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Title: Women in the fine arts, from the Seventh Century B.C. to the Twentieth Century A.D.
Author: Waters, Clara Erskine Clement, 1834-1916
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Illustration: Alinari, Photo.

In the Bologna Gallery












As a means of collecting material for this book I have sent to many
artists in Great Britain and in various countries of Europe, as well as
in the United States, a circular, asking where their studies were made,
what honors they have received, the titles of their principal works, etc.

I take this opportunity to thank those who have cordially replied to my
questions, many of whom have given me fuller information than I should
have presumed to ask; thus assuring correctness in my statements, which
newspaper and magazine notices of artists and their works sometimes fail
to do.

I wish especially to acknowledge the courtesy of those who have given me
photographs of their pictures and sculpture, to be used as illustrations.



THE INFANT CHRIST                  _Elisabetta Sirani_
In the Bologna Gallery. By permission of Fratelli Alinari.

A PORTRAIT                         _Elizabeth Gowdy Baker_

A PORTRAIT                         _Adelaide Cole Chase_
From a Copley print.

A CANADIAN INTERIOR                _Emma Lampert Cooper_

ANGIOLA                            _Louise Cox_
From a Copley print.

DOROTHY                            _Lydia Field Emmet_
From a Copley print.

In the Pitti Gallery. By permission of Fratelli Alinari.


THE DEPARTURE OF SUMMER            _Louise L. Heustis_
From a Copley print.

MINIATURE OF PERSIS BLAIR          _Laura Coombs Hills_

CHILD OF THE PEOPLE                _Helen Hyde_

MOTHER AND CHILD                   _Phoebe A. Jenks_

MISS ELLEN TERRY AS "PORTIA"       _Louise Jopling Rowe_

ANGELICA KAUFFMAN                  _Angelica Kauffman_
In the Uffizi Gallery. By permission of Fratelli Alinari.

PORTRAIT OF ROSA BONHEUR           _Anna E. Klumpke_

A FAMILY OF DOGS                   _Matilda Lotz_

FRITZ                              _Clara T. MacChesney_
From a Copley print.

SAINT CATHERINE                    _Mary L. Macomber_
From a Copley print.

MONUMENT FOR A TOMB                _Ida Matton_
In Cemetery in Gefle, Sweden.

DELFT                              _Blanche McManus Mansfield_

AN INDIAN AFTER THE CHASE          _Rhoda Holmes Nichols_

FLOWERS                            _Helen Searle Pattison_

ST. CHRISTOPHER                    Engraved by _Caroline A. Powell_
In Doge's Palace, Venice

GENEVESE WATCHMAKER                _Aimée Rapin_
In the Museum at Neuchâtel.


FRUIT, FLOWERS, AND INSECTS        _Rachel Ruysch_
In the Pitti Gallery. By permission of Fratelli Alinari.

A FROG FOUNTAIN                    _Janet Scudder_

A FRENCH PRINCE                    _Marie Vigée Le Brun_

LA VIERGE AU ROSIER                _Sadie Waters_
By courtesy of Braun, Clément et Cie.

SONG OF AGES                       _Ethel Wright_
From a Copley print.

STATUE OF DANIEL BOONE             _Enid Yandell_
Made for St. Louis Exposition.


In studying the subject of this book I have found the names of more than
a thousand women whose attainments in the Fine Arts--in various countries
and at different periods of time before the middle of the nineteenth
century--entitle them to honorable mention as artists, and I doubt not
that an exhaustive search would largely increase this number. The stories
of many of these women have been written with more or less detail, while
of others we know little more than their names and the titles of a few of
their works; but even our scanty knowledge of them is of value.

Of the army of women artists of the last century it is not yet possible
to speak with judgment and justice, although many have executed works of
which all women may be proud.

We have some knowledge of women artists in ancient days. Few stories of
that time are so authentic as that of Kora, who made the design for the
first bas-relief, in the city of Sicyonia, in the seventh century B. C.
We have the names of other Greek women artists of the centuries
immediately preceding and following the Christian era, but we know little
of their lives and works.

Calypso was famous for the excellence of her character pictures, a
remarkable one being a portrait of Theodorus, the Juggler. A picture
found at Pompeii, now at Naples, is attributed to this artist; but its
authorship is so uncertain that little importance can be attached to it.
Pliny praised Eirene, among whose pictures was one of "An Aged Man" and a
portrait of "Alcisthenes, the Dancer."

In the annals of Roman Art we find few names of women. For this reason
Laya, who lived about a century before the Christian era, is important.
She is honored as the original painter of miniatures, and her works on
ivory were greatly esteemed. Pliny says she did not marry, but pursued
her art with absolute devotion; and he considered her pictures worthy of
great praise.

A large picture in Naples is said to be the work of Laya, but, as in the
case of Calypso, we have no assurance that it is genuine. It is also said
that Laya's portraits commanded larger prices than those of Sopolis and
Dyonisius, the most celebrated portrait painters of their time.

Our scanty knowledge of individual women artists of antiquity--mingled
with fable as it doubtless is--serves the important purpose of proving
that women, from very ancient times, were educated as artists and
creditably followed their profession beside men of the same periods.

This knowledge also awakens imagination, and we wonder in what other
ancient countries there were women artists. We know that in Egypt
inheritances descended in the female line, as in the case of the Princess
Karamat; and since we know of the great architectural works of Queen
Hashop and her journey to the land of Punt, we may reasonably assume that
the women of ancient Egypt had their share in all the interests of life.
Were there not artists among them who decorated temples and tombs with
their imperishable colors? Did not women paint those pictures of
Isis--goddess of Sothis--that are like precursors of the pictures of the
Immaculate Conception? Surely we may hope that a papyrus will be brought
to light that will reveal to us the part that women had in the decoration
of the monuments of ancient Egypt.

At present we have no reliable records of the lives and works of women
artists before the time of the Renaissance in Italy.

       *       *       *       *       *

M. Taine's philosophy which regards the art of any people or period as
the necessary result of the conditions of race, religion, civilization,
and manners in the midst of which the art was produced--and esteems a
knowledge of these conditions as sufficient to account for the character
of the art, seems to me to exclude many complex and mysterious
influences, especially in individual cases, which must affect the work of
the artists. At the same time an intelligent study of the art of any
nation or period demands a study of the conditions in which it was
produced, and I shall endeavor in this _résumé_ of the history of women
in Art--mere outline as it is--to give an idea of the atmosphere in which
they lived and worked, and the influences which affected the results of
their labor.

It has been claimed that everything of importance that originated in
Italy from the thirteenth to the seventeenth century bore the distinctive
mark of Fine Art. So high an authority as John Addington Symonds is in
accord with this view, and the study of these four centuries is of
absorbing interest.

Although the thirteenth century long preceded the practice of art by
women, its influence was a factor in the artistic life into which they
later came. In this century Andrea Tan, Guido da Siena, and other devoted
souls were involved in the final struggles of Mediaeval Art, and at its
close Cimabue and Duccio da Siena--the two masters whose Madonnas were
borne in solemn procession through the streets of Florence and Siena, mid
music and the pealing of bells--had given the new impulse to painting
which brought them immortal fame. They were the heralds of the time when
poetry of sentiment, beauty of color, animation and individuality of form
should replace Mediaeval formality and ugliness; a time when the spirit of
art should be revived with an impulse prophetic of its coming glory.

But neither this portentous period nor the fourteenth century is
memorable in the annals of women artists. Not until the fifteenth, the
century of the full Renaissance, have we a record of their share in the
great rebirth.

It is important to remember that the art of the Renaissance had, in the
beginning, a distinct office to fill in the service of the Church. Later,
in historical and decorative painting, it served the State, and at
length, in portrait and landscape painting, in pictures of genre subjects
and still-life, abundant opportunity was afforded for all orders of
talent, and the generous patronage of art by church, state, and men of
rank and wealth, made Italy a veritable paradise for artists.

Gradually, with the revival of learning, artists were free to give
greater importance to secular subjects, and an element of worldliness,
and even of immorality, invaded the realm of art as it invaded the realms
of life and literature.

This was an era of change in all departments of life. Chivalry, the great
"poetic lie," died with feudalism, and the relations between men and
women became more natural and reasonable than in the preceding centuries.
Women were liberated from the narrow sphere to which they had been
relegated in the minstrel's song and poet's rhapsody, but as yet neither
time nor opportunity had been given them for the study and development
which must precede noteworthy achievement.

Remarkable as was the fifteenth century for intellectual and artistic
activity, it was not productive in its early decades of great genius in
art or letters. Its marvellous importance was apparent only at its close
and in the beginning of the sixteenth century, when the works of
Leonardo, Michael Angelo, Raphael, Titian, and their followers emphasized
the value of the progressive attainments of their predecessors.

The assertion and contradiction of ideas and theories, the rivalries of
differing schools, the sweet devotion of Fra Angelico, the innovations of
Masolino and Masaccio, the theory of perspective of Paolo Uccello, the
varied works of Fabriano, Antonello da Messina, the Lippi, Botticelli,
Ghirlandajo, the Bellini, and their contemporaries, culminated in the
inimitable painting of the Cinquecento--in works still unsurpassed, ever
challenging artists of later centuries to the task of equalling or
excelling them.

The demands of the art of the Renaissance were so great, and so unlike
those of earlier days, that it is not surprising that few women, in its
beginning, attained to such excellence as to be remembered during five
centuries. Especially would it seem that an insurmountable obstacle had
been placed in the way of women, since the study of anatomy had become a
necessity to an artist. This, and kindred hindrances, too patent to
require enumeration, account for the fact that but two Italian women of
this period became so famous as to merit notice--Caterina Vigri and
Onorata Rodiana, whose stories are given in the biographical part of this

       *       *       *       *       *

In Flanders, late in the fourteenth and early in the fifteenth centuries,
women were engaged in the study and practice of art. In Bruges, when the
Van Eycks were inventing new methods in the preparation of colors, and
painting their wonderful pictures, beside them, and scarcely inferior to
them, was their sister, Margaretha, who sacrificed much of her artistic
fame by painting portions of her brothers' pictures, unless the fact that
they thought her worthy of thus assisting them establishes her reputation
beyond question.

In the fifteenth century we have reason to believe that many women
practised art in various departments, but so scanty and imperfect are the
records of individual artists that little more than their names are
known, and we have no absolute knowledge of the value of their works, or
where, if still existing, they are to be seen.

The art of the Renaissance reached its greatest excellence during the
last three decades of the fifteenth and the first half of the sixteenth
century. This was a glorious period in the History of Art. The barbarism
of the Middle Ages was essentially a thing of the past, but much barbaric
splendor in the celebration of ceremonies and festivals still remained to
satisfy the artistic sense, while every-day costumes and customs lent a
picturesqueness to ordinary life. So much of the pagan spirit as endured
was modified by the spirit of the Renaissance. The result was a new order
of things especially favorable to painting.

An artist now felt himself as free to illustrate the pagan myths as to
represent the events in the lives of the Saviour, the Virgin and the
saints, and the actors in the sacred subjects were represented with the
same beauty and grace of form as were given the heroes and heroines of
Hellenic legend. St. Sebastian was as beautiful as Apollo, and the
imagination and senses were moved alike by pictures of Danae and the
Magdalene--the two subjects being often the work of the same artist.

The human form was now esteemed as something more than the mere
habitation of a soul; it was beautiful in itself and capable of awakening
unnumbered emotions in the human heart. Nature, too, presented herself in
a new aspect and inspired the artist with an ardor in her representation
such as few of the older painters had experienced in their devotion to
religious subjects.

This expansion of thought and purpose was inaugurating an art attractive
to women, to which the increasing liberty of artistic theory and
practice must logically make them welcome; a result which is a
distinguishing feature of sixteenth-century painting.

       *       *       *       *       *

The sixteenth century was noteworthy for the generous patronage of art,
especially in Florence, where the policy of its ruling house could not
fail to produce marvellous results, and the history of the Medici
discloses many reasons why the bud of the Renaissance perfected its bloom
in Florence more rapidly and more gloriously than elsewhere.

For centuries Italy had been a treasure-house of Greek, Etruscan, and
Byzantine Art. In no other country had a civilization like that of
ancient Rome existed, and no other land had been so richly prepared to be
the birthplace and to promote the development of the art of the

The intellectually progressive life of this period did much for the
advancement of women. The fame of Vittoria Colonna, Tullia d'Aragona,
Olympia Morata, and many others who merit association in this goodly
company, proves the generous spirit of the age, when in the scholastic
centres of Italy women were free to study all branches of learning.

The pursuit of art was equally open to them and women were pupils in all
the schools and in the studios of many masters; even Titian instructed a
woman, and all the advantages for study enjoyed by men were equally
available for women. Many names of Italian women artists could be added
to those of whom I have written in the biographical portion of this
book, but too little is known of their lives and works to be of present
interest. There is, however, little doubt that many pictures attributed
to "the School of" various masters were painted by women.

       *       *       *       *       *

Art did not reach its perfection in Venice until later than in Florence,
and its special contribution, its glorious color, imparted to it an
attraction unequalled on the sensuous plane. This color surrounded the
artists of that sumptuous city of luxurious life and wondrous pageants,
and was so emphasized by the marvellous mingling of the semi-mist and the
brilliancy of its atmosphere that no man who merited the name of artist
could be insensible to its inspiration.

The old Venetian realism was followed, in the time of the Renaissance, by
startling developments. In the works of Tintoretto and Veronese there is
a combination of gorgeous draperies, splendid and often licentious
costumes, brilliant metal accessories, and every possible device for
enhancing and contrasting colors, until one is bewildered and must adjust
himself to these dazzling spectacles--religious subjects though they may
be--before any serious thought or judgment can be brought to bear upon
their artistic merit; these two great contemporaries lived and worked in
the final decades of the sixteenth century.

We know that many women painted pictures in Venice before the seventeenth
century, although we have accurate knowledge of but few, and of these an
account is given later in this book.

We who go from Paris to London in a few hours, and cross the St. Gothard
in a day, can scarcely realize the distance that separated these capitals
from the centres of Italian art in the time of the Renaissance. We have,
however, abundant proof that the sacred fire of the love of Art and
Letters was smouldering in France, Germany, and England--and when the
inspiring breath of the Renaissance was wafted beyond the Alps a flame
burst forth which has burned clearer and brighter with succeeding

From the time of Vincent de Beauvais, who died in 1264, France had not
been wanting in illustrious scholars, but it could not be said that a
French school of art existed. François Clouet or Cloet, called Jehannet,
was born in Tours about 1500. His portraits are seen in the Gallery of
the Louvre, and have been likened to those of Holbein; but they lack the
strength and spirit of that artist; in fact, the distinguishing feature
of Clouet's work is the remarkable finish of draperies and accessories,
while the profusion of jewels distracts attention from the heads of his

The first great French artists were of the seventeenth century, and
although Clouet was painter to Francis I. and Henry II., the former, like
his predecessors, imported artists from Italy, among whom were Leonardo
da Vinci and Benvenuto Cellini.

In letters, however, there were French women of the sixteenth century who
are still famous. Marguerite de Valois was as cultivated in mind as she
was generous and noble in character. Her love of learning was not easily
satisfied. She was proficient in Hebrew, the classics, and the usual
branches of "profane letters," as well as an accomplished scholar in
philosophy and theology. As an author--though her writings are somewhat
voluminous and not without merit--she was comparatively unimportant; her
great service to letters was the result of the sympathy and encouragement
she gave to others.

Wherever she might be, she was the centre of a literary and religious
circle, as well as of the society in which she moved. She was in full
sympathy with her brother in making his "_Collège_" an institution in
which greater liberty was accorded to the expression of individual
opinion than had before been known in France, and by reason of her
protection of liberty in thought and speech she suffered much in the
esteem of the bigots of her day.

The beautiful Mlle. de Heilly--the Duchesse d'Etampes--whose influence
over Francis I. was pre-eminent, while her character was totally unlike
that of his sister, was described as "the fairest among the learned, and
the most learned among the fair." When learning was thus in favor at
Court, it naturally followed that all capacity for it was cultivated and
ordinary intelligence made the most of; and the claim that the
intellectual brilliancy of the women of the Court of Francis I. has
rarely been equalled is generally admitted. There were, however, no
artists among them--they wielded the pen rather than the brush.

       *       *       *       *       *

In England, as in France, there was no native school of art in the
sixteenth century, and Flemish, Dutch, and German artists crossed the
channel when summoned to the English Court, as the Italians crossed the
Alps to serve the kings of France.

English women of this century were far less scholarly than those of Italy
and France. At the same time they might well be proud of a queen who
"could quote Pindar and Homer in the original and read every morning a
portion of Demosthenes, being also the royal mistress of eight
languages." With our knowledge of the queen's scholarship in mind we
might look to her for such patronage of art and literature as would rival
that of Lorenzo the Magnificent; but Elizabeth lacked the generosity of
the Medici and that of Marguerite de Valois. Hume tells us that "the
queen's vanity lay more in shining by her own learning than in
encouraging men of genius by her liberality."

Lady Jane Grey and the daughters of Sir Anthony Cooke are familiar
examples of learned women, and many English titled and gentlewomen were
well versed in Greek and Latin, as well as in Spanish, Italian, and
French. Macaulay reminded his readers that if an Englishwoman of that day
did not read the classics she could read little, since the then existing
books--outside the Italian--would fill a shelf but scantily. Thus English
girls read Plato, and doubtless English women excelled Englishmen in
their proficiency in foreign languages, as they do at present.

       *       *       *       *       *

In Germany the relative position of Art and Letters was the opposite to
that in France and England. The School of Cologne was a genuinely native
school of art in the fourteenth century. Although the Niebelungen Lied
and Gudrun, the Songs of Love and Volkslieder, as well as Mysteries and
Passion Plays, existed from an early date, we can scarcely speak of a
German Literature before the sixteenth century, when Albert Dürer and the
younger Holbein painted their great pictures, while Luther, Melanchthon
and their sympathizers disseminated the doctrines of advancing

At this period, in the countries we may speak of collectively as German,
women artists were numerous. Many were miniaturists, some of whom were
invited to the English Court and received with honor.

In 1521 Albert Dürer was astonished at the number of women artists in
different parts of what, for conciseness, we may call Germany. This was
also noticeable in Holland, and Dürer wrote in his diary, in the
above-named year: "Master Gerard, of Antwerp, illuminist, has a daughter,
eighteen years of age, named Susannah, who illuminated a little book
which I purchased for a few guilders. It is wonderful that a woman could
do so much!"

Antwerp became famous for its women artists, some of whom visited France,
Italy, and Spain, and were honorably recognized for their talent and
attainments, wherever they went.

       *       *       *       *       *

In the later years of the sixteenth century a difference of opinion and
purpose arose among the artists of Italy, the effects of which were shown
in the art of the seventeenth century. Two distinct schools were formed,
one of which included the conservatives who desired to preserve and
follow the manner of the masters of the Cinquecento, at the same time
making a deeper study of Nature--thus the devotional feeling and many of
the older traditions would be retained while each master could indulge
his individuality more freely than heretofore. They aimed to unite such a
style as Correggio's--who belonged to no school--with that of the
severely mannered artists of the preceding centuries. These artists were
called Eclectics, and the Bolognese school of the Carracci was the most
important centre of the movement, while Domenichino, a native of
Bologna--1581-1631--was the most distinguished painter of the school.

The original aims of the Eclectics are well summed up in a sonnet by
Agostino Carracci, which has been translated as follows: "Let him who
wishes to be a good painter acquire the design of Rome, Venetian action
and Venetian management of shade, the dignified color of Lombardy--that
is of Leonardo da Vinci--the terrible manner of Michael Angelo, Titian's
truth and nature, the sovereign purity of Correggio's style and the just
symmetry of a Raphael, the decorum and well-grounded study of Tibaldi,
the invention of the learned Primaticcio, and a _little_ of
Parmigianino's grace; but without so much study and weary labor let him
apply himself to imitate the works which our Niccolò--dell Abbate--left
us here." Kugler calls this "a patchwork ideal," which puts the matter in
a nut-shell.

At one period the Eclectics produced harmonious pictures in a manner
attractive to women, many of whom studied under Domenichino, Giovanni
Lanfranco, Guido Reni, the Campi, and others. Sofonisba Anguisciola,
Elisabetta Sirani, and the numerous women artists of Bologna were of this

The greatest excellence of this art was of short duration; it declined as
did the literature, and indeed, the sacred and political institutions of
Italy in the seventeenth century. It should not, however, be forgotten,
that the best works of Guercino, the later pictures of Annibale Carracci,
and the important works of Domenichino and Salvator Rosa belong to this

The second school was that of the Naturalists, who professed to study
Nature alone, representing with brutal realism her repulsive aspects.
Naples was the centre of these painters, and the poisoning of Domenichino
and many other dark and terrible deeds have been attributed to them. Few
women were attracted to this school, and the only one whose association
with the Naturalisti is recorded--Aniella di Rosa--paid for her temerity
with her life.

       *       *       *       *       *

In Rome, Florence, Bologna, Venice, and other Italian cities, there were,
in the seventeenth century, many women who made enviable reputations as
artists, some of whom were also known for their literary and musical
attainments. Anna Maria Ardoina, of Messina, made her studies in Rome.
She was gifted as a poet and artist, and so excelled in music that she
had the distinguished honor of being elected to the Academy of Arcadia.

Not a few gifted women of this time are remembered for their noble
charities. Chiara Varotari, under the instruction of her father and her
brother, called Padovanino, became a good painter. She was also honored
as a skilful nurse, and the Grand Duke of Tuscany placed her portrait in
his gallery on account of his admiration and respect for her as a
comforter of the suffering.

Giovanna Garzoni, a miniaturist, conferred such benefits upon the Academy
of St. Luke that a monument was there erected to her memory. Other
artists founded convents, became nuns, and imprinted themselves upon
their age in connection with various honorable institutions and

       *       *       *       *       *

French Art in the seventeenth century was academic and prosaic, lacking
the spontaneity, joyousness, and intensely artistic feeling of Italian
Art--a heritage from previous centuries which had not been lost, and in
which France had no part. The works of Poussin, which have been likened
to painted reliefs, afford an excellent example of French Art in his
time--1594-1665--and this in spite of the fact that he worked and studied
much in Rome.

The Académie des Beaux-Arts was established by Louis XIV., and there was
a rapidly growing interest in art. As yet, however, the women of France
affected literature rather than painting, and in the seventeenth century
they were remarkable for their scholarly attainments and their influence
in the world of letters.

Madame de Maintenon patronized learning; at the Hôtel Rambouillet men and
women of genius met the world of rank and fashion on common ground.
Madame Dacier, of whom Voltaire said, "No woman has ever rendered greater
services to literature," made her translations from the classics; Madame
de Sevigné wrote her marvellous letters; Mademoiselle de Scudéry and
Madame Lafayette their novels; Catherine Bernard emulated the manner of
Racine in her dramas; while Madame de Guyon interpreted the mystic Song
of Solomon.

Of French women artists of this period we can mention several names, but
they were so overshadowed by authors as to be unimportant, unless, like
Elizabeth Chéron, they won both artistic and literary fame.

       *       *       *       *       *

The seventeenth century was an age of excellence in the art of Flanders,
Belgium, and Holland, and is known as the second great epoch of painting
in the Netherlands, this name including the three countries just

After the calamities suffered under Charles V. and Philip II., with
returning peace and prosperity an art was developed, both original and
rich in artistic power. The States-General met in 1600, and the greatest
artists of the Netherlands did their work in the succeeding fifty years;
and before the century closed the appreciation of art and the patronage
which had assured its elevation were things of the past.

Rubens was twenty-three years old in 1600, just ready to begin his work
which raised the school of Belgium to its highest attainments. When we
remember how essentially his art dominated his own country and was
admired elsewhere, we might think--I had almost said fear--that his
brilliant, vigorous, and voluptuous manner would attract all artists of
his day to essay his imitation. But among women artists Madame O'Connell
was the first who could justly be called his imitator, and her work was
done in the middle of the nineteenth century.

When we turn to the genre painting of the Flemish and Dutch artists we
find that they represented scenes in the lives of coarse, drunken boors
and vulgar women--works which brought these artists enduring fame by
reason of their wonderful technique; but we can mention one woman only,
Anna Breughel, who seriously attempted the practice of this art. She is
thought to have been of the family of Velvet Breughel, who lived in the
early part of the seventeenth century.

Like Rubens, Rembrandt numbered few women among his imitators. The women
of his day and country affected pleasing delineations of superficial
motives, and Rembrandt's earnestness and intensity were seemingly above
their appreciation--certainly far above their artistic powers.

A little later so many women painted delicate and insipid subjects that I
have not space even for their names. A critic has said that the Dutch
school "became a nursery for female talent." It may have reached the
Kindergarten stage, but went no farther.

Flower painting attained great excellence in the seventeenth century. The
most elaborate masters in this art were the brothers De Heem, Willem
Kalf, Abraham Mignon, and Jan van Huysum. Exquisite as the pictures by
these masters are, Maria van Oosterwyck and Rachel Ruysch disputed
honors with them, and many other women excelled in this delightful art.

An interesting feature in art at this time was the intimate association
of men and women artists and the distinction of women thus associated.

Gerard Terburg, whose pictures now have an enormous value, had two
sisters, Maria and Gezina, whose genre pictures were not unworthy of
comparison with the works of their famous brother. Gottfried Schalken,
remarkable for his skill in the representation of scenes by candle light,
was scarcely more famous than his sister Maria. Eglon van der Neer is
famous for his pictures of elegant women in marvellous satin gowns. He
married Adriana Spilberg, a favorite portrait painter. The daughters of
the eminent engraver Cornelius Visscher, Anna and Maria, were celebrated
for their fine etching on glass, and by reason of their poems and their
scholarly acquirements they were called the "Dutch Muses," and were
associated with the learned men of their day. This list, though
incomplete, suggests that the co-education of artists bore good fruit in
their co-operation in their profession.

       *       *       *       *       *

In England, while there was a growing interest in painting, the standard
was that of foreign schools, especially the Dutch. Foreign artists found
a welcome and generous patronage at the English Court. Mary Beale and
Anne Carlisle are spoken of as English artists, and a few English women
were miniaturists. Among these was Susannah Penelope Gibson, daughter of
Richard Gibson, the Dwarf. While these women were not wanting in
artistic taste, they were little more than copyists of the Dutch artists
with whom they had associated.

       *       *       *       *       *

In the early years of the seventeenth century there were a number of
Danish women who were painters, engravers, and modellers in wax. The
daughter of King Christian IV., Elenora Christina, and her daughter,
Helena Christina, were reputable artists. The daughter of Christian V.,
Sophie Hedwig, made a reputation as a portrait, landscape, and flower
painter, which extended beyond her own country; and Anna Crabbe painted a
series of portraits of Danish princes, and added to them descriptive
verses of her own composition.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Art of Spain attained its greatest glory in the seventeenth
century--the century of Velasquez, Murillo, Ribera, and other less
distinguished but excellent artists.

In the last half of this century women artists were prominent in the
annals of many Spanish cities. In the South mention is made of these
artists, who were of excellent position and aristocratic connection. In
Valencia, the daughter of the great portrait painter Alonzo Coello was
distinguished in both painting and music. She married Don Francesco de
Herrara, Knight of Santiago.

In Cordova the sister of Palomino y Vasco--the artist who has been called
the Vasari of Spain on account of his Museo Pictorio--was recognized as a
talented artist. In Madrid, Velasquez numbered several noble ladies among
his pupils; but no detailed accounts of the works of these artists is
available--if any such exist--and their pictures are in private

       *       *       *       *       *

The above outline of the general conditions of Art in the seventeenth
century will suggest the reasons for there being a larger number of women
artists in Italy than elsewhere--especially as they were pupils in the
studios of the best masters as well as in the schools of the Carracci and
other centres of art study.

       *       *       *       *       *

Italian artists of the eighteenth century have been called scene
painters, and, in truth, many of their works impress one as hurried
attempts to cover large spaces. Originality was wanting and a wearisome
mediocrity prevailed. At the same time certain national artistic
qualities were apparent; good arrangement of figures and admirable
effects of color still characterized Italian painting, but the result
was, on the whole, academic and uninteresting.

The ideals cherished by older artists were lost, and nothing worthy to
replace them inspired their followers. The sincerity, earnestness, and
devotion of the men who served church and state in the decoration of
splendid monuments would have been out of place in the service of
amateurs and in the decoration of the salons and boudoirs of the rich,
and the painting of this period had little permanent value, in comparison
with that of preceding centuries.

Italian women, especially in the second half of the century, were
professors in universities, lectured to large audiences, and were
respectfully consulted by men of science and learning in the various
branches of scholarship to which they were devoted. Unusual honors were
paid them, as in the case of Maria Portia Vignoli, to whom a statue was
erected in the public square of Viterbo to commemorate her great learning
in natural science.

An artist, Matilda Festa, held a professorship in the Academy of St. Luke
in Rome, and Maria Maratti, daughter of the Roman painter Carlo Maratti,
made a good reputation both as an artist and a poetess.

In Northern Italy many women were famous in sculpture, painting, and
engraving. At least forty could be named, artists of good repute, whose
lives were lacking in any unusual interest, and whose works are in
private collections. One of these was a princess of Parma, who married
the Archduke Joseph of Austria, and was elected to the Academy of Vienna
in 1789.

       *       *       *       *       *

In France, in the beginning of this century Watteau, 1684-1721, painted
his interesting pictures of _La Belle Société_, reproducing the court
life, costumes, and manners of the reign of Louis XIV. with fidelity,
grace, and vivacity. Later in the century, Greuze, 1725-1805, with his
attractive, refined, and somewhat mannered style, had a certain
influence. Claude Vernet, 1714-1789, and David, 1748-1825, each great in
his way, influenced the nineteenth as well as the eighteenth century.
Though Vien, 1716-1809, made a great effort to revive classic art, he
found little sympathy with his aim until the works of his pupil David
won recognition from the world of the First Empire.

French Art of this period may be described by a single
word--eclectic--and this choice by each important artist of the style he
would adopt culminated in the Rococo School, which may be defined as the
unusual and fantastic in art. It was characterized by good technique and
pleasing color, but lacked purpose, depth, and warmth of feeling. As
usual in a _pot-pourri_, it was far enough above worthlessness not to be
ignored, but so far short of excellence as not to be admired.

In France during this century there was an army of women artists,
painters, sculptors, and engravers. Of a great number we know the names
only; in fact, of but two of these, Adelaide Vincent and Elizabeth Vigée
Le Brun, have we reliable knowledge of their lives and works.

The eighteenth century is important in the annals of women artists, since
their numbers then exceeded the collective number of those who had
preceded them--so far as is known--from the earliest period in the
history of art. In a critical review of the time, however, we find a
general and active interest in culture and art among women rather than
any considerable number of noteworthy artists.

Germany was the scene of the greatest activity of women artists. France
held the second place and Italy the third, thus reversing the conditions
of preceding centuries.

       *       *       *       *       *

Many German women emulated the examples of the earlier flower painters,
but no one was so important as to merit special attention, though a
goodly number were elected to academies and several appointed painters to
the minor courts.

Among the genre and historical painters we find the names of Anna Amalia
of Brunswick and Anna Maria, daughter of the Empress Maria Theresa, both
of whom were successful artists.

In Berlin and Dresden the interest in art was much greater in the
eighteenth than in previous centuries, and with this new impulse many
women devoted themselves to various specialties in art. Miniature and
enamel painting were much in vogue, and collections of these works, now
seen in museums and private galleries, are exquisitely beautiful and
challenge our admiration, not only for their beauty, but for the delicacy
of their handling and the infinite patience demanded for their execution.

The making of medals was carried to great excellence by German women, as
may be seen in a medal of Queen Sophie Charlotte, which is preserved in
the royal collection of medals. It is the work of Rosa Elizabeth
Schwindel, of Leipsic, who was well known in Berlin in the beginning of
the century.

The cutting of gems was also extensively done by women. Susannah Dorsch
was famous for her accomplishment in this art. Her father and grandfather
had been gem-cutters, and Susannah could not remember at what age she
began this work. So highly was she esteemed as an artist that medals were
made in her honor.

As frequently happens in a study of this kind, I find long lists of the
names of women artists of this period of whose lives and works I find no
record, while the events related in other cases are too trivial for
repetition. This is especially true in Holland, where we find many names
of Dutch women who must have been reputable artists, since they are
mentioned in Art Chronicles of their time; but we know little of their
lives and can mention no pictures executed by them.

       *       *       *       *       *

A national art now existed in England. Hogarth, who has been called the
Father of English Painting, was a man of too much originality to be a
mere imitator of foreign artists. He devoted his art to the
representation of the follies of his time. As a satirist he was eminent,
but his mirth-provoking pictures had a deeper purpose than that of
amusing. Lord Orford wrote: "Mirth colored his pictures, but benevolence
designed them. He smiled like Socrates, that men might not be offended at
his lectures, and might learn to laugh at their own folly."

Sir Joshua Reynolds and Thomas Gainsborough were born and died in the
eighteenth century; their famous works were contemporary with the
founding of the Royal Academy in 1768, when these artists, together with
Angelica Kauffman and Mary Moser, were among its original members.

It was a fashion in England at this time for women to paint; they
principally affected miniature and water-color pictures, but of the many
who called themselves artists few merit our attention; they practised but
a feeble sort of imitative painting; their works of slight importance
cannot now be named, while their lives were usually commonplace and void
of incident. Of the few exceptions to this rule I have written in the
later pages of this book.

       *       *       *       *       *

The suggestion that the nineteenth century cannot yet be judged as to its
final effect in many directions has already been made, and of nothing is
this more true than of its Art. Of one phase of this period, however, we
may speak with confidence. No other century of which we know the history
has seen so many changes--such progress, or such energy of purpose so
largely rewarded as in the century we are considering.

To one who has lived through more than three score years of this period,
no fairy tale is more marvellous than the changes in the department of
daily life alone.

When I recall the time when the only mode of travel was by stage-coach,
boat, or private carriage--when the journey from Boston to St. Louis
demanded a week longer in time than we now spend in going from Boston to
Egypt--when no telegraph existed--when letter postage was twenty-five
cents and the postal service extremely primitive--when no house was
comfortably warmed and women carried foot-stoves to unheated
churches--when candles and oil lamps were the only means of "lighting
up," and we went about the streets at night with dim lanterns--when women
spun and wove and sewed with their hands only, and all they accomplished
was done at the hardest--when in our country a young girl might almost as
reasonably attempt to reach the moon as to become an artist--remembering
all this it seems as if an army of magicians must incessantly have waved
their wands above us, and that human brains and hands could not have
invented and put in operation the innumerable changes in our daily life
during the last half-century.

When, in the same way, we review the changes that have taken place in the
domains of science, in scholarly research in all directions, in printing,
bookmaking, and the methods of illustrating everything that is
printed--from the most serious and learned writing to advertisements
scattered over all-out-of-doors--when we add to these the revolutions in
many other departments of life and industry, we must regard the
nineteenth as the century _par excellence_ of expansion, and in various
directions an epoch-making era.

       *       *       *       *       *

When we turn to our special subject we find an activity and expansion in
nineteenth-century art quite in accordance with the spirit of the time.
This expansion is especially noticeable in the increased number of
subjects represented in works of art, and in the invention of new methods
of artistic expression.

Prior to this period there had been a certain selection of such subjects
for artistic representation as could be called "picturesque," and though
more ordinary and commonplace subjects might be rendered with such
skill--such drawing, color, and technique--as to demand approbation, it
was given with a certain condescension and the feeling was manifested
that these subjects, though treated with consummate art, were not
artistic. The nineteenth century has signally changed these theories.

Nothing that makes a part in human experience is now too commonplace or
too unusual and mysterious to afford inspiration to painter and sculptor;
while the normal characteristics of human beings and the circumstances
common to their lives are not omitted, the artist frequently endeavors to
express in his work the most subtle experiences of the heart and soul,
and to embody in his picture or statue an absolutely psychologic

The present easy communication with all nations has awakened interest in
the life of countries almost unknown to us a half-century ago. So
customary is it for artists to wander far and wide, seeking new motives
for their works, that I felt no surprise when I recently received a
letter from a young American woman who is living and painting in Biskra.
How short a time has passed since this would have been thought

It is also true that subjects not new in art are treated in a
nineteenth-century manner. This is noticeable in the picturing of
historical subjects. The more intimate knowledge of the world enables the
historical painter of the present to impart to his representations of the
important events of the past a more human and emotional element than
exists in the historical art of earlier centuries. In a word,
nineteenth-century art is sympathetic, and has found inspiration in all
countries and classes and has so treated its subjects as to be
intelligible to all, from the favored children for whom Kate Greenaway,
Walter Crane, and many others have spent their delightful talents, to men
and women of all varieties of individual tastes and of all degrees of
ability to comprehend and appreciate artistic representations.

A fuller acquaintance with the art and art-methods of countries of which
but little had before been known has been an element in art expansion.
Technical methods which have not been absolutely adopted by European and
English-speaking artists have yet had an influence upon their art. The
interest in Japanese Art is the most important example of such influence,
and it is also true that Japanese artists have been attracted to the
study of the art of America and Europe, while some foreign artists
resident in Japan--notably Miss Helen Hyde, a young American--have
studied and practised Japanese painting to such purpose that Japanese
juries have accorded the greatest excellence and its honors to their
works, exhibited in competition with native artists.

Other factors in the expansion of art have been found in photography and
the various new methods of illustration that have filled books,
magazines, and newspapers with pictures of more or less (?) merit. Even
the painting of "posters" has not been scorned by good artists, some of
whom have treated them in such a manner as to make them worthy a place in
museums where only works of true merit are exhibited.

Other elements in the nineteenth-century expansion in art are seen in the
improved productions of the so-called Arts and Crafts which are of
inestimable value in cultivating the artistic sense in all classes.
Another influence in the same direction is the improved decoration of
porcelain, majolica, and pottery, which, while not equal to that of
earlier date in the esteem of connoisseurs, brings artistic objects to
the sight and knowledge of all, at prices suited to moderate means.

       *       *       *       *       *

In America the unparalleled increase of Free Libraries has brought, not
books alone, but collections of photographs and other reproductions of
the best Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture in the world, as well as
medals, book-plates, artistic bindings, etc., within reach of students of

Art Academies and Museums have also been greatly multiplied. It is often
a surprise to find, in a comparatively small town, a fine Art Gallery,
rich in a variety of precious objects. Such an one is the Art Museum of
Bowdoin College, in Brunswick, Me. The edifice itself is the most
beautiful of the works by McKim that I have seen. The frescoes by La
Farge and Vedder are most satisfactory, and one exhibit, among many of
interest--that of original drawings by famous Old Masters--would make
this Museum a worthy place of pilgrimage. Can one doubt that such a
Museum must be an element of artistic development in those who are in
contact with it?

I cannot omit saying that this splendid monument to the appreciation of
art and to great generosity was the gift of women, while the artists who
perfected its architecture and decorations are Americans; it is an
impressive expression of the expansion of American Art in the nineteenth

       *       *       *       *       *

The advantages for the study of Art have been largely improved and
increased in this period. In numberless studios small classes of pupils
are received; in schools of Design, schools of National Academies, and in
those of individual enterprise, all possible advantages for study under
the direction of the best artists are provided, and these are
supplemented by scholarships which relieve the student of limited means
from providing for daily needs.

All these opportunities are shared by men and women alike. Every
advantage is as freely at the command of one as of the other, and we
equal, in this regard, the centuries of the Renaissance, when women were
Artists, Students, and Professors of Letters and of Law, filling these
positions with honor, as women do in these days.

In 1859 T. Adolphus Trollope, in his "Decade of Italian Women," in which
he wrote of the scholarly women of the Renaissance, says: "The degree in
which any social system has succeeded in ascertaining woman's proper
position, and in putting her into it, will be a very accurate test of the
progress it has made in civilization. And the very general and growing
conviction that our own social arrangements, as they exist at present,
have not attained any satisfactory measure of success in this respect,
would seem, therefore, to indicate that England in her nineteenth century
has not yet reached years of discretion after all."

Speaking of Elisabetta Sirani he says: "The humbly born artist, admirable
for her successful combination in perfect compatibility of all the duties
of home and studio." Of how many woman artists we can now say this.

Trollope's estimate of the position of women in England, which was not
unlike that in America, forty-five years ago, when contrasted with that
of the present day, affords another striking example of the expansion of
the nineteenth century.

       *       *       *       *       *

Although no important changes occur without some preparation, this may be
so gradual and unobtrusive in its work that the result appears to have a
Minerva-like birth. Doubtless there were influences leading up to the
remarkable landscape painting of this century. The "Norwich School,"
which took shape in 1805, was founded by Crome, among whose associates
were Cotman, Stark, and Vincent. Crome exhibited his works at the Royal
Academy in 1806, and the twelve following years, and died in 1821 when
the pictures of Constable were attracting unusual attention; indeed, it
may be said that by his exhibitions at the Royal Academy, Constable
inaugurated modern landscape painting, which is a most important feature
of art in this century.

Not forgetting the splendid landscapes of the Dutch masters, of the early
Italians, of Claude and Wilson, the claim that landscape painting was
perfected only in the nineteenth century, and then largely as the result
of the works of English artists, seems to me to be well founded. To this
excellence Turner, contemporary with Constable, David Cox, De Wint,
Bonington, and numerous others gloriously contributed.

The English landscapes exhibited at the French Salon in the third decade
of the century produced a remarkable effect, and emphasized the interest
in landscape painting already growing in France, and later so splendidly
developed by Rousseau, Corot, Millet, and their celebrated
contemporaries. In Germany the Achenbachs, Lessing, and many other
artists were active in this movement, while in America, Innes, A. H.
Wyant, and Homer Martin, with numerous followers, were raising landscape
art to an eminence before unknown.

Formerly landscapes had been used as backgrounds, oftentimes attractive
and beautiful, while the real purpose of the pictures centred in the
human figures. The distinctive feature of nineteenth-century landscape is
the representation of Nature alone, and the variety of method used and
the differing aims of the artists cover the entire gamut between absolute
Realism and the most pronounced Impressionism.

       *       *       *       *       *

About the middle of the century there emerged from the older schools two
others which may be called the Realist and Idealist, and indeed there
were those to whom both these terms could be applied, both methods being
united in their remarkable works. Of the Realists Corot and Courbet are
distinguished, as were Puvis de Chavannes and Gustave Moreau among the

Millet, with his marvellous power of observation, painted his landscapes
with the fidelity of his school in that art, and so keenly realized the
religious element in the peasant life about him--the poetry of these
people--that he portrayed his figures in a manner quite his own--at the
same time realistic and full of idealism. MacColl in his
"Nineteenth-Century Art" called Millet "the most religious figure in
modern art after Rembrandt," and adds that "he discovered a patience of
beauty, a reconciling, in the concert of landscape mystery with labor."

Shall we call Bastien Lepage a follower of Millet, or say that in these
men there was a unity of spirit; that while they realized the poetry of
their subjects intensely, they fully estimated the reality as well?

The "Joan of Arc" is a phenomenal example of this art. The landscape is
carefully realistic, and like that in which a French peasant girl of any
period would live. But here realism ceases and the peasant girl becomes a
supremely exalted being, entranced by a vision of herself in full armor.

This art, at once realistic and idealistic, is an achievement of the
nineteenth century--so clear and straightforward in its methods as to
explain itself far better than words can explain it.

       *       *       *       *       *

Contemporary with these last-named artists were the Pre-raphaelites. The
centre of this school was called the Brotherhood, which was founded by J.
E. Millais, W. Holman Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and William Michael
Rossetti. To these were added Thomas Woolner the sculptor, James Collins,
and F. G. Stephens. Other important artists known as Pre-raphaelites, not
belonging to the Brotherhood, are Ford Madox Brown and Burne Jones, as
well as the water-color painters, Mason, Walker, Boyce, and Goodwin.

The aim of these artists was to represent with sincerity what they saw,
and the simple sincerity of painters who preceded Raphael led them to
choose a name which Ruskin called unfortunate, "because the principles
on which its members are working are neither pre- nor post-Raphaelite,
but everlasting. They are endeavoring to paint with the highest possible
degree of completion what they see in nature, without reference to
conventional established rules; but by no means to imitate the style of
any past epoch. To paint Nature--Nature as it was around them, by the
help of modern science, was the aim of the Brotherhood."

At the time when the Pre-raphaelite School came into being the art of
other lands as well as that of England was in need of an awakening
impulse, and the Pre-raphaelite revolt against conventionality and the
machine-like art of the period roused such interest, criticism, and
opposition as to stimulate English art to new effort, and much of its
progress in the last half-century is doubtless due to the discussions of
the theories of this movement as well as of the works it produced.

Pre-raphaelitism, scorned and ridiculed in its beginning, came to be
appreciated in a degree that at first seemed impossible, and though its
apostles were few, its influence was important. The words of Burne Jones,
in which he gave his own ideal, appeal to many artists and lovers of art:
"I mean by a picture a beautiful, romantic dream of something that never
was, never will be--in a light better than any light that ever shone--in
a land no one can define or remember, only desire--and the forms divinely

Rossetti's "Girlhood of Virgin Mary," Holman Hunt's "Light of the World,"
and Millais' "Christ in the House of His Parents" have been called the
Trilogy of Pre-raphaelite Art.

Millais did not long remain a strict disciple of this school, but soon
adopted the fuller freedom of his later work, which may be called that of
modern naturalism. Rossetti remained a Pre-raphaelite through his short
life, but his works could not be other than individual, and their
distinct personality almost forbade his being considered a disciple of
any school.

Holman Hunt may be called the one persistent follower of this cult. He
has consistently embodied his convictions in his pictures, the value of
which to English art cannot yet be determined. This is also true of the
marvellous work of Burne Jones; but although they have but few faithful
followers, Pre-raphaelite art no longer needs defence nor apology.

Its secondary effect is far-reaching. To it may be largely attributed the
more earnest study of Nature as well as the simplicity of treatment and
lack of conventionality which now characterizes English art to an extent
before unknown.

       *       *       *       *       *

Impressionism is the most distinctive feature of nineteenth-century art,
and is too large a subject to be treated in an introduction--any proper
consideration of it demands a volume.

The entire execution of a picture out-of-doors was sometimes practised by
Constable, more frequently by Turner, and some of the peculiarities of
the French impressionist artists were shared by the English landscape
painters of the early part of the century. While no one could dream of
calling Constable an impressionist, it is interesting to recall the
reception of his "Opening of Waterloo Bridge." Ridiculed in London, it
was accepted in Paris, and is now honored at the Royal Academy.

This picture was covered with pure white, in impasto, a method dear to
impressionists. Was Constable in advance of his critics? is a question
that comes involuntarily to mind as we read the life of this artist, and
recall the excitement which the exhibition of his works caused at the
Salon of 1824, and the interest they aroused in Delacroix and other
French painters.

The word Impressionism calls to mind the names of Manet, Monet, Pissaro,
Mme. Berthe Morisot, Paul Cézanne, Whistler, Sargent, Hassam, and many
others. Impressionists exhibited their pictures in Paris as early as
1874; not until 1878 were they seen to advantage in London, when Whistler
exhibited in the Grosvenor Gallery; and the New English Art Club, founded
in 1885, was the outcome of the need of this school to be better
represented in its special exhibitions than was possible in other

In a comprehensive sense Impressionism includes all artists who represent
their subjects with breadth and collectiveness rather than in detail--in
the way in which we see a view at the first glance, before we have time
to apprehend its minor parts. The advocates of impressionism now claim
that it is the most reformatory movement in modern painting; it is
undeniably in full accord with the spirit of the time in putting aside
older methods and conventions and introducing a new manner of seeing and
representing Nature.

The differing phases of Painting in the nineteenth century have had their
effect upon that art as a whole. Each one has been important, not only in
the country of its special development, but in other lands, each
distinctive quality being modified by individual and national

       *       *       *       *       *

In the early decades of the past century Sculpture was "classic" and
conventional rather than natural and sincere. A revolt against these
conditions produced such artists as Rodin, St. Gaudens, MacMonnies, and
many less famous men who have put life, spirit, and nature into their

In Sculpture as in Painting many more subjects are treated than were
formerly thought suited to representation in marble and bronze, and a
large proportion of these recent _motifs_ demand a broad method of
treatment--a manner often called "unfinished" by those who approve only
the smooth polish of an antique Venus, and would limit sculpture to the
narrow class of subjects with which this smoothness harmonizes.

The best sculptors of the present treat the minor details of their
subjects in a sketchy, or, as some critics contend, in a rough imperfect
manner, while others find that this treatment of detail, combined with a
careful, comprehensive treatment of the important parts, emphasizes the
meaning and imparts strength to the whole, as no smoothness can do.

Although the highest possibilities in sculpture may not yet be reached,
it is animated with new spirit of life and nature. Nineteenth-century
aims and modes of expression have greatly enlarged its province. Like
Painting, Sculpture has become democratic. It glorifies Labor and all
that is comprised in the term "common, every-day life," while it also
commemorates noble and useful deeds with genuine sympathy and an
intelligent appreciation of the best to which humanity attains; at the
same time poetical fancies, myths, and legends are not neglected, but are
rendered with all possible delicacy and tenderness.

At present a great number of women are sculptors. The important
commissions which are given them in connection with the great expositions
of the time--the execution of memorial statues and monuments, fountains,
and various other works which is confided to them, testifies to their
excellence in their art with an emphasis beyond that of words.

       *       *       *       *       *

Want of space forbids any special mention of etching, metal work,
enamelling, designing, and decorative work in many directions in which
women in great numbers are engaged; indeed, in what direction can we look
in which women are not employed--I believe I may say by thousands--in all
the minor arts? Between the multitude that pursue the Fine Arts and
kindred branches for a maintenance--and are rarely heard of--and those
fortunate ones who are commissioned to execute important works, there is
an enormous middle class. Paris is their Mecca, but they are known in all
art centres, and it is by no means unusual for an artist to study under
Dutch, German, and Italian masters, as well as French.

The present method of study in Paris--in such academies as that of Julian
and the Colarossi--secures to the student the criticism and advice of the
best artists of the day, while in summer--in the country and by the
sea--there are artistic colonies in which students lead a delightful
life, still profiting by the instruction of eminent masters.

Year by year the opportunities for art-study by women have been increased
until they are welcome in the schools of the world, with rare exceptions.
The highest goal seems to have been reached by their admission to the
competition for the _Grand prix de Rome_ conferred by _l'École des Beaux

I regret that the advantages of the American Art Academy in Rome are not
open to women. The fact that for centuries women have been members and
professors in the Academy of St. Luke, and in view of the recent action
of _l'École des Beaux Arts_, this narrowness of the American Academy in
the Eternal City is especially pronounced.

One can but approve the encouragement afforded women artists in France,
by the generosity with which their excellence is recognized.

To be an officer in the French Academy is an honor surpassed in France by
that of the Legion of Honor only. Within a twelvemonth two hundred and
seventy-five women have been thus distinguished, twenty-eight of them
being painters and designers. From this famous Academy down, through the
International Expositions, the Salons, and the numberless exhibitions in
various countries, a large proportion of medals and other honors are
conferred on women, who, having now been accorded all privileges
necessary for the pursuit of art and for its recompense, will surely
prove that they richly merit every good that can be shared with them.

AARESTRUP, MARIE HELENE. Born at Flekkefjord, Norway, 1829. She
made her studies in Bergen, under Reusch; under Tessier in Paris; and
Vautier in Düsseldorf. She excelled in genre and portrait painting. Her
"Playing Child" and "Shepherd Boy" are in the Art Union in Christiania;
the "Interior of Hotel Cluny" and a "Flower Girl" are in the Museum at

ABBATT, AGNES DEAN. Bronze medal, Cooper Union; silver medal,
Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics' Association. Member of American Water
Color Society.

[_No reply to circular_.]

ABBEMA, MME. LOUISE. Officer of the Mérite des Arts; honorable
mention, Salon of 1881; bronze medal, Paris Exposition, 1900; Hors
Concours, 1903, at Exposition of Limoges. Born at Étampes, 1858. Pupil of
Chaplin, Henner, and Carolus-Duran. She exhibited a "Portrait of Sarah
Bernhardt," 1876; "The Seasons," 1883; "Portrait of M. Abbema," 1887;
"Among the Flowers," 1893; "An April Morning," 1894; "Winter," 1895, etc.

This artist has also executed numerous decorations for ceilings and
decorative panels for private houses. Her picture of "Breakfast in the
Conservatory" is in the Museum of Pau.

Mme. Abbema illustrated "La Mer," by Maizeroy, and has contributed to the
_Gazette des Beaux-Arts_ and several other Parisian publications.

At the Salon of the Artistes Français, 1902, she exhibited the "Portrait
of Pierre," and in 1903 a portrait of the Countess P. S.

Mme. Abbema wears her hair short, and affects such absolute simplicity in
her costume that at first sight she reminds one of a charming young man.
In no other direction, however, is there a masculine touch about this
delightful artist. She has feminine grace, a love for poetry, a passion
for flowers, which she often introduces in her pictures; she has, in
short, a truly womanly character, which appears in the refinement and
attractiveness of her work.

[_No reply to circular_.]

ABBOTT, KATHERINE G. Bronze medal, Paris Exposition, 1900; honorable
mention, Buffalo Exposition, 1901.

[_No reply to circular_.]

ACHILLE-FOULD, MLLE. GEORGES. Medal, third class, Versailles, 1888;
honorable mention, Paris Salon, 1894; medal, third class, 1895; medal,
second class, 1897; Hors Concours; bronze medal at Paris Exposition,
1900. Officer of Public Instruction; member of the Société des Artistes
Français. Born at Asnières (Seine). Pupil of Cabanel, Antoine Vollon, and
Léon Comerre.

A painter of figure subjects and portraits. Several of her works are in
private collections in the United States. Among these are the
"Flower-Seller," the "Knife-Grinder," "M. de Richelieu's Love Knots,"
exhibited in the Salon of 1902, and "Going to School."

"The Dull Season" is in London; "Cinderella" and many others in Paris.

This artist, when still in short skirts, sent her first picture, "In the
Market Place," to the Salon of 1884. She is most industrious, and her
history, as she herself insists, is in her pictures. She has been
surrounded by a sympathetic and artistic atmosphere. Her mother was an
art critic, who, before her second marriage to Prince Stirberg, signed
her articles Gustave Haller. Her home, the Château de Bécon, is an ideal
home for an artist, and one can well understand her distaste for realism
and the professional model.

"M. de Richelieu's Love Knots" is very attractive and was one of the
successes of 1902. He is a fine gentleman to whom a bevy of young girls
is devoted, tying his ribbons, and evidently admiring him and his
exquisite costume. The girls are smiling and much amused, while the young
man has an air of immense satisfaction.

At the Salon of 1903 Mlle. Fould exhibited "La
Chatouilleuse"--Tickling--and "Nasturtiums." The first shows a young
woman seated, wearing a décolleté gown, while a mischievous companion
steals up behind and tickles her neck with a twig. It is less attractive
than many of this artist's pictures.

In 1890 Mlle. Fould painted a portrait of her stepfather, and for a time
devoted herself to portraits rather than to the subjects she had before
studied with such success. In 1893 she painted a portrait of Rosa
Bonheur, in her studio, while the latter paused from her work on a large
picture of lions. This portrait presents the great animal painter in a
calm, thoughtful mood, in the midst of her studio, surrounded by sketches
and all the accessories of her work. In the opinion of many who knew the
great artist most intimately this is the best portrait of her in

Mlle. Fould, at different periods, has painted legendary subjects, at
other times religious pictures, but in my judgment the last were the
least successful of her works.

Her "Cinderella" is delightful; the two "Merry Wives of Windsor," sitting
on the basket in which Falstaff is hidden, and from which he is pushing
out a hand, is an excellent illustration of this ever-amusing story, and,
indeed, all her pictures of this class may well be praised.

To the Exposition of 1900 she sent an allegorical picture, called "The
Gold Mine." A young woman in gold drapery drops gold coins from her
hands. In the background is the entrance to a mine, lighted dimly by a
miner's lamp, while a pickaxe lies at the feet of the woman; this picture
was accorded a bronze medal.

ADAM, MME. NANNY. First prize from the Union of Women Painters and
Sculptors, Paris. Medal from the Salon des Artistes Français, and "honors
in many other cities." Member of the Société des Artistes Français. Born
at Crest (Drôme). Her studies were made under Jean Paul Laurens. Her
pictures called "Calme du Soir" and "Le Soir aux Martignes" are in
private collections. "Les Remparts de la Ville Close, Concarneau,"
exhibited at the Salon Artistes Français in 1902, was purchased by the
French Government. In 1903 she exhibited "June Twilight, Venice," and
"Morning Fog, Holland."

ADELSPARRE, SOPHIE ALBERTINE. Born in Oland 1808-62. In Stockholm
she received instruction from the sculptor Ovarnström and the painter
Ekman; after her father's death she went to Paris and entered the atelier
of Cogniet, and later did some work under the direction of her countrymen
Wickenberg and Wahlbom. She had, at this time, already made herself known
through her copies of some of the Italian masters and Murillo. Her copy
of the Sistine Madonna was placed by Queen Josephine in the Catholic
church at Christiania. After her return from Dresden where she went from
Paris, she painted portraits of King Oscar and Queen Josephine. In 1851,
having received a government scholarship, she went to Munich, Bologna,
and Florence, and lived three years and a half in Rome, where she was
associated with Fogelberg, Overbeck, and Schnetz, and became a Catholic.
During this time she copied Raphael's "Transfiguration," now in the
Catholic church at Stockholm, and painted from life a portrait of Pius
IX. for the castle at Drottningholm. She also painted a "Roman Dancing
Girl" and a "Beggar Girl of Terracina."

AHRENS, ELLEN WETHERALD. Second Toppan prize, Pennsylvania Academy
of Fine Arts. Second prize and silver medal, Carnegie Institute,
Pittsburg, 1902. Member of the Pennsylvania Academy, the Plastic Club,
and the Pennsylvania Society of Miniature Painters. Born in Baltimore.
Studied at Boston Museum of Fine Arts under Grundmann, Champney, and
Stone; Pennsylvania Academy under Thomas Eakins; Drexel Institute under
Howard Pyle.

Many of her portraits are in private hands. That called "Sewing," a prize
picture, will be in the St. Louis Exhibition. Her portrait of Mr. Ellwood
Johnson is in the Pennsylvania Academy. That of Mary Ballard--a
miniature--was solicited for exhibition by the Copley Society, Boston.

Miss Ahrens is also favorably known as a designer for stained-glass

ALCOTT, MAY--MME. NIERIKER. Born in Concord, Massachusetts, 1840-79.
A sister of the well-known author, Louisa M. Alcott. This artist studied
in the Boston School of Design, in Krug's Studio, Paris, and under
Müller. She made wonderful copies of Turner's pictures, both in oil and
water colors, which were greatly praised by Ruskin and were used in the
South Kensington Art Schools for the pupils to copy. Her still-life and
flower pictures are in private collections and much valued.

She exhibited at the Paris Salon and in the Dudley Gallery, London, and,
student as she still was, her works were approved by art critics on both
sides of the Atlantic, and a brilliant future as an artist was foretold
for her. Her married life was short, and her death sincerely mourned by a
large circle of friends, as well as by the members of her profession who
appreciated her artistic genius and her enthusiasm for her work.

ALEXANDER, FRANCESCA. Born in Florence, Italy. Daughter of the
portrait painter, Francis Alexander. Her pen-and-ink drawing is her best
work. The exquisite conceits in her illustrations were charmingly
rendered by the delicacy of her work. She thus illustrated an unpublished
Italian legend, writing the text also.

Mr. Ruskin edited her "Story of Ida" and brought out "Roadside Songs of
Tuscany," collected, translated, and illustrated by this artist. A larger
collection of these songs, with illustrations, was published by Houghton,
Mifflin & Co., entitled "Tuscan Songs."

ALIPPI-FABRETTI, QUIRINA. Silver medal at Perugia in 1879; honorary
member of the Royal Academy in Urbino and of the Academy of Fine Arts in
Perugia. Born in Urbino, 1849. She was the daughter of the jurisconsult
Luigi Alippi. She studied drawing and painting in Rome with Ortis and De
Sanctis. Following her father to Perugia in 1874, whither he had been
called to the Court of Appeals, she continued her study under Moretti.
She married Ferdinando Fabretti in 1877. She made admirable copies of
some of the best pictures in Perugia, notably Perugino's "Presepio" for a
church in Mount Lebanon, Syria. She was also commissioned to paint an
altar-piece, representing St. Stephen, for the same church. Her interiors
are admirable. She exhibited an "Interior of the Great Hall of the
Exchange of Perugia" in 1884, at Turin. She painted two interior views of
the church of San Giovanni del Cambio in Perugia, and an interior of the
vestibule of the Confraternity of St. Francis. Her other works, besides
portraits, include an "Odalisk," an "Old Woman Fortune-teller," and a
"St. Catherine."

ALLINGHAM, HELEN. Honorable mention at Paris Exhibition, 1900;
silver medal from Brussels Exhibition, 1901; bronze medal from the
Columbian Exhibition, Chicago. Member of the Royal Society of Painters in
Water Colors, London. Born near Burton-on-Trent, 1848. Began the study of
art at fourteen, in Birmingham School of Art, where she remained about
five years, when she entered the schools of the Royal Academy, where
instruction is given by the Royal Academicians in turn. In 1868 she went
to Italy.

Her first exhibition at the Royal Academy occurred in 1874, under the
name Helen Patterson; her pictures were "Wait for Me" and "The Milkmaid."
Since that time Mrs. Allingham has constantly exhibited at the Academy
and many other exhibitions.

Her pictures are of genre subjects, chiefly from English rural life and
landscapes. She has also been successful as an illustrator for the
_Graphic_, the _Cornhill Magazine_, and other publications. Her
water-color portraits of Carlyle in his later years are well known. She
introduced his cat "Tib" into a portrait taken in his Chelsea garden.

Among her most ambitious works are the "Young Customers," the "Old Men's
Garden, Chelsea Hospital," the "Lady of the Manor," "Confidences,"
"London Flowers," and others of kindred motives.

The "Young Customers," water-color, was exhibited at Paris in 1878. When
seen at the Academy in 1875, Ruskin wrote of it: "It happens curiously
that the only drawing of which the memory remains with me as a possession
out of the Old Water-Color Exhibition of this year--Mrs. Allingham's
'Young Customers'--should be not only by an accomplished designer of
woodcuts, but itself the illustration of a popular story. The drawing
with whatever temporary purpose executed, is forever lovely; a thing
which I believe Gainsborough would have given one of his own paintings
for--old-fashioned as red-tipped dresses are, and more precious than
rubies."--_Notes of the Academy_, 1875.

ALMA-TADEMA, LADY LAURA THERESE. Gold medal at International Art
Exhibition, Berlin, 1876; medal at Chicago, 1893; second-class medal at
Paris Exhibition, 1900. Born in London. From early childhood this artist
was fond of drawing and had the usual drawing-class lessons at school and
also drew from the antique in the British Museum. Her serious study,
however, began at the age of eighteen, under the direction of Laurenz

Her pictures are principally of domestic scenes, child-life, and other
genre subjects. "Battledore and Shuttlecock" is an interior, with a
graceful girl playing the game, to the amusement of a young child sitting
on a nurse's lap. The room is attractive, the accessories well painted,
and a second girl just coming through the door and turning her eyes up to
the shuttlecock is an interesting figure.

Of quite a different character is the picture called "In Winter." The
landscape is very attractive. In a sled, well wrapped up, is a little
girl, with a doll on her lap; the older boy--brother?--who pushes the
sled from behind, leaning over the child, does his part with a will, and
the dignified and serious expression on the face of the little girl in
the sled indicates her sense of responsibility in the care of the doll as
well as a feeling of deep satisfaction in her enjoyable outing.

Among the more important pictures by Lady Alma-Tadema are "Hush-a-Bye,"
"Parting," in the Art Gallery at Adelaide, New South Wales, "Silent
Persuasion," "The Carol," and "Satisfaction." Her picture in the Academy
Exhibition, 1903, a Dutch interior with a young mother nursing "The
Firstborn," was much admired and was in harmony with the verse,

    Lie on mother's knee, my own,
      Dance your heels about me!
    Apples leave the tree, my own.
      Soon you'll live without me."

AMEN, MADAME J. Honorable mention, Paris, 1901.

[_No reply to circular_.]

ANGUISCIOLA, LUCIA. A pupil of her sister Sofonisba, painted a
life-size portrait of Piermaria, a physician of Cremona. It is in the
gallery of the Prado, Madrid, and is signed, "Lucia Angvisola Amilcares.
F. Adolescens."

Lucia's portrait of her sister Europa is at Brescia. Some authorities
believe that the small portrait in the Borghese Gallery is by Lucia,
although it has been attributed to Sofonisba.

Vasari relates that Europa and a younger sister, Anna Maria, were
artists. A picture of the Holy Family, inscribed with Europa's name, was
formerly in the possession of a vicar of the church of San Pietro; it was
of far less merit than the works of her sisters.

ANGUISCIOLA, SOFONISBA. Born in Cremona, about 1539. Daughter of the
patrician, Amilcare Anguisciola, whose only fame rests on the fact that
he was the father of six daughters, all of whom were distinguished by
unusual talents in music and painting. Dear old Vasari was so charmed by
his visit to their palace that he pronounced it "the very home of
painting and of all other accomplishments."

Sofonisba was the second daughter. The actual date of her birth is
unknown, but from various other dates that we have concerning her, that
given above is generally adopted. She was educated with great care and
began her study of drawing and painting when but seven years old, under
the care of Bernardino Campi, the best artist of the five Campi of
Cremona. Later she was a pupil of Bernardino Gatti, "il Sojaro," and in
turn she superintended the artistic studies of her sisters.

Sofonisba excelled in portraits, and when twenty-four years old was known
all over Italy as a good artist. Her extraordinary proficiency at an
early age is proved by a picture in the Yarborough collection, London--a
portrait of a man, signed, and dated 1551, when she was not more than
twelve years old.

When presented at the court of Milan, then under Spanish rule, Sofonisba
was brought to the notice of Philip II., who, through his ambassador,
invited her to fill the office of court painter at Madrid. Flattering as
this invitation must have been to the artist and her family, it is not
surprising that she hesitated and required time for consideration of this
honorable proposal.

The reputation of the ceremonious Spanish court, under its gloomy and
exacting sovereign, was not attractive to a young woman already
surrounded by devoted admirers, to one of whom she had given her heart.
The separation from her family, too, and the long, fatiguing journey to
Spain, were objections not easily overcome, and her final acceptance of
the proposal was a proof of her energy and strength of purpose.

Her journey was made in 1560 and was conducted with all possible care for
her comfort. She was attended by two noble ladies as maids of honor, two
chamberlains, and six servants in livery--in truth, her mode of
travelling differed but little from that of the young ladies of the royal
family. As she entered Madrid she was received by the king and queen, and
by them conducted to the royal palace.

We can imagine Sofonisba's pleasure in painting the portrait of the
lovely Isabella, and her pictures of Philip and his family soon raised
her to the very summit of popularity. All the grandees of Madrid desired
to have their portraits from her hand, and rich jewels and large sums of
money were showered upon her.

Gratifying as was her artistic success, the affection of the queen, which
she speedily won, was more precious to her. She was soon made a
lady-in-waiting to her Majesty, and a little later was promoted to the
distinguished position of governess to the Infanta Clara Eugenia.

That Sofonisba fully appreciated her gentle mistress is shown in her
letter to Pope Pius IV., who had requested her to send him a portrait of
the queen. She wrote that no picture could worthily figure the royal
lady, and added: "If it were possible to represent to your Holiness the
beauty of the Queen's soul, you could behold nothing more wonderful."

The Pope bestowed rich gifts on Sofonisba, among which were sacred
relics, set with gems. He also wrote an autograph letter, still in
existence, in which he assured her that much as he admired her skill in
painting, he had been led to believe this the least of her many gifts.

Sofonisba soon gained the approval of the serious and solemn King, for
while Philip was jealous of the French ladies of the court and desired
Isabella to be wholly under Spanish influence, he proposed to the artist
a marriage with one of his nobles, by which means she would remain
permanently in the Queen's household. When Philip learned that Sofonisba
was already betrothed to Don Fabrizio de Monçada--a Sicilian nobleman--in
spite of his disappointment he joined Isabella in giving her a dowry of
twelve thousand crowns and a pension of one thousand.

It would seem that one who could so soften the heart and manners of
Philip II. as did Queen Isabella, must have had a charm of person and
character that no ordinary mortal could resist. One is compelled to a
kindly feeling for this much-hated man, who daily visited the Queen when
she was suffering from smallpox. In her many illnesses he was tenderly
devoted to her, and when we remember the miseries of royal ladies whose
children are girls, we almost love Philip for comforting Isabella when
her first baby was not a son. Philip declared himself better pleased
that she had given him a daughter, and made the declaration good by
devotion to this child so long as he lived.

Isabella, in a letter to her mother, wrote: "But for the happiness I have
of seeing the King every day I should find this court the dullest in the
world. I assure you, however, madame, that I have so kind a husband that
even did I deem this place a hundredfold more wearisome I should not

While Sofonisba was overwhelmed with commissions in Spain, her sisters
were far from idle in Cremona. Europa sent pictures to Madrid which were
purchased for private collections, and a picture by Lucia is now in the
Gallery of the Queen at Madrid.

When the time for Sofonisba's marriage came she was sorry to leave her
"second home," as she called Madrid, and as Don Fabrizio lived but a
short time, the King urged her return to Spain; but her desire to be once
more with her family impelled her to return to Italy.

The ship on which she sailed from Sicily was commanded by one of the
Lomellini, a noble family of Genoa, with whom Sofonisba fell so
desperately in love that she offered him her hand--which, says her
biographer, "he accepted like a generous man." Does this mean that she
had been ungenerous in depriving him of the privilege of asking for what
she so freely bestowed?

In Genoa she devotedly pursued her art and won new honors, while she was
not forgotten in Madrid. Presents were sent her on her second marriage,
and later the Infanta Clara Eugenia and other Spaniards of exalted rank
visited her in Genoa. Her palace became a centre of attraction to
Genoese artists and men of letters, while many strangers of note sought
her acquaintance. She contributed largely to the restoration of art and
literature to the importance that had been accorded them in the most
brilliant days of Genoese power.

We have not space to recount all the honors conferred on Sofonisba, both
as a woman and an artist. She lived to an extreme old age, and, although
she lost her sight, her intellect was undimmed by time or blindness.
Vandyck, who was frequently her guest, more than once declared that he
"was more benefited by the counsels of the blind Sofonisba than by all
his studies of the masters of his art!" From a pupil of Rubens this was
praise indeed!

The chief characteristics of Sofonisba's painting were grace and spirit.
Her portrait of herself when at her best is in possession of the
Lomellini. A second is the splendid picture at Althorpe, in which she is
represented as playing the harpsichord. One can scarcely imagine a place
in which a portrait would be more severely tested than in the gallery of
the Earl of Spencer, beside portraits of lovely women and famous men,
painted by master artists. Yet this work of Sofonisba's is praised by
discerning critics and connoisseurs. Of the other portraits of herself,
that in the Uffizi is signed by her as "of Cremona," which suggests that
it was painted before she went to Spain. That in the Vienna Gallery is
dated 1551, and inscribed Sophonisba Anguissola. Virgo. Sc. Ipsam Fecit.
Still another, in which a man stands beside her, is in the Sienna
Gallery. He holds a brush in his hand, and is probably one of her

Her portrait of her sisters playing chess, while an old duenna looks on,
was in the collection of Lucien Bonaparte and is said to be now in a
private gallery in England. Her religious pictures are rare; a "Marriage
of St. Catherine" is in the gallery at Wilton House.

She painted several pictures of three of her sisters on one canvas; one
is in the National Museum of Berlin, and a second, formerly in the
Leuchtenberg Gallery, is in the Hermitage at Petersburg. A small Holy
Family, signed and dated 1559, belonged to the art critic and author,

One regrets that so remarkable a woman left no record of her unusual
experiences. How valuable would be the story of Don Carlos from so
disinterested a person. How interesting had she told us of the _bal
masqué_, given by Isabella in the fashion of her own country, when Philip
condescended to open the ball with the Queen; or of the sylvan fêtes at
Aranjuez, and of the gardens made under the direction of Isabella. Of all
this she has told us nothing. We glean the story of her life from the
works of various authors, while her fame rests securely on her
superiority in the art to which she was devoted.

ANCHER, ANNA KRISTINE. Genre painter, won high praise at Berlin in
1900 for two pictures: "Tischgebet," which was masterly in its smoothness
and depth of expression, and "Eine blinde Frau in ihrer Stube," in which
the full sunlight streaming through the open window produced an affecting
contrast. She was born at Skagen, 1859, the daughter of Erik Brondum,
and early showed her artistic tendencies. Michael Ancher (whom she
married in 1880) noticed and encouraged her talent, which was first
displayed in small crayons treating pathetic or humorous subjects. From
1875-78 she studied with Khyn, and later more or less under the direction
of her husband. She has painted exclusively small pictures, dealing with
simple and natural things, and each picture, as a rule, contains but a
single figure. She believes that a dilapidated Skagen hovel may meet
every demand of beauty. "Maageplukkerne"--"Gull plucking"--exhibited in
1883, has been called one of the most sympathetic and unaffected pieces
of genre painting ever produced by a Danish artist.

