole
appearance of the works, like an enamel. At the entrance of the choir of
the cathedral there are two colossal busts by Cano; they are grand
works, and are called Adam and Eve.

PEDRO ROLDAN (1624-1700), born at Seville, is an interesting sculptor
because of his work, and on account of his being the last one whose
manner was like that of Juni and Hernandez. His first celebrated work
was the high-altar in the chapel of the Biscayans in the Franciscan
convent. When the Caridad, or Hospital of Charity, was restored, Roldan
executed the last great work in painted sculpture; it was an immense
piece for the centre of the retablo of the high-altar of the church, and
represented the Entombment of Christ.

Seville abounds in his works, and he executed bas-reliefs in stone for
the exterior of the Cathedral at Jaen. He was so devoted to his art that
he felt every moment to be lost that was not spent in its service. He
married a lady of good family, and lived in the country; when obliged to
go to Seville he was accustomed to carry a lump of clay, and model from
it as he rode along. Roldan was not by any means the best of Spanish
sculptors, but he had great skill in the composition of his works, and
the draperies and all the details were carefully studied. His daughter,
Doña Luisa Roldan, studied sculpture under her father's instruction, and
became a good artist; he was accustomed to allow her to superintend her
studio and his pupils. She often aided him by her suggestions, and on
one occasion, when a statue that he had made was rejected, she pointed
out to him certain anatomical defects, which he remedied, and the whole
appearance of the work was so changed that it was thought to be new, and
was accepted for the place for which it had been ordered.

The works executed by Doña Luisa were principally small figures of the
Virgin, the Adoration of the Shepherds, and kindred subjects. Several of
these were presented to King Charles II., and he was so pleased by them
that he ordered a life-size statue of St. Michael for the Church of the
Escorial. She executed this to his satisfaction, and he then appointed
her sculptress in ordinary to the king. She died at Madrid in 1704,
surviving her father but four years. She left works in various convents
and churches.

In Italy at the beginning of the seventeenth century a new era in
sculpture was inaugurated. Art was now required to serve the Church in
the way of appealing to sentiments and feeling in a far coarser and more
sensational a manner than formerly. Painting was suited to these
purposes far more than sculpture, and it had been raised to great
heights, in Spain, by Murillo, in the North by Rubens and his followers,
and in Italy by numerous masters.

Lübke says of this period: "All that was now demanded of art was effect
and feeling at any price. The one was attained through the other. A
passionate excitement pulsates throughout all artistic works; the ideal
repose of the former altar-pieces no longer satisfied. Longing,
devotional ardor, passionate rapture, enthusiastic ecstasy--these are
the aims of the new art. No longer the solemn dignity of the saint, but
the nervous visions of enraptured monks, are its ideal. It delights in
thrilling delineations of martyrdom, seeking to render such scenes as
effective and touching as possible. A desire for substantial power, a
political-religious tendency, had taken possession of art, and had
adapted it to its own objects. That, under such circumstances, painting
reaches a new and truly artistic importance may be traced above all to
the great masters who now cultivated the art, and still more to the tone
of the age, which promoted it in a rare measure.... The same spirit,
however, which imparted such genuine importance to painting produced the
ruin of sculpture. This epoch, more than any other, is a proof that the
greatest men of talent, appearing in a perverted age, are carried by
their very genius all the more certainly to ruin. All that, in a more
favorable period, would have raised them to be stars in the art
firmament, now made them fall like some _ignis fatuus_, the brilliant
light of which owes its illusory existence only to miasma. This striking
fact appears, at first sight, inexplicable; but it is easy to
understand, if we consider the different character of the two arts.
Plastic art had formerly emulated painting, and thus, especially in
relief, had suffered unmistakable injury to its own peculiar nature. At
that time, however, painting itself was full of architectural severity
and plastic nobleness of form. Now, when everything depended on striking
effect and speaking delineation of passionate emotions, it was compelled
to have recourse to naturalistic representation, to freer arrangements
and to more striking forms that emulated reality. If, however,
sculpture, which could not keep pace with its rival in the enamelled
coloring and mysterious charm of the _chiaro-oscuro_ which it brought
into the field, would, in anywise, do the same as painting, it was
compelled to plunge regardlessly into the same naturalism of forms and
into the same bold display of passion with which painting produced such
grand effects. And this sculpture did without the slightest scruple, and
in this lack of an artistic conscience its whole glory perished. It is
true in this passion for excited compositions an excess of splendid
works were produced; it is true immense resources were expended, and
able artists were employed; but such inner hollowness stares at us with
inanimate eye from the greater number of these works that we turn from
them with repugnance, and even often with disgust."

The artist who first met this new demand upon sculpture, and may be
called the founder of a new style, was GIOVANNI LORENZO BERNINI
(1598-1680), a very gifted man. When but ten years old this remarkable
genius was known as a prodigy in art, and it was at this early age that
his father took him to Rome. Pope Paul V. was soon interested in him,
and Cardinal Barberini assisted him in his studies; from this fortunate
beginning all through his life good fortune attended his steps. He lived
through the pontificate of nine popes, and was always in favor with the
reigning head of the Church. This gave him the opportunity to fill Rome
with his works, and he imprinted himself upon the art of the Eternal
City; no artist since the time of Michael Angelo held such sway, and
Bernini acquired his power easily, while the grand Michael Angelo was
disputed at every step, and fought a long, hard battle before he was
allowed to take the place which was so clearly his by right.

The fame of Bernini extended to other lands, and he was invited to
France, where he went when sixty-eight years old, accompanied by one of
his sons and a numerous retinue. He was loaded with favors, and received
large sums of money and many valuable presents. In Rome, too, he was
much favored; he held several church benefices, and his son was made a
Canon of Santa Maria Maggiore; and it was in this church that Bernini
was buried with great magnificence, as became his position and his
wealth, for he left the immense fortune of four hundred thousand Roman
crowns.

Bernini had great versatility of talent, a remarkable imagination and
power of conceiving his subjects clearly, and, more than all, he had
marvellous power of execution and compelling his marble to show forth
his thought. It has been said that marble was like wax or clay beneath
his hand. He was subject to no rules; indeed, he believed that an artist
must set aside all rules if he would excel. This sounds very
fascinating, but a study of Bernini's works will show that it is a
deceitful maxim. A man of small talent could do nothing in this way, and
even Bernini, who without doubt had great gifts, often failed to make up
in any way for the sins against rules of which he was guilty.
Westmacott, in his writing upon sculpture, says it would have been
better for art if Bernini had never lived; and it is true that in his
struggle for effect he was an injury rather than a benefit to the art of
his own day and the succeeding years.

The worst defect in the sculpture of Bernini is his treatment of the
human body. At times he exaggerates the muscular power beyond all
resemblance to nature, and again he seems to leave out all anatomy and
soften the body to a point that far exceeds possibility. This softness
is seen in his Apollo and Daphne, which shows the moment when she is
suddenly changed into a laurel-tree in order to escape the pursuit of
the young god. This group is in the Villa Borghese, at Rome; it was
executed when Bernini was but eighteen years old, and near the close of
his life he declared that he had made little progress after its
production.

But he reached the height of this objectionable manner in his
representation of the Rape of Proserpine, which is in the Villa
Ludovisi. The Pluto is a rough, repulsive man, with whom no association
of a god can be made, and the Proserpine is made a soulless, sensual
figure, so far from attractive in a pure sense that we are almost
willing that Pluto should carry her to some region from which she is not
likely to come back. At the same time we are sorry not to provide her
with an ointment for the blue marks which the big hands of Pluto are
making on her soft flesh. The plain truth is, that this work makes a low
and common thing of a subject which could be so treated as to be a
"thing of beauty" in a charming sense. (Fig. 111.)

[Illustration: FIG. 111.--RAPE OF PROSERPINE. _By Bernini._]

Bernini executed a statue of St. Bibiana for the church of that saint at
Rome, and one of St. Longinus in one of the niches to the dome of St.
Peter's; he also made the designs for the one hundred and sixty-two
statues in the colonnades of St. Peter's, and for the decorations of the
bridge of St. Angelo; in such works, almost without exception, he chose
some moment in the lives of the persons represented that called for a
striking attitude and gave an opportunity for an effect that is often
theatrical. As a mere decoration such statues have a certain value of an
inferior sort; but as works of art, as intellectual efforts, they are
worthless. However, this decorative effect, as it is seen on the façade
of the Lateran, where the figures stand out against the sky, or on the
bridge of St. Angelo, is not by any means to be despised; only we cannot
call a sculptor a great artist when he can do nothing finer than this.

Some of Bernini's works in which he shows intense suffering have more
genuine feeling, and are finer in artistic qualities. One of these is
Pietà, in the chapel of St. Andreas Corsini in the Lateran. But he
frequently goes beyond the bounds of good taste, as, for example, on the
monument to Pope Urban VIII., in St. Peter's, where he represents Death
with his bony hand writing the inscription on the panel; this is truly
terrible, and not less so is another Death upon the monument of
Alexander VII., raising the marble curtain before the entrance to the
vault, as if he were inviting one to walk in. Many objections can be
made to his draperies. He exaggerated the small curtains seen on some
ancient tombs until they were huge objects of ugliness; the drapery upon
his figures is so prominently treated that instead of being a minor
object it sometimes seems like the principal one; it no longer serves to
conceal forms, and at the same time show their grace and motion, but it
is inflated, fluttering, grotesque in form and quite absurd when
compared with statues in which it answers its true purpose.

Charles I. of England heard so much of Bernini that he desired to have a
statue of himself executed by this sculptor; three of Vandyck's
portraits of the king were sent to him, and the likeness of the statue
was so satisfactory to the monarch that he sent the artist six thousand
crowns and a ring worth as much more.

Bernini executed a colossal equestrian statue of Constantine for the
portico of St. Peter's; he made another of Louis XIV., which was changed
into a Marcus Curtius, and sent to Versailles. He also executed the
fountain in the Piazza Navona, at Rome, which is one of his exaggerated
works.

FRANÇOIS DUQUESNOY (1594-1646) was born at Brussels, and was known in
Rome as Il Fiammingo. The Archduke Albert sent him to Rome to study, and
he was a contemporary of Bernini. When his patron died Duquesnoy was
left without means, and was forced to carve small figures in ivory for
his support. His figures of children, which were full of life and
child-like expression, became quite famous. An important work of his in
this way is the fountain of the Manneken-Pis, at Brussels.

His masterpiece is a colossal statue of St. Andrew in the Church of St.
Peter's; it occupied him five years, and is one of the best works of
modern art. His statue of St. Susanna in the Church of Santa Maria di
Loreto, in Rome, is simple and noble, and is much admired. Little is
known of this artist's life, and it is said that he was poisoned by his
brother when on his way to France.

There was a goodly company of sculptors following Bernini, but none
whose works or life was of sufficient importance or interest to demand
our attention here, and we will pass to the sculpture of France, where
the arts were less devoted to the service of the Church and more to the
uses of kings, princes, and noblemen. The court of France was devoted to
pomp and pleasure, and sculpture was used for the glorification of the
leaders in all its follies. In one sense this is more agreeable than the
art in Italy which we have been considering, for nothing can be more
disagreeable than a false religious sentiment in art; it is only when
the artist is filled with true devotion and feels deeply in his own soul
all that he tries to express in his work that religious representations
can appeal to us agreeably or benefit us by their influence.

SIMON GUILLAIN (1581-1658) is especially interesting as the sculptor of
the statue of Louis XIV. as a boy, which is in the Louvre; those of his
parents are also there; formerly they decorated the Pont au Change.
Other works by this master are in the same museum.

JACQUES SARRAZIN (1588-1660) is only known by his works, which are now
in the Louvre, of which a bronze bust of the Chancellor Pierre Séguier
is worthy of notice.

FRANÇOIS ANGUIER (1604-1669) was born at Eu, in Normandy, and was the
son of a carpenter, who taught his son to carve in wood at an early age.
When still quite young François went to Paris to study, and later to
Rome. He became one of the first artists of his time in France, and was
a favorite of the king, Louis XIII., who made him keeper of the gallery
of antiquities, and gave him apartments in the Louvre. Most of his
important works were monuments to illustrious men. His copies of antique
sculptures were very fine.

MICHEL ANGUIER (1612-1686) was a brother of the preceding, with whom he
studied until they both went to Rome. Michel remained there ten years,
and was employed with other artists in St. Peter's and in some palaces.
In 1651 he returned to Paris, and assisted François in the great work of
the tomb of the Duke de Montmorenci at Moulins.

Michel executed a statue of Louis XIII., which was cast in bronze. He
adorned the apartments of Queen Anne of Austria in the Louvre, and for
her executed the principal sculptures in the Church of Val de Grace; a
Nativity in this church is his best work. His sculptures are seen in
various churches, and he also executed statues of ancient gods and vases
for garden ornaments. He was a professor in the Academy of Arts in
Paris, and wrote lectures on sculpture.

FRANÇOIS GIRARDON (1630-1715), born at Troyes, was a _protégé_ of the
Chancellor Séguier. Louis XIV. gave him a pension, by which he was
enabled to study in Rome, and after his return to France the king gave
him many commissions. The monument to Cardinal Richelieu in the Church
of the Sorbonne is from the hand of this sculptor. Perhaps his
best-known work is the Rape of Proserpine at Versailles. He made an
equestrian statue of Louis XIV., which was destroyed in the Revolution;
a model of it in bronze is in the Louvre. His bust of Boileau is a
strong, fine work. Many of his sculptures were destroyed by the
revolutionists.

A devoted follower of Bernini was PIERRE PUGET (1622-1694). His works
are seen at the Louvre and at Versailles. His group of Milo of Crotona
endeavoring to free himself from the claws of the lion is full of life
and is natural, but the subject is too repulsive to be long examined;
his Perseus liberating Andromeda is more agreeable, and is noble in its
forms and animated in expression. His Alexander and Diogenes is in
relief, and is effective and picturesque.

ANTOINE COYSEVOX (1640-1720) was born at Lyons, and manifested his
artistic talent very early in life. Before he was seventeen years old he
had distinguished himself by a statue of the Virgin, and progressed
rapidly in his studies, which he made in Paris. In 1667 he was engaged
by Cardinal Furstenburg to go to Alsace to decorate his palace; this
occupied him four years. When he again went to Paris he became a very
eminent artist. He executed a statue of Louis XIV., and received a
commission from the province of Bretagne for an equestrian statue of the
same monarch.

Among his best works are the tomb of Cardinal Mazarin; the tomb of the
great Colbert in the Church of St. Eustache; the monument of Charles le
Brun in the Church of St. Nicolas; the statue of the great Condé; the
marble statue of Louis XIV., in the Church of Notre Dame, and others. In
the tomb of Mazarin he showed fine powers of construction and excellence
of design. The kneeling figure of the minister is a dignified statue and
well executed; the statues in bronze of Prudence, Peace, and Fidelity,
and the marble figures of Charity and Religion are each and all noble
works, and free to a remarkable degree from the mannerisms and faults of
his time.

NICOLAS COUSTOU (1658-1733) was a nephew and pupil of Coysevox. He took
the grand prize at Paris, and went to Rome to study when he was
twenty-three years old. He made many copies of the antique. After his
return to France he was much employed. His chief work was a colossal
representation of the Junction of the Seine and the Marne. He also made
for the city of Lyons a bronze statue representing the river Saone. Some
of his sculptures are in the Church of Notre Dame.

GUILLAUME COUSTOU (1678-1746), brother of Nicolas, also gained the grand
prize and went to Rome, and on his return made a fine reputation. Much
of his best work was for the gardens of Marly; he executed a bronze
statue of the Rhone at Lyons; a bas-relief of Christ with the Doctors,
at Versailles, and statues of Louis XIV. and Cardinal Dubois, in the
Museum of French Monuments.

JEAN BAPTISTE PIGALLE (1714-1785) is the last French sculptor of whom I
shall speak here. He was born in Paris, and gained his first fame by a
statue of Mercury; but his masterpiece was the tomb of Marshal Moritz of
Saxony, in the Church of St. Thomas, at Strasburg. The soldier is
represented in his own costume, just as he wore it in life, about to
enter a tomb, on one side of which stands a skeleton Death, and on the
other a mourning Hercules. A statue representing France tries to hold
him back, and a Genius attends on him with an inverted torch. There are
many accessories of military emblems and trophies. There have been
several engravings made from this tomb, the best part of which is the
figure of the Marshal.

Pigalle was a favorite with Mme. Pompadour, of whom he made a portrait
statue. She employed him to do many works for her. His best monument in
Paris is that of the Comte d'Harcourt, in the Church of Notre Dame.

In the Netherlands, as in Italy, the painting of the time had a great
effect upon sculpture, and it was full of energy, like the pictures of
the Rubens school; at the same time there remained traces of the
traditions of former days, and while a great change had come since the
days of Vischer, there was still a firm adherence to nature, and no
such affectations and mannerisms existed here as were seen in the works
of Bernini and his followers in Italy and France.

One of the ablest sculptors of his day was ARTHUR QUELLINUS, who was
born at Antwerp in 1607. He studied under Duquesnoy, and was especially
happy in his manner of imagining his subjects, and of avoiding the
imitation of others or a commonplace treatment of his own. The
magnificent Town Hall of Antwerp was commenced in 1648, and Quellinus
received the commission to decorate it with plastic works. His
sculptures are numerous, both on the interior and exterior of the
edifice. In the two pediments he introduced allegorical representations
of the power of the city of Antwerp, especially in her commerce. These
compositions are picturesque in their arrangement, but the treatment is
such as belongs to sculpture; in one of these a figure which represents
the city is enthroned like a queen, and is surrounded by fantastic
sea-gods, who offer their homage to her. (Fig. 112.)

