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Title: Hardy Ornamental Flowering Trees and Shrubs
Author: Webster, Angus Duncan
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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_Author of "Practical Forestry," "Hardy Coniferous Trees,"
"British Orchids," &c., &c._



This book has been written and is published with the distinct object
in view of bringing home to the minds of planters of Hardy Trees and
Shrubs, the fact that the monotonous repetition, in at least nine-tenths
of our Parks and Gardens, of such Trees as the Elm, the Lime, and the
Oak, and such Shrubs as the Cherry Laurel and the Privet, is neither
necessary nor desirable. There is quite a host of choice and beautiful
flowering species, which, though at present not generally known are yet
perfectly hardy, of the simplest culture, and equally well adapted for
the ornamentation of our Public and Private Parks and Gardens.

Of late years, with the marked decline in the cultivation of Coniferous
Trees, many of which are ill adapted for the climate of this country,
the interest in our lovely flowering Trees and Shrubs has been greatly
revived. This fact has been well exemplified in the numerous enquiries
after these subjects, and the space devoted to their description and
modes of cultivation in the Horticultural Press.

In the hope, too, of helping to establish a much-desired standard of
nomenclature, I have followed the generic names adopted by the authors
of _The Genera Plantarum_, and the specific names and orthography, as
far as I have been able, of the _Index Kewensis_; and where possible
I have given the synonyms, the date of introduction, and the native
country. The alphabetical arrangement that has been adopted, both with
regard to the genera and species, it is hoped, will greatly facilitate
the work of reference to its pages. The descriptive notes and hints on
cultivation, the selected lists of Trees and Shrubs for various special
purposes, and the calendarial list which indicates the flowering season
of the different species, may be considered all the more valuable for
being concisely written, and made readily accessible by means of the

No work written on a similar plan and treating solely of Hardy
Ornamental Flowering Trees and Shrubs has hitherto been published;
and it is not supposed for a moment that the present one will entirely
supply the deficiency; but should it meet with any measure of public
approval, it may be the means of paving the way towards the publication
of a more elaborate work--and one altogether more worthy of the
interesting and beautiful Flowering Trees and Shrubs that have been
found suitable for planting in the climate of the British Isles.

Of the fully thirteen hundred species and varieties of Trees and Shrubs
enumerated, all may be depended upon as being hardy in some part of the
country. Several of them, and particularly those introduced from China
and Japan, have not before been included in a book of this character.
Trials for the special purpose of testing the hardiness of the more
tender kinds have been instituted and carried out in several favoured
parts of England and Ireland.



The First Edition of Hardy Ornamental Flowering Trees and Shrubs having
been sold out, it has been considered desirable to run off a second and
cheap edition on exactly similar lines to the first, and previous to the
more elaborate illustrated edition which is now in hand.




ABELIA CHINENSIS (_syn A. rupestris_).--The Rock Abelia China, 1844.
This is a neat, twiggy shrub, growing from 2 ft. to 3 ft. high, with
slender shoots, and very pleasing, shining green serrated leaves. The
tubular, sweet-scented flowers are produced in clusters at the ends of
the shoots, even the smallest, and are of a very delicate shade of
pink--indeed, almost white. It makes an excellent wall plant, but by
no means refuses to grow and flower freely without either shelter or
protection, provided a fairly rich and well drained soil is provided.
From August to October is the flowering period of this handsome
deciduous shrub. This is the only really hardy species of the genus,
for though the rosy-purple flowered A. floribunda from Mexico has stood
for several years uninjured in the South of England, it is not to be
relied upon. Both species are readily propagated from cuttings.

A. TRIFLORA.--Himalayan regions, 1847. A half-hardy and beautiful
species with small lanceolate, entire leaves, and pretty star-shaped
flowers that are white and flushed with pink. The long, narrow, and
hairy calyx-lobes give a light and feathery appearance to the flowers,
which are produced continuously from May to November. It does best as a
wall plant, and several beautiful examples may be seen in and around
London, as also at Exeter, and in the South of Ireland.


ADENOCARPUS DECORTICANS (_syn A. Boissieri_).--Spain, 1883. This little
known hardy shrub, a native of the Sierra Nevada mountains, in Spain, is
one of great beauty, and well worthy of extended culture. The flowers
are produced abundantly, and are of a bright yellow colour, resembling
those of our common Broom, to which family it is nearly allied. Peaty
soil suits it well, and repeated trials have clearly proved that it is
hardy, at least in the South of England.


AESCULUS CALIFORNICA (_syn Pavia californica_).--California. This is
one of the handsomest species, of low, spreading habit, and blooming
freely about midsummer.

AE. GLABRA (_syn Ae. rubicunda_).--Red-flowered Horse Chestnut. North
America, 1820. If only for its neat and moderate growth, and attractive
spikes of brightly-coloured flowers, this species must be considered as
one of the handsomest and most valuable of small growing trees. Being
of moderate size, for we rarely meet with specimens of greater height
than 30 feet, and of very compact habit, it is rendered peculiarly
suitable for planting in confined spots, and where larger growing and
more straggling subjects would be out of place. It withstands soot and
smoke well, and is therefore much valued for suburban planting. The
long spikes of pretty red flowers are usually produced in great
abundance, and as they stand well above the foliage, and are of firm
lasting substance, they have a most pleasing and attractive appearance.
As there are numerous forms of the red-flowered Horse Chestnut,
differing much in the depth of flower colouring, it may be well to warn
planters, for some of these have but a faint tinge of pink overlying a
dirty yellowish-green groundwork, while the finest and most desirable
tree has the flowers of a decided pinky-red. There is a double-flowered
variety Ae. glabra flore-pleno (_syn Ae. rubicunda flore-pleno_) and
one of particular merit named Ae. rubicunda Briotii.

AE. HIPPOCASTANUM.--The Common Horse Chestnut. Asia, 1629. A fine
hardy free-flowering tree, supposed to have been introduced from Asia,
and of which there are several varieties, including a double-flowered,
a variegated, and several lobed and cut-leaved forms. The tree needs
no description, the spikes of pinky-white flowers, which are produced
in great abundance, and ample foliage rendering it one of, if not the
handsomest tree of our acquaintance. It gives a pleasing shade, and
forms an imposing and picturesque object in the landscape, especially
where the conditions of soil--a rich free loam--are provided. Ae.
Hippocastanum alba flore-pleno (the double white Horse Chestnut), has
a decidedly pyramidal habit of growth, and the flowers, which are
larger than those of the species, are perfectly double. It is a very
distinct and desirable large growing tree. Ae. Hippocastanum laciniata
and Ae. Hippocastanum digitalis are valuable for their divided leaves;
while Ae. Hippocastanum foliis variegatis has the foliage rather
irregularly variegated.

AE. PARVIFLORA (_syn Pavia macrostachya_).--Buckeye. North America,
1820. This is very distinct, and possesses feature which are shared by
no other hardy tree or shrub in cultivation. Rarely exceeding 12 feet
in height, and with a spread of often as much as 20 feet, this shrub
forms a perfect hemisphere of foliage, and which, when tipped with the
pretty fragrant flowers, renders it one of the most effective and
handsome. The foliage is large, and resembles that of the common Horse
Chestnut, while the pure white flowers, with their long projecting
stamens and red-tipped anthers, are very pretty and imposing when at
their best in July. It succeeds well in rich, dampish loam, and as a
shrub for standing alone in any conspicuous position it has, indeed,
few equals.

AE. PAVIA (_syn Pavia rubra_).--Red Buckeye. North America, 1711. A
small growing and slender-branched tree or shrub, which bears an
abundance of brownish-scarlet flowers. There are several good
varieties, two of the best being Ae. Pavia atrosanguinea, and Ae.
Pavia Whittleyana, with small, brilliant red flowers.

There are several other species, such as Ae. Pavia humilis (_syn Pavia
humilis_) of trailing habit; Ae. flava (_syn Pavia flava_) bearing
pretty yellow flowers; Ae. Pavia macrocarpa (_syn Pavia macrocarpa_)
an open-headed and graceful tree; Ae. flava discolor (_syn Pavia
discolor_); and Ae. chinensis; but they have not been found very
amenable to cultivation, except in very favoured parts of the South of
England and Ireland.


AILANTHUS GLANDULOSA.--Tree of Heaven. China, 1751. A handsome,
fast-growing tree, with large pinnate leaves that are often fully
three feet long, and terminal erect clusters of not very showy
greenish-white flowers that exhale a rather disagreeable odour. It is
one of the most distinct and imposing of pinnate-leaved trees, and
forms a neat specimen for the lawn or park. Light loam or a gravelly
subsoil suits it well.


AKEBIA QUINATA.--Chinese Akebia. China, 1845. This, with its
peculiarly-formed and curiously-coloured flowers, though usually
treated as a cool greenhouse plant, is yet sufficiently hardy to grow
and flower well in many of the southern and western English counties,
where it has stood uninjured for many years. It is a pretty twining
evergreen, with the leaves placed on long slender petioles, and
palmately divided into usually five leaflets. The sweet-scented
flowers, particularly so in the evening, are of a purplish-brown or
scarlet-purple, and produced in axillary racemes of from ten to a
dozen in each. For covering trellis-work, using as a wall plant, or to
clamber over some loose-growing specimen shrub, from which a slight
protection will also be afforded, the Akebia is peculiarly suitable,
and soon ascends to a height of 10 feet or 12 feet. Any ordinary
garden soil suits it, and propagation by cuttings is readily affected.


AMELANCHIER ALNIFOLIA.--Dwarf June Berry. N.W. America, 1888. This
is a shrub of great beauty, growing about 8 feet high, and a native of
the mountains from British America to California. This differs from A.
canadensis in having much larger and more brilliant-tinted fruit, and
in its shorter and more compact flower racemes. The shape of the
leaves cannot be depended on as a point of recognition, those before
me, collected in the native habitat of the plant, differing to a wide
extent in size and shape, some being coarsely serrated while others
are almost entire.

A. CANADENSIS.--June Berry. Canada, 1746. Unquestionably this is one
of the most beautiful and showy of early flowering trees. During the
month of April the profusion of snow-white flowers, with which even
young specimens are mantled, render the plant conspicuous for a long
way off, while in autumn the golden yellow of the dying-off foliage is
quite as remarkable. Being perfectly hardy, of free growth, and with
no particular desire for certain classes of soils, the June Berry
should be widely planted for ornamental effect. In this country it
attains to a height of 40 feet, and bears globose crimson fruit. There
are several varieties, including A. canadensis rotundifolia, A.
canadensis oblongifolia, and A. canadensis oligocarpa, the latter
being by some botanists ranked as a species.

A. VULGARIS.--Common Amelanchier. South of Europe, 1596. This is the
only European species, and grows about 16 feet in height. It has been
in cultivation in this country for nearly 300 years. Generally this
species flowers earlier than the American ones, has rounder and less
deeply serrated leaves, but the flowers are much alike. A. vulgaris
cretica, from Crete and Dalmatia, is readily distinguished by the soft
white hairs with which the under sides of the leaves are thickly
covered. To successfully cultivate the Amelanchiers a good rich soil
is a necessity, while shelter from cutting winds must be afforded if
the sheets of flowers are to be seen in their best form.


AMORPHA CANESCENS.--Lead Plant. Missouri, 1812. This is of much
smaller growth than A. fruticosa, with neat pinnate foliage, whitened
with hoary down, and bearing panicles of bluish-purple flowers, with
conspicuous orange anthers. It is a charming shrub, and all the more
valuable as it flowers at the end of summer, when few hardy plants are
in bloom. To grow it satisfactorily a dry, sandy soil is a necessity.

A. FRUTICOSA.--False Indigo. Carolina, 1724. This is a fast growing
shrub of fully 6 feet high, of loose, upright habit, and with pretty
pinnate leaves. The flowers are borne in densely packed spikes, and
are of a purplish tint with bright yellow protruding anthers and
produced at the end of summer. It prefers a dry, warm soil of a sandy
or chalky nature, and may readily be increased from cuttings or
suckers, the latter being freely produced. Hard cutting back when full
size has been attained would seem to throw fresh vigour into the
Amorpha, and the flowering is greatly enhanced by such a mode of
treatment. A native of Carolina, and perfectly hardy in most parts of
the country. Of this species there are several varieties, amongst
others, A. fruticosa nana, a dwarf, twiggy plant; A. fruticosa
dealbata, with lighter green foliage than the type; and others
differing only in the size and width of the leaves.


ANDROMEDA POLIFOLIA.--An indigenous shrub of low growth, with
lanceolate shining leaves, and pretty globose pinky-white flowers. Of
it there are two varieties. A. polifolia major and A. polifolia
angustifolia, both well worthy of culture for their neat habit and
pretty flowers.



ARALIA MANDSHURICA (_syn Dimorphanthus mandschuricus_).--Manchuria,
1866. There is not much beauty about this Chinese tree, for it is but
a big spiny stake, with no branches, and a tuft of palm-like foliage
at the top. The flowers, however, are both large and conspicuous, and
impart to the tree an interesting and novel appearance. They are
individually small, of a creamy-white colour, and produced in long,
umbellate racemes, and which when fully developed, from their weight
and terminal position, are tilted gracefully to one side. Usually the
stem is spiny, with Horse Chestnut-like bark, while the terminal bud,
from its large size, as if all the energy of the plant was
concentrated in the tip, imparts a curious and somewhat ungainly
appearance to the tree. From its curious tropical appearance this
species is well worthy of a place in the shrubbery. It is unmindful of
soil, if that is of at all fair quality, and may be said to be
perfectly hardy over the greater part of the country.

A. SPINOSA.--Angelica Tree. Virginia, 1688. Amongst autumn-flowering
shrubs this takes a high place, for in mild seasons it blooms well
into October. It grows about 12 feet high, with large tri-pinnate
leaves, composed of numerous serrulate leaflets. The individual
flowers are small and whitish, but being borne in large branched
panicles have a very imposing appearance. It is of free growth, and
produces suckers abundantly.

See also FATSIA.


ARBUTUS ANDRACHNE.--Levant, 1724. This Mediterranean species is of
stout growth, with narrow Laurel-like leaves, reddish deciduous bark,
and greenish-white flowers that are produced freely in May. A hybrid
form, said to have originated between this species and A. Unedo,
partakes in part of the nature of both shrubs, but the flowers are
larger than those of A. Unedo.

A. MENZIESII (_syn A. procera_).--Tall Strawberry Tree. North-west
America, 1827. This is hardy in many parts of these islands,
particularly maritime districts, and is worthy of culture if only for
the large racemose panicles of deliciously-scented white flowers, and
peculiar metallic-green leaves. The fruit is orange-red, and only
about half the size of those of our commonly cultivated species.

A. UNEDO.--Strawberry Tree. Ireland. This is a beautiful evergreen
shrub or small-growing tree, sometimes fully 20 feet high, with
ovate-lanceolate leaves, and clusters of pure white or yellowish-tinged
flowers appearing in September and October. The bright scarlet fruit,
about the size of and resembling a Strawberry, is highly ornamental,
and when borne in quantity imparts to the plant an unusual and very
attractive appearance. Generally speaking, the Arbutus is hardy,
although in inland situations it is sometimes killed to the ground in
severe winters, but, springing freely from the root, the plant soon
becomes re-established. In a young state it suffers too, but after
becoming established and a few feet high, the chances of injury are
greatly minimised. Three well-marked varieties are A. Unedo coccinea
and A. Unedo rubra, bearing scarlet and deep-red flowers, and A. Unedo
microphylla, with much smaller leaves than those of the parent plant.

A. UNEDO CROOMEI differs considerably from the former, in having
larger foliage, larger clusters of reddish-pink flowers, and the bark
of the young shoots of an enticing ruddy, or rather brownish-red
colour. It is a very desirable and highly ornamental plant, and one
that is well worthy of extended culture.

There are several others, to wit A. photiniaefolia, A. Rollissoni, A.
Millerii, with large leaves, and pretty pink flowers, and A.
serratifolia, having deeply serrated leaves. Deep, light loam, if on
chalk all the better, and a fairly warm and sheltered situation, would
seem to suit the Arbutus best.


ARCTOSTAPHYLOS UVA-URSI.--Bearberry. Britain. A neat shrub of trailing
habit, and with flowers resembling those of the Arbutus, but much
smaller. The leaves are entire, dark green in colour, and about an
inch long, and obovate or oblong in shape. Fruit globular, of a bright
red, smooth and shining. This is a native shrub, being found in
Scotland, northern England and Ireland.

A. ALPINA.--Black Bearberry. Scotland. This is confined to the
northern Highlands of Scotland, is of smaller growth, with toothed
deciduous leaves, and small drooping flowers of two or three together.


ARISTOLOCHIA SIPHO.--Dutchman's Pipe. North America, 1763. A
large-growing, deciduous climbing shrub, remarkable for its ample
foliage, and curiously formed yellow and purple streaked flowers. A
native of North America, it is perfectly hardy in this country, and
makes an excellent wall plant where plenty of space can be afforded
for the rambling branches. What a pity it is that so ornamental a
climber, whose big, dark-green leaves overlap each other as if
intended for keeping a house cool in warm weather, is not more
generally planted. It does well and grows fast in almost any soil.


ASIMINA TRILOBA.--Virginian Papaw. Pennsylvania, 1736. This is a
curious and uncommon shrub that one rarely sees outside the walls of a
botanic garden. The flowers are dark purple or chocolate brown, fully
2 inches across, and succeeded by a yellow, oblong, pulpy fruit, that
is relished by the natives, and from which the name of North American
Custard Apple has been derived. In this country it is quite at home,
growing around London to quite 12 feet in height, but it wants a warm,
dry soil, and sunny sheltered situation. As a wall plant it does well.


AZARA MICROPHYLLA.--Chili, 1873. This is the only recognised hardy
species, and probably the best from an ornamental point of view. In
mild seaside districts it may succeed as a standard in the open
ground, but generally it is cultivated as a wall plant, and for which
it is peculiarly suitable. The small dark green, glossy leaves are
thickly arranged on the nearly horizontal branches, while the flowers,
if they lack in point of showiness, are deliciously fragrant and
plentifully produced. For wall-covering, especially in an eastern
aspect, it is one of the neatest of shrubs.

Other species in cultivation are A. serrata, A. lanceolata, and A.
integrifolia, but for general planting, and unless under the most
favoured conditions, they are not to be recommended. The Azaras are by
no means particular about the quality of soil in which they are
planted, and succeed well even in stiffish loam, bordering on clay.


BACCHARIS HALIMIFOLIA.--Groundsel Tree or Sea Purslane. North America.
For seaside planting this is an invaluable shrub, as it succeeds well
down even to high water mark, and where it is almost lashed by the
salt spray. The flowers are not very ornamental, resembling somewhat
those of the Groundsel, but white with a tint of purple. Leaves
obovate in shape, notched, and thickly covered with a whitish powder,
which imparts to them a pleasing glaucous hue. Any light soil that is
tolerably dry suits well the wants of this shrub, but it is always
seen in best condition by the seaside. Under favourable conditions it
attains to a height of 12 feet, with a branch spread nearly as much in
diameter. A native of the North American coast from Maryland to

B. PATAGONICA.--Megallan. This is a very distinct and quite hardy
species, with small deep green leaves and white flowers. It succeeds
under the same conditions as the latter.


BERBERIDOPSIS CORALLINA.--Coral Barberry. Chili, 1862. This handsome
evergreen, half-climbing shrub is certainly not so well known as its
merits entitle it to be. Unfortunately it is not hardy in every part
of the country, though in the southern and western English counties,
but especially within the influence of the sea, it succeeds well as
a wall plant, and charms us with its globular, waxy, crimson or
coral-red flowers. The spiny-toothed leaves approach very near those
of some of the Barberries, and with which the plant is nearly allied.
It seems to do best in a partially shady situation, and in rich light


BERBERIS AQUIFOLIUM (_syn Mahonia Aquifolium_).--Holly-leaved
Barberry. North America, 1823. This justly ranks as one of the
handsomest, most useful, and easily-cultivated of all hardy shrubs.
It will grow almost any where, and in any class of soil, though
preferring a fairly rich loam. Growing under favourable conditions to
a height of 6 feet, this North American shrub forms a dense mass of
almost impenetrable foliage. The leaves are large, dark shining green,
thickly beset with spines, while the deliciously-scented yellow
flowers, which are produced at each branch tip, render the plant
particularly attractive in spring. It is still further valuable both
on account of the rich autumnal tint of the foliage, and pretty plum
colour of the plentifully produced fruit.

B. AQUIFOLIUM REPENS (_syn Mahonia repens_).--Creeping Barberry. This
is of altogether smaller growth than the preceding, but otherwise they
seem nearly allied. From its dense, dwarf growth, rising as it rarely
does more than a foot from the ground, and neat foliage, this Barberry
is particularly suitable for edging beds, or forming a low evergreen
covering for rocky ground or mounds.

B. ARISTATA, a native of Nepaul, is a vigorous-growing species,
resembling somewhat our native plant, with deeply serrated leaves,
brightly tinted bark, and yellow flowers. It is of erect habit,
branchy, and in winter is rendered very conspicuous by reason of the
bright reddish colour of the leafless branches.

B. BEALEI (_syn Mahonia Bealli_).--Japan. This species is one of the
first to appear in bloom, often by the end of January the plant being
thickly studded with flowers. It is a handsome shrub, of erect habit,
the leaves of a yellowish-green tint, and furnished with long, spiny
teeth. The clusters of racemes of deliciously fragrant yellow flowers
are of particular value, being produced so early in the season.

B. BUXIFOLIA (_syn B. dulcis_ and _B. microphylla_).--Straits of
Magellan, 1827. A neat and erect-growing shrub of somewhat stiff and
upright habit, and bearing tiny yellow flowers. This is a good
rockwork plant, and being of neat habit, with small purplish leaves,
is well worthy of cultivation.

B. CONGESTIFLORA, from Chili, is not yet well-known, but promises to
become a general favourite with lovers of hardy shrubs. It is of
unusual appearance for a Barberry, with long, decumbent branches,
which are thickly covered with masses of orange-yellow flowers. The
branch-tips, being almost leafless and smothered with flowers, impart
to the plant a striking, but distinctly ornamental appearance.

B. DARWINII.--Chili, 1849. This is, perhaps, the best known and most
ornamental of the family. It forms a dense bush, sometimes 10 feet
high, with dark glossy leaves, and dense racemes of orange-yellow
flowers, produced in April and May, and often again in the autumn.

B. EMPETRIFOLIA.--Straits of Magellan, 1827. This is a neat-habited
and dwarf evergreen species, that even under the best cultivation
rarely exceeds 2 feet in height. It is one of the hardiest species,
and bears, though rather sparsely, terminal golden-yellow flowers,
which are frequently produced both in spring and autumn. For its
compact growth and neat foliage it is alone worthy of culture.

B. FORTUNEI (_syn Mahonia Fortunei_).--China, 1846. This is rather a
rare species in cultivation, with finely toothed leaves, composed of
about seven leaflets, and bearing in abundance clustered racemes of
individually small yellow flowers. A native of China, and requiring a
warm, sunny spot to do it justice.

B. GRACILIS (_syn Mahonia gracilis_).--Mexico. A pretty, half-hardy
species, growing about 6 feet high, with slender branches, and
shining-green leaves with bright red stalks. Flowers small, in 3-inch
long racemes, deep yellow with bright red pedicels. Fruit globular,
deep purple.

B. ILICIFOLIA (_syn B. Neumanii_).--South America, 1791. This is
another handsome evergreen species from South America, and requires
protection in this country. The thick, glossy-green leaves, beset with
spines, and large orange-red flowers, combine to make this species one
of great interest and beauty.

B. JAPONICA (_syn Mahonia japonica_).--Japan. This is not a very
satisfactory shrub in these isles, although in warm seaside districts,
and when planted in rich loam, on a gravelly subsoil, it forms a
handsome plant with noble foliage, and deliciously fragrant yellow

B. NEPALENSIS (_syn Mahonia nepalensis_).--Nepaul Barberry. This is a
noble Himalayan species that one rarely sees in good condition in this
country, unless when protected by glass. The long, chalky-white stems,
often rising to 8 feet in height, are surmounted by dense clusters of
lemon-yellow flowers. Planted outdoors, this handsome and partly
evergreen Barberry must have the protection of a wall.

B. NERVOSA (_syn Mahonia glumacea_).--North America, 1804. This, with
its terminal clusters of reddish-yellow flowers produced in spring, is
a highly attractive North-west American species. It is of neat and
compact growth, perfectly hardy, but as yet it is rare in cultivation.
The autumnal leafage-tint is very attractive.

B. PINNATA (_syn Mahonia facicularis_).--A native of Mexico, this
species is of stout growth, with long leaves, that are thickly
furnished with sharp spines. The yellow flowers are produced
abundantly, and being in large bunches render the plant very
conspicuous. It is, unfortunately, not very hardy, and requires wall
protection to do it justice.

B. SINENSIS.--China, 1815. This is a really handsome and distinct
species, with twiggy, deciduous branches, from the undersides of the
arching shoots of which the flowers hang in great profusion. They are
greenish-yellow inside, but of a dark brownish-crimson without, while
the leaves are small and round, and die off crimson in autumn.

B. STENOPHYLLA, a hybrid between B. Darwinii and B. empetrifolia, is
one of the handsomest forms in cultivation, the wealth of
golden-yellow flowers being remarkable, as is also the dark purple
berries. It is very hardy, and of the freest growth.

B. TRIFOLIOLATA (_syn Mahonia trifoliolata_).--Mexico, 1839. This is a
very distinct and beautiful Mexican species that will only succeed
around London as a wall plant. It grows about a yard high, with leaves
fully 3 inches long, having three terminal sessile leaflets, and
slender leaf stalks often 2 inches long. The ternate leaflets are of a
glaucous blue colour, marbled with dull green, and very delicately
veined. Flowers small, bright yellow, and produced in few-flowered
axillary racemes on short peduncles. The berries are small, globular,
and light red.

B. TRIFURCA (_syn Mahonia trifurca_).--China, 1852. This is a shrub of
neat low growth, but it does not appear to be at all plentiful.

B. VULGARIS.--Common Barberry. This is a native species, with oblong
leaves, and terminal, drooping racemes of yellow flowers. It is
chiefly valued for the great wealth of orange-scarlet fruit. There are
two very distinct forms, one bearing silvery and the other black
fruit, and named respectively B. vulgaris fructo-albo and B. vulgaris

B. WALLICHIANA (_syn B. Hookeri_).--Nepaul, 1820. This is exceedingly
ornamental, whether as regards the foliage, flowers, or fruit. It is
of dense, bushy growth, with large, dark green spiny leaves, and an
abundance of clusters of clear yellow flowers. The berries are deep
violet-purple, and fully half-an-inch long. Being perfectly hardy and
of free growth it is well suited for extensive planting.


BERCHEMIA VOLUBILIS.--Climbing Berchemia. Carolina, 1714. A rarely
seen, deciduous climber, bearing rather inconspicuous greenish-yellow
flowers, succeeded by attractive, violet-tinted berries. The foliage
is neat and pretty, the individual leaves being ovate in shape and
slightly undulated or wavy. It is a twining shrub that in this
country, even under favourable circumstances, one rarely sees
ascending to a greater height than about 12 feet. Sandy peat and a
shady site suits it best, and so placed it will soon cover a
low-growing tree or bush much in the way that our common Honeysuckle
does. It is propagated from layers or cuttings.


BIGNONIA CAPREOLATA--Virginia and other parts of America, 1710. This
is not so hardy as to be depended upon throughout the country
generally, though in the milder parts of England and Ireland it
succeeds well as a wall plant. It is a handsome climbing shrub, with
long, heart-shaped leaves, usually terminating in branched tendrils,
and large orange flowers produced singly.


BILLARDIERA LONGIFLORA.--Blue Apple Berry. Van Diemen's Land, 1810. If
only for its rich, blue berries, as large as those of a cherry, this
otherwise elegant climbing shrub is well worthy of a far greater share
of attention than it has yet received, for it must be admitted that it
is far from common. The greenish bell-shaped blossoms produced in May
are, perhaps, not very attractive, but this is more than compensated
for by the highly ornamental fruit, which renders the plant an object
of great beauty about mid-September. Leaves small and narrow, on
slender, twining stems, that clothe well the lower half of a garden
wall in some sunny favoured spot. Cuttings root freely if inserted in
sharp sand and placed in slight heat, while seeds germinate quickly.


BRYANTHUS ERECTUS.--Siberia. This is a pretty little Ericaceous plant,
nearly allied to Menziesia, and with a plentiful supply of dark-green
leaves. The flowers, which are borne in crowded clusters at the points
of the shoots, are bell-shaped, and of a pleasing reddish-lilac colour.
It wants a cool, moist peaty soil, and is perfectly hardy. When in a
flowering stage the Bryanthus is one of the brightest occupants of the
peat bed, and is a very suitable companion for such dwarf plants as
 the Heaths, Menziesias, and smaller growing Kalmias.

B. EMPETRIFORMIS (_syn Menziesia empetrifolia_).--North America, 1829.
This is a compact, neat species, and well suited for alpine gardening.
The flowers are rosy-purple, and produced abundantly.


BUDDLEIA GLOBOSA.--Orange Ball Tree. Chili, 1774. A shrubby species,
ranging in height from 12 feet to 20 feet, and the only one at all
common in gardens. Favoured spots in Southern England would seem to
suit the plant fairly well, but to see it at its best one must visit
some of the maritime gardens of North Wales, where it grows stout and
strong, and flowers with amazing luxuriance. Where it thrives it must
be ranked amongst the most beautiful of wall plants, for few, indeed,
are the standard specimens that are to be met with, the protection
afforded by a wall being almost a necessity in its cultivation. The
leaves are linear-lanceolate, and covered with a dense silvery
tomentum on the under side, somewhat rugose above, and partially
deciduous. Flowers in small globular heads, bright orange or yellow,
and being plentifully produced are very showy in early summer. It
succeeds well in rich moist loam on gravel.

B. LINDLEYANA.--China, 1844. This has purplish-red flowers and angular
twigs, but it cannot be relied upon unless in very sheltered and mild
parts of the country.

B. PANICULATA (_syn B. crispa_).--Nepaul, 1823. This may at once be
distinguished by its curly, woolly leaves, and fragrant lilac flowers.
It is a desirable species, but suffers from our climate.


BUPLEURUM FRUTICOSUM.--Hare's Ear. South Europe, 1596. A small-growing,
branching shrub, with obovate-lanceolate leaves, and compound umbels
of yellowish flowers. It is more curious than beautiful.


CAESALPINIA SEPIARIA (_syn C. japonica_).--India, 1857. This is as yet
a comparatively little known shrub, but one that from its beauty and
hardihood is sure to become a general favourite. Planted out in a
light, sandy, peaty soil, and where fully exposed, this shrub has done
well, and proved itself a suitable subject for the climate of England
at least. The hard prickles with which both stem and branches are
provided renders the shrub of rather formidable appearance, while the
leaves are of a peculiarly pleasing soft-green tint. For the flowers,
too, it is well worthy of attention, the pinky anthers contrasting so
markedly with the deep yellow of the other portions of the flower.
They are arranged in long racemes, and show well above the foliage.


CALLUNA VULGARIS (_syn Erica vulgaris_).--Common Ling on Heather. This
is the commonest native species, with purplish-pink flowers on small
pedicels. There are many very distinct and beautiful-flowering forms,
the following being some of the best: C. vulgaris alba, white-flowered;
C. vulgaris Hammondi, C. vulgaris minor, and C. vulgaris pilosa, all
white-flowered forms; C. vulgaris Alportii, and C. vulgaris Alportii
variegata, the former bearing rich crimson flowers, and the latter with
distinctly variegated foliage; C. vulgaris argentea, and C. vulgaris
aurea, with silvery-variegated and golden foliage; C. vulgaris
flore-pleno, a most beautiful and free-growing variety, with double
flowers; C. vulgaris Foxii, a dwarf plant that does not flower freely;
and C. vulgaris pumila, and C. vulgaris dumosa, which are of small
cushion-like growth.


CALOPHACA WOLGARICA.--Siberia, 1786. This member of the Pea family is
of dwarf, branching growth, thickly clothed with glandular hairs, and
bears yellow flowers, succeeded by reddish-purple pods. It is of no
special importance as an ornamental shrub, and is most frequently seen
grafted on the Laburnum, though its natural easy habit of growth is far
preferable. Hailing from Siberia, it may be considered as fairly hardy
at least.


CALYCANTHUS FLORIDUS.--Carolina Allspice. Carolina, 1726. If only
for the purplish-red, pleasantly-scented flowers, this North American
shrub is worthy of extensive culture. The hardiness, accommodating
nature, and delicious perfume of its brightly-coloured flowers render
this shrub one of the choicest subjects for the shrubbery or edges
of the woodland path. It is of easy though compact growth, reaching
in favourable situations a height of 12 feet, and with ovate leaves
that are slightly pubescent. Growing best in good fairly moist loam,
where partial shade is afforded, the sides of woodland drives and
paths will suit this Allspice well; but it wants plenty of room for
branch-development. There are several nursery forms of this shrub,
such as C. floridus glaucus, C. floridus asplenifolia, and C. floridus
nanus, all probably distinct enough, but of no superior ornamental
value to the parent plant.

C. OCCIDENTALIS.--Californian or Western Allspice. California, 1831.
This is larger in all its parts than the former, and for decorative
purposes is even preferable to that species. The flowers are dark
crimson, and nearly twice as large as those of C. floridus, but rather
more sparsely produced. This is a very distinct and desirable species,
and one that can be recommended for lawn and park planting, but, like
the former, it delights to grow in a rather moist and shady situation.


CARAGANA ARBORESCENS.--Siberian Pea Tree. Siberia, 1752. On account
of its great hardihood, this is a very desirable garden shrub or
small-growing tree. The bright-yellow, pea-shaped flowers are very
attractive, while the deep-green, pinnate foliage imparts to the tree a
somewhat unusual but taking appearance. Soil would not seem to be of
much moment in the cultivation of this, as, indeed, the other species
of Caragana, for it thrives well either on dry, sunny banks, where the
soil is light and thin, or in good stiff, yellow loam.

C. FRUTESCENS.--Siberia, 1852. Flowers in May, and is of partially
upright habit; while C. Chamlagii, from China, has greenish-yellow
flowers, faintly tinted with pinky-purple.

C. MICROPHYLLA (_syn C. Altagana_), also from Siberia, is smaller of
growth than the foregoing, but the flowers are individually larger. It
is readily distinguished by the more numerous and hairy leaflets and
thorny nature.

C. SPINOSA.--Siberia, 1775. This, as the name indicates, is of spiny
growth, and is a beautiful and distinct member of the family. They are
all hardy, and readily propagated from seed.


CARDIANDRA ALTERNIFOLIA.--Japan, 1866. With its neat habit, and pretty
purple-and-white, plentifully-produced flowers, this is worthy of the
small amount of care and coddling required to insure its growth in this
country. Hailing from Japan, it cannot be reckoned as very hardy, but
treated as a wall plant this pretty evergreen does well and flowers
freely. It can, however, be said that it is equally hardy with some
of the finer kinds of Hydrangea, to which genus it is nearly allied.


CARPENTERIA CALIFORNICA.--Sierra Nevada, California, 1880. This is
undoubtedly one of the most distinct and beautiful of hardy shrubs.
That it is perfectly hardy in England and Ireland recently-conducted
experiments conclusively prove, as plants have stood unprotected
through the past unusually severe winters with which this country has
been visited. When in full bloom the pure-white flowers, resembling
those of the Japanese Anemone, render it of great beauty, while the
light gray leaves are of themselves sufficient to make the shrub one of
particular attraction. The Carpenteria is nearly related to the Mock
Orange (Philadelphus), grows about 10 feet in height, with lithe and
slender branches, and light gray leaves. The flowers, which are pure
white with a bunch of yellow stamens, and sweet-scented, are produced
usually in fives at the branch-tips, and contrast markedly with the
long and light green foliage. It grows and flowers with freedom almost
anywhere, but is all the better for wall protection. From cuttings or
suckers it is readily increased.


CARYOPTERIS MASTACANTHUS.--China and Japan, 1844. This is a neat-growing
Chinese shrub, and of value for its pretty flowers that are produced
late in the autumn. It must be ranked as fairly hardy, having stood
through the winters of Southern England unprotected; but it is just as
well to give so choice a shrub the slight protection afforded by a
wall. The leaves are neat, thickly-arranged, and hoary, while the whole
plant is twiggy and of strict though by no means formal growth. Flowers
lavender-blue, borne at the tips of the shoots, and appearing in
succession for a considerable length of time. Light, sandy peat would
seem to suit it well, at least in such it grows and flowers freely.


CASSANDRA CALYCULATA (_syn Andromeda calyculata_).--North America,
1748. This is a handsome species from the Virginian swamps, but one
that is rarely seen in a very satisfactory condition in this country.
It grows about 18 inches high, with lanceolate dull-green leaves, and
pretty pinky-white flowers, individually large and produced abundantly.
For the banks of a pond or lake it is a capital shrub and very
effective, particularly if massed in groups of from a dozen to twenty
plants in each. There are several nursery forms, of which A. calyculata
minor is the best and most distinct.


CASSINIA FULVIDA (_syn Diplopappus chrysophyllus_).--New Zealand. This
is a neat-growing and beautiful shrub, the rich yellow stems and under
sides of the leaves imparting quite a tint of gold to the whole plant.
The flowers are individually small, but the whole head, which is
creamy-white, is very effective, and contrasts strangely with the
golden sheen of this beautiful shrub. It is inclined to be of rather
upright growth, is stout and bushy, and is readily increased from
cuttings planted in sandy soil in the open border. Probably in the
colder parts of the country this charming shrub might not prove
perfectly hardy, but all over England and Ireland it seems to be quite
at home. The flowers are produced for several months of the year, but
are at their best about mid-November, thus rendering the shrub of still
further value. It grows freely in sandy peaty soil of a light nature.


CASSIOPE FASTIGIATA (_syn Andromeda fastigiata_) and C. TETRAGONA (_syn
Andromeda tetragona_) are small-growing species, only suitable for rock
gardening--the former of neat upright habit, with large pinky-white
bells all along the stems; and the latter of bushy growth, with square
stems and small white flowers.


CASTANEA SATIVA (_syn C. vesca_ and _C. vulgaris_).--Sweet Spanish
Chestnut. Asia Minor. Few persons who have seen this tree as an
isolated specimen and when in full flower would feel inclined to
exclude it from our list. The long, cylindrical catkins, of a
yellowish-green colour, are usually borne in such abundance that the
tree is, during the month of June, one of particular interest and
beauty. So common a tree needs no description, but it may be well to
mention that there are several worthy varieties, and which flower
almost equally well with the parent tree.


