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´╗┐Title: How to Teach Phonics
Author: Williams, Lida M.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "How to Teach Phonics" ***

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Donald Potter (who provided the original scans) and the


    =How to Teach
    Phonics=


    By

    LIDA M. WILLIAMS


    Primary Supervisor and Instructor of Methods,
    Northern Normal and Industrial School,
    ABERDEEN, SOUTH DAKOTA


    HALL & MCCREARY COMPANY
    CHICAGO


    Copyright 1916, Hall & McCreary Company
    P 2143
    Printed in the U.S.A.



FOREWORD


Phonics is not a method of teaching reading, but it is _a necessary
part_ of every good, modern method. It is the key to word mastery, and
word mastery is one of the first essentials in learning to read. A
knowledge of the sounds of letters, and of the effect of the position of
the letter upon its sound, is an essential means of mastering the
mechanics of reading, and of enabling children to become independent
readers.

A knowledge of phonics not only gives power to pronounce new words, but
it trains the ear, develops clear articulation and correct enunciation,
and aids in spelling. Later, when diacritical marks are introduced, it
aids in the use of the dictionary. The habit of attacking and
pronouncing words of entirely new form, develops self-confidence in the
child, and the pleasure he experiences in mastering difficulties without
help, constantly leads to new effort.

The little foreigner, greatly handicapped where reading is taught by the
word and sentence methods only, begins on an equal basis with his
American neighbor, when the "Alphabet by sound" is taught.

In recent years only has the subject of phonics found a place on the
daily school program; and there is perhaps, no other subject on the
primary program so vaguely outlined in the average teacher's mind and
therefore taught with so little system and definite purpose.

The present need is a systematic and comprehensive but simple method of
phonics teaching thruout the primary grades, that will enable any
teacher, using any good text in reading, to successfully teach the
phonetic facts, carefully grading the difficulties by easy and
consecutive steps thus preparing the pupils for independent effort in
thot getting, and opening for him the door to the literary treasures of
the ages.

It is with the hope of aiding the earnest teacher in the accomplishment
of this purpose that "How To Teach Phonics" is published.

L.M.W.



LEARNING TO READ


Every sound and pedagogical method of teaching reading must include two
basic principles.

1. Reading must begin in the life of the child, with real thought
content. Whether the thought unit be a word, a sentence, or a story, it
must represent some idea or image that appeals to the child's interests
and adjusts itself to his experience.

2. It must proceed with a mastery of not only words, but of the sound
symbols of which words are composed.

The child's love for the story, his desire to satisfy a conscious need,
gives him an immediate and compelling motive for mastering the symbols,
which in themselves are of incidental and subordinate interest. While he
is learning to read, he feels that he is reading to learn and "symbols
are turned into habit."

If the child is to understand from the beginning that reading is thot
getting, we must begin with the sentence, rhyme or other language unit.
If a story is the initial step, a few well chosen sentences that tell
the heart of the story will constitute the first black board reading
lesson.

The next step is the analysis of the sentence, or the study and
recognition of the individual words therein.

Finally the word is separated into its elementary sounds, the study of
the sound symbols growing out of the stock of words learned first as
purely sight words.

Following this phonic analysis comes the final step, the blending of
these phonic elements to produce new words. Thus gradually increasing
prominence is given to the discovery of new words by this
analytic-synthetic process, and less time to sight word drills, until
they are entirely omitted, except for the teaching of unphonetic words.

There should be at least two ten-minute lessons in phonics each day.
These lessons are not reading lessons and should not trespass on the
regular reading period, when thot getting and thot giving are uppermost.

While greater prominence is given to the thot phase in reading, the
technical drill and active effort in mastering the mechanical phase is
of equal importance as necessary preparation for good reading.



FIRST YEAR


1. _Ear Training:_

From the first day a definite place on the program should be given to
phonics. This period, at first very short, will gradually increase to
ten, fifteen or twenty minutes.

To enable pupils to recognize words when separated into their elementary
sounds, exercises in "listening and doing," will constitute the first
step in phonics teaching. Words are sounded slowly and distinctly by the
teacher and pronounced or acted out by the pupils.

ACTION GAME

(First Day.)

    c-l-a-p        s-w-ee-p       f-l-y
    b-ow           d-u-s-t        r-u-n
    j-u-m-p        s-i-t          s-l-ee-p
    p-u-sh         d-r-i-nk       w-a-k-e
    m-a-r-ch       s-t-a-n-d      s-t-r-e-t-ch

If at first children are not able to distinguish the words when
separated thus; s-t-a-n-d, d-r-i-n-k, blend the sound less slowly thus:
st-and, dr-ink, gradually increasing the difficulty to st-an-d, d-r-ink,
and finally to the complete analysis.

These ear training exercises should continue until a "phonetic sense" is
established. Not all children can readily blend sounds and "hear the
word." Patient drill for weeks, even months, may be necessary before a
sense of phonetic values is attained. Haphazard and spasmodic work is
fatal to progress; but a few minutes of brisk, lively drill, given
regularly each day will accomplish wonders.

The exercises should be varied from day to day to insure active interest
and effort.

_Second Day:_

Touch your n-o-se; your ch-ee-k; your ch-i-n; l-i-p-s; k-n-ee; f-oo-t;
b-oo-k; p-e-n-c-i-l; d-e-s-k; sh-o-e; d-r-e-ss, etc.

_Third Day:_

Place a number of toys in a basket. Pupils find as the teacher sounds
the name of each, saying: "Find the t-o-p"; "the s-p-oo-l;" "the
d-o-ll"; "the h-o-r-n"; etc.

_Fourth Day:_

Sound the names of pupils in class; or names of animals; colors, fruits,
places, etc.

_Fifth Day:_

    R-u-n to m-e.
    C-l-a-p your h-a-n-d-s.
    W-a-v-e the f-l-a-g.
    Cl-o-se the d-oo-r.
    F-o-l-d your a-r-m-s.
    B-r-i-n-g m-e a r-e-d b-a-ll.
    B-ou-n-ce the b-a-ll.
    Th-r-ow the b-a-ll to Fr-e-d.
    R-i-n-g the b-e-ll.
    H-o-p to m-e.
    S-i-t in m-y ch-air.
    R-u-n to the ch-ar-t.
    S-i-n-g a s-o-n-g.
    B-r-i-n-g me the p-oin-t-er.
    B-o-w to m-e.
    F-l-y a k-i-t-e.
    S-w-ee-p the fl-oo-r.
    R-o-c-k the b-a-b-y.
    W-a-sh your f-a-ce.
    D-u-s-t the ch-air-s.
    Sh-a-k-e the r-u-g.
    F-ee-d the h-e-n-s.
    C-a-ll the ch-i-ck-s.
    M-i-l-k the c-ow.
    Ch-o-p w-oo-d.
    R-ow a b-oa-t.
    B-l-ow the h-o-r-n.

The pupil should now begin sounding words for himself, at first, if need
be, repeating the sounds after the teacher, then being encouraged to
attempt them alone. He will soon be able to "spell by sound" names of
common objects in the room, as well as easy and familiar words dictated
by the teacher.



II. _Teach the Single Consonant Sounds._

b, d, f, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, r, s (as in see), v, w, g (hard), c
(hard), and qu as in queer.