An "Old Woman of Skagen," "A Mother and Child," and "Coffee is Ready"
were among the most attractive of her pictures of homely, familiar Danish
life. The last represents an old fisher, who has fallen asleep on the
bench by the stove, and a young woman is waking him with the above

"A Funeral Scene" is in the Copenhagen Gallery. The coffin is hung with
green wreaths; the walls of the room are red; the people stand around
with a serious air. The whole story is told in a simple, homely way.

In the "History of Modern Painters" we read: "All her pictures are softly
tender and full of fresh light. But the execution is downright and
virile. It is only in little touches, in fine and delicate traits of
observation which would probably have escaped a man, that these paintings
are recognized as the work of a feminine artist."

ANTIGNA, MME. HÉLÈNE MARIE. Born at Melun. Pupil of her husband,
Jean Pierre Antigna, and of Delacroix. Her best works are small genre
subjects, which are excellent and much admired by other artists.

In 1877 she exhibited at the Paris Salon "On n'entre pas!" and the "New
Cider"; in 1876, an "Interior at Saint Brieuc" and "A Stable"; in 1875,
"Tant va la cruche à l'eau," etc.

APPIA, MME. THÉRÈSE. Member of the Society of the Permanente
Exposition of the Athénée, Geneva. Born at Lausanne. Pupil of Mercié and
Rodin at Paris.

Mme. Appia, before her marriage, exhibited at the Paris Salon several
years continuously. Since then she has exhibited at Turin and Geneva.

She has executed many portrait busts; among them are those of M.
Guillaume Monod, Paris, Commander Paul Meiller, and a medallion portrait
of Père Hyacinthe, etc.

artist has exhibited her work since, 1868. Although her sketches in
water-color are clever and attractive, it is as a sculptor that her best
work has been done. Pupil of Sir J. E. Boehne, R.A., her unusual natural
talent was carefully developed under his advice, and her unflagging
industry and devotion to her work have enabled her to rival sculptors who
live by their art.

Her busts and lesser subjects are refined and delicate, while possessing
a certain individuality which this lady is known to exercise in her
direction of the assistant she is forced to employ. Her chief attainment,
the large seated figure of Queen Victoria in Kensington Gardens, is a
work of which she may well be proud.

Of this statue Mr. M. H. Spielmann writes: "The setting up of the figure,
the arrangement of the drapery, the modelling, the design of the
pedestal--all the parts, in fact--are such that the statue must be added
to the short list of those which are genuine embellishments to the city
of London."

The Duchess of Argyll has been commissioned to design a statue of heroic
size, to be executed in bronze and placed in Westminster Abbey, to
commemorate the colonial troops who gave up their lives in South Africa
in the Boer war.

ARNOLD, ANNIE R. MERRYLEES. Born at Birkenhead. A Scotch miniature
painter. Studied in Edinburgh, first in the School of Art, under Mr.
Hodder, and later in the life class of Robert Macgregor; afterward in
Paris under Benjamin-Constant.

Mrs. Arnold writes me that she thinks it important for miniature painters
to do work in a more realistic medium occasionally, and something of a
bolder character than can be done in their specialty. She never studied
miniature painting, but took it up at the request of a patroness who,
before the present fashion for this art had come about, complained that
she could find no one who painted miniatures. This lady gave the artist a
number of the _Girls' Own Journal,_ containing directions for miniature
painting, after which Mrs. Arnold began to work in this specialty. She
has painted a miniature of Lady Evelyn Cavendish, owned by the Marquis of
Lansdowne; others of the Earl and Countess of Mar and Kellie, the first
of which belongs to the Royal Scottish Academy; one of Lady Helen
Vincent, one of the daughter of Lionel Phillips, Esquire, and several for
prominent families in Baltimore and Washington. Her work is seen in the
exhibitions of the Royal Academy, London.

In 1903 she exhibited miniatures of Miss M. L. Fenton, the late Mrs.
Cameron Corbett, and the Hon. Thomas Erskine, younger son of the Earl of
Mar and Kellie.

[_No reply to circular_.]

ASSCHE, AMÉLIE VAN. Portrait painter and court painter to Queen
Louise Marie of Belgium. She was born in 1804, and was the daughter of
Henri Jean van Assche. Her first teachers were Mlle. F. Lagarenine and D'
Antissier; she later went to Paris, where she spent some time as a pupil
of Millet. She made her début at Ghent in 1820, and in Brussels in 1821,
with water-colors and pastels, and some of her miniatures figured in the
various exhibitions at Brussels between 1830 and 1848, and in Ghent
between 1835 and 1838. Her portraits, which are thought to be very good
likenesses, are also admirable in color, drawing, and modelling; and her
portrait of Leopold I., which she painted in 1839, won for her the
appointment at court.

ASSCHE, ISABEL CATHERINE VAN. She was born at Brussels, 1794.
Landscape painter. She took a first prize at Ghent in 1829, and became a
pupil of her uncle, Henri van Assche, who was often called the painter of
waterfalls. As early as 1812 and 1813 two of her water-colors were
displayed in Ghent and Brussels respectively, and she was represented in
the exhibitions at Ghent in 1826, 1829, and 1835; at Brussels in 1827 and
1842; at Antwerp in 1834, 1837, and 1840; and at Lüttich in 1836. Her
subjects were all taken from the neighborhood of Brussels, and one of
them belongs to the royal collection in the Pavilion at Haarlem. In 1828
she married Charles Léon Kindt.

ATHES-PERRELET, LOUISE. First prize and honorable mention, class
Gillet and Hébert, 1888; class Bovy, first prize, 1889; Academy class,
special mention, 1890; School of Arts, special mention, hors concours,
1891; also, same year, first prize for sculpture, offered by the Society
of Arts; first prize offered by the Secretary of the Theatre, 1902.
Member of the Union des Femmes and Cercle Artistique. Born at Neuchâtel.
Studies made at Geneva under Mme. Carteret and Mme. Gillet and Professors
Hébert and B. Penn, in drawing and painting; M. Bovy, in sculpture; and
of various masters in decorative work and engraving. Has executed
statues, busts, medallion portraits; has painted costumes, according to
an invention of her own, for the Theatre of Geneva, and has also made
tapestries in New York. All her works have been commended in the journals
of Geneva and New York.

AUSTEN, WINIFRED. Member of Society of Women Artists, London. Born
at Ramsgate. Pupil of Mrs. Jopling-Rowe and Mr. C. E. Swan. Miss Austen
exhibits in the Royal Academy exhibitions; her works are well hung--one
on the line.

Her favorite subjects are wild animals, and she is successful in the
illustration of books. Her pictures are in private collections. At the
Royal Academy in 1903 she exhibited "The Day of Reckoning," a wolf
pursued by hunters through a forest in snow. A second shows a snow scene,
with a wolf baying, while two others are apparently listening to him.
"While the wolf, in nightly prowl, bays the moon with hideous howl," is
the legend with the picture.

AUZON, PAULINE. Born in Paris, where she died. 1775-1835. She was a
pupil of Regnault and excelled in portraits of women. She exhibited in
the Paris Salon from 1793, when but eighteen years old. Her pictures of
the "Arrival of Marie Louise in Compiègne" and "Marie Louise Taking Leave
of her Family" are in the Versailles Gallery.

BABIANO Y MENDEZ NUÑEZ, CARMEN. At the Santiago Exposition, 1875,
this artist exhibited two oil paintings and two landscapes in crayon; at
Coruña, 1878, a portrait in oil of the Marquis de Mendez Nuñez; at
Pontevedra, 1880, several pen and water-color studies, three life-size
portraits in crayon, and a work in oil, "A Girl Feeding Chickens."

BAILY, CAROLINE A. B. Gold medal, Paris Exposition, 1900;
third-class medal, Salon, 1901.

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BAKER, ELIZABETH GOWDY. Medal at Cooper Union. Member of Boston Art
Students' Association and Art Workers' Club for Women, New York. Born at
Xenia, Ohio. Pupil of the Cooper Union, Art Students' League, New York
School of Art, Philadelphia Academy of Fine Arts, Cowles Art School,
Boston; under Frederick Freer, William Chase, and Siddons Mowbray.

This artist has painted numerous portraits and has been especially
successful with pictures of children. She has a method of her own of
which she has recently written me.

[Illustration: A PORTRAIT


She claims that it is excellent for life-size portraits in water-colors.
The paper she uses is heavier than any made in this country, and must be
imported; the water-colors are very strong. Mrs. Baker claims that in
this method she gets "the strength of oils with the daintiness of
water-colors, and that it is _beautiful_ for women and children, and
sufficiently strong for portraits of men."

She rarely exhibits, and her portraits are in private houses.

The Hague, 1857; honorary medal at Amsterdam, 1861; another at The Hague,
1863; and a medal of distinction at Amsterdam Colonial Exhibition, 1885.
Daughter of the well-known animal painter. From childhood she painted
flowers, and for a time this made no especial impression on her family or
friends, as it was not an uncommon occupation for girls. At length her
father saw that this daughter, Gerardina--for he had numerous daughters,
and they all desired to be artists--had talent, and when, in 1850, the
Minerva Academy at Groningen gave out "Roses and Dahlias" as a subject,
and offered a prize of a little more than ten dollars for the best
example, he encouraged Gerardina to enter the contest. She received the
contemptible reward, and found, to her astonishment, that the Minerva
Academy considered the picture as belonging to them.

However, this affair brought the name of the artist to the knowledge of
the public, and she determined to devote herself to the painting of
flowers and fruit, in which she has won unusual fame. There is no
sameness in her pictures, and her subjects do not appear to be
"arranged"--everything seems to have fallen into its place by chance and
to be entirely natural.

Gerardina Jacoba and her brother Julius van de Sande Bakhuyzen, the
landscape painter, share one studio. She paints with rapidity, as one
must in order to picture the freshness of fast-fading flowers.

Johan Gram writes of her: "If she paints a basket of peaches or plums,
they look as if just picked by the gardener and placed upon the table,
without any thought of studied effect; some leaves covering the fruit,
others falling out of the basket in the most natural way. If she paints
the branch of a rose-tree, it seems to spring from the ground with its
flowers in all their luxurious wantonness, and one can almost imagine
one's self inhaling their delightful perfume. This talented artist knows
so well how to depict with her brush the transparency and softness of the
tender, ethereal rose, that one may seek in vain among a crowd of artists
for her equal.... The paintings are all bright and sunny, and we are
filled with enthusiasm when gazing at her powerful works."

This artist was born in 1826 and died in 1895. She lived and died in her
family residence. In 1850, at Groningen, she took for her motto, "Be true
to nature and you will produce that which is good." To this she remained
faithful all her days.

BALDWIN, EDITH ELLA. Born at Worcester, Massachusetts. Studied in
Paris at Julian Academy, under Bouguereau and Robert-Fleury; at the
Colarossi studios under Courtois, also under Julius Rolshoven and Mosler.

Paints portraits and miniatures. At the Salon of the Champ de Mars she
exhibited a portrait in pastel, in 1901; at exhibitions of the Society of
American Artists in 1898 and 1899 she exhibited miniatures; also pictures
in oils at Worcester, 1903.

BALL, CAROLINE PEDDLE. Honorable mention at Paris Exhibition, 1900.
Member of the Guild of Arts and Crafts and of Art Students' League. Born
at Terre Haute, Indiana. Pupil at the Art Students' League, under
Augustus St. Gaudens and Kenyon Cox.

This sculptor exhibited at Paris a Bronze Clock. She designed for the
Tiffany Glass Company the figure of the Young Virgin and that of the
Christ of the Sacred Heart.

A memorial fountain at Flushing, Long Island, a medallion portrait of
Miss Cox of Terre Haute, a monument to a child in the same city, a
Victory in a quadriga, seen on the United States Building, Paris, 1900,
and also at the Buffalo Exhibition, 1901, are among her important works.

BAÑUELOS, ANTONIA. At the Paris Exposition of 1878 several portraits
by this artist attracted attention, one of them being a portrait of
herself. At the Exposition of 1880 she exhibited "A Guitar Player."

of San Fernando, Madrid, 1816. This institution possesses a drawing by
her of the "Virgin with the Christ-Child" and a portrait in oil of a
person of the epoch of Charles III.

BASHKIRTSEFF, MARIE. Born in Russia of a noble family. 1860-84. This
remarkable young woman is interesting in various phases of her life, but
here it is as an artist that she is to be considered. Her journal, she
tells us, is absolutely truthful, and it is but courteous to take the
story of her artistic career from that. She had lessons in drawing, as
many children do, but she gives no indication of a special love for art
until she visits Florence when fourteen years old, and her love of
pictures and statues is awakened. She spent hours in galleries, never
sitting down, without fatigue, in spite of her delicacy. She says: "That
is because the things one loves do not tire one. So long as there are
pictures and, better still, statues to be seen, I am made of iron." After
questioning whether she dare say it, she confides to her readers: "I
don't like the Madonna della Sedia of Raphael. The countenance of the
Virgin is pale, the color is not natural, the expression is that of a
waiting-maid rather than of a Madonna. Ah, but there is a Magdalen of
Titian that enchanted me. Only--there must always be an only--her wrists
are too thick and her hands are too plump--beautiful hands they would be
on a woman of fifty. There are things of Rubens and Vandyck that are
ravishing. The 'Mensonge' of Salvator Rosa is very natural. I do not
speak as a connoisseur; what most resembles nature pleases me most. Is it
not the aim of painting to copy nature? I like very much the full, fresh
countenance of the wife of Paul Veronese, painted by him. I like the
style of his faces. I adore Titian and Vandyck; but that poor Raphael!
Provided only no one knows what I write; people would take me for a fool;
I do not criticise Raphael; I do not understand him; in time I shall no
doubt learn to appreciate his beauties. The portrait of Pope Leo X.--I
think it is--is admirable, however." A surprising critique for a girl of
her age!

When seventeen she made her first picture of any importance. "While they
were playing cards last night I made a rough sketch of the players--and
this morning I transferred the sketch to canvas. I am delighted to have
made a picture of persons sitting down in different attitudes; I copied
the position of the hands and arms, the expressions of the countenance,
etc. I had never before done anything but heads, which I was satisfied to
scatter over the canvas like flowers."

Her enthusiasm for her art constantly increased. She was not willing to
acknowledge her semi-invalidism and was filled with the desire to do
something in art that would live after her. She was opposed by her
family, who wished her to be in fashionable society. At length she had
her way, and when not quite eighteen began to study regularly at the
Julian Academy. She worked eight and nine hours a day. Julian encouraged
her, she rejoiced in being with "real artists who have exhibited in the
Salon and whose pictures are bought," and declared herself "happy,
happy!" Before long M. Julian told her that she might become a great
artist, and the first time that Robert-Fleury saw her work and learned
how little she had studied, and that she had never before drawn from a
living model, he said: "Well, then, you have extraordinary talent for
painting; you are specially gifted, and I advise you to work hard."

Her masters always assured her of her talent, but she was much of the
time depressed. She admired the work of Mlle. Breslau and acknowledged
herself jealous of the Swiss artist. But after a year of study she took
the second prize in the Academy, and admitted that she ought to be

Robert-Fleury took much interest in her work, and she began to hope to
equal Breslau; but she was as often despondent as she was happy, which no
doubt was due to her health, for she was already stricken with the malady
from which she died. Julian wondered why, with her talent, it was so
difficult for her to paint; to herself she seemed paralyzed.

In the autumn of 1879 she took a studio, and, besides her painting, she
essayed modelling. In 1880 her portrait of her sister was exhibited at
the Salon, and her mother and other friends were gratified by its

At one time Mlle. Bashkirtseff had suffered with her eyes, and, getting
better of that, she had an attack of deafness. For these reasons she
went, in the summer of 1880, to Mont-Dore for treatment, and was much
benefited in regard to her deafness, though not cured, and now the
condition of her lungs was recognized, and what she had realized for some
time was told to her family. She suffered greatly from the restrictions
of her condition. She could not read very much, as her eyes were not
strong enough to read and paint; she avoided people because of her
deafness; her cough was very tiresome and her breathing difficult.

At the Salon of 1881 her picture was well hung and was praised by
artists. In the autumn of that year she was very ill, but happily, about
the beginning of 1882, she was much better and again enthusiastic about
her painting. She had been in Spain and excited admiration in Madrid by
the excellence of her copy of "Vulcan," by Velasquez. January 15th she
wrote: "I am wrapped up in my art. I think I caught the sacred fire in
Spain at the same time that I caught the pleurisy. From being a student I
now begin to be an artist. This sudden influx of power puts me beside
myself with joy. I sketch future pictures; I dream of painting an
Ophelia. Potain has promised to take me to Saint-Anne to study faces of
the mad women there, and then I am full of the idea of painting an old
man, an Arab, sitting down singing to the accompaniment of a kind of
guitar; and I am thinking also of a large affair for the coming Salon--a
view of the Carnival; but for this it would be necessary that I should go
to Nice--to Naples first for the Carnival, and then to Nice, where I have
my villa, to paint it in open air."

She now met Bastien-Lepage, who, while he was somewhat severe in his
criticism of her work, told her seriously that she was "marvellously
gifted." This gave her great pleasure, and, indeed, just at this time the
whole tone of the journal and her art enthusiasm are most comforting
after the preceding despairing months. From this time until her death
her journal is largely occupied with her health, which constantly failed,
but her interest in art and her intense desire to do something worthy of
a great artist--something that Julian, Robert-Fleury, and, above all,
Bastien-Lepage, could praise, seemed to give her strength, and, in spite
of the steady advance of the fell tuberculosis from which she was dying,
she worked devotedly.

She had a fine studio in a new home of the family, and was seized with an
ardent desire to try sculpture--she did a little in this art--but that
which proved to be her last and best work was her contribution to the
Salon of 1884. This brought her to the notice of the public, and she had
great pleasure, although mingled with the conviction of her coming death
and the doubts of her ability to do more. Of this time she writes: "Am I
satisfied? It is easy to answer that question; I am neither satisfied nor
dissatisfied. My success is just enough to keep me from being unhappy.
That is all."

Again: "I have just returned from the Salon. We remained a long time
seated on a bench before the picture. It attracted a good deal of
attention, and I smiled to myself at the thought that no one would ever
imagine the elegantly dressed young girl seated before it, showing the
tips of her little boots, to be the artist. Ah, all this is a great deal
better than last year! Have I achieved a success, in the true, serious
meaning of the word? I almost think so."

The picture was called the "Meeting," and shows seven gamins talking
together before a wooden fence at the corner of a street. François Coppée
wrote of it: "It is a _chef d'oeuvre_, I maintain. The faces and the
attitudes of the children are strikingly real. The glimpse of meagre
landscape expresses the sadness of the poorer neighborhoods."

Previous to this time, her picture of two boys, called "Jean and
Jacques," had been reproduced in the Russian _Illustration_, and she now
received many requests for permission to photograph and reproduce her
"Meeting," and connoisseurs made requests to be admitted to her studio.
All this gratified her while it also surprised. She was at work on a
picture called "Spring," for which she went to Sèvres, to paint in the

Naturally she hoped for a Salon medal, and her friends encouraged her
wish--but alas! she was cruelly disappointed. Many thought her unfairly
treated, but it was remembered that the year before she had publicly
spoken of the committee as "idiots"!

People now wished to buy her pictures and in many ways she realized that
she was successful. How pathetic her written words: "I have spent six
years, working ten hours a day, to gain what? The knowledge of all I have
yet to learn in my art, and a fatal disease!"

It is probable that the "Meeting" received no medal because it was
suspected that Mlle. Bashkirtseff had been aided in her work. No one
could tell who had originated this idea, but as some medals had been
given to women who did not paint their pictures alone, the committee were
timid, although there seems to have been no question as to superiority.

A friendship had grown up between the families Bashkirtseff and
Bastien-Lepage. Both the great artist and the dying girl were very ill,
but for some time she and her mother visited him every two or three days.
He seemed almost to live on these visits and complained if they were
omitted. At last, ill as Bastien-Lepage was, he was the better able of
the two to make a visit. On October 16th she writes of his being brought
to her and made comfortable in one easy-chair while she was in another.
"Ah, if I could only paint!" he said. "And I?" she replied. "There is the
end to this year's picture!"

These visits were continued. October 20th she writes of his increasing
feebleness. She wrote no more, and in eleven days was dead.

In 1885 the works of Marie Bashkirtseff were exhibited. In the catalogue
was printed François Coppée's account of a visit he had made her mother a
few months before Marie's death. He saw her studio and her works, and
wrote, after speaking of the "Meeting," as follows:

"At the Exhibition--Salon--before this charming picture, the public had
with a unanimous voice bestowed the medal on Mlle. B., who had been
already 'mentioned' the year before. Why was this verdict not confirmed
by the jury? Because the artist was a foreigner? Who knows? Perhaps
because of her wealth. This injustice made her suffer, and she
endeavored--the noble child--to avenge herself by redoubling her efforts.

"In one hour I saw there twenty canvases commenced; a hundred
designs--drawings, painted studies, the cast of a statue, portraits which
suggested to me the name of Frans Hals, scenes made from life in the
open streets; notably one large sketch of a landscape--the October mist
on the shore, the trees half stripped, big yellow leaves strewing the
ground. In a word, works in which is incessantly sought, or more often
asserts itself, the sentiment of the sincerest and most original art, and
of the most personal talent."

Mathilde Blind, in her "Study of Marie Bashkirtseff," says: "Marie loved
to recall Balzac's questionable definition that the genius of observation
is almost the whole of human genius. It was natural it should please her,
since it was the most conspicuous of her many gifts. As we might expect,
therefore, she was especially successful as a portrait painter, for she
had a knack of catching her sitter's likeness with the bloom of nature
yet fresh upon it. All her likenesses are singularly individual, and we
realize their character at a glance. Look, for example, at her portrait
of a Parisian swell, in irreproachable evening dress and white kid
gloves, sucking his silver-headed cane, with a simper that shows all his
white teeth; and then at the head and bust of a Spanish convict, painted
from life at the prison in Granada. Compare that embodiment of
fashionable vacuity with this face, whose brute-like eyes haunt you with
their sadly stunted look. What observation is shown in the painting of
those heavily bulging lips, which express weakness rather than wickedness
of disposition--in those coarse hands engaged in the feminine occupation
of knitting a blue and white stocking!"

BAUCK, JEANNA. Born in Stockholm in 1840. Portrait and landscape
painter. In 1863 she went to Dresden, and studied figure work with
Professor Ehrhardt; later she moved to Düsseldorf, where she devoted
herself to landscape under Flamm, and in 1866 she settled in Munich,
where she has since remained, making long visits to Paris, Venice, and
parts of Switzerland. Her later work is marked by the romantic influence
of C. Ludwig, who was for a time her instructor, but she shows unusual
breadth and sureness in dealing with difficult subjects, such as dusky
forests with dark waters or bare ruins bordered with stiff, ghost-like
trees. Though not without talent and boldness, she lacks a feeling for


[_No reply to circular_.]


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BEALE, MARY. 1632-97. This artist was the daughter of the Rev. Mr.
Cradock. She married Mr. Beale, an artist and a color-maker. She studied
under Sir Peter Lely, who obtained for her the privilege of copying some
of Vandyck's most famous works.

Mrs. Beale's portraits of Charles II., Cowley, and the Duke of Norfolk
are in the National Portrait Gallery, London, and that of Archbishop
Tillotson is in Lambeth Palace. This portrait was the first example of an
ecclesiastic represented as wearing a wig instead of the usual silk coif.

Her drawing was excellent and spirited, her color strong and pure, and
her portraits were sought by many distinguished persons.

Several poems were written in praise of this artist, in one of which, by
Dr. Woodfall, she is called "Belasia." Her husband, Charles Beale, an
inferior artist, was proud of his wife, and spent much time in recording
the visits she received, the praises lavished on her, and similar matters
concerning her art and life. He left more than thirty pocket-notebooks
filled with these records, and showed himself far more content that his
wife should be appreciated than any praise of himself could have made

BEAURY-SAUREL, MME. AMÉLIE. Prize of honor at Exposition of Black
and White, 1891; third-class medal, Salon, 1883; bronze medal,
Exposition, 1889. Born at Barcelona, of French parents. Pupil of Julian
Academy. Among her principal portraits are those of Léon Say, Félix
Voisin, Barthélemy Saint-Hilaire, Mme. Sadi-Carnot, Coralie Cohen,
Princess Ghika, etc. She has also painted the "Two Vanquished Ones," "A
Woman Physician," and a "Souvenir of a Bull-Fight," pastel, etc.

This artist has also contributed to several magazines. At the Salon of
the Artistes Français, 1902, she exhibited a portrait and a picture of
"Hamlet"; in 1903 a picture, "In the Train." Mme. Beaury-Saurel is also
Mme. Julian, wife of the head of the Academy in which she was educated.

BEAUX, CECILIA. Mary Smith prize at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine
Arts, 1885, 1887, 1891, 1892; gold medal, Philadelphia Art Club, 1893;
Dodge prize, National Academy of Design, 1893; bronze medal, Carnegie
Institute, 1896; first-class gold medal, $1,500, Carnegie Institute,
1899; Temple gold medal, Pennsylvania Academy, 1900; gold medal, Paris
Exposition, 1900; gold medal, (?) 1901. Associate of National Academy of
Design, member of Society of American Artists, associate of Société des
Beaux-Arts, Paris. Born in Philadelphia. Studied under Mrs. T. A.
Janvier, Adolf van der Weilen, and William Sartain in Philadelphia; under
Robert-Fleury, Bouguereau, and Benjamin-Constant, in Paris.

Her portraits are numerous. In 1894 she exhibited a portrait of a child
at the Exhibition of the Society of American Artists, which was much
admired and noticed in the _Century Magazine_, September, 1894, as
follows: "Few artists have the fresh touch which the child needs and the
firm and rapid execution which allows the painter to catch the fleeting
expression and the half-forms which make child portraits at once the
longing and the despair of portrait painters. Miss Beaux's technique is
altogether French, sometimes reminding me a little of Carolus Duran and
of Sargent; but her individuality has triumphed over all suggestions of
her foreign masters, and the combination of refinement and strength is
altogether her own."

Seven years later, in the _International Studio_, September, 1901, we
read: "The mention of style suggests a reference to the portraits by Miss
Cecilia Beaux, while the allusion to characterization suggests at the
same time their limitation. The oftener one sees her 'Mother and
Daughter,' which gained the gold medal at Pittsburg in 1899 and the gold
medal also at last year's Paris Exposition, the less one feels inclined
to accept it as a satisfactory example of portraiture. Magnificent
assurance of method it certainly has, controlled also by a fine sobriety
of feeling, so that no part of the ensemble impinges upon the due
importance of the other parts; it is a balanced, dignified picture. But
in its lack of intimacy it is positively callous. One has met these
ladies on many occasions, but with no increase of acquaintanceship or
interest on either side--our meetings are sterile of any human interest.
So one turns with relief to Miss Beaux's other picture of 'Dorothea and
Francesca'--an older girl leading a younger one in the steps of a dance.
They are not concerned with us, but at least interested in one another;
and we can attach ourselves, if only as outsiders, to the human interest

"These pictures suggest a moment's consideration of the true meaning of
the term 'style' as applied to painting. Is it not more than the mere
ableness of method, still more than the audacity of brush work, that
often passes for style? Is it possible to dissociate the manner of a
picture from its embodiment of some fact or idea? For it to have style in
the full sense of the word, surely it must embody an expression of life
as serious and thorough as the method of record."--_Charles H. Caffin_.

In the _International Studio_ of March, 1903, we read: "The portrait of
Mrs. Roosevelt, by Miss Cecilia Beaux, seemed to me to be one of the
happiest of her creations. Nothing could exceed the skill and daintiness
with which the costume is painted, and the characterization of the head
is more sympathetic than usual, offering a most winsome type of
beautiful, good womanhood. A little child has been added to the
picture--an afterthought, I understand, and scarcely a fortunate one; at
least in the manner of its presentment. The figure is cleverly merged in
half shadow, but the treatment of the face is brusque, and a most
unpleasant smirk distorts the child's mouth. It is the portrait of the
mother that carries the picture, and its superiority to many of Miss
Beaux's portraits consists in the sympathy with her subject which the
painter has displayed."--_Charles H. Caffin_.

A writer in the _Mail and Express_ says: "Miss Beaux has approached the
task of painting the society woman of to-day, not as one to whom this
type is known only by the exterior, but with a sympathy as complete as a
similar tradition and an artistic temperament will allow. Thus she starts
with an advantage denied to all but a very few American portrait
painters, and this explains the instinctive way in which she gives to her
pictured subjects an air of natural ease and good breeding."

Miss Beaux's picture of "Brighton Cats" is so excellent that one almost
regrets that she has not emulated Mme. Ronner's example and left
portraits of humans to the many artists who cannot paint cats!

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BECK, CAROL H. Mary Smith prize at Pennsylvania Academy of Fine
Arts, 1899. Fellow of above Academy and member of the Plastic Club,
Philadelphia. Born in Philadelphia. Studied in schools of Pennsylvania
Academy, and later in Dresden and Paris.

Miss Beck paints portraits and her works have been frequently exhibited.
Her portraits are also seen in the University of Pennsylvania, in the
Woman's Medical College, Philadelphia, in Wesleyan College, at the
capitols of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, and other public places, as well
as in many private homes.

Miss Beck edited the Catalogue of the Wilstach Collection of Paintings in
Memorial Hall, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia.


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BEERNAERTS, EUPHROSINE. Landscape painter. In 1873 she won a medal
at Vienna, in 1875 a gold medal at the Brussels Salon, and still other
medals at Philadelphia (1876), Sydney (1879), and Teplitz (1879). She was
made Chévalier de l'Ordre de Léopold in 1881. Mlle. Beernaerts was born
at Ostend, 1831, and studied under Kuhner in Brussels. She travelled in
Germany, France, and Italy, and exhibited admirable landscapes at
Brussels, Antwerp, and Paris, her favorite subjects being Dutch. In 1878
the following pictures by her were shown in Paris: "Lisière de bois dans
les Dunes (Zélande)," "Le Village de Domburg (Zélande)," and "Intérieur
de bois à Oost-Kapel (Holland)." Other well-known works are "Die Campine"
and "Aus der Umgebung von Oosterbeck."

BEGAS, LUISE PARMENTIER. Born in Vienna. Pupil of Schindler and
Unger. She travelled extensively in Europe and the Orient, and spent some
time in Sicily. She married Adalbert Begas in 1877 and then established
her studio in Berlin. Her subjects are landscape, architectural
monuments, and interiors. Some of the latter are especially fine. Her
picture of the "Burial Ground at Scutari" was an unusual subject at the
time it was exhibited and attracted much attention.

Her rich gift in the use of color is best seen in her pictures of still
life and flowers. In Berlin, in 1890, she exhibited "Before the Walls of
Constantinople" and "From Constantinople," which were essentially
different from her earlier works and attracted much attention. "Taormina
in Winter" more nearly resembled her earlier pictures.

Fräulein Parmentier also studied etching, in which art Unger was her
instructor. In her exquisite architectural pictures and landscapes she
has represented Italian motives almost exclusively. Among these are her
views of Venice and other South Italian sketches, which are also the
subjects of some of her etchings.

BELLE, MLLE. ANDRÉE. Member of the Société Nationale des Beaux Arts.
Born in Paris. Pupil of Cazin. Paints in oils and pastels, landscapes
especially, of which she exhibited seventeen in June, 1902. The larger
part of these were landscape portraits, so to speak, as they were done on
the spots represented with faithfulness to detail. The subjects were
pleasing, and the various hours of day, with characteristic lighting,
unusually well rendered.

At the Salon des Beaux Arts, 1902, this artist exhibited a large pastel,
"A Halt at St. Mammès" and a "Souvenir of Bormes," showing the tomb of
Cazin. In 1903 she exhibited a pastel called "Calvary," now in the Museum
at Amiens, which has been praised for its harmony of color and the
manner in which the rainbow is represented. Her pictures of "Twilight"
and "Sunset" are unusually successful.

BENATO-BELTRAMI, ELISABETTA. Painter and sculptor of the nineteenth
century, living in Padua since 1858. Her talent, which showed itself
early, was first developed by an unknown painter named Soldan, and later
at the Royal Academy in Venice. She made copies of Guido, Sassoferrato
and Veronese, the Laokoon group, and the Hercules of Canova, and executed
a much-admired bas-relief called "Love and Innocence." Among her original
paintings are an "Atala and Chactas," "Petrarch's First Meeting with
Laura," a "Descent from the Cross" for the church at Tribano, a "St.
Sebastian," "Melancholy," a "St. Ciro," and many Madonnas. Her pictures
are noble in conception and firm in execution.

BENITO Y TEJADA, BENITA. Born in Bilboa, where she first studied
drawing; later she went to Madrid, where she entered the Escuela
superior. In the Exposition of 1876 at Madrid "The Guardian" was shown,
and in 1881 a large canvas representing "The First Step."

BERNHARDT, SARAH. In 1869 this famous actress watched
Mathieu-Meusnier making a bust. She made her criticisms and they were
always just. The sculptor told her that she had the eye of an artist and
should use her talent in sculpture. Not long after she brought to him a
medallion portrait of her aunt. So good was it that Mathieu-Meusnier
seriously encouraged her to persevere in her art. She was fascinated by
the thought of what might be possible for her, took a studio, and sent
to the Salon in 1875 a bust, which attracted much attention. In 1876 she
exhibited "After the Tempest," the subject taken from the story of a poor
woman who, having buried two sons, saw the body of her last boy washed
ashore after a storm. This work was marvellously effective, and a great
future as a sculptress was foretold for the "divine Sara." At the Salon
of 1878 she exhibited two portrait busts in bronze.

This remarkable woman is a painter also, and exhibited a picture called
"La jeune Fille et la Mort." One critic wrote of it: "Sarah's picture
shows very considerable feeling for color and more thought than the vast
majority of modern paintings. The envious and evil speakers, who always
want to say nasty things, pretend to trace in the picture very frequent
touches of Alfred Stevens, who has been Sarah's master in painting, as
Mathieu-Meusnier was in sculpture. However that may be, Sarah has posed
her figures admirably and her coloring is excellent. It is worthy of
notice that, being as yet a comparative beginner, she has not attempted
to give any expression to the features of the young girl over whose
shoulder Death is peeping."

One of the numerous ephemeral journals which the young and old jeunesse
of the Latin Quarter is constantly creating has made a very clever
caricature of the picture in a sort of Pompeian style. Death is
represented by the grinning figure of Coquelin ainé. The legend is "'La
Jeune Fille et la Mort,' or Coquelin ainé, presenting Sarah Bernhardt the
bill of costs of her fugue." In other words, Coquelin is Death, handing
to Sarah the undertaker's bill--300,000 francs--for her civil burial at
the Comédie Française.

BETHUNE, LOUISE. This architect, whose maiden name was Blanchard,
was born in Waterloo, New York, 1856. She studied drawing and
architecture, and in 1881 opened an office, being the first woman
architect in the United States. Since her marriage to Robert A. Bethune
they have practised their art together. Mrs. Bethune is the only woman
holding a fellowship in the American Institute of Architects.

[_No reply to circular_.]

BEVERIDGE, KÜHNE. Honorable mention in Paris twice. Born in
Springfield, Illinois. Studied under William R. O'Donovan in New York,
and under Rodin in Paris.

Among her works are a statue called "Rhodesia," "Rough Rider Monument," a
statue called "Lascire," which belongs to Dr. Jameson, busts of Cecil
Rhodes, King Edward VII., Grover Cleveland, Vice-President Stevenson,
Joseph Jefferson, Buffalo Bill, General Mahon, hero of Mafeking, Thomas
L. Johnson, and many others.

Miss Beveridge was first noticed as an artist in this country in 1892,
when her busts of ex-President Cleveland and Mr. Jefferson called
favorable attention to her.

In 1899 she married Charles Coghlan, and soon discovered that he had a
living wife at the time of her marriage and obtained a divorce. Before
she went to South Africa Miss Beveridge had executed several commissions
for Cecil Rhodes and others living in that country.

Her mother is now the Countess von Wrede, her home being in Europe,
where her daughter has spent much time. She has married the second time,
an American, Mr. Branson, who resides at Johannesburg, in the Transvaal.

BIFFIN, SARAH. 1784-1850. It seems a curious fact that several
persons born without arms and hands have become reputable artists. This
miniature painter was one of these. Her first teacher, a man named Dukes,
persuaded her to bind herself to live in his house and give her time to
his service for some years. Later, when the Earl of Morton made her
acquaintance, he proved to her that her engagement was not legally
binding and wished her to give it up; but Miss Biffin was well treated by
the Dukes and preferred to remain with them.

The Earl of Morton, however, caused her to study under Mr. Craig, and she
attained wonderful excellence in her miniatures. In 1821 the Duke of
Sussex, on behalf of the Society of Arts, presented her with a prize
medal for one of her pictures.

She remained sixteen years with the Dukes, and during this time never
received more than five pounds a year! After leaving them she earned a
comfortable income. She was patronized by George III. and his successors,
and Queen Victoria and the Prince Consort were her generous patrons, as
well as many other distinguished persons.

After the death of the Earl of Morton she had no other friend to aid her
in getting commissions or selling her finished pictures, and she moved to
Liverpool. A small annuity was purchased for her, which, in addition to
the few orders she received, supported her until her death at the age of
sixty-six. Her miniatures have been seen in loan collections in recent
years. Her portrait of herself, on ivory, was exhibited in such a
collection at South Kensington.

BILDERS, MARIE. Family name Van Bosse. Born in Amsterdam, 1837; died
in Wiesbaden, 1900. Pupil of Van de Sande-Bakhuyzen, Bosboom, and
Johannes W. Bilders. Settled in Oosterbeck, and painted landscapes from
views in the neighborhood. This artist was important, and her works are
admired especially by certain Dutch artists who are famous in all
countries. These facts are well known to me from good authority, but I
fail to find a list of her works or a record of their present

[Footnote 1: See Appendix.]

BILINSKA, ANNA. Received the small gold medal at Berlin in 1891, and
won distinguished recognition at other international exhibitions in
Berlin and Munich by her portraits and figure studies. She was born in
Warsaw in 1858, and died there in 1893. She studied in Paris, where she
quickly became a favorite painter of aristocratic Russians and Poles. Her
pictures are strong and of brilliant technique.

BIONDI, NICOLA. Born at Capua, 1866. This promising young Italian
painter was a pupil of the Institute of Fine Arts in Naples. One of her
pictures, called "Una partita," was exhibited at Naples and attracted
much attention. It was purchased by Duke Martini. Another, "Ultima
Prova," was exhibited in Rome and favorably noticed.

BLAU, TINA. Honorable mention in Paris, 1883, for her "Spring in
the Prater." Her "Land Party" is in the possession of the Emperor of
Austria, and "In Spring-time" belongs to the Prince Regent of Bavaria.
This talented landscape painter was born in Vienna, 1847. She was a pupil
of Schäffer in Vienna, and of W. Lindenschmitt in Munich. After
travelling in Austria, Holland, and Italy, she followed her predilection
for landscape, and chose her themes in great part from those countries.
In 1884 she married Heinrich Lang, painter of battle scenes (who died in
1891), and she now works alternately in Munich and Vienna. In 1890 she
gave an exhibition of her pictures in Munich; they were thought to show
great vigor of composition and color and much delicacy of artistic
perception. Her foreign scenes, especially, are characterized by unusual
local truth and color. Among her best works are "Studies from the Prater
in Vienna," "Canal at Amsterdam," "Harvest Day in Holland," "The Arch of
Titus in Rome," "Street in Venice," and "Late Summer."

BLOCH, MME. ELISA. Honorable mention, 1894. Officer of public
instruction, Commander of the Order of the Liberator; Chevalier of the
Order of the Dragon of Annam. Born at Breslau, Silesia, 1848. Pupil of
Chapu. She first exhibited at the Salon of 1878, a medallion portrait of
M. Bloch; this was followed by "Hope," the "Golden Age," "Virginius
Sacrificing his Daughter," "Moses Receiving the Tables of the Law," etc.
Mme. Bloch has made numerous portrait busts, among them being the kings
of Spain and Portugal, Buffalo Bill, C. Flammarion, etc.

At the Salon of the Artistes Français, 1903, Mme. Bloch exhibited a
"Portrait of M. Frédéric Passy, Member of the Institute."


[_No reply to circular_.]

BOEMM, RITTA. A Hungarian artist. Has been much talked of in
Dresden. She certainly possesses distinguished talents, and is easily in
the front rank of Dresden women artists. Her gouache pictures dealing
with Hungarian subjects, a "Village Street," a "Peasant Farm," a
"Churchyard," exhibited at Dresden in 1892, were well drawn and full of
sentiment, but lacking in color sense and power. She works unevenly and
seems pleased when she succeeds in setting a scene cleverly. She paints
portraits also, mostly in pastel, which are spirited, but not especially
good likenesses. What she can do in the way of color may be seen in her
"Village Street in Winter," a picture of moderate size, in which the
light is exquisite; unfortunately most of her painting is less admirable
than this.

BOISSONNAS, MME. CAROLINE SORDET. Honorable mention at the Salon of
Lyons, 1897. Member of the Exposition Permanente Amis des Beaux-Arts,
Geneva. Born in Geneva. Pupil of the School of Fine Arts, Geneva, under
Prof. F. Gillet and M. E. Ravel.

This artist paints portraits principally. She has been successful, and
her pictures are in Geneva, Lausanne, Vevey, Paris, Lyons, Marseilles,
Dresden, Naples, etc.

BOMPIANI-BATTAGLIA, CLELIA. Born in Rome, 1847. Pupil of her
father, Roberto Bompiani, and of the professors in the Academy of St.
Luke. The following pictures in water-colors have established her
reputation as an artist: "Confidential Communication," 1885; the
"Fortune-Teller," 1887; "A Public Copyist," 1888; and "The Wooing," 1888.

BONHEUR, JULIETTE--MME. PEYROL. Born at Paris. Sister of Rosa
Bonheur, and a pupil of her father. Among her pictures are "A Flock of
Geese," "A Flock of Sheep Lying Down," and kindred subjects. The
last-named work was much remarked at the Salon of 1875. In 1878 she
exhibited "The Pool" and "The Mother's Kiss."

Mme. Peyrol was associated with her famous sister in the conduct of the
Free School of Design, founded by Rosa Bonheur in 1849.

BONHEUR, MARIE ROSALIE. 1822-99. Member of Antwerp Institute, 1868.
Salon medals, 1845, 1848, 1855, 1867; Legion of Honor, 1865; Leopold
Cross, 1880; Commander's Cross, Royal Order of Isabella the Catholic,
1880. Born in Bordeaux. She was taught drawing by her father, who,
perceiving that she had unusual talent, permitted her to give up
dressmaking, to which, much against her will, she had been apprenticed.
From 1855 her fame was established; she was greatly appreciated, and her
works competed for in England and the United States, as well as in
European countries.

Her chief merit is the actual truthfulness with which she represented
animals. Her skies might be bettered in some cases--the atmosphere of her
pictures was sometimes open to question--but her animals were
anatomically perfect and handled with such virility as few men have
excelled or even equalled. Her position as an artist is so established
that no quoted opinions are needed when speaking of her--she was one of
the most famous women of her century.

Her home at By was near Fontainebleau, where she lived quietly, and for
some years held gratuitous classes for drawing. She left, at her death, a
collection of pictures, studies, etchings, etc., which were sold by
auction in Paris soon after.

Her "Ploughing in the Nivernais," 1848, is in the Luxembourg Gallery;
"The Horse Fair," 1853, is seen in the National Gallery, London, in a
replica, the original being in the United States, purchased by the late
A. T. Stewart. Her "Hay Harvest in the Auvergne," 1855, is one of her
most important works. After 1867 Mlle. Bonheur did not exhibit at the
Salon until 1899, a few weeks before her death.

One must pay a tribute to this artist as a good and generous woman. She
founded the Free School of Design for Girls, and in 1849 took the
direction of it and devoted much of her valuable time to its interests.
How valuable an hour was to her we may understand when we remember that
Hamerton says: "I have seen work of hers which, according to the price
given, must have paid her a hundred pounds for each day's labor."

The story of her life is of great interest, and can be but slightly
sketched here.

She was afoot betimes in the morning, and often walked ten or twelve
miles and worked hard all day. The difficulty of reaching her models
proved such a hindrance to her that she conceived the idea of visiting
the abattoirs, where she could see animals living and dead and study
their anatomy.

It is not easy to imagine all the difficulties she encountered in doing
this--the many repulsive features of such places--while the company of
drovers and butchers made one of the disagreeables of her pursuits. Her
love for the animals, too, made it doubly hard for her to see them in the
death agony and listen to their pitiful cries for freedom.

In all this experience, however, she met no rude or unkind treatment. Her
drawings won the admiration of the men who watched her make them and they
treated her with respect. She pursued her studies in the same manner in
the stables of the Veterinary School at Alfort and in the Jardin des

At other times she studied in the country the quiet grazing herds, and,
though often mistaken for a boy on account of the dress she wore, she
inspired only admiration for her simplicity and frankness of manner,
while the graziers and horse-dealers respectfully regarded her and
wondered at her skill in picturing their favorite animals. Some very
amusing stories might be told of her comical embarrassments in her
country rambles, when she was determined to preserve her disguise and the
pretty girls were equally determined to make love to her!

Aside from all this laborious study of living animals, she obtained
portions of dead creatures for dissection; also moulds, casts, and
illustrated anatomical books; and, in short, she left no means untried
by which she could perfect herself in the specialty she had chosen. Her
devotion to study and to the practice of her art was untiring, and only
the most engrossing interest in it and an indomitable perseverance,
supplemented and supported by a physically and morally healthful
organization, could have sustained the nervous strain of her life from
the day when she was first allowed to follow her vocation to the time
when she placed herself in the front rank of animal painters.

A most charming picture is drawn of the life of the Bonheur family in the
years when Rosa was making her progressive steps. They lived in an humble
house in the Rue Rumfort, the father, Auguste, Isidore, and Rosa all
working in the same studio. She had many birds and a pet sheep. As the
apartment of the Bonheurs was on the sixth floor, this sheep lived on the
leads, and from time to time Isidore bore him on his shoulders down all
the stairs to the neighboring square, where the animal could browse on
the real grass, and afterward be carried back by one of the devoted
brothers of his mistress. They were very poor, but they were equally
happy. At evening Rosa made small models or illustrations for books or
albums, which the dealers readily bought, and by this means she added to
the family store for needs or pleasures.

In 1841, when Rosa was nineteen years old, she first experienced the
pleasures, doubts, and fears attendant upon a public exhibition of one's
work. Two small pictures, called "Goats and Sheep" and "Two Rabbits,"
were hung at the Salon and were praised by critics and connoisseurs. The
next year she sent three others, "Animals in a Pasture," "A Cow Lying in
a Meadow," and "A Horse for Sale." She continued to send pictures to the
Salon and to some exhibitions in other cities, and received several
bronze and silver medals.

In 1845 she sent twelve works to the Salon, accompanied by those of her
father and her brother Auguste, who was admitted that year for the first
time. In 1848 Isidore was added to the list, exhibiting a picture and a
group in marble, both representing "A Combat between a Lioness and an
African Horseman." And, finally, the family contributions were completed
when Juliette, now Madame Peyrol, added her pictures, and the works of
the five artists were seen in the same Exhibition.

In 1849 Rosa Bonheur's "Cantal Oxen" was awarded the gold medal, and was
followed by "Ploughing in the Nivernais," so well known the world over by
engravings and photographs. When the medal was assigned her, Horace
Vernet proclaimed her triumph to a brilliant assemblage, and also
presented to her a magnificent vase of Sèvres porcelain, in the name of
the French Government. This placed her in the first rank of living
artists, and the triumph was of double value to her on account of the
happiness it afforded her father, to see this, his oldest child, of whose
future he had often despaired, taking so eminent a place in the artistic

This year of success was also a year of sorrow, for before its end the
old Raymond had died. He had been for some time the director of the
Government School of Design for Girls, and, being freed from pecuniary
anxiety, he had worked with new courage and hope. After her father's
death Rosa Bonheur exhibited nothing for two years, but in 1853 she
brought out her "Horse Fair," which added to her fame.

She was perfectly at home in the mountains, and spent much time in the
huts of charcoal burners, huntsmen, or woodcutters, contented with the
food they could give her and happy in her study. Thus she made her
sketches for "Morning in the Highlands," "The Denizens of the Mountains,"
etc. She once lived six weeks with her party on the Spanish side of the
Pyrenees, where they saw no one save muleteers going and coming, with
their long lines of loaded mules. Their only food was frogs' legs, which
they prepared themselves, and the black bread and curdled milk which the
country afforded. At evening the muleteers would amuse the strangers by
dancing the national dances, and then repose in picturesque groups just
suited to artistic sketching. In Scotland and in Switzerland, as well as
in various portions of her own country, she had similar experiences, and
her "Hay-Making in Auvergne" proves that she was familiar with the more
usual phases of country life. At the Knowles sale in London, in 1865, her
picture of "Spanish Muleteers Crossing the Pyrenees," one of the results
of the above sojourn in these mountains, sold for two thousand guineas,
about ten thousand dollars. I believe that, in spite of the large sums of
money that she received, her habitual generosity and indifference to
wealth prevented her amassing a large fortune, but her fame as an artist
and her womanly virtues brought the rewards which she valued above
anything that wealth could bestow--such rewards as will endure through
centuries and surround the name of Rosa Bonheur with glory, rewards which
she untiringly labored to attain.

BONSALL, ELIZABETH F. First Toppan prize, and Mary Smith prize
twice, at Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. Member of Plastic Club,
Philadelphia. Born at Philadelphia. Studied at the above-named Academy
and in Paris; also at the Drexel Institute, Philadelphia, under Eakins,
Courtois, Collin, and Howard Pyle.

Miss Bonsall is well known for her pictures of cats. She illustrated the
"Fireside Sphinx," by Agnes Repplier. Her picture of "Hot Milk" is in the
Pennsylvania Academy; her "Suspense," in a private gallery in New York.

An interesting chapter in Miss Winslow's book, "Concerning Cats," is
called "Concerning Cat Artists," in which she writes: "Elizabeth Bonsall
is a young American artist who has exhibited some good cat pictures, and
whose work promises to make her famous some day if she does not 'weary in

Miss Bonsall has prepared a "Cat Calendar" and a "Child's Book about
Cats," which were promised to appear in the autumn of 1903.

BONSALL, MARY M. First Toppan prize at Pennsylvania Academy of Fine
Arts. Member of the Plastic Club, Philadelphia. Studied at above academy
under Vonnoh, De Camp, William Chase, and Cecilia Beaux.

This artist paints portraits, which are in private hands.

BONTE, PAULA. Born in Magdeburg, 1840, and from 1862 to 1864 was a
pupil of Pape in Berlin. She travelled and studied in Northern Italy and
Switzerland, and from these regions, as well as from Northern Germany,
took her subjects. She has exhibited pictures at various exhibitions, and
among her best works should be mentioned: "The Beach at Clovelly in
Devonshire," "From the Bernese Oberland," "The Riemenstalden Valley,"

BOOTT, ELIZABETH. Born in Cambridge. Miss Boott was one of those
pupils of William M. Hunt to whom he imparted a wonderful artistic
enthusiasm, energy, and devotion. After studying in Boston she studied in
Paris under Duveneck--whom she afterward married--and under Couture. Her
subjects were genre, still-life, and flowers, and were well considered.
Among her genre pictures are "An Old Man Reading," an "Old Roman
Peasant," and a "Girl with a Cat." When in Italy she painted a number of
portraits, which were successful. Miss Brewster, who lived in Rome, was
an excellent critic, and she wrote: "I must say a few words about a
studio I have lately visited--Miss Boott's. I saw there three very fine
portraits, remarkable for strength and character, as well as rich
coloring: one of Mr. Boott, one of Bishop Say, and the third of T.
Adolphus Trollope, the well-known writer and brother of the novelist,
Anthony Trollope. All are good likenesses and are painted with vigor and
skill, but the one of Mr. Trollope is especially clever. Trollope's head
and face, though a good study, are not easy to paint, but Miss Boott has
succeeded to perfection. His head and beard are very fine. The face in
nature, but for the melancholy, kindly look about the eyes and mouth,
would be stern; Miss Boott has caught this expression and yet retained
all the firm character of the countenance. It is remarkable that an
artist who paints male heads with such a vigorous character should also
give to flowers softness, transparency, and grace. Nothing can be more
lovely than Miss Boott's flower studies. She has some delicious poppies
among wheat, lilies, thistles. She gets a transparency into these works
that is not facile in oil. A bunch of roses in a vase was as tender and
round and soft-colored as in nature. Among all the many studios of Rome I
do not know a more attractive one than Miss Boott's."

BORTOLAN, ROSA. Born at Treviso. She was placed in the Academy at
Venice by her family, where she had the benefit of such masters as
Grigoletti, Lipparini, Schiavoni, and Zandomeneghi. She early showed much
originality, and after making thorough preliminary studies she began to
follow her own ideas. She was of a mystical and contemplative turn of
mind, and a great proportion of her work has been of a religious nature.
Her pictures began to attract attention about 1847, and she had many
commissions for altar-pieces and similar work. The church of
Valdobbiadene, at Venice, contains "San Venanziano Fortunatus, Bishop."
"Saint Louis" was painted as a commission of Brandolin da Pieve; "Comte
Justinian Replying to Bonaparte in Treviso" was a subscription picture
presented to Signor Zoccoletto. Portraits of the Countess
Canossa-Portalupi and her son, of Luigia Codemo, and of Luigi Giacomelli
are thought to possess great merit; while those of Dr. Pasquali (in the
Picture Gallery at Treviso) and Michelangelo Codemo have been judged
superior to those of Rosalba Carriera and Angelica Kauffmann. Her sacred
pictures, strong and good in color, are full of a mystical and spiritual
beauty. Her drawing is admirable and her treatment of detail highly

BORZINO, LEOPOLDINA. Milanese water-color painter. Has shown
excellent genre pictures at various exhibitions. "The Holiday" and the
"Return from Mass" were both exhibited and sold at Rome in 1883; "The Way
to Calvary" was seen at Venice in 1887. "The Rosary," "Anguish," and
"Going to the Fountain" are all distinguished by good color as well as by
grace and originality of composition.


BOULANGER, MME. MARIE ELIZABETH. Medals at the Paris Salon in 1836
and 1839. Born in Paris, 1810. Her family name was Blavot, and after the
death of M. Boulanger she married M. Cavé, director of the Academy of the
Beaux-Arts. Her picture of "The Virgin in Tears" is in the Museum of
Rouen; and "The Children's Tournament," a triptych, was purchased by the

BOURRILLON-TOURNAY, MME. JEANNE. Medal of the second class at
Exposition Universelle at Lyons; silver medal at Versailles; honorable
mention at Paris Salon, 1896; the two prizes of the Union des Femmes
Peintres et Sculpteurs--les Palmes Académique, 1895; the Rosette of an
Officer of the Public Instruction in 1902. Member of the Société des
Artistes Français, of the Union des Femmes Peintres et Sculpteurs, and of
the Association de Baron Taylor. Born at Paris, 1870. Pupil of Ferdinand
Humbert and G. C. Saintpierre.

This artist paints portraits, and among them are those of a "Young Girl,"
which belongs to the general Council of the Seine; one of the Senator
Théophile Roussel, of the Institute, and a portrait of an "Aged Lady,"
both purchased by the Government; one of M. Auguste Boyer, councillor of
the Court of Cassation, and many others.

At the Salon des Artistes Français, 1902, Mme. Bourrillon-Tournay
exhibited two portraits, one being that of her mother; in 1903, that of
M. Boyer and one of Mme. B.

BOWEN, LOTA. Member of Society of Women Artists, London, the Tempera
Society, and the "91" Art Club. Born at Armley, Yorkshire. Studied in
Ludovici's studio, London; later in Rome under Santoro, and in the night
classes of the Circolo Artistico.

Her pictures are principally landscapes, and are chiefly in private
collections in England. Among the most important are "On the Venetian
Lagoons," "Old Stone Pines, Lido, Venice," "Evening on Lake Lugano,"
"Evening Glow on the Dolomites," "The Old Bird Fancier," "Moonrise on
Crowborough, Sussex." All these have been exhibited at the Academy.

"Miss Lota Bowen constantly receives most favorable notices of her works
in magazines and journals. She is devotedly fond of her art, and has
sought subjects for her brush in many European byways, as well as in
North Africa, Turkey, and Montenegro. She paints portraits and figure
subjects; has a broad, swinging brush and great love of 'tone.' Miss
Bowen has recently built a studio, in Kensington, after her own design.
She is in London from Christmas time to August, when she makes an annual
journey for sketching."

BOZZINO, CANDIDA LUIGIA. Silver medal at Piacenza. Born at Piacenza,
1853. Pupil of her father. Her portrait of Alessandro Manzoni was her
prize picture. The "Madonna of the Sacred Heart of Jesus" was painted on
a commission from the Bishop of Piacenza, who presented it to Pope Pius
IX.; after being exhibited at the Vatican, it was sent to the Bishop of
Jesi, for the church of Castelplanio. Other celebrated works of hers are
a "Holy Family," the "Madonna of Lourdes," and several copies of the "Viâ
Crucis," by Viganoni.

In 1881 this artist entered the Ursuline Convent at Piacenza, where she
continues to paint religious pictures.

BRACKEN, JULIA M. First prize for sculpture, Chicago, 1898;
appointed on staff of sculptors for the St. Louis Exposition. Member of
Arts Club, Western Society of Artists, Municipal Art League, and Krayle
Workshop, Chicago. Born at Apple River, Ill., 1871. Pupil of Chicago Art
Institute. Acted as assistant to Lorado Taft, 1887-92. Was much occupied
with the decorations for the Columbian Exposition, and executed on an
independent commission the statue of "Illinois Welcoming the Nations."
There are to be five portrait statues placed in front of the Educational
Building at St. Louis, each to be executed by a well-known artist. One of
these is to be the work of Miss Bracken, who is the only woman among
them. Miss Bracken has modelled an heroic portrait statue of President
Monroe; beside the figure is a globe, on which he points out the junction
of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers.

[_No reply to circular_.]

BRACQUEMOND, MME. MARIE. Pupil of Ingres. A portrait painter, also
painter of genre subjects. At the Salon of 1875 she exhibited "The
Reading"; in 1874 "Marguerite." She has been much occupied in the
decoration of the Haviland faience, a branch of these works, at Auteuil,
being at one time in charge of her husband, Félix Bracquemond. In 1872 M.
Bracquemond was esteemed the first ceramic artist in France. An eminent
French critic said of M. and Mme. Bracquemond: "You cannot praise too
highly these two artists, who are as agreeable and as clever as they are
talented and esteemed."

Mme. Bracquemond had the faculty of employing the faience colors so well
that she produced a clearness and richness not attained by other artists.
The progress made in the Haviland faience in the seventies was very
largely due to Mme. Bracquemond, whose pieces were almost always sold
from the atelier before being fired, so great was her success.

BRANDEIS, ANTOINETTA. Many prizes at the Academy of Venice. Born of
Bohemian parents in Miscova, Galitza, 1849. Pupil of Iavurek, of Prague,
in the beginning of her studies, but her father dying and her mother
marrying again, she was taken to Venice, where she studied in the Academy
several years under Grigoletti, Moja, Bresolin, Nani, and Molmenti.
Although all her artistic training was received in Italy and she made
her first successes there, most of her works have been exhibited in
London, under the impression that she was better understood in England.

Annoyed by the commendation of her pictures "as the work of a woman," she
signed a number of her canvases Antonio Brandeis. Although she painted
religious subjects for churches, her special predilection is for views of
Venice, preferably those in which the gondola appears. She has studied
these in their every detail. "Il canale Traghetto de' San Geremia" is in
the Museum Rivoltella at Trieste. This and "Il canale dell' Abbazia della
Misericordia" have been much commended by foreign critics, especially the
English and Austrians. Other Venetian pictures are "La Chiese della
Salute," "Il canale de' Canalregio," and "La Pescaria."

BRESLAU, LOUISA CATHERINE. Gold medal at Paris Exposition, 1889;
gold medal at Paris Exposition, 1900. Chevalier of the Legion of Honor,
1901. Member of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts. A Swiss artist, who
made her studies at the Julian Academy under Robert-Fleury.

She has painted many portraits. Her picture "Under the Apple-Tree" is in
the Museum at Lausanne; the "Little Girls" or "The Sisters" and the
"Child Dreamer"--exhibited at Salon, 1902--are in the Gallery of the
Luxembourg; the "Gamins," in the Museum at Carpentras; the "Tea Party,"
at the Ministry of the Interior, Paris.

At the Salon of 1902 Mlle. Breslau exhibited six pictures, among which
were landscapes, two representing September and October at Saint-Cloud;
two of fruit and flowers; all of which were admired, while the "Dreamer"
was honored with a place in the Luxembourg. In the same Salon she
exhibited six pictures in pastel: four portraits, and heads of a gamin
and of a little girl. The portrait of Margot is an ideal picture of a
happy child, seated at a table, resting her head on her left hand while
with the right she turns the leaves of a book. A toy chicken and a doll
are on the table beside her. In the Salon of 1903 she exhibited five
pictures of flowers and another called the "Child with Long Hair."

I was first interested in this artist by the frequent references to her
and her work in the journal of Marie Bashkirtseff. They were
fellow-pupils in the Julian Academy. Soon after she began her studies
there Marie Bashkirtseff writes: "Breslau has been working at the studio
two years, and she is twenty; I am seventeen, but Breslau had taken
lessons for a long time before coming here.... How well that Breslau

"That miserable Breslau has composed a picture, 'Monday Morning, or the
Choice of a Model.' Every one belonging to the studio is in it--Julian
standing between Amalie and me. It is correctly done, the perspective is
good, the likenesses--everything. When one can do a thing like that, one
cannot fail to become a great artist. You have guessed it, have you not?
I am jealous. That is well, for it will serve as a stimulus to me."

"I am jealous of Breslau. She does not draw at all like a woman."

"I am terrified when I think of the future that awaits Breslau; it fills
me with wonder and sadness. In her compositions there is nothing
womanish, commonplace, or disproportioned. She will attract attention at
the Salon, for, in addition to her treatment of it, the subject itself
will not be a common one."

The above prophecy has been generously fulfilled. Mlle. Breslau is indeed
a poet in her ability to picture youth and its sweet intimacies, and she
does this so easily. With a touch she reveals the grace of one and the
affectations of another subject of her brush, and skilfully renders the
varying emotions in the faces of her pictures. Pleasure and suffering,
the fleeting thought of the child, the agitation of the young girl are
all depicted with rare truthfulness.


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BRICCI OR BRIZIO, PLAUTILLA. Very little is known of this Roman
artist of the seventeenth century, but that little marks her as an
unusually gifted woman, since she was a practical architect and a painter
of pictures. She was associated with her brother in some architectural
works in and near Rome, and was the only woman of her time in this

She is believed to have erected a small palace near the Porta San
Pancrazio, unaided by her brother, and is credited with having designed
in the Church of San Luigi de' Francesi the third chapel on the left
aisle, dedicated to St. Louis, and with having also painted the
altar-piece in this chapel.

BRIDGES, FIDELIA. Associate of the National Academy of Design in
1878, when but three other women were thus honored. Born in Salem,
Massachusetts. Studied with W. T. Richards in Philadelphia, and later in
Europe during one year. She exhibited her pictures from 1869 in
Philadelphia, New York, and Boston. Her subjects were landscapes and
flowers. In 1871 she first painted in water-colors, which suited many of
her pictures better than oils. She was elected a member of the
Water-Color Society in 1875. To the Philadelphia Exposition, 1876, she
sent a "Kingfisher and Catkins," a "Flock of Snow Birds," and the "Corner
of a Rye-Field." Of the last a writer in the _Art Journal_ said: "Miss
Bridges' 'Edge of a Rye-Field,' with a foreground of roses and weeds, is
a close study, and shows that she is as happy in the handling of oil
colors as in those mixed with water."

Another critic wrote: "Her works are like little lyric poems, and she
dwells with loving touches on each of her buds, 'like blossoms atilt'
among the leaves."

Her pictures are in private collections, and are much valued by their


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BROWNSCOMBE, JENNIE. Pupil of the National Academy and the Art
Students' League, New York, and of Henry Mosler in Paris.

Paints genre subjects, among which are: "Love's Young Dream," "Colonial
Minuet," "Sir Roger de Coverly at Carvel Hall," "Battle of Roses," etc.

The works of this artist have been reproduced in engravings and etchings,
and are well known in black and white. Her water-colors, too, have been
published in photogravure.

Miss Brownscombe exhibits at many American exhibitions and has had her
work accepted at the Royal Academy, London.

BROWNE, MATILDA. Honorable mention at Chicago, 1893; Dodge prize at
National Academy of Design, 1899; Hallgarten prize, 1901. Born in Newark,
New Jersey. Pupil of Miss Kate Greatorex; of Carleton Wiggins, New York;
of the Julian Academy, Paris; of H. S. Birbing in Holland, and of Jules
Dupré on the coast of France. When a child this artist lived very near
Thomas Moran and was allowed to spend much time in his studio, where she
learned the use of colors.

She exhibited her first picture at the National Academy of Design when
twelve years old, and has been a constant contributor to its exhibitions
since that time; also to the exhibitions of the American Water-Color

Her earliest pictures were of flowers, and during several years she had
no teacher. At length she decided to study battle painting, and, after a
summer under Carleton Wiggins, she went abroad, in 1890, and remained two
years, painting in the schools in winter and out of doors in summer. Miss
Browne exhibited at the Salon des Beaux-Arts in 1890, and many of her
works have been seen in exhibits in this country. The Dodge prize was
awarded to a picture called "The Last Load," and the Hallgarten prize to
"Repose," a moonlight scene with cattle. Her pictures are in private

This artist paints in oils. Her subjects are landscapes, flowers, and
still life. She has also painted cats successfully.

I have a winter landscape by Mrs. Brown which is unusually attractive and
is often admired. She sends her works to the exhibitions of the Boston
Art Club and to some exhibitions in New York.

BROWNE, MME. HENRIETTE. Born at Paris; 1829-1901. Pupil of Chaplin.
The family name of this artist was Bouteiller, and she married M. Jules
de Saux, but as an artist used the name of an ancestress. Her pictures of
genre subjects very early attracted attention, especially in 1855, when
she sent to the Salon "A Brother of the Christian School," "School for
the Poor at Aix," "Mutual Instruction," and "Rabbits." Her works were
popular and brought good prices. In 1868 "The Sisters of Charity" sold
for £1,320.

In 1878 she exhibited "A Grandmother" and "Convalescence." Her Oriental
scenes were much admired. Among these were "A Court in Damascus," "Nubian
Dancing Girls," and a "Harem in Constantinople." Mme. Browne was also
skilful as an engraver.

T. Chasrel wrote in _L'Art_: "Her touch without over-minuteness has the
delicacy and security of a fine work of the needle. The accent is just
without that seeking for virile energy which too often spoils the most
charming qualities. The sentiment is discreet without losing its
intensity in order to attract public notice. The painting of Mme.
Henriette Browne is at an equal distance from grandeur and insipidity,
from power and affectation, and gathers from the just balance of her
nature some effects of taste and charm of which a parvenu in art would be

The late Rev. Charles Kingsley wrote of the picture of the "Sisters of
Charity," of the sale of which I have spoken, as follows: "The picture
which is the best modern instance of this happy hitting of this golden
mean, whereby beauty and homely fact are perfectly combined, is in my
eyes Henrietta Browne's picture of the 'Sick Child and the Sisters of
Charity.' I know not how better to show that it is easy to be at once
beautiful and true, if one only knows how, than by describing that
picture. Criticise it, I dare not; for I believe that it will surely be
ranked hereafter among the very highest works of modern art. If I find no
fault in it, it is because I have none to find; because the first sight
of the picture produced in me instantaneous content and confidence. There
was nothing left to wish for, nothing to argue about. The thing was what
it ought to be, and neither more nor less, and I could look on it, not as
a critic, but as a learner only."

This is praise indeed from an Englishman writing of a Frenchwoman's
picture--an Englishman with no temptation to say what he did not think;
and we may accept his words as the exact expression of the effect the
picture made on him.

BRUNE, MME. AIMÉE PAGÈS. Medal of second class at Salon of 1831;
first class in 1841. Born in Paris. 1803-66. Pupil of Charles Meynier.
Painted historical and genre subjects. In 1831 she exhibited "Undine,"
the "Elopement," "Sleep," and "Awakening." In 1841 a picture of "Moses."
She painted several Bible scenes, among which were the "Daughter of
Jairus" and "Jephthah's Daughter."

BUECHMANN, FRAU HELENE. Her pictures have been seen at some annual
exhibitions in Germany, but she is best known by her portraits of
celebrated persons. Born in Berlin, 1849. Pupil of Steffeck and Gussow.
Among her portraits are those of Princess Carolath-Beuthen, Countess
Brühl, Prince and Princess Biron von Kurland, and the youngest son of
Prince Radziwill. She resides in Brussels.

BUTLER, MILDRED A. Associate of the Royal Society of Painters in
Water-Colors and of the Society of Lady Artists. Pupil of Naftel,
Calderon, and Garstin. Has exhibited at the Royal Academy and New
Gallery. Her picture called the "Morning Bath," exhibited at the Academy
in 1896, was purchased under the Chantry Bequest and is in the Tate
Gallery. It is a water-color, valued at £50.

Miss Butler exhibited "A Corner of the Bargello, Florence," at the London
Academy in 1903.

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BUTLER, LADY ELIZABETH. Born in Lausanne about 1844. Elizabeth
Southerden Thompson. As a child this artist was fond of drawing soldiers
and horses. She studied at the South Kensington School, at Florence under
Bellucci, and in Rome. She worked as an amateur some years, first
exhibiting at the Academy in 1873 her picture called "Missing," which was
praised; but the "Roll-Call," of the following year, placed her in the
front rank of the Academy exhibitors. It was purchased by the Queen and
hung in Windsor Castle. She next exhibited the "Twenty-Eighth Regiment at
Quatre Bras," the "Return from Inkerman," purchased by the Fine Art
Society for £3,000. This was followed by kindred subjects.

In 1890 Lady Butler exhibited "Evicted," in 1891 the "Camel Corps," in
1892 "Halt in a Forced March," in 1895 the "Dawn of Waterloo," in 1896
"Steady the Drums and Fifes," in 1902 "Tent Pegging in India," in 1903
"Within Sound of the Guns."

In 1869 she painted a religious picture called the "Magnificat." In
water-colors she has painted "Sketches in Tuscany" and several pictures
of soldiers, among which are "Scot's Grays Advancing" and "Cavalry at a

Lady Butler has recently appeared as an author, publishing "Letters from
the Holy Land," illustrated by sixteen most attractive drawings in
colors. The _Spectator_ says: "Lady Butler's letters and diary, the
outcome of a few weeks' journeyings in Palestine, express simply and
forcibly the impressions made on a devout and cultivated mind by the
scenes of the Holy Land."

In 1875 Ruskin wrote in "Notes of the Academy": "I never approached a
picture with more iniquitous prejudice against it than I did Miss
Thompson's--'Quatre Bras'--partly because I have always said that no
woman could paint, and secondly because I thought what the public made
such a fuss about _must_ be good for nothing. But it is Amazon's work
this, no doubt of it, and the first fine pre-Raphaelite picture of battle
we have had; profoundly interesting, and showing all manner of
illustrative and realistic faculty.... The sky is most tenderly painted,
and with the truest outline of cloud of all in the Exhibition; and the
terrific piece of gallant wrath and ruin on the extreme left, when the
cuirassier is catching round the neck of his horse as he falls, and the
convulsed fallen horse, seen through the smoke below, is wrought through
all the truth of its frantic passion with gradations of color and shade
which I have not seen the like of since Turner's death."

The _Art Journal_, 1877, says: "'Inkerman' is simply a marvellous
production when considered as the work of a young woman who was never on
the field of battle.... No matter how many figures she brings into the
scene, or how few, you may notice character in each figure, each is a
superb study."

Her recent picture, "Within Sound of the Guns," shows a company of
mounted soldiers on the confines of a river in South Africa.

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CAMERON, KATHERINE. Member of the Royal Scottish Society of Painters
in Water-Colors; Modern Sketch Club, London; Ladies' Art Club, Glasgow.
Born in Glasgow. Studied at Glasgow School of Art under Professor
Newbery, and at the Colarossi Academy, Paris, under Raphael Collin and
Gustave Courtois.

Her pictures are of genre subjects principally, and are in private
collections. "'The Sea Urchin,'" Miss Cameron writes, "is in one of the
public collections of Germany. I cannot remember which." She also says:
"Except for my diploma R. S. W. and having my drawings sometimes in
places of honor, usually on the line, and often reproduced in magazines,
I have no other honors. I have no medals."

In the _Magazine of Art_, June, 1903, her picture of a "Bull Fight in
Madrid" is reproduced. It is full of action and true to the life of these
horrors as I have seen them in Madrid. Doubtless the color is brilliant,
as the costumes of the toreadors are always so, and there are two in this
picture. This work was displayed at the exhibition of the Royal Scottish
Academy, June, 1903--of which a writer says: "A feeling for color has
always been predominant in the Scottish school, and it is here
conspicuously displayed, together with a method of handling, be it in the
domain of figure or landscape, which is personal to the artist and not a
mere academic tradition."

In the _Studio_ of May, 1903, J. L. C., who writes of the same
exhibition, calls this picture "admirable in both action and color."

CARL, KATE A. Honorable mention, Paris Salon, 1890; Chevalier of the
Legion of Honor, 1896; honorable mention, Paris Exposition, 1900. Associé
de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts. Born in New Orleans. Pupil of
Julian Academy and of Courtois in Paris.