[Illustration: FIG. 112.--CARYATIDE. _Quellinus._]

We cannot give a list of many detached works by Quellinus, but one of
the best of the old monuments in Berlin is attributed to him. It is the
tomb of Count Sparr in the Marienkirche.

At the present day Berlin is a city of much artistic importance, and the
beginning of its present architectural and sculptural prominence may be
dated at about the end of the seventeenth century, not quite two hundred
years ago. One of the most influential artists of that time was ANDREAS
SCHLÜTER (1662-1714), who was born in Hamburg. His father was a sculptor
of no prominence, but he took his son with him to Dantzig, where many
Netherlandish artists were employed upon the buildings being constructed
there. Andreas Schlüter was naturally gifted, and he devoted himself to
the study of both architecture and sculpture, at home and later in
Italy. Before he was thirty years old he was employed in important
affairs in Warsaw, and in 1694 he was summoned to Berlin, where he
executed the plastic ornaments of the Arsenal; the heads of the Dying
Warriors above the windows in the court-yard are remarkable works. They
are very fine when regarded only as excellent examples of good
sculpture, and they are very effective placed as they are, for they seem
to tell the whole tragic story of what a soldier's life and fate must
often be (Fig. 113).

[Illustration: FIG. 113.--HEADS OF DYING WARRIORS. _By Schlüter._]

[Illustration: FIG. 114.--THE GREAT ELECTOR. _By Schlüter._]

However, the masterpiece of this sculptor is the equestrian statue of
the Great Elector for the long bridge at Berlin, which was completed in
1703 (Fig. 114). Lübke says of this: "Although biassed as regards form
by the age which prescribed the Roman costume to ideal portraits of this
kind, the horseman on his mighty charger is conceived with so much
energy, he is filled with such power of will, he is so noble in bearing
and so steady in his course, that no other equestrian statue can be
compared with this in fiery majesty. Equally masterly is the
arrangement of the whole, especially the four chained slaves on the
base, in whom we gladly pardon a certain crowding of movements and
forms."

Schlüter also made a statue of the Elector Frederic III., which is now
in Königsberg. Besides his works in sculpture he was the architect of
the royal palaces at Potsdam, Charlottenburg, and Berlin, and there are
many sculptures by him at these places. When he was thus in an important
position and at the height of professional prosperity he met with a sad
misfortune, from the effects of which he never recovered. A chime of
bells had been purchased in Holland, and Schlüter was commissioned to
arrange an old tower for their reception. He carried it higher than it
had been, and was proceeding to finish it, when it threatened to fall,
and had to be pulled down. On account of this Schlüter was dismissed
from his position as court architect; and though his office of sculptor
was left to him his power was gone, and he was broken down in spirit. He
was called to St. Petersburg by Peter the Great, and died soon after.
Now, the verdict of judges is that he was one of the greatest artists of
his age, and that his works, both in sculpture and architecture, belong
to the noblest productions of his century.



CHAPTER IX.

CANOVA, THORWALDSEN, AND OTHER RECENT SCULPTORS.


In the middle of the eighteenth century the arts had fallen into such a
feeble state that a true artistic work--one conceived and executed in an
artist spirit--was not to be looked for. As in the Middle Ages, too,
thought seemed to be sleeping. Both art and letters were largely
prostrated to the service of those in high places; they were scarcely
used except for the pleasure or praise of men whose earthly power made
them to be feared, and because they were feared they were flattered
openly and despised secretly.

But about the end of the century another spirit arose; a second
Renaissance took place, which may be traced in literature and in art, as
it may be in the movement of political events and an independence of
thought everywhere.

Naturally the question as to where artists could turn for their models
was an important one, and as before in various epochs in art the antique
had been the "only help in time of trouble," so it proved again. In 1764
Winckelmann published his "History of Ancient Art," in which the rich
significance of classic art was clearly placed before the student. The
service which this author rendered to art can scarcely be
over-estimated, coming, as it did, at a time when the genius of art
seemed to have turned his back upon the world, and all true inspiration
was lost. At about the same time the monuments of Athens were recalled
to the European world by Stuart and Revett in their architectural
designs, and by the end of the century the study of the antique had done
its transforming work, and artists were striving for more worthy ends
than the favor of kings and powerful patrons. This new study of classic
art did not show its full and best results until the Danish sculptor
Thorwaldsen executed his works; but before his time others were striving
for that which it was his privilege to perfect.

Among the earliest and most famous of these eighteenth-century reformers
was the Venetian, ANTONIO CANOVA (1757-1822). He was born in Possagno,
and was the son and grandson of stone-cutters. His father died when he
was very young, and he was thus left to the care and instruction of his
grandfather, the old Pasino Canova, who lost no time in accustoming the
boy to the use of the chisel, for there are cuttings in existence which
were executed by Canova in his ninth year. Signor Giovanni Faliero dwelt
near Possagno, and was in the habit of employing Pasino Canova
frequently; he entertained such respect for the old stone-cutter that he
sometimes asked him to spend a few days at his villa. On these visits
the old man was accompanied by Antonio, who soon became a favorite with
all the family of Faliero, and a friend of the young Giuseppe.

On one occasion when Pasino and the boy attended a festival at Villa
Faliero, the ornament for the dessert was forgotten. When the servants
remembered it at the last moment they went to the old Pasino in
distress, and begged him to save them from the displeasure of the
master. The old man could do nothing for them, but the young Tonin, as
he was called, asked for some butter, and from it quickly carved a lion.
At table this strange ornament attracted the attention of all the
guests, and Tonin was called in to receive their praises; from this time
the Senator Faliero became his patron, and he placed the boy under the
instruction of Giuseppe Bernardi, called Toretto, a Venetian sculptor
who had settled at Pagnano.

At this time Canova was twelve years old; he studied two years under
Toretto, and made many statues and models, which are still preserved by
the Faliero family, or in other collections. His first really original
work was the modelling of two angels in clay; he did these during an
absence of his master's; he placed them in a prominent place, and then
awaited Toretto's opinion with great anxiety. When the master saw them
he was filled with surprise, and exclaimed that they were truly
marvellous; from these models the grandfather cut two angels in _pietra
dura_ for the high-altar at Monfumo. At this same period Canova made his
first representations of the human form; he was accustomed to make small
statues and give them to his friends.

When he was fifteen years old Faliero sent for him, and received him
into his own family. Canova wished to earn something for himself, and
engaged to work half of the day for Giuseppe Ferrari, who was a nephew
of his former master, Toretto. Of this time Canova afterward wrote: "I
labored for a mere pittance, but it was sufficient. It was the fruit of
my own resolution, and, as I then flattered myself, the foretaste of
more honorable rewards." This circumstance proves how remarkable he must
have been; it is unusual for a boy of fifteen to be paid for work
instead of paying for instruction. In Venice he was able to learn much
from observation. He divided his time systematically, spending his
mornings in the Academy or some gallery, his afternoons in the shop
where he was employed, and his evenings in studies for which he had had
no opportunity as a child.

The first commission which was given to Canova was from the Commendatore
Farsetti for a pair of baskets filled with fruit and flowers, to be
sculptured in marble, and placed on a staircase which led to the picture
gallery in the Farsetti Palace, where Canova spent much time in study.
These works have no special excellence.

After a year in Venice he went to Asolo with the Faliero family. Some
time before this his patron had asked Canova to make for him a group of
Orpheus and Eurydice, taking the moment when Eurydice beholds her lover
torn away from her forever. Canova had been busy with this in his
leisure hours in Venice, and he took with him to Asolo everything
necessary to the work. He completed the Eurydice in his sixteenth year;
it was life-size, and cut from _pietra di Costosa_.

With this first attempt Canova became convinced that the small models
such as were in use by sculptors were quite insufficient to good work,
and he determined that his models should be of the size which the
finished work would have, even when colossal.

After this time he had his studio in a cell of the monastery of the
Augustine friars attached to the Church of San Stefano, in Venice.
During the next three years he was occupied with his Orpheus and a bust
of the Doge Renier. At this time he studied entirely from nature; he
devoted himself to the pursuit of anatomy, and after a time was
accustomed to make dissections in order to sketch or model from
important parts or some conformations that he desired in particular
instances.

In 1776 his Orpheus was finished and exhibited, and it chanced to be at
the annual festival of the Ascension, when the opera of Orpheus was
brought out in Venice. Canova was accustomed to say that the praise he
then received was "that which made him a sculptor;" and so grateful was
he for it that later, when he became Marquis of Ischia, he chose for his
armorial ensigns the lyre and serpent which are the mythological symbols
of Orpheus and Eurydice. The Senator Grimani ordered a copy of the
Orpheus, and this was the first work of Canova in Carrara marble.

He soon found his workshop too small, and removed to one in the street
of San Maurizio, where he remained until he left his native country. His
next work was a statue of Æsculapius, larger than life; a short time
before his death, when he saw this statue, he sorrowfully declared that
"his progress had by no means corresponded with the indications of
excellence in this performance of his youth." About this time he
executed an Apollo and Daphne which was never entirely finished, and
when twenty-two years old he completed a group of Dædalus and Icarus for
the Senator Pisani. This was intended for an exterior decoration of his
palace; but when it was done Pisani considered it worthy of a place in
his gallery, already famous on account of the painting of Darius and his
Family, by Paul Veronese, and other fine works. This may be called
Canova's last work in Venice, as he went to Rome soon after his
twenty-third birthday.

The Cavaliere Zuliani was then the representative of Venice in Rome, and
Faliero gave Canova letters to him. Zuliani was an enlightened patron of
art, and he received the young sculptor with great kindness, and soon
arranged to have his model of Dædalus and Icarus exhibited to the best
artists and judges of art in Rome. We can fancy the anxiety with which
Canova went to this exhibition; but the praise which he there received
secured for him a place among the artists then in Rome.

Canova had a great desire to undertake a group of some important
subject, and Zuliani was his friend in this; for he gave him the marble,
and promised if no other purchaser appeared to give him the full value
of the work when completed. He also gave him a workshop in the Venetian
Palace, to which no one had access, where he could be entirely free and
undisturbed. The subject chosen for the group was Theseus vanquishing
the Minotaur, and the size was to be colossal. Canova now worked with
untiring devotion; he was often seen before the statues on Monte
Cavallo, with sketch-book in hand, as soon as it was light enough for
him to see, and he studied faithfully in the museums and galleries of
Rome. His friends in Venice had secured for him a pension of three
hundred ducats, which placed him above want, and he was free to devote
himself to his Theseus, although while at work on that he made a statue
of Apollo, which was exhibited with Angelini's Minerva, and received
much praise.

Meantime no one knew of the Theseus save the ambassador. When it was
finished Zuliani prepared it for exhibition, and invited all the most
distinguished men in Rome to an entertainment. A model of the head of
Theseus was put in a prominent place, and the guests were busy in
discussing it; they asked questions and expressed opinions, and when
their interest was well awakened Zuliani said: "Come, let us end this
discussion by seeing the original," and the statue was unveiled before
their eyes. Canova often declared that death itself could not have been
more terrible to him than were those moments. But he and all else were
forgotten in the surprise and admiration which the group excited; in
that hour the artists who afterward hated him gave him their sincere
praise. From that day the fame of Canova was established.

Very soon he was selected to erect a monument to Clement XIV. This pope
was a famous man; he was the collector of the Clementine Museum, the
author of the elegant letters known by his family name of Ganganelli,
and, above all, he was the suppressor of the Jesuits. While Canova felt
the honor that was thus offered him he also thought himself bound to
consult those who had conferred his pension upon him, and thus helped
him to become the artist that he was. He went, therefore, to Venice
and sought direction from the Senate; he was told to employ his time
as should be most profitable to himself. He therefore gave up his studio
in Venice, and as his patron, Zuliani, had now left Rome, he fitted up
the studio in the Strada Babbuino, which became so well known to lovers
of art of all nations who visited Rome. In 1787 the above monument was
exhibited, and was much admired. An engraving was made from it and
dedicated to Zuliani; but Canova desired to do something more worthy for
his patron, and made a statue of Psyche as a gift to him; Zuliani
hesitated to accept it, but finally consented to do so if Canova would
in turn accept a number of silver medals with the Psyche on one side and
a head of Canova on the other, which he could give to his friends. In
the midst of all this Zuliani died, and his heirs were so angry because
he had left works of art to the Public Library that they refused to
carry out his plans. In the end the Psyche was bought by Napoleon and
presented to the Queen of Bavaria.

[Illustration: FIG. 115.--THE THREE GRACES. _By Canova._]

Canova executed a second papal monument to Pope Clement XIII. It was
erected in St. Peter's by his nephews. The mourning genius upon it is
frequently mentioned as one of Canova's happiest figures. The execution
of these two monuments occupied almost ten years of the best part of
this sculptor's life.

Canova's fame had extended over all Europe, and he was asked to go to
St. Petersburg, and offered most advantageous terms if he would do so;
but he declined, and executed the monument of Admiral Emo, on a
commission from the Venetian Senate. For this work he received a gold
medal and an annuity for life.

In 1798, during the revolutionary excitement at Rome, Canova went to
Possagno, his native town. Here, in his retirement, he painted more than
twenty pictures, which were by no means to be despised. His masterpiece
represented the Saviour just taken from the cross, and surrounded by
the Marys, St. John, Nicodemus, and Joseph of Arimathea. This was the
first of the many gifts which he made to this little church, by which it
became a splendid temple and the expression of Canova's love for his
birthplace and early home.

After he returned to Rome his health was not sufficient to allow of his
usual close application to work, and he went to Berlin and Vienna in
company with Prince Rezzonico, and this so benefited him that he was
able to resume his labors with new energy. He soon achieved a proud
triumph, for his Perseus was placed in one of the Stanze of the Vatican
by a public decree; this was the first modern work which had been thus
honored.

In 1802-1803 Napoleon requested Canova to go to Paris to model a
portrait bust for a colossal statue; the work was finished six years
later. In 1805 the artist went again to Vienna, where he modelled a bust
of the Emperor of Austria; in 1810 again to Paris to prepare a model for
the statue of Maria Louisa. With the exception of these short journeys
he was constantly at work in his Roman studio until 1815, when he was
sent in an official capacity to France by the pope, for the purpose of
reclaiming the works of art which had been carried from Italy in times
of war, and which really belonged to the patrimony of the Church. Canova
executed his commission with rare judgment, and then continued his
journey to England. In London he received many honors; the king gave him
an order for a group, held several conversations with him, made him
valuable gifts, and intrusted him with a private letter to the pope.

Canova returned to Rome on January 5th, 1816. His entry might almost be
called a triumphal one, for the people of Rome were so grateful for the
restoration of their treasures that they expressed their joy in
demonstrations to Canova. He had been President of St. Luke's Academy
before; he was now made President of the Commission to purchase works of
art, and of the Academy of Archæology. In full consistory of all the
high officers of the Church, the pope caused his name to be inscribed
upon the "golden volume of the Capitol," and conferred upon him the
title of Marquis of Ischia, with a pension of three thousand crowns a
year.

Canova now determined to execute a colossal statue of Religion, which
should commemorate the return of the pope from banishment. He endeavored
to persuade the authorities to decide where it should be placed; this
was not done, and he was much grieved at his failure to carry out the
idea. But he determined that from this time he would devote his life and
fortune to religion, and resolved to erect a church at Possagno, to
adorn it with works of art, and to make it his own burial-place.

On July 8th, 1819, Canova assembled his workmen in his native town, and
gave them a _fête_; many peasant girls joined in the festivities and
assisted in the breaking of the ground; at evening, as they all passed
before Canova to bid him farewell, each one received a gift from him.
Three days later the religious ceremony of laying the corner-stone of
the future church took place. An immense number of people from the
surrounding country and from Venice were present; Canova, in his robes
as a Knight of Christ, and wearing the insignia of other orders, led the
procession; all who had seen Canova when a poor boy in their midst were
much impressed by this occasion. Here, in a public manner, he
consecrated his life and fortune to the service of God and the benefit
of his birthplace. Every autumn Canova went to Possagno to encourage the
workmen and to give directions as to how the whole should be done.
Between these visits he worked devotedly, for he was forced to earn all
he could in order to pay for his great undertaking.

At this time he executed a statue of Washington, and was making an
equestrian statue of Ferdinand of Naples, and in the month of May, 1822,
went to that city, where he fell ill; he returned to Rome, and revived
somewhat, and resumed his work. On September 17th he went to Possagno,
in October to Villa Faliero, where, fifty years before, he had spent
such happy days. From here he went to Venice, and on the 13th of the
same month he died.

Solemn services were held in the cathedral, and his remains were then
intrusted to the priests of Possagno, who bore them to their temple,
where he was buried on the 25th of the month; the crowd was so great
that the oration was delivered in the open air. Canova's heart was given
to the Academy of Venice, and an elegant little monument was erected in
the Palace of Arts to contain this relic of the sculptor. The Venetian
artists arranged to erect to him a monument, and chose the design which
he himself had made for the tomb of Titian; it is in the Church of Santa
Maria de' Frari. In Rome a statue was decreed to him, and he was
declared the perpetual President of her chief academy.

In personal appearance Canova was not grand or very attractive. His head
was remarkably well placed upon his shoulders, and the loose manner in
which he dressed his neck allowed this to be seen; his forehead was a
noble one, his hair black, and his whole manner and dress was modest and
simple. His habits were very orderly and quiet; he rose early to work,
and went little into public society; but he welcomed a few friends to
dinner almost daily. He entertained them cordially, but without display,
and led the conversation to light, cheerful topics that did not touch
upon art, or demand mental exertion. At eleven o'clock he retired to his
own room and amused himself with a book or pencil before sleeping. Some
of his best drawings were made at this hour, and have been published
with the title of "Pensieri," or thoughts. To describe one day was to
give a picture of all, so regular were his habits of life.