CATALPA BIGNONIOIDES.--Indian Bean. North America, 1798. When in
full bloom this is a remarkable and highly ornamental tree, the
curiously-marked flowers and unusually large, bronzy-tinted foliage
being distinct from those of almost any other in cultivation. That it
is not, perhaps, perfectly hardy in every part of the country is to be
regretted, but the numerous fine old specimens that are to be met with
all over the country point out that there need be little to fear when
assigning this pretty and uncommon tree a position in our parks and
gardens. The flowers, produced in spikes at the branch-tips, are white,
tinged with violet and speckled with purple and yellow in the throat.
Individually the flowers are of large size and very ornamental, and,
being produced freely, give the tree a bright and pleasing appearance
when at their best. Usually the tree attains to a height of 30 feet in
this country, with rather crooked and ungainly branches, and large
heart-shaped leaves that are downy beneath. It flourishes well on any
free soil, and is an excellent smoke-resisting tree. C. bignonioides
aurea is a decided variety, that differs mainly in the leaves being of
a desirable golden tint.

C. BUNGEI and C. KAEMPFERI, natives of China and Japan, are hardly
to be relied upon, being of tender growth, and, unless in the most
favoured situations, suffer from our severe winters. They resemble our
commonly cultivated tree.

C. SPECIOSA.--United States, 1879. The Western Catalpa is more erect
and taller of growth than C. bignonioides. The flowers too are larger,
and of purer white, and with the throat markings of purple and yellow
more distinct and not inclined to run into each other. Leaves large,
heart-shaped, tapering to a point, of a light pleasing green and soft
to the touch. It flowers earlier, and is more hardy than the former.


CEANOTHUS AMERICANUS.--New Jersey Tea. North America, 1713. A shrub of
4 feet in height, with deep green serrated leaves, that are 2 inches
long and pubescent on the under sides. Flowers white, in axillary
panicles, and produced in great abundance. This is one of the hardiest
species, but succeeds best when afforded wall protection.

C. AZUREUS.--Mexico, 1818. This species, though not hardy enough for
every situation, is yet sufficiently so to stand unharmed as a wall
plant. It grows from 10 feet to 12 feet high, with deep-green leaves
that are hoary on the under sides. The flowers, which are borne in
large, axillary panicles, are bright blue, and produced in June and the
following months. In a light, dry soil and sunny position this shrub
does well as a wall plant, for which purpose it is one of the most
ornamental. There are several good nursery forms, of which the following
are amongst the best:--C. azureus Albert Pettitt, C. azureus albidus,
C. azureus Arnddii, one of the best, C. azureus Gloire de Versailles,
and C. azureus Marie Simon.

C. CUNEATUS (_syn C. verrucosus_).--California, 1848. This is another
half-hardy species that requires wall protection, which may also be
said of C. Veitchianus, one of the most beautiful of the family, with
dense clusters of rich blue flowers and a neat habit of growth.

C. DENTATUS.--California, 1848. With deeply-toothed, shining-green
leaves, and deep blue, abundantly-produced flowers, this is a
well-known wall plant that succeeds in many parts of the country,
particularly within the influence of the sea. It commences flowering in
May, and frequently continues until frosts set in. It is a very
desirable species, that in favoured situations will grow to fully 10
feet high, and with a spread laterally of nearly the same dimensions.

C. PAPILLOSUS.--California, 1848. This is a straggling bush, with
small, blunt leaves, and panicles of pale blue flowers on long
footstalks. A native of California and requiring wall protection.

C. RIGIDUS.--Another Californian species, is of upright, stiff growth,
a sub-evergreen, with deep purple flowers produced in April and May.

There are other less hardy kinds, including C. floribundus, C.
integerrimus, C. velutinus, and C. divaricatus.


CEDRELA SINENSIS (_syn Ailanthus flavescens_).--China, 1875. This is a
fast growing tree, closely resembling the Ailanthus, and evidently
quite as hardy. It has a great advantage over that tree, in that the
flowers have an agreeable odour, those of the Ailanthus being somewhat
sickly and unpleasant. The flowers are individually small, but arranged
in immense hanging bunches like those of Koelreuteria paniculata, and
being pleasantly scented are rendered still the more valuable. The
whole plant has a yellow hue, and the roots have a peculiar reddish
colour, and very unlike those of the Ailanthus, which are white.


CELASTRUS SCANDENS.--Climbing Waxwork, or Bitter Sweet. North America,
1736. When planted in rich, moist soil, this soon forms an attractive
mass of twisting and twining growths, with distinct glossy foliage
in summer and brilliant scarlet fruit in autumn. The flowers are
inconspicuous, the chief beauty of the shrub being the show of fruit,
which resembles somewhat those of the Spindle Tree (Euonymus), and to
which it is nearly allied. A native of North America, it grows from 12
feet to 15 feet high, and is useful in this country for covering arches
or tree stems, or for allowing to run about at will on a mound of earth
or on rockwork.


CELTIS AUSTRALIS.--South Europe, 1796. This species is much like C.
occidentalis, with black edible fruit. It is not of so tall growth as
the American species.

C. OCCIDENTALIS.--Nettle tree. North America, 1656. In general
appearance this tree resembles the Elm, to which family it belongs. It
has reticulated, cordate-ovate, serrated leaves, with small greenish
flowers on slender stalks, and succeeded by blackish-purple fruit about
the size of a pea. A not very ornamental tree, at least so far as
flowers are concerned, but valuable for lawn planting. It varies very
much in the size and shape of the leaves.


CERCIS CANADENSIS.--North America, 1730. This species resembles C.
Siliquastrum, but is of much smaller growth, and bears paler flowers;
while C. CHINENSIS, which is not hardy, has large, rosy-pink flowers.

C. SILIQUASTRUM.--Judas Tree. South Europe, 1596. A small-growing tree
of some 15 feet in height, and with usually a rather ungainly and
crooked mode of growth. It is, however, one of our choicest subjects
for ornamental planting, the handsome reniform leaves and rosy-purple
flowers produced along the branches and before the leaves appear
rendering it a great favourite with planters. There are three distinct
forms of this shrub--the first, C. Siliquastrum alba, having pure white
flowers; C. Siliquastrum carnea, with beautiful deep pink flowers; and
C. Siliquastrum variegata, with neatly variegated foliage, though
rather inconstant of character. Natives of South Europe, and amongst
the oldest trees of our gardens.

They all succeed best when planted in rather damp loam, and do not
object to partial shade, the common species growing well even beneath
the drip of large standard trees.


CHIMONANTHUS FRAGRANS.--Winter Flower. Japan, 1766. This Japanese shrub
is certainly one of the most remarkable that could be brought under
notice, the deliciously fragrant flowers being produced in abundance
during the winter months, and while the plant is yet leafless. Being of
slender growth, it is best suited for planting against a wall, the
protection thus afforded being just what is wanted for the perfect
development of the pretty flowers. C. fragrans grandiflora has larger
and less fragrant flowers than the species, and is more common in


CHIONANTHUS RETUSA.--China, 1852. This is not a very hardy species,
and, being less ornamental than the American form, is not to be
recommended for general planting.

C. VIRGINICA.--Fringe Tree. North America, 1736. A very ornamental,
small-growing tree, with large deciduous leaves and pendent clusters of
pure white flowers with long fringe-like petals, and from which the
popular name has arisen. It is a charming tree, or rather shrub, in
this country, for one rarely sees it more than 10 feet high, and one
that, to do it justice, must have a cool and rather damp soil and a
somewhat shady situation.


CHOISYA TERNATA.--Mexican Orange Flower. Mexico, 1825. A beautiful and
distinct shrub that succeeds well in the south and west of England. The
evergreen leaves are always fresh and beautiful, and of a dark shining
green, while the sweetly-fragrant flowers are produced freely on the
apices of last year's wood. They have a singular resemblance to those
of the orange, and on the Continent are commonly grown as a substitute
for that popular flower. The plant succeeds well in any light, rich
soil, and soon grows into a goodly-sized shrub of 4 feet or 5 feet in
height. As a wall plant it succeeds well, but in warm, maritime
situations it may be planted as a standard without fear of harm.
Cuttings root freely if placed in slight heat.


CISTUS CRISPUS.--Portugal, 1656. This is a distinct species, with
curled leaves, and large reddish-purple flowers. It is a valuable
ornamental shrub, but, like the others, suffers from the effects of

C. LADANIFERUS.--Gum Cistus. Spain, 1629. A pretty but rather tender
shrub, growing in favourable situations to about 4 feet in height. It
has lanceolate leaves that are glutinous above, and thickly covered
with a whitish tomentum on the under sides, and large and showy vhite
flowers with a conspicuous purple blotch at the base of each petal.
Unless in southern and western England, but particularly on the
sea-coast, this handsome Portuguese shrub is not to be depended on, in
so far as hardihood is concerned.

C. LAURIFOLIUS.--Laurel-leaved Cistus. Spain, 1731. This is the
hardiest species in cultivation, but, like the latter, is favourable to
the milder parts of these islands, and especially maritime districts.
Frequently it rises to 7 feet in height, and is then an object of great
beauty, the large yellowish-white flowers showing well above the deep
green Laurel-like leaves.

C. MONSPELIENSIS (South of Europe, 1656), and its variety C.
monspeliensis florentinus, the former with white, and the latter with
white and yellow flowers, are fairly hardy in the milder parts of
Britain, but cannot be recommended for general planting.

C. PURPUREUS.--Purple-flowered Cistas. In this species, which may rank
next to the latter in point of hardihood, the flowers are of a deep
reddish-purple, and with a darker blotch at the base of each petal.

C. SALVIFOLIUS is of loose and rather untidy growth, with rugose leaves
and white flowers. It is very variable in character, and the form
generally cultivated grows about 4 feet high, and has ovate-lanceolate,
almost glabrous leaves.

Other species that are occasionally to be found in collections are C.
creticus, with yellow and purple flowers; C. hirsutus, white with
yellow blotches at the base of the petals; and C. Clusii, with very
large pure-white flowers. All the species of Gum Cistus, or Rock Rose
as they are very appropriately named, will be found to succeed best
when planted in exalted positions, and among light, though rich, strong
soil. They are easy of propagation.


CITRUS TRIFOLIATA.--Japan, 1869. This is a singular low-growing shrub,
with ternate leaves, spiny branches, and fragrant white flowers. It is
hardy in many English situations, but does not fruit freely, although
the orange-blossom-like flowers are produced very abundantly. A pretty
little glossy-leaved shrub that is well worthy of attention,
particularly where a cosy corner can be put aside for its cultivation.


CLADRASTIS AMURENSIS.--Amoor Yellow Wood. Amur, 1880. This is a shrub
that is sure to be extensively cultivated when better known, and more
readily procured. It has stood uninjured for several years in various
parts of England, so that its hardihood may be taken for granted. The
pretty olive-green of the bark, and the greyish-green of the leathery
leaves, render the shrub one of interest even in a flowerless state. In
July and August the dense spikes of white, or rather yellowish-white
flowers are produced freely, and that, too, even before the shrub has
attained to a height of 2 feet. It is well worthy of extended culture.

C. TINCTORIA (_syn C. lutea_ and _Virgilia lutea_).--Yellow Wood. North
America, 1812. This is a handsome deciduous tree that does well in many
parts of the country, and is valued for the rich profusion of white
flowers produced, and which are well set-off by the finely-cut pinnate
leaves. It is a valuable tree for park and lawn planting, requiring a
warm, dry soil, and sunny situation--conditions under which the wood
becomes well-ripened, and the flowers more freely produced.


CLEMATIS ALPINA (_syn Atragene alpina, A. austriaca_ and _A.
siberica_).--Europe and North America. This is a climbing species with
bi-ternately divided leaves, and large flowers with four blue sepals
and ten to twelve small flattened organs, which are usually termed

C. CIRRHOSA.--Evergreen Virgin's Bower. Spain, 1596. An interesting,
early-flowering species. The flowers, which are greenish-white, are
produced in bunches and very effective. It is an evergreen species, of
comparative hardihood, and flowers well in sheltered situations.

C. FLAMMULA.--Virgin's Bower. France, 1596. This old and well-known
plant is quite hardy in this country. The leaves are pinnate, and the
flowers white and fragrant. C. Flammula rubro-marginata is a worthy and
beautiful-leaved variety.

C. FLORIDA.--Japan, 1776. This is a beautiful species, and an old
inhabitant of English gardens. Leaves composed of usually three
oval-shaped leaflets, and unusually bright of tint. The flowers are
very large, and pure white. It should be planted in a warm sheltered
corner against a wall.

C. GRAVEOLENS.--This is a dwarf shrub, with neatly tripinnate leaves,
and solitary, strongly-scented yellow flowers of medium size. A native
of Chinese Tartary, and quite hardy.

C. LANUGINOSA.--China, 1851. A handsome species, with large purple
leaves that are hairy on the under sides. Flowers pale blue or lilac,
very large, and composed of six or eight spreading sepals. C.
lanuginosa pallida has immense flowers, often fully half a foot in
diameter. Flowers in June.

C. MONTANA.--Nepaul, 1831. This is valuable on account of its flowering
in May. It is a free-growing species, with trifoliolate leaves on long
footstalks, and large white flowers. C. montana grandiflora is a
beautiful variety, having large white flowers so abundantly produced as
to hide the foliage. It is quite hardy and of rampant growth.

C. PATENS (_syns C. caerulea_ and _C. azurea grandiflora_).--Japan,
1836. This has large, pale-violet flowers, and is the parent of many
single and double flowered forms. The typical form is, however, very
deserving of cultivation, on account of the freedom with which it
blooms during June and July from the wood of the previous year. It is
perfectly hardy even in the far north.

C. VIORNA.--Leather Flower. United States. This is a showy,
small-flowered species, the flowers being campanulate, greenish-white
within and purplish without. C. Viorna coccinea is not yet well known,
but is one of the prettiest of the small-flowered section. The flowers,
which are leathery as in the species, are of a beautiful vermilion on
the outside and yellow within.

C. VITALBA.--Lady's Bower, or Old Man's Beard. A handsome native climbing
shrub, common in limestone or chalky districts, and unusually abundant
in the southern English counties. Clambering over some neglected fence,
often to nearly 20 feet in height, this vigorous-growing plant is seen
to best advantage, the three or five-lobed leaves and festoons of
greenish-white, fragrant flowers, succeeded by the curious and attractive
feathery carpels, render the plant one of the most distinct and desirable
of our native wildlings flowering in August.

C. VITICELLA.--Spain, 1569. This is a well-known species of not too
rampant growth, and a native of Spain and Italy. The flowers vary a
good deal in colour, but in the typical plant they are reddish-purple
and produced throughout the summer. Crossed with C. lanuginosa, this
species has produced many ornamental and beautiful hybrids, one of the
finest and most popular being C. Jackmanii.

C. WILLIAMSI (_syn C. Fortunei_).--Japan, 1863. The fragrant, white
flowers of this species are semi-double, and consist of about 100
oblong-lanceolate sepals narrowed to the base. The leathery leaves are
trifoliolate with heart-shaped leaflets. It proves quite hardy, and has
several varieties.

GARDEN VARIETIES.--As well as the above there are many beautiful garden
hybrids, some of which in point of floral colouring far outvie the
parent forms. Included in the following list are a few of the most
beautiful kinds:--

Alba Victor.
Beauty of Worcester.
Belle of Woking.
Blue Gem.
Duchess of Edinburgh.
Edith Jackman.
Fairy Queen.
John Gould Veitch.
Lady Bovill.
Lord Beaconsfield.
Lucie Lemoine.
Madame Baron Veillard.
Miss Bateman.
Mrs. A. Jackman.
Prince of Wales.
Star of India.
Venus Victrix.
William Kennett.


CLERODENDRON TRICHOTOMUM.--Japan, 1800. This is at once one of the most
beautiful and distinct of hardy shrubs. It is of stout, nearly erect
growth, 8 feet high, and nearly as much through, with large,
dark-green, ovate leaves, and deliciously fragrant white flowers, with
a purplish calyx, and which are at their best in September. Thriving
well in any light soil, being of vigorous constitution, and extremely
handsome of flower, are qualities which combine to render this shrub
one of particular importance in our gardens.

C. FOETIDUM, a native of China, is only hardy in southern and seaside
situations, where it forms a bush 5 feet high, with heart-shaped leaves,
and large clusters of rosy-pink flowers.


CLETHRA ACUMINATA.--Pointed-leaved Pepper Tree. Carolina, 1806. This is
not so hardy as C. alnifolia, hailing from the Southern States of North
America, but with a little protection is able to do battle with our
average English winter. It resembles C. alnifolia, except in the
leaves, which are sharp pointed, and like that species delights to grow
in damp positions. The flowers are white and drooping, and the growth
more robust than is that of C. alnifolia generally. For planting by the
pond or lake-side, the Pepper Trees are almost invaluable.

C. ALNIFOLIA.--Alder-leaved Pepper Tree. North America, 1831. A rather
stiff-growing shrub of about 5 feet in height, with leaves resembling
those of our common Alder, and bearing towards the end of July spikes
of almost oppressively fragrant dull-white flowers at the tips of the
branches. It is a valuable shrub, not only in an ornamental way, but on
account of it thriving in damp, swampy ground, where few others could
exist, while at the same time it will succeed and flower freely in
almost any good garden soil.


COCCULUS CAROLINUS.--This is a half hardy, twining shrub, of free
growth when planted by a tree stem in a sheltered wood, but with by no
means showy flowers; indeed, it may be described in few words as a
shrub of no great beauty nor value.

C. LAURIFOLIUS, from the Himalayas and Japan, is even less hardy than
the above, although, used as a wall plant, it has survived for many
years in the south and west of England. The foliage of this species is
neat and ornamental, but liable to injury from cold easterly winds.


COLLETIA CRUCIATA (_syn C. bictonensis_).--Chili, 1824. With flattened
woody branches, and sharp-pointed spines which take the place of
leaves, this is at once one of the most singular of hardy flowering
shrubs. It forms a stout dense bush about 4 feet high, and bears
quantities of small white flowers, which render the plant one of great
beauty during the summer months.

C. SPINOSA.--Peru, 1823. This species grows fairly well in some parts
of England and Ireland, and is a curious shrub with awl-shaped leaves,
and, like the other members of the family, an abundant producer of
flowers. It thrives best as a wall plant, and when favourably situated
a height of 12 feet is sometimes attained.


COLUTEA ARBORESCENS.--Bladder Senna. France, 1548. This is a common
plant in English gardens, bearing yellow Pea-shaped flowers, that are
succeeded by curious reddish bladder-like seed pods. It grows to 10
feet or 12 feet in height, and is usually of lax and slender growth,
but perfectly hardy.

C. CRUENTA (_syn C. orientalis_ and _C. sanguine_).--Oriental Bladder
Senna. Levant, 1710. This is a free-growing, round-headed, deciduous
bush, of from 6 feet to 8 feet high when fully grown. The leaves are
pinnate and glaucous, smooth, and bright green above, and downy
beneath. Flowers individually large, of a reddish-copper colour, with a
yellow spot at the base of the upper petal. The fruit is an inflated
boat-shaped reddish pod. The Bladder Sennas are of very free growth,
even in poor, sandy soil, and being highly ornamental, whether in
flower or fruit, are to be recommended for extensive cultivation.


CORIARIA MYRTIFOLIA.--South Europe, 1629. A deciduous shrub growing to
about 4 feet in height, with Myrtle-like leaves, and upright terminal
racemes of not very showy flowers, produced about mid-summer--generally
from May to August. For its pretty foliage and the frond-like
arrangement of its branches it is principally worthy of culture. From
southern Europe and the north of Africa, where it is an occupant of
waste ground and hedges, but still rare in our gardens.


CORNUS ALBA.--White-fruited Dogwood. Siberia, 1741. This is a native of
northern Asia and Siberia, not of America as Loudon stated. For the
slender, red-barked branches and white or creamy flowers, this species
is well worthy of notice, while the white fruit renders it very
distinct and effective. It grows to about 10 feet in height. C. alba
Spathi is one of the most ornamental of shrubs bearing coloured leaves,
these in spring being of a beautiful bronzy tint, and changing towards
summer to a mixture of gold and green, or rather an irregular margin of
deep gold surrounds each leaf. It was first sent out by the famous
Berlin nurseryman whose name it bears. C. alba Gouchaulti is another
variegated leaved variety, but has no particular merit, and originated
in one of the French nurseries.

C. ALTERNIFOLIA.--North America, 1760. This species is a lover of damp
ground, and grows from 20 feet to nearly 30 feet high, with clusters of
pale yellow flowers, succeeded by bluish-black berries that render the
plant highly ornamental. It is still rare in British gardens.

C. AMOMUM (_syn C. sericea_).--From the eastern United States. It is a
low-growing, damp-loving shrub, with yellowish-white flowers, borne
abundantly in small clusters. It grows about 8 feet in height, and has
a graceful habit, owing to the long and lithe branches spreading
regularly over the ground. The fruit is pale blue, and the bark a
conspicuous purple.

C. ASPERIFOLIA is another showy American species, with reddish-brown
bark, hairy leaves, of small size, and rather small flowers that are
succeeded by pearly-white berries borne on conspicuous reddish stalks.

C. BAILEYI resembles somewhat the better-known C. stolonifera, but it
is of more erect habit, is not stoloniferous, has rather woolly leaves,
at least on the under side, and bears yellowish-white fruit. It grows
in sandy soil, and is a native of Canada.

C. CALIFORNICA (_syn C. pubescens_) grows fully 10 feet high, with
smooth branches, hairy branchlets, and cymes of pretty white flowers,
succeeded by white fruit. It occurs from southern California to British

C. CANADENSIS.--Dwarf Cornel or Birchberry. Canada, 1774. This is of
herbaceous growth, and remarkable for the large cream-coloured flower
bracts, and showy red fruit.

C. CANDIDISSIMA (_syn C. paniculata_) is a beautiful American species,
with panicled clusters of almost pure white flowers, that are succeeded
by pale blue fruit. It is a small growing tree, with narrow, pointed
leaves, and greyish coloured, smooth bark. Like many of its fellows,
this species likes rather moist ground.

C. CIRCINATA, from the eastern United States, is readily distinguished
by its large, round leaves, these sometimes measuring 6 inches long by
3-1/2 inches wide. The yellowish-white flowers are individually small,
and succeeded by bright blue fruits, each as large as a pea.

C. CAPITATA (_syn Benthamia fragifera_).--Nepaul, 1825. An evergreen
shrub, with oblong, light green leaves and terminal inconspicuous
greenish flowers, surrounded by an involucre of four large,
pinky-yellow bracts. It is this latter that renders the shrub so very
conspicuous when in full flower. Unfortunately, the Benthamia is not
hardy throughout the country, the south and west of England, especially
Cornwall, and the southern parts of Ireland being the favoured spots
where this handsome shrub or small growing tree--for in Cornwall it has
attained to fully 45 feet in height, and in Cork nearly 30 feet--may be
found in a really thriving condition. Around London it does well enough
for a time, but with severe frost it gets cut back to the ground, and
though it quickly recovers and grows rapidly afterwards, before it is
large enough to flower freely it usually suffers again. The fruits are
as large and resemble Strawberries, and of a rich scarlet or reddish
hue, and though ripe in October they frequently remain on the trees
throughout the winter. Both for its flowers and fruit, this Nepaul
shrub-tree is well worthy of a great amount of trouble to get it
established in a cosy corner of the garden. Rich, well-drained loam is
all it wants, while propagation by seed is readily effected.

C. FLORIDA, the Florida Dogwood, is not always very satisfactory when
grown in this country, our climate in some way or other being
unsuitable for its perfect development. It is a handsome shrub or
small-growing tree, with small flowers surrounded by a large and
conspicuous white involucre. The leaves are ovate-oblong, and pubescent
on the undersides. It is a valuable as well as ornamental little tree,
and is worthy of a great amount of coddling and coaxing to get it

C. KOUSA (_syn Benthamia japonica_).--Japan. This is a very distinct
and beautiful flowering shrub. Flowers very small individually, but
borne in large clusters, and yellow, the showy part being the four
large, pure white bracts which subtend each cluster of blossoms, much
like those in Cornus florida, only the bracts are more pointed than
those of the latter species. Being quite hardy, and a plant of great
interest and beauty, this little known Cornus is sure to be widely
planted when better known.

C. MACROPHYLLA (_syn C. brachypoda_).--Himalayas, China and Japan,
1827. This is an exceedingly handsome species, of tabulated appearance,
occasioned by the branches being arranged almost horizontally. The
leaves are of large size, elliptic-ovate, and are remarkable for their
autumnal tints. The elder-like flowers appear in June. They are pure
white and arranged in large cymes. C. macrophylla variegata is a
distinct and very ornamental form of the above, in which the leaf
margins are bordered with white.

C. MAS.--Cornelian Cherry. Austria, 1596. One of our earliest flowering
trees, the clusters of yellow blooms being produced in mild seasons by
the middle of February. It is not at all fastidious about soil,
thriving well in that of very opposite description. It deserves to be
extensively cultivated, if only for the profusion of brightly-tinted
flowers, which completely cover the shoots before the leaves have
appeared. C. Mas aurea-elegantissima, the tricolor-leaved Dogwood, is a
strikingly ornamental shrub, with green leaves encircled with a golden
band, the whole being suffused with a faint pinky tinge. It is of more
slender growth than the species, and a very desirable acquisition to
any collection of hardy ornamental shrubs. C. Mas argenteo-variegata is
another pretty shrub, the leaves being margined with clear white.

C. NUTTALLII grows to fully 50 feet in height, and is one of the most
beautiful of the Oregon and Californian forest trees. The flower bracts
are of large size, often 6 inches across, the individual bracts being
broad and white, and fully 2-1/2 inches long.

C. OFFICINALIS is a Japanese species, that is, however, quite hardy in
this country, and nearly resembles the better known C. Mas, but from
which it may at once be known by the tufts of brownish hairs that are
present in the axils of the principal leaf veins.

C. STOLONIFERA.--Red Osier Dogwood. North America, 1741. This has
rather inconspicuous flowers, that are succeeded by whitish fruit, and
is of greatest value for the ruddy tint of the young shoots. It grows
fully 6 feet high, and increases rapidly by underground suckers. The
species is quite hardy.

C. TARTARICA (_syn C. siberica_).--Siberia, 1824. This has much
brighter coloured bark, and is of neater and dwarfer habit, than the
typical C. alba. It is a very beautiful and valuable shrub, of which
there is a variegated leaved form.


COROKIA COTONEASTER.--New Zealand, 1876. A curious, dwarf-growing
shrub, with small, bright yellow, starry flowers produced in June. The
hardiness of the shrub is rather doubtful.


CORONILLA EMERUS.--Scorpion Senna. France, 1596. This shrub, a native
of the middle and southern parts of Europe, forms an elegant loose bush
about 5 feet high, with smooth, pinnate, sub-evergreen leaves, and
Pea-shaped flowers, that are reddish in the bud state, but bright
yellow when fully expanded. It is an elegant plant, and on account of
its bearing hard cutting back, is well suited for ornamental hedge
formation; but however used the effect is good, the distinct foliage
and showy flowers making it a general favourite with planters. It will
thrive in very poor soil, but prefers a light rich loam.


CORYLOPSIS HIMALAYANA.--E. Himalayas, 1879. This is a stronger growing
species than C. pauciflora and C. spicata, with large leaves averaging
4 inches long, that are light green above and silky on the under sides.
The parallel veins of the leaves are very pronounced, while the
leaf-stalks, as indeed the young twigs too, are covered with a hairy

C. PAUCIFLORA is readily distinguished from the former by its more
slender growth, smaller leaves, and fewer flowered spikes. Flowers

C. SPICATA.--Japan, 1864. This Japanese shrub is of very distinct
appearance, having leaves like those of our common Hazel, and drooping
spikes of showy-yellowish, fragrant flowers that are produced before
the leaves. There is a variegated form in cultivation.

The various species of Corylopsis are very ornamental garden plants,
and to be recommended, on account of their early flowering, for
prominent positions in the shrubbery or by the woodland walk. Light,
rich loam seems to suit them well.


CORYLUS AVELLANA PURPUREA.--Purple Hazel. This has large leaves of a
rich purple colour, resembling those of the purple Beech, and is a very
distinct plant for the shrubbery border. Should be cut down annually if
large leaves are desired.

C. COLURNA.--Constantinople Hazel. Turkey, 1665. This is the largest
and most ornamental of the family, and is mentioned here on account of
the showy catkins with which the tree is usually well supplied. When
thickly produced, as they usually are on established specimens, these
long catkins have a most effective and pleasing appearance, and tend to
render the tree one of the most distinct in cultivation. Under
favourable circumstances, such as when growing in a sweet and rather
rich brown loam, it attains to fully 60 feet in height, and of a neat
shape, from the branches being arranged horizontally, or nearly so.
Even in a young state the Constantinople Hazel is readily distinguished
from the common English species, by the softer and more angular leaves,
and by the whitish bark which comes off in long strips. The stipules,
too, form an unerring guide to its identity, they being long, linear,
and recurved.


COTONEASTER BACILLARIS.--Nepaul, 1841. A large-growing species, and one
of the few members of the family that is more ornamental in flower than
in fruit. It is of bold, portly, upright growth, and sends up shoots
from the base of the plant. The pretty white flowers are borne in
clusters for some distance along the slender shoots, and have a very
effective and pleasing appearance; indeed, the upper portion of the
plant has the appearance of a mass of white blossoms.

C. FRIGIDA.--Nepaul, 1824. The species forms a large shrub or low tree
with oblong, elliptical, sub-evergreen leaves. The flowers are white
and borne in large corymbs, which are followed by scarlet berries in

C. MICROPHYLLA.--Small-leaved Cotoneaster. Nepaul, 1825. This is, from
a flowering point of view, probably the most useful of any member of
this rather large genus. Its numerous pretty white flowers, dark,
almost Yew-green leaves, and abundance of the showiest red berries in
winter, will ever make this dwarf, clambering plant a favourite with
those who are at all interested in beautiful shrubs. All, or nearly
all, the species of Cotoneaster are remarkable and highly valued for
their showy berries, but, except the above, and perhaps C. buxifolia
(Box-leaved Cotoneaster), few others are worthy of consideration from a
purely flowering point of view.

C. SIMONSII.--Khasia, 1868. The stems of this species usually grow from
4 feet to 6 feet high, with sub-erect habit. The leaves are
roundly-elliptic and slightly silky beneath. The small flowers are
succeeded by a profusion of scarlet berries that ripen in autumn. This
is generally considered the best for garden purposes.


CRATAEGUS AZAROLUS.--South Europe, 1640. This is a very
vigorous-growing species, with a wide, spreading head of rather
upright-growing branches. The flowers are showy and the fruit large and
of a pleasing red colour.

C. AZAROLUS ARONIA (_syn C. Aronia_).--Aronia Thorn. South Europe,
1810. This tree attains to a height of 20 feet, has deeply lobed leaves
that are wedge-shaped at the base, and slightly pubescent on the under
sides. The flowers, which usually are at their best in June, are white
and showy, and succeeded by large yellow fruit. Generally the Aronia
Thorn forms a rather upright and branchy specimen of neat proportions,
and when studded with its milk-white flowers may be included amongst
the most distinct and ornamental of the family.

C. COCCINEA.--Scarlet-fruited Thorn. North America, 1683. If only for
its lovely white flowers, with bright, pinky anthers, it is well worthy
of a place even in a selection of ornamental flowering trees and
shrubs. It is, however, rendered doubly valuable in that the
cordate-ovate leaves turn of a warm brick colour in the autumn, while
the fruit, and which is usually produced abundantly, is of the
brightest red.

C. COCCINEA MACRANTHA.--North America, 1819. This bears some resemblance
to the Cockspur Thorn, but has very long, curved spines--longer, perhaps,
than those of any other species.

C. CORDATA is one of the latest flowering species, in which respect it
is even more hardy than the well-known C. tanace-tifolia. It forms a
small compact tree, of neat and regular outline, with dark green
shining leaves, and berries about the same size as those of the common
species, and deep red.

C. CRUS-GALLI.--Cockspur Thorn. North America, 1691. This has large
and showy white flowers that are succeeded by deep red berries. It is
readily distinguished by the long, curved spines with which the whole
tree is beset. Of this species there are numerous worthy forms,
including C. Crus-galli Carrierii, which opens at first white, and
then turns a showy flesh colour; C. Crus-galli Layi, C. Crus-galli
splendens, C. Crus-galli prunifolia, C. Crus-galli pyracanthifolia, and
C. Crus-galli salicifolia, all forms of great beauty--whether for their
foliage, or beautiful and usually plentifully-produced flowers.

C. DOUGLASII.--North America, 1830. This is peculiar in having dark
purple or almost black fruit. It is of stout growth, often reaching to
20 feet in height, and belongs to the early-flowering section.

C. NIGRA (_syn C. Celsiana_).--A tree 20 feet high, with stout branches,
and downy, spineless shoots. Leaves large, ovate-acute, deeply incised,
glossy green above and downy beneath. Flowers large and fragrant, pure
white, and produced in close heads in June. Fruit large, oval, downy,
and yellow when fully ripe. A native of Sicily, and known under the
names of C. incisa and C. Leeana. This species must not be confused
with a variety of our common Thorn bearing a similar name.

C. OXYACANTHA.--Common Hawthorn. This is, perhaps, the most ornamental
species in cultivation, and certainly the commonest. The common wild
species needs no description, the fragrant flowers varying in colour
from pure white to pink, being produced in the richest profusion. Under
cultivation, however, it has produced some very distinct and desirable
forms, far superior to the parent, including amongst others those with
double-white, pink, and scarlet flowers.

C. OXYACANTHA PUNICEA flore-pleno (Paul's double-scarlet Thorn), is one
of, if not the handsomest variety, with large double flowers that are
of the richest crimson. Other good flowering kinds include C.
Oxyacantha praecox (Glastonbury Thorn); C. Oxyacantha Oliveriana; C.
Oxyacantha punicea, with deep scarlet flowers; C. Oxyacantha rosea,
rose-coloured and abundantly-produced flowers; C. Oxyacantha foliis
aureis, with yellow fruit; C. Oxyacantha laciniata, cut leaves; C.
Oxyacantha multiplex, double-white flowers; C. Oxyacantha foliis
argenteis, having silvery-variegated leaves: C. Oxyacantha pendula, of
semi-weeping habit; C. Oxyacantha stricta, with an upright and stiff
habit of growth; C. Oxyacantha Leeana, a good form; and C. Oxyacantha

C. PARVIFOLIA.--North America, 1704. This is a miniature Thorn, of slow
growth, with leaves about an inch long, and solitary pure-white flowers
of large size. The flowers open late in the season, and are succeeded
by yellowish-green fruit.

C. PYRACANTHA.--Fiery Thorn. South Europe, 1629. This is a very
distinct species, with lanceolate serrated leaves, and pinkish or
nearly white flowers. The berries of this species are, however, the
principal attraction, being orange-scarlet, and produced in dense
clusters. C. Pyracantha crenulata and C. Pyracantha Lelandi are worthy
varieties of the above, the latter especially being one of the most
ornamental-berried shrubs in cultivation.

C. TANACETIFOLIA.--Tansy-leaved Thorn. Greece, 1789. This is a very
late-flowering species, and remarkable for its Tansy-like foliage. It
is of unusually free growth, and in almost any class of soil, and is
undoubtedly, in so far at least as neatly divided leaves and wealth of
fruit are concerned, one of the most distinct and desirable species of

Other good species and varieties that may just be mentioned as being
worthy of cultivation are C. apiifolia, C. Crus-galli horrida, C.
orientalis, and C. tomentosum (_syn C. punctata_). To a lesser or
greater extent, the various species and varieties of Thorn are of great
value for the wealth and beauty of flowers they produce, but the above
are, perhaps, the most desirable in that particular respect. They are
all of free growth, and, except in waterlogged soils, thrive well and
flower freely.


CYTISUS ALBUS.--White Spanish Broom. Portugal, 1752. This is a
large-growing shrub of often 10 feet in height, with wiry, somewhat
straggling branches, and remarkable for the wealth of pure-white
flowers it produces. In May and June, if favourably situated, every
branch is wreathed with small white flowers, and often to such an
extent that at a short distance away the plant looks like a sheet of
white. Being perfectly hardy and of very free growth in any light soil,
and abundantly floriferous, this handsome shrub is one of particular
value in ornamental planting. By placing three or five plants in
clump-fashion, the beauty of this Broom is greatly enhanced.

C. ALDUS INCARNATUS (_syn C. incarnatus_) resembles C. purpureus in its
leaves and general appearance, but it is of larger growth. The flowers,
which are at their best in May, are of a vinous-rose colour, and
produced plentifully.

C. BIFLORUS (_syn C. elongatus_).--Hungary, 1804. This is a dwarf,
spreading, twiggy bush, of fully a yard high. Leaves trifoliolate,
clothed beneath with closely adpressed hairs, and bright yellow,
somewhat tubular flowers, usually produced in fours.

C. DECUMBENS.--A charming alpine species, of low, spreading growth,
bright-green three-parted leaves, and bearing axillary bunches of large
yellow, brownish-purple tinted flowers. A native of the French and
Italian Alps, and quite hardy.

C. NIGRICANS.--Austria, 1730. Another beautiful species, with long,
erect racemes of golden-yellow flowers, and one whose general hardihood
is undoubted. On its own roots, and allowed to roam at will, this
pretty, small-growing Broom is of far greater interest than when it is
grafted mop-high on a Laburnum stem, and pruned into artificial shapes,
as is, unfortunately, too often the case.

C. PURPUREUS.--Purple Broom. Austria, 1792. Alow, spreading shrub, with
long wiry shoots, clothed with neat trifoliolate leaves, and bearing an
abundance of its purple, Pea-shaped flowers. There is a white-flowered
form, C. purpureus albus, and another named C. purpureus ratis-bonensis,
with pretty yellow flowers, produced on long and slender shoots.

C. SCOPARIUS.--Yellow Broom. This is a well-known native shrub, with
silky, angular branches, and bright yellow flowers in summer. There are
several varieties, but the most remarkable and handsome is C. scoparius
Andreanus, in which the wings of the flowers are of a rich golden
brown. It is one of the showiest shrubs in cultivation.