This artist's name has been made prominent by the fact of her being
selected to paint a portrait of the Empress of China. Miss Carl has
frequently exhibited at the Salon. In 1902 she sent portraits in both oil
and water-colors. One of these works, called "Angelina," impresses one as
a faithful portrait of a model. She is seated and gracefully posed--the
face is in a full front view, the figure turned a little to one side and
nude to the waist, the hands are folded on the lap and hold a flower, a
gauze-like drapery falls about the left shoulder and the arms, but does
not conceal them; the background is a brocade or tapestry curtain.

I have seen a reproduction only, and cannot speak of the color. The whole
effect of the picture is attractive. For the purpose of painting the
portrait of the Chinese Empress, Miss Carl was assigned an apartment in
the palace. It is said that the picture was to be finished in December,
1903, and will probably be seen at the St. Louis Exhibition.

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CARLISLE, MISTRESS ANNE. Died in 1680. Was a favorite artist of King
Charles I. It is said that on one occasion the King bought a quantity of
ultramarine, for which he paid £500, and divided it between Vandyck and
Mistress Carlisle. Her copies after the Italian masters were of great

She painted in oils as well as in water-colors. One of her pictures
represents her as teaching a lady to use the brush. When we remember that
Charles, who was so constantly in contact with Vandyck, could praise
Mistress Carlisle, we must believe her to have been a good painter.

Mistress Anne has sometimes been confounded with the Countess of
Carlisle, who was distinguished as an engraver of the works of Salvator
Rosa, etc.

CARPENTER, MARGARET SARAH. The largest gold medal and other honors
from the Society of Arts, London. Born at Salisbury, England. 1793-1872.
Pupil of a local artist in Salisbury when quite young. Lord Radnor's
attention was called to her talent, and he permitted her to copy in the
gallery of Longford Castle, and advised her sending her pictures to
London, and later to go there herself. She made an immediate success as a
portrait painter, and from 1814 during fifty-two years her pictures were
annually exhibited at the Academy with a few rare exceptions.

Her family name was Geddis; her husband was Keeper of the Prints and
Drawings in the British Museum more than twenty years, and after his
death his wife received a pension of £100 a year in recognition of his

Her portraits were considered excellent as likenesses; her touch was
firm, her color brilliant, and her works in oils and water-colors as well
as her miniatures were much esteemed. Many of them were engraved. Her
portrait of the sculptor Gibson is in the National Portrait Gallery,
London. A life-size portrait of Anthony Stewart, miniature painter,
called "Devotion," and the "Sisters," portraits of Mrs. Carpenter's
daughters, with a picture of "Ockham Church," are at South Kensington.

She painted a great number of portraits of titled ladies which are in
the collections of their families. Among the more remarkable were those
of Lady Eastnor, 1825; Lady King, daughter of Lord Byron, 1835; Countess
Ribblesdale, etc.

Her portraits of Fraser Tytler, John Girkin, and Bonington are in the
National Portrait Gallery, London. In the South Kensington Gallery are
her pictures of "Devotion--St. Francis," which is a life-size study of
Anthony Stewart, the miniature painter; "The Sisters," "Ockham Church,"
and "An Old Woman Spinning."

CARPENTIER, MLLE. MADELEINE. Honorable mention, 1890; third-class
medal, 1896. Born in Paris, 1865. Pupil of Bonnefoy and of Jules Lefebvre
at the Julian Academy. Since 1885 this artist has exhibited many
portraits as well as flower and fruit pieces, these last in water-colors.
In 1896 her pictures were the "Communicants" and the "Candles," a pastel,
purchased by the city of Paris; "Among Friends" is in the Museum of

At the Salon of the Artistes Français, 1902, Mlle. Carpentier exhibited a
picture called "Reflection," and in 1903 a portrait of Mme. L. T. and the
"Little Goose-Herders."

CARRIERA, ROSALBA, better known as Rosalba. Born in Venice
1675-1757--and had an eventful life. Her artistic talent was first
manifested in lace-weaving, which as a child she preferred before any
games or amusements. She studied painting under several masters,
technique under Antonio Balestra, pastel-painting with Antonio Nazari and
Diamantini, and miniature painting, in which she was especially
distinguished, was taught her by her brother-in-law, Antonio Pellegrini,
whom she later accompanied to Paris and London and assisted in the
decorative works he executed there.

Rosalba's fame in Venice was such that she was invited to the courts of
France and Austria, where she painted many portraits. She was honored by
election to the Academies of Rome, Bologna, and Paris.

This artist especially excelled in portraits of pretty women, while her
portraits of men were well considered. Among the most important were
those of the Emperor Charles, the kings of France and Denmark, and many
other distinguished persons, both men and women.

The Grand Duke of Tuscany asked for her own portrait for his gallery. She
represented herself with one of her sisters. Her face is noble and most
expressive, but, like many of her pictures, while the head is spirited
and characteristic, the rest of the figure and the accessories are weak.
A second portrait of herself--in crayons--is in the Dresden Gallery, and
is very attractive.

While in England Rosalba painted many portraits in crayon and pastel, in
which art she was not surpassed by any artist of her day.

Her diary of two years in Paris was published in Venice. It is curious
and interesting, as it sets forth the customs of society, and especially
those of artists of the period.

Returning to Venice, Rosalba suffered great depression and was haunted by
a foreboding of calamity. She lived very quietly. In his "Storia della
Pittura Veneziana," Zanetti writes of her at this time: "Much of interest
may be written of this celebrated and highly gifted woman, whose spirit,
in the midst of her triumphs and the brightest visions of happiness, was
weighed down by the anticipation of a heavy calamity. On one occasion she
painted a portrait of herself, the brow wreathed with leaves which
symbolized death. She explained this as an image of the sadness in which
her life would end."

Alas, this was but too prophetic! Before she was fifty years old she lost
her sight, and gradually the light of reason also, and her darkness was

An Italian writer tells the following story: "Nature had endowed Rosalba
with lofty aspirations and a passionate soul; her heart yearned for the
admiration which her lack of personal attraction forbade her receiving.
She fully realized her plainness before the Emperor Charles XI. rudely
brought it home to her. When presented to him by the artist Bertoli, the
Emperor exclaimed: 'She may be clever, Bertoli mio, this painter of
thine, but she is remarkably ugly.' From which it would appear that
Charles had not believed his mirror, since his ugliness far exceeded that
of Rosalba! Her dark eyes, fine brow, good expression, and graceful pose
of the head, as shown in her portrait, impress one more favorably than
would be anticipated from this story."

Many of Rosalba's works have been reproduced by engravings; a collection
of one hundred and fifty-seven of these are in the Dresden Gallery,
together with several of her pictures.

CASSATT, MARY. Born in Pittsburg. Studied in Pennsylvania schools,
and under Soyer and Bellay in Paris. She has lived and travelled much in
Europe, and her pictures, which are of genre subjects, include scenes in
France, Italy, Spain, and Holland.

Among her principal works are "La tasse de thé," "Le lever du bébé,"
"Reading," "Mère et Enfant," and "Caresse Maternelle."

Miss Cassatt has exhibited at the Paris Salon, the National Academy, New
York, and various other exhibitions, but her works are rarely if ever
exhibited in recent days. It is some years since William Walton wrote of
her: "But in general she seems to have attained that desirable condition,
coveted by artists, of being able to dispense with the annual

Miss Cassatt executed a large, decorative picture for the north tympanum
of the Woman's Building at the Columbian Exhibition.

A writer in the _Century Magazine_, March, 1899, says: "Of the colony of
American artists, who for a decade or two past have made Paris their
home, few have been more interesting and none more serious than Miss
Cassatt.... Miss Cassatt has found her true bent in her recent pictures
of children and in the delineation of happy maternity. These she has
portrayed with delicacy, refinement, and sentiment. Her technique appeals
equally to the layman and the artist, and her color has all the
tenderness and charm that accompanies so engaging a motif."

In November, 1903, Miss Cassatt held an exhibition of her works in New
York. At the winter exhibition of the Philadelphia Academy, 1904, she
exhibited a group, a mother and children, one child quite nude. Arthur
Hoeber described it as "securing great charm of manner, of color, and of

CATTANEO, MARIA. Bronze medal at the National Exposition, Parma,
1870; silver medal at Florence, 1871; silver medal at the centenary of
Ariosto at Ferrara. Made an honorary member of the Brera Academy, Milan,
1874, an honor rarely conferred on a woman; elected to the Academy of
Urbino, 1875. Born in Milan. Pupil of her father and of Angelo Rossi.

She excels in producing harmony between all parts of her works. She has
an exquisite sense of color and a rare technique. Good examples of her
work are "The Flowers of Cleopatra," "The Return from the Country," "An
Excursion by Gondola." She married the artist, Pietro Michis. Her picture
of the "Fish Market in Venice" attracted much attention when it appeared
in 1887; it was a most accurate study from life.

CHARPENTIER, CONSTANCE MARIE. Pupil of David. Her best known works
were "Ulysses Finding Young Astyanax at Hector's Grave" and "Alexander
Weeping at the Death of the Wife of Darius." These were extraordinary as
the work of a woman. Their size, with the figures as large as life, made
them appear to be ambitious, as they were certainly unusual. Her style
was praised by the admirers of David, to whose teaching she did credit.
The disposition of her figures was good, the details of her costumes and
accessories were admirably correct, but her color was hard and she was
generally thought to be wanting in originality and too close a follower
of her master.

CHARRETIE, ANNA MARIA. 1819-75. Her first exhibitions at the Royal
Academy, London, were miniatures and flower pieces. Later she painted
portraits and figure subjects, as well as flowers. In 1872 "Lady Betty
Germain" was greatly admired for the grace of the figure and the
exquisite finish of the details. In 1873 she exhibited "Lady Betty's
Maid" and "Lady Betty Shopping." "Lady Teazle Behind the Screen" was
dated 1871, and "Mistress of Herself tho' China Fall" was painted and
exhibited in the last year of her life.

CHASE, ADELAIDE COLE. Member of Art Students' Association. Born in
Boston. Daughter of J. Foxcroft Cole. Studied at the School of the Museum
of Fine Arts, under Tarbell, and also under Jean Paul Laurens and Carolus
Duran in Paris; and with Vinton in Boston.

Mrs. Chase has painted portraits entirely, most of which are in or near
Boston; her artistic reputation among painters of her own specialty is
excellent, and her portraits are interesting aside from the persons
represented, when considered purely as works of art.

[Illustration: From a Copley Print.



A portrait called a "Woman with a Muff," exhibited recently at the
exhibition of the Society of American Artists, in New York, was much
admired. At the 1904 exhibition of the Philadelphia Academy Mrs. Chase
exhibited a portrait of children, Constance and Gordon Worcester, of
which Arthur Hoeber writes: "She has painted them easily, with deftness
and feeling, and apparently caught their character and the delicacy of

CHAUCHET, CHARLOTTE. Honorable mention at the Salon, 1901;
third-class medal, 1902. Member of the Société des Artistes Français and
of l'Union des femmes peintres et sculpteurs. Born at Charleville,
Ardennes, in 1878. Pupil of Gabriel Thurner, Benjamin-Constant, Jean Paul
Laurens, and Victor Marec. Her principal works are "Marée"--Fish--1899,
purchased for the lottery of the International Exposition at Lille;
"Breton Interior," purchased by the Society of the Friends of the Arts,
at Nantes; "Mother Closmadenc Dressing Fish," in the Museum of Brest;
"Interior of a Kitchen at Mont," purchased by the Government; "Portrait
of my Grandmother," which obtained honorable mention; "At the Corner of
the Fire," "A Little Girl in the Open Air," medal of third class.

The works of Mlle. Chauchet have been much praised. The _Petit Moniteur_,
June, 1899, says: "Mlle. Chauchet, a very young girl, in her picture of a
'Breton Interior' shows a vigor and decision very rare in a woman." Of
the "Marée," the _Dépêche de Brest_ says: "On a sombre background, in
artistic disorder, thrown pell-mell on the ground, are baskets and a
shining copper kettle, with a mass of fish of all sorts, of varied forms,
and changing colors. All well painted. Such is the picture by Mlle.

In the _Courrier de l'Est_ we read: "Mlle. Chauchet, taking her
grandmother for her model, has painted one of the best portraits of the
Salon. The hands, deformed by disease and age, are especially effective;
the delicate tone of the hair in contrast with the lace of the cap makes
an attractive variation in white."

In the _Union Républicaine de la Marne_, H. Bernard writes: "'Le
retour des champs' is a picture of the plain of Berry at evening. We see
the back of a peasant, nude above the blue linen pantaloons, with the
feet in wooden sabots. He is holding his tired, heavy cow by the tether.
The setting sun lights up his powerful bronzed back, his prominent
shoulders, and the hindquarters of the cow. It is all unusually strong;
the drawing is firm and very bold in the foreshortening of the animal.
The effect of the whole is a little sad; the sobriety of the execution
emphasizes this effect, and, above all, there is in it no suggestion of
the feminine. I have already noticed this quality of almost brutal
sincerity, of picturesque realism, in the works of Mlle. Chauchet who
successfully follows her methods."

Chaussée, Mlle. Cécile de.

[_No reply to circular_.]

CHÉRON, ELIZABETH SOPHIE. Born in Paris in 1648. Her father was an
artist, and under his instruction Elizabeth attained such perfection in
miniature and enamel painting that her works were praised by the most
distinguished artists. In 1674 Charles le Brun proposed her name and she
was elected to the Academy.

Her exquisite taste in the arrangement of her subjects, the grace of her
draperies, and, above all, the refinement and spirituality of her
pictures, were the characteristics on which her fame was based.

Her life outside her art was interesting. Her father was a rigid
Calvinist, and endeavored to influence his daughter to adopt his
religious belief; but her mother, who was a fervent Roman Catholic,
persuaded Elizabeth to pass a year in a convent, during which time she
ardently embraced the faith of her mother. She was an affectionate
daughter to both her parents and devoted her earnings to her brother
Louis, who made his studies in Italy.

In her youth Elizabeth Chéron seemed insensible to the attractions of the
brilliant men in her social circle, and was indifferent to the offers of
marriage which she received; but when sixty years old, to the surprise of
her friends, she married Monsieur Le Hay, a gentleman of her own age. One
of her biographers, leaving nothing to the imagination, assures us that
"substantial esteem and respect were the foundations of their matrimonial
happiness, rather than any pretence of romantic sentiment."

Mlle. Chéron's narrative verse was much admired and her spiritual poetry
was thought to resemble that of J. B. Rousseau. In 1699 she was elected
to the Accademia dei Ricovrati of Padua, where she was known as Erato.
The honors bestowed on her did not lessen the modesty of her bearing. She
was simple in dress, courteous in her intercourse with her inferiors, and
to the needy a helpful friend.

She died when sixty-three and was buried in the church of St. Sulpice. I
translate the lines written by the Abbé Bosquillon and placed beneath her
portrait: "The unusual possession of two exquisite talents will render
Chéron an ornament to France for all time. Nothing save the grace of her
brush could equal the excellencies of her pen."

Pictures by this artist are seen in various collections in France, but
the larger number of her works were portraits which are in the families
of her subjects.

CHERRY, EMMA RICHARDSON. Gold medal from Western Art Association in
1891. Member of above association and of the Denver Art Club. Born at
Aurora, Illinois, 1859. Pupil of Julian and Delécluse Academies in Paris,
also of Merson, and of the Art Students' League in New York.

Mrs. Cherry is a portrait painter, and in 1903 was much occupied in this
art in Chicago and vicinity. Among her sitters were Mr. Orrington Lunt,
the donor of the Library of the Northwestern University, and Bishop
Foster, a former president of the same university; these are to be placed
in the library. A portrait by Mrs. Cherry of a former president of the
American Society of Civil Engineers, Mr. O. Chanute, is to be placed in
the club rooms of the society in New York. It has been done at the
request of the society.

An exhibition of ten portraits by this artist was held in Chicago in
1903, and was favorably noticed. Mrs. Cherry resides in Houston, Texas.

CLEMENT, ETHEL. This artist has received several awards from
California State fair exhibits, and her pastel portrait of her mother was
hung on the line at the Salon of 1898. Member of San Francisco Art
Association and of the Sketch Club of that city. Born in San Francisco in
1874. Her studies began in her native city with drawing from the antique
and from life under Fred Yates. At the Cowles Art School, Boston, and the
Art Students' League, New York, she spent three winters, and at the
Julian Academy, Paris, three other winters, drawing from life and
painting in oils under the teaching of Jules Lefebvre and Robert-Fleury,
supplementing these studies by that of landscape in oils under George
Laugée in Picardie.

Her portraits, figure subjects, and landscapes are numerous, and are
principally in private collections, a large proportion being in San
Francisco. Her recent work has been landscape painting in New England. In
1903 she exhibited a number of pictures in Boston which attracted
favorable attention.

COHEN, KATHERINE M. Honorary member of the American Art Association,
Paris, and of the New Century Club, Philadelphia. Born in Philadelphia,
1859. Pupil of School of Design, Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, and
of St. Gaudens at Art Students' League; also six years in Paris schools.

This artist executed a portrait of General Beaver for the Smith Memorial
in Fairmount Park. She has made many portraits in busts and bas-reliefs,
as well as imaginary subjects and decorative works. "The Israelite" is a
life-size statue and an excellent work.

COLLAERT, MARIE. Born in Brussels, 1842. Is called the Flemish Rosa
Bonheur and the Muse of Belgian landscape. Her pictures of country life
are most attractive. Her powerful handling of her brush is modified by a
tender, feminine sentiment.

I quote from the "History of Modern Painters": "In Marie Collaert's
pictures may be found quiet nooks beneath clear sky-green stretches of
grass where the cows are at pasture in idyllic peace. Here is to be
found the cheery freshness of country life."

COMAN, CHARLOTTE B. Bronze medal, California Mid-Winter Exposition,
1894. Member of New York Water-Color Club. Born in Waterville, N. Y.
Pupil of J. R. Brevoort in America, of Harry Thompson and Émile Vernier
in Paris. This artist has painted landscapes, and sent to the
Philadelphia Exposition in 1876 "A French Village"; to the Paris
Exposition, 1878, "Near Fontainebleau." In 1877 and 1878 she exhibited in
Boston, "On the Borders of the Marne" and "Peasant House in Normandy."

[_No reply to circular_.]

COMERRE-PATON, MME. JACQUELINE. Honorable mention, 1881; medal at
Versailles; officer of the Academy. Born at Paris, 1859. Pupil of
Cabanel. Her principal works are: "Peau d'Ane, Hollandaise," in the
Museum of Lille; "Song of the Wood," Museum of Morlaix; "Mignon,"
portrait of Mlle. Ugalde; the "Haymaker," etc.

COOKESLEY, MARGARET MURRAY. Decorated by the Sultan of Turkey with
the Order of the Chefakat, and with the Medaille des Beaux Arts, also a
Turkish honor. Medal for the "Lion Tamers in the Time of Nero." Member of
the Empress Club. Born in Dorsetshire. Studied in Brussels under Leroy
and Gallais, and spent a year at South Kensington in the study of
anatomy. Mrs. Cookesley has lived in Newfoundland and in San Francisco. A
visit to Constantinople brought her a commission to paint a portrait of
the son of the Sultan. No sittings were accorded her, the Sultan
thinking a photograph sufficient for the artist to work from. Fortunately
Mrs. Cookesley was able to make a sketch of her subject while following
the royal carriage in which he was riding. The portrait proved so
satisfactory to the Sultan that he not only decorated the artist, but
invited her to make portraits of some of his wives, for which Mrs.
Cookesley had not time. Her pictures of Oriental subjects have been
successful. Among these are: "An Arab Café in the Slums of Cairo," much
noticed in the Academy Exhibition of 1895; "Noon at Ramazan," "The
Snake-Charmer," "Umbrellas to Mend--Damascus," and a group of the
"Soudanese Friends of Gordon." Her "Priestess of Isis" is owned in Cairo.

Among her pictures of Western subjects are "The Puritan's Daughter,"
"Deliver Us from Evil," "The Gambler's Wife." "Widowed" and "Miss Calhoun
as Salome" were purchased by Maclean, of the Haymarket Theatre; "Death of
the First-Born" is owned in Russia; and "Portrait of Ellen Terry as
Imogen" is in a private collection.

"Lion Tamers in the Time of Nero" is one of her important pictures of
animals, of which she has made many sketches.

COOPER, EMMA LAMPERT. Awarded medal at World's Columbian Exposition,
1893; bronze medal, Atlanta Exposition, 1895. Member of Water-Color Club
and Woman's Art Club, New York; Water-Color Club and Plastic Club,
Philadelphia; Woman's Art Association, Canada; Women's International Art
Club, London.

Born in Nunda, N. Y. Studied under Agnes D. Abbatt at Cooper Union and at
the Art Students' League, New York; in Paris under Harry Thompson and at
Delécluse and Colarossi Academies.



Mrs. Cooper's work is principally in water-colors. After several years
abroad, in the spring of 1903 she exhibited twenty-two pictures,
principally of Dutch interiors, with some sketches in English towns,
which last, being more unusual, were thought her best work. Her picture,
"Mother Claudius," is in the collection of Walter J. Peck, New York;
"High Noon at Cape Ann" is owned by W. B. Lockwood, New York; and a
"Holland Interior" by Dr. Gessler, Philadelphia. Of her recent exhibition
a critic writes: "The pictures are notable for their careful attention to
detail of drawing. Architectural features of the rich old Gothic churches
are faithfully indicated instead of blurred, and the treatment is almost
devotional in tone, so sympathetic is the quality of the work. There is a
total absence of the garish coloring which has become so common, the
religious subjects being without exception in a minor key, usually soft
grays and blues. It is indeed in composition and careful drawing that
this artist excels rather than in coloring, although this afterthought is
suggested by the canvasses treating of secular subjects."--_Brooklyn
Standard Union_.

CORAZZI, GIULITTA. Born at Fivizzano, 1866. Went to Florence when
still a child and early began to study art. She took a diploma at the
Academy in 1886, having been a pupil of Cassioli. She is a portrait
painter, and among her best works are the portraits of the Counts
Francesco and Ottorino Tenderini, Giuseppe Erede, and Raffaello
Morvanti. Her pictures of flowers are full of freshness and spirit and
delightful in color. Since 1885 she has spent much time in teaching in
the public schools and other institutions and in private families.

CORRELLI, CLEMENTINA. Member of the Society for the Promotion of the
Fine Arts, in Naples. Born in Lesso, 1840. This artist is both a painter
and a sculptor. Pupil of Biagio Molinari, she supplemented his
instructions by constant visits to galleries and museums, where she could
study masterpieces of art. A statue called "The Undeceived" and a group,
"The Task," did much to establish her reputation. They were exhibited in
Naples, Milan, and Verona, and aroused widespread interest.

Her pictures are numerous. Among them are "St. Louis," "Sappho,"
"Petrarch and Laura," "Romeo and Juliet," "Hagar and Ishmael in the
Desert," "A Devotee of the Virgin," exhibited at Turin in 1884; a series
illustrating the "Seasons," and four others representing the arts.

COSWAY, MARIA. The artist known by this name was born Maria
Hadfield, the daughter of an Englishman who acquired a fortune as a
hotel-keeper in Leghorn, which was Maria's birthplace. She was educated
in a convent, and early manifesting unusual artistic ability, was sent to
Rome to study painting. Her friends there, among whom were Battoni,
Raphael Mengs, and Fuseli, found much to admire and praise in her art.

After her father's death Maria ardently desired to become a nun, but her
mother persuaded her to go to England. Here she came under the influence
of Angelica Kauffman, and devoted herself assiduously to painting.

She married Richard Cosway, an eminent painter of miniatures in
water-colors. Cosway was a man of fortune with a good position in the
fashionable circles of London. For a time after their marriage Maria
lived in seclusion, her husband wishing her to acquire the dignity and
grace requisite for success in the society which he frequented. Meantime
she continued to paint in miniature, and her pictures attracted much
attention in the Academy exhibitions.

When at length Cosway introduced her to the London world, she was greatly
admired; her receptions were crowded, and the most eminent people sat to
her for their portraits. Her picture of the Duchess of Devonshire in the
character of Spenser's Cynthia was very much praised. Cosway did not
permit her to be paid for her work, and as a consequence many costly
gifts were made her in return for her miniatures, which were regarded as
veritable treasures by their possessors.

Maria Cosway had a delicious voice in singing, which, in addition to her
other talent, her beauty, and grace, made her unusually popular in
society, and her house was a centre for all who had any pretensions to a
place in the best circles. Poets, authors, orators, lords, ladies,
diplomats, as well as the Prince of Wales, were to be seen in her
drawing-rooms. A larger house was soon required for the Cosways, and the
description of it in "Nollekens and His Times" is interesting:

"Many of the rooms were more like scenes of enchantment pencilled by a
poet's fancy, than anything perhaps before displayed in a domestic
habitation. Escritoires of ebony, inlaid with mother-of-pearl, and rich
caskets for antique gems, exquisitely enamelled and adorned with onyx,
opals, rubies, and emeralds; cabinets of ivory, curiously wrought; mosaic
tables, set with jasper, blood-stone, and lapis-lazuli, their feet carved
into the claws of lions and eagles; screens of old raised Oriental Japan;
massive musical clocks, richly chased with ormulu and tortoise-shell;
ottomans superbly damasked; Persian and other carpets, with corresponding
hearth-rugs bordered with ancient family crests and armorial ensigns in
the centre, and rich hangings of English tapestry. The carved
chimney-pieces were adorned with the choicest bronzes and models in wax
and terra-cotta. The tables were covered with Sèvres, blue Mandarin,
Nankin, and Dresden china, and the cabinets were surmounted with crystal
cups, adorned with the York and Lancaster roses, which might have graced
the splendid banquets of the proud Wolsey."

In the midst of all this fatiguing luxury, Maria Cosway lost her health
and passed several years travelling in Europe. Returning to London, she
was again prostrated by the death of her only daughter. She then went to
Lodi, near Milan, where she founded a college for the education of girls.
She spent much time in Lodi, and after the death of her husband
established herself there permanently. A goodly circle of friends
gathered about her, and she found occupation and solace for her griefs in
the oversight of her college.

She continued her painting and the exhibition of her pictures at the
Royal Academy. She made illustrations for the works of Virgil, Homer,
Spenser, and other poets, and painted portraits of interesting and
distinguished persons, among whom were Mme. Le Brun and Mme. Récamier.
The life and work of Maria Cosway afford a striking contradiction of the
theory that wealth and luxury induce idleness and dull the powers of
their possessors. Hers is but one of the many cases in which a woman's a
woman "for a' that."

At an art sale in London in 1901, an engraving by V. Green after Mrs.
Cosway's portrait of herself, first state, brought $1,300, and a second
one $200 less.

COUDERT, AMALIA KÜSSNER. Born in Terre Haute, Indiana. This
distinguished miniaturist writes me that she "never studied." Like Topsy,
she must have "growed." By whatever method they are produced or by
whatever means the artist in her has been evolved, her pictures would
seem to prove that study of a most intelligent order has done its part in
her development.

She has executed miniature portraits of the Czar and Czarina of Russia,
the Grand Duchess Vladimir, King Edward VII., the late Cecil Rhodes, many
English ladies of rank, and a great number of the beautiful and
fashionable women of America.

COUTAN-MONTORGUEIL, MME. LAURE MARTIN. Honorable mention, Salon des
Artistes Français, 1894. Born at Dun-sur-Auron, Cher. Pupil of Alfred

This sculptor has executed the monument to André Gill, Père Lachaise;
that of the Poet Moreau, in the cemetery Montparnasse; bust of Taglioni,
in the foyer of the Grand Opera House, Paris; bust of the astronomer
Leverrier, at the Institute, Paris; a statue, "The Spring," Museum of
Bourges; "Sirius," in the Palais of the Governor of Algiers. Also busts
of Prince Napoleon, General Boulanger, the Countess de Choiseul, the
Countess de Vogué, and numerous statuettes and other compositions.

At the Salon, Artistes Français, 1903, she exhibited "Fortune" and "A

COWLES, GENEVIEVE ALMEDA. Member of the Woman's Art Club, New York;
Club of Women Art Workers, New York; and the Paint and Clay Club of New
Haven. Born in Farmington, Connecticut, 1871. Pupil of Robert Brandagee;
of the Cowles Art School, Boston; and of Professor Niemeyer at the Yale
Art School.

Together with her twin sister, Maud, this artist has illustrated various
magazine articles. Also several books, among which are "The House of the
Seven Gables," "Old Virginia," etc.

Miss G. A. Cowles designed a memorial window and a decorative border for
the chancel of St. Michael's Church, Brooklyn. Together with her sister,
she designed a window in the memory of the Deaconess, Miss Stillman, in
Grace Church, New York City. These sisters now execute many windows and
other decorative work for churches, and also superintend the making and
placing of the windows.

Regarding their work in the Chapel of Christ Church, New Haven, Miss
Genevieve Cowles writes me: "These express the Prayer of the Prisoner,
the Prayer of the Soul in Darkness, and the Prayer of Old Age. These are
paintings of states of the soul and of deep emotions. The paintings are
records of human lives and not mere imagination. We study our characters
directly from life."

These artists are now, November, 1903, engaged upon a landscape frieze
for a dining-room in a house at Watch Hill.

Miss Genevieve Cowles writes: "We feel that we are only at the beginning
of our life-work, which is to be chiefly in mural decoration and stained
glass. I desire especially to work for prisons, hospitals, and
asylums--for those whose great need of beauty seems often to be

COWLES, MAUD ALICE. Twin sister of Genevieve Cowles. Bronze medal at
Paris Exposition, 1900, and a medal at Buffalo, 1901. Her studies were
the same as her sister's, and she is a member of the same societies.
Indeed, what has been said above is equally true of the two sisters, as
they usually work on the same windows and decorations, dividing the
designing and execution between them.

COX, LOUISE--MRS. KENYON COX. Third Hallgarten prize, National
Academy of Design; bronze medal, Paris Exposition, 1900; silver medal at
Buffalo, 1901; medal at Charleston, 1902; Shaw Memorial prize, Society of
American Artists, 1903. Member of Society of American Artists, and an
associate of the Academy of Design. Born at San Francisco, 1865. Studies
made at Academy of Design, Art Students' League, under C. Turner, George
de Forest Brush, and Kenyon Cox.

Mrs. Cox paints small decorative pictures and portraits, mostly of
children. The Shaw prize was awarded to a child's portrait, called
"Olive." Among other subjects she has painted an "Annunciation," the
"Fates," and "Angiola," reproduced in this book.

[Illustration: From a Copley Print.



A writer in the _Cosmopolitan_ says: "Mrs. Cox is an earnest worker and
her method is interesting. Each picture is the result of many sketches
and the study of many models, representing in a composite way the
perfections of all. For the Virgin in her 'Annunciation' a model was
first posed in the nude, and then another draped, the artist sketching
the figure in the nude, draping it from the second model. The hands are
always separately sketched from a model who has a peculiar grace in
folding them naturally."

Mrs. Cox gives her ideas about her picture of the "Fates" as follows: "My
interpretation of the Fates is not the one usually accepted. The idea
took root in my mind years ago when I was a student at the League. It
remained urgently with me until I was forced to work it out. As you see,
the faces of the Fates are young and beautiful, but almost
expressionless. The heads are drooping, the eyes heavy as though half
asleep. My idea is, that they are merely instruments under the control of
a higher power. They perform their work, they must do it without will or
wish of their own. It would be beyond human or superhuman endurance for
any conscious instrument to bear for ages and ages the horrible
responsibility placed upon the Fates."

CRESPO DE REIGON, ASUNCION. Honorable mention at the National
Exhibition, Madrid, 1860. Member of the Academy of San Fernando, 1839.
Pupil of her father. To the exhibition in 1860 she sent a "Magdalen in
the Desert," "The Education of the Virgin," "The Divine Shepherdess," "A
Madonna," and a "Venus." Her works have been seen in many public
exhibitions. In 1846 she exhibited a miniature of Queen Isabel II. Many
of her pictures are in private collections.

CROMENBURCH, ANNA VON. In the Museum of Madrid are four portraits by
this artist: "A Lady of the Netherlands," which belonged to Philip IV.;
"A Lady and Child," "A Lady with her Infant before Her," and another
"Portrait of a Lady." The catalogue of the Museum gallery says: "It is
not known in what place or in what year this talented lady was born. She
is said to have belonged to an old and noble family of Friesland. At any
rate, she was an excellent portrait painter, and flourished about the end
of the sixteenth century. The Museo del Prado is the only gallery in
Europe which possesses works signed by this distinguished artist."

DAHN-FRIES, SOPHIE. Born in Munich. 1835-98. This artist was endowed
with unusual musical and artistic talent. After the education of her only
son, she devoted herself to painting, principally of landscape and
flowers. After 1868, so long as she lived she was much interested in Frau
von Weber's Art School for Girls. In 1886, when a financial crisis came,
Mme. Dahn-Fries saved the enterprise from ruin. She exhibited, in 1887,
two pictures which are well known--"Harvest Time" and "Forest Depths."

DAMER, MRS. ANNE SEYMOUR. Family name Conway. 1748-1828. She was a
granddaughter of the Duke of Argyle, a relative of the Marquis of
Hertford, and a cousin of Horace Walpole. Her education was conducted
with great care; the history of ancient nations, especially in relation
to art, was her favorite study. She had seen but few sculptures, but was
fascinated by them, and almost unconsciously cherished the idea that she
could at least model portraits and possibly give form to original

Allan Cunningham wrote of her thus: "Her birth entitled her to a life of
ease and luxury; her beauty exposed her to the assiduity of suitors and
the temptations of courts; but it was her pleasure to forget all such
advantages and dedicate the golden hours of her youth to the task of
raising a name by working in wet clay, plaster of Paris, stubborn marble,
and still more intractable bronze."

Before she had seriously determined to attempt the realization of her
dreams, she was brought to a decision by a caustic remark of the
historian, Hume. Miss Conway was one day walking with him when they met
an Italian boy with plaster vases and figures to sell. Hume examined the
wares and talked with the boy. Not long after, in the presence of several
other people, Miss Conway ridiculed Hume's taste in art; he answered her
sarcastically and intimated that no woman could display as much science
and genius as had entered into the making of the plaster casts she so

This decided her to test herself, and, obtaining wax and the proper
tools, she worked industriously until she had made a head that she was
willing to show to others. She then presented it to Hume; it has been
said that it was his own portrait, but we do not know if this is true. At
all events, Hume was forced to commend her work, and added that modelling
in wax was very easy, but to chisel in marble was quite another task.
Piqued by this scant praise she worked on courageously, and before long
showed her critic a copy of the wax head done in marble.

Though Hume genuinely admired certain portions of this work, it is not
surprising that he also found defects in it. Doubtless his critical
attitude stimulated the young sculptress to industry; but the true
art-impulse was awakened, and her friends soon observed that Miss Conway
was no longer interested in their usual pursuits. When the whole truth
was known, it caused much comment. Of course ladies had painted, but to
work with the hands in wet clay and be covered with marble dust--to say
the least, Miss Conway was eccentric.

She at once began the study of anatomy under Cruikshanks, modelling with
Cerrachi, and the handling of marble in the studio of Bacon.

Unfortunately for her art, she was married at nineteen to John Darner,
eldest son of Lord Milton, a fop and spendthrift, who had run through a
large fortune. He committed suicide nine years after his marriage. It is
said that Harrington, in Miss Burney's novel of "Cecilia," was drawn from
John Damer, and that his wardrobe was sold for $75,000--about half its
original cost!

Mrs. Damer was childless, and very soon after her husband's death she
travelled in Europe and renewed her study and practice of sculpture with
enthusiasm. By some of her friends her work was greatly admired, but
Walpole so exaggerated his praise of her that one can but think that he
wrote out of his cousinly affection for the artist, rather than from a
judicial estimate of her talent. He bequeathed to her, for her life, his
villa of Strawberry Hill, with all its valuables, and £2,000 a year for
its maintenance.

Mrs. Damer executed many portrait busts, some animal subjects, two
colossal heads, symbolic of the Thames and the Isis, intended for the
adornment of the bridge at Henley. Her statue of the king, in marble, was
placed in the Register Office in Edinburgh. She made a portrait bust of
herself for the Uffizi Gallery, in Florence. Her portrait busts of her
relatives were numerous and are still seen in private galleries. She
executed two groups of "Sleeping Dogs," one for Queen Caroline and a
second for her brother-in-law, the Duke of Richmond. Napoleon asked her
for a bust of Fox, which she made and presented to the Emperor. A bust of
herself which she made for Richard Payne Knight was by him bequeathed to
the British Museum. Her "Death of Cleopatra" was modelled in relief, and
an engraving from it was used as a vignette on the title-page of the
second volume of Boydell's Shakespeare.

Those who have written of Mrs. Darner's art have taken extreme views.
They have praised _ad nauseam_, as Walpole did when he wrote: "Mrs.
Darner's busts from life are not inferior to the antique. Her shock dog,
large as life and only not alive, rivals the marble one of Bernini in
the Royal Collection. As the ancients have left us but five animals of
equal merit with their human figures--viz., the Barberini Goat, the
Tuscan Boar, the Mattei Eagle, the Eagle at Strawberry Hill, and Mr.
Jennings' Dog--the talent of Mrs. Damer must appear in the most
distinguished light."

Cerrachi made a full length figure of Mrs. Damer, which he called the
Muse of Sculpture, and Darwin, the poet, wrote:

    "Long with soft touch shall Damers' chisel charm,
    With grace delight us, and with beauty warm."

Quite in opposition to this praise, other authors and critics have
severely denied the value of her talent, her originality, and her ability
to finish her work properly. She has also been accused of employing an
undue amount of aid in her art. As a woman she was unusual in her day,
and as resolute in her opinions as those now known as strong-minded.
Englishwoman as she was, she sent a friendly message to Napoleon at the
crisis, just before the battle of Waterloo. She was a power in some
political elections, and she stoutly stood by Queen Caroline during her

Mrs. Damer was much esteemed by men of note. She ardently admired Charles
Fox, and, with the beautiful Duchess of Devonshire and Mrs. Crewe, she
took an active part in his election; "rustling their silks in the lowest
sinks of sin and misery, and in return for the electors' 'most sweet
voices' submitting, it is said, their own sweet cheeks to the salutes of
butchers and bargemen." She did not hesitate to openly express her
sympathy with the American colonies, and bravely defended their cause.

At Strawberry Hill Mrs. Damer dispensed a generous hospitality, and many
distinguished persons were her guests; Joanna Baillie, Mrs. Siddons, Mrs.
Garrick, and Mrs. Berry and her daughters were of her intimate circle.

She was fond of the theatre and frequently acted as an amateur in private
houses. She was excellent in high comedy and recited poetry effectively.
Mrs. Damer was one of the most interesting of Englishwomen at a period of
unusual excitement and importance.

When seventy years old she was persuaded to leave Strawberry Hill, and
Lord Waldegrave, on whom it was entailed, took possession. Mrs. Damer
then purchased York House, the birthplace of Queen Anne, where she spent
ten summers, her winter home being in Park Lane, London.

She bequeathed her artistic works to a relative, directed that her apron
and tools should be placed in her coffin, and all her letters destroyed,
by which she deprived the world of much that would now be historically
valuable, since she had corresponded with Nelson and Fox, as well as with
other men and women who were active in the important movements of her
time. She was buried at Tunbridge, Kent.

DASSEL, MRS. HERMINIE, whose family name was Borchard. Daughter of a
Prussian gentleman, who, having lost his fortune, came to the United
States in 1839. His children had enjoyed the advantages of education and
of an excellent position in the world, but here, in a strange land, were
forced to consider the means of their support. Herminie determined to be
a painter, and in some way earned the money to go to Düsseldorf, where
she studied four years under Sohn, all the time supporting herself. Her
pictures were genre subjects introducing children, which found a ready

She returned to America, determined to earn money to go to Italy. In a
year she earned a thousand dollars, and out of it paid some expenses for
a brother whom she wished to take with her. Herminie was still young, and
so petite in person that her friends were alarmed by her ambitions and
strenuously opposed her plans. However, she persevered and reached Italy,
but unfortunately the Revolution of 1848 made it impossible for her to
remain, and she had many unhappy experiences in returning to New York.

Her pictures were appreciated, and several of them were purchased by the
Art Union, then existing in New York. Soon after her return to America
she married Mr. Dassel, and although she had a large family she continued
to paint. Her picture of "Othello" is in the Düsseldorf Gallery. Her
painting of "Effie Deans" attracted much attention.

Mrs. Dassel interested herself in charities and was admired as an artist
and greatly respected as a woman. She died in 1857.

Academy School and prize for best drawing of the year. Member of Royal
Institute of Painters in Water-Colors. Born in Liverpool. Studied at
Slade School and Royal Academy School. Has exhibited several years at
the Royal Academy Exhibition and Institute of Painters in Water-Colors.

In 1901 her picture, "A Dutch Bargain," was etched and engraved.
"Hush-a-Bye Baby" and "Good-by, Summer," have been published by Messrs.
De la Rue et Cie. She has successfully illustrated the following
children's books: "Sixes and Sevens," "The Land of Little People,"
"Children's Prayers," and "Children's Hymns."

To the Academy Exhibition of 1903 Mrs. Lewis sent "On the Mountain-side,

DE ANGELIS, CLOTILDE. This Neapolitan artist has made a good
impression in at least two Italian exhibitions. To the National
Exposition, Naples, 1877, she sent "Studio dal Vero" and "Vallata di
Porrano," showing costumes of Amalfi. Both her drawing and color are

DEBILLEMONT-CHARDON, MME. GABRIELLE. Third-class medal, Salon, 1894;
honorable mention at Paris Exposition, 1900; second-class medal, Salon,
1901. This miniaturist is well known by her works, in which so much
grace, freshness, skill, and delicacy are shown; in which are represented
such charming subjects with purity of tone and skilful execution in all
regards, as well as with an incomparable spirit of attractiveness.

This artist is one of the three miniaturists whose works have a place in
the Museum of the Luxembourg. She has had many pupils, and by her
influence and example--for they endeavor to imitate their teacher--she
has done much to improve and enlarge the style in miniature painting.

DE HAAS, MRS. ALICE PREBLE TUCKER. Born in Boston. Studied at the
Cooper Union and with M. F. H. de Haas, Swain Gifford, William Chase, and
Rhoda Holmes Nicholls. Painter of water-color pictures and miniatures.

Her pictures are in private hands in Washington, New York, and Boston.

The following article written at the time of an exhibition by Mrs. de
Haas gives a just estimate of her work:

"Mrs. de Haas is especially devoted to the painting in water-color of
landscape and sea views, for which the Atlantic coast affords such a wide
and varied range. A constant and keen observer of Nature, she has seized
her marvellous witchery of light and color, and reproduced them in the
glow of the moonlight on the water when in a stormy mood, and the silvery
gleam has become an almost vivid orange tint. She is most happy in the
tender opalescent hues of the calm sea and the soft sky above, while the
little boats seem to rock quietly on the water, barely stirred by the
unruffled tide beneath.

"The sunset light is a never-failing source of variety and beauty, and
Mrs. de Haas has found a most attractive subject in the steeple of the
old church in York Village--whose graceful curves are said to have been
designed by Sir Christopher Wren--as it rises above the soft mellow glow
of the sky or is pictured against the dark clouds.

"In another mood the artist paints the low rocks among the reeds, with
the breakers playing about them, while the distant sea stretches out to a
horizon, with dark, stormy clouds brooding over the solitary waste. A
remarkable union of the beauty of land and water is produced by a
foreground of brilliant fancy flowers relieved by a scrubby tree in the
background, with the faint responsive touch of yellow in the clouds over
a calm sea, where gentle motion is only indicated by the little boat
floating on its surface.

"The schooners on the Magnolia Shore with Norman's Woe in the distance
suggest alike the tragic story of the past and the present beauty, for
now the sea is calm and the sails are drying in the sun after the storm
is over.

"Many other pictures might be mentioned--a quaint old house at
Gloucester, a view of Ten Pound Island, with its picturesque
surroundings, and the familiar beach, with Fort Head at York Harbor. As a
specimen of landscape I would mention a picturesque group of trees at
Gerrish Island, full of sunshine.

"But Mrs. de Haas has added another most attractive style of art to her
resources, and her miniatures, besides their charm of simplicity of
treatment and delicacy of coloring, are said to have the merit of
faithful likeness to their originals. Of course portraits, being painted
on commission, are not generally available for exhibition, but Mrs. de
Haas has a few specimens of her work which warrant all that has been said
in their praise.

"One is a charming picture of a child, which for beauty of delineation
and delicacy of tinting recalls the memory of our greatest of miniature
painters, Malbone.

"Another is the portrait of the artist's father, and is represented with
such truth of nature and so much vitality of expression and character as
at once to give rise to the remark, 'I must have known that man, he seems
so living to me.'"

DE KAY, HELENA--MRS. R. WATSON GILDER. This artist has exhibited at
the National Academy of Design, New York, since 1874, flower pieces and
decorative panels. In 1878 she sent "The Young Mother." She was the first
woman elected to the Society of American Artists, and to its first
exhibition in 1878 she contributed "The Last Arrow," a figure subject,
also a portrait and a picture of still-life.

[_No reply to circular_.]

DELACROIX-GARNIER, MME. P. Honorable mention, Salon des Artistes
Français; medal at Exposition, Paris, 1900, for painting in oils; and a
second medal for a treatise on water-colors. Member of the Société des
Artistes Français, of the Union of women painters and sculptors, and
vice-president from 1894 to 1900. Pupil of Henry Delacroix in painting in
oils and of Jules Garnier in water-colors.

Mme. Delacroix-Garnier has painted numerous portraits; among them those
of the Dowager Duchess d'Uzès, Jules Garnier, and the Marquis Guy de
Charnac, the latter exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Français, 1903.
At the same Salon in 1902 she exhibited the portrait of J. J. Masset,
formerly a professor in the Paris Conservatory.

Among her pictures are the "Happy Mother," "Temptation," "Far from
Paris," "Maternal Joys," and in the Salon des Artistes Français, 1903,
"Youth which Passes."

DELASALLE, ANGÈLE. Honorable mention, Salon des Artistes Français,
1895; third-class medal, 1897; second-class medal, 1898; travelling
purse, 1899; Prix Piot, of the Institute, 1899; silver medal, Paris
Exposition, 1900. Member of the Société des Artistes Français, the
Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, Société des prix du Salon et boursiers
de voyage de la Société Nationale. Born in Paris. Pupil of Jean Paul
Laurens and Benjamin-Constant.

Her picture of "Diana in Repose" is in the collection of Alphonse de
Rothschild; "Return from the Chase," a prehistoric scene, purchased by
the Government; "The Forge," in the Museum of Rouen, where is also a
"Souvenir of Amsterdam." Portrait of Benjamin-Constant and several other
works of Mlle. Delasalle are in the Luxembourg; other pictures in the
collections Demidoff, Coquelin, Georges Petit, etc.

At the Salon des Artistes Français, 1902, this artist exhibited the
portrait of M. Constant and the "Roof-Maker." At the Salon des
Beaux-Arts, 1903, "The Park at Greenwich," "The Pont Neuf," "On the
Thames," and a portrait in oils; and in water-colors, "The Coliseum,
Rome," "A Tiger Drinking," "A Lion Eating," "Head of a Lion," "The
Forge," etc.

In the _Magazine of Art_, June, 1902, B. Dufernex writes of Mlle.
Delasalle essentially as follows: This artist came into notice in 1895 by
means of her picture of "Cain and Enoch's Daughters." Since then her
annual contributions have demonstrated her gradual acquirement of
unquestionable mastery of her art. Her characteristic energy is such that
her sex cannot be detected in her work; in fact, she was made the first
and only woman member of the International Association of Painters under
the impression that her pictures--signed simply A. Delasalle--were the
work of a man. Attracted by the dramatic aspects of human nature, she
finds congenial subjects in the great efforts of humanity in the struggle
for life. Her power of observation enables her to give freshness to
hackneyed subjects, as in "La Forge." The attitudes of the workmen, so
sure and decided, turning the half-fused metal are perfect in the
precision of their combined efforts; the fatigue of the men who are
resting, overwhelmed and stupefied by their exhausting labor, indicates
the work of a profound thinker; whilst the atmosphere, the play of the
diffused glow of the molten metal, are the production of an innate
colorist. Her portrait of Benjamin-Constant represents not only the
masterful man, but is also the personification of the painter. The
attentive attitude, discerning eye, the openness of the absorbing look,
the cerebral mask where rests so much tranquil power, the impressive
shape of the leonine face, all combine to make the painting one of the
finest portraits of the French school.

She has a perfect and rare knowledge of the art of drawing and a faculty
for seizing the character of things. Mlle. Delasalle exhibited her
pictures at the Grafton Gallery, London, in 1902.

DELORME, BERTHE. Medals at Nîmes, Montpellier, Versailles, and
London. Member of the Société des Artistes Français. Born at Paris. Pupil
of A. Chaplin.

Mlle. Delorme has painted a great number of portraits, which are in the
hands of her subjects. Her works are exhibited in the Salon au Grand
Palais. In 1902 she exhibited a "Portrait of Mlle. Magdeleine D."

DEMONT-BRETON, VIRGINIE. Paris Salon, honorable mention, 1880;
medals of third and second class, 1881, 1883; Hors Concours; gold medal
at Universal Exposition, Amsterdam, 1883; Paris Expositions, 1889 and
1900, gold medals; medal of honor at Exposition at Antwerp; Chevalier of
the Legion of Honor and of the Belgian Order of Leopold; officer of the
Nichan Iftikhar, a Turkish order which may be translated "A Sign of
Glory"; member and honorary president of the Union des femmes peintres et
sculpteurs de France, of the Alliance Feminine, of the Alliance
Septentrionale; fellow of the Royal Academy, Antwerp; member of the
Société des Artistes Français; member of the committee of the Central
Union of Decorative Arts and of the American National Institute; member
of the Verein der Schriftstellerinnen und Künstlerinnen of Vienna; one of
the founders of the Société Populaire des Beaux-Arts and of the Société
de bienfaisance l'Allaitement Maternel, etc. Born at Courrière, Pas de
Calais, 1859. Pupil of her father, Jules Breton.

The works of this artist are in a number of museums and in private
collections in several countries. "La Plage" is in the Gallery of the
Luxembourg, "Les Loups de Mer" in the Museum of Ghent, "Jeanne d'Arc at
Domrémy" in a gallery at Lille; other pictures are in New York,
Minneapolis, and other American cities; also in Berlin and Alexandria,

At the Salon des Artistes Français, in 1902, Mme. Demont-Breton
exhibited a picture of "Les Meduses bleues." The fish were left on the
beach by the retreating water, and two nude children, a boy and a girl,
are watching them with intense interest. The children are very

At the Salon of 1903 she exhibited "Seaweed." A strong young fisherwoman,
standing in the water, draws out her net filled with shells, seaweed, and
other products of the sea, while two nude children--again a boy and a
girl--are selecting what pleases them in the mother's net.

At the exhibition of Les Femmes Peintres et Sculpteurs, in February,
1903, Mme. Demont-Breton exhibited the "Head of a Young Girl," which
attracted much attention. Gray and sober in color, with a firmly closed
mouth and serious eyes denoting great strength of character, it is
admirably studied and designed and proves the unusual excellence of the
art of this gifted daughter of Jules Breton. At the Exposition of
Limoges, May to November, 1903, Mme. Demont-Breton was pronounced hors
concours in painting.

DICKSON, MARY ESTELLE. Honorable mention, Paris Salon, 1896; bronze
medal, Paris Exposition, 1900; honorable mention, Buffalo Exposition,
1901; third-class medal, Paris Salon, 1902.

[_No reply to circular_.]


[_No reply to circular_.]

DIETRICH, ADELHEID. Born in Wittemberg, 1827. Daughter and pupil of
Edward Dietrich, whose teaching she supplemented by travel in Italy and
Germany. She made her home in Erfurt after her journeys and painted
flower and fruit subjects. Her pictures were of forest, field, and garden
flowers. They are much valued by their owners and are mostly in private

DIETRICHSEN, MATHILDE--NÉE BONNEIRE. Born in Christiania, 1847. When
but ten years old she began the study of art at Düsseldorf, under the
direction of O. Mengelberg and Tideman. When but fifteen she married, at
Stockholm, the historian of art, Dietrichsen. She travelled extensively,
visiting Germany, France, Italy, and Greece. She passed three years in
Rome. Her pictures show refined, poetic feeling as well as good taste and

DILLAYE, BLANCHE. Silver medal at Atlanta Exposition, 1895; medal at
American Art Society, 1902. Member of New York and Philadelphia
Water-Color Clubs, American Women's Art Association, Paris; first
president of Plastic Club, Philadelphia. Pupil of Philadelphia Academy of
Fine Arts; has also studied in Europe.

This artist makes a specialty of etching, and the medal she received at
Atlanta was for a group of works in that art. She paints in water-colors,
and has exhibited at the principal American exhibitions, in London, and
in both Paris Salons. Her etchings have been widely noticed. At an early
age she showed talent, and preferring etching as a mode of expression,
she soon became noted for the qualities which have since made her famous,
and is one of the best known among a group of women etchers. Her work,
exhibited at the New York Etching Club, is conspicuous on account of its
strength, directness, and firmness, allied to delicacy of touch.

"In Miss Dillaye's work one sees the influence of her wanderings in many
lands; the quaintness of Holland landscapes, the quiet village life in
provincial France, the sleepy towns in Norway, and the quietude of
English woods."--_Success_, September, 1902.

DINA, ELISA. A Venetian figure and portrait painter. Is known
through the pictures she has shown at many Italian exhibitions. At
Venice, in 1881, she exhibited a graceful, well-executed work called
"Caldanino della Nonna." "Di Ritorno dalla Chiesa" appeared at Milan in
the same year. The latter, which represented a charming young girl coming
out of church, prayer-book in hand, is full of sentiment. She sent to
Turin, in 1884, "Popolana," which was much admired. Her portraits are
said to be exceedingly life-like.

DRINGLINGER, SOPHIE FRIEDERICKE. Born in Dresden, 1736; died 1791.
Pupil of Oeser in Leipzig. In the Dresden Gallery are seven miniatures by
her of different members of the Dringlinger family. The head of this
house was John Melchior Dringlinger, court jeweller of Augustus the

Salon, 1894; medal third class, 1895; picture in Gallery of Luxembourg,
1903. Member of the Société des Artistes Français. Born in Paris, 1840.
Studies made at the Museum of the Louvre.

Mme. Dubourg has exhibited her works at the Salons regularly since 1868,
and her pictures are now seen in the Museums of Grenoble and Pau, as
well as in many private collections. Her subjects are of still life.

At the Salon of the Artistes Français, in 1902, Mme. Dubourg exhibited a
"Basket of Flowers."

DUBRAY, CHARLOTTE GABRIELLE. Born at Paris, and was the pupil of her
father, Gabriel Vital-Dubray. In 1874 she exhibited at the Salon a marble
bust of a "Fellah Girl of Cairo"; in 1875, a silvered bronze bust called
the "Study of a Head," in the manner of Florence, sixteenth century; in
1876, "The Daughter of Jephthah Weeping on the Mountain," a plaster
statue, a bust in bronze, and "A Neapolitan"; in 1877, "The Coquette," a
bust in terra-cotta, and a portrait bust, in bronze, of M. B.

DUCOUDRAY, MLLE. M. Honorable mention, 1898; honorable mention,
Paris Exposition, 1900. At the Salon des Artistes Français, in 1902, this
sculptor exhibited "Mon Maître Zacharie Astruc," and in 1903, "En

[_No reply to circular_.]

DUFAU, CLÉMENTINE HÉLÈNE. Awards from the Salon, Bashkirtseff prize,
1895; medal third class, 1897; travelling purse, 1898; medal second
class, 1902; Hors Concours; silver medal, Paris Exposition, 1900. Picture
in the Luxembourg, 1902. Member of the Société des Artistes Français and
of the Società Heleno Latina, Rome. Born at Quinsac (Gironde).

Studies made at Julian Academy, under Bouguereau and Robert-Fleury. Mlle.
Dufau calls her works illustrations and posters, and gives the following
as the principal examples:

"Fils des Mariniers," in Museum of Cognac; "Rhythme," "Dryades,"
"Automne," a study, Manzi collection; "Espagne," "Été," Behourd
collection; "Automne," Gallery of the Luxembourg. The latter is a
decorative work of rare interest. At the Salon of 1903 Mlle. Dufau
exhibited two works--"La grande Voix" and "Une Partie de Pelotte, au Pays
basque." The latter was purchased by the Government, and will be hung in
the Luxembourg.

DUHEM, MARIE. Officer of the Academy, 1895; member of the Société
Nationale des Beaux-Arts; medal at the Paris Exposition, 1900; diploma of
honor at Exposition of Women Artists, London, 1900. Born at Guemps
(Pas-de-Calais). Has had no masters, has studied and worked by herself.

Her pictures are in several museums: "The Communicants," at Cambrai;
"Easter Eve," at Calais; "Death of a White Sister," at Arras, etc. The
picture of St. Francis of Assisi was exhibited at the Salon of the
Beaux-Arts, 1903. The saint, with a large aureole, is standing in the
midst of a desolate landscape; his left hand raised, as if
speaking--perhaps to some living thing, though nothing is revealed in the
reproduction in the illustrated catalogue of the Salon.

The other exhibits by Mme. Duhem are flower pictures--jonquils and
oranges, chrysanthemums and roses. In 1902 she exhibited "The House with
Laurels" in water-colors, and in oils "The High Road" and "The Orison."
The first is a scene at nightfall and is rendered with great delicacy and

DUPRÉ, AMALIA. Corresponding member of the Academy of Fine Arts,
Florence, and of the Academy of Perugia. Born in Florence, 1845. Pupil of
her father, Giovanni Dupré, who detected her artistic promise in her
childish attempts at modelling. She has executed a number of notable
sepulchral monuments, one for Adèle Stiacchi; one for the daughter of the
Duchess Ravaschieri, in Naples, which represents the "Madonna Receiving
an Angel in her Arms"; it is praised for its subject and for the action
of the figures. "A Sister of Charity" for the tomb of the Cavaliere
Aleotti is her work, and for the tomb of her parents, at Fiesole, she
reproduced "La Pietà," one of her father's most famous sculptures.

For the facade of the Florence Cathedral she made a statue of "Saint
Reparata," and finished the "San Zenobi" which her father did not live to

She has a wide reputation in Italy for her statues of the "Young Giotto,"
"St. Peter in Prison," and "San Giuseppe Calasanzio."

DURANT, SUSAN D. This English sculptor was educated in Paris, and
died there in 1873. She first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1847. She
was the teacher of the Princess Louise, and executed medallion portraits
and busts of many members of the royal family of England. Her works were
constantly exhibited at the Royal Academy. The _Art Journal_, March,
1873, spoke of her as "one of our most accomplished female sculptors."
Her bust of Queen Victoria is in the Middle Temple, London; the
"Faithful Shepherdess," an ideal figure, executed for the Corporation of
London, is in the Mansion House. Among her other works are "Ruth," a bust
of Harriet Beecher Stowe, and a monument to the King of Belgium, at

D'UZÈS, MME. LA DUCHESSE. Honorable mention, Paris Salon, 1889. Born
in Paris, 1847. Pupil of Bonnassieux and Falguière. The principal works
of this artist are "Diana Surprised," in marble; "Saint Hubert," in the
church of the Sacré-Coeur; the same subject for a church in Canada; "The
Virgin," a commission from the Government, in the church at Poissy;
"Jeanne d'Arc," at Mousson; the monument to Émile Augier, the commission
for which was obtained in a competition with other sculptors; and many
busts and statuettes.

In the spring of 1903, at the twenty-second exhibition of the Society of
Women Painters and Sculptors, the Duchesse d'Uzès exhibited a large
statue of the Virgin which is to be erected in the church of St.
Clothilde. It is correct anatomically and moulded with great delicacy.

EARL, MAUD. A painter of animals, whose "Early Morning" was
exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1885, and has been followed by "In the
Drifts," "Old Benchers," "A Cry for Help," etc. In 1900 she exhibited
"The Dogs of Death"; in 1901, "On Dian's Day."

Miss Earl has painted portraits of many dogs on the Continent and in
Great Britain, notably those belonging to Queen Victoria and to the
present King and Queen.

This artist exhibits in the United States as well as in the chief cities
of England, and has held private exhibitions in Graves' Galleries. In
1902 her principal work was "British Hounds and Gun-Dogs." Many of her
pictures have been engraved and published in both England and the United
States. Among them are the last-named picture, "Four by Honors," "The
Absent-Minded Beggar," and "What We Have We'll Hold."

[_No reply to circular_.]

EGLOFFSTEIN, COUNTESS JULIA. Born at Hildesheim. 1786-1868. This
painter of portraits and genre subjects belonged to a family of
distinction in the north of Germany. She was a maid of honor at the court
of Weimar. Her pictures were praised by Cornelius and other Munich
artists. Her portrait of Goethe, in his seventy-seventh year, is in the
Museum at Weimar. She also painted portraits of Queen Theresa Charlotte
of Bavaria and of the Grand Duchess of Saxe-Weimar. Her picture of "Hagar
and Ishmael in the Desert" is well known in Germany.

EGNER, MARIE. Pupil of Schindler in Vienna. She has exhibited her
pictures at the exhibitions of the Vienna Water-Color Club. In 1890 an
exquisite series of landscapes and flowers, in 1894 "A Mill in Upper
Austria," in gouache, and in 1895 other work in the same medium,
confirming previous impressions of her fine artistic ability.

EISENSTEIN, ROSA VON. Born in Vienna, 1844. This artist is one of
the few Austrian women artists who made all her studies in her native
city. She was a pupil of Mme. Wisinger-Florian, Schilcher, C. Probst, and
Rudolf Huber. Her pictures are of still-life. She is especially fond of
painting birds and is successful in this branch of her art.

ELLENRIEDER, ANNA MARIE. Born at Constance. 1791-1863. A pupil of
Einsle, a miniaturist, and later of Langer, in Munich. In Rome, where
this artist spent several years, she became a disciple of Overbeck.
Returning to Switzerland, she received the appointment of Court painter
at Baden in 1829.

Her works are portraits and pictures of historical subjects, many of the
latter being Biblical scenes. Among her best works are the "Martyrdom of
Saint Stephen," in the Catholic church at Carlsruhe; a "Saint Cecilia," a
"Madonna," and "Mary with the Christ-Child Leaving the Throne of Heaven"
are in the Carlsruhe Gallery. "Christ Blessing Little Children" is in the
church at Coburg. Among her other works are "John Writing his Revelation
at Patmos," "Peter Awaking Tabitha," and "Simeon in the Temple."

Her religious subjects sometimes verge on the sentimental, but are of
great sweetness, purity, and tenderness. She was happier in her figures
of women than in those of men. She also made etchings of portraits and
religious subjects in the manner of G. F. Schmidt.

EMMET, LYDIA FIELD. Medal at Columbian Exhibition, Chicago, 1893;
medal at Atlanta Exhibition, 1895; honorable mention at Pan-American
Exposition, Buffalo, 1901. Member of the Art Students' League and Art
Workers' Club for Women. Born at New Rochelle, New York. Studied at Art
Students' League under Chase, Mowbray, Cox, and Reid; at the Julian
Academy, Paris, under Robert-Fleury, Giacomotti, and Bouguereau; at the
Shinnecock School of Art under W. M. Chase; at Académie Vieté, Paris,
under Collin, and in a private studio under Mac Monnies.

[Illustration: From a Copley Print.



Miss Emmet has painted many portraits, which are in private hands in New
York, Chicago, Boston, and elsewhere. She executed a decorative painting
for the Woman's Building at Chicago which is still in that city.

Exposition, 1889; the Art Department medal, Chicago, 1893; bronze medal,
Buffalo, 1901. Member of the Society of American Artists, American
Water-Color Society, New York Water-Color Club. Born in New York City.
Studied two years under William M. Chase and six months at Julian
Academy, Paris.

Miss Emmet exhibited at the National Academy of Design, in 1881, a
"Portrait of a Boy"; in 1882, a "Portrait of Alexander Stevens" and
"Waiting for the Doctor"; in 1883, "Red Rose Land" and "La Mesciana"; her
picture called "September" belongs to the Boston Art Club. The greater
number of her works are in private collections.

ESCALLIER, MME. ÉLÉONORE. Medal at Salon, 1868. A pupil of Ziegler.
A painter of still-life whose pictures of flowers and birds were much
admired. "Chrysanthemums," exhibited in 1869, was purchased by the
Government. "Peaches and Grapes," 1872, is in the Museum at Dijon; and in
1875 she executed decorative panels for the Palais de la Légion

ESCH, MATHILDE. Born at Kletten, Bohemia, 1820. Pupil of
Waldmüller in Vienna. She also studied a long time in Düsseldorf and
several years in Paris, finally settling in Vienna. She painted charming
scenes from German and Hungarian life, as well as flowers and still-life.
Most of her works are in private galleries.

ESINGER, ADÈLE. Born in Salzburg, 1846. In 1874 she became a student
at the Art School in Stuttgart, where she worked under the special
direction of Funk, and later entered the Art School at Carlsruhe, where
she was a pupil of Gude. She also received instruction from Hansch. Her
pictures are remarkable for their poetic feeling; especially is this true
of "A Quiet Sea," "The Gollinger Waterfall," and "A Country Party."

EYCK, MARGARETHA VAN. In Bruges, in the early decades of the
fifteenth century, the Van Eycks were inventing new methods in the
preparation of colors. Their discoveries in this regard assured them an
undying fame, second only to that of their marvellous pictures.

Here, in the quaint old city--a large part of which we still describe as
mediaeval--in an atmosphere totally unlike that of Italy, beside her
devout brothers, Hubert and Jan, was Margaretha. When we examine the
minute detail and delicate finish of the pictures of Jan van Eyck, we see
a reason why the sister should have been a miniaturist, and do not wonder
that with such an example before her she should have excelled in this
art. The fame of her miniatures extended even to Southern Italy, where
her name was honorably known.

We cannot now point to any pictures as exclusively hers, as she worked in
concert with her brothers. It is, however, positively known that a
portion of an exquisite Breviary, in the Imperial Library in Paris, was
painted by Margaretha, and that she illustrated other precious and costly

She was held in high esteem in Bruges and was honored in Ghent by burial
in the Church of St. Bavo, where Hubert van Eyck had been interred. Karl
van Mander, an early writer on Flemish art, was poetically enthusiastic
in praise of Margaretha, calling her "a gifted Minerva, who spurned Hymen
and Lucina, and lived in single blessedness."

A Madonna in the National Gallery in London is attributed to Margaretha
van Eyck.

FACIUS, ANGELIKA. Born at Weimar. 1806-87. This artist was
distinguished as an engraver of medals and gems. Pupil of her father,
Friedrich Wilhelm Facius. Goethe recommended her to Rauch, and in 1827
she went to Berlin to study in his studio. Under her father's instruction
she engraved the medal for the celebration at Weimar, 1825, of the
jubilee of the Grand Duke Charles Augustus. Under Rauch's direction she
executed the medal to commemorate the duke's death. In 1841 she made the
medal for the convention of naturalists at Jena.

After Neher's designs, she modelled reliefs for the bronze doors at the
castle of Weimar.

FARNCOMB, CAROLINE. Several first prizes in exhibitions in London,
Toronto, Montreal, and Ottawa. Member of Women's Art Club, London,
Ontario. Born near Toronto, Canada. Pupil of Mr. Judson and Mlle. van
den Broeck in London, Canada, and later of William Chase in New York.
Now studying in Paris.

FASSETT, CORNELIA ADÈLE. 1831-1898. Member of the Chicago Academy of
Design and the Washington Art Club. Born in Owasco, New York. Studied
water-color painting in New York under an English artist, J. B.
Wandesforde. Pupil in Paris of Castiglione, La Tour, and Mathieu. Her
artistic life was spent in Chicago and Washington, D. C.

She painted numerous portraits in miniature and a large number in oils.
Among those painted from life were Presidents Grant, Hayes, and Garfield;
Vice-President Henry Wilson; Charles Foster, when Governor of Ohio, now
in the State House at Columbus, Ohio; Dr. Rankin, president of Howard
University, Washington; and many other prominent people of Chicago and

Her chief work and that by which she is best remembered hangs in the
Senate wing of the United States Capitol. No picture in the Capitol
attracts more attention, and large numbers of people view it daily. It is
the "Electoral Commission in Open Session." It represents the old Senate
Chamber, now the Supreme Court Room, with William M. Evarts making the
opening argument. There are two hundred and fifty-eight portraits of
notable men and women, prominent in political, literary, scientific, and
social circles. Many of these were painted from life.

The _Arcadian_, New York, December 15, 1876, in speaking of this picture,
says: "Mr. Evarts is addressing the court, and the large number of people
present are naturally and easily grouped. There is no stiffness nor
awkwardness in the positions, nothing forced in the whole work. There
are, in the crowd, ladies in bright colors to relieve the sombreness of
the black-coated men, and the effect of the whole picture is pleasing and
artistic, aside from its great value as an historical work."

The _Washington Capital_, March 17, 1878: "Mrs. Fassett's 'Electoral
Commission' gives evidence of great merit, and this illustration in oil
of an historical event in the presidential annals of the country, by the
preservation of the likenesses in groups of some of the principal actors,
and a few leading correspondents of the press, will be valuable. This
picture we safely predict will be a landmark in the history of the nation
that will never be erased. It memorizes a most remarkable crisis in our
life, and perpetuates, both by reason of its intrinsic value as a chapter
of history and its intrinsic worth as an art production, the incident it
represents and the name of the artist."

In the _Washington Star_, October, 1903, an article appeared from which I
quote as follows: "On the walls of the beautiful tessellated corridor of
the eastern gallery floor of the Senate wing of the Capitol at
Washington, just opposite the door of the caucus room of the Senate
Democrats, hangs a large oil painting that never fails to attract the
keenest curiosity of sightseers and legislators alike. And for good
reason: that painting depicts in glowing colors a scene of momentous
import, a chapter of American political history of graver consequence and
more far-reaching results than any other since the Civil War. The printed
legend on the frame of the picture reads:

"'The Florida case before the electoral commission, February 5, 1877.
Painted from life sittings in the United States Supreme Court room by
Cornelia Adèle Fassett.'"

"The painting belongs to Congress, having been purchased from the artist
for $15,000. As you face the picture the portraits of two hundred and
fifty-eight men and women, who, twenty-six years ago, were part and
parcel of the legislative, executive, judicial, social, and journalistic
life of Washington, look straight at you as if they were still living and
breathing things, as, indeed, many of them are. As a work of art the
picture is unique, for each face is so turned that the features can
easily be studied, and the likenesses of nearly all are so faithful as to
be a source of constant wonder and delight."--_David S. Barry_, in
_Pearson's Magazine_.

FAUVEAU, FÉLICIE DE. Second-class medal at Florence in 1827, when
she made her début by exhibiting a statue, "The Abbot," and a group,
"Queen Christine and Monaldeschi." Born in Florence, of French parents,
about 1802. For political reasons she was forced to leave Florence about
1834, when she went to Belgium, but later returned to her native city.

Among her best works are "St. George and the Dragon," bronze; the
"Martyrdom of St. Dorothea," "Judith with the Head of Holofernes," "St.
Genoveva," marble, and a monument to Dante.

Her works display a wonderful skill in the use of drapery and a purity of
taste in composition. She handled successfully the exceedingly difficult
subject, a "Scene between Paolo and Francesca da Rimini."

FAUX-FROIDURE, MME. EUGÉNIE JULIETTE. Honorable mention at Salon,
1898; the same at the Paris Exposition, 1900; third-class medal at Salon,
1903; first prize of the Union of Women Painters and Sculptors, 1902;
chevalier of the Order Nichan Iftikar; Officer of Public Instruction.
Member of the Association of Baron Taylor, of the Société des Artistes
Français, of the Union of Women Painters and Sculptors, and of the
Association of Professors of Design of the City of Paris. Born at Noyen
(Sarthe). Pupil of P. V. Galland, Albert Maignan, and G. Saintpierre.

Mme. Faux-Froidure's pictures are principally of fruit and flowers, and
three have been purchased by the Government. One, "Raisins" (Grapes), is
in the Museum at Commerey; a second, "Hortensias" (Hydrangeas), is in the
Museum of Mans; the third, which was in the Salon of 1903, has not yet
been placed. In 1899 she exhibited a large water-color called "La Barque
fleurie," which was much admired and was reproduced in "L'Illustration."
Her water-color of "Clematis and Virginia Creeper" is in the Museum at
Tunis. In the summer exhibition of 1903, at Évreux, this artist's
"Peonies" and "Iris" were delightfully painted--full of freshness and
brilliancy, such as would be the despair of a less skilful hand.

At the Limoges Exposition, May to November, 1903, Mme. Faux-Froidure was
announced as hors concours in water-colors.

La Société Français des Amis des Arts purchased from the Salon, 1903, two
water-colors by Mme. Faux-Froidure--"Roses" and "Loose Flowers," or
"Jonchée fleurie."

Her pictures at the Exposition at Toulouse, spring of 1903, were much
admired. In one she had most skilfully arranged "Peaches and Grapes." The
color was truthful and delicate. The result was a most artistic picture,
in which the art was concealed and nature alone was manifest. A second
picture of "Zinnias" was equally admirable in the painting of the
flowers, while that of the table on which they were placed was not quite
true in its perspective.