In his professional life he was just and generous to others, and though
he would have no pupils, he would leave everything to advise an artist
or visit his works. He was also a patron of art, and had executed, at
his own expense, the numerous busts of distinguished persons in the
Capitoline Museum.

[Illustration: FIG. 116.--HEBE. _By Canova._]

There is a story of a romance in his life. It is said that when he first
arrived in Venice he fell in love with a beautiful girl who was older
than himself, who went to draw in the Farsetti Gallery. Day by day he
watched her until she came no more; at length her attendant returned,
and Canova inquired for her mistress; she burst into tears and answered,
"La Signora Julia is dead." He asked no more, and never knew who Julia
was or any circumstances of her history; but all his life he treasured
her image, and when he endeavored to unite the purity of an angel with
the earthly beauty of a woman, the remembrance of Julia was always in
his mind.

Canova was one of the few artists who received their full merit of
praise and the benefits of their labors while alive. Without doubt he
was a great sculptor, and coming as he did, at a time when art was at
its worst, he seemed all the more remarkable to the men around him. But
the verdict of to-day would not exalt him as highly as did his friends
and patrons. His statues lack the repose which makes the grandest
feature of the best sculpture; his female figures have a sentimental
sort of air that is not all we could wish, and does not elevate them
above what we may call pleasing art. His male figures are better, more
natural and simple, though some of his subjects bordered on the coarse
and brutal, as in the two fencers, Kreugas and Damoxenes, or Hercules
and Lichas. But in his religious subjects he is much finer, and in some
of his monuments he shows dignity and earnestness, while his composition
is in the true artistic spirit. Taken on the whole, he was a wonderful
artist and a man of whom his century might well be proud.

Other sculptors of this period and of different nations studied at Rome,
and devoted themselves to the antique with enthusiasm. One of these was
ANTOINE DENIS CHAUDET (1763-1810), who was born at Paris. His talent was
so early developed that he was admitted to the Royal Academy when
fourteen years old, and when twenty-one he gained the first prize, and
with the royal pension went to Rome, where he remained five years. He
soon took good rank among artists of that time, for he was a designer
and painter as well as sculptor. He adhered strictly to the antique
style, and attained much purity, though he was always cold in treatment.
He was made a Professor of Sculpture in the French Academy, and made
valuable contributions to the "Dictionary of Fine Arts."

Chaudet's principal works in sculpture were the silver statue of Peace
in the Tuileries; a statue of Cincinnatus in the Senate Chamber; a
statue of OEdipus; a bas-relief of Painting, Sculpture, and
Architecture, in the Musée Napoléon, and many busts and smaller works.

He also designed numerous medals and some of the illustrations for a
fine edition of Racine, and painted a picture of Æneas and Anchises in
the Burning of Troy.

JOHANN HEINRICH DANNECKER (1758-1841) was born at Stuttgart. By a statue
of Milo he gained the prize of the academy founded by Duke Charles
Eugene, and with the royal pension he went first to Paris and then to
Rome, where he studied seven years. He then returned to Würtemberg, and
was made Director of the Royal Academy, with a salary of fifteen
thousand francs a year. During fifteen years Dannecker maintained a high
rank in his art, but his health became so feeble that he was forced to
see others excel him. One of his works has a wide reputation, and is
known to many people the world over, through the generosity of Herr
Bethmann of Frankfort, who admits visitors to his gallery, and from the
models and pictures which have been made from it; it is the Ariadne on a
Panther (Fig. 117).

Dannecker had a delicate feeling for nature; his figures were light and
graceful, and his heads were noble in expression. He labored eight years
upon a figure of Christ, which belongs to the Emperor of Russia; in
Stuttgart a nymph pouring water on Neckar Street and two nymphs on a
reservoir in the palace garden show his fine taste in architectural
sculpture. Among his other works are a statue of Alexander, a monument
to Count Zeppelin, a Cupid, and a Maiden lamenting a Dead Bird. Some of
his works are among the very best productions of modern sculpture; his
portraits are noble and true to nature; the works named here are by no
means all that he did, and we should add that his efforts in religious
subjects exhibit a pure sense of the beautiful, and a true conception of
Christian ideas.

[Illustration: FIG. 117.--ARIADNE AND THE PANTHER. _By Dannecker._]

We come now, for the first time, to a great English sculptor. JOHN
FLAXMAN (1755-1826) was born in York, but while he was still an infant
his father removed to London, where he kept a plaster-cast shop. The boy
began to draw and even to model very early; when but five years old he
kept some soft wax, with which he could take an impression from any seal
or ring or coin which pleased him. He was very delicate in health, and
was once thought to be dead, and was prepared for burial, when animation
returned; his parents tried to gratify all his wishes, and while a child
he modelled a great number of figures in wax, clay, and plaster.

By the time he was ten years old he was much stronger, and was able to
use the activity which corresponded to his enthusiastic feeling and
imagination. About this time he read "Don Quixote," and was so moved by
the adventures of that hero that he went out early one morning armed
with a toy sword and bent upon protecting some forlorn damsel; he went
to Hyde Park and wandered about all day, not finding any one who was in
need of his services. At night he returned home, very hungry and weary,
to find his family in great alarm over his unusual absence.

He now spent all his time in drawing and modelling, and never had more
than two lessons from a master; at eleven years of age he began to gain
various prizes, and at fourteen was admitted to study at the Royal
Academy, and gained the silver medal there that same year. About this
time he made some friends who aided him to study the classics and to
learn more of history, all of which was of great use to him in his art.
He was also fortunate in having the friendship of Mr. Wedgwood, for whom
he made many models. He also painted a few pictures in oil.

Among his earliest sculptures were a group of Venus and Cupid and a
monument to Mrs. Morley, who, with her baby, died at sea. Flaxman
represented the mother and child rising from the sea and being received
by descending angels.

In 1782 Flaxman married Miss Ann Denman, whose intelligence and love of
art were of great assistance to her husband. In 1787 he went to Rome,
where he remained seven years. During this time he made a group for Lord
Bristol, representing the Fury of Athamas, from the Metamorphoses of
Ovid; this work cost him much labor, for which he received but small
pay; it was carried to Ireland and then to Ickworth House, in Suffolk,
where but few people see it. In Rome Flaxman also made a group of
Cephalus and Aurora for Mr. Thomas Hope, and the designs from Homer,
Æschylus, and Dante, which have such a world-wide fame.

In 1794 he returned to England, where he was constantly employed on
important works until his death. We cannot give a list of his numerous
works. Many of his monuments are seen in the churches of England. In
Glasgow are his statues of Mr. Pitt and Sir John Moore, in bronze; in
Edinburgh is that of Robert Burns. Flaxman executed much sculpture for
the East Indies, one of these works being unfinished when he died. Some
critics consider his Archangel Michael and Satan his best work; it was
made for the Earl of Egremont, who had his life-size Apollo also.

In 1797 Flaxman was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy, in 1800
an Academician, and in 1810, when a Professor of Sculpture was added to
the other professors of the Academy, he was appointed to the office. His
lectures have been published. The friezes on the Covent Garden Theatre
were all designed by Flaxman, and he executed the figure of Comedy
himself. His last work was making designs for the exterior decoration of
Buckingham Palace, which would have been entirely under his direction
and partly executed by him if he had lived.

His wife died in 1820, and her loss was a grief from which he could not
recover; she had been a great advantage to him, and he had depended much
upon her sympathy and counsel. Flaxman was a singularly pure man, and so
attractive in manner that he was the friend of old and young alike.

Sir Richard Westmacott succeeded Flaxman as Professor at the Royal
Academy; he said: "But the greatest of modern sculptors was our
illustrious countryman, John Flaxman, who not only had all the fine
feeling of the ancient Greeks (which Canova in a degree possessed), but
united to it a readiness of invention and a simplicity of design truly
astonishing. Though Canova was his superior in the manual part, high
finishing, yet in the higher qualities, poetical feeling and invention,
Flaxman was as superior to Canova as was Shakespeare to the dramatists
of his day."

But the perfection of the results of the study of Canova and others who
endeavored to raise sculpture to its ancient glory was seen in the Dane,
BERTEL THORWALDSEN (1770-1844), who was born in Copenhagen. The descent
of this artist has been traced to memorable sources in two quite
distinct ways. Those who claim that the Norsemen discovered America
relate that during their stay upon this coast a child was born, from
whom Thorwaldsen's descent can be distinctly followed. The learned
genealogists of Iceland say that his ancestors were descended from
Harald Hildetand, King of Denmark, who, in the eighth century, was
obliged to flee, first to Norway and then to Iceland, and that one of
his descendants, Oluf Paa, in the twelfth century, was a famous
wood-carver. But this much is certain: in the fourteenth century there
lived in Southern Iceland a wealthy man, whose family and descendants
were much honored. One of these, Thorvald Gottskalken, a pastor, had
two sons and but a small fortune; so he sent his sons to Copenhagen,
where one became a jeweller and died young; the other, who was a
wood-carver, was the father of the artist, whose mother was Karen
Gröulund, the daughter of a Jutland peasant.

The father was employed in a shipyard, and carved only the rude
ornaments of vessels and boats; but these served to lead the mind of the
little Bertel to the art he later followed. His father could not have
dreamed of such a future as came to his son, but he was wise enough to
know that the boy might do more and better than he had done, and he sent
him, when eleven years old, to the free school of the Royal Academy to
study drawing; and very soon the works of the father showed the gain
which the son had made, for his designs were those now used by the old
wood-carver.

Bertel was also sent to study his books at the school of Charlottenburg,
and here he was so far from clever that he was put in the lowest class.
When Bertel gained his first prize at the academy the chaplain of the
school at Charlottenburg asked him if the boy who had taken the prize
was his brother. He looked up with surprise, and blushing, said, "It is
myself, Herr Chaplain." The priest was astounded at this, and said,
"Herr Thorwaldsen, please to pass up to the first class."

The boy was amazed at these honors, and from this day retained the title
of "Herr," which gave him much distinction. When, after many years, the
sculptor had been loaded with honors, and stood on the heights of fame,
he was accustomed to say that no glory had ever been so sweet to him as
that first rapture which came from the words of the Chaplain Höyer when
he was seventeen years old and a poor school-boy.

The effect of this first prize seemed to be to rouse his ambition, and
he worked with the greatest diligence and earnestness. Two years later
he made a bas-relief of Love in Repose, which took the large silver
medal. His father now thought him prepared to enter on the life of a
ship's carver, and Bertel made no objection to doing so; but the painter
Abildgaard, who had been his teacher in the academy, had grown very fond
of him, and saw how much talent he had, and could not think of his being
but a common tradesman without deep regret. He went, therefore, to the
old carver, and after some difficulty obtained his consent that his son
should spend half his time in study at the academy, and the other half
in the earning of his daily bread at his father's side.

In 1790, when twenty years old, Thorwaldsen made a medallion of the
Princess of Denmark, which was so good a likeness that a number of
copies was sold. A year later he gained the small gold medal of the
academy by a bas-relief of the Expulsion of Heliodorus from the Temple.
The Minister of State now became interested in the young artist, and
measures were taken to aid him to go on with his studies. His patrons
desired him to study the subjects of the antique sculptures, and he
chose that of Priam begging the Body of Hector from Achilles. Later in
life he repeated this subject, and it is interesting to notice the
strength and grandeur of the second when compared with the weakness of
the first. And yet it was from the latter that predictions were made of
Thorwaldsen's future greatness. In 1793 he gained the prize which
entitled him to travel and study three years at the expense of the
academy. The work he presented was a bas-relief of Saint Peter healing
the Paralytic. In these works this sculptor already showed two qualities
which remained the same through his life; in his subjects from antiquity
he showed a Greek spirit, which has led some writers to speak of him as
a "posthumous Greek," or a true Greek artist born after other Greek
artists had died; on the other hand, when he treated religious subjects
his spirit was like that of the best masters of the Renaissance, and
these works remind us of Raphael. All this excellence came entirely from
his artistic nature, for outside of that he was ignorant; he knew
nothing of history or literature, and was never a man of culture as long
as he lived. Outside of the work connected with his profession
Thorwaldsen was indolent, and only acquired knowledge of other matters
through observation or from the conversation of others.

Although he gained the prize which allowed him to travel in 1793, he did
not leave Copenhagen until May, 1796. In the mean time he had done what
he could to earn something: he had made designs for book-publishers,
given lessons in drawing and modelling, and made some bust and medallion
portraits, reliefs, and so on. The vessel in which the young sculptor
sailed for Naples was called the Thetis, and the captain engaged to
watch over him; the voyage was long, and all on board became fond of
Thorwaldsen, though the captain wrote, "He is an honest boy, but a lazy
rascal." This opinion is very amusing when we know what an enormous
amount of labor he performed. At Naples he remained for some time, and
saw and admired all its works of art. He did not reach Rome until about
nine months after leaving Copenhagen, but from that time his whole
thought and life were changed. He was accustomed to say, "I was born on
the 8th of March, 1797; before then I did not exist."

While in Naples Thorwaldsen had been ill, and suffered from a malarial
affection, which compelled him to be idle much of the time. But he was
always studying the antique statues, and made many copies. Some of the
first original works which he attempted were failures, when, at last, he
modelled a colossal statue of Jason, which was well received by those
who saw it, and made him somewhat famous in Rome (Fig. 118). Canova
praised it, and other critics did the same; but Thorwaldsen had no
money; the academy had supported him six years; what could he do? Quite
discouraged, he was engaged in his preparations for leaving Rome, when
Mr. Thomas Hope, the English banker, gave him an order for the Jason in
marble. In an hour his life was changed. He was living in Rome not as a
student on charity, but as an artist gaining his living. We are forced
to add that Mr. Hope did not receive this statue until 1828, and
Thorwaldsen has been much blamed for his apparent ingratitude; but we
cannot here give all the details of the unfortunate affair.

Thorwaldsen had a true and faithful friend in Rome, the archæologist
Zoëga; at his house the young Dane had met a beautiful Italian girl,
Anna Maria Magnani, whom he loved devotedly. She was too ambitious to
marry a poor sculptor, so she married a rich M. d'Uhden; but she
persuaded Thorwaldsen to sign an agreement by which he bound himself to
take care of her if she should not agree with her husband and should
leave him; this was just what happened in 1803, and the sculptor
received her into his house, where she remained sixteen years, when she
disappears from his life. He provided an honorable marriage for their
daughter.

[Illustration: FIG. 118.--JASON. _By Thorwaldsen._]

In 1803 Thorwaldsen also made the acquaintance of the Baron von
Schubart, the Danish Minister, who presented the sculptor to Baron von
Humboldt; and through the friendship of these two men, and the persons
to whom they presented him, Thorwaldsen received many orders. In 1804
his fame had become so well established that he received orders from all
countries, and from this time, during the rest of his life, he was never
able to do all that was required of him. He was much courted in society,
where he was praised for his art and beloved for his agreeable and
pleasing manner. In this same year he was made a Professor of the Royal
Academy of Florence; and though the Academy of Copenhagen expected his
return, they would not recall him from the scene of his triumphs, and
sent him a gift of four hundred crowns. A few months later he was made a
member of the Academy of Bologna and of that of his native city, in
which last he was also appointed a Professor.

Many circumstances conspired to increase his popularity and to excite
the popular interest in him, when, in 1805, he produced the bas-relief
of the Abduction of Briseis, which still remains one of his most
celebrated works. His Jason had put him on a level with Canova, who was
then at the height of his fame; now the Briseis was said by many to
excel the same type of works by Canova, and there is no question that in
bas-relief the Dane was the better sculptor of the two. This relief and
his group of Cupid and Psyche, which was completed in 1805, mark the era
at which Thorwaldsen reached his full perfection as a sculptor. In this
same year he modelled his first statue of Venus; it was less than
life-size; and though two copies of it were finished in marble, he was
not pleased with it, and destroyed the model: later he made the same
statue in full size.

In 1806 he received his first commission for religious subjects, which
consisted of two baptismal fonts for a church in the island of Fionia.
But he was devoted to mythological subjects, and preferred them before
all others, and in this same year modelled a Hebe while engaged upon
the fonts. His industry was great, but he found time to receive many
visitors at his studio, and went frequently into society. At the house
of Baron von Humboldt, then Prussian Ambassador at Rome, Thorwaldsen was
always welcome and happy; here he met all persons of note who lived in
or who visited Rome.

It was at this period that the young Prince Louis of Bavaria entered
into a correspondence with Thorwaldsen, which ended only with the
sculptor's life. Louis was collecting objects for his Glyptothek at
Munich, and he frequently consulted Thorwaldsen in these matters; his
advice was of value, and he more than once saved Louis from imposition
by dealers. Louis gave the sculptor the order for the fine Adonis, now
in the Glyptothek; it was modelled in 1808, but was not completed until
1832; this splendid work was executed entirely by Thorwaldsen's own
hands. In 1808 he also received the order for four bas-reliefs to be
used in the restoration of the Palace of Christiansborg, which had been
injured by fire. This was the year, too, when he was made an honorary
member of the Academy of St. Luke.

The year 1809 brought deep sorrows to Thorwaldsen in the death of his
two friends, Stanley and Zoëga. He interested himself in the settlement
of the affairs of the latter, and had much trouble and anxiety; but he
managed to accomplish the modelling of six bas-reliefs in this year, in
spite of the disturbed state of Rome on account of the pope's departure,
and in spite of the hindrances in his own life.

In 1810 the King of Denmark made Thorwaldsen a Knight of Danebrog, and
he was then known in Italy as the _Cavaliere Alberto_. His work this
year was in bas-reliefs, and in 1811 he modelled a colossal statue of
Mars, the bust of Mademoiselle Ida Brun, a lovely statue of Psyche, and
his own portrait as a colossal Hermes.