For ornamental planting the above are about the best forms of Broom,
but others might include C. austriacus, C. Ardoini, and C. capitatus,
the latter being unusually hardy, and bearing dense heads of flowers.
In so far as soil is concerned, the Brooms are readily accommodated,
while either from seeds or cuttings they are easily propagated.


DABOECIA POLIFOLIA (_syn Menziesia polifolia_).--St. Dabeoc's Heath.
South Western Europe, Ireland and the Azores. A dwarf, and rather
straggling, viscid shrub, with linear-ovate leaves that are silvery
beneath. The flowers are pink, and abundantly produced. D. polifolia
alba has white flowers; and D. polifolia atro-purpurea, purplish


DANAE LAURUS (_syn D. racemosa_ and _Ruscus racemosus_).--Alexandrian
Laurel. A native of Portugal (1739), with glossy-green leaf substitutes,
and racemes of small, not very showy, greenish-yellow flowers.


DAPHNE ALPINA.--Italy, 1759. A deciduous species, which has white or
rosy-white, sweet-scented flowers. It is a pretty, but rare shrub, that
grows well in light sandy leaf soil.

D. ALTAICA.--Siberia, 1796. Though rare in gardens, this is a pretty
and neat-foliaged species, and bears white flowers in abundance. It
wants a warm corner and dry soil.

D. BLAGAYANA.--Styria, 1872. This is still rare in cultivation, but it
is a very desirable species, bearing ivory-white highly-fragrant
flowers. For the alpine garden it is particularly suitable, and though
growing rather slowly thrives well in good light soil.

(_syn D. Fortunei_), from China, is a rare and pretty species, bearing
lilac flowers in winter, and whilst the shrub is leafless. It does best
in a warm situation, such as planted against a wall facing south.

D. CNEORUM.--Garland Flower. South Europe, 1752. This is a charming
rock shrub, of dwarf, trailing habit, with small glossy-green leaves,
and dense clusters of deep pink, deliciously-fragrant flowers.

D. FIONIANA is of neat growth, with small, glossy, dark leaves, and
pale rose-coloured flowers. Its sturdy, dwarf habit, constant verdure,
and pretty sweet-scented flowers, should make this species a favourite
with cultivators. Known also as D. hyemalis.

D. GENKWA.--Japanese Lilac. Japan, 1866. This is a rare and beautiful
species, of recent introduction, with large lilac-tinted,
sweetly-scently flowers.

D. LAUREOLA.--Spurge Laurel. This is not, in so far at least as flowers
are concerned, a showy species, but the ample foliage and sturdy habit
of the plant will always render this native species of value for the
shrubbery. It is of value, too, as growing and flowering freely in the
shade. The flowers are sweetly-scented and of a greenish-yellow colour,
and appear about February.

D. MEZEREUM.--The Mezereon. Europe (England). One of the commonest and
most popular of hardy garden shrubs. It is of stout, strict growth, and
produces clusters of pinky, rose, or purplish flowers before winter is
past, and while the branches are yet leafless. Few perfectly hardy
flowering shrubs are so popular as the Mezereon, and rightly so, for a
more beautiful plant could not be mentioned, wreathed as every branch
is, and almost back to the main stem, with the showiest of flowers. It
likes good, rich, dampish soil, and delights to grow in a quiet, shady
nook, or even beneath the spread of our larger forest trees. There are
several very distinct varieties, of which the white-flowered D.
Mezereum flore albo is one of the most valuable. The fruit of this
variety is bright golden-yellow. D. Mezereum autumnale and D. Mezereum
atro-rubrum are likewise interesting and beautiful forms.

D. PETRAEA (_syn D. rupestris_).--Rock Daphne. Tyrol. This is quite
hardy in the more sheltered corners of the rock garden, with neat,
shining foliage and pretty rosy flowers, produced so thickly all over
the plant as almost to hide the foliage from view. At Kew it thrives
well in peaty loam and limestone, and although it does not increase
very quickly is yet happy and contented. It is a charming rock shrub.

D. PONTICA.--Pontic Daphne. Asia Minor, 1759. This is much like D.
lauriola, but has shorter and more oval leaves, and the flowers,
instead of being borne in fives like that species, are produced in
pairs. They are also of a richer yellow, and more sweetly scented.

D. SERICEA (_syn D. collina_).--Italy and Asia Minor, 1820. This forms
a bush fully 2 feet high, with evergreen, oblong, shining leaves, and
clusters of rose-coloured flowers that are pleasantly scented. It is
quite hardy, and an interesting species that is well worthy of more
extended culture. There is a variety of this with broader foliage than
the species, and named D. sericea latifolia (_syn D. collina


DAPHNIPHYLLUM GLAUCESCENS.--East Indies, Java and Corea. A handsome
Japanese shrub that will be valued for its neat Rhododendron-like
foliage, compact habit of growth, and for the conspicuous bark which is
of a warm reddish hue. The leaves are large and elliptic, six inches
long, and are rendered strangely conspicuous from the foot-stalks and
midrib being dull crimson, this affording a striking contrast to the
delicate green of the leaves. It grows freely in light sandy peat.
There are two well-marked forms, one named D. glaucescens viridis, in
which the red markings of the leaves are absent; and D. glaucescens
jezoensis, a pretty and uncommon variety.


DESFONTAINEA SPINOSA.--Andes from Chili to New Grenada, 1853. This is a
desirable shrub, and one that is perfectly hardy in most parts of the
country. It is a charming shrub of bold, bushy habit, with prickly
holly-like foliage, and scarlet and yellow, trumpet-shaped pendent
flowers, borne in quantity. The shelter of a wall favours the growth
and flowering of this handsome shrub, but it also succeeds well in the
open if planted in rich, light soil, and in positions that are not
exposed to cold and cutting winds.


DEUTZIA CRENATA (_syn D. scabra_ and _D. Fortunei_).--Japan 1863. This
is of stout, bushy growth, often reaching a height of 8 feet, and
lateral spread of nearly as much. The ovate-lanceolate leaves are rough
to the touch, and its slender, but wiry stems, are wreathed for a
considerable distance along with racemes of pure white flowers. It is a
very distinct shrub, of noble port, and when in full flower is
certainly one of the most ornamental of hardy shrubs. The
double-flowered form, D. crenata flore-pleno, is one of the prettiest
flowering shrubs in cultivation, the wealth of double flowers, not
white as in the species, but tinged with reddish-purple being highly
attractive. D. crenata, Pride of Rochester, is another form with
double-white flowers, and a most distinct and beautiful shrub. Two
other very beautiful varieties are those known as D. crenata Watererii
and D. crenata Wellsii.

D. GRACILIS is a somewhat tender shrub of fully 18 inches high, with
smooth leaves and pure-white flowers produced in the greatest freedom.
It does well in warm, sheltered sites, but is most frequently seen as a
greenhouse plant. A native of Japan.


DIERVILLA FLORIBUNDA (_syn D. multiflora_ and _Weigelia floribunda_),
from Japan, 1864, has narrow, tubular, purplish-coloured corollas, that
are only slightly opened out at the mouth. The Diervillas are valuable
decorative shrubs, of free growth in good rich loam, and bearing a
great abundance of the showiest of flowers. For shrubbery planting they
must ever rank high, the beautiful flowers and rich green ample leafage
rendering them distinct and attractive.

D. GRANDIFLORA (_syn D. amabilis_ and _Weigelia amabilis_).--Japan.
This is of larger growth than D. rosea, with strongly reticulated
leaves, that are prominently veined on the under sides, and much
larger, almost white flowers. It is a distinct and worthy species.
There are some beautiful varieties of this species, named Isolinae, Van
Houttei, and Striata.

D. ROSEA (_syn Weigelia rosea_).--China, 1844. This is a handsome hardy
shrub of small stature, with ovate-lanceolate leaves, and clusters of
showy pink, or sometimes white flowers, that are produced in April and
May. There are many good varieties of this shrub, of which the
following are the most popular:--D. rosea arborescens grandiflora; D.
rosea Lavallii, with an abundance of crimson-red flowers; D. rosea
Stelzneri, with an abundance of deep red flowers; D. rosea hortensis
nivea, large foliage, and large, pure-white flowers; D. rosea candida,
much like the latter, but bearing pure-white flowers; and D. rosea
Looymansii aurea has beautiful golden leaves.


DISCARIA LONGISPINA.--This is at once a curious and beautiful shrub, of
low, creeping growth, and poorly furnished with leaves, which, however,
are amply made up for by the deep green of the shoots and stems, and
which give to the plant almost the appearance of an evergreen. The
flowers, which are bell-shaped and white, are almost lavishly produced,
and as they last for a very long time, with only the pure white
assuming a pinky tinge when subjected to excessive sunshine, the value
of the shrub is still further enhanced. For planting against a mound of
rock this scrambling shrub is of value, but the position should not be
exposed to cold winds, for the plant is somewhat tender. From South
America, and allied to the better known Colletias.

D. SERRATIFOLIA (_syn Colletia serratifolia_), is even a handsomer
plant than the former, with minute serrated foliage, and sheets of
small white flowers in June.


DIOSPYROS KAKI COSTATA.--The Date Plum. China, 1789. Fruit as big as a
small apple; leaves leathery, entire, and broadly ovate; flowers and
fruits in this country when afforded the protection of a wall. The
fruit is superior to that of D. virginiana (Persimmon).

D. LOTUS, the common Date Plum, is a European species, with purplish
flowers, and oblong leaves that are reddish on the under sides. Both
species want a light, warm soil, and sheltered situation.

D. VIRGINIANA.--The Persimmon, or Virginian Date Plum. North America,
1629. A small-growing tree, with coriaceous leaves, and greenish-yellow
flowers. In southern situations and by the seaside it is perfectly
hardy, and succeeds well, but in other districts it is rather tender.
The fruit is edible, yellow in colour, and about an inch in diameter.


DIRCA PALUSTRIS.--Leather Wood. North America, 1750. A much-branched
bush, of quite a tree-like character, but rarely more than 3 feet high.
To the Daphnes it is nearly allied, and is close in resemblance; but
there is a curious yellowish hue pervading the whole plant. The flowers
are produced on the naked shoots in April, and are rendered conspicuous
by reason of the pendent yellow stamens. They are borne in terminal
clusters of three or four together. It delights to grow in a cool,
moist soil, indeed it is only when so situated that the Leather Wood
can be seen in a really thriving condition.


DRIMYS AROMATICA (_syn Tasmannia aromatica_).--Tasmanian Pepper Plant.
Tasmania, 1843. This is, if we might say so, a more refined plant than
D. Winteri, with smaller and narrower leaves, and smaller flowers. The
plant, too, has altogether a faint reddish tinge, and is of upright
growth. A native of Tasmania, and called by the natives the Pepper
Plant, the fruit being used as a substitute for that condiment. Like
the other species the present plant is only hardy in warm, maritime
places, and when afforded the protection of a wall.

D. WINTERI (_syn Winter a aromatica_).--Winter's Bark. South America,
1827. The fine evergreen character is the chief attraction of this
American shrub, so far at least as garden ornamentation is concerned.
With some persons even the greenish-white flowers are held in esteem,
and it cannot be denied that a well flowered plant has its own
attractions. The long, narrow leaves are pale green above and glaucous
beneath, and make the shrub of interest, both on account of their
evergreen nature and brightness of tint. Unfortunately it is not very
hardy, requiring even in southern England a sunny wall to do it


ELAEAGNUS ARGENTEA.--Silver Berry. North America, 1813. A spreading
shrub 8 feet or 10 feet high, with lanceolate leaves clothed with
silvery scales. The flowers are axillary and clustered, and are
succeeded by pretty, silvery-ribbed berries.

E. GLABRA (_syn E. reflexus_).--From Japan. This is one of the
handsomest species, forming bushes of delightful green, leathery
leaves, and with a neat and rather compact habit of growth. It grows
with great freedom when planted in light, sandy soil, big globose
bushes being the result of a few years' growth. Being perfectly hardy
it is to be recommended if only for the ample leathery, deep green
foliage. The flowers are inconspicuous. There is a form having the
leaves margined with pale yellow, and known under the name of E. glabra

E. LONGIPES (_syn E. edulis_ and _E. crisp a_).--Japan, 1873. This
species, is also worthy of culture, whether for the ornamental flowers
or fruit. It is a shrub 6 feet high, bearing an abundance of spotted,
oval red berries on long footstalks. Quite hardy.

E. MACROPHYLLA.--Japan. This is of robust growth, with handsome, dark
green leaves, and purplish branch tips. The leaves are thick of
texture, often fully 3 inches long, glossy-green above, and silvery
beneath. The latter is all the more remarkable, as the leaves have the
habit of curling up their edges, and thus revealing the light, silvery
tint of the under sides. It thrives well in light, sandy peat, and may
be relied upon as one of the hardiest of shrubs.

E. ROTUNDIFOLIA.--An interesting and perfectly hardy species, growing
about five feet high, and remarkable for the great wealth of pretty
scarlet and amber-coloured berries. The flowers are not very showy, but
this is made up by the beautiful silvery leaves, most pronounced on the
under sides, and wealth of fruit, which hangs on long stalks like

Other species of less interest are E. pungens, of which there is a
variegated variety; E. Simoni, a neat Chinese shrub; and E. latifolia,
of good habit and with large leaves. The various species and varieties
of Elaeagnus may all be cultivated in light, free soil, and from
experiments that were recently made, they have been found of great
value for planting by the seaside. They are popularly known as the Wild
Olives and Evergreen Oleasters.


EMBOTHRIUM COCCINEUM.--Fire Bush. South America, 1851. This is a
beautiful shrub, of tall growth, with flowers of great interest and
beauty. Except in warm and favoured situations, it is not very hardy,
and should always be grown as a wall plant. The fiery scarlet,
orange-tinted flowers, resembling somewhat those of the Honeysuckle,
are very beautiful by the first weeks of May. It grows to about 6 feet
in height in southern England, and is, when in full flower, a shrub of
unusual beauty.


EPHEDRA VULGARIS (_syn Ephedra monastachya_), from Siberia, 1772, is a
half-hardy shrub of trailing habit, with inconspicuous flowers.
Thriving in very poor soil, or on rocky situations, is the only reason
why it is introduced here.


EPIGAEA REPENS.--Ground Laurel, or New England Mayflower. Northern
United States, 1736. This is, perhaps, in so far as stature is
concerned, hardly worthy of a place in our list, yet it is such a
pretty and useful shrub, though rarely rising more than 6 inches from
the ground, that we cannot well pass it over. For planting beneath Pine
or other trees, where it can spread about at will, this prostrate shrub
is most at home. There it enlivens the spot with its pretty evergreen
foliage, and sweet-scented, white or pinky flowers. It is quite hardy.


ERCILLA SPICATA (_syn Bridgesia spicata_).--Chili, 1840. A
small-growing, half-climbing shrub, with leathery, deep green leaves,
and inconspicuous flowers. Hailing from Chili, it is not very hardy,
but given the protection of a wall, or planted against a tree-stump, it
soon forms a neat mass of evergreen foliage.


ERICA CARNEA.--South Europe, 1763. This is one of the most beautiful
and desirable of hardy Heaths, on account of the richly-coloured
flowers and early season at which they are produced. In the typical
species the flowers are pink or flesh-coloured, and produced in January
and February. It is a dwarf, compact growing species, with bright green
foliage. There is a form with pure white flowers, named E. carnea alba,
or E. herbacea, but although distinct and beautiful, it is not of so
robust growth as the parent.

E. CILIARIS.--A pretty native species, with ciliate glandular leaves,
and racemes of highly-coloured, rosy flowers. Found in Dorsetshire and

E. CINEREA,--Gray-leaved Heath. In this species, also a native of
Britain, the flowers are of a reddish-purple colour, and borne in dense
terminal racemes. There are numerous varieties, including a
white-flowered E. cinerea alba; E. cinerea atro-purpurea, bearing dark
purple flowers; E. cinerea atro-sanguinea, dark red flowers; E. cinerea
coccinea, scarlet; E. cinerea purpurea, purple flowers; and E. cinerea
rosea, with deep rose-coloured flowers.

E. MEDITERRANEA.--Mediterranean Heath. Portugal, 1648. This is a
robust-growing species, of rather erect habit, and often attaining to
fully a yard in height. Flowers abundantly produced, and of a pretty
pinky hue. Of this there are several varieties, the following being
best known: E. mediterranea hibernica, found in Ireland; E.
mediterranea alba, with white flowers; E. mediterranea nana, of very
dwarf growth; and E. mediterranea rubra, with showy, deep red flowers.

E. SCOPARIA and E. ERECTA are desirable species, the former bearing
greenish flowers, and the latter of decidedly upright growth.

E. TETRALIX.--Cross-leaved Heath. A native species of low, and bushy
growth, with close umbels or terminal clusters of pretty pinky flowers.
The varieties of this most worthy of notice are E. Tetralix alba, white
flowered; E. Tetralix Mackiana, crimson flowered; E. Tetralix rubra,
deep red flowers; and E. Tetralixbicolor, with parti-coloured flowers.

E. VAGANS..--Cornish Heath. A native species, bearing pinky-white
flowers, but there are forms with white and red flowers, named E.
vagans alba and E. vagans rubra.

The various kinds of Heath succeed best either in peaty soil, or that
composed for the greater part of light, sandy loam, but many will grow
and flower freely if planted in rich yellow loam. They are very
desirable plants, either for bed formation, for rockwork ornamentation,
or for planting around the shrubbery margins. Propagation is effected
either by cuttings or sub-divisions, but seedlings of several species
spring up freely under favourable conditions.


ESCALLONIA FLORIBUNDA (_syn E. montevideusis_).--New Grenada, 1827.
This is one of the handsomest species, bearing long, arching clusters
of white flowers. It is a very desirable shrub for wall or lattice-work
covering, against which it grows rapidly, and soon forms an object of
great beauty by reason of its neat foliage and graceful habit, as also
wealth of pretty flowers.

E. ILLINATA.--Chili, 1830. This should also be included, it being a
handsome and pretty-flowered plant.

E. MACRANTHA.--Chiloe, 1848. This is a general favourite in English
gardens, where it succeeds well, but especially in maritime parts of
the country. It is of stout growth, 6 feet or more in height, of
spreading habit, and with elliptical, serrulated, bright green leaves,
and clusters of crimson-red flowers produced in summer. For
wall-covering this is an almost invaluable shrub, although it succeeds
well as a standard in all but the colder parts of the country. Any
free, open soil suits it well, but thorough drainage must be attended
to. There are several very distinct and good varieties, such as E.
macrantha sanguinea, with flowers deeper in colour than those of the
parent plant; and E. macrantha Ingrami, a profuse-blooming and very
desirable form.

E. PHILLIPIANA.--Valdivia, 1873. When seen as a standard bush, and
loaded with its myriads of tiny white flowers, this must rank amongst
the handsomest members of the family. It is very hardy, and retains its
foliage throughout the winter. The hybrid forms, E. exoniensis and E.
leucantha, deserve recognition, the latter even as late as November
being laden with its small spikes of pretty white flowers, which
contrast nicely with the neat, evergreen foliage.

E. PTEROCLADON.--Patagonia, 1854. This is remarkable for the
curiously-winged branches, which give to the shrub a rather peculiar
and distinct appearance. The freely-produced flowers are white or pink.

E. RUBRA.--Chili, 1827. This has less handsome leaves and flowers than
the above, but it is, all the same, a beautiful plant. The flowers vary
a good deal in depth of colouring, and may be seen of all tints between
pure white and red.

The Escallonias are all of very free growth in any light, warm, sandy,
and well-drained soil, and are readily propagated.


EUCRYPHIA PINNATIFOLIA.--Chili, 1880. This shrub, is as yet rare in
cultivation, and is not suited for the colder or more exposed parts of
the country. It is, however, a singularly distinct and beautiful shrub,
with deep glossy-green, pinnate foliage, and bearing large, pure white
flowers, that are rendered all the more conspicuous by the
golden-yellow anthers. As an ornamental shrub it is well worthy of
cultivation. In so far as its hardihood in this climate has to do, it
may be mentioned that in various parts of England and Ireland it has
stood in the open ground unharmed for several years back. Light, sandy,
well drained peat would seem to meet with its requirements.


EUONYMUS AMERICANA.--American Spindle Tree. North America, 1686. This
is a deciduous or semi-evergreen shrub, of about 6 feet in height,
found over a wide area in Canada and the United States. It is of
partially erect growth, with long and lithe branches, covered with
pleasing light green bark. Flowers appearing in June, and succeeded by
rough, warted, brilliant scarlet capsules, which are particularly showy
and attractive. It likes a shady situation, and rich, rather damp soil.

E. EUROPAEUS.--West Asia, Europe (Britain), &c. An indigenous species,
rarely exceeding 6 feet in height, and rendered very effective in
autumn by reason of the pale scarlet fruit, which, when fully ripe, and
having split open, reveals the orange-coloured arils of the seeds. It,
too, delights to grow in the shade.

E. FIMBRIATUS, Japan and India, and its handsome variegated form, E.
fimbriatus foliis variegatus et argenteo maculatus, are rather too
tender for cultivation in this country, even in southern districts, and
where afforded wall protection. E. verrucosus and E. atropurpureus are
also worthy of cultivation.

E. LATIFOLIUS.--Broad-leaved Spindle Tree. A European species (1730),
deciduous, and growing from 10 feet to sometimes fully 20 feet in
height. The leaves are bright, shining green, and much larger than
those of our native species. Flowers, purplish-white, appearing in
June; the capsules large, deep red, and when open contrasting very
effectively with the bright orange arils in which the seeds are
enveloped. It is a very distinct and beautiful, small-growing lawn
tree, and succeeding, as it does, best in shade is an extra


FABIANA IMBRICATA.--Chili, 1838. This is, unfortunately, not hardy in
any but the milder maritime parts of England and Ireland. It is a
charming shrub of Heather-like appearance, with small, crowded leaves,
and pure white flowers produced in May. Planted at the base of a
southern wall it does best, and where it thrives it is certainly one of
our handsomest half-hardy shrubs.


FATSIA JAPONICA (_syns Aralia japonica_ and _A. Sieboldii_).--Japan,
1858. This is of no particular value as a flowering shrub, but being
hardy in most districts, and having large handsome leaves that impart
to it a tropical appearance, it is well worthy of culture. The flowers
are ivory-white, and produced in large umbels towards the end of
autumn, but our early frosts too often mar their beauty. In this
country it grows about 10 feet high, and is usually what is termed
"leggy" in appearance, and thrives well in any good loamy soil if
fairly dry.


FENDLERA RUPICOLA.--Mexico, 1888. A low-growing shrub, peculiar to the
dry rocky parts of the United States, particularly the south-western
district. It grows about a yard high, and bears a great profusion of
bluish-white flowers, that are rendered very conspicuous by reason of
the bright yellow stamens. It is the only known species, and is nearly
allied to the Saxifrages. Any fairly good garden soil will suit it
well, but it wants to be planted where superfluous moisture is quickly
carried off.


FORSYTHIA SUSPENSA (_syn F. Fortunei_ and _F. Sieboldii_).--Japan and
China, 1864. A slender-growing shrub, with variable leaves, and long,
trailing shoots. The flowers are abundantly produced, are of a
beautiful golden tint, and bell-shaped, and being of good substance
last for a long time. Either as a wall plant, or for using in some
sheltered corner, and where the branches can spread about at will, it
forms a very distinct and handsome shrub, and one that is perfectly
hardy and quite indifferent as regards the quality of soil in which it
is planted. There are several forms of this pretty shrub, but as they
do not differ to any great extent from the species, are hardly worthy
of consideration.

F. suspensa intermedia is a garden hybrid, 1891.

F. VIRIDISSIMA.--Japan, 1845. This is another desirable species, but it
is not comparable in point of beauty with the former. It is usually of
strong erect growth, with stout shoots, wreathed with bright yellow
flowers towards the end of winter. It is a very beautiful shrub, and a
valuable addition to the winter or early spring flowering section.


FOTHERGILLA ALNIFOLIA.--North Eastern America, 1765. This is an
ungainly habited shrub, of dwarf growth, the branches being somewhat
slender and crooked. The flowers are white, sweetly scented, and
produced in dense terminal spikes. It is perfectly hardy.


FRAXINUS ORNUS (_syn F. argentea, F. rotundifolia_, and _Ornus
europea_).--Manna Ash. South Europe, 1730. This is a handsome tree,
especially when young and vigorous, and by far the most ornamental
species in cultivation. For planting in situations where large-growing
subjects would be out of place this is a valuable tree, while the
wealth of flowers renders it particularly interesting and effective. It
rarely exceeds 30 feet in height, with leaves not unlike those of the
common Ash, and conspicuous panicles of light, feathery, white
petaliferous flowers, produced usually in great abundance all over the
tree. Perfectly hardy.

F. Ornus serotina alba and F. Ornus serotina violacea are beautiful
seedling forms that were raised in France, and on account of their
dwarf habit and profusion of flowers are well worthy of attention. The
flowers of the first-named variety are pure white, the stamens having
at first yellow anthers, which speedily turn to a rich blackish-brown.
The other differs but little, only in the flowers, which are of a
distinct greyish-violet hue, while the leaves are of a darker shade of
green, and the leaflets longer and narrower.

F. MARIESII.--Northern China, 1880. This is hardy in most parts of the
country. The whole tree is quite glabrous except the petioles, which
are clothed with a dense pubescence. Flowers pure white, and arranged
in large dense panicles.


FREMONTIA CALIFORNICA.--California, 1851. A handsome and deciduous
Californian shrub, but scarcely hardy enough for the open air without
protection. In Southern England and Ireland, however, it does well, and
all the better if planted within the influence of the sea. The large
yellow flowers are often about 2 inches across, and produced singly
along the branches, while the leaves are large, lobed, and of an
enticing shade of green. Planted against a wall, in good dampish loam,
it succeeds well.


FUCHSIA MACROSTEMA GLOBOSA (_syn F. globosa_).--Chili. This is readily
recognised by the globose form assumed by the incurved sepals, while
the flowers are smaller and less showy than those of F. Riccartoni.
Hardihood about similar to the following.

F. RICCARTONI.--This seedling from F. m. globosa is one of the two
hardiest varieties, but even this plant, except in warm, maritime
districts, is by no means satisfactory. Where it does well it is a
shrub of great beauty, and blooms profusely. This species has red,
straight sepals, and a purple corolla. In favoured districts it may
frequently be seen as much as 12 feet high, and is then during the
flowering period an object of great beauty. It originated at Riccarton,
near Edinburgh, about 1830.


GARRYA ELLIPTICA.--California, 1818. This is a handsome shrub, with dark
green coreaceous leaves, resembling very nearly those of the Evergreen
Oak. The long, tassellated catkins, of a peculiar yellowish-green
colour, render the plant one of much interest and beauty. As a wall
plant it thrives well, the slight protection thus afforded favouring the
growth and expansion of the catkins. For planting in the shrubbery it is
also well suited, and where it oft-times attains to a height of 6 feet,
and is bushy in proportion. It is well to bear in mind that there are
male and female plants of the Garrya, and that the former is the more
ornamental. Good rich, well-drained loam will suit this shrub well.


GAULTHERIA NUMMULARIOIDES (_syn G. nummulariae_ and _G. repens_).
--Himalayas. This is a neat Alpine species, with small and very dark
green leaves. It likes a shady situation and vegetable soil. For
planting on the rockwork, amongst tree roots, or beneath the shade of
trees, the Gaultherias are particularly suitable. Light, but rich
vegetable soil suits them best.

G. PROCUMBENS.--Canada Tea, or Creeping Winter-green. North America,
1762. This is of much smaller growth than the following, rarely rising
to a greater height than about half a foot, with lanceolate, serrated
leaves, and pendulous axillary clusters of white flowers.

G. SHALLON.--North-west America, 1826. Growing in favourable situations
to fully a yard in height, this distinct evergreen shrub, which is
fairly common in cultivation, is particularly valuable, as it thrives
well under the shade and drip of trees. It is a rambling plant, with
ovate-cordate, almost sessile leaves, and bears tiny white flowers that
are succeeded by purplish fruit. G. Shallon acutifolia has more sharply
pointed leaves than those of the species.


GENISTA AETNENSIS (_syn Spartium aetnensis_).--Etna Broom. Sicily and
Sardinia, 1816. This is a large-growing species of elegant growth, and
remarkable for the abundance of yellow flowers with which it is
literally covered in August. Than this South-European Pea-flower,
perhaps not another member of the family is more worthy of culture, the
neat, elegant habit of growth and profusion of flowers rendering it a
plant of particular interest and beauty. It is quite hardy, thrives in
any light soil if well drained, and is readily propagated from seed,
which it ripens in abundance.

G. ANXANTICA.--Naples, 1818. This is a nearly allied species to our
native G. tinctoria, and is of dwarf growth with a rich abundance of
golden yellow flowers that are produced towards the end of summer.

G. CINEREA (_syn G. ramosissima_), from South Europe, is a very
beautiful and desirable species, a yard high, and bearing in July
slender twigs of the brightest yellow flowers.

G. EPHEDROIDES.--Corsica and Sardinia, 1832. With small and
abundantly-produced flowers, this resembles Ephedra, hence its name.

G. GERMANICA.--Germany, 1773. This is a handsome rock garden shrub, of
fully 18 inches in height, with arching stems and a plentiful supply of
bright flowers during the summer and autumn months.

G. HISPANICA.--South-western Europe, 1759. This species resembles our
common Broom, but the branches are not angular. The large, yellow,
fragrant flowers appear in July. There is a charming double-flowered
variety named G. hispanica flore-pleno.

G. LUSITANICA.--Portugal, 1771. This is remarkable for its opposite
branches, is of spiny growth, and one of the earliest to appear in

G. MONOSPERMA.--South Europe, 1690. This has white flowers, and is of
value as a seaside shrub, and grows well in almost pure sand. A native
of the Mediterranean coast.

G. PILOSA.--Greenweed. Europe (Britain). This is a dense prostrate
native species, with bright yellow blossoms produced freely during May
and June. A delightful rock shrub, and one that will succeed well almost
in pure gravel.

G. PROSTRATA.--Burgundy and Alps of Jura, 1775. A small-growing species
suitable for rock gardening, and of spreading bushy growth. Flowers
small, but ornamental, and produced in May and June.

G. RADIATA (_syn Spartium radiatum_).--South Europe, 1758. This is a
slender-growing shrub, about 18 inches high, with narrow leaflets, and
terminal heads of yellow flowers produced in summer.

G. SAGITTALIS.--South Europe, 1750. With its peculiarly winged and
jointed stems, which are of a deep green colour, this is one of the most
distinct forms. The flowers are few but pretty, and with the dwarf habit
render the plant an excellent subject for rockwork.

G. TINCTORIA.--Dyers' Greenweed. Europe (Britain), North and West Asia.
This is a spineless species, and bears a profusion of yellow flowers
from July onwards. The double-flowering variety, G. tinctoria
flore-pleno, is, in so far as ornamental qualities are concerned,
superior to the parent form.

G. TINCTORIA ELATIOR (_syn G. elatior_) grows to 12 feet in height, is
of free, spreading growth, and a very handsome plant. The flowers, which
are individually small and yellow, are so thickly produced that the
shrub, in late summer, has the appearance of a sheet of gold.

G. TRIANGULARIS (_syn G. triquetra_).--South Europe, 1815. This is a
decidedly good garden plant, and of neat, trailing habit. The stems are
three sided, and the flowers golden yellow and plentifully produced. A
native of South Europe, and perfectly hardy in almost any position.

The above include most of the hardy Genistas, though G. capitata and G.
daurica, both very ornamental kinds, might be added to the list. They
are all very hardy, free-flowering shrubs, of simple culture, and
succeeding well in any light and rather dry soil.


GLEDITSCHIA TRIACANTHOS.--Honey Locust. United States, 1700. As an
ornamental hardy tree this is well worthy the attention of planters, the
pinnate and bipinnate foliage being particularly elegant, while the
flowers, though individually small, are borne in such quantities of
fascicled racemes as to attract notice. The stem and branches are armed
with formidable prickles, but there is a form in which the prickles are
absent. A native of North America, and readily cultivated in any soil of
even fair quality. For town planting it is a valuable tree. There is a
good weeping variety named G. triacanthos pendula.

G. SINENSIS (_syn G. horrida_).--China, 1774. This nearly resembles the
latter, and is occasionally to be met with in cultivation in this


GORDONIA LASIANTHUS.--Loblolly Bay. North America, 1739. A shrub of
great beauty, but one that, unfortunately, is rarely to be seen outside
the walls of a botanic garden. It is of Camellia-like growth, with
large, sweetly fragrant flowers and a good habit of growth.

G. PUBESCENS.--North America, 1774. This is of smaller growth than the
latter, rarely exceeding about 6 feet high, with large white flowers
that are rendered all the more conspicuous by the tuft of golden
stamens. Both species are somewhat tender, although hailing from the
coast, swampy grounds of the southern States of North America. Planted
in favoured sites, they usually grow freely in light, peaty soil, or
that containing a large admixture of decayed leaf soil.


GRABOWSKIA BOERHAAVIAEFOLIA.--Peru, 1780. This is occasionally to be
seen in sheltered and favoured gardens, but it is not to be relied upon
in other than southern and seaside districts. The plant is of no
particular interest to the cultivator, the outline being ungainly, while
the pale blue flowers are both dull and uninteresting. It belongs to the
Solanum family, and is only worth cultivating as a curiosity. Light,
warm soil and a sunny position are necessities in the cultivation of
this shrub.


GRISELINIA LITTORALIS.--New Zealand, 1872. This forms a compact bush of
moderate size, and is fairly hardy. The leaves are of a light, pleasing
green shade, coriaceous, and glossy, and remain on the plant during
winter. It is an excellent shrub for the seaside, and, moreover, will
succeed well in stiff soils where many other plants would refuse to


GYMNOCLADUS CANADENSIS.--Kentucky Coffee Tree. Canada, 1748. When in
full leafage this is a distinct and beautiful tree, the foliage hanging
in well-rounded masses, and presenting a pretty effect by reason of the
loose and tufted appearance of the masses of finely-divided leaves.
Leaves often 3 feet long, bipinnate, and composed of numerous
bluish-green leaflets. Flowers white, borne in loose spikes in the
beginning of summer, and succeeded by flat, somewhat curved brown pods.
It prefers a rich, strong soil or alluvial deposit.

G. CHINENSIS.--Soap Tree. China, 1889. Readily distinguished from the
American species by its much smaller and more numerous leaflets, and
thicker fruit pod. It is not very hardy in this country unless in the
milder sea-side districts. The leaves are used by the Chinese women to
wash their hair, hence the popular name of Soap Tree.


HALESIA DIPTERA (_syn H. reticulata_).--North America, 1758. This is not
so suitable for our climate as H. tetraptera, though in southern parts
of the country it forms a neat, healthy bush, and flowers freely. It is
distinguished, as the name indicates, by having two wings to the seed
vessel, H. tetraptera having four.

H. HISPIDA (_syn Pterostyrax hispidum_).--Japan, 1875. This is a shrub
of perfect hardihood, free growth, and very floriferous. The flowers,
which are pure white, and in long racemes, resemble much those of the
Snowdrop Tree. Leaves broad and slightly dentated. It is a handsome
shrub, of free growth, in light, sandy loam, and quite hardy even when
fully exposed.

H. PARVIFLORA has smaller flowers than those of our commonly-cultivated

H. TETRAPTERA.--Snowdrop Tree. North America, 1756. This is a very
ornamental tall-growing shrub, of somewhat loose growth, and bearing
flowers which resemble, both in size and appearance, those of our common
Snowdrop. It is one of the most ornamental of all the small-growing
American trees, and richly deserves a place in every collection, on
account of the profusion with which the flowers are produced in April
and May. They are snow-white, drooping, and produced in lateral
fascicles of eight or ten together. It is a native of river banks in
North Carolina, and is well suited for cultivation in this country.
Light, peaty soil will grow it to perfection.


HALIMODENDRON ARGENTEUM (_syn Robinia Halimodendron_).--Salt tree. A
native of Asiatic Russia (1779), having silvery foliage, and pink or
purplish-pink flowers, axillary or fascicled. It is a neat and pretty
shrub, that is rendered valuable as succeeding well in maritime
districts. Quite hardy and of free growth in sandy soil.


HAMAMELIS JAPONICA.--The Japanese Witch Hazel. Japan, 1862. This is a
small species with lemon-yellow flowers. H. japonica arborea is a taller
growing variety, with primrose-yellow petals, and a deep claret calyx.
The flowers are borne in clusters in early spring. Rarely in this
country do we find this species of greater height than about 8 feet, but
it is of bushy growth, though somewhat straggling in appearance. As
early as the beginning of January this Witch Hazel may be found in
bloom, the bare branches being studded here and there with the
curious-shaped flowers, these having bright yellow, twisted petals and
reddish calyces. H.j. Zuccarinianais a very desirable free-flowering
variety, with pale yellow petals and a greenish-brown calyx.

H. VIRGINICA.--Virginian Witch Hazel. North America, 1736. This has
smaller flowers than H.j. arborea, and they are plentifully produced in
autumn or early winter. In this country it assumes the shape of an open
bush of about 6 feet in height, but is usually of untidy appearance from
the branches being irregularly disposed.

They all delight in cool, rather moist soil, and are of value for their
early-flowering nature.


HEDYSARUM MULTIJUGUM.--South Mongolia. Hardly ten years have elapsed
since this pretty shrub was introduced into England, so that at present
it is rather rare in our gardens. It is a decided acquisition, if only
for the production of flowers at a time when these are scarce. Usually
the flowering time is in August, but frequently in the first weeks of
October the pretty flowers are still full of beauty. It is of bushy
habit, from 4 feet to 5 feet high, with oblong leaflets, in number from
twenty to thirty-five, which are Pea-green above and downy on the under
sides. Flowers bright red, and produced in axillary racemes. It is
perfectly hardy, and grows freely in porous decomposed leaf-soil.


HELIANTHEMUM HALIMIFOLIUM.--Spain, 1656. This species is of erect habit,
3 feet or 4 feet high, and with leaves reminding one of those of the Sea
Purslane. It is an evergreen, and has large bright yellow flowers,
slightly spotted at the base of the petals.

H. LAEVIPES (_syn Cistus laevipes_).--South-western Europe. A dwarf
shrub, with Heath-like leaves, and yellow flowers that are produced in
great abundance.

H. LASIANTHUM (_syns H. formosum_ and _Cistus formosus_).--Spain and
Portugal, 1780. This is a beautiful species, but not hardy unless in the
South and West. It has large, bright yellow flowers, with a deep
reddish-purple blotch at the base of each petal.