Of a triptych, called the "Life of Roses," exhibited at the Salon des
Artistes Français, 1903, Jules de Saint Hilaire writes: "Mme.
Faux-Froidure was inspired when she painted her charming triptych of
'Rose Life.' In the compartment on the left the roses are twined in a
crown resembling those worn in processions; in the centre, in all its
dazzling beauty, the red rose, the rose of love, is enthroned; while the
panel on the right is consecrated to the faded rose--the souvenir rose,
shrivelled, and lying beside the little casket which it still perfumes
with its old-time sweetness."

FISCHER, CLARA ELIZABETH. Born in Berlin, 1856. Studied under
Biermann six years, and later under Julius Jacob. Her pictures are
portraits and genre subjects. Among the latter are "What Will Become of
the Child?" 1886; "Orphaned," "In the Punishment Corner," and "Morning

FISCHER, HELENE VON. Born in Bremen, 1843. She first studied under a
woman portrait painter in Berlin; later she was a pupil of Frische in
Düsseldorf, of Robie in Brussels, and of Hertel and Skarbina in Berlin.

She makes a specialty of flowers, fruit, and still-life; her fruit and
flower pieces are beautiful, and her pictures of the victims of the chase
are excellent.

FLESCH-BRUNNENGEN, LUMA VON. Born in Brünn in 1856. In Vienna she
worked under Schöner, the interpreter of Venetian and Oriental life, and
later in Munich she acquired technical facility under Frithjof Smith.
Travels in Italy, France, and Northern Africa furnished many of her
themes--mostly interiors with figures, in which the entering light is
skilfully managed. "The Embroiderers," showing three characteristic
figures, who watch the first attempt of their seriously earnest pupil, is
full of humor. In sharp contrast to this is a "Madonna under the Cross,"
exhibited at Berlin in 1895, in which the mother's anguish is most
sympathetically rendered. "Devotion," "Shelterless," and the "Kitchen
Garden" are among the paintings which have won her an excellent
reputation as a genre painter.


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FOCCA, SIGNORA ITALIA ZANARDELLI. Silver medal at Munich, 1893;
diploma of gold medal at Women's Exhibition, London, 1900. Member of
Società Amatorie Pittori di Belle Arti, of the Unione degli Artisti, and
of the Società Cooperativa, all in Rome.

Born in Padua, 1872. Pupil of Ottin in Paris, and of the Academy of Fine
Arts in Rome.

The principal works of this sculptor are a "Bacchante," now in St.
Petersburg; "Najade," sold in London; "The Virgin Mother," purchased by
Cavaliere Alinari of Florence; portrait of the Minister Merlo, which was
ordered by the Ministry of Public Instruction. Many other less important
works are in various Italian and foreign cities.

Signora Focca is a professor of drawing in the Normal Schools of Rome.

FOLEY, MARGARET E. A native of New Hampshire. Died in 1877. Without
a master, in the quiet of a country village, Miss Foley modelled busts in
chalk and carved small figures in wood. At length she made some
reputation in Boston, where she cut portraits and ideal heads in cameo.
She went to Rome and remained there. She became an intimate friend of Mr.
and Mrs. Howitt, and died at their summer home in the Austrian Tyrol.

Among her works are busts of Theodore Parker, Charles Sumner, and others;
medallions of William and Mary Howitt, Longfellow, and Bryant; and
several ideal statues and bas-reliefs.

In a critical estimate of Miss Foley we read: "Her head of the somewhat
impracticable but always earnest senator from Massachusetts--Sumner--is
unsurpassable and beyond praise. It is simple, absolute truth, embodied
in marble."--_Tuckerman's Book of the Artists._

"Miss Foley's exquisite medallions and sculptures ought to be reproduced
in photograph. Certainly she was a most devoted artist, and America has
not had so many sculptors among women that she can afford to forget any
one of them."--_Boston Advertiser,_ January, 1878.

FONTAINE, JENNY. Silver medal, Julian Academy, 1889; silver medal at
Amiens Exposition, 1890 and 1894; honorable mention, Paris Salon, 1892;
gold medal at Rouen Exposition, 1893; third-class medal, Salon, 1896;
bronze medal, Paris Exposition, 1900. Officer of the Academy, 1896;
Officer of Public Instruction, 1902. Member of the Société des Artistes
Français, Paris; Société de l'Union Artistique, du Pas-de-Calais, at
Arras; corresponding member of the Academy of Arras. Pupil of Jules
Lefebvre and Benjamin-Constant.

Mlle. Fontaine paints portraits only--of these she has exhibited
regularly at the Salons for sixteen years. Among her sitters have been
many persons of distinction, both men and women.

At the Salon of 1902 she exhibited her own portrait; in 1903, portraits
of MM. Rene et Georges D. The _Journal des Arts_, giving an account of
the exhibition at Rheims, summer, 1903, says: "The portraits here are not
so numerous as one might expect, but they are too fine to be overlooked.
Mlle. Jenny Fontaine has, for a long time, held a distinguished place as
a _portraitiste_ in our Salons, and two of her works are here: a portrait
of a young girl and one of General Jeanningros."

FONTANA, LAVINIA. Born in Bologna, 1552. Her father was a
distinguished portrait painter in Rome in the time of Pope Julius III.,
but the work of his daughter was preferred before his own. She was
elected to the Academy of Rome, while her charms were extolled in poetry
and prose.

Pope Gregory XIII. made her his painter-in-ordinary. Patrician ladies,
cardinals, and Roman nobles contended for the privilege of having their
portraits from her hand. Men of rank and scholars paid court to her,
but, with a waywardness not altogether uncommon, she married a man who
was even thought to be lacking in sense.

One of her two daughters was blind of one eye, and her only son was so
simple that the loungers in the antechamber of the Pope were accustomed
to amuse themselves with his want of wit. She is said to have died of a
broken heart after the death of this son, and her portrait of him is
considered her masterpiece.

Her own portrait was one of her most distinguished works, and though it
is in possession of her husband's family, the Zappi, of Imola, it may be
judged by an engraving after it in Rossini's "History of Italian

Many portraits by Lavinia Fontana are in the private collections of
Italian families for whom they were painted. In the Gallery of Bologna
there is a night-scene, the "Nativity of the Virgin," by her, and in the
Escorial is a Madonna lifting a veil to regard the sleeping Jesus, while
SS. Joseph and John stand near by.

In the churches of San Giacomo Maggiore and of the Madonna del Baracano,
both in Bologna, are Fontana's pictures of the "Madonna with Saints." In
Pieve di Cento are two of her works--a "Madonna" and an "Ascension." It
is said that several pictures by this artist are in England, but I have
failed to find to what collections they belong.

Lavinia Fontana was a distinguished woman in a notable age, and if, in
translating the tributes that were paid her by the authors of her day, we
should faithfully render their superlatives, these writings would seem
absurd in their exaggerations, and our comparatively cold adjectives
would be taxed beyond their power of expression.

FONTANA, VERONICA. Born in 1576. A pupil of Elisabetta Sirani, who
devoted herself to etching and wood-engraving. She is known from her
exceedingly fine, delicate portraits on wood and etchings of scenes from
the life of the Madonna.

FOORD, MISS J. A painter of plants and flowers, which are much
praised. An article in the _Studio_, July, 1901, says: "Miss Foord, by
patient and observant study from nature, has given us a very pleasing,
new form of useful work, that has traits in common; with the
illustrations to be found in the excellent botanical books of the
beginning of the nineteenth century." After praising the works of this
artist, attention is called to her valuable book, "Decorative Flower
Studies," illustrated with forty plates printed in colors.

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FOOTE, MARY HALLOCK. Born in Milton, New York. At New York School of
Design for Women this artist studied anatomy and composition under
William Rimmer, and drawing on wood and black and white under William J.
Linton. Mrs. Foote is a member of the Alumni of the School of Design.

Her illustrations have been exhibited by the publishers for whom they
were made. In the beginning her work was suited to the taste and custom
of the time. She illustrated the so-called "Gift Books" and poems in the
elaborate fashion of the period. Later she was occupied principally in
illustrations for the Century Company and Houghton, Mifflin & Co. Mrs.
Foote writes that Miss Regina Armstrong--now Mrs. Niehaus--in a series of
articles on "Women Illustrators of America," whom she divided into
classes, placed her with the "Story-Tellers."

FORBES, MRS. STANHOPE. Mr. Norman Gastin, in an article upon the
work of the Royal Academician, Stanhope Forbes, in the _Studio_, July,
1901, pays the following tribute to the wife of the artist, whose maiden
name was Elizabeth Armstrong:

"Mrs. Stanhope Forbes's work does not ask you for any of that chivalrous
gentleness which is in itself so derogatory to the powers of women. As an
artist she stands shoulder to shoulder with the very best; she has taste
and fancy, without which she could not be an artist. But what strikes one
about her most is summed up in the word 'ability.' She is essentially
able. The work which that wonderful left hand of hers finds to do, it
does with a certainty that makes most other work look tentative beside
hers. The gestures and poses she chooses in her models show how little
she fears drawing, while the gistness of her criticism has a most solvent
effect in dissolving the doubts that hover round the making of pictures."

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FORTIN DE COOL, DELFINA. Third-class medal, Madrid, 1864, for the
following works reproduced on porcelain: the "Conception" of Murillo,
the "Magdalen" of Antolinez, and the portrait of Alonso Cano by
Velazquez; also a portrait on ivory of a young girl.

This artist, who was French by birth, was a pupil of her father. For
paintings executed in the imperial works at Sèvres, she was awarded
prizes at Blois, Besançon, Rouen, Perigueux, and Paris.

FOULQUES, ELISA. Born in Pjatigorsk, in the Caucasus. She came under
Italian influence when but four years old, and was taken to Naples. At
the Institute of the Fine Arts she was a pupil of Antoriello, Mancinelli,
Perrisi, and Solari. She received a diploma when leaving the Institute.
Her picture, "Mendica," was exhibited in Naples, 1886; "Un ultimo
Squardo" and "Sogno," 1888. In London, in 1888, "Tipo Napoletano,"
"Studio dal vero," and "Ricordi" were exhibited. Since 1884 this artist
has taught drawing in the Municipal School for Girls in Naples, and has
executed many portraits in oil, as well as numerous pastels and
water-colors. Among her later works are "La Figlia del Corsaro," "Chiome
nere," "Una Carezza al Nonno," and "Di Soppiatto."

FRACKLETON, SUSAN STUART. Medal at Antwerp Exposition, 1894; at
Paris Exposition, 1900. Founder and first president of National League of
Mineral Painters; member of Park and Outdoor Association. Born at
Milwaukee, 1848. Pupil of private studios in Milwaukee and New York.

Mrs. Frackleton's gas-kilns for firing decorated china and glass are well
known; also her book, "Tried by Fire," a treatise on china painting. As a
ceramic artist she has exhibited in various countries, and has had
numerous prizes for her work. She declined the request of the Mexican
Government to be at the head of a National School of Ceramic Decoration,
etc. She is also a lecturer on topics connected with the so-called arts
and crafts.

FREEMAN, FLORENCE. Born in Boston. 1836-1883. Pupil of Richard S.
Greenough in Boston and of Hiram Powers in Florence, Italy. After a year
in Florence she went to Rome, where she made her home. Among her works
are a bust of "Sandalphon," which belonged to Mr. Longfellow, bas-reliefs
of Dante, and a statue of the "Sleeping Child."

She sent to the Exhibition in Philadelphia, 1876, a chimney-piece on
which were sculptured "Children and the Yule-Log and Fireside Spirits."
This was purchased by Mrs. Hemenway, of Boston.

"Her works are full of poetic fancy; her bas-reliefs of the seven days of
the week and of the hours are most lovely and original in conception. Her
sketches of Dante in bas-reliefs are equally fine. Her designs for
chimney-pieces are gems, and in less prosaic days than these, when people
were not satisfied with the work of mechanics, but demanded artistic
designs in the commonest household articles, they would have made her
famous."--_The Revolution_, May, 1871.

FRENCH, JANE KATHLEEN. Member of the Water-Color Society of Ireland.
Born in Dublin. Studied in Brussels under M. Bourson, and in Wiesbaden
under Herr Kögler. Miss French is a miniaturist and exhibited at the
Royal Academy, London, in 1901, a case of her works which she was later
specially invited to send to an exhibition in Liverpool, and several
other exhibits.

The last two years she has exhibited in Ireland only, as her commissions
employ her time so fully that she cannot prepare for foreign expositions.

Luke, 1822. Born in Strassburg. 1797-1847. Daughter and pupil of the
landscape painter, Stuntz. After travelling in France and Italy, making
special studies in Rome, she settled in Munich. She painted historical
and religious subjects, and a few portraits. "Zacharias Naming the Little
St. John" is in the New Picture Gallery, Munich; in the same gallery is
also a portrait called the "Boy Playing a Flute"; in the Leuchtenberg
Gallery, Petersburg, is her "Three Women at the Sepulchre." She painted a
picture called the "Glorification of Religion through Art" and a "Madonna
in Prayer." She also executed a number of lithographs and etchings.

FRIEDLÄNDER, CAMILLA. Born in Vienna, 1856. She was instructed by
her father, Friedrich Friedländer. Among her numerous paintings of house
furniture, antiquities, and dead animals should be especially mentioned
her picture in the Rudolfinum at Prague, which represents all sorts of
drinking-vessels, 1888. Some critics affirm that she has shown more
patience and industry than wealth of artistic ideas, but her still-life
pictures demanded those qualities and brought her success and artistic

FRIEDRICH, CAROLINE FRIEDERIKE. Born in Dresden. 1749-1815. Honorary
member of Dresden Academy. In the Dresden Gallery is a picture by this
artist, "Pastry on a Plate with a Glass of Wine," signed 1799.

FRIEDRICHSON, ERNESTINE. Born in Dantzig, 1824. Pupil of Marie
Wiegmann in Düsseldorf, and later of Jordan and Wilhelm Sohn. While still
a student she visited Holland, Belgium, England, and Italy. Her favorite
subjects were scenes from the every-day life of Poles and Jews.

Her best pictures were sold to private collectors. Among these are
"Polish Raftsmen Resting in the Forest," 1867; "Polish Raftsmen before a
Crucifix," 1869; "A Jew Rag-picker," 1870; "The Jewish Quarter in
Amsterdam on Friday Evening," 1881; "A Goose Girl," 1891.

FRIES, ANNA. Silver medal at Berne, 1857; two silver medals from the
Academy of Urbino; silver medal at the National Exposition by Women in
Florence. Honorary member of the Academy Michael Angela, Florence, and of
the Academy of Urbino. Born in Zürich, 1827. She encountered much
opposition to her desire to study art, but her talent was so manifest
that at length she was permitted to study drawing in Zürich, and her
rapid progress was finally recognized and she was taken to Paris, where
the great works of the masters were an inspiration to her. She has great
individuality in her pictures, which have been immoderately praised. She
visited Italy, and in 1857 went to Holland, where she painted portraits
of Queen Sophia and the Prince of Orange. She returned to Zürich and was
urged to remain in Switzerland, but she was ambitious of further study,
and went again to Florence. She there painted a portrait of the Grand
Duchess Marie of Russia. She turned her attention to decorative painting,
and her success in this may be seen in the facades of the Schmitz villa,
the Schemboche establishment, and her own home. When we consider the
usual monotony of this art, the charming effects which Mme. Fries has
produced make her distinguished in this specialty.


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FRITZE, MARGARETHE AUGUSTE. Born in Magdeburg, 1845. This genre
painter worked first in Bremen, and went in 1873 to Munich, where she
studied with Grützner and Liezen-Meyer. The most significant of her
pictures is "The Little Handorgan-Player with His Monkey." She has also
executed many strong portraits, and her painting is thought to show the
influence of A. von Kotzebue and Alexander Wagner. In 1880 she spent some
time in Stuttgart, and later settled in Berlin.

FRORIEP, BERTHA. Born in Berlin, 1833. Pupil of Martersteig and
Pauwels in Weimar. This artist's pictures were usually of genre subjects.
Her small game pictures with single figures are delightful. She also
painted an unusually fine portrait of Friedrich Rückert. At an exhibition
by the women artists of Berlin, 1892, a pen study by Fräulein Froriep
attracted attention and was admired for its spirit and its clear

FRUMERIE, MME. DE. Honorable mention at the Salon des Artistes
Français in 1893 and 1895. Born in Sweden, she studied in the School of
Fine Arts in Stockholm. There she gained a prize which entitled her to
study abroad during four years.

She has exhibited her works in Paris, and to the Salon of Les Femmes
Peintres et Sculpteurs, in February, 1903, she contributed a bust of
Strindberg which was a delightful example of life-like portraiture.

FULLER, LUCIA FAIRCHILD. Bronze medal, Paris Exposition, 1900;
silver medal, Buffalo Exposition, 1901. Member of the Society of American
Artists and of the American Society of Miniature Painters. Born in
Boston. Studied at the Cowles Art School, Boston, under Denis M. Bunker,
and at the Art Students' League, New York, under H. Siddons Mowbray and
William M. Chase.

Mrs. Fuller is a most successful miniature painter. Among her principal
works are "Mother and Child," in the collection of Mrs. David P. Kimball,
Boston; "Girl with a Hand-Glass," owned by Hearn; and "Girl Drying Her
Feet," for which the medal was given in Paris.

Mrs. Fuller's miniatures are portraits principally, and are in private
hands. Some of her sitters in New York are Mrs. J. Pierpont Morgan and
her children, Mrs. H. P. Whitney and children, J. J. Higginson, Esq., Dr.
Edwin A. Tucker, and many others.

GAGGIOTTI-RICHARDS, EMMA. Historical and portrait painter, of the
middle of the nineteenth century, is known by her portrait of Alexander
von Humboldt (in possession of the Emperor William II.) and by her
portrait of herself before her easel. Her historical paintings include
"The Crusader" and a "Madonna."

GALLI, EMIRA. Reproduces with great felicity the customs of the
lagoons, the boys and fishermen of which she represents with marvellous
fidelity. She depicts not only characteristics of features and dress, but
of movement. "Giovane veneziana" and "Ragazzo del Popolo" were exhibited
at Turin in 1880, and were much admired. "Il Falconiere" was exhibited at
both Turin and Milan. "Un Piccolo Accattone" has also been accorded warm

GARDNER, ELIZABETH JANE. Honorable mention, Paris Salon, 1879; gold
medal, 1889; hors concours. Born in Exeter, New Hampshire, 1851, her
professional life has been spent in Paris, where she was a pupil of
Hugues Merle, Lefebvre, and M. William A. Bouguereau, whom she married.

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GARRIDO Y AGUDO, MARIA DE LA SOLEDAD. Born in Salamanca. Pupil of
Juan Peyró. She exhibited two works at the National Exposition, 1876--a
portrait and a youth studying a picture. In 1878 she sent to the same
exposition "The Sacrifice of the Saguntine Women." At the Philadelphia
Exposition, 1876, she exhibited her "Messenger of Love." Her "Santa
Lucia" is in the church of San Roque de Gardia.

GASSO Y VIDAL, LEOPOLDA. Honorable mention, 1876. Prizes, 1876, for
two works sent to the Provincial Exposition of Leon. Member of the
Association of Authors and Artists, 1876. Born in the Province of Toledo.
Pupil of Manuel Martinez Ferrer and Isidoro Lozano. At Madrid, in 1881,
she exhibited "A Pensioner," "A Beggar," a portrait of Señorita M. J.,
and a landscape; in 1878, "A Coxcomb," "Street Venders of Ávila," and a
landscape; and in 1881, at an exhibition held by D. Ricardo Hernandez,
were seen a landscape and a portrait of D. Lucas Aguirre y Juarez.

GEEFS, MME. FANNY ISABELLE MARIE. Born at Brussels. 1814-1883. Wife
of the sculptor, Guillaume Geefs. A painter of portraits and genre
subjects which excel the historical pictures she also painted. Her
"Assumption of the Virgin" is in a church at Waterloo; "Christ Appearing
to His Disciples," in a church at Hauthem. "The Virgin Consoling the
Afflicted" was awarded a medal in Paris, and is in the Hospital of St.
John at Brussels. The "Virgin and Child" was purchased by the Belgian
Government. Her portraits are good, and among her genre subjects the
"Young Mother," the "Sailor's Daughter," and "Ophelia" are attractive and
artistic in design and execution.

GELDER, LUCIA VAN. Born in Wiesbaden. 1864-1899. This artist was the
daughter of an art dealer, and her constant association as a child with
good pictures stimulated her to study. In Berlin she had lessons in
drawing with Liezenmayer, and in color with Max Thedy. She was also a
constant student at the galleries. She began to work independently when
eighteen, and a number of her pictures achieved great popularity, being
reproduced in many art magazines. "The Little Doctor," especially, in
which a boy is feeling, with a grave expression of knowledge, the pulse
of his sister's pet kitten, has been widely copied in photographs,
wood-engravings, and in colors. She repeated the picture in varying
forms. She died in Munich, where she was favorably known through such
works as "The Village Barber," "Contraband," "The Wonderful Story," "At
the Sick Bed," and "The Violin Player," the last painted the year before
her death.

GENTILESCHI, ARTEMISIA. 1590-1642. A daughter of Orazio Gentileschi,
whom she accompanied to England when he was invited to the court of
Charles I. Artemisia has been called the pupil, and again the friend, of
Guido Reni. Whatever the relation may have been, there is no doubt that
the manner of her painting was influenced by Guido, and also by her study
of the works of Domenichino.

Wagner says that she excelled her father in portraits, and her own
likeness, in the gallery at Hampton Court, is a powerful and life-like
picture. King Charles had several pictures from her hand, one of which,
"David with the Head of Goliath," was much esteemed. Her "Mary Magdalene"
and "Judith with the Head of Holofernes" are in the Pitti Palace. The
latter work is a proof of her talent. Lanzi says: "It is a picture of
strong coloring, of a tone and intensity which inspires awe." Mrs.
Jameson praised its execution while she regretted its subject.

[Illustration: Alinari, Photo.

In the Pitti Gallery, Florence



Her picture of the "Birth of John the Baptist," in the Gallery of the
Prado, is worthy of attention, even in that marvellous collection, where
is also her "Woman Caressing Pigeons." The Historical Society of New York
has her picture of "Christ among the Doctors."

After her return to Italy from England, this artist was married and
resided in Naples. Several of her letters are in existence. They tell of
the manner of her life and give an interesting picture of Neapolitan
society in her day.

GESSLER DE LACROIX, ALEJANDRENA--known in art circles as Madame
Anselma. Gold medal at Cadiz, 1880. Honorary member of the Academy of
Cadiz. She has spent some years in Paris, where her works are often seen
in exhibitions. Her medal picture at Cadiz was an "Adoration of the
Cross." One of her most successful works is called "The Choir Boys."

GILES, MISS--MRS. BERNARD JENKIN. This sculptor exhibited a
life-size marble group, called "In Memoriam," at the Royal Academy in
1900, which attracted much attention. It was graceful in design and of a
sympathetic quality. At an open competition in the London Art Union her
"Hero" won the prize. In 1901 she exhibited an ambitious group called
"After Nineteen Hundred Years, and still They Crucify." It was excellent
in modelling, admirable in sentiment, and displayed strength in
conception and execution.

GINASSI, CATERINA. Born in Rome, 1590. This artist was of noble
family, and one of her uncles, a Cardinal, founded the Church of Santa
Lucia, in which Caterina, after completing her studies under Lanfranco,
painted several large pictures. After the death of the Cardinal, with
money which he had given her for the purpose, Caterina founded a
cloister, with a seminary for the education of girls.

As Abbess of this community she proved herself to be of unusual ability.
In her youth she had been trained in practical affairs as well as in art,
and, although she felt that "the needle and distaff were enemies to the
brush and pencil," her varied knowledge served her well in the
responsibilities she had assumed, and at the head of the institution she
had founded she became as well known for her executive ability as for her

Little as the works of Lanfranco appeal to us, he was a notable artist of
the Carracci school; Caterina did him honor as her master, and, in the
esteem of her admirers, excelled him as a painter.

GIRARDET, BERTHE. Gold medal at the Paris Exposition, 1900;
honorable mention, Salon des Artistes Français, 1900; ten silver medals
from foreign exhibitions. Member of the Société des Artistes Français and
the Union des femmes peintres et sculpteurs. Born at Marseilles. Her
father was Swiss and her mother a Miss Rogers of Boston. She was a pupil
for three months of Antonin-Carlès, Paris. With this exception, Mme.
Girardet writes: "I studied mostly alone, looking to nature as the best
teacher, and with energetic perseverance trying to give out in a concrete
form all that filled my heart."



Among her works are: "L'Enfant Malade," bought by the city of Paris and
placed in the Petit Palais des Champs Élysées; a group called the
"Grandmother's Blessing," purchased by the Government and placed in a
public museum; the bust of an "Old Woman," acquired by the Swiss
Government and placed in the Museum of Neuchâtel; a group, the "Madonna
and Child," for which the artist received the gold medal; and two groups
illustrating the prayer, "Give us this day our daily bread." Also
portrait statues and busts belonging to private collections.

At the Salon des Artistes Français, 1902, Mme. Girardet exhibited the
"Grandmother's Blessing" and "L'Enfant Malade." At the same Salon, 1903,
the two groups illustrating the Lord's Prayer.

A writer, G. M., in the _Studio_ of December, 1902, writes: "Prominent
among the women artists of the day whose talents are attracting attention
is Mme. Berthe Girardet. She has a very delicate and very tender vision
of things, which stamps her work with genuine originality. She does not
seek her subjects far from the life around her; quite the reverse; and
therein lies the charm of her sculpture--a great, sincere, and simple
charm, which at once arouses one's emotion. What, for instance, could be
more poignantly sad than this 'Enfant Malade' group, with the father,
racked with anxiety, bending over the pillow of his fragile little son,
and the mother, already in an attitude of despair, at the foot of the
bed? The whole thing is great in its profound humanity.

"The 'Bénédiction de l'Aïeule' is less tragic. Behind the granddaughter,
delightful in her white veil and dress of a _première communicante_,
stands the old woman, her wrinkled face full of quiet joy. She is
thinking of the past, moved by the melancholy of the bells, and she is
happy with a happiness with which is mingled something of sorrow and
regret. It is really exquisite. By simple means Mme. Berthe Girardet
obtains broad emotional effects. She won a great and legitimate success
at the Salon of the Société des Artistes Français."

GLEICHEN, COUNTESS. Bronze medal at Paris Exposition, 1900.
Honorable member of Royal Institute of Painters in Water-Colors, of Royal
Society of Painter Etchers. Sculptor. Pupil of her father, Prince Victor
of Hohenlohe, and of the Slade School, London; also of Professor Legros.
She has exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy since 1893.

In 1895 she completed a life-size statue of Queen Victoria for the
Victoria Hospital, Montreal. The Queen is represented in royal robes,
with one child asleep on her knee, while another, with its arm in a
sling, stands on the steps of the throne. Shortly before the Queen's
death she gave sittings to Countess Gleichen, who then executed a bust of
her majesty, now at the Cheltenham Ladies' College. The Constitutional
Club, London, has her bust of Queen Alexandra, which was seen at the
Academy in 1895. Her "Satan" attracted much attention when exhibited in
1894. He is represented as seated on a throne composed of snakes, while
he has scales and wings and is armed like a knight. In 1899 her statue of
"Peace" was more pleasing, while a hand-mirror of jade and bronze was
much admired both in London and Paris, where it was seen in the
Exposition of 1900. In 1901 she executed a fountain with a figure of a
nymph for a garden in Paris; a year later, a second fountain for W.
Palmer, Esq., Ascot. She has made a half-length figure of Kubelik. Her
sculptured portraits include those of Sir Henry Ponsonby, Mme. Calvé,
Mrs. Walter Palmer, and a bust of the late Queen, in ivory, which she
exhibited in 1903.


[_No reply to circular_.]

GLOAG, ISOBEL LILIAN. Born in London, the daughter of Scotch
parents. Her early studies were made at St. John's Wood Art School,
preparatory to entering the School of the Royal Academy, but the
conservative and academic training of these institutions so displeased
her that she went to the Slade School. Ill health compelled her to put
aside all plans for regular study, and she entered Ridley's studio for
private instruction, following this with work at the South Kensington
Museum. After still further study with Raphael Collin in Paris, she
returned to London and soon had her work accepted at the Royal Academy.
Miss Gloag is reported as saying that women have little sense of
composition, a failing which she does not seem to share; in this respect
and as a colorist she is especially strong. "Rosamond," in which the
charming girl in a purple robe, sitting before an embroidery frame, is
startled by the shadow of Queen Eleanor bearing the poisoned cup,
displays these qualities to great advantage. The leafy bower, the hanging
mantle, show great skill in arrangement and a true instinct for color.
"The Magic Mantle," "Rapunzel," and the "Miracle of the Roses" have
all--especially, the first named--made an impression; another and
strikingly original picture, called the "Quick and the Dead," represents
a poorhouse, in the ward of which is a group of old women surrounded by
the ghosts of men and children. Miss Gloag has also made some admirable
designs for stained-glass windows. She has been seriously hampered by
ill health, and her achievements in the face of such a drawback are all
the more remarkable.

GODEWYCK, MARGARETTA. Born at Dort, 1627. A pupil of the celebrated
painter, Nicholas Maas. She excelled as a painter of flowers, and was
proficient in both ancient and modern languages. She was called by
authors of her time, "the lovely flower of Art and Literature of the
Merwestrom," which is a poetical way of saying Dordrecht!

GOLAY, MARY--MME. SPEICH GOLAY. Silver medal at Geneva Exposition,
1896; eighteen medals and rewards gained in the Art Schools of Geneva,
and the highest recompense for excellence in composition and decoration.
Member of the Amis des Beaux-Arts, Geneva; Société vaudoise des Beaux
Arts, Lausanne. Born in Geneva and studied there under Mittey for flower
painting, composition, and ceramic decoration; under Gillet for figure

Mme. Golay has executed a variety of pictures both in oil and
water-colors. In an exhibition at the Athénée in Geneva, in the autumn of
1902, she exhibited two pictures of sleep, which afforded an almost
startling contrast. They were called "Sweet Sleep" and the "Eternal
Sleep." The first was a picture of a beautiful young woman, nude, and
sleeping in the midst of roses, while angels watching her inspire rosy
dreams of life and love. The roses are of all possible shades, rendered
with wonderful freshness--scarlet roses, golden roses--and in such masses
and so scattered about the nude figure as to give it a character of
purity and modesty. The flesh tints are warm, the figure is supple in
effect, and the whole is a happy picturing of the sleep and dream of a
lovely young woman who has thrown herself down in the carelessness of

It required an effort of will to turn to the second picture. Here lies
another young woman, in her white shroud, surrounded with lilies as white
as her face, on which pain has left its traces. In the artistic speech of
the present day, it is a symphony in white. The figure is as rigid as the
other is supple; it is frightfully immovable--and yet the drawing is not
exaggerated in its firmness. Certainly these contrasting pictures witness
to the skill of the artist. Without doubt the last is by far the most
difficult, but Mme. Golay has known how to conquer its obstacles.

A third picture by this artist in the exhibition is called the "Abundance
of Spring." Mme. Golay's reputation as a flower painter has been so long
established that one need not dwell on the excellence of the work. A
writer in the Geneva _Tribune_ exclaims: "One has never seen more
brilliant peonies, more vigorous or finer branches of lilacs, or iris
more delicate and distinguished. How they breathe--how they live--how
they smile--these ephemeral blossoms!"

GONZALEZ, INÉS. Member of the Academy San Carlos of Valencia. In the
expositions of 1845 and 1846 in that city she was represented by several
miniatures, one of which, "Dido," was much admired. Another--the portrait
of the Baron of Santa Barbara--was acquired by the Economic Society of
Valencia. In the Provincial Museum is her picture of the "Two Smokers."

GRANBY, MARCHIONESS OF. Replies as follows to circular: "Lady Granby
has been written about by Miss Tomlinson, 20 Wigmore Street, London, W.
And I advise you if you really want any information to get it from her.
V. G."

I was not "_really_" anxious enough to be informed about Lady Granby--who
drops so readily from the third person to the first--to act on her
advice, which I give to my readers, in order that any one who does wish
to know about her will be able to obtain the information!

GRANT, MARY R. This sculptor studied in Paris and Florence, as well
as in London, where she was a pupil of J. H. Foley, R.A. She has
exhibited at the Royal Academy since 1870. She has executed portraits of
Queen Victoria, Georgina, Lady Dudley, the Duke of Argyll, Mr. C.
Parnell, M.P., and Sir Francis Grant, P.R.A.

Her memorial work includes a relief of Dean Stanley, Royal Chapel,
Windsor; and a relief of Mr. Fawcett, M.P., on the Thames Embankment. The
late Queen gave Miss Grant several commissions. In Winchester Cathedral
is a screen, on the exterior of Lichfield Cathedral a number of figures,
and in the Cathedral of Edinburgh a reredos, all the work of this artist.
At the Royal Academy, 1903, she exhibited a medallion portrait in bronze.

GRATZ, MARIE. Born at Karlsruhe, 1839. This portrait painter was a
pupil of Bergmann, and later of Schick and Canon. Among her best-known
portraits are those of Prince and Princess Lippe-Detmold, Princess
Hohenlohe-Langenburg, Prince Wittgenstein, the hereditary Princess Reuss,
and Princess Biron von Kurland.

GRAY, SOPHIE DE BUTTS. First honor, Maryland Institute; second
honor, World's Fair, New Orleans; gold medal, Autumn Exhibition,
Louisville, 1898; first and second premiums, Nelson County Fair, 1898.

[_No reply to circular_.]

GREATOREX, ELIZA. In 1869 Mrs. Greatorex was elected associate
member of the National Academy, New York, and was the first woman member
of the Artists' Fund Society of New York. Born in Ireland. 1820-1897.
Studied under Witherspoon and James and William Hart in New York; under
Lambinet in Paris; and at the Pinakothek in Munich. Mrs. Greatorex
visited England, Paris, Italy, and Germany, spending a summer in
Nuremberg and one in Ober-Ammergau.

Among her most important works are "Bloomingdale," which was purchased by
Mr. Robert Hoe; "Château of Madame Cliffe," the property of Dykeman van
Doren; "Landscape, Amsterdam"; pictures of "Bloomingdale Church," "St.
Paul's Church," and the "North Dutch Church," all painted on panels taken
from these churches.

Mrs. Greatorex illustrated the "Homes of Ober-Ammergau" with etchings,
published in Munich in 1871; also "Summer Etchings in Colorado,"
published in 1874; and "Old New York from the Battery to Bloomingdale,"
published in 1875. Eighteen of the drawings for the "Old New York" were
at the Philadelphia Exhibition, 1876.

GREENAWAY, KATE. Member of the Royal Institute of Painters in
Water-Colors, 1890. Born in London. 1846-1901. Her father was a
well-known wood-engraver. Miss Greenaway first studied her art at the
South Kensington School; then at Heatherley's life class and at the Slade
School. She began to exhibit at the Dudley Gallery in 1868.

Her Christmas cards first attracted general attention to her as an
artist. Their quaint beauty and truthful drawing in depicting children,
young girls, flowers, and landscape soon made them more popular than the
similar work of other artists. These cards sold by thousands on both
sides of the Atlantic and secured consideration for any other work she
might do.

She soon made illustrations for _Little Folks_ and the _London News_. In
1879 "Under the Window" appeared, and one hundred and fifty thousand
copies were sold; it was also translated into French and German. The
"Birthday Book," "Mother Goose," and "Little Ann" followed and were
accorded the heartiest welcome. It is said that for the above four toy
books she received $40,000. Wherever they went--and they were in all
civilized countries--they were applauded by artists and critics and loved
by all classes of women and children. One can but hope that Kate
Greenaway realized the world-wide pleasure she gave to children.

The exhibition of her works at the Gallery of the Fine Arts Society,
since her death, was even more beautiful than was anticipated. The grace,
delicacy, and tenderness with which her little people were created
impressed one in an entire collection as no single book or picture could

It has been said that "Kate Greenaway dressed the children of two
continents," and, indeed, her revival of the costumes of a hundred years
ago was delightful for the children and for everybody who saw them.

Among her papers after her death many verses were found. Had she lived
she would doubtless have acquired the courage to give them to the world.
She was shy of strangers and the public; had few intimates, but of those
few was very fond; the charm of her character was great--indeed, her
friends could discover no faults in her; her personality and presence
were as lovely to them as were her exquisite flowers.

GREENE, MARY SHEPARD. Third-class medal, 1900, second-class medal,
1902, at Salon des Artistes Français. Her picture of 1902 is thus spoken
of in _Success_, September of that year:

"'Une Petite Histoire' is the title of Miss Mary Shepard Greene's
graceful canvas. The lithe and youthful figure of a girl is extended upon
a straight-backed settle in somewhat of a Récamier pose. She is intently
occupied in the perusal of a book. The turn of the head, the careless
attitude, and the flesh tints of throat and face are all admirably
rendered. The diaphanous quality of the girlish costume is skilfully
worked out, as are also the accessories of the room. Miss Greene's work
must commend itself to those who recognize the true in art. Technical
dexterity and a fine discrimination of color are attributes of this
conscientious artist's work. She has a rare idea of grace and great
strength of treatment.

"Miss Greene's canvas has a charm all its own, and is essentially
womanly, while at the same time it is not lacking in character. Hailing
from New England, her first training was in Brooklyn, under Professor
Whittaker, from whom she received much encouragement. Afterward she came
under the influence of Herbert Adams, and, after pursuing her studies
with that renowned artist, she went to Paris, where she was received as a
pupil by Raphael Collin. She has exhibited at Omaha, Pittsburg, and at
the Salon. Her first picture, called 'Un Regard Fugitif,' won for her a
medal of the third class."

[_No reply to circular_.]

GREY, MRS. EDITH F. Member of the Society of Miniaturists, Royal
Institute of Painters in Water-Colors, Bewick Club, and Northumbrian Art
Institute, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Born at the last-named place, where she
also made her studies in the Newcastle School of Art, and later under
private masters in London.

Mrs. Grey has exhibited miniatures and pictures in both oils and
water-colors at the Royal Society of British Artists, the Royal Academy,
the Royal Institute of Painters in Water-Colors, and the exhibitions at
Liverpool, Manchester, and York. Since 1890 she has continuously
exhibited at the Academy of the Royal Institute, London, except in 1895
and 1902.

Mrs. Grey was fortunate in having the first picture she sent to London
sold, and has continued to find purchasers for her exhibited works,
which are now in many private collections and number about one hundred
and fifty. "Empty," a child study in oils, 1897, and a water-color, "A
Silver Latch," 1900, are among her important works.

To the Academy Exhibition, 1903, she sent a picture of "Nightfall,
Cullercoats," and a portrait of "Lily, daughter of Mrs. J. B. Firth."

GUILD, MRS. CADWALLADER. I quote from the Boston _Transcript_ a
portion of an article relative to this sculptor, some of whose works were
exhibited in Boston in 1903:

"In spite of the always suspected journalistic laudations of Americans
abroad, in spite of the social vogue and intimacy with royalty which
these chronicle, the work of Mrs. Guild shows unmistakable talent and
such a fresh, free spirit of originality that one can almost accept the
alleged dictum of Berlin that Mrs. Guild 'is the greatest genius in
sculpture that America has ever had.'

"The list of Mrs. Guild's works executed abroad include a painting
belonging to the very beginning of her career, of still-life in oils,
which was accepted and well hung at the Royal Academy in London; but it
is in Berlin that she has been especially successful. To her credit there
are: A bust of her royal highness the Princess Christian of
Schleswig-Holstein; Mr. Gladstone, in marble and bronze; G. F. Watts, in
bronze, for the 'Permanent Manchester Art Exhibition'; Mr. Peter
Brotherhood, inventor of a torpedo engine, in marble and bronze, which
held the place of honor at the Royal Academy the year of its exhibition;
Princess Henry of Prussia, in marble; her highness Princess Helena of
Saxe-Altenburg; his excellency the Baron von Rheinbaben, minister of
finance; his excellency Dr. Studt, minister of education in art; Prof.
Dr. Henry Thode, of the Heidelberg University; Hans Thoma and Joachim,
the violinist; Felix Weingartner; statuette of her royal highness
Princess Henry with her little son Prince Henry."

[_No reply to circular_.]

GUNTHER-AMBERG, JULIE. Born in Berlin, 1855. Daughter and pupil of
Wilhelm Amberg; later she studied under Gussow. She painted attractive
scenes of domestic life, the setting for these works often representing a
landscape characteristic of the shore of the Baltic Sea. Among these
pictures are "Schurr-Meer," "The Village Coquette," "Sunday Afternoon,"
"At the Garden Gate," and "Harvest Day in Misdroy." In 1886 this artist
married Dr. Gunther, of Berlin.

GUYON, MAXIMILIÈNNE. Medal of third class, Paris salon, 1888;
honorable mention and medal of third class at Exposition Universelle,
1889; travelling purse, 1894--first woman to whom the purse was given;
bronze medal, Paris Exposition, 1900; gold medal at Exposition of Black
and White, Paris; medal in silver-gilt at Amiens. Mme. Guyon is hors
concours at Lyons, Versailles, Rouen, etc. Member of the Société des
Artistes Français, Société des Aquarellistes Français, and of the Société
des Prix du Salon et Boursiers de Voyage. Born at Paris. Pupil of the
Julian Academy under Robert-Fleury, Jules Lefebvre, and Gustave

Mme. Guyon is a successful portrait painter, and her works are numerous.
Among her pictures of another sort are the "Violinist" and "The River."
In the Salon des Artistes Français, 1902, she exhibited two portraits. In
1903 she exhibited "Mending of the Fish Nets, a scene in Brittany," and
"A Study." The net-menders are three peasant women, seated on the shore,
with a large net thrown across their laps, all looking down and working
busily. They wear the white Breton caps, and but for these--in the
reproduction that I have--it seems a gloomy picture; but one cannot judge
of color from the black and white. The net is well done, as are the
hands, and the whole work is true to the character of such a scene in the
country of these hard-working women.

Mme. Guyon is much esteemed as a teacher. She has been an instructor and
adviser to the Princess Mathilde, and has had many young ladies in her

In her portraits she succeeds in revealing the individual characteristics
of her subjects and bringing out that which is sometimes a revelation to
themselves in a pronounced manner. Is not this the key to the charm of
her works?

HAANEN, ELIZABETH ALIDA--MME. KIERS. Member of the Academy of
Amsterdam, 1838. Born in Utrecht. 1809-1845. Pupil of her brother, Georg
G. van Haanen. The genre pictures by this artist are admirable. "A Dutch
Peasant Woman" and "The Midday Prayer of an Aged Couple" are excellent
examples of her art and have been made familiar through reproductions.

HALE, ELLEN DAY. Medal at exhibition of Mechanics' Charitable
Association. Born in Worcester, Massachusetts. Pupil of William M. Hart
and of Dr. Rimmer, in Boston, and of the Julian Academy, Paris.

Her principal works are decorative. The "Nativity" is in the South
Congregational Church, Boston; "Military Music," decorative, is in
Philadelphia. She also paints figure subjects.


HALSE, EMMELINE. This artist, when in the Royal Academy Schools, was
awarded two silver medals and a prize of £30. Her works have been
accepted at the Academy Exhibitions since 1888, and occasionally she has
sent them to the Paris Salons. Born in London. Studied under Sir
Frederick Leighton, at Academy Schools, and in Paris under M. Bogino.

Miss Halse executed the reredos in St. John's Church, Notting Hill,
London; a terra-cotta relief called "Earthward Board" (?) is in St.
Bartholomew's Hospital, London; a relief, the "Pleiades," was purchased
by the Corporation of Glasgow for the Permanent Exhibition; her
restoration of the "Hermes" was placed in the British Museum beside the
cast from the original.

This artist has made many life-size studies of children, portraits in
marble, plaster, and wax, in all sizes, poetical reliefs, and tiny wax

HAMMOND, GERTRUDE DEMAIN. Several prizes at the School of the Royal
Academy, 1886, 1887, and in 1889 the prize for decorative design; bronze
medal at Paris Exposition in 1900. Member of Institute of Painters in
Water-Colors. Born at Brixton. After gaining the prize for decorative
design Miss Hammond was commissioned to execute her design, in a public
building. This was the third time that such a commission was given to a
prize student, and the first time it was accorded to a woman.

More recently Miss Hammond has illustrated books and magazines; in 1902
she illustrated the "Virginians" in a new American edition of Thackeray's
novels. At the Academy, 1903, she exhibited "A Reading from Plato."

HARDING, CHARLOTTE. George W. Childs gold medal at Philadelphia
School of Design for Women; silver medal at Women's Exposition, London,
1900. Born in Newark, New Jersey, 1873. Pupil of Philadelphia Academy of
Fine Arts and School of Design for Women. In the latter was awarded the
Horstman fellowship. Miss Harding is an illustrator whose works are seen
in a number of the principal magazines.

HART, LETITIA B. Dodge prize, National Academy of Design, 1898. Born
in New York, 1857. Pupil of her father, James M. Hart, and Edgar M. Ward.

Her principal works are "The Keepsake," "Unwinding the Skein," "In Silk
Attire," and "The Bride's Bouquet."

HAVENS, BELLE. Awarded third Hallgarten prize at National Academy of
Design, winter of 1903. Born in Franklin County, Ohio. Studied at Art
Students' League, New York, and at Colarossi Atelier, Paris. In New York
Miss Havens was directed by William Chase, and by Whistler in Paris. In
Holland she studied landscape under Hitchcock, and a picture called
"Going Home" was accepted at the Salon and later exhibited at the
Philadelphia Academy; it is owned by Mr. Caldwell, of Pittsburg.

Mr. Harrison N. Howard, in _Brush and Pencil_, writing of the exhibition
of the National Academy of Design, says: "'Belle Havens' the 'Last Load'
is part and parcel with her other cart-and-horse compositions,
commonplace and prosaic in subject, but rendered naturally and forcefully
and with no small measure of atmospheric effect. The picture is not one
of the winsome sort, and it doubtless makes less appeal to the spectator
than any other of the prize-winners."

HAZLETON, MARY BREWSTER. First Hallgarten prize, 1896; first prize
travelling scholarship, School of Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1899;
honorable mention, Buffalo, 1901.

[_No reply to circular_.]

HEDINGER, ELISE. Family name Neumann. Born in Berlin, 1854. Pupil of
Hoguet, Hertel, and Gussow in Berlin, and of Bracht in Paris. In recent
years she has exhibited in Berlin and other cities many exquisite
landscapes and admirable pictures of still-life, which have been
universally praised.

HEEREN, MINNA. Born in Hamburg; living in Düsseldorf. In the Gallery
at Hamburg is her "Ruth and Naomi," 1854; other important works are "The
Veteran of 1813 and His Grandson, Wounded in 1870," "The Little Boaster,"
"A Troubled Hour of Rest," etc.

HELENA. A Greek painter of the fourth century B. C. Daughter of
Timon, an Egyptian. She executed a picture of the "Battle of Issus,"
which was exhibited in the Temple of Peace, in the time of Vespasian, 333
B. C.

HERBELIN, MME. JEANNE MATHILDE. Third-class medal, Paris Salon,
1843; second class, 1844; and first class, 1847, 1848, and 1855. Born in
Brunoy, 1820. A painter of miniatures. One of these works by Mme.
Herbelin was the first miniature admitted to the Luxembourg Gallery.

HEREFORD, LAURA. 1831-1870. This artist is distinguished by the fact
that she was the first woman to whom the schools of the Royal Academy
were opened. She became a pupil there in 1861 or 1862, and in 1864 sent
to the Exhibition "A Quiet Corner"; in 1865, "Thoughtful"; in 1866,
"Brother and Sister"; and in 1867, "Margaret."

HERMAN, HERMINE VON. Born in Komorn, Hungary, 1857. Studied under
Darnaut in Vienna, where she made her home. She is a landscape painter
and is known through her "Evening Landscape," "Spring," "Eve," and a
picture of roses.

HEUSTIS, LOUISE LYONS. Member of Art Workers' Club for Women and the
Art Students' League. Born in Mobile, Alabama. Pupil of Art Students'
League, New York, under Kenyon Cox and W. M. Chase; at Julian Academy,
Paris, under Charles Lasar.

[Illustration: From a Copley Print.



A portrait painter. At a recent exhibition of the Society of American
Artists, Miss Heustis's genre portrait called "The Recitation" was most
attractive and well painted. She has painted portraits of Mr. Henry F.
Dimock; Mr. Edward L. Tinker, in riding clothes, of which a critic says,
"It is painted with distinction and charm"; the portrait of a little boy
in a Russian blouse is especially attractive; and a portrait of Miss
Soley in riding costume is well done. These are but a small number of the
portraits by this artist. She is clever in posing her sitters, manages
the effect of light with skill and judgement, and renders the various
kinds of textures to excellent advantage.

As an illustrator Miss Heustis has been employed by _St. Nicholas,
Scribner's_, and _Harper's Magazine_.

HILL, AMELIA R. A native of Dunfermline, she lived many years in
Edinburgh. A sister of Sir Noel and Walter H. Paton, she married D. O.
Hill, of the Royal Scottish Academy. Mrs. Hill made busts of Thomas
Carlyle, Sir David Brewster, Sir Noel Paton, Richard Irven, of New York,
and others. She also executed many ideal figures. She was the sculptor of
the memorial to the Regent Murray at Linlithgow, of the statue of Captain
Cook, and that of Dr. Livingstone; the latter was unveiled in Prince's
Gardens, Edinburgh, in 1876, and is said to be the first work of this
kind executed by a woman and erected in a public square in Great Britain.

"Mrs. Hill has mastered great difficulties in becoming a sculptor in
established practice."--_Mrs. Tytler's "Modern Painters."_

"Mrs. Hill's Captain Cook--R. Scottish Academy, 1874--is an interesting
figure and a perfectly faithful likeness, according to extant portraits
of the great circumnavigator."--_Art Journal_, April, 1874.

HILLS, LAURA COOMBS. Medal at Art Interchange, 1895; bronze medal,
Paris Exposition, 1900; silver medal, Pan-American Exposition, 1901;
second prize, Corcoran Art Gallery, Washington, D. C, 1901. Member of
Society of American Artists, Women's Art Club, New York, American Society
of Miniature Painters, and Water-Color Club, Boston. Born in Newburyport,
Massachusetts. Studied in Helen M. Knowlton's studio and at Cowles Art
School, Boston, and at Art Students' League, New York.



Miss Hills is a prominent and successful miniaturist, and her numerous
pictures are in the possession of her subjects. They are decidedly
individual in character. No matter how simple her arrangements, she gives
her pictures a cachet of distinction. It may be "a lady in a black gown
with a black aigrette in her hair and a background of delicate turquoise
blue, or the delicate profile of a red-haired beauty, outlined against
tapestry, the snowy head and shoulders rising out of dusky brown velvet;
but the effect is gem-like, a revelation of exquisite coloring that is
entirely artistic."

"An attractive work," reproduced here, "may be called a miniature
picture. It is a portrait of a little lady, apparently six or seven years
old, in an artistic old-fashioned gown, the bodice low in neck and cut in
sharp point at the waist line in front; elbow sleeves, slippers with
large rosettes, just peeping out from her dress, her feet not touching
the floor, so high is she seated. Her hair, curling about her face, is
held back by a ribbon bandeau in front; one long, heavy curl rests on the
left side of her neck, and is surmounted by a big butterfly bow. The
costume and pose are delightful and striking at first sight, but the more
the picture is studied the more the face attracts the attention it
merits. It is a sweet little girl's face, modest and sensible. She is
holding the arm of her seat with a sort of determination to sit that way
and be looked at so long as she must, but her expression shows that she
is thinking hard of something that she intends to do so soon as she can
jump down and run away to her more interesting occupations."


[_No reply to circular_.]

HITZ, DORA. Born at Altdorf, near Nuremberg, 1856. During eight
years she worked under the direction of Lindenschmit, 1870-1878. She was
then invited to Bucharest by the Queen of Roumania, "Carmen Sylva." Here
the artist illustrated the Queen's poem, "Ada," with a series of
water-color sketches, and painted two landscapes from Roumanian scenery.
Between 1883 and 1886 she made sketches for the mural decoration of the
music-room at the castle of Sinoia. Later, in Brittany and Normandy, she
made illustrations for the fisher-romances of Pierre Loti. At Berlin, in
1891-1892, she painted portraits, and then retired to Charlottenburg. Her
exhibition of two beautiful pictures in gouache, at Dresden, in 1892,
brought her into notice, and her grasp of her subjects and her method of
execution were much commended.

Fräulein Hitz could not stem the "classic" art creed of Berlin, where the
"new idealism" is spurned. She ventured to exhibit some portraits and
studies there in 1894, and was most unfavorably criticised. At Munich,
however, in 1895, her exhibition was much admired at the "Secession."
Again, in 1898, she exhibited, in Berlin, at the Union of Eleven, a
portrait of a young girl, which was received with no more favor than was
shown her previous works. In the same year, at the "Livre Esthetique," in
Brussels, her pictures were thought to combine a charming grace with a
sure sense of light effects, in which the predominating tone was a deep
silver gray. A portrait by this artist was exhibited at a Paris Salon in

HOFFMANN, FELICITAS. Born in Venice, she died in Dresden, 1760.
Pupil of Rosalba Camera. There are four pictures in the Dresden Gallery
attributed to her--"St. George," after Correggio; "Diana with an Italian
Greyhound," after Camera; "Winter," a half-length figure by herself; and
her own portrait. Her principal works were religious subjects and

HOFFMANN-TEDESCO, GIULIA. Prize at the Beatrice Exposition, Naples.
Born at Wurzburg, 1850. This artist has lived in Italy and made her
artistic success there, her works having been seen in many exhibitions.
Her prize picture at Naples was called "A Mother's Joy." In 1877 she
exhibited in the same city "Sappho" and "A Mother," which were much
admired; at Turin, 1880, "On the Water" and "The Dance" were seen; at
Milan, 1881, she exhibited "Timon of Athens" and a "Sunset"; at Rome,
1883, "A Gipsy Girl" and "Flowers." Her flower pictures are excellent;
they are represented with truth, spirit, and grace.

HOGARTH, MARY. Exhibits regularly at the New English Art Club, and
occasionally at the New Gallery. Born at Barton-on-Humber, Lincolnshire.
Pupil of the Slade School under Prof. Fred Brown and P. Wilson Steer.

Miss Hogarth's contribution to the exhibition of the New English Art
Club, 1902, was called "The Green Shutters," a very peculiar title for
what was, in fact, a picture of the Ponte Vecchio and its surroundings,
in Florence. It was interesting. It was scarcely a painting; a tinted
sketch would be a better name for it. It was an actual portrait of the
scene, and skilfully done.

HORMUTH-KOLLMORGEN, MARGARETHE. Born at Heidelberg, 1858. Pupil of
Ferdinand Keller at Carlsruhe. Married the artist Kollmorgen, 1882. This
painter of flowers and still-life has also devoted herself to decorative
work, mural designs, fire-screens, etc., in which she has been
successful. Her coloring is admirable and her execution careful and firm.

HOSMER, HARRIET G. Born in Watertown, Massachusetts, 1830. Pupil in
Boston of Stevenson, who taught her to model; pupil of her father, a
physician, in anatomy, taking a supplementary course at the St. Louis
Medical School.

Since 1852 she has resided in Rome, where she was a pupil of Gibson. Two
heads, "Daphne" and "Medusa," executed soon after she went to Rome, were
praised by critics of authority. "Will-o'-the-Wisp," "Puck," "Sleeping
Faun," "Waking Faun," and "Zenobia in Chains" followed each other

Miss Hosmer made a portrait statue of "Maria Sophia, Queen of the
Sicilies," and a monument to an English lady to be placed in a church in
Rome. Her "Beatrice Cenci" has been much admired; it is in the Public
Library at St. Louis, and her statue of Thomas H. Benton is in a square
of the same city.

For Lady Ashburton Miss Hosmer made her Triton and Mermaid Fountains, and
a Siren Fountain for Lady Marian Alford.


[_No reply to circular_.]

HOUSTON, FRANCES C. Bronze medal at Atlanta Exposition; honorable
mention at Paris Exposition, 1900. Member of the Water-Color Club,
Boston, and of the Society of Arts and Crafts. Born in Hudson, Michigan,
1851. Studied in Julian Academy under Lefebvre and Boulanger.

A portrait painter whose pictures are in private hands. They have been
exhibited in Paris, London, Naples, New York, Philadelphia, and Boston.

Mrs. Houston writes me: "I have not painted many pictures of late years,
but always something for exhibition every year." She first exhibited at
Paris Salon in 1889, in London Academy in 1890, and annually sends her
portraits to the Boston, New York, and Philadelphia Exhibitions.

HOXIE, VINNIE REAM. Born in Madison, Wisconsin, 1847. This sculptor
was but fifteen years old when she was commissioned to make a life-size
statue of Abraham Lincoln, who sat for his bust; her completed statue of
him is in the rotunda of the Capitol at Washington. Congress then gave
her the commission for the heroic statue of Admiral Farragut, now in
Farragut Square, Washington. These are the only two statues that the
United States Government has ordered of a woman.

This artist has executed ideal statues and several bust portraits of
distinguished men. Of these the bust of Ezra Cornell is at Cornell
University; that of Mayor Powell in the City Hall of Brooklyn, etc.

HUDSON, GRACE. Gold medal at Hopkins Institute, San Francisco;
silver medal at Preliminary World's Fair Exhibition of Pacific States;
and medals and honorable mention at several California State exhibitions.
Born in Potter Valley, California. Studied at Hopkins Art Institute, San
Francisco, under Virgil Williams and Oscar Kunath.

Paints genre subjects, some of which are "Captain John," in National
Museum; "Laughing Child," in C. P. Huntington Collection; "Who Comes?" in
private hands in Denver, etc.

Mrs. Hudson's pictures of Indians, the Pomas especially, are very
interesting, although when one sees the living article one wonders how a
picture of him, conscientiously painted and truthful in detail, can be so
little repulsive--or, in fact, not repulsive at all. At all events, Mrs.
Hudson has no worthy rival in painting California Indians. If we do not
sympathize with her choice of subjects, we are compelled to acknowledge
that her pictures are full of interest and emphasize the power of this
artist in keeping them above a wearisome commonplace.

Her Indian children are attractive, we must admit, and her "Poma Bride,"
seated in the midst of the baskets that are her dower, is a picture which
curiously attracts and holds the attention. Her compositions are simple,
and it can only be a rare skill in their treatment that gives them the
value that is generally accorded them by critics, who, while approving
them, are all the time conscious of surprise at themselves for doing so,
and of an unanswered Why? which persists in presenting itself to their
thought when seeing or thinking of these pictures.

HULBERT, MRS. KATHERINE ALLMOND. Born in Sacramento Valley,
California. Pupil of the San Francisco School of Design under Virgil
Williams; National Academy of Design, New York, under Charles Noel Flagg;
Artist Artisan Institute, New York, under John Ward Stimson.

This artist paints in water-colors and her works are much admired. Among
the most important are "The Stream, South Egremont," which is in a
private gallery in Denver; "In the Woods" belongs to Mr. Whiting, of
Great Barrington; and "Sunlight and Shadow" to Mr. Benedict, Albany, New

Mrs. Hulbert is also favorably known as an illustrator and decorative

HUNTER, MARY Y. Four silver medals at Royal Academy Schools
Exhibitions; diploma for silver medal, Woman's International Exhibition,
Earl's Court, London. Member of Society of Painters in Tempera. Born in
New Zealand. Studied at Royal Academy Schools.

The following list of the titles of Mrs. Hunter's works will give an idea
of the subjects she affects: "Dante and Beatrice," "Joy to the Laborer,"
"An Italian Garden," "Where shall Wisdom be Found?" and the
"Roadmenders," in Academy Exhibition, 1903.

The only work of Mrs. Hunter's that I have seen is the "Dante and
Beatrice," Academy, 1900, and the impression I received leads me to think
an article in the _Studio,_ June, 1903, a just estimate of her work. It
is by A. L. Baldry, who writes: "In the band of young artists who are at
the present time building up sound reputations which promise to be
permanent, places of much prominence must be assigned to Mr. J. Young
Hunter and his wife. Though neither of them has been before the public
for any considerable period, they have already, by a succession of
notable works, earned the right to an amount of attention which, as a
rule, can be claimed only by workers who have a large fund of experience
to draw upon. But though they have been more than ordinarily successful
in establishing themselves among the few contemporary painters whose
performances are worth watching, they have not sprung suddenly into
notice by some special achievement or by doing work so sensational that
it would not fail to set people talking. There has been no spasmodic
brilliancy in their progress, none of that strange alternation of
masterly accomplishment and hesitating effort which is apt at times to
mark the earlier stages of the life of an artist who may or may not
attain greatness in his later years. They have gone forward steadily year
by year, amplifying their methods and widening the range of their
convictions; and there has been no moment since they made their first
appeal to the public at which they can be said to have shown any
diminution in the earnestness of their artistic intentions.

"The school to which they belong is one which has latterly gathered to
itself a very large number of adherents among the younger painters--a
school that, for want of a better name, can be called that of the new
Pre-Raphaelites. It has grown up, apparently, as an expression of the
reaction which has recently set in against the realistic beliefs taught
so assiduously a quarter of a century ago. At the end of the seventies
there was a prevailing idea that the only mission of the artist was to
record with absolute fidelity the facts of nature.... To-day the fallacy
of that creed is properly recognized, and the artists on whom we have to
depend in the immediate future for memorable works have substituted for
it something much more reasonable.... There runs through this new school
a vein of romantic fantasy which all thinking people can appreciate,
because it leads to the production of pictures which appeal, not only to
the eye by their attractiveness of aspect, but also to the mind by their
charm of sentiment.... It is because Mr. Young Hunter and his wife have
carried out consistently the best principles of this school that they
have, in a career of some half-dozen years, established themselves as
painters of noteworthy prominence. Their romanticism has always been free
from exaggeration and from that morbidity of subject and treatment which
is occasionally a defect in the work of young artists. They have kept
their art wholesome and sincere, and they have cultivated judiciously
those tendencies in it which justify most completely the development of
the new Pre-Raphaelitism. They are, indeed, standing examples of the
value of this movement, which seems destined to make upon history a mark
almost as definite as that left by the original Brotherhood in the middle
of the nineteenth century. By their help, and that of the group to which
they belong, a new artistic fashion is being established, a fashion of a
novel sort, for its hold upon the public is a result not of some
irrational popular craze, but of the fascinating arguments which are put
into visible shape by the painters themselves."

Exposition in Atlanta, Georgia, 1895. Member of National Art Club, New
York. Born at Salem, Massachusetts. Studied at Cowles Art School and with
Ross Turner; later under H. H. Kitson and Ernest L. Major.

Among this artist's pictures are "Shouting above the Tide," "Primitive
Fishing," "The Choir Invisible," etc.

The plaster group called the "Boy with Great Dane" was the work of this
artist and her sister, Anna Vaughan Hyatt, and is at the Bureau of the
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, in New York.

HYATT, ANNA VAUGHAN. Member of the Copley Society, Boston. Born in
Cambridge, Massachusetts. Studied nature at Bostock's Animal Arena,
Norumbega Park, and at Sportsman's Exhibition. Criticism from H. H.

The principal works of this artist are the "Boy with Great Dane," already
mentioned, made in conjunction with her sister; a "Bison," in a private
collection in Boston; and "Playing with Fire."

In November, 1902, Miss Hyatt held an exhibition of her works, in plaster
and bronze, at the Boston Art Club. There were many small studies taken
from life.

HYDE, HELEN. Member of the Art Association, San Francisco. Born in
Lima, New York, but has lived so much in California that she is
identified with that State, and especially with San Francisco. She made
her studies in San Francisco, Philadelphia, New York, and Paris, where
she was a pupil of Felix Regamy and Albert Sterner. She then went to
Holland, where she also studied. On her return to San Francisco she
became so enamoured of the Oriental life she saw there that she
determined to go to Japan to perfect herself in colored etching. Miss
Hyde devoted herself to the study she had chosen during three years. She
lived in an old temple at Tokio, made frequent excursions into the
country, was a pupil of the best Japanese teachers, adapted herself to
the customs of the country, worked on low tables, sitting on the floor,
and so gained the confidence of the natives that she easily obtained
models, and, in a word, this artist was soon accorded honors in Japanese
exhibitions, where her pictures were side by side with those of the best
native artists.

[Illustration: CHILD OF THE PEOPLE


Miss Hyde has made a visit to America and received many commissions which
decided her to return to Japan. A letter from a friend in Tokio, written
in October, 1903, says that she will soon return to California.

IGHINO, MARY. A sculptor residing in Genoa. Since 1884 she has
exhibited a number of busts, bas-reliefs, and statues. At Turin in the
above-named year she exhibited a group in plaster, "Love Dominating
Evil." She is especially successful in bas-relief portraits; one of these
is of the Genoese sculptor, Santo Varin. She has also made a bust of
Emanuele Filiberto; and in terra-cotta a bust of Oicetta Doria, the
fifteenth-century heroine of Mitylene. She has executed a number of
decorative and monumental works, and receives many commissions from both
Italians and foreigners.

INGLIS, HESTER. This artist lived in the last half of the sixteenth
and in the early decades of the seventeenth century. In the Library of
Christ Church College, Oxford, there is an example of the Psalms, in
French, written and decorated by her, which formerly belonged to Queen
Elizabeth. In the Royal Library of the British Museum there is also a
"Book of Emblems" from her hand.

ITASSE, JEANNE. Honorable mention, Paris Salon, 1888, and the purse
of the city of Paris; at Paris Exposition, honorable mention, 1889;
travelling purse, 1891; medal at Chicago Exposition, 1893; medal third
class, Salon, 1896; medal second class, 1899; silver medal, Paris
Exposition, 1900. Member of Société des Artistes Français, Société Libre,
Société des prix du Salon et boursiers de voyage. Born in Paris. Pupil of
her father.

Several works of this sculptor have been purchased by the Government and
are in the Bureaux of Ministers or in provincial museums. A "Bacchante"
is in the Museum at Agen; a portrait bust in the Museum of Alger. At
the Salon of 1902 Mlle Itasse exhibited a "Madonna"; in 1903, a portrait
of M, W.

Mlle Itasse knows her art thoroughly. When still a child, at the age when
little girls play with dolls, she was in her father's atelier, working in
clay with an irresistible fondness for this occupation, and without
relaxation making one little object after another, until she acquired
that admirable surety of execution that one admires in her work--a
quality sometimes lacking in the work of both men and women sculptors.

Since her début at the Salon of 1886 she has annually exhibited important
works. In 1887 her bust of the danseuse, Marie Salles, was purchased by
the Government for the Opera; in 1888 she exhibited a plaster statue, the
"Young Scholar," and the following year the bust of her father; in 1890 a
"St. Sebastian" in high relief; in 1891 an "Egyptian Harpist," which
gained her a traveller's purse and an invitation from the Viceroy of
Egypt; in 1893 a Renaissance bas-relief; in 1894 the superb funeral
monument dedicated to her father; in 1896 she exhibited, in plaster, the
"Bacchante," which in marble was a brilliant success and gained for her a
second-class medal and the palmes académique, while the statue was
acquired by the Government. Mlle. Itasse has also gained official
recompenses in provincial exhibitions and has richly won the right to
esteem herself mistress of her art.

JACQUEMART, MLLE. NÉLIE. Medals at Paris Salon, 1868, 1869, and
1870. Born in Paris. A very successful portrait painter. Among the
portraits she has exhibited at the Paris Salon are those of Marshal
Canrobert, General d'Aurelle de Paladines, General de Palikao, Count de
Chambrun, M. Dufaure, and many others, both ladies and gentlemen. Her
portrait of Thiers in 1872 was greatly admired.

Paul d'Abrest wrote of Mlle. Jacquemart, in the _Zeitschrift für bildende
Kunst:_ "One feels that this artist does not take her inspirations alone
from the sittings of her subjects, but that she finds the best part of
her work in her knowledge of character and from her close study of the
personnelle of those whom she portrays."

JANDA, HERMINIE VON. Born at Klosterbruch, 1854. Pupil of Ludwig
Holanska and Hugo Darnaut. Since 1886 her landscapes have been seen in
various Austrian exhibitions. One of these was bought for the
"Franzens-Museum" at Brünn, while several others were acquired by the
Imperial House of Austria.

JENKS, PHOEBE A. PICKERING. Born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 1849.
Mrs. Jenks writes that she has had no teachers.

Her works, being portraits, are mostly in the homes of their owners, but
that of the son of T. Jefferson Coolidge, Jr., has been exhibited in the
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and that of Mrs. William Slater and her son
is in the Slater Museum at Norwich.

[Illustration: MOTHER AND CHILD


Mrs. Jenks has been constantly busy in portrait painting for twenty-seven
years, and has had no time for clubs and societies. She esteems the fact
of her constant commissions the greatest honor that she could have. She
has probably painted a greater number of portraits than any other Boston
contemporary artist.

JERICHAU-BAUMANN, ELIZABETH. 1819-1881. Honorable mention, Paris
Salon, 1861. Member of the Academy of Copenhagen. Born in Warsaw. Pupil
of Karl Sohne and Stilke, in Düsseldorf. In Rome she married the Danish
sculptor Jerichau and afterward lived in Copenhagen. She travelled in
England, France, Russia, Greece, Turkey, and Egypt.

Her picture of a "Polish Woman and Children Leaving Their Home, which had
been Destroyed," is in the Raczynski Collection, Berlin; "Polish Peasants
Returning to the Ruins of a Burnt House," in the Lansdowne Collection,
London; "A Wounded Soldier Nursed by His Betrothed," in the Gallery at
Copenhagen, where is also her portrait of her husband; "An Icelandic
Maiden," in the Kunsthalle, Hamburg. Her picture, "Reading the Bible,"
was painted for Napoleon III. at his request. Mme. Jerichau painted a
portrait of the present Queen of England, in her wedding dress. A large
number of her works are in private houses in Copenhagen.

One of her most important pictures was a life-size representation of
"Christian Martyrs in the Catacombs." This picture was much talked of in
Rome, where it was painted, and the Pope desired to see it. Madame
Jerichau took the picture to the Vatican. On seeing it the Pope expressed
surprise that one who was not of his Church could paint this picture.
Mme. Jerichau, hearing this, replied: "Your Holiness, I am a Christian."

Hans Christian Andersen was an intimate friend in the Jerichau family. He
attended the wedding in Rome, and wrote the biographies of Professor and
Mme. Jerichau.

Théophile Gautier once said that but three women in Europe merited the
name of artists--Rosa Bonheur, Henrietta Brown, and Elizabeth Jerichau;
and Cornelius called her "the one woman in the Düsseldorf School,"
because of her virile manner of painting.

Among her important portraits are those of Frederick VII. of Denmark, the
brothers Grimm, and "Hans Christian Andersen Reading His Fairy Tales to a

Mme. Jerichau was also an author. In 1874 she published her "Memories of
Youth," and later, with her son, the illustrated "Pictures of Travel."

JOPLING-ROWE, LOUISE. Member of Royal Society of British Artists,
Society of Portrait Painters, Pastel Society, Society of Women Artists.
Born at Manchester, 1843. Pupil of Chaplin in Paris; also studied with
Alfred Stevens.

Since 1871 Mrs. Jopling has been a constant exhibitor at the Royal
Academy and other London exhibitions, and frequently also at the Paris



Her pictures are principally portraits and genre subjects. Her first
decided success was gained in 1874, when she exhibited at the Academy the
"Japanese Tea Party," and from that time she was recognized as an
accomplished artist and received as many commissions as she could
execute. The Baroness de Rothschild had been convinced of Mrs. Jopling's
talent before she became an artist, and had given her great encouragement
in the beginning of her career. The portrait of Lord Rothschild, painted
for Lord Beaconsfield, is thought to be her best work of this kind, but
its owner would not allow it to be exhibited. Her portrait of Ellen
Terry, which hangs in the Lyceum Theatre, was at the Academy in 1883. It
is in the costume of Portia. Mrs. Jopling's pastels are of an unusual
quality, delicate, strong, and brilliant. Her portraits are numerous, and
from time to time she has also executed figure subjects.

Of late years Mrs. Jopling has been much occupied with a School of
Painting. The large number of pupils who wished to study with her made a
school the best means of teaching them, and has been successful. From the
beginning they draw from life, and at the same time they also study from
the antique.

Many of her pupils receive good prices for their works, and also earn
large sums for their portraits in black and white.

Mrs. Jopling writes: "What I know I chiefly learned alone. Hard work and
the genius that comes from infinite pains, the eye to see nature, the
heart to feel nature, and the courage to follow nature--these are the
best qualifications for the artist who would succeed."

In the _Art Journal,_ July, 1874, I read: "'The Five-o'Clock Tea' is the
largest and most important design we have seen from Mrs. Jopling's hand,
and in the disposition of the various figures and the management of color
it certainly exhibits very remarkable technical gifts. Especially do we
notice in this lady's work a correct understanding of the laws of tone,
very rare to find in the works of English painters, giving the artist
power to bring different tints, even if they are not harmonious, into
right relations with one another."

The above-named picture was sold to the Messrs. Agnew, and was followed
by "The Modern Cinderella," which was seen at the Paris Exposition in
1878; at the Philadelphia Exposition in 1876 she exhibited "Five Sisters
of York."

Mrs. Jopling is also known as the founder and president of the Society of
the Immortals. She has written several short tales, some poems, and a
book called "Hints to Amateurs."