The people of Denmark were growing very impatient at the prolonged
absence of their artist. He had left home a mere boy, and was now famous
over all the world. They wished for his return; a marble quarry had been
discovered in Norway, and even Prince Christian Frederick wrote to
Thorwaldsen to urge his going home. The sculptor wished to go, and even
made some preparations to do so, when he received so important a
commission that it was impossible to leave Rome. This new work was a
frieze for one of the great halls in the Quirinal Palace. He chose the
Entrance of Alexander the Great into Babylon for his subject, and it
proved to be one of the most important works of his life. It was
completed in June, 1812; and though it had been somewhat criticised as
too rough in its finish, when it was elevated to its proper height it
was all that had been expected by the artist's friends; later he
repeated this frieze for his own countrymen. In Rome he was now
frequently called the "Patriarch of Bas-relief." Soon after this he was
made a member of the Imperial Academy of Vienna.

In 1813 Thorwaldsen was again a victim of malignant fever, and visited
the baths of Lucca, in company with the Baron and Baroness von Schubart,
for the benefit of his health. He met many people and received much
honor, especially from the Grand Duchess of Tuscany. His health was
improved, but his old and tried friend, the Baroness von Schubart, died
the winter following; he felt her loss deeply, for she had been his
friend and confidante from the time of his arrival in Rome.

He was always busy, and one after another of his almost numberless works
was finished. In 1815 he made the Achilles and Priam, a relief which is
sometimes called his masterpiece; in the same year he made the famous
and familiar medallions of Night and Morning; it is said that he
conceived the first while awake in a sleepless, restless condition, and
modelled it entirely on the following day; these medallions have been
reproduced in all possible forms--in engravings, on cameos, gems, in
metals, and a variety of marble, plaster, and porcelain.

About this time Thorwaldsen removed to a spacious studio with gardens,
and received pupils, and was overwhelmed with orders, so that he could
not yet go to Denmark, in spite of the urgent letters he received. He
executed many important original works, and also restored the marbles of
Ægina, now at Munich; this was a great task, but his study of the
antique had made him better able to do it than was any other modern
sculptor.

[Illustration: FIG. 119.--GANYMEDE AND THE EAGLE. _By Thorwaldsen._]

The exquisite group of Ganymede and the Eagle (Fig. 119) shows the
effect of his study of the antique, and the same may be said of his
statue of Hope, a small copy of which was afterward placed above the
tomb of the Baroness von Humboldt. The Three Graces (Fig. 120) belongs
to the year 1817; the Mercury was of about this date, as well as the
elegant statue of the Princess Baryatinska, which is his finest portrait
statue.

After an absence from Denmark of twenty-three years he left Rome in
July, 1819, and turned his face toward home. His model for the famous
Lion of Lucerne had already been sent on before him, and the work
commenced by one of his pupils, Bienaimé. Thorwaldsen first went to
Lucerne, where he gave all necessary advice in this work, and then
proceeding on his journey reached Copenhagen on the 3d of October.
Apartments had been prepared for him in the Academy of Fine Arts, and as
soon as it was known that he was there he was the centre of attraction
and importance. Crowds went to welcome him to his home. A great
reception and a grand banquet were given in his honor, and he was lauded
to the skies in speeches, and was made a Counsellor of State, in order
that he might sit at table with the royal family and not violate the
court etiquette.

[Illustration: FIG. 120.--THE THREE GRACES. _By Thorwaldsen._]

All this must have gratified the artist, who had earned such proud
honors by the force of his genius; but it interests us much more to know
that he received commissions for some very important works, among which
those of the Church of Our Lady are very interesting. The orders for all
the work which he did here were not given at once, but in the end it
became a splendid monument to this sculptor, and embraces almost all his
religious works of any importance. There are the figures of Christ and
the Twelve Apostles; the Angel of Baptism, which is an exquisite font;
the Preaching of St. John the Baptist, which is a group in terra-cotta
on the pediment of the church; a bas-relief in marble of the
Institution of the Lord's Supper; another in plaster of Christ's Entry
into Jerusalem; one of Christ Bearing the Cross; one of the Baptism of
Christ; another of the Guardian Angel, and one of Christian Charity.

He did not remain very long in Denmark, but went to Warsaw, where he had
been summoned to arrange for some important works. He was presented to
the Emperor Alexander, who gave him sittings for a portrait bust; this
was so successful that for some years Thorwaldsen employed skilled
workmen to constantly repeat it, in order to fill the demand for it
which was made upon him. While at Warsaw he received an order for a
monument to Copernicus, which was dedicated in 1830; other important
commissions were given him, and after visiting Cracow, Troppau, and
Vienna, he reached Rome in December, 1820, where he was heartily
welcomed by the artists, who gave him a banquet, on which occasion the
Prince Royal of Denmark sat next to the sculptor.

Before this a correspondence had established a friendship between
Thorwaldsen and Prince Louis of Bavaria; but from the year 1821 intimate
personal relations existed between them. He took up work with great
energy; he had returned to Rome with so much to do that he required much
room, and employed a large company of workmen. In the summer of 1822 he
was able to secure a large building which had been used for a stable to
the Barberini Palace, and here he was able to set up all his large
models.

In 1824 Thorwaldsen was summoned by the Cardinal Consalvi, who gave him
the commission for the monument to Pius VII., now in the Clementine
Chapel of St. Peter's at Rome; this work was not completed when the
cardinal himself died, and his own monument by Thorwaldsen was placed in
the Pantheon before that of Pius VII. was put in its place. He also made
a cross for the Capuchins for which he would accept no reward, though
they were entirely satisfied with it.

In 1825 Thorwaldsen was elected President of the Academy of St. Luke
with the advice and consent of Pope Leo XII., who paid him a visit in
his studio. Many delays occurred, and the monument to Pius VII. was not
erected until 1831.

The works upon which the artist and his assistants were engaged were far
too numerous to be mentioned; he was at the very height of fame and
popularity, and was forced to refuse some of the commissions sent him.
In 1830 he went to Munich to superintend the setting up of his monument
to Eugène Beauharnais, the Duke of Leuchtenberg. This gave Louis of
Bavaria an opportunity to show his regard for the sculptor, which he did
in every possible way. Soon after the monument was unveiled Thorwaldsen
received the cross of an officer of the Legion of Honor.

Thorwaldsen's place in Rome was a very important one, not only as an
artist, but as a man. He had the respect and esteem of many good men of
all nations; he also suffered some things from the envy of those who
were jealous of him, as is the case with all successful men; but he was
a fearless person, and did not trouble himself on account of these
things. The frequent agitations of a political nature, however, did
disturb him, and he began to think seriously of returning to Denmark. In
1837, when the cholera broke out in Rome, he determined to leave; his
countrymen were delighted, and a government frigate was sent to take him
home; he sailed from Leghorn in August, 1838. His arrival was hailed
with joy in Denmark, and wherever he went his progress was marked by
tokens of the pride which his countrymen felt in him. As soon as it was
known in Copenhagen, on September 17th, that the "Rota," which brought
the sculptor, was in the harbor, a flag was run up from St. Nicolas
Church as a signal for the beginning of the festivities which had been
arranged.

Although it rained heavily, boats filled with artists, poets, students,
physicians, mechanics, and naval officers went out to meet him; each
boat had a flag with an appropriate device, that of the artists having
Thorwaldsen's Three Graces, the poets, a Pegasus, and so on. The meeting
with his friends on the deck of the ship was a pleasant surprise to the
artist, who was hurried ashore amid the firing of salutes and all sorts
of joyous demonstrations, a vast number of boats rowing after that in
which he was seated. His carriage was drawn by the people from the quay
to Charlottenburg, where a vast crowd assembled to get a sight at him.
His form was tall and erect, his step firm; his long white hair fell on
his shoulders, and his clear eye and benevolent face beamed with
intelligence and sympathetic interest in all around him. He was led out
on a balcony, where, uncovered, he saluted the people, who greeted him
with wild applause. Thorwaldsen smiled and said, "Would not any one
think that we were in Rome, and I were the pope about to give the
benediction _urbi et orbi_ from the balcony of St. Peter's?"

One ovation after another followed, day by day, and such crowds of
visitors went to see him that he was unable to unpack and arrange his
possessions which he had brought from Italy, or to work at all, which
was worse to him. At last he began to do as he had done in Rome, and to
receive his friends with his chisel or modelling-stick in hand. He
lived frugally, and continued many of his Roman habits of life; but he
was forced to dine out every evening.

He was now sixty-eight years old, but he did a vast amount of work in
one way and another, and was so pursued by all sorts of people who
wished to engage his attention in a variety of projects, that he
seriously considered the question of leaving Copenhagen. He became very
fond of certain families where he visited, among which was that of the
Baron von Stampe, who, with his wife and children, were soon treated by
the sculptor as if they were his own kindred. He went with them to their
summer home at Nysoë, and while there the baroness persuaded him to
model his own statue. He did this imperfectly, as he had no suitable
workshop; and when the baroness saw his difficulty in working in an
ordinary room she had a studio built for him in a garden near the
castle. She took the time to do this when Thorwaldsen was absent for
eight days, and in this short space the whole was completed, so that
when he returned it seemed to him like magic. This studio was dedicated
in July, 1839.

He then began the proper modelling of his own statue, and was
progressing very well when he received a letter from the poet
Oehlenschlaeger, who was in great haste to have a portrait bust made of
himself. Thorwaldsen felt that he ought not to make his own statue when
thus wanted for other work, and he threw down his tools, and would have
broken the model. But the baroness succeeded in getting him away, and
locked the studio, keeping the key. However, no argument or entreaty
would move the sculptor, and she could do nothing with him until she
happened to think of crying. When she began to weep and to accuse him of
having no affection for her, and reminded him of the proofs of her
devotion which she had given him, he was taken in by her mock tears, and
exclaimed, "Well, they may think what they like. My statue is not for
posterity, but I cannot refuse it to a friend to whom it will give such
pleasure." He then resumed his work, and completed his statue in
seventeen days. He represented himself standing with one arm resting
upon his statue of Hope.

After this summer Thorwaldsen divided his time between Copenhagen and
Stampeborg, and worked with the same industry in one place as in the
other. The life in the country was a great delight to him; he played
games, listened to fairy tales from the poet Andersen, or to music from
the young girls of the house, all with equal pleasure; and if he were
allowed to have his mornings for work he would spend the rest of the day
in the woods or pay visits, and was perfectly happy in this succession
of labor and leisure.

Baroness Stampe did not stop at one trick upon the old artist, for she
found it more easy to gain a point in this way than by argument. He had
promised to execute a statue of Christian IV. for Christian VIII., the
reigning king; he put it off until the king was impatient. One day, when
he had gone for a walk, the baroness went to the studio and began a
sketch in clay as well as she could. When Thorwaldsen returned he asked
what she was doing, and she answered, "I am making the statue of the
king. Since you will not do it, and I have pledged my word, I must do it
myself." The artist laughed, and began to criticise her work; she
insisted it was all right, and at last said, "Do it better, then,
yourself; you make fun of me; I defy you to find anything to change in
my work." Thorwaldsen was thus led on to correct the model, and when
once he had begun he finished it.

It would be impossible to give any account here of the numerous
incidents in the later years of the life of this sculptor; of the honors
he received, of the many works he was consulted about and asked to do,
of the visits he paid and received from persons of note; few lives are
as full as was his, and the detailed accounts of it are very
interesting.

He had always desired to go again to Rome, and in 1841, when the Baron
von Stampe decided to go there with his family, Thorwaldsen travelled
with them. They went through Germany, and were everywhere received as
honorably as if he were a royal person: he was invited to visit royal
families; court carriages were at his service; Mendelssohn gave a
musical _fête_ for him; in all the great cities he was shown the places
and objects worthy of his attention; poets and orators paid him respect,
and nothing that could be done to show appreciation of his genius and
his works was omitted.

In Rome it was the same; he remained there almost a year, and upon his
arrival at Copenhagen, in October, 1842, he experienced the crowning
glory of his life. During his absence the Thorwaldsen Museum had been
completed, and here, the day after he reached home, he was received. The
building was decorated with garlands, and he went over the whole of it;
at last he entered the inner court, where he was to be buried; here he
stood for some time with bowed head, while all about him kept silence.
Can any one fancy the thoughts that must have come to him? Here he must
be buried, and yet here would he live in the works of his hand which
would surround him and remain to testify to his immortal powers.

He lived three years more, and was always busy. His mind was strong and
his conceptions of his subjects had lost nothing, but his ability to
execute his works was less; his hand had lost somewhat of its cunning.
He went much into society, was fond of the theatre, and under the
devoted care of his servant, Wilkens, he enjoyed all that was possible
to a man of his age. On the 24th of March 1844, the Baroness von Stampe
went to ask him to dine at her house; he said he was not well and would
not go out; but as his daughter was to be there and expected him he
decided to go. He was modelling a bust of Luther, and threw down before
it a handful of clay and stuck a trowel in it; just so, as he left it,
this now stands in the museum, preserved under glass, with the print of
his hand in the clay.

He was merry at dinner, and in speaking of the museum said he could die
now, whenever he chose, since the architect Bindesböll had finished his
tomb. After dinner he went to the theatre, and there it was seen that he
was really ill; he was taken out with haste and laid upon a sofa, when
it was found that he was already dead. The Charlottenburg joined the
theatre, and there, in the hall of antique sculpture, he was laid. He
was first buried in the Frue Kirke, which he had so splendidly
decorated; four years later he was borne to the vault in the centre of
the Thorwaldsen Museum, where above him grows the evergreen ivy, a
fitting emblem of his unfading fame.

Thiele, in his splendid book called "Thorwaldsen and his Works," gives a
list of two hundred and sixty works by this master; and as one journeys
from Rome, where are some of his sculptures in St. Peter's and the
Quirinal, to Copenhagen, with the Frue Kirke and the Museum, one passes
through few cities that are not adorned by his statues and reliefs.
Among his most important works are the frieze of Alexander's entrance
into Babylon, at the Quirinal; the Lion of Lucerne; the many statues,
groups, and bas-reliefs in the Frue Kirke; more than thirty sepulchral
and commemorative monuments in various cities and countries; sixteen
bas-reliefs which illustrate the story of Cupid and Psyche; twenty
bas-reliefs of Genii; twenty-two figures from antique fables, and many
portrait busts and statues, and various other subjects.

Thorwaldsen was a very remarkable man. No circumstance of his youth
indicated his success, and a certain indolence which he had would have
seemed to forbid it; but the power was within him, and was of that
genuine quality which will declare itself; and a man who has it becomes
great without intending to be so, and almost without believing that he
is remarkable beyond others. The true antique spirit seems to have been
revived in him. His characteristics as a sculptor are severe simplicity,
perfect beauty in form, distinctness, and repose. Thiele says of him:
"He has challenged and has received the decision of the world's Supreme
Court, that his name shall stand on the rolls of immortality. And if his
life might be embodied in a single emblem, perhaps it should be that of
a young lion, with an eye that glows and flashes fire, while he is bound
with ivy and led by the hand of the three graces."

The sculpture of Germany in the last part of the eighteenth and the
early years of the present century was very interesting. The architect
Schinkel was a great lover of antique art, and he had much influence
over all arts, as well as in his special department. Thorwaldsen himself
so admired the sculptor JOHN RUDOLPH SCHADOW (1786-1822) that when the
King of Prussia gave him a commission for a statue he replied: "Sire,
there is at this moment in Rome one of your faithful subjects who is
more capable than I of performing to your satisfaction the task with
which you deign to honor me; permit me to solicit for him your royal
favor." The commission was given to Schadow, and he made his charming
work, The Spinner. John Rudolph was the son of JOHN GOTTFRIED SCHADOW
(1764-1850), who was court sculptor, and long survived his gifted son.
The chief works of the father were the statues of Count von der Mark, at
Berlin; that of Frederick the Great, at Stettin; Luther's monument in
the market-place at Wittenberg, and Blücher's statue at Rostock.

John Rudolph Schadow studied under both Canova and Thorwaldsen, and was
a very gifted artist. He was engaged upon a group of Achilles protecting
the body of Penthesilea at the time of his death; it was finished by
Wolff.

CHRISTIAN FREDERIC TIECK (1776-1851) was an eminent sculptor of his
time, and decorated with sculpture some of the fine edifices erected at
Berlin by Schinkel. He was very active in establishing a gallery of
models from the antique at Berlin, and was a Director of the Sculptures
in the Museum as well as a member of the Academy. His most successful
original works were portrait busts, and he had many notable people among
his sitters. Among them were the Emperor of Germany, the King of
Bavaria, Schelling, Goethe, Lessing, and many others.

[Illustration: FIG. 121.--STATUE OF QUEEN LOUISE. _By Rauch._]

CHRISTIAN RAUCH (1777-1857). This eminent sculptor was born at Waldeck,
and followed the manner of Schadow, which he carried to its perfection.
His statue of Queen Louise (Fig. 121) is one of the finest works of
modern sculpture, and his statues of the Generals Scharnhorst and Bülow,
in Berlin, are very fine; the reliefs upon the pedestals are of classic
beauty. But his masterpiece is the grand Friedrichs monument. Rauch
executed many excellent busts; he made good portraits, and yet he
elevated the character of his subjects to the greatest nobleness of
which they were capable. As a rule Rauch avoided religious subjects, but
late in life he modelled the group of Moses supported in prayer by Aaron
and Hur.

Among his important works are the statue of Blücher, at Breslau; that of
August Hermann Franke, at Halle; Dürer, at Nuremberg; monument to
Maximilian I., at Munich; and six marble Victories for the Walhalla. His
works are numerous, and in them we feel that this artist had not a great
imaginative power; he rarely conceived imaginary subjects, but he took
some fact or personality as his motive, and elevated it to the highest
point to which it could be brought, and under his masterly style of
execution produced splendid results.