H. LAVENDULAEFOLIUM has lavender-like leaves, with the under surface
hoary, and yellow flowers. A native of the Mediterranean regions.

H. LIBONATES.--This species bears dark green Rosemary-like leaves, and
yellow flowers that are produced very abundantly. South Europe.

H. PILOSUM.--South of France, 1831. This bears white flowers that are of
good substance, and about an inch across.

H. POLIFOLIUM (_syn H. pulverulentum_).--Europe (Britain), and North
Africa. This is a neat-growing shrub, of very dwarf growth, with hairy
leaves and yellow flowers; and H. polifolium roseum, has pretty rosy-red

H. UMBELLATUM.--South Europe, 1731. A neat, small-growing species, with
white flowers and glossy-green leaves covered with a rusty-white
tomentum beneath.

H. VULGARE.--Common Rock Rose. Europe (Britain), North Africa, and West
Asia. A widely distributed native plant, of dwarf growth, with
linear-oblong, hairy leaves, and usually yellow flowers. H. vulgare
nummularium differs in having the leaves green and sub-orbicular, with
yellow flowers. H. vulgare barbaturn is of erect habit, with silky,
hairy, oval leaves. H. vulgare mutabile bears pale rose flowers, marked
with yellow at the base. H. vulgare grandiflorum is remarkable for the
large, bright yellow flowers, and is one of the most beautiful and
worthy varieties. H. vulgare ovalifolium (_syn H. serpyllifolium_) bears
yellow flowers and ovate leaves, with the margins revolute. H. vulgare
hyssopifolium bears reddish flowers, but the colouring varies
considerably, and saffron is not uncommon.

The Rockroses are very valuable plants, in that they will succeed on
poor, gravelly banks where few other plants could eke out an existence.
They cannot withstand stiff soil, nor that at all inclined to be damp,
their favourite resorts being exposed, rocky ground, and dry, gravelly
banks. Being readily increased from cuttings, which take root well under
a hand glass or in a cool house, it is advisable, at least with the more
tender forms, to have at hand a stock, so that blanks in the shrubbery
may be filled up.


HIBISCUS SYRIACUS (_syn Althaea frutex_).--Syrian Mallow. Syria, 1596.
An old occupant of our gardens, and one that cannot be too freely
cultivated. When favourably situated, it often reaches 6 feet in height,
with three-lobed, neatly-toothed leaves, and with large, showy blossoms
that are borne towards the end of summer. The typical species has
purplish flowers, with a crimson spot at the base of each petal, but
others, varying in colour from snow-white to purple and blue, are common
in cultivation. H. syriacus coelestis bears bright blue flowers, while
H. syriacus variegatus has beautifully variegated foliage. Of the
double-flowered forms, there are several beautiful and worthy plants,
the following list containing some of the best varieties of this popular

H. syriacus albo-pleno.
    "       amaranthus.
    "       amplissima.
    "       ardens.
    "       caerulea plena.
    "       carnea plena.
    "       De la Veuve.
    "       elegantissimum.
    "       fastuosa.
    "       Lady Stanley.
    "       Leopoldii.
    "       lilacina plena.
    "       paeoniaeflora.
    "       puniceus plenus.
    "       rosea plena.
    "       rubra plena.
    "       spectabilis plena.
    "       violacea.


HIPPOPHAE RHAMNOIDES.--Sea Buckthorn, or Sallow Thorn. Though generally
considered as a sea-side shrub, the Sea Buckthorn is by no means
exclusively so, thriving well, and attaining to large dimensions, in
many inland situations. The flowers are not at all conspicuous, but this
is amply compensated for by the beautiful silvery-like leaves and wealth
of fruit borne by the shrub. In not a few instances, for fully a foot in
length, the branches are smothered with crowded clusters of bright
orange berries, and which render the shrub during November and December
both distinct and effective. It does best in sandy soil, and is readily
increased from suckers, which are usually plentifully produced by old
plants. For sea-side planting it is one of our most valuable shrubs,
succeeding, as it does, well down even to high water mark, and where the
foliage is lashed with the salt spray.


HOLBOELLIA LATIFOLIA (_syn Stauntonia latifolia_).--Himalayas, 1840. An
evergreen climbing shrub that is more often found under glass than out
of doors. In the South of England, however, it is quite hardy against a
sunny wall. It grows 12 feet high, with shining green leathery leaves,
and fragrant purplish-green flowers. H. latifolia angustifolia has
decidedly narrower leaves than the species, but is in no other way


HYDRANGEA ARBORESCENS.--North America, 1736. This is a plant of large
growth, but the flowers are greenish-white, and by no means conspicuous.

H. HORTENSIS (_syn Hortensia opuloides_).--China, 1790. This is an
old-fashioned garden shrub that is only hardy in the south and west of
these islands and in the vicinity of the sea. In some of the forms
nearly all the flowers are sterile, the calyx-lobes being greatly
expanded, and in others the outer flowers only are sterile. According to
the nature of the soil the flowers vary much in colour, some being pure
white, others pink, and others of varying shades of blue. There are some
very beautiful and distinct varieties, such as H. hortensis japonica; H.
hortensis Otaksa, with large panicles of sterile blue flowers; H.
hortensis rosea-alba, with large rosy flowers; H. hortensis Thomas Hogg,
a very free-flowering and welcome form; H. hortensis mandschurica, and
H. hortensis stellata flore-pleno, with partially double flowers, are
worthy of attention.

H. PANICULATA.--Japan, 1874. This is one of the most distinct species,
in which the flower-heads are elongated, not flat, as in most other
species, and from which the finest form in cultivation has been
obtained. This is H. paniculata grandiflora, in which the flowers are
sterile and pure white, forming large panicles often a foot in length.
It is a magnificent variety, and, being perfectly hardy, should be
extensively planted for ornament. The flowers are produced in late
summer, but remain in good form for fully two months, dying off a rich
reddish hue.

H. QUERCIFOLIA.--Oak-leaved Hydrangea. Florida, 1803. This species has
neatly lobed leaves, and terminal panicles of pinky-white, but partially
barren, flowers.

H. SCANDENS.--Climbing Hydrangea. Japan, 1879. This is not very hardy,
but with the protection of a sunny wall it grows freely.

The Hydrangeas require a rich, loamy soil, and, unless in maritime
districts, a warm and sheltered situation. They are readily propagated
by means of cuttings.


HYMENANTHERA CRASSIFOLIA.--A curious New Zealand shrub with rigid
ashy-coloured branches, and small leathery leaves. The flowers are
violet-like in colour, but by no means conspicuous. The small white
berries which succeed the flowers are, in autumn, particularly
attractive, and very ornamental. It is perfectly hardy and of free
growth in light peaty earth.


HYPERICUM ANDROSAEMUM.--Tutsan, or Sweet Amber. Europe (Britain). A
pretty native species, growing about 2 feet high, with ovate leaves
having glandular dots and terminal clustered cymes of yellow flowers.

H. AUREUM.--South Carolina and Georgia, 1882. This soon forms a neat and
handsome plant. The flowers are unusually large, and remarkable for the
tufts of golden-yellow stamens with which they are furnished.

H. CALYCINUM.--Aaron's Beard, or Rose of Sharon. South-east Europe. This
is a well-known native species of shrubby growth, bearing large yellow
flowers from 3 inches to 4 inches in diameter. It is a prostrate plant,
with coriaceous glossy leaves with small pellucid dots, and of great
value for planting in the shade.

H. ELATUM is a spreading species from North America (1762), growing to
fully 4 feet in height, and bearing terminal corymbs of large, bright
yellow flowers in July and August. Leaves rather large, oblong-ovate,
and revolute. On account of its spreading rapidly from the root, this
species requires to be planted where it will have plenty of room.

H. HIRCINUM.--Goat-scented St. John's Wort. Mediterranean region, 1640.
A small-growing and slender species, with oblong-lanceolate leaves 2
inches long, and producing small yellow flowers in terminal heads. There
is a smaller growing form known as H. hircinum minus. The plant emits a
peculiar goat-like odour.

H. MOSERIANUM is a beautiful hybrid form with red anthers.

H. OBLONGIFOLIUM (_syns H. Hookerianum_ and _H. nepalensis_).--Nepaul,
1823. An evergreen species, about 4 feet high, with oblong, pellucid,
dotted leaves, and deep golden, somewhat waxy flowers at the end of

H. PROLIFICUM.--North America, 1758. This is a much branched twiggy
shrub, about 4 feet high, with small, linear-lanceolate leaves, thickly
studded with pellucid dots. Flowers not very large, five-petalled, and
of a pleasing bright yellow colour. The allied if not identical H.
Kalmiana is worthy of being included in a selection of these plants.

H. URALUM.--Nepaul, 1823. A neat but fragile species that attains to
about a yard in height. Leaves rather small, elliptic, almost stalkless,
and perforated with transparent dots. Flowers small and of a bright
golden yellow.

H. fasciculatum, H. pyrimidatum, and H. patulum are all worthy of
attention, where a good representative collection is of importance. The
Hypericums succeed best when planted in a rather sandy and not too dry
loam, and they are readily increased either from divisions or by means
of cuttings.


IDESIA POLYCARPA (_syns Flacourtica japonica_ and _Polycarpa
Maximowiczii_).--A Japanese tree of small growth, and only introduced to
this country in 1866. It is a handsome, hardy species, bearing large,
bright-green leaves with conspicuous crimson footstalks, often 4 inches
across, and of a glaucous tint on the under sides. The deliciously
fragrant flowers are greenish-white or yellowish-green, and produced in
graceful drooping racemes. In southern England it does well, and, being
a tree of unusual beauty of both leaves and flowers, is well worthy of
attention. Rich loam, not too stiff, will grow the Idesia well.


ILEX AQUIFOLIUM.--Common Holly. Europe (Britain) and West Asia. Though
the Hollies are not usually reckoned ornamental for the sake of their
flowers, their berries are highly so. Some of them are nevertheless
deliciously fragrant when in bloom. The leaves of this, our native
species, in their typical form are oblong-ovate, wavy, and deeply
spiny-toothed. The tree flowers in May and June, while the clusters of
bright red berries ripen in autumn, persist all the winter, and
sometimes even hang on tree till a second crop is matured, provided they
are not devoured by birds during severe weather. The varieties are very
numerous, and differ chiefly in the form and toothing of the leaves,
which are variegated in many cases, their size and form, and in the
colour of the berries in a few instances.

I. Aquifolium albo-marginata has ovate, nearly flat, spiny-serrate
leaves, with a narrow silvery margin, and fruits freely. I. Aquifolium
fructu albo has white berries; in I. Aquifolium fructu luteo they are
yellow and very abundantly produced; and in I. Aquifolium fructu nigro
they are black. I. Aquifolium handsworthensis has elliptic-oblong spiny
leaves, with a creamy-white margin and marbled with gray. Grafted trees
bear berries in great profusion from the time they are only a foot high,
and are highly ornamental. I. Aquifolium Hodginsii has large, broadly
oblong-ovate, slightly spiny leaves, and large crimson-red berries that
ripen late in autumn. I. Aquifolium Hodginsii aurea is a sub-variety
with a broad golden margin to the leaves, and the disc splashed with
gray. Beautiful and distinct is I. Aquifolium Lawsoniana, with ovate,
flat, almost spineless leaves, heavily and irregularly blotched with
yellow in the centre. The berries are of a brilliant red. The variety
differs from Milkmaid in having flat, nearly entire leaves. I.
Aquifolium pendula has a wide, rounded, drooping head, but otherwise
does not differ from the type. Many others bear berries, but the above
are all very distinct forms.

I. OPACA.--American Holly. United States, 1744. The leaves of this
species are oblong or oval, small, spiny-serrate, and of a dark opaque
green. The berries, which ripen in autumn, are small, bright red, and
very liable to be eaten by birds. In America this Holly is put to
precisely the same purposes as the common Holly is in Europe. It is
perfectly hardy here.


ILLICIUM FLORIDANUM, from Florida (1771), is a beautiful but uncommon
shrub, probably on account of its being tender and susceptible to injury
by frost, unless in the warmer and more favoured parts of the country.
The fragrant flowers are of a purplish-rose, while the foliage is neat
and of a pleasing green.

I. ANISATUM (_syn I. religiosum_), from China and Japan (1842), is too
tender for outdoor culture in this country.


INIDGOFERA GERARDIANA (_syns I. floribunda_ and _I. Dosua_).--India,
1842. This forms a compact dwarf bush in the open, but is still better
suited for covering a wall, the growth and floriferousness being then
much increased. The foliage is neat and Pea-green, while the bright pink
Pea-like flowers are produced in long racemes. It is a pretty bush, and
grows freely enough in any good garden soil, but very fine flowering
specimens may be seen in light, sandy soil of a peaty nature. There is a
white flowered variety named I. Gerardiana alba.


ITEA VIRGINICA.--North America, 1744. This is a neat, deciduous shrub of
3 feet or 4 feet in height. The ovate-lanceolate leaves are of a light
greyish-green, and the small white flowers are produced in dense racemes
or spikes. Planted in a somewhat shady place, and in rather cool, damp
soil, this little shrub does well and flowers profusely.


JAMESIA AMERICANA.--Rocky Mountains and Colorado, 1865. Amongst early
spring-flowering shrubs this pretty but neglected plant is one of the
best, of perfect hardihood, for it stands the vigour of our winters with
impunity, and of dense thick growth; it is suitable for using in a
variety of ways, as well as for purely ornamental purposes. The leaves
are oval and neatly dentated, and the flowers individually of large
size, pure white, and produced in terminal bunches. Cool soil and a
shady situation would seem to suit the plant admirably, but for screen
purposes in the rock garden or border it is invaluable on account of the
strong and dense twigs.


JASMINUM FRUTICANS.--South Europe, 1570. An evergreen species, well
adapted, from its rather stiff and upright growth, for planting alone.
It has trifoliolate leaves and showy yellow flowers.

J. HUMILE.--India, 1656. A hardy species of dwarf growth, and bearing
beautiful golden flowers produced in summer.

J. NUDIFLORUM.--Naked Jasmine. China, 1844. A showy and well-known
species, from China, with numerous, usually solitary yellow flowers,
ternate leaves, and flexible branches. The variety J. nudiflorum
aureo-variegatum has golden-variegated leaves.

J. OFFICINALE.--Northern India to Persia, 1548. The white-flowered
Jasmine of our gardens is a very beautiful and desirable clambering
shrub, either for wall covering, for planting by tree stumps, rooteries,
or rockeries, or for screening and draping the pergola or garden
latticework. From its great hardihood, vigour of growth, and beauty of
flowers, it is certainly one of the most deservedly popular of wall
shrubs. The branches are deep green, angular, and flexible, the leaves
pinnate, and the flowers pure-white and sweetly-scented. The variety J.
officinale affine has flowers that are individually larger than those of
the species; J. officinale aurea has badly variegated leaves; J.
officinale grandiflorum and J. officinale grandiflorum majus, are also
desirable kinds.

J. PUBIGERUM GLABRUM (_syn J. Wallichianum_), from North-west India, is
not well-known, being tender in most parts of the country.

J. REVOLUTUM.--India, 1812. This has persistent dark, glossy-green
leaves, and fragrant, bright yellow flowers, produced in large, terminal
clusters. From India, but perfectly hardy as a wall plant, and for which
purpose, with its bright evergreen leaves, it is well suited.

As regards soil, the Jasmines are very accommodating, and are propagated
by layers or cuttings.


KADSURA JAPONICA.--Japan, 1846. This is a small-growing shrub, with
lanceolate and pointed leaves, that are remotely dentated. The flowers
are not very showy, being of a yellowish-white colour and about an inch
across. They are produced both terminal and axillary, and in fair
abundance. The scarlet fruits are arranged in clusters, and when fully
ripe are both showy and interesting. Generally speaking this shrub
suffers from severe frost, but as only the branch tips are injured, it
shoots freely from the stock. It produces its flowers in the autumn.
There is a variety with variegated leaves.


KALMIA ANGUSTIFOLIA.--Sheep Laurel. Canada, 1736. This is at once
distinguished from K. latifolia by its much smaller and narrower leaves
and smaller flowers, which latter are, however, of brighter tint and
more plentifully produced. It rarely exceeds 2 feet in height. Of this
there are two very distinct forms, that named K. angustifolia pumila,
being of neat and dense small growth; and K. angustifolia rubra, in
which the flowers are of an unusually deep red.

K. GLAUCA.--Canada and Sitcha, 1767. This, which has lilac-purple
flowers, produced in early spring, is not a very desirable species,
being rather straggling of growth and with few flowers.

K. HIRSUTA.--Hairy-leaved Kalmia. South-east Virginia to Florida, 1786.
This is at once distinguished by the rather rough and hairy foliage and
few rosy-tinted flowers. It is of dwarf, neat growth.

K. LATIFOLIA.--Calico Bush, or Mountain Laurel. Alleghanies, Canada, and
Western Florida, 1734. A favourite shrub in every garden where the
conditions of soil will allow of its being successfully cultivated. In
peaty soil, or light, friable loam and leaf soil, it forms a dense,
round-headed bush, often 8 feet in height, and nearly as much through,
with pleasing green leaves, and dense clusters of beautiful pink,
wax-like flowers. The flowering period commences in May, and usually
extends to the end of July. This is a choice shrub of great hardihood,
and one of the handsomest flowering in cultivation. There is a still
more beautiful form named K. latifolia major splendens, and one with
small Myrtle-like foliage named K. latifolia myrtifolia.

The members of this handsome family are, as a rule, partial to cool,
damp soil, peat of a light, sandy nature being preferred. They thrive
well where Azaleas and Rhododendrons will succeed. In bold masses they
have a fine effect, but a well developed standard specimen of the
commonly cultivated species is highly ornamental.


KERRIA JAPONICA (_syn Corchorus japonicus_).--Japan, 1700. A Japanese
shrub, the double-flowered variety of which, K. japonica flore-pleno, is
one of our commonest wall plants. The orange-yellow flowers, produced in
great rosettes, are highly ornamental, and have earned for the shrub a
well-known name. It succeeds well almost anywhere, and, though usually
seen as a wall plant, is perfectly hardy, and forms a neat shrub for the
open border. There is a form in which the leaves are variegated, and
known under the name of K. japonica variegata.


KOELREUTERIA PANICULATA.--Northern China, 1763. Whether for its foliage
or flowers, this small-growing tree is worthy of a place. Though of
rather irregular growth, the beautiful foliage and large panicles of
yellowish flowers, which stand well above the leaves, make the shrub
(for it does not in this country attain to tree height), one of
particular interest, and a valuable aid in ornamental planting. In a
sheltered corner, and planted in rich soil, it grows and flowers freely.


LABURNUM ADAMI (_syn Cytisus Adami_).--A graft hybrid form between the
common Laburnum and Cytisus purpureus, the result being flowers of the
Laburnum, the true Cytisus purpureus, and the graft hybrid between the
two. It was raised by Jean Louis Adam in 1825. It is a curious and
distinct tree, worthy of culture if only for the production of three
distinct kinds of flowers on the same plant.

L. ALPINUM (_syn Cytisus alpinus_).--Scotch Laburnum. Europe, 1596. This
very closely resembles the common Laburnum, but it is of larger growth,
and flowers later in the season. The flowers, too, though in longer
racemes, are usually less plentifully produced. It grows 30 feet high.
There is a weeping form, L. alpinum pendulum, and another with fragrant
flowers, named L. alpinum fragrans, as also a third, with very long
racemes of flowers, named L. alpinum Alschingeri.

L. CARAMANICUM.--Asia Minor, 1879. A bushy shrub of vigorous habit, with
trifoliolate and petiolate leaves of a pale green colour, thick and
tough, and brightly polished on the upper surface. Flowers bright
yellow, the calyx being helmet-shaped and rusty-red. It is a beautiful
but uncommon shrub, and succeeds very well in chalky or calcareous soil.
Flowers in July.

L. VULGARE (_syn Cytisus Laburnum_).--Common Laburnum. Southern France
to Hungary, 1596. This is one of our commonest garden and park trees,
and at the same time one of the most beautiful and floriferous. The
large, pendulous racemes of bright yellow flowers are, when at their
best in May, surpassed neither in quantity nor beauty by those of any
other hardy tree. There are several varieties of this Laburnum--a few
good, but many worthless, at least from a garden point of view. L.
vulgare Parkesii is a seedling form, bearing large racemes of
deep-coloured flowers, often 14 inches long; L. vulgare Watereri was
raised in the Knap Hill Nursery, Surrey, and is one of the most distinct
and beautiful of the many forms into which the Laburnum has been
sub-divided. The flower racemes are very long and richly coloured. L.
vulgare quercifolium and L. vulgare sessilifolium are fairly well
described by their names; L. vulgare fragans differs only in having
sweetly-scented flowers; L. vulgare involutum has curiously-curled
leaves; while L. vulgare aureum, where it does well, is a beautiful and
distinct form.


LARDIZABALA BITERNATA.--Chili, 1848. Requires wall protection, there
being few situations in which it will succeed when planted in the open.
It is a tall, climbing shrub, with dark green persistent leaves, and
bearing purplish flowers in drooping racemes in mid-winter. Planted in
rather dry soil, at the base of a sunny wall, this shrub forms a by no
means unattractive covering, the twice ternate, glossy leaves being
fresh and beautiful the winter through.


LAPAGERIA ROSEA.--Chili, 1847. This is, unfortunately, not hardy, unless
in favoured maritime districts, but in such situations it has stood
unharmed for many years, and attained to goodly proportions. It is a
beautiful climber, with deep-green leaves, and large, fleshy,
campanulate flowers of a deep rose colour. There is a white-flowered
form called L. alba, introduced from Chili in 1854. Planted on an east
aspect wall, and in roughly broken up peat and gritty sand, it succeeds


LAVANDULA VERA (_syn L. Spica_).--Common Lavender. South Europe, 1568. A
well-known and useful plant, but of no particular value for ornamental
purposes. It is of shrubby growth, with narrow-lanceolate, hoary leaves,
and terminal spikes of blue flowers.


LAVATERA ARBOREA.--Tree Mallow. Coasts of Europe, (Britain). A
stout-growing shrub reaching in favourable situations a height of fully
6 feet, with broadly orbicular leaves placed on long stalks. The flowers
are plentiful and showy, of a pale purplish-red colour, and collected
into clusters. It is a seaside shrub succeeding best in sheltered
maritime recesses, and when in full flower is one of the most ornamental
of our native plants. There is also a beautiful variegated garden form,
L. a. variegata.


LEDUM LATIFOLIUM (_syn L. groenlandicum_).--Wild Rosemary, or Labrador
Tea. This is a small shrub, reaching to about 3 feet in height,
indigenous to swampy ground in Canada, Greenland, and over a large area
of the colder parts of America. Leaves oval or oblong, and plentifully
produced all over the plant. Flowers pure white, or slightly tinted with
pink, produced in terminal corymbs, and usually at their best in April.
A perfectly hardy, neat-growing, and abundantly-flowered shrub, but one
that, somehow, has gone greatly out of favour in this country. This
plant has been sub-divided into several varieties, that are, perhaps,
distinct enough to render them worthy of attention. They are L.
latifolium globosum, with white flowers, borne in globose heads, on the
short, twiggy, and dark-foliaged branches. L. latifolium angustifolia
has narrower leaves than those of the species, while L. latifolium
intermedium is of neat growth and bears pretty, showy flowers.

L. PALUSTRE.--Marsh Ledum. This is a common European species, growing
from 2 feet to 3 feet high, with much smaller leaves than the former,
and small pinky-white flowers produced in summer. It is an interesting
and pretty plant. The Ledums succeed best in cool, damp, peaty soil.


LEIOPHYLLUM BUXIFOLIUM (_syns L. thymifolia, Ammyrsine buxifolia_ and
_Ledum buxifolium_).--Sand Myrtle. New Jersey and Virginia, 1736. This
is a dwarf, compact shrub from New Jersey, with box-like leaves, and
bunches of small white flowers in early summer. For using as a rock
plant, and in sandy peat, it is an excellent subject, and should find a
place in every collection.


LESPEDEZA BICOLOR (_syn Desmodium penduliflorum_).--North China and
Japan. A little-known but beautiful small-growing shrub, of slender,
elegant growth, and reaching, under favourable culture, a height of
about 6 feet. The leaves are trifoliolate, small, and neat, and the
abundant racemes of individually small, Pea-shaped flowers are of the
richest and showiest reddish-purple. Being only semi-hardy will account
for the scarcity of this beautiful Japanese shrub, but having stood
uninjured in all but the coldest parts of these islands should induce
lovers of flowering shrubs to give it a fair chance.


LEUCOTHOE AXILLARIS (_syn Andromeda axillaris_).--North America, 1765.
This is of small growth, from 2 feet to 3 feet high, with oval-pointed
leaves and white flowers in short racemes produced in May and June. It
is not a very satisfactory species for cultivation in this country.

L. CATESBAEI (_syns Andromeda Catesbaei_ and _A. axillaris_).--North
America. This has white flowers with an unpleasant odour like that of
Chestnut blossoms, but is worthy of cultivation, and succeeds best in
cool sandy peat or friable yellow loam.

L. DAVISIAE, from California (1853), is a very handsome evergreen shrub,
of small and neat growth, and will be found an acquisition where compact
shrubs are in demand. The leaves are small, of a deep green colour, and
remain throughout the year. Flowers produced in great abundance at the
branch tips, usually in dense clusters, and individually small and pure

L. RECURVA (_syn Andromeda recurva_).--North America. A very distinct
plant on account of the branch tips being almost of a scarlet tint, and
thus affording a striking contrast to the grayish-green of the older
bark. The flowers are pinky-white and produced in curving racemes and
abundantly over the shrub. Like other members of the family it delights
to grow in cool sandy peat.


LEYCESTERIA FORMOSA, from Nepaul (1824), is an erect-growing, deciduous
shrub, with green, hollow stems, and large ovate, pointed leaves of a
very deep green colour. The flowers are small, and white or purplish,
and produced in long, pendulous, bracteate racemes from the axils of
the upper leaves. It is one of the most distinct and interesting of
hardy shrubs, the deep olive-green of both stem and leaves, and
abundantly-produced and curiously-shaped racemes, rendering it a
conspicuous object wherever planted. Perfectly hardy, and of free,
almost rampant growth in any but the stiffest soils. Cuttings root
freely and grow rapidly.


LIGUSTRUM IBOTA (_syn L. amurense_).--Japan, 1861. A compact growing
species, about 3 feet in height, with small spikes of pure white flowers
produced freely during the summer months.

L. JAPONICUM (_syns L. glabrum, L. Kellennanni, L. Sieboldii_ and _L.
syringaeflorum_).--Japan Privet. This is a dwarf-growing species rarely
exceeding 4 feet in height, with broad, smooth, glossy-green leaves, and
large compound racemes of flowers. There are several varieties,
including L. japonicum microphyllum, with smaller leaves than the
parent; and one with tricoloured foliage and named L. japonicum

L. LUCIDUM (_syns L. magnoliaefolium_ and _L. strictum_).--Shining-leaved
Privet, or Woa Tree. China, 1794. A pretty evergreen species, with oval
leaves, and terminal, thyrsoid panicles of white flowers. It is an old
inhabitant of our gardens, and forms a somewhat erect, twiggy bush, of
fully 10 feet in height. Of this there are two varieties, one with
larger bunches of flowers, and named L. lucidum floribundum, and another
with variegated leaves, L. lucidum variegatum. L. lucidum coriaceum
(Leathery-leaved Privet) is a distinct variety, with thick,
leathery-green leaves, and dense habit of growth.

L. OVALIFOLIUM (_syn L. californicum_).--Oval-leaved Privet. Japan,
1877. This is a commonly-cultivated species, with semi-evergreen leaves,
and spikes of yellowish-white flowers. It is a good hedge plant, and
succeeds well as a town shrub. There are several variegated forms, of
which L. ovalifolium variegatum (Japan, 1865) and L. ovalifolium aureum
are the best.

L. QUIHOI.--China, 1868. This is a much valued species, as it does not
flower until most of its relations have finished. Most of the Privets
flower at mid-summer, but this species is often only at its best by the
last week of October and beginning of November. It forms a straggling
freely-branched shrub, of fully 6 feet in height and nearly as much
through, with dark shining-green oblong leaves, and loose terminal
panicles of pure white, powerfully-scented flowers. It flourishes, like
most of the Privets, on poor soil, and is a little-known species that
note should be made of during the planting season.

L. SINENSE (_syns L. villosum_ and _L. Ibota villosum_).--Chinese
Privet. China, 1858. This is a tall deciduous shrub, with oblong and
tomentose leaves, and flowers in loose, terminal panicles and produced
freely in August. L. sinense nanum is one of the prettiest forms in
cultivation. It is almost evergreen, with a horizontal mode of growth,
and dense spikes of crearny-white flowers, so thickly produced as almost
to hide the foliage from view. It is a most distinct and desirable

L. VULGARE.--Common Privet. Although one of our commonest shrubs, this
Privet can hardly be passed unnoticed, for the spikes of creamy-white
flowers, that are deliciously scented, are both handsome and effective.
Of the common Privet there are several distinct and highly ornamental
forms, such as L. vulgare variegatum, L. vulgare pendulum, having
curiously-creeping branches, and the better-known and valuable L.
vulgare sempervirens (_syn L. italicum_), the Italian Privet.


LINNAEA BOREALIS.--Twin Flower. A small and elegant, much-creeping
evergreen shrub, with small, ovate crenate leaves, and pairs of very
fragrant, pink flowers. Two conditions are necessary for its
cultivation--a half-shaded aspect where bottom moisture is always
present, and a deep, rich, friable loam. A native of Scotland and
England, flowering in July.


LIPPIA CITRIODORA (_syns Aloysia citriodora_ and _Verbena
triphylla_).--Lemon-scented Verbena. Chili, 1794. With its slender
branches and pale green, pleasantly-scented, linear leaves, this little
plant is a general favourite that needs no description. The flowers are
not very ornamental, being white or lilac, and produced in small,
terminal panicles. A native of Chili, it is not very hardy, but grown
against a sunny wall, and afforded the protection of a mat in winter,
with a couple of shovelfuls of cinders heaped around the stem, it passes
through the most severe weather with little or no injury, save, in some
instances, the branch tips being killed back. Propagated readily from
cuttings placed in a cool frame or under a hand-light.


LIRIODENDRON TULIPIFERA.--Tulip Tree. North America, 1688. One of the
noblest hardy exotic trees in cultivation. The large, four-lobed,
truncate leaves, of a soft and pleasing green, are highly ornamental,
and are alone sufficient to establish the identity of the tree. Flowers
large, yellow, and sweet-scented, and usually freely produced when the
tree has attained to a height of between 20 feet and 30 feet. When we
consider the undoubted hardihood of the tree and indifference to soil,
its noble aspect, handsome foliage that is so distinct from that of any
other tree, and showy flowers, we feel justified in placing it in the
very first rank of ornamental trees. L. tulipifera integrifolia has
entire leaves, which render it distinct from the type; L. tulipifera
fastigiata, or pyramidalis, is of erect growth; L. tulipifera aurea,
with golden foliage; and L. tulipifera crispa, with the leaves curiously
undulated--a peculiarity which seems constant, but is more curious than
beautiful. Few soils come amiss to the Tulip Tree, it thriving well in
that of very opposite descriptions--loam, almost pure gravel, and
alluvial deposit.


LONICERA CAPRIFOLIUM.--Europe. This species resembles L. Periclymenum,
but is readily distinguished by the sessile flower-heads, and
fawny-orange flowers.

L. FLEXUOSA (_syn L. brachypoda_).--Japan, 1806. This is a pretty
species, and one of the most useful of the climbing section. By its
slender, twining, purplish stems, it may at once be distinguished, as
also by the deep green, purplish-tinted leaves, and sweetly-scented
flowers of various shades of yellow and purple. A native of China, and
perfectly hardy as a wall plant. L. flexuosa aureo-reticulata is a
worthy variety, in which the leaves are beautifully netted or variegated
with yellow.

L. FRAGRANTISSIMA.--China, 1845. This species is often confounded with
L. Standishii, but differs in at least one respect, that the former is
strictly a climber, while the latter is of bushy growth. The leaves,
too, of L. Standishii are hairy, which is not the case with the other
species. It is a very desirable species, with white fragrant flowers,
produced during the winter season.

L. PERICLYMENUM.--Honeysuckle, or Woodbine. An indigenous climbing
shrub, with long, lithe, and twisted cable-like branches, and bearing
heads of sweetly-scented, reddish-yellow flowers. This is a favourite
wild plant, and in the profusion and fragrance of its flowers it is
surpassed by none of the exotic species. There are several distinct
nursery forms of this plant, including those known as L. Periclymenum
Late Dutch, L. Periclymenum Early Cream, and L. Periclymenum
odoratissimum; as also one with variegated foliage.

L. SEMPERVIRENS.--Scarlet Trumpet Honeysuckle. A North American
evergreen species (1656), with scarlet, almost inodorous flowers,
produced freely during the summer. For wall covering it is one of the
most useful of the family. The variety L. sempervirens minor is worthy
of attention.

L. STANDISHII, a Chinese species (1860), has deliciously fragrant while
flowers, with a slight purplish tint, and is well worthy of attention,
it soon forming a wall covering of great beauty.

L. TATARICA.---Tartarian Honeysuckle. Tartary, 1752. This is a very
variable species, in so far at least as the colour of flowers is
concerned, and has given rise to several handsome varieties. The typical
plant has rosy flowers, but the variety L. tatarica albiflora has pure
white flowers; and another, L. tatarica rubriflora has freely produced
purplish-red flowers.

L. XYLOSTEUM (_syn Xylosteum dumetorum_).--Fly Honeysuckle. Europe
(England) to the Caucasus. The small, creamy-white flowers of this plant
are not particularly showy, but the scarlet berries are more conspicuous
in September and October. The gray bark of the branches has also a
distinct effect in winter when grown in contrast to the red-barked
species of Cornus, Viburnum, and yellow-barked Osier. It is one of the
oldest occupants of British shrubberies. L. Xylosteum leucocarpum has
white berries; those of L. Xylosteum melanocarpum are black; and in L.
Xylosteum xanthocarpum they are yellow.

The Honeysuckles are all of the readiest culture, and succeed well in
very poor soils, and in that of opposite qualities. Propagated from
cuttings or by layering.


LOROPETALON CHINENSE.--Khasia Mountains and China, 1880. This is a
pretty and interesting shrub belonging to the more familiar Witch Hazel
family. Flowers clustered in small heads, the calyx pale green, and the
long linear petals almost pure white. Being quite hardy, and interesting
as well as ornamental, should insure this Chinese shrub a place in every
good collection.


LYCIUM BARBARUM.--Box Thorn, or Tea Tree. North Asia, 1696. A pretty
lax, trailing shrub, with long, slender, flexible twigs, small
linear-lanceolate leaves, and rather sparsely-produced lilac or violet
flowers. Planted against a wall, or beside a stout-growing, open-habited
shrub, where the peculiarly lithe branches can find support, this plant
does best. Probably nowhere is the Box Thorn so much at home as in
seaside places, it then attaining to sometimes 12 feet in height, and
bearing freely its showy flowers during summer, and the bright scarlet
or orange berries in winter.

L. EUROPAEUM.--European Box Thorn. South Europe, 1730. This is a spiny,
rambling shrub, that may often be seen clambering over some cottage
porch, or used as a fence or wall plant in many parts of England. It
often grows nearly 20 feet long, and is then a plant of great beauty,
with linear-spathulate leaves of the freshest green, and pretty little
pink or reddish flowers. For quickly covering steep, dry banks and
mounds where few other plants could exist this European Box Thorn is
invaluable. Either species will grow in very poor, dry soil, and is
readily propagated by means of cuttings.


LYONIA PANICULATA (_syns L. ligustrina, Andromeda globulifera, A.
pilifera_, and _Menziesia globularis_).--North America, 1806. This
species grows about a yard high, with clustered, ovate leaves, and
pretty, pinky, drooping flowers.


MACLURA AURANTIACA.--Osage Orange, or Bow-wood. North America, 1818.
This is a wide-spreading tree with deciduous foliage, and armed with
spines along the branches. The leaves are three inches long, ovate and
pointed, and of a bright shining green. Flowers rather inconspicuous,
being green with a light tinge of yellow, and succeeded by fruit bearing
a resemblance when ripe to the Seville orange. It is hardy, and grows
freely in rather sandy or gravelly soil.


MAGNOLIA ACUMINATA.--Cucumber Tree. North America, 1736. This is a large
and handsome species, of often as much as 50 feet in height, and with a
head that is bushy in proportion. The leaves are 6 inches long, ovate
and pointed, and of a refreshing shade of green. Flowers
greenish-yellow, sweetly scented, and produced abundantly all over the
tree. They are succeeded by small, roughish fruit, resembling an infant
cucumber, but they usually fall off before becoming ripe.

M. CAMPBELII.--Sikkim, 1868. This is a magnificent Indian species, but,
unfortunately, it is not hardy except in the favoured English and Irish
localities. The leaves are large, and silky on the undersides, while the
flowers are crimson and white, and equally as large as those of the
better-known M. grandiflora.

M. CONSPICUA (_syn M. Yulan_).--Yulan. China, 1789. A large-growing
shrub, with Pea-green, deciduous foliage, and large, pure white flowers
that oft get damaged by the spring frosts. M. conspicua Soulangeana is a
supposed hybrid between M. conspicua and M. obovata. Whatever may be the
origin of this Magnolia, it is certainly a handsome and showy plant of
very vigorous growth, producing freely its white, purple-tinted flowers,
and which last for a long time in perfection. There are several other
varieties, including M. conspicua Soulangeana nigra, with dark purplish
flowers; M. conspicua Alexandrina, M. conspicua Soulangeana speciosa,
and M. conspicua Norbertii.

M. CORDATA, a native of the Southern Alleghanies (1801), is still rare
in collections. It is a small-growing, deciduous species, with yellow
flowers, that are neither scented nor showy.

M. FRASERI (_syn M. auriculata_).--Long-leaved Cucumber Tree. North
America, 1786. This species has distinctly auriculated leaves and large,
yellowish-white, fragrant flowers.

M. GLAUCA.--Laurel Magnolia. North America, 1688. This is one of the
commonest species in our gardens, and at the same time one of the
hardiest. It is of shrub size, with Laurel-like leaves, and
sweetly-scented, small, pure white flowers, produced about the end of

M. GRANDIFLORA.--North America, 1737. One of the handsomest species,
with very large, glossy, evergreen leaves, and deliciously odoriferous,
creamy-white flowers, that are often fully 6 inches across. It is
usually seen as a wall plant, and the slight protection thus afforded is
almost a necessity in so far as the development of the foliage and
flowers is concerned. M. grandiflora exoniensis (Exmouth Magnolia) is a
very handsome form.