Teach but one sound for each letter at first. Nothing need be said at
this time about the fact that some letters have more than one sound.
When words like "city" or "gem" occur simply explain that sometimes "c"
or "g" has this sound, (giving the soft sound), but continue in the
phonic drill to teach the sounds that will be needed first--those most
often met in the early reading. The sounds of initial s and y are taught
first, rather than final y and s; q is taught with the u--qu (as in
quiet, queer, quick) not q alone.

The sounds must be given distinctly and correctly by the teacher, and
she should insist on perfect responses. Good reading is impossible
without clear and distinct articulation.


1. _Analyze Known Words in Teaching the Consonant Sounds._

For the first lesson teach perhaps two consonant sounds. Suppose the
words "ball" and "red" are chosen to be analyzed as words familiar to
the class. (Selected from the reading lessons as the ones best known and
most easily remembered.)

Write "b all" on the board, and pointing to the separated parts, sound
slowly several times. Pupils repeat. Teacher say, "Show the letter that
says 'b.' The part that says 'all.' Write "b" under "ball" thus:

    b all
    b

Pupil sound "b" several times, as it is written elsewhere on the black
board.

Proceed with "red" in the same way. Keep these two forms,

    b all      r ed
    b          r

before the class, asking frequently for the sounds until thoroly fixed
in mind.

For the second lesson, review "b" and "r" and teach one or two new
consonants. It is better to have short and frequent lessons at first,
than to present too many sounds at once, resulting in confusion.

Suppose "c" is to be taught next and the type word chosen is "cup." It
is not necessary to teach the consonants in the order in which they
occur in the alphabet,--it will depend rather upon the occurrence in the
primer of the words chosen for type words. Write the word "cup." Pupils
recognize it at once as a sight word, and pronounce. Rewrite it,
separating it thus, c up, and let the pupils make an effort to sound the
parts alone. If they fail, sound it for them asking them to repeat it
after you. Proceed as with "ball" and "red," being sure that each one
gives the sound correctly.

(1.) After teaching "c" say, "Who can find a word on the chart beginning
with this sound?" "In your books?" "on the blackboard?" the pupil
sounding the letter as he points to it.

(2) Say, "I'm thinking of another word beginning with "c." "It is
something Grandpa uses in walking." (Cane.) "I'm thinking of something
sweet that you like to eat." (Cake) (Candy) "Of the name of someone in
this class." (Clara) (Carl) "A little yellow bird." (Canary) "You think
of a word beginning with that sound." "Another." "Another."


2. _Begin At Once Applying Knowledge of the Sounds Learned._

As new words are met containing known sounds, the pupils should apply
their knowledge of phonics. For example, if the word "catch" appears,
the pupils sound "c," the teacher pronouncing "atch" underlining that
part of the word as she tells it,--the pupil puts these sounds together
and discovers the new word for himself. If the new word is "cab," the
only help from the teacher is the short sound of "a". This given the
pupil sounds "a" and "b" slowly; then faster, until the result of the
blended sounds is "ab." Combine "c" with "ab" in the same manner until
by the blending of the sounds the word is recognized. Only such help
should be given, as will enable the pupil to help himself.

"Ball," "red" and "cup" now become type words with which "b" "r" and "c"
are associated respectively, and from which the pupil gets his "cue" if
he fails to give the sound of the letter at sight. Thus all the
consonants are taught, from suitable sight words which the child has
already learned. They need not however, be the ones given here,--for "b"
it may be "baby," "ball," "boy," or "box," but let it be a word familiar
to the class and easily remembered. For "d" it may be "doll," "day," or
"dog;" for "y", "you", "yellow", etc.

The teacher should previously go through the text and select the words
she wishes to use as type words in teaching the consonant sounds.


3. _First Steps in Writing and Spelling._

As each consonant sound is taught its written form may be learned. On
rough manila paper, using waxed crayons, make copies of the letters
about two inches in height, for each pupil. At his desk the child traces
with his fore finger, going over the smooth path again and again--thus
developing psycho-motor co-ordination. Each time the letter is traced,
the pupil sounds it softly, and as soon as he is sure of the form, runs
to the board and writes it.

The writing at first may be entirely at the blackboard, where the
teacher's copy may be reproduced. For the slower ones who have
difficulty with the form, a good practice is to "write it in the air,"
the pupil pointing with index finger and following the teacher as she
writes, also tracing the teacher's copy with pointer, using free, rapid
movement. (Tracing with crayon or pencil tends to slow, cramped writing,
and should not be encouraged.) Thus when the forms of the letters are
learned and associated with the sound, the pupils are able to write
phonetic words from dictation as well as to "spell by sound."


4. _Consonant Drill._

(1) With a rubber pen, a set of type, or with black crayola, and
cardboard, a set of consonant cards may be made, one for each sound. On
one side of the card is written or printed the type word with the
consonant sound below; on the other side, the consonant alone, thus:

    --------  -----
    |b all |  | b |
    |b     |  | B |
    --------  -----

The number of cards will increase each day as new sounds are learned.
Rapid daily drill with these cards is most valuable in associating
instantly the sound with its symbol and should be continued until every
child knows every sound. After the analysis the side of the card
containing only the consonant should be used for the drill. But if the
pupil fails to give the right sound, or is unable to give any sound at
all, the card should be reversed and he readily gets the right sound
from the word.

Other devices for teaching the consonants are sometimes used by
successful teachers who do not use the type-words and cards. For
instance, the letter may be associated with its sound in this way:--The
clock says "t"; the angry cat, "f"; the cow says "m"; etc. The
difficulty here is to find suitable symbols for each sound. If, for
example, the sounds of "l", "v" and "sh" are represented by a spinning
wheel, a buzz saw, and a water wheel respectively, and if the child is
not familiar with these symbols, they will not call up a definite sound
in his mind; but if "l" is taught from "little," "sh" from "sheep," and
"v" from "very", (or other familiar words,) there can be no uncertainty
and no time need be spent by the child in laboring to retain and
associate the sounds with unfamiliar symbols.

Not the method, but the motive, is the essential thing. What we want is
that every child should know the consonants thoroly. Get the _motive_,
then use the method that brings the best results with the least
expenditure of time and energy.

(2) For variety in reviewing and fixing the consonant sounds, give
frequent dictation exercises.

a. With all the consonants on the board, the teacher sounds any
consonant, the pupil finds and repeats the sound as he points it out. As
the teacher points, pupils sound, occasionally in concert, and in
individual recitation of the entire list. Individual work should
predominate, to make sure that the pupil is giving the correct sound and
putting forth independent effort.

b. Pupils write sounds as teacher dictates. If a pupil fails to recall
and write the form, the teacher may pronounce the type word and ask the
pupil to sound the initial consonant (tell the first sound in the word).
To illustrate: The teacher pronounces "cup", pupils sound "c", then
write it. If they have mastered the written forms they will enjoy this
exercise.

Children soon acquire the ability and become possessed of the desire to
write whole words. Then the teacher should direct this effort, teaching
the child to visualize (get a picture of the word as a whole) and write
short, simple words.


5. _Blending._

When a number of consonant sounds are mastered, practice in blending may
begin. When the need arises--when words are met which begin with a
combination of consonants the blends are taught, e.g., bright--b,
r,--br, br ight, bright. f, l,--fl, fl ower, flower. Keep a separate set
of cards for these blends--and drill upon them as the list grows.