At the Royal Academy, 1903, she exhibited "Hark! Hark! the Lark at
Heaven's Gate Sings," which is a picture of a poor girl beside a table,
on which she has thrown her work, and leaning back in her chair, with
hands clasped behind her head, is lost in thought.

JORIS, SIGNORINA AGNESE--pseudonym, Altissimi. Was accorded the
title of professor at the Institute of the Fine Arts, Rome, 1881. She was
successful in a competition for a position in the Scuole Tecniche, Rome,
1888. Honorable mention, Florence, 1890; same at Palermo, 1891 and 1892;
silver medal of first class and diploma of silver medal, Rome, 1899 and
1900. Member of the Società Cooperativa, Rome. Born in the same city, and
pupil of the Institute of Fine Arts and of her brother, Cavaliere
Professore Pio Joris.

This artist writes that a list of her works would be too long and require
too much time to write it. They are in oils, pastel, and water-colors,
with various applications of these to tapestries, etc. She also gives
lessons in these different methods of painting. In a private collection
in New York is her "Spanish Scene in the Eighteenth Century."

She painted a "portrait of the late King Humbert, arranged in the form of
a triptych surrounded by a wreath of flowers, painted from some which had
lain on the King's bier." She sent this picture to Queen Margharita, "who
not only graciously accepted it, but sent the artist a beautiful letter
and a magnificent jewel on which was the Royal Cipher."

KAERLING, HENRIETTE. Born about 1832. Daughter of the artist, J. T.
Kaerling, who was her principal teacher. She practised her art as a
painter of portraits, genre subjects, and still-life in Budapest during
some years before her marriage to the pianist Pacher, with whom she went
to Vienna. She there copied some of the works of the great painters in
the Gallery, besides doing original work of acknowledged excellence. In
addition to her excellent portraits, she painted in 1851 "The
Grandmother"; in 1852, "A Garland with Religious Emblems"; in 1855, "A
Crucifix Wound with Flowers."

KALCKREUTH, COUNTESS MARIA. Medal at Chicago Exposition, 1893.
Member of the Society of Women Artists in Berlin. Born at Düsseldorf.
1857-1897. Much of her artistic life was passed in Munich. Her picture at
Chicago was later exhibited at Berlin and was purchased for the
Protestant Chapel at Dachau. It represented "Christ Raising a Repentant
Sinner"--a strong work, broadly painted. Among her important pictures are
"In the Sunshine," "Fainthearted," "Discontented," and several portraits,
all of which show the various aspects of her artistic talent.

KAUFFMAN, ANGELICA. An original member of the London Academy. She
was essentially an Italian artist, since from the age of eleven she lived
in Italy and there studied her art. Such different estimates have been
made of her works that one may quote a good authority in either praise or
blame of her artistic genius and attainment.

Kugler, a learned, unimpassioned critic, says: "An easy talent for
composition, though of no depth; a feeling for pretty forms, though they
were often monotonous and empty, and for graceful movement; a coloring
blooming and often warm, though occasionally crude; a superficial but
agreeable execution, and especially a vapid sentimentality in harmony
with the fashion of the time--all these causes sufficiently account for
her popularity."

[Illustration: Alinari, Photo.

In the Uffizi, Florence



Raphael Mengs, himself an artist, thus esteems her: "As an artist she is
the pride of the female sex in all times and all nations. Nothing is
wanting--composition, coloring, fancy--all are here."

Miss Kate Thompson writes: "Her works showed no originality nor any great
power of execution, and, while sometimes graceful, were generally weak
and insipid."

For myself I do not find her worthy of superlative praise or
condemnation; one cannot deny her grace in design, which was also
creditably correct; her poetical subjects were pleasing in arrangement;
her historical subjects lacked strength and variety in expression; her
color was as harmonious and mellow as that of the best Italian colorists,
always excepting a small number of the greatest masters, and in all her
pictures there is a something--it must have been the individuality of
the artist--that leads one to entertain a certain fondness for her, even
while her shortcomings are fully recognized.

The story of Angelica Kauffman's life is of unusual interest. She was
born at Coire, in the Grisons. 1742-1807. Her father, an artist, had gone
from Schwarzenburg to Coire to execute some frescoes in a church, and had
married there. When Angelica was a year old the family settled in
Morbegno, in Lombardy. Ten years later, when the child had already shown
her predilection for painting and music, a new home was made for her in
Como, where there were better advantages for her instruction.

Her progress in music was phenomenal, and for a time she loved her two
arts--one as well as the other--and could make no choice between them. In
one of her pictures she represented herself as a child, standing between
allegorical figures of Music and Painting.

The exquisite scenery about Como, the stately palaces, charming villas,
the lake with its fairy-like pleasure boats, and the romantic life which
there surrounded this girl of so impressionable a nature, rapidly
developed the poetic element born with her, which later found expression
through her varied talents. During her long life the recollections of the
two years she passed at Como were among the most precious memories
associated with her wandering girlhood.

From Como she was taken to Milan, where she had still better advantages
for study, and a world of art was opened to her which far exceeded her
most ardent imaginings. Leonardo had lived and taught in Milan, and his
influence with that of other Lombard masters stirred Angelica to her very

Her pictures soon attracted the attention of Robert d'Este, who became
her patron and placed her in the care of the Duchess of Carrara. This
early association with a circle of cultured and elegant men and women was
doubtless the origin of the self-possession and modest dignity which
characterized Angelica Kauffman through life and enabled her becomingly
to accept the honors that were showered upon her.

Her happy life at Milan ended all too soon. Her mother died, and her
father decided to return to his native Schwarzenburg to execute some
extensive decorative works in that vicinity. In the interior decoration
of a church Angelica painted in fresco the figures of the twelve apostles
after engravings from the works of Piazetta.

The coarse, homely life of Schwarzenburg was in extreme contrast to that
of Milan and was most uncongenial to a sensitive nature; but Angelica was
saved from melancholy by the companionship she felt in the grand pine
forests, which soothed her discontent, while her work left her little
time to pine for the happiness she had left or even to mourn the terrible
loss of her mother.

Her father's restlessness returned, and they were again in Milan for a
short time, and then in Florence. Here she studied assiduously awhile,
but again her father's discontent drove him on, and they went to Rome.

Angelica was now eighteen years old, and in a measure was prepared to
profit by the aid and advice of Winckelmann. He conceived an ardent
friendship for the young artist, and, though no longer young, and engaged
in most important and absorbing research, he found time to interest
himself in Angelica's welfare, and allowed her to paint his portrait, to
which she gave an expression which proved that she had comprehended the
spirit of this remarkable man of threescore years.

While at Rome Angelica received a commission to copy some pictures in
Naples. After completing these she returned to Rome, in 1764, and
continued her studies for a time, but her interests were again sacrificed
to her father's unreasonable capriciousness, and she was taken to Bologna
and then to Venice. This constant change was disheartening to Angelica
and of the greatest disadvantage to her study, and it was most fortunate
that she now met Lady Wentworth, who became her friend and afterward took
her to England.

Angelica had already executed commissions for English families of rank
whom she had met in various cities of Italy, and her friends hoped that
she would be able to earn more money in England than in Italy, where
there were numberless artists and copyists. After visiting Paris she went
to London, where a brilliant career awaited her, not only as an artist,
but in the social world as well.

De Rossi thus describes her at this time: "She was not very tall, but
slight, and her figure was well proportioned. She had a dark, clear
complexion, a gracious mouth, white and equal teeth, and well-marked
features;... above all, her azure eyes, so placid and so bright, charmed
you with an expression it is impossible to write; unless you had known
her you could not understand how eloquent were her looks."

Her English friends belonged to the most cultivated circles, many of them
being also of high rank. Artists united to do her honor--showing no
professional envy and making no opposition to her election to the
Academy. Many interesting incidents in her association with London
artists are related, and it is said that both Fuseli and Sir Joshua
Reynolds were unsuccessful suitors for her hand. Miss Thackeray, in her
novel, "Miss Angel," makes Angelica an attractive heroine.

The royal family were much interested in her, and the mother of the King
visited her--an honor never before accorded to an artist--and the
Princess of Brunswick gave her commissions for several pictures.

De Rossi says that her letters at this time were those of a person at the
summit of joy and tranquillity. She was able to save money and looked
hopefully forward to a time when she could make a home for her unthrifty
father. But this happy prosperity was suddenly cut short by her own

After refusing many eligible offers of marriage, she was secretly married
to an adventurer who personated the Count de Horn, and succeeded by
plausible falsehoods in convincing her that it was necessary, for good
reasons, to conceal their marriage. One day when painting a portrait of
Queen Charlotte, who was very friendly to the artist, Angelica was moved
to confide the secret of her marriage to the Queen. Until this time no
one save her father had known of it.

Her Majesty, who loved Angelica, expressed her surprise and interest and
desired that Count de Horn should appear at Court. By this means the
deceit which had been practised was discovered, and the Queen, as gently
as possible, told Angelica the truth. At first she felt that though her
husband was not the Count de Horn and had grossly deceived her, he was
the man she had married and the vows she had made were binding. But it
was soon discovered that the villain had a living wife when he made his
pretended marriage with Angelica, who was thus released from any
consideration for him. This was a time to prove the sincerity of friends,
and Angelica was comforted by the steadfastness of those who had devoted
themselves to her in her happier days. Sir Joshua Reynolds was untiring
in his friendly offices for her and for her helpless old father.

There were as many differing opinions in regard to Angelica Kauffman, the
woman, as in regard to the quality of her art. Some of her biographers
believed her to be perfectly sincere and uninfluenced by flattery.
Nollekens takes another view; he calls her a coquette, and, among other
stories, relates that when in Rome, "one evening she took her station in
one of the most conspicuous boxes in the theatre, accompanied by two
artists, both of whom, as well as many others, were desperately enamoured
of her. She had her place between her two adorers, and while her arms
were folded before her in front of the box, over which she leaned, she
managed to clasp a hand of both, so that each imagined himself the
cavalier of her choice."

When Angelica could rise above the unhappiness and mortification of her
infatuation for the so-called De Horn, she devoted herself to her art,
and during twelve years supported her father and herself and strengthened
the friendships she had gained in her adopted land. At length, in 1781,
her father's failing health demanded their return to Italy; and now, when
forty years old, she married Antonio Zucchi, an artist who had long loved
her and devoted himself to her and to her father with untiring affection.

The old Kauffman lived to visit his home in Schwarzenburg and to reach
Southern Italy, but died soon after.

Signor Zucchi made his home in Rome. He was a member of the Royal
Academy, London, and was in full sympathy with his wife in intellectual
and artistic pursuits and pleasures. De Rossi says: "It was interesting
to see Angelica and her husband before a picture. While Zucchi spoke with
enthusiasm Angelica remained silent, fixing her eloquent glance on the
finest portions of the work. In her countenance one could read her
emotions, while her observations were limited to a few brief words.
These, however, seldom expressed any blame--only the praises of that
which was worthy of praise. It belonged to her nature to recognize the
beauty alone--as the bee draws honey only out of every flower."

Her home in Rome was a centre of attraction to the artistic and literary
society of the city, and few persons of note passed any time there
without being presented to her. Goethe and Herder were her friends, and
the former wrote: "The good Angelica has a most remarkable, and for a
woman really unheard-of, talent; one must see and value what she does and
not what she leaves undone. There is much to learn from her, particularly
as to work, for what she effects is really marvellous." In his work
called "Winckelmann and His Century," Goethe again said of her: "The
light and pleasing in form and color, in design and execution,
distinguish the numerous works of our artist. _No living painter_ excels
her in dignity or in the delicate taste with which she handles the

In the midst of the social demands on her time in Rome, she continued to
devote herself to her art, and Signor Zucchi, hoping to beguile her into
idleness, purchased a charming villa at Castel Gondolfo; but in spite of
its attractions she was never content to be long away from Rome and her

Thus in her maturer years her life flowed on in a full stream of
prosperity until, in 1795, Signor Zucchi died. Angelica survived him
twelve years--years of deep sadness. Not only was her personal sorrow
heavy to bear, but the French invasion of her beloved Italy disquieted
her. Hoping to regain her usual spirits, she revisited the scenes of her
youth and remained some time in Venice with the family of Signor Zucchi.
Returning to Rome she resumed her accustomed work, so far as her health

She held fast to the German spirit through all the changes in her life,
with the same determination which made it possible, in her strenuous
labors, to retain her gentle womanliness. Just before she died she
desired to hear one of Gellert's spiritual odes.

She was buried in Sant' Andrea dei Frati, beside her husband. All the
members of the Academy of St. Luke attended her obsequies, and her latest
pictures were borne in the funeral procession. Her bust was placed in the
Pantheon, and every proper tribute and honor were paid to her memory in
Rome, where she was sincerely mourned.

Although Angelica lived and worked so long in London and was one of the
thirty-six original members of the Royal Academy, I do not think her best
pictures are in the public galleries there. Of course many of the
portraits painted in London are in private collections. Her pictures are
seen in all the important galleries of Europe. Her etchings, executed
with grace and spirit, are much esteemed and sell for large prices.
Engravings after her works by Bartolozzi are most attractive; numerous as
they were, good prints of them are now rare and costly.

She painted several portraits of herself; one is in the National Portrait
Gallery, London, one at Munich, and a third in the Uffizi, Florence. The
last is near that of Madame Le Brun, and the contrast between the two is
striking. Angelica is still young, but the expression of her face is so
grave as to be almost melancholy; she is sitting on a stone in the midst
of a lonely landscape; she has a portfolio in one hand and a pencil in
the other, and so unstudied is her pose, and so lacking in any attempt to
look her best, that one feels that she is entirely absorbed in her work.
The Frenchwoman could not forget to be interesting; Angelica was
interesting with no thought of being so.

I regard three works by this artist, which are in the Dresden Gallery, as
excellent examples of her work; they are "A Young Vestal," "A Young
Sibyl," and "Ariadne Abandoned by Theseus."

On the margin of one of her pictures she wrote: "I will not attempt to
express supernatural things by human inspiration, but wait for that till
I reach heaven, if there is painting done there."

In 1784 Angelica Kauffman painted "Servius Tullius as a Child" for the
Czar of Russia; in 1786 "Hermann and Thusnelda" and "The Funeral of
Pallas" for Joseph II. These are now in the Vienna Gallery. Three
pictures, "Virgil Reading the Aeneid to the Empress Octavia," "Augustus
Reading Verses on the Death of Marcellus," and "Achilles Discovered by
Ulysses, in Female Attire," were painted for Catherine II. of Russia.
"Religion Surrounded by Virtues," 1798, is in the National Gallery,
London. A "Madonna" and a "Scene from the Songs of Ossian" are in the
Aschaffenburg Gallery. A "Madonna in Glory" and the "Women of Samaria,"
1799, are in the New Pinakothek, Munich, where is also the portrait of
Louis I. of Bavaria, as Crown Prince, 1805. The "Farewell of Abelard and
Heloise," together with other works of this artist, are in the Hermitage,
St. Petersburg. A "Holy Family," and others, in the Museo Civico, Venice.
"Prudence Warning Virtue against Folly," in the Pennsylvania Academy,
Philadelphia. Portraits of Winckelmann in the Städel Institute,
Frankfort, and in the Zürich Gallery. Portrait of a Lady, Stuttgart
Museum; the Duchess of Brunswick, Hampton Court Palace; the architect
Novosielski, National Gallery, Edinburgh. In addition to the portraits of
herself mentioned above, there are others in Berlin Museum, the Old
Pinakothek, Munich, the Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck, and in the Philadelphia

KAULA, MRS. LEE LUFKIN. Member of the Woman's Art Club, New York.
Born in Erie, Pennsylvania. Pupil in New York of Charles Melville Dewey
and the Metropolitan Art Schools; in Paris, during three years, pupil of
Girardot, Courtois, the Colarossi Academy, and of Aman-Jean.

Mrs. Kaula is essentially a portrait painter, although she occasionally
paints figure subjects. Her portraits are in private hands in various
cities, and her works have been exhibited in Paris, New York,
Philadelphia, Chicago, Boston, etc. She paints in both oil and

KAYSER, EBBA. Medals in Vienna, Dresden, and Cologne for landscapes
and flower pieces. Born in Stockholm, 1846. When twenty years old she
went to Vienna, where she studied under Rieser, Geyling, and Karl
Hannold. She did not exhibit her works until 1881, since when she has
been favorably known, especially in Austria. A water-color of a "Mill
near Ischl" and several other pictures by this artist have been purchased
for the Imperial Collections.


[_No reply to circular_.]

KEMP-WELCH, LUCY ELIZABETH. Fellow and Associate of Herkomer School,
and member of the Royal Society of British Artists. Born at Bournemouth,
1869. Has exhibited annually at the Royal Academy since 1894. In 1897 her
picture of "Colt Hunting in the New Forest" was purchased by the trustees
of the Chantrey Bequest; in 1900 that of "Horses Bathing in the Sea" was
bought for the National Gallery at Victoria. In 1901 she exhibited "Lord
Dundonald's Dash on Lady-smith."

In July, 1903, in his article on the Royal Academy Exhibition, the editor
of the _Magazine of Art_, in enumerating good pictures, mentions: "Miss
Lucy Kemp-Welch's well-studied 'Village Street' at dusk, and her clever
'Incoming Tide,' with its waves and rocks and its dipping, wheeling sea

Mr. Frederick Wetmore, in writing of the Spring Exhibition of the Royal
Painter Etchers, says: "Miss Kemp-Welch, whose best work, so delicate
that it could only lose by the reduction of a process block, shows the
ordinary English country, the sign-post of the crossways, and the sheep
along the lane."

[_No reply to circular_.]

KENDELL, MARIE VON. Born in Lannicken, 1838. Pupil of Pape, Otto von
Kameke, and Dressier. She travelled in England, Italy, and Switzerland,
and many of her works represent scenes in these countries. In 1882 she
painted the Cadinen Peaks near Schluderbach, in the Ampezzo Valley. At
the exhibition of the Women Artists in Berlin, 1892, she exhibited two
mountain landscapes and a view of "Clovelly in Devonshire." The last was
purchased by the Emperor. To the same exhibition in 1894 she contributed
two Swiss landscapes, which were well considered.

KIELLAND, KITTY. Sister of the famous Norwegian novelist, Alexander
Kielland. Her pictures of the forests and fjords of Norway are the best
of her works and painted _con amore._ Recently she exhibited a portrait
which was much praised and said to be so fresh and life-like in
treatment, so flexible and vivacious in color, that one is involuntarily
attracted by it, without any knowledge of the original.

KILLEGREW, ANNE. Was a daughter of Dr. Henry Killegrew, a prebendary
of Westminster Cathedral. Anne was born in 1660, and when still quite
young was maid of honor to the Duchess of York, whose portrait she
painted as well as that of the future King James II. She also painted
historical subjects and still-life.

One of her admirers wrote of her as "A grace for beauty and a muse for
wit." A biographer records her death from smallpox when twenty-five years
old, "to the unspeakable reluctancy of her relatives." She was buried in
the Savoy Chapel, now a "Royal Peculiar," and a mural tablet set forth
her beauty, accomplishments, graces, and piety in a Latin inscription.

Anne Killigrew was notable for her poetry as well as for her painting.
Dryden wrote an ode in her memory which Dr. Johnson called "the noblest
our language has produced." It begins: "Thou youngest virgin daughter of
the skies." After praising her poetry Dryden wrote:

    "Her pencil drew whate'er her soul designed,
    And oft the happy draught surpassed the image of her mind."

Of her portrait of James II. he says:

    "For, not content to express his outward part,
    Her hand called out the image of his heart;
    His warlike mind--his soul devoid of fear--
    His high designing thoughts were figured there."

Having repeated these panegyrics, it is but just to add that two opinions
existed concerning the merit of Mistress Killigrew's art and of Dryden's
ode, which another critic called "a harmonious hyperbole, composed of the
Fall of Adam--Arethusa--Vestal Virgins--Dian--Cupid--Noah's Ark--the
Pleiades--the fall of Jehoshaphat--and the last Assizes."

Anthony Wood, however, says: "There is nothing spoken of her which she
was not equal to, if not superior, and if there had not been more true
history in her praises than compliment, her father never would have
suffered them to pass the press."

KINDT, ADELE. This painter of history and of genre subjects won her
first prize at Ghent when less than twenty-two, and received medals at
Douai, Cambrai, Ghent, and Brussels before she was thirty-two. Was made a
member of the Brussels, Ghent, and Lisbon Academies. Born in Brussels,
1805. Pupil of Sophie Frémiet and of Navez. Her picture of the "Last
Moments of Egmont" is in the Ghent Museum; among her other historical
pictures are "Melancthon Predicting Prince Willem's Future" and
"Elizabeth Sentencing Mary Stuart," which is in the Hague Museum. The
"Obstinate Scholar" and "Happier than a King" are two of her best genre

KING, JESSIE M. A most successful illustrator and designer of
book-covers, who was educated as an artist in the Glasgow School of
Decorative Art. In this school and at that of South Kensington she was
considered a failure, by reason of her utterly unacademic manner. She did
not see things by rule and she persistently represented them as she saw
them. Her love of nature is intense, and when she illustrated the "Jungle
Book" she could more easily imagine that the animals could speak a
language that Mowgli could understand, than an academic artist could
bring himself to fancy for a moment. Her work is full of poetic
imagination, of symbolism, and of the spirit of her subject.

Walter P. Watson, in a comprehensive critique of her work, says: "Her
imaginations are more perfect and more minutely organized than what is
seen by the bodily eye, and she does not permit the outward creation to
be a hindrance to the expression of her artistic creed. The force of
representation plants her imagined figures before her; she treats them as
real, and talks to them as if they were bodily there; puts words in their
mouths such as they should have spoken, and is affected by them as by
persons. Such creation is poetry in the literal sense of the term, and
Miss King's dreamy and poetical nature enables her to create the persons
of the drama, to invest them with appropriate figures, faces, costumes,
and surroundings; to make them speak after their own characters."

Her important works are in part the illustrations of "The Little
Princess," "The Magic Grammar," "La Belle Dame sans Merci," "L'Evangile
de l'Enfance," "The Romance of the Swan's Nest," etc.

She also makes exquisite designs for book-covers, which have the spirit
of the book for which they are made so clearly indicated that they add to
the meaning as well as to the beauty of the book.

[_No reply to circular_.]

KIRCHSBERG, ERNESTINE VON. Medal at Chicago Exposition, 1893. Born
in Verona, 1857. Pupil of Schäffer and Darnaut. This artist has exhibited
in Vienna since 1881, and some of her works have been purchased for the
royal collection. Her landscapes, both in oil and water-colors, have
established her reputation as an excellent artist, and she gains the same
happy effects in both mediums. Her picture shown at Chicago was "A
Peasant Home in Southern Austria."

KIRSCHNER, MARIE. Born at Prague, 1852. Pupil of Adolf Lier in
Munich, and Jules Dupré and Alfred Stevens in Paris. In 1883 she
travelled in Italy, and has had her studio in Berlin and in Prague. The
Rudolfinum at Prague contains her "Village Tulleschitz in Bohemia." She
is also, known by many flower pieces and by the "Storm on the Downs of
Heyst," "Spring Morning," and a "Scene on the Moldau."

KITSON, MRS. H. H. Honorable mention, Paris Exposition, 1889; and
the same at Paris Salon, 1890; two medals from Massachusetts Charitable
Association; and has exhibited in all the principal exhibitions of the
United States. Born in Brookline. Pupil of her husband, Henry H. Kitson,
and of Dagnan-Bouveret in Paris.

The women of Michigan commissioned Mrs. Kitson to make two bronze statues
representing the woods of their State for the Columbian Exhibition at
Chicago. Her principal works are the statue of a volunteer for the
Soldiers' Monument at Newburyport; Soldiers' Monument at Ashburnham;
Massachusetts State Monument to 29th, 35th, and 36th Massachusetts
Volunteer Infantry at National Military Park at Vicksburg; also medallion
portraits of Generals Dodge, Ransom, Logan, Blair, Howard, A. J. Smith,
Grierson, and McPherson, for the Sherman Monument at Washington.

[_No reply to circular_.]

KLUMPKE, ANNA ELIZABETH. Honorable mention, Paris Salon, 1885;
silver medal, Versailles, 1886; grand prize, Julian Academy, 1889; Temple
gold medal, Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, 1889; bronze medal, Paris
Exposition, 1889. Member of the Copley Society, Boston; of the Society of
Baron Taylor, Paris; and of the Paris Astronomical Society. Born in San
Francisco. Pupil of the Julian Academy, under Robert-Fleury, and Jules
Lefebvre, where she received, in 1888, the prize of the silver medal and
one hundred francs--the highest award given at the annual Portrait
Concours, between the men and women students of the above Academy.



Among Miss Klumpke's principal works are: "In the Wash-house," owned by
the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts; portrait of Mrs. Nancy Foster, at
the Chicago University; "Maternal Instruction," in the collection of Mr.
Randolph Jefferson Coolidge, Boston; many portraits, among which are
those of Madame Klumpke, Rosa Bonheur, Mrs. Thorp, Mrs. Sargent, Count
Kergaradec, etc.

In writing me of her own life-work and that of her family, she says, what
we may well believe: "Longfellow's thought, 'Your purpose in life must be
to accomplish well your task,' has been our motto from childhood."

Anna Klumpke, being the eldest of the four daughters of her mother, had a
double duty: her own studies and profession and the loving aid and care
of her sisters. In the beginning of her art studies it was only when her
home duties were discharged that she could hasten to the Luxembourg,
where, curiously enough, her time was devoted to copying "Le Labourage
Nivernais," by Rosa Bonheur, whose beloved and devoted friend she later

Meantime Anna Klumpke had visited Boston and other cities of her native
land, and made a success, not only as an artist, but as a woman, whose
intelligence, cheerfulness, and broad interests in life made her a
delightful companion. Sailing from Antwerp one autumn, I was told by a
friend that a lady on board had a letter of introduction to me from
Madame Bouguereau. It proved to be Miss Klumpke, and the acquaintance
thus begun, as time went on, disclosed to me a remarkable character,
founded on a remarkable experience, and it was no surprise to me that the
great and good Rosa Bonheur found in Anna Klumpke a sympathetic and
reliable friend and companion for her last days.

The history of this friendship and its results are too well known to
require more than a passing mention. Miss Klumpke is now established in
Paris, and writes me that, in addition to her painting, she is writing of
Rosa Bonheur. She says: "This biography consists of reminiscences of Rosa
Bonheur's life, her impressions of Nature, God, and Art, with perhaps a
short sketch of how I became acquainted with the illustrious woman whose
precious maternal tenderness will remain forever the most glorious event
of my life."

At the Salon des Artistes Français, 1903, Miss Klumpke exhibited a
picture called "Maternal Affection."

KNOBLOCH, GERTRUDE. Born at Breslau, 1867. Pupil of Skirbina in
Berlin. Her studio is in Brussels. She paints in oil and water-colors.
Among her best pictures are "In the Children's Shoes," "The Forester's
Leisure Hours," and a "Madonna with the Christ Child."

Two of her works in gouache are worthy of mention: "An Effeminate" and
"Children Returning from School."

KOLLOCK, MARY. Born at Norfolk, Virginia, 1840. Studied at the
Pennsylvania Academy under Robert Wylie, and in New York under J. B.
Bristol and A. H. Wynant. Her landscapes have been exhibited at the
National Academy, New York. Several of these were scenes about Lake
George and the Adirondack regions. "Morning in the Mountains" and "On the
Road to Mt. Marcy" were exhibited in 1877; "A November Day" and an
"Evening Walk," in 1878; "A House in East Hampton, Two Hundred and Twenty
Years Old," in 1880; "On Rondout Creek," in 1881; and "The Brook," in

KOKER, ANNA MARIA DE. A Dutch etcher and engraver of the seventeenth
century, who pursued her art from pure love of it, never trying to make
her works popular or to sell them. A few of her landscapes fell into the
hands of collectors and are much valued for their rarity and excellence.
Three examples are the "Landscape with a View of a Village," "The Square
Tower," and "Huts by the Water."

KOMLOSI, IRMA. Born in Prague, 1850. Pupil of Friederich Sturm. This
flower painter resides in Vienna, where her pictures are much appreciated
and are seen in good collections. They have been purchased for the Art
Associations of Brünn, Prague, and Budapest.

KONDELKA, BARONESS PAULINE VON--Frau von Schmerling. Born at Vienna.
1806-1840. She inherited from her father a strong inclination for art,
and was placed by him under the instruction of Franz Potter. In the Royal
Gallery, Vienna, is her picture called "Silence," 1834. It represents the
Virgin with her finger on her lip to warn against disturbing the sleep of
the Infant Jesus. The picture is surrounded by a beautiful arrangement of
flowers. In 1836 she painted a charming picture called "A Bunch of
Flowers." Her favorite subjects were floral, and her works of this sort
are much admired.

KONEK, IDA. Born at Budapest, 1856. Her early art studies were under
G. Vastagh, C. von Telepy, W. Lindenschmit, and Munkácsy; later she was a
pupil at the Julian Academy in Paris and the Scuola libera in Florence.
In the Parish Church at Köbölkut are three of her pictures of sacred
subjects, and in the Hungarian National Museum a picture of still-life.
Her "Old Woman," 1885, is mentioned as attracting favorable notice.

KORA OR CALLIRHOË. It is a well-authenticated fact that in the Greek
city of Sicyonia, about the middle of the seventh century before Christ,
there lived the first woman artist of whom we have a reliable account.

Her story has been often told, and runs in this wise: Kora, or Callirhoë,
was much admired by the young men of Sicyonia for her grace and beauty,
of which they caught but fleeting glimpses through her veil when they met
her in the flower-market. By reason of Kora's attraction the studio of
her father, Dibutades, was frequented by many young Greeks, who watched
for a sight of his daughter, while they praised his models in clay.

At length one of these youths begged the modeller to receive him as an
apprentice, and, his request being granted, he became the daily companion
of both Kora and her father. As the apprentice was skilled in letters, it
soon came about that he was the teacher and ere long the lover of the
charming maiden, who was duly betrothed to him.

The time for the apprentice to leave his master came all too soon. As he
sat with Kora the evening before his departure, she was seized by an
ardent wish for a portrait of her lover, and, with a coal from the
brazier, she traced upon the wall the outline of the face so dear to her.
This likeness her father instantly recognized, and, hastening to bring
his clay, he filled in the sketch and thus produced the first portrait in
bas-relief! It is a charming thought that from the inspiration of a pure
affection so beautiful an art originated, and doubtless Kora's influence
contributed much to the artistic fame which her husband later achieved in

In the latter city the portrait was preserved two hundred years, and
Dibutades became so famous for the excellence of his work that at his
death several cities claimed the honor of having been his birthplace.

KRAFFT, ANNA BARBARA. Member of the Vienna Academy. She was born at
Igto in 1764, and died at Bamberg in 1825. She received instruction from
her father, J. N. Steiner, of which she later made good use. Having
married an apothecary, she went for a time to Salsburg, and again, after
nine years in Prague, spent eighteen years in Salsburg, retiring finally
to Bamberg. In the Gallery at Bamberg may be seen her portrait of the
founder, J. Hemmerlein; in the Nostitz Gallery, Prague, a portrait of the
Archduke Charles; in Strahow Abbey, Prague, a "Madonna"; and in the
church at Owencez, near Prague, an altar-piece.

KUNTZE, MARTHA. Born in Heinrichsdorf, Prussia, 1849. Pupil of
Steffeck and Gussow in Berlin. In 1881 she went to Paris and studied
under Carolus Duran and Henner, and later travelled in Italy, pursuing
her art in Florence, Rome, and Southern Italy. She has an excellent
reputation as a portrait painter, and occasionally paints subjects of

KÜSSNER, AMALIA. See Coudert, Amalia Küssner.

LABILLE, ADELAIDE VERTUS. Was born in Paris in 1749. She early
developed a taste for art and a desire to study it. J. E. Vincent was her
master in miniature painting, while Latour instructed her in the use of
pastels. She was successful as a portrait painter and as a teacher,
having some members of the royal family as pupils, who so esteemed her
that they became her friends. She is known as Madame Vincent, having
married the son of her first master in painting.

Her portrait of the sculptor Gois gained a prize at the Academy, and in
1781 she was made a member of that institution. We know the subjects of
some large, ambitious works by Madame Vincent, on which she relied for
her future fame, but unhappily they were destroyed in the time of the
French Revolution, and she never again had the courage to attempt to
replace them. One of these represented the "Reception of a Member to the
Order of St. Lazare," the Grand Master being the brother of the King, who
had appointed Madame Vincent Painter to the Court. Another of these works
was a portrait of the artist before her easel, surrounded by her pupils,
among whom was the Duchesse d'Angoulême and other noble ladies.

As Madame Vincent and her husband were staunch royalists, they suffered
serious losses during the Revolution; the loss of her pictures was
irreparable. She was so disheartened by the destruction of the result of
the labors of years that she never again took up her brush with her
old-time ambition and devotion.

She died in 1803, at the age of fifty-four, having received many honors
as an artist, while she was beloved by her friends and esteemed by all as
a woman of noble character.

LAING, MRS. J. G. Principal studies made in Glasgow under Mr. F. H.
Newbery; also in Paris under Jean-Paul Laurens and Aman-Jean.

This artist is especially occupied with portraits of children and their
mothers. She has, however, exhibited works of another sort. Her "Sweet
Repose" and "Masquerading" were sold from the exhibitions in London and
Glasgow, where they were shown. "Bruges Lace-Makers" was exhibited in
Munich in 1903.

The Ladies' Club of Glasgow is enterprising and its exhibitions are
interesting, but Mrs. Laing is not a member of any club, and sends her
pictures by invitation to exhibitions on the Continent as well as in
Great Britain, and sometimes has a private exhibition in Glasgow.

Her study at Aman-Jean's and Colarossi's gave a certain daintiness and
grace to her work, which is more Parisian than British in style. There is
great freedom in her brush and a delicacy well suited to the painting of
children's portraits; her children and their mothers really smile, not
grin, and are altogether attractive. I cannot say whether the portraits I
have seen are good likenesses, but they have an air of individuality
which favors that idea.

LAMB, ELLA CONDIE--Mrs. Charles R. Lamb. Dodge prize, National
Academy, New York; medal at Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893; gold
medal, Atlanta Exposition; medal at Pan-American Exposition, 1901. Member
of Art Students' League, Woman's Art Club, National Art Club. Born in New
York City. Pupil of National Academy of Design and of Art Students'
League, New York, under C. Y. Turner, William M. Chase, and Walter
Shirlaw; in Paris, pupil of R. Collin and R. Courtois; in England, of
Hubert Herkomer, R.A.

Among Mrs. Lamb's works are "The Advent Angel"; "The Christ Child," a
life-size painting, copied in mosaic for the Conrad memorial, St. Mary's
Church, Wayne, Pennsylvania; "The Arts" and "The Sciences," executed in
association with Charles R. Lamb, for the Sage Memorial Apse designed by
him for Cornell University.

Of recent years Mrs. Lamb is much occupied in collaborating with her
husband in decorative designs for public edifices. One of the works thus
executed is a memorial window to Mrs. Stella Goodrich Russell in Wells
College at Aurora. It represents three female figures against a landscape
background. Literature is seated in the centre, while Science and Art
stand in the side panels. It has the effect of a triptych.

LAMB, ROSE. Two bronze medals in Boston exhibitions, 1878 and 1879.
Member of the Copley Society. Born in Boston, where her studies have been
made, chiefly under William M. Hunt.

Miss Lamb has painted portraits principally, a large number of which are
in Boston in the homes of the families to which they belong. Among them
are Mrs. Robert C. Winthrop, Jr., and her children; Mr. J. Ingersoll
Bowditch, Mr. Horace Lamb, the three sons of the late Governor Roger
Wolcott, the daughters of Mrs. Shepherd Brooks, the children of Mrs.
Walter C. Baylies, etc.

In 1887 Miss Lamb painted an admirable portrait of Mohini Mohun
Chatterji, a Brahmin, who spent some months in Boston.

LANCIANI, MARCELLA. Born in Rome, where her studies were made under
Professor Giuseppe Ferrari in figure drawing, and under Signor Onorato
Carlandi--the great water-color artist of the Roman Campagna--in
landscape and coloring.

At the annual spring exhibition in the Palazzo delle Belle Arti, Rome,
1903, this artist exhibited four works: a life-size "Study of the Head of
an old Roman Peasant"; a "Sketch near the Mouth of the Tiber at
Finniscino"; "An Old Stairway in the Villa d'Este, at Tivoli"; "A View
from the Villa Colonna, Rome."

Two of her sketches, one of the "Tiber" and one of the "Villa Medici,"
are in the collection of Mrs. Pierpont Morgan; two similar sketches are
in the collection of Mrs. James Leavitt, New York; a copy of a "Madonna"
in an old Umbrian church is in a private gallery in Rome; a "Winter Scene
in the Villa Borghese" and two other sketches are owned in Edinburgh; the
"Lake in the Villa Borghese" is in the collection of Mr. Richard Corbin,
Paris; and several other pictures are in private collections in New York.

LANDER, LOUISA. Born in Salem, 1826. Manifested a taste for
sculpture when quite young, and modelled likenesses of the members of her
family. In 1855 she became the pupil of Thomas Crawford in Rome. Among
her earlier works are figures in marble of "To-day" and "Galatea," the
first being emblematic of America.

She executed many portrait busts, one of them being of Nathaniel
Hawthorne. "The Captive Pioneer" is a large group. Among her ideal works
are a statue of Virginia Dare--the first child born in America of English
parents; "Undine," "Evangeline," "Virginia," etc.

LAUKOTA, HERMINIE. Born in Prague, 1853. After having studied in
Prague, Amsterdam, and Munich, she was a pupil of Doris Raab in etching.
She paints portraits, genre and still-life subjects with artistic taste
and delicacy. Her studio is in Prague. Among her best pictures are
"Battle for Truth," "Sentinels of Peace," "A Contented Old Woman"; and
among her etchings may be named "The Veiled Picture of Saïs,"
"Prometheus," "The Microscopist," "Before the Bar of Reason," etc. The
latter was reproduced in _Zeitschrift für bildende Kunst_ in 1893, and
was said to show a powerful fancy.

In 1875 and 1876 she exhibited her etchings in Vienna. The "Going to
Baptism" in the second exhibition was much admired and aroused unusual

LA VILLETTE, MME. ELODIE. Third-class medal, Paris Salon, 1875;
bronze medal, Paris Exposition, 1889; second-class medal, Melbourne
Exposition; numerous diplomas and medals from provincial exhibitions in
France; also from Vienna, Brussels, Antwerp, Amsterdam, London,
Copenhagen, Barcelona, Munich, and Chicago. Officer of the Academy. Born
at Strasbourg. Educated at Lorient. She began to study drawing and
painting under Coroller, a professor in the school she attended. She then
studied six months in the Atelier School at Strasbourg, and finally
became a pupil of Dubois at Arras. She has exhibited since 1870.

Her picture of the "Strand at Lohic," 1876, is in the Luxembourg Gallery;
the "Cliffs of Yport" is in the Museum of Lille; "A Calm at Villers," in
the Museum at Lorient; "Coming Tide at Kervillaine," in the museum of
Morlaix, etc. Her marine views are numerous and are much admired.

At the Salon of the Artistes Français, 1902, Mme. La Villette exhibited
"Twilight, Quiberon, Morbihan"; in 1903, "Fort Penthièvre, Quiberon," and
"A Foaming Wave."

LE BRUN, MME. See Vigée.

LEHMANN, CHARLOTTE. Born in Vienna, 1860. Daughter of an artist,
Katharine Lehmann. Pupil of Schilcher and Pitner. Her works are
principally portraits and studies of heads, in which she is successful.
Her "Styrian Maiden" belongs to the Austrian Emperor, and is in Gödöllö

Her portraits are seen at many exhibitions, and art critics mention her
with respect.

[_No reply to circular_.]

LEMAIRE, MME. JEANNE-MADELEINE. Honorable mention, 1877; silver
medal, Paris Exposition, 1900. Born at Sainte Rosseline. Pupil of an
aunt, who was a miniaturist, and later of Chaplin. She first exhibited
at the Salon of 1864, a "Portrait of Madame, the Baroness." She has
painted many portraits, and is extremely successful in her pictures of
flowers and fruit.

Among her principal works are "Diana and Her Dog," "Going out of Church,"
"Ophelia," "Sleep," "The Fall of the Leaves," and "Manon."

She has also painted many pictures in water-colors. Since 1890 she has
exhibited at the Champ-de-Mars. Her illustrations in water-colors for
"L'Abbé Constantin" and for an edition of "Flirt" are very attractive.

Her "Roses" at the Salon of 1903 were especially fine, so fresh and
brilliant that they seemed to be actual blossoms.

This artist, not many months ago, called to mind the celebrated Greek
supper of Mme. Lebrun, which was so famous in the time of that artist.
The following is an account of the entertainment given by Mme. Lemaire:

"A most fascinating banquet was given in Paris quite recently by
Madeleine Lemaire, in her studio, and Parisians pronounce it the most
artistic fete that has occurred for many a moon. Athens was reconstructed
for a night. A Greek feast, gathering at the same board the most
aristocratic moderns, garbed in the antique peplum, as the caprice of a
great artist. The invitation cards, on which the hostess had drawn the
graceful figure of an Athenian beauty, were worded: 'A Soirée in Athens
in the Time of Pericles. Madeleine Lemaire begs you to honor with your
presence the Greek fête which she will give in her humble abode on
Tuesday. Banquet, dances, games, and cavalcade. Ancient Greek costume de
rigueur.' Every one invited responded yes, and from the Duchess d'Uzès,
in a superb robe of cloth of gold and long veil surmounted by a circlet
of diamonds, to that classic beauty Mme. Barrachin, in white draperies
with a crown of pink laurel, the costumes were beautiful. One graceful
woman went as Tanagra. The men were some of them splendid in the garb of
old Greek warriors, wearing cuirass and helmet of gold. At dessert a bevy
of pretty girls in classic costume distributed flowers and fruits to the
guests, while Greek choruses sung by female choristers alternated with
verses admirably recited by Bartel and Reichenberg. After the banquet
Emma Calvé and Mme. Litoinne sang passages from 'Philémon et Bacus,' and
then there were Greek dances executed by the leading dancers of the
Opera. After supper and much gayety, the evening came to a close by an
animated farandole danced by all present. It takes an artist like
Madeleine Lemaire to design and execute such a fete, and beside it how
commonplace appear the costly functions given by society in Newport and
New York."

[_No reply to circular_.]

LEVICK, RUBY WINIFRED. At the South Kensington Royal College of Art
this artist gained the prize for figure design; the medal for a study of
a head from life, besides medals and other awards in the National
Competition; British Institution scholarship for modelling, 1896; gold
medal and the Princess of Wales scholarship, 1897; gold medal in national
competition, 1898. Member of the Ridley Art Club. Born in Llandaff,

This sculptor has exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy since 1898.
Among her works are "Boys Wrestling," group in the round; "Study of a
Boy," a statuette; "Fishermen Hauling in a Net," "Boys Fishing," "The
Hammer Thrower," "Rugby Football," and the "Sea Urchin," a statuette.

Miss Levick has executed a panel for the reredos in St. Brelade's Church,
Jersey; and another for St. Gabriel's Church, Poplar. She exhibited at
the Academy, 1903, "Sledgehammers: Portion of a Frieze in Relief."

LEWIS, EDMONIA. Born in the State of New York. This artist descended
from both Indian and African ancestors. She had comparatively no
instruction, when, in 1865, she exhibited in Boston a portrait bust of
Colonel Shaw, which at once attracted much attention. In 1867 she
exhibited a statue called the "Freedwoman." Soon after this she took up
her residence in Rome and very few of her works were seen in the United
States. She sent to the Philadelphia exhibition, in 1876, the "Death of
Cleopatra," in marble. The Marquis of Bute bought her "Madonna with the
Infant Christ," an altar-piece. Her "Marriage of Hiawatha" was purchased
by a New York lady.

Among her other works are "An Old Arrow-Maker and His Daughter,"
"Asleep," and terra-cotta busts of Charles Sumner, Longfellow, John
Brown, and others.

"Among Miss Lewis's works are two small groups illustrating Longfellow's
poem of Hiawatha. Her first, 'Hiawatha's Wooing,' represents Minnehaha
seated, making a pair of moccasins, and Hiawatha by her side with a world
of love and longing in his eyes. In the 'Marriage' they stand side by
side with clasped hands. In both the Indian type of feature is carefully
preserved, and every detail of dress, etc., is true to nature. The
sentiment equals the execution. They are charming bits, poetic, simple,
and natural, and no happier illustrations of Longfellow's most original
poem were ever made than these by the Indian sculptor."--_Revolution_,
April, 1871.

"This was not a beautiful work--'Cleopatra'--but it was very original and
very striking, and it merits particular comment, as its ideal was so
radically different from those adopted by Story and Gould in their
statues of the Egyptian Queen.... The effects of death are represented
with such skill as to be absolutely repellent. Apart from all questions
of taste, however, the striking qualities of the work are undeniable, and
it could only have been produced by a sculptor of very genuine
endowments."--_Great American Sculptors._

LEY, SOPHIE. Third-class medal at Melbourne; honor diplomas,
Karlsruhe. Member of the Künstlerbund, Karlsruhe. Born at Bodman am
Bodensee, 1859. Pupil of the Art School in Stuttgart, where she received
several prizes; and of Gude and Bracht in Karlsruhe.

Some flower pieces by this artist are in the collection of the Grand Duke
of Baden; others belong to the Hereditary Grand Duke and to the Queen of
Saxony; still others are in various private galleries.

A recently published design for the wall decoration of a school,
"Fingerhut im Walde," was awarded a prize. Fräulein Ley receives young
women students in her atelier in Karlsruhe.

LICATA-FACCIOLI, ORSOLA. A first-class and several other medals as a
student of the Academy at Venice. Member of the Academies of Venice and
Perugia, 1864. Born in Venice, 1826. In 1848 she married and made a
journey with her husband through Italy. Three pictures which she
exhibited at Perugia, in 1864, won her election to the Academy; the
Marquis Ala-Ponzoni purchased these. The Gallery at Vicenza has several
of her views of Venice and Rome, and there are others in the municipal
palace at Naples. Her pictures have usually sold immediately upon their
exhibition, and are scattered through many European cities. At Hamburg is
a view of Capodimonte; at Venice a large picture showing a view of San
Marcellino; and at Capodimonte the "Choir of the Capuchins at Rome."
Private collectors have also bought many of her landscapes. Since 1867
she has taught drawing in the Royal Institute at Naples. Two of the
Signora's later pictures are "Arum Italicum," exhibited at Milan in 1881,
and a "Park at Capodimonte," shown at the International Exposition in
Rome--the latter is a brilliant piece of work. Her style is vigorous and
robust, and her touch sure. Family cares seem never to have interrupted
her art activity, for her work has been constant and of an especially
high order.

LINDEGREN, AMALIA. Member of the Academy of Stockholm. Honorary
member of the London Society of Women Artists. Born in Stockholm.
1814-1891. A student in the above-named Academy, she was later a pupil
of Cogniet and Tissier, in Paris, and afterward visited Rome and Munich.
Her pictures are portraits and genre subjects. In the Gallery at
Christiania are her "Mother and Child" and "Grandfather and
Granddaughter." "The Dance in a Peasant Cottage" is in the Museum of
Stockholm, where are also her portraits of Queen Louise and the Crown
Princess of Denmark, 1873.

"With her unpretentious representations of the joy of children, the
smiling happiness of parents, sorrow resigned, and childish stubbornness,
Amalia Lindegren attained great national popularity, for without being a
connoisseur it is possible to take pleasure in the fresh children's faces
in her pictures."--_History of Modern Painters._

LIPPINCOTT, MARGARETTE. Honorable mention and Mary Smith Prize at
Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. Member of Philadelphia Water-Color
Club and Plastic Club. New York Water-Color Club. Born in Philadelphia.
Pupil of Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and Art Students' League, New

This artist has painted flowers especially, but of late has taken up
genre subjects and landscapes. Among her pictures is one of "Roses," in
the Academy of Fine Arts, and "White Roses," in the Art Club of
Philadelphia. "Sunset in the Hills" is in a private collection, and "The
West Window" is owned in Detroit.

LISZEWSKA, ANNA DOROTHEA. Married name was Therbusch. Member of the
Academies of Paris and Vienna and of the Institute of Bologna. Born in
Berlin. 1722-1782. Was court painter at Stuttgart, and later held the
same office under Frederick the Great, whose portrait she painted, 1772.
Her picture of "Diana's Return from the Chase" was also painted for
Frederick. Her early studies were conducted by her father. After leaving
the court of Stuttgart she studied four years in Paris. In the Louvre is
her picture of "A Man Holding a Glass of Water"; in the Brunswick Gallery
is her portrait of herself; and several of her works are in the Schwerin
Gallery. Her pictures of "A Repentant Maiden," 1781, and of "Ariadne at
Naxos" attracted much attention.

LISZEWSKA, ANNA ROSINA. Member of the Dresden Academy. Born in
Berlin. 1716-1783. Pupil of her father. She executed forty portraits of
women for the "Hall of Beauty" at Zerbst. One of her portraits, painted
in 1770, is in the Gallery at Brunswick. She travelled in Holland in
1766, but was too much occupied with commissions to find time for foreign
journeys. She painted a picture called "Artemisia" and a second of
"Monime Pulling Down Her Diadem," which were interesting and excellent
examples of her style of painting.

She studied under Pasinelli, and in the Church of St. Columba in Bologna
are two pictures by her--a "St. Anthony" and a "St. Theresa."

LOEWENTHAL, BARONESS ANKA. Born at Ogulin, Croatia, 1853. Pupil of
Karl von Blaas and Julius von Payer. Some portraits by this artist are in
the Academy of Arts and Sciences at Agram. But religious subjects were
most frequently treated by her, and a number of these are in the
Croatian churches. The "Madonna Immaculata" is in the Gymnasial Kirche,
Meran, and a "Mater Dolorosa" in the Klosterkirche, Bruck a. d. Meer.

LONGHI, BARBARA. Born in Ravenna. 1552-1619(?). Daughter of Luca
Longhi. She was an excellent artist and her works were sought for good
collections. A portrait by her is in the Castellani Collection, dated
1589; "St. Monica," "Judith," and the "Healing of St. Agatha" are in the
Ravenna Academy; a "Virgin and Child" is in the Louvre, and "Mary with
the Children" in the Dresden Gallery.

LONGMAN, E. B. This sculptor has a commission to execute a statue of
Victory for a dome at the St. Louis Exposition.

[_No reply to circular_.]

LOOP, MRS. HENRY A. Elected an associate of the National Academy of
Design in 1875. Born in New Haven, 1840. Pupil of Professor Louis Bail in
New Haven, of Henry A. Loop in New York, later spending two years in
study in Paris, Venice, and Rome.

Mrs. Loop is essentially a portrait painter, but occasionally has painted
figure pictures, such as "Baby Belle," "A Little Runaway," "A Bouquet for
Mama," etc. Her portraits of Professors Low and Hadley of New Haven were
much admired; those of Mrs. Joseph Lee, Miss Alexander, and other ladies
were exhibited at the Academy.

"Mrs. Loop's picture is an honest, unpretending work, well drawn,
naturally posed, and clearly, solidly colored. There is not a trace of
affectation about it. The artistic effects are produced in the most
straightforward way."--_Clarence Cook, in New York Tribune._

"Mrs. Loop is certainly the leading portrait painter among our lady
artists. She is vigorous, conscientious, and perceptive."--_Chicago
Times,_ 1875.

LOTZ, MATILDA. Gold medal at School of Design, California. Born in
Franklin, Tennessee. This artist is sometimes called "the Rosa Bonheur of
America." She began to draw pictures of animals when seven years old.
Later she studied under Virgil Williams in San Francisco and under M.
Barrios and Van Marcke in Paris.

She has travelled extensively in the East, painting camels, dromedaries,
etc. Her work has a vigor and breadth well suited to her subjects, while
she gives such attention to details as make her pictures true to life.
One critic writes: "Her oxen and camels, like Rosa Bonheur's horses,
stand out from canvas as living things. They have been the admiration of
art lovers at the Salon in Paris, the Royal Academy in London, and at
picture exhibitions in Austria-Hungary and Germany."

[Illustration: A FAMILY OF DOGS


Among her works are "Oxen at Rest," "The Artist's Friends," "Hounds in
the Woods," painted in California. "Mourning for Their Master," "The Sick
Donkey," and other less important pictures are in private collections in
Hungary. "The Early Breakfast" is in a gallery in Washington, D. C. She
has painted portraits of famous horses owned by the Duke of Portland,
which are in England, as is her picture called "By the Fireside."

LOUD, MAY HALLOWELL. Member of the Copley Society and Boston
Water-Color Club. Born in West Medford, Massachusetts, 1860. Pupil of the
School of Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; Julian Academy, Paris; Cowles Art
School, Boston. In Paris, under Tony Robert-Fleury, Giacomotti, and Louis
Deschamps. Later under Abbott Thayer and Denman W. Ross.

Mrs. Loud's works are principally portraits, and are in private hands.
Her picture called "The Singer" was purchased by the Atlanta Exposition,
and is in a collection in that city. She works mostly in oils, but has
been successful in portraits in pastel; two admirable examples were
exhibited in Boston recently, and were favorably noticed for their color
and "temperance in the use of high relief."



[_No reply to circular_.]

LUTMER, EMMY. Medal at Munich, 1888. Born at Elberfeld, 1859. Pupil
of the School of Art Industries at Munich and of the Museums of Berlin
and Vienna. This skilled enamel painter has her studio in Berlin, where
she executes fine and beautiful work.

MACCHESNEY, CLARA TAGGART. Two medals at Chicago Exposition, 1893;
Dodge prize, National Academy, New York, 1894; gold medal, Philadelphia
Art Club, 1900; Hallgarten prize, National Academy, 1901; bronze medal,
Buffalo Exposition, 1901. Three medals at Colarossi School, Paris. Member
of National Art Club, Barnard Club, and Water-Color Club, all of New
York. Born in Brownsville, California. Pupil of Virgil Williams in San
Francisco Art School; of H. C. Mowbray, J. C. Beckwith, and William Chase
in Gotham Art School; and of G. Courtois, A. Girardot, and R. X. Prinet
in Colarossi School, Paris. Exhibited at Paris Salon, Beaux Arts, in
1896, 1898, and at the Exposition in 1900.

[Illustration: From a Copley Print.



This artist paints figure subjects. Among these are "Retrospection,"
Boston Art Club; "Tired," Erie Art Club; "A Good Story," National Arts
Club, New York; "The Old Cobbler," etc.

Her prize picture at the National Academy, New York, 1894, was called
"The Old Spinner." This picture had been refused by the committee of the
Society of American Artists, only to be thought worthy a prize at the
older institution.

MACGREGOR, JESSIE. The gold medal in the Royal Academy Schools for
historical painting, a medal given biennially, and but one other woman
has received it. Born in Liverpool. Pupil of the Schools of the Royal
Academy; her principal teachers were the late Lord Leighton, the late P.
H. Calderon, R.A., and John Pettie, R.A.

Her principal works are "In the Reign of Terror" and "Jephthah's Vow,"
both in the Liverpool Permanent Collection; "The Mistletoe Bough";
"Arrested, or the Nihilist"; "Flight," exhibited at Royal Academy in
1901; "King Edward VII.," 1902.

Miss Macgregor is a lecturer on art in the Victoria University Extension
Lecture Scheme, and has lectured on Italian painting and on the National
Gallery in many places.

At the London Academy in 1903 she exhibited "The Nun," "If a Woman Has
Long Hair, it is a Glory to Her," I Cor. xi. 15; "Behind the Curtain,"
"Christmas in a Children's Hospital," and "Little Bo-peep."

MACKUBIN, FLORENCE. Bronze medal and diploma, Tennessee Exposition,
1897. Vice-president of Baltimore Water-Color Club. Born in Florence,
Italy. Studied in Fontainebleau under M. Lainé, in Munich under Professor
Herterich, and in Paris under Louis Deschamps and Julius Rolshoven; also
with Mlle. J. Devina in miniature painting.

Miss Mackubin has exhibited at the Paris Salon, the London Academy, and
the National Academy, New York. Her works are portraits in miniature,
pastel, and oil colors.

She was appointed by the Board of Public Works of Maryland to copy the
portrait of Queen Henrietta Maria, for whom Maryland was named. The
portrait is by Vandyck and in Warwick Castle. Miss Mackubin's copy is in
the State House at Annapolis.

Her portraits are numerous. Among them are those of Mrs. Charles J.
Bonaparte, Justice Horace Gray, Hon. George F. Hoar, Mrs. Thomas F.
Bayard, and many others. In England she painted portraits of the Countess
of Warwick, the Marchioness of Bath, and several other ladies.

Miss Mackubin's portrait of Cardinal Gibbons, exhibited in Baltimore in
1903, is much praised. He is sitting in an armchair near a table on which
are books. The pose of the figure is natural, the drawing excellent, the
flesh tints well handled, and the likeness satisfactory to an unusual
degree. The accessories are justly rendered and the values well
preserved--the texture of the stuffs, the ring on the hand, the hand
delicate and characteristic; in short, this is an excellent example of
dignified portraiture.

MACMONNIES, MARY FAIRCHILD. Awarded a scholarship in Paris by the
St. Louis School of Fine Arts; medal at Chicago, 1893; bronze medal at
Paris Exposition, 1900; bronze medal at Buffalo, 1901; gold medal at
Dresden, 1902; Julia M. Shaw prize, Society of American Artists, New
York, 1902. Associate member of Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, Paris;
member of the Society of American Artists, New York. Born at New Haven,
Connecticut, about 1860.

Pupil of School of Fine Arts, St. Louis, Academy Julian, Paris, and of
Carolus Duran.

Exhibited at Salon des Beaux-Arts, 1902, "The October Sun," "The Last
Rays," and "The Rain"; in 1903, "A Snow Scene."

[_No reply to circular_.]

MACOMBER, MARY L. Bronze medal, Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics'
Association, 1895; bronze medal, Cotton State and International
Exposition, 1895; Dodge prize, National Academy, New York, 1897;
honorable mention, Carnegie Institute, 1901. Member of the Copley
Society, Boston. Born in Fall River, Massachusetts, 1861. Pupil of Robert
Dunning, School of Boston Art Museum under Otto Grundmann and F.
Crowninshield, and of Frank Duveneck.

This artist paints figure subjects. Her "Saint Catherine" is in the
Boston Museum of Fine Arts; "Spring Opening the Gate to Love" was in the
collection of the late Mrs. S. D. Warren; "The Annunciation" is in the
collection of Mrs. D. P. Kimball, Boston. Other works of hers are a
triptych, the "Magdalene," "Death and the Captive," "The Virgin of the
Book," etc.

[Illustration: From a Copley Print.



"One feels, on looking at the Madonnas, Annunciation, or any of Miss
Macomber's pictures,... that she must have lived with and in her subject.
Delicate coloring harmonizes with refined, spiritual conceptions.... Her
most generally liked picture is her 'Madonna.' All the figures wear a
sweet, solemn sadness, illumined by immortal faith and love."--_Art
Interchange,_ April, 1899.

MAGLIANI, FRANCESCA. Born at Palermo in 1845, and studied painting
there under a private teacher. Going later to Florence she was a pupil of
Bedussi and of Gordigiani. Her early work consisted of copies from the
Italian and other masters, and these were so well done that she soon
began to receive orders, especially for portraits, from well-known
people. Among them were G. Baccelli--the Minister of Public
Instruction--King Humbert, and Queen Margherita, the latter arousing much
interest when exhibited in Florence. Portraits of her mother, and of her
husband, who was the Minister of Finance, were also recognized as
admirable examples of portraiture. "Modesty and Vanity" is one of her
genre pictures.

MANGILLA, ADA. Gold medal at Ferrara for a "Bacchante," which is now
in the Gallery there; gold medal at Beatrice, in Florence, 1890, for the
"Three Marys." Born in Florence in 1863. Pupil of Cassioli. One of her
early works was a design for two mosaic figures in the left door of the
Cathedral in Florence, representing Bonifazio Lupi and Piero di Luca
Borsi; this was exhibited in 1879, and was received with favor by the

This artist has had much success with Pompeian subjects, such as "A
Pompeian Lady at Her Toilet," and "A Pompeian Flower-Seller." She catches
with great accuracy the characteristics of the Pompeian type; and this
facility, added to the brilliancy of her color and the spirit and
sympathy of her treatment, has given these pictures a vogue. Two of them
were sold in Holland. "Floralia" was sold in Venice. To an exhibition of
Italian artists in London, in 1889, she contributed "The Young Agrippa,"
which was sold to Thomas Walker. Her grace and fancy appear in the
drawings which she finds time to make for "Florentia," and in such
pictures as "The Rose Harvest."

This highly accomplished woman, who has musical and literary talent, is
the wife of Count Francessetti di Mersenile.

MANKIEWICZ, HENRIETTE. Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. A series of
her mural decorations was exhibited in various German cities, and finally
shown at the Paris Exposition of 1890(?), where they excited such
applause that the above honor was accorded her. These decorations are in
the form of panels, in which water, in its varying natural aspects,
supplies the subordinate features, while the fundamental motive is
vegetation of every description. The artist has evidently felt the
influence of Markart in Vienna, and some of her conceptions remind one
of H. von Preusschen. Her technique is a combination of embroidery,
painting, and applications on silk. Whether this combination of methods
is desirable is another question, but as a means of decoration it is
highly effective.

At an exhibition of paintings by women of Saxony, held in Dresden under
the patronage of Queen Carola in the fall of 1892, this artist exhibited
another decorative panel, done in the same manner, which seems to have
been a great disappointment to those who had heard wonderful accounts of
the earlier cycle of panels. It was too full of large-leaved flowers, and
the latter were too brilliant to serve as a foreground to the Alhambra
scenes, which were used as the chief motive.

MANLY, ALICE ELFRIDA. A national gold medal and the Queen's gold
medal, at the Royal Female School of Art, London. Member of the Dudley
Gallery Art Society and the Hampstead Art Society. Born in London. Pupil
of the above-mentioned School and of the Royal Academy Schools.

This artist has exhibited at the Academy, at the Royal Institute of
Painters in Water Colors, and other exhibitions. Her pictures have
frequently been sold from the exhibitions and reproduced. Among these are
"Sympathy," sold as first prize in Derby Art Union; "Diverse
Attractions"; "Interesting Discoveries"; "Coming," sold from the Royal
Academy; "Gossips"; "The Wedding Gown," etc.

Miss Manly has done much work for publishers, which has been reproduced
in colors and in black and white. She usually combines figures and


[_No reply to circular_.]

MARAINI, ADELAIDE. Gold medal in Florence, at Beatrice Exposition,
1903. Born in 1843. This sculptor resides in Rome, where her works have
been made. An early example of her art, "Camilla," while it gave proof of
her artistic temperament, was unimportant; but her later works, as they
have followed each other, have constantly gained in excellence, and have
won her an enviable reputation. Among her statues are "Amleto," "The
Sulamite Woman," and "Sappho." The last was enthusiastically received in
Paris in 1878, and is the work which gained the prize at Florence, where
it was said to be the gem of the exhibition. She has also executed a
monument to Attilio Lemmi, which represents "Youth Weeping over the Tomb
of the Dead," and is in the Protestant Cemetery at Florence; a
bas-relief, the "Angels of Prayer and of the Resurrection"; a group,
"Romeo and Juliet"; and portraits of Carlo Cattanei, Giuseppe Civinini,
Signora Allievi, Senator Musio, the traveller De Albertis, and Victor

MARCELLE, ADÈLE, Duchess of Castiglione-Colonna, family name
d'Affry. Born at Fribourg, Switzerland, 1837, and died at Castellamare,
1879. Her early manner was that of the later Cinquecento, but she
afterward adopted a rather bombastic and theatrical style. Her only
statue, a Pythia, in bronze was placed in the Grand Opera at Paris
(1870). In the Luxembourg Museum are marble busts of Bianca Capello
(1863) and an "Abyssinian Sheikh" (1870). A "Gorgon" (1865), a "Saviour"
(1875), "La Bella Romana" (1875) are among her other works. She left her
art treasures, valued at about fifty thousand francs, to the Cantonal
Museum at Fribourg, where they occupy a separate room, called the
Marcello Museum.

MARCOVIGI, CLEMENTINA. Born in Bologna, where she resides. Flower
pieces exhibited by her at Turin in 1884 and at Venice in 1887 were
commended for perfection of design and charm of color.

MARIA FEODOROVNA, wife of the Czar Peter I. As Princess Dorothea
Auguste Sophie of Würtemberg she was born at Trepton in 1759, and died at
Petersburg in 1858. She studied under Leberecht, and engraved medals and
cameos, many of which are portraits of members of the royal family and
are in the royal collection at Petersburg. She was elected to the Berlin
Academy in 1820.

MARIANI, VIRGINIA. Honorary member of the Umbrian Academy and of the
Academy of the Virtuosi of the Pantheon. Born in Rome, 1824, where she
has met with much success in decorating pottery, as well as in oil and
water-color paintings. The Provincial Exposition at Perugia in 1875
displayed her "Mezze Figure," which was highly commended. She has
decorated cornices, with flowers in relief, as well as some vases that
are very beautiful. Besides teaching in several institutions and
receiving private pupils, she has been an inspector, in her own
department of art, of the municipal schools of Rome.

MARIE, DUCHESS OF WÜRTEMBERG. Daughter of Louis Philippe, and wife
of Duke Frederick William Alexander of Würtemberg. Born at Palermo, 1813,
and died at Pisa, 1839. She studied drawing with Ary Scheffer. Her statue
of "Jeanne d'Arc" is at Versailles; in the Ferdinand Chapel, in the Bois
de Boulogne, is the "Peri as a Praying Angel"; in the Saturnin Chapel at
Fontainebleau is a stained-glass window with her design of "St. Amalia."
Among her other works are "The Dying Bayard," a relief representing the
legend of the Wandering Jew, and a bust of the Belgian Queen. Many of her
drawings are in possession of her family. She also executed some
lithographs, such as "Souvenirs of 1812," 1831, etc.

MARIE LOUISE, EMPRESS OF FRANCE. 1791-1846. She studied under
Prud'hon. Her "Girl with a Dove" is in the Museum of Besançon.

MARLEF, CLAUDE. Bronze medal at Paris Exposition, 1900. Associate of
the French National Society of Fine Arts (Beaux-Arts). Born at Nantes.
Pupil of A. Roll, Benjamin Constant, Puvis de Chavannes, and Dagnaux.

Mme. Marlef is a portrait painter. Her picture, "Manette Salomon," is in
the Hotel de Ville, Paris; the "Nymphe Accroupie" is in the Municipal
Museum of Nantes. Among her portraits of well-known women are those of
Jane Hading, Elsie de Wolfe, Bessie Abbott of the Opera, Rachel Boyer of
the Theatre Français, Marguerite Durand, Editeur de la Fronde, Mlle.
Richepin, and many others.

Mme. Marlef has the power of keen observation, so necessary to a painter
of portraits. Although there is a certain element of soft tenderness in
her pictures, the bold virility of her drawing misled the critics, who
for a time believed that her name was used to conceal the personality of
a man. A critic in the Paris _World_ writes of this artist: "She has
exquisite color sense and delights in presenting that _exaltation de la
vie_, that love, radiance, and joy of life, which are at once the secret
of the success and the keynote of the masterful canvases of Roll, in
whose studio were first developed Claude Marlef's delicate qualities of
truthful perception in the portraiture of woman.... Her perceptions being
rapid, she has a remarkable instantaneous insight, enabling her to fix
the dominant feature and soul of expression in each of the various types
among her numerous sitters."

Mme. Marlef's family name is Lefebure. Her husband died in 1891, the year
after their marriage, and she then devoted herself to the serious study
of painting, which she had practised from childhood. She first exhibited
at the Salon, 1895, and has exhibited annually since then. In 1902 she
sent her own portrait, and in 1903 that of Bessie Abbott, to the
Exhibition of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts.

MARTIN DE CAMPO, VICTORIA. Member of the Academy of Fine Arts of
Cadiz, her native city. In the different expositions of this and other
Andalusian capitals she has exhibited since 1840 many works, including
portraits, genre, historical pictures, and copies. Among them may be
mentioned "Susanna in the Bath," "David Playing the Harp before Saul," a
"Magdalen," a "Cupid," a "Boy with a Linnet," and a "Nativity." Some of
these were awarded prizes. In the Chapel of Relics in the new Cathedral
at Cadiz are her "Martyrdom of St. Lawrence" and a "Mater Dolorosa."

MARTINEAU, EDITH. Associate of Royal Society of Painters in
Water-Colors; member of the Hampstead Art Society. Born in Liverpool,
where she made her first studies in the School of Art, and later became a
pupil of the Royal Academy Schools, London.

Her pictures are not large and are principally figures or figures in
landscape, and all in water-colors. She writes very modestly that so many
are sold and in private hands that she will give no list of subjects.

MASSARI, LUIGIA. Medal at Piacenza, 1869, and several other medals
from art societies. Born at Piacenza, 1810. Pupil of A. Gemmi. Her works
are in a number of churches: "St. Martin" in the church at Altoé; "St.
Philomena" in the church at Busseto; the "Madonna del Carmine" and "St.
Anna" in the church at Monticelli d'Ongina. This artist was also famous
for her beautiful embroidery, as seen in her altar-cloths, one of which
is in the Guastafredda Chapel at Piacenza. The fruits and flowers
produced by her needle are marvellously like those in her pictures.

MASSEY, MRS. GERTRUDE. Member of the Society of Miniaturists. Born
in London, 1868. Has studied with private teachers in London and Paris.

This painter has made a specialty of miniatures and of pictures of dogs.
She has been extensively employed by various members of the royal family,
of whom she painted eleven miniatures, among which was one of the late

She sends me a list of several pictures of dogs and "Pets," all belonging
to titled English ladies; also a long list of miniatures of gentlemen,
ladies, and children of high degree, several being of the royal family,
in addition, I suppose, to the eleven mentioned above.

She writes me: "Constantly met King and Queen and other members. Sittings
took place at Windsor Castle, Sandringham, Marlborough House, Osborne,
and Balmoral. One dog died after first sitting; had to finish from dead
dog. Live in charming little cottage with _genuine_ old-fashioned garden
in St. John's Wood."

Mrs. Massey has exhibited at the Royal Academy and New Gallery, and has
held a special exhibition of her pictures of dogs at the Fine Art
Society, New Bond Street, London.

MASSIP, MARGUERITE. Member of the Society of Swiss Painters and
Sculptors and of the Society of Arts and Letters, Geneva. Born at Geneva.
Made her studies in Florence and Paris under the professors in the public
schools. Her picture of "Le Buveur" is in the Museum of Geneva; "Five
o'Clock Tea," also in a Geneva Museum; "La Bohemienne" is at Nice; "The
Engagement"--a dancer--at St. Gall, and a large number of portraits in
various cities, belonging to their subjects and their families.

Her portrait of Mme. M. L. was very much praised when exhibited in
proximity with the works of some of the famous French artists. One critic
writes: "The painting is firm and brilliant. The hands are especially
beautiful; we scarcely know to whom we can compare Mme. Massip, unless
to M. Paul Dubois. They have the same love of art, the same soberness of
tone, the same scorn of artifice.... The woman who has signed such a
portrait is a great artist." It is well known that the famous sculptor is
a remarkable portraitist.

In a review of the Salon at Nice we read: "A portrait by Mme. Massip is a
magnificent canvas, without a single stroke of the charlatan. The pose is
simple and dignified; there is the serenity and repose of a woman no
longer young, who makes no pretension to preserve her vanishing beauty;
the costume, in black, is so managed that it would not appear
superannuated nor ridiculous at any period. The execution is that of a
great talent and an artistic conscience. It is not a portrait for a
bedchamber, still less for a studio; it is a noble souvenir for a family,
and should have a place in the salon, in which, around the hearth, three
generations may gather, and in this serene picture may see the wife, the
mother, and the grandmother, when they mourn the loss of her absolute

MASSOLIEN, ANNA. Born at Görlitz, 1848. A pupil of G. Gräf and of
the School of Women Artists in Berlin. Her portraits of Field Marshal von
Steinmetz, Brückner, and G. Schmidt by their excellence assured the
reputation of this artist, whose later portraits are greatly admired.

MATHILDE, PRINCESS. Medal at Paris Salon, 1865. Daughter of King
Jerome Bonaparte. Born at Trieste, 1820; died at Paris, 1904. Pupil of
Eugene Giraud. She painted genre subjects in water-colors. Her medal
picture, "Head of a Young Girl," is in the Luxembourg; "A Jewess of
Algiers," 1866, is in the Museum of Lille; "The Intrigue under the
Portico of the Doge's Palace" was painted in 1865.

MATHILDE CAROLINE, Grand Duchess of Hesse. Was born Princess of
Bavaria. 1813-1863. Pupil of Dominik Onaglio. In the New Gallery at
Munich are two of her pictures--"View of the Magdalen Chapel in the
Garden at Nymphenburg," 1832, and "Outlook on the Islands, Procida and
Ischia," 1836.

MATTON, IDA. Two grand prizes and a purse, also a travelling purse
from the Government of Sweden; honorable mention at the Paris Salon,
1896; honorable mention, Paris Exposition, 1900; prize for sculpture at
the Union des femmes peintres et sculpteurs, 1903. Decorated with the
"palmes académique" of President Loubet, 1903. Member of the Union des
femmes peintres et sculpteurs, Paris. Born at Gefle, Sweden. Pupil of the
Technical School, Stockholm, and of H. Chapu, A. Mercie, and D. Puech at

[Illustration: In Cemetery In Gefle, Sweden



Among the works of this artist are "Mama!" a statue in marble; "Loké," a
statue; "Dans les Vagues," a marble bust; "Funeral Monument," in bronze,
in Gefle, Sweden; and a great number of portrait busts and various
subjects in bas-relief.