ERNST RIETSCHEL (1804-1860) was a gifted pupil of Rauch. After spending
some time in Rome he settled in Dresden, and executed the statue of
Friederich August of Saxony, for the Zwingerhof, when but twenty-seven
years old. His chief excellence was in portrait statues, and those of
Lessing and Luther are remarkable for their powerful expression of the
intellectual and moral force of those men. His religious subjects were
full of deep feeling, and his lighter works have a charming grace about
them.

LUDWIG SCHWANTHALER (1802-1848) studied much in Rome, and was as devoted
to the antique as was Thorwaldsen. He executed many works in Munich, the
principal ones being the interior decoration of the Glyptothek; also
that of the Königsbau and two groups for the Walhalla. A prominent work
by this master is the bronze statue of Bavaria, which is fifty-four feet
high and stands in front of the Ruhmeshalle. He also made twelve
gilt-bronze statues of Bavarian sovereigns. Schwanthaler had remarkable
powers of invention and a fruitful imagination; in these points he ranks
with the first of modern sculptors; but his works rarely rise above what
we call decorative art, and in spite of his excellent gifts he lacked
the power to arouse any enthusiasm for his statues.

There are many other names that might be mentioned in connection with
modern sculpture in Germany. Nowhere have the monuments and portrait
statues and busts reached a higher excellence than in what we may call,
in general terms, the Berlin school. Profound attention has been given
to the proper reproduction of the individual characters of its subjects,
while the art has not been allowed to sink into caricature or
commonplaceness. Nowhere does the traveller better appreciate the art of
our own day than in the sculpture of Germany.

But there are exceptions to this rule; some such artists as THEODORE
KALIDE and LUDWIG WICHMANN are wanting in the serious qualities of
Schadow, Rauch, and their followers, and sometimes fall into a coarse
realism; but in spite of this, the revival of love for the antique,
which began with Canova and his time, has borne rich fruit in the works
of modern German sculptors.

In France the spirit of modern sculpture has been largely that of the
severe classic style, and it has shown many of the same qualities that
we have seen in modern German sculpture; but the different
characteristics of the two nations have had their influence here as in
everything else. In France the artist has aimed at a fine
effect--flowing outline and dazzling representations of dramatic
motives--far more than the northern sculptors have done. There is less
thought and depth of feeling, more outward attraction and striking
effect. The classic taste which asserted itself in the time of Canova
was adopted in France, but in a French manner; and one of the earliest
artists who showed its effects was FRANÇOIS JOSEPH BOSIO (1769-1845),
who was much honored. He was made a member of the Institute of France
and of the Royal Academy of Berlin: he was chief sculptor to the King of
France, and executed many public works. He made many portrait busts of
the royal family and other prominent persons, but his chief works were
the reliefs on the column of the Place Vendôme, the Chariot on the arch
of the Place du Carrousel, the monument to the Countess Demidoff, and
statues of mythological heroes and heroines. For the Chapelle
Expiatoire, Bosio executed a group representing Louis XVII. receiving
comfort from an angel; the design is not as good as in some of his
classic works, but the conception is pure and noble.

[Illustration: FIG. 122.--NYMPH. _By Bosio._]

JAMES PRADIER (1790-1832), though born in Geneva, was essentially a
French sculptor, and excelled the artists of his day in his
representations of feminine beauty. His masterpiece is a fountain at
Nimes, in which the figures are fine and the drapery noble and distinct
in treatment. The serious and comic Muses of the Fountain Molière are
excellent works. He made several separate statues which are well known;
his Psyche has a butterfly poised on the upper part of the arm; Atalanta
is fastening her sandals; Sappho is in despair. His Niobe group showed
his power to represent bold action, and his Prometheus chained, erected
in the garden of the Tuileries, is grand and spirited.

We could name a great number of French sculptors belonging to this
period whose works are seen in many public places which they adorn, but
whose genius was not sufficient to place them in the first ranks of the
world's artists, or make the accounts of them anything more than a list
of works which has little meaning, except when one stands before them.
Perhaps no one man had so wide an influence upon this art as had PIERRE
JEAN DAVID (1793-1856), who is called David of Angers, which was his
birthplace, in order to distinguish him from Jacques Louis David, the
great painter, who was like a father to this sculptor, though in no way
connected with him by ties of kindred, as far as we know. But when the
sculptor went to Paris, a very poor boy, David the painter, whose
attention was called to him in some way, was his friend, and gave him
lessons in drawing and aided him in other ways. In 1811 David of Angers
obtained the prize which enabled him to go to Rome, and after his
return to Paris he was constantly employed. The amount of his work was
enormous; many of his statues were colossal, and he executed a great
number of busts and more than ninety medallions.

He made the statue of Mme. de Staël; one of Talma for the Théâtre
Français; the colossal statue of King René at Aix; monument to Fénelon
at Cambray; the statue of the great Condé at Versailles; the Gutenberg
memorial at Strasburg, which is one of his most successful works, and a
large number of other sculptures.

His chief characteristic is realism, and he carried this so far that it
frequently became coarseness. David designed the relief for the pediment
of the Pantheon. The inscription on the building declares that it is
dedicated by a grateful country to its great men, and the sculptor seems
to have had this in mind, for he represented in his group a figure of
France surrounded by those who had been great in its times of war and
days of peace. It is too realistic to be pleasing, and is far less
creditable to the sculptor than are many of his less prominent works.

If little can be said of the modern French sculpture prior to our
immediate time, there is still less to be told of that of England. There
are many public monuments there, but they do not show forth any high
artistic genius or rise above the commonplace except in very rare
instances. There is but one English sculptor of whom I shall speak. JOHN
GIBSON (1791-1866) was born near Conway, in Wales. When he was nine
years old his parents went to Liverpool with the intention of sailing
for America; but they gave up the idea, and the boy was sent to school
in Liverpool. Before this he had been in the habit of drawing and of
making sketches of anything that he saw and was pleased with; he now
studied the prints in the shop windows, and made pictures, which he sold
to his fellow-pupils. He attracted the attention of a print-seller, who
was so interested in him that he allowed him to draw from studies and
casts from the antique which he had. When fourteen years old the boy was
apprenticed to a cabinet-maker, but after a year he persuaded his
employer to allow him to leave his shop, and was then apprenticed to a
wood-carver. He did not stop at this, however, for when he became
acquainted with the Messrs. Francis, who had a marble-yard, he persuaded
his second master to release him, and was apprenticed for the third
time, and in this case to the occupation which he had determined should
be that of his life.

He was now very happy, and his improvement in drawing, modelling, and
working in marble was very rapid. After a few months he made the
acquaintance of William Roscoe, who became his friend and patron. He
remained in Liverpool until he was twenty-seven years old; he had
improved every advantage within his reach, but he was very desirous of
travelling. In 1817, armed with a few letters of introduction, he went
to London, where he obtained several orders, and in October of that year
went to Rome.

He had a letter to Canova, who took him under his care and gave him
admission to the classes in the Academy, in which he could draw from
living models. In 1819 he received his first important commission; it
was from the Duke of Devonshire for a group of Mars and Cupid. From this
time he advanced steadily in his profession, and was always busy. He
lived twenty-seven years in Rome, and passed his summers in Innsbrück.

In 1844 he went to Liverpool to oversee the erection of his statue of
Mr. Huskisson; he was received with enthusiasm, and when he went to
Glasgow to superintend the placing of his statue of Mr. Finlay in the
Merchants' Hall his reception was even more flattering, as it was given
him simply as an artist, and not connected with any former associations,
as in Liverpool. During this visit to England Gibson was summoned to
Windsor to make a statue of Queen Victoria, which he completed after
his return to Rome. The queen was represented in a classical costume,
and the diadem, sandals, and borders of the drapery were colored. This
was very much criticised and much was written and said about it; Gibson
took little notice of all this, and simply answered it by saying,
"Whatever the Greeks did was right."

In 1851 Gibson sustained a great loss in the death of his brother Ben,
who had lived with him in Rome for fourteen years. Five years later,
when in perfect health, the sculptor was attacked by paralysis, and
lived but a short time. He was buried in the English cemetery at Rome,
and Lord Lytton wrote the inscription upon his monument. It says: "His
native genius strengthened by careful study, he infused the spirit of
Grecian art into masterpieces all his own. His character as a man was in
unison with his attributes as an artist--beautiful in its simplicity and
truthfulness, noble in its dignity and elevation." A monument was also
raised to Gibson in the church at Conway.

The master left the models of all his works and the larger part of his
fortune to the Royal Academy in London. Among his works are Mars and
Cupid, at Chatsworth; Psyche borne by Zephyrs, in the Palazzo Torlonia,
at Rome, and a replica at St. Petersburg; Hylas surprised by Nymphs, in
the National Gallery, London; Sleeping Shepherd Boy, in the Lenox
collection in New York; Cupid disguised as a Shepherd, which he often
repeated; portraits of Queen Victoria, at Buckingham Palace and Osborne;
Sir Robert Peel, in Westminster Abbey; George Stephenson, in St.
George's Hall, Liverpool; eighteen portrait busts; sixteen bas-reliefs
of ideal subjects and sixteen others for monuments to the dead. A large
part of these are in the chapel of the Liverpool Cemetery. He modelled a
bas-relief of Christ blessing little children.

Gibson found his entire happiness in his art. In his own words, he
worked on "happily and with ever new pleasure, avoiding evil and with a
calm soul, making images, not for worship, but for the love of the
beautiful. The beautiful elevates us above the crowd in this world; the
ideal, higher--yes, higher still, to celestial beauty, the fountain of
all. Socrates said that outward beauty was the sign of the inward; in
the life of a man, as in an image, every part should be beautiful."

He was never elated by praise; he was glad of tributes which proved that
he was respected, but he received all honors with a simplicity of
self-respect which spoke the sincere nobility of his nature.

There are many amusing anecdotes told of his absentmindedness about
everything not connected with his art. Miss Harriet Hosmer was his only
pupil, and she said of him: "He is a god in his studio, but God help him
when he is out of it." He never could master the ins and outs of
railroad travelling, and even when put in the right train at the right
time he would be sure to get out at the wrong place at the wrong time.

On one of his journeys, when he supposed he was at the right place, he
got out and asked the porter to show him the way to the cathedral. In
his own account he said: "But the scoundrel would have it there was no
cathedral in the place, and at last had the impudence to ask me if I
knew where I was. Then I discovered that instead of being in Chichester,
where I had a particular appointment with the dean and chapter, I was
safe in Portsmouth, where there was no cathedral at all."

The time has not come for any comprehensive estimate of the sculpture of
our own country. So many of our artists are still living that it would
be unjust to speak of them in connection with those whose work is
complete and whose rank is fixed as a matter of history. We have no
right to say of one who is still working that he has reached his full
height, and even after death a certain period must elapse before the
true merit of an artist can be established and his name written in its
just place upon the roll of fame. So, in leaving this subject, we will
turn again to the land of which we first spoke in considering modern
sculpture. In Italy this art has not risen above the elevation to which
Canova and Thorwaldsen brought it; for though the last was a Dane, his
work may truly be said to belong to the Roman school. We must regard
Italy as the land of art in a peculiar sense, but it is easy to
understand that under the political misfortunes which she has suffered
an advance in artistic life could not be made. Now, when a new spirit is
active there, and a freer thought prevails in other directions, may we
not believe that in the arts there will be a revival of the best
inspiration that has ever come to that home of grace and beauty?

As we glance over the entire civilized world of to-day we find an
immense activity in all matters pertaining to the fine arts. Schools and
academies are multiplied everywhere, and the interest in works of art is
universal. Many a private gentleman is to-day as liberal a patron of
artists as were the princes and nobles of the past. It is as if there
were a vast crucible in which artists of all nations are being tested,
and from this testing of their metal it would seem that much pure gold
must come forth.

As we review the history of sculpture from its earliest days to the
present, we are compelled to linger lovingly with the Greek or classic
art. The period in which it existed was a blessed period for the
sculptor. We all know that the best foundation for the excellence of art
is the study and reproduction of _nature_, and in the times of the
Greeks there was no reason why the human form, the most beautiful object
in nature, should not be used by the sculptor for the decoration of the
temple, for the statues of the public square or theatre, or for any
position in which sculpture could be used at all. The customs of modern
life are opposed to this free exhibition of nude forms, and the
difficulties that are thrown in the way of the sculptor by this one fact
are almost more than we can realize; and the task of draping a figure
and yet showing its shape and indicating its proper proportions and
action is one before which even a Greek sculptor would have reason to
doubt himself.

On the other hand, when a sculptor does succeed in producing a draped
figure which satisfies artistic taste, he has achieved much, and merits
the highest praise. A drapery which has gracefully composed masses and
flowing lines adds great dignity to the figure of a patriarch or a
prophet, and there are numerous subjects, religious and monumental, in
which a full, graceful drapery is requisite; but when, as is often the
case, the sculptor is required to reproduce the actual costume of the
day, what can we look for? The truth is, it has no grace in itself;
what, then, must it be when put into the fixedness of bronze or marble?
Yet where is the remedy for this? We do not wish to see the men whom we
have known and who have moved among us in the dress of other men put
into an antique disguise by the sculptor; the incongruity of this is too
apparent. Much has been written and said upon these points, and no
solution of the difficulty has been found; but it is only just that when
we judge of the statues made under such difficulties, we should remember
them and give the artist the benefit of the consideration of all the
hindrances that exist for him.

Westmacott, in his "Handbook of Sculpture," gives as his "Conclusion" an
account of the mechanical methods of the sculptor, and I believe that I
can add nothing here which will be of greater use to my readers than a
quotation from that author.

"The artist, having invented or conceived his subject, usually begins by
making a small sketch of it in some soft and obedient substance, as
clay or wax. He can change or alter this at his pleasure till he is
satisfied with the lines and masses of the composition, and the
proportions it will command of light and shadow. He then proceeds to
copy this small but useful sketch, as his guide, in its general
arrangement, for his full-sized model. Before commencing the larger
model it is necessary to form a sort of skeleton or framework of iron
and wood, with joints made of wire, to support the great mass of clay in
which the figure or group is now to be executed. This iron frame is
firmly fixed upon a turning bench, or banker, so that the model may be
constantly moved without difficulty, so as to be seen in different
lights and in various points of view. As the clay is likely to shrink as
it gets dry, it is necessary occasionally to wet it. This is done by
sprinkling water over it with a brush, or from a large syringe, and by
laying damp cloths upon it. This is the ordinary process for making a
model in the 'round.'

"In modelling in _rilievo_ of either kind, _alto_ or _basso_, a plane or
ground is prepared upon which the design is, or should be, carefully
drawn. This may be made of clay floated or laid upon a board, or the
ground may be of slate, or even of wood, though the latter is
objectionable, in large works especially, from its liability to shrink
and to be warped by the action of damp or moisture. The clay is then
laid in small quantities upon this ground, the outline being bounded by
the drawing, which should be carefully preserved; and the bulk or
projection of the figures is regulated by the degree of relief the
sculptor desires to give to his design.

"If the final work is to be baked in clay (_terra-cotta_) there must be
no iron or wooden nucleus, as it would interfere with the model drying
regularly and uniformly, and probably cause it to crack in shrinking.
The model is therefore prepared for drying without such support. When
perfectly free from moisture the model is placed in an oven and baked
slowly, by which it acquires great hardness and the peculiar
brownish-red color seen in these works. This art has been brought to
great perfection in England in modern days.

"If the final work is to be in marble, or bronze, or only in plaster,
the next process after finishing the model is to mould it, in
preparation for its being reproduced in a material that will bear moving
about without risk of injury to the design. This is done by covering it
with a mixture of plaster of Paris with water, which quickly sets or
becomes consistent, forming a hard and thick coating over the whole. The
clay is then carefully picked out, and an exact matrix, or form,
remains. This is washed clean, and the interior is then brushed over
with any greasy substance, usually a composition of soap and oil, to
prevent the plaster with which it is next to be filled adhering too
firmly to it. The fresh plaster is mixed to about the consistency of
cream and then poured into the mould, which is gently moved about till
the inner surface is entirely filled or covered, so that all parts may
be reached. The thickness or substance of the coating depends upon the
size of the work and the degree of strength required.

"When the newly introduced plaster is set the mould is carefully knocked
away with chisels, and a true cast appears beneath, giving an entire
fac-simile of the original model. Some skill is required in making
moulds, in order to provide for projecting parts and under-cuttings;
practice alone can teach the artist how to deal with those difficulties
when they occur. The above general instructions sufficiently explain the
ordinary processes of moulding and casting in plaster.

"In metal-casting or founding great attention must be paid to the
strengthening of the parts to bear the weight of the metal; but the
principle described in plaster-moulding applies also to the preparation
for metal-casting. The mixture of metals to form bronze, the proper
heating of the furnace, burning and uniting parts, chasing and other
processes of founding cannot be fully described in this place. They
belong to a distinct practice, and to be well understood must be studied
in the foundry.