(br, pl, fl, sl, cr, gl, gr, bl, cl, fr, pr, st, tr, str, sp, sw, tw,
sk.)

    gr ow        dr aw       pl ay
    s ky         sm all      sl ay
    fl ower      cr ow       st ay
    st and       cl ean      fr ay
    gl ass       pr ay       tr ay
    br own       sp in       str ay
    bl ue        sw ing      sl ow
    st ore       sl ack      bl ow
    tr ack       dw arf      gl ow

The teacher must pronounce the syllables that the children have, as yet,
no power to master, e.g., with the word "grow", (1) the children will
blend g and r, gr; (2) teacher pronounces "ow"; (3) children blend "gr"
and "ow" until they recognise "grow."

Teach also the digraphs sh, ch, th, wh, as they are met in the common
words in use: when, they, chick, etc.

    sh eep       ch ick         wh at       th at
    sh ell       ch ild         wh en       th is
    sh y         ch air         wh y        th ese
    sh ore       ch ill         wh ere      th ose
    sh ine       ch erry        wh ich      th ere
    sh ow        ch ildren      th en       th eir
    sh e         ch urch        th ey       th ey
    sh all       ch ase
    sh ould      ch est



III. _Teach the Short Vowels._

Since more than 60 per cent of the vowels are short, and since short
vowels outnumber long vowels by about four to one, they are taught
first. Teach one vowel at a time by combining with the known consonants.
And what fun it is, when short "a" is introduced, to blend it with the
consonants and listen to discover "word sounds." Henceforth the children
will take delight in "unlocking" new words, without the teacher's help.
She will see to it, of course, that the words are simple and purely
phonetic at first; as:

    c-a-n, can      h-a-d, had
    c-a-p, cap      m-a-t, mat
    c-a-t, cat      m-a-n, man
    r-a-t, rat      f-a-n, fan
    h-a-t, hat      s-a-t, sat

Whole "families" are discovered by placing the vowel with the initial or
the final consonants, thus:

    ca n      r at       f an
    ca p      h at         an d
    ca t      c at       s an d
    ca b      b at      st an d
    ma t      f at       l an d
    ma n      s at       b an d

The children will enjoy forming all the families possible with the known
sounds.

_Short "a" Families or Phonograms._

       at    an      ap     ad     ack     ag      and    r ang   b ank
     b at  c an    c ap   h ad   b ack   b ag    b and    s ang   r ank
     c at  m an    g ap   l ad   h ack   f ag    h and    b ang   s ank
     f at  p an    l ap   m ad   J ack   j ag    l and    h ang   t ank
     m at  t an    m ap   g ad   l ack   l ag    s and    f ang  bl ank
     p at  r an    n ap   b ad   p ack   n ag   st and   cl ang  cr ank
     N at  f an    r ap   c ad   r ack   r ag   gr and  spr ang  dr ank
     s at  b an    s ap   f ad   s ack   s ag   br and           Fr ank
     r at  D an    t ap   p ad   t ack   t ag  str and           pl ank
     h at  N an   tr ap   s ad  st ack   w ag                    th ank
    th at  V an  str ap  gl ad  sl ack  st ag
                  sn ap  br ad  tr ack  br ag
                  wr ap         bl ack  dr ag

After a little drill in analyzing the words of a family, (sounding the
consonant and phonogram separately) they should be pronounced at sight,
analyzing the word only when the pupil fails in pronunciation.

The teacher's chart of phonograms as she works it out for herself may be
something like this.

  [(a]     [)e]      i      [)o]     [)u]
    at       et      it       ot       ut
    ack      ed      ick      ock      ub
    ad       en      id       od       uck
    ag       est     ig       og       ug
    an       end     im       op       um
    ap       edge    in       ong      un
    and      ent     ip       oss      uff
    ang      ess     ift               ung
    ank      ell     ing               unk
    ash              ink               ump
    amp              ill               ush
                                       ust

While this gives the teacher a working chart, it is neither necessary
nor advisable that the above order be always followed in teaching the
phonograms and sounding series of words, nor that they be systematically
completed before other phonograms found in the words of the reading
lessons are taught. Such phonograms as "ound" from "found", "un" from
"run", "ight" from "bright", "est" from "nest", "ark" from "lark", etc.,
may be taught as soon as these sight words are made a part of the
child's reading vocabulary.

     f ound         r un        br ight
       ound           un           ight
     s ound         f un         m ight
     r ound         s un         r ight
    gr ound         b un         f ight
     b ound         g un        fr ight
     p ound         n un         l ight
     f ound         r un         s ight
     h ound         s un        sl ight
    ar ound        st un         n ight

     n est         l ark         c atch
       est           ark           atch
     b est         d ark         h atch
     l est         b ark         m atch
     p est         m ark         m atch
     r est         h ark         b atch
     t est         p ark         l atch
     v est        sp ark         p atch
     w est        st ark        th atch
    cr est        sh ark        scr atch
    ch est                      sn atch
    gu est

Attention is not called here to the various vowel sounds, but the
complete phonogram is taught at sight.

_Short "e" Phonograms._

        bed        h en       b end       b ent
        fed        d en       l end       c ent
        led        p en       m end       d ent
       n ed        m en       s end       l ent
       r ed        B en       t end       s ent
      Fr ed        t en      bl end       r ent
      sh ed       wr en      sp end       t ent
      sl ed       th en      tr end       w ent
      bl ed       wh en                  sp ent
                  gl en

       edge       B ess       b ell      sh ell
     h edge       l ess       c ell      sm ell
     l edge      bl ess       s ell      sp ell
     s edge      ch ess       t ell      sw ell
     w edge      dr ess       f ell      dw ell
    pl edge      pr ess       n ell
    sl edge      gu ess       w ell

_Short "i" Phonograms._

    D ick         s ick      cl ick      th ick
    k ick         t ick      qu ick      tr ick
    l ick         w ick      sl ick
    p ick        br ick      st ick

     b id     p ig     d im     p in     th in
     d id     b ig     h im     t in     tw in
     h id     f ig     J im     b in
     k id     d ig     r im     f in
     l id     r ig     T im     s in
     r id     w ig    tr im     w in
    sl id    tw ig    br im    ch in
    sk id             sk im    gr in
                      sl im    sk in
                      sw im    sp in

      d ip     l ift     s ing     p ink     b ill
      h ip     g ift     k ing     l ink     f ill
      l ip     s ift     r ing     m ink     h ill
      n ip    dr ift     w ing     s ink     J ill
      r ip    sh ift    br ing     w ink     k ill
      s ip    sw ift    cl ing    bl ink     m ill
      t ip   thr ift    sl ing    br ink     p ill
     ch ip              st ing    dr ink     t ill
     cl ip             str ing    ch ink     w ill
     sl ip             spr ing    cl ink    ch ill
     dr ip              sw ing   shr ink    sp ill
     gr ip              th ing    th ink    st ill
     sh ip              wr ing              tr ill
     sk ip
     tr ip
    str ip
     wh ip