At the Salon des Artistes Français, 1902, she exhibited four portraits,
and in 1903, "Confidence."

MAURY, CORNELIA F. Member of St. Louis Artists' Guild and Society of
Western Artists. Born in New Orleans, Louisiana. Pupil of St. Louis
School of Fine Arts and of Julian Academy, under Collin and Merson. At
the Salon of 1900 her picture, "Mother and Child," was hung on the line.

Miss Maury has made an especial study of child life. Among her pictures
are "Little Sister," "Choir Boy," "Late Breakfast," and "First Steps."
The latter picture and the "Baby in a Go-Cart" have been published in the
Copley Prints.

"Cornelia F. Maury is most successful in portrayals of childhood. Her
small figures are simple, unaffected, with no suggestion of pose. They
convey that delightful feeling of unconsciousness in the subject that is
always so charming either in nature or in artistic expression. The pastel
depicting the flaxen-haired child in blue dress drawing a tiny cart is
exceedingly artistic, and the same may be said of a pastel showing a
small child in a Dutch high-chair near a window. A third picture--also a
pastel--represents a choir-boy in a red robe, red cap, and white
surplice, sitting in a high-backed, carved chair, holding a book in his
hand. Miss Maury really has produced nothing finer than this last. It is
a most excellent work."--_The Mirror, St. Louis,_ April 10, 1902.

MAYREDER-OBERMAYER, ROSE. Born in Vienna, 1858. Pupil of Darnaut and
Charmont. The works of this successful painter of flowers and still-life
have been exhibited in Berlin, Vienna, Dresden, and Chicago. She has a
broad, sure touch quite unusual in water-colors. She has also executed
some notable decorative works, one of which, "November," has attracted
much attention.

MCCROSSAN, MARY. Silver and bronze medals, Liverpool; silver medal
and honorable mention, Paris. Has exhibited at Royal Academy, London,
at Royal Institute of Oil Colors, and many other English and Scotch
exhibitions. Member of Liverpool Academy of Arts and of the Liverpool
Sketching Club. Born in Liverpool. Studied at Liverpool School of Art
under John Finnie; Paris, under M. Delécluse; St. Ives, Cornwall, under
Julius Ollson.

The principal works of this artist are marine subjects and landscapes,
and are mostly in private collections.

In the _Studio,_ November, 1900, we read: "Miss McCrossan's exhibition of
pictures and sketches displayed a pleasant variety of really clever work,
mostly in oils, with a few water-colors and pastels. In each medium her
color is strong, rich, and luminous, and her drawing vigorous and

"While this artist's landscape subjects are intelligently selected and
attractively rendered, there is unusual merit in her marine pictures,
composed mainly from the fisher-craft of the Isle of Man and the
neighborhood of St. Ives, and recording effects of brilliant sunshine
lighting up white herring boats lying idly on intensely reflective blue
sea, or aground on the harbor mud at low tide. There is a fascination in
the choice color treatment of these characteristic pictures."

MCLAUGHLIN, MARY LOUISE M. Honorable mention, Paris Salon, 1878;
silver medal, Paris Exposition, 1889; gold medal, Atlanta, 1895; bronze
medal, Buffalo, 1900. Member of the Society of Arts, London; honorary
member of National Mineral Painters' League, Cincinnati. Born in
Cincinnati, Ohio. Pupil of Cincinnati Art Academy and of H. F. Farny and
Frank Duveneck in private classes.

Miss McLaughlin has painted in oil and water-colors and exhibited in
various places, as indicated by the honors she has received. Having
practised under- and over-glaze work on pottery, as well as porcelain
etching and decorative etching on metals, she is now devoting herself to
making the porcelain known as Losanti Ware.

Of a recent exhibition, 1903, a critic wrote: "Perhaps the most beautiful
and distinguished group in the exhibition is that of Miss McLaughlin, one
of the earliest artistic workers in clay of the United States. She sends
a collection of lovely porcelain vases, of a soft white tone and charming
in contour. Some of these have open-work borders, others are decorated in
relief, and the designs are tinted with delicate jade greens, dark blues,
or salmon pinks. This ware goes by the name of Losanti, from the early
name of Cincinnati, L'Osantiville."

This artist has written several books on china painting and pottery

MCMANUS MANSFIELD, BLANCHE. Diplomas from the New Orleans Centennial
and the Woman's Department, Chicago, 1903. Member of the New Vagabonds,
London, and the Touring Club of France. Born in East Feliciana Parish,
Louisiana, this artist has made her studies in London and Paris. Her
principal work has been done in book illustrations. The following list
gives some of her most important publications:

    "Alice in Wonderland" and "Through the Looking-Glass." De
        Luxe edition in color. New York, 1899.

    "The Calendar of Omar Khayyam." In color. New York, 1900.

    "The Altar Service." Thirty-six wood-cut blocks printed on
       Japan vellum. London, 1902.

    "The Coronation Prayer-Book." (Wood-cut borders.) Oxford
       University Press, 1902.

    "Cathedrals of Northern France." In collaboration with Francis
       Miltoun. Boston and London, 1903.

    "Cathedrals of Southern France." In collaboration with Francis
       Miltoun. Sold for publication in London and Boston, 1904.

    "A Dante Calendar." London, 1903.

    "A Rubaiyat Calendar." Boston, 1903.

    "The King's Classics." (Designs and Decorations.) London,

    "The Book of Days." A Calendar. Sold in London for 1904.

After speaking of several works by Miss McManus, a notice from London
says: "A more difficult or at least a more intricate series were the
designs cut on wood for 'The Altar Service Book,' just issued in London
by that newly founded venture, the De La More Press; which has drawn unto
itself such scholars as Dr. Furnival, Professor Skeat, and Israel
Gollancz. These designs by Miss McManus were printed direct from the wood
blocks in very limited editions, on genuine vellum, on Japanese vellum,
and a small issue on a real sixteenth-century hand-made paper. The
various editions were immediately taken up in London on publication;
hence it is unlikely that copies will be generally seen in America.

[Illustration: DELFT


"We learn, however, that the original wood blocks will be shown at the
St. Louis Exposition, in the section to be devoted to the work of
American artists resident abroad. We suggest that all lovers of
latter-day bookmaking 'make a note of it,' recalling meanwhile that it
was this successful American designer who produced also the decorative
wood-cut borders and initials which were used in 'The Coronation
Prayer-Book of King Edward VII.,' issued from the celebrated Oxford
University Press. There were forty initials or headings, embodying the
coronation regalia, including the crown, sceptre, rose, thistle,
shamrock, etc. The magnificent cover for the book was also designed by
this artist.

"Among the American artists who have made a distinctive place in art
circles, not only in America but on 'the other side,' is Mrs. M. F.
Mansfield, formerly Blanche McManus of Woodville, Mississippi.

"In London she is widely known as a skilful, able, and versatile artist,
and her remarkable success there is an illustration of 'the American
invasion.' Little has been written in America, especially in the South,
of what this talented Southern woman has accomplished. She has never
sought personal advertisement; on the contrary, she has shrunk from any
kind of publicity--even that which would have accrued from a proper
valuation of her work.

"She is one of those artists whose talent is equalled only by her
modesty, who, enamoured of her art and aiming at a patient, painstaking
realization of her ideal, has been content to work on in silence. In the
estimation of art connoisseurs, Blanche McManus is an artist of
unquestionable talent and varied composition, who has already done much
striking work. Her execution in the various branches has attracted
international attention.

"She paints well in water-colors and in oil, and her etching is
considered excellent. Her drawing is stamped good, and every year she has
showed rapid improvement in design. She is a highly cultivated woman,
with a close and accurate observation. A sincere appreciation of nature
was revealed in her earliest efforts, and for some years she devoted much
time to its study."

Moring's _Quarterly_ says in regard to the special work which Mrs.
Mansfield has done: "It is so seldom that an artist is able to take in
hand what may be termed the entire decoration of a book--including in
that phrase cover, illustration, colophon, head- and tail-pieces, initial
letters, and borders--that it is a pleasure to find in the subject of our
paper a lady who may be said to be capable of taking all these points
into consideration in the embellishment of a volume."

MEDICI, MARIE DE'. Wife of Henry IV. Born at Florence, 1573; died at
Cologne, 1642. A portrait of herself, engraved on wood, bears the legend,
"Maria Medici F. MDLXXXII." Another portrait of a girl, attributed to
her, is signed, "L. O. 1617." It may be considered a matter of grave
doubt whether the nine-year-old girl drew and engraved with her own hand
the first-named charming picture, which has been credited to her with
such frank insouciance.

MENGS, ANNA MARIA. Member of the Academy of San Fernando. She was a
daughter of Anton Rafael Mengs, and was born in Dresden in 1751, where
she received instruction from her father. In 1777 she married the
engraver Salvador Carmona in Rome, and went with him to Spain, where she
died in 1790. Portraits and miniatures of excellent quality were
executed by her, and on them her reputation rests.

MERIAN, MARIA SIBYLLA. Born at Frankfort-on-the-Main in 1647. This
artist merits our attention, although her art was devoted to an unusual
purpose. Her father was a learned geographer and engraver whose published
works are voluminous. Her maternal grandfather was the eminent engraver,
Theodore de Bry or Brie.

From her childhood Anna Sibylla Merian displayed an aptitude for drawing
and a special interest in insect life. The latter greatly disturbed her
mother, but she could not turn the child's attention from entomology, and
was forced to allow that study to become her chief pursuit.

The flower painter, Abraham Mignon, was her master in drawing and
painting; but at an early age, before her studies were well advanced, she
married an architect, John Andrew Graf, of Nuremberg, with whom she lived
unhappily. She passed nearly twenty years in great seclusion, and, as she
tells us in the preface to one of her books, she devoted these years to
the examination and study of various insects, watching their
transformations and making drawings from them. Many of these were in
colors on parchment and were readily sold to connoisseurs.

Her first published work was called "The Wonderful Transformations of
Caterpillars." It appeared in 1679, was fully illustrated by copper plate
engravings, executed by herself from her own designs. About 1684 she
separated from her husband, and with her daughters returned to Frankfort.
Many interesting stories are told of her life there.

She made a journey to Friesland and was a convert to the doctrines of
Labadie, but she was still devoted to her study and research. She was
associated with the notable men of her time, and became the friend of the
father of Rachel Ruysch. Although Madame Merian, who had taken her maiden
name, was seventeen years older than the gifted flower painter, she
became to her an example of industry and devotion to study.

Madame Merian had long desired to examine the insects of Surinam, and in
1699, by the aid of the Dutch Government, she made the journey--of which
a French poet wrote:

    "Sibylla à Surinam va chercher la nature,
    Avec l'esprit d'un Sage, et le coeur d'un Heros"

--which indicates the view then held of a journey which would now attract
no attention.

While in Guiana some natives brought her a box filled with "lantern
flies," as they were then called. The noise they made at night was so
disturbing that she liberated them, and the flies, regaining liberty,
flashed out their most brilliant light, for which Madame Merian was
unprepared, and in her surprise dropped the box. From this circumstance a
most exaggerated idea obtained concerning the illuminating power of the

The climate of Surinam was so unhealthy for Madame Merian that she could
remain there but two years, and in that time she gathered the materials
for her great work called "Metamorphoses Insectorum Surinamensium," etc.
The illustrations were her own, and she pictured many most interesting
objects--animals and vegetables as well as insects--which were quite
unknown in Europe. Several editions of this book were published both in
German and French. Her plates are still approved and testify to the scope
and thoroughness of her research, as well as to her powers as an artist.

Her chief work, however, was a "History of the Insects of Europe, Drawn
from Nature, and Explained by Maria Sibylla Merian." The illustrations of
this work were beautiful and of great interest, as the insects, from
their first state to their last, were represented with the plants and
flowers which they loved, each object being correctly and tastefully
pictured. Most of the original paintings for these works are in the
British Museum. In the Vienna Gallery is a "Basket of Flowers" by this
artist, and in the Basle Museum a picture of "Locust and Chafers."

The daughters of this learned artist naturalist, Joanna Maria Helena and
Dorothea, shared the pursuits and labors of their mother, and it was her
intention to publish their drawings as an appendix to her works. She did
not live to do this, and later the daughters published a separate volume
of their own.

This extraordinary woman, whose studies and writings added so much to the
knowledge of her time, was neither beautiful nor graceful. Her portraits
present a woman with hard and heavy features, her hair in short curls
surmounted by a stiff and curious headdress, made of folds of some black

MERRITT, MRS. ANNA LEA. Honorable mention, Paris Exposition, 1889;
two medals and a diploma, Chicago Exposition, 1893. In 1890 her picture
of "Love Locked Out" was purchased by the Chantry fund, London, for two
hundred and fifty pounds. This honor has been accorded to few women, and
of these I think Mrs. Merritt was first. Member of the Royal Society of
Painter-Etchers. Born in Philadelphia. Pupil of Heinrich Hoffman in
Dresden, and of Henry Merritt--whom she married--in London.

Mrs. Merritt has a home in Hampshire, England, but is frequently in
Philadelphia, where she exhibits her pictures, which have also been seen
at the Royal Academy since 1871.

This artist is represented by her pictures in the National Gallery of
British Art, in the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, and by her
portrait of Mr. James Russell Lowell in Memorial Hall, Harvard

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MICHIS, MARIA. See Cattaneo.

MILBACHER, LOUISE VON. Prize at Berlin in 1886. Born at
Böhmischbrod, 1845. Pupil of Pönninger and Eisenmenger. A painter of
portraits and of sacred and genre subjects. Three of her portraits are
well known--those of Baron Thienen, General von Neuwirth, and Baron
Eber-Eschenbach. The altar-piece in the chapel of the Vienna Institute, a
"Holy Family," is by this artist. She has also painted still-life and
animal subjects.

MODIGLIANI, SIGNORINA CORINNA. Silver medal at Turin Exposition,
1898; silver medal at the Exposition of Feminine Art, 1899, 1900; diploma
at Leghorn, 1901; gold medal. Member of the International Artistic
Association. Born in Rome. Pupil of Professore Commendatore Pietro Vanni.

This artist has exhibited her works in the Expositions of Rome, Turin,
Milan, Leghorn, Munich, Petersburg, and Paris since 1897, and will
contribute to the St. Louis Exposition. Her pictures have been sold in
Paris, London, and Ireland, as well as in Rome and other Italian cities,
where many of them are in the collections of distinguished families.

MOLDURA, LILLA. A Neapolitan painter. Her father was an Italian and
her mother a Spaniard. She was instructed in the elements of art by
various excellent teachers, and then studied oil painting under
Maldarelli and water-color under Mancini. She has often exhibited
pictures in Naples, to the satisfaction of both artists and critics, and
has also won success in London. She has been almost equally happy in
views of the picturesque Campagna, and in interiors, both in oil and
water-colors. The interior of the Chapel of the Immaculate Conception, in
the Church of the Gerolamini, is strong in execution and good in drawing
and color.

MÖLLER, AGNES SLOTT. Born in 1862. Resides in Copenhagen. The
especial work of this artist, by which her reputation is world-wide, is
the illustration of old legends for children's books.

MONTALBA, CLARA. Associate of the Society of Painters in
Water-Colors, London, and of the Belgian Society of Water-Colorists. Born
in Cheltenham, 1842. Pupil of Isabey in Paris. Her professional life has
been spent in London and Venice. She has sent her pictures to the
Academy and the Grosvenor Gallery exhibitions since 1879. "Blessing a
Tomb, Westminster," was at the Philadelphia Exposition, 1876; "Corner of
St. Mark's" and "Fishing Boats, Venice," were at Paris, 1878.

In 1874 she exhibited at the Society of British Artists, "Il Giardino
Publico"--the Public Garden--of which a writer in the _Art Journal_ said:
"'Il Giardino Publico' stands foremost among the few redeeming features
of the exhibition. In delicate perception of natural beauty the picture
suggests the example of Corot. Like the great Frenchman, Miss Montalba
strives to interpret the sadder moods of nature, when the wind moves the
water a little mournfully and the outlines of the objects become
uncertain in the filmy air."

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MORETTO, EMMA. Venetian painter, exhibited at Naples, in 1877,
"Abbey of St. Gregory at Venice"; at Turin, in 1880, a fine view of the
"Canal of the Giudecca," and "Canal of S. Giorgio"; at the National
Exposition in Milan, 1881, "Sunset" and a marine view; at Rome, in 1883,
"Excursion on the Lagoon." Still others of the same general character
are: "A Gondola," "At St. Mark's," "Grand Canal," "Morning at Sea," etc.

MORON, THERESE CONCORDIA. Born in Dresden, 1725; died in Rome, 1806.
Pupil, of her father, Ismael Mengs. Her attention was divided between
enamel painting and pastel, much of the latter being miniature work. In
the Dresden Gallery are two of her pastel portraits and two copies in
miniature of Correggio, viz., a half-length portrait of herself and a
portrait of her sister, Julie Mengs; a copy of St. Jerome, or "The
Day"--original in Parma--and "The Night."

A curious story has recently been published to the effect that in 1767
this artist sent word to Duke Xavier of Saxony that during the Seven
Years' War she painted a copy in miniature of Correggio's "Holy Mother
with the Christ Child, Mary Magdalen, Hieronymus, and Two Angels," which
she sent by Cardinal Albani to the Duke's father--Frederick Augustus II.
of Saxony and Augustus III. of Poland--at Warsaw. It was claimed that two
hundred and fifty ducats were due her. Apparently the demand was not met;
but, on the other hand, the lady seems to have received for some years a
pension of three hundred thalers from the Electorate of Saxony without
making any return. Probably her claim was satisfied by this pension.

MOSER, MARY. One of the original members of the London Academy. The
daughter of a German artist, who resided in London. She was as well known
for her wit as for her art. A friend of Fuseli, she was said to be as
much in love with him as he was in love with Angelica Kauffman. Dr.
Johnson sometimes met Miss Moser at the house of Nollekens, where they
made merry over a cup of tea.

Queen Charlotte commissioned this painter to decorate a chamber, for
which work she paid more than nine hundred pounds, and was so well
pleased that she complimented the artist by commanding the apartment to
be called "Miss Moser's Room."

MOTT, MRS. ALICE. Born at Walton on Thames. Pupil of the Slade
School and Royal Academy in London, and of M. Charles Chaplin in Paris in
his studio. A miniaturist whose works are much esteemed. Her work is
life-like, artistic, and strong in drawing, color, and composition. After
finishing her study under masters she took up miniature painting by
herself, studying the works of old miniaturists.

Recently she writes me: "I have departed from the ordinary portrait
miniature, and am now painting what I call picture miniatures. For
instance, I am now at work on the portrait of Miss D. C., who is in
old-fashioned dress, low bodice, and long leg-of-mutton sleeves. She is
represented as running in the open, with sky and tree background. She has
a butterfly net over her shoulder, which floats out on the wind; she is
looking up and smiling; her hair and her sash are blown out. It is to be
called, 'I'd be a Butterfly.' The dress is the yellow of the common
butterfly. It is a large miniature. I hope to send it, with others, to
the St. Louis Exposition."

Her miniatures are numerous and in private hands. A very interesting one
belongs to the Bishop of Ripon and is a portrait of Mrs. Carpenter, his


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MURRAY, ELIZABETH. Member of the Institute of Painters in
Water-Colors, London, and of the American Society of Water-Color
Painters, New York. Her pictures are of genre subjects, many of them
being of Oriental figures. Among these are "Music in Morocco," "A
Moorish Saint," "The Greek Betrothed," etc. Other subjects are "The Gipsy
Queen," "Dalmatian Peasant," "The Old Story in Spain," etc.


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NEGRO, TERESA. Born in Turin, where she resides. She has made a
study of antique pottery and has been successful in its imitation. Her
vases and amphorae have been frequently exhibited and are praised by
connoisseurs and critics. At the Italian National Exposition, 1880, she
exhibited a terra-cotta reproduction of a classic design, painted in
oils; also a wooden dish which resembled an antique ceramic.

NELLI, PLAUTILLA. There is a curious fact connected with two women
artists of Florence in the middle of the sixteenth century. In that city
of pageants--where Ghirlandajo saw, in the streets, in churches, and on
various ceremonial occasions, the beautiful women with whom he still
makes us acquainted--these ladies, daughters of noble Florentine
families, were nuns.

No Shakespearean dissector has, to my knowledge, affirmed that Hamlet's
advice to Ophelia, "Get thee to a nunnery," and his assertion, "I have
heard of your paintings, too," prove that Ophelia was an artist and a
nunnery a favorable place in which to set up a studio. Yet I think I
could make this assumption as convincing as many that have been "proved"
by the _post obitum_ atomizers of the great poet's every word.

But we have not far to seek for the reasons which led Plautilla Nelli and
Maria Maddalena de' Pazzi to choose the conventual life. The subjects of
their pictures prove that their thoughts were fixed on a life quite out
of tune with that which surrounded them in their homes. If they pictured
rich draperies and rare gems, it was but to adorn with them the Blessed
Virgin Mother and the holy saints, in token of their belief that all of
pomp and value in this life can but faintly symbolize the glory of the
life to come.

Plautilla Nelli, born in Florence in 1523, entered the convent of St.
Catherine of Siena, in her native city, and in time became its abbess.
Patiently, with earnest prayer, she studied and copied the works of Fra
Bartolommeo and Andrea del Sarto, until she was able to paint an original
"Adoration of the Magi" of such excellence as to secure her a place among
the painters of Florence.

Many of her pictures remained in her convent, but she also painted a
"Madonna Surrounded by Saints" for the choir of Santa Lucia at Pistoja.
There are pictures attributed to Plautilla Nelli in Berlin--notably the
"Visit of Martha to Christ,"--which are characterized by the earnestness,
purity, and grace of her beloved Fra Bartolommeo. Her "Adoration of the
Wise Men" is at Parma; the "Descent from the Cross" in Florence; the
"Last Supper" in the church of Santa Maria Novella, Florence.

There are traditions of her success as a teacher of painting in her
convent, but of this we have no exact knowledge such as we have of the
work of the "Suor Plautilla," the name by which she came to be known in
all Italy.

NEMES-RANSONNETT, COUNTESS ELISA. Born at Vienna, 1843. She studied
successively with Vastagh, Lulos, Aigner, Schilcher, Lenbach, Angeli, and
J. Benczur, and opened her studio at Kun Szent Miklos near Budapest. The
"Invitation to the Wedding" was well received, and her portraits of
Schiller and Perczel are in public galleries--the former in the Vienna
Künstlerhaus, and the latter in the Deputy House at Budapest.

NEWCOMB, MARIA GUISE. Born in New Jersey. Pupil of Schenck,
Chialiva, and Edouard Detaille in Paris. Travelled in Algeria and the
Sahara, studying the Arab and his horses. Very few artists can be
compared with Miss Newcomb in representing horses. She has a genius for
portraying this animal, and understands its anatomy as few painters have

She was but a child when sketching horses and cattle was her pastime, and
so great was her fondness for it that the usual dolls and other toys were
crowded out of her life. Her studies in Paris were comprehensive, and her
work shows the results and places her among the distinguished painters of

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NEY, ELISABETH. Born in 1830. After studying at the Academy in
Berlin, this sculptor went to Munich, where she was devoted to her art.
She then came to Texas and remained some years in America. She returned
to Berlin in 1897. Among her best known works are busts of Garibaldi, of
J. Grimm, 1863, "Prometheus Bound," 1868, and a statue of Louis II. of

NICHOLLS, MRS. RHODA HOLMES. Queen's Scholarship, Bloomsbury Art
School, London; gold medal, Competitive Prize Fund Exhibition, New York;
medal, Chicago Exposition, 1893; medal, Tennessee Exposition, 1897;
bronze medal at Buffalo Exposition, 1901. Member of American Water-Color
Society, New York Water-Color Society, Woman's Art Club, American Society
of Miniature Painters, Pen and Brush Club; honorable member of Woman's
Art Club, Canada. Born in Coventry, England. Pupil of Bloomsbury School
of Art, London; of Cannerano and Vertunni in Rome, where she was elected
to the Circolo Artistico and the Società degli Aquarelliste.

Her pictures are chiefly figure subjects, among which are "Those Evening
Bells," "The Scarlet Letter," "A Daughter of Eve," "Indian after the
Chase," "Searching the Scriptures," etc.

In the _Studio_, March, 1901, in writing of the exhibition of the
American Water-Color Society, the critic says: "In her two works,
'Cherries' and 'A Rose,' Mrs. Rhoda Holmes Nicholls shows us a true
water-color executed by a master hand. The subject of each is slight;
each stroke of her brush is made once and for all, with a precision and
dash that are inspiriting; and you have in each painting the sparkle, the
deft lightness of touch, the instantaneous impression of form and
coloring that a water-color should have."



Mrs. Nicholls is also known as an illustrator. Harold Payne says of her:
"Rhoda Holmes Nicholls, although an illustrator of the highest order,
cannot be strictly classed as one, for the reason that she is equally
great in every other branch of art. However, as many of her best examples
of water-colors are ultimately reproduced for illustrative purposes, and
as even her oil paintings frequently find their way into the pages of art
publications, it is not wrong to denominate her as an illustrator, and
that of the most varied and prolific type. She may, like most artists,
have a specialty, but a walk through her studio and a critical
examination of her work--ranging all along the line of oil paintings,
water-colors of the most exquisite type, wash drawings, crayons, and
pastels--would scarcely result in discovering her specialty.... As a
colorist she has few rivals, and her acute knowledge of drawing and
genius for composition are apparent in everything she does."

NICHOLS, CATHERINE MAUDE, R. E. The pictures of this artist have
been hung on the line at the Royal Academy exhibitions a dozen times at
least. From Munich she has received an official letter thanking her for
sending her works to exhibitions in that city. Fellow of the Royal
Painter-Etchers' Society; president of the Woodpecker Art Club, Norwich;
Member of Norwich Art Circle and of a Miniature Painters' Society and the
Green Park Club, London. Born in Norwich. Self-taught. Has worked in the
open at Barbizon, in Normandy, in Cornwall, Devon, London, and all around
the east coast of Norfolk.

Miss Nichols has held three exhibitions of her pictures both in oil and
water-colors in London. She has executed more than a hundred copper
plates, chiefly dry-points. The pictures in oils and water-colors, the
miniatures and the proofs of her works have found purchasers, almost
without exception, and are in private hands. Most of the plates she has

Miss Nichols has illustrated some books, her own poems being of the
number, as well as her "Old Norwich." She has also made illustrations for
journals and magazines.

One is impressed most agreeably with the absence of mannerism in Miss
Nichols' work, as well as with the pronounced artistic treatment of her
subjects. Her sketches of sea and river scenery are attractive; the views
from her home county, Norfolk, have a delightful feeling about them.
"Norwich River at Evening" is not only a charming picture, but shows, in
its perspective and its values, the hand of a skilful artist. "Mousehold
Heath," showing a rough and broken country, is one of her strongest
pictures in oils; "Stretching to the Sea" is also excellent. Among the
water-colors "Strangers' Hall," Norwich, and "Fleeting Clouds," merit
attention, as do a number of others. One could rarely see so many works,
with such varied subjects, treated in oils, water-colors, dry point,
etc., by the same artist.

I quote the following paragraph from the _Studio_ of April, 1903: "Miss
C. M. Nichols is an artist of unquestionable talent, and her work in the
various mediums she employs deserves careful attention. She paints well
both in water-colors and in oil, and her etchings are among the best that
the lady artists of our time have produced. Her drawing is good, her
observation is close and accurate, and she shows year by year an
improvement in design. Miss Nichols was for several years the only lady
fellow of the Royal Society of Painter-Etchers."

Her "Brancaster Staithe" and "Fir Trees, Crown Point," dry points, are in
the Norwich Art Gallery, presented by Sir Seymour Haden, president of the
Royal Society of Painter-Etchers. Two of her works, a large oil painting
of "Earlham" and a water-color of "Strangers' Hall," have been purchased
by subscription and presented to the Norwich Castle Art Gallery.

NICOLAU Y PARODY, TERESA. Member of the Academy of San Fernando and
of the Academy of San Carlos of Valencia. This artist, who was born in
Madrid, early showed an enthusiasm for painting, which she at first
practised in various styles, but gradually devoted herself entirely to
miniature. She has contributed to many public exhibitions, and has
received many prizes and honorable mentions, as well as praise from the
critics. Among her portraits are those of Isabel de Braganza, Washington,
Mme. de Montespan, Mme. Dubarry, Queen Margaret of Austria, and Don
Carlos, son of Philip II. Her other works include a "Magdalen in the
Desert," "Laura and Petrarch," "Joseph with the Christ-Child," "Francis
I. at the Battle of Pavia," and many good copies after celebrated

NIEDERHÄUSEN, MLLE. SOPHIE. Medal at the Swiss National Exposition,
1896. Member of the Exposition permanente de l'Athénée, Geneva. Born at
Geneva. Pupil of Professor Wymann and M. Albert Gos, and of M. and Mme.
Demont-Breton in France.

Mlle. Niederhäusen paints landscapes principally, and has taken her
subjects from the environs of Geneva, in the Valais, and in
Pas-de-Calais, France.

Her picture, called the "Bord du Lac de Genève," was purchased by the
city and is in the Rath Museum. She also paints flowers, and uses
water-colors as well as oils.

NOBILI, ELENA. Silver medal at the Beatrice Exposition, Florence,
1890. Born in Florence, where she resides. She is most successful in
figure subjects. She is sympathetic in her treatment of them and is able
to impart to her works a sentiment which appeals to the observer. Among
her pictures are "Reietti," "The Good-Natured One," "September," "In the
Country," "Music," and "Contrasts."

NORMAND, MRS. ERNEST--HENRIETTA RAE. Medals in Paris and at Chicago
Exposition, 1893. Born in London, 1859. Daughter of T. B. Rae, Esquire.
Married the artist, Ernest Normand, 1884. Pupil of Queen's Square School
of Art, Heatherley's, British Museum, and Royal Academy Schools. Began
the study of art at the age of thirteen. First exhibited at the Royal
Academy in 1880, and has sent important pictures there annually since
that time.

Mrs. Normand executed decorative frescoes in the Royal Exchange, London,
the subject being "Sir Richard Whittington and His Charities."

In the past ten years she has exhibited "Mariana," 1893; "Psyche at the
Throne of Venus," 1894; "Apollo and Daphne," 1895; "Summer," 1896;
"Isabella," 1897; "Diana and Calisto," 1899; "Portrait of Marquis of
Dufferin and Ava," 1901; "Lady Winifred Renshaw and Son," and the
"Sirens," 1903, which is a picture of three nude enchantresses, on a
sandy shore, watching a distant galley among rocky islets.

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NOURSE, ELIZABETH. Medal at Chicago Exposition, 1903; Nashville
Exposition, 1897; Carthage Institute, Tunis, 1897; elected associate of
the Beaux-Arts, Paris, 1895; silver medal, Paris Exposition, 1900;
elected Sociétaire des Beaux-Arts, 1901. Born in Cincinnati, Ohio, where
she began her studies, later going to the Julian Academy, under Boulanger
and Lefebvre, and afterward studying with Carolus Duran and Henner. This
artist idealizes the subjects of every-day, practical life, and gives
them a poetic quality which is an uncommon and delightful attainment.

At the Salon des Beaux-Arts, 1902, Miss Nourse exhibited "The Children,"
"Evening Toilet of the Baby," "In the Shade at Pen'march," "Brother and
Sister at Pen'march," "The Madeleine Chapel at Pen'march." In 1903, "Our
Lady of Joy, Pen'march," "Around the Cradle," "The Little Sister," and "A
Breton Interior."

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OAKLEY, VIOLET. Member of Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts,
Philadelphia Water-Color Club, Plastic Club, Philadelphia. Born in New
Jersey, but has lived in New York, where she studied at the Art
Students' League under Carroll Beckwith. Pupil of Collin and Aman-Jean in
Paris and Charles Lasar in England; also in Philadelphia of Joseph de
Camp, Henry Thouron, Cecilia Beaux, and Howard Pyle.

Miss Oakley has executed mural decorations, a mosaic reredos, and five
stained-glass windows in the Church of All Saints, New York City, and a
window in the Convent of the Holy Child, at Sharon Hill, Pennsylvania.

In the summer of 1903 she was commissioned to decorate the walls of the
Governor's reception room in the new Capitol at Harrisburg. Before
engaging in this work--the first of its kind to be confided to an
American woman--Miss Oakley went to Italy to study mural painting. She
then went to England to thoroughly inform herself concerning the
historical foundation of her subject, the history of the earliest days of
Pennsylvania. At Oxford and in London she found what she required, and on
her return to America established herself in a studio in Villa Nova,
Pennsylvania, to make her designs for "The Romance of the Founding of the
State," which is to be painted on a frieze five feet deep. The room is
seventy by thirty feet, and sixteen feet in height.

The decoration of this Capitol is to be more elaborate and costly than
that of any other public edifice in the United States. In mural
decoration Miss Oakley will be associated with Edwin A. Abbey, but the
Governor's room is to be her work entirely, and will doubtless occupy her
during several years.

Mr Charles A. Caffin, in his article upon the exhibition of the New York
Water-Color Club, January, 1904, says: "Miss Oakley has had considerable
experience in designing stained-glass windows, and has reproduced in some
of her designs for book covers a corresponding treatment of the
composition, with an attempt, not very logical or desirable, considering
the differences between paint and glass, to reproduce also something of
her window color schemes.... But for myself, her cover, in which some
girls are picking flowers, is far more charming in its easy grace of
composition, choice gravity of color, and spontaneity of feeling. Here is
revealed a very _naïve_ imagination, free of any obsessions."

OCCIONI, SIGNORA LUCILLA MARZOLO. Diploma of gold medal at the
Women's Exhibition, Earl's Court, London, 1900. Born in Trieste. Pupil,
in Rome, of Professor Giuseppe Ferrari.

This artist paints figure subjects, portraits, landscapes, and flowers,
in both oils and water-colors, and also makes pen-drawings. Her works are
in many private galleries. She gives me no list of subjects. Her pictures
have been praised by critics.

1823-1885. She passed her early life in her native city, having all the
advantages of a solid and brilliant education. She early exhibited a love
of drawing and devoted herself to the study of anatomical plates. She
soon designed original subjects and introduced persons of her own
imagination, which early marked her as powerful in her fancy and original
in her manner of rendering her ideas.

A picture of "Raphael and the Fornarina," which she executed at the age
of fifteen, was so satisfactory as to determine her fate, and she was
allowed to study art.

When about eighteen years old she became the pupil of Charles Joseph
Begas, a very celebrated artist of Berlin. Under his supervision she
painted her first picture, called the "Day of the Dupes," which, though
full of faults, had also virtues enough to secure much attention in the
exhibition. It was first hung in a disadvantageous position, but the
crowd discovered its merits and would have it noticed. She received a
complimentary letter from the Academy of Berlin, and the venerable artist
Cornelius made her a visit of congratulation.

About 1844 she married and removed to Brussels. Here she came into an
entirely new atmosphere and her manner of painting was changed. She
sought to free herself from all outer influence and to express her own
feeling. She studied color especially, and became an imitator of Rubens.
She gained in Brussels all the medals of the Belgian expositions, and
there began two historical pictures, "Peter the Great and Catherine" and
"Maria Theresa and Frederick the Great." These were not finished until
after her removal to Paris in 1853. They were bought by Prince Demidoff
for the Russian Government.

She obtained her first triumph in Paris, at the Salon of 1853, by a
portrait of Rachel. She represented the famous actress dressed entirely
in white, with the worn expression which her professional exertions and
the fatal malady from which she was already suffering had given to her
remarkable face. The critics had no words for this portrait which were
not words of praise, and two years later, in 1855, Madame O'Connell
reached the height of her talent. "A Faunesse," as it was called, in the
exposition of that year, was a remarkable work, and thus described by

"A strong and beautiful young woman was seated near a spring, where
beneath the shade of the chestnut trees the water lilies spread
themselves out upon the stream which flowed forth. She was nude and her
flesh palpitated beneath the caresses of the sun. With feminine caprice
she wore a bracelet of pearls of the style of the gold workers of the
Renaissance. Her black hair had lights of golden brown upon it, and she
opened her great brown eyes with an expression of indifference. A half
smile played upon her rosy lips and lessened the oval of the face like
that of the 'Dancing Faun.' The whole effect of the lines of the figure
was bold and gave an appearance of youth, the extremities were studiously
finished, the skin was fine, and the whole tournure elegant. It was a
Faunesse of Fontainebleau of the time of the Valois."

Mme. O'Connell then executed several fine portraits--two of Rachel, one
of M. O'Connell, others of Charles Edward and Théophile Gautier, which
were likened to works of Vandyck, and a portrait in crayon of herself
which was a _chef-d'oeuvre_. She excelled in rendering passionate
natures; she found in her palette the secret of that pallor which spreads
itself over the faces of those devoted to study--the fatigues of days and
nights without sleep; she knew how to kindle the feverish light in the
eyes of poets and of the women of society. She worked with great
freedom, used a thick pâte in which she brushed freely and left the
ridges thus made in the colors; then, later, she put over a glaze, and
all was done. Her etchings were also executed with great freedom, and
many parts, especially the hair, were remarkably fine. She finished
numerous etchings, among which a "St. Magdalen in the Desert" and a
"Charity Surrounded by Children" are worthy of particular notice.

After Madame O'Connell removed to Paris she opened a large atelier and
received many pupils. It was a most attractive place, with gorgeous
pieces of antique furniture, loaded with models of sculpture, books,
albums, engravings, and so on, while draperies, tapestries, armor, and
ornaments in copper and brass all lent their colors and effects to
enhance the attractions of the place. Many persons of rank and genius
were among the friends of the artist and she was much in society.

In spite of all her talent and all her success the end of Madame
O'Connell's life was sad beyond expression. Her health suffered, her
reason tottered and faded out, yet life remained and she was for years in
an asylum for the insane. Everything that had surrounded her in her Paris
home was sold at auction. No time was given and no attempt was made to
bring her friends together. No one who had known or loved her was there
to shed a tear or to bear away a memento of her happy past. All the
beautiful things of which we have spoken were sacrificed and scattered as
unconscionably as if she had never loved or her friends enjoyed them.

In the busy world of Paris no one remembered the brilliant woman who had
flashed upon them, gained her place among them, and then disappeared.
They recalled neither her genius nor her womanly qualities which they had
admired, appreciated, and so soon forgotten!

OOSTERWYCK, MARIA VAN. The seventeenth century is remarkable for the
perfection attained in still-life and flower painting. The most famous
masters in this art were William van Aelst of Delft, the brothers De Heem
of Utrecht, William Kalf and the Van Huysums of Amsterdam. The last of
this name, however, Jan van Huysum, belongs to the next century.

Maria van Oosterwyck and Rachel Ruysch disputed honors with the above
named and are still famous for their talents.

The former was a daughter of a preacher of the reformed religion. She was
born at Nootdorp, near Delft, in 1630. She was the pupil of Jan David de
Heem, and her pictures were remarkable for accuracy in drawing, fine
coloring, and an admirable finish.

Louis XIV. of France, William III. of England, the Emperor Leopold of
Germany, and Augustus I. of Poland gave her commissions for pictures.
Large prices were paid her in a most deferential manner, as if the
tributes of friendship rather than the reward of labor, and to these
generous sums were added gifts of jewels and other precious objects.

Of Maria van Oosterwyck Kugler writes: "In my opinion she does not occupy
that place in the history of the art of this period that she deserves,
which may be partly owing to the rarity of her pictures, especially in
public galleries. For although her flower pieces are weak in arrangement
and often gaudy in the combination of color, she yet represents her
flowers with the utmost truth of drawing, and with a depth, brilliancy,
and juiciness of local coloring _unattained by any other flower painter_"

A picture in the Vienna Gallery of a sunflower with tulips and poppies,
in glowing color, is probably her best work in a public collection. Her
pictures are also in the galleries of Dresden, Florence, Carlsruhe,
Copenhagen, the Schwerin Gallery, and the Metropolitan Museum of New

There is a romantic story told of Maria van Oosterwyck, as follows.
William van Aelst, the painter of exquisite pictures of still-life,
fruits, glass, and objects in gold and silver, was a suitor for her hand.
She did not love him, but wishing not to be too abrupt in her refusal,
she required, as a condition of his acceptance, that he should work ten
hours a day during a year. This he readily promised to do. His studio
being opposite that of Maria, she watched narrowly for the days when he
did not work and marked them down on her window-sash. At the close of the
year Van Aelst claimed her as his bride, assuming that he had fulfilled
her condition; but she pointed to the record of his delinquencies, and he
could but accept her crafty dismissal of his suit.

OSENGA, GIUSEPPINA. This artist resides in Parma, and has there
exhibited landscapes that are praised for their color and for the manner
in which they are painted, as well as for the attractive subjects she
habitually chooses. "A View near Parma," the "Faces of Montmorency," and
the "Bridge of Attaro" are three of her works which are especially

OSTERTAG, BLANCHE. Member of Society of Western Artists; Arts Club,
Chicago; Municipal Art League. Born in St. Louis. From 1892-1896 pupil of
Laurens and Raphael Collin in Paris, where her works were hung on the
line at the New Gallery, Champ de Mars.

A decorative artist who has executed mural decoration in a private house
in Chicago, and has illustrated "Max Müller's Memories" and other
publications. For use in schools she made a color print, "Reading of the
Declaration of Independence before the Army."

Her calendars and posters are in demand by collectors at home and in
foreign countries. Miss Ostertag has designed elaborate chimney pieces to
be executed in mosaic and glass. Her droll conceits in "Mary and Her
Lamb," the "Ten Little Injuns," and other juvenile tales were
complimented by Boutet de Monvel, who was so much interested in her work
that he gave her valuable criticism and advice without solicitation.

O'TAMA-CHIOVARA. Gold medal at an exhibition of laces in Rome and
prizes at all the exhibitions held in Palermo by the Art Club. Born in
Tokio, where she came to the notice of Vicenzo Ragusa, a Sicilian
sculptor in the employ of the Japanese Government at Tokio. He taught her
design, color, and modelling, and finally induced her to go with his
sister to Palermo. Here her merit was soon recognized in a varied
collection of water-colors representing flowers and fruits, which were
reproduced with surpassing truth. When the School of Applied Art was
instituted at Palermo in 1887, she was put in charge of the drawing,
water-color, and modelling in the Women's Section.

She knows the flowers of various countries--those of Japan and Sicily
wonderfully well, and her fancy is inexhaustible; her exquisite
embroideries reflect this quality. She has many private pupils, and is as
much beloved for her character as she is admired for her talents. When
she renounced Buddhism for Christianity, the Princess of Scalca was her

PACZKA-WAGNER, CORNELIA. Honorable mention, Berlin, 1890. Born in
Göttingen, 1864. She has been, in the main, her own instructor, living
for some years in Rome for the purpose of study. In 1895 she settled in
Berlin, where she has made a specialty of women's and children's
portraits in olgraphy (?) and lithography. Beautiful drawings by her were
exhibited at the International Water-Color Exhibition in Dresden, 1892.

An interesting account of a visit to the studio of the Hungarian painter
Paczka and his German wife tells of a strong series of paintings in
progress there, under the general title, "A Woman's Soul." In freedom and
boldness of conception they were said to remind one of Klinger, but in
warmth and depth of feeling to surpass him. Frau Paczka had just finished
a very large picture, representing the first couple after the expulsion
from Paradise. The scene is on the waste, stony slope of a mountain; the
sun shines with full force in the background, while upon the unshadowed
rocks of the foreground are the prostrate Adam and his wife--more
accusing than complaining.

In 1899 Frau Paczka exhibited in Berlin, "Vanitas," which excels in
richness of fancy and boldness of representation, while wanting somewhat
in detail; the ensemble presents a remarkably fine, symbolic composition,
which sets forth in rich color the dance of mankind before the golden
calf, and the bitter disillusions in the struggle for fame, wealth, and

PARLAGHY, VILMA, OR THE PRINCESS LWOFF. Great gold medal from the
Emperor of Austria, 1890; great gold medal, 1894; small gold medal at
Berlin, 1890, adjudged to her portrait of Windhorst. Born at Hadju-Dorogh
in 1863, and studied in Budapest, Munich, Venice, Florence, and Turin.
Her portraits having found great favor at the Court of Berlin, she
removed her studio from Munich to that capital.

One of her instructors was Lenbach, and she is said by some critics to
have appropriated his peculiarities as a colorist and his shortcomings in
drawing, without attaining his geniality and power of divination. In 1891
her portrait of Count von Moltke, begun shortly before his death and
finished afterward, was sent to the International Exposition at Berlin,
but was rejected. The Emperor, however, bought it for his private
collection, and at his request it was given a place of honor at the
Exposition, the incident causing much comment. She exhibited a portrait
of the Emperor William at Berlin in 1893, which Rosenberg called careless
in drawing and modelling and inconceivable in its unrefreshing,
dirty-gray color.

In January, 1895, she gave an exhibition of one hundred and four of her
works, mostly portraits, including those of the Emperor, Caprivi, von
Moltke, and Kossuth, which had previously been exhibited in Berlin,
Munich, and Paris. The proceeds of this exhibition went to the building
fund of the Emperor William Memorial Church.

Of a portrait exhibited in 1896, at Munich, a critic said that while it
was not wholly bad, it was no better than what hundreds of others could
do as well, and hundreds of others could do much better.

PASCH, ULRICKE FRIEDERIKA. Member of the Academy of Fine Arts of
Sweden. Born in Stockholm. 1735-1796. A portrait of Gustavus-Adolphus II.
by this artist is in the Castle at Stockholm. She was a sister of Lorenz

PASCOLI, LUIGIA. This Venetian painter has exhibited in various
Italian cities since 1870, when she sent a "Magdalen" to Parma. "First
Love" appeared at Naples in 1877, and "The Maskers"--pastel--at Venice in
1881. A "Girl with a Cat," a "Roman Girl," and a "Seller of Eggs"--the
latter in Venetian costume--are works of true value. Her copies of
Titian's "St. Mark" and of Gian Bellini's "Supper at Emmaus" have
attracted attention and are much esteemed.

PASSE, MAGDALENA VAN DE. Born at Utrecht about 1600; she died at the
age of forty. This engraver was a daughter of Crispus van de Passe, the
elder. She practised her art in Germany, England, Denmark, and the
Netherlands, and was important as an artist. Her engraving was
exceedingly careful and skilful. Among her plates are "Three Sibyls,"
1617; an "Annunciation," "Cephalus and Procris," "Latona," and landscapes
after the works of Bril, Savery, Willars, etc.

PATTISON, HELEN SEARLE. Born in Burlington, Vermont. Daughter of
Henry Searle, a talented architect who moved to Rochester, New York,
where his daughter spent much of her girlhood. She held the position of
art teacher in a school in Batavia, New York, while still a girl herself.

About 1860 she became the pupil of Herr Johan Wilhelm Preyer, the
well-known painter of still-life, fruit, and flowers. Preyer was a dwarf
and an excellent man, but as a rule took no pupils. He was much
interested in Miss Searle, and made an exception in her case. She soon
acquired the technique of her master and painted much as he did, but with
less minute detail, finer color, and far more sentiment.

[Illustration: FLOWERS


In 1876 Miss Searle married the artist, James William Pattison, now on
the staff of the Art Institute, Chicago. After their marriage Mr. and
Mrs. Pattison resided at Écouen, near Paris. Returning to America in
1882, they spent some time in Chicago and New York City, removing to
Jacksonville, Illinois, in 1884. Here Mr. Pattison was at the head of the
School of Fine Arts.

Mrs. Pattison lived but a few months in Jacksonville, dying in November,

Mrs. Pattison's artistic reputation was well established and her works
were exhibited at the Paris Salon and in all the German cities of
importance. They were frequently seen in England and at the National
Academy of Design in New York. Her subjects were still-life, fruit,
and flowers, and her works are widely distributed.

PAZZI, CATERINA DE, whose conventual name was Maria Maddalena. Was
born in Florence in 1566. It would be interesting to know the relation
that this gentle lady bore to those Pazzi who had earned a fame so unlike
hers fourscore years before she saw the light.

Caterina de Pazzi, when a mere girl, entered a convent which stood on the
site of the church known by her name in the Via Pinti. The cell of Santa
Maddalena--now a chapel--may still be visited. She was canonized by Pope
Alexander VIII. in 1670, sixty-two years after her death.

The Florentines have many lovely legends associated with her memory. One
of these relates that she painted pictures of sacred subjects when
asleep. Be this as it may, we know that her pictures were esteemed in the
days when the best artists lived and worked beside her. Examples of her
art may still be seen in churches in Rome and Parma, as well as in the
church of her native city which bears her name.

PEALE, ANNA C. Made her mark as a miniature painter and for some
years was the only professional woman artist in Philadelphia. Her
portrait of General Jackson made in 1819 was well considered. She also
made portraits of President Monroe, Henry Clay, R. M. Johnson, John
Randolph of Roanoke, and other prominent men. Miss Peale married in 1829
the Rev. William Staughton, a Baptist clergyman, the president of the
theological college at Georgetown, Kentucky. He lived but three months
after their marriage, and she returned to Philadelphia and again pursued
her artistic labors. She married a second husband, General William
Duncan, and from this time gave up professional painting.

PEALE, SARA M. 1860-1885. Daughter of James Peale, under whose
teaching she made her first studies. She was also a pupil of her uncle,
the founder of Peale's Museum, Philadelphia. Miss Peale painted portraits
and spent some years in Baltimore and Washington. Among her portraits are
those of Lafayette, Thomas Benton, Henry A. Wise, Caleb Cushing, and
other distinguished men. From 1847 she resided in St. Louis thirty years
and then went to Philadelphia. Her later works were still-life subjects,
especially fruits.

PELICHY, GEERTRUIDA. Honorary member of the Academy of Vienna. Born
in Utrecht, 1744; died in Brügge, 1825. Pupil of P. de Cock and Suvée. In
1753, she went to Brügge with her father, and later to Paris and Vienna.
She painted portraits of the Emperor Joseph II. and Maria Theresa, some
good landscapes, and animal studies. Two of her pictures are in the
Museum at Brügge.

PELLEGRINO, ITALA. Born at Milan, 1865. Pupil of Battaglia. Her
pictures are of genre and marine subjects. At the great exhibition at
Turin, 1884, she exhibited a marine view which was bought by Prince
Amadeo. Another marine view exhibited at Milan was acquired by the
Società Promotrice. In 1888 she sent to the exhibition at Naples, where
she resides, a view of Portici, which was added to the Royal Gallery. The
excellence of her work is in the strength and certainty of touch and the
sincerity and originality of composition. She has painted a "Marine View
of Naples," "In the Gulf," "Fair Weather," and "Evening at Sea"; also a
genre picture, "Frusta là," which was sold while in an exhibition in

PENICKE, CLARA. Born at Berlin in 1818, where she died in 1899. She
studied first with Remy and later with Carl Begas and Edward Magnus. Her
work was largely confined to portrait and historical painting. In the
Gallery at Schwerin is her "Elector Frederick of Saxony Refusing to
Accept the Interim." Another good example of her historical work is the
"Reconciliation of Charlemagne with Thassilo of Bavaria." A well-known
and strongly modelled portrait of Minister Von Stoach and several Luther
portraits, "Luther's Family Devotion" and "Luther Finds the First Latin
Bible," show her facility in this branch of art. She also painted a
"Christ on the Cross."

PERELLI, LIDA. A landscape painter living in Milan, who has become
well known by pictures that have been seen at the exhibitions in several
Italian cities, especially through some Roman studies that appeared at
Florence and Turin in 1884. "A View of Lecco, Lake Como," "Casolare," and
"A Lombard Plain" are among her best works.

PERMAN, LOUISE E. Born at Birkenshaw, Renfrewshire. Studied in
Glasgow. This artist paints roses, and roses only, in oils. In this art
she has been very successful. She has exhibited at the Royal Academy and
the New Gallery, London; at the Royal Scottish Academy, Glasgow; at art
exhibits in Munich, Dresden, Berlin, Prague, Hanover, etc., and wherever
her works have been seen they have been sold. In May, 1903, a collection
of twenty-five rose pictures were exhibited by a prominent dealer, and
but few were left in his hands.

A critic in the _Studio_ of April, 1903, writing of the exhibition at the
Ladies' Artists' Club, Glasgow, says: "Miss Louise Perman's rose pictures
were as refined and charming as ever. This last-named lady certainly has
a remarkable power of rendering the beauties of the queen of flowers,
whether she chooses to paint the sumptuous yellow of the 'Maréchal Niel,'
the blush of the 'Katherine Mermet,' or the crimson glory of the 'Queen
of Autumn.' She seems not only to give the richness of color and fulness
of contour of the flowers, but to capture for the delight of the beholder
the very spiritual essence of them." To the London Academy, 1903, she
sent a picture called "York and Lancaster."

PERRIER, MARIE. Mention honorable at Salon des Artistes Français,
1899; Prix Marie Bashkirtseff, 1899; honorable mention, Paris Exposition,
1900; numerous medals from foreign and provincial exhibitions; medals in
gold and silver at Rouen, Nîmes, Rennes, etc.; bronze medals at Amiens
and Angers. Member of the Société des Artistes Français; perpetual member
of the Baron Taylor Association, section of the Arts of Painting, etc.
Born at Paris. Pupil of Benjamin Constant, Jules Lefebvre, and J. P.

Mlle. Perrier's picture of "Jeanne d'Arc" is in a provincial museum;
several pictures by her belonging to the city of Paris are scenes
connected with the schools of the city--"Breakfast at the Communal
School"; "After School at Montmartre" were at the Salon des Artistes
Français, 1903; others are "Manual Labor at the Maternal School,"
"Flowers," and "Recreation of the Children at the Maternal School." Of
the last Gabriel Moury says, "It is one of the really good pictures in
the Salon."

This artist decorated a villa near Nîmes with four large panels
representing the "Seasons," twelve small panels, the "Hours," and
pictures of the labors of the fields, such as the gathering of grapes and
picking of olives.

She has painted numerous portraits of children and a series of pictures
illustrating the "Life of the Children of Paris." They are "Children at
School and after School," "Children on the Promenade and Their Games,"
and "Children at Home."

PERRY, CLARA GREENLEAF. Member of the Copley Society. Born at Long
Branch, New Jersey. Pupil of Boston Art Museum School, under Mr. Benson
and Mr. Tarbell; in Paris pupil of M. Raphael Collin and Robert Henri.

Miss Perry has exhibited her portrait of Mrs. U. in the Salon of the
Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and in Philadelphia. She paints
landscapes and portraits.

PERRY, LILLA CABOT. Pupil in Boston of Dennis Bunker and Alfred
Collins; in Paris of Alfred Stevens, Robert Fleury, Bouguereau, and
Courtois; in Munich of Fritz von Uhde.

Mrs. Perry is essentially a portrait painter, but has painted landscapes,
especially in Japan, where she spent some years. The scenery of Japan and
its wonderfully beautiful Fuziyama would almost compel an artist to paint

Mrs. Perry says that her pictures of French and Japanese types are, in
fact, portraits as truly as are those she is asked to paint.

Her picture of a "Japanese Lacemaker" belongs to Mr. Quincy A. Shaw. It
has been much admired in the exhibitions in which it has been seen.

In the Water-Color Exhibition of the Boston Art Club, 1903, Mrs. Perry's
portrait of Miss S. attracted much attention. The delicate flesh tones,
the excellent modelling of the features, and what may be called the whole
atmosphere of the picture combine in producing an effective and pleasing
example of portraiture.

PERUGINI, CATERINA E. An Italian painter living in London, where she
frequently exhibits her excellent pictures. Among them are "A Siesta,"
"Dolce far Niente," "Multiplication," and portraits of Guy Cohn, son of
Sir Guy Campbell, Bart., and of Peggy and Kitty Hammond, two charming

At the Academy, 1903, she exhibited "Faith" and "Silken Tresses."

PERUGINI, MRS. KATE DICKENS. Younger daughter of Charles Dickens and
wife of Charles Edward Perugini. This artist has exhibited at the Royal
Academy and at other exhibitions since 1877. Her pictures are of genre
subjects, such as the "Dolls' Dressmaker," "Little-Red-Cap," "Old
Curiosity Shop," etc. At the Academy, 1903, she exhibited "Some Spring

[_No reply to circular_.]

PETERS, ANNA. Medals at Vienna, 1873; London, 1874; Munich, 1876;
Amsterdam and Antwerp, 1877. Born at Mannheim, 1843. Pupil of her father,
Pieter Francis Peters, in Stuttgart. Miss Peters travelled over Europe
and was commissioned to decorate apartments in the royal castles at
Stuttgart and Friedrichshafen.

Her picture of "Roses and Grapes" is in the National Gallery, London; and
one of "Autumn Flowers" in the Museum at Stuttgart.

PILLINI, MARGHERITA. An Italian painter living in Paris. Her most
successful exhibitions have been those at Rome, in 1883, when her
"Silk-cocoon Carder of Quimper" and "Charity" appeared; and at Turin, in
1884, when "The Three Ages," "The Poor Blind Man," and a portrait of the
Prince of Naples were shown, all exquisite in sentiment and excellent in
execution. The "Silk-cocoon Carder of Quimper" has been thus noticed by
De Rengis: "If I am not mistaken, Signora Margherita Pillini has also
taken this road, full of modernity, but not free from great danger. Her
'Silk-cocoon Carder' is touched with great disdain for every suggestion
of the old school. Rare worth--if worth it is--that a young woman should
be carried by natural inclination into such care for detail."

PINTO-SEZZI, IDA. Silver medal at the Beatrice Exposition, Florence,
1890. Since 1882 pictures by this artist have been seen in various
Italian exhibitions. In the Beatrice of that year she exhibited
"Cocciara," and in 1887 "A Friar Cook." Her "Fortune-Teller" attracted
general attention at Venice in 1887.

This artist has also given some time to the decoration of terra-cotta in
oil colors. An amphora decorated with landscape and figures was exhibited
at the Promotrice in Florence in 1889 (?) and much admired.

POETTING, COUNTESS ADRIENNE. Born in Chrudim, Bohemia, 1856. The
effect of her thorough training under Blass, Straschiripka, and Frittjof
Smith is seen in her portraits of the Deputy-Burgomaster Franz Khume,
which is in the Rathhaus, Vienna, as well as in those of the Princess
Freda von Oldenburg and the writer, Bertha von Suttner. Her excellence is
also apparent in her genre subjects, "In the Land of Dreams" being an
excellent example of these.

POPERT, CHARLOTTE. Silver medal at the Beatrice, Florence, 1890.
Born in Hamburg, 1848. Pupil in Weimar of the elder Preller and Carl
Gherts; of P. Joris in Rome, and Bonnat in Paris. After extensive travels
in the Orient, England, the Netherlands, and Spain, she established
herself in Rome and painted chiefly in water-colors. Her "Praying Women
of Bethlehem" is an excellent example of her art.

In 1883 she exhibited at Rome, "In the Temple at Bethlehem"; at Turin in
1884, "In the Seventeenth Century" and "The Nun"; at Venice in 1887, an
exquisite portrait in water-colors.

POPPE-LÜDERITZ, ELIZABETH. Honorable mention, Berlin, 1891. For the
second time only the Senate of the Berlin Academy conferred this
distinction upon a woman. The artist exhibited two portraits, "painted
with Holbein-like delicacy and truthfulness"--if we may agree with the

This artist was born in Berlin in 1858, and was a pupil of Gussow. Her
best pictures are portraits, but her "Sappho" and "Euphrosine" are
excellent works.

POPP, BABETTE. Born in Regensburg, 1800; died about 1840. Made her
studies in Munich. In the Cathedral of Regensburg is her "Adoration of
the Kings."

POWELL, CAROLINE A. Bronze medal at Chicago, 1893; silver medal at
Buffalo, 1901. Member of the Society of American Wood-Engravers and of
the Boston Society of Arts and Crafts. Born in Dublin, Ireland. Pupil of
W. J. Linton and Timothy Cole.

[Illustration: Doge's Palace, Venice



Miss Powell was an illustrator of the _Century Magazine_ from 1880 to
1895. The engraving after "The Resurrection" by John La Farge, in the
Church of St. Thomas, New York, is the work of this artist. She also
illustrated "Engravings on Wood," by William M. Laffan, in which book her
work is commended.

Miss Powell is now employed by Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., and
writes me: "So far as I know, I am, at present, the only woman in America
engaged in the practise of engraving as a fine art."

1747. Her husband, Johan Prestel, was her teacher, and she was of great
assistance in the work which he produced at Frankfort-on-the-Main, in
1783. In 1786, however, she separated from him and went to London, where
she devoted herself to aquatints. She executed more than seventy plates,
some of them of great size.

PRESTEL, URSULA MAGDALENA. Born in Nuremburg. 1777-1845. Daughter of
the preceding artist. She worked in Frankfort and London, travelled in
France and Switzerland, and died in Brussels. Her moonlight scenes, some
of her portraits, and her picture of the "Falls of the Rhine near
Laufen," are admirable.

PREUSCHEN, HERMINE VON SCHMIDT; married name, Telman. Born at
Darmstadt, 1857. Pupil of Ferdinand Keller in Karlsruhe. Travelled in
Spain, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and Denmark. She remained some
time in Munich, Berlin, and Rome, establishing her studio in these cities
and painting a variety of subjects. Her flower pictures are her best
works. Her "Mors Imperator" created a sensation by reason of its striking
qualities rather than by intrinsic artistic merit. In the gallery at Metz
is her picture of "Irene von Spilimberg on the Funeral Gondola."

In 1883 she exhibited in Rome, "Answered," a study of thistles; "In
Autumn," a variety of fruits; and "Questions," a charming study of
carnations. At Berlin, in 1890, "Meadow Saffron and Cineraria" was
praised for its glowing color and artistic arrangement. A Viennese
critic, the same year, lamented that an artist of so much talent should
paint lifeless objects only. In Berlin, in 1894, she held an exhibition,
in which her landscapes and flower pieces were better than her still-life
pictures. Frau Preuschen is also a musician and poet.

The painting of flower pieces is a delightful art for man or woman, but
so many such pictures which are by amateurs are seen in exhibitions--too
good to be refused but not of a satisfactory quality--that one can
scarcely sympathize with the critic who would have Mme. Preuschen paint
other subjects than these charming blossoms, so exquisite in form and
color, into which she paints so much delightful sentiment.

PUEHN, SOPHIE. Born at Nuremberg, 1864. This artist studied in Paris
and Munich and resides in the latter city. At the International
Exhibition, Vienna, 1894, her portrait of a "Lady Drinking Tea" was
praised by the critics without exception, and, in fact, her portraits are
always well considered. That she is also skilful in etching was shown in
her "Forsaken," exhibited in 1896.

PUTNAM, SARAH GOOLD. Member of the Copley Society. Born in Boston.
Pupil in Boston and New York of J. B. Johnston, F. Duveneck, Abbott
Thayer, and William Chase; in Scheveningen, of Bart. J. Blommers; and in
Munich, of Wilhelm Dürr.

Miss Putnam's portrait of Hon. John Lowell is in the District Court Room
in Post-Office Building, Boston; that of William G. Russell, in the Law
Library in the Court House, Pemberton Square, same city; that of General
Charles G. Loring, for many years Director of Boston Museum of Fine Arts,
belongs to his family; among her other portraits are those of Dr. Henry
P. Bowditch, Francis Boott, George Partridge Bradford, Edward Silsbee,
Mrs. Asa Gray, and Lorin Deland. In addition to the above she has
painted more than one hundred portraits of men, women, and children,
which belong to the families of the subjects.

PUYROCHE, MME. ELISE. Born in Dresden, 1828. Resided in Lyons,
France, where she was a pupil of the fine colorist, Simon St. Jean. Mme.
Puyroche excelled her master in the arrangement of flowers in her
pictures and in the correctness of her drawing, while she acquired his
harmonious color. Her picture called the "Tom Wreath," painted in 1850,
is in the Dresden Gallery.

QUESTIER, CATHERINE. Born in Amsterdam. In 1655 she published two
comedies which were illustrated by engravings of her own design and
execution. She achieved a good reputation for painting, copper engraving,
and modelling in wax, as well as for her writings.

RAAB, DORIS. Third-class medal, Nuremberg; also second-class medal,
1892. Born in Nuremberg, 1851. Pupil of her father, Johann Leonhard Raab,
in etching and engraving. She has engraved many works by Rubens, Van
Dyck, and Cuyp; among her plates after works of more recent artists are
Piloty's "Death Warrant of Mary Stuart," Lindenschmidt's "In Thought,"
and Laufberger's "Hunting Fanfare." This artist resides in Munich.

RADOVSKA, BARONESS ANNETTA, of Milan. Her interesting genre pictures
are seen in most of the Italian exhibitions. "Old Wine, Young Wife," was
at Milan, 1881; in same city, 1883, "An Aggression," "The Visit," "The
Betrothed." She also sent to Rome, in 1883, two pictures, one of which,
"The Harem," was especially noteworthy. In 1884, at Turin, she exhibited
"Tea" and the "Four Ages"; these, were excellent in tone and technique
and attractive in subject. At Milan, 1886, her "Will He Arrive?" was
heartily commended in the art journals.

RAE, HENRIETTA. See Normand, Mrs. Ernest


RAPIN, AIMÉE. At the Swiss National Exposition, 1896, a large
picture of a "Genevese Watchmaker" by this artist was purchased; By the
Government and is in the Museum at Neuchâtel. In 1903 the city of Geneva
commissioned her to paint a portrait of Philippe Plantamour, which is in
the Museum Mon-Repos, at Geneva. Member of the Société des Beaux-Arts of
Lausanne, Société des Femmes peintres et sculpteurs de la Suisse romande,
Société de l'exposition permanente des Beaux-Arts, Geneva. Born at
Payerne, Canton de Vaud. Studied at Geneva under M. Hebert and Barthelmy
Menn, in painting; Hugues Bovy, modelling.

[Illustration: In the Museum at Neuchâtel



Mlle. Rapin writes me: "I am, above all, a portrait painter, and my
portraits are in private hands." She names among others of her sitters,
Ernest Naville, the philosopher; Raoul Pictet, chemist; Jules Salmson,
sculptor, etc. She mentions that she painted a portrait of the present
Princess of Wales at the time of her marriage, but as it was painted from
photographs the artist has no opinion about its truth to life. Mlle.
Rapin has executed many portraits of men, women, and children in Paris,
London, and Germany, as well as in Switzerland. She refers me to the
following account of herself and her art. In the _Studio_ of April, 1903,
R. M. writes: "The subject of these notes is a striking example of the
compensations of Nature for her apparent cruelty; also of what the
genuine artist is capable of achieving notwithstanding the most singular
disadvantages. Some years ago in the little town of Payerne, Canton Vaud,
a child was born without arms. One day the mother, while standing near a
rose-bush with her infant in her arms, was astonished to observe one of
its tiny toes clasp the stem of the rose. Little did she guess at the
time that these prehensile toes were destined one day to serve an artist,
in the execution of her work, with the same marvellous facility as hands.
As the child grew up the greatest care was bestowed upon her education.
She early manifested unmistakable artistic promise, and at the age of
sixteen was sent to the École des Beaux Arts, Geneva.... For reasons
already mentioned Mlle. Rapin holds a unique position amongst that
valiant and distinguished group of Swiss lady artists to whose work we
hope to have the opportunity of referring.... She is a fine example of
that singleness of devotion which characterizes the born artist. Her art
is the all-absorbing interest of her life. It is not without its
limitations, but within these limitations the artist has known how to be
true to herself. Drawing her inspiration direct from nature, she has held
on her independent way, steadily faithful to the gift she possesses of
evoking a character in a portrait or of making us feel how the common
task, when representative of genuine human effort and touched with the
poetry of national tradition, of religion, and of nature, becomes a
subject of noble artistic treatment. She has kept unimpaired that
_merveilleux frisson de sensibilité_ which is one of the most precious
gifts of the artistic temperament, and which is quick to respond to the
ideal in the real. There are some artists who, though possessed of
extraordinary mastery over the materials of their art, bring to their
work a spirit which beggars and belittles both art and life; there are
others who seem to work with an ever-present sense of the noble purpose
of their vocation and the pathos and dignity of existence. Mlle. Rapin
belongs to the second category. Her 'L'Horloger' is an example of this. A
Genevese watchmaker is bending to his work at a bench covered with tools.
Through the window of the workshop one perceives in the blue distance
Mont Saléve, and nearer the time-honored towers of the Cathedral of St.
Pierre. Here is a composition dealing with simple life--a composition
which, from the point of execution, color, and harmony of purpose, leaves
little or nothing to be desired. But this is not all. It is, so to speak,
an artistic _résumé_ of the life and history of the old city, and that
strongly portrayed national type gathers dignity from his alliance with
the generations who helped to make one of the main interests of the city,
and from his relationship to that eventful past suggested by the
Cathedral and the Mountain.

"Mlle. Rapin is unmistakably one of the best Swiss portraitists, working
for the most part in pastels, her medium by predilection; she has at the
same time modelled portraits in bas-relief. We are not only impressed by
the intensely living quality of her work as a portraitist, but by the
extraordinary power with which she has seized and expressed the
individual character and history of each of her subjects."

Mlle. Rapin has exhibited her works with success in Paris, Munich, and
Berlin. The few specimens of her bas-reliefs which I have seen prove that
did she prefer the art of sculpture before that of painting, she would be
as successful with her modelling tools as she has been with her brush.

RAPPARD, CLARA VON. Second-class medal, London. Born at Wabern, near
Berne, 1857. After studying with Skutelzky and Dreber, she worked under
Gussow in Berlin. She spent some time in travel, especially in Germany
and Italy, and then, choosing Interlaken as her home, turned her
attention to the illustration of books, as well as to portrait and genre
painting. In the Museum at Freiburg is her "Point-lace-maker." A series
of sixteen "Phantasies" by this artist has been published in Munich.

RATH, HENRIETTE. Honorary member of the Société des Arts, 1801. Born
in 1772, she died in 1856 at Genf, where, with her sister, she founded
the Musée Rath. She studied under Isabey, and was well and favorably
known as a portrait and enamel painter.

REAM, VINNIE. See Hoxie.

REDMOND, FRIEDA VOELTER. Medal at the Columbian Exhibition, Chicago.
Member of the Woman's Art Club. Born in Thun, Switzerland. Studies made
in Switzerland and in Paris. A painter of flowers and still-life.

"Mrs. Redmond is a Swiss woman, now residing in New York. She has
exhibited her works in the Paris Salon, in the National Academy of
Design, at the Society of American Artists' exhibitions, etc., and was
awarded a medal at the World's Fair in Chicago. Her work is not only
skilful and accurate in description and characterization; it is done with
breadth and freedom, and given a quality of fine decorative distinction.
Her subjects are roses, cyclamen, chrysanthemums, nasturtiums, double
larkspurs, cinneraria, etc., and she makes each panel a distinct study in
design, with a background and accessories of appropriate character. For
example, the three or four large panels of roses painted at Mentone have
a glimpse of the Mediterranean for background, and a suggestion of
trellis-work for the support of the vine or bush; and in another rose
panel we have a tipped-over Gibraltar basket with its luscious contents
strewed about in artful confusion. The double larkspurs make very
charming panels for decorative purposes. They are painted with delightful
fulness of color and engaging looseness and crispness of touch."--_Boston

REGIS, EMMA. This Roman painter has given special attention to
figures, and has executed a number of portraits, one of the best of which
is that of the Marchioness Durazzo Pallavicini. She has exhibited some
delightful work at Turin and at Rome, such as "The Lute-Player," "All is
not Gold that Glitters," "Humanity," and "In illo Tempore?"

[_No reply to circular_.]

REINHARDT, SOPHIE. Born at Kirchberg, 1775; died at Karlsruhe, 1843.
Pupil of Becker. She travelled in Austro-Hungary and Italy. In the
Kunsthalle at Karlsruhe is her picture of "St. Elizabeth and the Child
John." Among her best works are "The Death of St. Catherine of
Alexandria," "The Death of Tasso," and twelve illustrations for a volume
of Hebel's poems.

REMY, MARIE. Born in Berlin, 1829. Daughter of Professor August Remy
of the Berlin Academy. Pupil of her father, Hermine Stilke, and Theude
Grönland. She travelled extensively in several European countries, making
special studies in flowers and still-life, from which many of her
water-colors were painted; twenty of these are in the Berlin National

REUTER, ELIZABETH. Born in Lubeck, 1853. Pupil of Zimmermann in
Munich, A. Schliecker in Hamburg, and of H. Eschke in Berlin. She also
went to Düsseldorf to work in the Gallery there. Later she travelled in
Scandinavia. Her best pictures are landscapes. Among them is a charming
series of six water-colors of views in the park of Friedrichsruhe.

REVEST, CORNELIA LOUISA. Second-class medals in 1819 and 1831 in
Paris. Born in Amsterdam, 1795; died in Paris, 1856. Pupil of Sérangély
and Vafflard in Paris. In 1814 she painted a "Magdalen at the Feet of
Christ" for a church in Marseilles. She also painted many good portraits
and a picture called "The Young Mother Playing the Mandolin."