M. LENNEI.--This is a garden hybrid between M. conspicua and M. obovata
discolor, and has flowers as large as a goose's egg, of a rosy-purple
colour, and produced profusely.

M. MACROPHYLLA.--North America, 1800. This species has very large leaves
and flowers, larger, perhaps, than those of any other species. They are
very showy, being white with a purple centre. It attains a height of 30

M. OBOVATA DISCOLOR (_syn M. purpurea_).--Japan, 1790. This is a
small-growing, deciduous shrub, with large, dark green leaves, and
Tulip-shaped flowers, that are purple on the outside and almost white

M. PARVIFLORA, from Japan, with creamy-white, fragrant flowers, that are
globular in shape, is a very distinct and attractive species, but cannot
generally be relied upon as hardy.

M. STELLATA (_syn M. Halleana_).--Japan, 1878. A neat, small-growing,
Japanese species, of bushy habit, and quite hardy in this country. The
small, white, fragrant flowers are produced abundantly, even on young
plants, and as early as April. One of the most desirable and handsome of
the small-growing species. M. stellata (pink variety) received an Award
of Merit at the meeting of the Royal Horticultural Society on March 28,
1893. This bids fair to be really a good thing, and may best be
described as a pink-flowered form of the now well-known and popular

M. UMBRELLA (_syn M. tripetala_).--Umbrella Tree. North America, 1752. A
noble species, with large, deep green leaves, that are often 16 inches
long. It is quite hardy around London, and produces its large, white,
fragrant flowers in succession during May and June. The fruit is large
and showy, and of a deep purplish-red colour.


MEDICAGO ARBOREA.--South Europe, 1596. This species grows to the height
of 6 feet or 8 feet, and produces its Pea-shaped flowers from June
onwards. The leaves are broadly oval and serrated at the tips, but they
vary in this respect. It is not hardy unless in warm, sheltered corners
of southern England and Ireland, although it stood unharmed for many
years at Kew. It succeeds best, and is less apt to receive injury, when
planted in rather dry and warm soil.


MENISPERMUM CANADENSE.--Moonseed. North America, 1691. This shrub is
principally remarkable for the large, reniform, peltate leaves, which
are of value for covering pergolas, bowers and walls. The flowers are of
no great account, being rather inconspicuous and paniculate. It is hardy
in most places, and is worthy of culture for its graceful habit and
handsome foliage.


MICROGLOSSA ALBESCENS (_syn Aster albescens_ and _A.
cabulicus_).--Himalayas, 1842. This member of the Compositae family is a
much-branched shrub, with grayish lanceolate foliage, and clusters of
flowers about 6 inches in diameter, and of a bluish or mauve colour. It
is a native of Nepaul, and, with the protection of a wall, perfectly
hardy around London.


MITCHELLA REPENS.--Partridge Berry. North America, 1761. A low-growing,
creeping plant, having oval, persistent leaves, white flowers, and
brilliant scarlet fruit. It is a neat little bog plant, resembling
Fuchsia procumbens in habit, and with bunches of the brightest
Cotoneaster-like fruit. For rock gardening, or planting on the margins
of beds in light, peaty soil, this is one of the handsomest and most
beautiful of hardy creeping shrubs.


MITRARIA COCCINEA.--Scarlet Mitre Pod. Chiloe, 1848. This is only hardy
in the South of England and Ireland, and even there it requires wall
protection. It is a pretty little shrub, with long, slender shoots,
which, during the early part of the summer, are studded with the bright
red, drooping blossoms, which are urn-shaped, and often nearly 2 inches
long. It delights in damp, lumpy, peat.


MYRICA ASPLENIFOLIA (_syn Comptonia asplenifolia_).--Sweet Fern. North
America, 1714. A North American plant of somewhat straggling growth,
growing to about 4 feet high, and with linear, pinnatified,
sweet-smelling leaves. The flowers are of no decorative value, being
small and inconspicuous, but for the fragrant leaves alone the shrub
will always be prized. It grows well in peaty soil, is very hardy, and
may be increased by means of offsets. This shrub is nearly allied to our
native Myrica or Sweet Gale.

M. CALIFORNICA.--Californian Wax Myrtle. California, 1848. In this we
have a valuable evergreen shrub that is hardy beyond a doubt, and that
will thrive in the very poorest classes of soils. In appearance it
somewhat resembles our native plant, but is preferable to it on account
of the deep green, persistent leaves. The leaves are about 3 inches
long, narrow, and produced in tufts along the branches. Unlike our
native species, the Californian Wax Myrtle has no pleasant aroma to the

M. CERIFERA.--Common Candle-berry Myrtle. Canada, 1699. This is a neat
little shrub, usually about 4 feet high, with oblong-lanceolate leaves,
and inconspicuous catkins.

M. GALE.--Sweet Gale or Bog Myrtle. This has inconspicuous flowers, and
is included here on account of the deliciously fragrant foliage, and
which makes it a favourite with cultivators generally. It is a native
shrub, growing from 3 feet to 4 feet high, with deciduous,
linear-lanceolate leaves, and clustered catkins appearing before the
leaves. A moor or bog plant, and of great value for planting by the pond
or lake side, or along with the so-called American plants, for the aroma
given off by the foliage.

The Myricas are all worthy of cultivation, although the flowers are
inconspicuous--their neat and in most cases fragrant foliage, and
adaptability to poor soil or swampy hollows, being extra


MYRTUS COMMUNIS.--Common Myrtle. South Europe, 1597. A well-known shrub,
which, unless in very favoured spots and by the sea-side, cannot survive
our winters. Where it does well, and then only as a wall plant, this and
its varieties are charming shrubs with neat foliage and an abundance of
showy flowers. The double-flowered varieties are very handsome, but they
are more suitable for glass culture than planting in the open.

M. LUMA (_syn Eugenia apiculata_ and _E. Luma_).--Chili. Though
sometimes seen growing out of doors, this is not to be recommended for
general planting, it being best suited for greenhouse culture.

M. UGNI (_syn Eugenia Ugni_).--Valdivia, 1845. A small-growing,
Myrtle-like shrub, that is only hardy in favoured parts of the country.
It is of branching habit, with small, wiry stems, oval, coriacious
leaves, and pretty pinky flowers. The edible fruit is highly ornamental,
being of a pleasing ruddy tinge tinted with white. This dwarf-growing
shrub wants the protection of a wall, and when so situated in warm
seaside parts of the country soon forms a bush of neat and pleasing


NEILLIA OPULIFOLIA (_syn Spiraea opulifolia_).--Nine Bark. North
America, 1690. A hardy shrub, nearly allied to Spiraea. It produces a
profusion of umbel-like corymbs of pretty white flowers, that are
succeeded by curious swollen membraneous purplish fruit. N. opulifolia
aurea is worthy of culture, it being of free growth and distinct from
the parent plant.

N. THYRSIFLORA, Nepaul, 1850, would seem to be quite as hardy as N.
opulifolia, and is of more evergreen habit. The leaves are doubly
serrated and three lobed, and cordate-ovate. Flowers white in spicate,
thyrsoid racemes, and produced rather sparsely.


NESAEA SALICIFOLIA (_syn Heimia salicifolia_).--Mexico, 1821. This can
only be styled as half hardy, but with wall protection it forms a pretty
bush often fully a yard in height. The leaves resemble those of some
species of Willow, being long and narrow, while the showy yellow flowers
are freely produced in August and September. It thrives best when
planted in light, dry soil, and in a sheltered position.


NEVIUSA ALABAMENSIS.--Alabama Snow Wreath. Alabama, 1879. This is a rare
American shrub, with leaves reminding one of those of the Nine Bark,
Neillia opulifolia, and the flowers, which are freely produced along the
full length of the shoots, are white or yellowish-green, with prominent
stamens of a tufted brush-like character. It is usually treated as a
green-house plant, but may be seen growing and flowering freely in the
open ground at Kew.


NUTTALLIA CERASIFORMIS.--Osoberry. California, 1848. This shrub is of
great value on account of the flowers being produced in the early weeks
of the year, and when flowers are few and far between. It grows from 6
feet to 10 feet high, with a thick, twiggy head, and drooping racemes of
white flowers borne thickly all over the plant. Few soils come amiss to
this neglected shrub, it growing and flowering freely even on poor
gravelly clay, and where only a limited number of shrubs could succeed.


OLEARIA HAASTII.--New Zealand, 1872. This Composite shrub is only hardy
in the milder parts of England and Ireland. It is of stiff, dwarf
growth, rarely growing more than 4 feet high, but of neat and compact
habit. Flowering as it does in late summer it is rendered of special
value, the Daisy-like white blossoms being produced in large and flat
clusters at the branch tips. The leaves are neat and of leathery
texture, and being evergreen lend an additional charm to the shrub.

O. MACRODONTA (_syn O. dentata_), from New Zealand, 1886, is tolerably
hardy, and may be seen in good form both at Kew and in the South of
Ireland. The large Holly-like leaves are of a peculiar silvery-green
tint above, and almost white on the under sides. Flowers white, and
produced in dense heads in June and July.

O. Forsterii and O. Gunniana (_syn Eurybia Gunniana_) are nearly hardy
species, the latter, from New Zealand, bearing a profusion of white
Daisy-like flowers on dense, twiggy branches.


ONONIS ARVENSIS.--Restharrow. A native undershrub of very variable size,
according to the position in which it is found growing. It creeps along
the ground, the shoots sending out roots as they proceed, and is usually
found on dry sandy banks. The flowers when at their best are very
ornamental, being bright pink, and with the standard streaked with a
deeper shade. They are abundantly produced, and render the plant very
conspicuous during the summer and autumn months. When planted on an old
wall, and allowed to roam at will, the Restharrow is, perhaps, seen to
best advantage.


OSMANTHUS AQUIFOLIUM ILLICIFOLIUS.--Holly-leaved Osmanthus. Japan. This
is a handsome evergreen shrub, with Holly-like leaves, and not very
conspicuous greenish-white flowers. It is a very desirable shrub, of
which there are varieties named O.A. ilicifolius argenteo-variegatus,
O.A. ilicifolius aureo-variegatus, and O.A. ilicifolius nanus, the
names of which will be sufficient to define their characters.

O.A. ILICIFOLIUS MYRTIFOLIUS.--Myrtle-leaved Osmanthus. A very distinct
and beautiful shrub, with unarmed leaves. It is of dwarf, compact
growth, with small, sharply-pointed leaves, and inconspicuous flowers.
For the front line of a shrubbery this is an invaluable shrub, its
pretty leaves and neat twiggy habit making it a favourite with planters.
The variety rotundifolius is seldom seen in cultivation, but being
distinct in foliage from any of the others is to be recommended. They
grow freely in any good garden soil, but all the better if a little peat
is added at the time of planting.


OSTRYA CARPINIFOLIA (_syn O. vulgaris_).--Common Hop Hornbeam. South
Europe, 1724. A much-branched, round-headed tree, with cordate-ovate,
acuminate leaves. Both this and the following species, by reason of the
resemblance between their female catkins and those of the Hop, and
between their leaves and those of the Hornbeam, have acquired the very
descriptive name of Hop Hornbeam. This is a large-growing tree,
specimens in various parts of the country ranging in height from 50 feet
to 60 feet.

O. VIRGINICA.--Virginian Hop Hornbeam. Eastern United States, 1692.
Resembles the latter, but is of smaller growth, rarely exceeding 40 feet
in height. They grow fairly well in almost any class of soil, and on
account of the long and showy catkins are well worthy of cultivation.


OXYDENDRUM ARBOREUM (_syn Andromeda arborea_).--Sorrel-tree. Eastern
United States, 1752. Unfortunately this species is not often found under
cultivation, being unsuitable generally for our climate. In some
instances, however, it has done well, a specimen in the Knap Hill
Nursery, Surrey, being 30 feet high, and with a dense rounded head. The
flowers are very beautiful, being of a waxy white, and produced
abundantly. It wants a free rich soil, and not too exposed site.


OZOTHAMNUS ROSMARINIFOLIUS.--Australia, 1827. A pretty little Australian
Composite, forming a dense, twiggy shrub, with narrow, Rosemary-like
leaves, and small, whitish, Aster-like flowers which resemble those of
its near relative, the Olearia, and are produced so thickly that the
plant looks like a sheet of white when the blooms are fully developed.
It flowers in June and July. In most parts of the country it will
require protection, but can be classed as fairly hardy. Cuttings root
freely if placed in sandy soil in a cool frame.


PAEONIA MOUTAN.--Moutan Paeony, or Chinese Tree Paeony. China and Japan,
1789. A beautiful shrubby species introduced from China about one
hundred years ago. The first of the kind introduced to England had
single flowers, and the plant is figured in Andrews' _Botanists'
Repository_ (tab. 463) under the name of P. papaveracea. The flowers are
white with a dark red centre. In the _Botanical Magazine_ (tab. 2175),
the same plant is figured under the name of P. Moutan var. papaveracea.
This is perfectly hardy in our gardens, and is the parent of many
beautiful and distinct varieties, including double and single white,
pink, crimson, purple, and striped.


PALIURUS ACULEATUS (_syn P. australis_).--Christ's Thorn, or Garden
Thorn. Mediterranean region, 1596. A densely-branched, spiny shrub, with
small leaves, and not very showy, yellowish-green flowers. It grows and
flowers freely enough in light, peaty earth, but is not very hardy, the
tips of the branches being usually killed back should the winter be at
all severe.


PARROTIA PERSICA.--Persia, 1848. Well known for the lovely autumnal
tints displayed by the foliage when dying off. But for the flowers, too,
it is well worthy of culture, the crimson-tipped stamens of the male
flowers being singularly beautiful and uncommon. In February it is no
unusual sight to see on well-established plants whole branches that are
profusely furnished with these showy flowers. For planting in a warm
corner of a rather dry border it seems to be well suited; but it is
perfectly hardy and free of growth when suited with soil and site. It is
as yet rare in cultivation, but is sure, when better known and more
widely disseminated, to become a general favourite with lovers of hardy


PASSIFLORA CAERULEA.--Passion Flower. Brazil and Peru, 1699. Though not
perfectly hardy, yet this handsome climbing plant, if cut down to the
ground, usually shoots up freely again in the spring. The flowers, which
are produced very freely, but particularly in maritime districts, vary
from white to blue, and the prettily-fringed corona and centre of the
flower render the whole peculiarly interesting and beautiful. P.
caerulea Constance Elliott has greenish-white flowers; and P. caerulea
Colvillei has white sepals and a blue fringe. The latter is of more
robust growth, and more floriferous than the species.


PAULOWNIA IMPERIALIS.--Japan, 1840. This is a handsome, fast-growing
tree, and one that is particularly valuable for its ample foliage, and
distinct and showy flowers. Though perfectly hardy, in other respects it
is unfortunate that the season at which the Paulownia flowers is so
early that, unless the conditions are unusually favourable, the flower
buds get destroyed by the frost. The tree grows to fully 40 feet high in
this country, and is a grandly decorative object in its foliage alone,
and for which, should the flowers never be produced, it is well worthy
of cultivation. They are ovate-cordate, thickly covered with a grayish
woolly tomentum, and often measure, but particularly in young and
healthy trees, as much as 10 inches in length. The Foxglove-like flowers
are purplish-violet and spotted, and borne in terminal panicles. They
are sweetly-scented. When favourably situated, and in cool, sandy loam
or peaty earth, the growth of the tree is very rapid, and when a tree
has been cut over, the shoots sent out often exceed 6 feet in length in
one season, and nearly 2 inches in diameter. There are many fine old
trees throughout the country, and which testify to the general hardihood
of the Paulownia.


PERIPLOCA GRAECA.--Poison Vine. South Eastern Europe, and Orient, 1597.
A tall, climbing shrub, with small, ovate-lanceolate leaves, and
clusters of curious purplish-brown, green-tipped flowers produced in
summer. The long, incurved appendages, in the shape of a crown, and
placed so as to protect the style and anthers, render the flowers of
peculiar interest. Though often used as a greenhouse plant, it is
perfectly hardy, and makes a neat, deciduous wall or arch covering,
thriving to perfection in rich soil that is well-drained. It is readily
propagated from cuttings.


PERNETTYA MUCRONATA (_syn Arbutus mucronata_).--Prickly Heath. Magellan,
1828. This is a dwarf-growing, wiry shrub, with narrow, stiff leaves,
and bears an abundance of white, bell-shaped flowers. It is a capital
wind screen, and may be used to advantage on the exposed side of
rockwork or flower beds, or as an ornamental shrub by the pond or lake
side. The small dark-green leaves, the tiny white flowers, and great
abundance of deep purple berries in winter, are all points that are in
favour of the shrub for extended cultivation. The pretty, pinky shoots,
too, help to make the plant attractive even in mid-winter. Propagation
by layers or seed is readily brought about. To grow this shrub to
perfection, peaty soil or decayed vegetable matter will be found most
suitable. There is a narrow-leaved form named P. mucronata angustifolia,
and another on which the name of P. mucronata speciosa has been

There are many beautiful-berried forms of the Pernettya, but as their
flowers are small can hardly be included in our list.


PHILADELPHUS CORONARIUS.--Mock Orange, or Syringa. South Europe, 1596. A
well-known and valuable garden shrub, of from 6 feet to 10 feet high,
with ovate and serrulated leaves, and pretty racemes of white or
yellowish-white, fragrant flowers. P. coronarius aureo-variegatus is one
of the numerous forms of this shrub, having brightly-tinted, golden
foliage, but the flowers are in no way superior to those of the parent.
It is, if only for the foliage, an extremely pretty and distinct
variety. P. coronarius argenteo-variegatus has silvery-tinted leaves; P.
coronarius flore-pleno, full double flowers; and P. coronarius Keteleeri
flore-pleno is the best double-flowered form in cultivation.

P. GORDONIANUS, an American species (1839), is a well-known and
beautiful shrub, in which the flowers are usually double the size of
those of the common species, and which are not produced till July, while
those of P. coronarius appear in early May.

P. GRANDIFLORUS (_syns P. floribundus, P. latifolius_ and _P.
speciosus_).--Southern United States, 1811. This has rotundate,
irregularly-toothed leaves, and large white, sweetly-scented flowers
produced in clusters. This forms a stout bush 10 feet high, and as much
through. There are two varieties, P. grandiflorus laxus, and P.
grandiflorus speciosissimus, both distinct and pretty kinds.

P. HIRSUTUS.--North America, 1820. Another handsome, small-flowered
species, of dwarf growth, and having hairy leaves.

P. INODOROUS, also from North America (1738), differs little in size
and shape of flowers from P. grandiflorus, but the flowers are without
scent. The leaves, too, are quite glabrous and obscurely toothed.

P. LEMOINEI BOULE D'ARGENT is a cross, raised in 1888, from P. Lemoinei
and the double-flowered form of P. coronarius. The flowers are double
white and with the pleasant, but not heavy, scent of P. microphyllus. P.
Lemoinei Gerbe de Neige bears pleasantly-scented flowers that are as
large as those of the well-known P. speciosissimus. There is an erect
form of P. Lemoinei named erectus that is also worthy of note.

P. LEWISI, from North America, is hardly sufficiently distinct from some
of the others to warrant special notice.

P. MICROPHYLLUS, from New Mexico (1883), is of low growth, and
remarkable for its slender branches, small, Myrtle-like leaves, and
abundance of small, white flowers. It is a decidedly pretty shrub, but
is not so hardy as the others.

P. SATZUMI (_syn P. chinensis_).--Japan, 1851. A slender-growing
species, with long and narrow leaves, and large, white flowers.

P. TRIFLORUS and P. MEXICANUS are other species that might be worthy of
including in a representative collection of these plants.

This is a valuable genus of shrubs, all being remarkable for the
abundance of white, and usually sweet-scented, flowers which they
produce. They require no special treatment, few soils, if at all free
and rich, coming amiss to them; while even as shrubs for shady
situations they are not to be despised. Propagation is effected by means
of cuttings, which root freely if placed in sandy soil.


P. ANGUSTIFOLIA (narrow-leaved Phillyrea), P. ilicifolia (Holly-leaved
Phillyrea), P. salicifolia (Willow-leaved Phillyrea), P. buxifolia
(Box-leaved Phillyrea), and P. ligustrifolia (Privet-leaved Phillyrea),
are all more or less valuable species, and their names indicate their
peculiarities of leafage. P. angustifolia rosmarinifolia (_syn P.
neapolitana_) is a somewhat rare shrub, but one that is well worthy of
culture, if only for its neat habit and tiny little Rosemary-like
leaves. It is from Italy, and known under the synonym of _P.

P. LATIFOLIA (_syn P. obliqua_).--Broad-leaved Phillyrea. South Europe,
1597. This is a compact-growing and exceedingly ornamental shrub, with
bright and shining, ovate-serrulated leaves. For its handsome, evergreen
foliage and compact habit of growth it is, perhaps, most to be valued,
for the small flowers are at their best both dull and inconspicuous. Not
very hardy unless in the sea-coast garden.

P. MEDIA (_syns P. ligustrifolia_ and _P. oleaefolia_).--South Europe,
1597. This is another interesting species, but not at all common in

P. VILMORINIANA (_syns P. laurifolia_ and _P. decora_).--Asia Minor,
1885, This is a grand addition to these valuable shrubs, of which it is
decidedly the best from an ornamental point of view. It is of compact
growth, with large, Laurel-like leaves, which are of a pleasing shade of
green, and fully 4 inches long. They are of stout, leathery texture, and
plentifully produced. That this shrub is perfectly hardy is now a
well-established fact.

The Phillyreas succeed well in light, warm, but not too dry soil, and
they do all the better if a warm and sheltered position is assigned to
them. Being unusually bright of foliage, they are of great service in
planting for shrubbery embellishment, and which they light up in a very
conspicuous manner during the dull winter months. They get shabby and
meagre foliaged if exposed to cold winds.


PHLOMIS FRUTICOSA.--Jerusalem Sage. Mediterranean region, 1596. This is
a neat-growing shrubby plant, with ovate acute leaves, that are covered
with a yellowish down. From the axils of the upper leaves the whorls of
yellow flowers are freely produced during the summer months. It is
valued for its neat growth, and as growing on dry soils where few other
plants could eke out an existence.


PHOTINIA JAPONICA (_syn Eriobotrya japonica_).--Loquat, Japan Medlar, or
Japan Quince. Japan, 1787. This is chiefly remarkable for its handsome
foliage, the leaves being oblong of shape and downy on the under sides.
The white flowers are of no great beauty, but being produced at the
beginning of winter, and when flowers are scarce, are all the more
welcome. It requires protection in all but the warmer parts of these

P. ARBUTIFOLIA (_syns Crataegus arbutifolia_ and _Mespilus
arbutifolia_).--Arbutus-leaved Photinia, or Californian May-bush.
California, 1796. This is a very distinct shrub, with leaves resembling
those of the Strawberry Tree (Arbutus), the flowers in an elongated
panicle, and bright red bark on the young wood.

P. BENTHAMIANA is only worthy of culture for its neat habit and freedom
of growth when suitably placed.

P. SERRULATA (_syn Crataegus glabra_).--Chinese Hawthorn. Japan and
China, 1804. This has Laurel-like leaves, 4 inches or 5 inches long,
and, especially when young, of a beautiful rosy-chocolate colour, and
clustered at the branch-tips. Flowers small, white, and produced in flat
corymbs. An invaluable seaside shrub.

They all grow well either in light, rich loam, or in sandy, peaty earth,
and are usually propagated by grafting.


PHYLODOCE TAXIFOLIA (_syns P. caerulea_ and _Menziesia caerulea_).--An
almost extinct native species, having crowded linear leaves, and
lilac-blue flowers. It is only of value for rock gardening.


PIERIS FLORIBUNDA (_syns Andromeda floribunda_ and _Leucothoe
floribunda_).--United States, 1812. Few perfectly hardy shrubs are more
beautiful than this, with its pure white Lily-of-the-Valley like
flowers, borne in dense racemes and small, neat, dark green leaves. To
cultivate this handsome shrub in a satisfactory way, fairly rich loam
or peat, and a situation sheltered from cold and cutting winds, are

P. JAPONICA (_syn Andromeda japonica_).--Japan, 1882. A hardy,
well-known shrub, that was first brought specially under notice in "The
Garden," and of which a coloured plate and description were given. It is
thickly furnished with neat and small deep-green, leathery leaves, and
pretty, waxy white flowers, pendulous at the branch tips. Planted in
free, sandy peat, it thrives vigorously, and soon forms a neat specimen
of nearly a yard in height. It is a very desirable hardy species, and
one that can be confidently recommended for ornamental planting. There
is a variegated variety, P. japonica elegantissima, with leaves clearly
edged with creamy-white, and flushed with pink. Amongst variegated,
small-growing shrubs it is a gem.

P. MARIANA (_syn Andromeda Mariana ovalis_).--North America, 1736. A
neat shrub of about 3 feet in height, with oval leaves, and pretty white
flowers in pendent clusters.

P. OVALIFOLIA (_syn Andromeda ovalifolia_).--Nepaul, 1825. A fine,
tall-growing species, with oval-pointed, leathery leaves placed on long
footstalks. Flowers in lengthened, drooping, one-sided racemes, and
white or pale flesh-coloured. Being perfectly hardy, and attaining to as
much as 20 feet in height, it is a desirable species for the lawn or


PIPTANTHUS NEPALENSIS (_syn Baptisia nepalensis_).--Evergreen Laburnum.
Temperate Himalaya, 1821. A handsome, half-hardy shrub, of often fully
10 feet high, with trifoliolate, evergreen leaves, and terminal racemes
of large yellow flowers. In the south and west of England and Ireland it
does well, and only receives injury during very severe winters. Planted
either as a single specimen, or in clumps of three or five, the
evergreen Laburnum has a pleasing effect, whether with its bright,
glossy-green leaves, or abundance of showy flowers. It is of somewhat
erect growth, with stout branches and plenty of shoots. Propagated from
seed, which it ripens abundantly in this country.


PITTOSPORUM TOBIRA.--Japan, 1804. This forms a neat, evergreen shrub,
with deep green, leathery leaves, and clusters of white, fragrant
flowers, each about an inch in diameter. It is hardy in the more
favoured parts of the south and west of England, where it makes a
reliable seaside shrub.

P. UNDULATUM, from Australia (1789), is also hardy against a wall, but
cannot be depended upon generally. It is a neat shrub, with wavy leaves,
that are rendered conspicuous by the dark midribs. They grow well in any
good garden soil.


PLAGIANTHUS LYALLI, a native of New Zealand (1871), and a member of the
Mallow family, is a free-flowering and beautiful shrub, but one that
cannot be recommended for general planting in this country. At Kew it
does well and flowers freely on an east wall. The flowers are
snow-white, with golden-yellow anthers, and produced on the ends of the
last season's branchlets during June and July. The flower-stalks, being
fully 2 inches long, give to the flowers a very graceful appearance. In
this country the leaves are frequently retained till spring.

P. LAMPENI.--Van Dieman's Land, 1833. This is about equally hardy with
the former, and produces a great abundance of sweetly-scented flowers.

P. PULCHELLUS (_syn Sida pulchella_).--Australia and Tasmania. Another
half-hardy species, which bears, even in a young state, an abundance of
rather small, whitish flowers.


POLYGALA CHAMAEBUXUS.--Bastard Box. A neat little shrubby plant, with
small ovate, coriaceous leaves, and fragrant yellow and cream flowers.
P. chamaebuxus purpureus differs in bearing rich reddish-purple flowers,
and is one of the most showy and beautiful of rock plants. They are
natives of Europe (1658), and grow best in vegetable mould.


POTENTILLA FRUTICOSA.--Northern Hemisphere (Britain). An indigenous
shrub that grows about a yard high, with pinnate leaves and golden
flowers. It is a most persistent blooming plant, as often for four
months, beginning in June, the flowers are produced freely in
succession. It delights to grow in a strong soil, and, being of low,
sturdy growth, does well for the outer line of the shrubbery.


PRUNUS AMYGDALUS (_syn Amygdalus communis_).--Common Almond. Barbary,
1548. Whether by a suburban roadside, or even in the heart of the
crowded city, the Almond seems quite at home, and is at once one of the
loveliest and most welcome of early spring-flowering trees. The flowers
are rather small for the family, pale pink, and produced in great
quantity before the leaves. There are several distinct forms of the
Almond, differing mainly in the colour of the flowers, one being pink,
another red, while a third has double flowers. P. Amygdalus macrocarpa
(Large-fruited Almond) is by far the handsomest variety in cultivation,
the flowers being large, often 3 inches in diameter, and white tinged
with pink, particularly at the base of the petals. The flowers, too, are
produced earlier than those of any other Almond, while the tree is of
stout growth and readily suited with both soil and site.

P. AMYGDALUS DULCIS (_syn A. dulcis_), Sweet Almond, of which there are
three distinct varieties, P.A. dulcis purpurea, P.A. dulcis macrocarpa,
and P.A. dulcis pendula, should be included in every collection of these
handsome flowering plants.

P. AVIUM JULIANA (_syn Cerasus Juliana_).--St. Julian's Cherry. South
Europe. This bears large flowers of a most beautiful and delicate blush
tint. P. Avium multiplex is a double form of the Wild Cherry, or Gean,
with smaller leaves than the type.

P. BOISSIERII (_syn Amygdalus Boissierii_).--Asia Minor, 1879. This is a
bushy shrub, with almost erect, long, and slender branches, and
furnished with leaves an inch long, elliptic, and thick of texture.
Flowers pale flesh-coloured, and produced abundantly. It is a very
ornamental and distinct plant, and is sure, when better known, to
attract a considerable amount of attention.

P. CERASIFERA (_syn P. Myrobalana_).--Cherry, or Myrobalan Plum. Native
Country unknown. A medium-sized tree, with an abundance of small white
flowers, which are particularly attractive if they escape the early
spring frosts. It is of stout, branching habit, with a well-rounded
head, and has of late years attracted a good deal of notice as a hedge
plant. P. cerasifera Pissardii, the purple-leaved Cherry plum, is a
remarkable and handsome variety, in which the leaves are deep purple,
thus rendering the plant one of the most distinct and ornamental-foliaged
of the family. It produces its white, blush-tinted flowers in May. It
was received by M.A. Chatenay, of Sceau, from M. Pissard, director of
the garden of His Majesty the Shah of Persia. When it flowered it was
figured in the _Revue Horticole_, 1881, p. 190.

P. CERASUS (_syn Cerasus vulgaris_).--Common Cherry. A favourite
medium-sized tree, and one that lends itself readily to cultivation. As
an ornamental park tree this Cherry, though common, must not be
despised, for during summer, when laden with its pure white flowers, or
again in autumn when myriads of the black, shining fruits hang in
clusters from its branches, it will be readily admitted that few trees
have a more beautiful or conspicuous appearance, P. Cerasus flore-pleno
(double-flowered Cherry) is a distinct and desirable variety. P. Cerasus
multiplex is a very showy double form, more ornamental than P. Avium
muliplex, and also known under the names of _Cerasus ranunculiflora_ and
_C. Caproniana multiplex_. P. Cerasus semperflorens (_syn Cerasus
semperflorens_), the All Saints, Ever Flowering, or Weeping, Cherry, is
another valuable variety, of low growth, and with gracefully drooping
branches, particularly when the tree is old. It is a very desirable lawn
tree, and flowers at intervals during the summer.

P. CHAMAECERASUS (_syn Cerasus Chamaecerasus_).--Ground Cherry. Europe,
1597. This is a dwarf, slender-branched, and gracefully pendent shrub,
of free growth, undoubted hardihood, and well worthy of extended
cultivation. The variety C. Chamaecerasus variegata has the leaves
suffused with greenish lemon. There is also a creeping form named P.
Chamaecerasus pendula.

P. DAVIDIANA.--Abbé David's Almond. China. This is the tree to which,
under the name of Amygdalus Davidiana alba, a First-class Certificate
was awarded in 1892 by the Royal Horticultural Society. The typical
species is a native of China, from whence it was introduced several
years ago, but it is still far from common. It is the earliest of the
Almonds to unfold its white flowers, for in mild winters some of them
expand before the end of January; but March, about the first week, it is
at its best. It is of more slender growth than the common Almond, and
the flowers, which are individually smaller, are borne in great
profusion along the shoots of the preceding year, so that a specimen,
when in full flower, is quite one mass of bloom. There is a rosy-tinted
form known as Amygdalus Davidiana rubra.

P. DIVARICATA, from the Caucasus (1822), is useful on account of the
pure white flowers being produced early in the year, and before the
leaves. It has a graceful, easy habit of growth, and inclined to spread,
and makes a neat lawn or park specimen.

P. DOMESTICA, Common Garden Plum, and P. domestica insititia, Bullace
Plum, are both very ornamental-flowering species, and some of the
varieties are even more desirable than the parent plants.

P. ILLICIFOLIA (_syn Cerasus ilicifolius_).--Holly-leaved Cherry.
California. A distinct evergreen species, with thick leathery leaves,
and erect racemes of small white flowers. A native of dry hilly ground
along the coast from San Francisco to San Diego. Hardy in most
situations, but requiring light warm soil and a dry situation.

P. LAUNESIANA (_syn Cerasus Launesiana_).--Japan, 1870. This is a
valuable addition to the already long list of ornamental-flowering
Cherries. It flowers in the early spring, when the tree is literally
enshrouded in rose-coloured flowers, and which produce a very striking
effect. The tree is quite hardy, flowers well even in a young state, and
will grow in any soil that suits our common wild species.

P. LAUROCERASUS (_syn Cerasus Laurocerasus_).--Common, or Cherry Laurel.
Levant, 1629. Although a well-known garden and park shrub, of which a
description is unnecessary, the common or Cherry Laurel, when in full
flower, must be ranked amongst our more ornamental shrubs. There are
several varieties all worthy of culture for the sake of their evergreen
leaves and showy flower spikes. P. Laurocerasus rotundifolia has leaves
that are broader in proportion to their length than those of the common
species; P. Laurocerasus caucasica is of sturdy growth, with deep green
leaves, and a compact habit of growth; P. Laurocerasus colchica is the
freest-flowering Laurel in cultivation, with horizontally arranged
branches and pale green leaves; P. Laurocerasus latifolia, a rather
tender shrub, with bold handsome foliage; and P. Laurocerasus
parvifolia, of low growth, but never very satisfactory in appearance.
Three other less common forms might also be mentioned. P. Laurocerasus
angustifolia, with narrow leaves; P. Laurocerasus camelliaefolia, with
thick leathery foliage; and P. Laurocerasus intermedia, halfway between
P. Laurocerasus angustifolia and the common Laurel.

P. LUSITANICA (_syn Cerasus lusitanica_).--Portugal Laurel. Portugal,
1648. A well-known shrub or small growing tree, and one of the most
valuable of all our hardy evergreens. It is of neat and compact growth,
with a good supply of bright green shining foliage, and bears long
spikes of pleasing creamy white perfumed flowers. P. lusitanica
myrtifolia (Myrtle-leaved Portugal Laurel) differs from the species in
the smaller, longer, and narrower leaves, which are more thickly
arranged, and in its more decided upright habit. P. lusitanica variegata
is hardly sufficiently constant or distinct to warrant recommendation.
P. lusitanica azorica, from the Azores, is of more robust growth than
the common plant, with larger and richer green leaves, and the bark of
the younger branches is of a very decided reddish tinge.

P. MAHALEB (_syn Cerasus Mahaleb_).--The Mahaleb, or Perfumed Cherry.
South Europe, 1714. This and its variegated variety P. Mahaleb variegata
are very free-flowering shrubs, and of neat growth. The variegated
variety is well worthy of attention, having a clear silvery variegation,
chiefly confined to the leaf margin, but in a less degree to the whole
of the foliage, and imparting to it a bright, glaucous tint that is
highly ornamental. There is a partially weeping form named P. Mahaleb

P. MARITIMA.--Beach or Sand Plum. North America, 1800. A prostrate,
spreading shrub, that is of value for planting in poor sandy soil, and
along the sea coast. The flowers are small, but plentifully produced.

P. NANA (_syns Amygdalus nana_ and _A. Besseriana_).--Dwarf Almond. From
Tartary, 1683. This is of dwarf, twiggy growth, rarely more than 3 feet
high, and bearing an abundance of rose-coloured flowers in early
February. From its neat, small growth, and rich profusion of flowers,
this dwarf Almond may be reckoned as a most useful and desirable shrub.
Suckers are freely produced in any light free soil.

P. PADUS (_syn Cerasus Padus_).--Bird Cherry or Hagberry. An indigenous
species, with oblong, doubly-serrated leaves, and terminal or axillary
racemes of pure-white flowers. It is a handsome and distinct
small-growing tree, and bears exposure at high altitudes in a
commendable manner.

P. PANICULATA FLORE-PLENO (_syns Cerasus serrulata flore-pleno_ and _C.
Sieboldii_).--China, 1822. This is one of the most desirable of the
small-growing and double-flowered Cherries. It is of neat growth, with
short, stout branches that are sparsely furnished with twigs, and
smooth, obovate, pointed leaves, bristly serrated on the margins.
Flowers double and white at first, but afterwards tinged with pink,
freely produced and of good, lasting substance. P. paniculata Watereri
is a handsome variety that most probably may be linked to the species.

P. PENNSYLVANIA.--American Wild Red Cherry. North America, 1773. This is
an old-fashioned garden tree, and one of the choicest, producing in May
a great abundance of its tiny white flowers.

P. PERSICA FLORE-PLENO (_syns Amygdalus Persica flore-pleno_ and
_Persica vulgaris_), double-flowering Peach, is likewise well worthy of
culture, there being white, rose, and crimson-flowering forms.

P. PUDDUM (_syns P. Pseudo-cerasus_ and _Cerasus
Pseudo-cerasus_).--Bastard Cherry. China, 1891. There are very few more
ornamental trees in cultivation in this country than the
double-flowering Cherry. It makes a charming small-growing tree, is of
free growth and perfectly hardy, and one of, if not the most,
floriferous of the tribe. The flowers are individually large, pinky or
purplish-white, and produced with the leaves in April.

P. SINENSIS.--China, 1869. A Chinese Plum of somewhat slender growth,
and with the branches wreathed in small, white flowers. It is often seen
as a pot plant, but it is one of the hardiest of its family. P. sinensis
flore-pleno is a double white form, and the most ornamental for pot
work. There is also a variety with rose-coloured flowers.