_Short "o" Phonograms._

      B ob     n od     c ock     d og
      c ob     p od     l ock     h og
      r ob     r od     r ock     l og
      s ob     h od     s ock     f og
      m ob     c od     m ock    fr og
      j ob    cl od    bl ock     c og
      f ob    pl od    cl ock     j og
     kn ob    tr od    cr ock    cl og
    thr ob    sh od    fl ock
                       kn ock
                       st ock

    h op     t op    sh op
    m op    st op    sl op
    l op    dr op    pr op
    s op    cr op

         s ong     l oss
         l ong     t oss
         d ong     R oss
         g ong     m oss
       str ong     b oss
        wr ong    cr oss
        pr ong    fl oss
       thr ong    gl oss

_Phonograms Containing Short "u"._

      r ub     d uck     b ug     r un
      t ub     l uck     h ug     s un
      c ub     t uck     j ug     f un
      h ub    cl uck     l ug     b un
     cl ub    pl uck     m ug     g un
     gr ub    sh uck     p ug    sp un
    scr ub    tr uck     r ug    st un
     st ub   str uck     t ug    sh un
     sn ub              dr ug
                        pl ug
                        sn ug

    dr um     c uff     r ung
    pl um     m uff     s ung
    ch um     p uff     h ung
     g um     h uff     l ung
     h um     b uff    cl ung
    sc um    bl uff    fl ung
    gl um    gr uff    sl ung
             st uff    st ung
                      spr ung
                       sw ung
                      str ung

     b unk     j ump     h ush     m ust
     h unk     b ump     m ush     j ust
     j unk     l ump     r ush     r ust
    ch unk     h ump     g ush     d ust
    dr unk     p ump    br ush    cr ust
    sk unk     d ump    cr ush    tr ust
    sp unk    st ump    bl ush   thr ust
    tr unk    th ump    pl ush
                       thr ush

From the beginning review daily the phonograms taught.

Thus by means of these daily drills in pronunciation, the pupil gains
power in mastering new words. He constantly makes intelligent and
practical application of the knowledge he has gained in pronouncing a
letter or a combination of letters in a certain way, under certain
conditions.

_Diacritical Marks_

The child has no need of diacritical marks at this time; indeed he has
little need for them until the fourth year, when the use of the
dictionary is taught. The new dictionaries greatly simplify the matter
of mastering the diacritical marks, and lessen the number needed, by
re-writing unphonetic words in simple phonetic spelling.

During the first three years do not retard the child's progress, and
weaken his power to apply the knowledge which his previous experience
has given him, by marking words to aid him in pronunciation. At best,
the marks are artificial and questionable aids.



PHONIC PLAYS

Much necessary drill can be made interesting by infusing the _spirit_ of
play into an exercise that would otherwise be formal.

1. _"Hide and Seek"_

"Hide and Seek" at once suggests a game. The teacher introduces it
simply by saying: "We'll play these sounds are hiding from us. Who can
find them?"

Place the consonant cards on the blackboard ledge. The teacher writes
any consonant on the board and immediately erases it. A pupil finds the
card containing the same consonant, sounds it, and replaces the card.

Teacher writes several sounds on the board, then erases them. Pupil
finds corresponding sounds on cards, in the order written.

2. _"Fishing"_

(Fish in pond.) Cards placed in a row on black board ledge. (Catching
fish.) Pupil takes as many as he can sound correctly.

Single and blended consonants, and digraphs written on cardboard cut in
form of fish, and put into the mirror lake on the sand table. Children
"catch fish" in turn.

3. _"Guess."_

A pupil thinks of a word containing a known phonogram, which is
communicated to the teacher. The child standing before the class then
says, "I am thinking of a word belonging to the "an" family." The word,
we will say, is "fan." A child who is called on asks, "Is it c an?" The
first child replies, "It is not can." Another asks, "Is it m an?" etc.,
until the correct word is discovered.

4. _"Run Home."_

For reviewing phonograms and fixing the vowel sounds as well, the
following game is used.

Draw pictures of several houses on the board, writing a different
phonogram in each, explaining that these are the names of the families
living there, as, "ed," "eg," "est," "en," etc. Distribute to the class
cards containing a word with one of these endings, and let "the children
run home." Those holding the words ten, pen, men and hen, will run to
the house where "en" lives. The children holding rest, best, nest, etc.,
will group themselves at the house of "est."

Again let several children represent mothers and stand before the class
holding phonograms. As Mother "ed" calls her children, those holding
cards containing red, led, fed, Fred, and bed, will run to her. If a
child belonging to the "est" family should come, she will send back the
stray child, saying pleasantly, "You do not belong in my family." A
little voice drill as practiced in the music lesson may be used here.
The mother calls "Children" on 1 and 8 of the scale (low and high do
thus:

    1-8      8-1

child-dren), the children replying as they come, "We're here."

For individual tests let the mother call out all her children from the
other families, the children coming to her as she calls their card
names.



RHYME STORIES

Enliven the phonic drills occasionally by originating little rhymes,
using the words of the series to be reviewed. Write the words on the
board in columns, or upon cards. As the teacher repeats a line of the
jingle, she pauses for the children to supply the rhyme words.

    Grandma was taking a cozy nap
    Her hands were folded in her (lap)
    When she wakened she heard a (tap)
    In the maple tree that was full of (sap.)
    She soon spied the tapper--he wore a red (cap)
    White vest and black coat, and his wings gave a (flap)
    As he hopped about with a rap-a-tap-(tap)
    What did he want--was he looking for (sap)?
    Ah no, but for grubs, which he ate quick as (snap)
    Can you name this gay drummer who wears a red (cap)?


II.

As soon as possible introduce a number of phonograms into the same
story.

    I have a little pet
    Who is as black as (jet)
    She sits upon a mat
    And watches for a (rat.)
    Her coat is smooth as silk,
    She likes to drink sweet (milk)
    She grows so fast and fat
    That soon she'll be a (cat)
    Can't you guess? Now what a pity
    'Tis the dearest little (    ).



SPELLING BY SOUND

An easy step now, which the children will enjoy is the writing of the
words of given families as a dictation exercise, followed by sentences
as soon as the use of the capital and period have been taught. Such
sentences as the following may be given after a number of short "a"
phonograms are mastered:

    The cat sat on a mat.
    Nan has a fan.
    The cat is fat.
    The cat can see the pan.
    The man has a hat.
    Dan has a bat.
    Dan has a hat and a cap.
    The bag is in the cab.

When phonograms containing the other short vowels are known, words may
be pronounced miscellaneously from different series or families; as,
run, cap, pet, ran, pin, top, followed by sentences made up of
miscellaneous words, as,--

    "Run red hen."
    "Nan has a fan."
    "Get the hat pin."
    "Ned can spin a top."
    "Nat set the trap."
    "Jack run back and get the sack."
    "A fat man got in the hack."
    "Can Sam get the hat?"



THE ALPHABET AND ORAL SPELLING

The names of letters should not be formally taught until their sounds
are thoroly fixed in mind; otherwise the names and sounds will be
confused. Pupils who begin by "learning their letters" will be found
spelling out a word (naming over the letters) in order to arrive at the
pronunciation. Attention must be focused on the _sounds only_, at first.
When the consonant sounds are mastered by every member of the class, and
they have gained some proficiency in pronouncing words by blending these
with the short and long vowel sounds, the _names_ of the letters may be
taught, and the alphabet committed to memory in order.

While as a rule, most children learn the majority of the letters
incidentally by the end of the first year, it often happens that some
remain ignorant of the alphabetical order until they come to use the
dictionary, and are greatly handicapped.