"If the model--now reproduced in plaster--is to be copied in marble or
stone, the first step is to procure a block of the required size. Two
stones, called _scale-stones_, are then prepared, upon one of which the
model or plaster cast is placed, and upon the other the rough block of
marble. The fronts of these stones have figured marks or 'scales,' to
use the technical term, exactly corresponding. An instrument capable of
being easily moved, and which is fitted up with socket-joints and
movable arms, is then applied to the scale-stone of the model, and a
projecting point or 'needle' is made to touch a particular part of the
model itself. This is carefully removed to the scale-stone of the rough
block, and the marble is cut away till the 'needle' reaches so far into
the block as to correspond with the 'point' taken on the model. A
pencil-mark is then made to show that the _point_ is found and
registered. This process is repeated all over the model and block,
alternately, till a rough copy or shape of the model is entirely made.
These 'pointing' machines are not always precisely alike in their forms,
but the principle upon which they act is exactly similar in all. The
statue being thus rudely shaped out, the block is placed in the hands of
a superior workman, called a 'carver,' who, having the plastic model
near at hand to refer to, copies the more minute portions of the work by
means of chisels, rasps, and files, the pencil-marks made by the
'pointer' showing him the precise situation of the parts and the limit
beyond which he is not to penetrate into the marble. When the carver has
carried the work as far as the sculptor desires, he proceeds himself to
give it the finishing touches, improving the details of form and
expression, managing the different effects produced by two different
materials--one, the plastic model, being opaque; the other, the marble,
being considerably diaphanous; giving the proper varieties of texture in
the flesh, hair, and drapery, and, more especially, harmonizing the
whole.

"The rich quality of surface that appears more or less in works of
marble is produced by rubbing with fine sand or pumice-stone and other
substances, and the ancients appear to have completed this part of their
work by a process which is called '_circumlitio_,' and may mean not only
rubbing or polishing, but applying some composition, such as hot wax, to
give a soft, glowing color to the surface. Many of the ancient statues
certainly exhibit the appearance of some foreign substance having
slightly penetrated the surface of the work to about one eighth of an
inch, and its color is of a warmer tint than the marble below it; a
process, be it observed, quite distinct from and not to be confounded
with _polychromy_, or what is usually understood by painting sculpture
with various tints, in imitation of the natural color of the complexion,
hair, and eyes. Its object, probably, with the ancients as with modern
sculptors, has been simply to get rid of the glare and freshness of
appearance that is sometimes objected to in a recently finished work, by
giving a general warmth to the color of the marble."



INDEX.


   "Abduction of Briseis" (Thorwaldsen), 257

   Abildgaard, 254

   "Abraham and Isaac," 139

   "Abundance" (della Porta), 212

   Academy of Fine Arts, Florence, Michael Angelo's David in, 201

   Achilles, story of, 26;
     and Priam (Thorwaldsen), 299;
     and Penthesilea (Schadow), 270

   Acropolis, 78

   Action in Egyptian sculpture, 3

   "Actæon and his Dogs," 24

   "Adam" (Cano), 220

   "Adam and Eve," reliefs of, 138, 139;
     by Rizzo, 154

   "Adonis" (Thorwaldsen), 258

   "Adoring Madonna," 152

   Ægina, marbles of, and Thorwaldsen, 260

   Æmilius Paulus, 84

   "Æneas and Anchises" (Chaudet), 248

   Æsculapius. _See_ Asclepius

   Ætolians, 84

   Agamemnon, 90

   Agesander and the Laocoon, 74

   Agnello, Fra Guglielmo d', 130

   Agoracritus, 49, 51

   Agrippa and the Apoxyomenos, 70

   Agrippina, statue of, 103

   Aix, 275

   Alaric and Minerva Promachos, 35

   Albert, Archduke, and Duquesnoy, 226

   Alcamenes, 49

   Aldovrandi, Gian Francesco, 198

   Alexander the Great;
     statues of, 69, 72;
     decline after, 72;
     portrait statues of, 100;
     and Diogenes, by Puget, 229;
     by Dannecker, 248;
     by Thorwaldsen, 259;
     Entrance into Babylon of, 268

   Alexander, Emperor of Russia, and Thorwaldsen, 262

   Alexander VII., monument of, 226

   Alexandros, sculptor of Venus of Milo, 87

   Alto-rilievo, 281

   Altoviti, statue of (Cellini), 191

   Amadeo, Giovanni Antonio, 157

   Amboise Monument, 177

   Ambraser Gallery, Vienna, Cellini's salt-cellar in, 190

   Amiens Cathedral, 176

   Ancient Italian sculpture, 82

   Ancona, 156

   Andersen, Hans, and Thorwaldsen, 266

   Androsphinx, 6

   "Angel of Baptism" (Thorwaldsen), 262

   "Angel's Salutation" (Stoss), 165

   Anguier, François, 228

   Anguier, Michael, 228

   Animals in Egyptian sculpture, 5

   Anne of Austria, and Anguier, 228

   Anne of Brittany, monument of, 177

   "Annunciation" (Donatello), 142

   Annunziata, church of, 212

   Antigonus, father of Poliorcetes, 73

   Antium, 91

   Antonelli, Cardinal, 100

   Antwerp, town hall of, 231

   Aphrodite. _See_ Venus

   Apollo;
     Sosianus, temple of, 61;
     by Leochares, 65;
     the Belvedere, 91,
       theories concerning, 92, 95;
     the Steinhäuser, 91;
     the Stroganoff, 92;
     by Sansovino, 186;
     and Daphne, by Bernini, 224;
     and Daphne, by Canova, 239;
     by Canova, 240;
     by Flaxman, 251

   Apollodorus, 86

   Apollonius, of the Toro Farnese, 76

   Apostles (Thorwaldsen), 262

   "Apoxyomenos" (Lysippus), 70

   Archaic period, 22

   Archaistic period, 27

   Arches in Rome, 97

   Architecture, close connection with Egyptian sculpture, 10

   "Archangel Michael and Satan" (Flaxman), 251

   Areobrudus, diptych of, 109

   Arezzo, 132

   Argos, school of, 72

   "Ariadne" (Dannecker), 248

   Arrezzo, Niccolò of, 135

   Artemis, archaistic statue of, 28, 94, 95 (and _see_ Diana)

   Aschaffenburg Vischer's works in, 175

   Asclepius, by Alcamenes, 50;
     by Canova, 239

   Assos, reliefs from, 23

   Assyria, 10

   Assyrian influence on Etruscan art, 82

   Atalanta, by Pradier, 274

   Athena;
     Promachos (Phidias), 34;
     birth of, 38;
     attributes of, 39;
     representations of, 40;
     by Phidias, 84;
     of the Capitol, 94, 95, 96 (and _see_ Minerva and Pallas)

   Athenodorus and the Laocoon, 74

   Athens, statue from, at Rome, 84

   Attalus I., statues of, 78

   Augsburg, 123, 164

   Augustio, 108

   Augustus, Emperor;
     and archaistic period, 27;
     and Grecian spoils, 84;
     statue of, 102


   Babylonians, 17

   Bacchus;
     and the Tyrrhenian robbers, 67;
     tripod of, by Lysicrates, 67; 84;
     by Sansovino, 185;
     by Michael Angelo, 200

   Baldachin, 174

   Balier, Heinrich den, 123

   Bamberg, 123;
     carvings in, 167;
     and Krafft, 168

   Bandinelli, Baccio, 212;
     and Cellini, 190

   Baptistery of Pisa, 128

   Baptistery of Florence, 137, 138;
     gates of, 133

   Barberini, Cardinal, and Bernini, 223

   "Barberini Faun," 73

   Bargello, museum of the, 139

   Baryatinska, Princess, 260

   Basle, Steinhäuser Apollo in, 91

   Basilica of San Petronio, Bologna, 137

   Bas-relief;
     Egyptian, 2;
     Assyrian, 12;
     the first, 20

   Basso-rilievo, 281

   "Battle of Athenians and Amazons," 78

   "Battle of Marathon," 78

   "Battle of the Gods and Giants," 78

   Bavaria;
     King of, 270;
     statue of, 271;
     sovereigns of, Schwanthaler's statues of, 272

   Beata Villana, 151

   Beauharnais, monument to, 263

   "Beautiful Fountain," Nuremberg, 123

   Beauty, Greek love of, 18

   Begarelli, Antonio, 193

   "Berengaria," statue of, 119

   Berlin Museum, works of Pythagoras in, 30;
     Begarelli's works in, 194

   Berlin school, 272

   Bernardi, Giuseppe, 237

   Berne, cathedral of, 170

   Bernini, 223

   Berruguete, Alonso, 217

   Bertoldo and Michael Angelo, 195

   Bethmann, Herr, 248

   Beuch, 213

   Bienaimé, pupil of Thorwaldsen, 261

   Bindesböll, architect, 268

   "Birth of St. John" (Dürer), 166

   Blücher, Schadow's statue of, 269;
     Rauch's statue of, 271

   Boboli Gardens, 214

   Boethus of Chalcedon, 80

   Boileau, bust of, 229

   Bologna; 128;
     works of Lombardo in, 192;
     Michael Angelo in, 198

   Bologna, Giovanni da, 213

   Bon family, 135

   Bontemps, Pierre, 178

   Bosio, François Joseph, 273

   Bottigari, de', 193

   Bourges, Cathedral of, 114, 178

   Bourgtherroulde, Hotel, 178

   "Boy and Dolphin" (Verocchio), 149

   "Boy and Goose," 80

   Braccini, Nicolo, 187

   Bramante and Michael Angelo, 202

   Braye, Cardinal de, monument of, 133

   Bregno, Antonio Giovanni, 154

   Breslau, 271

   Briseis, by Thorwaldsen, 257

   Bristol, Lord, and Flaxman, 251

   British Museum;
     Harpy monument in, 24;
     Elgin marbles in, 37;
     statue of Pericles in, 52;
     statue of Mausolus in, 57;
     Etruscan table-ware in, 83;
     Dürer's carvings in, 166

   Bronzes, Etruscan, 82

   "Brother and Sister," Niobe group, 64

   Bruges, 178

   Brugsch-Bey concerning Martisen, 1

   Brun, Charles le, monument of, 229

   Brun, Ida, Thorwaldsen's statue of, 258

   Brunelleschi, 139, 140

   Bruni, Lionardo, statue of, 151

   Brunswick Museum, 166

   Buckingham Palace, and Flaxman, 251;
     and Gibson, 277

   Buonarroti, 194

   Buoni, 135

   Burgkapelle, and Veit Stoss, 165

   Burgos, Altars of, 179

   "Burial of Christ" (Krafft), 168

   Burns, Flaxman's statue of, 251

   Bülow, Rauch's statue of, 270

   Byzantium, early Christian sculpture in, 108;
     ivory carving in, 108


   "Cain and Abel," 139

   Calabria, Duke of, 153

   Calamis, 31

   Caligula, and the Thespian Cupid, 61;
     and Grecian spoils, 84

   Callimachus, 52

   Callon of Ægina, 27

   Cambio, Arnolfo di, 133

   Cambray, 275

   Campanile at Florence, 146

   Campo Santo of Pisa, 131

   Cano, Alonso, 219

   Canon of Polycleitus, 54

   Canova, Antonio, 236;
     and Gibson, 276

   Canova, Pasino, 236

   Canterbury Cathedral, 121

   Capitol at Rome;
     Helios in, 69;
     Minerva in, 95

   Capitoline Museum, busts by Canova in, 246

   Capuchins and Thorwaldsen, 263

   Caracalla, Baths of;
     and "Farnese Bull," 76;
     and "Farnesian Hercules," 88

   Caridad of Seville, 220

   Carlovingians, statues of, 119

   Carrousel, Place du, Chariot of, 273

   Carthusian Chapel, Dijon, 125

   Carver, 283

   Casa Santa, Loreto, 184

   Castellani collection, 78

   Cavaliere Alberto, 258

   Cellini, Benvenuto, 187

   "Centaurs and Lapithæ" (Alcamenes), 51

   "Cephalus and Aurora" (Flaxman), 251

   Cephisodotus, 55

   Ceres;
     Roman temple of, 83;
     Livia as, 104

   Certosa of Pavia, 177; 194;
     and Omodeo, 158

   Cesena, 156;
     and Lombardo, 192

   Chapelle Expiatoire, 274

   Chares of Lindos, 71

   "Charity" (Coysevox), 229

   Charles I. and Bernini, 226

   Charles VIII., 177

   Charmidas, 32

   Chartres, cathedral of, 114

   Chaudet, Antoine Denis, 247

   Choragic monument of Lysicrates, 65

   Choragus, 65

   Christ;
     early statues of, 106;
     figure of, at Rheims, 117;
     by Vischer, 174;
     by Michael Angelo, 206;
     by Coustou, 230;
     by Dannecker, 248;
     various statues of, by Thorwaldsen, 262;
       by Gibson, 277

   Christian IV., Thorwaldsen's statue of, 266

   Christian VIII. and Thorwaldsen, 266

   Christian Art, 104

   "Christian Charity" (Thorwaldsen), 262

   Christian Frederick, Prince, 259

   Christian sculpture, 105

   Christiansborg palace and Thorwaldsen, 258

   Chryselephantine statues, 22

   Chur, cathedral of, 164

   Church of Our Lady, Thorwaldsen's works in, 262

   Cimon, patron of Phidias, 34

   Cincinnatus, by Chaudet, 248

   Cione, Andrea Arcagnuolo di, 134

   Circumlitio, 284

   Civitali, Matteo, 153

   Claudius;
     and the Thespian Cupid, 61;
     arch of, in Rome, 98

   Clement VII. and Cellini, 187

   Clement XIII., Canova's monument of, 242

   Clement XIV., monument of, 240

   Cleomenes, 86, 90

   Cnidos, Venus of, 60

   Coins, Athenian, 35;
     of Elis, 35

   Colbert, tomb of, 229

   Colleoni;
     statue of, 149;
     and Leopardo, 155

   Colleoni Chapel, Bergamo, 157

   Cologne, 123

   Colonna, Vittoria, and Michael Angelo, 209

   Color;
     in Assyrian bas-reliefs, 14;
     in Æginetan statues, 26;
     in thirteenth century sculptures, 115

   Colossi, Egyptian, 8;
     of Thebes, 8

   Colossus of Rhodes, 71

   "Comedy" (Flaxman), 251

   Como, cathedral of, 159

   "Conception" (Montañes), 219

   Condé, statues of, by Coysevox, 229;
     by David, 275

   Consalvi, Cardinal, 263

   Constance, cathedral of, 163

   Constantine, arch of, 105;
     column of, 108;
     Bernini's statue of, 226

   Conway, 277

   Copernicus, Thorwaldsen's monument to, 262

   Corinthian capital, 53

   Cornacini, 74

   Corneto, 83

   Correggio and Begarelli, 193

   Cortona, 132

   Cosmo I., and Donatello, 144;
     Giovanni da Bologna's statue of, 214

   Cosmo III. and "Venus de' Medici," 85

   Coustou, Guillaume, 230

   Coustou, Nicolas, 229

   Covent Garden Theatre, 251

   Cow, Myron's statue of, 30

   Coysevox, Antoine, 229

   Cracow and Veit Stoss, 164

   Cresilas, 52

   "Crowning of the Virgin" (Stoss), 165

   Cupid;
     by Praxiteles, 60;
     by Michael Angelo, 198;
     by Dannecker, 248;
     and Psyche (Thorwaldsen), 257;
     as a shepherd (Gibson), 183 (and _see_ Eros)

   Cybele, by Cellini, 190


   Dacians on Trajan's Pillar, 99

   Dædalus, 20;
     and Icarus (Canova), 239

   Damophilus, 83

   Dannecker, Johann Heinrich, 248

   Da Siena, Ugolino, 134

   David, by Donatello, 142;
     by Verocchio, 149;
     by Michael Angelo, 200

   "David and Goliath," 139

   David of Angers, 274

   David, Jacques Louis, 274

   David, Pierre Jean, 274

   "Day" (Michael Angelo), 206

   "Death," by Bernini, 226;
     by Pigalle, 230

   "Death of the Virgin" (Strasburg), 120

   Delphi, bronzes from, 84

   Demetrius Poliorcetes, 71

   Demidoff, Countess, Bosio's statue of, 274

   Denman, Ann, 251

   "Deposition from the Cross," by Pisano, 127;
     by Omodeo, 158

   "Descent from the Cross" (Begarelli), 194

   "Destruction of the Gauls in Mysia," 78

   Devonshire, Duke of, 276

   Diadochi, 73

   Diana;
     temple of, at Ephesus, 57;
     _à la Biche_, 95 (and _see_ Artemis)

   Dibutades, 20

   Dijon, 125

   Diomed, by Myron, 31

   Diptychs, 109

   "Discobolus" of Myron, 30

   Donatello, 140

   Donato di Betto Bardi, 140

   Dortmund, wood-carvings in, 167

   "Doryphorus," by Polycleitus, 54

   Dubois, Cardinal, Coustou's statue of, 230

   Duquesnoy, François, 226, 231

   Dürer, Albrecht; 166;
     Rauch's statue of, 271

   "Dying Gaul," 79

   "Dying Warriors" (Schlüter), 232


   Egremont, Earl of, 251

   Egyptians;
     ancient sculpture of, 1;
     influence of, on Etruscan art, 82

   "Eldest Daughter," Niobe group, 64

   Elector Frederic III., Schlüter's statue of, 234

   Eleventh century, metal work in, 111

   Elgin, Lord, 37

   Elgin marbles, 35, 40

   Emo, Admiral, monument of, 242

   Emperor of Austria, Canova's bust of, 243

   England; sculpture introduced into, in fourteenth century, 125;
     in sixteenth century, 179

   "Entombment of Christ" (Roldan), 220

   Erinnyes, 25

   Ernst, Vischer's monument of, 171

   Eros, 55;
     of Centocelle, 60 (and _see_ Cupid)