RICHARD, MME. HORTENSE. Honorable mention, Exposition of 1889;
third-class medal, 1892; silver medals at Antwerp and Barcelona, and gold
medal in London. Born at Paris, 1860. Pupil of James Bertrand, Jules
Lefebvre, and Bouguereau. Has exhibited regularly since 1875. Her
picture of "Cinderella" is in the Museum of Poitiers; "At Church in
Poitou" is in the Luxembourg. She has painted many portraits.

RICHARDS, ANNA MARY. Norman Dodge prize, National Academy, New York,
1890. Member of the '91 Art Club, London. Born at Germantown,
Pennsylvania, 1870. Pupil of Dennis Bunker in Boston, H. Siddons Mowbray
and La Farge in New York, Benjamin Constant and J. P. Laurens in Paris,
and always of her father, W. T. Richards.

Miss Richards' work is varied. She is fond of color when suited to her
subject; she also works much in black and white. When representing nature
she is straightforward in her rendering of its aspects and moods, but she
also loves the "symbolic expression of emotion" and the so-called
"allegorical subjects." The artist writes: "I simply work in the way that
at the moment it seems to me fitting to work to express the thing I have
in mind. Where the object of the picture is one sort of quality, I use
the method that seems to me to emphasize that quality."

When but fourteen years old this artist exhibited at the National
Academy, New York, a picture of waves, "The Wild Horses of the Sea,"
which was immediately sold and a duplicate ordered. In England Miss
Richards has exhibited at the Academy, and her pictures have been
selected for exhibitions in provincial galleries. Miss Richards is
earnestly devoted to her art, and has in mind an end toward which she
diligently strives--not to become a painter distinguished for clever
mannerism, but "to attain a definite end; one which is difficult to reach
and requires widely applied effort."

Judging from what she has already done at her age, one may predict her
success in her chosen method. In February, 1903, Miss Richards and her
father exhibited their works in the Noe Galleries. I quote a few press



"Miss Richards paints the sea well; she infuses interest into her
figures; she has a love of allegory; her studies in Holland and Norway
are interesting. Her 'Whitby,' lighted by sunset, with figures massed in
the streets in dark relief against it, is beautiful. Her 'Friends,'
showing two women watching the twilight fading from the summits of a
mountain range, the cedared slopes and river valley below meantime
gathering blueness and shadow, is of such strength and sweetness of fancy
that it affects one like a strain of music."

"Miss Richards becomes symbolic or realistic by turn. Some of her figures
are creatures of the imagination, winged and iridescent, like the 'Spirit
of Hope.' Again, she paints good, honest Dutchmen, loafing about the
docks. Sometimes she has recourse to poetry and quotes Emerson for a
title.... If technically she is not always convincing, it is apparent
that the artist is doing some thinking for herself, and her endeavors are
in good taste."

Miss Richards has written "Letter and Spirit," containing fifty-seven
"Dramatic Sonnets of Inward Life."

These she has illustrated by sixty full-page pictures. Of these
drawings the eminent artist, G. F. Watts, says: "In imaginative
comprehension they are more than illustrations; they are interpretations.
I find in them an assemblage of great qualities--beauty of line, unity
and abundance in composition, variety and appreciation of natural
effects, with absence of manner; also unusual qualities in drawing,
neither academical nor eccentric--all carried out with great purity and


[_No reply to circular_.]

RIES, THERESE FEODOROWNA. Bronze medal at Ekaterinburg; Karl Ludwig
gold medal, Vienna; gold medal, Paris Exposition, 1900. Officer of the
Academy. Born in Moscow. Pupil of the Moscow Academy and of Professor
Hellmer, Vienna, women not being admitted to the Vienna Academy.

A critic in the _Studio_ of July, 1901, who signs his article A. S. L.,
writes as follows of this remarkable artist: "Not often does it fall to
the lot of a young artist to please both critic and public at the same
time, and, having gained their interest, to continue to fill their
expectations. But it was so with Feodorowna Ries, a young Russian artist
who some eight months ago had never even had a piece of clay in her hand,
but who, by dint of 'self,' now stands amongst the foremost of her
profession. It was chance that led Miss Ries to the brush, and another
chance which led her to abandon the brush for the chisel. Five years ago
she was awarded the Carl Ludwig gold medal for her 'Lucifer,' and at the
last Paris Exhibition she gained the gold medal for her 'Unbesiegbaren'
(The Unconquerable).

"Miss Ries was born and educated in Moscow, but Vienna is the city of her
adoption. She first studied painting at the Moscow Academy, her work
there showing great breadth of character and power of delineation. At the
yearly Exhibition in Moscow, held some five months after she had entered
as a student, she took the gold medal for her 'Portrait of a Russian
Peasant.' She then abandoned painting for sculpture, and one month later
gained the highest commendations for a bust of 'Ariadne.' She then began
to study the plastic art from life. Dissatisfied with herself, although
her 'Somnambulist' gained a prize, Miss Ries left Moscow for Paris, but
on her way stayed in Vienna, studying under Professor Hellmer. One year
later, at the Vienna Spring Exhibition, she exhibited her 'Die Hexe.'
Here is no traditional witch, though the broomstick on which she will
ride through the air is _en evidence_. She is a demoniac being, knowing
her own power, and full of devilish instinct. The marble is full of life,
and one seems to feel the warmth of her delicate, powerfully chiselled,
though soft and pliable limbs."

"'Die Unbesiegbaren' is a most powerful work, and stood out in the midst
of the sculpture at Paris in 1900 with the prominence imparted by unusual
power in the perception of the _whole_ of a subject and the skill to
render the perception so that others realize its full meaning. There are
four figures in this group--men drawing a heavy freight boat along the
shore by means of a towline passed round their bodies, on which they
throw their weight in such a way that their legs, pressed together, lose
their outline--except in the case of the leader--and are as a mass of
power. They also pull on the line with their hands. The leader bends over
the rope until he looks down; the man behind him raises his head and
looks up with an appealing expression; the two others behind are exerting
all their force in pulling on the rope, but have twisted the upper part
of the body in order to look behind and watch the progress of their great
burden. There is not the least resemblance of one to the other, either in
feature or expression, and to me it would seem that the woman who had
conceived and executed this group might well be content to rest on her

"But an artistic creator who is really inspired with his art and not with
himself is never satisfied; he presses on and on--sometimes after he has
expressed the best of his talent. This is not yet reached, I believe, by
Miss Ries, and we shall see still greater results of her inspiration."

The Austrian Government commissioned this artist to execute the figure of
a saint. One may well prophesy that there will be nothing conventional in
this work. She has already produced a striking "Saint Barbara." Her
portrait busts include those of Professor Wegr, Professor Hellmer, Mark
Twain, Countess Kinsky, Countess Palffs, Baron Berger, and many others.

RIJUTINE, ELISA. A bronze and a gold medal at the Beatrice
Exposition, Florence, 1890. Born in Florence, where she resides and
devotes herself to painting in imitation of old tapestries. An excellent
example of her work is in water-colors and is called "The Gardener's
Children." In 1888 and 1889 she exhibited "The Coronation of Esther" and
a picture of "Oleanders."


[_No reply to circular_.]

ROBINSON, MRS. IMOGENE MORRELL. Medals at the Mechanics' Fair,
Boston, and at the Centennial Exhibition, Philadelphia, 1876. Born in
Attleborough, Massachusetts. Pupil of Camphausen in Düsseldorf, and of
Couture in Paris, where she resided several years. Among her important
works are "The First Battle between the Puritans and Indians" and
"Washington and His Staff Welcoming a Provision Train," both at
Philadelphia. Mrs. Morrell continued to sign her pictures with her maiden
name, Imogene Robinson.

A critic of the New York _Evening Post_ said of her pictures at
Philadelphia: "In the painting of the horses Mrs. Morrell has shown great
knowledge of their action, and their finish is superb. The work is
painted with great strength throughout, and its solidity and forcible
treatment will be admired by all who take an interest in Revolutionary
history.... In the drawing of the figures of Standish and the chief at
his side, and the dead and dying savages, there is a fine display of
artistic power, and the grouping of the figures is masterly.... In color
the works are exceedingly brilliant."

ROBUSTI, MARIETTA. Born in Venice. 1560-1590. The parentage of this
artist would seem to promise her talent and insure its culture. She was
the daughter of Jacopo Robusti, better known as "Il Tintoretto," who has
been called "the thunder of art," and who avowed his ambition to equal
"the drawing of Michael Angelo and the coloring of Titian."

The portrait of Marietta Robusti proves her to have been justly
celebrated for her beauty. Her face is sweet and gentle in expression.
She was sprightly in manner and full of enthusiasm for anything that
interested and attracted her; she had a good talent for music and a
charming voice in singing.

Her father's fondness for her made him desire her constant companionship,
and at times he permitted her to dress as a boy and share with him
certain studies that she could only have made in this disguise.
Tintoretto carefully cultivated the talents of his daughter, and some of
the portraits she painted did her honor. That of Marco dei Vescovi first
turned public attention to her artistic merits. The beard was especially
praised and it was even said by good judges that she equalled her father.
Indeed, her works were so enthusiastically esteemed by some critics that
it is difficult to make a just estimate of her as an artist, but we are
assured of her exquisite taste in the arrangement of her pictures and of
the rare excellence of her coloring.

It soon became the fashion in the aristocratic circles of Venice to sit
for portraits to this fascinating artist. Her likeness of Jacopo Strada,
the antiquarian, was considered a worthy gift for the Emperor Maximilian,
and a portrait of Marietta was hung in the chamber of his Majesty.
Maximilian, Philip II. of Spain, and the Archduke Ferdinand, each in
turn invited Marietta to be the painter of his Court.

Tintoretto could not be induced to be separated from his daughter, and
the honors she received so alarmed him that he hastened to marry her to
Mario Augusti, a wealthy German jeweller, upon the condition that she
should remain at home.

But the Monarch who asks no consent and heeds no refusal claimed this
daughter so beloved. She died at thirty, and it is recorded that both her
father and her husband mourned for her so long as they lived. Marietta
was buried in the Church of Santa Maria dell' Orto, where, within sight
of her tomb, are several of her father's pictures.

Tintoretto painting his daughter's portrait after her death has been the
subject of pictures by artists of various countries, and has lost nothing
of its poetic and pathetic interest in the three centuries and more that
have elapsed since that day when the brave old artist painted the
likeness of all that remained to him of his idolized child.

ROCCHI, LINDA. Born in Florence; she resides in Geneva. Two of her
flower pieces, in water-color, were seen at the Fine Arts Exposition,
Milan, 1881. In 1883, also in Milan, she exhibited "A Wedding Garland,"
"Hawthorne," etc. The constantly increasing brilliancy of her work was
shown in three pictures, flowers in water-colors, seen at the Milan
Exposition, 1886. To Vienna, 1887, she sent four pictures of wild
flowers, which were much admired.

ROCCO, LILI ROSALIA. Honorable mention, a bronze medal, and four
silver medals were accorded this artist at the Institute of Fine Arts in
Naples, where she studied from 1880 to 1886, and was also a pupil of
Solari. Born in Mazzara del Vallo, Sicily, 1863. In 1886 she exhibited,
at Naples, "Cari Fiori!" at Palermo, "Flora"; and in Rome, "A Sicilian
Contadina." In 1888 her picture, "Spring," was exhibited in London. Two
of her works were in the Simonetti Exposition, 1889, one being a marine
view from her birthplace. She has painted many portraits, both in oils
and water-colors, and has been appointed a teacher in at least two
Government schools in Naples.

RODIANA, ONORATA. Was a contemporary of the saintly Caterina de
Vigri, but was of quite another order of women. She had one quality
which, if not always attractive, at least commands attention. She was
unique, since we know of no other woman who was at the same time a
successful artist and a valiant soldier!

Born in Castelleone, near Cremona, early in the fifteenth century, she
was known as a reputable artist while still young, and was commissioned
to decorate the palace of the tyrant, Gabrino Fondolo, at Cremona. The
girlish painter was beautiful in person, frank and engaging in manner,
and most attractive to the gentlemen of the tyrant's court.

One day when alone and absorbed in the execution of a wall-painting, a
dissolute young noble addressed her with insulting freedom. She could not
escape, and in the struggle which ensued she drew a dagger and stabbed
her assailant to the heart.

Rushing from the palace, she disguised herself in male attire and fled to
the mountains, where she joined a company of Condottieri. She soon became
so good a soldier that she was made an officer of the band.

Fondolo raged as tyrants are wont to do, both on account of the murder
and of the escape. He vowed the direst vengeance on Onorata if ever she
were again in his power. Later, when his anger had cooled and he had no
other artist at command who could worthily complete her decorations, he
published her pardon and summoned her to return to his service.

Onorata completed her work, but her new vocation held her with a potent
spell, and henceforth she led a divided life--never entirely
relinquishing her brush, and remaining always a soldier.

When Castelleone was besieged by the Venetians, Onorata led her band
thither and was victorious in the defence of her birthplace. She was
fatally wounded in this action and died soon after, in the midst of the
men and women whose homes she had saved. They loved her for her bravery
and deeply mourned the sacrifice of her life.

Few stories from real life are so interesting and romantic as this, yet
little notice has been taken of Onorata's talent or of her prowess, while
many less spirited and unusual lives have been commemorated in prose and

RODRIGUEZ DE TORO, LUISA. Honorable mention, Madrid, 1856, for a
picture of "Queen Isabel the Catholic Reading with Doña Beatriz de
Galindo"; honorable mention, 1860, for her "Boabdil Returning from

Born in Madrid; a descendant of the Counts of Los Villares, and wife of
the Count of Mirasol. Pupil of Cárlos Ribera.

RONNER, MME. HENRIETTE. Medals and honorable mentions and elections
to academies have been showered on Mme. Ronner all over Europe. The King
of Belgium decorated her with the Cross of the Order of Leopold. Born in
Amsterdam in 1821. The grandfather of this artist was Nicolas Frederick
Knip, a flower painter; her father, Josephus Augustus Knip, a landscape
painter, went blind, and after this misfortune was the teacher of his
daughter; her aunt, for whom she was named, received medals in Paris and
Amsterdam for her flower pictures. What could Henriette Knip do except
paint pictures? Hers was a clear case of predestination!

At all events, almost from babyhood she occupied herself with her pencil,
and when she was twelve years old her blind father began to teach her.
Even at six years of age it was plainly seen that she would be a painter
of animals. When sixteen she exhibited a "Cat in a Window," and from that
time was considered a reputable artist.

In 1850 she was married and settled in Brussels. From this time for
fifteen years she painted dogs almost without exception. Her picture
called "Friend of Man" was exhibited in 1850. It is her most famous work
and represents an old sand-seller, whose dog, still harnessed to the
little sand-wagon, is dying, while two other dogs are looking on with
well-defined sympathy. It is a most pathetic scene, wonderfully

About 1870 she devoted herself to pictures of cats, in which specialty of
art she has been most important. In 1876, however, she sent to the
Philadelphia Exposition a picture of "Setter Dogs." "A Cart Drawn by
Dogs" is in the Museum at Hanover; "Dog and Pigeon," in the Stettin
Museum; "Coming from Market" is in a private collection in San Francisco.

Mme. Ronner has invented a method of posing cats that is ingenious and of
great advantage. To the uninitiated it would seem that one could only
take the portrait of a sleeping cat, so untiring are the little beasts in
their gymnastic performances. But Mme. Ronner, having studied them with
infinite patience, proceeded to arrange a glass box, in which, on a
comfortable cushion, she persuades her cats to assume the positions she
desires. This box is enclosed in a wire cage, and from the top of this
she hangs some cat attraction, upon which the creature bounds and shows
those wonderful antics that the artist has so marvellously reproduced in
her painting. Mme. Ronner has two favorite models, "Jem" and "Monmouth."
The last name is classical, since the cat of Mother Michel has been made

Miss Winslow, in "Concerning Cats," says that "Mme. Ronner excels all
other cat painters, living or dead. She not only infuses a wonderful
degree of life into her little figures, but reproduces the shades of
expression, shifting and variable as the sands of the sea, as no other
artist of the brush has done. Asleep or awake, her cats look to the"
felinarian "like cats with whom he or she is familiar. Curiosity,
drowsiness, indifference, alertness, love, hate, anxiety, temper,
innocence, cunning, fear, confidence, mischief, earnestness, dignity,
helplessness--they are all in Mme. Ronner's cats' faces, just as we see
them in our own cats."

It is but a short time ago that Mme. Ronner was still painting in
Brussels, and had not only cats, but a splendid black dog and a cockatoo
to bear her company, while her son is devoted to her. Her house is large
and her grounds pleasant, and her fourscore years did not prevent her
painting several hours a day, and, like some other ladies of whom we
know, she was "eighty years young."

The editor of the _Magazine of Art_, M. H. Spielman, in an article on the
Royal Academy Exhibition, 1903, writes: "What the dog is to Mr. Riviere,
to Madame Ronner is the cat. With what unerring truth she records
delightful kittenly nature, the feline nobility of haughty indifference
to human approval or discontent, the subtlety of expression, and drawing
of heads and bodies, the exact quality and tone of the fur, the
expressive eloquence of the tail! With all her eighty years, Madame
Ronner's hand, vision, and sensibility have not diminished; only her
sobriety of color seems to have increased." Her pictures of this year
were called "The Ladybird" and "Coaxing." To the Exhibition of the
Beaux-Arts in Brussels, 1903, Mme. Ronner sent pictures of cats, full of
life and mischief.

ROOSENBOOM, MARGARITE VOGEL. Second-class medal, Munich, 1892. Born
in 1843 and died in 1896, near The Hague. She spent a large part of her
life near Utrecht, devoting herself mainly to the painting of flowers.
One of her works is in the Royal Museum at Amsterdam, and another in the
Museum at Breslau.

ROPE, ELLEN M. This English sculptor executed four large panels for
the Women's Building at the Chicago Exhibition. They represented Faith,
Hope, Charity, and Heavenly Wisdom. They are now in the Ladies' Dwelling,
Cherries Street, London. A "Memorial" by her is in Salisbury Cathedral.
Her reliefs of children are, however, her best works; that of a "Boy on a
Dolphin" is most attractive. "Christ Blessing Little Children" is
charmingly rendered.

At the Academy, 1903, she exhibited a panel for an organ chamber, in low

ROSA, ANIELLA DI. 1613-1649. A pupil in Naples of Stanzioni, who, by
reason of her violent death, has been called the Neapolitan Sirani. She
acquired a good reputation as a historical painter and doubtless had
unusual talent, but as she worked in conjunction with Stanzioni and with
her husband, Agostino Beltrano, it is difficult to speak of works
entirely her own.

Two pictures that were acknowledged to be hers represented the birth and
death of the Virgin; these were praised and were at one time in a church
in Naples, but in a recent search for them I was unable to satisfy myself
that the pictures I saw were genuine.

Another pupil in the studio of Stanzioni was the Beltrano whom Aniella
married. He painted in fresco, Aniella in oils, and they were frequently
employed together. The fine picture of San Biagio, in the church of Santa
Maria della Sanità, was one of their joint works.

Their early married life was very happy, but Aniella was beautiful and
Beltrano grew jealous; it is said without cause, through the influence of
a woman who loved him and hated Aniella; and in spite of the efforts she
made to merit her husband's confidence, his distrust of her increased.
Her base rival, by her art and falsehood, finally succeeded in convincing
Beltrano that Aniella was unworthy, and in his rage he fatally stabbed
her, when, at thirty-six, she was in the prime of her beauty and talent.
She survived long enough to convince her husband of her innocence and to
pardon him for his crime, but he fled from Italy and lived the life of an
outcast during ten years. He then returned to Naples, where after seven
years, tormented by remorse, death came to his release.

Domenici generously praised the works of Aniella, and quoted her master,
Stanzioni, as saying that she was the equal of the best painters of her

ROSALBA. See Carriera.

ROSSI, PROPERZIA DE. Born in Bologna. 1490-1530. This artist was the
first woman to succeed as a sculptor whose works can still be seen. Pupil
of Raimondi, she was more or less influenced by Tribolo. In the Church of
San Petronio, in her native city, in the eleventh chapel, is a beautiful
bas-relief of two angels, executed by Properzia. They are near Tribolo's
"Ascension." A relief and a portrait bust in the same church are also
ascribed to her.

Her first work in sculpture was a minute representation of the
Crucifixion on a peach stone! The executioners, women, soldiers, and
disciples were all represented in this infinitesimal space. She also
inserted in a coat of arms a double-headed eagle in silver filigree;
eleven peach stones on each side, one set representing eleven apostles
with an article of the creed underneath, the other set eleven virgins
with the name of a saint and her special attribute on each. Some of these
intaglios are still in a private collection in Bologna.

At length Properzia saw the folly of thus belittling her talent, and when
the facade of San Petronio was to be enriched with sculpture she asked
for a share in the work and presented a bust she had made as a pledge of
her ability; she was appointed to execute a portion of the decorations.
She made a bas-relief, the subject being "Joseph and Potiphar's Wife,"
which Vasari called "a lovely picture, sculptured with womanly grace, and
more than admirable."

By this time the jealousy of other artists was aroused, and a story was
diligently repeated to the effect that Properzia loved a young nobleman
who did not care for her, and that the above work, so much admired,
represented her own passion. Albertini and other artists waged an
absolute crusade against her, and so influenced the superintendents of
the church that Properzia was obliged to leave the work and her relief
was never put in place. Through mortification and grief her health
failed, and she died when but forty years old.

In spite of her persecution she was known in all Italy, not only for her
sculpture, but for her copper-plate engraving and etching. When Pope
Clement VII. went to Bologna for the coronation of Charles V. he asked
for Properzia, only to hear that she had been buried that very week.

Her story has been told by Vasari and other writers. She was handsome,
accomplished in music, distinguished for her knowledge of science, and
withal a good and orderly housewife. "Well calculated to awaken the envy,
not of women only, but also of men." Canova ardently admired the work of
Properzia that remained in his day, and esteemed her early death as one
of the chief misfortunes to the advance of the fine arts in Italy.

ROTKY, BARONESS HANNA. Born at Czernowitz in 1857. She studied
portrait painting under Blaas, Swerdts, and Trentino, and has worked
principally in Vienna. Her portrait of Freiherr von Sterneck is in the
Military Academy at Wiener-Neustadt.

RUDDER, MME. DE. This lady has made an art of her embroidery, and
may be said to have revived this decorative specialty and to have
equalled the ancient productions which are so beautiful and valuable.
After her marriage to the well-known sculptor this gifted couple began
their collaboration. M. P. Verneuil, in _Brush and Pencil_, November,
1903, writes: "The first result of this joint work was shown in 1894 at
the Exposition Cercle pour l'Art, in the form of a panel, called 'The
Eagle and the Swan.' It was exhibited afterward at the Secession in
Vienna, where it was purchased by a well-known amateur and connoisseur.
Other works were produced in succession, each more interesting than its
predecessor. Not daunted by difficulties that would have discouraged the
most ambitious and audacious craftswoman, Mme. de Rudder took for a
subject 'The Fates,' to decorate a screen. Aside from the artistic
interest attaching to this work, it is remarkable for another quality.
The artist yielded to the instinctive liking that she had for useful
art--she ornamented a useful article--and in mastering the technical
difficulties of her work she created the new method called
're-embroidery.' For the dresses of her 'Fates' ancient silks were
utilized for a background. Some of the pieces had moth-holes, which
necessitated the addition of 'supplementary ornamental motives,'
'embroidered on cloth to conceal the defects.' The discovery of
're-embroidery' was the result of this enforced expedient.

"This screen, finished in 1896, was exhibited at the Cercle Artistique,
Brussels, where the mayor, M. Buls, saw it. Realizing the possibilities
of the method and the skill of the artist, he gave an order to Mme. de
Rudder to decorate the Marriage Hall of the Hotel de Ville. This order
was delivered in 1896. During this period Mme. de Rudder worked
feverishly. About the same time that the order for the Hotel de Ville was
given, she received from M. Van Yssendyck, architect of the Hotel
Provincial in Ghent, a commission to design and embroider six large
allegorical panels. One of them represented 'Wisdom' in the habiliments
of Minerva, modernized, holding an olive branch. The five others were
'Justice,' holding a thistle, symbolizing law; 'Eloquence,' crowned with
roses and holding a lyre; 'Strength,' bending an oak branch; 'Truth,'
crushing a serpent and bearing a mirror and some lilies; and 'Prudence,'
with the horn of plenty and some holly. These six panels are remarkable
for the beautiful decorative feeling that suffuses their composition. The
tricks of workmanship are varied, and all combine to give a wonderful
effect. Contrary to the form of presenting the 'Fates,' all the figures
are draped."

Her next important commission was for eight large panels, intended to
decorate the Congo Free State department in the Brussels Exposition.
These panels represent the "Triumph of Civilization over Barbarism," and
are now in the Museum at Tervueren. They are curious in their symbols of
fetichism, and have an attraction that one can scarcely explain. The
above are but a part of her important works, and naturally, when not
absorbed by these, Mme. de Rudder executes some smaller pieces which are
marvels of patience in their exquisite detail.

Perhaps her panels of the "Four Seasons" may be called her
_chef-d'oeuvre_. The writer quoted above also says:

"To Mme. de Rudder must be given the credit for the interpretation of
work demanding large and varied decorative effect, while in the creation
of true artistic composition she easily stands at the head of the limited
coterie of men and women who have mastered this delicate and difficult
art. She is a leader in her peculiar craft."

RUDE, MME. SOPHIE FRÉMIET. 1797-1867. Medal at Paris Salon, 1833.
Born in Dijon. This artist painted historical and genre subjects as well
as portraits. Her picture of the "Sleeping Virgin," 1831, and that of
the "Arrest of the Duchess of Burgundy in Bruges," 1841, are in the
Dijon Museum.

RUYSCH, RACHEL. The perfection of flower-painting is seen in the
works of Rachel Ruysch. The daughter of a distinguished professor of
anatomy, she was born at Amsterdam in 1664. She was for a time a pupil of
William van Aelst, but soon studied from nature alone. Some art critics
esteem her works superior to those of De Heem and Van Huysum. Let that be
as it may, the pictures with which she was no doubt dissatisfied when
they passed from her hand more than two centuries ago are greatly valued
to-day and her genius is undisputed.

When thirty years old Rachel Ruysch married the portrait painter, Julian
van Pool. She bore him ten children, but in the midst of all her cares
she never laid her brush aside. Her reputation extended to every court of
Europe. She received many honors, and was elected to the Academical
Society at The Hague. She was received with distinguished courtesies on
the two occasions when she visited Düsseldorf.

[Illustration: Alinari, Photo.

In the Pitti Gallery, Florence



The Elector John of Pfalz appointed her painter at his court, and beyond
paying her generously for her pictures, bestowed valuable gifts on her.
The Elector sent several of her works to the Grand Duke of Tuscany and to
other distinguished rulers of that day.

The advance of years in no wise dulled her powers. Her pictures painted
when eighty years old are as delicately finished as those of many years
earlier. She died when eighty-six, "respected by the great, beloved even
by her rivals, praised by all who knew her."

The pictures by Rachel Ruysch are honorably placed in many public
galleries; in those of Florence and Turin, as well as at Amsterdam, The
Hague, Berlin, Dresden, Vienna, and Munich, they are much valued.
Although these pictures are characterized by extreme delicacy of touch,
softness, and lightness, this artist knew how so to combine these
qualities as to impart an effect of strength to her painting. Her
rendering of separate flowers was exquisite, and her roses, either by
themselves or combined with other flowers, are especially beautiful. She
painted fruits in perfection, and the insects and butterflies which she
sometimes added are admirably executed.

The chief criticism that can be made of her pictures is that she was less
skilful in the grouping of her flowers than in their painting. Many of
her works are in private galleries, especially in Holland. They are
rarely sold; in London, about thirty years ago, a small "Bouquet of
Flowers with Insects" was sold for more than two thousand dollars, and is
now of double that value.

Her pictures have the same clearness and individuality that are seen in
her portrait, in which she has short hair, a simple low-cut dress, with a
necklace of beads about the throat.

SALLES, ADELHEID. Born in Dresden, 1825; died in Paris, 1890. Pupil
of Bernhard and Jacquand, she established her studio in Paris. Many of
her works are in museums: "Elijah in the Desert," at Lyons; "The Legend
of the Alyscamps," at Nîmes; "The Village Maiden," at Grenoble; "Field
Flowers," at Havre, etc. She also painted portraits and historical
subjects, among which are "Psyche in Olympus," "The Daughters of
Jerusalem in the Babylonian Captivity," and the "Daughter of Jairus."

She was a sister of E. Puyroche-Wagner.

SARTAIN, EMILY. Medal at Philadelphia Exhibition, 1876; Mary Smith
prize at the Pennsylvania Academy for best painting by a woman, in 1881
and 1883. Born in Philadelphia, 1841. Miss Sartain has been the principal
of the Philadelphia School of Design for Women since 1886.

She studied engraving under her father, John Sartain, and with Luminais
in Paris. She engraved and etched book illustrations and numerous larger
prints. She is also a painter of portraits and genre pictures, and has
exhibited at the Salon des Beaux-Arts, Paris. Miss Sartain has been
appointed as delegate from the United States to the International
Congress on Instruction in Drawing to be held at Berne next August. Her
appointment was recommended by the Secretary of the Interior, the United
States Commissioner of Education, and Prof. J. H. Gore. Miss Sartain has
also received letters from Switzerland from M. Leon Genoud, president of
the Swiss Commission, begging her to accept the appointment.

SCHAEFER, MARIA. First-class medal, Bene-merenti, Roumania. Born in
Dresden, 1854. Her first studies were made in Darmstadt under A. Noack;
later she was a pupil of Budde and Bauer in Düsseldorf, and finally of
Eisenmenger in Vienna. After travelling in Italy in 1879, she settled in
Darmstadt. She made several beautiful copies of Holbein's "Madonna," one
for the King of Roumania, and one as a gift from the city of Darmstadt
to the Czarina Alexandra. Among her most excellent portraits are those of
Friedrich von Schmidt and his son Henry. Several of her religious
paintings ornament German churches: "St. Elizabeth" is at Biedenkopf,
"Mary's Departure from the Tomb of Christ" is at Nierstein, and "Christ
with St. Louis and St. Elizabeth" and a Rosary picture are in the
Catholic church at Darmstadt.

SCHEFFER, CAROLINE. The daughter of Ary Lamme and wife of J. B.
Scheffer was an artist in the last decades of the eighteenth century, but
the special interest connected with her is the fact that she was the
mother of Ary and Henry Scheffer. From her artistic standpoint she had an
appreciation of what was needed for the benefit of her sons. She took
them to Paris to study, devoted herself entirely to their welfare, and
died in Paris in 1839.

SCHLEH, ANNA. Born in Berlin, 1833. Her principal studies were made
in her native city under Schrader, although she went to Rome in 1868, and
finally took up her residence there. She had, previous to her work in
Rome, painted "The Marys at the Grave." Her later pictures include "The
Citron-Vender" and a number of portraits for the Henkel family of

SCHMITT-SCHENKH, MARIA. Born in Baden, 1837. She studied her art in
Munich, Carlsruhe, and Italy. She established herself in Munich and
painted pictures for churches, which are in Kirrlach, Mauer,
Ziegelhausen, and other German towns. She also designed church windows,
especially for the Liebfrauenkirche at Carlsruhe.

SCHUMANN, ANNA MARIA. Was called by the Dutch poets their Sappho
and their Corneille. She was born in 1607, but as her family were
Protestants and frequently changed their residence in order to avoid
persecution, the place of her birth is unknown. When Anna Maria was eight
years old, they went permanently to Utrecht.

This distinguished woman was one of the exceptions said to prove rules,
for though a prodigy in childhood she did not become a commonplace or
stupid woman. Learning was her passion and art her recreation. It is
difficult to repeat what is recorded of her unusual attainments and not
feel as if one were being misled by a Munchausen! But it would be
ungracious to lessen a fame almost three centuries old.

We are told that Anna Maria could speak in Latin when seven years old,
and translated from Seneca at ten. She acquired the Hebrew, Greek,
Samaritan, Arabic, Chaldaic, Syriac, Ethiopian, Turkish, and Persian
languages with such thoroughness that her admirers claim that she wrote
and spoke them all. She also read with ease and spoke with finished
elegance Italian, Spanish, English, and French, besides German and her
native tongue.

Anna Maria Schurmann wrote verses in various languages, but the chief end
which her exhaustive studies served was to aid her in theological
research; in this she found her greatest satisfaction and deepest
interest. She was respectfully consulted upon important questions by the
scholars of different countries.

At the University of Utrecht an honorable place was reserved for her in
the lecture-rooms, and she frequently took part in the learned
discussions there. The professors of the University of Leyden paid her
the compliment of erecting a tribune where she could hear all that passed
in the lecture-room without being seen by the audience.

As an artist the Schurmann reached such excellence that the painter
Honthorst valued a portrait by her at a thousand Dutch florins--about
four hundred and thirty dollars--an enormous sum when we remember that
the works of her contemporary, Albert Cuyp, were sold for thirty florins!
and no higher price was paid for his works before the middle of the
eighteenth century. A few years ago his picture, called "Morning Light,"
was sold at a public sale in London for twenty-five thousand dollars. How
astonishing that a celebrated artist like Honthorst, who painted in
Utrecht when Cuyp painted in Dort, should have valued a portrait by Anna
Maria Schurmann at the price of thirty-three works by Cuyp! Such facts as
these suggest a question regarding the relative value of the works of
more modern artists. Will the judgments of the present be thus reversed
in the future?

This extraordinary woman filled the measure of possibilities by carving
in wood and ivory, engraving on crystal and copper, and having a fine
musical talent, playing on several instruments. When it is added that she
was of a lovable nature and attractive in manner, one is not surprised
that her contemporaries called her "the wonder of creation."

Volsius was her friend and taught her Hebrew. She was intimately
associated with such scholars as Salmatius and Heinsius, and was in
correspondence with scholars, philosophers, and theologians regarding
important questions of her time.

Anna Maria Schurmann was singularly free from egotism. She rarely
consented to publish her writings, though often urged to do so. She
avoided publicity and refused complimentary attentions which were urged
upon her, conducting herself with a modesty as rare as her endowments.

In 1664, when travelling with her brother, she became acquainted with
Labadie, the celebrated French enthusiast who preached new doctrines. He
had many disciples called Labadists. He taught that God used deceit with
man when He judged it well for man to be deceived; that contemplation led
to perfection; that self-mortification, self-denial, and prayer were
necessary to a godly life; and that the Holy Spirit constantly made new
revelations to the human beings prepared to receive them.

Anna Maria Schurmann heard these doctrines when prostrated by a double
sorrow, the deaths of her father and brother. She put aside all other
interests and devoted herself to those of the Labadists. It is said that
after the death of Labadie she gathered his disciples together and
conducted them to Vivert, in Friesland. William Penn saw her there, and
in his account of the meeting he tells how much he was impressed by her
grave solemnity and vigorous intellect.

From this time she devoted her fortune to charity and died in poverty at
the age of seventy-one. Besides her fame as an artist and a scholar, her
name was renowned for purity of heart and fervent religious feeling. Her
virtues were many and her few faults were such as could not belong to an
ignoble nature.

SCUDDER, JANET. Medal at Columbian Exposition, 1893. Two of her
medallion portraits are in the Luxembourg, Paris. Member of the National
Sculpture Society, New York. Born in Terre Haute, Indiana. Pupil of
Rebisso in Cincinnati, of Lorado Taft in Chicago, and of Frederic
MacMonnies in Paris.

At the Chicago Exposition Miss Scudder exhibited two heroic-sized statues
representing Illinois and Indiana. The portraits purchased by the French
Government are of American women and are the first work of an American
woman sculptor to be admitted to the Luxembourg. These medallions are in
bas-relief in marble, framed in bronze. Casts from them have been made in
gold and silver. The first is said to be the largest medallion ever made
in gold; it is about four inches long.

[Illustration: A FROG FOUNTAIN


To the Pan-American Exposition Miss Scudder contributed four boys
standing on a snail, which made a part of the "Fountain of Abundance."
She has exhibited in New York and Philadelphia a fountain, representing a
boy dancing hilariously and snapping his fingers at four huge frogs round
his pedestal. The water spurts from the mouths of the frogs and covers
the naked child.

Miss Scudder is commissioned to make a portrait statue of heroic size for
the St. Louis Exposition. She will no doubt exhibit smaller works there.
Portraits are her specialty, and in these she has made a success, as is
proved by the appreciation of her work in Paris.

A memorial figure in marble is in Woodlawn Cemetery, also a cinerary urn
in stone and bronze; a bronze memorial tablet is in Union College. Miss
Scudder also made the seal for the Bar Association of New York.

SEARS, SARAH C. Medal at Chicago, 1893; William Evans prize,
American Water-Color Society, New York; honorable mention, Paris
Exposition, 1900; bronze medal at Buffalo, 1901; silver medal at
Charleston, South Carolina. Member of the New York Water-Color Club,
Boston Art Students' Association, National Arts Club, Boston Water-Color
Club. Born in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Pupil of Ross Turner, Joseph de
Camp, Edmund C. Tarbell, and George de Forest Brush. Mrs. Sears has also
studied by herself with the criticism of masters.

She paints portraits, figures, and flowers, and is much interested in the
applied arts. Of her exhibition at the Boston Art Club, 1903, a critic
writes: "Nothing could be more brilliant in point of color than the group
of seven water-color pictures of a sunny flower-garden by Mrs. Sears. In
these works pure and limpid color has been pushed to its extreme
capacity, under full daylight conditions, with a splendor of brightness
which never crosses the line of crudity, but holds the same relative
values as we see in nature, the utmost force of local color courageously
set forth and contrasted without apparent artifice, blending into an
harmonious unity of tone. Two of these pictures are especially fine, with
their cool backgrounds of sombre pines to set off the magnificent masses
of flowers in the foreground."

At the exhibition of the Philadelphia Water-Color Club, 1903, the _Press_
said: "These brilliant and overpowering combinations of color carry to
a limit not before reached the decorative possibilities of flowers."

Mrs. Sears' honors have been awarded to her portraits.

SEIDLER, CAROLINE LUISE. Born in Jena, 1786; died in Weimar, 1866.
Her early studies were made in Gotha with Doell; in 1811 she went to
Dresden, where she became a pupil of G. von Kügelgen; in 1817 Langer
received her into his Munich studio; and between 1818 and 1823 she was in
Italy, making special studies of Vanucci and Raphael. In 1823 she was
appointed instructor of the royal princesses at Weimar, and in 1824
inspector of the gallery there, and later became court painter. Among her
works are a portrait of Goethe, a picture of "Ulysses and the Sirens,"
and one of "Christ, the Compassionate," which is in the church at
Schestadt, Holstein.

SERRANO Y BARTOLOMÉ, JOAQUINA. Born in Fermoselle. Pupil in Madrid
of Juan Espalter, of the School of Arts and Crafts, and of the School of
Painting. She sent four pictures to the Exposition of 1876 in Madrid: the
portrait of a young woman, a still-life subject, a bunch of grapes, and a
"Peasant Girl"--the last two are in the Museum of Murcia. In 1878 she
sent "A Kitchen Maid on Saturday," a study, a flower piece, and two
still-life pictures; and in 1881 two portraits and some landscapes. Her
portrait of the painter Fortuny, which belongs to the Society of Authors
and Artists, gained her a membership in that Society. Two other excellent
portraits are those of her teacher, Espalter, and General Trillo.

SEWELL, AMANDA BREWSTER. Bronze medal, Chicago, 1893; bronze medal,
Buffalo, 1901; silver medal, Charleston; Clarke prize, Academy of
Design, 1903. Member of the Woman's Art Club and an associate of National
Academy of Design. Born in Northern New York. Pupil at Cooper Union under
Douglas Volk and R. Swain Gifford, and of Art Students' League under
William Chase and William Sartain; also of Julian's Academy under Tony
Robert Fleury and Bouguereau, and of Carolus Duran.

Mrs. Sewell's "A Village Incident" is owned by the Philadelphia Social
Art Club; "Where Roses Bloom" is in the Boston Art Club; portrait of
Professor William R. Ware is in the Library of Columbia University. Her
portrait of Amalia Küssner will be exhibited and published.

Mrs. Sewell is the first woman to take the Clarke prize. She has been a
careful student in the arrangement of portraits in order to make
attractive pictures as well as satisfactory likenesses. Of the pictures
she exhibited at the Academy of Design, winter of 1903, Charles H. Caffin

"The portrait of Mrs. Charles S. Dodge, by Mrs. A. Brewster Sewell, is
the finest example in the exhibition of pictorial treatment, the lady
being wrapped in a brown velvet cloak with broad edges of brown fur, and
seated before a background of dark foliage. It is a most distinguished
canvas, though one may object to the too obvious affectation of the
arrangement of the hands and of the gesture of the head--features which
will jar upon many eyes and detract from the general handsomeness. The
same lady sends a large classical subject, the 'Sacred Hecatomb,' to
which the Clarke prize was awarded. It represents a forest scene lit by
slanting sunlight, through which winds a string of bulls, the foremost
accompanied by a band of youths and maidens with dance and song. The
light effects are managed very skilfully and with convincing truth, and
the figures are free and animated in movement, though the flesh tints are
scarcely agreeable. It is a decorative composition that might be fitly
placed in a large hall in some country house."

SEYDELMANN, APOLLONIE. Member of the Dresden Academy. Born at
Trieste about 1768; died in Dresden, 1840. Pupil of J. C. Seydelmann,
whom she married. Later she went to Italy and there studied miniature
painting under Madame Maron.

She is best known for her excellent copies of old pictures, and
especially by her copy of the Sistine Madonna, from which Müller's
engraving was made.

SHAW, ANNIE C. The first woman elected Academician in the Academy of
Design, Chicago, 1876. Born at Troy, New York. Pupil of H. C. Ford.
Landscape painter. Among her works are "On the Calumet," "Willow Island,"
"Keene Valley, New York," "Returning from the Fair," 1878, which was
exhibited in Chicago, New York, and Boston. To the Centennial,
Philadelphia, 1876, she sent her "Illinois Prairie."

"Returning from the Fair" shows a group of Alderney cattle in a road
curving through a forest. At the time of its exhibition an art critic
wrote: "The eye of the spectator is struck with the rich mass of foliage,
passing from the light green of the birches in the foreground, where the
light breaks through, to the dark green of the dense forest, shading into
the brownish tints of the early September-tinged leaves. Farther on, the
eye is carried back through a beautiful vista formed by the road leading
through the centre of the picture, giving a fine perspective and distance
through a leafy archway of elms and other forest trees that gracefully
mingle their branches overhead, through which one catches a glimpse of
deep blue sky. As the eye follows this roadway to its distant part the
sun lights up the sky, tingeing with a mellow light the group of small
trees and willows, contrasting beautifully with the almost sombre tones
of the dense forest in the middle distance."

SHRIMPTON, ADA M. Has exhibited at the Royal Academy, Royal
Institute of Water-Colors, British Artists, and principal provincial
galleries in England and in Australia; also at the Paris Salon. Member of
Society of Women Artists, London. Born in Old Alresford, Hampshire. Pupil
of John Sparkes at South Kensington, and of Jean Paul Laurens and
Benjamin Constant in Paris.

This artist has painted principally figure subjects, among which are
"Cedric's Daughter," "Thoughts of Youth are Long Thoughts," "Dream of the
Past," "Pippa Passes," "Dorothy's Bridesmaid's Dress," etc., etc.
Recently she has devoted herself to portraits of ladies and children, in
both oil and water-colors.

SIRANI, ELISABETTA. Has been praised as a woman and as an artist by
Lanzi, Malvasia, Picinardi, and other writers until one must believe that
in spite of the exaggeration of her personal qualities and her artistic
genius, she was a singularly admirable woman and a gifted artist.

She was born in Bologna about 1640, and, like Artemisia Gentileschi, was
the daughter of a painter of the school of Guido Reni, whose follower
Elisabetta also became. From the study of her master she seems to have
acquired the power to perceive and reproduce the greatest possible beauty
with which her subjects could be invested.

She worked with such rapidity that she was accused of profiting by her
father's assistance, and in order to refute this accusation it was
arranged that the Duchess of Brunswick, the Duchess of Mirandola, Duke
Cosimo, and others should meet in her studio, on which occasion
Elisabetta charmed and astonished her guests by the ease and perfection
with which she sketched in and shaded drawings of the subjects which one
person after another suggested to her.

Her large picture of the "Baptism of Christ" was completed when the
artist was but twenty years old. Malvasia gives a list of one hundred and
twenty pictures executed by Elisabetta, and yet she was but twenty-five
when her mysterious death occurred.

In the Pinacoteca of Bologna is the "St. Anthony Adoring the Virgin and
Infant Jesus," by the Sirani, which is much admired; several other works
of hers are in her native city. "The Death of Abel" is in the Gallery of
Turin; the "Charity," in the Sciarra Palace in Rome; "Cupids" and a
picture of "Martha and Mary," in the Vienna Gallery; an "Infant Jesus"
and a picture called "A Subject after Guido" are in the Hermitage at

Her composition was graceful and refined, her drawing good, her color
fresh and sweet, with a resemblance to Guido Reni in the half tones. She
was especially happy in the heads of the Madonna and the Magdalene,
imparting to them an expression of exalted tenderness.

Her paintings on copper and her etchings were most attractive; indeed,
all her works revealed the innate grace and refinement of her nature.

Aside from her art the Sirani was a most interesting woman. She was very
beautiful in person, and the sweetness of her temper made her a favorite
with her friends, while her charming voice and fine musical talent added
to her many attractions. Her admirers have also commended her taste in
dress, which was very simple, and have even praised her moderation in
eating! She was skilled in domestic matters and accustomed to rise at
dawn to attend to her household affairs, not permitting her art to
interfere with the more homely duties of her life. One writer says that
"her devoted filial affection, her feminine grace, and the artless
benignity of her manners rounded out a character regarded as an ideal of
perfection by her friends."

It may be that her tragic fate caused an exaggerated estimate to be made
of her both as a woman and an artist. The actual cause of her death is
unknown. There have been many theories concerning it. It was very
generally believed that she was poisoned, although neither the reason for
the crime nor the name of its perpetrator was known.

By some she was believed to have been sacrificed to the same professional
jealousy that destroyed Domenichino; others accepted the theory that a
princely lover who had made unworthy proposals to her, which she had
scorned, had revenged himself by her murder. At length a servant, Lucia
Tolomelli, who had been a long time in the Sirani family, was suspected
of having poisoned her young mistress, was arrested, tried, and banished.
But after a time the father of Elisabetta, finding no convincing reason
to believe her guilty, obtained her pardon.

Whatever may have been the cause of the artist's death, the effect upon
her native city was overwhelming and the day of her burial was one of
general mourning, the ceremony being attended with great pomp. She was
buried beside Guido Reni, in the Chapel of Our Lady of the Rosary, in the
magnificent Church of the Dominicans.

Poets and orators vied with each other in sounding her praises, and a
book called "Il Penello Lagrimato," published at Bologna soon after her
death, is a collection of orations, sonnets, odes, epitaphs, and
anagrams, in Latin and Italian, setting forth the love which her native
city bore to this beautiful woman, and rehearsing again and again her
charms and her virtues.

In the Ercolani Gallery there is a picture of Elisabetta painting a
portrait of her father. It is said that she also painted a portrait of
herself looking up with a spiritual expression, which is in a private
collection and seen by few people.

SMITH, JESSIE WILLCOX. Mary Smith prize, Pennsylvania Academy of
Fine Arts, 1903. Member of the Plastic Club and a fellow of the Academy,
Philadelphia. Born in Philadelphia, where she was a pupil of the Academy;
also studied under Thomas Eakins, Thomas P. Anschutz, and Howard Pyle.

Miss Smith is essentially an illustrator and her work is seen in all the
leading American magazines. "The Child's Calendar" is the work of this

SONREL, MLLE. E. Honorable mention, Paris, 1893; third-class medal,
1895; bronze medal, Paris Exposition, 1900. At the Salon des Artistes
Français, 1902, she exhibited "Sybille" and "Monica"; in 1903, "The Dance
of Terpsichore" and "Princesse Lointaine."

[_No reply to circular_.]

SPANÒ, MARIA. Silver medal, Naples, 1859, for a picture of a
"Contadina of Sorrento." Born in Naples, 1843. Pupil of her father,
Raffaele Spanò, under whose direction she made a thorough study of figure
painting, the results of which are evident in her excellent portraits and
historical subjects. She has also been greatly interested in landscape
painting, in which she has been successful. "A Confidence" was bought by
the Gallery at Capodimonte, and two of her pictures were acquired by the
Provincial Council of Naples--a "Contadina," life size, and a "Country
Farmyard." One of her best pictures is "Bice at the Castle of Rosate."

SPILIMBERG, IRENE DI. Born in Udina, 1540. Her family was of German
origin and exalted position. She was educated in Venice with great care
and all the advantages that wealth could command. She was much in the
society of learned men, which she preferred before that of the world of

Titian was her roaster in painting. Lanzi and Rudolfi praised her as an
artist, and her fame now rests on the testimony of those who saw her
works rather than on the pictures themselves, some of which are said to
be in private collections in Italy. Titian painted her portrait as a
tribute to her beauty; Tasso celebrated her intellectual charm in a
sonnet, and yet she was but nineteen years old when she died.

Twenty years later a collection of orations and poems was published, all
of which set forth her attractions and acquirements, and emphasized the
sadness of her early death and the loss that the world had suffered
thereby. When one remembers how soon after death those who have done a
life work are forgotten, such a memorial to one so young is worthy of

SPURR, GERTRUDE E. Associate member of Royal Canadian Academy and
member of the Ontario Society of Arts. Born in Scarborough, England.
Pupil of the Lambeth Art School in drawing, of E. H. Holder in painting,
in England; also of George B. Bridgman in New York. This artist usually
paints small pictures of rural scenery in England and Wales--little stone
cottages, bridges, river and mountain scenes. "Castle Rock, North Devon,"
was exhibited at Buffalo, and is owned by Herbert Mason, Esq., of
Toronto. "A Peep at Snowdon" and "Dutch Farm Door, Ontario," are in
Montreal collections. Her works have been exhibited in London at the
Royal Society of British Artists and the Society of Lady Artists, and
have been sold from these exhibitions.

I quote from the _Queen_, in reference to one of Miss Spurr's London
exhibitions: "We know of no more favorite sketching-ground in N. Wales
for the artist than Bettws-y-coed. Every yard of that most picturesque
district has been painted and sketched over and over again. The artist in
this instance reproduces some of the very primitive cottages in which the
natives of the principality sojourn. The play of light on the modest
dwelling-places is an effective element in the cleverly rendered drawing
now in the Society of Artists' Exhibition. Miss Spurr, the daughter of a
Scarboro lawyer, commenced her art studies with Mr. E. H. Holder, in the
winter painting dead birds, fruit, and other natural objects, and in
summer spending her time on the coast or in the woods or about Rievaulx
Abbey. Any remaining time to be filled up was occupied by attending the
Scarboro School of Art under the instruction of Mr. Strange. In a local
sketching club Miss Spurr distinguished herself and gained several
prizes, and she has at length taken up her abode in the metropolis, where
she has attended the Lambeth Schools, studying diligently both from casts
and life."

STACEY, ANNA L. Honorable mention at Exhibition of Chicago Artists,
1900; Young Fortnightly Club prize, 1902; Martin B. Cahn prize,
Exhibition at Art Institute, Chicago, 1902. Member of Chicago Society of
Artists. Born in Glasgow, Missouri.

Pupil of Art Institute in Chicago. Paints portraits, figure subjects, and
landscapes. The Cahn prize was awarded to the "Village at Twilight."
"Florence" is owned by the Klio Club; "Trophies of the Fields," by the
Union League Club, Chicago.

Recently Miss Stacey has painted a number of successful portraits.

STADING, EVELINA. Born in Stockholm. 1803-1829. She was a pupil of
Fahlcrantz for a time in her native city, and then went to Dresden, where
she made a thorough study and some excellent copies of the works of
Ruisdael. In 1827 she went to Rome, making studies in Volzburg and the
Tyrol _en route_. She painted views in Switzerland and Italy, and two of
her landscapes are in the gallery in Christiania.

STANLEY, LADY DOROTHY. Member of the Ladies' Athenaeum Club. Born in
London. Pupil of Sir Edward Poynter--then Mr. Poynter--and of M. Legros,
at Slade School, University College, London; also of Carolus Duran and
Henner in Paris.

Lady Stanley has exhibited at the Royal Academy, the new Gallery, at the
English provincial exhibitions, and at the Salon, Paris.

Her picture, "His First Offence," is in the Tate National Gallery; "Leap
Frog," in the National Gallery of Natal, Pietermaritzburg. Other pictures
of hers are "A Water Nymph," "The Bathers," etc., which are in private
galleries. "Leap Frog" was in the Academy exhibition, 1903.

STEBBINS, EMMA. 1815-1882. Born in New York. As an amateur artist
Miss Stebbins made a mark by her work in black and white and her pictures
in oils. After a time she decided to devote herself to sculpture. In
Rome she studied this art and made her first success with a statuette of
"Joseph." This was followed by "Columbus" and "Satan Descending to tempt
Mankind." For Central Park, New York, she executed a large fountain, the
subject being "The Angel of the Waters."

STEPHENS, MRS. ALICE BARBER. Mary Smith prize, 1890. Pupil of the
Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and of the Julian Academy, Paris. An
illustrator whose favorite subjects are those of every-day home life--the
baby, the little child, the grandmother in cap and spectacles, etc.

[_No reply to circular_.]

STEVENS, EDITH BARRETTO. Two scholarships and a prize of one hundred
dollars from the Art Students' League, of which she is a member. Born in
Houston, Virginia, in 1878. Studied at Art Students' League and under
Daniel C. French and George Gray Barnard.

Miss Stevens mentions as her principal works "A Candlestick Representing
a Girl Asleep under a Poppy," "Figure of Spring," and the "Spirit of

Miss Stevens is one of the women sculptors who have been selected to
share in the decoration of the buildings for the St. Louis Exposition.
She is to make two reclining figures on the pediment over the main
entrance to the Liberal Arts Building. She has in her studio two
reclining figures which will probably serve to fulfil this commission.

Miss Stevens is modest about her work and does not care to talk much
about this important commission, even suggesting that her design may not
be accepted; if she is successful it will certainly be an unusual honor
for a woman at her age, whose artistic career covers less than five

STEVENS, MARY. Bronze medal at the Crystal Palace. Member of the
Dudley Gallery, London. Born at Liverpool. Pupil of William Kerry and of
her husband, Albert Stevens, in England, and of the Julian Academy,

Mrs. Stevens' pictures were well considered when she exhibited a variety
of subjects; of late, however, she has made a specialty of pictures of
gardens, and has painted in many famous English and French gardens, among
others, those of Holland House, Warwick Castle, and St. Anne's, Dublin.
In France, the gardens of the Duchesse de Dino and the Countess Foucher
de Careil.

Mrs. Stevens--several of whose works are owned in America--has
commissions to paint in some American gardens and intends to execute them
in 1904.

STILLMAN, MARIE SPARTALI. Pupil of Ford Madox Brown. This artist
first exhibited in public at the Dudley Gallery, London, in 1867, a
picture called "Lady Pray's Desire." In 1870 she exhibited at the Royal
Academy, "Saint Barbara" and "The Mystic Tryst." In 1873 she exhibited
"The Finding of Sir Lancelot Disguised as a Fool" and "Sir Tristram and
La Belle Isolde," both in water-colors. Of these, a writer in the _Art
Journal_ said: "Mrs. Stillman has brought imagination to her work. These
vistas of garden landscape are conceived in the true spirit of romantic
luxuriance, when the beauty of each separate flower was a delight. The
figures, too, have a grace that belongs properly to art, and which has
been well fitted to pictorial expression. The least satisfactory part of
these clever drawings is their color. There is an evident feeling of
harmony, but the effect is confused and the prevailing tones are
uncomfortably warm."

W. M. Rossetti wrote: "Miss Spartali has a fine power of fusing the
emotion of her subject into its color and of giving aspiration to both;
beyond what is actually achieved one sees a reaching toward something
ulterior. As one pauses before her work, a film in that or in the mind
lifts or seems meant to lift, and a subtler essence from within the
picture quickens the sense. In short, Miss Spartali, having a keen
perception of the poetry which resides in beauty and in the means of art
for embodying beauty, succeeds in infusing that perception into the
spectator of her handiwork."

[_No reply to circular_.]

STOCKS, MINNA. Born in Scheverin, 1846. Pupil of Schloepke in
Scheverin, Stiffeck in Berlin, E. Bosch in Düsseldorf, and J. Bauck in
Munich. Her "Lake of Scheverin" is in the Museum of her native city.

Her artistic reputation rests largely on her pictures of animals. She
exhibits at the Expositions of the Society of Women Artists, Berlin, and
among her pictures seen there is "A Journey through Africa," which
represents kittens playing with a map of that country. It was attractive
and was praised for its artistic merit. In fact, her puppies and kittens
are most excellent results--have been called masterpieces--of the most
intimate and intelligent study of nature.

Among her works are "A Quartet of Cats," "The Hostile Brothers," and "The

STOKES, MARIANNA. Honorable mention at Paris Salon, 1884; gold medal
in Munich, 1890; medal at Chicago in 1893. Member of the Society of
Painters in Tempera. Born in Graz-Styria. Pupil of Professor W. von
Lindenschmit in Munich, of M. Dagnan Bouveret and M. Courtois in Paris.

Her picture, "A Parting," is in the Liverpool Gallery; "Childhood's
Wonder," in the Nottingham Gallery; "Aucassin and Nicolette," in the
Pittsburg Gallery, etc.

Mrs. Stokes writes me that she has taken great interest in the revival of
tempera painting in recent years. In reviewing the exhibition in the New
Gallery, London, the _Spectator_ of May 2, 1903, speaks of the portraits
by Mrs. Stokes as charming, and adds: "They are influenced by the
primitive painters, but in the right way. That is, the painter has used a
formal and unrealistic style, but without any sacrifice of artistic
freedom." Of a portrait of a child the same writer says: "It would be
difficult to imagine a happier portrait of a little child,... and in it
may be seen how the artist has used her freedom; for although she has
preserved a primitive simplicity, the sky, sea, and windmill have modern
qualities of atmosphere. The picture is very subtle in drawing and color,
and the sympathy for child-life is perfect, seen as it is both in the
hands and in the eyes.

"Another portrait by the same artist is hung on a marble pillar at the
top of the stairs leading up to the balcony. The admirable qualities of
decoration are well shown by the way it is hung.... Is a fine piece of
strong and satisfactory color, but the decorative aspect in no way takes
precedence of the portraiture. We think of the man first and the picture

At the Academy, in 1903, Mrs. Stokes exhibited a portrait of J. Westlake,
Esq., K.C.

STORER, MRS. MARIA LONGWORTH. Gold medal at Paris Exposition, 1900.
Born in Cincinnati, Ohio. Pupil of the Cincinnati Art School, which her
father, Joseph Longworth, endowed with three hundred thousand dollars.

After working four years, making experiments in clay decoration at the
Dallas White Ware Pottery, Mrs. Storer, "who had the enthusiasm of the
artistic temperament coupled with fixity of purpose and financial
resources,... had the courage to open a Pottery which she called
Rookwood, the name of her father's place on the hills beyond. This was in

Nine years later this pottery had become self-supporting, and Mrs. Storer
then dissolved her personal association with it, leaving it in charge of
Mr. William Watts Taylor, who had collaborated with her during six years.

At the Paris Exposition Mrs. Storer exhibited about twenty pieces of
pottery mounted in bronze--all her own work. It was an exquisite
exhibition, and I was proud that it was the work of one of my

In 1897 Mr. Storer was appointed United States minister to Belgium, and
Mrs. Storer took a Japanese artist, Asano, to Brussels, to instruct her
in bronze work. Two years later Mr. Storer's mission was changed to
Spain, and there Mrs. Storer continued, under Asano's guidance, her work
in bronze, some of the results being seen in the mounting of her pottery.

At present Mr. Storer is our Ambassador to Austria, and Mrs. Storer
writes me that she hopes to continue her work in bronze in Vienna.

In the summer of 1903 Mrs. Storer was in Colorado Springs, where she was
much interested in the pottery made by Mr. Van Briggle. She became one of
the directors of the Van Briggle Pottery Company, and encouraged the
undertaking most heartily.

STUMM, MAUD. Born in Cleveland, Ohio. Pupil of Art Students' League
under Kenyon Cox and Siddons Mowbray, and of Oliver Merson in Paris,
where her painting was also criticised and approved by Whistler. Her
earliest work was flower painting, in which she gained an enviable

In Paris she began the study of figure painting, and her exhibition at
the Salon was favorably received, the purity and brilliancy of her
coloring being especially commended.

Several of Miss Stumm's pictures are well known by reproductions. Among
these is the "Mother and Child," the original of which is owned by Mr.
Patterson, of the Chicago _Tribune_. Her calendars, too, are artistic and
popular; some of these have reached a sale of nearly half a million.

A series of studies of Sarah Bernhardt, in pastel, and a portrait of
Julia Marlowe are among her works in this medium. Many of her figure
subjects, such as "A Venetian Matron" and "A Violinist," are portraits,
not studies from professional models.

This artist has painted an unusual variety of subjects, but is ambitious
in still another department of painting--decorative art--in which she
believes she could succeed.

Her works are seen in the exhibitions of the Society of American Artists
and of the American Water-Color Society.

SWOBODA, JOSEPHINE. Born in Vienna, 1861. Pupil of Laufberger and I.
V. Berger. This portrait artist has been successful and numbers among her
subjects the Princess Henry of Prussia, the late Queen of England, whose
portrait she painted at Balmoral in 1893, the Minister Bauhaus, and
several members of the royal house of Austria. The portrait of Queen
Victoria was exhibited at the Water-Color Club, Vienna.

She also paints charming miniatures. Her pictures are in both oil and
water-colors, and are praised by the critics of the exhibitions in which
they are seen.

SWOPE, MRS. KATE. Honorable mention at National Academy of Design,
1888; honorable mention and gold medal, Southern Art League, 1895;
highest award, Louisville Art League, 1897. Member of Louisville Art
League. Born in Louisville, Kentucky. Pupil of Edgar Ward and M. Flagg in
New York, and later of B. R. Fitz.

Mrs. Swope devotes herself almost entirely to sacred subjects. The
pictures that have been awarded medals are Madonnas. She prefers to paint
her pictures out of doors and in the sunlight, which results in her
working in a high key and, as she writes, "in tender, opalescent color."

One of her medal pictures is the "Head of a Madonna," out of doors, in a
hazy, blue shadow, against a background of grapevine foliage. The head is
draped in white; the eyes are cast down upon the beholder. A sun spot
kisses the white draperies on the shoulder. It is a young, girlish face,
but the head is suggestive of great exaltation.

A second picture which received an award was a "Madonna and Child," out
of doors. The figure is half life size. Dressed in white, the Madonna is
stretched at full length upon the grass. Raised on one arm, she gazes
into the face of the infant Christ Child.

Mrs. Swope has had success in pastel, in which, not long since, she
exhibited a "Mother and Child," which was much admired. The mother--in an
arbor--held the child up and reverently kissed the cheek. It was called
"Love," and was exhibited in New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago.

Mrs. Swope's most ambitious work--five by three feet in size--represents
an allegorical subject and is called "Revelation."

SUES, MLLE. LEA. Three silver medals from the School of Arts,
Geneva; diploma of honor at the National Swiss Exposition, 1896. Member
of l'Athénée, Geneva. Born at Genoa and studied there under Professors
Gillet, Poggy, and Castan.

This artist paints landscapes, Swiss subjects principally. Her pictures
of Mont Blanc and Chamounix are popular and have been readily sold. They
are in private collections in several countries, and when exhibited have
been praised in German and French as well as in Swiss publications.

SYAMOUR, MME. MARGUERITE. Honorable mention, 1887; bronze medal at
Exposition at Lyons. Born at Bréry, 1861. Pupil of Mercié. Her principal
works are a plaster statue, "New France," 1886, in the Museum of
Issoudun; a statue of Voltaire; a plaster statue, "Life"; a plaster
group, the "Last Farewells"; a statue of "Diana," in the Museum of
Amiens; a great number of portrait busts, among them those of Jules
Grévy, Flammarion, J. Claretie, etc.

At the Salon, Artistes Français, 1902, this artist exhibited a "Portrait
of M. G. L.," and in 1904 "A Vision" and "La Dame aux Camelias."

TAYLOR, ELIZABETH V. Sears prize, Boston Art Museum; bronze medal,
Nashville Exposition, 1897. Member of the Copley Society, Boston. Pupil
of E. C. Tarbell and Joseph de Camp in the School of the Museum of Fine
Arts, Boston.

This artist paints portraits in miniature and in life size. Her works are
numerous and have been seen in many exhibitions.

THAULOW, MME. ALEXANDRA. Wife of the great Scandinavian painter.
This lady is an artist in bookbinding and her work is much admired. A
writer, H. F., says, in the _Studio_, December, 1903: "When the
exhibition of bookbinding was held some time ago at the Musée Galliera,
Madame Thaulow's showcase attracted attention by its variety and its
grace. The charm of these bindings lies in the fact that they have none
of the massive heaviness of so many productions of this kind. One should
be able to handle a book with ease, and not be forced to rest content
with beholding it displaying its beauties behind glass or on the library
shelf; and Madame Thaulow understood this perfectly when she executed the
bindings now reproduced here. But these bindings are interesting not only
from the standpoint of their utility and intelligent application; their
ornamentation delights one by its graceful interpretation of Nature,
rendered with a very special sense of decoration; moreover, the coloring
of these mosaics of leather is restrained and fresh, and the hollyhocks
and the hortensias, the bunches of mistletoe and the poppies, which form
some of her favorite _motifs_, go to make up a delicious symphony."

THEVENIN, MARIE ANNE ROSALIE. Medals at the Salons of 1849, 1859,
1861. Born at Lyons. Pupil of Leon Cogniet. Portrait and figure painter.
Among her pictures the following are noticeable: "Flora McIvor and Rose
Bradwardine," 1848; "Portrait of Abbé Jacquet," 1859; "Portrait of a
Lady," 1861.

THOMAS-SOYER, MME. MATHILDE. Honorable mention, 1880; third-class
medal, 1881; bronze medal, Exposition, 1889. Born at Troyes, 1859. Pupil
of Chapu and Cain. The principal works of this sculptor are: "A Russian
Horse"; "Lost Dogs"; "Russian Greyhounds"; "Huntsmen and a Poacher," in
the Museum of Semur; "Combat of Dogs," purchased by the Government; "Cow
and Calf," in the Museum of Nevers; "Stag and Bloodhound," in the Museum
of Troyes, etc.

At the Salon, Artistes Français, 1902, Mme. Thomas-Soyer exhibited "An
Irish Setter and a Laverock," and in 1903 "Under the White Squall."

THORNYCROFT, MARY. Born 1814; died 1895. Daughter of John Francis,
the sculptor, whose pupil she was. This artist exhibited at the Royal
Academy when very young. Her first important work was a life-size figure
called "The Flower-Girl." In 1840 she married Thomas Thornycroft, and
went to Rome two years later, spending a year in study there. Queen
Victoria, after her return, commissioned her to execute statues of the
royal children as the Four Seasons. These were much admired when
exhibited at the Academy. Later she made portrait statues and busts of
many members of the royal family, which were also seen at the Academy

In his "Essays on Art," Palgrave wrote: "Sculpture has at no time
numbered many successful followers among women. We have, however, in Mrs.
Thornycroft, one such artist who, by some recent advance and by the
degrees of success which she has already reached, promises fairly for the
art. Some of this lady's busts have refinement and feeling."

THURBER, CAROLINE NETTLETON. Born in Oberlin, Ohio. Pupil of Howard
Helmick in Washington, and of Benjamin Constant and Jean Paul Laurens in

In 1898 Mrs. Thurber took a studio in Paris, where her first work was the
portrait of a young violinist, which was exhibited in the Salon of the
following spring. This picture met with immediate favor with the public,
the art critics, and the press. The Duchess of Sutherland, upon seeing
it, sent for the artist and arranged for a portrait of her daughter,
which was painted the following autumn while Mrs. Thurber was a guest at
Dunrobin Castle. This portrait was subsequently exhibited in London and

Mrs. Thurber has painted portraits of many persons of distinction in
Paris, among them one of Mlle. Ollivier, only daughter of Émile Ollivier,
president of the Académie Française. Monsieur Ollivier, in a personal
note to the artist, made the following comment upon the portrait of his
daughter: "How much I thank you for the portrait of my daughter; it
lives, so powerfully is it colored, and one is tempted to speak to it."
Mrs. Thurber is an exhibitor in the Salon, Royal Academy, and New
Gallery, London, and other foreign exhibitions, as well as in those of
this country.

She now has a studio in the family home at Bristol, Rhode Island, on
Narragansett Bay, where she works during half the year. In winter she
divides her time among the larger cities as her orders demand. While Mrs.
Thurber's name is well known through her special success in the
portraiture of children, she has painted many prominent men and women in
Chicago, New York, Philadelphia, Washington, and New England.

Among her later portraits are those of Mrs. James Sullivan, one of the
lady commissioners of the St. Louis Exposition; Lieut.-Gen. Nelson A.
Miles; Albert, son of Dr. Shaw, editor of the _Review of Reviews_; Mrs.
A. A. F. Johnston, former Dean of Oberlin College; Augustus S. Miller,
mayor of Providence; Hon. L. F. C. Garvin, governor of Rhode Island; and
Judge Austin Adams, late of the Supreme Court of Iowa.

THURWANGER, FELICITÉ CHASTANIER. This remarkable artist, not long
since, when eighty-four years old, sent to the exhibition at Nice--which
is, in a sense, a branch of the Paris Salon--three portraits which she
had just finished. "They were hung in the place of honor and unanimously
voted to belong to the first class."

Mme. Thurwanger was the pupil of Delacroix during five years. The master
unconsciously did his pupil an injury by saying to her father: "That
daughter of yours is wonderfully gifted, and if she were a man I would
make a great artist of her." Hearing this, the young artist burst into
tears, and her whole career was clouded by the thought that her sex
prevented her being a really great artist, and induced in her an abnormal
modesty. This occurred about forty-five years ago; since then we have
signally changed all that!

Delacroix, who was an enthusiast in color, was the leader of one school
of his time, and was opposed by Ingres, who was so wanting in this regard
that he was accused of being color-blind.

Mme. Thurwanger had a curious experience with these artists. When but
seventeen she was commissioned by the Government to copy a picture in the
Louvre. One morning, when she was working in the Gallery, Ingres passed
by and stopped to look at her picture. He examined it carefully, and with
an expression of satisfaction said: "I am so very glad to see that you
have the true idea of art! Remember always that there is no color in
Nature; the outline is all; if the outline is good, no matter about the
coloring, the picture will be good."

This story would favor the color-blind theory, as Ingres apparently saw
color neither in the original nor the copy.

An hour later Delacroix came to watch the work of his pupil, and after a
few minutes exclaimed: "I am so happy, my dear girl, to see that you have
the true and only spirit of art. Never forget that in Nature there is no
line, no outline; everything is color!"

In 1852 Mme. Thurwanger was in Philadelphia and remained more than two
years. She exhibited her pictures, which were favorably noticed by the
Philadelphia _Enquirer_. In July of the above year her portraits were
enthusiastically praised. "Not a lineament, not a feature, however
trivial, escapes the all-searching eye of the artist, who has the happy
faculty of causing the expression of the mind and soul to beam forth in
the life-like and speaking face."

In October, 1854, her picture of a "Madonna and Child" was thus noticed
by the same paper: "For brilliancy, animation, maternal solicitude, form,
grace, and feature, it would be difficult to imagine anything more
impressive. It is in every sense a gem of the pictorial art, while the
execution and finish are such as genius alone could inspire."

TIRLINKS, LIEWENA. Born in Bruges, a daughter of Master Simon. This
lady was not only esteemed as an artist in London, but she won the heart
of an English nobleman, to whom she was given in marriage by Henry VIII.
Her miniatures were much admired and greatly in fashion at the court.
Some critics have thought the Tirlinks to be the same person with Liewena
Bennings or Benic, whose story, as we know it, is much the same as the

TORMOCZY, BERTHA VON. Diploma of honor, Budapest and Agram. Born at
Innspruck, 1846. Pupil of Hausch, Her, and Schindler. Among her pictures
are "Girl in the Garden," "Blossoming Meadows," "Autumn Morning," and a
variety of landscapes.

TORO, PETRONELLA. A painter of miniatures on ivory which have
attained distinction. Among those best known are the portraits of the
Prince of Carignano, Duke Amadeo, and the Duchess d'Aosta with the sons
of the Prince of Carignano. She has painted a young woman in an antique
dress and another in a modern costume. Her works are distinguished by
firmness of touch and great intelligence. She has executed some most
attractive landscapes.

TREU, OR TREY, KATHARINA. Born at Bamberg. 1742-1811. A successful
painter of flowers and still-life. Her talent was remarkable when but a
child, and her father, who was her only master, began her lessons when
she was ten years old. When still young she was appointed court painter
at Mannheim, and in 1776 was made a professor in the Academy at
Düsseldorf. Her pictures are in the Galleries of Bamberg and Carlsruhe,
and in the Darmstadt and Stuttgart Museums.

URRUTIA DE URMENETA, ANA GERTRUDIS DE. Member of the Academy of Fine
Arts, Cadiz, 1846. Born in Cadiz. 1812-1850. She began the study of
drawing with Javier, and after her marriage to Juan José de Urmeneta,
professor of painting and sculpture and director of the Cadiz Academy,
continued her work under his direction. A "St. Filomena" and
"Resurrection of the Body," exhibited in 1846, are among her best
pictures. Her "St. Jeronimo" is in the new cathedral at Cadiz, and the
Academy has shown respect to her memory by placing her portrait in the
room in which its sessions are held.