_To Associate the Name of the Letter With Its Sound._

(1) The teacher names the letter as she points to it and the children
give the corresponding sound; (2) As the teacher sounds the letter,
pupils name the letter sounded. (3) Repeat with the letters erased from
the board.

Oral spelling may begin _after_ the sounds have first been mastered--and
as soon as the names of the letters are taught. Spell only the phonetic
words at first. The lists of families of words which have been written
from dictation may now be spelled orally.

The spelling recitation may be both oral and written, but written
spelling should predominate the first year. Unphonetic words should be
taught by visualizing--getting the form of the word as a whole. The
teacher writes the word on the board in free rapid hand, pupils observe
for a moment, getting a mental picture of the form; the word is erased
by the teacher, and reproduced on the board by the pupil.

While oral spelling aids the "ear-minded" pupil and gives variety in the
recitation, written spelling should predominate for the reasons that (1)
in practical life, spelling is used almost wholly in expressing thought
in writing; (2) the eye and hand should be trained equally with the ear.
It is often true that good oral spellers will fail in writing the same
words for want of practice. (3) In the written recitation each pupil can
spell a greater number of words and in less time than is possible in
oral spelling.



SEAT WORK

1. Distribute pages from magazines or old readers and let pupils
underline words beginning with a certain consonant (the one being
taught). If different colored pencils are used, the same pages can be
used a number of times. When the "m" sound is being taught let all words
beginning with that sound be marked with black; at another seat work
period, words beginning with "b" are marked with "green;" and again,
words beginning with "f" sound are marked with blue pencils, etc.

Underline digraphs, blended consonants, and phonograms.

2. The teacher writes a phonogram on the board and below it all the
consonant sounds from which words may be built. Pupils write the entire
words.

3. Phonograms are written on the board; pupils supply consonants and
write out the words.

4. Have a number of phonograms and three or four sets of consonants in
envelopes. Give an envelope to each child and let him build the words on
his desk. Duplicate copies can be made on a hectograph, one set for each
lesson; then if one envelope from each set is preserved, those
miscellaneous lessons can be used in review for a long time, each child
using a different set each time.

5. Write on the board lists of words ending in various phonograms and
let the children re-write them, arranging in columns according to
phonograms.

6. Write families from memory.



GENERAL SUGGESTIONS

1. At least two daily periods should be given to phonics. The first
lessons will be short, but after some advance has been made, ten to
fifteen minutes should be given.

2. As far as possible let the words for phonic drill be those that will
occur in the new reading lessons.

3. Constantly review all familiar sounds, phonograms, digraphs, blends,
etc., when met in new words, and so teach pupils to apply their
knowledge of phonics.

4. Teaching them to "pantomime" the sounds--representing them mutely by
movement of the lips, tongue and palate, will aid them in silent study
at their seats.

5. By the end of the first year the pupil's phonetic knowledge, combined
with his vocabulary of sight words and his power to discover a new word,
either phonetically or by the context, ought to enable him to read
independently any primer, and to read during the year from eight to
twelve or more primers and first readers.

6. In reading, pupils should be taught to get the meaning chiefly by
context--by the parts which precede or follow the difficult word and are
so associated with it as to throw light upon its meaning.

7. When a word cannot be pronounced phonetically, the teacher should
assist by giving the sound needed, but the pupil will soon discover that
by using his wits in phonics as in other things, he can get the new word
for himself by the sense of what he is reading, e.g., in the sentence,
"The farmer came into the field" he meets the new word "field."
Naturally a second year pupil, who has learned the reasons for sounding
will apply the long sound of "i;"--as he reads it does not make sense,
so he tries short "i." Still the sentence is meaningless, so he tries
again with "e" and reads a sentence which satisfies him, because the
meaning is clear.

If the first year pupil pronounces the word "coat" as co-at (recognizing
the last combination as a member of the "at" family) the teacher will
underline and call his attention to the digraph "oa" which he has
already learned to pronounce as long "o." Most pupils however, meeting
the word in a sentence--as, "The caterpillar's coat is green"--would, if
reading thotfully recognize the word by the context.

8. Drill on obscure sounds should be omitted the first year. Unphonetic
words should be taught as sight words: as: one, many, been, said, they,
ought, eight.

9. Begin to combine words and syllables into longer words as soon as
possible: door-step, in-deed, hand-some, be-fore, ham-mer-ing,
in-no-cent, for-get-ful, car-pen-ter, side-walk, mis-take.

10. Give time increasingly to analytic-synthetic word study,
e.g.--"eight" and "rain" are taught as sight words.

                      eigh t             r ain
    Analysis:         eigh                 ain
                    w eigh               p ain
                    w eight             pl ain
    Synthesis:      n eigh           com plain
                    n eigh bor       com plain ing



ARTICULATION

Exercises to correct faulty articulation and secure flexibility should
be given frequently. Constant vigilance is necessary in overcoming the
common errors shown in the following examples.

    "I will eat you," said the troll. (not "e-chew")
    Dear little baby, close your eye. (not "clo-zhure eye")
    "I will then," said Red Hen, and she did. (not "an' she did.")
    Put your right hand in. (not "put chure")
    --you, and you, and you. (an' Jew.)
    Father will meet you (meat chew) at the station.
    The leaves turned to red and gold. (red Dan gold)
    "No matter what you hear, (what chew) no matter what you see,
        Raggylug, don't you move." (don't chew)
    Tender flowers come forth to greet her. (gree-ter)
    It is not at all (a-tall) like the mother bird.

Have the pupils practice such exercises as:--

    Did you? Don't you? Would you? Should you? Could you? (Not "did Jew,"
        "don't chew" etc.)
    Where shall I meet you? (not meat chew)
    When shall I meet you?
    She sells sea shells.

Pupils usually have difficulty with words ending in sts, dth, pth. Lists
of such words should be drilled upon:--

Nests, vests, posts, hosts, boasts, fists, mists, frosts, length,
breadth, depth.

    "He thrusts his fists against the posts,
    And still insists he sees the ghosts."

(If necessary show the pupils how to adjust the vocal organs to make the
different sounds.)

    m, n, ng (nasal)

    p, b, w, m (lips)
    f, v (lips and teeth)
    t, d, s, z, n (tongue and hard palate.)
    j, ch, (tongue and hard palate-back)
    k, g, ng (tongue and soft palate.)
    y, l (tongue, hard palate and soft palate.)
    p, b, d, t, j, k, h, g, ch (momentary)
    w, f, v, s, l, r, y, th, sh (continuous)

The majority of children learn the sounds by imitation and repetition.
The above is to help the teacher in giving the sounds correctly.



SECOND YEAR



_I. Review Single and Blended Consonants, Digraphs, Short and Long
Vowels, and All Phonograms._



_II. Continue Pronouncing Exercises, Teaching New Phonograms._

Continue word study by the analytic-synthetic process. These phonic
drills will deal largely with the new words that occur in the daily
reading lessons.



_III. Syllabication._

In mastering the pronunciation of new words, pupils should acquire the
habit of analyzing them into syllables.