P. SPINOSA.--Sloe, or Blackthorn. An indigenous, spiny shrub, with tiny
white flowers; and P. spinosa flore-pleno has small, rosette-like
flowers that are both showy and effective.

P. TOMENTOSA.--Japan, 1872. This is one of the most desirable of hardy
shrubs, with large, white, flesh-tinted flowers produced in the first
weeks of March, and in such quantities as almost to hide the branches
from view. It forms a well-rounded, dense bush of 5 feet or 6 feet high.

P. TRILOBA (_syns P. virgata, Amygdalopsis Lindleyi_ and _Prunopsis
Lindleyi_).--China, 1857. This is a very handsome early-flowering shrub,
that is at once recognised by the generally three-lobed leaves. It is
one of the first to flower, the blossoms being produced in March and
April, and sometimes even earlier when the plant is grown against a
sunny, sheltered wall. The semi-double flowers are large and of good
substance, and of a rosy-white tint, but deep rose in the bud state.
There is a nursery form of this plant with white flowers, named P.
triloba alba. It is quite hardy, bears pruning well, and grows quickly,
soon covering a large space of a wall or warm, sunny bank. As an
ornamental flowering lawn shrub it has few equals, the blossoms
remaining good for fully a fortnight.

P. VIRGINIANA (_syn Cerasus virginiana_) and P. SEROTINA (North American
Bird Cherries) are worthy species, with long clusters of flowers
resembling those of our native Bird Cherry. They are large-growing
species, and, particularly the latter, are finding favour with
cultivators in this country on account of their bold and ornamental


PTELEA TRIFOLIATA.--Hop Tree, or Swamp Dogwood. North America, 1704. A
small-growing tree, with trifoliolate, yellowish-green leaves placed on
long footstalks, and inconspicuous greenish flowers. The leaves, when
bruised, emit an odour resembling Hops. P. trifoliata variegata is one
of the handsomest of golden-leaved trees, and is well worthy of
extensive planting. It is preferable in leaf colouring to the golden
Elder. Perfectly hardy.


PUNICA GRANATUM.--Pomegranate. For planting against a southern-facing
wall this pretty shrub is well suited, but it is not sufficiently hardy
for the colder parts of the country. Frequently in the more favoured
parts of the country it reaches a height of 14 feet, with a
branch-spread of nearly as much, and is then, when in full flower, an
object of general admiration and of the greatest beauty. The flowers are
of a rich, bright scarlet colour, and well set off by the glossy, dark
green leaves. P. Granatum rubra flore-pleno is a decidedly ornamental
shrub, in which the flowers are of a bright scarlet, and perfectly
double. They grow satisfactorily in light, but rich soil.


PYRUS ARIA.--White Beam Tree. Europe (Britain). A shrub or small-growing
tree, with lobed leaves, covered thickly on the under sides with a
close, flocculent down. The flowers are small and white, and produced in
loose corymbs. It is a handsome small tree, especially when the leaves
are ruffled by the wind and the under sides revealed to view. The red or
scarlet fruit is showy and beautiful.

P. AUCUPARIA.--Mountain Ash, or Rowan Tree. Too well-known to need
description, but one of our handsomest small-growing trees, and whether
for the sake of its dense corymbs of small white flowers or large
bunches of scarlet fruit it is always welcomed and admired. P. Aucuparia
pendula has the branches inclined to be pendulous; and P. Aucuparia
fructo-luteo differs from the normal plant in having yellowish instead
of scarlet fruit.

P. AMERICANA (_syn Sorbus americana_).--American Mountain Ash. This
species, a native of the mountains of Pennsylvania and Virginia (1782),
is much like our Rowan Tree in general appearance, but the bunches of
berries are larger, and of a brighter red colour.

P. ANGUSTIFOLIA.--North America, 1750. A double-flowered crab is offered
under this name, of vigorous growth, bearing delicate pink, rose-like
flowers that are deliciously fragrant, and borne contemporaneously with
the leaves. The merits claimed for the shrub are perfect hardihood,
great beauty of blossom and leaf, delicious fragrance, and adaptability
to various soils. The single-flowered form extends over large areas in
the Atlantic States of North America. They are very desirable,
small-growing trees, and are described by Professor Sargent as being not
surpassed in beauty by any of the small trees of North America.

P. BACCATA.--Siberian Crab. Siberia and Dahuria, 1784. This is one of
the most variable species in cultivation, and from which innumerable
forms have been developed, that differ either in habit, foliage,
flowers, or fruit. The deciduous calyx would seem to be the only
reliable distinguishing character. It is a widely-distributed species,
being found in North China and Japan, Siberia and the Himalayas, and has
from time immemorial been cultivated by the Chinese and Japanese, so
that it is not at all surprising that numbers of forms have been

P. CORONARIA.--Sweet Scented Crab. North America, 1724. This is a
handsome species, with ovate, irregularly-toothed leaves, and pink and
white fragrant flowers. The flowers are individually large and
corymbose, and are succeeded by small green fruit.

P. DOMESTICA (_syn Sorbus domestica_).--True Service. Britain. This
resembles the Mountain Ash somewhat, but the flowers are panicled, and
the berries fewer, larger, and pear-shaped. The flowers are conspicuous
enough to render the tree of value in ornamental planting.

P. FLORIBUNDA (_syns P. Malus floribunda_ and _Malus microcarpa
floribunda_).--China and Japan, 1818. The Japanese Crabs are wonderfully
floriferous, the branches being in most instances wreathed with flowers
that are individually not very large, and rarely exceeding an inch in
diameter when fully expanded. Generally in the bud state the flowers are
of a deep crimson, but this disappears as they become perfectly
developed, and when a less striking tint of pinky-white is assumed. From
the St. Petersburgh gardens many very ornamental Crabs have been sent
out, these differing considerably in colour of bark, habit, and tint of
flowers. They have all been referred to the above species. P. floribunda
is a worthy form, and one of the most brilliant of spring-flowering
trees. The long, slender shoots are thickly covered for almost their
entire length with flowers that are rich crimson in the bud state, but
paler when fully opened. There are numerous, very distinct varieties,
such as P. floribunda atrosanguinea, with deep red flowers; P.
floribunda Elise Rathe, of pendulous habit; P. floribunda John Downie,
very beautiful in fruit; P. floribunda pendula, a semi-weeping variety;
P. floribunda praecox, early-flowering; P. floribunda mitis, of small
size; P. floribunda Halleana or Parkmanii, probably the most beautiful
of all the forms; and P. floribunda Fairy Apple and P. floribunda
Transcendant Crab, of interest on account of their showy fruit. P.
floribunda Toringo (Toringo Crab) is a Japanese tree of small growth,
with sharply cut, usually three-lobed, pubescent leaves, and small
flowers. Fruit small, with deciduous calyx lobes.

P. GERMANICA (_syn Mespilus germanica_).--Common Medlar. Europe
(Britain), Asia Minor, Persia. Early records show that the Medlar was
cultivated for its fruit as early as 1596. Some varieties are still
grown for that purpose, and in that state the tree is not devoid of
ornament. The large, white flowers are produced singly, but have a fine
effect in their setting of long, lanceolate, finely-serrate leaves
during May.

P. JAPONICA (_syn Cydonia japonica_).--Japanese Quince. Japan, 1815.
This is one of the commonest of our garden shrubs, and one that is
peculiarly well suited for our climate, whether planted as a standard or
as a wall plant. The flowers are brilliant crimson, and plentifully
produced towards the end of winter and before the leaves. Besides the
species there are several very fine varieties, including P. japonica
albo cincta, P. japonica atropurpurea, P. japonica coccinea, P. japonica
flore-pleno, P. japonica nivalis, a charming species, with snowy-white
flowers; P. japonica rosea, of a delicate rose-pink; and P. japonica
princeps. P. japonica cardinalis is one of the best of the numerous
forms of this beautiful shrub. The flowers are of large size, of full
rounded form, and of a deep cardinal-rose colour. They are produced in
great quantity along the branches. A well-grown specimen is in April a
brilliant picture of vivid colour, and the shrub is sooner or later
destined to a chief place amongst our ornamental flowering shrubs. P.
japonica Maulei (_syn Cydonia Maulei_), from Japan (1874), is a rare
shrub as yet, small of growth, and with every twig festooned with the
brightest of orange-scarlet flowers. It is quite hardy, and succeeds
well under treatment that will suit the common species.

P. PRUNIFOLIA.--Siberia, 1758. Whether in flower or fruit this beautiful
species is sure to attract attention. It is a tree of 25 feet in height,
with nearly rotundate, glabrous leaves on long footstalks, and pretty
pinky-white flowers. The fruit is very ornamental, being, when fully
ripe, of a deep and glowing scarlet, but there are forms with yellow,
and green, as also striped fruit.

P. RIVULARIS.--River-side Wild Service Tree. North-west America, 1836. A
native of North America, with terminal clusters of white flowers,
succeeded by sub-globose red or yellow fruit, is an attractive and
handsome species. The fruit is eaten by the Indians of the North-west,
and the wood, which is very hard and susceptible of a fine polish, is
largely used in the making of wedges. It is a rare species in this

P. SINICA (_syn P. sinensis of Lindley_).--Chinese Pear Tree. China and
Cochin China, 1820. Another very ornamental Crab, bearing a great
abundance of rosy-pink or nearly white flowers. It is a shrub-like tree,
reaching a height of 20 feet, and with an upright habit of growth. Bark
of a rich, reddish-brown colour. It is one of the most profuse and
persistent bloomers of the whole family.

P. SINENSIS (_syn Cydonia chinensis_).--Chinese Quince. China, 1818.
This is rarely seen in cultivation, it having, comparatively speaking,
few special merits of recommendation.

P. SMITHII (_syns Mespilis Smithii_ and _M. grandiflora_).--Smith's
Medlar. Caucasus, 1800. The habit of this tree closely resembles that of
a Hawthorn, and although the flowers are only half the size of those of
the Common Medlar, they are produced in greater profusion, so that the
round-headed tree becomes a sheet of white blossom during May and June.
The reddish-brown fruits are small for a Medlar, and ripen in October.

P. TORMINALIS.--Wild Service Tree. A native species of small growth,
with ovate-cordate leaves, and small white flowers. P. torminalis
pinnatifida, with acutely-lobed leaves, and oval-oblong fruit may just
be mentioned.

P. VESTITA.--Nepaul White Beam. Nepaul, 1820. In this species the leaves
are very large, ovate-acute or elliptic, and when young thickly coated
with a white woolly-like substance, but which with warm weather
gradually gives way until they are of a smooth and shining green. The
flowers are borne in woolly racemose corymbs, and are white succeeded by
greenish-brown berries as large as marbles.

Other species of less interest are P. varidosa, P. salicifolia, P.
salvaefolia, P. Bollwylleriana, and P. Amygdaliformis. They are all of
free growth, and the readiest culture, and being perfectly hardy are
well worthy of a much larger share of attention than they have
heretofore received.


RHAMNUS ALATERNUS.--Mediterranean region, 1629. This is an evergreen
shrub, with lanceolate shining leaves of a dark glossy-green colour, and
pretty flowers produced from March till June. There are several
well-marked varieties, one with golden and another with silvery leaves,
and named respectively, R. Alaternus foliis aureis, and R. Alaternus
foliis argenteus.

R. ALPINUS.--Europe, 1752. This is a neat-growing species, with greenish
flowers and black fruit.

R. CATHARTICUS, Common Buckthorn, is a native, thorny species, with
ovate and stalked leaves, and small, thickly clustered greenish flowers,
succeeded by black berries about the size of peas.

R. FRANGULA.--The Berry-bearing Alder. Europe and Britain. A more erect
shrub than the former, and destitute of spines. The leaves too are
larger, and the fruit of a dark purple colour when ripe. More common in
Britain than the former.


RHAPHIOLEPIS JAPONICA INTEGERRIMA (_syn R. ovata_).--A Japanese shrub
(1865), with deep green, ovate, leathery leaves that are not over
abundant, and produced generally at the branch-tips. The pure white,
fragrant flowers are plentifully produced when the plant is grown in a
cosy corner, or on a sunny wall. Though seldom killed outright, the
Raphiolepis becomes badly crippled in severe winters. It is, however, a
bold and handsome shrub, and one that may be seen doing well in many
gardens around London.


RHAPHITHAMNUS CYANOCARPUS (_syn Citharexylum cyanocarpum_). Chili. This
bears a great resemblance to some of the thorny Berberis, and is at once
a distinct and beautiful shrub. The flowers are large and conspicuous,
and of a taking bluish-lilac colour. Having stood unharmed in Ireland
through the unusually severe winters of 1879-80, when many more common
shrubs were killed outright, it may be relied upon as at least fairly
hardy. The soil in which this rare and pretty shrub does best is a
brown, fibrous peat, intermingled with sharp sand.


RHODODENDRON ARBORESCENS (_syn Azalea arborescens_), from the Carolina
Mountains (1818), is a very showy, late-blooming species. The white,
fragrant flowers, and noble port, together with its undoubted hardihood,
should make this shrub a general favourite with cultivators.

R. CALENDULACEUM (_syn Azalea calendulacea_), from North America (1806),
is another of the deciduous species, having oblong, hairy leaves, and
large orange-coloured flowers. It is of robust growth, and in favoured
situations reaches a height of 6 feet. When in full flower the slopes of
the Southern Alleghany Mountains are rendered highly attractive by
reason of the great flame-coloured masses of this splendid plant, and
are one of the great sights of the American Continent during the month
of June.

R. CALIFORNICUM.--California. A good hardy species with broadly
campanulate rosy-purple flowers, spotted with yellow.

R. CAMPANULATUM (_syn R. aeruginosum_).--Sikkim, 1825. A small-growing
species, rarely over 6 feet high, with elliptic leaves that are
fawn-coloured on the under sides. The campanulate flowers are large and
showy, rose or white and purple spotted, at the base of the three upper
lobes. In this country it is fairly hardy, but suffers in very severe
weather, unless planted in a sheltered site.

R. CAMPYLOCARPUM.--Sikkim, 1851. This has stood the winter uninjured in
so many districts that it may at least be recommended for planting in
favoured situations and by the seaside. It is a Sikkim species that was
introduced about forty years ago, and is still rather rare. The leaves
are about 4 inches long, 2 inches wide, and distinctly undulated on the
margins. Flowers bell-shaped, about 2 inches in diameter, and arranged
in rather straggling terminal heads. They are sulphur-yellow, without
markings, a tint distinct from any other known Indian species.

R. CATAWBIENSE.--Mountains from Virginia to Georgia, 1809. A bushy, free
growing species, with broadly oval leaves, and large campanulate
flowers, produced in compact, rounded clusters. They vary a good deal in
colour, but lilac-purple is the typical shade. This is a very valuable
species, and one that has given rise to a large number of beautiful

R. CHRYSANTHUM is a Siberian species (1796) of very dwarf, compact
growth, with linear-lanceolate leaves that are ferruginous on the under
side, and beautiful golden-yellow flowers an inch in diameter. It is a
desirable but scarce species.

R. COLLETTIANUM is an Afghanistan species, and one that may be reckoned
upon as being perfectly hardy. It is of very dwarf habit, and bears an
abundance of small white and faintly fragrant flowers. For planting on
rockwork it is a valuable species.

R. DAHURICUM.--Dahuria, 1780. A small-growing, scraggy-looking species
of about a yard high, with oval-oblong leaves that are rusty-tomentose
on the under sides. The flowers, which are produced in February, are
purple or violet, in twos or threes, and usually appear before the
leaves. It is a sparsely-leaved species, and of greatest value on
account of the flowers being produced so early in the season. One of the
hardiest species in cultivation. R. dahuricum atro-virens is a beautiful
and worthy variety because nearly evergreen.

R. FERRUGINEUM.--Alpine Rose. Europe, 1752. This dwarf species, rarely
exceeding a yard in height, occurs in abundance on the Swiss Alps, and
generally where few other plants are to be found. It is a neat little
compact shrub, with oblong-lanceolate leaves that are rusty-scaly on the
under sides, and has terminal clusters of rosy-red flowers.

R. FLAVUM (_syn Azalea pontica_).--Pontic Azalea. A native of Asia Minor
(1793), is probably the commonest of the recognised species, and may
frequently, in this country, be seen forming good round bushes of 6 feet
in height, with hairy lanceolate leaves, and large yellow flowers,
though in this latter it varies considerably, orange, and orange tinged
with red, being colours often present. It is of free growth in any good
light peaty or sandy soil.

R. HIRSUTUM.--Alpine Rose. South Europe, 1656. Very near R. ferrugincum,
but having ciliated leaves, with glands on both sides. R. hallense and
R. hirsutiforme are intermediate forms of a natural cross between R.
hirsutum and R. ferrugincum. They are handsome, small-growing, brightly
flowered plants, and worthy of culture.

R. INDICUM.--Indian Azalea. A native of China (1808), and perfectly
hardy in the more favoured portions of southern England, where it looks
healthy and happy out of doors, and blooms freely from year to year.
This is the evergreen so-called Azalea that is so commonly cultivated in
greenhouses, with long hirsute leaves, and large showy flowers. R.
indicum amoenum (_syn Azalea amoena_), as a greenhouse plant is common
enough, but except in the South of England and Ireland it is not
sufficiently hardy to withstand severe frost. The flowers are, moreover,
not very showy, at least when compared with some of the newer forms,
being dull magenta, and rather lax of habit.

R. LEDIFOLIUM (_syns Azalea ledifolia_ and _A. liliiflora_).--Ledum-leaved
Azalea. China, 1819. A perfectly hardy species. The flowers are large
and white, but somewhat flaunting. It is, however, a desirable species
for massing in quantity, beside clumps of the pink and yellow flowered
kinds. Though introduced nearly three-quarters of a century ago, this
is by no means a common plant in our gardens.

R. MAXIMUM.--American Great Laurel. North America, 1756. This is a very
hardy American species, growing in favoured localities from 10 feet to
15 feet high. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, slightly ferruginous beneath.
Flowers rose and white, in dense clusters. There are several handsome
varieties that vary to a wide extent in the size and colour of flowers.
R. maximum album bears white flowers.

R. MOLLE (_syn Azalea mollis_), from Japan (1867), is a dwarf, deciduous
species of neat growth, with flame-coloured flowers. It is very hardy,
and a desirable acquisition to any collection of small-growing shrubs.

R. OCCIDENTALE (_syn Azalea occidentalis_), Western Azalea, is valuable
in that the flowers are produced later than those of almost any other
species. These are white, blotched with yellow at the base of the upper
petals; and being produced when the leaves are almost fully developed,
have a very pleasing effect, particularly as they are borne in great
quantity, and show well above the foliage. This is a Californian species
that has been found further west of the Rocky Mountains than any other
member of Ihe family.

R. PARVIFOLIUM.--Baiacul, 1877. This is a pleasing and interesting
species, with small deep-green ovate leaves, and clusters of white
flowers, margined with rose. It is of dwarf and neat growth, and well
suited for planting on the rock garden.

R. PONTICUM.--Pontic Rhododendron, or Rose Bay. Asia Minor, 1763. This
is the commonest species in cultivation, and although originally a
native of the district by the Black or Pontic Sea, is now naturalised
in many parts of Europe. It is the hardiest and least exacting of the
large flowered species, and is generally employed as a stock on which
to graft the less hardy kinds. Flowers, in the typical species, pale
purplish-violet and spotted. There is a great number of varieties,
including white, pink, scarlet, and double-flowering.

R. PONTICUM AZALEOIDES (_syn R. ponticum deciduum_), a hybrid between R.
ponticum and a hardy Azalea, is a sub-evergreen form, with a compact
habit of growth, and bearing loose heads of fragrant lavender-and-white
flowers. It is quite hardy at Kew.

R. RACEMOSUM.--Central China, 1880. A neat little species, of dwarf,
compact growth, from the Yunnan district of China. The flowers are pale
pink edged with a deeper tint, about an inch across, and borne in
terminal and axillary clusters. It has stood unharmed for several years
in southern England, so may be regarded as at least fairly hardy. Its
neat dwarf growth, and flowering as it does when hardly a foot high,
renders it a choice subject for the Alpine garden.

R. RHODORA (_syn Rhodora canadensis_).--North America, 1767. In general
aspect this shrub resembles an Azalea, but it comes into flower long
even before R. molle. Being deciduous, and producing its pretty purplish
sweet-scented flowers in early spring, gives to the plant a particular
value for gardening purposes, clumps of the shrub being most effective
at the very time when flowers are at their scarcest. It thrives well in
any peaty soil, and is quite hardy.

R. VISCOSUM (_syn Azalea viscosa_).--Clammy Azalea, or Swamp
Honeysuckle. North America, 1734. This is one of the hardiest, most
floriferous, and easily managed of the family. The white or rose and
deliciously fragrant flowers are produced in great abundance, and impart
when at their best quite a charm to the shrub. It delights in rather
moist, peaty soil, and grows all the stronger and flowers all the more
freely when surrounded by rising ground or tall trees at considerable
distance away. The variety R. viscosum glaucum has leaves paler than
those of the species; and R. viscosum nitidum, of dwarf, compact growth,
has leaves deep green on both sides.

R. WILSONI, a cross between R. ciliatum and R. glaucum, is of remarkably
neat growth, and worthy of cultivation where small-sized kinds are a

The following Himalayan species have been found to thrive well in the
warmer parts of England, and in close proximity to the sea;--R.
argenteum, R. arboreum, R. Aucklandii, R. barbatum, R. ciliatum, R.
campanulatum, R. cinnabarinum, R. Campbelli, R. compylocarpum, R.
eximium, R. Fortunei, R. Falconeri, R. glaucum, R. Hodgsoni, R. lanatum,
R. niveum, R. Roylei, R. Thompsoni, and R. Wallichii.

R. Ungernii and R. Smirnowii, from the Armenian frontier, are also
worthy of culture, but they are at present rare in cultivation in this

Few hardy shrubs, it must be admitted, are more beautiful than these
Rhododendrons, none flowering more freely or lasting longer in bloom.
Their requirements are by no means hard to meet, light, peaty soil, or
even good sandy loam, with a small admixture of decayed vegetable
matter, suiting them well. Lime in any form must, however, be kept away
both from Azaleas and Rhododendrons. They like a quiet, still place,
where a fair amount of moisture is present in the air and soil.


GHENT AZALEAS, as generally known, from having been raised in Belgium,
are a race of hybrids that have been produced by crossing the Asiatic R.
pontica with the various American species noted above, but particularly
R. calendulaceum, R. nudiflorum, and R. viscosum, and these latter with
one another. These have produced hybrids of almost indescribable beauty,
the flowers of which range in colour from crimson and pink, through
orange and yellow, to almost white.

Within the last few years quite an interesting race of Rhododendrons has
been brought out, with double or hose-in-hose flowers, and very
appropriately termed the Narcissiflora group. They include fully a dozen
highly ornamental kinds, with flowers of varying shades of colour.

The following list includes some of the best and most beautiful of these

Alba marginata.
Baron G. Pyke.
Beauté Celeste.
Bessie Holdaway.
Belle Merveille.
Bijou des Amateurs.
Charles Bowman.
Comte de Flanders.
Decus hortorum.
Due de Provence.
Emperor Napoleon III.
Fitz Quihou.
Glorie de Belgique.
Gloria Mundi.
Gueldres Rose.
Honneur de Flandre.
Jules Caesar.
La Superbe.
Louis Hellebuyck.
Madame Baumann.
Marie Verschaffelt.
Nancy Waterer.
Ne Plus Ultra.
Queen Victoria.
Reine des Belges.
Roi des Belges.
Roi des Feux.
Sinensis rosea.

Double-flowered Rhododendrons:--

Bijou de Gendbrugge.
Graf Von Meran.
Louis Aimée Van Houtte.
Mina Van Houtte.
Van Houttei.


RHODOTHAMNUS CHAMAECISTUS (_syn Rhododendron Chamaecistus_).--Ground
Cistus. Alps of Austria and Bavaria, 1786. A very handsome shrub, of
small growth, and widely distributed in Bavaria, Switzerland, and
elsewhere. Planted in peaty soil and in a rather damp, shady situation
it thrives best, the oval-serrate leaves, covered with white, villous
hairs, and pretty rosy flowers, giving it an almost unique appearance.
It is a charming rock shrub and perfectly hardy.


RHODOTYPOS KERRIOIDES.--White Kerria. Japan, 1866. A handsome deciduous
shrub, and one that is readily propagated, and comparatively cheap. It
is distinct and pretty when in flower, and one of the hardiest and most
accommodating of shrubs. The leaves are handsome, being deeply serrated
and silky on the under sides, while the pure white flowers are often
about 2 inches across. It grows about 4 feet in height, and is a very
distinct and desirable shrub.


RHUS COTINUS.--Smoke Plant, Wig Tree, or Venetian Sumach. Spain to
Caucasus, 1656. On account of its singular appearance this shrub always
attracts the attention of even the most unobservant in such matters. It
is a spreading shrub, about 6 feet high, with rotundate, glaucous
leaves, on long petioles. The flowers are small and inconspicuous, but
the feathery nature of the flower clusters, occasioned by the
transformation of the pedicels and hairs into fluffy awns, renders this
Sumach one of the most curious and attractive of hardy shrubs. Spreading
about freely, this south European shrub should be allowed plenty of room
so that it may become perfectly developed.

R. GLABRA (_syns R. caroliniana, R. coccinea, R. elegans_, and _R.
sanguinea_).--Smooth or Scarlet Sumach. North America, 1726. A smaller
tree than the last, with leaves that are deep glossy-green above and
whitish beneath. The male tree bears greenish-yellow flowers, and the
female those of a reddish-scarlet, but otherwise no difference between
the trees can be detected. R. glabra laciniata (Fern Sumach) is a
distinct and handsome variety, with finely cut elegant leaves, and a
dwarf and compact habit of growth. The leaves are very beautiful, and
resemble those of the Grevillea robusta. It is a worthy variety.

R. SUCCEDANEA.--Red Lac Sumach. Japan, 1768. This is not often seen
planted out, though in not a few places it succeeds perfectly well. It
has elegant foliage, each leaf being 15 inches long, and divided into
several pairs of leaflets.

R. TOXICODENDRON.--Poison Oak or Poison Ivy. North America, 1640. This
species is of half-scandent habit, with large, trifoliolate leaves,
which turn of various tints of red and crimson in the autumn. It is
quite hardy, and seen to best advantage when allowed to run over large
rockwork and tree stumps in partial shade. The variety R. toxicodendron
radicans has ample foliage, and is suited for similar places to the
last. The leaves turn bright yellow in the autumn.

R. TYPHINA.--Stag's Horn Sumach, or Vinegar Tree. A native of North
America (1629), and a very common shrub in our gardens, probably on
account of its spreading rapidly by suckers. It is, when well grown, a
handsome and distinct shrub or small tree, with large, pinnate, hairy
leaves, and shoots that are rendered very peculiar by reason of the
dense hairs with which they are covered for some distance back. The
dense clusters of greenish-yellow flowers are sure to attract attention,
although they are by no means pretty. R. typhina viridiflora is the
male-flowered form of this species, with green flowers.

R. VENENATA (_syn R. vernix_).--Poison Elder, Sumach, or Dogwood. North
America, 1713. This is remarkable for its handsome foliage, and is the
most poisonous species of the genus.

All the Sumachs grow and flower freely in any good garden soil, indeed,
in that respect they are not at all particular. They throw up shoots
freely, so that increasing the stock is by no means difficult.


RIBES ALPINUM PUMILUM AUREUM.--Golden Mountain Currant. The ordinary
green form is a native of Britain, of which the plant named above is a
dwarf golden-leaved variety.

R. AUREUM.--Buffalo Currant. North-west America, 1812. In this species
the leaves are lobed and irregularly toothed, while the flowers are
yellow, or slightly reddish-tinted. It is of rather slender and
straggling growth. R. aureum praecox is an early-flowering variety; and
R. aureum serotinum is valued on account of the flowers being produced
much later than are those of the parent plant.

R. CEREUM (_syn R. inebrians_).--North America, 1827. One of the
dwarfer-growing species of Flowering Currant, forming a low, dense bush
of Gooseberry-like appearance, but destitute of spines. By May it is in
full flower, and the blooms, borne in large clusters, have a pretty
pinkish tinge. The foliage is small, neat, and of a tender green that
helps to set off the pretty flowers to perfection. It is a native of
North-west America, and perfectly hardy in every part of the country.
Though not equal in point of floral beauty with our common flowering
Currant, still the miniature habit, pretty and freely-produced
pink-tinted flowers, and fresh green foliage will all help to make it an
acquisition wherever planted. Like the other species of Ribes the
present plant grows and flowers very freely in any soil, and almost
however poor.

R. FLORIDUM (_syns R. missouriense_ and _R. pennsylvanicum_).--American
Wild Black Currant. North America, 1729. This should be included in all
collections for its pretty autumnal foliage, which is of a bright
purplish bronze.

R. GORDONIANUM (_syns R. Beatonii_ and _R. Loudonii_) is a hybrid
between R. aureum and R. sanguineum, and has reddish, yellow tinged
flowers, and partakes generally of the characters of both species.

R. MULTIFLORUM, Eastern Europe (1822), is another desirable species,
with long drooping racemes of greenish-yellow flowers, and small red

R. SANGUINEUM.--Flowering Currant. North-west America, 1826. An old
inhabitant of our gardens, and well deserving of all that can be said in
its favour as a beautiful spring-flowering shrub. It is of North
American origin, with deep red and abundantly-produced flowers. There
are several distinct varieties as follows:--R. sanguineum flore-pleno
(Burning Bush), with perfectly double flowers, which are produced later
and last longer than those of the species; R. sanguineum album, with
pale pink, or almost white flowers; R. sanguineum atro-rubens, with
deeply-coloured flowers; R. sanguineum glutinosum and R. sanguineum
grandiflorum, bearing compact clusters of flowers that are rosy-flesh
coloured on the outside and white or pinky-white within.

R. SPECIOSUM.--Fuchsia-flowered Gooseberry. California, 1829. A
Californian species, remarkable for being more or less spiny, and with
flowers resembling some of the Fuchsias. They are crimson, and with
long, protruding stamens. As a wall plant, where it often rises to 6
feet in height, this pretty and taking species is most often seen.

The flowering Currants are of unusually free growth, and are not at all
particular about soil, often thriving well in that of a very poor
description. They are increased readily from cuttings and by layers.


ROBINIA DUBIA (_syns R. echiuata_ and _R. ambigua_).--A very pretty
garden hybrid form, said to have for its parentage R. Pseud-Acacia and
R. viscosa. It is of quite tree-like growth and habit, with unusually
short spines, and Pea-green foliage. The flowers are produced pretty
freely, and are of a pale rose colour, and well set off by the
light-green leaves, over which they hang in neat and compact spikes.

R. HISPIDA.--Rose Acacia. North America, 1743. Amongst large-growing
shrubs this is certainly one of the most distinct and handsome, and at
the same time one of the hardiest and readiest of culture. Under
favourable conditions it grows about 16 feet high, with large oval or
oblong leaflets, and having the young branches densely clothed with
bristles. The flowers, which are individually larger than those of the
False Acacia, are of a beautiful rosy-pink, and produced in June and
July. It is a very ornamental, small growing species, and one that is
peculiarly suitable for planting where space is limited. R. hispida
macrophylla (Large-leaved Rose Acacia) is rendered distinct by its
generally more robust growth, and by its larger foliage and flowers. The
species, however, varies a good deal in respect of the size of leaves
and flowers.

R. PSEUD-ACACIA.--Common Locust, Bastard Acacia, or False Acacia. North
America, 1640. A noble-growing and handsome tree, with smooth shoots,
and stipules that become transformed into sharp, stiff spines. The
flowers are in long racemes, pure-white or slightly tinged with pink,
and with a faint pleasing odour. This species has been sub-divided into
a great number of varieties, some of which are very distinct, but the
majority are not sufficiently so to warrant special attention. The
following include the best and most popular kinds:--R. Pseud-Acacia
Decaisneana, a distinct form bearing light pinky flowers; R.
Pseud-Acacia Bessoniana, with thornless branches and a dense head of
refreshing Pea-green foliage; R. Pseud-Acacia angustifolia, with narrow
leaves; R. Pseud-Acacia aurea, a conspicuous but not very constant
golden leaved form; R. Pseud-Acacia inermis, of which there are weeping,
upright, and broad-leaved forms, has narrow leaves that are glaucous
beneath, and the characteristic spines of the species are wanting or
rarely well developed. R. Pseud-Acacia monophylla is very distinct, the
leaves being entire instead of pinnate; while R. Pseud-Acacia crispa has
curiously-curled foliage. Then there is the peculiar R. Pseud-Acacia
tortuosa, of ungainly habit; R. Pseud-Acacia umbraculifera, with a
spreading head; R. Pseud-Acacia sophoraefolia, the leaves of which
resemble those of Sophora japonica; and R. Pseud-Acacia amorphaefolia,
with very large foliage when compared with the parent tree. The above
may be taken as the most distinct and desirable forms of the False
Acacia, but there are many others, such as R. Pseud-Acacia colutoides,
R. Pseud-Acacia semperflorens, and R. Pseud-Acacia Rhederi, all more or
less distinct from the typical tree.

R. VISCOSA (_syn R. glutinosa_).--Clammy Locust. North America, 1797.
This is a small-growing tree, and readily distinguished by the clammy
bark of the younger shoots. Flowers in short racemes, and of a beautiful
rose-pink, but varying a good deal in depth of tint. It is a valuable
species for ornamental planting, and flowers well even in a young state.

Few soils would seem to come amiss to the Acacias, but observations
made in many parts of the country conclusively prove that the finest
specimens are growing on light, rich loam overlying a bed of gravel.
They are propagated from seed, by layers, or by grafting.


ROSA ALBA.--This is a supposed garden hybrid between R. canina and R.
gallica (1597). It has very glaucous foliage, and large flowers, which
vary according to the variety from pure white to rose.

R. REPENS (_syn R. arvensis_).--Field Rose. Europe (Britain). This
species bears white flowers that are produced in threes or fours, rarely
solitary. The whole plant is usually of weak and straggling growth, with
shining leaves.

R. BRACTEATA (Macartney Rose), R. PALUSTRIS (Marsh Rose), and R.
MICROPHYLLA (small-leaved Rose), belong to that section supplied with
floral leaves or bracts, and shaggy fruit. They are of compact growth,
with neat, shining leaves, the flowers of the first-mentioned being rose
or carmine, and those of the other two pure white.

R. CANINA.--Dog Rose. Our native Roses have now been reduced to five
species, of which the present is one of the number. It is a straggling
shrub, 6 feet or 8 feet high, and armed with curved spines. Flowers
sweet-scented, pink or white, and solitary, or in twos or threes at the
branch tips.

R. CENTIFOLIA.--Hundred-leaved, or Cabbage Rose. Orient, 1596. A
beautiful, sweetly-scented species, growing to 6 feet in height, and
having leaves that are composed of from three to five broadly ovate,
toothed leaflets. The flowers are solitary, or two or three together,
drooping, and of a rosy hue, but differing in tint to a considerable
extent. This species has varied very much, principally through the
influences of culture and crossing, the three principal and marked
variations being size, colour, and clothing of the calyx tube. There are
the common Provence Roses, the miniature Provence or Pompon Roses, and
the Moss Rose--all of which are merely races of R. centifolia.

R. DAMASCENA.--Damask Rose. Orient, 1573. A bushy shrub varying from 2
feet to 8 feet in height according to cultural treatment and age. The
flowers are white or red, large, borne in corymbose clusters, and
produced in great profusion during June and July. The varieties that
have arisen under cultivation by seminal variation, hybridisation, or
otherwise are exceedingly numerous. Those now grown are mostly double,
and a large proportion of them are light in colour. They include the
quatre saisons and the true York and Lancaster. The flowers are highly
fragrant, and, like those of R. centifolia and other species, are used
indiscriminately for the purpose of making rose water. The species is
distinguished from R. centifolia by its larger prickles, elongated
fruit, and long, reflexed sepals.

R. FEROX.--North Asia. This species bears flowers in clusters of two and
three together, terminating the branches. The petals are white with a
yellow base. The branches are erect, and thickly crowded with prickles
of unequal size.

R. GALLICA.--The French, or Gallic Rose. Europe and Western Asia. This
Rose forms a bushy shrub 2 feet to 3 feet high, and has been so long
grown in British gardens that the date of its introduction has been lost
in obscurity. It is doubtless the red Rose of ancient writers, but at
present the flowers may be red, crimson, or white, and there are
varieties of all intermediate shades. Several variegated or striped
Roses belong here, including Gloria Mundi, a popular favourite often but
erroneously grown under the name of York and Lancaster. They all flower
in June and July, and, together with other kinds that flower about the
same time, are generally known as summer or old-fashioned garden Roses.

R. HEMISPHAERICA (_syn R. sulphurea_).--Orient, 1629. A bushy plant
growing from 4 feet to 6 feet high, and bearing large double yellow

R. INDICA.--Common China, or Monthly Rose. Introduced from China, near
Canton, in 1789, but the native country is not known with certainty. The
flowers of the plant when first introduced were red and generally
semi-double, but the varieties now vary through all shades of blush,
rose, and crimson, and the plant varies exceedingly in height, in its
different forms 1 foot to 20 feet in height. The Monthly Roses form
bushes generally about 2 feet high or a little over. The Noisette and
Tea Roses, with several other more or less distinct types, belong here,
but as most of them are well known and otherwise well cared for, it is
unnecessary to dwell upon them in detail beyond the two varieties here
given, and which should not be overlooked.

R. INDICA MINIMA (_syn R. semperflorens minima, R. Lawrenceana_, and _R.
minima_).--Fairy, or Miniature Rose. China, 1810. A beautiful little
Rose that rarely exceeds a height of 4 inches or 5 inches. The flowers
are about the size of a half-crown, and somewhat after the York and
Lancaster as regards colouring, though not, perhaps, so distinctly
marked, and are produced in abundance. For the rock garden it is one of
the most desirable, and being perfectly hardy still further adds to its

R. INDICA SEMPERFLORENS (_syns R. bengalensis_ and _R.
diversifolia_).--The Ever-flowering China Rose. China, 1789. A somewhat
spreading bush, with slender branches, armed with curved prickles.
Leaves composed of three or five leaflets, and tinted with purple.
Flowers almost scentless, solitary, semi-double, and of a bright and
showy crimson.