VIANI, MARIA. Born at Bologna. 1670-1711. I find no reliable
biographical account of this artist, whose name appears in the catalogue
of the Dresden Gallery as the painter of the "Reclining Venus, lying on a
blue cushion, with a Cupid at her side."

VERELST, MARIAN. Born in 1680. This artist belonged in Antwerp and
was of the celebrated artistic family of her name. She was a pupil of her
father, Hermann, and her uncle, Simon Verelst. She became famous for the
excellent likenesses she made and for the artistic qualities of her small

Like so many other artists, she was distinguished for accomplishments
outside her art. She was a fine musician and a marvel in her aptitude in
acquiring both ancient and modern languages. A very interesting anecdote
is related of her, as follows: When in London, one evening at the theatre
she sat near six German gentlemen, who expressed their admiration of her
in the most flattering terms of their language, and at the same time
observed her so closely as to be extremely rude. The artist, in their own
tongue, remarked that such extravagant praise was the opposite of a
compliment. One of them repeated his words in Latin, when she again
replied in the same language. The strangers then asked her if she would
give them her name. This she did and further told them that she lived
with her uncle, Simon Verelst. In the end she painted the portrait of
each of these men, and the story of their experience proved the reason
for the acquaintance of the artist being sought by people of culture and
position. Walpole speaks in praise of her portraits and also mentions her
unusual attainments in languages.

VIGÉE, MARIE LOUISE ELIZABETH. Member of the French Academy. Born in
Paris in 1755. That happy writer and learned critic, M. Charles Blanc,
begins his account of her thus: "All the fairies gathered about the
cradle of Elizabeth Vigée, as for the birth of a little princess in the
kingdom of art. One gave her beauty, another genius; the fairy Gracious
offered her a pencil and a palette. The fairy of marriage, who had not
been summoned, told her, it is true, that she should wed M. Le Brun, the
expert in pictures--but for her consolation the fairy of travellers
promised her that she should bear from court to court, from academy to
academy, from Paris to Petersburg, and from Rome to London, her gayety,
her talent, and her easel--before which all the sovereigns of Europe and
all those whom genius had crowned should place themselves as subjects for
her brush."

[Illustration: A FRENCH PRINCE


It is difficult to write of Madame Le Brun in outline because her life
was so interesting in detail. Though she had many sorrows, there is a
halo of romance and a brilliancy of atmosphere about her which marks her
as a prominent woman of her day, and her autobiography is charming--it
is so alive that one forgets that she is not present, telling her story!

The father of this gifted daughter was an artist of moderate ability and
made portraits in pastel, which Elizabeth, in her "Souvenirs," speaks of
as good and thinks some of them worthy of comparison with those of the
famous Latour. M. Vigée was an agreeable man with much vivacity of
manner. His friends were numerous and he was able to present his daughter
to people whose acquaintance was of value to her. She was but twelve
years old at the time of his death, and he had already so encouraged her
talents as to make her future comparatively easy for her.

Elizabeth passed five years of her childhood in a convent, where she
constantly busied herself in sketching everything that she saw. She tells
of her intense pleasure in the use of her pencil, and says that her
passion for painting was innate and never grew less, but increased in
charm as she grew older. She claimed that it was a source of perpetual
youth, and that she owed to it her acquaintance and friendship with the
most delightful men and women of Europe.

While still a young girl, Mlle. Vigée studied under Briard, Doyen, and
Greuze, but Joseph Vernet advised her to study the works of Italian and
Flemish masters, and, above all, to study Nature for herself--to follow
no school or system. To this advice Mme. Le Brun attributed her success.

When sixteen years old she presented two portraits to the French
Academy, and was thus early brought to public notice.

When twenty-one she married M. Le Brun, of whom she speaks discreetly in
her story of her life, but it was well known that he was of dissipated
habits and did not hesitate to spend all that his wife could earn. When
she left France, thirteen years after her marriage, she had not so much
as twenty francs, although she had earned a million!

She painted portraits of many eminent people, and was esteemed as a
friend by men and women of culture and high position. The friendship
between the artist and Marie Antoinette was a sincere and deep affection
between two women, neither of whom remembered that one of them was a
queen. It was a great advantage to the artist to be thus intimately
associated with her sovereign lady. Even in the great state picture of
the Queen surrounded by her children, at Versailles, one realizes the
tenderness of the painter as she lovingly reproduced her friend.

Marie Antoinette desired that Mme. Le Brun should be elected to the
Academy; Vernet approved it, and an unusual honor was shown her in being
made an Academician before the completion of her reception picture. At
that time it was a great advantage to be a member of the Academy, as no
other artists were permitted to exhibit their works in the Salon of the

Mme. Le Brun had one habit with which she allowed nothing to interfere,
which was taking a rest after her work for the day was done. She called
it her "calm," and to it she attributed a large share of her power of
endurance, although it lost her many pleasures. She could not go out to
dinner or entertain at that hour. The evening was her only time for
social pleasures. But when one reads her "Souvenirs," and realizes how
many notable people she met in her studio and in evening society, it
scarcely seems necessary to regret that she could not dine out!

Mme. Le Brun was at one period thought to be very extravagant, and one of
her entertainments caused endless comments. Her own account of it shows
how greatly the cost was exaggerated. She writes that on one occasion she
invited twelve or fifteen friends to listen to her brother's reading
during her "calm." The poem read was the "Voyage du jeune Anacharsis en
Grèce," in which a dinner was described, and even the receipts for making
various sauces were given. The artist was seized with the idea of
improvising a Greek supper.

She summoned her cook and instructed her in what had been read. Among her
guests were several unusually pretty ladies, who attired themselves in
Greek costumes as nearly as the time permitted. Mme. Le Brun retained the
white blouse she wore at her work, adding a veil and a crown of flowers.
Her studio was rich in antique objects, and a dealer whom she knew loaned
her cups, vases, and lamps. All was arranged with the effect an artist
knows how to produce.

As the guests arrived Mme. Le Brun added here and there an element of
Grecian costume until their number was sufficient for an effective
_tableau vivant_. Her daughter and a little friend were dressed as pages
and bore antique vases. A canopy hung over the table, the guests were
posed in picturesque attitudes, and those who arrived later were arrested
at the door of the supper-room with surprise and delight.

It was as if they had been transported to another clime. A Greek song was
chanted to the accompaniment of a lyre, and when the honey, grapes, and
other dishes were served _à la Grecque_, the enchantment was complete.
The poet recited odes from Anacreon and all passed off delightfully.

The fame of this novel supper was spread over Paris, and marvellous tales
were told of its magnificence and its cost. Mme. Le Brun writes: "Some
ladies asked me to repeat this pleasantry. I refused for various reasons,
and several of them were disturbed by my refusal. Soon a report that the
supper had cost me twenty thousand francs was spread abroad. The King
spoke of it as a joke to the Marquis of Cubières, who fortunately had
been one of the guests and was able to convince His Majesty of the folly
of such a story. Nevertheless, the modest sum of twenty thousand at
Versailles became forty thousand at Rome; at Vienna the Baroness de
Strogonoff told me that I had spent sixty thousand francs for my Greek
supper; you know that at Petersburg the price at length was fixed at
eighty thousand francs, and the truth is that it cost me about fifteen

Early in 1789, when the warnings of the horrors about to take place began
to be heard, Mme. Le Brun went to Italy. In each city that she visited
she was received with great kindness and many honors were shown her. In
Florence she was invited to paint her own portrait, to be hung in that
part of the Uffizi set apart for the portraits of famous painters. Later
she sent the well-known portrait, near that of Angelica Kauffman. It is
interesting to read Goethe's comparison of the two portraits.

Speaking of Angelica's first, he writes: "It has a truer tone in the
coloring, the position is more pleasing, and the whole exhibits more
correct taste and a higher spirit in art. But the work of Le Brun shows
more careful execution, has more vigor in the drawing, and more delicate
touches. It, has, moreover, a clear though somewhat exaggerated coloring.
The Frenchwoman understands the art of adornment--the headdress, the
hair, the folds of lace on the bosom, all are arranged with care and, as
one might say, _con amore_. The piquant, handsome face, with its lively
expression, its parted lips disclosing a row of pearly teeth, presents
itself to the beholder's gaze as if coquettishly challenging his
admiration, while the hand holds the pencil as in the act of drawing.

"The picture of Angelica, with head gently inclined and a soft,
intellectual melancholy pervading the countenance, evinces higher genius,
even if, in point of artistic skill, the preference should be given to
the other."

Mme. Le Brun found Rome delightful and declared that if she could forget
France she should be the happiest of women. She writes of her fellow
artist: "I have been to see Angelica Kauffman, whom I greatly desired to
know. I found her very interesting, apart from her fine talent, on
account of her mind and her general culture.... She has talked much with
me during the two evenings I have passed at her house. Her manner is
gentle; she is prodigiously learned, but has no enthusiasm, which,
considering my ignorance, has not electrified me.... I have seen several
of her works; her sketches please me more than her pictures, because they
are of a Titianesque color."

Mme. Le Brun received more commissions for portraits than she could find
time to paint in the three years she lived in Italy. She tells us: "Not
only did I find great pleasure in painting surrounded by so many
masterpieces, but it was also necessary for me to make another fortune. I
had not a hundred francs of income. Happily I had only to choose among
the grandest people the portraits which it pleased me to paint." Her
account of her experiences in Italy is very entertaining, but at last the
restlessness of the exile overcame her and impelled her to seek other
scenes. She went to Vienna and there remained three other years, making
many friends and painting industriously until the spirit of unrest drove
her to seek new diversions, and she went to Russia.

She was there received with great cordiality and remained six
years--years crowded with kindness, labor, honor, attainment, joy, and
sorrow. Her daughter was the one all-absorbing passion--at once the joy
and the grief of her life. She was so charming and so gifted as to
satisfy the critical requirements of her mother's desires. In Petersburg,
where the daughter was greatly admired and caressed, the artist found
herself a thousand times more happy than she had ever been in her own

Mme. Le Brun was so constantly occupied and the need of earning was so
great with her, that she was forced to confide her daughter to the care
of others when she made her début in society. Thus it happened that the
young girl met M. Nigris, whom she afterward married. Personally he was
not agreeable to Mme. Le Brun and his position was not satisfactory to
her. We can imagine her chagrin in accepting a son-in-law who even asked
her for money with which to go to church on his wedding-day! The whole
affair was most distasteful, and the marriage occurred at the time of the
death of Mme. Le Brun's mother. She speaks of it as a "time devoted to

Her health suffered so much from this sadness that she tried the benefit
of change of scene, and went to Moscow. Returning to Petersburg, she
determined--in spite of the remonstrances of her friends, and the
inducements offered her to remain--to go to France. She several times
interrupted her journey in order to paint portraits of persons who had
heard of her fame, and desired to have her pictures.

She reached Paris in 1801 and writes thus of her return: "I shall not
attempt to express my emotions when I was again upon the soil of France,
from which I had been absent twelve years. Fright, grief, joy possessed
me, each in turn, for all these entered into the thousand varying
sentiments which swept over my soul. I wept for the friends whom I had
lost upon the scaffold, but I was about to see again those who remained.
This France to which I returned had been the scene of atrocious crimes;
but this France was my Native Land!"

But the new régime was odious to the artist, and she found herself unable
to be at home, even in Paris. After a year she went to London, and
remained in England three years. She detested the climate and was not in
love with the people, but she found a compensation in the society of many
French families who had fled from France as she had done.

In 1804 Mme. Nigris was in Paris and her mother returned to see her. The
young woman was very beautiful and attractive, very fond of society,
entirely indifferent to her husband, and not always wise in the choice of
her companions. Mme. Le Brun, always hard at work and always having great
anxieties, at length found herself so broken in health, and so nervously
fatigued that she longed to be alone with Nature, and in 1808 she went to
Switzerland. Her letters written to the Countess Potocka at this time are
added to her "Souvenirs," and reveal the very best of her nature. Feeling
the need of continued repose, she bought a house at Louveciennes, where
she spent much time. In 1818 M. Le Brun died, and six years later the
deaths of her daughter and her brother left her with no near relative in
the world.

For a time she sought distractions in new scenes and visited the Touraine
and other parts of France, but though she still lived a score of years,
she spent them in Paris and Louveciennes. She had with her two nieces,
who cared for her more tenderly than any one had done before. One of
these ladies was a portrait painter and profited much by the advice of
Mme. Le Brun, who wrote of this period and these friends: "They made me
feel again the sentiments of a mother, and their tender devotion
diffused a great charm over my life. It is near these two dear ones and
some friends who remain to me that I hope to terminate peacefully a life
which has been wandering but calm, laborious but honorable."

During the last years of her life the most distinguished society of Paris
was wont to assemble about her--artists, litterateurs, savants, and men
of the fashionable world. Here all essential differences of opinion were
laid aside and all met on common ground. Her "calm" seemed to have
influenced all her life; only good feeling and equality found a place
near her, and few women have the blessed fortune to be so sincerely
mourned by a host of friends as was Elizabeth Vigée Le Brun, dying at the
age of eighty-seven.

Mme. Le Brun's works numbered six hundred and sixty portraits--fifteen
genre or figure pictures and about two hundred landscapes painted from
sketches made on her journeys. Her portraits included those of the
sovereigns and royal families of all Europe, as well as the most famous
authors, artists, singers, and the learned men in Church and State.

As an artist M. Charles Blanc thus esteems her: "In short, Mme. Le Brun
belonged entirely to the eighteenth century--I wish to say to that period
of our time which rested itself suddenly at David. While she followed the
counsels of Vernet, her pencil had a certain suppleness, and her brush a
force; but she too often attempted to imitate Greuze in her later works
and she weakened the resemblance to her subjects by abusing the _regard
noyé_ (cloudy or indistinct effect). She was too early in vogue to make
all the necessary studies, and she too often contented herself with an
ingenuity a little too manifest. Without judging her as complacently as
the Academy formerly judged her, we owe her an honorable place, because
in spite of revolutions and reforms she continued to her last day the
light, spiritual, and French Art of Watteau, Nattier, and Fragonard."

VIGRI, CATERINA DE. Lippo Dalmasii was much admired by Malvasia, who
not only extols his pictures, but his spirit as well, and represents him
as following his art as a religion, beginning and ending his daily work
with prayer. Lippo is believed to have been the master of Caterina de
Vigri, and the story of her life is in harmony with the influence of such
a teacher.

She is the only woman artist who has been canonized; and in the Convent
of the Corpus Domini, in Bologna, which she founded, she is known as "La
Santa," and as a special patron of the Fine Arts.

Caterina was of a noble family of Ferrara, where she was born in 1413.
She died when fifty years old; and so great was the reverence for her
memory that her remains were preserved, and may still be seen in a chapel
of her convent. There are few places in that ever wonderful Italy of such
peculiar interest as this chapel, where sits, clothed in a silken robe,
with a crown of gold on the head, the incorrupt body of a woman who died
four hundred and forty years ago. The body is quite black, while the
nails are still pink. She holds a book and a sceptre. Around her, in the
well-lighted chapel, are several memorials of her life: the viola on
which she played, and a manuscript in her exquisite chirography, also a
service book illuminated by Caterina, and, still more important, one of
her pictures, a "Madonna and Child," inserted in the wall on the left of
the chapel, which is admirable for the beauty of expression in the face
of the Holy Mother.

We cannot trace Caterina's artist life step by step, but she doubtless
worked with the same spirit of consecration and prayer as did that Beato
whom we call Angelico, in his Florentine convent, a century earlier.

Caterina executed many miniatures, and her easel pictures were not large.
These were owned by private families. She is known to us by two pictures
of "St. Ursula folding her Robe about her Companions." One is in the
Bologna Gallery, the other in the Academy in Venice. The first is on a
wooden panel, and was painted when the artist was thirty-nine years old.
The Saint is represented as unnaturally tall, the figures of her virgins
being very small. The mantle and robe of St. Ursula are of rich brocade
ornamented with floral designs, while on each side of her is a white
flag, on which is a red cross. The face of the saint is so attractive
that one forgets the elongation of her figure. There is a delicacy in the
execution, combined with a freedom and firmness of handling fully equal
to the standard of her school and time. Many honors were paid to the
memory of Caterina de Vigri. She was chosen as the protectress of
Academies and Art Institutions, and in the eighteenth century a medal was
coined, on which she is represented as painting on a panel held by an
angel. How few human beings are thus honored three centuries after death!

VINCENT, MME. See Labille.

VISSCHER, ANNA AND MARIA. These daughters of the celebrated Dutch
engraver were known as "the Dutch Muses." They made their best reputation
by their etchings on glass, but they were also well known for their
writing of both poetry and prose. They were associated with the scholars
of their time and were much admired.

studied with Schroder in her native city, with L. Cogniet in Paris, and
later in Italy. She returned to Berlin, where she painted portraits and
genre subjects. Her picture of the "Grandmother telling Stories" is in
the Museum of Stettin. Among her works are "An Artist's Travels" a
"German Emigrant," and "School Friends."

VONNOH, BESSIE POTTER. Bronze medal, Paris Exposition, 1900; Second
Prize at Tennessee Centennial. Honorable mention at Buffalo Exposition,
1901. Member of the National Sculpture Society and National Arts Club.
Born in St. Louis, Missouri, 1872.

This sculptor is a pupil of the Art Institute, Chicago. Among her best
works are "A Young Mother"; "Twin Sisters"; "His First Journey"; "Girl
Reading," etc.

In the _Century Magazine_, September, 1897, Arthur Hoeber wrote: "There
were shown at the Society of American Artists in New York, in the Spring
of 1896, some statuettes of graceful young womanhood, essentially modern
in conception, singularly naïve in treatment, refined, and withal
intensely personal.... While the disclosure is by no means novel, Miss
Potter makes us aware that in the daily prosaic life about us there are
possibilities conventional yet attractive, simple, but containing much of
suggestion, waiting only the sympathetic touch to be responsive if the
proper chord is struck."

This author also notices the affiliation of this young woman with the
efforts of the Tanagra workers, and says: "But if the inspiration of the
young woman is evident, her work can in no way be called imitative."

VOS, MARIA. Born in Amsterdam, 1824. Pupil of P. Kiers. Her pictures
were principally of still-life, two of which are seen in the Amsterdam

WAGNER, MARIA DOROTHEA; family name Dietrich. 1728-1792. The gallery
of Wiesbaden has two of her landscapes, as has also the Museum at Gotha.
"Der Mühlengrund," representing a valley with a brook and a mill, is in
the Dresden Gallery.

WARD, MISS E. This sculptor has a commission to make a statue of G.
R. Clark for the St. Louis Exposition.

[_No reply to circular_.]

WARD, HENRIETTA MARY ADA. Gold and silver medals at the Crystal
Palace; bronze medal at the Vienna Exposition, 1873. Born in Newman
Street, London, when that street and the neighborhood was the quarter in
which the then celebrated artists resided. Mrs. Ward was a pupil of the
Bloomsbury Art School and of Sak's Academy. Her grandfather, James Ward,
was a royal Academician, and one of the best animal painters of England.
While Sir Thomas Lawrence lived, Mrs. Ward's father, who was a
miniaturist, was much occupied in copying the works of Sir Thomas on
ivory, as the celebrated portrait painter would permit no other artist to
repeat them. After the death of Sir Thomas, Mr. Ward became an engraver.
Her mother was also a miniature painter. Her great-uncles were William
Ward, R.A., and George Morland; John Jackson, R.A., was her uncle; and
her husband, Edward M. Ward, to whom she was married at sixteen, was also
a Royal Academican.

From 1849, Mrs. Ward exhibited at the Royal Academy during thirty years,
without a break, but her husband's death caused her to omit some
exhibitions, and since that time her exhibits have been less regular. For
some years Mrs. Ward has had successful classes for women at Chester
Studios, which have somewhat interfered with her painting.

Mrs. Ward's subjects have been historical and genre, some of which are
extensively known by prints after them. Among these are "Joan of Arc,"
"Palissy the Potter," and "Mrs. Fry and Mary Saunderson visiting
Prisoners at Newgate," the last dedicated by permission to Queen
Victoria. This picture was purchased by an American.

Of her picture of "Mary of Scotland, giving her infant to the Care of
Lord Mar," Palgrave wrote: "This work is finely painted, and tells its
tale with clearness." Among her numerous works are: "The Poet Hogg's
First Love"; "Chatterton," the poet, in the Muniment Room, Bristol; "Lady
Jane Grey refusing the Crown of England"; "Antwerp Market"; "Queen Mary
of Scots' farewell to James I."; "Washing Day at the Liverpool Docks";
"The Princes in the Tower"; "George III. and Mrs. Delayney, with his
family at Windsor"; "The Young Pretender," and many others.

When sixteen Mrs. Ward exhibited two heads in crayon. In 1903, at the
Academy, she exhibited "The Dining-room, Kent House, Knightsbridge." Mrs.
Ward painted for Queen Victoria two portraits of the Princess Beatrice,
and a life-size copy of a portrait of the Duke of Albany. She also
painted a portrait of Princess Alice of Albany, who is about to marry
Prince Alexander of Teck.

Edward VII. has commissioned this artist to make two copies of the state
portrait, painted by S. Luke Fildes, R.A.

Mrs. Ward had two more votes for her admission to the Royal Academy than
any other woman of her time has had.

WASSER, ANNA. Born at Zürich, 1676, is notable among the painters of
her country. She was the daughter of an artist, and early developed a
love of drawing and an unusual aptitude in the study of languages. In
painting she was a pupil of Joseph Werner. After a time she devoted
herself to miniature painting; her reputation extended to all the German
courts, as well as to Holland and England, and her commissions were so
numerous that her father began to regard her as a mine of riches. He
allowed her neither rest nor recreation, and was even unwilling that she
should devote sufficient time to her pictures to finish them properly.
Under this pressure of haste and constant labor her health gave way and
she became melancholy.

She was separated from her father, and in more agreeable surroundings her
health was restored and she resumed her painting. Her father then
insisted that she should return to him. On her journey home she had a
fall, from the effects of which she died at the age of thirty-four.

Fuseli valued a picture by Anna Wasser, which he owned, and praised her
correctness of design and her feeling for color.

WATERS, SADIE P. 1869-1900. Honorable mention Paris Exposition,
1900. Born in St. Louis, Missouri. This unusually gifted artist made her
studies entirely in Paris, under the direction of M. Luc-Olivier Merson.

Her earlier works were portraits in miniature, in which she was very
successful. That of Jane Hading was much admired. She also excelled in
illustrations, but in her later work she found her true province, that of
religious subjects. A large picture on ivory, called "La Vierge au Lys,"
was exhibited in Paris, London, Brussels, and Ghent, and attracted much

[Illustration: LA VIERGE AU ROSIER


Her picture of the "Vierge aux Rosiers," reproduced here, was in the
Salon, 1899, and in the exhibition of Religious Art in Brussels in 1900,
after which it was exhibited in New York; and wherever seen it was
especially admired.

Miss Waters' pictures were exhibited in the Salon Français, Champs
Elysées, from 1891 until her death. From the earliest days of childhood
she was remarkable for her skill in drawing and in working out, from
her own impressions, pictures of events passing about her. If at the
theatre she saw a play that appealed to her, she made a picture symbolic
of the play, and constantly startled her friends by her original ideas
and the pronounced artistic temperament, which was very early the one
controlling power in her life. Mr. Carl Gutherz thus speaks of her good
fortune in studying with M. Merson.

"As the Master and Student became more and more acquainted, and the great
artist found in the student those kindred qualities which subsequently
made her work so refined and beautiful,... he took the utmost care in
developing her drawing--the fidelity of line and of expression, and the
ever-pervading purity in her work. The sympathy with all good was
reflected in the student, as it was ever present with the master, and
only those who are acquainted with M. Merson can appreciate how fortunate
it was for Art that the young artist was under a master of his character
and temperament."

One of her pictures, called "La Chrysanthème," represents a nude figure
of a young girl, seated on the ground, leaning against a large basket of
chrysanthemums, from which she is plucking blossoms. The figure is
beautiful, and shows the deep study the artist had made, although still
so young.

The following estimate of her work is made by one competent to speak of
such matters: "In this epoch of feverish uncertainty, of heated
discussions and rivalries in art matters, the quiet, calm figure of Sadie
Waters has a peculiar interest and charm generated by her tranquil and
persistent pursuit of an ideal--an ideal she attained in her later
works, an ideal of the highest mental order, mystical and human, and so
far removed from the tendencies of our time that one might truthfully
say, it stands alone. Her talents were manifold. She was endowed with the
best of artistic qualities. She cultivated them diligently, and slowly
acquired the handicraft and skill which enabled her to express herself
without restriction. In her miniatures she learned to be careful,
precise, and delicate; in her work from nature she was human; and in her
studies of illuminating she gained a perfect understanding of ornamental
painting and forms; and the subtle ambiance of the beautiful old churches
and convents where she worked and pored over the ancient missals, and
softly talked with the princely robed Monsignori, no doubt did much to
develop her love for the Beautiful Story, the delicate myth of
Christianity--and all this, all these rare qualities and honest efforts
we find in her last picture, The Virgin.

"The beauty and preciseness of this composition, the divine feeling not
without a touch of motherly sentiment, its delicacy so rare and so pure,
the distinction of its coloring, are all past expression, and give it a
place unique in the nineteenth century."--_Paul W. Bartlett_, Paris,

WEGMANN, BERTHA. Honorable mention, Paris Salon, 1880; third-class
medal, 1882; Thorwaldsen medal at Copenhagen; small gold medal, Berlin,
1894. Born at Soglio, Switzerland, 1847. Studied in Copenhagen, Munich,
Paris, and Florence.

She paints portraits and genre subjects. Her pictures, seen at Berlin in
1893, were much admired. They included portraits, figure studies, and
Danish interiors. At Munich, in 1894, her portraits attracted attention,
and were commended by those who wrote of the exhibition. Among her works
are many portraits: "Mother and Child in the Garden," and "A Widow and
Child," are two of her genre subjects.

WEIS, ROSARIO. Silver medal from the Academy of San Fernando, 1842,
for a picture called "Silence." Member of the Academy. Pupil of Goya, who
early recognized her talent. In 1823, when Goya removed to Burdeos, she
studied under the architect Tiburcio Perez. After a time she joined Goya,
and remained his pupil until his death in 1828. She then entered the
studio Lacour, where she did admirable work. In 1833, for the support of
her mother and herself, she made copies of pictures in the Prado on
private commissions.

In 1842 she was appointed teacher of drawing to the royal family, in
which position she did not long continue, her death occurring in 1843.

Among her pictures are "Attention!" an allegorical figure; "An Angel"; "A
Venus"; and "A Diana." Among her portraits are those of Goya, Velasquez,
and Figaro.

WIEGMANN, MARIE ELISABETH; family name Hancke. Small gold medal,
Berlin. Born 1826 at Solberberg, Silesia; died, 1893, at Düsseldorf. In
1841 she began to study with Stilke in Düsseldorf; later with K. Sohn.
She travelled extensively in Germany, England, Holland, and Italy, and
settled with her husband, Rudolph Wiegmann, in Düsseldorf. In the Museum
at Hanover is "The Colonist's Children Crowning a Negro Woman," and in
the National Gallery at Berlin a portrait of Schnaase. Some children's
portraits, and one of the Countess Hatzfeld, should also be mentioned
among her works.

In portraiture her work was distinguished by talent, spirit, and true
artistic composition; in genre--especially the so-called ideal genre--she
produced some exquisite examples.

WENTWORTH, MARQUISE CECILIA DE. Gold medal, Tours National
Exposition, Lyons and Turin; Honorable mention, Paris Salon, 1891; Bronze
medal, Paris Exposition, 1900; Chevalier of the Legion of Honor, 1901.
Born in New York. Pupil of the Convent of the Sacred Heart and of
Cabanel, in Paris. This artist has painted portraits of Leo XIII., who
presented her with a gold medal; of Cardinal Ferrata; of
Challemel-Lacour, President of the Senate at the time when the portrait
was made, and of many others. Her picture of "Faith" is in the Luxembourg
Gallery. At the Salon des Artistes Français, 1903, Madame de Wentworth
exhibited the "Portrait of Mlle. X.," and "Solitude."

[_No reply to circular_.]

WHEELER, JANET. First Toppan Prize and Mary Smith Prize at Academy
of Fine Arts, Philadelphia; Gold medal, Philadelphia Art Club. Fellow of
Academy of Fine Arts, and member of Plastic Club, Philadelphia. Born in
Detroit, Michigan. Pupil of Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia, and of
the Julian Academy in Paris.

This artist paints portraits almost entirely, which are in private hands.
I know of but one figure picture by her, which is called "Beg for It."
She was a miniaturist several years before taking up larger portraits.

WHITE, FLORENCE. Silver medal at Woman's Exhibition, Earl's Court;
silver medal for a pastel exhibited in Calcutta. Born at Brighton,
England. Pupil of Royal Academy Schools in London, and of Bouguereau and
Perrier in Paris.

In 1899 this artist exhibited a portrait in the New Gallery; in 1901 a
portrait of Bertram Blunt, Esq., at the Royal Academy; and in 1902 a
portrait of "Peggy," a little girl with a poodle.

She has sent miniatures to the Academy exhibitions several years; that of
Miss Lyall Wilson was exhibited in 1903.

WHITMAN, SARAH DE ST. PRIX. Bronze medal at Columbian Exposition,
Chicago, 1893; gold and bronze medals at Atlanta Exposition; diploma at
Pan-American, Buffalo, 1901. Member of the Society of American Artists,
New York; Copley Society, Boston; Water-Color Club, Boston. Born in
Baltimore, Maryland. Pupil of William M. Hunt and Thomas Couture.

Mrs. Whitman has painted landscapes and portraits, and of recent years
has been much occupied with work in glass. Windows by her are in Memorial
Hall, Cambridge; in the Episcopal Church in Andover, Massachusetts, etc.
An altar-piece by her is in All Saints' Church, Worcester.

Her portrait of Senator Bayard is in the State Department, Washington.

WHITNEY, ANNE. Born in Watertown, Massachusetts. Made her studies in
Belmont and Boston, and later in Paris and Rome.

Miss Whitney's sculptures are in many public places. A heroic size statue
of Samuel Adams is in Boston and Washington, in bronze and marble;
Harriet Martineau is at Wellesley College, in marble; the "Lotos-Eaters"
is in Newton and Cambridge, in marble; "Lady Godiva," a life-size statue
in marble, is in a private collection in Milton; a statue of Leif
Eriksen, in bronze, is in Boston and Milwaukee; a bust of Professor
Pickering, in marble, is in the Observatory, Cambridge; a statue, "Roma,"
is in Albany, Wellesley, St. Louis, and Newton, in both marble and
bronze; Charles Sumner, in bronze of heroic size, is in Cambridge; a bust
of President Walker, bronze, is also in Cambridge; President Stearns, a
bust in marble, is in Amherst; a bust of Mrs. Alice Freeman Palmer is in
Cambridge; a bust of Professor Palmer is on a bronze medal; the Calla
Fountain, in bronze, is in Franklin Park; and many other busts, medals,
etc., in marble, bronze, and plaster, are in private collections.

WILSON, MELVA BEATRICE. Prize of one hundred dollars a year for
three successive years at Cincinnati Art Museum. Honorable mention, Paris
Salon, 1897. Born in Cincinnati, 1875. Pupil of Cincinnati Art Museum,
under Louis T. Rebisso and Thomas Noble; in Paris, of Rodin and Vincent

By special invitation this sculptor has been an exhibitor at the National
Sculpture Society, New York. Her principal works are: "The Minute Man,"
in Corcoran Art Gallery, Washington, D. C.; "The Volunteer," which was
given by the State of New York as a military prize to a Vermont Regiment;
an equestrian statue of John F. Doyle, Jr.; "Bull and Bear" and the "Polo
Player" in bronze, owned by Tiffany & Co.; "Retribution" in a private
collection in New York.

Miss Wilson has been accorded the largest commission given any woman
sculptor for the decoration of the buildings of the St. Louis Exposition.
She is to design eight spandrils for Machinery Hall, each one being
twenty-eight by fifteen feet in size, with figures larger than life. The
design represents the wheelwright and boiler-making trades. Reclining
nude figures, of colossal size, bend toward the keystone of the arch,
each holding a tool of a machinist. Interlaced cog-wheels form the

WIRTH, ANNA MARIE. Member of the Munich Art Association. Born in St.
Petersburg, 1846. Studied in Vienna under Straschiripka--commonly known
as Johann Canon--and in Paris, although her year's work in the latter
city seems to have left no trace upon her manner of painting. The genre
pictures, in which she excels, clearly show the influence of the old
Dutch school. A writer in "Moderne Kunst" says, in general, that she
shows us real human beings under the "précieuses ridicules," the
languishing gallants and the pedant, and often succeeds in
individualizing all these with the sharpness of a Chodowiecki, though at
times she is merely good-natured, and therefore weak.

Sometimes, like Terborch, by her anecdotical treatment, she can set a
whole romantic story before you; again, in the manner of Gerard Dow, she
gives you a penetrating glimpse into old burgher life--work that is quite
out of touch with the dilettantism that largely pervades modern art.

The admirers of this unusual artist seek out her genre pictures in the
exhibitions of to-day, much as one turns to an idyl of Heinrich Voss,
after a dose of the "storm and stress" poets. Most of her works are in
private galleries.

One of her best pictures will be seen at the St. Louis Exposition.

WISINGER-FLORIAN, OLGA. Bavarian Ludwig medal, 1891; medal at
Chicago, 1893. Born in Vienna, 1844. Pupil of Schäffer and Schwindler.
She has an excellent reputation as a painter of flowers. In the New
Gallery, Munich, is one of her pictures of this sort; and at Munich,
1893, her flower pieces were especially praised in the reports of the

She also paints landscapes, in which she gains power each year; her color
grows finer and her design or modelling stronger. At Vienna, 1890, it was
said that her picture of the "Bauernhofe" was, by its excellent color, a
disadvantage to the pictures near it, and the shore motive in "Abbazia"
was full of artistic charm. At Vienna, 1893, she exhibited a cycle, "The
Months," which bore witness to her admirable mastery of her art.

Among her works are some excellent Venetian subjects: "On the Rialto";
"Morning on the Shore"; and "In Venice."

WOLFF, BETTY. Honorable mention, Berlin, 1890. Member of the
Association of Women Artists and Friends of Art; also of the German Art
Association. Born in Berlin, where she was a pupil of Karl Stauffer-Bern;
she also studied in Munich under Karl Marr.

Besides numerous portraits of children, in pastel, this artist has
painted portraits in oils of many well-known persons, among whom are
Prof. H. Steinthal, Prof. Albrecht Weber, and General von Zycklinski.

WOLTERS, HENRIETTA, family name Van Pee. Born in Amsterdam.
1692-1741. Pupil of her father, and later made a special study of
miniature under Christoffel le Blond. Her early work consisted largely in
copies from Van de Velde and Van Dyck. Her miniatures were so highly
esteemed that Peter the Great offered her a salary of six thousand
florins as his court painter; and Frederick William of Prussia invited
her to his court, but nothing could tempt her away from her home in
Amsterdam. She received four hundred florins for a single miniature, a
most unusual price in her time.

WOOD, CAROLINE S. Daughter of Honorable Horatio D. Wood, of St.
Louis. This sculptor has made unusual advances in her art, to which she
has seriously devoted herself less than four years. She has studied in
the Art School of Washington University, the Art Institute, Chicago, and
is now a student in the Art League, New York.

She has been commissioned by the State of Missouri to make a statue to
represent "The Spirit of the State of Missouri," for the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition.

[_No reply to circular_.]

WOODBURY, MARCIA OAKES. Prize at Boston Art Club; medals at
Mechanics' Association Exhibition, Atlanta and Nashville Expositions.
Member of the New York and Boston Water-Color Clubs. Born at South
Berwick, Maine. Pupil of Tommasso Juglaris, in Boston, and of Lasar, in

Mrs. Woodbury paints in oils and water-colors; the latter are genre
scenes, and among them are several Dutch subjects. She has painted
children's portraits in oils. Her pictures are in private hands in
Boston, New York, Chicago, and Cincinnati. "The Smoker," and "Mother and
Daughter," a triptych, are two of her principal pictures.

WOODWARD, DEWING. Grand prize of the Academy Julian, 1894. Member of
Water-Color Club, Baltimore; Charcoal Club, Baltimore; L'Union des Femmes
Peintres et Sculpteurs de France. Born at Williamsport, Pennsylvania.
Pupil of Pennsylvania Academy a few months; in Paris, of Bouguereau,
Robert-Fleury, and Jules Lefebvre.

Her "Holland Family at Prayer," exhibited at the Paris Salon, 1893, and
"Jessica," belong to the Public Library in Williamsport; "Clam-Diggers
Coming Home--Cape Cod" was in the Venice Exhibition, 1903; one of her
pictures shows the "Julian Academy, Criticism Day."

She has painted many portraits, and her work has often been thought to
be that of a man, which idea is no doubt partly due to her choosing
subjects from the lives of working men. She is of the modern school of

WRIGHT, ETHEL. This artist contributed annually to the exhibitions
of the London Academy from 1893 to 1900, as follows: In 1893 she
exhibited "Milly" and "Echo"; in 1894, "The Prodigal"; in 1895, a
water-color, "Lilies"; in 1896, "Rejected"; in 1897, a portrait of Mrs.
Laurence Phillips; in 1898, "The Song of Ages," reproduced in this book;
in 1899, a portrait of Mrs. Arthur Strauss; and in 1900, one of Miss

[_No reply to circular_.]

WRIGHT, MRS. PATIENCE. Born at Bordentown, New Jersey, 1725, of a
Quaker family. When left a widow, with three children to care for, she
went to London, where she found a larger field for her art than she had
in the United States, where she had already made a good reputation as a
modeller in wax. By reason of this change of residence she has often been
called an English sculptress.

Although the imaginative and pictorial is not cultivated or even approved
by Quakers, Patience Lovell, while still a child, and before she had seen
works of art, was content only when supplied with dough, wax, or clay,
from which she made figures of men and women. Very early these figures
became portraits of the people she knew best, and in the circle of her
family and friends she was considered a genius.

Very soon after Mrs. Wright reached London she was fully employed. She
worked in wax, and her full-length portrait of Lord Chatham was placed in
Westminster Abbey, protected by a glass case. This attracted much
attention, and the London journals praised the artist. She made portraits
of the King and Queen, who, attracted by her brilliant conversation,
admitted her to an intimacy at Buckingham House, which could not then
have been accorded to an untitled English woman.

[Illustration: From a Copley Print.



Mrs. Wright made many portraits of distinguished people; but few, if any,
of these can now be seen, although it is said that some of them have been
carefully preserved by the families who possess them.

To Americans Mrs. Wright is interesting by reason of her patriotism,
which amounted to a passion. She is credited with having been an
important source of information to the American leaders in the time of
the Revolution. In this she was frank and courageous, making no secret of
her views. She even ventured to reprove George III. for his attitude
toward the Colonists, and by this boldness lost the royal favor.

She corresponded with Franklin, in Paris, and new appointments, or other
important movements in the British army, were speedily known to him.

Washington, when he knew that Mrs. Wright wished to make a bust of him,
replied in most flattering terms that he should think himself happy to
have his portrait made by her. Mrs. Wright very much desired to make
likenesses of those who signed the Treaty of Peace, and of those who had
taken a prominent part in making it. She wrote: "To shame the English
king, I would go to any trouble and expense, and add my mite to the
honor due to Adams, Jefferson, and others."

Though so essentially American as a woman, the best of her professional
life was passed in England, where she was liberally patronized and fully
appreciated. Dunlap calls her an extraordinary woman, and several writers
have mentioned her power of judging the character of her visitors, in
which she rarely made a mistake, and chose her friends with unusual

Her eldest daughter married in America, and was well known as a modeller
in wax in New York. Her younger daughter married the artist Hoppner, a
rival in portraiture of Stuart and Lawrence, while her son Joseph was a
portrait painter. His likeness of Washington was much admired.

WULFRAAT, MARGARETTA. Born at Arnheim. 1678-1741. Was a pupil of
Caspar Netscher of Heidelberg, whose little pictures are of fabulous
value. Although he was so excellent a painter he was proud of Margaretta,
whose pictures were much admired in her day. Her "Musical Conversation"
is in the Museum of Schwerin. Her "Cleopatra" and "Semiramis" are in the
Gallery at Amsterdam.

YANDELL, ENID. Special Designer's Medal, Chicago, 1893; silver
medal, Tennessee Exposition; Honorable Mention, Buffalo, 1901. Member of
National Sculpture Society; Municipal Art Society; National Arts Club,
all of New York. Born in Louisville, Kentucky. Graduate of Cincinnati Art
Academy. Pupil of Philip Martiny in New York, and in Paris of Frederick
McMonnies and Auguste Rodin.

The principal works of this artist are the Mayor Lewis monument at New
Haven, Connecticut; the Chancellor Garland Memorial, Vanderbilt
University, Nashville; Carrie Brown Memorial Fountain, Providence; Daniel
Boone and the Ruff Fountain, Louisville.

Richard Ladegast, in January, 1902, wrote a sketch of Miss Yandell's life
and works for the _Outlook_, in which he says that Miss Yandell was the
first woman to become a member of the National Sculpture Society. I quote
from his article as follows: "The most imposing product of Miss Yandell's
genius was the heroic figure of Athena, twenty-five feet in height, which
stood in front of the reproduction of the Parthenon at the Nashville
Exposition. This is the largest figure ever designed by a woman.



Made for St. Louis Exposition]

"The most artistic was probably the little silver tankard which she did
for the Tiffany Company, a bit of modelling which involves the figures of
a fisher-boy and a mermaid. The figure of Athena is large and correct;
those of the fisher-boy and mermaid poetic and impassioned.... The boy
kisses the maid when the lid is lifted. He is always looking over the
edge, as if yearning for the fate that each new drinker who lifts the lid
forces upon him."

Of the Carrie Brown Memorial Fountain he says: "The design of the
fountain represents the struggle of life symbolized by a group of figures
which is intended to portray, according to Miss Yandell, not the struggle
for bare existence, but 'the attempt of the immortal soul within us to
free itself from the handicaps and entanglements of its earthly
environments. It is the development of character, the triumph of
intellectuality and spirituality I have striven to express.' Life is
symbolized by the figure of a woman, the soul by an angel, and the
earthly tendencies--duty, passion, and avarice--by male figures. Life is
represented as struggling to free herself from the gross earthly forms
that cling to her. The figure of Life shows a calm, placid strength, well
calculated to conquer in a struggle; and the modelling of her clinging
robes and the active muscle of the male figures is firm and life-like.
The mantle of truth flows from the shoulders of the angel, forming a
drapery for the whole group, and serving as a support for the basin, the
edges of which are ornamented with dolphins spouting water.

"The silhouette formed by the mass of the fountain is most interesting
and successful from all points of view. The lines of the composition are
large and dignified, especially noticeable in the modelling of the
individual figures, which is well studied and technically excellent."

At Buffalo, where this fountain was exhibited, it received honorable

Miss Yandell has been commissioned to execute a symbolical figure of
victory and a statue of Daniel Boone for the St. Louis Exposition.

YKENS, LAURENCE CATHERINE. Elected to the Guild of Antwerp in 1659.
Born in Antwerp. Pupil of her father, Jan Ykens. Flowers, fruits, and
insects were her favorite subjects, and were painted with rare delicacy.
Two of these pictures are in the Museo del Prado, at Madrid. They are a
"Festoon of Flowers and Fruits with a Medallion in the Centre, on which
is a Landscape"; and a "Garland of Flowers with a Similar Medallion."

ZIESENSIS, MARGARETTA. There were few women artists in the
Scandinavian countries in the early years of the eighteenth century.
Among them was Margaretta Ziesensis, a Danish lady, who painted a large
number of portraits and some historical subjects.

She was best known, however, for her miniature copies of the works of
famous artists. These pictures were much the same in effect as the
"picture-miniatures" now in vogue. Her copy of Correggio's Zingarella was
much admired, and was several times repeated.


Containing names previously omitted and additions. The asterisk (*)
denotes preceding mention of the artist.

*BILDERS, MARIE VAN BOSSE. This celebrated landscape painter became
an artist through her determination to be an artist rather than because
of any impelling natural force driving her to this career.

After patient and continuous toil, she felt that she was developing an
artistic impulse. The advice of Van de Sande-Bakhuyzen greatly encouraged
her, and the candid and friendly criticism of Bosboom inspired her with
the courage to exhibit her work in public.

In the summer of 1875, in Vorden, she met Johannes Bilders, under whose
direction she studied landscape painting. This master took great pains to
develop the originality of his pupil rather than to encourage her
adapting the manner of other artists. During her stay in Vorden she made
a distinct gain in the attainment of an individual style of painting.

After her return to her home at The Hague, Bilders established a studio
there and showed a still keener interest in his pupil. This artistic
friendship resulted in the marriage of the two artists, and in 1880 they
established themselves in Oosterbeck.

Here began the intimate study of the heath which so largely influenced
the best pictures by Frau Bilders. In the garden of the picturesque house
in which the two artists lived was an old barn, which became her studio,
where, early and late, in all sorts of weather, she devotedly observed
the effects later pictured on her canvases. At this time she executed one
of her best works, now in the collection of the Prince Regent of
Brunswick. It is thus described by a Dutch writer in Rooses' "Dutch
Painters of the Nineteenth Century":

"It represents a deep pool, overshadowed by old gnarled willows in their
autumnal foliage, their silvery trunks bending over, as if to see
themselves in the clear, still water. On the edge of the pool are flowers
and variegated grasses, the latter looking as if they wished to crowd out
the former--as if _they_ were in the right and the flowers in the wrong;
as if such bright-hued creatures had no business to eclipse their more
sombre tones; as if _they_ and _they_ alone were suited to this silent,
forsaken spot."

Johannes Bilders was fully twenty-five years older than his wife, and the
failure of both his physical and mental powers in his last days required
her absolute devotion to him. In spite of this, the garden studio was not
wholly forsaken, and nearly every day she accomplished something there.
After her husband's death she had a long illness. On her recovery she
returned to The Hague and took the studio which had been that of the
artist Mauve.

The life of the town was wearisome to her, but she found a compensation
in her re-union with her old friends, and with occasional visits to the
heath she passed most of her remaining years in the city.

Her favorite subjects were landscapes with birch and beech trees, and the
varying phases of the heath and of solitary and unfrequented scenes. Her
works are all in private collections. Among them are "The Forester's
Cottage," "Autumn in Doorwerth," "The Old Birch," and the "Old Oaks of
Wodan at Sunset."

BOZNANSKA, OLGA. Born in Cracow, where she was a pupil of Matejko.
Later, in Munich, she studied with Kricheldorf and Dürr. Her mother was a
French woman, and critics trace both Polish and French characteristics in
her work.

She paints portraits and genre subjects. She is skilful in seizing
salient characteristics, and her chief aim is to preserve the
individuality of her sitters and models. She skilfully manages the
side-lights, and by this means produces strong effects. After the first
exhibition of her pictures in Berlin, her "God-given talent" was several
times mentioned by the art critics.

At Munich she made a good impression by her pictures exhibited in 1893
and 1895; at the Exposition in Paris, 1889, her portrait and a study in
pastel were much admired and were generously praised in the art journals.

*COX, LOUISE. The picture by Mrs. Cox, reproduced in this book,
illustrates two lines in a poem by Austin Dobson, called "A Song of
Angiola in Heaven."

    "Then set I lips to hers, and felt,--
    Ah, God,--the hard pain fade and melt."

DE MORGAN, EMILY. Family name Pickering. When sixteen years old,
this artist entered the Slade School, and eighteen months later received
the Slade Scholarship, by which she was entitled to benefit for three
years. At the end of the first year, however, she resigned this privilege
because she did not wish to accept the conditions of the gift.

As a child she had loved the pictures of the precursors of Raphael, in
the National Gallery, and her first exhibited picture, "Ariadne in
Naxos," hung in the Grosvenor Gallery in 1877, proved how closely she had
studied these old masters. At this time she knew nothing of the English
Pre-Raphaelites; later, however, she became one of the most worthy
followers of Burne-Jones.

About the time that she left the Slade School one of her uncles took up
his residence in Florence, where she has spent several winters in work
and study.

One of her most important pictures is inscribed with these lines:

    "Dark is the valley of shadows,
    Empty the power of kings;
    Blind is the favor of fortune,
    Hungry the caverns of death.
    Dim is the light from beyond,
    Unanswered the riddle of life."

This pessimistic view of the world is illustrated by the figure of a
king, who, in the midst of ruins, places his foot upon the prostrate form
of a chained victim; Happiness, with bandaged eyes, scatters treasures
into the bottomless pit, a desperate youth being about to plunge into its
depths; a kneeling woman, praying for light, sees brilliant figures
soaring upward, their beauty charming roses from the thorn bushes.

Other pictures by this artist remind one of the works of Botticelli. Of
her "Ithuriel" W. S. Sparrow wrote: "It may be thought that this Ithuriel
is too mild--too much like Shakespeare's Oberon--to be in keeping with
the terrific tragedy depicted in the first four books of the 'Paradise
Lost.' Eve, too, lovely as she is, seems to bear no likelihood of
resemblance to Milton's superb mother of mankind. But the picture has a
sweet, serene grace which should make us glad to accept from Mrs. De
Morgan another Eve and another Ithuriel, true children of her own fancy."

The myth of "Boreas and Orithyia," though faulty perhaps in technique, is
good in conception and arrangement.

Mrs. De Morgan has produced some impressive works in sculpture. Among
these are "Medusa," a bronze bust; and a "Mater Dolorosa," in

DESCHLY, IRENE. Born in Bucharest, the daughter of a Roumanian
advocate. She gave such promise as an artist that a government stipend
was bestowed on her, which enabled her to study in Paris, where she was a
pupil of Laurens and E. Carrière.

Her work is tinged with the melancholy and intensity of her
nature--perhaps of her race; yet there is something in her grim
conceptions, or rather in her treatment of them, that demands attention
and compels admiration. Even in her "Sweet Dream," which represents the
half-nude figure of a young girl holding a rose in her hand, there is
more sadness than joy, as though she said, "It is only a dream, after
all." "Chanson," exhibited at the Paris Exposition, 1900, displays
something of the same quality.

ERISTOW-KASAK, PRINCESS MARIE. Among the many Russian portraits in
the Paris Exposition, 1900, two, the work of this pupil of Michel de
Zichys, stood out in splendid contrast with the crass realism or the weak
idealism of the greater number. One was a half-length portrait of the
laughing Mme. Paquin; full of life and movement were the pose of the
figure, the fall of the draperies, and the tilt of the expressive fan.
The other was the spirited portrait of Baron von Friedericks, a happy
combination of cavalier and soldier in its manly strength.

When but sixteen years old, the Princess Marie roused the admiration of
the Russian court by her portrait of the Grand Duke Sergius. This led to
her painting portraits of various members of the royal family while she
was still a pupil of De Zichys.

After her marriage she established herself in Paris, where she endeavors
to preserve an incognito as an artist in order to work in the most quiet
and devoted manner.

GOEBELER, ELISE. This artist studied drawing under Steffeck and
color under Dürr, in Munich. Connoisseurs in art welcome the name of
Elise Goebeler in exhibitions, and recall the remarkable violet-blue
lights and the hazy atmosphere in her works, out of which emerges some
charming, graceful figure; perhaps a young girl on whose white shoulders
the light falls, while a shadow half conceals the rest of the form.
These dreamy, Madonna-like beauties are the result of the most severe and
protracted study. Without the remarkable excellence of their technique
and the unusual quality of their color they would be the veriest
sentimentalities; but wherever they are seen they command admiration.

Her "Cinderella," exhibited in Berlin in 1880, was bought by the Emperor;
another picture of the same subject, but quite different in effect, was
exhibited in Munich in 1883. In the same year, in Berlin, "A Young Girl
with Pussy-Willows" and "A Neapolitan Water Carrier" were seen. In 1887,
in Berlin, her "Vanitas, Vanitatum Vanitas" and the "Net-Mender" were
exhibited, and ten years later "Cheerfulness" was highly commended. At
Munich, in 1899, her picture, called "Elegie," attracted much attention
and received unusual praise.

*HERBELIN, JEANE MATHILDE. This miniaturist has recently died at the
age of eighty-four. In addition to the medals and honors she had received
previous to 1855, it was that year decided that her works should be
admitted to the Salon without examination. She was a daughter of General
Habert, and a niece of Belloc, under whom she studied her art while still
very young. Her early ambition was to paint large pictures, but Delacroix
persuaded her to devote herself to miniature painting, in which art she
has been called "the best in the world."

She adopted the full tones and broad style to which she was accustomed in
her larger works, and revolutionized the method of miniature painting in
which stippling had prevailed. When eighteen years old, she went to
Italy, where she made copies from the masters and did much original work
as well.

Among her best portraits are those of the Baroness Habert, Guizot,
Rossini, Isabey, Robert-Fleury, M. and Mme. de Torigny, Count de Zeppel,
and her own portrait. Besides portraits, she painted a picture called "A
Child Holding a Rose," "Souvenir," and "A Young Girl Playing with a Fan."

JOHNSON, ADELAIDE. Born at Plymouth, Illinois. This sculptor first
studied in the St. Louis School of Design, and in 1877, at the St. Louis
Exposition, received two prizes for the excellence of her wood carving.
During several years she devoted herself to interior decoration,
designing not only the form and color to be used in decorating edifices,
but also the furniture and all necessary details to complete them and
make them ready for use.

Being desirous of becoming a sculptor, Miss Johnson went, in 1883, to
England, Germany, and Italy. In Rome she was a pupil of Monteverde and of
Altini, who was then president of the Academy of St. Luke.

After two years she returned to America and began her professional career
in Chicago, where she remained but a year before establishing herself in
Washington. Her best-known works are portrait busts, which are numerous.
Many of these have been seen in the Corcoran Art Gallery and in other
public exhibitions.

Of her bust of Susan B. Anthony, the sculptor, Lorado Taft, said: "Your
bust of Miss Anthony is better than mine. I tried to make her real, but
you have made her not only real, but ideal." Among her portraits are
those of General Logan, Dr. H. W. Thomas, Isabella Beecher Hooker,
William Tebb, Esq., of London, etc.

KOEGEL, LINDA. Born at The Hague. A pupil of Stauffer-Bern in Berlin
and of Herterich in Munich. Her attachment to impressionism leads this
artist to many experiments in color--or, as one critic wrote, "to play
with color."

She apparently prefers to paint single figures of women and young girls,
but her works include a variety of subjects. She also practises etching,
pen-and-ink drawing, as well as crayon and water-color sketching. The
light touch in some of her genre pictures is admirable, and in contrast,
the portrait of her father--- the court preacher--displays a masculine
firmness in its handling, and is a very striking picture.

In 1895 she exhibited at the Munich Secession the portrait of a woman,
delicate but spirited, and a group which was said to set aside every
convention in the happiest manner.

KROENER, MAGDA. The pictures of flowers which this artist paints
prove her to be a devoted lover of nature. She exhibited at Düsseldorf,
in 1893, a captivating study of red poppies and another of flowering
vetch, which were bought by the German Emperor. The following year she
exhibited two landscapes, one of which was so much better than the other
that it was suggested that she might have been assisted by her husband,
the animal painter, Christian Kroener.

One of her most delightful pictures, "A Quiet Corner," represents a
retired nook in a garden, overgrown with foliage and flowers, so well
painted that one feels that they must be fragrant.

LEPSIUS, SABINA. Daughter of Gustav Graf and wife of the portrait
painter, Lepsius. She was a pupil of Gussow, then of the Julian Academy
in Paris, and later studied in Rome. Her pictures have an unusual
refinement; like some other German women artists, she aims at giving a
subtle impression of character and personality in her treatment of
externals, and her work has been said to affect one like music.

The portrait of her little daughter, painted in a manner which suggests
Van Dyck, is one of the works which entitle her to consideration.

LEYSTER, JUDITH. A native of Haarlem on Zandam, the date of her
birth being unknown. She died in 1660. In 1636 she married the well-known
artist, Jan Molemaer. She did her work at a most interesting period in
Dutch painting. Her earliest picture is dated 1629; she was chosen to the
Guild of St. Luke at Haarlem in 1633.

Recent investigations make it probable that certain pictures which have
for generations been attributed to Frans Hals were the work of Judith
Leyster. In 1893 a most interesting lawsuit, which occurred in London and
was reported in the _Times_, concerned a picture known as "The Fiddlers,"
which had been sold as a work of Frans Hals for £4,500. The purchasers
found that this claim was not well founded, and sought to recover their

A searching investigation traced the ownership of the work back to a
connoisseur of the time of William III. In 1678 it was sold for a small
sum, and was then called "A Dutch Courtesan Drinking with a Young Man."
The monogram on the picture was called that of Frans Hals, but as
reproduced and explained by C. Hofstede de Groot in the "_Jahrbuch für
Königlich-preussischen Kunst-Sammlungen_" for 1893, it seems evident that
the signature is J. L. and not F. H.

Similar initials are on the "Flute Player," in the gallery at Stockholm;
the "Seamstress," in The Hague Gallery, and on a picture in the Six
collection at Amsterdam.

It is undeniable that these pictures all show the influence of Hals,
whose pupil Judith Leyster may have been, and whose manner she caught as
Mlle. Mayer caught that of Greuze and Prud'hon. At all events, the
present evidence seems to support the claim that the world is indebted to
Judith Leyster for these admirable pictures.

MACH, HILDEGARDE VON. This painter studied in Dresden and Munich,
and under the influence of Anton Pepinos she developed her best
characteristics, her fine sense of form and of color. She admirably
illustrates the modern tendency in art toward individual expression--a
tendency which permits the following of original methods, and affords an
outlet for energy and strength of temperament.

Fräulein Mach has made a name in both portrait and genre painting. Her
"Waldesgrauen" represents two naked children in an attitude of alarm as
the forest grows dark around them; it gives a vivid impression of the
mysterious charm and the possible dangers which the deep woods present
to the childish mind.

MAYER, MARIE FRANÇOISE CONSTANCE. As early as 1806 this artist
received a gold medal from the Paris Salon, awarded to her picture of
"Venus and Love Asleep." Born 1775, died 1821. She studied under Suvée,
Greuze, and Prud'hon. There are various accounts of the life of Mlle.
Mayer. That of M. Charles Guenllette is the authority followed here. It
is probable that Mlle. Mayer came under the influence of Prud'hon as
early as 1802, possibly before that time.

Prud'hon, a sensitive man, absorbed in his art, had married at twenty a
woman who had no sympathy with his ideals, and when she realized that he
had no ambition, and was likely to be always poor, her temper got the
better of any affection she had ever felt for him. Prud'hon, in
humiliation and despair, lived in a solitude almost complete.

It was with difficulty that Mlle. Mayer persuaded this master to receive
her as a pupil; but this being gained, both these painters had studios in
the Sorbonne from 1809 to 1821. At the latter date all artists were
obliged to vacate the Sorbonne ateliers to make room for some new
department of instruction. Mlle. Mayer had been for some time in a
depressed condition, and her friends had been anxious about her. Whether
leaving the Sorbonne had a tendency to increase her melancholy is not
known, but her suicide came as a great surprise and shock to all who knew
her, especially to Prud'hon, who survived her less than two years.

Prud'hon painted several portraits of Mlle. Mayer, the best-known being
now in the Louvre. It represents an engaging personality, in which
vivacity and sensibility are distinctly indicated.

Mlle. Mayer had made her début at the Salon of 1896 with a portrait of
"Citizeness Mayer," painted by herself, and showing a sketch for the
portrait of her mother; also a picture of a "Young Scholar with a
Portfolio Under His Arm," and a miniature. From this time her work was
seen at each year's salon.

Her pictures in 1810 were the "Happy Mother" and the "Unhappy Mother,"
which are now in the Louvre; the contrast between the joyousness of the
mother with her child and the anguish of the mother who has lost her
child is portrayed with great tenderness. The "Dream of Happiness," also
in the Louvre, represents a young couple in a boat with their child; the
boat is guided down the stream of life by Love and Fortune. This is one
of her best pictures. It is full of poetic feeling, and the flesh tints
are unusually natural. The work of this artist is characterized by
delicacy of touch and freshness of color while pervaded by a peculiar
grace and charm. Her drawing is good, but the composition is less

It is well known that Prud'hon and his pupil painted many pictures in
collaboration. This has led to an under-valuation of her ability, and
both the inferior works of Prud'hon and bad imitations of him have been
attributed to her. M. Guenllette writes that when Mlle. Mayer studied
under Greuze she painted in his manner, and he inclines to the opinion
that some pictures attributed to Greuze were the work of his pupil. In
the same way she imitated Prud'hon, and this critic thinks it by no means
certain that the master finished her work, as has been alleged.

In the Museum at Nancy are Mlle. Mayer's portraits of Mme. and Mlle.
Voiant; in the Museum of Dijon is an ideal head by her, and in the
Bordeaux Gallery is her picture, called "Confidence." "Innocence Prefers
Love to Riches" and the "Torch of Venus" are well-known works by Mlle.

MESDAG-VAN HOUTEN, S. Gold medal at Amsterdam, 1884; bronze medal,
Paris Exposition, 1889. Born at Groningen, 1834. In 1856 she married
Mesdag, who, rather late in life decided to follow the career of a
painter. His wife, not wishing to be separated from him in any sense,
resolved on the same profession, and about 1870 they began their study.
Mme. Mesdag acquired her technique with difficulty, and her success was
achieved only as the result of great perseverance and continual labor.
The artists of Oosterbeck and Brussels, who were her associates,
materially aided her by their encouragement. She began the study of
drawing at the age of thirty, and her first attempt in oils was made
seven years later. Beginning with single twigs and working over them
patiently she at length painted whole trees, and later animals. She came
to know the peculiarities of nearly all native trees.

She built a studio in the woods of Scheveningen, and there developed her
characteristics--close observation and careful reproduction of details.

In the summer of 1872 M. and Mme. Mesdag went to Friesland and Drenthe,
where they made numerous sketches of the heath, sheep, farmhouses, and
the people in their quaint costumes. One of Mme. Mesdag's pictures,
afterward exhibited at Berlin, is thus described: "On this canvas we see
the moon, just as she has broken through a gray cloud, spreading her
silvery sheen over the sleepy land; in the centre we are given a
sheep-fold, at the door of which a flock of sheep are jostling and
pushing each other, all eager to enter their place of rest. The wave-like
movement of these animals is particularly graceful and cleverly done. A
little shepherdess is guiding them, as anxious to get them in as they are
to enter, for this means the end of her day's work. Her worn-out blue
petticoat is lighted up by a moonbeam; in her hand she appears to have a
hoe. It is a most harmonious picture; every line is in accord with its

While residing in Brussels these two artists began to collect works of
art for what is now known as the Mesdag Museum. In 1887 a wing was added
to their house to accommodate their increasing treasures, which include
especially good examples of modern French painting, pottery, tapestry,

In 1889 an exhibition of the works of these painters was held. Here
convincing proof was given of Mme. Mesdag's accuracy, originality of
interpretation, and her skill in the use of color.

young romantic movement in Denmark. She has embodied in her work a modern
comprehension of old legends. The landscape and people of her native
land seem to her as eminently suitable motives, and these realities she
renders in the spirit of a by-gone age--that of the national heroes of
the sagas and epics of the country, or the lyric atmosphere of the

She may depict these conceptions, full of feeling, in the dull colors of
the North, or in rich and glowing hues, but the impression she gives is
much the same in both cases, a generally restful effect, though the faces
in her pictures are full of life and emotion. Her choice of subjects and
her manner of treatment almost inevitably introduce some archaic quality
in her work. This habit and the fact that she cares more for color than
for drawing are the usual criticisms of her pictures.

Her "St. Agnes" is an interesting rendering of a well-worn subject.
"Adelil the Proud," exhibited at the Paris Exposition of 1889, tells the
story of the Duke of Frydensburg, who was in love with Adelil, the king's
daughter. The king put him to death, and the attendants of Adelil made of
his heart a viand which they presented to her. When she learned what this
singular substance was--that caused her to tremble violently--she asked
for wine, and carrying the cup to her lips with a tragic gesture, in
memory of her lover, she died of a broken heart. It is such legends as
these that Mme. Slott-Möller revives, and by which she is widely known.

MORISOT OR MORIZOT, BERTHE. Married name Manet. Born at Bourges,
1840, died in Paris, 1895. A pupil of Guichard and Oudinot. After her
marriage to Eugène Manet she came under the influence of his famous
brother, Édouard. This artist signed her pictures with her maiden name,
being too modest to use that which she felt belonged only to Édouard
Manet, in the world of art.

A great interest was, however, aroused in the private galleries, where
the works of the early impressionists were seen, by the pictures of
Berthe Morisot. Camille Mauclair, an enthusiastic admirer of this school
of art, says: "Berthe Morizot will remain the most fascinating figure of
Impressionism--the one who has stated most precisely the femininity of
this luminous and iridescent art."

A great-granddaughter of Fragonard, she seems to have inherited his
talent; Corot and Renoir forcibly appealed to her. These elements,
modified by her personal attitude, imparted a strong individuality to her
works, which divided honors with her personal charms.

According to the general verdict, she was equally successful in oils and
water-colors. Her favorite subjects--although she painted others--were
sea-coast views, flowers, orchards, and gardens and young girls in every
variety of costume.

After the death of Édouard Manet, she devoted herself to building up an
appreciation of his work in the public mind. So intelligent were her
methods that she doubtless had great influence in making the memory of
his art enduring.

Among her most characteristic works are: "The Memories of the Oise,"
1864; "Ros-Bras," "Finistère," 1868; "A Young Girl at a Window," 1870; a
pastel, "Blanche," 1873; "The Toilet," and "A Young Woman at the Ball."

*NEY, ELIZABETH. The Fine Arts jury of the St. Louis Exposition have
accepted three works by this sculptor to be placed in the Fine Arts
Building. They are the Albert Sidney Johnston memorial; the portrait bust
of Jacob Grimm, in marble; and a bronze statuette of Garibaldi. It is
unusual to allow so many entries to one artist.

PAULI, HANNA, family name, Hirsch. Bronze medal at Paris Exposition,
1889. Born in Stockholm and pupil of the Academy of Fine Arts there;
later, of Dagnan-Bouveret, in Paris. Her husband, also an artist, is
Georg Pauli. They live in Stockholm, where she paints portraits and genre

At the Paris Exposition, 1900, she exhibited two excellent portraits, one
of her father and another of Ellen Key; also a charming genre subject,
"The Old Couple."

ROMANI, JUANA, H. C. Born at Velletri, 1869. Pupil of Henner and
Roybet, in Paris, where she lives. This artist is, _sui generis_, a
daughter of the people, of unconventional tastes and habits. She has
boldly reproduced upon canvas a fulness of life and joy, such as is
rarely seen in pictures.

While she has caught something of the dash of Henner, and something of
the color of Roybet, and gained a firm mastery of the best French
technique, these are infused with the ardor of a Southern temperament.
Her favorite subjects are women--either in the strength and beauty of
maternity, or in the freshness of youth, or even of childhood.

Some critics feel that, despite much that is desirable in her work, the
soul is lacking in the women she paints. This is no doubt due in some
measure to certain types she has chosen--for example, Salome and
Herodias, in whom one scarcely looks for such an element.

Her portrait of Roybet and a picture of "Bianca Capello" were exhibited
at Munich in 1893 and at Antwerp in 1894. The "Pensierosa" and a little
girl were at the Paris Salon in 1894, and were much admired. "Herodias"
appeared at Vienna in 1894 and at Berlin the following year, while
"Primavera" was first seen at the Salon of 1895. This picture laughs, as
children laugh, with perfect abandon.

A portrait of Miss Gibson was also at the Salon of 1895, and "Vittoria
Colonna" and a "Venetian Girl" were sent to Munich. These were followed
by the "Flower of the Alps" and "Desdemona" in 1896; "Doña Mona,"
palpitating with life, and "Faustalla of Pistoia," with short golden hair
and a majestic poise of the head, in 1897; "Salome" and "Angelica," two
widely differing pictures in character and color, in 1898; "Mina of
Fiesole," and the portrait of a golden-haired beauty in a costume of
black and gold, in 1899; the portrait of Mlle. H. D., in 1900;
"L'Infante," one of her most noble creations, of a remarkably fine
execution, and a ravishing child called "Roger"--with wonderful blond
hair--in 1901.

Mlle. Romani often paints directly on the canvas without preliminary
sketch or study, and sells many of her pictures before they are finished.
Some of her works have been purchased by the French Government, and there
are examples of these in the Luxembourg, and in the Gallery of

RUPPRECHT, TINI. After having lessons from private instructors, this
artist studied under Lenbach. She has been much influenced by
Gainsborough, Lawrence, and Reynolds, traces of their manner being
evident in her work. She renders the best type of feminine seductiveness
with delicacy and grace; she avoids the trivial and gross, but pictures
all the allurements of an innocent coquetry.

Her portrait of the Princess Marie, of Roumania, was exhibited in Munich
in 1901; its reality and personality were notable, and one critic called
it "an oasis in a desert of portraits." "Anno 1793" and "A Mother and
Child" have attracted much favorable comment in Munich, where her star is
in the ascendant, and greater excellence in her work is confidently

SCHWARTZE, THERESE. Honorable mention, Paris Salon, 1885; gold
medal, 1889. Diploma at Ghent, 1892; gold medal, 1892. At International
Exhibition, Barcelona, 1898, a gold medal. Made a Knight of the Order of
Orange-Nassau, 1896. Born in Amsterdam about 1851. A pupil of her father
until his death, when she became a student under Gabriel Max, in Munich,
for a year. Returning to Amsterdam, she was much encouraged by Israels,
Bilders, and Bosboom, friends of her father.

She went to Paris in 1878 and was so attracted by the artistic life which
she saw that she determined to study there. But she did not succeed in
finding a suitable studio, neither an instructor who pleased her, and she
returned to Amsterdam. It was at this time that she painted the portrait
of Frederick Müller.

In the spring of 1880 she went again to Paris, only to "feast on things
artistic." A little later she was summoned to the palace at Soestdijk to
instruct the Princess Henry of the Netherlands. In 1883 she served with
many distinguished artists on the art jury of the International
Exhibition at Amsterdam.

In 1884 she once more yielded to the attraction that Paris had for her,
and there made a great advance in her painting. In 1885 she began to work
in pastel, and one of her best portraits in this medium was that of the
Princess (Queen) Wilhelmina, which was loaned by the Queen Regent for the
exhibition of this artist's work in Amsterdam in 1890.

The Italian Government requested Miss Schwartze to paint her own portrait
for the Uffizi Gallery. This was shown at the Paris Salon, 1889, and
missed the gold medal by two votes. This portrait is thought by some good
judges to equal that of Mme. Le Brun. The head with the interesting eyes,
shaded by the hand which wards off the light, and the penetrating,
observant look, are most impressive.

She has painted a portrait of Queen Emma, and sent to Berlin in 1902 a
portrait of Wolmaran, a member of the Transvaal Government, which was
esteemed a work of the first rank. She has painted several portraits of
her mother, which would have made for her a reputation had she done no
others. She has had many notable men and women among her sitters, and
though not a robust woman, she works incessantly without filling all the
commissions offered her.

Her pictures are in the Museums of Amsterdam and Rotterdam.

Her work is full of life and strength, and her touch shows her confidence
in herself and her technical knowledge. She is, however, a severe critic
of her own work and is greatly disturbed by indiscriminating praise. She
is serious and preoccupied in her studio, but with her friends she is
full of gayety, and is greatly admired, both as a woman and as an artist.

VAN DER VEER, MISS. "This artist," says a recent critic, "has
studied to some purpose in excellent continental schools, and is endowed
withal with a creative faculty and breadth in conception rarely found in
American painters of either sex. Her genre work is full of life, light,
color, and character, with picturesque grouping, faultless atmosphere,
and a breadth of technical treatment that verges on audacity, yet never
fails of its designed purpose."

The fifty pictures exhibited by Miss Van der Veer in Philadelphia, in
February, 1904, included interiors, portraits--mostly in pastel--flower
studies and sketches, treating Dutch peasant life. Among the most notable
of these may be mentioned "The Chimney Corner," "Saturday Morning,"
"Mother and Child," and a portrait of the artist herself.

WALDAU, MARGARETHE. Born in Breslau, 1860. After studying by herself
in Munich, this artist became a pupil of Streckfuss in Berlin, and later,
in Nuremberg, studied under the younger Graeb and Ritter. The first
subject chosen by her for a picture was the "Portal of the Church of the
Magdalene." Her taste for architectural motives was strengthened by
travel in Russia, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Germany.

The fine old churches of Nuremberg and the venerable edifices of Breslau
afforded her most attractive subjects, which she treated with such
distinction that her pictures were sought by kings and princes as well as
by appreciative connoisseurs.

Her success increased her confidence in herself and enhanced the boldness
and freedom with which she handled her brush. An exhibition of her work
in Berlin led to her receiving a commission from the Government to paint
two pictures for the Paris Exposition, 1900. "Mayence at Sunset" and the
"Leipzig Market-Place in Winter" were the result of this order, and are
two of her best works.

Occasionally this artist has painted genre subjects, but her real success
has not been in this direction.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Women in the fine arts, from the Seventh Century B.C. to the Twentieth Century A.D." ***

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