The ear must be trained to _hear_ syllables, they should be _separately
pronounced_, and _clearly imaged_. This makes for effective spelling
later. Most of the difficulties in spelling are removed when the habit
of breaking up a complex word into its elements is acquired.

    re mem ber      ther mom e ter
    sep a rate      in de pen dence
    dan de lion     mul ti pli ca tion
    beau ti ful     re frig er a tor


_IV. Teach the Long Vowel Sounds._

We have found that the short vowels predominate in the English language.
The long vowel sounds come next in frequency. When the child has
mastered the letters and combinations representing these two sounds, he
is able to recognize a large majority of the phonetic words in our
language.

Phonetic words follow definite rules of pronunciation. These rules are
not to be formally taught in the first and second years, but pointed out
by examples, so that the visual and auditory image may be associated.

To illustrate: When there are two or more vowels in a word of one
syllable, the first vowel is long, and the last silent, as: came, leaf,
coat, rain.

"When there is one vowel in the word and it is the last, it is long,"
as: me, he, fly.

All vowels are short unless modified by position.

Have the children notice the effect of final "e" upon some of their
short vowel words. These lists will furnish good pronunciation drills.

    mat   mate     bit   bite     tap   tape
    pan   pane     rod   rode     fad   fade
    fat   fate     hat   hate     mad   made
    can   cane     pin   pine     rat   rate
    not   note     rob   robe     pet   Pete
    man   mane     din   dine     dim   dime
    cap   cape     fin   fine     spin  spine
    hid   hide     mop   mope     kit   kite
    hop   hope     plum  plume    rip   ripe
    tub   tube                    cub   cube
                                  cut   cute
                                  tun   tune

Call attention to the vowel digraphs in the same way: ea, ai, oa, ay.

    deaf      seat      bean
    neat      leaves    meat
    heat      peach     lean
    please    eagle     clean
    eat       seam      teach
    mean      stream    glean
    read      squeal    wean

While there are exceptions, as in the words "head" and "bread," the
digraph "ea" has the sound of long "e" in nearly three-fourths of the
words in which it occurs and should be so taught. The visual image "ea"
should call up the auditory image of long "e." When the child meets the
exceptions the context must be relied on to aid him.

Likewise in the following list, the new fact to be taught is the digraph
"ai" having the long sound of "a." Blending the initial and final
consonants with this, the pupil pronounces the new list of words without
further aid.

    rain     chain     faith     daisy
    wait     main      paint     daily
    nail     brain     faint     plainly
    pail     drain     snail     waist
    pain     claim     frail     complain
    pain     train     praise    sailor
    aim      plain     quail     raise
    maid     braid     sprain    trail
    mail

The digraph "oa" and "ay" may be taught with equal ease the first year.
There is no reason for deferring them; they should be taught as soon as
the children have need for them.

    coat      toast      roar
    load      goat       roam
    float     road       moan
    toad      roam       throat
    oar       boat       oat meal
    croak     soar       foam
    loaf      soap       coarse
    loaves    groan      board
    goal      boast      cloak
    coach     poach      roast

    say      day      may      gay
    hay      play     slay     pray
    lay      clay     dray     gray
    nay      bray     way      stay
    pay      tray     sway     spray
    ray      stray    jay      stray



LONG VOWEL PHONOGRAMS

(These lists are for rapid pronunciation drills.)

     c ame     f ade     f ace     sh ape
     l ame     m ade     l ace     gr ape
     g ame     w ade     p ace      m ate
     n ame    bl ade     r ace      d ate
     s ame    gr ade    br ace      f ate
     t ame    sh ade    Gr ace      g ate
    bl ame    sp ade    pl ace      h ate
    fl ame    gl ade    sp ace      K ate
    sh ame    tr ade    tr ace

     c age    b ake      s ale      l ate
     p age    c ake      b ale      r ate
     r age    l ake      p ale     cr ate
     s age    m ake      t ale     gr ate
     w age    r ake     sc ale     pl ate
    st age    s ake     st ale     sk ate
              t ake     wh ale     st ate
              w ake      g ale      g ave
     c ane   dr ake      d ale      s ave
     l ane   fl ake      c ape      c ave
     m ane   qu ake      t ape      p ave
     p ane   sh ake     cr ape      r ave
     v ane   sn ake     dr ape      w ave
    cr ane   st ake    scr ape     br ave
    pl ane   br ake                gr ave
                                   sh ave
                                   sl ave
                                   st ave
                                   cr ave

       b e     h eed     s eek
       h e     s eed     m eek
       m e     w eed     w eek
       w e     r eed    ch eek
      sh e    bl eed    cr eek
      th e    br eed    sl eek
     tr ee    gr eed     p eek
      s ee    sp eed    Gr eek
      b ee    st eed     f eet
     th ee    fr eed     b eet
     fl ee     f eel     m eet
     kn ee     p eel    fl eet
     fr ee     h eel    gr eet
    thr ee     r eel    sh eet
     gl ee    kn eel    sl eet
     sk ee    st eel   str eet
     d eed    wh eel    sw eet
     n eed
     f eed

            p eep     d eem
            d eep     s eem
            k eep     t eem
           ch eep    br eeze
            w eep    fr eeze
           cr eep    sn eeze
           sh eep   squ eeze
           sl eep    wh eeze
           st eep
           sw eep

      d eer     m ice     pr ide     kn ife
     ch eer     n ice     gl ide    str ife
     qu eer     r ice     gu ide      h igh
     sh eer    pr ice     sl ide      s igh
     st eer    sl ice    str ide      n igh
     sn eer    sp ice       d ie     th igh
     gr een    tr ice       t ie     l ight
     qu een    tw ice       l ie     m ight
     pr een     r ide      d ied     r ight
    scr een     s ide     dr ied    br ight
      w een     h ide     fr ied     f ight
    spl een     t ide     sp ied     n ight
      s een     w ide      l ife     s ight
      k een    br ide      w ife
                           f ife

     t ight     f ind      t ire
    fr ight     m ind      w ire
    sl ight     b ind      f ire
    kn ight     r ind      h ire
                w ind      m ire
     l ike     bl ind     sp ire
     d ike     gr ind    squ ire
     p ike
     h ike      f ine      k ite
     t ike      d ine      b ite
     sp ike     m ine      m ite
    str ike     n ine     qu ite
                p ine     sm ite
      p ile     v ine     sp ite
      t ile    br ine    spr ite
      m ile    sh ine     wh ite
      N ile    sp ine     wr ite
      f ile    sw ine
     sm ile    th ine      f ive
     st ile    tw ine      h ive
     wh ile    wh ine      d ive
                           l ive
      d ime     r ipe     dr ive
      l ime     p ipe    str ive
      t ime     w ipe    thr ive
     ch ime    sn ipe
     sl ime    tr ipe        m y
     pr ime   str ipe        b y
                            fl y
                            cr y

       dr y     c old      b one     ch ose
       fr y     s old     dr one     th ose
       pr y     b old     ph one     cl ose
       sh y     m old     sh one      w ove
       sk y     t old    thr one     dr ove
       sl y     f old                gr ove
       sp y     g old      r ope     cl ove
      spr y     h old      h ope     st ove
       st y    sc old      d ope
       tr y               sl ope       h oe
       wh y     h ole                  t oe
                p ole      c ore       J oe
      r obe     m ole      m ore       f oe
     gl obe     s ole      p ore       w oe
      r ode    st ole      t ore
      j oke    wh ole      w ore      d oor
      p oke     r oll      s ore     fl oor
      w oke    tr oll     ch ore
     br oke   str oll     sh ore       m ow
     ch oke               sn ore       r ow
     sm oke     c olt     st ore       s ow
     sp oke     b olt                  b ow
    str oke     j olt      t orn      bl ow
                v olt      w orn      sl ow
                          sh orn      sn ow
                h ome                 cr ow
                t one      r ose      fl ow
               st one      n ose      gl ow
                           h ose      gr ow
                           p ose      kn ow
                                      sh ow

     thr ow      t ube     bl ue
      s own      c ube      d ue
     bl own      m ule      h ue
     gr own      f ume      c ue
     fl own     pl ume     gl ue
    thr own      J une     fl ue
                 t une
                 c ure
                 p ure