R. LUTEA (_syn R. Eglanteria_).--The Austrian Brier, or Yellow
Eglantine. South Europe, 1596. This belongs to the Sweet Brier section,
and is a bush of from 3 feet to 6 feet high, with shining dark-green
leaves, and large, cup-shaped flowers that are yellow or sometimes
tinged with reddish-brown within. The Scarlet Austrian Brier (R. lutea
punicea) is a handsome variety, with the upper surface of the petals
scarlet and the under surface yellow.

R. RUBIGINOSA (_syn R. Eglanteria_).--Eglantine, or Sweet Brier. This
species has pink flowers and clammy leaves, which are glandular on the
under surface, and give out a fragrant smell by which it may be

R. RUGOSA (_syn R. ferox of Bot. Reg._), a Japanese species, and its
variety R. rugosa alba, are beautiful shrubs that have proved themselves
perfectly hardy and well suited for extensive culture in this country.
They are of stiff, shrubby habit, about 4 feet high, and with branches
thickly clothed with spines becoming brown with age. Leaflets oval in
shape, deep green, with the upper surface rough to the touch, the under
sides densely tomentose. Flowers single, fully 3 inches in diameter, the
petals of good substance, and white or rose-coloured. The fruit is
large, larger than that of perhaps any other rose, and of a bright red
when fully ripe. In so far as beauty of fruit is concerned, this Rose
has certainly no rival, and whether for the rockwork or open border it
must be classed amongst the most useful and beautiful of hardy shrubs.
R. rugosa is a capital hedge plant, and being a true species it is
readily propagated from seed. R. rugosa Kamtschatika is a deep-red
flowered form with deciduous spines.

R. SEMPERVIRENS.--Evergreen Rose. South Europe and India, 1529. A
climbing species, with long, slender branches, armed with hooked
prickles. Leaves evergreen, shining, and composed of from five to seven
leaflets. The clustered flowers are white and sweet-scented.

R. SPINOSISSIMA (_syn R. pimpinellifolia_).--Burnet, or Scotch Rose. A
small bush about 2 feet high, of neat growth, with small leaves, and
pink or white flowers that are solitary at the branch ends.

R. VILLOSA.--Downy Rose. Europe (Britain). This species is of erect
bushy growth, with the leaflets softly downy on both sides. Flowers
white or pale pink, succeeded by globular fruits, that are more or less
covered with fine hair or prickles.


ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS.--Common Rosemary. Mediterranean region, 1848. A
familiar garden shrub, of dense growth, with dusky-gray green linear
leaves, and pale blue or white flowers. There is a golden and a silver
leaved variety, named respectively R. officinalis foliis-aureis, and R.
officinalis foliis-argenteis; as also one distinguished by having
broader foliage than the species, and named R. officinalis latifolius.


RUBUS ARCTICUS.--Arctic Regions of both hemispheres. An interesting
species about 6 inches high, with trifoliolate leaves, and deep-red
flowers. For Alpine gardening it is a valuable species of dwarf growth.

R. AUSTRALIS, from New Zealand, is a very prickly species, with the
leaves reduced to their stalks and the midribs of three leaflets. Not
being very hardy it is usually seen as a wall plant.

R. BIFLORUS.--Himalayas, 1818. A tall-growing species with whitish,
spiny stems, and simple three-lobed leaves that are tomentose on the
under sides. The flowers are thickly produced, pure white, and render
the plant highly attractive, and of great beauty.

R. DELICIOSUS.--This Rocky Mountain Bramble (1870) is a very worthy
species, with three or five-lobed (not pinnate) leaves, and large, pure
white flowers that are each about 2 inches in diameter, and produced in
profusion from the leaf-axils. For ornamental planting this may be
placed in the first rank of the family to which it belongs.

R. FRUTICOSUS.--Common Bramble, or Blackberry. Of this well-known native
species there are several worthy varieties, of which the double-flowered
are especially worth notice, blooming as they do in the latter part of
summer. R. fruticosus flore albo-pleno (Double white-flowered Bramble),
and R. fruticosus flore roseo-pleno (Double red-flowered Bramble) are
very pretty and showy varieties, and well worth including in any
collection. There is a pretty variegated-leaved form of the common
Bramble, known as R. fruticosus variegatus.

R. LACINIATUS, Cut-leaved Bramble, might also be included on account of
its profusion of white flowers, and neatly divided foliage.

R. NUTKANUS.--North America, 1826. This has white flowers, but otherwise
it resembles R. odoratus.

R. ODORATUS.--Purple flowering Raspberry. North America, 1700. The
sweet-scented Virginian Raspberry forms a rather dense, upright growing
bush, fully 4 feet high, with large broadly five-lobed and toothed
leaves, that are more or less viscid, sweet-scented, and deciduous. The
leaves are placed on long, hairy, viscid foot-stalks. Flowers in
terminal corymbs, large and nearly circular, purplish-red in colour, and
composed of five broad, round petals. The fruit, which is rarely
produced in this country, is velvety and amber-coloured. It is a very
ornamental species, the ample Maple-like leaves and large flowers
rendering it particularly attractive in summer. The leaves, and not the
flowers as is generally supposed, are sweetly scented.

R. ROSAEFOLIUS.--Rose-leaved Raspberry. Himalayas, 1811. Another
half-hardy species, and only suited for planting against sunny walls.
Leaves pinnate, finer than those of the Raspberry. R. r. coronarius,
with semi-double white flowers, is better than the type.

R. SPECTABILIS.--The Salmon Berry. North America, 1827. Grows about 6
feet high, with ternate or tri-lobate leaves that are very thickly
produced. Flowers usually bright red or purplish-coloured, and placed on
long pendulous footstalks. It is of very dense growth, occasioned by the
number of suckers sent up from the roots.

There are also some of the so-called American Brambles well worthy of
attention, two of the best being Kittatiny and Lawton's:

The brambles are particularly valuable shrubs, as owing to their dense
growth they may be used for a variety of purposes, but especially for
covering unsightly objects or banks. They are all wonderfully
floriferous, and succeed admirably even in very poor and stony soils.
Increase is readily obtained either from root suckers or by layering.


RUSCUS ACULEATUS.--Butcher's Broom, Pettigree and Pettigrue. Europe
(Britain), and North Africa. This is a native evergreen shrub, with
rigid cladodes which take the place of leaves, and not very showy
greenish flowers appearing about May. For the bright red berries, which
are as large as small marbles, it is alone worth cultivating, while it
is one of the few shrubs that grow at all satisfactorily beneath the
shade of our larger trees.

R. HYPOPHYLLUM.--Double Tongue. Mediterranean region, 1640. This species
has the flowers on the undersides of the leaf-like branches; and its
variety R.H. Hypoglossum has them on the upper side. Both are of value
for planting in the shade.


SAMBUCUS CALIFORNICA.--Californian Elder. A rare species as yet, but one
that from its elegant growth and duration of flowers is sure, when
better known, to become widely distributed.

S. GLAUCA has its herbaceous parts covered with a thick pubescence;
leaves pubescent on both sides, and with yellow flowers produced in

S. NIGRA.--Common Elder. Bourtry, or Bour tree. Although one of our
commonest native trees, the Elder must rank amongst the most ornamental
if only for its large compound cymes of white or yellowish-white
flowers, and ample bunches of shining black berries. There are, however,
several varieties that should be largely cultivated, such as S. nigra
foliis aureis (Golden Elder), S. nigra fructu albo (White Fruited), S.
nigra laciniata (Cut-leaved Elder), S. nigra argentea (Silver-leaved
Elder), S. nigra rotundifolia (Round-leaved Elder), the names of which
will be sufficient for the purposes of recognition.

S. RACEMOSA.--Scarlet-berried Elder. South Europe and Siberia, 1596.
This is almost a counterpart of our native species, but instead of black
the berries are brilliant scarlet. It is a highly ornamental species,
but it is rather exacting, requiring for its perfect growth a cool and
moist situation. Of this there is a cut-leaved, form, named S. racemosa

S. ROSAEFLORA is said to be a seedling from S. glauca, but differs in
many important points from the parent. It has smooth shoots and
branches, ovate-acuminate leaves that are downy beneath, and flowers
rose-coloured without and white within. They are produced in short,
spike-like clusters, and are almost destitute of smell. The reddish
rings at the insertion of the leaves is another distinguishing feature.

For freedom of growth in almost every class of soil, and readiness with
which they may be increased, the more showy kinds of Elder are well
worthy of attention.


SCHIZANDRA CHINENSIS.--Northern China, 1860. This is a climbing shrub,
with oval, bright green leaves, and showy carmine flowers. For clothing
arbors and walls it may prove of use, but it is as yet rare in

S. COCCINEA, from North America (1806), is another uncommon species in
which the leaves are oblong and petiolate, and the flowers red or
scarlet. For purposes similar to the last this species may be employed.


SCHIZOPHRAGMA HYDRANGEOIDES.--Climbing Hydrangea. Japan, 1879. As yet
this is an uncommon shrub, and allied to the Hydrangea. It is of slender
growth, the stems rooting into the support, and with pinky-white
flowers. As an ornamental climber it is of no great value, and requires
a favoured spot to grow it at all satisfactorily.


SHEPHERDIA ARGENTEA.--Beef Suet Tree, or Rabbit Berry. North America,
1820. This shrub is rendered of particular interest on account of the
intense silvery hue of the foliage. The leaves are narrow and
lanceolate, silvery on both sides, and dotted over with rusty-brown
scales beneath. The flowers, which are produced in April, are small and
yellow, unisexual, or each sex on a distinct plant. Berries scarlet,
about the size of red Currants, and ripe about September.

S. CANADENSIS.--North America, 1759. This is a small-growing, straggling
species, fully 4 feet high, and clothed with rusty scales. The leaves
are ovate or elliptic, and green above, and the flowers of an
inconspicuous yellow, succeeded by orange-red berries.


SKIMMIA FORTUNEI.--Japan, 1845. This is a neat-growing shrub, with
glossy, laurel-like leaves, white or greenish-white flowers, and an
abundance of scarlet berries in autumn. It succeeds best in a somewhat
shady situation, and when planted in not too heavy peaty soil, but where
abundance of not stagnant moisture is present.

S. JAPONICA (of Thunberg) (_syn S. oblata_).--Japan, 1864. A
neat-growing, evergreen shrub, with rather larger and more showy leaves
than the former, and spikes of pretty whitish, sweetly scented flowers.
The female form of this is usually known as S. fragrans. What is usually
known as S. oblata ovata, and S. oblata Veitchii, are only forms of the
true S. japonica; while S. fragrantissima is the male of the same
species. The beautiful, berried plant that has been exhibited under the
name of S. Foremanii, and which is of very vigorous growth, and produces
pyramidal spikes of sweetly scented flowers, is probably S. japonica, or
a seminal variety. Another variety sent out under the name of S.
macrophylla has unusually large leaves; and another named S. Rogersi
produces fruit very abundantly.

S. LAUREOLA (_syn Limonia Laureola_), from the Himalayas, is an uncommon
species, with very fragrant and pale yellow flowers.

S. RUBELLA (China, 1874) is another member of the family that has
greenish-white, sweet-scented flowers, and which when better known will
be largely planted.


SMILAX ASPERA.--The Prickly Ivy. South Europe, 1648. A trailing-habited
shrub, with prickly stems, ovate, spiny-toothed, evergreen leaves, and
rather unattractive flowers. There are other hardy species from North
America, including S. Bona-nox (better known as S. tamnoides), S.
rotundifolia, and S. herbacea, the first being the most desirable. S.
aspera mauritanica is a hardy variety, but one that is rare in
cultivation, with long, wiry shoots, and well adapted for wall or
trellis covering. They all require favoured situations, else the growth
is short, and the plants stunted and meagre in appearance.


SOLANUM CRISPUM.--Potato-tree. A native of Chili, 1824, and not very
hardy, except in the coast regions of England and Ireland. It grows
stout and bushy, often in favoured places rising to the height of 12
feet, and has large clusters of purple-blue flowers that are succeeded
by small, white berries. This is a decidedly ornamental shrub, that
should be cultivated wherever a suitable place can be spared. It bears
hard pruning back with impunity, and succeeds in any light, rich, loamy

S. DULCAMARA.--Bitter Sweet, and Woody Nightshade. This is a native
plant, and one of great beauty when seen clambering over a fence, or
bank. It has long, flexuous stems, and large clusters of purple flowers,
which are made all the more conspicuous by the showy yellow anthers. The
scarlet fruit is very effective.


SOPHORA JAPONICA (_syn Styphnolobium japonicum_).--Chinese or Japanese
Pagoda-tree. China and Japan, 1763. A large deciduous tree, with elegant
pinnate foliage, and clusters of greenish-white flowers produced in
September. Leaves dark-green, and composed of about eleven leaflets. S.
japonica pendula is one of the most constant of weeping trees, and
valuable for planting in certain well-chosen spots on the lawn or in the

S. TETRAPTERA.--New Zealand, 1772. This requires protection in this
country. It is a valuable species, having numerous leaflets, and bearing
racemes of very showy yellow flowers. S. tetraptera microphylla is a
smaller-leaved variety, with ten to forty pairs of leaflets, and is
known in gardens under the names of Edwardsia Macnabiana, and E.
tatraptera microphylla.


SPARTIUM JUNCEUM (_syn S. acutifolium_).--Spanish, or Rush Broom.
Mediterranean region and Canary Isles, 1548. This resembles our common
Broom, but the slender Rush-like branches are not angular, and usually
destitute of leaves. The fragrant yellow flowers are produced abundantly
in racemes, and when at their best impart to the shrub a very striking
and beautiful appearance. For planting in poor, sandy or gravelly soils,
or amongst stones and shingle, and where only a very limited number of
shrubs could be got to grow, the Spanish Broom will be found an
excellent and valuable plant. It is a native of Southern Europe, and is
quite hardy all over the country. Propagated from seed.


SPIRAEA BELLA.--Pretty-flowered Spiraea. Himalayas, 1820. The reddish
stems of this rather tall-growing species are of interest, and render
the plant distinct. Leaves ovate, acute, and serrated, and tomentose
beneath. Flowers in spreading corymbs of a very beautiful rose colour,
and at their best from the middle of May till the middle of June. S.
bella alba has white flowers.

S. BLUMEI.--Blume's Spiraea. Japan. This is a Japanese species, growing
4 feet or 5 feet high, with small, ovate, bluntly-pointed leaves, and
white flowers arranged in compact terminal cymes. It is a good and
worthy species for ornamental planting.

S. BULLATA (_syn S. crispifolia_.)--Japan. This will ever be accounted
valuable for the rock garden, owing to its very dwarf habit and extreme
floriferousness. It bears tiny bunches of bright rose-coloured flowers,
and these look all the more charming owing to the miniature size of the
shrub, its average height being about 12 inches. A very interesting and
valuable rock shrub, and one that no doubt about its perfect hardihood
need be entertained.

S. CANA.--Hoary-leaved Spiraea. Croatia, 1825. This is a small spreading
shrub that rarely rises to more than 18 inches in height, with small,
ovate, hoary leaves, and pretty white flowers arranged in corymbs. For
rockwork planting it is one of the most valuable species, growing freely
and producing its showy flowers in abundance. Quite hardy.

S. CANTONIENSIS (_syn S. Reevesiana_).--Reeve's Spiraea. Japan, 1843. An
evergreen or sub-evergreen species, growing 3 feet high, with lanceolate
leaves on long footstalks, and large, pure white flowers arranged in
terminal corymbs, and placed on long peduncles.

S. CHAMAEDRIFOLIA (_syn S. ceanothifolia_).--Germander-leaved Spiraea.
South-eastern Europe to Japan, 1789. Grows about a yard high, with
ovate, pubescent leaves, and white flowers. It varies widely in the
shape and size of leaves. S. chamaedrifolia ulmifolia (Elm-leaved
Spiraea) a twiggy shrub, 3 feet high, with broad leaves and white
flowers, is from Siberia. S. chamaedrifolia crataegifolia
(Hawthorn-leaved Spiraea) is of stout, half-erect growth, with rather
stiff glaucous leaves that are oval in shape, and bright red or pink
flowers in fastigiate panicles. From Siberia 1790, and flowering at

S. DECUMBENS (_syn S. nana_).--Decumbent Spiraea. Tyrol. This is the
smallest-growing of the shrubby Spiraeas, rarely attaining to a greater
height than 12 inches. It is a neat growing plant, with small oval
leaves, and white pedunculate flowers. For planting on the rockwork or
in the front line of the shrubbery, this is an invaluable shrub, and
soon forms a neat and pretty specimen. It is perfectly hardy.

S. DISCOLOR ARIAEFOLIA (_syn S. ariaefolia_).--White Beam-leaved
Spiraea. North-west America, 1827. This forms a dense, erect shrub about
6 feet high, with elliptic-oblong leaves, and clothed beneath with a
whitish tomentum. The flowers are in large, terminal, slender-stalked
panicles, and white or yellowish-white. It is one of the handsomest
species in cultivation, the neat and yet not stiff habit, and pretty,
plume-like tufts of flowers making it a general favourite with the
cultivators of hardy shrubs. Flowers about mid-summer. In rich soils,
and where partially shaded from cold winds, it thrives best.

S. DOUGLASII.--Douglas's Spiraea. North-west America. This has long,
obovate-lanceolate leaves, that are white with down on the under
surface, and bears dense, oblong, terminal panicles of rosy flowers. S.
Douglasii Nobleana (Noble's Spiraea) is a variety of great beauty,
growing about a yard high, with large leaves often 4 inches long, and
looser panicles of purple-red flowers. Flowering in July. The variety
was introduced from California in 1859.

S. FISSA.--Split-leaved Spiraea. Mexico, 1839. A stout, erect-growing
shrub, about 8 feet high, with rather small leaves, angular, downy
branches, and long, loose, terminal panicles of small and greenish-white
flowers. The leaves are wedge-shaped at the base, and when young have
the lateral incisions split into a pair of unequal and very sharp teeth.
Flowering in May and June. In the south and west of England it thrives

S. HYPERICIFOLIA (_syn S. flagellata_).--Asia Minor, 1640. A wiry twiggy
shrub, fully 4 feet high, with entire leaves, and small, white flowers
produced in umbels at the tips of the last year's shoots. It is a pretty
and desirable species.

S. JAPONICA (_syns S. callosa_ and _S. Fortunei_).--Japanese Spiraea.
China and Japan, 1859. This is a robust species about a yard high, with
large lanceolate leaves, and small, rosy-red flowers arranged in
corymbose heads. Flowering at mid-summer. There are several fine
varieties of this species, including S. japonica alba, a compact bush
about a foot high with white flowers; S. japonica rubra differs from the
type in having dark red flowers; S. japonica splendens, is a
free-flowering dwarf plant, with peach-coloured flowers and suitable for
forcing; and S. japonica superba, has dark rose-red flowers. S. Bumalda
is a closely allied form, if not a mere variety of S. japonica. It is of
dwarf habit, with dark reddish-purple flowers.

S. LAEVIGATA (_syns S. altaicensis_ and _S. altaica_).--Smooth Spiraea.
Siberia, 1774. A stout, spreading shrub about a yard high, with large,
oblong-lanceolate, smooth, and stalkless leaves. The white flowers are
arranged in racemose panicles, and produced in May.

S. LINDLEYANA.--Lindley's Spiraea. Himalayas. A handsome, tall-growing
species, growing from 6 feet to 8 feet high, with very large pinnate
leaves, and pretty white flowers in large terminal panicles. It is the
largest-leaved Spiraea in cultivation, and forms a stately, handsome
specimen, and produces its showy flowers in great quantities. Flowering
at the end of summer.

S. MEDIA (_syns S. confusa_ and _S. oblongifolia_).--Northern Asia, etc.
The pure white flowers of this species are very freely produced in
corymbs along the shoots of the previous season during the months of
June and July. The lanceolate-elliptic leaves are serrate, or the
smaller ones toothed near the apex only. Within the past few years the
species has been brought into prominence for forcing purposes, for which
it is admirably suited. It forms an upright, branching bush usually
about 3 ft. high, and is best known under the name of S. confusa.

S. PRUNIFOLIA.--China and Japan, 1845. A twiggy-branched shrub growing 4
feet or 5 feet high, with oval, Plum-like leaves, and white flowers.
There is a double-flowering variety named S. prunifolia flore-pleno,
which is both distinct and beautiful.

S. ROTUNDIFOLIA.--Round-leaved Spiraea. Cashmere, 1839. A
slender-branched shrub, having downy shoots, and round, blunt leaves,
flowering in July.

S. SALICIFOLIA.--Willow-leaved Spiraea. Europe, and naturalised in
Britain. An erect-growing, densely-branched shrub, with smooth shoots,
which spring usually directly from the ground. Leaves large, lanceolate,
smooth, doubly serrated, and produced plentifully. Flowers red or
rose-coloured, and arranged in short, thyrsoid panicles. It flowers in
July and August. S. salicifolia carnea has flesh-coloured flowers; S.
salicifolia paniculata has white flowers; and S. salicifolia grandiflora
has pink flowers as large again as the type. S. salicifolia alpestris
(Mountain Spiraea) grows fully 2 feet high, with lanceolate,
finely-toothed leaves, and loose, terminal panicles of pink or red
flowers. From Siberia, and flowering in autumn. S. salicifolia latifolia
(_syn S. carpinifolia_), the Hornbeam-leaved Spiraea, is a
white-flowered variety, with leaves resembling those of the Hornbeam.
From North America.

S. SORBIFOLIA.--Sorbus-leaved Spiraea. Siberia, 1759. A handsome, stout
species, 4 feet high, with large, pinnate, bright green leaves, and
small, white, sweetly-scented flowers produced in thyrsoid panicles.

S. THUNBERGII.--Thunberg's Spiraea. Japan. The white flowers of this
species smell somewhat like those of the Hawthorn, and are freely
produced on the leafless, twiggy stems, in March or early in April,
according to the state of the weather. They are borne in axillary
clusters from buds developed in the previous autumn, and are very
welcome in spring, long before the others come into bloom. The bush
varies from one to three feet high, and is clothed with
linear-lanceolate, sharply serrated leaves.

S. TOMENTOSA.--Tomentose Spiraea. North America, 1736. This species
grows 2 feet or 3 feet high, has rusty tomentose shoots and leaves, and
large, dense, compound spikes of showy red flowers. Flowering in summer.

S. TRILOBATA (_syn S. triloba_).--Three-lobed Spiraea. Altaian Alps,
1801. This is a distinct species with horizontally arranged branches,
small, roundish, three-lobed leaves, and white flowers arranged in
umbel-like corymbs. It flowers in May, and is quite hardy.

S. UMBROSA (Shady Spiraea) and S. EXPANSA (Expanded-flowered Spiraea),
the former from Northern India and the latter from Nepaul, are well
suited for planting in somewhat shady situations, and are very
ornamental species. The first mentioned grows about a foot high, with
rather large leaves, and cymes of white flowers on long slender
footstalks; while S. expansa has pink flowers, and lanceolate and
coarsely serrated leaves.

There are other valuable-flowering kinds, such as S. capitata, with
ovate leaves and white flowers; S. pikowiensis, a rare species with
white flowers; S. cuneifolia, with wedge-shaped leaves and panicles of
pretty white flowers; and S. vacciniaefolia, a dwarf-growing species,
with small ovate, serrulated leaves, and showy, pure white flowers. S.
betulifolia and S. chamaedrifolia flexuosa are worthy forms of free
growth and bearing white flowers.


STAPHYLEA COLCHICA.--Colchican Bladder Nut. Caucasus. This is a very
distinct shrub, about 6 feet high, with large clusters of showy white
flowers. Being quite hardy, and very ornamental, this species is worthy
the attention of planters.

S. PINNATA.--Job's Tears, or St. Anthony's Nut. South Europe. This is a
straggling shrub, from 6 feet to 8 feet high, with white, racemose
flowers, succeeded by bladder-like capsules.

S. TRIFOLIA.--North America, 1640. This is distinguished by its larger
white flowers and trifoliolate leaves. It is the American Bladder Nut,
but, like the latter, can hardly be included amongst ornamental plants.

All the Bladder Nuts grow freely in good light dampish loam.


STAUNTONIA HEXAPHYLLA.--China and Japan, 1876. This evergreen twining
shrub is not to be generally recommended, it requiring wall protection
even in southern England. The leaves are deep green and pinnate, while
the greenish-white flowers are fragrant, and produced in the beginning
of summer.


STUARTIA PENTAGYNA (_syn Malachodendron ovatum_).--North America, 1785.
This differs only from the S. virginica in having five distinct styles,
hence the name. Under very favourable circumstances this is the taller
growing species, and the leaves and flowers are larger.

S. PSEUDO-CAMELLIA (_syn S. grandiflora_).--Japan, 1879. This is of
recent introduction, and differs from the others in the flowers being
rather larger, and of a purer white, and supplied with yellow instead of
red stamens. It is quite hardy in Southern England and Ireland at least.

S. VIRGINICA (_syn S. marylandica_).--North America, 1743. This is a
handsome free-growing shrub, of often 10 feet in height, with large,
creamy-white flowers, that are rendered all the more conspicuous by the
crimson-red stamens. The flowers--like those of a single Rose, and fully
2-1/2 inches across--are produced in May. Quite hardy, as many fine
specimens in some of our old English gardens will point out.

Though, perhaps, rather exacting in their requirements, the Stuartias
may be very successfully grown if planted in light, moist, peaty earth,
and where they will be screened from cold, cutting winds.


STYRAX AMERICANA and S. PULVERULENTA are not commonly cultivated, being
far less showy than the Japanese species. They bear white flowers.

S. OFFICINALIS.--Storax. Levant, 1597. This is a small deciduous shrub,
with ovate leaves, and short racemes of pretty pure white flowers. A not
very hardy species, and only second-rate as an ornamental flowering

S. SERRULATA VIRGATA (_syn S. japonica_).--Japanese Storax. Japan. A
neat-habited and dense-growing shrub, with pretty white flowers that are
neatly set off by the showy yellow stamens. It is an extremely pretty
shrub, with long, slender, much-branched shoots, furnished with ovate
leaves, and deliciously-scented, snow-white bell-shaped flowers,
produced for nearly the full length of the shoots. So far, this shrub of
recent introduction has proved quite hardy. S. serrulata variegata is a
well-marked and constant form.


SYMPHORICARPUS OCCIDENTALIS.--Wolf Berry. North America. This species
has larger and more freely-produced flowers, and smaller fruit than the
commonly-cultivated plant.

S. RACEMOSUS (_syn Symphoria racemosus_).--Snowberry. North America,
1817. One of the commonest shrubs in English gardens, with small, oval,
entire leaves, and neat little racemes of pretty pink flowers, succeeded
by the familiar snow-white berries, and for which the shrub is so

S. VULGARIS.--Coral Berry, Common St. Peter's Wort. North America, 1730.
This is readily distinguished by its showy and freely-produced coral
berries. There is a very neat and much sought after variety, having
conspicuous green and yellow leaves, and named S. vulgaris foliis

The Snowberries are of no great value as ornamental shrubs, but owing to
their succeeding well in the very poorest and stoniest of soils, and
beneath the shade and drip of trees, it is to be recommended that they
are not lost sight of. They grow and spread freely, and are therefore
useful where unchecked and rampant shrub growth is desirable.


SYMPLOCOS JAPONICA (_syn S. lucida_).--A small growing and not very
desirable species from Japan (1850).

S. TINCTORIA.--Sweet-leaf, or Horse Sugar. South United States, 1780.
This is a small-growing shrub, with clusters of fragrant yellow flowers,
but it is not very hardy unless planted against a sheltered and sunny


SYRINGA CHINENSIS (_syns. S. dubia_ and _S. rothomagensis_).--Rouen, or
Chinese Lilac. A plant of small growth, with narrow leaves, and
reddish-violet flowers. It is said to have been raised by M. Varin, of
the Botanic Garden, Rouen, as a hybrid between S. vulgaris and S.
persica, 1795.

S. EMODI.--Himalayas, 1840. This is a desirable species, that forms a
stout bush or small tree, with oblong, reticulately-veined leaves, and
erect, dense panicles of white flowers, that are sometimes lilac tinged.
The flowers are strongly scented, and borne in great profusion late in
the season. There is a variegated form, S. Emodi variegata, and another
named S. Emodi villosa, both good varieties.

S. JAPONICA (_syns S. amurensis_ and _Ligustrina amurensis_).--Japan.
This is of recent introduction, and is a decided acquisition, producing
in summer large and dense clusters of creamy-white flowers. It is a very
desirable species, and though coming from Japan seems to be perfectly

S. JOSIKAEA, Josika's Lilac, is of Hungarian origin (1835), and is so
totally different from the others as to be well worthy of special
attention. It rarely exceeds 6 feet in height, with dark-green, wrinkled
leaves, and erect spikes of pale mauve flowers.

S. PERSICA (Persian Lilac).--Persia, 1640. This is a distinct
small-growing species, with slender, straight branches, and lilac or
white flowers produced in small clusters. The form bearing white flowers
is named S. persica alba; and there is one with neatly divided foliage
called S. persica laciniata.

S. VULGARIS.--Common Lilac, or Pipe Tree. Persia and Hungary, 1597. This
is one of the commonest and most highly praised of English garden
shrubs, and one that has given rise, either by natural variation or by
crossing with other species, to a great number of superior forms. The
following include the best and most ornamental of the numerous
varieties:--alba, pure white flowers; alba-grandiflora, very large
clusters of white flowers; alba-magna, and alba virginalis, both good
white-flowering forms; Dr. Lindley, large clusters of reddish-lilac
flowers; Charles X., purplish-lilac flowers, but white when forced;
Souvenir De Ludwig Spath, with massive clusters of richly coloured
flowers; Glorie de Moulins, Marie Legrange, Noisetteana, Duchesse de
Nemours, and Vallettiana, all beautiful flowering forms that are well
worthy of cultivation, and that are of the simplest growth.

The double-flowered varieties, for which we are much indebted to M.
Victor Lemoine, of Nancy, are fast gaining favour with cultivators in
this country, and rightly, too, for they include several very handsome,
full flowered forms. The following are best known:--

S. vulgaris Alphonse Lavallee, with full double red flowers, changing
              to mauve.
    "       Emile Lemoine, mauve-pink, suffused with white; very
    "       La Tour d'Auvergne, mauve shaded with rose. A beautiful
              and very dark coloured form.
    "       Lemoinei, nearly resembling our common species, but with
              full double flowers.
    "       Leon Simon, light pink, mauve shaded.
    "       Madame Lemoine, the finest form, bearing very large pure
              white double flowers.
    "       Michael Buchner, rosy lilac.
    "       Virginité, whitish pink, nearly white when fully expanded.

President Grevy is one of the same beautiful group. The blooms are
large, double, and produced in very massive clusters, and of a light
bluish-lilac tint, when forced almost white. The first of this group, S.
vulgaris Lemoinei, was sent out about 1884, and was then awarded a
certificate by the R.H.S. The range in colouring of these Lilacs is
rather confined, so that the various forms resemble one another in no
small degree, particularly when the flowers are opened under glass. From
the large size of the flower bunches, and the individual flowers being
double, they are all of great beauty, and being quite hardy still
further enhances their value for outdoor gardening purposes.

The Lilacs grow freely in any soil of fair quality, but a free, rich,
and not too dry loam, would seem to suit the majority of these plants


TAMARIX GALLICA.--Common Tamarisk. India to Europe. This shrub often in
favoured maritime places reaches to a height of fully 10 feet, with long
and slender branches, and spikes of pretty, rosy-pink flowers produced
at the end of summer. For sea-side planting, it is an invaluable shrub,
and on account of its feathery appearance and wealth of showy flowers is
well worthy of being included in our list of ornamental and useful

T. PARVIFLORA (_syns T. africana_ and _T. tetrandra_), South-eastern
Europe and Levant, is a nearly allied species, with white, pinky-tinged


TECOMA GRANDIFLORA (_syn Bignonia grandiflora_), from China and Japan
(1800), is not so hardy as T. radicans, although in certain maritime
districts it succeeds fairly well. The flowers are very attractive,
being of a rich orange-scarlet, and produced in drooping clusters. Both
foliage and flowers are larger than those of T. radicans. It wants a
warm, sunny wall, and light, rich, and well-drained soil, and if only
for its lovely flowers, it is well worthy of coddling and good

T. RADICANS (_syn Bignonia radicans_).--Trumpet Flower. North America,
1640. An old occupant of our gardens and one of the most beautiful wall
plants in cultivation. It is a tall climber, of sometimes fully 20 feet
in height, with graceful pinnate leaves, and handsome trumpet-shaped
scarlet-red flowers, that are at their best about mid-summer, though the
period of flowering extends over a considerable length of time. The
stems are long, twisted, and wiry, and like those of the Ivy send out
roots at the joints and so fasten the plant in position. Few climbing
plants are more attractive than the Trumpet Flower, and being hardy in
most parts of the country, and free of growth, is to be recommended for
covering walls, and arches, or similar structures. T. radicans major is
of more robust growth than the species, with larger foliage and paler
flowers. The orange-scarlet flowers are produced in terminal corymbs.


TILIA VULGARIS (_syns T. europea_ and _T. intermedia_).--Lime, or Linden
Tree. Europe, Caucasus, and naturalised in Britain. Probably none of the
Limes would be included in a list of ornamental-flowering trees and
shrubs, still that they are of great interest and beauty even in that
state cannot be denied. The common species as well as its numerous
varieties have sweetly scented, yellowish-white flowers in terminal
cymes, and are, though individually small, highly ornamental when fully
developed. Other species of great interest when in flower are T. alba
(_syn T. argentea_), Silver Lime; T. petiolaris, a curious and beautiful
species; and T. euchlora.

The various species and varieties of Lime succeed well in almost any
class of soil, but rich loam on sand is considered the most suitable for
their perfect development.


ULEX EUROPAEUS.--Furze, Gorse, or Whin. This pretty native shrub needs
no description, suffice it to say that it is one of the
handsomest-flowering shrubs in cultivation. U. europaeus flore-pleno
(Double-flowered Gorse) is even more beautiful than the species, the
wealth of golden flowers almost hiding the plant from view. U. europaeus
strictus (Irish Furze) is of more erect and slender growth, and less
rigid than the common species.

U. NANUS.---Dwarf Gorse, Cat Whin, and Tam Furze. This differs
considerably from the common plant, not only in stature, but in the time
of flowering. In this species the bracts at the calyx base are small
compared with those of U. europaeus, while the smaller flowers are
produced during summer, and when not a bloom is to be found on its
supposed parent. It is of dense growth, the tallest stems rarely rising
from the ground to a greater height than about 15 inches.

All the Furze family succeed admirably in the poorest of soil; indeed, a
dry gravelly bank would seem to be their favourite haunt.


VACCINIUM CORYMBOSUM.--Canada to Carolina and Georgia, 1765. This is one
of the most beautiful and showy species, with dense clusters of small,
pinky flowers.

V. MYRTILLUS.--Whortleberry, Bilberry, Blackberry, and Blueberry. A
native plant, with angular stems, ovate-toothed leaves, and pinky-white
flowers, succeeded by bright, bluish-black berries.

V. PENNSYLVANICUM.--New England to Virginia, 1772. This has rather
inconspicuous flowers, and is of greatest value for the autumnal foliage

V. VITIS-IDEA (Cowberry, Flowering Box, or Brawlins) a native species,
has racemose flowers, and red berries.

Other species that might be included are V. canadense, V. stamineum, V.
frondosum, and V. ligustrifolium.

The various species of Vaccinium are of dwarf or procumbent growth, and
only suitable for planting in beds, or on rockwork, where they will not
be lost sight of. They thrive best in soil of a peaty nature.


VERONICA PINQUIFOLIA.--New Zealand, 1870. This is one of the hardiest
species, but it is of low growth, and only suitable for alpine
gardening. It is a dwarf spreading shrub, with intensely glaucous leaves
and white flowers.

V. TRAVERSII.--New Zealand, 1873. This may be considered as one of the
few species of hardy Veronicas. It grows about 4 feet high, with deep
green leaves arranged in rows, and white flowers, produced late in
summer. It is a very free-growing shrub, of perfect hardihood, and one
of, if not the best for general planting.

The above two species are, so far as is at present known, the hardiest
in cultivation, although there are many kinds that will succeed well
under very favourable conditions, and particularly when planted by the
sea-side. Other half-hardy species might include V. salicifolia
(Willow-leaved Veronica), with long, narrow leaves, and white or
purplish flowers; V. ligustrifolia (Privet-leaved Veronica), with spikes
of feathery-white flowers; V. speciosa, with erect spikes of
purplish-blue flowers; and V. Andersoni, a hybrid form, with spikes of
bluish-violet flowers.

The dwarf or alpine species might include V. cupressoides, with
Cypress-like foliage, V. Lyallii, V. carnosula, and others, but such
hardly come within our scope.


VIBURNUM ACERIFOLIUM.--Dockmackie. New England to Carolina, 1736. This
is one of the handsomest members of the family, being of slender growth
and compact and neat in habit. It grows to fully 4 feet in height, and
is well supplied with neatly three-lobed leaves, these in the autumn
turning to a deep crimson. The flowers, too, are highly ornamental,
being borne in fair sized clusters, and white or yellowish-white. It is
a very desirable and beautiful plant, quite hardy, and of free growth in
any fairly rich soil.

V. AWAFUKII.--Japan, 1842. This is another rare and beautiful plant, of
neat habit, and producing an abundance of showy white flowers, that are,
however, seldom produced in this country.

V. DAHURICUM.--Dahuria, 1785. This is a charming hardy species, which in
May and June is covered with numerous umbels of showy white flowers. It
forms a rather spreading bush of 6 feet or 8 feet high, with gray downy
branches, and neat foliage. The berries are oval-oblong, red at first,
but becoming black and faintly scented when fully ripe.

V. DENTATUM.--Arrowwood. A native of the United States, 1763. This can
be recommended as a distinct and beautiful shrub, with cymes of white
flowers that are produced in plenty. The leaves are dark green, smooth,
and shining, and strongly veined, while the bark is ash-coloured, and
the berries bright blue.

V. LANTANA.--Wayfaring Tree. Europe (Britain). This is a native species
of large bush, or almost tree growth, with rugose, oblong, serrulated
leaves, and large, flat cymes of white flowers appearing in May and
June. The whole tree is usually covered with a scaly tomentum, while the
fruit is a black flattened drupe.

V. LENTAGO.--Sheepberry and Sweet Viburnum. North America, 1761. This
resembles our native V. Lantana, with dense clusters of white blossoms
succeeded by black berries.