   Escorial, church of, 221

   Esquiline, Discobolos found on, 31

   Estofado, 220

   Étampes, Mme. d', 189

   Etruscans originated Italian sculpture, 82

   Eurydice, by Canova, 238

   Eurythmy, 49

   Eustathius of Rome, 108

   Eve, by Cano, 220

   "Evening" (Michael Angelo), 206

   "Expulsion of Heliodorus" (Thorwaldsen), 254

   Eyck, van, 178


   Fabbriche Nuova, 186

   Faliero, Giovanni, 236

   Farnese Palace;
     and Michael Angelo, 209;
     della Porta's statues in, 212

   "Farnesian Bull," 76

   "Farnesian Hercules," 88

   Farsetti, Commendatore and Canova, 237

   Fénelon, David's statue of, 275

   Ferdinand and Isabella, monument of, 180

   Ferrara, Quercia's works in, 137;
     Lombardo's works in, 192

   Ferrari, Giuseppe, and Canova, 237

   Ferrucci, Andrea, 152

   Fiammingo, Il, 213

   "Fidelity" (Coysevox), 229

   Fiesole, Mino da, 152

   Fifteenth century, 136

   Finlay, Gibson's statue of, 276

   Fionia, Island of, 257

   Fiorino, 187

   "Fischkasten" (Syrlin), 163

   Flaccus, Fulvius, and statues from Volsinii, 82

   Flaminius, 84

   Flaxman, John, 250

   Flora, Julia as, 104

   Florence;
     and Giovanni Pisano, 132;
     and Pietro di Giovanni, 135;
     Ghiberti's works in, 140

   Florence, Baptistery of, 133

   Florence, cathedral of, high altar in, 212

   Forum Trajani, 98

   Fountain;
     by Labenwolf, 176;
     by Giovanni da Bologna, 214;
     by Bernini, 226;
     of the Manneken-Pis, 227;
     Molière, 274

   Fourteenth century, 122

   Fra Guglielmo d'Agnello, 130

   France in fourteenth century, 124

   Francis I., 148, 176;
     and Rustici, 183;
     and Cellini, 189;
     monument of, by Pilon, 216

   Franke, Rauch's statue of, 271

   Frankfort, wood-carvings in, 167

   Frari, church of, 154

   Frauenkirche, Nuremberg; 123;
     Krafft's works in, 167

   Frederic II., 127

   Frederick the Great, Schadow's statue of, 269

   Freiburg, cathedral of, 121

   French monuments, Museum of, 230

   Friedrich August, Rietschel's statue of, 271

   Friedrichs monument, 271

   Frue Kirche, 268

   Fulvius Nobilior, 84

   Furstenburg, Cardinal, and Coysevox, 229

   "Fury of Athamas" (Flaxman), 251


   "Gallic theory" concerning Apollo, Diana, and Minerva, 96

   "Gallic Warrior" in Venice, 78

   Gambarelli, The, 151

   Ganymede, by Leochares, 65;
     by Thorwaldsen, 260

   Gattamelata, statue of, 145

   Genii, by Thorwaldsen, 268

   Genoa, 153

   Genre;
     Apoxyomenos as example of, 70;
     sculpture, 81

   Germany, Emperor of, 270

   Ghibelline Street, 211

   Ghiberti, Lorenzo, 133, 138

   Ghirlandajo, Domenico, and Michael Angelo, 195

   Gibson, John, 275

   Giovanni, Luca di, 137

   Giovanni, Pietro di, 135

   Girardon, François, 228

   Glycon, 88

   Glyptothek, Munich;
     groups from Ægina in, 25;
     Barberini Faun in, 73;
     Thorwaldsen's Adonis in, 258;
     Schwanthaler's decoration of, 271

   "Gobbo, Il." _See_ Solari

   Goethe, Tieck's statue of, 270

   Golden House of Nero, 84;
     "Venus Callipiga" in, 87

   Gorgasus, 83

   Gothic style, 114, 115;
     in German art, 120;
     hindrances of, 160

   Gottfried of Strasburg, 115

   Gottskalken, Thorvald, 253

   Goujon, Jean, 216

   Graces, The, by Pilon, 216;
     by Canova, 241;
     by Thorwaldsen, 260

   Granacci, Francesco, 194

   Granada, cathedral of, Virgin by Cano in, 220

   Great Elector, Schlüter's statue of, 233.

   Greece;
     ancient sculpture of, 18;
     religion of, 19;
     influence of, on Etruscan art, 82;
     portrait sculpture in, 100

   Gregory XVI., Pope, 100

   Grimani, Senator, 239

   Grimm;
     concerning Donatello's St. George, 143;
     concerning Michael Angelo's David, 200

   Gröulund, Karen, 253

   Grumbach, statue of (Krafft), 168

   Guardian Angel, church of, 180

   "Guardian Angel" (Thorwaldsen), 262

   Guido Reni, 64

   Guillain, Simon, 227

   Guillaume de Sens, 121

   Guinifort and Omodeo, 158

   Gutenberg memorial, Strasburg, 275

   Hadrian, Emperor;
     and archaistic period, 27;
     and Glycon, 88

   Halle;
     wood-carvings in, 167;
     statue of Franke in, 271

   Hamilton, Gavin, 60

   Harald Hildetand, 252

   Harcourt, Comte d', Pigalle's statue of, 230

   "Harpy Monument," 24

   Hartmann of Aue, 115

   Hayder, Simon, 163

   Hebe, by Thorwaldsen, 258

   Heinrich II., Krafft's statue of, 168

   Helios, 69

   Henry II., monument of, 216

   Henry III. of England, 121

   Henry VII., monument of, 179

   Hephæstus (Vulcan) by Alcamenes, 49

   Hera;
     statue of, by Polycleitus, 53;
     temple of, at Argos, 53 (and _see_ Juno)

   Heracles (Hercules);
     and Triton, 23;
     and Cecrops, 23 (and _see_ Hercules)

   Hercules;
     by Scopas, 59;
     by Lysippus, 69;
     caricature of, 80;
     the Farnesian, 88;
     by Vischer, 174;
     by Michael Angelo, 196;
     and Nessus, by Giovanni da Bologna, 214;
       by Pigalle, 230;
     and Lichas, by Canova, 247 (and _see_ Heracles)

   Hermes, by Thorwaldsen, 258

   Hernandez, Gregorio, 218, 220

   Hesperides, apples of, 89

   Hieracosphinx, 6

   Hildesheim, bronze gate at, 112

   History shown by Assyrian bas-reliefs, 16

   Honor and Valor, temple of, 83

   Hope, Thomas, 251, 256

   "Hope," Thorwaldsen's statue of, 260

   Hosmer, Harriet, 278

   Höyer, 253

   Humboldt, Baron von, 257, 258

   Huskisson, Gibson's statue of, 276

   "Hylas and Nymphs" (Gibson), 277


   Iliad, selection from, 94

   Intarsiatore, 152

   Iphigenia, relief of, 90

   Isabella of Aragon, statue of, 119

   Ischia, Marquis of, 244

   Isocephalism, 44

   Italian classic sculpture, time of, 105

   Italy in fourteenth century, 126

   Ivory carving;
     in Byzantium, 108;
     in Germany, 110;
     in fourteenth century, 123


   "Jacob and Esau," 139

   Jacopo della Fonte, 137

   Jaen, cathedral of, 220

   Janina, 92

   Jason, by Thorwaldsen, 255

   Johannis Cemetery, 167, 168

   "John the Baptist," by Andrea Pisano, 134;
     by Berruguete, 218

   Jordan, Esteban, 218

   Joseph;
     history of, by Ghiberti, 139;
     and Potiphar's wife, 193

   Joseph of Arimathea, by Canova, 243

   "Joshua before Jericho," 139

   Julia as Flora, 104

   Julia and Canova, 246

   Julius II., Pope;
     and the Laocoon, 74;
     and Sansovino, 184;
     and Michael Angelo, 202;
     mausoleum of, 206

   "Junction of the Seine and Marne" (Coustou), 230

   Juni, Juan de, 218, 220

   Juno, 86 (and _see_ Hera)

   Jupiter;
     Otricoli, 36;
     temple of, at Olympia, 51;
     "Tonans" on Trajan's Pillar, 99;
     as St. Peter, 107 (and _see_ Zeus)

   Juste, Jean, 177

   "Justice," by Krafft, 170;
     by Vischer, 174;
     by della Porta, 212

   Justinian, monument of, 108


   Kalide, Theodore, 272

   King of Prussia and Schadow, 269

   Königsbau, 271

   Königsberg, statue in, 234

   Kora, 20

   Krafft, Adam, 167

   "Kreugas and Damoxenes" (Canova), 247

   Kriosphinx, 6

   Kunigunde, by Krafft, 168

   Künz, Nicolaus, 170


   Labenwolf, Pankraz, 175

   Lamberger, Simon, 171

   "Lamentation" (Krafft), 170

   Lamp of Minerva, by Callimachus, 53

   Laocoon, 74;
     by Sansovino, 185

   "Last Judgment," of Rheims cathedral, 117

   Lateran;
     Myron's Marsyas in, 31;
     antique statue of Nemesis in, 51;
     statue of Sophocles in, 100;
     statue of St. Hippolitus in, 106;
     Sarcophagi in, 107;
     Bernini's "Pietà" in, 226

   Leah, by Michael Angelo, 206

   Le Mans, cathedral of, 114

   Lenox Gallery, New York, 277

   Leo I., Pope, 107

   Leo X., Pope, 148, 184;
     and Michael Angelo, 204

   Leo XII. and Thorwaldsen, 263

   Leochares, 65

   Leopardo, Alessandro, 149, 155

   Lessing, Tieck's statue of, 270;
     Rietschel's statue of, 271

   Leuchtenberg, Duke of, monument to, 263

   Liebfrauenkirche, 178

   "Lion of Lucerne" (Thorwaldsen), 261

   Liverpool Cemetery, chapel, 277

   Livia, wife of Augustus, 102, 104

   Loggia de' Lanzi, Florence, groups in, 213

   Loggietta of the Campanile, Venice, 186

   Lombardi, The, 154

   Lombardo, Alfonso, 192

   "Lord's Supper" (Thorwaldsen), 262

   Loreto, 184

   Louis of Bavaria and Thorwaldsen, 258, 262, 263

   Louis XII., monument of, 177

   Louis XIII., Anguier's statue of, 228

   Louis XIV.;
     Guillain's statue of, 227;
     and Girardon, 228;
     Coysevox's statue of, 229;
     Coustou's statue of, 230

   Louis XVIII.;
     and Venus of Milo, 87;
     Bosio's statue of, 274

   Louise, Queen, Rauch's statue of, 270

   Louvre, Paris;
     Egyptian collection in, 1;
     archaic reliefs in, 23;
     "Venus of Milo" in, 87;
     statue of Artemis in, 95;
     Museum of Modern Sculpture in, 177;
     monument by Juste in, 178;
     Cellini's nymph in, 190;
     Pilon's "Graces" in, 216;
     bas-reliefs by Goujon in, 216;
     Sarrazin's works in, 227;
     Guillain's Louis XIV. in, 227;
     Girardon's works in, 228;
     Puget's works in, 229

   "Love in Repose" (Thorwaldsen), 254

   Lübke, Wilhelm;
     concerning Apollo Belvedere, 94;
     concerning fourteenth century, 221;
     concerning Schlüter, 233

   Lucca, 128, 137

   Lucian, concerning Calamis, 32

   Ludovico Moro and Omodeo, 159

   Luther, bust of (Thorwaldsen), 268;
     Schadow's monument to, 269;
     Rietschel's statue of, 271

   Lysippus, 68;
     school of, 72;
     Hercules by, 88;
     power of, 89

   Lytton, Lord, concerning Gibson, 277


   Madonna, statue of (Freiburg), 121;
     repetition of, 122;
     by Arnolfo di Cambio, 133;
     by Stoss, 165;
     by Michael Angelo, 196, 200

   Madonna del Soccorso, chapel of, 216

   Magnani, Anna Maria, 256

   Maidbrunn, Krafft's work in, 170

   "Maiden and Bird" (Dannecker), 248

   Majano, Benedetto da, 152

   Manuel, Nicolaus, 170

   Marburg, wood-carvings in, 167

   Marcellus, 83

   Marcus Aurelius;
     arch of, in Rome, 98;
     statue of, 209

   Maria Louisa, Canova's statue of, 243

   Marienkirche, Count Sparr's monument in, 231

   Mark, Count von der, 269

   Mars;
     and the Romans, by Sansovino, 186;
     by Thorwaldsen, 258;
     and Cupid, by Gibson, 276, 277

   Marsyas, by Myron, 31

   Martisen, Egyptian sculptor, 1

   Mary of Aragon, 152

   Marys, The, by Canova, 243

   Massegne, The, 135

   Massimi Villa, 30

   Matthias Corvinus, 152

   Mausoleum, 57

   Mausolus, 56

   Maximianus, cathedra of, 108

   Maximilian I., Rauch's statue of, 271

   Mazarin, Cardinal, tomb of, 229

   Medemet Haboo, sculpture in, 4

   Medes, 17

   Medici, Catherine de', 216

   Medici, Cosmo de', 144;
     and Cellini, 190

   Medici, Giuliano de', 204

   Medici, Lorenzo de', 195, 204

   Medici, Piero de', 144;
     and Michael Angelo, 196

   Melos, 50

   Mendelsohn and Thorwaldsen, 267

   Menides of Antiocheia, 87

   Mercury, by Sansovino, 186;
     by Giovanni da Bologna, 214;
     by Pigalle, 230;
     by Thorwaldsen, 260

   Merovingians, statues of, 119

   Metal work;
     Assyrian, 14;
     in tenth century, 110;
     in eleventh century, 111

   Michael Angelo;
     attempted to restore the Laocoon, 74;
     concerning Ghiberti's gates, 139;
     and Cellini, 187, 191, 194

   Milan, 156;
     cathedral of, and Omodeo, 158

   Milo (Melos), 87

   Milo, by Puget, 229;
     by Dannecker, 248

   Minerva;
     temple of, in Ægina, 25;
     of the Capitol, 95;
     temple of, in the Forum, 98 (and _see_ Athena and Pallas)

   Mocenigo, Doge Pietro, 155

   Modena, Antonio da, 193

   "Moderation" (Vischer), 174

   Montañes, Juan Martinez, 218

   Monte Oliveto, 152

   Montmorenci, Duke de, tomb of, 228

   Montorsoli attempted to restore the Laocoon, 74

   Monumental sculpture of thirteenth century, 119

   Moore, Sir John, Flaxman's statue of, 251

   Moritz, statue of (Pigalle), 230

   Morley, Mrs., monument of, 251

   "Morning" (Michael Angelo), 206

   Moses;
     on Mount Sinai, 139;
     by Michael Angelo, 206, 207;
     Aaron, and Hur (Rauch), 271

   "Moses Fountain," 125

   Mount Cithæron and "Farnese Bull," 76

   Mummius and Grecian spoils, 84

   Munich, group by Cephisodotus in, 55

   Murillo, 221

   "Music" (della Robbia), 146

   Mycenæ, Lion Gate of, 20

   Myron of Eleutheræ, 30;
     followers of, 51


   Naples;
     Laocoon group in, 76;
     historical statues in, 78

   Naples, Museum of;
     "Venus Callipiga" in, 87;
     and "Farnese Bull", 76;
     "Farnesian Hercules" in, 88

   Napoleon and Canova, 242, 243

   National Gallery, London, 277

   "Nativity," by Rossellino, 152;
     by Anguier, 228

   Nemesis of Agoracritus, 51

   Neptune;
     by Sansovino, 186;
     by Cellini, 190;
     by Giovanni da Bologna, 214

   Nero, and the Thespian Cupid, 61;
     and Grecian spoils, 84

   Niccolò of Arezzo, 135

   Nicodemus;
     by Krafft, 170;
     by Bandinelli, 212;
     by Canova, 243

   "Night," by Michael Angelo, 206, 208

   "Nile of the Vatican," 73

   Nimes, Pradier's fountain at, 274

   Nimrud, bas-reliefs at, 13

   Niobe;
     of Mount Sipylus, 20;
     group, 61;
     myth of, 62

   Noah, 139

   Noceto, 153

   Notre Dame, church of;
     statue of Louis XIV. in, 229;
     Coustou's sculptures in, 230;
     d'Harcourt's monument in, 230

   Nuremberg;
     sculptures of, 123;
     and Veit Stoss, 164;
     and Wohlgemuth, 166;
     statue of Dürer in, 271

   "Nymph," by Dannecker, 248;
     by Bosio, 273

   Nysoë and Thorwaldsen, 265


   Obelisks, 4

   Octavia, portico of, and Venus de' Medici, 85

   OEdipus, by Chaudet, 248

   Oehlenschlager, 265

   Oluf Paa, 252

   Olympiad, 41

   Olympic games, 41

   Omodeo. _See_ Amadeo

   Or San Michele, church of, 134, 143, 149

   Orcagna, Andrea, 134

   "Orpheus and Eurydice" (Canova), 238

   Orvieto, 133

   Osborne, 277

   Othman IV., Caliph, and Colossus of Rhodes, 72

   Our Lady, church of, Nuremberg, 123


   Padua, 137, 156

   "Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture," relief of, by Chaudet, 248

   Palais de Justice (Bruges), 178

   Palazzo Grassi, 193

   Palazzo Pubblico, fountain in front of, 214

   Palazzo Torlonia (Rome), 277

   Palazzo Vecchio, 149, 214

   Pallajuolo, 184

   Pallas, by Sansovino, 186 (and _see_ Athena and Minerva)

   Panathenaic Procession, 41

   Pandareus, King, 25

   Panhellenic games, 29

   Pantheon, influence of, upon sculpture, 29

   Pantheon, Paris, 275

   Paris;
     historic statue in, 78;
     cathedrals of, 114

   Paros, 56

   Parthenon, frieze of; 35; 40;
     groups of seven on, 42;
     central group in, 43;
     historical value of, 45;
     inequality of work in, 45