The Diphthongs oi, oy, ou, ow.

    oi           oy           m ound         ow
      b oil      b oy        gr ound           c ow
      s oil      j oy         c ount           n ow
      t oil      t oy         m ount           h ow
      c oil      R oy          h our           b ow
     br oil     tr oy         fl our          br ow
     sp oil      ou           h ouse          f owl
                              m ouse          h owl
     v oice     l oud        bl ouse         gr owl
    ch oice    cl oud          p out         sc owl
      c oin    pr oud         sh out          d own
      j oin    c ouch         sp out          g own
     j oint    p ouch        spr out          t own
     p oint    s ound         st out         br own
     n oise    b ound         tr out         cl own
     m oist    r ound         m outh         cr own
               f ound         s outh         dr own
               w ound                        fr own



DIGRAPHS

(For rapid pronunciation drills.)

       sh          ch           th          wh          th
    sh eep      ch ick        bath       wh en       then
    sh ell      ch ild        both       wh y        they
    sh y        ch air        doth       wh ere      these
    sh ore      ch ill        mirth      wh ich      those
    sh ine      ch erry       worth      wh at       the
    sh ow       ch ildren     birth      wh ile      thy
    sh e        ch urch       tooth      wh ose      that
    sh all      ch ase        loth       wh ite      this
    sh ould     ch est        girth      wh ale      thus
    sh ake      ch ange       thin       wh eat      thine
    sh ame      ch alk        thick      wh eel      there
    sh ape      ch ain        think      wh ack      their
    sh are      ch ance       throat     wh ip       them
    sh ark      ch arge       thorn      wh irl      though
    sh arp      ch ap         three      wh et       thou
    sh awl      ch apel       third      wh ey
    sh ed       ch apter      thaw       wh isper
    sh ear      ch arm                   wh istle
    sh epherd   ch eck



THIRD YEAR



_I. Rules or Reasons for Sounds._

(The effect of the position of the letter upon its sound.)



_II. Effect of "r" Upon Vowels._



_III. Equivalents._



_IV. Teach Vowel Sounds Other Than Long and Short Sounds, by Analyzing
Known Words and Phonograms._

Pupils know the phonogram "ark," learned when the following list of
words was pronounced: bark, dark, hark, lark, mark, park, shark, etc.
Attention is now called to the long Italian "a" sound (two dots above)
and other lists pronounced; as, farm, barn, sharp, charm. Broad "a" (two
dots below) is taught by recalling the familiar phonogram "all" and the
series: ball, fall, call, tall, small, etc., pronounced. Also other
lists containing this sound: as, walk, salt, caught, chalk, haul, claw,
cause.

(The rules for sounds apply to the individual syllables in words of more
than one syllable as well as to monosyllables.)



HOW TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN VOWELS AND CONSONANTS

Before the rules for the sounds are taken up, it will be necessary that
the pupils know how to distinguish the vowels from the consonants.

Have the vowels on the board, also lists of words, and drill on finding
the vowels in the lists. The teacher says, "These letters are called
vowels." "How many vowels are there?" "Find a vowel in this
word"--pointing to one of the words in the lists. As the pupil finds it
he says, "This is a vowel." Find the vowels in all the words in the
lists.



PHONICS AND LANGUAGE

When the vowels and consonants can be distinguished, pupils can be
taught the use of the articles "a" and "an".

"An" is used before words beginning with vowels; "a" before words
beginning with consonants. Lists of words are placed on the board to be
copied, and the proper article supplied.

    apple      ball
    stem       eye
    peach      owl
    orange     flower
    table      uncle
               ink-stand

Use the article "the" with the same list of words in oral expression,
pronouncing "the" with the long sound of "e" before words beginning with
vowels, as "The apple," "The ink-stand."

    _The_ apple is on the table.
    The peach is ripe.
    The flower and _the_ orange are for you.
    _The_ owl has bright eyes.
    _The_ ice is smooth and hard.
    Grandfather sits in _the_ arm chair.
    Is _the_ envelope sealed?
    _The_ old man leans on the cane.



RULES OR REASONS FOR SOUNDS

The real difficulty in phonics lies in the fact that the pronunciation
of the English language abounds in inconsistencies. Its letters have no
fixed values and represent different sounds in different words.

While there are but twenty-six letters in the English alphabet there are
forty-four elementary sounds in the English language.

Thus far but one sound for each consonant has been taught and
emphasized. Incidentally the fact that some of the letters have more
than one sound has been discovered, as c in city, g in gentle,--but now
definite teaching is given concerning them. The new sound is taught with
its diacritical mark and the reason given, e.g. "c before e, i, or y is
soft."

When a reason or rule for marking is given, lists of words illustrating
the rule should be sounded and pronounced. The teacher marks the word as
the reason is given. Lists of words may be marked by the pupils as a
dictation exercise.

The above use of _diacritical marks_ does not apply to the pernicious
practice of marking words to aid in pronunciation, but to show the
purpose of marks, which is merely to indicate the sound.

_Teach that the sound of the letter depends upon its position in the
word, and not upon the diacritical marks._



REASONS FOR SOUNDS

1. When there is one vowel in the word and it is at the last, it is
long.

    me     he      my      sky
    be     the     by      cry
    we     she     fly     try

2. One vowel in the word, not at the last, is short; as, mat, nest,
pond.

(Refer to short vowel lists to test this rule.)

3. When there are two or more vowels in a syllable, or a word of one
syllable the first vowel is long, and the last are silent; as: mate,
sneeze, day. (Teacher marks the long and silent vowels as the reason for
the sound is given.)

Children mark these words and give reason: game, kite, make, coat, meat,
wait.

After rules (1 to 3) are clearly developed, apply them by marking and
pronouncing these words and giving reasons.

    coat     man      neat
    he       nine     box
    sun      feel     kite
    she      run      me
    take     we       seam
    heat     bit      tan
    bite     mad      made
    take     cape     the
    mane     cap      lake

Rule 4.

When double consonants occur, the last is silent; tel_l_, bac_k_.

    back       bell       kill       dress        duck
    Jack       fell       till       Jess         tack
    pack       Nell       fill       less         press
    lack       Bell       pill       neck         luck
    sack       sell       will       Bess         still
    tack       tell       hill       block        stick
    shall      well       mill       peck         trill
    shell      yell       rock       clock        struck

Rule 5.

T before ch is silent: ca_t_ch.

    hatch      switch       ditch
    match      stretch      pitch
    latch      thatch       stitch
    patch      sketch       fetch
    hitch      scratch      match
    watch      snatch       crutch

Rule 6.