V. MACROCEPHALUM (_syn V. Fortunei_).--China, 1844. This is a Chinese
species, but one that cannot be depended on as hardy enough to withstand
our most severe winters. It has very large heads or panicles of white
neutral flowers. Against a sunny wall and in a cosy nook it may
occasionally be found doing fairly well, but it is not to be generally

V. NUDUM.--American Withe Rod. Canada to Georgia, 1752. This is also
worthy of being included in a selection of these shrubs.

V. OPULUS.--Guelder Rose. A native shrub of great beauty, whether in
foliage, flower, or fruit. The leaves are variously lobed or deeply
toothed, large and handsome, and the flower heads of good size, flat,
and composed of a number of small flowers, the outer only being sterile.
Individually the flowers are dull and inconspicuous, but being produced
in amazing quantity, they have a very pleasing and effective appearance.
The great bunches of clear pinky berries render a fair-sized plant
particularly handsome and attractive, and for which alone, as also
beauty of autumnal foliage, the shrub is well worthy of extensive
culture. It grows fully 15 feet high, and may frequently be seen as much
through. V. Opulus sterilis (Snowball Tree) is one of the commonest
occupants of our shrubberies, and a decidedly ornamental-flowering
shrub. The large, almost globular flower heads hanging from every branch
tip, are too well-known to require description, and have made the shrub
one of the most popular in ornamental planting.

V. PAUCIFLORUM is a native of cold, moist woods from Labrador to Alaska,
and may best be described as a miniature V. Opulus. It rarely grows more
than 4 feet high, with small cymes of flowers, that are devoid of the
neutral flowers of that species.

V. PLICATUM, from Japan 1846, is another very beautiful and desirable
shrub, of rather dwarf, spreading growth, and having the leaves deeply
wrinkled, plaited, and serrated on the margins. The flowers resemble
those of the commonly cultivated species, but they are rather larger,
and of a purer white. It is a decidedly ornamental species of easy
growth in any good soil, and where not exposed to cold winds.

V. PRUNIFOLIUM, New England to Carolina, 1731, with Plum-like leaves,
and pretty white flowers, is another free-growing and beautiful North
American species.

V. PYRIFOLIUM.--Pear-leaved Viburnum. Pennsylvania to New Jersey, 1812.
This is a rarely-seen, but very ornamental species, with oval-shaped,
finely-toothed leaves, that are borne on short, slightly-winged stalks
about half-an-inch long. Flowers sweetly scented, white, and in broad
corymbs, the feathery appearance of the long, projecting stamens, each
tipped with a golden anther, adding considerably to the beauty of the

V. RETICULATUM and V. LAEVIGATUM are rarely seen species, but of interest
botanically, if not for floral beauty.

V. TINUS.--Laurustinus. South Europe, 1596. So commonly cultivated a
shrub needs no description here, sufficient to say that the handsome
evergreen foliage and pretty pinky-white flowers assign to it a first
position amongst hardy ornamental flowering shrubs, V. Tinus strictum
has darker foliage than the species, is more upright, rather more hardy,
but not so profuse in the bearing of flowers. V. Tinus lucidum
(Glossy-leaved Laurustinus), of the several varieties of Laurustinus has
the largest foliage, finest flowers, and altogether is of the most
robust growth. It is, unfortunately, not very hardy, probably in that
respect not even equalling the parent plant. Usually it does not flower
freely, neither are the flowers produced so early as in the species, but
individually they are much larger. It is of tall growth, and rarely
forms the neat, dense bush, for which the common shrub is so admired. V.
Tinus rotundifolium has rounded leaves; and V. Tinus rotundifolium
variegatum has irregularly variegated leaves.


VINCA MAJOR.--Band-plant, Cut-finger, and Larger Periwinkle. Europe
(Britain). For trailing over tree-stumps or rockwork this pretty
evergreen shrub has a distinctive value, the bright green leaves and
showy deep blue flowers rendering it both conspicuous and ornamental. V.
major elegantissima is a decided variety, the leaves being neatly and
evenly variegated, and making the plant of great value for bank or
rock-work decoration.

V. MINOR.--Lesser Periwinkle. This is of much smaller growth than the
preceding, and differs, too, in not having the leaf-margins ciliated.
The variety V. minor flore-albo has white flowers, those of the normal
plant being pale blue; V. minor flore-pleno differs in having double
blue flowers; V. minor foliis aureis has golden-tinted leaves; and V.
minor foliis argenteis bears silvery mottled and very attractive

They are all of simple growth, succeeding well in somewhat shady
situations, and in by no means the richest of soil. As they run about
freely and soon cover an extent of ground they are rendered of great
value for a variety of purposes.


VITEX AGNUS-CASTUS.--Chaste Tree, Hemp Tree, and Monk's Pepper-tree. A
South European shrub (1670), growing from 6 feet to 10 feet high, with
digitate leaves that are almost hoary beneath, and spikes of small
violet flowers. It is not very hardy, although in some of the warmer
parts of southern England and Ireland, fair-sized, healthy-looking
specimens are now and then to be met with. As a wall plant, however, it
succeeds best, and for which purpose, with its neat foliage and pretty
flowers, it is peculiarly suitable.


VITIS HETEROPHYLLA HUMILIFOLIA.--Turquoise-berried Vine. North China and
Japan, 1868. The leaves of this Vine are three to five lobed, and the
small flowers freely produced in slightly branching cymes. The latter
are succeeded by their most interesting and attractive berries, that
ripen in September and October. They are pale china-blue, marked all
over with very dark specks. The stems grow to a height of 4 feet to 8
feet, and should be trained against a wall in a sunny position to ripen
the berries. The plant is perfectly hardy. The variety V. heterophylla
variegata is a dwarf, low-growing plant with variegated leaves, and is
used for pot work, for covering the ground in sub-tropical bedding
designs, and might be used to great advantage for rambling over large
stones in the rock garden.


WISTARIA CHINENSIS (_syns W. sinensis, Glycine chinensis_, and _G.
sinensis_).--Chinese Wistaria. China, 1816. This is the only species at
all common in gardens, and by far the handsomest in cultivation. It
justly ranks amongst the most beautiful of hardy climbing shrubs, and is
invaluable as a wall plant, or for clothing the bare stems of sparsely
foliaged trees. The purplish-lilac flowers are produced in long,
drooping racemes in early summer. W. chinensis alba has pretty white
flowers; W. chinensis flore-pleno has not proved very satisfactory, but
when seen at its best, which is, however, but rarely, the double flowers
are both beautiful and showy; W. chinensis variegata has badly
variegated foliage; and W. chinensis macrobotrys is a plant of great
beauty with very long racemes of pale lavender flowers, but they vary a
good deal in colour, those of some plants being almost white. It is a
very desirable variety, and one that when better known is sure to
attract attention.

W. FRUTESCENS (_syns Glycine frutescens_ and _Thyrsanthus
frutescens_).--North America, 1724. This is a very handsome deciduous
climbing species from North America. The flowers, which appear towards
autumn, are bluish purple and fragrant, and borne in erect racemes. It
is quite hardy and equally suitable with the Chinese species for using
as a wall covering. W. frutescens magnifica is an improved form of the

W. JAPONICA.--Japan. A bush-like species bearing white flowers, but it
is rarely seen in cultivation. It is, however, quite hardy, and succeeds
well in the bush state at Kew.

W. MULTIJUGA.--Japan, 1874. Resembles somewhat our commonly-cultivated
species, and has pale purple flowers arranged in long racemes. It is a
very ornamental and desirable species, but the flowers are not borne in
great quantity.

The Wistarias are of simple culture, but succeed best in rather rich
alluvial soil, and where protection from cold winds is provided.


XANTHOCERAS SORBIFOLIA.--China, 1870. An extremely pretty flowered and
handsome leaved shrub, but owing to its late introduction is not yet
well known. So far it has proved itself perfectly hardy in this country,
there being specimens at wide distances apart that have stood uninjured
through our past severe winters.

The leaves are pale green, and pinnate, somewhat resembling those of the
Rowan Tree. Flowers five petalled, creamy white, sometimes very slightly
tinged with flesh colour, with a coppery red or violet-purple centre,
and disposed in racemes. When fully expanded they are an inch across,
and somewhat reflexed. It flowers early in April, with the appearance of
the leaves, the blooms being produced in great abundance, in spike-like
clusters fully seven inches long, and succeeded by a small green
Pear-like fruit. This is one of the most distinct and handsome of
recently introduced shrubs, and will, when more widely disseminated, be
largely planted for purely ornamental purposes. It grows from 10 feet to
about 15 feet high.


XANTHORHIZA APIIFOLIA.--Yellow-root. Pennsylvania, 1776. A small growing
shrub, with yellow creeping roots, from which suckers are thrown up
profusely. The leaves are irregularly pinnate, and the minute flowers,
which are borne in large, branching spikes, are of a peculiar dark
purple colour. It prefers a cool, moist situation.


YUCCA FILAMENTOSA.--Silk Grass. North America, 1675. A well-known and
beautiful plant, with numerous leaves arranged in a dense rosette, and
from 1 foot to 2 feet long by 2 inches broad. Flower scape rising to 5
feet or 6 feet in height, and bearing numerous flowers that are each
about 2 inches deep. There is a beautiful variegated form of this
species named Y. filamentosa variegata, and one with much narrower
leaves than the typical species, and known as Y. filamentosa

Y. GLORIOSA.--The Mound Lily. United States, 1596. This is another
well-known hardy species, with long, sharp-pointed leaves, and a
handsome, much branched scape, of flowers that are each about 2 inches
deep. There are several varieties, differing in colour of foliage,
including Y. gloriosa glaucescens, with decidedly glaucous foliage; Y.
gloriosa superba, with rigid leaves and a shorter and denser flower
scape; and another with variegated leaves. Y. gloriosa recurvifolia is
usually dwarfer in the stem than the type, and more inclined to branch
than the other species, and less rigid, with recurving leaves that are
not so sharp-pointed, The flower panicle is large and very much

The Yuccas all do well if planted in light loam of good quality.


ZELKOVA ACUMINATA (_syns Z. japonica_ and _Planera acuminata_).--Japan.
This resembles very nearly our common Elm in appearance, and being
perfectly hardy is to be recommended for planting in this country.

Z. CRENATA (_syns Planera crenata_ and _P. Richardi_).--Zelkova Tree.
Western Asia to Mount Caucasus, 1760. This is a handsome, large growing
tree, with oblong deeply-crenated leaves, and small and inconspicuous
flowers. For avenue planting or as a standard specimen this is a
valuable tree, being quite hardy, and of free and quick growth. P.
crenata pendula is a good weeping form, and worthy of culture.

Z. CRETICA.--Crete. A pretty small growing bush or tree of about 20 feet
in height, with crenate, leathery, dark green leaves, which are usually
fully an inch in length. The leaves are hairy, and the twigs, too, are
thickly covered with short grey hairs.


ZAUSCHNERIA CALIFORNICA.--Californian Fuchsia, or Humming Birds'
Trumpet. California and Mexico, 1847. A small-growing, densely-branched
shrub, with linear-lanceolate silvery pubescent leaves, and bright red
or scarlet tubular flowers, with a long, slender style resembling some
of the Fuchsias. It is a pretty and distinct Alpine shrub, and not being
perfectly hardy should be assigned a rather warm and sheltered position.


ZENOBIA SPECIOSA (_syn Andromeda speciosa_ and _A.
cassinaefolia_).--South United States, 1800. This is a distinct and
pretty hardy species, a native of swampy low-lying districts. It grows
about four feet high, and bears pure white, bell-shaped,
Lily-of-the-Valley like flowers in great abundance during the summer. In
too dry situations it becomes sparse of foliage and unhappy, but grows
and flowers freely in light, peaty soil. Z. speciosa pulverulenta is a
very desirable variety, the whole plant, stems, foliage, and flowers,
being of a pleasing light gray or white colour. Individually the flowers
are larger than those of the species.



EXOCHORDA GRANDIFLORA (_syn Spiraea grandiflora_).--North China. This
handsome shrub forms a much branched, spreading bush, about 4 feet to 6
feet high, and flowers abundantly in May. The habit is similar to that
of a shrubby Spiraea, but the pure white flowers are as large as those
of some of the species of Cherry, and quite unlike those of any known
species of Spiraea. The flowers are liable to injury sometimes from late
spring frosts, but the plant itself is quite hardy. As a bush on the
lawn it is nevertheless highly ornamental and desirable.


MYRICARIA GERMANICA.--Europe, Asia, 1582. A tall, somewhat straggling
shrub, very similar to the Tamarisk, with terminal spikes of pink or
rosy flowers, produced freely nearly all the summer. It succeeds well in
this country in sea-side situations, and is often described as a
Tamarisk by gardeners.


Acer macrophylla
Aesculus Hippocastanum
Ailanthus glandulosa
Crataegus Oxyacantha
Catalpa bignonioides
Cerasus (Prunus), nearly all
Gleditschia triacanthos
Liriodendron tulipiiera
Magnolia acuminata
Pyrus of sorts
Robinia Pseud-acacia and its varieties
Sophora japonica
Tilia, in variet.


Amelanchier, in variety
Arbutus Unedo
Berberis Aquifolium
Cistus ladaniferus
Colutea arborescens
Daphne Laureola
Deutzia crenata
Forsythia suspensa
Griselinia littoralis
Hibiscus syriacus
Hypericum calycinum
Hypericum nepalense
Koelrenteria paniculata
Leycesteria formosa
Philadelphus Gordonianus
Prunus nana
Pyrus japonica
Rhus Cotinus
Ribes aureum
Skimmia japonica
Syringa (nearly all)
Ulex europaeus fl.-pl.
Viburnum Opulus
Weigelia rosea
Yucca gloriosa


Acer campestre
Arbutus Unedo
Ailanthus glandulosa
Aesculus Hippocastanum
Catalpa bignonioides
Fraxinus Ornus


Atriplex halimus
Cerasus lusitanica
Cytisus Laburnum
Euonymus japonicus
Fabiana imbricata
Griselinia littoralis
Hippophae rhomnoides
Ilex Aquifolium
Laurus nobilis
Lycium europaeum
Prunus Padus
Rhamnus frangula
Ribes sanguineum
Rosa spinosissima
Shepherdia argentea
Spirea adiantifolia
Syringa persica
Symphoricarpus racemosus
Tamarix gallica
Ulex europaea
Viburnum Tinus


_The asterisk * after the name denotes that the species continues in
flower for a longer period than the month under which it is placed_.


Erica carnea*
Chimonanthus fragrans*
Crataegus Oxyacantha praecox*
Jasminum nudiflorum*
Ulex europaeus*
Viburnum Tinus*


Cornus Mas*
Daphne Laureola*
Hamamelis japonica
Lonicera fragrantissima*
Magnolia conspicua*
Parrotia persica*
Pittosporum Tobira*
Prunus nana*
Rosmarinus officinalis*


Arbutus Andrachne*
Berberis japonica*
Erica mediterranea*
Forsythia viridissima*
Garrya elliptica
Magnolia stellata*
Nuttallia cerasiformis*
Prunus Amygdalus*
Rhododendron dahuricum
Skimmia Fortunei
Spiraea Thunbergi*
Xanthoriza apiifolia*


Akebia quinata*
Amelanchier alnifolia
Berberis Aquifolium*
Caesalpinia sepiaria
Caragana frutescens
Ceanothus cuneatus*
Clematis cirrhosa*
Cornus florida
Cytisus scoparius*
Daphne altaica
Deutzia gracilis*
Diervilla rosea*
Drimys aromatica
Fothergilla alnifolia*
Fremontia californica
Halesia diptera
Kalmia glauca*
Laburnum vulgare*
Ledum latifolium
Lonicera Caprifolium*
Magnolia cordata*
  obovata discolor
Pieris floribunda*
Prunus Avium Juliana
  cerasifera Pissardii
  paniculata flore-pleno
Pyrus angustifolia
  japonica Maulei
Pyrus prunifolia*
Rhododendron campanulatum
Rhodotypos kerrioides
Ribes aureum*
Rosa indica*
Sambucus racemosa*
Skimmia japonica
Spiraea prunifolia
Stuartia virginica*
Syringa Emodi
Xanthoceras sorbifolia


Abelia triflora*
Aesculus glabra
Arbutus Menziesii
Berberis aristata*
Calycanthus floridus*
Caragana arborescens
Ceanothus dentatus*
Cercis canadensis
Chionanthus retusa
Citrus trifoliata
Cladrastis tinctoria
Clematis alpina*
Cornus canadensis
Coronilla Emerus*
Crataegus Azarolus
  Azarolus Aronia
Cytisus albus*
  albus incarnate*
Daphne alpina*
Deutzia crenata*
Epigaea repens
Fabiana imbricata
Fraxinus Ornus*
Gaultheria Shallon
Genista lusitanica
Halesia parviflora
Halimodendron argenteum*
Laburnum Adami*
Leiophyllum buxifolium*
  Leucothoe axillaris
Magnolia acuminata*
Ostrya carpinifolia
Paeonia Moutan
Pernettya mucronata*
Philadelphus coronarius
Pieris Mariana*
Piptanthus nepalensis
Polygala Chamaebuxus*
Prunus Chamaecerasus
Pyrus Aria*
Rhododendron arborescens
Ribes speciosum
Robinia hispida
Rosa spinosissima*
Rubus biflorus
Sophora tetraptera
Spiraea cantoniensis
Staphylea pinnata*
Stuartia pentagyna*
Syringa chinensis*
Vaccinium corymbosum*
Viburnum acerifolium*
Wistaria chinensis*
Exochorda grandiflora


Adenocarpus decorticans*
Aesculus californica*
Andromeda polifolia
Bryanthus erectus
Buddleia globosa*
Calophaca wolgarica*
Calycanthus occidentalis*
Carpenteria californica
Castanea saliva
Catalpa speciosa
Ceanothus azureus*
Choisya ternata*
Cistus crispus*
Clematis lanuginosa*
Colutea arborescens*
Cornus circinata
Crataegus nigra*
Cytisus decumbens
Daboecia polifolia
Diervilla floribunda*
Escallonia macrantha*
Fuchsia Riccartoni*
Genista aetnensis*
Helianthemum halimifolium*
Helianthemum pilosum*
Hypericum calycinum*
Itea virginica
Jamesia americana
Jasminum revolutum*
Kalmia angustifolia
Kerria japonica*
Laburnum alpinum
Ligustrum japonicum
Liriodendron tulipifera*
Lyonia paniculata
Magnolia macrophylla
Myricaria germanica*
Myrtus communis*
Neillia opulifolia
Olearia macrodonta
Oxydendrum arboreum*
Philadelphus grandiflorus
Phlomis fruticosa
Plagianthus pulchellus*
Potentilla fruticosa
Prunus lusitanica
Rhododendron californicum
Rhus Cotinus*
Robinia dubia*
Rosa alba*
Rubus arcticus
Sambucus nigra
Spiraea bullata*
Staphylea colchica
Stuartia Pseudo-Camellia*
Syringa japonica*
Tecoma radicans*
Tilia vulgaris*
Veronica pinquifolia
Viburnum dahuricum*
Yucca filamentosa
Zenobia speciosa*


Aesculus parviflora*
Berberis Fortunei
Ceanothus americanus*
Clematis Flammula*
Cornus alba
Escallonia floribunda
Eucryphia pinnatifolia*
Fuchsia macrostema globosa*
Genista anxanctica*
Gordonia lasianthus*
Hydrangea hortensis*
Hypericum elatum
Jasminum fruticans*
Kalmia hirsuta*
Ligustrum Ibota*
Lonicera Xylosteum*
Periploca graeca*
Philadelphus Gordonianus
Photinia arbutifolia
Plagianthus Lyalli
Philadelphus Lemoinei
Rhododendron catawbiense
Rosa bracteata
Spartium junceum*
Spiraea bella*
  discolor ariaefolia
Spiraea salicifolia*
Tamarix gallica*
Tilia petiolaris*
Wistaria japonica*
Yucca gloriosa
Zauschneria californica


Abelia chinensis*
Calluna vulgaris*
Catalpa bignonioides
Clerodendron foetidum
Erica cinerea*
Escallonia illinita
Gordonia pubescens
Hedysarum multijugum
Hibiscus syriacus*
Hypericum oblongifolium
Leycesteria formosa*
Loropetalum chinense*
Magnolia grandiflora*
Nesaea salicifolia*
Passiflora caerulea*
Rubus nutkanus
Sophora japonica*
Spiraea Douglasii
Vitex Agnus-castus


Arbutus Unedo*
Baccharis halimifolia
Clerodendron trichotomum
Clethra acuminata*
Daphne Cneorum*
Hydrangea paniculata grandiflora*
Olearia Haastii
Photinia japonica
Microglossa albescens*
Tecoma grandiflora*


Berberidopsis corallina
Berberris nervosa*
Caryopteris Mastacanthus
Hamamelis virginica*
Lespedeza bicolor


Azara microphylla
Cassinia fulvida
Chimonanthus fragrans*
Jasminum nudiflorum*


Chimonanthus fragrans*
Lardizabala biternata
Viburnum Tinus*


_Synonymous names are printed in italics_.

Aaron's Beard,
Abelia chinensis,
Adenocarpus _Boissieri_,
Aesculus californica,
  flava discolor,
  Pavia atrosanguinea,
  Pavia humilis,
  Pavia macrocarpa,
  Pavia Whitleyana,
Ailanthus _flavescens_,
Akebia quinata,
Alabama Snow Wreath,
Alder, the berry bearing
Alexandrian Laurel,
Almond, Abbé David's
_Aloysia citriodora_,
_Aloysia_. See Lippia
Alpine Rose,
_Althaea frutex_,
Amelanchier alnifolia,
American Great Laurel,
American Withe Rod,
_Ammyrsine buxifoiia_,
Amoor Yellow Wood,
Amorpha canescens,
_Amygdatus communis_,
  _persica flore-pleno_,
_Amygdalus_. See Prunus,
Andromeda _arborea_,
  _Mariana ovalis_,
Angelica tree,
Aralia _japonica_,
Aralia. See Fatsia,
Arbutus Andrachne,
  Unedo Croomei,
Arctostaphylos alpina,
Aristolochio Sipho,
Aronia Thorn,
Asimina triloba,
_Aster albescens_,
_Atragene alpina_,
Azalea _arborescens_,
_Azalea_. See Rhododendron,
Azaleas, Ghent,
Azara microphylla,
Baccharis halimifolia,
Band plant,
Bastard Acacia,
Bastard Box,
_Baptisia nepalensis_,
Beach or Sand Plum,
Beef Suet tree,
_Benthamia fragifera_,
_Benthamia_. See Cornus,
Berberidopsis corallina,
Berberis Aquifolium,
  Aquifolium repens,
Berberis _microphylla_,
Berchemia volubilis,
Bignonia capreolata,
Bignonia. See Tecoma,
Billardiera longiflora,
Bird Cherry,
Bitter Sweet,
Bladder Senna,
Blue Apple berry,
Bog Myrtle,
Bour tree,
Box, flowering,
Box Thorn,
_Bridgesia spicata_,
_Bridgesia_. See Ercilla,
Bryanthus erectus,
Buckeye, the,
Buckthorn, common,
Buddleia _crispa_,
Bupleurum fruticosum,
Butcher's Broom,
Caesalpinia _japonica_,
Calico bush,
Californian or Western Allspice,
Californian Fuchsia,
Calluna vulgaris,
Calophaca wolgarica,
Calycanthus floridus,
Canada Tea,
Caragana _Altagana_,
Cardiandra alternifolia,
Carolina Allspice,
Carpenteria californica,
Caryopteris Mastacanthus,
Casandra calyculata,
Cassinia fulvida,
Cassiope fastigiata,
Castanea sativa,
Catalpa bignonioides,
Cat Whim,
Ceanothus americanus,
Cedrela sinensis,
Celustrus scandens,
Celtis australis,
Cerasus _Caproniana multiplex_,
  serrulata flore-pleno,
_Cerasus_. See Prunus,
Cercis canadensis,
Chaste tree,
Cherry, Bastard,
  St. Julian's,
Chimonanthus fragrans,
Chinese Akebia,
Chinese Pear tree,
Chionanthus retusa,
Choisya ternata,
Christ's Thorn,
Cistus crispus,
_Citharexylum cyanocarpum_,
_Citharexylum_. See Rhapithamnus,
Citrus trifoliata,
Cladrastis amurensis,
Clammy Azalea,
Clammy Locust,
Clematis alpina,
  _azurea grandiflora_,
Clerodendron foetidum,
Clethra acuminata,
Climbing Berchemia,
Climbing Waxwork,
Cockspur Thorn,
Cocculus carolinus,
Colchican Bladder Nut,
Colletia _bictonensis_,
Colutea arborescens,
_Comptonia asplenifolia_,
_Comptonia_. See Myrica,
Constantinople Hazel,
Coral Barberry,
Coral Berry,
_Corchorus japonicus_,
Coriaria myrtifolia,
Cornel, the,
Cornelian Cherry,
Corokia Cotoneaster,
Coronilla Emerus,
Cernus alba,
Corylopsis Himalayana,
Corylus Avellana purpurea,
Cotoneaster bacillaris,
Crataegus _arbutifolia_,
  Azarolus Aronia,
  coccinea macrantha,
Cucumber tree,
Currants, flowering,
_Cydonia chinensis_,
Cytisus _Adami_,
  albus incarnatus,
Cytisus _elongatus_,
Daboecia polifolia,
Danae Laurus,
Daphne alpina,
Daphniphyllum glaucescens,
Date Plum, the,
Desfontainea spinosa,
_Desmodium penduliftorum_,
_Desmodium_. See Lespedeza,
Deutzia crenata,
Diervilla _amabilis_,
_Dimorphanthus mandshuricus_,
_Dimorphanthus_. See Aralia,
Diospyros Kaki costata,
_Diplopappus chrysophyllus_,
_Diplopappus_. See Cassinia,
Dirca palustris,
Discaria longispina,
Drimys aromatica,
Dutchman's Pipe,
Elaeagnus argentea,
Elder, Californian,
  Scarlet berried,
Embothrium coccineum,
Ephedra _monastachya_,
Epigaea repens,
Ercilla spicata,
Erica carnea,
_Eriobotrya japonica_,
_Eriobotrya_. See Photinia,
Etna Broom,
Eucryphia pinnatifolia,
_Eugenia apiculata_,
Euonymus americana,
_Eurybia Gunniana_,
Evergreen Laburnum,
Escallonia floribunda,
Exochorda grandiflora,
Fabiana imbricata,
False Acacia,
Fatsia japonica,
Fendlera rupicola,
Fiery Thorn,
Fire Bush,
_Flacourtia japonica_,
Florida Dogwood,
Forsythia _Fortunei_,
Fothergilla alnifolia,
Fraxinus _argentea_,
  Ornus serotina alba,
  Ornus serotina violacea,
Fremontia californica,
Fuchsia _globosa_,
  macrostemma globosa,
Garland Flower,
Garrya elliptica,
Gaultheria _nummulariae_,
Genista aetnensis,
  tinctoria elatior,
Gleditschia triacanthos,
  triacanthos pendula,
_Glycine chinensis_,
Gordonia Lasianthus,
Grabowskia boerhaaviaefolia,
Griselinia littoralis,
Ground Cistus,
Ground Laurel,
Groundsel Tree,
Guelder Rose,
Gum Cistus,
Gymnocladus canadensis,
Halesia diptera,
Halimodendron argenteum,
Hamamelis japonica,
  japonica arborea,
  japonica Zuccariniana,
Hare's Ear,
Hawthorn, the,
Hazel, the,
Heather, the Common,
Hedysarum multijugum,
_Heimia salicifolia_,
_Heimia_. See Nesaea,
Helianthemum _formosum_,
  vulgare nummularium,
  vulgare barbatum,
  vulgare mutabile,
  vulgare grandiflorum,
  vulgare ovalifolium,
  vulgare hysopifolium,
Hemp Tree,
Hippophae rhamnoides,
Holboellia latifolia,
Holly, the,
Honey Locust,
Hop tree,
Horse Chestnut,
_Hortensia opuloides_,
Humming Bird's Trumpet,
Hybiscus syriacus,
  syriacus vars.,
Hydrangea arborescens,
  hortensis vars.,
  paniculata grandiflora,
Hydrangea, climbing,
Hymenanthera crassifolia,
Hypericum Androsaemum,
Idesia polycarpa,
Ilex Aquifolium,
  Aquifolium vars.,
Illicium anisatum,
Indian Azalea,
Indigofera Dosua,
Itea virginica,
Jamesia americana,
Japanese Storax,
Japan Medlar, or Quince,
Jasminum fruticans,
  pubigerum glabrum,
Jerusalem Sage,
Job's Tears,
Judas tree,
June Berry, the,
Kadsura japonica,
Kalmia angustifolia,
  latifolia vars.,
Kentucky Coffee Tree,
Kerria japonica,
Koelreuteria paniculata,
Labrador Tea,
Laburnum Adami,
Lady's Bower,
Lapageria rosea,
Lardizabala biternata,
Laurel, Alexandrian,
  American Great,
Lavender, common,
Lavandula _Spica_,
Lavatera arborea,
Leather Wood,
Ledum _buxifolium_,
Leiophyllum buxifolium,
Lemon Scented Verbena,
Lespedeza bicolor,
Leucothoe axillaris,
Leycesteria formosa,
_Ligustrina amurensis_,
Ligustrum _amurense_,
  _Ibota villosum_,
Ligustrum _Kellermanni_
Lily, the Mound,
_Limonia Laureola_,
Linden Tree,
Ling, the common,
Linnaea borealis,
Lippia citriodora,
Liriodendron tulipifera,
Loblolly Bay,
Locust, common,
Lonicera _brachypoda_,
Loquat, the,
Loropetalum chinense,
Lycium barbarum,
Lyonia _ligustrina_,
Maclura aurantiaca,
Mahaleb, or Perfumed Cherry,
_Mahonia Aquifolium_,
Magnolia acuminata,
  conspicua Alexandrina,
  conspicua Soulangeana,
  conspicua Soulangeana nigra,
  conspicua Soulangeana Norbertii,
  conspicua Soulangeana speciosa,
  obovata discolor,
_Malachodendron ovatum_,
Mallow, Syrian,
Mallow tree,
_Malus microcarpa floribunda_,
Manna Ash,
Marsh Ledum,
Mayflower, New England,
Medicago arborea,
Medlar, common,
Menispermum canadense,
_Menziesia_. See Daboecia; Phylodoce;
  and Lyonia,
_Menziesia caerulea_,
_Mespilus arbutifolia_,
Mexican Orange Flower,
Mezereon, the,
Microglossa albescens,
Mitchella repens,
Mitraria coccinea,
Mitre pod, scarlet,
Mock Orange,
Monk's Pepper-tree,
Mountain Ash,
Mountain Laurel,
Moutan Paeony,
Myrica asplenifolia,
Myricaria germanica,
Myrobalan Plum,
Myrtle, Bog,
  Californian Wax,
  Common Candle-berry,
Myrtus communis,
Neillia opulifolia,
Nepaul White Beam,
Nesaea salicifolia,
Neviusa alabamensis,
New Jersey Tea,
Nine Bark,
Nuttalia cerasiformis,
Old Man's beard,
Olearia _dentata_,
Ononis arvensis,
Orange Ball tree,
_Ornus europea_,
Osage Orange,
Osmanthus Aquifolium ilicifolius,
  Aquifolium illicifolius myrtifolius,
Ostrya carpinifolia,
Oxydendrum arboreum,
Ozothamnus rosmarinifolius,
Paeonia Moutan,
Pagoda-tree, Chinese,
Paliurus aculeatus,
Papaw, the Virginian,
Parrotia persica,
Partridge Berry,
Passiflora caerulea,
Paulownia imperialis,
_Pavia californica_,
_Pavia macrocarpa_,
_Pavia_, See Aesculus,
Pepper-plant, Tasmanian,
Periploca graeca,
Pernettya mucronata,
Persimmon, the,
Philadelphus coronarius,
Phillyrea angustifolia,
Phlomis fruticosa,
Photinia arbutifolia,
Phyllodoce taxifolia,
Pieris floribunda,
Pipe tree,
Piptanthus nepalensis,
Pittosporum Tobira,
Plagianthus Lyalli,
_Planera acuminata_,
  _crenata_, 134
_Planera_, See Zelkova,
Poison Elder,
Poison Ivy,
Poison Oak,
Poison Vine,
_Polycarpa Maximowiczii_,
Pontic Daphne,
Portugal Laurel,
Potato tree,
Potentilla fruticosa,
Prickly Ivy,
_Prunopsis Lindleyi_,
Prunus Amygdalus,
  Amygdalus dulcis,
  Avium Juliana,
  cerasifera Pissardii,
Prunus Chamaecerasus,
  paniculata flore-pleno,
  Persica flore-pleno,
Ptelea trifoliata,
_Pterpstyrax hispidum_,
Punica Granatum,
Purple Broom,
Purple Hazel,
Pyrus amygdaliformis.,
  _Malus floribunda_,
  _sinensis of Lindley_,
Quince, Japanese,
Rabbit berry,
Red Osier Dogwood,
Rhamnus Alaternus,
Rhaphiolepis japonica integerrima,
Rhaphithamnus cyanocarpus,
Rhododendron _aeruginosum_,
Rhododendron _Chamaecistus_,
  ponticum azaleoides,
  _ponticum deciduum_,
Rhododendrons, hardy hybrid,
Rhodora canadensis,
Rhodothamnus Chamaecistus,
Rhodotypos Kerrioides,
Rhus caroliniana,
Ribes alpinum pumilum aureum,
Robinia ambigua,
Rock Abelia,
Rock Daphne,
Rock Rose, the,
Rosa alba,
Rosa centifolia,
  indica minima,
  indica semperflorens,
  _semperflorens minima_,
Rose Acacia,
Rose Bay,
Rose of Sharon,
Rosmarinus officinalis,
Rosemary, common,
Rosemary, wild,
Rubus arcticus,
Ruscus aculeatus,
St. Anthony's Nut,
St. Dabeoc's Heath,
St. Peter's Wort,
Sand Myrtle,
Sallow thorn,
Salt tree,
Sambucus californica,
Schizandra chinensis,
Schizophragma hydrangeoides,
Scorpion Senna,
Sea Buckthorn,
Sea Purslane,
Service tree, true,
Sheep Laurel,
Shepherdia argentea,
Shrubs for seaside planting,
  for town planting,
Siberian Crab,
Siberian Pea tree,
_Sida pulchella_,
Silk grass,
Silver Berry,
Skimmia Fortunei,
Smilax aspera,
Smoke Plant,
Snowdrop Tree,
Soap Tree,
Solanum crispum,
Sophora japonica,
_Sorbus Americana_,
Spanish Broom; White,
Spanish Chestnut, Sweet,
Spartium junceum,
Spindle tree,
Spiraea altaica,
  discolor ariaefolia,
Spurge Laurel,
Stag's Horn Sumach,
Staphylea colchica,
Stauntonia haxaphylla,
Strawberry Tree,
Stuartia grandiflora,
_Styphnolobium japonicum_,
Styrax americana,
  serrulata virgata,
Swamp Dogwood,
Swamp Honeysuckle,
Sweet Amber,
Sweet Fern,
Sweet Gale,
Sweet Viburnum,
_Symphoria racemosus_,
Symphoricarpus occidentalis,
Syrian Mallow,
Syringa chinensis,
Symplocos japonica,
Tamarix gallica,
Tam Furze,
Tansy-leaved Thorn,
_Tasmania aromatica_,
Tea, Labrador,
Tea tree,
Tecoma grandiflora,
Thyrsanthus frutescens,
Tilia _europea_,
Tree Mallow,
Tree of Heaven,
Trees for seaside planting,
  for town planting,
Trumpet Flower,
Tulip tree,
Tutsan, the,
Ulex europaeus,
Vaccinium corymbosum,
Veronica pinquifolia,
Vinca major,
Vinegar tree,
Venetian Sumach,
Verbena, Lemon-scented,
_Verbena triphylla_,
Viburnum acerifolium,
Viburnum daburicum,
_Virgilia lutea_,
_Virgilia_. See Cladrastis,
Virgin's Bower,
Vitex Agnas-castus,
Vitis heterophylla humulifolia,
Wayfaring tree,
_Weigelia_. See Diervilla,
_Weigelia amabilis_,
White Bean tree,
White Kerria,
Wig tree,
Wild Rosemary,
_Wintera aromatica_,
Winter Flower,
Winter's Bark,
Wistaria chinensis,
Witch Hazel, the,
Wolf Berry,
Woody Nightshade,
Xanthoceras sorbifolia,
Xanthoriza apiifolia,
_Xylosteum dumetorum_,
Yellow root,
Yellow wood,
Yucca filamentosa,
Yulan, the,
Zauschneria californica,
Zenobia speciosa,
Zelkova acuminata,




Japanese Magnolias,

Which are among the finest recent additions to the British Arboretum,
and especially desirable for the Lawn and Park, whether as single
specimens or in groups.

Magnolia Hypoleuca.

One of the largest of the deciduous Magnolias. The flowers are creamy
white, measuring from six to seven inches in diameter when fully
expanded, deliciously fragrant, and produced in large numbers on the
adult tree, and even on young plants their appearance is quite a usual
occurence. In the autumn the tree is loaded with cones of brilliant
scarlet fruit, six to eight inches long. The large obovate leaves are
often a foot in length and half, as much broad. Our Mr. JAMES H. VEITCH
during his recent journeys in Japan frequently met with it at
considerable elevations, and considers it the finest flowering tree in
that country.

First Class Certificate, Royal Horticultural Society.

Magnolia Parviflora.

A smaller tree than the preceding, and one of the finest lawn trees
ever introduced. It has a handsome deciduous foliage; the leaves are of
ovate-oblong shape, rather sharply pointed, and from five to six inches
long. The flowers, which are freely produced, are smaller than those of
_M. hypoleuca_ and with more oval segments, of which the outer three
are light purplish pink, and the inner three milk-white.

An excellent coloured plate of this species is published in _The
Garden_ of December 8th, 1883, page 508.

Magnolia Watsonii.

A very fine Magnolia, resembling the preceding in habit and foliage,
but in its flowers approaching nearer to _M. hypoleuca_. These are from
five to six inches in diameter, cream colour on the inside, and
exhaling a pleasant perfume like that of Calycanthus. The broad ring of
incumbent yellow stamens, with blood-red filaments, is a conspicuous
ornament of the expanded flower.

A beautiful coloured plate of this species is given in the _Botanical
Magazine_, tab. 7,157.

Well established young plants of each of the above Magnolias, 7s. 6d.
and 10s. 6d. each.





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