   Paul III. and Michael Angelo, 206;
     monument of, 212

   Paul V. and Bernini, 223

   Pavia, Omodeo in, 158

   "Peace," by della Porta, 212;
     by Coysevox, 229;
     by Chaudet, 248

   Peel, Sir Robert, Gibson's statue of, 277

   Peleus, 86

   Peloponnesus, school of, 53, 68

   Peloponnesian war, effect of, on sculpture, 54

   "Pensieri," by Canova, 246

   Peplos, 41

   Pepoli, bust of, 193

   Pergamon, school of, 78;
     and the Dying Gaul, 79

   Periclean age, 29

   Pericles;
     patron of Phidias, 32;
     portrait statue of, 52;
     qualities of, 54

   Perkins, Mr.;
     concerning Nicola Pisano, 130;
     concerning Amadeo, 157

   Perry, Walter Copeland;
     concerning Athena, 39;
     concerning "Venus of Milo," 88

   Perseus;
     by Vischer, 174;
     by Cellini, 190;
     and Andromeda, by Puget, 229;
     by Canova, 243

   Perseus of Macedon, 84

   Persians, 17

   Perugia;
     fountain of, 129;
     Giovanni Pisano's works in, 132

   Peter the Great and Schlüter, 234

   Phalereus, Demetrius, statues to, 73

   Phidias;
     forerunners of, 29;
     and Pericles, 32;
     and Praxiteles, 56;
     and Lysippus, 70;
     statue of Athena by, 84;
     superiority of, 89;
     and thirteenth century, 118

   Philip, Elector, and Vischer, 171

   Philip the Bold;
     statue of, 119;
     and Sluter, 125

   "Phrixos and Helle," 186

   Phryne and Praxiteles, 60

   Piazza della Signoria, 214

   Piazza Navona, fountain in, 226

   Piazza of San Lorenzo (Florence), 212

   Piccolomini tomb, Siena, 200

   "Pietà;"
     by Michael Angelo, 200;
     by Bernini, 226

   Pigalle, Jean Baptiste, 230

   Pilon, Germain, 216

   Pisa;
     Baptistery of, 128;
     and Giovanni Pisano, 131;
     Nino Pisano's works in, 134;
     cathedral of, 214

   Pisani, Senator, 239

   Pisano, Andrea, 133, 134

   Pisano, Giovanni, 131

   Pisano, Nicola, 127, 133

   Pisano, Nino, 134

   Pistoja, 132, 148

   Pitt, Flaxman's statue of, 251

   Pius VII., monument of, 263

   Pliny;
     concerning the first bas-relief, 20;
     concerning Cresilas, 52;
     concerning the Niobe group, 61;
     concerning the Laocoon, 74;
     and Boethus, 80

   Plutarch, concerning the Pericleian age, 35

   Plutus, 58

   Point, 283

   Pointer, 283

   Poliorcetes, Demetrius, 72

   Poliziano, 196

   Pollio, Asinius, 76

   Polychromy, 284

   Polycleitus, 53;
     canon of, 54;
     and Peloponnesian school, 68

   Polydorus and the Laocoon, 74

   Pompadour, Mme., 230

   Pompeii, 28

   Poncher monument, 178

   Porta, Guglielmo della, 212

   Porta Prima, 102

   Portogallo, Cardinal, 152

   Portrait sculpture;
     archaic, 22;
     in Greece and Rome, 100

   Possagno and Canova, 244

   Pradier, James, 274

   Prague, 123

   Prato, cathedral of, 132

   Praxiteles, 85

   Preller, Ludwig, and Apollo Belvedere, 93

   "Priam begging Hector's body" (Thorwaldsen), 254

   Proconsolo, 151

   Prometheus, by Pradier, 274

   Provençal Poets, 114

   "Prudence;"
     by Vischer, 174;
     by della Porta, 212;
     by Coysevox, 229

   Psyche;
     by Canova, 242;
     by Thorwaldsen, 258;
     by Pradier, 274;
     and Zephyrs, by Gibson, 277

   Ptolemy, Alexander's general, 73

   Puget, Pierre, 229

   Pythagoras of Rhegium, 30


   Quellinus, Arthur, 231

   Quercia, Jacopo della, 137

   Quintilian, concerning Timanthes, 91

   Quirinal Palace;
     Thorwaldsen's frieze in, 259;
     Thorwaldsen's works in, 268

   "Quoit-thrower" of Myron, 30


   "Rachel," by Michael Angelo, 206

   Racine, illustrated by Chaudet, 248

   Raimondi, 193

   Rameses II., colossus of, 8

   "Rape of Proserpine," by Bernini, 224;
     by Girardon, 228

   "Rape of the Sabines" (Giovanni da Bologna), 213

   Rauch, Christian, 270

   Ravenna, ivory carving in, 108

   "Religion," by Coysevox, 229;
     by Canova, 244

   Renaissance, 136

   René, King, statue of, 275

   "Resurrection of  the Dead" (Rheims), 117

   Rezzonico, Prince, and Canova, 243

   Rhamnus and Nemesis of Agoracritus, 51

   Rheims, cathedral of, 116

   Rhodes;
     colossus of, 71;
     undisturbed by death of Alexander, 73;
     and the Farnese Bull, 76;
     school of, 78

   "Rhone," by Coustou, 230

   Richelieu, monument of, 228

   Riemenschneider, Tilman, 168

   Rietschel, Ernst, 271

   Rilievo, 281

   Rimini, 156

   Rivière, Marquis of, 87

   Rizzo, or Riccio, Antonio, 154

   Robbia, Luca della, 146

   Robbia ware, 148

   Rodari, The, 159

   Roldan, Louisa, 220

   Roldan, Pedro, 220

   Romanesque period, 113

   Rome, lack of artists in, 83;
     portrait sculpture of, 101;
     decline of art in, 104

   Rösch, Jacob, 164

   Roscoe, William, 276

   Rossellini, The, 151

   Rossellino, Antonio, 151

   Rossi, Properzia de', 192

   Roux, Roulland de, 177

   Rovere, monument of, 184

   Royal Academy, London, 277

   Rubens, 221

   Ruhmeshalle, 271

   Rustici, Giovanni Francesco, 183


   "Sacrifice of Isaac," 139

   Sacristy of St. Mark's, 186

   St. Andrew, by Duquesnoy, 227

   St. Angelo, bridge of, 225

   St. Bibiana, by Bernini, 225

   St. Denis, cathedral of, 114;
     reliefs of, 119;
     and Sluter, 125;
     monument in, 178

   St. Dominick, sarcophagus of, 128

   St. George, by Donatello, 143

   St. George's Hall (Liverpool), 277

   St. Germain l'Auxerrois, 178

   St. Hippolytus, statue of, 106

   St. Jacques, church of, 178

   St. John;
     by Bernardo Rossellino, 151;
     by Canova, 243

   St. John the Baptist;
     chapel of, 153;
     by Rustici, 183;
     by Thorwaldsen, 262

   St. Laurence, church of, Nuremberg, 123;
     Krafft's works in, 167

   St. Longinus, by Bernini, 225

   St. Mark's, library of, 186

   St. Michael, by Luisa Roldan, 221

   St. Nicolas, church of, 229

   St. Peter;
     statue of, on Trajan's Pillar, 98;
     statue of, in St. Peter's, 106;
     and the Paralytic, Thorwaldsen, 254

   St. Peter's;
     Cathedral (Rome), 106;
     Pietà in, 200;
     monument of Paul III. in, 212;
     Bernini's sculptures in, 225;
     Duquesnoy's St. Andrew in, 227;
     monument of Pius VII., 263;
     Thorwaldsen's works in, 268

   St. Sebald, church of (Nuremberg), 123;
     Krafft's works in, 167;
     shrine of (Vischer), 171

   St. Sebastian, by Civitali, 153

   St. Susanna, by Duquesnoy, 227

   St. Thomas, church of (Strasburg), 230

   St. Zenobius, sarcophagus of, 140

   Ste. Chapelle, church of, 116

   SS. Giovanni e Paolo, church of, 149, 155

   Salt-cellar, by Cellini, 189

   San Antonio, church of (Padua), relief in, 155

   San Benedetto, church of (Mantua), 194

   San Benito el Real, church of, 217

   San Domenico, church of (Orvieto), 133

   San Domenico, sarcophagus of, 198

   San Francesco, church of (Ancona), 156

   San Francesco, church of (Modena), 194

   San Francesco, church of (Rimini), 156

   San Francesco della Vigna, 186

   San Giovanni Crisostomo, relief in, 155

   San Giovanni de' Fiorentini, 186

   San Lorenzo, church of, 204

   San Martino, cathedral of (Lucca), 127

   San Miniato, church of, 152

   San Petronio, church of (Bologna), 193, 198

   San Piero Maggiore, church of (Florence), 210

   San Pietro in Vincoli, church of, 206

   Santa Croce, church of, and Donatello, 140;
     and Brunelleschi, 142;
     monument of Bruni in, 151;
     pulpit in, 152;
     Michael Angelo buried in, 210

   Santa Maria de' Frari, church of (Florence), Canova's tomb in, 245

   Santa Maria del Fiore, church of, 206

   Santa Maria del Popolo, 184

   Santa Maria della Spina, church of, 131

   Santa Maria di Loreto, church of, 227

   Santa Maria Novella, church of, 142, 152

   Sangallo, Francesco, 187

   Sansovino (San Savino), Andrea, 183

   Sansovino, Jacopo, 185

   "Saone," by Coustou, 230

   Sappho, by Pradier, 274

   Sardanapalus I., statue of, 12

   Sarrazin, Jacques, 227

   Satyr, by Praxiteles, 60

   Saviour, by Canova, 242

   Scale-stones, 283

   Schadow, John Gottfried, 269

   Schadow, John Rudolph, 269

   Scharnhorst, Rauch's statue of, 270

   Schelling, Tieck's statue of, 270

   Schinkel, 269, 270

   Schliemann, Dr., and the metope of Ilium, 73

   Schlüter, Andreas, 231

   Schubart, Baron von, 256

   Schwabach and Wohlgemuth, 166

   Schwanthaler, Ludwig, 271

   Scopas, 56;
     and Leochares, 65

   Scorgola, la, abbey of, 129

   Scuola della Misericordia, 186

   Sebenico, Giorgio da, 156

   Séguier, Pierre, bust of, 227;
     and Girardon, 228

   Selene on Trajan's Pillar, 99

   Selinus, reliefs from, 23, 24

   Senate Chamber, Chaudet's Cincinnatus in, 248

   Septimius Severus, arch of (Rome), 98

   Serra family, 57

   Settignano, Desiderio da, 152

   "Seven Sorrows of the Virgin," 165

   "Seven Stages" (Krafft), 167

   Seventeenth century, 221

   Seville, altars of, 179

   Sforza, Battista, bust of, 151

   Sforza, Cardinal, monument of, 184

   Sicyon, 68;
     school of, 72

   Siena, cathedral of, 128;
     and Giovanni Pisano, 132;
     and Quercia, 138;
     and Ghiberti, 140

   "Sirens" (Giovanni da Bologna), 214

   Sistine Chapel and Michael Angelo, 203

   Sixteenth century, 181

   Sixtus V., Pope, 98

   "Sleeping Shepherd" (Gibson), 277

   Sluter, Claux, 125;
     influence of, 161

   Socrates, 55, 278

   Solari, Cristoforo, 158

   "Solomon and Queen of Sheba," 139, 193

   Sophocles, statue of, 100

   Sorbonne, church of the, 228

   Sosius, 61

   South Kensington Museum, 148

   Sparr, Count, monument of, 231

   Sphinx, 6

   "Spinario," 81

   "Spinner" (Schadow), 269

   Squarcione, Francesco, 137

   Staël, Mme. de, David's statue of, 275

   Stampe, Baron von, and Thorwaldsen, 265

   Statuettes, Assyrian, 12

   Steinbach, Sabina von, 120

   "Steinhäuser, Apollo," 91

   Stephani and "Apollo Belvedere," 92

   Stephenson, Gibson's statue of, 277

   Stettin, 269

   Stoss, Veit, 164

   Strada Babbuino, 242

   Strasburg, cathedral of, 120;
     Gutenberg memorial in, 275

   "Strength" (Vischer), 174

   "Stroganoff Apollo," 92

   Strozzi, Filippo, monument of, 152

   Strozzi Palace, 152

   Stuart and Revett, 236

   Stuttgart, 123

   Sulla and Grecian spoils, 84

   Swabian School, 162

   Syrlin, Jörg, 162


   Talma, David's statue of, 275

   Tatti, Jacopo, 185

   Tauriscus, of the Toro Farnese, 76

   Tavera, Juan de, 218

   Tedesco, Pietro, 135

   "Temperance" (Giovanni Pisano), 131

   Temple Church, 121

   Tenth century, metal work in, 110

   Terra-cotta, 281

   Terra-cottas in Milan, 157

   Théâtre Français, Talma's statue in, 275

   Theodosius, column and obelisk of, 108

   Theseion, 33

   Theseus;
     temple of, by Phidias, 33;
     torso of, 37;
     and the Minotaur, Canova, 240

   Thetis, 86

   Thiele, concerning Thorwaldsen, 268, 269

   Thirteenth century, 114

   Thorwaldsen, Bertel;
     and reliefs from Ægina, 26;
     and classic art, 236;
     life and works, 252

   Thorwaldsen Museum, 267, 268

   Tiberius and the Apoxyomenos, 70

   Tieck, Christian Frederic, 270

   Timanthes, 90

   Titus;
     and the Laocoon, 74;
     arch of (Rome), 98

   Toledo;
     altars of, 179;
     cathedral of, 217

   Toretto, 237

   "Toro Farnese," 76

   Torrigiano, Pietro;
     in England, 179;
     and Cellini, 188

   Tours, cathedral of, 177

   Trajan;
     arch of, 98, 105;
     pillar of, 98

   Tralles, 76

   Trastevere, Apoxyomenos found in, 70

   Tribolo, Il, (Braccini), 187

   Trojan war in Æginetan reliefs, 26

   Tuileries;
     Chaudet's "Peace" in, 248;
     statue of Prometheus in, 274

   Tuscany, 136

   Twelfth century, 112

   Uffizi;
     Niobe group in, 61;
     "Venus de' Medici" in, 85;
     Donatello's works in, 142;
     della Robbia's works in, 146, 147;
     Rossellino's works in, 151, 152;
     Sansovino's Bacchus in, 185;
     carved cherry-stone in, 193;
     model of Michael Angelo's David in, 200;
     statue of Michael Angelo in, 211

   Uhden, M. d', 256

   Ulm, wood-carvings in, 162

   Urban VIII., monument of, 226

   Usurtasen, Egyptian sculptor, 2


   Val de Grace, church of, 228

   Valladolid, 218

   Varchi, 211

   Vasari and Michael Angelo, 210

   Vatican;
     Eros of Centocelle in, 60;
     Apoxyomenos in, 70;
     copy of the Laocoon in, 74;
     historic statue in, 78;
     Etruscan table-ware in, 83;
     Chigi Venus in, 87;
     Apollo Belvedere in, 91;
     "Young Augustus" in, 103;
     statue of Augustus in, 103;
     sarcophagi in, 107;
     statue of Perseus in, 243

   Vendôme Column, 273

   Venice;
     historic statues in, 78;
     Sansovino in, 186;
     Canova's heart in, 245

   Venus;
     by Alcamenes, 49;
     by Scopas, 58;
     of Cnidos, 60;
     and the Romans, 84;
     de' Medici, 85;
     Cnidian, 85;
     of the Capitol, 87;
     of Milo (Melos), 87;
     of Chigi, 87;
     Callipiga, 87;
     by Giovanni da Bologna, 214;
     by Thorwaldsen, 257 (and _see_ Aphrodite)

   Verocchio, Andrea del, 148, 155

   Verona, 156

   Versailles, Puget's works in, 229

   Victoria;
     Gibson's statue of, 277;
     portraits of, by Gibson, 277

   "Victories," by Rauch, 271

   Victors, statues of, 29

   Villa Borghese;
     and arch of Claudius, 98;
     Bernini's "Apollo and Daphne" in, 224

   Villa Ludovisi, Bernini's "Rape of Proserpine" in, 224

   Vinci, Leonardo da, 183

   Virgin;
     by Cano, 220;
     by Coysevox, 229

   "Virtue and Vice" (Giovanni), 214

   Vischer, Hermann, 171

   Vischer, Peter, 171

   Vischers, The, 171

   Visconti Monument, 177

   Volsinii, 82

   Volto Santo, temple of, 153

   Vulcan. _See_ Hephæstus


   Walhalla, 271;
     "Victories" by Rauch in, 271

   Walther von der Vogelweid, 115

   Washington, Canova's statue of, 245

   Wedgwood and Flaxman, 250

   Wells Cathedral, 122

   Westmacott;
     concerning Bernini, 224;
     concerning Flaxman, 252;
     concerning mechanical methods, 280

   Westminster Abbey, 121, 277

   Wichmann, Ludwig, 272

   Wilkens, 267

   Wilson, Heath, 211

   Winckelmann, 235

   "Wise Virgins," by Krafft, 170

   Wittenberg, monument in, 175;
     Luther's statue in, 269

   Wohlgemuth, Michael, 166

   Wolff, 270

   Wolfram of Strasburg, 115

   Wood-carving in fifteenth century, 162

   Wounded Lion, Assyrian, 15

   Würzburg, 123, 168


   Zecca, 186

   Zeppelin, Count, monument of, 248

   Zeus;
     Phidias's statue of, 33;
     by Leochares, 65 (and _see_ Jupiter)

   Zoëga and Thorwaldsen, 256, 258

   Zuliani, Cavaliere, and Canova, 239, 240

   Zwickau and Wohlgemuth, 166

   Zwingerhof, 271





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