N before g, the sound of ng ([n=]): sing, also n before
k--[n=]g,--i[n=]k.

    bang       song         lank
    rang       long         bank
    sang       strong       sank
    hang       thing        tank
    wink       cling        sung
    sink       swing        lung
    think      sing         swung
    brink      sting        stung

Rule 7.

Initial k before n is silent--_k_nife.

    knee       knew         know
    knack      knot         knock
    knob       knell        knife
    knelt      known        kneel

Rule 8.

Initial w before r is silent--_w_rite.

    wry        wren         written
    wring      wreak        wrist
    wrong      wrote        wriggle
    write      wretch       wrench
    wrap       wreath       writing

Rule 9.

Initial g before n is silent--_g_naw.

    gnat            gnarl            gnu
    gnaw            gneiss           gnome

Rule 10.

C before e, i or y is soft.--cent, city, cypress.

    face            cent             nice
    lace            cell             price
    place           ice              slice
    race            rice             twice
    Grace           mice             cypress
    cylinder        cyclone

(Hard c is found before a, o, and u or a consonant.)

Rule 11.

G before e, i or y is soft,--gentle, giant, gypsy. (Get and give are
common exceptions.)

    age             gentle           gem
    cage            gin              gypsy
    page            gill             giraffe
    rage            ginger           wage
    sage            giant            gipsy

Exercise--Pronounce and mark the following words, and tell whether they
contain the soft or hard sounds of g.

    go         gay        gate       globe
    dog        bag        garden     glass
    gentle     cage       general    forge
    geese      gather     wagon      glove
    gem        game       George     forget
    germ       Gill       Grace      grain

Note effect of final e on hard g.

    rag        rage       sag        sage
    wag        wage       stag       stage

Rule 12.

I before gh--i is long and gh silent--ni_gh_t.

    light           right           fight
    night           bright          fright
    sight           high            slight
    might           thigh           flight
    tight           sigh            plight

Rule 13.

Final y in words of more than one syllable is short,--cherry.

    dainty            pity            ferry
    plainly           city            lightly
    rainy             naughty         berry
    daisy             thirty          merry
    daily             dreary          cherry

Rule 14.

Final e in words of more than one syllable is silent.--gentl_e_,
Nelli_e_.

Rule 15.

Effect of r upon vowels.

    [~er]      [~ir]      [~or]      [~ur]
    her        bird       work       urn
    fern       sir        word       turn
    term       stir       worm       hurt
    herd       girl       world      purr
    jerk       first      worst      burn
    ever       chirp      worth      churn
    serve      whirl      worse      burst
    perch      thirst     worship    church
    kernel     fir        worthy     curve
    verse      firm       worry      curb
    verb       third                 fur
    germ       birth                 blur
    herb       birch                 curd
    stern      thirty                curl



OTHER EQUIVALENTS

        a==e                [(a]==[(e]

    they       eight      care       heir
    obey       weight     bare       their
    prey       freight    fare       there
    weigh      neigh      hair       where
    sleigh     veins      fair       stair
    reign      whey       chair      pear
    skein      rein                  pair

      a==[)o]        a==[(o]           au==aw==ou

    what    not   call    nor     haul      ought
    was     odd   raw     for     fault     bought
    watch   cot   want    corn    cause     sought
    wasp    got   walk    cord    pause     caw
    wash    hop   salt    short   caught    saw
    drop    dog   hall    storm   naught    paw
    spot    fog   draw    horse   naughty   draw
                  talk    morn    thought   thaw

      ou==ow        [=ew]==[=u]

    our     how     dew   due
    out     now     few   hue
    hour    cow     mew   blue
    flour   bow     new   June
    trout   plow    Jew   tune
    shout   owl     pew   plume
    mouth   growl   hue   pure
    sound   brown   glue  flute
    mouse   crowd
    ground  flower
    house   drown

      ew==[=oo]==o==[u..]       o==oo==[u..]

    grew    do      poor   rude   wolf      wool
    chew    you     soon   rule   could     foot
    crew    to      noon   tool   would     good
    brew    shoe    whom   school should    hood
    drew    prove   food   spool  woman     wood
    threw   broad   whose  roof   shook     stood
    screw   moon    tomb   broom  crook     pull
    strew   goose   stoop  roost  hook      bush
    shrewd                        took      full
                                  brook     put
                                  book      puss
                                  look

        o==[)u]            oy==oi

    come      fun      boy      oil
    none      gun      joy      soil
    son       run      Roy      voice
    dove      sup      toy      spoil
    love      cup      troy     joint
    some      sun      join     point
    ton       hum      coin     choice
    won       drum     noise    noise
    does      plum     toil     moist
    touch     nut
    glove     shut
    month     much
    none      must



FOURTH YEAR



I. Review and continue to apply the principles of pronunciation, with a
more complete mastery of the vowel and consonant sounds as found in
Webster's dictionary.



II. Teach the diacritical marks found in the dictionary to be used. The
marks needed will be found at the foot of each page of the dictionary.



III. Teach the use of the dictionary.

(1) See that every child owns, if possible, one of the new dictionaries,
in which unphonetic words are respelled phonetically.

(2) See that all know the alphabet in order.

(3) Pupils practice finding names in the telephone directory, catalogs,
reference books, etc.

(4) Practice arranging lists of words in alphabetical order, as in the
following dictation exercise.

Rewrite these words in the order in which they would occur in the
dictionary.

    chance        value
    alarm         hurdle
    green         evergreen
    window        feather
    indeed        leave
    sapwood       monkey
    bruise        kernel
    double        jelly

Also lists like these:--a step more difficult.

    arbor         angry
    alarm         after
    artist        age
    afford        apron
    apple         appear
    athletic      approve
    assist        answer
    always        anchor

After teaching the alphabetical order, with dictionary in hand, have the
pupil trace the word to its letter, then to its page.

Having found his way to the word, he must now learn to read what the
dictionary has to tell him about it. His attention is called to
syllabification as well as to diacritical marks. (Those found at the
foot of the page will furnish the key to pronunciation.)

He finds that his dictionary is a means of learning not only the
pronunciation of words, but their meaning and spelling. Later, as soon
as the parts of speech are known, he should learn the various uses of
words--their grammatical uses, derivation, etc., and come to regard the
dictionary as one of his commonest tools, as necessary as other books of
reference.

But here the teacher's task is not done. Provided with the key to the
mastery of symbols, her pupils may still fail to use this key to unlock
the vast literary treasures in store for them. They must be taught _what
to read_, as well as _how to read_. They must be introduced to the
school library and if possible to the public library. Dr. Elliot has
said: "The uplifting of the democratic masses depends upon the
implanting at school of the taste for good reading."

Moreover that teacher does her pupils the most important and lasting
service who develops in them not only _an appreciation of good
literature_, but _the habit of reading it_.


    Transcriber's note:

    Non-ascii diacritical marks represented as follows:
    [(a]  a  below inverted breve
    [)e]  e  below breve
    [(e]  e  below inverted breve
    [)o]  o  below breve
    [(o]  o  below inverted breve
    [)u]  u  below breve
    [=u]  u  below macron
    [n=]  n  above macron
    [u..] u  above diaresis
    [~er] er below tilde
    [~ir] ir below tilde
    [~or] or below tilde
    [~ur] ur below tilde
    [=ew] ew below macron
    [=oo] oo below macron

    Words such as thot, thotfully and thoroly are spelt as per original.





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